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LOCATING AND ESTIMATING AIR EMISSIONS FROM SOURCES OF TOLUENE
Prepared for: Dennis Beauregard Emission Inventory Branch Technical Support Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
Prepared by: TRC Environmental Corporation 100 Europa Drive, Suite 150 Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514
EPA Contract No. 68-D9-0173 Work Assignment No. 3/316
This report was furnished to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by TRC Environmental Corporation, 100 Europa Drive, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27514, in partial fulfillment of Contract No. 68-D9-0173, Work Assignment No. 3/316. This document has been reviewed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards and has been approved for publication. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of company or product name is not to be considered as an endorsement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page
DISCLAIMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii 1.0 PURPOSE OF DOCUMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.1 Reference for Section 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 OVERVIEW OF DOCUMENT CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1 References for Section 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Nature of Pollutant . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Overview of Production and Use 3.3 References for Section 3.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1 3-4 3-7 4-1 4-5 4-5 4-7 4-10 4-10 4-14 4-18 4-20 4-21 4-21 4-22 4-22 4-25 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-5 5-6 5-8 5-9 5-11 5-11 5-13
EMISSIONS FROM TOLUENE PRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Toluene Production from Petroleum Fractions . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Hydrotreating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Catalytic Reforming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Secondary Hydrogenation (for Pyrolysis Gasoline) 4.1.4 Toluene Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.5 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Toluene Production from Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Process Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Toluene Production from Styrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Process Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 References for Section 4.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMISSIONS FROM MAJOR USES OF 5.1 Benzene Production . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Process Description . . . . . 5.1.2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Toluene Diisocyanate Production . 5.2.1 Process Description . . . . . 5.2.2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Trinitrotoluene Production . . . . . 5.3.1 Process Description . . . . . 5.3.2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . TOLUENE ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . .. 6. .. . .1 Process Description . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .1 Process Description . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .2 Toluene Emissions from Bulk Gasoline Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .3 Wastewater Treatment Processes . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Process Description . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gasoline and Automotive Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Toluene Emissions from Loading Marine Vessels . . . . . . . . . . .0 TO PRODUCTION . . . . . . .2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Printing and Publishing . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .. . . . .. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Solvent Cleaning Operations 5. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 5.. . . . . . .. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .9 Other Solvent Uses . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .5 Control Technology for Vehicle Refueling Emissions . . 5. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coal Combustion . . .2 Emissions . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .4 Gasoline Marketing .0 . . . .2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..4. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Surface Coating Operations . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .4 References for Section 7. . . . . . 6. 6. . . . 5. . .6 Other Toluene Derivatives .. . . . . 7. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Emissions . . . .. . . 6. . . . . . . .. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 5. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .1 Process Description . .4. . . . . . . . . . .10 References for Section 5. . . Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Service Stations . .. . . .. . . . . . Page 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-16 5-17 5-17 5-18 5-19 5-24 5-26 5-28 5-28 5-29 5-30 5-32 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-5 6-6 6-8 6-11 6-12 6-15 6-17 6-22 6-26 6-26 6-28 6-30 EMISSIONS FROM THE USE OF TOLUENE-CONTAINING MATERIALS 6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 7-1 7-1 7-3 7-4 7-7 iv . . .. 6. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .4 Control Technology for Gasoline Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..8. . . . .. . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . .3 Control Technology for Gasoline Transfer . . . . . . .0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 6.. . . . .. . .2. . . . .5 Benzyl Chloride Production 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .6 References for Section 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4. 6. . . . . .5 Other Sources of Residual Toluene Emissions .. .. . . . . 5. . .1 Process Description .4. . .4 . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .1 Process Description . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Section Benzoic Acid Production . . . .. 5. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .2 Emissions ..2 Hazardous and Solid Waste Incineration . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 . . . .7 Paint and Ink Manufacturing 5. BY-PRODUCT EMISSIONS: PROCESSES UNRELATED OR USE OF TOLUENE . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .3 EPA Method TO-3 . . . . . B-1 TOLUENE SOURCE CATEGORIES IN SURFACE COATING OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Section 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 EPA Method 8270 . . . . . . . . AND PRINTING FACILITIES WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION . . . . . . . . Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 EPA Reference Method 18 . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . .2 EPA Method TO-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 EPA Method 0030 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .11 References for Section 8. . . . . INK. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . C-1 SUMMARY OF EMISSION FACTORS LISTED IN THIS DOCUMENT . .0 AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCE TEST PROCEDURES 8. . . . . . . . . . .1 EPA Method TO-1 . . . . . . . . . A-1 LISTS OF PAINT. . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1 APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D v . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 NIOSH Method 1501 . . . . .8 EPA Method 0010 . . . . . . . 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-5 8-8 8-8 8-10 8-12 8-16 8-16 8-18 8-20 APPENDIX A POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS . . . . .4 EPA Method TO-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . .6 EPA Method 5040 . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24 Service Station Vapor Balance System . . . . . . . . . 4-23 Process Flow Diagram of a Toluene Dealkylation Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25 Flow Diagram of a Surface Coating Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14 Bulk Plant Vapor Balance System . . 5-10 TNT Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 Process Flow Diagram for Hydrotreating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 vi 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 . . 4-8 Generalized Toluene Recovery Process Flow Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20 Flow Diagram of the Paint and Ink Manufacturing Process .LIST OF FIGURES Number 3-1 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 Page Chemical Use Tree for Toluene . . . 4-6 Typical Reforming Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 The Gasoline Marketing Distribution System in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 Automated Sampling and Analysis System for Cryogenic Trapping . . 8-9 Schematic of Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 Usage of Toluene in the Paint and Coatings Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 Process Flow Diagram for Styrene Production by Ethylbenzene Dehydrogenation . . . . . 8-3 Tenax® Cartridge Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11 Schematic Diagram of Trap Desorption/Analysis System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25 EPA Method TO-1 Sampling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 Carbon Molecular Sieve Trap (CMS) Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Canister Sampling System . . . . . . . 5-4 Basic Operations That May Be Used in Toluene Diisocyanate Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Number 8-8 8-9 8-10 8-11 Page Direct Interface Sampling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15 Modified Method 5 Sampling Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14 Integrated Bag Sampling Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17 Method 1501 Sampling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19 vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . By Market . . . . . . . . . . . 5-31 Gravure Association of America Industry Survey Results . . . . . . 6-12 4-9 4-10 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 6-1 6-2 viii . Supply and Demand of Toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 Toluene Production Locations and Capacities . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 Pyrolysis Gasoline Hydrogenation Processes . 4-11 Emission Factors for Toluene Production from Petroleum Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21 Emission Factors for Toluene Production from Styrene Production . . . . . . 5-3 Toluene Diisocyanate Production Locations and Capacities . . . . . . . . . 4-4 World-Wide Toluene Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17 Control Techniques and Efficiencies Applicable to Equipment Leak Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES Number 3-1 3-2 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 Page Chemical Identification of Toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22 Emissions from Miscellaneous Sources of Toluene . . . . . . . 4-5 Catalytic Reforming Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 Benzoic Acid Production Locations and Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 Benzene Producers Using Toluene Feedstock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10 Emission Factors from Gasoline Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15 Average Emission Factors for Fugitive Equipment Leak Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19 Emission Factors for Toluene Production from Coal . . . . . 4-2 Estimated Domestic U. . . . . . . . . . 5-14 Estimated Consumption of Toluene Derivatives in Paints and Coatings . . . . 5-21 Estimated Consumption of Solvents in Paints and Coatings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-23 Residual Emissions from Miscellaneous Sources of Toluene . . . . . . 6-29 Toluene Emissions from Combustible Coal Refuse Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Number 6-3 Page Uncontrolled Volatile Organic Compound and Toluene Emissions from Loading Gasoline in Marine Vessels . . . . . . . . . 7-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 7-1 ix . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20 Uncontrolled Gasoline Vapor and Toluene Emission from a Typical Bulk Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18 Toluene Emission Factors for Storage Losses at a Typical Gasoline Bulk Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21 Uncontrolled Gasoline Vapor and Toluene Emissions from a Typical Service Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16 Toluene Emission Factors for Gasoline Loading and Bulk Terminals and Bulk Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emissions of toluene into the atmosphere are of special significance because of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. These amendments mandate that toluene emissions be subject to standards that allow for the maximum degree of reduction of emissions and that, by 1995, a list of source categories be established that accounts for no less than 90 percent of toluene emissions. This document is designed to assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of toluene by providing a compilation of available information on sources and emissions of this substance.
Toluene is a man-made aromatic hydrocarbon produced mostly from petroleum. In the U.S., the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, toluene is produced by 21 companies at 30 plants. Most toluene produced is derived from petroleum fractions. In 1991, 3,104,000 megagrams (944 million gallons) of toluene were recovered. Growth in demand is expected to be very modest over the next few years.
Toluene is used as a cleaning solvent in the coating, printing and leather industry and in the manufacturing of paints and coatings, inks, adhesives, resins, and pharmaceuticals. It is also used as an intermediate in the production of benzene and toluene diisocyanate, and for gasoline blending.
At the time of publication of this document, estimates of nationwide emissions of toluene were not available. Updates to this document will attempt to incorporate any nationwide
emission estimates subsequently developed.
SECTION 1.0 PURPOSE OF DOCUMENT
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State and local air pollution control agencies are becoming increasingly aware of the presence of substances in the ambient air that may be toxic at certain concentrations. This awareness, in turn, has led to attempts to identify source/receptor relationships for these substances and to develop control programs to regulate emissions. Unfortunately, very little information is available on the ambient air concentrations of these substances or on the sources that may be discharging them to the atmosphere.
To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this that compiles available information on sources and emissions of these substances. Prior documents in the series are listed below:
Substance Acrylonitrile Carbon Tetrachloride Chloroform Ethylene Dichloride Formaldehyde (Revised) Nickel Chromium Manganese Phosgene Epichlorohydrin Vinylidene Chloride Ethylene Oxide Chlorobenzenes Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Polycyclic Organic Matter (POM) Benzene Organic Liquid Storage Tanks Coal and Oil Combustion Sources Municipal Waste Combustors Perchloroethylene and Trichloroethylene 1,3-Butadiene Chromium (supplement) 1-1
EPA Publication Number EPA-450/4-84-007a EPA-450/4-84-007b EPA-450/4-84-007c EPA-450/4-84-007d EPA-450/2-91-012 EPA-450/4-84-007f EPA-450/4-84-007g EPA-450/4-84-007h EPA-450/4-84-007i EPA-450/4-84-007j EPA-450/4-84-007k EPA-450/4-84-007l EPA-450/4-84-007m EPA-450/4-84-007n EPA-450/4-84-007p EPA-450/4-84-007q EPA-450/4-88-004 EPA-450/2-89-001 EPA-450/2-89-006 EPA-450/2-90-013 EPA-450/2-89-021 EPA-450/2-89-002
Substance Sewage Sludge Styrene Methylene Chloride
EPA Publication Number EPA-450/2-90-009 EPA-450/4-91-029 EPA-454/R-93-006
This document deals specifically with toluene. Its intended audience includes Federal, State, and local air pollution personnel and others who are interested in locating potential emitters of toluene, and making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom.
Because of the limited amounts of data available on potential sources of toluene emissions, and since the process configurations, control equipment, and operating procedures of many sources will not be the same as those described here, this document is best used as a primer to inform air pollution personnel about (1) the types of sources that may emit toluene, (2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for toluene to be released into the air from each operation.
The reader is strongly cautioned against using the emissions information contained in this document to try to develop an exact assessment of emissions from any particular facility. Because insufficient data are available to develop statistical estimates of the accuracy of these emission factors, no estimate can be made of the error that could result when these factors are used to calculate emissions from any given facility. It is possible, in some extreme cases, that order-of-magnitude differences could result between actual and calculated emissions, depending on differences in source configurations, control equipment, and operating practices. Thus, in situations where an accurate assessment of toluene emissions is necessary, source-specific information should be obtained to confirm the existence of particular emitting operations, the types and effectiveness of control measures, and the impact of operating practices. A source test and in some cases a material balance should be considered as the best means to determine air emissions directly from an operation.
Another potential source of emissions data for toluene is the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) form required by Section 313 of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA 313).1 SARA 313 requires owners and operators of certain facilities that manufacture, import, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals to report annually their releases of these chemicals to any environmental media. As part of SARA 313, EPA provides public access to the annual emissions data. The TRI data include general facility information, chemical information, and emissions data. Air emissions data are reported as total facility release estimates, broken out into fugitive and point components. No individual process or stack data are provided to EPA. The TRI requires the use of available stack monitoring or measurement of emissions to comply with SARA 313. If monitoring data are unavailable, emissions are to be quantified based on best estimates of releases to the environment.
The reader is cautioned that the TRI will not likely provide facility, emissions, and chemical release data sufficient for conducting detailed exposure modeling and risk assessment. Accidental releases are also accounted for in the TRI, but are not included in inventories of toxicair pollutants. In many cases, the TRI data are based on annual estimates of emissions (e.g., on emission factors, material balances, engineering judgement). Although the TRI database was consulted during the development of this report, it should be referred to as an additional information source to locate potential emitters of toluene, and to make preliminary estimates of air emissions from these facilities. To obtain an exact assessment of air emissions from
processes at a specific facility, source tests or in some cases detailed material balance calculations should be conducted, and detailed plant site information should be compiled.
Each L&E document, as standard procedure, is sent to government, industry, and environmental groups wherever EPA is aware of expertise. These groups are given the
opportunity to review the document, comment, and provide additional data where applicable. Where necessary, the documents are then revised to incorporate these comments. Although these documents have undergone extensive review, there may still be shortcomings. Comments
subsequent to publication are welcome and will be addressed based on available time and resources. In addition, any information is welcome on process descriptions, operating parameters,
S. NC 27711 1-4 . Emission Factor and Methodologies Section Emission Inventory Branch. (MD-14) U. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park. Comments and information may be sent to the following address: Chief. and emissions information that would enable EPA to improve the contents of this document.control measures.
1 1. June 4. 1-5 .0 Toxic Chemical Release Reporting: Community Right-To-Know.1. 1987. REFERENCE FOR SECTION 1. 52 FR 21152.
or as a by-product of processes (e.0.0 OVERVIEW OF DOCUMENT CONTENTS The purpose of this document is to assist Federal. burning of fuel oil). and provides an overview of its production and use. extent. particularly degreasing and coating operations. State and local air pollution agencies and others who are interested in locating potential air emitters of toluene and making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom.SECTION 184.108.40.206 describes emissions sources from the manufacture of products other than toluene.0 discusses the uses of toluene as industrial feedstocks and major solvent uses. The summaries provide an overview of applicable sampling and analytical 2-1 . It briefly outlines the nature. Section 5. and format of the material presented in the remaining sections of this report.0 addresses emissions as a result of releases from toluene-containing products after manufacture. 6. Section 8.0 of this document focuses on major production source categories that may discharge air emissions containing toluene. and 7.0. Section 7. Section 6. Because of the limited background data available. This section provides an overview of the contents of this document.. Example process descriptions and flow diagrams are provided in addition to available emission factor estimates for each major industrial source category described in Sections 4. Individual companies involved with either the production or use of toluene are reported throughout the document. Information reported is extracted primarily from trade publications.0 of this document summarizes available procedures for source sampling and analysis of toluene. Section 4.0 of this document briefly summarizes the physical and chemical characteristics of toluene. the information summarized in this document does not and should not be assumed to represent the source configuration or emissions associated with any particular facility. Section 3. This background section may be useful to someone who needs to develop a general perspective on the nature of this substance and how it is manufactured and consumed. 5.g.
The readers interested in cross referencing SICs with Source Classification Codes (SCCs) and associated descriptions should consult the Crosswalk/Air Toxic Emission Factor Database Management System. all the emission factors listed in this document. sample size vs. Tests that are based on a generally unacceptable method but may provide an order-of-magnitude value for the source. These tests are not necessarily EPA reference test methods. no EPA endorsement of this method is given or implied. industry and facility 2-2 . These potential source categories do not necessarily denote significant sources of toluene emissions. Version 1.2 (October 1991) and/or the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)/Particulate Matter (PM) Speciation Database Management System.2 Appendix B lists paint and ink manufacturing facilities and printing facilities with sales greater than $1.0 has been assigned an emission factor grade based on the criteria for assigning data quality and emission factor ratings as required in the document Technical Procedures for Developing AP-42 Emission Factors and Preparing AP-42 Sections. Appendix A identifies potential source categories of toluene emissions by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code and associated description.000.1. Tests that are performed by a generally sound methodology but lack enough detail for adequate validation. sample population. citing references for those interested in conducting source tests.4 (October 1991).procedures. These criteria for rating test data used to develop emission factors are presented below. Version 1.000. Tests that are based on a nonvalidated or draft methodology or that lack a significant amount of background data..g. Appendix D summarizes. in table format. Appendix C contains a listing of some of the surface coating operations using toluene-containing coatings.3 The data used to develop emission factors are rated as follows: A Tests performed by a sound methodology and reported in enough detail for adequate validation. although such reference methods are certainly to be used as a guide. Each emission factor listed in Sections 3. Although a NIOSH procedure is provided.0 through 7. B - C - D - Because of the almost impossible task of assigning a meaningful confidence limit to industry-specific variables (e.
U . the source category is specific enough to minimize variability within the source category population. some subjective quality rating is necessary.and B-rated test data from a small number of facilities.Average.Below average. Limitations on the use of these factors are always footnoted. The emission factor was developed only from A-rated test data taken from many randomly chosen facilities in the industry population. Therefore. method of measurement). The following A .and D-rated test data gross engineering judgement technology transfer *Source category: A category in the emission factor table for which an emission factor has been calculated. Limitations on the use of the emission factor are footnoted in the emission factor table. A "U" rating may be applied in the following circumstances:4 a gross mass balance estimation QA/QC deficiencies found with C. E .Excellent. As in the A rating. emission factor quality ratings are applied to the emission factor tables. The source category* is specific enough to minimize variability within the source category population. and there may be reason to suspect that these facilities do not represent a random sample of the industry. the use of a statistical confidence interval for an emission factor is not practical. As in the A rating. Although no specific bias is evident. the source category is specific enough to minimize variability within the source category population.and B-rated test data from a reasonable number of facilities.Unrated or Unratable. B . The emission factor was developed from suspect data with no supporting documentation to accurately apply an A through E rating. The emission factor was developed only from A. it is not clear if the facilities tested represent a random sample of the industries. it is not clear if the facilities tested represent a random sample of the industry. The emission factor was developed only from A.variability. 2-3 . and there may be reason to suspect that the facilities tested do not represent a random sample of the industry.Above average. D . The emission factor was developed from C. Although no specific bias is evident. There also may be evidence of variability within the source category population. generally a single process. There also may be evidence of variability within the source category population.Poor. C .and D-rated test data. The emission factor was developed only from A-rated test data from a reasonable number of facilities.
This document does not contain any discussion of health or other environmental effects of toluene. The AB-2588 regulations allow for facilities to perform pooled source testing. capacities. the reports were unavailable when this document was prepared.5 Information from the Toluene section of the SRI Chemical Economics Handbook was also unavailable. these ambient air monitoring methods may require modifications for stack sampling and may affect data quality. This source is believed to contain the most recent production information and would be useful in confirming toluene facilities. Several of the pooled source test reports contain information on toluene emissions. however. The tests may be used to derive emission factors for all sources of the same type. and production processes. however. 2-4 . It does include a discussion of ambient air monitoring techniques. EPA recently acquired air toxics emissions information from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as part of the California Rule AB-2588.
1 REFERENCES FOR SECTION 2. Crosswalk/Air Toxic Emission Factor Database Management System." February 28. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 2. 2-5 . Draft Document. Radian Corporation. Environmental Protection Agency. Radian Corporation.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Protection Agency. Robin Baker Jones. to Anne Pope. Environmental Protection Agency. Midwest Research Institute. 4. October 1991.2. EIB. U.S. "Evaluating California Air Toxics Emissions Data for Air Toxics Compounds.0 1. EIB.2. Memorandum from Theresa K. NC. October 1991. March 1992. Blackley. Group discussion meeting on applying "U" rating to emission factors. Version 1. Research Triangle Park. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. U. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)/Particulate Matter (PM) Speciation Database Management System. 5. TRC Environmental Corporation. Version 1. and Theresa Moody. NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Technical Procedures for Developing AP-42 Emission Factors and Preparing AP-42 Sections.S. Research Triangle Park. U. NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Garry Brooks. 1992.4. U. 3. Research Triangle Park. Moody and Candace R.S. Anne Pope.
while the industrial grade may contain up to 25 percent benzene.1 NATURE OF POLLUTANT Toluene is a man-made aromatic hydrocarbon produced mostly from petroleum. losses during gasoline marketing activities. and peroxy radicals (RO2) where R is an alkyl or aryl group to form a variety of oxidation products. Purified toluene (nitration grade) normally contains less than 0. such as emissions from motor vehicles and aircraft exhaust.1 Toluene’s molecular formula is C6H5CH3.g. flammable. inks. toluene diisocyanate and benzoic acid) and as a solvent in paints and coatings. and cigarette smoke . ozone (O3).2 Toluene is released in the environment from several man-made sources. and explosive in air.SECTION 3. Toluene will react with airborne hydroxyl radicals (OH-).01 percent benzene. chemical spills. Toluene is also used as a raw material in the production of other chemicals (e. its molecular structure is represented as: Table 3-1 summarizes the chemical identification information for toluene. atomic oxygen (O). This colorless liquid is volatile. Toluene is not corrosive and will not react with dilute acids or bases. This chemical intermediate is the predominant feedstock in benzene production and a key octaneboosting component for gasoline blending. and pharmaceuticals. and Table 3-2 presents toluene’s chemical and physical properties.0 BACKGROUND 3.. including the following:2 • inadvertent sources (65 percent). adhesives.
NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). toluol. Toluene (Toluol) C07272 49 093 05. methacide. DOT/UN/NA (Department of Transportation/United Nations/North America). EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). OHM/TADS (Oil and Hazardous Materials/Technical Assistance Data System). methylbenzol C6H5CH3 Molecular formula Identification numbers:a CAS Registry NIOSH RTECS EPA Hazardous Waste OHM/TADS DOT/UN/NA NCI STCC a 108-88-3 XS 5250000 U220 7216928 UN 1294. STCC (Standard Transport Commodity Code) Source: References 3-5 3-2 . Toluene CAS (Chemical Abstract Services). CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF TOLUENE Chemical name Synonyms Toluene Methylbenzene.TABLE 3-1. RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances). NCI (National Cancer Institute). phenylmethane.
g/cm3 at 25°C (77°F) at 20°C (68°F) Physical state (ambient conditions) Color Odor Odor threshold: Range Solubility: Water at 20°C (68°F) Organic solvents Value 92. and chloroform Soluble in acetone 2.92 kPa) 36.4°C (40°F) (C. ether.13°F) 0. (closed cup).) 1 ppm = 3.40 ppm Very slightly soluble (0.17 .8°F) (O.14 -95 to -94.05 g/100 mL) Miscible with absolute alcohol. O. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TOLUENE Property Molecular weight (grams) Melting point Boiling point (760 mm Hg) Density.89 kPa) 59. (open cup) Source: References 3-5 3-3 .824 mg/m3 (at 20°C) Partition coefficients: Log10 octanol/water Vapor pressure at 20°C (68°F) at 30°C (86°F) at 40°C (104°F) Auto ignition temperature Flashpointa Conversion factors (Vapor weight to volume) a C.63°C (231.69 (at 20°C or 68°F) 21.C.1°F) 110.5°C (-139 to -138.TABLE 3-2.3 mm Hg (7.8667 Liquid Clear Benzene-like 0.7 mm Hg (4.C.C.91 kPa) 480°C (896°F) 4.C.8623 0.9 mm Hg (2.17 ppm 0.) 16°C (60.
5 percent of the production capacity feedstocks. printing.28 feet). for solvents (5 percent).344.8 hours. account for approximately 94. toluene derivatives include benzoic acid. The average toluene half-life resulting from atmospheric oxidation is estimated to be 12. The expected evaporative half-life of toluene in water is approximately five hours in water one meter in depth (3. resins. produced by catalytic reforming. and for the production of miscellaneous chemicals (2 percent). and Puerto Rico was 5.6 Toluene is manufactured for use as an intermediate in the production of benzene (50 percent) and toluene diisocyanate (9 percent). and the leather industry. pharmaceuticals.• • processes in which toluene is used (33 percent) toluene production (2 percent) It is estimated that 86 percent of the toluene produced is eventually released into the biosphere (primarily the troposphere). benzaldehyde. benzyl chloride. vinyl toluene. inks.1 As a solvent.625 million gallons) in 1989. Coke-oven light oil comprises the remaining 0.1. another petroleum feedstock. biodegradation. In 1989. and toluenesulfonyl chloride. In addition to benzene and toluene diisocyanate. toluenesulfonic acid.6 The majority of toluene (99. Toluene is also used as a cleaning solvent in surface coating. where its lifetime ranges from 4 days (at high-altitudes during the summer) to several months (at low-altitudes during the winter). Pyrolysis gasolines.1. toluene is used in paints and coatings. and/or volatilization. trinitrotoluene.000 megagrams (1.2 Toluene released to water may be removed by activated sludge degradation. 21 companies produced toluene at 30 manufacturing sites. and other formulated products requiring a solvent carrier. Catalytic reformates. for gasoline blending (34 percent). adhesives.2 3.3 Figure 3-1 illustrates some 3-4 .2 OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTION AND USE The total annual capacity of toluene manufacturing facilities in the United States.5 percent of production capacity.5 percent) is produced from petroleum fractions. the Virgin Islands. account for an additional five percent of feedstock materials.
of the end uses of toluene.0.0 and 6. but only that these sources have the potential to emit toluene. These uses are discussed in detail in Sections 5. A list of all potential toluene emission sources organized according to SIC code and associated description is presented in Appendix A. 3-5 . It is important to note that these source categories do not necessarily denote significant sources of toluene emissions.
Minister of Supply and Services Canada. Environmental Protection Service. March 1990. and Richard J. Environmental and Technical Information for Problem Spills: Toluene. 1989. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3. pp. Menlo Park. 3287. 246-273.0 Toluene Chemical Product Synopsis. 5. NY. 2. New York. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Toluene. NJ.3. Mannsville Chemical Products Corp. Geneva. Beauregard Press Limited. 1985. Lewis. 3-7 . 6. Irving N. SRI International Directory of Chemical Manufacturers. Technical Services Branch.. p. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Seventh Edition. 3rd edition. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. John Wiley and Sons. Sax. REFERENCES FOR SECTION 3.. 1983. Chemical Economics Handbook. 1991. New York. Sr. Environmental Health Criteria 52: Toluene. Environment Canada.3 1. Volume 23. NY. World Health Organization. CA. 4. 1984. Asbury Park. Volume III.
. and controls that are in place before applying any of the emission factors presented in this document. Mobil. The production locations and capacities are presented in Table 4-1.2 In 1989 eight facilities.1. Toluene is currently produced by 21 companies at 30 plants in the United States. had annual capacities exceeding 55 million gallons.000 megagrams (1.g. 3.2 No growth or slight growth in toluene demand is anticipated because of the trend to remove aromatics from gasoline blending in favor of adding oxygenated octane enhancers.104. and associated control technologies are described. and Puerto Rico.000 megagrams (944 million gallons) of toluene were recovered compared with a 1989 total annual capacity of approximately 5. or pyrolysis gasoline) from which toluene is recovered. Amerada Hess. representing seven companies.1 In 1991. with specific streams or vents in the figures labeled to correspond with the discussion in the text.5 billion gallons). Collectively. If significant amounts of toluene are removed from the gasoline pool. Using toluene to 4-1 .1 Although the domestic extraction and distillation capacity for toluene exceeds 4.0 EMISSIONS FROM TOLUENE PRODUCTION Toluene production and the associated air emissions are described in this section.344. Emission factors for the production processes are presented when available. Phillips. the projected domestic demand for 1992 is only 2.625 million gallons). and Puerto Rico. as most aromatics operations have some flexibility in the amount of toluene they recover. toluene surpluses will occur possibly resulting in lower prices and industry-wide containment difficulties.932 millions of kilograms (1. catalytic reformate (reformate). Sun. If a particular facility is being included in an inventory. BP. production volume. coke-oven light oil. the Virgin Islands. Amoco. Process flow diagrams are included as appropriate.SECTION 4. the reader should contact the specific facility to verify the nature of the processes used.795 millions of kilograms (850 million gallons) with growth expected to be very modest over the next few years. the Virgin Islands. and Chevron accounted for 72 percent of the total toluene capacity in the United States. Table 4-1 also identifies the feedstock (e. The capacities listed in Table 4-1 are approximations. Use of toluene in most solvent and chemical applications has also slowed. Exxon.
TOLUENE PRODUCTION LOCATIONS AND CAPACITIES 1989 Capacity Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Gallons) 460 170 806 79 26 105 99 197 329 99 79 92 39 13 605 135 247 148 16 109 82 Facility Amerada Hess Corporation American Petrofina Incorporated Amoco Corporation Ashland Oil. TX Chalmette. Chocolate Bayou. TX Dow Chemical U.S. TX Baytown. OH Corpus Christi.A.TABLE 4-1. Croix. TX Philadelphia. Inc. Chevron Corporation Alliance. TX Houston. TX (continued) 4-2 . PA Port Arthur. Exxon Corporation Kerr-McGee Corporation Koch Industries. TX Beaumont. Inc. (Sohio) Champlin Petroleum Co. Inc. TX Catlettsburg. TX Corpus Christi. WI Port Arthur. KY Feedstock (140) Reformate (52) Reformate (245) Reformate (24) Reformate (8) Coke-oven light oil (32) Pyrolysis gasoline (30) Reformate (60) Reformate (100) Reformate (30) Reformate (24) Reformate (28) Reformate (12) Pyrolysis gasoline (4) Pyrolysis gasoline (184) Reformate (41) Reformate (75) Reformate (45) Reformate (5) Pyrolysis gasoline (33) Reformate (25) Pyrolysis gasoline Atlantic Richfield Company Channelview. Mobil Corporation Freeport. LA Occidental Petroleum Corp. TX BP America. TX Texas City. TX Corpus Christi. LA Lima. Location St.
TOLUENE PRODUCTION LOCATIONS AND CAPACITIES 1989 Capacity Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Gallons) 95 243 46 164 158 233 76 135 36 95 62 66 Facility Phillips Petroleum Company Salomon Inc. TX Feedstock (29) Reformate (74) Reformate (14) Reformate (50) Reformate (48) Reformate (71) Reformate (23) Reformate (41) Reformate (11) Reformate (29) Reformate (19) Reformate (20) Reformate Texaco. TX Marcus Hook. KS Beaumont. and should be determined through direct contacts with plant personnel. PA Toledo. The level of toluene emissions from any given facility is a function of variables such as capacity.3 Table 4-2 shows historical and projected figures for domestic toluene capacity. Unocal Corporation USX Corporation (Marathon) Source: Reference 1 NOTE: This listing is subject to change as market conditions change. produce benzene via hydrodealkylation is one exception. 4-3 . TX Lemont. other countries anticipate a slow growth or decline in toluene production. as benzene demand is expected to grow at approximately three percent per year. facility ownership changes. The reader should verify the existence of particular facilities by consulting current listings and/or the plants themselves. TX Guayama. production. throughput and control measures. etc. DE El Dorado. Similarly. OK Delaware City.TABLE 4-1. Location Sweeny. Shell Oil Company Sun Company. OH Tulsa. exports and demand. TX Deer Park. Table 4-3 shows historical production in other industrialized nations. imports. Inc. These operating plants and locations were current as of January 1989. PR Houston. IL Texas City. Inc. plants are closed down.
45 (1) 320 (705) 71 (157) 13 (28) 379 (834) 340 (749E) -. Although the primary goal of cracking naphtha is to manufacture ethylene and propylene. It is assumed that all indicated output is high purity.g. The fraction most important to the toluene production process is "straight-run light naphtha" which includes all of the crude oil components heavier than pentanes and up to a final boiling point between 105°C and 170°C (221° to 338°F).4 It is from this stream that the majority of toluene is produced by catalytic reforming via hydrotreating.-439 (967) 43 (95) 62 (136) 421 (926) 397 (874) -. However.g. A second refinery stream. Sales data for toluene produced by petroleum refiners include only high-purity (98 to 100 percent) toluene. Through processing.Estimated figure (Mannsville Chemical Products Corp. is the naphtha that results from the pyrolysis or "steam cracking" (e. also used as a feedstock in toluene production.TABLE 4-2.. toluene. E .S. specifically crude oil.Not available Source: Reference 3 Most of the toluene produced annually is derived from petroleum fractions. Coke-oven output has been insignificant since 1986. the concentration of light aromatics [e. SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF TOLUENE Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) By Year 1985 Production Petroleum Coke Total Imports Exports Demand 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1992 320 (705) . hydrocracking) of heavier distillate fractions. and xylene (BTX)] in petroleum rarely exceeds one percent. benzene. ESTIMATED DOMESTIC U.)3 N/A .-340 (749) 63 (138) 12 (27) 391 (860E) 439 (967) -. secondary reactions also produce considerable 4-4 . petroleum.-397 (874) 56 (123) 35 (76) 419 (921) 365 (804E) -365 (804) 40 (87) 49 (108) 356 (783) N/A N/A N/A N/A 364 (800) N/A N/A 386 (850) Since 1982 the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) has not reported toluene production by coke-oven operators.. Several petroleum fractions are used in aromatic conversion processing. can be converted to BTX streams.
and combined with recycled hydrogen gas. The liquid petroleum feed is preheated (Step 1). catalytic reformer feeds) undergo hydrotreating prior to subsequent processing and toluene recovery.075 397 (74) (1.330) (480) (2.184) (338) (2. hydrogen sulfide. ammonia. The combined feed is passed through a reactor containing a catalyst bed where the hydrogenation reaction takes place (Step 3).3-5 Additional toluene production methods include separation from coal tars and recovery as a by-product from styrene manufacture.462) (801) --10 -14 4 -14 Data are for the former West Germany only.119 364 (1. water.1 4.1 TOLUENE PRODUCTION FROM PETROLEUM FRACTIONS Hydrotreating Hydrotreating. is the process by which the quality of liquid hydrocarbon streams is improved by subjecting them to mild or severe conditions of hydrogen pressure in the presence of a catalyst. Both pyrolysis gasolines and straight-run light naphthas (e.3.1. N/A .013) (363) (2. The liquid then moves to a stabilizer or stripper which removes hydrogen.5 4.372) (935) 460 165 1. schematically illustrated in Figure 4-1. organic compounds of arsenic and palladium..365) (873) 34 418 192 1.078 425 (74) (919) (423) (2.242) (917) 34 538 152 1.6 Upon leaving the reactor.Not available b Source: Reference 2 amounts of "pyrolysis gasoline" rich in aromatics. Data for 1991 are Chemical & Engineering News estimates based on nine months reporting.b Italyb Japan Canada a 47 605 218 1.019 417 (104) (1. the stream is cooled and moved to a separator vessel where recycle or net hydrogen is removed (Step 4). heated in a furnace (Step 2).g. and light 4-5 .TABLE 4-3. WORLD-WIDE TOLUENE PRODUCTION Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) By Year %Change 1990-91 Country 1988 1989 1990 1991 France Germanya.
4. is hydrotreated to remove compounds that would act as catalyst poisons in the reforming step. methylcyclohexane.1. the light naphtha. accounting for approximately 87 percent of the toluene produced domestically and approximately 94.. and ethylcyclopentane.6 hydrotreated naphtha is fed to the reformer unit containing the following components:4.5 percent of the production capacity feedstocks.4 Because the reaction is endothermic.5 Catalytic reforming involves the catalytic dehydrogenation of straight-run light naphtha in the presence of hydrogen (which reduces coke formation) to yield a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons (e. The catalytic reforming Prior to reforming.1. containing the three primary toluene synthesis compounds dimethylcyclopentane.7 4. and then transferred to a series of catalystcontaining reactors (Step 4).5 process is illustrated in Figure 4-2.4. hydrotreated fraction is then routed to the next processing step. preheated (Step 2). either catalytic reforming or secondary hydrogenation.g.2 Catalytic Reforming Catalytic reformate is the major source of toluene. toluene.4-6 4-7 . and the xylenes). The reactors normally contain increasing amounts of catalyst in each stage. benzene. The stripped.hydrocarbons dissolved in the separator liquid (Step 5).7 • • reactors which contain fixed bed catalysts heaters to bring the naphtha and recycle gas to reaction temperature and to supply heats of reaction a product cooling system and a gas-liquid separator a hydrogen-gas recycle system a stabilizer to separate light hydrocarbons dissolved in the receiver liquid The • • • The naphtha is combined with recycled hydrogen (Step 1). a series of three or four reactors with inter-stage reheat furnaces may be necessary to achieve the required conversion. heated to the reaction temperature in a fired heater (Step 3).
The stabilized reformate is used as a feedstock in the toluene recovery process (described in Section 4.4. The hydrogen gases are compressed and recycled to the reactors while the reformate is moved to a stabilizer fractionator (Step 6).7 Most of the facilities that produce toluene by catalytic reforming have proprietary processes. The fractionator removes C4 and lighter hydrocarbons to produce a stabilized reformate. The primary differences between these processes involve solving reforming process problems such as catalyst regeneration. Table 4-4 lists the process licensor and the process name. The processes also differ in the methods used to extract aromatics depending on the type and purity of the product desired. Air Products Institut Francais du Petrole Standard Oil Co..1.4 TABLE 4-4. CATALYTIC REFORMING PROCESSES Licensor Chevron Research Co.g. Engelhard Industries Exxon Research Engineering Houdry Division. (Indiana) UOP Process Division Source: Reference 4 Name of Process Rheniforming Magnaforming Powerforming Houdriforming Aromizing Catalytic Reforming Ultraforming Platforming 4-9 .4).The effluent from the last reactor is cooled and transferred to a receiving unit (e. the flash drum) where the hydrogen is separated from the liquid reformate (Step 5).
the gases and liquid are separated. the most appropriate procedures for separating toluene (and other aromatics) from other process streams are extractive distillation and liquid-liquid extraction.g.4 Following initial hydrogenation. and xylenes) extraction.. The primary differences between these processes involve operating parameters such as temperature. toluene.4. benzene..1. catalyst composition. and oxygenated compounds are reduced to hydrocarbons and water.6 Liquid-liquid extraction is the most commonly used extraction method.4.1. pressure. toluene. Therefore. The liquid (containing 38 percent toluene) is then stripped of gaseous impurities.4 4. as well as nonaromatics of similar boiling points. a by-product of ethylene and propylene manufacture. diolefins and styrenes) which will polymerize if subjected to reactor conditions severe enough to saturate olefins and remove sulfur compounds.g. it must undergo an initial hydrogenation step described in Section 4.4 Toluene Recovery The hydrotreated and/or catalytically reformed streams are rich in aromatics such as toluene.5 If only one aromatic (e.g. After these parallel reactions have been completed. The resulting product can be used as a high octane gasoline blending component or treated further for aromatic (e.1.1.4. benzene. the pyrolysis gasoline (containing 21 percent toluene) normally undergoes second stage hydrogenation in which olefins are saturated. accounts for nine percent of domestic toluene production and five percent of production capacity feedstock materials. or xylene) 4-10 . and reactor geometry. and the xylenes. Table 4-5 lists the process licensor and the process name.1 to reduce the reactives to olefins prior to storage or further processing. and remaining light hydrocarbons before being transferred to toluene recovery units. organic sulfur forms hydrogen sulfide. such as hydrogen sulfide.7 Most of the world’s facilities that produce toluene from pyrolysis gasoline have proprietary hydrotreating processes.5 Because pyrolysis gasoline contains reactive compounds (e. benzene.3 Secondary Hydrogenation (for Pyrolysis Gasoline) Pyrolysis gasoline. combined nitrogen is converted to ammonia.
4 4-11 . extraction/ distillation. The sulfolane process was developed by Shell and is licensed by Universal Oil Products (UOP). extractive distillation is preferred as the capital and operating expenses are less than those associated with liquid-liquid extraction. The diagram includes prefractionation. Two compounds commonly used in liquid-liquid extraction are sulfolane and tetraethylene glycol. commercialized by the Institut Francais du Petrole. These two processes have replaced the Udex process which used diethylene glycol as the extractant.4 Figure 4-3 shows a process flow diagram for toluene recovery. the first time using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the second time using a light hydrocarbon. This process is different from the other processes in that aromatics are extracted twice. and benzene/toluene fractionation. Union Carbide developed and licensed the tetraethylene glycol method. PYROLYSIS GASOLINE HYDROGENATION PROCESSES Licensor British Petroleum (BP) C-E Lummus Engelhard Industries Houdry Division.5 Another commonly used liquid-liquid extraction method is dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extraction. Liquid-liquid extraction methods are the most commonly used processes to recover toluene.TABLE 4-5. Air Products Institut Francais du Petrole Lurgi GmbH/Bayer AG Name of Process BP Selective Hydrogenation Process DPG Hydrotreating HPN Process HPG Process IFP Selective Hydrogenation Process Bayer Selective Diolefin Hydrogenation Lurgi Olefin Hydrogenation and Desulphurisation LT Unibon Process UOP Process Division Source: Reference 4 is to be recovered in pure form.
or xylene) is to be recovered in pure form.. Nonaromatics (the raffinate phase) leave through the top of the extractor while a mixture of aromatics. solvent and light nonaromatics leave through the bottom. then it acts as both an extractive distillation column and a solvent stripper. Some of the solvents commonly used in extractive distillation units are dimethylformamide. The C5 compounds are removed for gasoline blending. n-formylmorpholine. The stripper removes solvent leaving an aromatic stream rich in toluene. The crude BTX stream and the extractive solvent are fed to an extractive distillation column where nonaromatics (the raffinate) are separated (Step 3).The hydrotreated and/or catalytically reformed streams (crude BTX) are normally prefractionated prior to the recovery of toluene by liquid-liquid extraction to reduce the throughput of the extraction step. The raffinate is sent to a water wash for removal of solvent. and sulfolane.4 4-13 . thereby reducing capital expenditures but requiring the facility to install a water washer to further reduce solvent content). m-methylpyrrolidone. (If only a stripper is used.4 The end result of the extractive distillation process description is very similar to that of the liquid-liquid extraction process. The bottoms are removed and further refined. Extractive distillation methods separate components by introducing a solvent to a mixture.. The aromatics/solvent and light nonaromatics stream is transferred from the extractor either directly to a stripper or to an extractive distillation column where nonaromatics are removed to be used later.4 Extractive distillation methods are preferred when only one aromatic (e.g. The benzene/toluene fraction is fed to a cut column where the top portion is separated and moved to the extraction unit (Step 3). benzene. toluene. C5 and lower compounds) and then distilled (Step 2) to remove components heavier than o-xylene. while the xylenes fraction is processed for xylene recovery. The solvent suppresses the relative vapor pressure of some components compared to other components in the mixture allowing the desired component to be extracted. The aromatic/solvent stream is transferred to a stripper which removes the solvent leaving the aromatic.g. The crude BTX stream is first depentanized (Step 1) to remove the majority of components lighter than benzene (e.
The available emission estimates for toluene production are given in Table 4-6. and during recovery section outages.0. 4-14 . adsorbers. as well as light hydrocarbons and hydrogen that form during dehydrogenation. Process vents may also contribute to air emissions. absorbers. Toluene emissions from other sources. The purified toluene (99. These control methods include condensers.9. the reactor process vents. it can be further processed by conventional distillation to produce pure benzene and toluene.5 Emissions Most air emissions associated with toluene production from petroleum fractions arise from loading operations. and the reactor process recovery vent. toluene storage. process vent discharges (A) of toluene occur primarily from the vacuum column vents.10 The vacuum column vents remove air that leaks into the column. The majority of toluene emissions occur at the benzene and toluene columns in the distillation train. Several types of recovery devices are used in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) to recover hazardous air pollutants including toluene. such as waste treatment and disposal facilities are discussed in Section 7. Benzene is removed from the top of the first distillation column (Step 5) while the distillation bottoms are fed to the toluene column. shutdown.4 4. and equipment leaks. noncombustibles dissolved in the column feed. Process Emissions-Figure 4-3 shows that during toluene production. and any entrained aromatics.8 percent) is taken from the top of the second distillation column (Step 6). The benzene/toluene fraction is often moved through a clay treatment tower prior to further distillation to remove any trace olefins (Step 4). Little information was found on specific emission controls.1. Other sources of process emissions from toluene production are less likely because of the need to operate most processes under a vacuum and because of the heating value of the gases.After a toluene-rich aromatic stream has been extracted from crude BTX by either liquidliquid extraction or extractive distillation. The hydrogen separation vent is only used during startup.
e Based on engineering judgement. Storageb Toluene recovery from catalytic formate. cracking unitb Fugitives from petroleum refining with cracking and reformingb. tank trucks.10 TABLE 4-6. tank cars.d a b Emission Factor 0.9. Toluene recoverya Toluene recovery.05 percent toluene.66 lb/1000 gallon (0. Toluene recoverya Storage tank breathing losses. Recovery devices are used to recover products or by-products for sale or reuse. 15. Storage tank losses including working losses that occur while filling the tank.c Fugitives from petroleum refining without cracking and reformingb. EMISSION FACTORS FOR TOLUENE PRODUCTION FROM PETROLEUM FRACTIONS Emission Source Storage tank working losses.079 kg/1000 liter) throughput 3. d Assumes fugitives are 0.65 x 10-4lb/lb toluene produced 2. and breathing 4-15 .105 percent toluene.43 kg/1000 liter) throughput 1.0 x 10-5lb/lb toluene produced 21 lb toluene/ton (10. barges.and incinerators. c Assumes fugitives are 1.5 g/kg) total hydrocarbon 21 lb toluene/ton (10. or ships.5 g/kg) total hydrocarbon Quality Ratinge U U U U U U U Reference 12 Reference 14.7 x 10-4lb/lb toluene produced 4. Storage Emissions-Other possible sources of toluene emissions are storage tank losses (B) and handling losses (C) that occur during product loading into drums. General process emissionsb Toluene recovery.6 lb/1000 gallon (0.
13 The methods differ in complexity. for each component. and the reader is referred to the EPA Protocols 4-16 . Equipment leaks can occur from the following components: pump seals. compressor seals and safety relief valves. Emission estimates can be calculated in the five ways described in the EPA publication Protocols for Generating Unit-Specific Emission Estimates for VOC and VHAP (EPA-450/3-88-010).S. Environmental Protection Agency’s report titled Estimating Air Toxics Emissions from Organic Liquid Storage Tanks (EPA450/4-88-004). Equipment Leak Emissions-Emissions occur from process equipment components whenever the liquid or gas streams leak from the equipment. the toluene content of the stream and the time the component is in service is needed. and sampling connections. Equations for storage tank emissions are given in the U. open-ended lines. two emission factors were identified in the literature. the more accurate the emission estimate. flanges. as it may result in an overestimation of actual equipment leak emissions. estimated emissions are:13 No. This method should only be used if no other data are available.12 Both emission factors are shown in Table 4-6. The calculations to determine emissions from storage tanks are complex and require a knowledge of a number of factors which are plant specific. process valves. Furthermore. No information was available regarding the use of floating roof tanks or any other control techniques on storage tanks. However. These methodologies are briefly described here. of equipment components X Weight % toluene in the stream X Componentspecific emission factor X No. For each component. however. the more complex. these methodologies require that some level of emission measurements (leak concentrations) be made for the facility’s process equipment components. This information is then multiplied by the EPA’s average emission factors for the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industries (SOCMI) shown in Table 4-7. The simplest method requires that the number of each component type be known.11 In the absence of specific data on the storage tank. hrs/yr in toluene service More complex methodologies may be used to obtain more accurate equipment leak emission estimates.losses due to expansion from temperature changes.
104 0.0123 0.0494 0. the leak/no leak approach.5027 0.0157 0.0017 0.14 The first method.0018 0.TABLE 4-7.1089 0.0331 Quality Ratinga U Equipment Valves Service Gas Light Liquid Heavy Liquid Light Liquid Heavy Liquid Gas/Vapor Gas/Vapor All All All Pump Seals Compressor Seals Pressure Relief Seals Flanges Open-Ended Lines Sampling Connections a U U U U U U Based on engineering judgement. is based on a determination of the number of leaking and nonleaking components. A leaking component is defined by a measured or estimated leak concentration greater than or equal to 10. and Costs for calculation details. 4-17 .0037 0.13 Once the number of leaking/nonleaking equipment components have been determined.2293 0.0150 Emission Factor (lb/hr/source) 0.00083 0.000 ppmv.0472 0. Emission Reductions.228 0. Source: Reference 13 document or Fugitive Emission Sources of Organic Compounds--Additional Information on Emissions.0214 0. the fugitive equipment leak emissions are estimated using the appropriate emission factors and the equation identified previously for the average emission factor method.13. AVERAGE EMISSION FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE EQUIPMENT LEAK EMISSIONS Emission Factor (kg/hr/source) 0.00051 0.0056 0.0071 0.00023 0.
The two methods of hydrorefining are the Lurgi 4-18 . Both the coal tar and the coal gas contain small amounts of toluene which can be separated through extraction processes. The coal gas is normally scrubbed with an oil of coal tar or an oil of petroleum origin.10.000 ppmv. Correlation equations are only available for flanges.g. Generally.13 The third method uses screening data in correlation equations derived by EPA.000 ppmv. and routine replacement of chronic leaking components. tar. The number of components falling into a particular range is then multiplied by the component-specific emission factor for that range. control of fugitive emissions requires the use of low-emission or emissionless process equipment. Finally. The oil can then be distilled and the aromatics recovered as crude benzene. 4. bagging.. the fourth complex method gives each facility an option to develop its own correlation equations.14 In addition. although coal is no longer an important source of toluene. 1. The component-specific emission factors can be found in EPA’s Protocols document. it produces coke residue and volatile matter consisting of gas. and water.000 .14 Although no specific information on emissions controls used by the industry was identified. Typical controls for equipment leaks are listed in Table 4-8. Hydrorefining is the more commonly used method. When coal is carbonized (e.000 ppmv. equipment components in toluene service typically have some type of control.The second method differentiates fugitive equipment leak emissions into three leak concentration ranges: 0 . heated in the absence of air) in coke ovens or horizontal retorts. and valves in light-liquid and gas service. an inspection and maintenance program. but requires more rigorous testing. and greater than 10. and analysis of equipment leaks to determine mass emission rates.6 Crude benzene can be refined either by acid washing or hydrorefining. These oils absorb the hydrocarbons entrained in the coal gas.4.2 TOLUENE PRODUCTION FROM COAL Toluene can also be recovered from coal products. other leakless process equipment is available such as leakless valves and sealless pumps. pump seals.1.
Assumes the seal barrier fluid is maintained at a pressure above the pump stuffing box pressure and the system is equipped with a sensor that detects failure of the seal and/or barrier fluid system. LDAR (Leak detection and repair program). CONTROL TECHNIQUES AND EFFICIENCIES APPLICABLE TO EQUIPMENT LEAK EMISSIONS Equipment Component (Emission Source) Pump Seals Packed and mechanical Control Technique Seal area enclosure vented to a combustion device Monthly LDARb Quarterly LDAR Semiannual LDAR Annual LDAR N/Ad Vent degassing reservoir to combustion device None available Monthly LDAR Quarterly LDAR Semiannual LDAR Annual LDAR Monthly LDAR Quarterly LDAR Semiannual LDAR Annual LDAR Monthly LDAR Quarterly LDAR Rupture Disk Closed-purge sampling Caps on open ends Percent Reduction 100a 61 32 0 0 -100a 0 73 64 50 24 59 44 22 0 50 44 100 100 100 Double mechanicalc Compressors Flanges Valves Gas Liquid Pressure Relief Devices Gas Sample Connections Open-ended Lines a b c Combustion devices approach 100 percent control efficiency. d N/A (Not applicable). Source: Reference 14 4-19 .TABLE 4-8. There are no VOC emissions from this component.
is preheated.and nitrogen-containing compounds occurs. The stream passes to a reactor where olefins are saturated and hydrogen sulfide and butane are produced.4 Toluene Recovery. the raffinate. condensed. These processes.4 Several new methods have been developed by which toluene can be produced from coal. The final fractionation takes place in the toluene tower which yields pure toluene. and reduction of oxygen. and Gas Corporation (SASOL) operation has proven commercially feasible in South Africa. hydrocracking and dealkylation take place. if successful. is mixed with hot hydrogen gas and vaporized. The prefractionated distillate. the crude benzene is first prefractioned as described previously in Section 4.4 In the Houdry Litol Hydrorefining® process. in the Lurgi Hydrorefining® process. containing approximately 17 percent by weight toluene. The reader should refer to Section 4.2. and then the benzene tower. a clay tower. is fed to an extractive distillation unit where a toluene mixture is separated from nonaromatics also in the raffinate. could 4-20 . saturation of hydrocarbons. vaporized and passed through a reactor where hydrodesulfurization. Oil. The reactions in the Lithol reactor are exothermic and must be moderated by heat exchangers. After leaving the Lithol reactor.4 Many of the process steps described in the next two paragraphs are the same as those encountered in the previous section. One process. 4. and forwarded to a stabilizer.1 for further detail. Toluene Production from Petroleum Fractions.1 Process Descriptions Crude benzene. the stream moves to a flash drum where aromatic hydrocarbons are separated. The reactor products are cooled and condensed with the condensed hydrocarbon stream undergoing stripping of hydrogen sulfide. The resulting process stream moves to the Lithol reactor where desulfurization. the South African Coal. Many of these new processes come from the liquification of coal and are still in the developmental stages.1. The toluene mixture then passes to a recovery column where high purity toluene is recovered. The clean hydrotreated stream.Hydrorefining® process and the Houdry Litol Hydrorefining® process.
it will not be discussed in this document. However. Small amounts of toluene are also produced as a styrene by-product via the isothermal production process.lead to coal refineries that manufacture many of the products currently available from petroleum refineries.8 4-21 . Additional information on the isothermal process can be found in Locating and Estimating Air Emissions from Sources of Styrene (EPA-450/4-91-029).4 4.2 Emissions No information was located in the literature that discussed process emission sources from toluene production from coal feedstocks. a Emission Factor 2.3 TOLUENE PRODUCTION FROM STYRENE Toluene is a by-product in the production of styrene from ethylbenzene by dehydrogenation. Coke oven Based on engineering judgement. An overall emission factor for coke manufacture is shown in Table 4-9. because the isothermal method is not currently used in the United States and emissions of toluene are minimal from this process.4 x 10-4lb/lb coke produced Quality Ratinga U 4. Emissions are expected to be similar to those occurring from petroleum feedstocks where the equipment in use is the same. EMISSION FACTORS FOR TOLUENE PRODUCTION FROM COAL Emission Source Coke manufacture. TABLE 4-9.2. Source: Reference 14.
They are then typically separated by distillation (Step 8). 4.14 4-22 .7 percent).3.3.4. The liquid consists of styrene (37 percent). The reaction product exits through the heat exchanger and is further cooled in a condenser (Step 3) where water and crude styrene vapors are condensed. while the two factors for production process and production fugitive emissions were based on typical composition and design information from two emission sources." The emission factor for styrene purification came from engineering calculations at one facility. toluene (1 percent).3 percent). The hydrogen-rich process gas is recovered (Step 4) and used as a fuel and the process water is purified in a stripper (Step 5) and recycled to the boiler. while the benzene is returned to the ethylbenzene production section or sold. Benzene and toluene are removed from the crude styrene in the benzene/toluene column (Step 7). The toluene is normally sold. and tars (0. In some facilities. an ethylbenzene/benzene/toluene stream is separated from the crude styrene initially (at step 6) and processed separately. benzene (0. ethlybenzene (61 percent).2 Emissions Emission factors for the production of toluene from styrene production are shown in Table 4-10. The remaining crude liquid styrene goes to a storage tank (Step 6). These emission factors were based on engineering judgement. and the resultant vapor is mixed continuously with steam at 710°C (1310°F) in the dehydrogenation reactor (Step 2) that contains one of several catalysts. purified ethylbenzene is preheated in a heat exchanger (Step 1). and are therefore given ratings of "U.1 Process Description In the dehydrogenation process shown in Figure 4-4.
EMISSION FACTORS FOR TOLUENE PRODUCTION FROM STYRENE PRODUCTION Emission Source Styrene production process emissionsa Styrene purification process emissions.079 kg/1000 liter) throughput 3.66 lb/1000 gallon (0.TABLE 4-10.34 lb/ton (1. b 4-24 .52 g/kg) styrene produced 2.04 lb/ton (1. Styrene productiona Styrene production fugitive emissionsa Storage Tank working lossesb Storage Tank breathing lossesb a Emission Factor 3. annually 0.17 g/kg) styrene produced Quality Ratingc U U 22.358 kg)/process unit.43 kg/1000 liter) throughput U U U Reference 14 Reference 12 c Based on engineering judgement.840 lb (10.6 lb/1000 gallon (0.
Research Triangle Park. NC. Research Triangle Park. E. Locating and Estimating Air Emissions from Sources of Styrene. NC. Chemical Economics Handbook.. Environmental Protection Agency. Criteria Pollutant Emission Factors for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. Environmental Protection Agency.Background Information for Proposed Standard. Environmental Protection Agency. Faith.. John Wiley and Sons. the Xylenes and their Industrial Derivatives. 6. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Toluene Chemical Product Synopsis. SRI International. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 4. 1983. McGrawHill. pp 35-39. March 1990. Protocols for Generating Unit-Specific Emission Estimates for Equipment Leaks of VOC and VHAP. New York. Environmental Protection Agency. 66-75.S.S. Considine. CA. 1975.S. 3. 2. Douglas M. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. NY.. 12. NC. U. EPA-450/4-88-004. and Clark’s Industrial Chemicals. Volume 23. 5. Facts and Figures. New York. NJ. EPA-450/3-88-010.. Toluene.4. 8. 10. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. NY. 1104-1106. EPA-600/7-87-015. ed.S. 1988. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 1987. pp. NC. Inc. EPA-450/4-84-007q. 246-273. Menlo Park. U.4 REFERENCES FOR SECTION 4. 9. Locating and Estimating Air Emissions from Sources of Benzene. 975-979. U. Hancock. Estimating Air Toxics Emissions from Organic Liquid Storage Tanks. 13. 1990. 1991. Research Triangle Park. U. EPA-450/3-90016a. Research Triangle Park. U. Mannsville Chemical Products Corp. Toluene. Chemical and Process Technology Encyclopedia. Keyes. 1974. ed. Interim Report. Research Triangle Park. 4-25 .0 1. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Reactor Processes in Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry . 1982. Environmental Protection Agency.G.S. NC. 603-606.S. 1988. 1988. U. Asbury Park. 7. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. Research Triangle Park. NC 27711. 11. Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. pp. 1991. Environmental Protection Agency. Fourth Edition. Chemical & Engineering News 70(26). EPA-450/3-90-020. 3rd edition. 1992.
Fugitive Emission Sources of Organic Compounds--Additional Information on Emissions.S. EPA-450/3-82-010. April 1982. 1988. Research Triangle Park. NC.A Compilation for Selected Air Toxic Compounds and Sources. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. EPA-450/2-88-006a. 4-26 . 15. Environmental Protection Agency. Emission Reductions. Environmental Protection Agency. NC. and Costs.14. U.S. Toxic Air Pollutant Emission Factors . Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. U. Research Triangle Park.
SECTION 5.0 EMISSIONS FROM MAJOR USES OF TOLUENE
This section discusses emissions from major industrial processes that use toluene as a solvent or feedstock. The processes described are the production of benzene, toluene
diisocyanate (TDI), trinitrotoluene (TNT), benzoic acid, and benzyl chloride. In addition, product and process descriptions are provided for uses of toluene in solvent applications, such as paint and ink manufacturing and solvent cleaning operations. The application of toluene containing paints, coatings, and inks will be discussed in Section 6.0. Process flow diagrams are included as appropriate, with specific streams or vents in the figures labeled to correspond with the discussion in the text.
Emissions of toluene are expected from all facilities involved in the previously mentioned operations. However, insufficient information is available to develop emission factors for
fugitives or process emission sources. Available information is provided in each subsection. The reader is encouraged to contact the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) and specific production facilities for information on toluene emissions and control technologies. It should be noted, however, that TRI emission estimates may be based upon engineering estimates, may include accidental releases, and, therefore, may not be reliable.
Residual emissions from toluene-containing materials are discussed separately in Section 6.0. Toluene emissions resulting as a by-product of another process (by-product
emissions) are discussed in Section 7.0.
Benzene can be produced from catalytic reformate, pyrolysis gasoline, coke-oven light oil, or from toluene by hydrodealkylation (HDA) and disproportionation. Benzene production directly from toluene accounts for approximately 25 percent of the total benzene produced.1 Major derivatives of benzene, accounting for 98 percent of benzene end uses, include ethylbenzene (for styrene), cumene (for phenol), cyclohexane, nitrobenzene (for aniline), chlorobenzene, and 5-1
alkylbenzenes (for detergents).2 In addition, approximately two percent of the benzene produced is used as a solvent or feedstock in the following industries and products: laboratories, metal degreasing, pharmaceuticals manufacture, alcohols production, textiles, and miscellaneous small volume chemicals.2,3
Thirteen companies at eighteen facilities currently produce benzene by toluene hydrodealkylation or disproportionation. These facilities and their 1989 production capacities are listed in Table 5-1.1 The manufacture of benzene accounts for 50 percent of toluene end use.4
5.1.1 Process Description
Benzene may be produced from toluene through HDA or disproportionation. Hydrodealkylation of toluene can be accomplished through thermal or catalytic processes. The total dealkylation capacity is almost evenly distributed between the two methods. As shown in Figure 5-1, pure toluene (92 to 99 percent), or toluene (85 to 90 percent) mixed with other aromatics or paraffins is heated to 730°C (1,346°F) at a specified pressure (Step 1) and is charged to the reactor (Step 2) in the presence of excess hydrogen.1,3 Toluene reacts with the hydrogen, either by thermal initiation or contact with a dealkylation catalyst, to yield benzene and methane. The benzene may be separated from the methane in a low pressure separator (Step 3) by flashing off the methane-containing gas. The product is then stabilized (Step 4) and benzene is recovered by distillation (Step 5). Benzene is sent to storage (Step 6). Unreacted toluene and some heavy by-products are recycled (Step 7). Approximately 70 to 85 percent conversion of toluene to benzene is accomplished per pass through the system, and the ultimate yield is 95 percent of the theoretical yield.3 Many facilities that produce benzene from petroleum sources also have the ability to produce benzene from toluene via HDA. The HDA process is reported to be economically feasible when low-cost hydrogen is available and when benzene is valued at approximately 30 cents per gallon more than toluene.1,2
BENZENE PRODUCERS USING TOLUENE FEEDSTOCK
1989 Capacity millons of kilograms (millions of gallons) N/A 109 (33) 115 (35) 155 (47) 263 (80) 46 (14) 164 (50) 53 (16) 82 (25) 395 (120) 49 (15) 197 (60) 49 (15) 132 (40) 99 (30) 161 (49) 36 (11) 66 (20)
Facility Amerada Hess Corporation American Petrofina Incorporated Arochem International BP America, Inc. (Sohio) Chevron Corporation Coastal Refining and Marketing Dow Chemical U.S.A. Hoechst Celanese Koch Industries, Inc.
Location St. Croix, VI Port Arthur, TX Penuelas, PR Alliance, LA Lima, OH Philadelphia, PA Port Arthur, TX Corpus Christi, TX Freeport, TX Plaquemine, LA Bayport, TX Corpus Christi, TX
Production Method Disproportionation Disproportionation HDA HDA HDA HDA HDA HDA HDA HDA HDA HDA Disproportionation HDA HDA HDA Disproportionation HDA
Lyondell Petrochemical Co. Houston, TX Occidental Petroleum Corp. Chocolate Bayou,TX Corpus Christi, TX Phillips Puerto Rico Core Inc. Sun Company, Inc. Guayama, PR Marcus Hook, PA Tulsa, OK
Source: Reference 1 N/A = Not Available HDA = hydrodealkylation
Benzene.. or transalkylation. open process equipment.3 Toluene disproportionation is used when the desired product is xylene. then HDA is a more economical and feasible process. The reacted material is moved to a separator for removal of off-gases. toluene. equipment leaks. If benzene is the only product required. as indicated by the reaction:5 The transalkylation process is similar to that of toluene HDA but occurs under less severe conditions (e.0 x 10-5 pounds of toluene are emitted for every pound of toluene used in the benzene manufacturing process. the transalkylation process operates at lower temperatures and consumes less hydrogen). storage tank vents. secondary sources. combined with hydrogen.g. No specific emissions data for any of these sources are available.6 5-5 . Toluene is heated. and transfer and handling operations. it has been estimated that 5.2. and sent to the reactor. however.2 Emissions Facilities manufacturing benzene emit toluene from process equipment vents. The product is stabilized and moved through clay towers.1 5. and xylenes are recovered by distillation and unreacted toluene is recycled. catalytically converts two molecules of toluene to one molecule each of benzene and xylenes.1.Toluene disproportionation.
and 2. separation tanks.5 percent 2. A significant source of toluene air emissions occurs from toluene transfer during the loading and unloading of trucks. tank cars. To control process vent emissions.2 TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE PRODUCTION Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is produced by a reaction sequence in which toluene is dinitrated to form dinitrotoluene.4.95+ percent) is used as the basic feedstock by most TDI manufacturers.1.6-TDI. distillation columns. reactors.4-TDI).6-TDI isomers is also available. Commercial toluene diisocyanates are available in three isomer ratios. open equipment may be enclosed.0 is a table of emission control options and efficiencies. and barges and the filling of toluene storage tanks..4-diaminotoluene which is treated with phosgene to yield two isomers of toluene diisocyanate 2. the process streams can be routed to a flare or blowdown tank. and the toluene recovery system. paints. A 65:35 mixture of the 2. HDA or disproportionation) and the percentage of toluene in the raw material feed stream.Process equipment sources include heaters. Also included in Section 4. varnishes. The emissions will vary according to the type of process used (e.6TDI isomer. Rigid polyurethane foams. stabilization columns. Where feasible. as is pure TDI (greater than 99. Dinitrotoluene is hydrogenated to form 2. elastomers.0. Recovered toluene emissions from the distillation column are recycled with the reactor feed stream.4-TDI and 2. accounting for 5-6 .5.g.7 Either nitration-grade toluene or highly refined toluene (99. 5.8 Toluene diisocyanates are industrial intermediates used in the production of polyurethane foams. Losses of toluene from storage tanks may also occur due to normal tank working and breathing losses. Sources of fugitive emissions and emission estimation procedures are discussed in Section 4. and coatings.5 under the topics of Storage and Fugitives.4-TDI isomer and 20 parts of the 2. The majority of commercially used TDI is a mixture of 80 parts of the 2. Toluene emissions from storage tanks are discussed in Section 4.
packaging.4 TABLE 5-2. used in furniture cushioning. TX Geismar. LA New Martinsville. TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE PRODUCTION LOCATIONS AND CAPACITIES 1990 Capacity Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) 73 63 32 45 61 88 (160) (140) (70) (100) (135) (195) Facility BASF Corp.about five percent of TDI demand.9 Flexible polyurethane foams. LA Freeport. bedding.7 Toluene diisocyanate is currently produced by five companies at six facilities in three States. and carpet underlay. TX Lake Charles. LA 5-7 .9 Manufacture of toluene diisocyanates accounts for nine percent of toluene end use. These facilities and their 1990 production capacities are listed in Table 5-2. WV Baytown.. automotive seating).7 Little or no growth in production of TDI is expected for several reasons. Dow Chemical ICI Americas Mobay Mobay Olin Source: Reference 9 Location Geismar. are used as insulation in refrigeration equipment.g. Methyl diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is replacing TDI in many polyurethane foam applications. TDI can react violently with compounds containing an active hydrogen atom. transportation (e. account for approximately 90 percent of the use of toluene diisocyanates.
equipment leaks. The hydrogenation of DNT normally occurs in an inert diluent (e. to form crude TDA. The first step in the manufacture of TDI is the nitration of toluene (Step 1). concentrated in a direct contact evaporator. After a series of distillation and condensation steps. secondary sources. Nitration grade toluene is reacted with nitric acid to form DNT. nickel. an alcohol) to avoid explosion hazards and to control the heat resulting from the exothermic process.g.10 5.Figure 5-2 illustrates the basic operations that may be used in toluene diisocyanate production. Phosgene is condensed out of the HCl by-product and recycled to the reactor. and recycled to the nitration reactor (Step 2). The crude TDI still contains some of the chlorobenzene solvent in which it was reacted. The reaction takes place at 65° to 80°C (149° to 176°F) in a well-agitated reactor equipped with cooling coils using sulfuric acid (60 to 70 percent) as the catalyzing agent. or carbon catalysts.. usually o-dichlorobenzene or mono-chlorobenzene to form crude TDI and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (Step 6). The TDI is then condensed and sent to a vacuum distillation column from which purified TDI is removed (Step 10).2. This mixture (TDI and solvent) is transferred to a vacuum distillation column where the solvent is recovered and recycled (Step 8). The crude TDA is purified by filtration and distillation (Step 5). The purified TDI stream undergoes a final condensation step before being transferred to product storage (Step 11). the phosgene (from the crude TDI) is recycled to the phosgenation reactor. storage tank vents. using precious metal.10 The spent sulfuric acid is separated from the DNT reaction mixture. and transfer and 5-9 .2 Emissions Typical emission sources at TDI manufacturing facilities include process equipment vents.8 The DNT is washed in a wash tank (Step 3) and then reacted with hydrogen in catalytic reduction reactors (Step 4).10 TDA is reacted with phosgene in a solvent.8.8. open process equipment. Crude TDI is sent to a distillation column for the removal of residual phosgene (Step 7). The remaining crude TDI is vaporized by vacuum flash distillation to separate TDI from any polymeric isocyanates that may have formed (Step 9).
5. but also with commercial applications.9 x 10-4 pounds of toluene are released from fugitive sources per pound of toluene used. it is still a modern TNT explosive used mainly for military purposes.10 Once manufactured by private companies. competitive industrial explosives are now available.11 5. it has been estimated that 7. filtration units.3. however. Figure 5-3 illustrates the TNT manufacturing process. No specific emissions data for any of these sources are available. The first nitro group can be introduced easily. TDA reactors.7 x 10-4 pounds of toluene are emitted for every pound of toluene used in TDI manufacturing.6 Process equipment sources include nitration reactors. provides low manufacturing cost. but 5-11 . and favorable physical properties to allow usage as a bursting-charge in shells. TNT is now produced by government facilities.handling operations. propellant compositions and commercial blasting explosives.1 Process Description8. and grenades and as an ingredient in binary explosives. The chemical process is the same for both the continuous and batch methods. The emissions will vary according to degree of agitation of the reactors and the level of control on the equipment. An additional 1. and the condensation and distillation units. TNT is normally produced by the nitration of toluene in three distinct mononitration stages each consisting of the addition of one nitro (NO2) group into the aromatic ring. the DNT wash tank. evaporators. stabilization columns. metallized explosives. the production of trinitrotoluene (TNT) for explosives was the major end use of toluene.3 TRINITROTOLUENE PRODUCTION At one time. excellent chemical and thermal stability.10 The production of TNT can be accomplished in two or three stage processes and in batch or continuous fashion. bombs. It is not likely that private manufacture of TNT will resume as less expensive. Although TNT is no longer a primary toluene derivative.
evaporators. secondary sources. The mixed acids and the toluene are fed into a series of cooled. Process equipment sources include nitration reactors.10 Once the reaction has gone to completion. 5. (End uses for these isomers are discussed in Section 5. and distillation units. filtration units. 1 percent unreacted toluene. the spent acid and the mononitrotoluene separate into two phases (Step 2).g.2 percent DNT. and transfer and handling operations. wash tanks..2 Emissions Typical emission sources at TNT manufacturing facilities include process equipment vents. The spent acid (primarily sulfuric acid) is concentrated in a direct contact evaporator using gases from a natural gas burner. recycled to the nitration reactor. and mixed with additional virgin acids to provide nitration acids of the desired strength. and some nitrocresols. open process equipment. The mononitrotoluene is purified by a water wash followed by an alkali wash and a second water wash (Step 3).6. The sulfuric acid catalyzes the reaction producing 97 to 98 percent mononitrotoluene. approximately 0. separation columns. 5-13 . equipment leaks. The emissions will vary according to the type of process used (e.3.) The basic nitration process is repeated two additional times to produce DNT and then TNT.the second and third nitration steps require reaction forcing conditions using various mixtures of nitric and sulfuric acids in water. two or three stage operations or batch or continuous processing) and the strength of the nitration acid mixture. No emissions data for any of these sources were available during the preparation of this document. Increasing amounts of sulfuric acid (and decreasing amounts of nitric acid) are used with each successive mononitration step. agitated reactors (Step 1).and 4-NT isomers. storage tank vents. The crude mononitrotoluene is topped to remove unconverted toluene (Step 4) and then separated by fractional distillation into a 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT) stream and a distillation residue which can be further distilled and crystallized (Step 5) to recover the 3.
These facilities and their 1990 production capacities are listed in Table 5-3. WA Terre Haute. Phenol. Approximately 52 percent of the benzoic acid produced from toluene is converted to phenol by the only U. alkyd resins (3 percent). Kalama Chemical. phenol producer. Sodium and potassium benzoate.5. Other end uses for benzoic acid include plasticizers (20 percent). and laminating agents. are used mainly as food and beverage preservatives in the United States. binders for insulation. benzoyl chloride (6 percent). benzoic acid salts. is used to manufacture phenolic resin for use in adhesives in plywood.5 29 (140) (10) (65) Facility Kalama Chemical Pfizer Velsicol Source: Reference 13 Location Kalama. and butyl benzoate (2 percent).S.13 TABLE 5-3.4 BENZOIC ACID PRODUCTION Benzoic acid is manufactured from toluene by continuous liquid-phase oxidation. TN 5-14 .13 Benzoic acid is currently produced by three companies. IN Chattanooga. sodium and potassium benzoate (12 percent). Miscellaneous uses account for the remaining five percent of benzoic acid end uses. in turn. BENZOIC ACID PRODUCTION LOCATIONS AND CAPACITIES 1990 Capacity Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) 63 4. European countries and Japan use sodium benzoate as a corrosion inhibitor in antifreeze.
The finishing column bottoms are returned to the stripping column.11 The temperature and the catalyst concentration determine the reaction rate.11 The reactor effluent moves from the oxidation reactor to an atmospheric stripping column heated by a circulating hot oil reboiler. Vent gases from the oxidation reactor are cooled by exchange with incoming air. 5-15 .4. by ammonia refrigeration. then with cooling water. and finally. and air (the source of oxygen) are fed continuously into a reactor maintained at 150° to 250°C (300° to 480°F) and at a pressure of 5 to 50 atm. with a 40 percent toluene conversion per pass. The unreacted toluene and other intermediates/by-products [e. the basic reaction mechanisms are presented. benzaldehyde (one to two percent) and benzyl benzoate (ten percent)] boiling below benzoic acid are removed from the column and recycled.g.5.. the catalyst.10 Crude benzoic acid is extracted from the column using water and moved to a small finishing column where pure benzoic acid is removed overhead.1 Process Description Benzoic acid is manufactured from toluene in the presence of cobalt catalysts by continuous liquid-phase oxidation according to the following reaction:1 Approximately 0.12 Although many of the process details are proprietary. The vent gases are then expanded and vented to the atmosphere through a carbon scrubber. Much of the toluene in the vent gases is recovered for recycle through the cooling process.87 pounds of toluene are required per pound of benzoic acid produced. Toluene. The reaction is complete when 40 percent of the toluene has been oxidized to yield crude benzoic acid.
equipment leaks. butyl benzoate. bottling plants. As of January 1.0 percent from 1988 to 1993. New Jersey. stripping columns. deodorants. dairies. disinfectants. Sixteen percent of benzyl chloride is used in the production of quaternary ammonium compounds (quats).1 5-16 .15 The annual growth rate of benzyl chloride in the Unites States is expected to increase by no more than 1.5. No specific emissions data for any of these sources are available. Akzo Chemical in Edison. Two facilities in the United States produce benzyl chloride. secondary sources. swimming pools. and transfer and handling operations. Monsanto in Bridgeport. restaurants. open process equipment.5 BENZYL CHLORIDE PRODUCTION Benzyl chloride is produced commercially by the direct chlorination of boiling toluene.2 Emissions Typical emission sources at benzoic acid manufacturing facilities include process equipment vents. and industrial water treatment bactericides.4. cosmetics. and benzyl salicylate. An additional 1 x 10-4 pounds of toluene are released from fugitive sources. storage tank vents. fungicides and algicides applied in food production. and flavorings. Some of the end products of these chemicals are perfumes. and distillation units. Quats are used in sanitizers. however it has been estimated that 1 x 10-3 pounds of toluene are emitted for every pound of toluene used in benzoic acid manufacturing. The primary end use of benzyl chloride (69 percent) is as an intermediate in the production of butyl benzyl phthalate which is a plasticizer for vinyl flooring and polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesives used in packaging. benzyl acetate. had a capacity of approximately 45 million kilograms (100 million pounds). Other uses of benzyl chloride include the production of benzyl alcohol. 5. The emissions will vary according to the type of process used (process details are proprietary) and the temperature of the oxidation reactor. New Jersey operated a facility with an 11 million kilogram (25 million pound) capacity. wash tanks.6 Process equipment sources include reactors. 1990.
secondary sources.6 Process equipment sources include heaters.2 Emissions Typical emission sources at benzyl chloride manufacturing facilities include process equipment vents. however. storage tank vents.g. and wash tanks. and transfer and handling operations.14 The reaction mixture is agitated with a mild alkali and then distilled. An additional 1.1:10. Benzal chloride and benzotrichloride are by-products of the chlorination reaction and occur in ratios with benzyl chloride of 1:0.1 Process Description Benzyl chloride is produced by the direct chlorination of boiling toluene according to the following reaction:1 Toluene is heated to 65° to 100°C (150° to 212°F) and chlorinated in the dark (or in an alternate process by photochlorination) until the mixture increases in weight by 37.5.14 Excess toluene is recovered and recycled to the chlorinator while the resulting hydrogen chloride gas is absorbed in water forming muriatic acid.1 5. 0. For every pound of benzyl chloride produced.8 pounds of toluene are consumed.5 x 10-4 pounds of toluene are released from fugitive sources. open process equipment. chlorination reactors.5 percent. No specific emissions data for any of these sources are available. equipment leaks.1.5. it has been estimated that 5. 5-17 .5 x 10-4 pounds of toluene are emitted for every pound of toluene used in benzyl chloride production. The emissions will vary according to the type of process used (e.5. dark chlorination or photochlorination)..
toluenesulfonyl chloride.6 OTHER TOLUENE DERIVATIVES Other toluene derivatives include mono. tin.10 Toluene can be sulfonated with sulfuric acid or sulfur trioxide to form toluene sulfonic acids. p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA). chlorotoluenes. and printing inks. adhesives. adhesives. Sulfonation with chlorosulfonic acids yields toluene sulfonyl chloride. Toluene sulfonyl chlorides are used in disinfectants and in the manufacture of saccharin. pharmaceuticals. titanium. The primary use of benzaldehyde is as a chemical intermediate in the production of specialty chemicals used for food flavoring. Toluene is reacted with elemental chlorine in the presence of catalysts such as chlorides of iron. Vinyl toluene is used in unsaturated polyester and alkyd resins and as a co-polymer with butadiene. while 4-nitrotoluene is used in fluorescent brightening agents for cellulosic materials. benzaldehyde.10 Benzaldehyde is a by-product of toluene in the manufacture of benzoic acid. The production of vinyl toluene is accomplished by reacting ethylene and pure toluene in the presence of aluminum chloride and hydrogen chloride.and dinitrotoluene. and dyestuffs. and trichlorotoluenes are prepared by the ring-chlorination of toluene.5. and as an additive in electroplating baths.and dinitrotoluene isomers can be hydrogenated to amines and then used as dye intermediates. Dow Chemical currently holds several patents for this manufacturing process. aluminum. and zirconium to yield ortho.10 The mono.5.10 Mono-. The largest use of mixed toluene sulfonic acids is in the production of cresols. is used in the production of resins. herbicides. The end uses of these chemicals are normally paints. and toluenesulfonic acid. The 3-nitrotoluene isomer is used in the production of red-violet dyes for polyester fibers. These isomers 5-18 . di-.5. End uses for these chemicals are discussed below. One of the isomers of toluene sulfonic acid. dyes. antidiabetic drugs.5.and para-chlorotoluene. vinyl toluene.
123 companies operating 1. solvents. and preservatives.977 kilograms (4.17 Ward’s also lists 5-19 .000. Other eventual end uses include dyestuffs. One explanation for this increased consumption is that toluene is priced lower than other commonly used solvents like ketones and esters. oils (for some inks). resins (or binders).7 PAINT AND INK MANUFACTURING Toluene is one of the solvents used as a raw material in the manufacture of paints and inks.) When a paint or ink is deposited on a substrate.and three-component coatings.10 5. the vehicle becomes part of the coating film. made of binders (oils and/or resins) and solvents. Paint and Allied Products facilities were composed of 1. A breakdown of the consumption of toluene and its derivatives as they are used in paints and coatings is given in Table 5-4.are used as solvents and in paint and rubber stripping formulations and dye carrier formulations. Ward’s Business Directory lists 364 paint and allied products facilities in SIC 2851 with 1990 sales greater than $1. two-thirds of which were located in ten states. In 1989. the vehicle solvent(s) should evaporate completely.15 Consumption in paints and coatings accounts for approximately 45 percent of total toluene solvent sales.5.15 In 1987.15 Section 6.426 plants.16 Total toluene consumption in paints and coatings has increased since 1980. Vehicles transfer the pigment/binder mixture to a surface in a thin.000. toluene accounted for 15 percent of the 1. The 1987 Census of Manufactures shows that the 504 ink manufacturing facilities in the United States are owned by 224 companies in nineteen States and the District of Columbia.0 discusses the application of toluene containing paints (surface coating) and inks (printing). is called the vehicle. (In the case of reactive diluents and two. and other additives. pharmaceuticals. uniform film and normally play no role in film formation. The fluid component of the paint or ink. Figure 5-4 is a flow diagram indicating the uses of toluene in the paint and coatings industry. Paints and inks are made by blending pigments.358 million pounds) of solvent consumed in paints and coatings. Toluene is only one of the vehicle solvents used by paint and ink manufacturers.
containers and closures. and special purpose coatings. toluene diamine (other than the amount consumed for TDI). markets served). chlorotoluenes. p-tert-butyl benzoic acid. toluene sulfonyl chloride.. The use categories are architectural coatings. and as a denaturant.730) Toluene Equivalents for Paints and Coatings 287 6 1 3 11 310 (635) (14) (2) (6) (25) (682) a Includes TNT. One method used to categorize the products of the paint manufacturing industry is by enduse (e.400) (500) (50) (168) (612) (2. product coatings for original equipment manufacturers (OEM). No toluene was consumed in architectural coatings in 1988 or 1989.241 (1. and machinery and equipment. nitrotoluenes. Excludes fuel use and benzene/xylenes production.15 5-21 . cresols. A summary of toluene consumption in the paint use divisions by use category and subcategory is found in Table 5-5. toluene sulfonic acids.TABLE 5-4. ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF TOLUENE DERIVATIVES IN PAINTS AND COATINGS. vinyl toluene. Source: Reference 15 56 ink manufacturing facilities in SIC 2893 with 1990 sales greater than $1. benzotin chloride.000.000. 1988 Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) Derivative Consumed in Paints and Coatings 287 9 1 3 16 (635) (20) (2) (7) (35) Derivative Solvent Toluene Diisocyanate Benzyl Chloride Benzoic Acid Othera Total Toluene Derivative Production from Toluene -329 29 91 --(725) (63) (200) -- Toluene Consumption 636 227 23 76 278 1. Toluene is commonly used in OEM product coatings such as those for wood furniture and fixtures. benzaldehyde. toluene sulfonates. These lists are provided in Appendix B. Table B-1 and Table B-2. automotive finishes.g.
Foil.0 1.8 1.398) 33.8) (25.5 2.9 1.8 0.0) (192) (continued) 5-22 .3) -(5.5) (3. and Film Other Product Finishes PRODUCT-OEM TOTAL 1988 127 3 39 86 32 19 10 -28 16 16 16 4 6 70 27 18 116 633 (280) (7) (85) (189) (71) (41) (23) -(61) (35) (35) (35) (8) (13) (155) (59) (40) (255) (1.0 -2.9 -2.8) (5.1) (0.6 1.8) (3.3) (2.1 8.6 1. Strip and Coil Major Appliances Other Appliances Automotive Topcoat Primer Underbody Components and Parts Trucks and Buses Railroad Other Transportation Machinery and Equipment Electrical Insulation Paper.3 3. BY MARKET Total Solvents Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) Product Finishes Wood Furniture and Finishes Wood Flat Stock Metal Furniture and Fixtures Containers and Closures Sheet.5 1.7) (1.4 2.7) -(10.3) (22. ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF SOLVENTS IN PAINTS AND COATINGS.5 1.4 87.4 2.7 0.2 -4.8) (3.3) (2.7) (2.7) -(5.0) (5.9) (2.5) (3.4) (17.8 10.8 10.6) (4.4 3.6) (4.5 2.7 0.9) (5.6) (8.8) (8.7) -(10.5 2.4) (17.6 11.4 87.7 Total Toluene Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) 1988 (74.5) (0.8) (25.0) (2.5 2.0 1.2 -4.3 1989 (71.6 11.3) (22.0) (193) 32.1 7.0) (5.TABLE 5-5.392) 1989 123 3 39 87 32 19 10 -28 16 16 15 3 6 72 27 18 116 635 (270) (6) (85) (191) (71) (41) (23) -(61) (35) (35) (33) (7) (13) (159) (59) (40) (256) (1.5 0.
0) (62.5 --2.345) 1989 59 -1 15 74 59 42 54 300 764 1.6 Total Toluene Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) 1988 (23.4 (137. TOTAL PAINTS AND COATINGS 1988 54 -1 15 74 59 42 53 298 488 1.073) (4.1) --(4.5 28.9 --2.5 (23.349) 10.1) (136.4) (21.3) (13.3 6.977 (121) -(2) (33) (162) (130) (93) (118) (659) (1.TABLE 5-5. ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF SOLVENTS IN PAINTS AND COATINGS.0 (640) Note: Totals may not add due to rounding.5 28.4 (311) 290.7) (12.0) (62.982) (4.3) (13.3 6.6) (305) (635) 1989 10.0 9.0 9.6 288.9) --(4.2 5.5) 141. Source: Reference 15 5-23 .4) (21.5 62. BY MARKET (Continued) Total Solvent Millions of Kilograms (Millions of Pounds) Special Purpose Coatings Maintenance Marine Pleasure Commercial and Maintenance Auto Refinishing Traffic Paints Aerosol Other TOTAL SPECIAL PURPOSE TOTAL THINNER AND MISC.975 (118) -(3) (33) (162) (130) (93) (117) (656) (1.7) (12.2 5.0 138.2) 62.
resins. 5-24 . or blend. resins.000 liter (200 to 3..000 liter (10. facilities employing less than 20 people) produce paint in 40 to 2. solvents.. while larger facilities produce paint in 800 to 11. Most small plants (e. However. alcohols.15 In most cases. Batch process production of paint and ink involves four major steps: • • • • preassembly and premix pigment grinding/milling product finishing/blending product filling/packaging The manufacturing process is summarized in Figure 5-5. solvents. toluene (and other organic solvents) are most often used in inks that employ a solvent carrier such as flexographic and rotogravure inks. the liquid raw materials (e. manufacturing facilities purchase raw materials (e.. Inks are produced in batches ranging from 4 liters to over 4.g. pigments.1 Process Description Paint and ink facilities use similar manufacturing processes to produce their respective products in batch scale production fashion.000 gallon) runs.g.000 gallon) batches with stock items made in 40. and/or water) are "assembled" and mixed in containers to form a viscous material to which pigments are added. and lithographic and offset inks.000 liters (1 to 1000 gallons). are of an oil or paste base. no chemical reactions take place during the process.16 The first step in the manufacturing process is preassembly and premix. letterpress. In this step.g. The other two primary ink classifications.7.No specific information was available relating the amount of toluene consumed in inks. The premix stage results in the formation of an intermediate product which is referred to as the base or mill base. a finished product. and other additives) and then formulate. oils. Normally.16 5.000 liter (10 to 500 gallon) batches.
With further processing.16 5. and horizontal media mills. sand mills. resins. bead and shot mills. high-speed stone and colloid mills.16 The incorporation of the pigment into the paint or ink vehicle to yield a fine particle dispersion is referred to as pigment grinding or milling. uniformly-ground. The degree to which this is realized determines the coating effectiveness and permanency of the paint or ink. and pastes are added to the material to meet the color requirements. After the material has been blended. ball and pebble mills. Blending is the process of incorporating the additions into the material in order to meet the desired product specifications. Tinting is the process of adjusting the color of completed mill base dispersions. or thinning. round pigment particles which are permanently separated from other pigment particles.16 Final product specifications are achieved in the product finishing step which consists of three intermediate stages: thinning.16 5-26 .7. The transfer step normally involves product filtration. solvents.2 Emissions The primary factors affecting the emission of toluene are the types of solvents and resins used in the manufacturing process. high-speed disk dispersers. Various combinations of pigments. The goal of pigment grinding is to achieve fine.16 The final step in paint and ink manufacturing is product filling operations. and the methods and materials used during cleanup operations. the temperature at which these compounds are mixed. serviceable film that is easily applied to the substrate. Material letdown. it is transferred from the blend tanks into containers for product shipment. impingement mills. smooth. this base with high pigment concentration may become any one of a variety of specific end products. is the process by which a completed mill base dispersion is let down or reduced with solvent and/or binder to give a coating which is designed to provide a durable. Some of the more commonly used types of dispersion (milling) equipment are roller mills. tinting and blending. attritors.
high-pressure spray heads. Estimates range from process solvent losses of one to two percent under well controlled conditions to much higher percentages.16 Emissions occurring during the manufacturing stages may be reduced by using equipment and process modifications such as tank lids or closed-system milling equipment. emissions may come from equipment such as mix tanks or drums while resins are being thinned and materials are being added.Toluene is released from several types of equipment and handling operations throughout the paint and ink manufacturing process and during cleanup operations. and pumps used to transfer material from equipment for one manufacturing stage to equipment for the next stage. Fugitive emissions also result from flanges. brushes. As product flows through a filtering device. manufacturing equipment is cleaned manually (with solvents. The process solvent losses vary significantly from facility to facility. Toluene emissions from product filling operations occur during material transfer and free-fall into the receiving container. The emissions that occur during the product finishing step are mainly a result of material additions during the thinning and tinting stages. Toluene emissions also occur during the pigment grinding step when materials are added to the dispersion equipment.16 There is little emission factor information available for the manufacture of paints and inks. or automatic tub washers.16 Emissions from cleaning equipment may be reduced by using rubber wipers. Another emission source is product filtering. In addition to emissions from process operations. and /or rags) on the production floor on an as-needed basis. Many paint and ink manufacturing facilities calculate total plant VOC emissions based on raw material consumption rather than calculating emissions from processes or equipment by an alternative 5-27 . valves. Toluene emissions during filling operations result from product free-fall and material splashing. resulting in releases of the incorporated toluene. The standard method of cleaning grinding equipment involves emptying the mill of product and then adding solvent to the vessel to capture remaining product residue. In many facilities. toluene is also released from a variety of cleaning operations following the manufacture of solvent based products. it is often exposed to the air. Emissions occur during cleaning solvent addition and removal as well as during the cleaning process. and therefore those emissions should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. During the preassembly and premix stage.
more specialized cleaners which perform a higher quality of cleaning than maintenance cleaners. it is typically in cold cleaning operations. such as grease. fabricated plastics. After cleaning. When toluene is used. but always below the solvent’s boiling point. and moisture in preparation for further treatment such as painting. and smaller than manufacturing cold cleaners. These cleaning processes are designed to remove foreign materials. cleaning operations. the parts are removed from the tank and allowed to dry. anodizing or applying conversion coatings.16 5. The two basic types of cold cleaners are maintenance cold cleaners and manufacturing cold cleaners. Cold cleaners are usually the simplest and least expensive of the three types of solvent cleaners. and storage.18 Maintenance cold cleaners are normally simpler. electronic and electrical components and other nonporous substrates. waxes. The three categories of solvent cleaning operations are cold cleaning.19 Cold cleaners may incorporate 5-28 . Manufacturing cold cleaners are larger. electroplating.8 SOLVENT CLEANING OPERATIONS Surface cleaning or degreasing operations include solvent cleaning or conditioning of metal surfaces and parts. The solvent tank is often agitated to enhance its cleaning action. 5.method. Total emissions therefore reflect solvent losses during manufacturing. and conveyorized degreasing which can employ either cold cleaning or vapor degreasing as its major cleaning process. open-top vapor degreasing. Parts too large for immersion may be sprayed or brushed.8. galvanizing. The mechanical or industrial parts or tools to be cleaned are placed in a basket inside the cold cleaner and immersed in the solvent. They are used primarily for automotive and general plant maintenance cleaning.1 Process Description Cold cleaning is a batch process operation in which solvents are applied at room temperature or slightly above room temperature. less expensive.
Freeboard is the distance between the solvent level and the top edge of the unit. These typical sources of emissions from cold cleaners are discussed below. Emissions from cold cleaners can occur through bath evaporation. and decreasing the amount of ventilation over an uncovered tank. 5-29 . This form of solvent loss can be reduced by covering the tank with a lid. when the tank is left open. then usually emissions from agitation are kept low. increasing the freeboard height of the tank over the level of the solvent. covering an open tank with a lid will usually render bath evaporation insignificant.19. solvent carry-out.8. agitation system adjustments.19. may lead to increased emissions. Several factors regulate the amount of emissions from carry-out sources. primarily due to the large numbers of these units and the high degree of evaporative losses. Of these options.2 Emissions Cold cleaning can result in both direct and indirect atmospheric emissions of toluene. especially the air flow. solvent agitation. Cold cleaners are estimated to result in the largest total emissions of the three types of solvent cleaners. Porous or absorbent materials (cloth.18 5.20 Bath evaporation from cold cleaners is simply evaporation from an uncovered solvent tank. If the cover is kept closed. wood) absorb the solvent and keep it retained for extended periods of time. leather. waste solvent evaporation. and spray evaporation. It is recommended that all cold cleaned parts dry for a minimum of 15 seconds while in the drainage facility. The size of the load to be cleaned must be manageable in order to keep the solvent from splashing out of the degreasing unit. Poor adjustment of the agitation system.20 Emissions from the agitation of the solvent depends on use of the cover. however. Proper drainage racks or shelves need to be employed to provide a place where the parts can dry off. emissions due to agitation of the solvent increase dramatically.covers and freeboards to limit the evaporative loss of solvents. and volatility of the solvent. Bath evaporation accounts for approximately 20 percent of the total organic emissions from cold cleaners.18 Solvent carry-out emissions are due to evaporation of the solvent residue from the part that was cleaned.
Generally. Some acceptable methods include proper incineration. toluene is used either alone or as a component of a multi-solvent system. the fineness of the spray. Available emission factors for some of these miscellaneous uses are included in Table 5-6. spreading the waste solvent for dust control. and the tendency of the solvent to splash and overspray out of the tank.Waste solvent evaporation is the largest source of atmospheric emissions from cold cleaners. rubbers. and chemical landfilling. emissions from spray evaporation can be prevented through careful operation and equipment design. or the parts require a high degree of cleanliness. in adhesives. however. Evaporation is also increased when the spray is used continuously and when the solvents are highly volatile. If the cold cleaning removes large amounts of contaminants.20 5. the frequency of disposal. and the method(s) of disposal.19. photographic film. accounting for between 50 and 75 percent of the total organic emissions. and other chemical derivatives. then the solvent will need replacement more often and emissions will generally be greater. agricultural sprays. These methods include flushing the waste solvent into sewers or bodies of water. and emissions from these methods will vary depending on environmental and operational factors.9 OTHER SOLVENT USES In addition to the previously discussed solvent end uses. and landfilling where the solvent can easily leach into the soil or evaporate into the air.18 The degree of evaporation depends on the size of the cold cleaner. land-farming. Disposal methods also influence the degree of evaporation from the waste solvent. Some disposal methods will result in total release of the waste solvent into the atmosphere. 5-30 . distillation. Evaporative emissions from spraying the solvent over the part to be cleaned vary depending on the pressure of the spray.
EMISSIONS FROM MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES OF TOLUENE Process Neoprene Manufacture Potential Source Blend Tank Solution Makeup Tank Batch Polykettle Stripper Wash Belts Dryer Exhaust Source: Reference 21 Emission Factor 0.0 g/kg neoprene Quality Rating E E E E E E 5-31 .TABLE 5-6.018 g/kg neoprene 0.019 g/kg neoprene 0.04 g/kg neoprene 0.015 g/kg neoprene 2.05 g/kg neoprene 0.
E. World Health Organization. Geneva. 8. pp.. 11.. and Clark’s Industrial Chemicals. Hancock.S.0 SRI International.. U. Asbury Park. 7. Environmental Protection Agency.. Toluene Diisocyanate Chemical Product Synopsis. Asbury Park. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. John Wiley and Sons. Research Triangle Park. New York. Environmental Protection Agency. 4. NY. March 1990. Fourth Edition and Supplements. 1988. U. Environmental Protection Agency.S. Fourth Edition. Volume 7: Selected Processes. Environmental Protection Agency. Asbury Park. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. NC.S. Benzyl Chloride Chemical Product Synopsis. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. Chemical Economics Handbook.. 5-32 3. Mannsville Chemical Products Corp.10 1. March 1992. 5. . NC. 1980. Research Triangle Park. Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors.G. Mannsville Chemical Products Corp. NJ. CA. 1988... U. Report 4: Toluene Diisocyanate.A Compilation for Selected Air Toxic Compounds and Sources. October 1990. NY. Lowenheim. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 1983. ed. International Programme on Chemical Safety. March 1990. AP-42. NJ. New York. 1987. NC. 2. Benzene Chemical Product Synopsis. Benzoic Acid Chemical Product Synopsis. Environmental Health Criteria 75: Toluene Diisocyanates. Research Triangle Park. NJ. and Moran. 1991. 6.. EPA-450/4-84-007q. NJ. Toluene. 13. Air Pollutant Emission Factors . REFERENCES FOR SECTION 5. January 1990.S. Toluene Chemical Product Synopsis. Marguerite K. Keyes. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. EPA-450/2-88-006a. U. EPA-450/3-80-028b. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 12. 1985. Faith. 9. NJ. Organic Chemical Manufacturing. Mannsville Chemical Products Corp. Asbury Park. Volume 23. 246-273. 1975. Toluene. 1982.5. Asbury Park. Mannsville Chemical Products Corp. Research Triangle Park. 3rd edition. the Xylenes and their Industrial Derivatives. NC. Fredrick A. Locating and Estimating Air Emissions from Sources of Benzene. 10. Mannsville Chemical Products Corp. Menlo Park. 14.
EPA-450/3-89-030. 1977. Environmental Protection Agency. 19. Environmental Protection Agency. U. 1991. Environmental Protection Agency. 1991. EPA-450/3-92-013. EPA-600/2-77-1070.S. Detroit. Environmental Protection Agency. State of the Art.S. Environmental Protection Agency. NC. 21. August 1989. Paint Industry Database. 16. U. Gale Research. U. 20.Background Information on Proposed Standards.15. MI. Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Solvent Metal Cleaning. Ward’s Business Directory of U. Source Assessment: Polychloroprene. Organic Solvent Cleaners . Control of VOC Emissions from Ink and Paint Manufacturing Processes. 17. Prepared for the National Paint and Coatings Association. SRI International.S. Research Triangle Park. NC. U. EPA-450/2-78-045a. U.S. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.C. Inc. 18. Volume 4. EPA-450/2-77-022. Cincinnati. 1990. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park. Research Triangle Park. Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory. U. 1977.S. Washington D. Private and Public Companies1991. Alternative Control Technology Document Halogenated Solvent Cleaners. 1979. 5-33 .S. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.S. OH. NC.
The general application methods for surface coating operations are discussed below. The production descriptions and emissions data presented in this section represent the most common and relevant processes and products. Toluene may be emitted when toluene-containing products such as paint. Such releases are described in this section as residual emissions. and emissions reduction opportunities. Table 5-5. ink and gasoline release small amounts over time. lacquer or primer for decorative.1 Consumption of toluene in specific end-use markets was presented in Section 5.1 SURFACE COATING OPERATIONS Surface coating operations involve the application of paint. all processes cannot be included in this document. Because surface coating is a very broad category. References are provided for additional information. adhesives. or protective purposes. Appendix C contains a listing of some of the surface coating source categories in which toluene is used. gasoline and other formulated products using a solvent carrier. detailed process descriptions and process flow diagrams for each category are not included in this document. pharmaceuticals. varnish. toluene is present in many materials. In 1989. This section examines residual emissions from the use of toluene-containing materials.SECTION 6. 6.0.0 EMISSIONS FROM THE USE OF TOLUENE-CONTAINING MATERIALS As discussed in Section 3. inks. potential toluene emission points. the reader is encouraged to review the references mentioned at the end of this section and in Appendix C. functional. 290 million kilograms (640 million pounds) of toluene were consumed in paints and coatings. resins. 6-1 .7. however. including paints and coatings. Appendix C also indicates associated SIC codes. Because of toluene’s widespread use.
In this operation the coating material is fed through overhead nozzles which causes the paint to flow in a steady stream over the article to be coated. In addition to the application of coatings to substrates.g. and electrostatic methods. specific operations and emission points resulting in expected toluene emissions from surface coating operations are presented in Appendix A and in Appendix C. Emissions2. surface coating. knife coating. 6-2 . parallel roller by direct contact. such as fuel oil tanks. low-pressure (HVLP). Auxiliary facilities include degreasing solvent storage. or pressure bottles. and surface coating storage and blending. rolling. flow coating. The operations shown include degreasing. cleaning and degreasing).1. Spraying operations are normally performed in a spray booth using one of the following spray application methods: air atomization. Excess paint is allowed to drain from the coated object and is then recycled. and is coated by transfer of paint from the second roller. drying and curing stages. many surface coating operations also include surface preparation steps (e. The object is slowly removed from the tank allowing excess paint to drain back into the tank. high-volume. Industrial categories. A typical roller coating machine contains three or more power driven rollers. The sheet to be coated is run between the second and third rollers. Note that this is a generic figure and may differ significantly from any specific coating operation. and brushing. Dip coating involves briefly immersing the substrate in a tank containing a bath of paint.1.3 6. air-assisted airless. gas cylinders.1 Process Description Industrial surface coating operations use several different methods to apply coatings to substrates. Flow coating is used on articles which cannot be dipped due to their buoyancy. airless atomization. Process operations. Some of the more commonly used techniques include spraying. The paint is transferred to a second. Knife coating is used primarily to coat paper or fabric webs. dipping. auxiliary facilities. and emission points are illustrated. Roller coating is used to apply coatings and inks to flat surfaces.2 Figure 6-1 is a generic schematic flow diagram of a surface coating operation. The adjustable blade or "knife" distributes a liquid coating evenly over a moving surface. one of which is partially immersed in the coating material.6.. and drying and curing.
4 depict the flow of products through the plant. Ovens are used between some coating steps to cure the coating prior to the next step in the finishing sequence. stream 16 is the flow of compressed air. No emission factor data were found in the literature. and the method of application. Stream 3 represents the product flow to the drying and curing operation. Streams 18 and 19 represent the flow of solvent and resin from the surface coating unit through the fume handling equipment. steam or electrically heated air) to the drying and curing operation. in which solvent is allowed to volatilize from the coated piece. resin. Streams 5 and 6 depict the flow of solvent into the plant and to the degreasing unit. Streams 24 and 25 represent uncontrolled and controlled emissions. Uncontrolled and controlled emissions are represented by streams 9 and 10.g. Drying and curing operations occur in flash-off areas and curing ovens. Uncontrolled and controlled emissions are depicted by streams 20 and 21. fuel. and 14 represent the flow of solvent. Stream 1 represents the input of uncoated products to the surface coating system. 2.Streams 1. Stream 4 represents the flow of coated finished products from the surface coating section of a manufacturing plant. Flash-off areas are the places between application areas. coating requirements. Potential release sources are identified in Appendix C. Stream 15 is the flow of coating to the surface coating unit. or between an application area and an oven. 12. respectively. The type of surface coating operation used will depend upon the product-type coated. Streams 5 through 10 represent the flow of degreasing solvent through the surface coating section of a manufacturing plant. 6-4 . and additives to the surface coating blending tank. Streams 11. In Figure 6-1. Streams 11 through 21 represent the flow of surface coating raw materials through the plant.. streams 22 through 25 represent the flow of gases (e. pigment. 3. For those operations that use spray painting. Stream 2 represents the flow of degreased or scoured products to the surface coating operation. Streams 7 and 8 represent the flow of solvent vapors from the degreasing unit through the fume handling system. 13.
2. Toluene is used in solvent based coating formulations either as part of the coating vehicle or as a thinner.. Toluene may also be used in clean-up operations. are the most common control devices used in surface coating operations.2. high-solids coatings.5 6.7. and type of coating) can determine the required dilution ratio. Some commonly used capture devices include covers.4.2 PRINTING AND PUBLISHING The printing and publishing industry encompasses publishing. or they may dilute their purchased coatings to decrease the coating viscosity and improve performance and ease of application. Minimizing or eliminating the use of these solvents in surface coating formulations is the most effective way to reduce VOC emissions. humidity. Ink 6-5 . several factors (e. and partial or total enclosures. condensers and incinerators. The trade services group is not examined in this document because data on solvent use and emissions from these services are not available. electrotyping and stereotyping.2. and platemaking services. hoods.1 One method of reducing toluene emissions from surface coating operations is to modify the surface coating formulation. and radiation curable coatings.4-6 Emissions from the mixing and blending of surface coatings are discussed in Section 5. vents.7 The trade services group includes typesetting. If a coating formulation is to be diluted inhouse. Conventional coatings normally contain at least 70 percent by volume solvent (either one solvent or a mixture of solvents) to permit easy handling and application. Clean-up solvent is used to clean application equipment.Facilities with surface coating operations may purchase and apply ready-to-use coatings. Consequently. commercial printing. with control efficiencies of 95 to 98 percent.2 Large surface coating facilities may use add-on control devices to capture and control solvent emissions. temperature. the amount of toluene used may vary.g. piping. spray booths. and trade services. and to strip cured coatings from wood parts or machinery. powder coatings. coating storage and distribution equipment. Alternatives to these conventional coatings include water-based coatings. Adsorbers. photoengraving.
The publishing and printing groups are concentrated in four States. Next. will only be provided for the commercial printing processes. less common. The reader is encouraged to explore toluene consumption and emissions in all facilities reporting under the SIC code 27 as solvent use is an inherent aspect of the operations in printing and publishing facilities. Only the gravure and flexography printing processes are described here because specific emissions of toluene were not identified from the other printing methods. however. The final step is cutting and finishing10 Printing ink composition varies among printing methods as well as among jobs using the same printing press and method. Heatset inks require the application of heat to drive off the ink solvent and set the ink to the substrate.1 Process Description The production of a printed product consists of five steps. Process descriptions. gravure ink consumption assigned to gravure printing).g.8 Appendix B.2 Printing processes using heatset inks that dry through evaporation of the solvent are the major concern for VOC (including toluene) emissions. Other.. ink types include radiation and thermally cured inks. Toluene emissions from off-set lithography processes have not been measured and are thought to be minimal. All evaporative inks consist of three basic components: pigments.9 6.000 or greater in annual sales.consumption in these groups has been apportioned to the four printing processes according to the type of ink consumed (e. Attention is given to the gravure and flexographic processes as end uses of toluene.000. 6-6 . binders. the artwork and/or copy (text) is developed. and solvents. and the main source of toluene emissions. First. The plate is then tested in the press adjustment step.7. New York. and Illinois. The majority of establishments are small facilities that employ between 1 and 20 people. a printing plate is made. Non-heatset inks dry by oxidation or adsorption to the substrate and do not require heat. Table B-3 presents the companies in the printing and publishing SIC codes grossing $1.2. Pennsylvania. Printing inks in general can be described as heat-set or nonheatset. The actual printing of the product is the second to the last step in the printing process. California.
and extenders are automatically added to the mix tank. are added to the ink concentrate in the mix tank. The ink concentrate is diluted at press side with additional solvent at a volume ratio of approximately 1:1. speed.11 6-7 . and occasionally extenders or varnishes. However. equipped with heated air jets to evaporate the solvent from the substrate and set the ink.11 Each printing unit has a self-contained inking system. The paper position. The dryer air is exhausted from the unit by a recirculation fan. creating tiny cells which comprise the image surface. The printing cylinder is etched or engraved. The depth of each cell may vary and regulates the quantity of ink received by the substrate. each printing one color. the resultant ink mixture may contain as much as 80 percent solvent by volume and 20 percent by volume ink and varnish solids. Solvent. a circulation pump. viscosity control devices. toluene has a limited supply and is more expensive than naphtha.Gravure Printing Process Description-The configuration of the image surface makes the gravure process unique. such as a carbon adsorption system. Since solvent is also added automatically to the inking system to replace evaporative losses. solvent. The two most commonly used solvents in gravure printing and inks are toluene and a xylene-toluene-lactol spirit mixture (naphtha). The average rotogravure press has eight printing units. A substrate dryer. Raw ink concentrate generally contains 50 percent solvent by volume. is located at the top of each printing unit. The ink system consists of an ink fountain.11 Additional ink. and a mix tank. The fan directs a portion of the solvent laden air to a control device. Toluene is known to produce a higher quality product and dissolves the ink resins well. and tension through the printing unit is regulated by a series of rollers. The additions are monitored by level and A low viscosity ink is required for the gravure printing process. varnishes. The remaining portion of the air flow is recirculated over a steam heating coil and back through the dryer. Lactol Spirit is a petroleum solvent component of naphtha used in mixture to hasten evaporation.
paperboard. gift wraps. and envelopes. the press.13. and ethers. Water-based inks contain approximately 25 percent by volume solvents. The remaining solvents are reclaimed for reuse. used in packaging and product printing. and sold back to suppliers.2 Solvent-based flexographic inks typically consist of alcohols.14 6. A local survey may provide the needed information on the percentage of toluene used relative to total solvent consumption. Water-based inks account for approximately 15 percent of all inks used in all gravure printing processes. Emissions are influenced by press and job variables.12 About 15 percent of all flexographic inks used are water-based. contain approximately 5 percent to 30 percent solvents by volume and account for 30 percent to 40 percent of all inks used. Water based inks. VOC emission factors and rates are available. The majority of flexographic printing is done with a web-fed substrate. hydrocarbons.2 The dryer vent is the most typical point of control. Additionally. glycols. and labels. solvent concentration in the ink. the dryer. paper cups and plates. esters. Approximately 2.11. or lost as fugitive emissions. The other emission sources are considered fugitive.17 Although specific emission estimates of toluene are not available. folding cartons. Water-based and steam-set inks are also used in flexographic printing. recycled. tapes. ink and solvent consumption numbers have been published and are reported below.2 Emissions Gravure Printing Emission Points-Emissions from the rotogravure press occur from the ink fountain. These inks may contain as much as 75 percent solvent by volume. Toluene emissions may then 6-8 . milk cartons.5 percent to 7 percent of the solvents used are retained in the printed product. and the chill rolls.Flexographic Printing Process Description-Flexographic printing is used to print flexible packaging.2.13 Steam-set inks use glycol solvents but do not contribute significantly to air emissions.15.16 Typical ink formulations contain approximately 50 percent to 85 percent solvents by volume. and solvent added as make-up during printing.
18 Carbon adsorption and incineration systems have traditionally been employed to control VOC emissions from the gravure printing process.19 The average VOC control efficiency at these facilities ranged from 94 to 99. The GAA projected total gravure publication plants’ solvent consumption and fate based upon the percentage (by sales) of this segment responding to the survey. Rotogravure package printing plants may use water-based inks. flexible packaging.3 million pounds of solvent purchased or reused. The Gravure Association of America (GAA) conducted a survey of their membership which reported solvent purchased. 246.18 Table 6-1 presents a summary of these statistics for publication. or destroyed by incineration. folding cartons.4 million pounds of virgin solvent purchased.12 One recent study has demonstrated that capture and control systems have been successfully applied to gravure printing presses that achieve greater than 90 percent overall VOC control. The portion of solvent that is recovered but not reused is sold back to the manufacturers. More solvent is recovered than bought due to solvent recovery from ink formulations.5 percent. and 179. 6-9 . if the solvent content of the inks is maintained below 25 percent by volume. The package printing sector has also achieved significant VOC reduction through the use of water-based printing inks. and 606. these figures total 622. Projected to the entire gravure industry.3 million pounds of solvent reused.be estimated by multiplying the percentage of toluene by the ink consumption rate and solvent content of the ink. reused. The estimated ratio of solvent recovered to ink consumed for the publication segment of the industry was 73 percent.18 EPA projected solvent consumption and fate for the folding carton and flexible packaging segments based upon the same principle.7 million pounds of solvent recovered. and recovered in the various segments of the industry during 1987. and product gravure printing.2 million pounds of solvent recovered. The GAA membership reported a total of 41. The use of water-based inks may contribute to an overall VOC reduction of 65 to 75 percent. lost as fugitive emissions.
0 (222.3) (1.7 1.9 5.4 24.Background Information for Promulgated Standards (EPA-450/3-85-029b)21 6-10 .2 78.6) (4. Environmental Protection Agency.1) (11. GRAVURE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA INDUSTRY SURVEY RESULTS MILLIONS OF KILOGRAMS (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) Reported Results Projected Gravure Industry Estimates Solvents Purchased or Reused Printing Process Solvents Purchased Solvents Recovered Solvents Reused Solvents Recovered Publication Plants Folding Cartons Flexible Packaging Product Gravure 1 2.2) (6.TABLE 6-1.7 2.5) -- 247. 1990.1 4.3 -- (543.2) (15.4) -- aSurvey results scaled up to make projections for industry segments.5) 73.6) (6.8 0.4) (15.8 7.3 22. The PTE criteria have been published in the following sources: • Guidelines for Developing a State Protocol for the Measurement of Capture Efficiency.6) (9.3 0.4 -- (401) (48.8) (172.2 7.9 7. April 16.9) 101. Policy Statement.3) 182.9) (1.1 (162.9) (16.7) (53.Background Information for Promulgated Standards (EPA-450/3-85-022b)20 • Magnetic Tape Manufacturing Industry .7 (2. • Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates . Source: Reference 18 The facilities included in the study used total enclosure capture systems and one of the following add-on destruction devices: • • • • Catalytic Incineration Regenerative Incineration Thermal Incineration Carbon Adsorption The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and published standard criteria for the design and operation of permanent total enclosure (PTE) systems.
600 to 17. Therefore.14 Recent studies have indicated that flexographic printing presses controlled by catalytic and regenerative incineration may achieve a 95 percent overall VOC reduction efficiency.24 One recent study involving automotive emissions used 46 vehicles to provide detailed composition of organic emissions under various driving conditions. Toluene and other hazardous components may then be emitted in automotive exhaust. thereby suppressing engine knock. However.Capture efficiency may be estimated at 100 percent if all the EPA PTE criteria are met.24 Another study used a mobile TAGA 6000 EM tandem mass spectrometer system to obtain time resolved data for selected aromatic compounds. overall control efficiencies approximate only 60 percent. Emission control strategies are also similar. and providing smoother running engines. Incineration and carbon adsorption emission control techniques are available for use in the flexographic printing process.600 pounds) per year.13. One study estimates the global release rate of toluene from automobile exhaust to be in the range of 3 to 8 metric tons (6.25 Both of these studies present possible protocols to perform tests that would better characterize emissions and eventually estimate emissions of various VOC 6-11 .22 A metal oxide catalyst is used on flexographic printing presses to avoid poisoning by chlorinated solvents.12 Alternative emission control techniques include the use of water-based inks and microwave driers.3 GASOLINE AND AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS Aromatic hydrocarbons including toluene are added to gasoline to raise the octane rating. it is often difficult to install effective hooding and ducting devices on the presses.23 Automotive emissions have been related to photochemical smog and ozone formation for many years.22 6.19 Flexographic Printing Emission Points-Sources of emissions from flexographic printing operations are similar to the sources encountered from gravure operations. increasing power. Atmospheric models recently became sophisticated enough to accommodate compositional variations.
4 GASOLINE MARKETING Gasoline storage and distribution activities represent potential sources of toluene emissions. total hydrocarbon emissions resulting from storage tanks. material transfer.species.8 x 10-1 g/vehicle mile traveled) Quality Ratinga U U Based on engineering judgement. the information presented in these studies was not sufficiently comprehensive for emission factor development. EMISSION FACTORS FROM GASOLINE USE Emission Source Evaporation from automobile fuel tank Automobile exhaust Emission Factor 2. The toluene content of whole gasoline ranges from less than 1 to almost 16 percent (premium gasoline) by weight. This section describes sources of toluene emissions from gasoline marketing operations. individual locations are not identified in this section. and vehicle fueling include emissions of toluene. Instead. emission factors are presented. but typical concentrations are around 15 percent by weight. including toluene.27 Therefore. along with a general discussion of the sources of these emissions.22 x 10-5 lb/vehicle mile traveled (1. Source: Reference 26 a 6.0 x 10-2 g/vehicle mile traveled) 8. These emission factors were based on engineering estimates and are therefore given a quality rating of "U. Table 6-2 lists the existing emission factors for toluene as a result of gasoline use. Because the sources of these emissions are so widespread." TABLE 6-2. However.46 x 10-4 lb/vehicle mile traveled (3. The discussion is taken from Reference 28. 6-12 .
gasoline bulk plants. and ground transportation. and rail tank cars. the fuels are delivered by tank trucks to service stations.31 About half of these terminals receive products from refineries by pipeline. Tank truck loading terminals distribute products by tank trucks to bulk plants. The typical bulk gasoline terminals have a daily throughput of 950. tank trucks. service stations.28 Service stations receive gasoline by tank truck from terminals or bulk plants or directly from refineries. Gasoline service stations are establishments primarily selling gasoline and automotive lubricants. with locations largely determined by population patterns.700 bulk terminals storing gasoline in the U. gasoline terminals. mostly by pipeline. and usually store the gasoline in underground tanks. water carriers (e. and fuel oil. kerosene. The primary function of marine and pipeline terminals is to distribute products to other terminals. with a nationwide consumption of 419 billion liters (111 billion gallons) in 1991.. They receive these petroleum products from refineries or other terminals. Gasoline is by far the largest volume petroleum product marketed in the U. From fuel marketing terminals. Most of the terminals (66 percent) are located along the east coast and in the Midwest. typical components of gasoline marketing include refinery storage.S. or barge.g. The refined products are conveyed to fuel marketing terminals and petrochemical industries by these same modes.. each of which represents a potential source of toluene evaporative losses.000 gallons) of gasoline. tanker.S.The transportation and marketing of petroleum liquids involve many distinct operations. 6-13 . and half receive products by ship or barge delivery. commercial accounts and local bulk storage plants. The remainder are dispersed throughout the country.30 There are presently an estimated 1. retail outlets or final consumers.29 As shown in Figure 6-2. barges). The gasoline terminals and gasoline bulk plants are large facilities for the wholesale marketing of gasoline. and store the products in large tanks. Crude petroleum products are transported from production operations to a refinery by pipelines.000 liters (250.
Evaporative emissions from the transportation and marketing of petroleum liquids may be separated. emission factors for toluene from marine vessel loading were calculated and are given in Table 6-3. The vapors may be composed of residual material left in the "empty" cargo tank and/or the material being added to the tank.32 Diurnal losses occur over a 24-hour period due to normal temperature changes. by storage equipment and mode of transportation used.6 (0. the diurnal losses also approach the mechanisms that occur during the loading.33 To calculate an emission factor for toluene. tank trucks and marine vessels: loading. Loading losses are the primary source of evaporative emissions from marine vessel operations.2.) and are loaded and transported by marine tankers and barges.. etc. Factors are 6-15 . working and standing storage losses The emission factors presented in the following discussions were derived from References 2.e. the 10.6 percent toluene. base gasoline evaporative organic emissions as consisting of 10. an industry average summer fuel) as having 32 percent aromatics.106 (Reference 32). A recent EPA memorandum describing speciated motor vehicle emissions identified diurnal.106) percent toluene factor was applied to the VOC emission factors for evaporative emissions presented in EPA documents. the exact composition of the vapors emitted during the loading process is difficult to determine. 28 and 32. into four categories. distillate oil.32 6. • • • • Rail tank cars. Although these losses refer to emissions from vehicles when the vehicle is stationary for an extended period with the engine switched off. unloading. and storage of gasoline.4.1 Toluene Emissions From Loading Marine Vessels Volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be emitted as crude oil and refinery products (gasoline. Assuming an average toluene/VOC ratio of 0. transit and ballasting losses Service stations: bulk fuel drop losses and underground tank breathing losses Motor vehicle tanks: refueling losses Large storage tanks: breathing. Therefore. This reference defined a base gasoline (i.28.28 These emissions occur as vapors in "empty" cargo tanks are expelled into the atmosphere as liquid is added to the cargo tank.
8 Quality Ratingc U U U U U U Emission Source Ship/Ocean Barge:d Uncleaned. d Ocean barge is a vessel with tank compartment depth of 40 feet.4 21. volatile previous cargo Cleaned.9 43. volatile previous cargo Any condition. UNCONTROLLED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND AND TOLUENE EMISSIONS FROM LOADING GASOLINE IN MARINE VESSELS Volatile Organic Compound Emission Factor (mg/L Transferred)a 315 205 180 85 85 215 Toluene Emission Factor (mg/L Transferred)b 33. any cargo Barge:d Uncleaned.3 25. Based on an average toluene/VOC ratio of 0. volatile previous cargo Ballasted. volatile previous cargo Gas-freed.5 U U U Factors are for nonmethane-nonethane VOC emissions. volatile previous cargo Gas-freed. Source: References 2 and 32 6-16 . any cargo Typical situation. any cargo a b 465 245 410 49. barge is a vessel with compartment depth of 10-12 feet.TABLE 6-3.1 9.7 19.0 22.106 (Reference 32).0 9. c Based on engineering judgement. nonvolatile previous cargo Typical situation.
At bulk terminals and bulk plants. top submerged. 28 Most tanks in gasoline service have an external floating roof 6-17 . The loading racks consist of pumps. The gasoline vapor emission factors were taken from Reference 28.4. 6.available for crude oil. Loading of gasoline into tank trucks can be accomplished by one of three methods: splash. and piping to transfer the gasoline or other liquid petroleum products.106 percent). distillate oil. Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Service Stations Each operation in which gasoline is transferred or stored is a potential source of toluene emissions. The toluene factors were obtained by multiplying the gasoline vapor factor by the average toluene content of the vapor (0. reliable estimates of the toluene content of these fuels were not found. The gasoline that is stored in above ground tanks is pumped through loading racks that measure the amount of product.28 However.28 Top submerged loading is done by attaching a downspout to the fill pipe so that gasoline is added to the tank truck near the bottom of the tank. Bottom loading is the loading of product into the truck tank from the bottom. and other fuels.28 Table 6-4 lists emission factors for gasoline vapor and toluene from gasoline loading racks at bulk terminals and bulk plants. are closed systems. it was not possible to provide toluene emission factors for marine vessel loading of fuels other than gasoline.500-15. top submerged loading and bottom loading reduce the amount of material (including toluene) that is emitted.2. or bottom loading. loading and unloading gasoline and storing gasoline are sources of toluene emissions. meters.000 m3.32 A typical bulk terminal may have four or five above ground storage tanks with capacities ranging from 1. These systems allow the transfer of vapor displaced by liquid in the storage tank into the transfer truck as gasoline is put into the storage tank. Therefore.2 Toluene Emissions from Bulk Gasoline Plants. In splash loading. gasoline is introduced into the tank truck directly through a compartment located on the top of the truck. consisting of a pipeline between the vapor spaces of the truck and the storage tanks.28 Vapor balancing systems. Because emissions occur when the product being loaded displaces vapors in the tank being filled.
Combined filling and emptying losses are called "working losses. thus exceeding the fixed capacity of the vapor space and overflowing through the pressure vacuum valve. Gasoline factors represent emissions of nonmethane-nonethane VOC. b Based on an average toluene/VOC ratio of 0. Fixed-roof tanks.5 103.28 6-18 . c Based on engineering judgement. Factors are expressed as mg gasoline vapor per liter gasoline transferred.TABLE 6-4. A breather valve (pressure-vacuum valve).9 Quality Ratingc U U U Loading Method Splash Submergedd Balance Service a From Reference 28. Breathing loss is the expulsion of vapor from a tank vapor space that has expanded or contracted because of daily changes in temperature and barometric pressure. The emissions occur in the absence of any liquid level change in the tank. still used in some areas to store gasoline. which is commonly installed on many fixed-roof tanks. allows the tank to operate at a slight internal pressure or vacuum. use pressure-vacuum vents to control breathing losses." Emptying losses occur when the air that is drawn into the tank during liquid removal saturates with hydrocarbon vapor and expands. The major types of emissions from fixed-roof tanks are breathing and working losses. TOLUENE EMISSION FACTORS FOR GASOLINE LOADING AT BULK TERMINALS AND BULK PLANTS Gasoline Vapor Emission Factora mg/L 1430 590 980 Toluene Emission Factorb mg/L 151.6 62. Source: References 28 and 32 to prevent the loss of product through evaporation and working losses. d Submerged loading is either top or bottom submerged.106 (Reference 32). Some tanks may use vapor balancing or processing equipment to control working losses.
Air flowing over the tank creates pressure differentials around the floating roof. which result from causes other than a change in the liquid level. The emission factors were based on EPA (Reference 28) factors and the average weight fraction of toluene in the vapor of 0. Air flows into the annular vapor space on the leeward side and an air-vapor mixture flows out on the windward side. rising and falling with the liquid level. the floating roof is lowered and a wet portion of the tank wall is exposed. which usually results in high levels 6-19 .32 The two basic types of gasoline loading into tank trucks at bulk plants are the same as those used at terminals. constitute the major source of emissions from external floating-roof tanks. As a result.28 Table 6-5 presents emission factors for toluene from storage tanks at a typical bulk terminal. some liquid surface is exposed to the atmosphere.106.28 An internal floating-roof tank has both a permanently affixed roof and a roof that floats inside the tank on the liquid surface (contact roof). The largest potential source of these losses is an improper fit between the seal and the tank shell (seal losses). The liquid surface is completely covered by the floating roof except in the small annular space between the roof and the shell. The first is the splash filling method. The internal floating-roof rises and falls with the liquid level. A seal attached to the roof touches the tank wall (except for small gaps in some cases) and covers the remaining area. The floating roof and the seal system serve to reduce the evaporative loss of the stored liquid.28 Withdrawal loss is another source of emissions from floating-roof tanks. When liquid is withdrawn from a tank. Standing-storage losses.A typical external floating-roof tank consists of a cylindrical steel shell equipped with a deck or roof that floats on the surface of the stored liquid. Withdrawal loss is the vaporization of liquid from the wet tank wall.28 Losses from floating-roof tanks include standing-storage losses and withdrawal losses. The seal slides against the tank wall as the roof is raised or lowered. and helps to restrict the evaporation of organic liquids. or supported on pontoons several inches above the liquid surface (noncontact roof).
89 x 10-7 Q) Mg/yr. and vapor couplers.9 U U e 9. Gasoline tank trucks have been demonstrated to be major sources of vapor leakage.000 barrels). and vapor collection piping and vents.000 liters/day (250. liquid and vapor transfer hoses. e Emission factor = 9. pressure-vacuum (P-V) vents.0 U U Terminal with 950.6 e 1. Other sources of vapor leakage on tank trucks that occur less frequently include tank shell flaws. b Based on engineering judgement.750 barrels). where Q is the throughput through the tanks in barrels (References 28 and 32). Since terminal 6-20 .TABLE 6-5. The second method is submerged filling with either a submerged fill pipe or bottom filling.6 0. Source: References 28 and 32.680 m3 (16. TOLUENE EMISSION FACTORS FOR STORAGE LOSSES AT A TYPICAL GASOLINE BULK TERMINAL Gasoline Vapor Emissions Factor (Mg/yr/Tank) Toluene Emission Factor Mg/yr/Tanka Quality Ratingb Storage Method Fixed Roofc Working Loss Breathing Loss External Floating Roof Working Loss Storage Loss a d 34. d Typical floating-roof tank based upon capacity of 5.2 8.000 gallons/day) with four storage tanks for gasoline. c Typical fixed-roof tank based upon capacity of 2.8 3. which significantly reduces liquid turbulence and vapor-liquid contact resulting in much lower emissions.760 m3 (36. of vapor generation and loss. improperly installed or loosened overfill protection sensors. Some vapors may leak uncontrolled to the atmosphere from dome cover assemblies. Table 6-6 shows the uncontrolled emission factors for toluene from a typical bulk plant.
106. based on a toluene/vapor ratio of 0. the filling of the underground tank at the service station ends the wholesale gasoline marketing chain.5 mg/liter.30 = 288 mg/liter). the gasoline vapor emission factor associated with uncontrolled truck leakage was assumed to be 30 percent of the balance service truck loading factor (960 mg/liter x 0.32 The discussion on service station operations is divided into two areas: the filling of the underground storage tank (Stage I) and automobile refueling (Stage II).106 (Reference 32).9 48. Based on gasoline emission factor and toluene/vapor ratio of 0. c Based on engineering judgement. the emission factor for toluene emissions from uncontrolled truck leakage is 30.6 121.6 62.5 103.8 U U U 1430 590 980 151.Fixed Roof Breathing Loss Filling Loss Draining Loss Gasoline Loading Racks Splash Loading Submerged Loading Submerged Loading (Balance Service) a b 600 1150 460 63. The 6-21 .9 U U U Typical bulk plant with a gasoline throughput of 19. Source: References 28 and 32 controls are usually found in areas where trucks are required to collect vapors after delivery of product to bulk plants or service stations (balance service). Although terminals and bulk plants also have two distinct operations (tank filling and truck loading).000 liters/day (5.28 Thus.000 gallons/day). UNCONTROLLED GASOLINE VAPOR AND TOLUENE EMISSION FROM A TYPICAL BULK PLANT Gasoline Vapor Emission Factor mg/L Toluene Emission Factorb mg/L Quality Ratingc Emission Source a Storage Tanks .TABLE 6-6.
automobile refueling operations interact directly with the public and control of these operations can be performed by putting control equipment on either the service station or the automobile. and gasoline evaporation. As with other loading losses. gasoline Reid vapor pressure (RVP). and dispensing rates. Emissions are generated when hydrocarbon vapors in the underground storage tank are displaced to the atmosphere by the gasoline being loaded into the tank. The major factors affecting the quantity of emissions are gasoline temperature.3 Control Technology for Gasoline Transfer At bulk terminals and bulk plants. Vehicle refueling emissions are attributable to vapor displaced from the automobile tank by dispensed gasoline and to spillage.4. A second source of emissions from service station tankage is underground tank breathing. and composition. Table 6-7 lists the uncontrolled emissions from a typical gasoline service station. These systems collect and recover gasoline vapors from empty.28 Toluene Emission from Service Stations-Normally. The gasoline vapor emission factors presented in Table 6-7 are from EPA documents. vapor pressure. gasoline is delivered to service stations in large tank trucks from bulk terminals or smaller account trucks from bulk plants.28 In addition to service station tank loading losses. toluene emissions from gasoline transfer may be controlled by a vapor processing system in conjunction with a vapor collection system. Breathing losses occur daily and are attributed to temperature changes.28 Figure 6-3 shows a Stage I control vapor balance system at a bulk plant.28 6-22 . barometric pressure changes. the tank configuration and gasoline temperature. the quantity of the service station tank loading loss depends on several variables. size and length of the fill pipe.28 6. vehicle refueling operations are considered to be a major source of emissions. returning tank trucks as they are filled with gasoline from storage tanks. the method of filling. auto tank temperature. including the quantity of liquid transferred.
9 8.2 12.7 U U U U Breathing Losses Automobile Refueling Displacement Losses Uncontrolled Controlled 1320 132 84 139.106 (Reference 32).000 gallons/month).9 13.3 146.TABLE 6-7. c Based on engineering judgement.000 liters/month (50. Source: References 28 and 32 6-23 . b Based on gasoline vapor emission factor and toluene/vapor ratio of 0.3 4.9 U U U Spillage a Typical service station has a gasoline throughput of 190. UNCONTROLLED GASOLINE VAPOR AND TOLUENE EMISSIONS FROM A TYPICAL SERVICE STATION Gasoline Vapor Emission Factor mg/L Toluene Emission Factorb mg/L Quality Ratingc Emission Source a Underground Storage Tanks Tank Filling Losses Submerged Fill Splash Fill Balanced Submerged Filling 880 1380 40 120 93.
4.28 An internal floating roof reduces the area of exposed liquid surface on the tank and.5 to 97.28 For external floating-roof tanks. emissions are most readily controlled by installation of internal floating roofs.28 6. and dispensing rates. fuel level.5 Control Technology For Vehicle Refueling Emissions Vehicle refueling emissions are attributable to vapor displaced from the automobile tank by dispensed gasoline and to spillage.4 Control Technology For Gasoline Storage The control technologies for controlling toluene emissions from gasoline storage involve upgrading the type of storage tank used or addition of a vapor control system.8 percent. decreases evaporative loss. Rim seal losses in external floating-roof tanks depend on the type of seal. Liquid-mounted seals are more effective than vapor-mounted seals in reducing rim seal losses. Figure 6-4 shows a diagram of a service station vapor balance system. The quantity of displaced vapors is dependent on gasoline temperature. therefore. Onboard controls are basically limited to the carbon canister. 6-26 . For fixed-roof tanks.28 These emissions are functions of the turnover rate of the tank and the characteristics of the tank shell.28 Metallic shoe seals are more effective than vapor-mounted seals but less effective than liquid mounted seals. vehicle tank size and temperature. gasoline RVP.4.28 The two basic refueling vapor control alternatives are control systems on service station equipment (Stage II controls).At service stations. vapor balance systems contain the gasoline vapors within the station’s underground storage tanks for transfer to empty gasoline tank trucks returning to the bulk terminal or bulk plant. and control systems on vehicles (onboard controls). no control measures have been identified for controlling withdrawal losses and emissions. 6. Installing an internal floating-roof in a fixed-roof tank can reduce total emissions by 68.
if any. while keeping the vacuum low enough so that a minimum level of excess vapor/air is returned to the underground storage tank. This vacuum is used to draw vapors into the rubber boot at the interface.28 The vacuum assist system differs from the balance system in that a "blower" (a vacuum pump) is used to provide an extra pull at the nozzle/fillneck interface. Because of this assist.28 6-27 . and thus there is no need for a secondary processor. Further. gasoline vapor in the automobile fuel tank is displaced by the incoming liquid gasoline and is prevented from escaping to the atmosphere at the fillneck/nozzle interface by a flexible rubber "boot. hose. the vast majority of assist nozzles do not require interlock mechanisms. Because the vacuum is so small. very little excess air. the interface "boot" need not be as tight fitting as with balance systems. In the vapor balance system. The underground storage tank assists this transaction by drawing in a volume of vapor equal to the volume of liquid removed. a small amount of the liquid gasoline (less than 10 percent) pumped from the storage tank is routed (before metering) to a restricting nozzle called an aspirator. The hose is connected to piping which vents to the underground tank. A slight vacuum is maintained at the nozzle/fillneck interface allowing air to be drawn into the system and not allowing the vapors to escape. It is designed to enhance vapor recovery at the nozzle/fillneck interface by vacuum. As the gasoline goes through this restricting nozzle. the hybrid. is drawn into the boot. and the vacuum assist systems." This boot is fitted over the standard nozzle and is attached to a hose similar to the liquid hose. resulting in a nozzle which is less bulky and cumbersome than nozzles employed by vapor balance systems. Assist systems can recover vapors effectively without a tight seal at the nozzle/fillpipe interface because only a close fit is necessary. An exchange is made (vapor for liquid) as the liquid displaces vapor to the underground storage tank. Assist systems generally have vapor passage valves located in the vapor passage somewhere other than in the nozzles.There are currently three types of Stage II systems in limited use in the United States: the vapor balance. a small vacuum is generated. such as the vacuum assist’s incinerator.28 The hybrid system borrows from the concepts of both the balance and vacuum assist systems. and underground storage tank. With the hybrid system.
6-28 . unlike the present system. a refueling vapor recovery system will require a tight seal at the nozzle/fillneck interface during refueling operations to ensure vapors flow into the carbon canister and are not lost to the atmosphere.5 OTHER SOURCES OF RESIDUAL TOLUENE EMISSIONS Toluene can be emitted during the use of toluene-containing materials in manufacturing another product. Emissions from some of these miscellaneous sources are presented in Table 6-8. on activated carbon. Such a system first adsorbs the emissions released during refueling and subsequently purges these vapors from the carbon to the engine carburetor when it is operating. The carbon canister system adsorbs. the vapors which are displaced from the vehicle fuel tank by the incoming gasoline. This system is essentially an expansion of the present evaporative emissions control system used in all new cars to minimize breathing losses from the fuel tank and to control carburetor evaporative emissions.28 6. However.Onboard vapor control systems consist of carbon canisters installed on the vehicle to control refueling emissions.
59 µg/g/hour 62 µg/g/hour 2. RESIDUAL EMISSIONS FROM MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES OF TOLUENE Source Particle board with carpeta Mineral wool used as thermal insulationb Building materials (particle board.Reference 34 b .4-2.Not available a . wallpaper.7 µg/m3 Detected N/A N/A N/A detected detected detected N/A N/A 0.Reference 39 g . floor coverings.6 µg/g/hour N/A N/A N/A D Ug E E E Ug Ug Ug e .Reference 36 d .Reference 38 f .TABLE 6-8.061 µg/m2/hour N/A Quality Rating E D 39. and concrete)c Clear acrylic latex caulk with siliconed Synthetic rubber adhesive (for walls and ceilings)e Synthetic rubber adhesive (for vinyl carpet)e Unspecified polymer adhesive (for subflooring)e Building materialsf vinyl cove molding telephone cable urethane insulant N/A .Reference 35 c .Not enough available information to apply a rating 6-29 . sealing agents. plywood. paint foam.Reference 37 Concentration in Air N/A 13-90 µg/m3 Emission Rate 0.
AP-42. 1991. 1975. Research Triangle Park. 11. U. Publication Rotogravure Printing .S. 7. 12. 1990.. 8. MI. Environmental Protection Agency. Prepared for the National Paint and Coatings Association.S. 6-30 . Water Recycling and Pollution Control Handbook. Greensboro. EPA-650/2-75-019a.6. 1985.S. 1990. 13.S. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. U. EPA-450/2-78-033. U. 3. Director of the Indoor Air Quality Research Laboratory. NC.S. fourth edition and supplements.Background Information for Proposed Standards. Bureau of Census. Washington. 1979. Environmental Protection Agency. August 1990. and C. A.V. 1985. NC. Research Triangle Park. October 1980. NC. Volume 4. EPA-450/3-80-031a. 1987 Census of Manufacturers. Source Assessment: Prioritization of Air Pollution from Industrial Surface Operations. 5. U. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 1991. Companion Document for the Conference on Waste Reduction for Industrial Air Toxics Emissions. The NAPL Printer’s Almanac. The Printing Economic Research Center.6 1. NC. National 2. 4. Teaneck. Research Triangle Park. U. Paint Industry Database. DC. U. Ward’s Business Directory of U. Air Quality. Environmental Protection Agency. REFERENCES FOR SECTION 6.0 SRI International.S. Research Triangle Park. 6. Detroit. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Office of Research and Development.S.S. Washington D. Bridgewater. Mumford. U. Association of Printers and Lithographers. Godish. NC. 1989. Pollution Prevention Pays Program. NC. 10. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park. U. Guides to Pollution Prevention: The Commercial Printing Industry.C. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors.J.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thad. Volume VIII: Graphic Arts Rotogravure and Flexograph. Environmental Protection Agency. North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development. New Jersey. Department of Commerce. 9. April 24. EPA/625/7-90/008. December 1978. VOC Pollution Prevention Options for the Surface Coating Industry. Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources. Gale Research Inc. Private and Public Companies1991.
1979.. National Air Pollution Control Techniques Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes. 6-31 . Best Demonstrated Control Technology for Graphic Arts. 24. U. PA. Volume III: Graphic Arts . Ivar S. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 21. Oppenheimer. Profile Survey of the U. Hilliard. "Environmental Regulations and Compliance in the Gravure Industry. Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates-Background Information for Promulgated Standards. July 1989. U. Barry and Robert H. NC.S. April 1989. Final EIS. 1985. Volume 1: King of Prussia. Michael Kosusko and Carlos M. Volume 2. July 1988. Chemical and Petroleum Branch. Magnetic Tape Manufacturing Industry-Background Information for Promulgated Standards. Ben H. 17. NC. Gravure Association of America. pp. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 23. EPA-450/2-78-033. 22. Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources. 18.S. 121. Washington. NC. 1987. Richard." Tappi Journal. December 12-13. Research Triangle Park. Environmental Protection Agency. Conference Proceedings: Environmental Aspects of Chemical Use in Printing Operations." Environmental Science Technology. February 1991. Overview of Printing Process and Chemicals Used.S." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry. Environmental Protection Agency. and Roy. Neal. Nunez. NC. 3(1):3-27. Sigsby. Radian Corporation. Carpenter. 1989. NSPS for VOC Emissions from Publication Rotogravure Printing Industry. Air Waste Management Association. Office of Toxic Substances. Environmental Protection Agency. DC. Burt. and Garland K. September 1975. Tejada. 21(5): 466-475.S. 15. A. et al. Environmental Protection Agency. Emission Standards Engineering Division. 19.. New York. William. Research Triangle Park. Final EIS. "Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from 46 In-Use Passenger Cars. Research Triangle Park. U. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-450/3-85-022b. Gravure Industry. U. Destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Catalytic Oxidation. Research Triangle Park.S. John E. 16.. Isaksen.14.S.Rotogravure and Flexography. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 20. Silvestre. February 1990. 254-259. EPA-450/3-91-008. p. NY. "Model Analysis of the Measured Concentration of Organic Gases in the Norwegian Arctic. U. EPA-450/3-85-029b. Jr.
B. Jackson. Owen. Toluene. van der Wal. 26. 28. Tichenor. ed.S. 36. Raymond G.Volume II. et al. Environmental Protection Agency.. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. 31.E. New York. S. Keith and Coley. William and Sarofim. 1984. EPA-450/3-84-012a. 35. 1992.. EPA-340/1-80-01-013a.E. Bartok. Toxic Air Pollutant Emission Factors . Mo.H.. U. Webster. Bruce A." Environment International.Small Chamber Studies. St.. Washington. A. Automotive Fuels Handbook. Petroleum Supply Annual 1991.. R.A Compilation for Selected Air Toxic Compounds and Sources..A.. Xylene and Carbon Monoxide. Development of VOC Compliance Monitoring and Enforcement Strategies: The Wholesale Gasoline Marketing Chain . et al. Telecon. 29. 37. 1991. 91: 237-249. PA. Memorandum from Chris Lindhjem. 1990. et al. Research Triangle Park.J. 1992.S. U. Presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of APCA.S. George Woodall. Volume 1. July 1980. 32. W. U. Jan F. Colombo." Environment International. NY. "Indoor Air Pollution due to Organic Gases and Vapors of Solvents in Building Materials. Evaluation of Air Pollution Regulatory Strategies for Gasoline Marketing Industry. R. Energy Information Administration.S. "Chamber Testing of Organic Emissions from Building and Furnishing Materials. TRC Environmental Corporation to Bonnie Ayotte of the Computer Petroleum Company. 1989. MN. John Wiley & Sons. June 21-26. 30.. 1982. U. "Thermal Insulation as a Source of Air Pollution.25. Fossil Fuel Combustion: A Source Book. Research Triangle Park. U. Molhave. 8(1-6): 117-127. "Speciation for SAI Runs. Relationships Among Time-Resolved Roadside Measurements of Benzene. NY.. 34. 33. DC..S. 1987. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Hill." Proceedings of the 1986 EPA/APCA Symposium on Measurement of Toxic Air Pollutants. Merrill D. Society of Automotive Engineers. Environmental Protection Agency. Inc. DOE/EIA=0340(91)/1. "Measurement of Organic Emissions from Indoor Materials . 27.. Trevor. 15: 409-412. 6-32 . NC. Adel F. 1988. and Whitby. Lars. Warrendale." The Science of the Total Environment. Gibbs. Paul.J. New York. NC." April 14. R. Environmental Protection Agency. Johnson. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. and Merrill. EPA-450/2-88-006a. September 22. Environmental Protection Agency to Record. Inc..
1986." Presented at the 79th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association. Linda S. June 22-27.38. 6-33 . Sheldon. 12(1-4): 317-321.. Minneapolis." Environment International.. J. MN. et al. Girman. "Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Adhesives with Indoor Applications. et al. 39. "Volatile Organic Emissions from Building Materials.R. 1986.
emissions from a burning coal refuse pile.1 COAL COMBUSTION Two coal combustion studies are briefly described in this section. no data were reported. Carbon monoxide emissions are expected from these burning gob piles. Sampling was conducted at the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center gasifier. hazardous and solid waste incineration.0 BY-PRODUCT EMISSIONS: PROCESSES UNRELATED TO PRODUCTION OR USE OF TOLUENE Toluene and other pollutants can be emitted to the atmosphere as the result of product manufacturing or from the burning of fossil fuels. West Virginia. From the gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses that were performed. 7. it was determined that toluene existed at the gasifier.2 The first study The second coal combustion study analyzed A coal combustion study was performed to collect data on the chemical composition of fugitive aerosol emissions at a pilot-scale gasifier using lignite coal. Processes that release toluene as by-product emissions are described in this section.SECTION 7. However. North Dakota. Grand Forks. while emissions of other compounds such as toluene are suspected.1. Under the direction of EPA. These processes include coal combustion. and wastewater treatment processes. The West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission requested assistance from EPA to perform a study of the heavy metal and organic chemical emissions from a burning gob pile. GCA/Technology Division performed a study on the types and quantities of emissions from the gob pile. Data pertaining to emissions from fossil fuel combustion in boilers and heaters were unavailable and therefore are not included in this section.1 Another air monitoring study was performed on a burning coal refuse (gob) pile in Oak Hill. analyzed samples collected from a gasifier.2 7-1 .
due to the large range of values for most parameters. µg/m3) to average emission rates (lb/hr) for each parameter. the solid matrix remaining after the combustible fractions are burned out of the coal waste is a popular fill and highway construction material. The slow natural combustion process presents a difficult situation for effective pollution control. emission control of such a large area source is usually restrictive. This coal waste pile was created as the result of a nearby deep mining operation. and variable wind conditions. followed by a more comprehensive quantitative emissions program. yet combustible coal refuse material. The emissions have been generated for decades as a result of the spontaneous combustion of low grade.The gob pile studied was similar to many of the hundred known to exist in coal mining areas in the country. ppb. a calculation was performed to convert measured concentrations (ppm.2 Red dog. The first phase was a preliminary assessment. All samples were collected from within 10-inch diameter ductwork positioned over the sample point to minimize dilution. two meteorological monitoring stations were erected and calibrated. An extrapolation of the average emission rate from the sampled area to that of the total pile was then performed. The two major results of mining red dog are increased gaseous emissions and an increased fugitive particulate emission rate due to the excavation and loading of the red dog into trucks. one at approximately 10 feet elevation directly at the test area and one slightly downwind at approximately 200 feet in elevation above the test area to measure overall regional wind conditions. Also. a standard error calculation was used to describe the 7-2 .2 GCA’s investigative study was a two-phase approach in order to maximize the quality of results. The second phase of the investigation began with the siting of GCA’s Mobile Laboratory and the startup of the analytical instrumentation. After all sample analyses were completed. In addition. Due to cost and the large amount of material involved. although not impossible.2 Samples were collected at the centerpoint of each of 24 equal area grids. mixing. The preliminary assessment assisted in identifying pollutants present in the gob pile emissions and their approximate concentrations.
the investigative study resulted in calculated emission rates and emission factors for various parameters. hazardous waste can 7-3 . In addition to particulate matter. such as volatile organic compounds (including toluene) and carbon monoxide are frequently emitted as a result of incomplete combustion of the waste due to improper combustor design or poor operating conditions.3 Similarly. TOLUENE EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTIBLE COAL REFUSE MATERIAL Parameter Toluene Total Emission Rate 4.0 lb/hr) Emission Factor 4.3 + 3. Approximately 70 percent of the total municipal solid waste is incinerated in mass burn units. Several methods are used to incinerate municipal waste.4 + 8. and refuse-derived fuel combustion. These include mass burn excess air combustion.2 TABLE 7-1. In summary.1 x 10-5 kg/hr/m3 (2.2 HAZARDOUS AND SOLID WASTE INCINERATION The majority of atmospheric emissions of pollutants from the various hazardous and solid waste disposal methods comes from incineration. other pollutants. Characterization of the Municipal Waste Combustion Industry.variability of each compound specific average rate.6 kg/hr (9. starved air or modular combustion.2 7. More information on the methods of municipal waste combustion can be found in the document.5 x 10-6 lb/hr/ft3) of burning refuse material Quality Rating D Source: Reference 2. Table 7-1 lists the emission rate and the emission factor for toluene resulting from this study. This study concludes that the possibility of downwind exposure to toxic and suspected toxic airborne contaminants from the burning coal refuse pile exists.
and composition and moisture of the refuse. However. This method of solid waste incineration allows for exposure to many variables including wind. piles. degree of compactness of the refuse. 8 percent other saturates. Open-air burning presents a particularly unique source of atmospheric emissions of pollutants. Therefore.be incinerated by several methods including thermal.7 7-4 .6 Another study conducted in California estimated total air emissions of toluene from statewide municipal wastewater treatment plants to be approximately 250.000 pounds) per year. Other important regulating factors for open-air burning are fuel loading (how much refuse material is burned per unit of land area) and arrangement of the refuse (in rows. ambient temperatures. carbon monoxide. Toluene emission factors from incineration sources were not found.000 pounds per year).4 Although specific toluene emission factors are unavailable. this allows for increased emissions of particulate matter. In general.5 A study conducted at two Chicago-area wastewater treatment facilities estimated that approximately 94 percent of the toluene in the influent waters biodegraded in activated sludge systems while only 3 percent volatilized. lower temperatures are achieved in open-air burning than in closed combustion. it would account for nearly 29. An estimated 5 million kilograms (11 million pounds) of toluene are discharged to the environment annually as a constituent in wastewater. acetylene.4 7. and 42 percent other compounds (oxygenates. and volatile organic compounds (including toluene) with decreased emissions of nitrogen oxides. 18 percent olefins. catalytic and regenerative incineration.000 kilograms (64.3 WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES Atmospheric emissions of volatile organic compounds such as toluene can occur at any wastewater treatment process where the wastewater comes into contact with the surrounding ambient air.000 kilograms (550. including toluene). if all of the influent toluene at the two facilities were to volatilize. or spread out). and aromatics. data indicate that emissions of volatile organic compounds from non-agricultural materials are approximately 25 percent methane. and other environmental parameters such as rain and humidity.
a single emission estimate would be highly questionable. screening.9 The Tsivoglou and Neal Reaeration model can be used with the SIMS model to estimate VOC emissions from the devices that comprise the headworks of a POTW (since the SIMS model does not account for emissions from these devices or for adsorption onto solids). so mixing and variable chemical concentrations would render the emission factors less useful. calculating actual emissions estimates must be performed on a chemical-by-chemical. and sludge partitions: therefore. A major process resulting in the emission of wastewater pollutants is the separation of the lighter organic phase from the main body of wastewater and the heavier inorganic solid phase. and actual emissions will often tend to be higher than the estimates. Environmental Protection Agency. these estimates are generally on the conservative side. floatation. is a personal computer-based software program designed to estimate atmospheric emissions from surface impoundments and wastewater collection devices.g.10 Several inherent problems exist with using these models. and filtration) due to both a higher pollutant concentration in the influent and a greater surface area caused by turbulence and mixing. however.The majority of air emissions from wastewater treatment facilities usually comes from the initial physical processes (e. developed by the Control Technology Center of the U. process-by-process basis. sedimentation. The SIMS model (Surface Impoundment Modeling System). Factors affecting volatilization of organic compounds from the top 7-5 . further information should be consulted in the appropriate reference(s). Finally.8. effluent. the estimates are usually based on constant behavior of relatively pure compounds. Several models have been developed that estimate emissions from wastewater treatment processes. from wastewater treatment processes. including toluene. Other sources of emissions include equalization and aeration basins and clarifiers. First. A brief description of some appropriate models are presented below. Second. A top organic layer consisting of many volatile organic and oil-based compounds is formed and exposed to ambient air.S.. Because of the many factors that may affect emissions of volatile organics. the VOC concentrations in the wastewater are highly variable among the influent.
detention time in the treatment system.organic layer include characteristics of the wastewater and oil layers. and partition coefficients of the pollutants.7. EPA has published several guidance documents and reports regarding emissions from wastewater treatment systems which are referenced here. design characteristics of the wastewater treatment operation. the ambient wind speed.8 7-6 . the concentration of pollutants in the wastewater.
New York. Kemnitz." Journal of Air Pollution Control Association. "Tracer Measurement of Reaeration. NY. 1984. 2. April 1989. Tsivoglou. Appendix A. Control of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Industrial Wastewater. NC. and L.S. A. Flotard. 12:324-327. U. Research Triangle Park. 10. 1976. 59(7):670-678. Predicting the Reaeration Capacity of Inland Streams. 7. Characterization of Airborne Particles at a High-BTU Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant. "Estimating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Publicly Owned Treatment Works. Rittman. Presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of APCA. and Engle. 7-7 . 6." Journal of The Water Pollution Control Federation. NC. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment in International Journal. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-450/1-84-069b. 9. Gerstle. Corsi.7. 48(12):2669.. Investigative Air Monitoring Study at a Burning Coal Refuse Pile in Oak Hill. July 1987. Control Technology Center. Characterization of the Municipal Waste Combustion Industry. U. West Virginia. 5. October 1986.A. R. NC. 4. EPA-450/4-90-019a. Volume I. and D. and Elizabeth Gebert. 1982.0 User’s Manual. E. Seely. Guidance Services. Eun. REFERENCES FOR SECTION 7. Research Triangle Park. 1984.0 Joseph R. Ronald J. May 1967." Presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of APCA. Stetter. 1(4). "Atmospheric Emissions from Open Burning. III. and Namkung. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. June 21-26. Research Triangle Park. Effluent Guidelines Division. Douglas E.. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.S. Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Plastics Molding and Forming Point Source Category. 3. Surface Impoundment Modeling System (SIMS) Version 2. U. 8. Richard D. San Francisco." Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation.W. June 24-29. Bruce E. Environmental Protection Agency.S.4 1. Preliminary Draft. CA. Neal.C. Richard L. Washington DC. 1987. "Emissions of Volatile and Potentially Toxic Organic Compounds from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Radian Corporation.
If this happens. If ambient air methodology is applied to stationary source testing. Ambient methods which require the use of sorbents are susceptible to sorbent saturation if high concentration levels exist. appropriate precautions must be taken to ensure that the capacity of the methodology is not exceeded so that results will be quantitative.0 AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCE TEST PROCEDURES Toluene emissions can be measured from ambient air and stationary sources utilizing the test methods presented below. • EPA Method TO-1: Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air Using Tenax® Adsorption and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) EPA Method TO-2: Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air by Carbon Molecular Sieve Adsorption and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) EPA Method TO-3: Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air Using Cryogenic Preconcentration Techniques and Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization and Electron Capture Detection EPA Method TO-14: Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air Using SUMMA® Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic (GC) Analysis EPA Method 0030: Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) with EPA Method 5040: Analysis of Sorbent Cartridges from VOST EPA Reference Method 18: Measurement of Gaseous Organic Compound Emissions by Gas Chromatography EPA Method 0010: Modified Method 5 Sampling Train with EPA Method 8270: Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for Semi-volatile Organics: Capillary Column Technique NIOSH Method 1501: Aromatic Hydrocarbons • • • • • • • 8-1 .SECTION 8. and quantitative analysis is not possible. If applied to stack sampling. breakthrough will occur. the ambient air monitoring methods may require adaptation or modification.
7 ft3) of ambient air are sampled. Toluene is trapped on the Tenax® cartridge which is then capped and sent to the laboratory for analysis utilizing purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) according to the procedures specified in EPA Method 5040 (see Section 8. This method is used to collect and determine volatile nonpolar organics (aromatic hydrocarbons. The compounds determined by this method have boiling points in the range of 80° to 200°C (180° to 390°F).035 to 0. 8-2 . chlorinated hydrocarbons) that can be captured on Tenax® and determined by thermal desorption techniques.6). Typically.1 Ambient air concentrations of toluene can be measured using EPA Method TO-1 from the Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air. The exact run time.2 Ambient air concentrations of toluene can be measured using EPA Method TO-2 from the Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air. The recommended GC column is a 50 meter capillary. 10 to 20 L (0. EPA METHOD TO-11 8. flow rate and volume sampled varies from source to source depending on the expected concentrations and the required detection limit. Analysis should be conducted within 14 days of sample collection.3 mm.07 ounces) of Tenax®. Ambient air is drawn through the cartridge which contains approximately 1-2 grams (0. Figure 8-1 presents a schematic of the sampling system and Figure 8-2 presents a schematic of typical Tenax® cartridge designs.The following subsections briefly describe the recommended sampling and analytical methods for determining toluene emissions.3 to 0. type SE-30 with an internal diameter of 0. EPA METHOD TO-21 8.
and the desorbed toluene is collected in a specially designed cryogenic trap. This method is designed for the determination of highly volatile nonpolar organic compounds having boiling points in the range of -10° to 200°C (14° to 390°F). Toluene is captured on the adsorbent while major inorganic compounds pass through. The cartridge is then heated to 350° to 400°C (660° to 750°F) under a helium purge. EPA METHOD TO-31 8. Figure 8-4 presents a schematic of a typical on-line GC sampling system using cryogenic trapping. Prior to analysis. The compounds to be determined by this method have boiling points in the range of -15° to 120°C (5° to 250°F). Figure 8-1 is representative of both Methods TO-1 and TO-2 sampling systems. Typically. Toluene can be determined using this method. CMS has the ability to adsorb large quantities of organics before breakthrough occurs. the CMS cartridge is purged with 2 or 3 L (0. Method TO-2 is used when ambient air concentrations are expected to be high. The sample is then capped and sent to the laboratory for analysis.01 ounces) of CMS adsorbent.07 to 0.1 ft3) of pure dry air to remove any moisture. 8-5 .Compounds which can be determined using this method are nonpolar and highly volatile organics that can be captured on carbon molecular sieve (CMS) and determined by thermal desorption techniques. Figure 8-3 illustrates a CMS trap. flow rate and volume sampled varies from source to source depending on the expected concentration and the required detection limit. ambient air is drawn through a cartridge containing approximately 0.3 Ambient air concentrations of toluene can be measured directly at the source using EPA Method TO-3 from the Compendium Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air.4 grams (0. The collected toluene is then flash evaporated onto a capillary column (SE-30) and quantified using a GC/MS system. The exact run time. In summary.
x 0. This method is based on collection of a whole air sample in SUMMA® passivated stainless steel canisters and is used to determine semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds.5 The volatile organic sampling train (VOST) from SW-846. EPA METHOD 00302 8. Figure 8-5 presents a diagram of the canister sampling system. This method is applicable to specific semi-volatiles and volatile organic compounds that have been tested and determined to be stable when stored in pressurized and subatmospheric pressure canisters. electron capture detection (ECD). EPA METHOD TO-141 8.32mm I. the cryogenic trap is heated to assist in the sample transfer process.D. The GC column is then heated to the desired temperature and the eluting peaks are identified and quantified using a flame ionization detector (FID). The sample valve is then switched and the sample is carried onto the cooled GC column. The recommended column for Method TO-14 is an HP OV-1 capillary with 0. The GC oven is then chilled to a subambient temperature. The compounds are separated by gas chromatography and measured by mass-selective detector or multidetector techniques such as FID.The ambient air sample is collected in the cryogenic trap using a vacuum pump equipped with a mass flow controller. and photoionization detection (PID). Samples should be analyzed within 14 days of collection.4 Ambient air concentrations of toluene can also be measured using EPA Method TO-14 from the Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air. Toluene can be successfully measured at the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) level using this method. Simultaneously.88 µm cross-linked methyl silicone coating or equivalent. (third edition) is designed for the collection of volatile organic compounds from the stack gas effluents of hazardous waste 8-8 .
Figure 8-6 presents a schematic of the principle components of the VOST.04 ft3/min) using a glass-lined heated probe.6 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) are collected on Tenax® and Tenax®/charcoal sorbent cartridges using a VOST. Analysis should be conducted within 14 days of sample collection. The Tenax® cartridges are then thermally desorbed and analyzed by purge-and-trap GC/MS along with the condensate catch as specified in EPA Method 5040. 8-10 . After the 10 minute desorption.3 in3) of organic-free water. the analytical adsorbent trap is rapidly heated to 180°C (356°F). EPA Method 0030. Liquid condensate is collected in the impinger located between the two resin traps. The VOST method was designed to collect volatile organics with boiling points in the range of 30° to 100°C (86° to 212°F). Toluene concentrations can be measured using this method. Many compounds with boiling points above 100°C (212°F) may also be effectively collected using this method. bubbled through 5 mL (0.7 ft3) of effluent stack gas are sampled at an approximate flow rate of 1 L/minute (0. The volatile POHCs are separated by temperature-programmed gas chromatography and detected by low resolution mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the volatile POHCs are calculated using the internal standard technique. 20 L (0. EPA METHOD 50402 8. with the carrier gas flow reversed so that the effluent flow from the analytical trap is directed into the GC/MS.06 ounce) Tenax® and the second trap contains about 1 g (0.6 g (0.incinerators. The first resin trap contains about 1.04 ounce) each of Tenax® and petroleum-based charcoal.4 in3)]. In most cases. The gas stream is cooled to 20°C (68°F) by passage through a water-cooled condenser and the volatile organics are collected on a pair of sorbent resin traps. and trapped on an analytical adsorbent trap. The contents of the sorbent cartridges are spiked with an internal standard and thermally desorbed for 10 minutes at 80°C (176°F) with organic-free nitrogen or helium gas [at a flow rate of 40 mL/min (2.
Using the bag in drum technique as presented in Figure 8-9. The Tenax® cartridges should be analyzed within 14 days of collection. a sample of the exhaust gas is drawn into a Tedlar® or Mylar® bag.1 ng/L (20 ng per Tenax® cartridge). Therefore.7 EPA Reference Method 18 from 40 CFR Part 60. 8-12 . such as those found in room air and from fugitive sources. Method 18 can be conducted using either the direct interface method (on-line GC with FID) or by the collection of an integrated Tedlar® or Mylar® bag with subsequent analysis by GC/FID. The stability of toluene in a Tedlar® or Mylar® bag is currently unknown. and GC/MS system.EPA Methods 5030 and 8240 may be referenced for specific requirements for the thermal desorption unit. The bag is then connected by a Teflon® sample line to a sampling probe located at the center of the stack. The bag is placed inside a rigid leakproof container and evacuated. The sample is then analyzed on-site or back at the laboratory by GC/FID. The desired detection limit of this method is 0. The sample is drawn into the bag by pumping air out of the rigid container. it is recommended that the analysis be conducted as soon as possible. Appendix A. can be utilized for the sampling and analysis of approximately 90 percent of the total gaseous organics emitted from industrial sources. Toluene emissions can be measured from stationary sources using this method. It does not include techniques to identify and measure trace amounts of organic compounds. EPA REFERENCE METHOD 183 8. The direct interface method draws a sample of the exhaust gas through a heated sample line directly into a heated sample loop and onto the column of the GC fitted with an FID. purge-and-trap unit. Figure 8-8 presents a diagram of the principle components of the direct interface sampling system. A diagram of the analytical system is presented in Figure 8-7.
Method 8270 can be used to quantify most neutral. Direct injection of a sample may be used in limited applications. and basic organic compounds that are soluble in methylene chloride and capable of being eluted without derivatization as sharp peaks from a gas chromatographic fused-silica capillary column coated with a slightly polar silicone. The filter is used to collect organic-laden particulate materials and the porous polymeric resin to adsorb semi-volatile organic species (compounds with a boiling point above 100°C (212°F)). Toluene is within the boiling point range and may be determined using this methodology. are conducted to determine the identity and concentration of the organic materials. Comprehensive chemical analyses.or quartz® fiber filter and a packed bed of porous polymeric adsorbent resin (typically XAD-2 or polyurethane foam for PCBs). It is also applicable to an extract from sorbent media in conjunction with Method 0010. and ground water. 8-16 .9 EPA Method 8270 is used to determine the concentration of semi-volatile organic compounds in extracts prepared from all types of solid waste matrices. emissions. soils.8 EPA METHOD 00102 EPA Method 0010 (Modified Method 5 Sampling Train) is used to determine the destruction and removal efficiency of semi-volatile principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) from incineration systems. Figure 8-10 presents a schematic of the sampling system.8. This method may be used for determining toluene Gaseous and particulate pollutants are withdrawn isokinetically from an emission source and collected in a multicomponent sampling train. using a variety of applicable analytical methodologies. Principal components of the train include a high-efficiency glass. acidic. EPA METHOD 82702 8.
breakthrough volume for toluene is 12 L (0. NIOSH METHOD 15014 8.0m x 2mm glass or stainless steel with 10 percent OV-275 on 100/200 mesh Chromosorb W-AW or equivalent. Ambient air or exhaust gas samples are collected on a solid sorbent tube containing coconut shell charcoal with 100 mg on the front-half portion and 50 mg on the back-half. The The samples are then capped. The entire sorbent module with filter is typically extracted and concentrated to 1 mL (0. therefore analysis should be conducted as soon as possible.07 to 0. sent to the laboratory.4 ft3). desorbed with carbon disulfide (CS2) and analyzed by GC/FID. NIOSH methods are designed for worker exposure studies that are usually conducted over an 8 hour period. Figure 8-11 presents a schematic of the sampling system. using a vacuum pump set at an approximate flow rate of 0.2 L/minute (0.3 ft3) of air are collected. The column specified in NIOSH Method 1501 is a 3. Two to 8 L (0. 8-18 .007 ft3/minute). and this final extract volume represents the entire volume of gas sampled. depending on the expected concentrations. The stability of the sorbent sample is currently unknown.10 Ambient air and exhaust gas concentrations of toluene can also be measured using NIOSH Method 1501. The levels of detection for NIOSH methods are usually much higher than the other procedures discussed.03 in3) (a final volume of 5 mL (0.2 in3)is used to avoid loss of volatile compounds).The practical quantitation limit for Method 8270 is approximately 50 µg/mL of extract.
Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. Volume 1 and 2. February 1984.S. Washington. pp 823 through 852. SW-846. 3. 4. Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air. Third Edition. 8-20 . Report No. Environmental Protection Agency. Third Edition. U. EPA/600/4-89/017.0 U. 2. Environmental Protection Agency. Part 60. 40 CFR.8. November 1986. Appendix A. June 1988.11 1. DC. REFERENCES FOR SECTION 8. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. Method 18: Measurement of Gaseous Organic Compounds by Gas Chromatography.S.
APPENDIX A POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS A-1 .
soups Frozen fruits and vegetables (continued) A-2 . condensed. evaporated products Fluid milk Organic solvent surface coating: can coating Canned fruits and vegetables Dehydrated fruits. NEC: aluminum ore (bauxite) Oil and gas extraction fuel fired process heaters Oil and gas production: crude oil production Natural gas liquids Oil and gas exploration services Nonmetallic minerals. vegetables. except fuels (mining operations) Mineral products: sand and gravel Mineral products: phosphate rock Mineral products: salt mining Highway and street construction Heavy construction. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 1011 1099 1300 1311 1321 1382 1400 1442 1475 1499 1611 1629 1781 1791 1799 2000 2011 2013 2015 2023 2026 2032 2033 2034 2037 Source Description Iron ores: taconite iron ore processing Metal ores. nec Water well drilling Structural steel erection Special trade contractors. nec Food and agriculture fuel fired equipment: process heaters Meat packing plants Sausages and other prepared meats Food and kindred products: poultry slaughtering and processing Dry.TABLE A-1.
wool Narrow fabric mills (continued) A-3 . manmade Broadwoven fabric mills. nec Bread. nec Cigarettes Cigars Organic solvent . nec Malt beverages Wines. nec Canned and cured fish and seafoods Food preparations. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 2043 2044 2046 2047 2048 2051 2052 2064 2076 2077 2079 2082 2084 2085 2086 2087 2091 2099 2111 2121 2200 2211 2221 2231 2241 Source Description Cereal breakfast foods Rice milling Wet corn milling Dog and cat food Prepared feeds. and related products Cookies and crackers Candy & other confectionery products Vegetable oil mills.TABLE A-1. nec Animal and marine fats and oils Edible fats and oils.textile manufacturing: knit fabric scouring Broadwoven fabric mills. and brandy spirits Distilled and blended liquors Bottled and canned soft drinks Flavoring extracts and syrups. brandy. cotton Broadwoven fabric mills. cake.
nec Fabric dress and work gloves Waterproof outerwear Apparel belts Apparel and accessories. caps. nec (continued) A-4 . nec House furnishings. and millinery Girls’ and children’s outerwear. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 2257 2261 2262 2269 2281 2282 2284 2295 2296 2297 2298 2299 2321 2326 2341 2353 2369 2381 2385 2387 2389 2392 2394 2396 2399 Source Description Weft knit fabric mills Finishing plants. nec Men’s and boys’ shirts Men’s and boys’ work clothing Women’s and children’s underwear Hats. cotton Finishing plants. nec Canvas and related products Automotive and apparel trimmings Fabricated textile products. not rubberized Tire cord and fabrics Nonwoven fabrics Cordage and twine Textile goods. manmade Finishing plants. nec Yarn spinning mills Throwing and winding mills Thread mills Coated fabrics.TABLE A-1.
POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 2421 2426 2429 2431 2434 2435 2436 2439 2449 2451 2452 2491 2493 2499 2511 2512 2514 2515 2517 2519 2521 2522 2531 2541 2542 Source Description Sawmills and planing mills. nec Millwork Wood kitchen cabinets Hardwood veneer and plywood Softwood veneer and plywood Structural wood members. nec Wood containers. except wood Public building & related furniture Wood partitions and fixtures Partitions and fixtures. nec Mobile homes Prefabricated wood buildings Wood preserving Lumber and wood products: reconstituted wood products Wood products. except wood (continued) A-5 .TABLE A-1. nec Wood office furniture Office furniture. nec Wood household furniture Upholstered household furniture Metal household furniture Mattresses and bedsprings Wood TV and radio cabinets Household furniture. general Hardwood dimension & flooring mills Special product sawmills.
& coated Bags: uncoated paper & multiwall Paper and allied products: die-cut paper and board Sanitary paper products Envelopes Paper and allied products: converted paper products Newspapers Periodicals Book publishing Book printing (continued) A-6 . laminated. drums & similar products Sanitary food containers Paper and allied products: folding paperboard boxes Paper and allied products: miscellaneous converted paper products Organic solvent surface coating: paper coating Paper coated & laminated. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 2585 2591 2599 2611 2621 2631 2652 2653 2655 2656 2657 2670 2670 2671 2672 2673 2674 2675 2676 2677 2679 2711 2721 2731 2732 Source Description Refrigeration and heating equipment Drapery hardware & blinds & shades Furniture and fixtures. nec Bags: plastics.TABLE A-1. packaging Paper coated and laminated. nec Pulp mills Paper mills Paperboard mills Setup paperboard boxes Corrugated and solid fiber boxes Fiber cans.
nec Plastics materials and resins Synthetic rubber Cellulosic manmade fibers Organic fibers.TABLE A-1. gravure Printing and publishing: commercial printing. lithographic Commercial printing. nec Manifold business forms Greeting cards Blankbooks and looseleaf binders Bookbinding and related work Typesetting Printing and publishing: platemaking services Chemicals and allied products Alkalies and chlorine Industrial gases Inorganic pigments Industrial inorganic chemicals. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 2741 2751 2752 2754 2759 2761 2771 2782 2789 2791 2796 2800 2812 2813 2816 2819 2821 2822 2823 2824 2833 2834 2835 2836 2841 Source Description Miscellaneous publishing Printing/publishing: printing process Commercial printing. noncellulosic Medicinals and botanicals Pharmaceutical preparations Diagnostic substances Biological products exc. diagnostic Soap and other detergents (continued) A-7 .
TABLE A-1.petroleum refining: sludge converter Tires and inner tubes Rubber and plastics footwear Rubber and plastics products: rubber and plastics hose and belting (continued) A-8 . nec Nitrogenous fertilizers Phosphatic fertilizers Agricultural chemicals. nec Petroleum and coal products petroleum industry Petroleum refining Petroleum Industry: Lube Oil Refining Asphalt paving mixtures and blocks Asphalt felts and coatings Lubricating oils and greases Petroleum industry . nec Adhesives and sealants Explosives Printing ink Carbon black Chemical preparations. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 2842 2843 2844 2851 2861 2865 2869 2873 2874 2879 2891 2892 2893 2895 2899 2900 2911 2922 2951 2952 2992 2999 3011 3021 3052 Source Description Polishes and sanitation goods Surface active agents Toilet preparations Paints and allied products Gum and wood chemicals Cyclic crudes and intermediates Industrial organic chemicals.
hydraulic (continued) A-9 . nec Leather goods.TABLE A-1. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3053 3061 3069 3079 3080 3081 3082 3083 3086 3087 3088 3089 3111 3131 3142 3143 3144 3149 3172 3199 3211 3221 3229 3231 3241 Source Description Gaskets. nec Leather tanning and finishing Footwear cut stock House slippers Men’s footwear. nec Unsupported plastics film & sheet Unsupported plastics profile shapes Laminated plastics plate & sheet Plastics foam products Custom compound purchased resins Plastics plumbing fixtures Plastics products. except rubber. except athletic Women’s footwear. nec Products of purchased glass Cement. except athletic Footwear. nec Flat glass Glass containers Pressed and blown glass. packing and sealing devices Mechanical rubber goods Fabricated rubber products. nec Personal leather goods. nec Organic solvent: surface coating of plastic parts Rubber and plastics products: miscellaneous plastics products.
nec Secondary metals: misc.TABLE A-1. casting and fabricating Blast furnaces and steel mills Electrometallurgical products Steel wire and related products Cold finishing of steel shapes Steel pipe and tubes Primary metal industries. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3251 3253 3255 3261 3263 3264 3271 3272 3274 3275 3291 3292 3295 3296 3297 3299 3300 3312 3313 3315 3316 3317 3320 3321 3324 Source Description Mineral products: brick manufacturing Ceramic wall and floor tile Mineral products: castable refractory Vitreous plumbing fixtures Semivitreous table & kitchenware Porcelain electrical supplies Concrete block and brick Concrete products. ground or treated Mineral wool Nonclay refractories Nonmetallic mineral products. nec Lime Mineral products: gypsum manufacturing Abrasive products Asbestos products Minerals. iron and steel foundries Primary metal industries: gray and ductile iron foundries (gray iron) Steel investment foundries (continued) A-10 .
plate. and pails Cutlery Hand and edge tools. nec (continued) A-11 . nec Primary copper Primary aluminum Primary metal industries: primary nonferrous metals. nec Saw blades and handsaws Hardware. nec (lead production) Secondary nonferrous metals Copper rolling and drawing Aluminum sheet. nec Fabricated metal products: iron and steel general processes Metal cans Metal barrels. and foil Aluminum extruded products Aluminum rolling and drawing.TABLE A-1. drums. nec Nonferrous wiredrawing & insulating Primary metal industries: nonferrous foundries (castings) Aluminum die-castings Nonferrous die-casting exc. aluminum Aluminum foundries Copper foundries Nonferrous foundries. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3325 3331 3334 3339 3341 3351 3353 3354 3355 3357 3360 3363 3364 3365 3366 3369 3398 3399 3400 3411 3412 3421 3423 3425 3429 Source Description Steel foundries. nec Metal heat treating Primary metal products.
nec Plating and polishing Metal coating and allied services Small arms ammunition Ammunition. exc. nec Small arms Ordnance and accessories. and trim Fabricated plate work (boiler shops) Sheet metalwork Architectural metal work Prefabricated metal buildings Miscellaneous metal work Screw machine products Bolts. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3431 3432 3433 3441 3442 3443 3444 3446 3448 3449 3451 3452 3462 3463 3465 3466 3469 3471 3479 3482 3483 3484 3489 3491 3492 Source Description Fabricated metal products: porcelain enamel/ceramic glaze spraying Plumbing fixture fittings and trim Heating equipment. sash. nuts. and washers Iron and steel forgings Nonferrous forgings Automotive stampings Crowns and closures Metal stampings. for small arms. except electric Fabricated structural metal Metal doors. rivets. nec Industrial valves Fluid power valves & hose fittings (continued) A-12 .TABLE A-1.
TABLE A-1. jigs & fixtures Machine tool accessories Power-driven hand tools Welding apparatus (continued) A-13 . except wire Valves and pipe fittings. and monorails Industrial trucks and tractors Machine tools. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3493 3494 3496 3497 3498 3499 3511 3519 3523 3524 3531 3532 3533 3534 3535 3536 3537 3541 3542 3543 3544 3545 3546 3548 Source Description Steel springs. fabricated wire products Metal foil and leaf Fabricated pipe and fittings Fabricated metal products. nec Misc. tools. metal cutting types Machine tools. cranes. metal forming types Industrial patterns Special dies. nec Turbines and turbine generator sets Internal combustion engines. nec Farm machinery and equipment Lawn and garden equipment Construction machinery Mining machinery Oil and gas field machinery Elevators and moving stairways Conveyors and conveying equipment Hoists.
TABLE A-1. and gears Industrial furnaces and ovens General industrial machinery. nec Textile machinery Woodworking machinery Paper industries machinery Printing trades machinery Food products machinery Special industry machinery. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3549 3552 3553 3554 3555 3556 3559 3561 3562 3563 3564 3565 3566 3567 3569 3571 3572 3575 3577 3578 3579 3581 3582 3585 3586 Source Description Metalworking machinery. nec Pumps and pumping equipment Ball and roller bearings Air and gas compressors Blowers and fans Packaging machinery Speed changers. nec Automatic vending machines Commercial laundry equipment Refrigeration and heating equipment Measuring and dispensing pumps (continued) A-14 . nec Electronic computers Computer storage devices Computer terminals Computer peripheral equipment. drives. nec Calculating and accounting equipment Office machines.
valves Fluid power cylinders & actuators Fluid power pumps and motors Industrial machinery.TABLE A-1. except electronic Switch gear and switchboard apparatus Motors and generators Carbon and graphite products Electronic equipment: relays and industrial controls Electrical industrial apparatus. nec Household cooking equipment Household refrigerators and freezers Household laundry equipment Electric housewares and fans Household vacuum cleaners Household appliances. nec Household audio and video equipment (continued) A-15 . rings. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3589 3592 3593 3594 3599 3612 3613 3621 3624 3625 3629 3631 3632 3633 3634 3635 3639 3641 3643 3644 3645 3646 3647 3648 3651 Source Description Service industry machinery. nec Transformers. nec Electric lamps Current-carrying wiring devices Noncurrent-carrying wiring devices Residential lighting fixtures Commercial lighting fixtures Vehicular lighting equipment Lighting equipment. nec Carburetors. pistons.
nec Ship building and repairing Boat building and repairing (continued) A-16 . nec Storage batteries Primary batteries. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3652 3661 3663 3669 3671 3672 3674 3675 3676 3679 3691 3692 3694 3695 3699 3711 3713 3714 3715 3716 3721 3724 3728 3731 3732 Source Description Prerecorded records and tapes Telephone and telegraph apparatus Radio & TV communications equipment Communications equipment. nec Motor vehicles and car bodies Truck and bus bodies Motor vehicle parts and accessories Truck trailers Motor homes Aircraft Aircraft engines and engine parts Aircraft parts and equipment.TABLE A-1. dry and wet Engine electrical equipment Magnetic and optical recording media Electrical equipment & supplies. nec Electron tubes Printed circuit boards Semiconductors and related devices Electronic capacitors Electronic resistors Electronic components.
nec Instruments and related products . and parts Guided missiles and space vehicles Space propulsion units and parts Space vehicle equipment.medical instruments and supplies: x-ray Surgical and medical instruments Surgical appliances and supplies Dental equipment and supplies X-ray apparatus and tubes Electromedical equipment Ophthalmic goods (continued) A-17 . bicycles. nec Search and navigation equipment Instruments/related products . POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 3743 3751 3761 3764 3769 3792 3795 3799 3812 3820 3821 3822 3823 3824 3825 3826 3827 3829 3840 3841 3842 3843 3844 3845 3851 Source Description Railroad equipment Motorcycles. nec Travel trailers and campers Tanks and tank components Transportation equipment.measuring/controlling devices: Laboratory apparatus and furniture Environmental controls Process control instruments Fluid meters and counting devices Instruments to measure electricity Analytical instruments Optical instruments and lenses Measuring & controlling devices.TABLE A-1.
POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued)
SIC Code 3861 3873 3900 3911 3914 3915 3931 3942 3944 3949 3951 3952 3953 3955 3961 3965 3991 3993 3995 3996 3999 4111 4131 4173 4212 Source Description Photographic equipment and supplies Watches, clocks, watchcases & parts Miscellaneous manufacturing industries: process heaters Jewelry, precious metal Silverware and plated ware Jewelers’ materials & lapidary work Musical instruments Dolls and stuffed toys Games, toys, and children’s vehicles Sporting and athletic goods, nec Pens and mechanical pencils Lead pencils and art goods Marking devices Carbon paper and inked ribbons Costume jewelry Miscellaneous manufacturing industries: fasteners, buttons, needles, and pins Brooms and brushes Signs and advertising specialties Burial caskets Hard surface floor coverings, nec Manufacturing industries, nec Local and suburban transit Intercity & rural bus transportation Bus terminal and service facilities Local trucking, without storage (continued) A-18
POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued)
SIC Code 4215 4226 4231 4491 4499 4510 4512 4612 4741 4785 4789 4900 4911 4922 4923 4925 4941 4952 4953 4961 5013 5021 5031 5040 Source Description Courier services, except by air Special warehousing and storage, nec Trucking terminal facilities Water transportation: marine cargo handling Water transportation services, nec Air transportation: scheduled air transportation Air transportation, scheduled Crude petroleum pipelines Rental of railroad cars Inspection & fixed facilities Transportation services, nec Solid waste disposal - commercial/institutional: landfill dump Anthracite coal Natural gas transmission Gas transmission and distribution Gas production and/or distribution Water supply Sewerage systems Refuse systems Steam and air-conditioning supply Motor vehicle supplies and new parts Furniture Lumber, plywood, and millwork Wholesale trade (durable goods): professional equipment and supplies (continued)
POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued)
SIC Code 5044 5045 5046 5063 5078 5084 5085 5092 5093 5113 5130 5169 5171 5172 5182 5191 5194 5198 5211 5231 5511 5541 5551 5599 5712 Source Description Office equipment Computers, peripherals & software Commercial equipment, nec Electrical apparatus and equipment Refrigeration equipment and supplies Industrial machinery and equipment Industrial supplies Toys and hobby goods and supplies Scrap and waste materials Industrial & personal service paper Apparel, Piece Goods, and Notions Chemicals & allied products, nec Petroleum bulk stations & terminals Petroleum products, nec Wine and distilled beverages Farm supplies Tobacco and tobacco products Paints, varnishes, and supplies Lumber and other building materials Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores New and used car dealers Gasoline service stations Boat dealers Automotive dealers, nec Furniture stores (continued) A-20
POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued)
SIC Code 5984 5999 6141 6512 6513 6514 7215 7216 7218 7359 7372 7378 7389 7514 7515 7532 7534 7538 7539 7540 7600 7629 7641 7694 7699 Source Description Liquefied petroleum gas dealers Miscellaneous retail stores, nec Personal credit institutions Nonresidential building operators Apartment building operators Dwelling operators, exc. apartments Coin-operated laundries and cleaning Drycleaning plants, except rug Industrial launderers Equipment rental & leasing, nec Prepackaged software Computer maintenance & repair Business services, nec Passenger car rental Passenger car leasing Top & body repair & paint shops Tire retreading and repair shops General automotive repair shops Automotive repair shops, nec Auto repair, services, and parking: automotive services, except repair Miscellaneous repair services: electrical equipment Electrical repair shops, nec Reupholstery and furniture repair Armature rewinding shops Repair services, nec (continued) A-21
nec Job training and related services Museums and art galleries Engineering services Engineering and management services: commercial physical research Commercial nonphysical research Testing laboratories Engineering and management services: management and public relations Services. Environmental Protection Agency. On-line access through the databases. & solid waste management National security Nonclassifiable establishments NEC = Not elsewhere classified. A-22 . Research Triangle Park. U. 1987-1990. Sources: Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI). MD. National Library of Medicine. NC. nec Correctional institutions Solid waste disposal . Bethesda. Version 1.S. Version 1.S. Research Triangle Park. U. nec General government.2. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Particulate Matter (PM) Speciation Database Management System. October 1991.TABLE A-1. Environmental Protection Agency. October 1991. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.government: fire fighting Air. POTENTIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES OF TOLUENE EMISSIONS (continued) SIC Code 8062 8211 8244 8249 8331 8412 8711 8731 8732 8734 8740 8999 9199 9223 9224 9511 9711 9999 Source Description General medical & surgical hospitals Elementary and secondary schools Business and secretarial schools Vocational schools. NC. water. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.4. Crosswalk/Air Toxic Emission Factor Database Management System (XATEF).
INK. AND PRINTING FACILITIES WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION B-1 .APPENDIX B LISTS OF PAINT.
Chicago IL 60622 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 11 20 1* 4* 300 13 550* 4 3 40 15 112 7 4 7* 4 5 3 66 33* 370* 5 1 2 2 9 50 15 30 3 40 30 5 4 32 5 B-2 . Akron Paint & Varnish Inc. Brewer Chem Corp. Seattle WA 98134 820 E 140th St. Calbar Inc. Behr Process Corp. Inc. Carbit Paint Co. Montvale NJ 07645 PO Box 9088. Rowlett TX 75088 1390 Firestone Parkway. Ameron Inc. (Los Angeles) Birk Paint Manufacturing Inc. Philadelphia PA 19125 PO Box 569. Philadelphia PA 19128 100 Hale St. Bronx NY 10454 6430 Wyoming Ave. Reliance Universal Inc. Bee Chem Co. MD 21224 727 S 27th St. Akzo Resins & Vehicles Akzo Coatings Inc. Los Angeles CA 90003 230 Kearny Ave. Cambridge MA 02139 927 W Blackhawk St. Akron OH 44301 1930 Bishop Ln. Baker Sealants & Coating Barrett Varnish Co. Allentown Paint Manufacturing Co. Canton OH 44706 PO Box 190. Akzo Coatings Inc. Henry VA 24102 PO Box 48. Louisville KY 40218 21625 Oak St. Morton Paint Co. Matteson IL 60443 1600 Watterson Towers. Automotive Finishes Inc. AExcel Corp. Best Bros Paint Manufacturing Co. Newburyport MA 01950 11748 Slauson Ave. Blue Ridge Talc Co. Santa Fe Spr CA 90670 2626 N Martha St. Sinking Spr PA 19608 9118 S Main St. Mentor OH 44060 PO Box 957. Cicero IL 60650 2700 E 170th St. Honolulu HI 96810 2145 Schuetz Rd. Enmar Finishes Div. Address PO Box 485. Dearborn MI 48126 234 Suydam Ave. Bruning Paint Co. Inc. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Aervoe-Pacific Co. Washougal WA 98671 5000 Ridge Ave. Santa Ana CA 92702 51 Chestnut Ridge Rd. Inc. Akzo Coatings Inc. Aspen Paints Atlas Coating Corp. Lansing IL 60438 PO Box 1287. Ameron Protective Coatings Div. St. Gardnerville NV 89410 7373 Production Dr. Benjamin Moore & Co. Bennette Paint Manufacturing Co. Amsterdam Color Works Inc. Ameron Inc. California Products Corp. Allentown PA 18105 Box 6208. Baltimore. Louis MO 63146 601 S Haven. Agri-Blend Inc. Brea CA 92621 1546 Stillwell Ave. Buten Paint & Wallpaper Cabot Stains Cal Western Paint Corp. Jersey City NJ 07305 PO Box 39. Long Beach CA 90801 PO Box 9610. Beverly Manufacturing Co.TABLE B-1. Bronx NY 10461 1128 SW Spokane St. Brod-Dugan Co. Jersey City NJ 07304 1532 S 50th Ct. Hampton VA 23670 PO Box 2056.. Little Rock AR 72219 201 N Berry St. Louisville KY 40218 PO Box 597. Also Indus Inc. Burkes Paint Co. Ameritone Paint Corp.
Con-Lux Coatings Inc. Crest Chem Indus Ltd. Kansas City MO 64116 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 65 7 18 5 1 1 1 3 3 28 4 6 5 3 5 17 20 4 25 8* 20 3 100 28 10* 120 160* 3 5 1* 6 5 5 4 20 13 B-3 . Cowman & Campbell CP Inc. Adelphi Coating Cook Paint & Varnish Co. Pico Rivera CA 90660 PO Box 519. Bloomfield NJ 07003 2414 S Connor Ave. Camden NJ 08101 1809 Bayard St. Coronado Paint Co. Ciba-Geigy Corp. Inc. Everett MA 02149 400 Claremont Ave. Dampney Co. New Lenox IL 60451 PO Box 1038. Commercial Chem Co. Columbia Paint Corp. Los Angeles CA 90040 PO Box 197.TABLE B-1. Carlstadt NJ 07072 201 Jandus Rd. Cotter & Co. Cardinal Color Co. Seattle WA 98107 PO Box 333. Edgewater FL 32032 400 14th St. CM Athey Paint Co. Colwell Gen Inc. Colonial Refining & Chem Co. Cook & Dunn Paint Corp. Louis MO 63144 50-56 1st St. Spokane WA 99202 PO Box 329. Kansas City MO 64141 PO Box 308. Chicago IL 60618 20575 Ctr Ridge Rd. Paterson NJ 07524 1329 Potrero Ave. Carlstadt NJ 07072 700 Gotham Parkway. Huntington WV 25728 PO Box 4569. Van Nuys CA 91407 12150 S Alameda St. Lynwood CA 90262 7300 Crider Ave. Louisville. KY 40201 PO Box 70328. Carlstadt NJ 07072 PO Box 419389. Dalys Inc. Columbia Paint Co. Inc. Gen Paint & Chem Co. Daniel Products Co.. Washington PA 15301 PO Box 557. Cleveland OH 44116 PO Box 2888. Chico CA 95927 2686 Lisbon Rd. Cleveland OH 44104 3525 Stone Way N. Connersville IN 47331 PO Box 85. Century Chem Co. Jersey City NJ 07304 1311 Iron St. South El Mon CA 91733 5 Lawrence St. Edison NJ 08818 700 Gotham Ave. Seattle WA 98103 85 Paris St. St. Bradford MA 01835 PO Box 3497. Fort Wayne IN 46801 PO Box 2126. Cosan Chem Corp. Inc. Carlstadt NJ 07072 700 Gotham Parkway. Davis Paint Co. Cook & Dunn Paint Corp. Crosby Coatings Inc. Coatings & Chems Corp. Cook & Dunn Paint Corp. Baltimore MD 21230 3067 N Elston Ave. Inc. Charles A Crosbie Labs Inc. Pure All Paint Coatings Co. Cary IL 60013 PO Box 1439. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Carboline Co. Certified Coating Products CF Jameson & Co. Address 350 Hanley Indus Ct. Santa Ana CA 92707 PO Box 847. Chemical Technology Labs Inc. Courtlaulds Coatings USA Inc. CWC Indus Inc. Drakenfeld Colors Clement Coverall Inc. Cardinal Indus Finish Inc. Chemical Coating Corp.
Beltsville MD 20705 PO Box 1447. San Francisco CA 94107 296 Marconi Blvd. Farwest Paint Manufacturing Co. Columbus OH 43215 251 Mason Way. DJ Simpson Co. Inc. Inc. Dean & Barry Co. Jamestown NY 14701 38 Varick St. Fabrionics Inc. Everseal Manufacturing Co. Prillaman Chem Corp. De Boom Paint Co. Decratrend Paints Deft Inc. Brooklyn NY 11222 6450 Hanna Lake SE. DC Franche & Co. Delrac Manufacturers of Bisonite Products Co. Irvine CA 92714 3105 E Reno St.TABLE B-1. Des Plaines IL 60017 PO Box 7600. Dexter Specialty Coatings Div. Dover Sales Co. Diamond Products Co. Federated Paint Manufacturing Co. Coatings Div. Oklahoma City OK 73117 PO Box 764. Epoca Co. Inc. Louisville KY 40207 1 E Water St. Elk Grove Vi IL 60007 84 Lister Ave. Camargo IL 61919 8200 Fischer Rd. Chicago IL 60616 PO Box 6550. Ridgefield NJ 07657 Route 130 S. Secaucus NJ 07096 PO Box 4449. Union City CA 94587 PO Box 4098. Duron Inc. Martinsville VA 24112 PO Box 447. Ferro Corp. Inc. Dye Specialties Inc. Waukegan IL 60085 709 S 3rd Ave. Del Paint Corp. Bloomfield NJ 07003 PO Box 1035. Baltimore MD 21222 PO Box 68726. Berkely CA 94702 1401 W Wabansia Ave. Duralac Inc. Elkhart IN 46515 470 Cresent St. Egyptian Lacquer Manufacturing Ellis & Everard (US Holdings) Inc. Fresno CA 93747 PO Box 30389. Address 700 Allston Way. Inc. Epoxy Coatings Co. Elpaco Coatings Corp. Marshalltown IA 50158 PO Box 2265. Lafayette IN 47903 PO Box 4024. Newark NJ 07105 10406 Tucker St. Devoe & Raynolds Co. Roanoke VA 24015 475 Broad Ave. Berkeley CA 94702 PO Box 7827. South San Francisco CA 94080 PO Box 2479. Caledonia MI 49316 5 Lawrence St. Inc. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Davlin Paint Co. Emco Finishing Products Inc. Dupli-Color Products Co. Chicago IL 60622 645 Texas St. Dexter Corp. Farboil Co. Environmental Coatings Inc. Empire State Varnish Co. DeSoto Inc. Cleveland OH 44101 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 3* 3 5 15 17 15 4 3* 408 120* 80 18* 5 3* 30 150* 50 4 150 8 10 96* 8 2 5 5 1 1 4* 12 13 11 3 8* 73* B-4 . City of Indu CA 91746 17451 Von Karman Ave. Duncan Enterprises Dunn Edwards Corp. Tonawanda NY 14151 PO Box 5030. Los Angeles CA 90039 1601 Nicholas Blvd. Tukwila WA 98168 1882 S Normal St. Evans Paint Inc.
2600 Harrison Ave. Milwaukee WI 53218 Heresite Protective Coatings Inc. Seattle WA 98178 H Behlen & Brother Inc. Reading PA 19612 Glidden Co. Grand Rapids MI 49501 Guardsman Chems Inc. Amsterdam NY 12010 Hancock Paint & Varnish 109 Accord Dr. Bellwood IL 60104 Glidden Co. Inc. Canton OH 44711 Hartin Paint & Filler PO Box 116. Hydrosol Inc. 1007 41st St. Wausau WI 54401 1401 S 12th St. Brooklyn NY 11222 Harrison Paint Corp. Burbank CA 91503 Fine Line Paint Corp. 4800 S Richmond St. PO Box 8470. Columbus OH 43216 Harco Chem Coatings Inc. 450 E Grand Ave. Santa Fe Spr CA 90670 Finishes Unlimited Inc. Natl Aerosol Products Co. Resin Div. Norwell MA 02061 Hanna Chem Coatings Inc. US Paint Div. Bridgeview IL 60455 (continued) B-5 . Oakland CA 94608 Frank W Dunne Co. Oakland CA 94608 Frazee Indus Inc. 2193 E 14th St. Ardmore PA 19003 Flecto Co. Sugar Grove IL 60554 Finnaren & Haley Inc. 208 DuPont St. Louis MO 63103 Grow Group Inc. El Paso TX 79905 GJ Nikolas & Co.TABLE B-1. 3033 Orchard Vista Dr. 111 N Piedras St. PO Box 4187. St. Brooklyn NY 11211 Glyptal Inc. Rutherford NJ 07070 Hentzen Coatings Inc. Chelsea MA 02150 Gordon Bartels Co. Richmond St & Tioga St. Inc. San Diego CA 92112 Fredericks-Hansen Paint PO Box 5638. 305 Eastern Ave. Lodi NJ 07644 PO Box 777. Philadelphia PA 19134 Given Paint Manufacturing Co. Hy-Klas Paints Inc. 1065 Glidden St NW. Southwest Region PO Box 566. 12234 Los Nietos Rd. Route 30 N Perth Rd. 2810 Washington Blvd. 200 Park Ave. Hoboken Paint Co. Chicago IL 60632 Grow Group Inc. Los Angeles CA 90021 Grow Group Inc. Carlstadt NJ 07072 Hempel Coatings USA 201 Route 17 N. Inc. PO Box 12955. Manitowoc WI 54221 40 Indus Rd. PO Box 69. 135 Jackson St. Hoffers Inc. Rockford IL 61108 Graham Paint & Varnish Co. Louisville KY 40210 8407 S 77th Ave. Inc. Atlanta GA 30318 Gloss-Flo Corp. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Address Sales in $ Millions 10 5 3 25* 20 7 100 12 140 10 7* 2 140 59 30 4 5 7 10* 30* 5 413 190 6 10 10 25 6 20 3 15 12 15 17 47 6 30 Fiber-Resin Corp. PO Box 147. Eastern Region PO Box 15049. 831 S 21st St. PO Box 2471. 2320 Haverford Rd. Carrollton TX 75011 Glidden Co. PO Box 250. 13535 Monster Rd. South San Francisco CA 94080 Gilbert Spruance Co. San Bernardino CA 92408 Fuller O’Brien Corp. New York NY 10166 Guardsman Products Inc. 6937 W Mill Rd.
Linear Dynamics Inc. Kop-Coat Co. Jones Blair Co. Inc. Houston TX 77292 13929 E 166th St. Kalcor Coatings Co. Templeton MA 01468 733 S West St. Indianapolis IN 46218 PO Box 135. IVC Indus Coatings Inc. Industrial Coatings Intl. Jasco Chem Corp. Komac Paint Inc. Houston TX 77251 PO Drawer J. James Bute Co. Baltimore MD 21237 6100 S Garfield Ave. Inc. Parsippany NJ 07054 PO Box 061319. Kwal-Howells Inc. Kelly-Moore Paint Co. High Point NC 27261 400 Lanidex Plz. Kelly-Moore Paint Co. Inc. USA Inc. San Francisco CA 94120 PO Box 4428. Newark NJ 07114 36 Pine St.TABLE B-1. Fort Myers FL 33906 PO Box 1257. Baltimore MD 21216 PO Box 460. Lake Zurich IL 60047 PO Box 2371. Irathane Syss Inc. Keeler & Long Inc. Parsippany NJ 07054 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 843 25 8 14* 100* 50 18 5 8* 9 4 8 3* 7 8* 9 38 6 1* 10 15 230* 2 10 15 11 16 23 4 6 13 11 212 30 30 B-6 . Rockaway NJ 07866 201 E Market St. King Fiber Glass Corp. John L Armitage & Co. Kaufman Products Inc. Insilco Corp. IN 46225 PO Box 2358. Birmingham AL 35201 7030 Quad Ave. L & H Paint Products Inc. Denver CO 80204 480 Frelinghuysen Ave. Indianapolis. Indurall Coatings Inc. San Carlos CA 94070 366 W Nickerson St. International Paint Co. Carpentersville IL 60110 PO Box 1819. Hurst TX 76053 987 Commercial St. USA Inc. Louisville KY 40202 PO Box 39-R. Hurst Div. Lenmar Inc. Cerritos CA 90701 PO Box 276. International Coatings Co. Seattle WA 98119 1201 Osage St. Address 925 Euclid Ave. Cleveland OH 44115 300 E Main St. Sinclair Paint Co. Johnson Paints Inc. Pettit Paint Co. Southwest Div. Hibbing MN 55746 PO Box 18163. Mountain View CA 94040 1259 Route 46 E. Watertown CT 06795 301 W Hurst Blvd. Chattanooga TN 37401 37721 Stevens. James B Day & Co. Baltimore MD 21223 150 S Calverton Rd. Lilly Chem Products Inc. Inc. Kurfees Coatings Inc. J Landau & Co. Baltimore MD 21223 PO Box 188. Lily Co. ICI Paints Illinois Bronze Paint Co. International Paint Co. Kop-Coat Co. Los Angeles CA 90040 6001 Antoine. Willoughby OH 44094 1326 N Bentalov St. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name ICI Americas Inc. Carlstadt NJ 07072 Day Ln. Lilly Industrial Coatings Inc. Fiber Resin Supply Div. Gilman Paint & Wallcovering Div. Inc. Houston TX 77091 PO Box 920762. Denver CO 80239 PO Box 7311. Lasting Paints Inc.
Olympic Paint & Chem Co. Mansfield OH 44905 760 Aloha St. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Lyle Van Patten Co. Mautz Paint Co. Salem OR 97308 PO Box 455. Inc. O’Brien Corp. Norton & Son Inc. Terre Haute IN 47808 PO Box 4019. Los Angeles CA 90040 14300 Schaefer Highway. Niles MI 49120 148 E 5th St. Bayonne NJ 07002 2nd & Boston St. Maas & Waldstein Co. MantroseHaeuser Co. Elizabeth NJ 07201 PO Box 307. Niles Chem Paint Co. Madison WI 53707 2355 Lewis Ave. Rockville. Powder Coatings Div. Mid-States Paint Co. National Paint Co. Minneapolis MN 55411 500 Post Rd E. Martec Inc. Brunswick GA 31521 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 3 140* 15 32 30 65 2 3 44* 19 18* 5 18 3 5 2 15 45 35* 17 125 29* 5 42 2* 40 3 2 2 30 16* 15* 20 150* 40 11* B-7 . Moline IL 61265 PO Box 55604. Cleveland OH 44115 PO Box 7068. Mohawk Finishing Products Moline Paint Manufacturing Co.TABLE B-1. Radiant Color Div. Los Angeles CA 90061 PO Box 600. South San Francisco CA 94080 5300 Sunrise Rd. Inc. South El Mon CA 91733 519 Dowd Ave. Schiller Par IL 60176 2313 W River Rd N. Jersey City NJ 07302 3441 E 14th St. Norris Paint/TMT Muralo Co. Houston TX 77021 PO Box 864. Nelson Tech Coatings Inc. National Lacquer & Paint Co. Inc. New York Bronze Powder Co. St. McCormick Paint Works Co. Kyanize Paints O’Brien Corp. Nu-Brite Chem Co. Westport CT 06880 4775 Hamilton Blvd. Inc. Major Paint Co. MA Bruder & Sons Inc. Bayonne NJ 07002 5928 S Garfield Ave. Inc. Martin-Senour Co. Inc. McWhorter-McCloskey Inc. Midwest Lacquer Manufacturing Co. Moling Paint Manufacturing Monarch Paint Co. MAB Paints Inc. Inc. Mansfield Paint Co. Moline IL 61265 5400 23rd Ave. N Siperstein Inc. Seattle WA 98109 101 Prospect Ave. Detroit MI 48227 9315 Watson Indus Park. Louis MO 63126 9353 Seymour Ave. Los Angeles CA 90040 415 Montgomery St. Inc. Broomall PA 19008 2121 McCarter Highway. Inc. Newark NJ 07104 630 N 3rd St. Torrance CA 90509 169 W Longview Ave. Morton Intl Inc. Everett MA 02149 450 E Grand Ave. Theodore AL 36582 Route 30 N. Muralo Co. Millmaster Onyx Group Inc. Mobile Paint Manufacturing Co. O’Brien Corp. Midwest Paint Manufacturing Co. Chicago IL 60621 2147 N Tyler Ave. Amsterdam NY 12010 5400 23rd Ave. Southeast Region Address 321 W 135th St. MD 20851 5501 E Slauson Ave. Mercury Paint Co. Magruder Color Co. Houston TX 77255 PO Box 2023. Richmond CA 94804 4300 W 190th St. Los Angeles CA 90023 7415 S Green St.
Ukiah CA 95482 2510 Highland Ave. Address 2209 S Main St.TABLE B-1. Atlanta GA 30318 141 Central Ave. Los Angeles CA 90023 PO Box 1058. Perry & Derrick Co. Newark NJ 07104 55-T La France Ave. Gen Plastics Div. Western Div. Palmer Paint Products Inc. Passonno Paints Pave-Mark Corp. Boise ID 83705 PO Box 1439. Pentagon Chem & Paint Co. Pruett-Schaffer Chem Co. Ashtabula OH 44004 2141 McCarter Highway. PFI Incorporated-Paints for Industry Pierce & Stevens Corp. Louisville KY 40232 PO Box 4350. San Diego CA 92113 38 Wells Ave. Pan Chem Corp. Automotive Products Group Pratt & Lambert Inc. PPG Indus Architectual Finishes Inc. Bloomfield NJ 07003 PO Box 5466. Pittsburgh PA 15204 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 31 4 3 7 5 14* 26 20 3* 10 20 14* 40 16* 6* 3 15 13 2 50 50 17 3 4 10 121 2* 110* 20* 246 10 20 13 7* 20 10 4 B-8 . Hawthorne NJ 07506 5-49 46th Ave. Louisville KY 40201 PO Box 265. PPG Indus Inc. Proctor Paint & Varnish Progress Paint Manufacturing Co. Parks Corp. Inc. Orelite Chem Coatings Pacific Coast Lacquer Co. Troy MI 48007 75 Tonawanda St. Inc. Pratt & Lambert Inc. Los Angeles CA 90001 921 Santa Fe Springs Rd. Pervo Paint Co. Long Island NY 11101 PO Box 11047. Watervliet NY 12189 PO Box 94108. Bellevue WA 98004 PO Box 3510. Parks Paint & Varnish Co. Inc. Preservative Paint Co. Marysville CA 95901 2250 Arthur Ave. Cambridge Ci IN 47327 2233 112th Ave NE. Buffalo NY 14203 PO Box 708. Yonkers NY 10701 PO Box 33188. Premier Coatings Inc. Plasti-Kote Co. PavePrep Corp. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Old Quaker Paint Co. Indianapolis IN 46202 PO Box 1569. Inc. Santa Fe Spr CA 90670 710 Ohio St. Penn Color Inc. Pro-Line Paint Manufacturing Co. Plextone Corp. Inc. Medina OH 44258 2600 Michigan Ave. Elk Grove Vi IL 60007 5410 Airport Way S. Irvington NJ 07111 3150 E Pico Blvd. Performance Coatings Inc. Doylestown PA 18901 24 Woodward Ave. Seattle WA 98108 2646 Main St. of America PMC Inc. Tacoma WA 98411 PO Box 5. Buffalo NY 14207 PO Box 668. Somerset MA 02726 660 Tonnelle Ave. Porter Paint Co. Potter Paint Co. Inc. Parker Paint Manufacturing Co. Plasticolors Inc. Paragon Paint & Varnish Corp. Cincinnati OH 45212 6624 Stanford Ave. Ponderosa Paint Manufacturing Co. Perfection Paint & Color Co. Jersey City NJ 07307 500 Broadway. Santa Ana CA 92707 62 Woolsey St. Westfield NJ 07090 400 Old Dublin Pike. Ridgewood NY 11385 715 E Maryland St. Troy MI 48099 1 Washington Ave. Inc.
Red Spot Westland Inc. Westland MI 48185 PO Box 418. Seibert-Oxidermo Inc. Port Byron IL 61275 3729 W 49th St. Sheboygan WI 53082 17814 S. Randolph Products Co. Sherwin-Williams Co. Sarasota FL 34232 320 Paterson Plank Rd. Reliable Coatings Inc. Rutland VT 05702 1900 Ellen Rd. Republic Clear Thru Corp. Sherwin-Williams Co. Hawthorne NJ 07506 1700 N State. Medina OH 44258 1630 15th Ave W.TABLE B-1. Roymal Inc. Carlstadt NJ 07072 550 S Edwin St. Saxon Paint & Home Care Centers Inc. Cleveland OH 44115 101 Prospect Ave NW. Rutland Fire Clay Co. Darby PA 19023 917 Crosby Ave. Rudd Co. Richmond VA 23224 PO Box 6625. Seattle WA 98119 11 Hawthorne Parkway. Long Beach CA 90801 6455 Strong Ave.124 160 170* B-9 . Sandstrom Products Co. Automotive Div. Quality Coatings Inc. Clover Leaf Paint & Varnish Seaside Inc. San Francisco CA 94103 Route 103. Aurora IL 60507 411 Union St. Evansville IN 47703 13108 Euless St. RJ McGlennon Co. Rust-Oleum Corp. River Valley Coatings Inc. Sentry Paint Technologies Inc. Seagrave Coatings Corp. Burlington IA 52601 PO Box 580. Sheffield Bronze Paint Corp. Union NJ 07083 5940 Palmer Blvd. Vernon Hills IL 60061 PO Box 340. Raffi & Swanson Inc. Chicago IL 60632 2400 Vauxhall Rd. Waterloo Rd. Sheboygan Paint Co. Belmont CA 94002 237 Mill St. Schalk Chems Inc. RPM Inc. Brooklyn NY 11220 PO Box 777. Red Spot Paint Varnish Co. SEM Products Inc. Red Spot Paint Varnish Co. Riverside Labs Inc. Sampson Paint Manufacturing Co. Chandler IN 47610 100 Eames St. Scott Paint Corp. Sampson Coatings Inc. Riley Bros Inc. Sycamore IL 60178 PO Box 417. Inc. Consumer Div. Cleveland OH 44115 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 4* 2 15 9 15 56 14* 6 15 3 2* 3* 3 4 380 10 89 2 42 9 7 15* 7 16* 14* 3 11 7 10 10 12 3 2. Inc. Geneva IL 60134 198 Utah St. Richmond VA 23230 218 S High. Cleveland OH 44119 101 Prospect Ave NW. Cleveland OH 44115 101 Prospect Ave NW. Wilmington MA 01887 Park Place E. Median OH 44258 860 Washington Ave. Euless TX 76040 211 63rd St. Carlstadt NJ 07072 PO Box 2809. Newport NH 03773 PO Box 777. Sherwin-Williams Co. Republic Powdered Metals Inc. Dreeblan Paint Co. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Pyrolac Corp. Seymour of Sycamore Inc. Address 55 Schoon Ave. Detroit MI 48211 120 Sem Ln.
St. Alliance OH 44601 461 Broad Ave. Chicago IL 60628 PO Box 816. East Berlin CT 06023 8225 Lyndon Ave. Inc. Wheeling IL 60090 PO Box 1310. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Sherwin-Williams Co. Yonkers NY 10701 PO Box 308. Technical Coatings Inc. Sigma Coatings Co. Chem Coatings Div. Smiland Paint Co. Syracuse NY 13204 410 N Hart St. Strathmore Products Inc. Oakland CA 94608 11541 S Champlain Ave. Sterling Twelve Star Paint Sterling-Clark-Lurton Stevens Paint Corp. Tnemec Co. Star Finishing Products Inc. Superior Sealants Inc. Memphis TN 38117 2492 Doswell Ave. St. STD Coating Corp. Kansas City MO 64141 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 32* 250 15 10 7 40 26 5 3 7 5 10 8 14* 15 11 3 4 15 9 15 62 6 2* 14 7* 11* 4 6 8 6 6* 3 43* 44* 3 50 B-10 . Toccoa GA 30577 PO Box 160. Address 1450 Sherwin Ave. Sumter SC 29151 PO Box 961005. Maple Shade NJ 08052 1970 W Fayette St. Technical Coatings Laboratory Inc. St.TABLE B-1. Spatz Paints Inc. Atlanta GA 30310 2650 Pomona Blvd. Rockford IL 61106 825 Crossover Ln. Chicago Heights IL 60411 360 Shore Dr. Hinsdale IL 60521 PO Box 2206. Los Angeles CA 90016 401 Berlin St. Standard T Chem Co. Ti-Kromatic Paints Inc. Sunnyside Corp Superior Varnish & Drier Co. Snyder Bros Co. Detroit MI 48238 290 E Joe Orr Rd. Louis MO 63144 7360 Varna Ave. Southern Coatings Inc. Santa Clara CA 95050 390 Adams St. Ridgefield NJ 07657 3418 Gratiot St. Oakland Sherwin-Williams Co. Spraylat Corp. North Hollywood CA 91605 9635 Klingerman St. Merchantville NJ 08109 1135 Sylvan SW. San Jose Ca 95112 620 Buckbee St. Steelcote Manufacturing Corp. Harvey LA 70059 620 Lamar St. Southwestern Petroleum Corp. Los Angeles Stanchem Inc. Chicago IL 60622 225 Carpenter Ave. Inc. Paul MN 55108 PO Box 411749. Supro Corp. Malden MA 02148 38 Wells Ave. Little Rock AR 72203 184 Commercial St. Thompson & Formby Inc. Avon CT 06001 PO Box 3337. Newark NJ 07114 1631 S 10th St. Tenax Finishing Products Tera Lite Inc. Pomona CA 91768 PO Box 565. Los Angeles CA 90031 PO Box 760. South El Mon CA 91733 3465 S La Cienega. Fort Worth TX 76161 1439 Hanley Industrial Ct. Stonhard Inc. Austin TX 78764 1000 Walsh Ave. Louis MO 63103 PO Box 791. Star Bronze Co. Sullivan Coatings Inc. Standard Detroit Paint Co. Specialty Coating & Chem Spectra-Tone Paint Corp. Technical Coatings Co. Testor Corp.
Manor PA 15665 PO Box 2238. Wisconsin Protective Coatings Corp. Colony Paints Div. Tampa FL 33625 PO Box 418037. Inc. Southfield MI 48034 2850 Festival Dr.TABLE B-1. Minneapolis MN 55415 1401 Severn St. Waterlox Chem & Coatings Corp. Scranton PA 18501 PO Box 1218. Kansas City MO 64141 1101 S 3rd St. Address 1760 Revere Beach Parkway. Vogel Paint & Wax Inc. Tower Paint Manufacturing Trail Chem Corp. MCI Quality Coatings Valspar Corp. Forest Park IL 60130 PO Box 11250. Columbus OH 43236 (continued) Sales in $ Millions 17 10 4 5 11* 65 25 22* 20 10 3* 12 15 527 8 4 5 8* 100 1 4 4 29* 15 15* 10 15 17* 7 15 12* 16 2 10 95 80 B-11 . Wellborn Paint Manufacturing Co. Rochester NY 14625 9808 Meech Ave. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Touraine Paints Inc. Westinghouse Elec Corp. Whittaker Decatur Coatings William Zinsser & Co. Valspar Corp. Watson-Standard Co. Yenkin Majestic Paint Corp. WM Barr & Co. Longview WA 98632 PO Box 216. Wattyl Group Precision Paint Group WC Richards Co. United Paint Co. Triangle Coatings Inc. VJ Dolan & Co. Chicago IL 60639 2100 N 2nd St. Pittsburgh PA 15238 5275 Peachtree. Elgin IL 60123 PO Box 668. Welco Manufacturing Co. North Kansas MO 64116 215 Rossmoor Rd SW. Universe Paint Co. Kankakee IL 60901 404 E Mallory. Green Bay WI 54305 PO Box 1879. Hialeah FL 33010 9904 Gidley St. Inc. Vanex Color Inc. Whittaker Corp. Inc. Orange City IA 51041 763 Linden Ave. Memphis TN 38113 PO Box 369004. Watson-Standard Co. Insulating Materials Div. Vogel Paint & Wax Inc. Grand Prairi TX 75050 PO Box 815. Allerton Chem Div. Valspar Corp. Universal Chems & Coatings Inc. United Gilsonite Labs Universal Paint Corp. Mount Vernon IL 62864 1830 N Laramie Ave. Somerset NJ 08873 PO Box 517. Atlanta GA 30341 3555 W 123rd St. Wiltech Corp. Voplex Corp.. Jordan Paint Manufacturing Co. Masury Paint Co. Memphis TN 38109 PO Box 70. Marwin Paints Inc. El Monte CA 91731 1930 Fairway Dr. Westfiled MA 01086 Route 993. Minneapolis MN 55411 Industrial Air Park Rd. Marysville CA 95901 6110 Gunn Highway. United Coatings Inc. La Puente CA 91749 1975 Fox Ln. Decatur AL 35602 31 Belmont Dr. Western Automotive Finishes Westfield Coatings Corp. United Paint & Chem Corp. Everett MA 02149 620 W 27th St. Valspar Corp. San Leandro CA 94577 24671 Telegraph Rd. Blue Island IL 60406 1225 Ozark St. Cleveland OH 44105 7250 Franklin St. Baltimore MD 21230 1700 Shawnee St. Albuquerque NM 87102 1450 Ave R. Inc.
Carson CA 90749 Sales in $ Millions 2* 6 2 25 * Indicates an estimated financial figure. Zynolyte Products Co.S. Ward’s Business Directory of U. Inc. Detroit.TABLE B-1. Los Angeles CA 90023 120 E Minereal St. Address 3273 Casitas Ave. Los Angeles CA 90039 3411 E 15th St. MI. Private and Public Companies-1991. B-12 . ZPC Indus Coatings Inc. Milwaukee WI 53204 PO Box 6244. 1991. Source: Gale Research. Volume 4. PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FACILITIES (SIC 2851) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Zehrung Corp Zolatone Process Inc.
Alfa Ink Div. Carlstadt NJ 07072 990 Skokie Blvd. Lakeland Laboratory Inc. Coatings & Colorants Div. of Virginia CZ Inks Div. Corp. Riverton NJ 08077 1446 W Kinzie St. Lakeland Laboratory Inc. Capitol Printing Ink Flint Ink Corp. Los Angeles CA 90040 PO Box 803. Celia Corp. Croda Inks Corp. Inc. Carbon Div. St. BASF Corp. Bomark Inc. Cleveland OH 44105 320 Union St. Broadview IL 60153 9300 Needlepoint Rd. West Chicago IL 60185 180 E Union Ave. Elmwood Park NJ 07407 1301 Taylors Ln.TABLE B-2. Lawter Intl Inc. Los Angeles CA 90033 5-19 47th Ave. Custom Chem Corp. Hackensack NJ 07601 655 Washington Ave. 4150 Carr Ln. Niles IL 60648 30 Paul Kohner Pl. Berkeley CA 94710 1441 Boyd St. Merit Printing Inc. Ink Masters Inc. Carlstadt NJ 07072 655 Washington Ave. Elk Grove Vi IL 60007 3559 S Greenwood Ave. Baytown TX 77521 2839 19th Ave. Del Val Ink & Color Co. Gans Ink & Supply Co. Chicago IL 60638 Acme Printing Ink Co. Kerley Ink Engineers Inc. Long Island NY 11101 750 Arthur Ave. JM Huber Corp. PRINTING INK MANUFACTURING FACILITIES (SIC 2893) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Address Sales in $ Millions 100 140* 13 15 12 105* 3 17* 25 15 9 17 16* 32* 40 5 84* 235 23 30* 18 4 18 30 3 28 18* 4* 45 2* 3 136 4* Acme Printing Ink Co. Inc. Handschy Ink & Chems Inc. 165 Bond St. Borden Inc. Clifton NJ 07015 601 S 6th Ave. Linden NJ 07036 7777 N Merrimac. Gotham Ink & Color Co. Detroit MI 48234 806 Channing Pl NE. Bellwood IL 60104 2842 S 17th Ave. Chicago IL 60622 25111 Glendale Ave. Washington DC 20018 1404 4th St. Central Ink & Chem Colonial Printing Ink Corp Converters Ink Co. Packaging Inc. Flint Ink Corp. Autoroll Machine Corp. American Inks & Coatings Corp. Middleton MA 01949 1255 Broad St. Excello Color & Chem Flint Ink Corp. AJ Daw Printing Ink Co. Los Angeles CA 90023 (continued) James River Corp. Co. Coatings & Graphics Group Braden Sutphin Ink Co. Cincinnati OH 45215 3650 E 93rd St. Inc. 5001 S Mason Ave. Sparta MI 49345 1100 N Harvester Rd. Louis MO 63119 B-13 . Valley Forge PA 19482 11 River St. Elk Grove Vi IL 60007 120 25th Ave. Kohl & Madden Printing Ink Corp. Graphic Color Corp. East Rutherford NJ 07073 1301 S Park Ave. Northbrook IL 60062 1451 S Lorena St.Milford. City of Indu CA 91746 630 Glendale . Broadview IL 60153 222 Bridge Plz Sq.
PRINTING INK MANUFACTURING FACILITIES (SIC 2893) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Name Midland Color Co. Seattle WA 98138 343 Murray Hill Pkwy. 1991.100 410* 50 6 65 42 8 1 45* *Indicates an estimated financial figure. Fort Lee NJ 07024 135 W Lake St. Elgin IL 60123 8360 10th Ave N. Van Son Holland Corp. Leber Ink Div. Tucson AZ 85714 820 E 140th St. Ron Ink Co. Inc. St. Northlake IL 60164 70 Bethune St. Crawfordsville IN 47933 1524 David Rd. Volume 4. Sinclair & Valentine LP Sun Chem Corp. Inc.S. Minneapolis MN 55427 4601 S 3rd Ave. Address 651 Bonnie Ln. Fort Mill SC 29715 Sales in $ Millions 85 6 14* 15* 5 14 8 10 3 15 6* 7 25 186 1. Morrison Printing Ink Co. Gen. United States Printing Ink Corp. Jersey City NJ 07306 61 Halstead St. Superior Printing Ink Co. Covington KY 41018 1183 Westside Ave. Sicpa Indus of America Inc. Printing Ink Div. Private and Public Companies-1991. Detroit. Cleveland OH 44135 1087 N Northbranch St. New York NY 10014 PO Box 88700. Polypore Inc. Chicago IL 60622 PO Box 668. East Rutherford NJ 07073 92 Union St. B-14 . Elk Grove Vi IL 60007 1601 Prospect Ave. Source: Gale Research. Rochester NY 14610 8000 Research Way. Paterson NJ 07514 9715 Alpaca St. Naz-Dar Co. Nor-Cote Intl Inc. North American Printing Ink Northern Printing Ink Corp. of America Vivitone Inc. United States Printing Ink Corp. Polytex Color & Chem PPG Indus Inc. Kansas City MO 64127 4801 W 160th St. Inc. Rexart Chem Corp. Ward’s Business Directory of U. Walter W Lawrence Wikoff Color Corp. Sun Chem Corp. Mineola NY 11501 110 E 27th St. Paul MN 55120 PO Box 1302.TABLE B-2. PPG Ink Products Co. Bronx NY 10454 1835 Airport Exchange Blvd. South El Mon CA 91733 PO Box W. Springfield VA 22153 2520 Pilot Knob Rd. MI. Miller-Cooper Co.
Hearst Corp. NY (continued) 310* 100 105 102 150 187* 280* Staten Island.200* 542 500 1.TABLE B-3. IL Atlanta. Ingersoll Publications Co. DC Wilmington. Inc. Media Gen Inc. Chilton Co. VA New York. EW Scripps Co. NY Boston. Chicago Tribune Co. Tribune Co. (SIC 2721) Periodicals ABC Publishing Billboard Publications Inc. Conde Nast Publications Inc. NY Des Plaines.518 1.769 3. NY New York. Inc. New York Magazine Div.444 1. NJ Miami. FL Richmond. BPI Communications Inc.475 2.266 500 3. DE Irvine. CMP Publications Inc. CA Arlington. Affiliated Publications Inc.268 606 1. PRINTING AND PUBLISHING FACILITIES (SIC 27) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Company (SIC 2711) Newspapers Advance Publications Inc. Cahners Publishing Co.010* 2. Cox Enterprises Inc. IL 2. New York Times Co. Times Mirro Co.900* 1. NY Radnor.455 Location Sales in $ Millions B-15 .970 1. Knight-Ridder Inc. Thomson Newspapers Corp. VA New York. Freedom Newspapers Inc. NY New York. GA Washington. PA Manhasset. Gannett Co. NY New York. New York. MA Chicago. Dow Jones & Co.000 550* 3. News America Publishing Inc. CA Chicago. NY New York. IL Los Angeles. NY New York. NY Princeton.
IL Pleasantville. Meredith Corp. NY Lantana.500* 470* B-16 . CT New York. Cahners Publishing Co. NY Framingham. Ladies’ Home Journal National Enquirer Inc. Bur of Bus Practice Standard & Poor’s Corp. MA Emmaus. National Geographic Soc. IA New York. FL Washington. Thompson Corp. International Data Group Inc. Scholastic Inc. OH Los Angeles. Reed Publishing (USA) Inc.TABLE B-3. Diamonds Communications Inc.832 430 600 150* 250* 100* 260* 160* 1. PRINTING AND PUBLISHING FACILITIES (SIC 27) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Company Crain Communicating Inc. DC New York. Simon & Shuster Inc. Meredith Corp. Inc. NY Stamford. Time Inc. Info. Rodale Press Inc. CT New York. NY (continued) Location Sales in $ Millions 145 470* 205 200 500 792 100 180 425 256 130* 160* 151 140* 160 1. MA Newton. Edgell Communications Inc. MA Des Moines. NY New York. CA Chicago. Chicago. Thompson Bus. NY Newton. Penton Publishing Inc. Peterson Publishing Co. Forbes Inc. OH New York. Penthouse Intl. IL New York. NY Cleveland. NY Waterford. NY Cleveland. Reed Publishing (USA) Inc. Official Airline Guides Inc. Times Mirror Magazines Inc. Reader’s Digest Assn. Magazine Co. IL New York. Newsweek Inc. Ltd. PA New York. Playboy Enterprises Inc. NY Oak Brook.
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING FACILITIES (SIC 27) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued)
Company Trader Publications Inc. US News & World Report Inc. Warren Gorham & Lamont Inc. Whittle Communications Inc. Ziff Communications Co. Ziff Communications Co. Zif-Davis Publishing Co. (SIC 2731) Book Publishing Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc. David C. Cook Publishing Co. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. Field Publications Grolier Inc. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc. Harper Collins Publishers Inc. Houghton Mifflin Co. Insilco Corp. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Lawyers Co-Operative Publishing Co. Inc. Macmillan Inc. Macmillan Inc. Info Svcs & Instruction MacMillan Intl. Inc. Macmillan-McGraw-Hill School Publishing Co. School Div. Reading, MA New York, NY Elgin, IL Chicago, IL Middletown, CT Danbury, CT Orlando, FL New York, NY Boston, MA Midland, TX New York, NY Rochester, NY New York, NY New York, NY New York, NY New York, NY (continued) 120* 180* 100 624 100* 440* 1,341 450 370 450* 282 150* 950* 416 146* 200 Clearwater, FL New York, NY New York, NY Knoxville, TN New York, NY New York, NY Location Sales in $ Millions 270* 140* 130 210* 340* 160*
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING FACILITIES (SIC 27) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued)
Company Macmillian-McGraw-Hill School Publishing Co. McGraw-Hill Inc. McGraw-Hill Intl Book Group Mosby Year Book Inc. Prentice Hall Inc. Putnam Publishing Group, Inc. Rand McNally & Co. Random House, Inc. RR Donnelley & Sons Co. Willard Div. Simon & Schuster Inc. South-Western Publishing Co. Sunday School Bd of the Southern Baptist Convention Time-Life Books Inc. West Publishing Co. Western Publishing Group Inc. World Book Inc. Zondervan Corp. (SIC 2732) Book Printing Arcata Graphics Co. Arcata Graphics Book Group Banta Corp. Bertelsmann Printing & Mfg. Corp. Brown Printing Co. (Waseca Minnesota) Great Lakes Color Printing Corp. Harper & Row Publishers Kingsport, TN Menasha, WI Berryville, VA Waseca, MN Brentwood, TN New York, NY (continued) 170* 568 220* 363 210* 450 Location Lake Forest, IL New York, NY St. Louis, MO New York, NY New York, NY Skokie, IL New York, NY Willard, OH New York, NY Cincinnati, OH Nashville, TN Alexandria, VA St. Paul, MN Racine, WI Chicago, IL Grand Rapids, MI Sales in $ Millions 390* 115 150 970* 100 430* 325 150 1,320 112 172 350 450* 480 330* 100*
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING FACILITIES (SIC 27) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued)
Company Jostens Inc. Printing & Publishing Div. RR Donnelley & Sons Co. (SIC 2741) Misc Publishing Commerce Clearing House Inc. Donnelley Directory GTE Telephone Operations Inc. GTE Directories Corp. McGraw-Hill Info. Svcs. Co. NYNEX Info Resources Co. RL Polk & Co. Simplicity Holdings, Inc. Simplicity Pattern Co. Southwestern Bell Yellow Pages Inc. Southwestern Bell Publications Inc. U.S. West Direct (U.S. West Marketing Resources Group Inc.) Wonderland Music Co. Inc. (SIC 2752) Commercial Printing-Lithographic American Signature Graphics Foote & Davies Div. American Bank Stationary Co. Avery Intl Corp. Avery Label Co. Graphic Controls Corp. Graphisphere Corp. HS Crocker Co. Inc. Judd’s Inc. NMG Inc. Atlanta, GA Baltimore, MD Azusa, CA Buffalo, NY Des Plaines, IL South San Francisco, CA Washington, DC Los Angeles, CA (continued) 195 110* 110* 140 110 140* 114 105 Riverwoods, IL New York, NY Dallas-Fort, TX New York, NY Middleton, MA Detroit, MI New York, NY New York, NY St. Louis, MO St. Louis, MO Aurora, CO Burbank, CA 678 1,300* 360* 668 800 280 110* 101 240* 280* 160* 200* Location Minneapolis, MN Chicago, IL Sales in $ Millions 121 3,122
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING FACILITIES (SIC 27) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued)
Company Perry Printing Corp. Quebecor Printing (USA) Inc. Queens Group Inc. Ringler America Inc. RR Donnelley & Sons Co. Mattoon Mfg. Div. RR Donnelley & Sons Co. Lancaster Mfg. Div. Shea Communications Co. Taylor Corp. Treasure Chest Advertising Co. Inc. Valassis Inserts Inc. World Color Press Inc. (SIC 2754) Commercial Printing-Gravure All-State Legal Supply Co. Arcata Graphics Co. Beck Co. (Langhorne Pennsylvania) Clark Printing Co. Inc. ColorArt Inc. Dennison Mfg. Co. IPC Dennison Co. Dinagraphics Inc. Golden Belt Mfg. Co. Graphic Ctr. Cos. Inc. Blake Printery International Label Co. JW Fergusson & Sons Maxwell Communications Corp. Atglen McCleery-Cumming Co. Cranford, NJ Baltimore, MD W, Langhorne, PA North Kansas, MO St. Louis, MO Rogersville, TN Cincinnati, OH Durham, NC St. San Luis Obi, CA Clarksville, TN Richmond, VA Atglen, PA Washington, IA (continued) 43 500* 10 14* 30 60 20 70 11 30 34 50* 22 Waterloo, WI St. Paul, MN Long Island, NY Itasca, IL Mattoon, IL Lancaster, PA Louisville, KY Mankato, MN Glendora, CA Livonia, MI Effingham, IL Location Sales in $ Millions 175 770 100 700 110* 190* 120 540* 550* 400* 650
NJ Pewaukee. NJ New York. PRINTING AND PUBLISHING FACILITIES (SIC 27) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Company Meredith-Burda Corp. FL Corinth. Technographic Inc. Elk Grove Village. Inc. Avery Intl.316 327 310 345 720* 110 380 160* 220* 230 Location Des Moines. Graphic Indus. PA Louisville. IA Norway. Paul. MN Sycamore. Printing House Inc. Paul. RR Donnelley & Sons Co. Webcraft Technologies Inc. IN North Brunswick. Soabar Products Group Bowne & Co. Stevens Graphics Inc. IL Atlanta. (Quincy Florida) Ringier America Inc. NY Atlanta. Perry Printing Corp. Corinth Div. NE St. Sheridan Press Southern Gravure Svc. Norway Div. Maxwell Commun Corp. Harland Co. Quad Graphics Inc. GA Lexington. (Omaha) Deluxe Corp. MS Hanover. Corp. IL Philadelphia. GA St. GA Atlanta. KY Atlanta. (SIC 2759) Commercial Printing Nec Alden Press Inc. Salem Gravure Div. John H. Duplex Products Inc. MI Quincy. Warsaw Mfg. Inc. GA Omaha. WI Warsaw. Inc. IL Sales in $ Millions 500 25* 24 80 15 58* 150 30 80 B-21 . NY (continued) 170* 100* 190 160* 200 1. PA New York. Meehan-Tooker Inc. MN East Rutherford. Williamhouse-Regency Inc. Curtis 1000 Inc. Data Documents Inc. Div. SC Salem. Decotone World Color Press Inc.TABLE B-3.
KS 1. Standard Register Co. Topeka Products Cleveland.TABLE B-3.309 110 160 463 2. CA Hillside. Hallmark Cards Inc. Products Inc. OH Wheeling. Current Inc. (SIC 2771) Greeting Cards American Greetings Corp. IL 130* 387 200 110 130 125 1. Spartan Printing Co. McGregor Printing Corp.675 226 105 709 520* 133 429 Sparta. MI. AR Colorado Springs. Seasonal Div. Arnold Corp. Private and Public Companies-1991. Hallmark Cards Inc. Moore Corp. IL Dayton.) Wallace Computer Svcs. (SIC 2761) Manifold Business Forms Allied Paper Inc. Ward’s Business Directory of U. IL Santee. American Greetings Corp. Forms & Syss. CO Cincinnati. CST Group Inc. Uarco Inc.500 120* Dayton. (Colorado Springs Colorado) Gibson Greetings Inc. GA Dayton. OH Atlanta. American Bus Products Inc. (American Bus. Volume 4. Moore Bus. Div. OH Kansas City.S. Allied-Energy Syss Inc. MO Topeka. PRINTING AND PUBLISHING FACILITIES (SIC 27) WITH ANNUAL SALES GREATER THAN $1 MILLION (continued) Company World Color Press Inc. OH Oscoola. New England Bus. TX Washington. IL Ennis. Forms Inc. Inc. IL Location Sales in $ Millions 100* NEC = Not elsewhere classified * Indicates an estimated financial figure Source: Gale Research. 1991. Office Electronic Inc. IL Groton. Detroit. Vanier Graphics Corp. Svc. B-22 . Ltd. OH Barrington. Inc. Inc. DC Glenview. Ennis Bus. MA Itasca.
APPENDIX C TOLUENE SOURCE CATEGORIES IN SURFACE COATING OPERATIONS C-1 .
and paint and drum interiors are covered under metal products.3651 Emission Point Sources  Application area  Flashoff area  Oven areas  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed may be considered potential emission sources  Coating application (low emissions)  Exhaust oven (high emissions)  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources  Cleaning pretreatment  Application area  Flashoff area  Oven areas  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources (continued) Emissions reduction by process/product modification      Thermal incineration Catalytic incineration Carbon adsorbers Waterborne coatings High solids materials Additional References 7. 3643. TOLUENE SOURCE CATEGORIES IN SURFACE COATING OPERATIONSa (continued) General Source Category Large Appliances Associated SIC(s) 3585.8 Magnet Wire 3546. 3357      Thermal incineration Catalytic incineration Ultraviolet cure coatings Waterborne coatings Powder coatings 9 Automobiles and Light Duty Trucks. 3351.) 3711-16      Thermal incineration Catalytic incineration Carbon adsorber Waterborne coatings Powder coatings 10.11.36313639.TABLE C-1.12 . hopper car and tank interiors. 3621. (Locomotives and heavyduty trucks.
2675.14 Three-piece Metal Coils 3444. side seam spray coating. 3479  Thermal incineration  Catalytic incineration  Waterborne coatings 10. 3353. over varnish  Oven areas  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources  Application area  Flashoff area: prime coating.TABLE C-1.  Exhaust oven area  Quench area  Fugitive emissions  Solvent mixing  Solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources  Application area  Oven areas  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources (continued) Emissions reduction by process/product modification  Thermal incineration  Catalytic incineration  Waterborne coatings for two piece cans  High solids coatings  Powder coating-side seam coating of uncemented three piece cans  Carbon adsorption-low temperature processes  Ultraviolet cure coatings Additional References 10. 2656. 265253. lithography. 2631. 3354. interior spray coating. 2671-72. 2678-79     Carbon adsorber Thermal incinerator Catalytic incinerator Condensers 10 . TOLUENE SOURCE CATEGORIES IN SURFACE COATING OPERATIONSa (continued) General Source Category Can Two-piece Associated SIC(s) 3411-12 Emission Point Sources  Coating area  Flashoff area: two piece and exterior base coating.13. finish coating. 3449. sheet basecoating (exterior). 2657. sheet basecoating (interior).15.16 Paper and Paperboard 2621. end sealing compound. 2676.
3412-99. Metal Parts and Products 2514. dip coating or spray application  Oven areas  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered can be considered potential emission sources (continued) Emissions reduction by process/product modification  Thermal incineration  Carbon adsorption Additional References 17. 2542. 452. 3511-69. inks  Oven areas  Coating mix  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources  Application area  Flashoff area: flow coating.24 . 3995     Waterborne coatings Carbon adsorption Thermal incineration Catalytic incineration 19 Flatwood Products 2435-36. 2515. 2519. basecoat. 3586-99       Thermal incinerator Catalytic incinerator Carbon adsorbers Waterborne coatings Powder coatings High solids coating 21. 2511-12. 2491-99  Waterborne coatings specially in filler and basecoat  Ultraviolet cure coatings  Afterburners  Carbon adsorption 11. 2522. 2531. 2599. sealer.TABLE C-1.22. TOLUENE SOURCE CATEGORIES IN SURFACE COATING OPERATIONSa (continued) General Source Category Adhesives and Sealants Associated SIC(s) 2891 Emission Point Sources  Adhesive application  Drying oven exhaust  Solvent mixing  Solvent storage  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources  Application area  Flashoff coating operations  Oven areas  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources  Application area  Flashoff area: Filler.18 Wood Products 2426-29. 2541.23. 3581-82. 2517. 2434.20 Misc. 2521. topcoat.
TOLUENE SOURCE CATEGORIES IN SURFACE COATING OPERATIONSa (continued) General Source Category Plastic Products Associated SIC(s) 2821. 3432. 3080. 3081-89. 3731 Emission Point Sources  Coating application  Flashoff area: flow coating. 2823. topcoat operating  Oven areas  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources Emissions reduction by process/product modification  Carbon adsorber  Thermal incinerator  Catalytic incinerator Additional References 25 Large Ships 3731 None 26 Large Aircraft 3721-28 Unknown 26 a References 1-6 . dip coating or spray application  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered can be considered potential emission sources  Coating application  Flashoff: prime coat operation. 3079.TABLE C-1. topcoat operation  Oven areas  Coating mixing  Coating and solvent storage  Equipment cleanup  All solvent used and not recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emission sources  Coating application  Flashoff: prime coat operation.
Fabrics. Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks. Volume 11: Surface Coating of Magnetic Wire. Volume 11: Surface Coating of Large Appliances. VOC Pollution Prevention Options for the Surface Coating Industry. NC. December 1968. Research Triangle Park. Environmental Protection Agency. 1991. 1980.S. Paper. DC. Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources. Ron Joseph and Associates.S. U. DC. Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources. Control of Volatile Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources. 1977. 10. U.S. 8. Recordkeeping Guidance Document for Surface Coating Operations and the Graphic Arts Industry. 2. December 1991. Environmental Protection Agency. 3. Environmental Protection Agency.REFERENCES FOR APPENDIX C 1. U. Workbook for presentation by Ron Joseph to EPA Region 1. Environmental Protection Agency. 4. 6. Volume I. U. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987. Environmental Protection Agency. 9.S. EPA-450/2-77034. EPA-450/277-033. 5. 1992. September 2 and 3.S. EPA-340/1-80-005.S. Washington. NC. Environmental and Coatings Training Program. Washington. EPA-450/4-91-016. Research Triangle Park. Research Triangle Park. NC. 1991. EPA-450/2-77-088. U. C-6 . Procedures from the Preparation of Emission Inventories for Carbon Monoxide and Precursors of Ozone. 1977 U. 1980. Washington. 1977. Alliance Technologies. DC. NC. Stationary Source Compliance Division. Research Triangle Park. EPA-340/1-88-003. U. Industrial Surface Coating: Appliances Background Information for Proposed Standards (Draft Environmental Impact Statement). "Control Technologies" Air Pollution Control: BNA Policy and Practice Series. Coils. NC. U. Research Triangle Park. Enforceability Aspects of RACT for Factory Surface Coating of Flat Wood Paneling. EPA-450/3-80-037A. VOC Control Policy in the United States: An Overview of Programs and Regulations. Inc. 11. 7. Environmental Protection Agency. NC. The Bureau of National Affairs. Volume 11: Surface Coating of Cans. Research Triangle Park.S.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Metal Coil Surface Coating Industry Background Information for Proposed Standards. Environmental Protection Agency. NC. 1980. EPA-450/3-80-036A. U. NC. 15. Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources. Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry Background Information for Proposed Standards. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park. NC.Background Information for Proposed Standards. Research Triangle Park. NC. Environmental Protection Agency.Background Information for Promulgated Standards. Environmental Protection Agency. 1980. 1978. 1983. 19. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-450/3-80-003A. NC. NC. NC. Research Triangle Park.S. Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry Background Information for Promulgated Standards of Performance. 13. 1980. Final Environmental Impact Statement Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Industry . 1978.S. Draft CTG. Control of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Wood Furniture Coating Operations. 14. EPA-450/2-78-015. Research Triangle Park. Volume 11: Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products. EPA-450/3-79030B. 1977. EPA-450/3-80-036B. Research Triangle Park.S. Volume 11: Surface Coating of Flatwood Paneling.S. 21. U. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Protection Agency.Background Information for Promulgated Standards. U. 1983. EPA-450/2-77-032.S. Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Industry . U. NC. EPA-450/3-80-003B. 20. Environmental Protection Agency.S.S. U. 22. 18. C-7 . Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources. Research Triangle Park.S.S. U. EPA-450/3-80-035A. Environmental Protection Agency.S. Research Triangle Park. October 1991. EPA-450/3-80-035B. EPA450/2-78-032. 16. NC. U. U. Research Triangle Park. Volume 11: Surface Coating of Metal Furniture.S. Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources. U. Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations . NC. Metal Coil Surface Coating Industry Background Information for Promulgated Standards. 1982. Research Triangle Park. Research Triangle Park. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Protection Agency. 1982. 17.12. U. U.
and wood furniture. NC. Research Triangle Park. 25. 1982.Background Information for Proposed Standards. Research Triangle Park. 1985. EPA /450-3-85-019a. Environmental Protection Agency.23. U. 26. Environmental Protection Agency. 1980. EPA-450/3-80-007A. U. 1980. Environmental Protection Agency. Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Background Information for Proposed Standards. Environmental Protection Agency. large aircraft. Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Background Information for Promulgated Standards. NC. U. Source Screening Study.S. EPA-450/3-80-007B. Document summarizes emission control technology for source categories including the surface coating of large ships. 24. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines . C-8 . Research Triangle Park.S. U. NC.S.S.
APPENDIX D SUMMARY OF EMISSION FACTORS LISTED IN THIS DOCUMENT D-1 .
c.4x10-4 lb/lb coke produced 1.105% toluene Coke oven leaks Process emissions-general Styrene purification Fugitive emissions Storage tank working losses Petroleum Refining Catalytic 2.TABLE D-1.65x10-4 lb/lb toluene produced -5 U U U 4-14 4-14 4-14 Toluene storage Cracking unit-production from catalytic formate Fugitive emissions-petroleum refining with cracking and reforming-Fugitives are 1. Cyclic Crudes and Intermediates SCC 40703616 40703616 30125805 SCC Description Organic Chemical Storage Organic Chemical Storage Organic Chemical Manufacture-Toluene production-general Organic Chemical Storage Emission Factor 0. n.e. n. Industrial Organic Chemicals.e.000 gallon throughput U U U U U 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-12 (Continued) .66 lb/1000 gallon throughput 3.6 lb/1000 gallon throughput 1.0x10 lb/lb toluene produced Cracking Petroleum Refining 21 lb/ton total hydrocarbon 2911 Petroleum Refining 306 Petroleum Refining 2.66 lb/1.17 g/kg styrene produced 10. SUMMARY OF TOLUENE EMISSION FACTORS (continued) SIC 2869 2869 2865 SIC Description Industrial Organic Chemicals.1 lb/ton total hydrocarbon U 4-14 3312 2865 2865 2865 2865 By-product Coke Manufacturing Cyclic Organic Crudes and Intermediates Cyclic Organic Crudes and Intermediates Cyclic Organic Crudes and Intermediates Cyclic Organic Crudes and Intermediates 303003 30120601 30120603 30120680 40703616 By-product Coke Manufacturing Styrene Production-General Styrene ProductionPurification Styrene Production-General Organic Chemical Storage 2.7x10-4 lb/lb toluene produced Quality Ratinga U U U Reference 4-12 4-12 4-14 Note Toluene storage-working loss Toluene storage-breathing loss Process emissions-general 2865 2911 2911 Cyclic Crudes and Intermediates Petroleum Refining Petroleum Refining 407036 306002 306 4.52 g/kg styrene produced 1.358 kg/process unit-annually 0.c.05% toluene Fugitive emissions-petroleum refining without cracking and reforming-Fugitives are 0.
5 mg/liter transferred Vessels-General (Continued) . SUMMARY OF TOLUENE EMISSION FACTORS (continued) SIC 2865 N/A N/A 4491 SIC Description Cyclic Organic Crudes and Intermediates N/A N/A Marine Cargo Handling SCC 40703615 N/A N/A 406002 SCC Description Organic Chemical Storage N/A N/A Emission Factor 3-6 lb/1.9 mg/liter transferred Vessels-General Petroleum Marketing-Marine 43.7 mg/liter transferred Loading-General Petroleum Marketing-Marine 19.TABLE D-1.22x10-5 lb/vehicle mile traveled 8.3 mg/liter transferred 4491 4491 4491 4491 Marine Cargo Handling Marine Cargo Handling Marine Cargo Handling Marine Cargo Handling 406002 406002 406002 406002 U U U U 4491 4491 4491 4491 Marine Cargo Handling Marine Cargo Handling Marine Cargo Handling Marine Cargo Handling 406002 406002 406002 406002 U U U U Petroleum Marketing-Marine 25.4 mg/liter transferred Vessels-General Petroleum Marketing-Marine 21.1 mg/liter transferred Vessels-General Petroleum Marketing-Marine 9.0 mg/liter transferred Vessels-General Petroleum Marketing-Marine 9.000 gallon throughput 2.46x10-4 lb/vehicle mile traveled Quality Ratinga U U U U Reference 4-12 6-26 6-26 6-2 6-32 6-2 6-32 6-2 6-32 6-2 6-32 6-2 6-32 6-2 6-32 6-2 6-32 6-2 6-32 6-2 6-32 Note Storage tank breathing losses Evaporation from automobile fuel tank Automobile exhaust Uncleaned ship/ocean bargevolatile previous cargouncontrolled Ballasted ship/ocean barge-volatile previous cargo-uncontrolled Cleaned ship/ocean barge-volatile previous cargo-uncontrolled Gas-freed ship/ocean barge-volatile previous cargo-uncontrolled Any ship/ocean barge-nonvolatile previous cargo-uncontrolled Typical ship/ocean barge-any previous cargo-uncontrolled Uncleaned barge-volatile previous cargo-uncontrolled Gas-freed ship/ocean barge-any previous cargo-uncontrolled Typical barge-any previous cargouncontrolled Petroleum Marketing-Marine 33.8 mg/liter transferred Vessels-General Marine Vessels-General 49.0 mg/liter transferred Vessels-General Petroleum Marketing-Marine 22.
SUMMARY OF TOLUENE EMISSION FACTORS (continued) SIC 5171 5171 5171 5171 SIC Description Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals SCC 404001 404001 404001 404001 SCC Description Bulk Terminals/ Miscellaneous Bulk Terminals/ Miscellaneous Bulk Terminals/Plants Loading Racks Bulk Terminals-Fixed Roof Tanks Bulk Terminals-Fixed Roof Tanks Bulk Terminals-Floating Roof Tanks Bulk Terminals-Floating Roof Tanks Bulk Plants-Fixed Roof Tanks Bulk Plants-Fixed Roof Tanks Bulk Plants-Fixed Roof Tanks Bulk Terminals/PlantsLoading Racks Emission Factor 151.000 l/day) 5171 404001 0.760 m3) 950.6 mg/liter gasoline transferred 121.680 m3) 950.89x10-7 Q Mg/yr/tank Q is throughput in barrels 1.000 liters/day with 4 storage tanks Working loss (typical tank capacity 5.9 mg/liter gasoline transferred U U U U (Continued) .9 mg/liter gasoline transferred 48.680 m3) 950. top or bottom Balance service loading of gasoline Working loss (typical tank capacity 2.9 mg/liter transferred 3.0 Mg/yr/tank gasoline U 5171 404001 U 5171 5171 5171 5171 404002 404002 404002 40400250 63.5 mg/liter transferred 103.000 liters/day terminal with 4 storage tanks Breathing loss (typical tank capacity 2.760 m3) 950.000 liters/day with 4 storage tanks Storage loss (typical tank capacity 5.9 Mg/yr/tank gasoline U 5171 404001 9.000 liters/day with 4 storage tanks Breathing loss-uncontrolled Filling loss-uncontrolled Draining loss-uncontrolled Submerged loading (Balance Service) (throughput 19.6 Mg/yr/tank gasoline Quality Ratinga U U U U Reference 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 Note Splash loading of gasoline Submerged loading of gasoline.8 mg/liter gasoline transferred 103.6 mg/liter transferred 62.TABLE D-1.
6 mg/liter gasoline transferred 62.000 liters/month) Vehicle refueling spillageuncontrolled (throughput 190.2 mg/liter gasoline stored Stations-Stage I-Balanced Petroleum Marketing-Service 12.3 mg/liter gasoline stored Stations-Stage I-No Control Petroleum Marketing-Service 146.TABLE D-1.7 mg/liter gasoline stored Stations-Stage I-BreathingUnderground Tanks Petroleum Marketing-Service 139.000 liters/month) Uncontrolled emissionsUnderground storage tank breathing loss (throughput 190.000 liters/month) Vehicle refueling-uncontrolled displacement losses (throughput 190.9 mg/liter gasoline stored Stations-Stage II-VaporControlled Displacement Petroleum Marketing-Service 8.000 liters/month) Vehicle refueling-controlled displacement losses (throughput 190.9 mg/liter gasoline stored Stations-Stage II-Liquid Spill-No Control N/A 0.000 l/day) Submerged loading (throughput 19.5 mg/liter gasoline transferred Quality Ratinga U U U Reference 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 Note Splash loading (throughput 19.000 liters/month) Particle board with carpetemissions from new product Petroleum Marketing-Service 93.000 l/day) Uncontrolled emissions-Submerged filling loss (throughput 190. SUMMARY OF TOLUENE EMISSION FACTORS (continued) SIC 5171 5171 5541 SIC Description Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals Gasoline Service Stations SCC 40400250 40400250 40600302 SCC Description Bulk Terminals/PlantsLoading Racks Bulk Terminals/PlantsLoading Racks Emission Factor 151.061 µg/m2/hr 5541 Gasoline Service Stations 40600301 U 5541 Gasoline Service Stations 40600306 U 5541 Gasoline Service Stations 40600307 U 5541 Gasoline Service Stations 40600401 U 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-28 6-32 6-34 5541 Gasoline Service Stations 40600403 U 5541 Gasoline Service Stations 40600402 U N/A N/A N/A E (Continued) .000 liters/month) Uncontrolled emissions-Balanced submerged filling loss (throughput 190.000 liters/month) Uncontrolled emissions-Splash filling loss (throughput 190.9 mg/liter gasoline stored Stations-Stage II-Vapor-No control Petroleum Marketing-Service 13.3 mg/liter gasoline stored Stations-Stage I Petroleum Marketing-Service 4.
SUMMARY OF TOLUENE EMISSION FACTORS (continued) SIC N/A N/A SIC Description SCC N/A N/A SCC Description Emission Factor 0.5 µg/g/hr E E 6-38 6-38 a "U" rating is based on engineering judgement. (Continued) .TABLE D-1.59 µg/g/hr Quality Ratinga E Reference 6-38 Note Synthetic rubber adhesive for walls and ceilings-post application emissions Synthetic rubber adhesive for vinyl carpet-post application emissions Unspecified polymer adhesive for subflooring-post application emissions N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 62 µg/g/hr 2.
104 kg/hr/source 0.228 kg/hr/source Quality Ratinga U U U U U U U U U U Reference 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 Note Fugitives-Gas/vapor pressure relief seals Fugitives-Flanges Fugitives-Open ended lines Fugitives-Sampling connections Fugitives-Gas valves Fugitives-Light liquid valves Fugitives-Heavy liquid valves Fugitives-Light liquid pump seals Fugitives-Heavy liquid pump seals Fugitives-Gas/vapor compressor seals a Note: To obtain toluene leak emission factor for each component.015 kg/hr/source 0.0017 kg/hr/source 0.0056 kg/hr/source 0. multiply VOC emission factor above by the fraction of toluene in the stream. SUMMARY OF VOC EMISSION FACTORS SIC 2869 2869 2869 2869 2869 2869 2869 2869 2869 2869 SIC Description Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals Industrial Organic Chemicals SCC 30125805 30125805 30125805 30125805 30125805 30125805 30125805 30125805 30125805 30125805 SCC Description Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Toluene Production-General Emission Factor 0. .00083 kg/hr/source 0.0071 kg/hr/source 0.0214 kg/hr/source 0. Based on engineering judgement.0494 kg/hr/source 0.00023 kg/hr/source 0.TABLE D-2.
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