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1

Creative Keyboard's DELUXE ENCYCLOPEDIA-

A Complete Study of Chords

/

How to Use Them

Creative Keyboard's

DELUXE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

PIANO CHORDS
A Complete Study of Chords and How to Use Them
The Deluxe Encyclopedia of Piano Chords is a complete and thorough analysis of chords as
applied to the piano keyboard. This study encompasses chord construction, usage, scales and rhythm patterns. It is hoped that this text will enable the pianist or organist to effectively use and apply the full diversity of chord possibilities in creating interesting, personal and colorful musical styles.

Dedication: To my Mother, Mabel M., and my Father, Elmer H. Kroepel; music was a happiness in our home. Bob Kroepel

0 1973 by Mel Bay Publications, Inc., Pacific, MO 63069. All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. B.M.I. Made and Printed in the U.S.A.

Piano Keyboard Diagram

............................ ..........................

Intervals Half-Step and Whole-Step

Thirteenth Chord Thirteenth Flatted Ninth Chord Seven Six Chord Six Nine Chord ............................................ 19 Enharmonic Notation

Accidentals Chart of Accidentals .................................... Major Scabs Scab Degrees .............................................. Chords Chord-Tones ................................................ Inversions .................................................... Construction of Common Chords Minor Triad Major Triad Augmented Triad Lowered Fifth Triad ...................................... Diminished Triad Maior Seventh Chord Dominant Seventh Chord Minor Seventh Chord ................................. Maior Sixth Chord Minor Sixth Chord Diminished Seventh Chord Minor Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord

.................................. 20

Numbering the Fingers ................................ 22 Explanotion of the Keyboard Diagrams and Annotation .................... Key of C Major. Scales and Chords

. 23 .
25

............

Key of Ob Major (Identical to C# Maior) Scales and Chords ........................ 30 Key of D Major. Scales and Chords .............. 35 Key of Eb Major. Scales and Chords .............. 40 Key of E Maior. Scales and Chords .............. 45 Key of F Major. Scales and Chords .............. 50 Key of F# Major (Identical to G b Major). Scales and Chords ...................... 55

............

Key of G Major. Scales and Chords ............ 60 Key of A Major. Scales and Chords b

Seventh Augmented Fifih Chord Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord Major Seventh Flatted Third. Flatted Fifth Chord ...................................

............ 65

Key of A Major. Scales and Chords ............ 70

.........

Key of Bb Major. Scales and Chords ............ 75 Key of B Maior (Identical to Cb Maior). Scales and Chords .................... 80

Mojor Seventh Flatted Third. Augmented Fifth Chord Major Ninth Chord Ninth Chord Ninth Augmented Fihh Chord ...................... 16 Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord Minor -Ninth Chord Minor Ninth Augmented Fifth Chord Minor Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord ................ 17 Seventh Flatted Ninth Chord Eleventh Chord Eleventh Flatted Ninth Chord Eleventh Augmented Fifth Chord

...... 85 Using Chords to Play Popular Music .......... 87
Range of the Bass. Chords and Melody

..........................89 The Fox Trot Rhythm Pattern ...................... 91 Alternating the Bars ..................................94 Using Different Chord Positions .................. 95
The Waltz Rhythm Pattern Alternating the Alternoting Bars

................ 18
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Here is a keyboard diagram showing the white keys of the piano keyboard and their location on the
Grand Staff

:
Trademark

Notice that the number of leger lines needed to locate the pitches of the piano on the Grand Stafl increase towards the ends of the keyboard.

To make it easier to read music is often written with the symbol 8va instead ot the exact number of leger lines.
8 ~ means "octaver "Octave" comes from theLatin word "octava: meaning "eighth: An octave is the 1 same letter eight letters to the left o r right of the original: A B C D E F C A B C D E F G A B C D E F c A B C.-*....-..

' octave

T

T

original

T

octave

8va written above a note means to play the note with the same letter name an octave higher:

Writ ten: 8va

Played:

IF

8va a b s o means to play the note with the same letter name an octave lower:

Written: 8va a baeeo

Played:

!

8 means two octaves higher: 2 8va a b -

o means two octaves lower.

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In music an Interval is defined a s the distance (in terms of pitch) between two notes. The smallest interval on the piano keyboard is the klfetep: a half -step is defined a s the intern1 between two adjoining notes :

half step

-

half

-

half
S*P

-

step

Two half- steps equal one whole-atep:
whob-wholestep step wholestep

Musical symbols which alter the letter names of notes are called aceidentala.step P Natural cancels a sharp or a flat - .step bb DOUM. .s teps.-FI~~ lowers pitch two half-ste s or one who e. Here is a chart which explains the symbols used for accidentals: I Symbol Name F u nc tion raises pitch a half-step Example 1 # b Sharp Flat lowers pitch a half-step X! Double*Sharp raises pitch two half. or one whole.

5. repeating endtessly the first: sevt?fi letters of the English language alphabet: A B C D E F C A B C D E F C A B C D E F C A . or bymte: the last letter of the mior scale is the same as the keynote but is called the O C ~ W . 7.u etc. A scale is a series of tones in an organized sequence. Keynote The tones of the major scale can be numbered: Octave The numbrs referring to the tones of a major scale are called ecale degree@. 8. 6. A major acole is an eight-letter sequence of the musica1"aIpHrbet~ The first letter of the major scale is called the Qnic wt.+s .Major Scales. Ex. l l l l i 1.. -- The musical alphabet is a continuum. 2 3 4. The musical relationships between the tonea of a major ecale can be expressed by means of wholeateps(abbreviated W) and haif-atepa (abbreviated H) : C D E F C A B C Here is the C major scale shown on a keyboard diagram: Cmaiorscale-C Scale degrees - l l l. D E F C A B C . C major wale - C I D E F C A B C I .

The G major scale The F sharp(F#) in the key signature indicates that this note is to be played F sharp(F# ) C major scaleScale degrees- C 1 l A 0 C 1 1 1 l l l D 1 l 1 ~ 1 # C ) b l 1. The F major ecale The B flat(Bb) in the key signature indicates that this note is to be played B flat(Bb) F major scale.To preserve the whole-step and half-step relationships between the tones of a major scale the key signatureindicates which notes are sharped or flatted Ex.F G Scale degrees- A Bb C D E F . 6. 5. Ex. 7. 4. 3. 8. 2.

5. 7. C. . F. F 4. A 6. 8. I Root 4.C Scale degreesChord. In popular music a chord generally has a minimum of three notes. 5. B 7. C 5. 1. Octave I Keynote b Chord. 4.R. D 2 E 3.tones1. D. A major triad consists of the root. 6. Chords can be related to major scales by means of scale degrees. b3. Scale degrees1. 5. third and fifth scale degrees (R 3.). 7. 5. The chord-tone upon which the rest of the chord is built is called the root. 8. B. 3. I 2 2 3. A. 2 E. 3. NOTE: R is used to differentiate cleerly the root of the chord from the keynote of the scale when using numbers. R. 3 . C. C major scale. 7. 5.tonesC.tones.A chord is defied as two or more notes played at the same time. 3 E . C E C A minor triad consists of the root. b . 0. 6. 4. 5. 5. C a R. 6. The pitches which make up a chord are called chord-tones:any other pitches are called non-chordtones. flatted third and fifth scale degreds (R. The chord-tones of any chord can be related to the scale degrees of the major scale having the same keynote as the root of the chord. C minor triad x C major scaleScale degreesChord.).

I"~" root position.C major triad.or a number for other positions: for C/R -. etc. third position. root position. etc. the letter after the second nrark indicating the bass note: C12/G - C major triad. the letter or number after the first slash mark indicating the chord position.C major triad. A chord with the root a s the lowest note is said to be in root position. etc. a chord with the fifth a s the lowest note is said to be in the second inversion. etc. -C major triad. a chord with the third a s the lowest note is said to be in the first inversion. second position. E bass note. etc. C major triad. . C C. five-note chords will have five positions. C bass note. A specific chord position and a specific bass note can be indicated by using two slash marks. However. Specific chord positions can be indicated by using a slash mark ( / ) after the chord symbol and a 1etter. When the composer wishes to specify a particular bass note he may use a slash mark and a letter indicating the desired bass note: C/E -. C/C -C major triad. C/2 C/3 -. C bass note.Root E-3rd C-5th Root Position I First lrvereion or Second Poeition Second Inversion or Third Posit ion Sice chord-tones can be rearranged into a s many positions a s there are chord-tones four-note chords will have four positions.Inversions A rearrangement of chord-tones is called an invereion. second position.C major triad(any position). the term position is often used instead of inversion:the relationship between position and hvereion can be confusing and is shown below: Ex.

eleventh(6-note) and thirteenth(7-note) chords will be inverted: Ninth Chords Eleventh chords Thirteenth Chords NOTE:ninth. to simplify his playing the student may use the common or dominant seventh chord instead of the ninth. . eleventh or thirteenth.Since it is difficult for the average-sized hand to play more than four notes at a time only the top four notes of ninth(5-note) chords. eleventh and thirteenth chords are substitutes for common o r dominant seventh chords.

For the examples in C thb C major scale should be kept in mind: Cmajorscsle-C r D E F G A B C D l r ~ r E F ~ C A B C ~ r ~ r r t ~ ~ Scale degrees.L z 3. 7. 4. 8. 11. 15. 6. 1 13.On the following pages chords and their construction by means of scale degrees are shown Although the examples given are for C chords any root can be used. 2 . 14. 9. The most common chord symbols will also be given. 10. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 s .

. 5.tones-R.tones.tones.. C+.. b3. Chord symbols=Cmor C- Augmented Triad Chord. 3.C (capital letter only) Minor Triad Chord. Chord symbols. . 5. b5.Major Triad Chord.R.C-5.. Chord symbol.. 45 C ( t 5) Lowered Fiftb Triad Chord.. C(b5) . 3..tones-R.R. Chord symbols-C+s. 3.

. 7. Chord symbols - Cdim.t o n e s .. R. C h o r d symbol = Cm7 . . 5. b7..7. C h o r d symbol -C7 Minor Seventh Chonl Chord-tones- R. 3.Diminished Triad Chord..tones-. C h o r d symbols-Cmaj.... C* Major Seventh Chord Chord-tones--R. b3. CM7. b3.. 3.R. b7... 5. b5. 5. C C E G B Dominant Seventh Chord C h o r d ..

Chord symbol-=C6 3. b5.R... b7.... 6. b3.... 5.R.Major Sixth Chord Chord-tones. C ' . Minor Sixth Chord Chord-tones- R.. b5. Chord symbols -Cm7-5. Chord symbol-Cdim. 6.. or Half-Diminished Chord Chord-tones. Chord symbol-Cm6 Diminished Seventh Chord Chord-tones-R. 5. b3.. b3. 7 C E b Gb Bbb Minor Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord.. bb7.

b3.Seventh Augmented Fifth Chord.tones. b7 Chord symbols. 7. 4 Major Seventh Flatted Third. C7(bS) Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord Chord symbol = C7sus. C7aug. b3 Chord symbols.C7-5.R. b5.R.. Flatted Fifth Chord Chord-tones.. C7b5.CM7 bs Cmaj.b5. 5 - Seventh Lowered Fifth Cbord Chord...7. or Augmented Seventh Chord Chord symbols C7+5.. b3. 3. b5 ..

9 Chord symbol-Cmaj.t o n e s R. 3. $5.. +5.. Chord symbols-. b3.. Augmented Fifth Chord Chord.t o n e s . 9. t5.. C h o r d s y m b o l s = C9. 9..R. 7. $ 5. b7.Major Seventh Flatted Third.. b3.C9 Ninth Augmented F i f t h Chord Chord..... 3. 9 Ninth Chord C h o r d . $5 - Major Ninth Chord Chord.R.t o n e s . . 3.. 5. b7.. 7.R. Chord symbol...CM7 Cmaj. 5. 7.C9.tones..

b?.ln9. Chord symbolCrilV Minor Ninth Augmented Fifth Chord Chord-torics.R.tones==R. 0. b5..rls =CO-5..) ...tones==H.. C:O. b5. b3.. C Eb (.b3. Chord symbols -LnlY-. 4... b5. 9. Ctnsf5.b:l. Mioor Ninth Chord Chord. Cm9 $5 Minor N i n t h Lowered F i f t h Chord CliordtancXs. 5. 9.5. b i .. b5...R. Cflord symbt...Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord Chord.!). (... b7. B.b lib I. . Chord symbols - b7.

. P5. C11-9 Eleventh Augmented F i f t h Chord Chord symbols-CI1.. b9. Chord symbols = C7.5.... Chord symbol==C11 C E G B b D F Eleventh Flatted Ninth Chord Chord. b9.... 3. b9.tones= R.. 5. 11. 5..3.tones= H.Seventh Flatted Ninth Chord Chord.b7. b7.. C7-9 Eleventh Chord Chord-tones=~. Chord symbols - C11. . b9. 11.b7.9.Cll..3.. +5..

9. C7/6. ll. 11.R...C13-9 Seven S i x Chord Chord. S.. b 9 .3.... 3.. 13. Chord symbol.. S.. S. .b9.tones -..b7. 6.. Chord symbols = C13.R. 9. b7......5. Chord symbols =C7. Thirteenth Flatted Ninth Chord Chord-tones. 3.9. 13..Thirteenth Chord Chord-tones=R.6.. Chord symbol -C6. . 3.tones - R. b7.6.C13. S i x Nine Chord Chord..

.\W /\i\/"\I\\ w H w / W \ I W H 1 Because there must be a half-step between the 7 th and 8th scale degrees the white key which is a half-step down from FI is now called Et insteul of F natural. The following chart shows how the keys are named: C D E F C A B C D E F G A B C F b El Cb B# Notice that a black key can b v e two names. Enharmonic notation is used to preserve certain musical relationships.F$ Scale degrees -. M Major Scale. The black keys derive their names from the adjjcent white keys.Ehharmonic Notation The musical alphabet is used to label the white keys only. such as E-Fb. such as the whole-step and half-step relationships between the scale degrees of a major ocale.1 Half step Formula for Major Scales c# A$ B Cl Dl E8 F# - . The fact that a key can have more than one name is called enharmonic notation. Ft major scale. such a s C$-Db. Ex. meaning equivalent names for the same pitch. Notice that certain white keys can have two names.

In a diminished seventh chord the diminished seventh itself is theoretically written a s the double-flatted seventh scale degree ( bb7 ) : however. the major sixth scale degree. bb7 C dim 7 C Eb Gb Bbb (theoretical ) or theoret'ical notation Enharmonic notation A I (Enharmonic) In this book the correct theoretical notation will be used throughout.tones would have been Cb. Gbb .Enharmonic notation is quite often used in writing music in order to make it easier to read in certain situations. b3. F .tones= R. D . the chord. Cbb Bbbb could be written with their enharmonic equivalents.. the double-flatted seventh is often difficult to read and the enharmonic equivalent. Ebb.. Ebb. C Diminished Seventh Chord Chord. is often used instead: Ex. and A : theoretical notation Enharmonic notation . NOTE: in the above example. Bbbb (B triple flat ! ! ) :conceivably. bS.. if the diminished seventh chord were built on Cb instead of C.

4 - 1 Finger iw for the Right hand . The scales on the following pages should be pr~ctisedwith strict adherence to the fingerings given. the thumb passing under the other fingers in ascending wbile the other f i e r s pass over the thumb .. \ C . h little finger as five: . .= - '?'' Fingers over Written: 8va means play an octave higher than written. r w a 4 b 4 a Thumb under . Played: LOCO means return to the original octave. ~ o n e . .- . descending: .The fingers can be numbered with the thumb of each hand counted u . . C A B C D E F G F E D C B A G When the notes written in the bass clef c l i i too high on the staff the treble clef can be used to eliminate the need for leger lines: G A B C D E F C F E D C B C F .

Key of C Major C NIJor Scale in One Octave: Key board Diagram Scale Tones Scale Degrees -c - - -- D E F C A B C 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 b r i n g for tlse Right Hand Fingering for the Left Hand .In the following pages major scales are presented by means of keyboard diagrams and annotation on the Grand Staff. Ex. CMajor Scale.

E . r A-trtlom: Tmbk Clef . TO conserve space fingerings for the chords are not shown.In the following pages the chords most cornmonb found in popular music r r s p m ~ n b d msanr of by keyboard diagrams.= = = 4 Baee Clef 7 NOTE: another keyboard diagram for the fourth position of four-note chords and inversions of the top four notes of five-. six-. and seven-note chords will be given where needed. C Yajer Trfad. A rule for fingering the chords is "use whrtetver fingering is comiortrble and convenient:' .

Key of C Major C Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = c D E F G A B c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C Major Scale in Two Octaves ScaleTones=C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C Scale degrees = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

C E G C/2 C+5 C-5 Cdim E d C Eb Gb C C+5/3 Cdim 13 .

Cmaj 7 C C E G B A C E G .

D Cmaj 9 g E C p: * I I E G B D .

.

Key of ~b Major (identical to C# ) Db Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones =Db Eb Scale Degrees = 1 2 F ~b ~b ~b 3 4 5 6 C Dib 7 8 D b Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale -Tones = Db Eb Scale Degrees = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 .

Db dim .

32 Db7 Dbmi C D ~F ~b Cb ~b F ~b D b6 ~ b m 6 Db dim 7 ~b F ~ b ~ b F AbBb Db Bb Db F Ab Bb Db7+5 Db Fb Ab F I .

.

.

1 2 6 D Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = D E 1 2 F1#G A B 3 4 C# D E 7 8 9 14G A B C#D 5 6 10 11 12 13 14 15 .Key of D Major D Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones = D E F#G A B 3 4 5 C# D 7 8 Scale Degrees -.

Ddim .

Dmaj 7 c# Ddim 7 kj D cb .

Dmaj 9 3 D : 8 .

.

Key of E b Major Eb Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = Eb F G Ab Bb C D ~b 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ~ ~ ~ a Scale rin Two Octaves j o Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = ~b 1 F G ~b g c D Et. F G ~b ~b c D ~b b 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

Eb+5 Eb-5 E b dim .

.

.

.

Key of E Major E Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = E FU G # A B C U D t E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 E Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale Tones = E 1 F t G # A B C# D # E F # GUA B C I D # E 2 3 4 Scale Degrees= 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

Edim .

Emaj 7 9 E C# Rva .

E.7s u s 4 Dh B A E F#G# B I ~4 Rva. Ems :\ .

6 pb : l . b 9 ! p: r F#G~B~ ~h Rval El.El.

Key of F Major F Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = F G A Bb C D E F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F Major Scale in Two Octaves ScaleTones= F G A B ~ D E F G A B b C C Scale Degrees = D E F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 .

F F/2 A C Fdim .

E I Fmaj 1 C A F F A C E Fdim I E C % ' b . D I F A C 8va .

.

F1 b 9 1 F C A Ebb .

Key of F# Major (identical to G F # Major Scale in One Octave b Major) Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = F4 G# A# B 1 2 3 4 C# D# E# F # 5 6 7 8 FU Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale T o n e s = Scale Degrees = F # G # A d B C# D# E#F#G$AjB 1 2 3 4 Cf D'# E # F # 14 15. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 .

F # dim # Jch F# -5/2 .

.

~h dn!cil .

59 n Rva l .

Key of G Major G Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = G A 1 2 B C D E F'#'G 3 4 5 6 7 8 G Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale Tones Scale Degrees = G A 1 2 B C D E 3 4 F# G A B C D E F# G = 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

G B D G/2 Gdim .

F# Cmaj 7 D B G G B D F# Gdim 7 "b D ~b G E G B D 8va. .

Gmajs Gs D ~ ' 4 AB 1 ~ t lA B D A B D F q Gm s .

.

I n h r: v .Key of Major Ab Major S c a l e in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = kbB b 1 2 C Db E b F G ~ ! b 3 4 5 6 7 8 n I .. ..Loco . .. I I I I I I r a o I a I I I I . I I A r I I I I I rn I I I I . I I r I I .. h I V * I.. I I a I I I 0 I I ~b Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale T o n e s = Scale Degrees = AbBb C DbEb F G AbBb C DbEb F G Ab 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A 8va--- .

A b dim 8Va .

Rva Rva Hva Rva .

Rva A b rns :tb 2 B% .

8va .nb.

A Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = A B C.U D E I F'11 G # A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A Major Scale in Two Octaves ScaleTones= Scale Degrees = A B 1 2 CUD E 3 4 5 F#GdA B c # D 6 7 8 E F#G#A 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

Adim 8va .

Adim 8ua .

Adim 7 E b . .

Rva .

.

.Key of ~b Major B b Major S c a l e in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = ~b C D Eb 2 3 4 F G A ~b 8 1 5 6 7 B b Major S c a l e in Two Octaves Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = ~b C D ~b F G 2 3 4 A ~b C D ~b F G A ~b 1 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 gva-- .-- Loco .-.

B b dim 800 ~b ~b Bb dim /3 Bb .

Bb +5 Bbdim Rva Rva .

At .~b dim 7 Eb.

D

F

A

C

C D

F

A

Rva

nua

K,ey of B Major ( identical t o ~b )
B Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

13 C% D% E
1 2

Fltl G'#A@B

3

4

5 6

7

8

B Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

B
1

C%D # E
2 3 4

F# G# A# B C# D%E
5 6 7

F U GS A # B

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

8va-

- -

--

- - - Loco

B+5 B--5 Bdim :Ir B :$ B .

Bdim 7 k$ 9 .

.

.

Range of the Bass. c h o r d s and melodies of popular songs: r Melody Range Trademark i . Chords and Melody H e r e i s a keyboard diagram showing the r a n g e s used f o r the b a s s .

Dm. F.H e r e is a c h a r t showing the b a s s a n d c h o r d s in r o o t position f o r t h e C. a n d G c h o r d s which will be u s e d in t h e examples on the following pages: Bass Chord Trademark Trademark Trademark Trademark .

Root position c h o r d s a r e being u s e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e easily remembered.melody with t h e right hand and t o play sustained c h o r d s with the l e f t hand. . e a c h c h o r d being r e p e a t e d in succesive m e a s u r e s until the c h o r d symbol changes. melody a n d lyrics: Chords A I 1 Melody -w& cl Lyrics-when 2 )c I I I I --- I I I I I V I I I d 8 ' * e. T h e simnlest method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e lead s h e e t is to play t h e . Notice t h a t one c h o r d p e r m e a s u r e h a s b e e n used.Using Chords To Play Popular Songs Many popular s o n g s a r e w r i t t e n in l e a d s h e e t form showing only the c h o r d s . The left hand plays the c h o r d at t h e beginning of e a c h m e a s u r e a n d s u s t a i n s the c h o r d f o r all t h r e e counts: C E G D F A (1 c o u n t :-1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 T h e keyboard diagrams shown above e a c h song in this book a r e to help t h e s t u d e n t l e a r n the c h o r d s a n d t o s e e how they a r e used. l I I. W ' I I hold you. T h e time s i g n a t u r e means t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e c o u n t s in e a c h measure.

Here is the entire song which was presented a s an example on t h e previous page. Play this selection with sustained chords. rn mnmn rn C E G D F A F A C m i G B D When I Hold You when I hold YOU then I know You How I love to be with You * NOTE: omit the note D in the G major triad in the left hand when it conflicts with the D in the melody in the right hand. .

"One" "Two" "Three" Chord Chord C c The waltz rhythm pattern i s played : Bass (Abbreviated : B > The "Bass"is the root of the chord played an octave lower than the "Chord. 2.The Waltz Rhythm Patterh The waltz rhythm pattern i s found in the time signature of three counts in each measure. The waltz rhythm pattern is counted." Bass Chord Trademark Left hand alone : C Count: 1 Bass f Chord Chord I t Bass f Chord t Chord t Right hand plays the melody while Left hand plays the waltz rhythm pattern: . a. this means that there a r e 1. 3.

In this coordination exercise the waltz rhythm pattern is abbreviated and placed below the count to help visualize the coordination of the melody and rhythm pattern.Coordination Exercise: Waltz #l. rn C E G Count: Rhythm Pattern: D F A Onmn F A C G B D 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C I V I I d I I c) rl I I I I I I I I I 0 I I I I u 2 C 3 C 1 B um 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C . Coordination exercises a r e designed to give the student an opportunity to practice coordinating rhythm patterns with simple melodies and chords.

The fox trot rhythm pattern i s counted: The fox trot rhythm pattern is played : : (Abbreviated 1. 'Three" Bass B 4. This means that there a r e four counts per measure. 'Two" Chord +. "One " Bass B 2. "Four" Chord c ) The "Bass" is the root of the chord and is played an octave lower the "Chord:' Bass Chord Trademark Left hand alone: Count: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Bass Chord Bass Chord Bass Chord Bass Chord Right hand plays the melody while Left hand plays the fox trot rhythm pattern: B C B C B C B C . C 3.The Fox Trot Rhythm Pattern The fox trot rhythm pattern i s found in the time signature of sometimes written C (which means common time).

In this exercise the fox trot rhtyhm pattern has been abbreviated and placed below the count in order to help visualize the coordination of the melody and the rhythm pattern. Count: 1 Rhythm Pattern: 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 B C B C B C B C 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 B C B C B C B C B C B C 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 B C B C B C B C B C B C .Coordination Exercise: Fox Trot # 1.

"Two" + c : Bass :B Bass C B > C Bass Chord Trademark a e a * .The fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is also u s e d for f a s t tempos such a s polkas and marches. In Q m e t r e the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is counted In +metre the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is played (Abbreviated also written as. T L e f t hand alone: B C B C B C B C Right hand plays the melody while the left hand plays the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n : V B C B v C B v C V B C . The fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is often written in + m e t r e . "And" Chord $ "And" Chord : 1. "One" + 2.

To avoid the droning effect alternate the bass. Repeating the same bass note creates a certain monotony called the droning e f f e c t .Alternating the Bass. The following chart shows which chord-tones to use when alternating the bass: Chord Major Chord Minor Chord Augmented Chord Lowered Fifth Chord Diminished Chord Fundamental B a s s Root Root Root Root Root Alternating B a s s Fifth ( 5 ) Fifth ( 5 ) Third ( 3 ) Third ( 3 ) Flatted Third ( b 3 ) (R) (R) (R) (R) (R) Here a r e some examples of the alternating bass a for C major T r i a d : 7 7 Fundamental Alternating Chord \a s s B Bass Trademark I 11 111 11 Left hand alone: C Count: 1 Waltz 2 3 C Count:l Fox Trot 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 I I B R I I I I I I I I I I C B 5 C B R C B C B R C B 5 C B R C B C 5 5 .

Using Different Chord Positions When all of the chords in a song are played in root position the transitions between chords a r e not smoothe because of the necessary hand movement up and down the staff : rnmm C E G Srmther transitions between chords can be Rade by using different chord positions: m E G C .

C / 2 /G 3 4 G/3/G 1 2 G/ 3 /D 3 4 Droning Effect Notice that the alternating bass for both chords is root and fifth (R and 5 ) . C/2/G and W 3 T /$ TO' avoid the droning effect simply alternate the alternating bass notes: C/ 2 /R Count : 1 2 C/ 2/G 3 4 C/ 3/D 1 2 G/ 3 /G 3 4 B R C B 5 C B 5 C B F C ' Reversing the order of the alternating bass notes in the G chord now avoids the droning efect: . T h e droning e f f e c t is created because of the repetition of the G bass notes in the transition between the C and G chords.Alternating the Alternating Bass Often in the transition between chords a droning effect occurs in the bass even though the bass is alternating : C/ 2 /C Count: 1 2.

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