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1997 UBC

ETABS®

Three Dimensional Analysis and Design of Building Systems

Shear Wall Design Manual for the 1997 UBC

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

First Edition March 2000

Copyright

The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 845-2177 FAX: (510) 845-4096 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

ã Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2000. The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. ETABS is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated

. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS. HOWEVER.DISCLAIMER CONSIDERABLE TIME. IN USING THE PROGRAM.

Following the chapter list is the expanded table of contents. the highlighted tabs at the edge of each page may help you locate the chapter more quickly. Here all section headers and subsection headers are listed along with their associated page numbers for each chapter in the manual. Subheadings are provided in the chapter list section to help give you a sense of how this manual is divided into several different parts. It shows you the chapter number (if applicable).C Contents Tip: If you are just getting started with ETABS Version 7 we suggest that you read Chapters 1 through 10 and then use the rest of the manual as a reference guide on an as-needed basis. chapter title and the pages that the chapter covers. The chapter list devotes one line to each chapter. When searching through the manual for a particular chapter. i . If you are new to ETABS we suggest that you read Chapters 1 through 10 and then use the rest of the manual as a reference guide on an as-needed basis. The Table of Contents for this manual consists of a chapter list followed by an expanded table of contents.

.. v to xi Notation and Introduction Chapter N......................... 1 Title Pages Notation................................................. 1-1 to 1-5 Information on How to Design Shear Walls Chapter 2 3 4 Title Pages Shear Wall Design Process.............Notation-1 to Notation-8 Introduction ............... Title Pages Chapter List................. 2-1 to 2-10 Design Menu Commands for Shear Wall Design.. N... A.......................... i to iii Expanded Table of Contents.......................Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC C Shear Wall Design Manual Chapter List Contents Chapter N............................. 3-1 to 3-5 Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review ........ A............... 4-1 to 4-18 ii .......... A............................

.........11-1 to 11-6 1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design . 6-1 to 6-6 Wall Spandrel Design Sections......... 9-1 to 9-14 1997 UBC Design Load Combinations ..... 8-1 to 8-4 1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Overwrites.......................................12-1 to 12-18 1997 UBC Wall Pier Shear Design .......... 7-1 to 7-4 1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Preferences ...................Contents Background Information for Shear Wall Design Chapter 5 6 7 8 9 10 Title Pages General Design Information .............10-1 to 10-6 C Shear Wall Design Algorithms Chapter 11 12 13 14 15 Title Pages 1997 UBC Wall Pier Boundary Elements...................................................................16-1 to 16-2 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model......................................19-1 to 19-27 iii .............14-1 to 14-10 1997 UBC Spandrel Shear Design .........18-1 to 18-9 Printed Design Output Data .......17-1 to 17-9 Printed Design Input Data.......... 5-1 to 5-9 Wall Pier Design Sections....................................................................15-1 to 15-5 Shear Wall Design Output Chapter 16 17 18 19 Title Pages Overview of Shear Wall Output......13-1 to 13-4 1997 UBC Spandrel Flexural Design .......

txt File 1-4 Recommended Initial Reading 1-5 CHAPTER 2: SHEAR WALL DESIGN PROCESS Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Concentrated Reinforcing 2-2 Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Uniform Reinforcing 2-4 Typical Design Process for 3D Piers 2-7 CHAPTER 3: DESIGN MENU COMMANDS FOR SHEAR WALL DESIGN Select Design Combo 3-1 View/Revise Pier Overwrites 3-2 View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites 3-2 Define Pier Sections for Checking 3-3 Assign Pier Sections for Checking 3-3 Start Design/Check of Structure 3-3 Interactive Wall Design 3-4 Display Design Info 3-4 Reset All Pier/Spandrel Overwrites 3-4 iv .Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC C Shear Wall Design Manual .Expanded Contents NOTATION CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Overview 1-1 Wall Pier Design 1-2 Wall Spandrel Design 1-3 Organization of Manual 1-4 Other Reference Information 1-4 ETABS Help 1-4 Readme.

Contents Delete Wall Design Results 3-4 CHAPTER 4: INTERACTIVE SHEAR WALL DESIGN AND REVIEW General 4-1 Interactive Pier Design and Review 4-2 Design of a Simplified Section 4-2 General Identification Data 4-2 Flexural Design Data 4-3 Tension Design 4-3 Compression Design 4-4 Shear Design Data 4-4 Boundary Element Check Data 4-5 Design of a Section Designer Section 4-6 General Identification Data 4-6 Flexural Design Data 4-7 Shear Design Data 4-8 Boundary Element Check Data 4-8 Check of a Section Designer Section 4-9 General Identification Data 4-10 Flexural Design Data 4-10 Shear Design Data 4-11 Boundary Element Check Data 4-11 Combos Button 4-12 Overwrites Button 4-13 Section Top and Section Bot Buttons 4-13 Interactive Spandrel Design and Review 4-14 General Identification Data 4-14 Flexural Design Data 4-14 Top Steel 4-14 C v .

Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC C Bottom Steel 4-15 Shear Design Data 4-16 Design Data for all Spandrels 4-16 Additional Design Data for Seismic Spandrels Only 4-17 Combos Button 4-17 Overwrites Button 4-18 CHAPTER 5: GENERAL DESIGN INFORMATION Defining Piers and Spandrels 5-1 Analysis Sections versus Design Sections 5-2 Units 5-3 Design Station Locations 5-4 Design Load Combinations 5-5 Wall Meshing and Gravity Loading 5-5 Using Frame Elements to Model Spandrels 5-8 CHAPTER 6: WALL PIER DESIGN SECTIONS General 6-1 Simplified Pier Design Dimensions and Properties 6-2 Design Dimensions 6-2 How ETABS Calculates the Default Dimensions 6-3 Material Properties 6-4 Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear 6-5 CHAPTER 7: WALL SPANDREL DESIGN SECTIONS Wall Spandrel Design Dimensions 7-1 Default Design Dimensions 7-3 Default Design Material Property 7-4 vi .

Contents CHAPTER 8: 1997 UBC SHEAR WALL DESIGN PREFERENCES General 8-1 Shear Wall Preferences 8-2 CHAPTER 9: 1997 UBC SHEAR WALL DESIGN OVERWRITES General 9-1 Pier Design Overwrites 9-2 LL Reduction Factor 9-8 EQ Factor 9-9 User-Defined Edge Members 9-10 Spandrel Design Overwrites 9-10 Making Changes in the Overwrites Dialog Box 9-13 CHAPTER 10: 1997 UBC DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS Default Design Load Combinations 10-1 Dead Load Component 10-2 Live Load Component 10-3 Wind Load Component 10-3 Earthquake Load Component 10-3 Design Load Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum 10-4 Design Load Combinations that Include Time History Results 10-5 Design Load Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear Results 10-6 CHAPTER 11: 1997 UBC WALL PIER BOUNDARY ELEMENTS Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements 11-1 Example 11-5 CHAPTER 12: 1997 UBC WALL PIER FLEXURAL DESIGN Overview 12-1 C vii .

Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC C Designing a Simplified Pier Section 12-1 Design Condition 1 12-3 Design Condition 2 12-6 Design Condition 3 12-6 Checking a Section Designer Pier Section 12-7 Interaction Surface 12-7 General 12-7 Formulation of the Interaction Surface 12-8 Details of the Strain Compatibility Analysis 12-12 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio 12-15 Designing a Section Designer Pier Section 12-17 CHAPTER 13: 1997 UBC WALL PIER SHEAR DESIGN General 13-1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 13-2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 13-3 Seismic and Nonseismic Piers 13-3 Additional Requirements for Seismic Piers 13-3 CHAPTER 14: 1997 UBC SPANDREL FLEXURAL DESIGN General 14-1 Determining the Maximum Factored Moments 14-2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 14-2 Rectangular Beam Flexural Reinforcing 14-3 Tension Reinforcing Only Required 14-4 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required 14-4 T-Beam Flexural Reinforcing 14-6 Tension Reinforcing Only Required 14-8 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required 14-9 viii .

Contents CHAPTER 15: 1997 UBC SPANDREL SHEAR DESIGN General 15-1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 15-2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 15-3 Seismic and Nonseismic Spandrels 15-3 Seismic Spandrels Only 15-5 CHAPTER 16: OVERVIEW OF SHEAR WALL OUTPUT General 16-1 CHAPTER 17: OUTPUT DATA PLOTTED DIRECTLY ON THE MODEL Overview 17-1 Design Input 17-2 Material 17-2 Thickness 17-3 Pier Length and Spandrel Depth 17-4 Section Designer Pier Sections 17-5 Design Output 17-5 Simplified Pier Longitudinal Reinforcing 17-5 Simplified Pier Edge Members 17-5 Section Designer Pier Reinforcing Ratios 17-6 Section Designer Pier Demand/Capacity Ratios 17-6 Spandrel Longitudinal Reinforcing 17-7 Shear Reinforcing 17-7 Spandrel Diagonal Shear Reinforcing 17-8 Pier Boundary Zones 17-8 CHAPTER 18: PRINTED DESIGN INPUT DATA Preferences 18-1 C ix .

Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC C Flags and Factors 18-1 Rebar Units 18-2 Simplified Pier Reinforcing Ratio Limits 18-2 Interaction Surface Data 18-3 Input Summary 18-3 Pier Location Data 18-3 Pier Basic Overwrite Data 18-4 Pier Geometry Data (Simplified Section) 18-5 Pier Geometry Data (Section Designer Section) 18-6 Spandrel Location Data 18-7 Spandrel Basic Overwrite Data 18-8 Spandrel Geometry Data 18-8 CHAPTER 19: PRINTED DESIGN OUTPUT DATA Output Summary 19-1 Simplified Pier Section Design 19-1 Section Designer Pier Section Design 19-2 Section Designer Pier Section Check 19-4 Spandrel Design 19-5 Required Reinforcing Steel 19-5 Detailed Output Data 19-6 Simplified Pier Section Design 19-6 Location Data 19-6 Flags and Factors 19-7 Material and Geometry Data 19-8 Flexural Design Data 19-8 Tension Design 19-8 Compression Design 19-9 Shear Design Data 19-10 x .

Bottom Steel 19-25 Shear Design Data 19-25 Additional Shear Design Data for Seismic Spandrels 19-26 Additional Overwrite Information 19-27 INDEX C xi .Contents Boundary Element Check Data 19-10 Additional Overwrite Information 19-11 Section Designer Pier Section Design 19-12 Location Data 19-12 Flags and Factors 19-12 Material and Geometry Data 19-13 Flexural Design Data 19-14 Shear Design Data 19-15 Boundary Element Check Data 19-16 Additional Overwrite Information 19-17 Section Designer Pier Section Check 19-17 Location Data 19-17 Flags and Factors 19-18 Material and Geometry Data 19-18 Flexural Design Data 19-19 Shear Design Data 19-20 Boundary Element Check Data 19-20 Additional Overwrite Information 19-21 Spandrel Design 19-22 Location Data 19-22 Flags and Factors 19-23 Material and Geometry Data 19-23 Flexural Design Data .Top Steel 19-24 Flexural Design Data .

= Area of reinforcing steel required for compression in a pier edge member.1 . the required area of tension steel required to balance the compression steel force in a wall spandrel. tp. Lp. = Minimum required area of distributed horizontal reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel. inches2. = Gross area of a wall pier edge member. and the web thickness.N Notation 1997 UBC Notation Following is the notation used in this design manual. Ag Ah-min As Asc Notation . inches2. inches2. As much as possible. inches2 / in. = Area of reinforcing steel. the notation used in this manual is the same as that in the 1997 UBC. inches2. or. Acv = Net area of a wall pier bounded by the length of the wall pier.

inches2. pounds.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Asc-max = Maximum area of compression reinforcing steel in a pier edge member. = Minimum required area of distributed vertical reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel. = Area of reinforcing steel required for tension in a pier edge member. = Compression force in wall pier or spandrel reinforcing steel. inches2. Notation . = Area of diagonal shear reinforcement in a coupling beam. N Ast Ast-max = Maximum area of tension reinforcing steel in a pier edge member. Asw A's B1. Av Avd Av-min = Area of reinforcing steel required for shear. = The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in a rectangular concrete beam. = Area of compression reinforcing steel in a spandrel.2 .= Length of a concrete edge member in a wall with uniform thickness.. inches2. inches. or for balancing the concrete compression force in the concrete web of a T-beam. Cc Cf Cs = Concrete compression force in a wall pier or spandrel. inches2. inches2. inches2 / in. inches2. inches2 / in. pounds. = Concrete compression force in the extruding portion of a T-beam flange. inches2. Asf = The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in the extruding portion of the concrete flange of a Tbeam. pounds.. B2.

inches. See the section titled "Earthquake Load Component" in Chapter 10. = Horizontal length of wall pier. psi. = Dead load. This can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier. This can be different on the left and right sides of the pier. and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier. unitless. unitless.Notation Cw D/C DB1 = Concrete compression force in the web of a Tbeam. pound-inches. = Width of a user-defined wall pier edge member. = Horizontal length of wall spandrel. inches. N DB2 DL E Es IP-max = The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. IP-min = The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. See Figure 6-1. = Demand/Capacity ratio as measured on an interaction curve for a wall pier. This can be different on the left and right sides of the pier. = Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel. = Length of a user-defined wall pier edge member.3 . pounds. = The earthquake load on a structure. LBZ Lp Ls LL Mn = Horizontal length of the boundary zone at each end of a wall pier. = Live load. See Figure 6-1. unitless. inches. and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier. Notation . inches. = Nominal bending strength. inches.

= Limit on the maximum compressive design strength specified by the 1997 UBC. pound-inches. = The axial force in a wall pier at a balanced strain condition. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier. N Muf Mus Muw OC OL Pb Pleft Pmax Notation . the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Mu Muc = Factored bending moment at a design section. = In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing. the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel. pound-inches. pounds. the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in the extruding portion of the flange and the tension steel. = In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression reinforcing. pounds. = In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing. pound-inches. = Equivalent axial force in the left edge member of a wall pier used for design. pounds. pound-inches. = On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the capacity associated with the point considered.4 . = In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression reinforcing. pound-inches. = On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the point considered. the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in the web and the tension steel.

pounds. = Nominal axial load strength of a wall pier. unitless. pounds. pounds. unitless.5 . = Shear strength reduction factor as specified in the concrete material properties. pounds. = Equivalent axial force in the right edge member of a wall pier used for design. = The portion of the shear force carried by the concrete. = Tension force in wall pier reinforcing steel. = The maximum compression force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one. unitless. N Pot Pright Pu PCmax = Maximum ratio of compression steel in an edge member of a wall pier. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier. = The maximum tension force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one. PTmax RLW = Maximum ratio of tension steel in an edge member of a wall pier. Pn PO Poc = Nominal axial strength. You can revise this factor in the preferences. pounds.80. pounds. The 1997 UBC specifies this factor to be 0. RLL Ts Vc Notation . This reduction factor applies to light weight concrete. = Factored axial force at a design section.Notation Pmax Factor = Factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. pounds. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. = Reduced live load. pounds. unitless.

Shear Wall Design Manual

1997 UBC Vn Vs Vu WL a ab a1 bs = Nominal shear strength, pounds. = The portion of the shear force in a spandrel carried by the shear reinforcing steel, pounds. = Factored shear force at a design section, pounds. = Wind load. = Depth of the wall pier or spandrel compression block, inches. = Depth of the compression block in a wall spandrel for balanced strain conditions, inches. = Depth of the compression block in the web of a T-beam, inches. = Width of the compression flange in a T-beam, inches. This can be different on the left and right end of the T-beam. = Distance from the extreme compression fiber of the wall pier or spandrel to the neutral axis, inches. = Distance from the extreme compression fiber of a spandrel to the neutral axis for balanced strain conditions, inches. = Distance from bottom of spandrel beam to centroid of the bottom reinforcing steel, inches. This can be different on the left and right end of the spandrel. = Distance from top of spandrel beam to centroid of the top reinforcing steel, inches. This can be different on the left and right end of the spandrel. = Depth of the compression flange in a T-beam, inches. This can be different on the left and right end of the T-beam.

N

c

cb

dr-bot

dr-top

ds

dspandrel = Depth of spandrel beam minus cover to centroid of reinforcing, inches.

Notation - 6

Notation fy fys f'c f's hs pmax = Yield strength of steel reinforcing, psi. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations. = Yield strength of steel reinforcing, psi. This value is used for shear design calculations. = Concrete compressive strength, psi. = Stress in compression steel of a wall spandrel, psi. = Height of a wall spandrel, inches. This can be different on the left and right end of the spandrel. = Maximum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Section Designer section that is designed (not checked), unitless. = Minimum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Section Designer section that is designed (not checked), unitless. = Thickness of a wall pier, inches. This can be different at the top and bottom of the pier. = Thickness of a wall spandrel, inches. This can be different on the left and right end of the spandrel. = The sum of all dead load cases. = The sum of all live load cases.

N

pmin

tp ts ΣDL ΣLL

ΣRLL = The sum of all reduced live load cases. α β1 = The angle between the diagonal reinforcing and the longitudinal axis of a coupling beam. = Unitless factor defined in Section 1910.2.7.3 of the 1997 UBC. = Reinforcing steel strain, unitless. = Reinforcing steel strain in a wall pier, unitless.

ε εs

Notation - 7

Shear Wall Design Manual

1997 UBC

N

ε's

φ φb φc

= Compression steel strain in a wall spandrel, unitless. = Strength reduction factor, unitless. = Strength reduction factor for bending, unitless. The default value is 0.9. = Strength reduction factor for bending plus high axial compression in a concrete pier, unitless. The default value is 0.7. = Strength reduction factor for shear in a nonseismic pier or spandrel, unitless. The default value is 0.85. = Strength reduction factor for shear in a seismic pier or spandrel, unitless. The default value is 0.6. = Reliability/redundancy factor specified in Section 1630.1.1 of the 1997 UBC, unitless. = Reinforcing steel stress in a wall pier, psi.

φvns

φvs ρ σs

Notation - 8

ETABS shear wall design is fully integrated into the ETABS graphical user interface. composite beams and concrete shear walls. study the design results. The ETABS graphical interface provides an environment where you can easily design shear walls. Overview Note: ETABS shear wall design is fully integrated into the ETABS graphical user interface. 1-1 .1 Chapter 1 Introduction ETABS features powerful and completely integrated modules for the design of steel and concrete frames. This manual documents design of concrete shear walls using the 1997 UBC in ETABS. Designs are based on a set of ETABS-defined default design load combinations that can be supplemented by user-defined load combinations. make appropriate changes (such as revising member properties) and re-examine the design results. The goal of this manual is to provide you with all of the information required to reproduce the ETABS Shear Wall Design postprocessor results using hand calculations.

For this option. For this option. The pier design geometry used in this simplified design is defined in the pier design overwrites. 2.and three-dimensional design of the pier. the important items in the rebar layout are the bar location and the actual size of each bar. Wall Pier Design The ETABS Shear Wall Design postprocessor can perform twoor three-dimensional designs of wall piers. You can view or print as much or as little design output as necessary. Use Section Designer to specify the pier design geometry and rebar layout. 1-2 Overview . Use Section Designer to specify the pier design geometry and rebar layout. It also reports the percentage of reinforcing steel actually specified in your rebar layout so that you can gain some perspective on the actual bar sizes that might be required. Perform a simplified design that yields concentrated areas of reinforcing at the ends of the pier. The ETABS Shear Wall Design postprocessor designs both wall piers and wall spandrels. The following two subsections discuss each of these items. ETABS then reports the percentage of reinforcing steel required to resist the applied loads based on your pier geometry and rebar layout. This pier design option allows you to verify your final design and it is available for both twoand three-dimensional design of the pier. They are: 1. There are three different options available in ETABS for the consideration of flexural reinforcement. shear reinforcement and boundary element requirements. the important items in the rebar layout are the bar location and the relative size of each bar (relative to other bars). This option is only available if you perform a two-dimensional design of the pier. When ETABS designs a wall pier it considers flexural reinforcement. This option is available for both two. ETABS then reports the maximum demand capacity ratio for the pier based on the pier geometry and rebar layout. We strongly recommend that even if you initially use one of the other design options that you always complete your pier design using this option. 3.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC 1 You have complete control over the program output.

There is no mechanism available in ETABS to specify the pier shear reinforcing and have it verified by the program.Chapter 1 . Overview 1-3 . The process ETABS uses to derive the dimensions for this effective rectangular section is described in Chapter 6.Introduction When the flexural design for the pier is based on a simplified section (item 1 above). 1 Wall Spandrel Design In ETABS wall spandrels must be two-dimensional. the shear design and boundary check are performed at the bottom of the pier only and are based on an effective rectangular section. and the required shear reinforcement. The spandrel design geometry is defined in the spandrel design overwrites. it designs the shear reinforcing. For three-dimensional piers two effective sections are defined. ETABS only designs spandrels. Note that when the ETABS Shear Wall Design postprocessor checks specified flexural reinforcing (item 3 above). When the flexural design is based on a Section Designer section (items 2 and 3 above) . The design geometry may be either a rectangular beam or a T-beam. There is no mechanism available in ETABS to specify the spandrel reinforcing (flexural or shear reinforcing) and have it verified by the program. You can revise the dimensions of this effective section in the pier design overwrites. the shear design and boundary check are performed at the top and bottom of the pier and are based on the same simplified section. When ETABS designs a wall spandrel it reports required areas of concentrated flexural reinforcement at the top and bottom of the spandrel. One is for shear in the pier local 2-axis direction and the other is for shear in the pier local 3axis direction. it does not check them.

You can also access contextsensitive help by pressing the F1 function key on your keyboard when a dialog box is displayed.txt file that is on your CD. • • • Chapter 1 (this chapter): General introduction. Chapters 16 through 19: Documentation of the 1997 UBC concrete shear wall output. Chapters 5 through 10: Documentation of background information for 1997 UBC concrete shear wall design using ETABS. If you download an updated version of the program be sure to download and read the updated readme. Chapters 11 through 15: Documentation of the 1997 UBC concrete shear wall design algorithm used by ETABS. 1-4 Organization of Manual . Readme.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC 1 Organization of Manual This manual is organized as follows: Tip: We recommend that you read Chapters 1 through 10 of this manual and then use the rest of the manual as a reference guide on an as-needed basis. This provides the latest information about the program.txt file may provide updates to what is published in this manual.txt file. Some of the information in the readme. • • Other Reference Information ETABS Help You can access the ETABS Help by clicking the Help menu > Search for Help On command. Chapters 2 through 4: Information on how to use ETABS to design shear walls.txt File Be sure to read the readme.

1 Recommended Initial Reading 1-5 .Introduction Recommended Initial Reading We recommend that you initially read Chapters 1 through 10 of this manual. You can then use the remainder of this manual as a reference on an as-needed basis.Chapter 1 .

Note: Shear wall design in ETABS is an iterative process. The three types of pier design considered in this chapter are: • • • Two-dimensional pier design resulting in concentrated reinforcing at the ends of the piers.2 Chapter 2 Shear Wall Design Process This chapter describes three typical shear wall design processes that might occur for a new building. Three dimensional pier design. The design process used varies slightly depending on the type of wall pier design that you want to do. Note that the sequence of steps you may take in any particular design may vary from this but the basic process will be essentially the same. Two-dimensional pier design resulting in relatively uniformly distributed reinforcing in the piers. 2-1 .

Create the building model.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Concentrated Reinforcing 2 Note: See Chapter 8 for discussion of the shear wall preferences. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Shear Wall Design command to review the shear wall design preferences and revise them if necessary. Note: See Chapter 9 for discussion of the shear wall overwrites. Assign the wall pier and wall spandrel labels. Note that there are default values provided for all shear wall design preferences so it is not actually necessary for you to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default preference values. the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Spandrel Label. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after the analysis is run. 4. Note that you must select piers or spandrels first before using these commands. Assign shear wall overwrites. 1. 2. Refer to the ETABS User's Manual for additional information on pier and spandrel labeling. Also note that there are default values provided for all pier and spandrel design overwrites so it is not actually necessary for you to define any overwrites unless you want to change some of the default overwrite values. Important note about selecting piers and spandrels: You can select a pier or spandrel simply by selecting any line or area object that is part of the pier or spandrel. 2-2 Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Concentrated Reinforcing . using the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Pier Overwrites and the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites commands. the Assign menu > Shell/Area > Pier Label. and the Assign menu > Shell/Area > Spandrel Label commands to do this. 3. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Pier Label. if needed. 5.

7. If desired.Shear Wall Design Process 6. 10. Create wall pier check sections with user-defined (actual) reinforcing specified for the wall piers using the Section Designer utility. Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. revise the wall pier and/or spandrel overwrites. This is a very powerful tool. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Shear Wall Design command to print shear wall design data. Note that while you are in this mode you can revise overwrites and immediately see the new design results. 8. c. If you select a few piers or spandrels before using this command then data is printed only for the selected elements. Be sure to indicate that the re- Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Concentrated Reinforcing 2-3 . Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command.Chapter 2 . 9. Repeat this step as many times as needed. Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the shear wall design. rerun the shear wall design. and review the results again. If you want to use any design load combinations other than the default ones created by ETABS for your shear wall design then click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Select Design Combo command. 2 b. Note: See Chapter 4 for discussion of interactive shear wall design. To do this you might do one of the following: a. Review the shear wall design results. If you are not currently displaying design results you can click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design mode for that element. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Define Pier Sections for Checking command to define the sections in Section Designer. Right click on a pier or spandrel while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive wall design mode.

Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC inforcing is to be checked in the Pier Section Data dialog box. 14. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Assign Pier Sections for Checking command to assign these sections to the piers. 16. You can change your wall design dimensions and reinforcing during the design process without rerunning the analysis. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Pier Label. If necessary. Refer to the ETABS User's Manual for additional information on pier and spandrel labeling. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Shear Wall Design command to review the shear wall design preferences and revise them if necessary. revise the geometry or reinforcing in the Section Designer section and rerun the design check. Print or display selected shear wall design results if desired. Assign the wall pier and wall spandrel labels. 2-4 Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Uniform Reinforcing . 15. and the Assign menu > Shell/Area > Spandrel Label commands to do this. the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Spandrel Label. Note: See Chapter 8 for discussion of the shear wall preferences. 2 11. Rerun the design and verify that the actual flexural reinforcing provided is adequate. Note that shear wall design is performed as an iterative process. Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Uniform Reinforcing 13. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Note that there are default values provided for all shear wall design preferences so it is not actually necessary for you to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default preference values. the Assign menu > Shell/Area > Pier Label. 12. Create the building model.

Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after the analysis is run. Also note that there are default values provided for all pier and spandrel design overwrites so it is not actually necessary for you to define any overwrites unless you want to change some of the default overwrite values. that is.Shear Wall Design Process 17. the size of one rebar in the pier section to the other bars in the section. Note that at this point the actual bar size specified in the Section Designer pier sections is not important. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Define Pier Sections for Checking command to define the sections in Section Designer. Assign shear wall overwrites.Chapter 2 . Note that you must select piers or spandrels first before using these commands. if needed. 18. 19. using the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Pier Overwrites and the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites commands. Note: See Chapter 9 for discussion of the shear wall overwrites. Important note about selecting piers and spandrels: You can select a pier or spandrel simply by selecting any line or area object that is part of the pier or spandrel. Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the shear wall design. If you want to use any design load combinations other than the default ones created by ETABS for your shear wall design then click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Select Design Combo command. 2 Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Uniform Reinforcing 2-5 . The program always maintains this relationship. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Assign Pier Sections for Checking command to assign these sections to the piers. What is important is the relative bar size. Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command. Create wall pier design sections with actual rebar placement specified for the wall piers using the Section Designer utility. Be sure to indicate that the reinforcing is to be designed in the Pier Section Data dialog box. 20.

22. 23. revise the wall pier and/or spandrel overwrites. This is a very powerful tool. Be sure to indicate that the reinforcing is to be checked (not designed) in the Pier Section Data dialog box. Modify the Section Designer wall pier sections to reflect the actual desired reinforcing bar location and sizes. b. If you are not currently displaying design results you can click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design mode for that element. If necessary. rerun the shear wall design. 25. Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Define Pier Sections for Checking command to modify the sections in Section Designer. 2-6 Typical Design Process for 2D Piers with Uniform Reinforcing . a. and review the results again. revise the geometry or reinforcing in the Section Designer section and rerun the design check. If you select a few piers or spandrels before using this command then data is printed only for the selected elements. If desired. Print or display selected shear wall design results if desired. Rerun the design and verify that the actual flexural reinforcing provided is adequate. Repeat this step as many times as needed. c. To do this you might do one of the following: 2 Note: See Chapter 4 for discussion of interactive shear wall design. Review the shear wall design results. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Shear Wall Design command to print shear wall design data.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC 21. Right click on a pier or spandrel while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive wall design mode. 24. Note that while you are in this mode you can revise overwrites and immediately see the new design results.

Create the building model. Assign wall pier and wall spandrel labels for the 2D design. Refer to the ETABS User's Manual for additional information on pier and spandrel labeling. Note that you must select piers or spandrels first before using these commands. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Shear Wall Design command to review the shear wall design preferences and revise them if necessary. Typical Design Process for 3D Piers 2-7 . Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Assign shear wall overwrites. You can change your wall design dimensions and reinforcing during the design process without rerunning the analysis. Also note that there are default values provided for all pier and spandrel design overwrites so it is not actually necessary for you to define any overwrites unless you want to change some of the default overwrite values. Note that there are default values provided for all shear wall design preferences so it is not actually necessary for you to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default preference values. Note: See Chapter 9 for discussion of the shear wall overwrites. 2. the Assign menu > Shell/Area > Pier Label. 4. Typical Design Process for 3D Piers 1. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Pier Label. Initially it is useful to perform a 2D design so that a shear check is performed. 2 Note: See Chapter 8 for discussion of the shear wall preferences. 3. and the Assign menu > Shell/Area > Spandrel Label commands to do this.Chapter 2 .Shear Wall Design Process Note that shear wall design is performed as an iterative process. if needed. the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Spandrel Label. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after the analysis is run. using the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Pier Overwrites and the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites commands. 5.

If you select a few piers or spandrels before using this command then data is printed only for the selected elements. Repeat this step as many times as needed. 9. Note: See Chapter 4 for discussion of interactive shear wall design. Review the shear wall design results. Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command. 8. 2 6. If desired. Right click on a pier or spandrel while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive wall design mode. 7. rerun the shear wall design. c.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Important note about selecting piers and spandrels: You can select a pier or spandrel simply by selecting any line or area object that is part of the pier or spandrel. Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the shear wall design. b. 2-8 Typical Design Process for 3D Piers . If you are not currently displaying design results you can click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design mode for that element. To do this you might do one of the following: a. If you want to use any design load combinations other than the default ones created by ETABS for your shear wall design then click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Select Design Combo command. and review the results again. revise the wall pier and/or spandrel overwrites. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Shear Wall Design command to print shear wall design data. Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. Note that while you are in this mode you can revise overwrites and immediately see the new design results. This is a very powerful tool.

the size of one rebar in the pier section to the other bars in the section. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Define Pier Sections for Checking command to modify the sections in Section Designer. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Define Pier Sections for Checking command to define the sections in Section Designer. 15. Rerun the design and verify that the actual flexural reinforcing provided is adequate. 11. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Assign Pier Sections for Checking command to assign these sections to the piers. If desired. relabel the wall piers so that you can perform a 3D design.Chapter 2 . Repeat this step as many times as needed. The program always maintains this relationship. 2 Typical Design Process for 3D Piers 2-9 . rerun the shear wall design. When you are satisfied with the shear design. Be sure to indicate that the reinforcing is to be designed in the Pier Section Data dialog box. Review the shear wall design results. 12. revise the wall pier and/or spandrel overwrites. and review the results again. If necessary. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Pier Label and the Assign menu > Shell/Area > Pier Label commands to do this. Create wall pier design sections with actual rebar placement specified for the wall piers using the Section Designer utility. revise the geometry or reinforcing in the Section Designer section and rerun the design check. Be sure to indicate that the reinforcing is to be checked (not designed) in the Pier Section Data dialog box. Note that at this point the actual bar size specified in the Section Designer pier sections is not important.Shear Wall Design Process 10. Modify the Section Designer wall pier sections to reflect the actual desired reinforcing bar location and sizes. 14. Refer to the ETABS User's Manual for additional information on pier and spandrel labeling. that is. 16. 13. What is important is the relative bar size. Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the shear wall design.

You can change your wall design dimensions and reinforcing during the design process without rerunning the analysis. 2 2 . Note that shear wall design is performed as an iterative process.10 Typical Design Process for 3D Piers . Print or display selected shear wall design results if desired.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC 17.

Here you can review the default shear wall design load combinations defined by ETABS and/or you can designate your own design load combinations. In the dialog box all of the available design load combinations are listed in the List of Combos list box. The design load combinations actually used in the design are listed in the Design Combos list box. You can use the Add button and the Remove button to move load combinations into and out of the Design Combos list box. You can find these commands by clicking Design menu > Shear Wall Design. Use the Show button to see the definition of a design 3-1 . Select Design Combo Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Select Design Combo command to open the Design Load Combinations Selection dialog box.3 Chapter 3 Design Menu Commands for Shear Wall Design This chapter describes each of the shear wall design menu commands that are available in ETABS.

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3

load combination. All three buttons act on the highlighted design load combination. You can use the Ctrl and Shift keys to make multiple selections in this dialog box for use with the Add and Remove buttons, if desired. The default shear wall design load combinations have names like DWAL1, etc.

**View/Revise Pier Overwrites
**

Note: See Chapter 9 for discussion of the shear wall overwrites.

Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Pier Overwrites command to review and/or change the wall pier overwrites. You may not need to assign any wall pier overwrites; however the option is always available to you. The wall pier design overwrites are basic properties that apply only to the piers that they are specifically assigned to. Note that inputting 0 for most pier overwrite items means to use the ETABS default value for that item. You can select one or more piers for which you want to specify overwrites. In the overwrites form there is a checkbox to the left of each item. You must check this box for any item you want to change in the overwrites. If the check box for an overwrite item is not checked when you click the OK button to exit the overwrites form, then no changes are made to the pier overwrite item. This is true whether you have one pier selected or multiple piers selected.

**View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites
**

Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites command to review and/or change the wall spandrel overwrites. You may not need to assign any wall spandrel overwrites; however the option is always available to you. The wall spandrel design overwrites are basic properties that apply only to the spandrels that they are specifically assigned to. Note that inputting 0 for most spandrel overwrite items means to use the ETABS default value for that item.

3-2

View/Revise Pier Overwrites

Chapter 3 - Design Menu Commands for Shear Wall Design You can select one or more spandrels for which you want to specify overwrites. In the overwrites form there is a checkbox to the left of each item. You must check this box for any item you want to change in the overwrites. If the check box for an item is not checked when you click the OK button to exit the overwrites form then no changes are made to the item. This is true whether you have one spandrel selected or multiple spandrels selected.

3

**Define Pier Sections for Checking
**

To define a pier section with reinforcing for checking click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Define Pier Sections for Checking command. This command allows you to define a pier section using the Section Designer utility. See the Section Designer Manual for more information.

**Assign Pier Sections for Checking
**

Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Assign Pier Sections for Checking command to assign a pier a section that has been defined using the Section Designer utility.

**Start Design/Check of Structure
**

To run a shear wall design simply click Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure. This option will not be available if you have not first run a building analysis. It will also be unavailable if there are no piers or spandrels defined (i.e., assigned a pier or spandrel label) in the model. If you have selected piers and/or spandrels when you click this command then only the selected piers and/or spandrels are designed. If no piers and/or spandrels are selected when you click this command then all piers and spandrels are designed.

Define Pier Sections for Checking

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**Interactive Wall Design
**

Note:

3

See Chapter 4 for discussion of interactive shear wall design.

Right click on a pier or spandrel while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the pier or spandrel in the Wall Design dialog box. If you are not currently displaying design results you can click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design mode for that pier or spandrel.

**Display Design Info
**

You can review some of the results of the shear wall design directly on the ETABS model using the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command. The types of things you can display are reinforcing requirements, capacity ratios and boundary element requirements.

**Reset All Pier/Spandrel Overwrites
**

Note: See Chapter 9 for discussion of the shear wall overwrites.

The Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Reset All Pier/Spandrel Overwrites command resets the pier and spandrel overwrites for all pier and spandrel elements back to their default values. It is not necessary to make a selection before using the Reset All Pier/Spandrel Overwrites command. This command automatically applies to all pier and spandrel elements.

**Delete Wall Design Results
**

The Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Delete Wall Design Results command deletes all of the shear wall results. It is not necessary to make a selection before using the Delete Wall Design Results command. This command automatically applies to all pier and spandrel elements. Deleting your shear wall results will reduce the size of your ETABS database (*.edb) file.

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Interactive Wall Design

Design Menu Commands for Shear Wall Design At times ETABS automatically deletes your shear wall design results. ü Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges to add or delete hinges.Chapter 3 . ü Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases command to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases. Anytime you use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Select Design Combo command to change a design load combination ETABS deletes your shear wall design results. Following are some of the reasons that this might happen: • • Anytime you unlock your model ETABS deletes your shear wall design results. Again note that this only deletes results for load combinations that include static nonlinear forces. Anytime you use the Options menu > Preferences > Shear Wall Design command to change any of the shear wall design preferences ETABS deletes your shear wall design results. Anytime you do something that causes your static nonlinear analysis results to be deleted then the design results for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces are also deleted. Anytime you use the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a design load combination ETABS deletes your shear wall design results. 3 • • • Delete Wall Design Results 3-5 . Typically your static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when you do one of the following: ü Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties command to redefine existing or define new hinges.

If you are not currently displaying design results you can click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design and review mode for that pier or spandrel.4 Chapter 4 Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review General Interactive shear wall design and review is a powerful mode that allows you to quickly view design results on the screen for a specific pier or spandrel. 4-1 . Right click on a wall pier or spandrel while the design results are displayed to enter the interactive design and review mode. Note that if both a pier and a spandrel label are assigned to the object that you right click. In this mode you can easily modify design parameters (overwrites) and immediately see the new results. Note: Interactive shear wall design and review is a powerful tool for reviewing pier and spandrel design results on the screen. then a box pops up where you can choose to enter the interactive design and review mode for either the pier or the spandrel.

The three choices are: • • • Design of a pier specified as a Simplified Section. All of these items are described in the subsections below. The function of each of these buttons is described in subsections below.g.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC The following sections describe the interactive pier design and review and the interactive spandrel design and review. 4 Interactive Pier Design and Review Note: Most of this chapter discusses the output that is displayed during interactive shear wall design and review. There are also several command buttons on the form. Design of a Simplified Section When you right click on a simplified pier section for interactive design the Pier Design dialog box appears. Section Top and Section Bot buttons.. Check of a pier specified using a Section Designer section. (Note that the Section Top and Section Bot buttons do not appear on the Simplified Section form. The output associated with each of these three choices is described in detail in the subsections below. The look of the interactive pier design and review form is different depending on which of the three types of pier design you do. General Identification Data • • Story ID: The story level associated with the pier. There is some general information identifying and locating the pier at the top of this form. portions of Chapters 5 through 15) to fully understand the output described in this chapter. They include the Combos. You may have to read other sections of this manual first (e. 4-2 Interactive Pier Design and Review . Overwrites. Design of a pier specified using a Section Designer section. Pier ID: The label assigned to the pier. There are also several command buttons available on these forms. shear design and the boundary element check. There is output information for flexural design.

• RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. then the rebar area is displayed in the current units. Tension Rebar: Maximum area of reinforcing steel required to resist tension. then those units are displayed in the column heading.e.. Right Top. 4 Tension Design • Station Location: This is Left Top.Chapter 4 . Note that the design algorithm is set up such that the edge length used is always the same for tension design and for compression design. DB1). Edge Length: Length of the ETABS-determined edge member or length of the user specified edge member (i. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Tension Combo. Left Bottom or Right Bottom designating the location of the reported reinforcing steel.Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review • • X Loc: The global X-coordinate of the plan location of the centroid of the bottom of the pier. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading. If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences. Tension Combo: The design load combination associated with the required tension rebar. Y Loc: The global Y-coordinate of the plan location of the centroid of the bottom of the pier. Flexural Design Data The flexural design data is reported separately for tension design and for compression design. You should check the steel area required for both tension and compression design and use the maximum for your pier. • • • • Interactive Pier Design and Review 4-3 .

4 Compression Design • Station Location: This is Left Top. Edge Length: Length of the ETABS-determined edge member or length of the user specified edge member (i. then those units are displayed in the column heading. Note that the design algorithm is set up such that the edge length used is always the same for tension design and for compression design. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the pier design overwrites. Station Location: This is either Top 2-dir or Bot 2-dir designating the location (top or bottom) of the reported • 4-4 Interactive Pier Design and Review . Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Compression Combo. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading. Left Bottom or Right Bottom designating the location of the reported reinforcing steel..Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Tension Combo. Compression Combo: The design load combination associated with the required compression rebar. • • • • • Shear Design Data • EQF: A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. then the rebar area is displayed in the current units. DB1).e. Compression Rebar: Maximum area of reinforcing steel required to resist compression. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Compression Combo. Right Top. If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences. See the subsection titled "EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information.

Note: See Chapter 11 for more information on the boundary element check. B-Zone Length: This is a required length. • Rebar: Maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear. Otherwise ETABS fills in the data from the design load combination that requires the longest boundary zone length. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Shear Combo. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. or it is Not Needed. or it is Not Checked. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Shear Combo. such as 22. Shear Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified shear reinforcing.Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review shear reinforcing steel and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis) for which the steel is provided. Vu. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading.35. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the Shear Combo. When this item is Not Needed or Not Checked ETABS fills in the B-Zone Combo. 4 • • • • Boundary Element Check Data • Station Location: This is either Top 2-dir or Bot 2-dir designating the location (top or bottom) of the boundary element check and the direction of force (pier local 2axis) for which the boundary elements are checked. and Pu/Po items with the data from the design load combination that has the largest Pu/Po value. Pu. Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because he ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0.Chapter 4 . Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. • Interactive Pier Design and Review 4-5 .762 inches. Mu.

3 in the 1997 UBC. Note that if the ratio is greater than or equal to 0. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the B-Zone Combo.6.35 then ETABS does not check the boundary zone requirement. There are also several command buttons on the form. 4-6 Interactive Pier Design and Review . the Pier Design dialog box appears. There is some general information identifying and locating the pier at the top of this form. There is output information for flexural design. 4 • • • Design of a Section Designer Section When you right click for interactive design of a pier section that is assigned a Section Designer section and has been designed by ETABS. All of these items are described in the subsections below. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the BZone Combo. Y Loc: The global Y-coordinate of the plan location of the centroid of the bottom of the pier. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the BZone Combo. shear design and the boundary element check. General Identification Data • • • • Story ID: The story level associated with the pier. See Section 1921.6. Pier ID: The label assigned to the pier. X Loc: The global X-coordinate of the plan location of the centroid of the bottom of the pier.Shear Wall Design Manual • • 1997 UBC B-Zone Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified B-Zone Length. Pu/Po: The ratio Pu/Po associated with the B-Zone Combo.

Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review Flexural Design Data • Tip: Do not confuse the Required Reinforcing Ratio and the Current Reinforcing Ratio. with actual reinforcing. that is checked by ETABS (not designed). This may be different from the transformed area that is reported by Section Designer. Important note: We do not recommend that you use the required reinforcing ratio as the final design result. Then the section should be adequate if you triple the size of each bar that is currently specified in the Section Designer section. Required Reinf Ratio: The maximum required ratio of reinforcing for the pier. Alternatively. This ratio is provided as a benchmark to help you understand how much reinforcing is actually required in the section. See the Section Designer Manual for more information. such that the demand/capacity ratio is 1. For example. The required reinforcing is assumed to be provided in the same proportions as specified in the Section Designer section. • 4 • Note: The area of the Section Designer section that is used in computing the Required Reinf Ratio and the Current Reinf Ratio is the actual area of the pier.0592. Flexural Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified required reinforcing ratio. suppose the Current Reinf Ratio (see next item) is 0. The ratio is equal to the total area of vertical steel in the pier divided by area of the pier. RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load.0 (approximately). Instead we recommend that you use it as a guide in defining a Section Designer section. you could add more bars. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Flexural Combo. Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom designating that the output on the line is for the top or bottom of the pier. M2u: The factored design moment about the pier local 2-axis associated with the Flexural Combo.0200 and the Required Reinf Ratio is 0. • Current Reinf Ratio: The ratio of the actual reinforcing specified in the Section Designer section divided by the area of the Section Designer section.Chapter 4 . as determined by ETABS. • • • Interactive Pier Design and Review 4-7 . The important item is the Required Reinforcing Ratio.

If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading.Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC M3u: The factored design moment about the pier local 3-axis associated with the Flexural Combo. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Shear Combo. Shear Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified shear reinforcing. 4 Shear Design Data • EQF: A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Shear Combo. Top 3-dir. Bot 2-dir or Bot 3-dir designating the location (top or bottom) of the boundary element check and the direction of force 4-8 Interactive Pier Design and Review . Station Location: This is Top 2-dir. • Note: The flexural design of a Section Designer pier section is always a PMM design that considers both M2 and M3 bending. The Top 3-dir and Bot 3-dir items only appear if the Design Pier is 3D item in the pier overwrites is set to Yes for the pier considered. This is true whether the pier is designated in the overwrites as 2D or 3D. Rebar: Maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear. See the subsection titled "EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. Bot 2-dir or Bot 3-dir designating the location (top or bottom) of the reported shear reinforcing steel and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis or pier local 3-axis) for which the steel is provided. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the pier design overwrites. • • • • • Boundary Element Check Data • Station Location: This is Top 2-dir. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the Shear Combo. Top 3-dir.

Pu/Po: The ratio Pu/Po associated with the B-Zone Combo. Vu.6.35 then ETABS does not check the boundary zone requirement. See Section 1921. such as 22. the Pier Design dialog box appears. When this item is Not Needed or Not Checked ETABS fills in the B-Zone Combo. Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. Note: See Chapter 11 for more information on the boundary element check. and Pu/Po items with the data from the design load combination that has the largest Pu/Po value.6. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the BZone Combo. There is some general information identifying and locating the pier at the top of this form. Check of a Section Designer Section When you right click for interactive design of a pier section that is assigned a Section Designer section and is designated to be checked (not designed) by ETABS.3 in the 1997 UBC.Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review (pier local 2-axis or pier local 3-axis) for which the boundary elements are checked. Pu. Note that if the ratio is greater than or equal to 0.35. Mu. or it is Not Needed. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the B-Zone Combo.762 inches. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the BZone Combo.Chapter 4 . The Top 3-dir and Bot 3-dir items only appear if the Design Pier is 3D item in the pier overwrites is set to Yes for the pier considered. 4 • • • • • B-Zone Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified B-Zone Length. Otherwise ETABS fills in the data from the design load combination that requires the longest boundary zone length. There is output informa- Interactive Pier Design and Review 4-9 . Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0. or it is Not Checked. • B-Zone Length: This is a required length.

M2u: The factored design moment about the pier local 2-axis associated with the Flexural Combo.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC tion for the flexural check. All of these items are described in the subsections below. • • • • • 4 . X Loc: The global X-coordinate of the plan location of the centroid of the bottom of the pier. There are also several command buttons on the form. shear design and the boundary element check. M3u: The factored design moment about the pier local 3-axis associated with the Flexural Combo. D/C Ratio: The Demand/Capacity ratio associated with the Flexural Combo. This is true whether the pier is designated in the overwrites as 2D or 3D. RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. 4 General Identification Data • • • • Story ID: The story level associated with the pier. Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom designating that the output on the line is for the top or bottom of the pier.10 Interactive Pier Design and Review . Y Loc: The global Y-coordinate of the plan location of the centroid of the bottom of the pier. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Flexural Combo. Flexural Combo: The design load combination that yields the largest flexural Demand/Capacity ratio. Pier ID: The label assigned to the pier. Flexural Design Data • • Note: The flexural design of a Section Designer pier section is always a PMM design that considers both M2 and M3 bending.

Station Location: This is Top 2-dir. Rebar: Maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear. The Top 3-dir and Bot 3-dir items only appear if the Design Pier is 3D item in the pier overwrites is set to Yes for the pier considered. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. Top 3-dir. The Top 3-dir and Bot 3-dir items only appear if the Design Pier is 3D item in the pier overwrites is set to Yes for the pier considered. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the Shear Combo. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Shear Combo.Chapter 4 . Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Shear Combo. Shear Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified shear reinforcing. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. • 4 • • • • • Boundary Element Check Data • Station Location: This is Top 2-dir. Interactive Pier Design and Review 4 .Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review Shear Design Data • EQF: A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. Bot 2-dir or Bot 3-dir designating the location (top or bottom) of the reported shear reinforcing steel and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis or pier local 3-axis) for which the steel is provided. Top 3-dir.11 . See the subsection titled "EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the pier design overwrites. Bot 2-dir or Bot 3-dir designating the location (top or bottom) of the boundary element check and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis or pier local 3-axis) for which the boundary elements are checked.

if you want to see the results for one particular load combination. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the BZone Combo. Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. This may be useful. Otherwise ETABS fills in the data from the design load combination that requires the longest boundary zone length. See Section 1921. such as 22. When this item is Not Needed or Not Checked ETABS fills in the B-Zone Combo.35 then ETABS does not check the boundary zone requirement. Vu. Pu/Po: The ratio Pu/Po associated with the B-Zone Combo. Mu. The changes made here to the considered design load combinations are temporary. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the BZone Combo. for example.762 inches. Note that if the ratio is greater than or equal to 0. Note: See Chapter 11 for more information on the boundary element check. 4 Combos Button You can click the Combos button to access and make temporary revisions to the design load combinations considered for the pier.6. Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because he ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0.12 Interactive Pier Design and Review .6.Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC B-Zone Length: This is a required length. You can temporarily change the considered design load combinations to be only the one you are interested in and review the results. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the B-Zone Combo.35.3 in the 1997 UBC. • • • • • B-Zone Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified B-Zone Length. and Pu/Po items with the data from the design load combination that has the largest Pu/Po value. Pu. or it is Not Needed. They are not saved when you exit the Wall 4 . or it is Not Checked.

Similarly.Chapter 4 . the changes you made to the pier overwrites are considered temporary only and are not permanently saved. If you then exit the Pier Design dialog box by clicking the Cancel button. Clicking these buttons opens Section Designer in a locked (read-only) mode where you can view the Section Designer section assigned to the pier.Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review Design dialog box regardless of whether you click OK or Cancel to exit it. clicking the Section Bot button allows you to view the section assigned to the bottom of the pier. Important note: The interaction surface and the moment curvature curve are displayed for the section as it is defined in Section Designer. Thus when you are designing a pier that is assigned a Section Designer section. When you exit the Pier Design Overwrites form by clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. Overwrites Button You can click the Overwrites button to access and make revisions to the pier overwrites and then immediately see the new design results. interaction surface and moment curvature curve.13 . Clicking the Section Top button allows you to view the section assigned to the top of the pier. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit both the Pier Design Overwrites dialog box and the Pier Design dialog box by clicking their respective OK buttons then the changes you made to the overwrites are permanently saved. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not actually occur until you click the OK button in the Pier Design dialog box. 4 Section Top and Section Bot Buttons These buttons are only visible if you are designing or checking a pier with a Section Designer section assigned to it. You can also review the section properties. the interaction surface and moment curvature curve displayed are for the reinforcing (ratio) drawn in Interactive Pier Design and Review 4 . While in Section Designer you can review the geometry of the section and the size and location of the rebar. However you can not make any changes to the section.

Y Loc: The global Y-coordinate of the plan location of the centroid of the left end of the spandrel. When you are through reviewing the section in Section Designer click the Section Designer File menu > Return to ETABS command to return to the Pier Design dialog box.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Section Designer. Top Steel • Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating that the output reported is for the left or right end of the spandrel. Top Steel Area: The area of top steel required for the Top Steel Combo. General Identification Data • • • • Story ID: The story level associated with the spandrel. Spandrel ID: The label assigned to the spandrel. 4 Interactive Spandrel Design and Review When you right click on a spandrel for interactive design the Spandrel Design dialog box appears. not the required reinforcing ratio reported in the design output.14 Interactive Spandrel Design and Review . X Loc: The global X-coordinate of the plan location of the centroid of the left end of the spandrel. Flexural Design Data • RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a spandrel is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. There is output information for both flexural and shear design and there are several command buttons on the form. All of these items are described in the subsections below. There is some general information identifying and locating the spandrel at the top of this form. If you have specified specific rebar • 4 .

Note that the bottom steel is only reported at the ends of the spandrel.Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review area units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. Bottom Steel • Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating that the output reported is for the left or right end of the spandrel. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area is displayed in the current units. 4-2 Interactive Spandrel Design and Review 4 . Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Top Steel Combo.15 . 4-1 • • Top Steel Combo: The name of the design load combination that requires the most top steel in the spandrel. Bot Steel Ratio = t s (h s − d r − bot ) A s top • • Eqn. Top Steel Ratio = 4 t s h s − d r − top ( A s top ) Eqn. • Top Steel Ratio: The area of top steel divided by the spandrel thickness divided by the distance from the bottom of the spandrel to the centroid of the top steel as shown in Equation 4-1. If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. not at the center of the spandrel. Bot Steel Area: The area of bottom steel required for the Bot Steel Combo.Chapter 4 . Bot Steel Ratio: The area of bottom steel divided by the spandrel thickness divided by the distance from the top of the spandrel to the centroid of the bottom steel as shown in Equation 4-2. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area is displayed in the current units.

If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. See the subsection titled "EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the spandrel design overwrites. Design Data for all Spandrels • Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating that the output reported is for the left or right end of the spandrel. Ahoriz: The area per unit length (height) of horizontal shear steel required in the spandrel. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Bot Steel Combo. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. • • • 4 .Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC Bot Steel Combo: The name of the design load combination that requires the most bottom steel in the spandrel. Shear Combo: The name of the design load combination that requires the most vertical shear reinforcing steel in the spandrel.16 Interactive Spandrel Design and Review . If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. Avert: The area per unit length of vertical shear steel required for the Shear Combo. 4 • Shear Design Data • EQF: A multiplier applied to earthquake loads.

This may be useful. • 4 Additional Design Data for Seismic Spandrels Only Note: This additional shear output data is only provided if the Design is Seismic item in the spandrel overwrites is set to Yes for the spandrel considered.Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review • Vu: The factored design shear force at the specified station location associated with the design load combination specified in the Shear Combo column.17 .Chapter 4 . • Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating that the output reported is for the left or right end of the spandrel. • • • Combos Button You can click the Combos button to access and make temporary revisions to the design load combinations considered for the spandrel. Vu: The factored design shear force at the specified station location associated with the design load combination specified in the Shear Combo column. Shear Combo: The name of the design load combination that requires the most vertical shear reinforcing steel in the spandrel. Vc: The concrete shear capacity at the specified station location. If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. Adiag: The area of diagonal shear steel required for the Shear Combo. if you want to see the results for one particular load combination. for example. These items are only displayed if the Design is Seismic item in the spandrel overwrites is set to Yes for the spandrel considered. They are not saved when you exit the Span- Interactive Spandrel Design and Review 4 . You can temporarily change the considered design load combinations to be only the one you are interested in and review the results. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area is displayed in the current units. The changes made here to the considered design load combinations are temporary.

Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC drel Design dialog box regardless of whether you click OK or Cancel to exit it. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not actually occur until you click the OK button in the Spandrel Design dialog box. If you then exit the Spandrel Design dialog box by clicking the Cancel button the changes you made to the spandrel overwrites are considered temporary only and are not permanently saved. When you exit the Spandrel Design Overwrites form by clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit both the Spandrel Design Overwrites dialog box and the Spandrel Design dialog box by clicking their respective OK buttons then the changes you made to the overwrites are permanently saved. 4 Overwrites Button You can click the Overwrites button to access and make revisions to the spandrel overwrites and then immediately see the new design results.18 Interactive Spandrel Design and Review . 4 .

labels. You define piers and spandrels by assigning them labels. 5-1 . In ETABS you must first define a wall pier or spandrel before you can get output forces for it and before you can design it." For information on defining wall spandrels. Defining Piers and Spandrels Note: The ETABS User's Manual provides information on defining wall piers and spandrels. The ETABS User's Manual provides information on defining (labeling) wall piers and spandrels.5 Chapter 5 General Design Information This chapter presents some basic information and concepts that you should know prior to designing or checking shear walls using ETABS. review the items listed in the ETABS User's Manual under "spandrels. labels." Piers are defined by assigning pier labels to vertical area objects (walls) and/or to vertical line objects (columns). For information on defining wall piers. Objects that are associated with the same story level and have the same pier label are considered to be part of the same pier. review the items listed in the ETABS User's Manual under "piers.

Similarly. The pier labels are used to define/identify the pier. you can. Spandrels are defined by assigning spandrel labels to vertical area objects (walls) and/or to horizontal line objects (beams). 5 Analysis Sections versus Design Sections It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections when performing shear wall design. You can not specify reinforcing in a simplified section. specify thickened edge members at one or both ends of the simplified pier section. if desired. The analysis is based on these section properties and the thus the design forces are based on these analysis section properties. but it is not necessary. A pier may have a pier section assigned to it. Pier sections are section properties that are defined using the Section Designer utility. The length is in the pier 2axis direction and the thickness is in the pier 3-axis direction. Simplified sections are always planar. Important note: Do not confuse pier labels with the Section Designer pier section names that can be assigned to the piers. a single wall spandrel element can be made up of objects from two (or more) adjacent story levels. The analysis section for wall piers is simply the assemblage of wall and column sections that make up the pier. The pier local axes are described in the ETABS User's Manual. The design section is completely separate from the analysis section. They are: • Simplified Section: This pier section is defined in the pier design overwrites. Two types of pier design sections are available. not for checking user-specified sections. In addition. Unlike pier elements. the analysis section for spandrels is simply the assemblage of wall and beam sections that make up the spandrel.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Tip: You must assign a pier or spandrel element a label before you can get output forces for the element or you can design the element. Analysis sections are simply the objects defined in your ETABS model that make up the pier or spandrel section. 5-2 Analysis Sections versus Design Sections . All piers have a pier label. Thus the simplified section can only be used for design. The simplified section is defined by a length and a thickness.

Chapter 5 - General Design Information • Section Designer Section: This pier section is defined in the Section Designer utility. You define the pier geometry and the reinforcing in Section Designer. A Section Designer section can be used for design or for checking wall piers. Section Designer sections can be planar or they can be three-dimensional.

Note: Wall pier design sections are discussed in Chapter 6.

See Chapter 6 for detailed discussion of pier design sections. Only one type of spandrel design section is available. It is defined in the spandrel design overwrites. A typical spandrel is defined by a depth, thickness and length. The depth is in the spandrel 2-axis direction, the thickness is in the spandrel 3-axis direction and the length is in the spandrel 1-axis direction. The spandrel local axes are described in the ETABS User's Manual. Spandrel sections are always planar. In addition, you can, if desired, specify a slab thickness and depth thus making the spandrel design section into a T-beam. You can not specify reinforcing in a spandrel section. Thus you can only design spandrel sections, not check them.

5

Note: Wall spandrel geometry is discussed in Chapter 7.

See Chapter 7 for a detailed discussion of spandrel design sections. The pier and spandrel design sections are designed for the forces obtained from the ETABS analysis which is based on the analysis sections. In other words, the design sections are designed based on the forces obtained for the analysis sections.

Units

Note: You can use any set of units in ETABS and you can change the units on the fly.

For shear wall design in ETABS any set of consistent units can be used for input. You can change the system of units you are using at any time. Typically design codes are based on one specific set of units. The 1997 UBC requirements are based on pound-inch-seconds units. For simplicity and consistency the documentation in this manual is typically presented in poundinch-seconds units. In the shear wall design preferences you can specify special units for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing. These units are then used for the reinforcing in the model regardless of the Units 5-3

Shear Wall Design Manual

1997 UBC

current model units that are displayed in the drop-down box on the status bar (or within a specific dialog box). The special units specified for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing can only be changed in the shear wall design preferences.

5

Note: ETABS uses special units for reinforcing. These units are specified in the shear wall preferences.

The choices available in the shear wall design preferences for the units associated with an area of concentrated reinforcing are in2, cm2, mm2, and current units. The choices available for the units associated with an area per unit length of distributed reinforcing are in2/ft, cm2/m. mm2/m, and current units. The current units option uses whatever units are currently displayed in the drop-down box on the status bar (or within a specific dialog box). If the current length units are feet, then this option means concentrated areas of reinforcing are in ft2 and distributed areas of reinforcing are in ft2/ft. Note that when using the "current" option, areas of distributed reinforcing are specified in Length2/Length units where Length is the currently active length unit. For example, if you are working in kip and feet units the area of distributed reinforcing is specified in ft2/ft. If you are in kips and inches the area of distributed reinforcing is specified in in2/in.

**Design Station Locations
**

ETABS designs wall piers at stations located at the top and bottom of the pier only. If you want to design at the mid-height of a pier then you need to break the pier up into two separate "halfheight" piers. ETABS designs wall spandrels at stations located at the left and right ends of the spandrel only. If you want to design at the midlength of a spandrel then you need to break the spandrel up into two separate "half-length" piers. Note that if you break a spandrel up into pieces the program will calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately for each piece. The angle used to calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing for each piece is based on the length of the piece, not the length of the entire spandrel. This can cause the required area of diagonal reinforcing to be significantly underestimated. Thus, if you break a spandrel up into pieces you should calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately by hand.

5-4

Design Station Locations

Chapter 5 - General Design Information

**Design Load Combinations
**

Note: See Chapter 10 for more information on design load combinations.

ETABS creates a number of default design load combinations for shear wall design. You can add in your own design load combinations if you wish. You can also modify or delete the ETABS default load combinations if desired. There is no limit to the number of design load combinations you can specify. To define a design load combination you simply specify one or more load cases each with its own scale factor. See Chapter 10 for more information on design load combinations.

5

**Wall Meshing and Gravity Loading
**

You must manually mesh the walls in your model. There is no automatic wall meshing in ETABS. Discussion of the meshing options available is provided in the ETABS User's Manual. This section provides a few additional comments about wall meshing. When you frame a beam into a wall, the wall must be meshed such that the beam connects to a corner point of one or more of the area objects that make up the wall. The connectivity between the beam and the wall is achieved when the end of the beam connects to a corner point of an area object that makes up the wall. Consider the example shown in Figure 5-1 which shows a beam framing into the center of the top edge of a wall. Figure 5-1a shows the correct connectivity. In this case the wall has been meshed into two area objects labeled A1 and A2. The beam, top right corner or area A1 and top left corner of area A2 all are connected together. For this case the beam is supported by the wall and loads can be transferred from the beam to the wall. Figure 5-1b shows an example of incorrect connectivity. In this case the wall is made up of a single area object labeled A1. There is no connection between the beam and the wall because the beam does not frame into a corner point of area object A1. For this case the beam is not supported by the wall and loads can not be transferred from the beam to the wall. This type of modeling could lead to instability errors when you try to analyze the model because the beam is not properly supported.

Design Load Combinations

5-5

Load P3 comes from the uniform load in the floor area labeled 3. Thus the uniform floor load is not transferred to the wall as a uniform load. • • • • Load P1 comes from the end reaction of Beam 1 and from the uniform load in the floor area labeled 1. The 5-6 Wall Meshing and Gravity Loading . Load P2 comes from the uniform load in the floor area labeled 2. P3 and P4. P2. Figure 5-2b illustrates the loads that are transferred to the wall as P1. Consider the example shown in Figure 5-2a which illustrates the load transfer associated with a floor deck connecting to a wall. The transfer of load only occurs at the joints (corner points of the area objects. Load P4 comes from the end reaction of Beam 2 and from the uniform load in the floor area labeled 1.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Figure 5-1: Example of beam connecting to a wall Beam Beam 5 Plan Beam A1 A2 Wall A1 Plan Beam Wall Elevation a) Correct Connectivity Elevation b) Incorrect Connectivity It is important to understand that loads are only transferred to walls at the corner points of the area objects that make up the wall. These loads are obtained as follows. Instead it transfers as a series of point loads.

The bending deformations in shell "b" may be significant and thus you may want to mesh it into additional shell elements. Consider Figure 5-3 which shows three types of deformation that a single shell element could experience.General Design Information Figure 5-2: Example of floor deck connecting to a wall Beam 1 Beam 2 Beam 1 Beam 3 Metal deck Wall Beam 3 1 2 3 4 Beam 2 Plan P1 A1 A2 A3 Wall A1 Plan P2 A2 P3 A3 P4 5 Elevation a) b) Elevation point loads are located at the corner points of the area objects that make up the wall. Now consider the wall shown in Figure 5-4. a) b) Wall Meshing and Gravity Loading 5-7 . that is. Bending deformations in shell "a" are probably insignificant and thus no further meshing is needed. Figure 5-4a shows the wall modeled with five shell elements.Chapter 5 . bending deformations should not be significant and thus no further meshing of the wall is necessary to accurately capture the results. A single shell element in ETABS captures shear and axial deformations well. A single shell element is unable to capture bending deformation. Because the aspect ratio of the shell elements is good. For example consider the shell elements shown in the sketch to the left. they are not long and skinny. Thus in piers and spandrels where bending deformations are significant (skinny piers and spandrels) you may want to mesh the pier or spandrel into several elements.

Figure 5-4c shows the same wall with the opening made taller such that the spandrel beam becomes skinny.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Figure 5-3: Shell element deformation 5 a) Axial Deformation b) Shear Deformation c) Bending Deformation Figure 5-4b shows the same wall with the opening shifted to the left such that the left pier becomes skinny. In general. Meshing it into four elements rather than two helps it to better capture the gravity load bending. In this case bending deformations may be significant in the spandrel and thus it is meshed into four shell elements. In this case bending deformations may be significant in that pier and thus it is meshed into two shell elements. As the spandrel becomes skinnier you may want to use a frame element to model it. Nevertheless. Different size shell elements provide different fixities and thus different analysis results. you get better analysis results when you have a coarser shell element mesh. we suggest that if the aspect ratio of a pier or spandrel that is modeled with one shell element is worse than 3 to 1 then you should consider additional meshing of the element to adequately capture the bending deformation. If the shell element mesh is re- 5-8 Wall Meshing and Gravity Loading . Using Frame Elements to Model Spandrels When you use a frame element (beam) to model a shear wall spandrel keep in mind that the analysis results obtained are dependent on the fixity provided by the shell element that the beam connects to. It is really best addressed by doing comparative analyses with and without the additional meshing and applying some engineering judgment. for models where the spandrels are modeled using frame elements. that is when the shell elements that the beam connects to are larger. There is no specific rule for when you should mesh a pier or spandrel element into additional shell elements to adequately capture bending deformation.

Chapter 5 . If the depth of the shell element approaches the depth of the beam then you should either extend the beam into the wall as mentioned above or you should consider modeling the spandrel with shell elements instead of a frame element. Wall Meshing and Gravity Loading 5-9 .General Design Information a) b) c) 5 Figure 5-4: Shell element meshing example for piers and spandrels fined then you may want to extend the beam into the wall at least one shell element to model proper fixity.

the required shear reinforcing and special boundary element requirements. ETABS reports concentrated areas of flexural reinforcing at the ends of the pier. The design is performed for sections at the top and the bottom of the pier. When designing a simplified pier design section. Alternatively. you can define a two." When designing (not checking) a Section Designer pier design section ETABS reports the required percentage of flexural reinforcing.or three-dimensional wall pier design section using the Section Designer utility and then assign it to the pier element.6 Chapter 6 Wall Pier Design Sections General You can define a simplified two-dimensional wall pier design section in the pier design overwrites. the required shear reinforcing and special boundary element requirements. The dimensions and properties associated with the simplified pier design section are described later in this chapter in the section titled "Simplified Pier Design Dimensions and Properties. The reported percentage of flexural rein- 6-1 .

separate effective rectangular sections are derived for shear in the pier local 2-axis direction and the pier local 3-axis direction. the shear design and boundary element check are only done for the forces and the section that occur at the bottom of the pier. This is the horizontal length of the wall pier in plan. In addition it designs and reports the required shear reinforcing and special boundary element requirements. The section titled "Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear". Note that you can modify the default design dimensions used for the shear design and boundary member check in the pier design overwrites. occurring later in this chapter describes how ETABS calculates the default dimensions for the effective rectangular sections. 6-2 Simplified Pier Design Dimensions and Properties . The shear and boundary element design is based on an effective rectangular section as described in the previous paragraph. The material property used for the effective sections is the base material property specified for the Section Designer section. When a three-dimensional design is performed. The dimensions shown in the figure include the following: • The length of the wall pier is designated Lp. Design Dimensions Figure 6-1 illustrates some typical dimensions associated with the simplified design of wall piers. When the pier design section is a Section Designer section. 6 Simplified Pier Design Dimensions and Properties This section describes the design dimensions and the material properties associated with the simplified pier design section.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC forcing is assumed to be distributed in the same proportion as the reinforcing that was specified in the design section. The dimensions illustrated are specified in the shear wall overwrites and they can be specified differently at the top and bottom of the wall pier. When checking (not designing) a Section Designer pier design section ETABS reports the demand capacity ratio for flexure. This design is based on an effective rectangular section that ETABS derives from the specified Section Designer section.

The thickness specified for left and right edge members (DB2left and DB2right) may be different from this wall thickness. be different at the top and bottom of the pier. The default design dimensions consist of a length and a thickness at the top and the bottom of the pier. Simplified Pier Design Dimensions and Properties 6-3 . if desired.Wall Pier Design Sections Top of wall Figure 6-1: Typical wall pier dimensions used for simplified design Elevation tp Bottom of wall Elevation tp DB2right 6 Lp Plan DB2left DB1left Lp DB1right Typical Wall Pier Note: The dimensions shown may be different at the bottom of wall and the top of wall Plan Typical Wall Pier with Edge Members Note: The wall pier simplified design dimensions are specified in the pier design overwrites. DB1 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier. DB2 represents the horizontal width (or thickness) of the pier edge member. DB2 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier. • The thickness of the wall pier is designated tp. • • How ETABS Calculates the Default Dimensions This section describes how ETABS determines the default design dimensions for a simplified pier design section.Chapter 6 . DB1 represents the horizontal length of the pier edge member. The design dimensions can.

If there are no area objects associated with the pier then the material property is taken from the first defined line object associated with the pier. Typically the line objects (columns) that are part of the pier do not contribute to this length unless there are no area objects in the pier. click the Design Input radio button and select Thickness in the drop-down box. Select an area object that is part of the spandrel and click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Pier Overwrites command. Similarly. In this case ETABS picks up the length from the line objects (columns).Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Note: ETABS automatically picks up the default design dimensions of a pier element from the assignments made to the objects associated with the pier. ETABS calculates the default pier lengths at the top and bottom of the pier as the maximum plan dimension of the analysis section at the top and bottom of the pier. There are two ways you can check the thickness: • Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command. if you have the condition where a pier is made up of different objects that have different material properties assigned to them. ETABS internally calculates the pier area at the top and bottom of the pier. This pier area includes contributions from both area and line objects. 6 • By default ETABS always assumes that there are no thickened edge members in a simplified pier design section. Material Properties The design material property used for the design of a wall pier is picked up from the first defined area object that is associated with the pier. That is. respectively. You can revise the ETABS default geometry in the pier design overwrites. The default thickness at the top of the pier is calculated as the area at the top of the pier divided by the pier length at the top of the pier. the default thickness at the bottom of the pier is calculated as the area at the bottom of the pier divided by the pier length at the bottom of the pier. it assumes that DB1 and DB2 are zero. There is no way for you as a user to know or tell which object area was defined first. Thus. then you should check the pier material property carefully (using one of the two methods described in the previous section for checking 6-4 Simplified Pier Design Dimensions and Properties .

Important note: When the shear design and boundary element check is done for a pier that is assigned Section Designer pier sections. a thickness. the shear design and boundary element check is only performed at the bottom of the pier. when a Section Designer section is assigned to a pier. The process for this is described in the Section Designer Manual. One effective pier is for shear forces acting in the pier local 2-axis direction and the other is for shear forces acting in the pier local 3-axis direction. For shear forces acting in the pier local 3-axis direction the default length is measured parallel to the local 3-axis. The pier geometry and rebar layout specified in Section Designer are used for the flexural design/check of the pier. When three-dimensional design is performed.Chapter 6 . The default length is taken as the distance measured parallel to the pier local 2-axis from the point on the section with the smallest local 2-axis coordinate to the point with the largest local 2-axis coordinate. For shear forces acting in the pier local 2-axis direction the default length is measured parallel to the local 2-axis. Thus the forces used for these checks are those at the bottom of the pier and the default dimensions of the effective rectangular pier are based on the pier section assigned to the bottom of the pier.Wall Pier Design Sections the pier thickness) to make sure the material property is what you want. The effective rectangular section is defined by a length. The material property used is the base material property specified for the Section Designer pier section. you can revise the material property in the pier design overwrites. If it isn't. This effective rectangular pier is used for the shear design and boundary elements checks done for the pier. and a material property. Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear You can define a design section for any wall pier using Section Designer. In addition. ETABS derives an effective rectangular pier based on the geometry of the Section Designer section. two effective piers are created. The default 6 Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear 6-5 .

Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC length is taken as the distance measured parallel to the pier local 3-axis from the point on the section with the smallest local 3-axis coordinate to the point with the largest local 3-axis coordinate. For shear forces acting in either the pier local 2-axis direction or the pier local 3-axis direction the default thickness is calculated by dividing the total area of the bottom of the pier by the length in the 2-axis or 3-axis direction respectively. 6 6-6 Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear .

This is the horizontal length of the wall spandrel in plan. ETABS determines the wall spandrel design dimensions and material properties automatically. You can modify the dimensions and properties in the spandrel design overwrites. Note that you can specify different dimensions at the left and right ends of a spandrel. Wall Spandrel Design Dimensions Figure 7-1 illustrates some typical design dimensions associated with wall spandrels. The dimensions shown in the figure include the following: • The length of the wall spandrel is designated Ls. The dimensions illustrated can be specified differently at the left and right sides of the wall spandrel. 7-1 .Chapter 7 7 Wall Spandrel Design Sections In ETABS all wall spandrels are two-dimensional.

• 7-2 Wall Spandrel Design Dimensions ds . Note that for the purpose of calculating or checking spandrel beam flexural steel all of the bottom steel is assumed to occur at this location. The effective width of the slab for T-beam action (if specified) is bs. be different at the left and right ends of the spandrel. The distance from the top of the beam to the centroid of the top flexural reinforcing is dr-top. The thickness of the wall spandrel web is designated ts. The depth of the slab for T-beam action (if specified) is ds . if desired. Note that for the purpose of calculating or checking spandrel beam flexural steel all of the top steel is assumed to occur at this location. The distance from the bottom of the beam to the centroid of the bottom flexural reinforcing is dr-bot. This is the vertical distance from the bottom of the spandrel to the top of the spandrel.Shear Wall Design Manual bs dr-top ts Top of spandrel 1997 UBC Note: The dimensions dr-top and dr-bot are measured to the centroid of the top and bottom reinforcing. • • • • Note: The wall spandrel design dimensions are specified in the spandrel design overwrites. respectively hs dr-bot 7 Ls Elevation Bottom of spandrel Section (Above) Figure 7-1: Typical wall spandrel dimensions • The height of the wall spandrel is designated hs. The design dimensions can.

7 Note: ETABS automatically picks up the default dimensions of a spandrel element from the assignments made to the objects associated with the spandrel. Note: Spandrel beams can be specified as T-beam sections for design if desired.1 times the depth of the section. respectively. There are two ways you can check the design thickness: • Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command. The default rebar cover to the centroid of the reinforcing is taken as 0. Select an area object that is part of the spandrel and click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites command. thickness and depth. The default design thickness at the left end of the spandrel is calculated as the area at the left end of the spandrel divided by the spandrel depth at the left end of the spandrel. the default thickness at the right end of the spandrel is calculated as the area at the right end of the spandrel divided by the spandrel depth at the right end of the spandrel. Typically the line objects (beams) that are part of the spandrel do not contribute to this depth unless there are no area objects in the spandrel. You can revise the default dimensions in the spandrel design overwrites. if you want something different at either the left or the right side you can revise it in the overwrites. The default design dimensions consist of a length. ETABS calculates the default spandrel design depth at the left and right ends of the spandrel as the maximum vertical dimension of the analysis section at the left and right ends of the spandrel. In this case ETABS picks up the depth from the line objects (beams).Wall Spandrel Design Sections Default Design Dimensions This section describes how ETABS determines the default design dimensions for a spandrel. Default Design Dimensions 7-3 . click the Design Input radio button and select Thickness in the drop-down box. The design length of the spandrel is measured in the local 1-axis direction of the spandrel. This spandrel area includes contribution from both area and line objects. • ETABS assumes that the thickness it picks up from the first area object applies at both the left and right sides of the spandrel. Again.Chapter 7 . Similarly. ETABS internally calculates the analysis section spandrel area at the left and right ends of the spandrel.

then you should check the spandrel material property carefully (using one of the two methods described in the previous section for checking the spandrel thickness) to make sure the material property is what you want. See Chapter 9 for discussion of these overwrites.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC The wall spandrel design dimensions can be modified by the user in the spandrel design overwrites. If it isn't. you can revise the material property in the spandrel design overwrites. Default Design Material Property 7 The design material property used for the design of a wall spandrel beam is picked up from the first defined area object that is associated with the spandrel. There is no way for you as a user to know or tell which object area was defined first. Thus. if you have the condition where a spandrel is made up of different objects that have different material properties assigned to them. If there are no area objects associated with the spandrel then the material property is taken from the first defined line object associated with the spandrel. 7-4 Default Design Material Property .

The preferences are presented in a table. There are four columns in the table. To access the shear wall preferences click the Options menu > Preferences > Shear Wall Design command. however. This chapter describes the 1997 UBC concrete shear wall design preferences. You should. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. To save space in the dialog boxes these names are generally short.Chapter 8 8 1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Preferences General The ETABS shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier and/or spandrel elements. • Column 1 .Item: This column includes the name of the preference item as it appears in ETABS. A 8-1 . Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference items. Thus it is not necessarily required that you specify or change any of the preferences. Each of these columns is described below.

Shear Wall Design Manual

1997 UBC more complete description of the item is given in column 4. • • Column 2 - Possible Values: This column lists the possible values that the associated preference item can have. Column 3 - Default Value: This column shows the default value that ETABS assumes for the associated preference item. Column 4 - Description: This column includes a description of the associated preference item.

8

(Below) Table 8-1: 1997 UBC shear wall preferences Item Design Code

•

**Shear Wall Preferences
**

Table 8-1 lists the 1997 UBC shear wall design preferences.

Possible Values UBC97

Default Value UBC97

Time History Design

Envelopes or Step-by-Step

Envelopes

phi-b

>0

0.9

phi-c

>0

0.7

Description Design code used for design of concrete shear wall elements (wall piers and spandrels) Toggle for whether design load combinations that include a time history are designed for the envelope of the time history or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it, then that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories regardless of what is specified here. Strength reduction factor for bending in a wall pier or spandrel, φb. See Chapters 12 and 14. Strength reduction factor for axial compression in a wall pier, φc. See Chapter 12.

8-2

Shear Wall Preferences

Chapter 8 - 1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Preferences

Item phi-vns

Possible Values >0

Default Value 0.85

phi-vs

>0

0.6

Pmax Factor

>0

0.80

Rebar units

in2, cm2, mm2,current

in2 or mm2 in2/ft or mm2/m 24

Rebar/Length in2/ft, cm2/m, Units mm2/m,current Number of Curves ≥4

Number of Points

≥ 11

11

Edge Design PC-max

>0

0.04

Edge Design PT-max

>0

0.06

Description Strength reduction factor for shear in a wall pier or spandrel for a nonseismic condition, φvns. See Chapters 13 and 15. Strength reduction factor for shear in wall pier or spandrel for a seismic condition, φvs. See Chapters 13 and 15. Factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. See the subsection titled "Formulation of the Interaction Surface" in Chapter 12. Units used for concentrated areas of reinforcing steel. See the section titled "Units" in Chapter 5. Units used for distributed areas of reinforcing steel. See the section titled "Units" in Chapter 5. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360 degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). We recommend that you use 24 for this item. See the section titled "Interaction Surface" in Chapter 12. Number of points used for defining a single curve in a wall pier interaction surface (this item should be odd). See the section titled "Interaction Surface" in Chapter 12. Maximum ratio of compression reinforcing allowed in edge members, PCmax. See the subsection titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12. Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing allowed in edge members, PTmax. See the subsection titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12.

8

Shear Wall Preferences

8-3

Shear Wall Design Manual

1997 UBC

Possible Item Values Section Design ≥ Section DeIP-Max sign IP-Min

Default Value 0.02

Section Design IP-Min

>0

0.0025

8

(Above) Table 8-1: 1997 UBC shear wall preferences

Description The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. See the section titled "Designing a Section Designer Pier Section" in Chapter 12. The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. See the section titled "Designing a Section Designer Pier Section" in Chapter 12.

8-4

Shear Wall Preferences

Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. When you make changes to overwrite items ETABS only applies the changes to the elements that they are specifically assigned to. to the elements that are selected when you change the overwrites. The overwrites for piers and spandrels are separate. You should however at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable to you.Chapter 9 9 1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Overwrites General This chapter describes the 1997 UBC concrete shear wall design overwrites. To access the spandrel overwrites select a spandrel and then click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites command. Thus it is not necessarily required that you specify or change any of the overwrites. that is. To access the pier overwrites select a pier and then click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > View/Revise Pier Overwrites command. 9-1 .

To save space in the dialog boxes these names are generally short. > 0 culated this factor to obtain the reduced live load.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC See the section titled "Making Changes in the Overwrites Dialog Box" later in this chapter for important information on modifying the overwrites.Default Value: This column shows the default value that ETABS assumes for the associated overwrite item. 9 • • • Pier Design Overwrites (Below) Table 9-1 lists the 1997 UBC pier design overwrites. LL Reduction Program cal. Entering 0 for this item means that it is program calculated. See the subsection below titled "LL Reduction Factor" for more information. Column 2 . Column 3 .Description: This column includes a description of the associated overwrite item. Each of these columns is described below. Column 4 .Possible Values: This column lists the possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. The overwrites are presented in tables. Table 9-1: 1997 UBC pier design overwrites Pier OverPossible Default write Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description Design this Yes or No Yes Toggle for whether ETABS should dePier sign the pier when you click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command.Item: This column includes the name of the overwrite item as it appears in ETABS. 9-2 Pier Design Overwrites .A reducible live load is multiplied by Factor culated. • Column 1 . A more complete description of the item is given in column 4.Program cal. There are four columns in the table.

See the subsection below titled "EQ Factor" for more information. No Toggle for whether the design is twodimensional or three-dimensional.1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Item EQ Factor Possible Values ≥0 Design is Seismic Yes or No Properties From Simplified Section or Section Designer Design Pier is 3D Yes or No Section Bottom Any pier section defined in Section Designer Pier Overwrite Description Multiplier on earthquake loads. This item only affects the shear design and boundary element check. The first pier Name of a pier section. that is. The PMM flexural design is always 3D. defined in Secin the list of tion Designer that is assigned to the Section Debottom of the pier. the pier can only be designed two-dimensionally. Also in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. If 0 is entered for this item then the program resets it to the default value of 1 when the next design is run. Additional design checks are done for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. Default Value 1 9 Pier Design Overwrites 9-3 . This item is only signer piers active if the Properties From item is set to Section Designer. See the section titled "Analysis Sections versus Design Sections" in Chapter 5 and see Chapter 6 for more information. Simplified This item indicates the source of the Section design properties for the pier. If the Properties From item is Simplified Section then the Design Pier is 3D item can only be No.Chapter 9 . Yes Toggle for whether ETABS should consider the design as seismic or nonseismic. The Section Designer option is not available unless pier sections have previously been defined in Section Designer.

9-4 Pier Design Overwrites . This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Section Designer. Program cal. See the section titled "Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear" in Chapter 6 for more information. Program cal. This item is only active if signer piers the Properties From item is set to Section Designer. defined in Secin the list of tion Designer that is assigned to the top Section Deof the pier.Length of the effective rectangular pier culated used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction when a Section Designer section is assigned to the pier. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. See the section titled "Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear" in Chapter 6 for more information. > 0 V2 Length 9 V2 Thickness Program calculated. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. > 0 Default Value Pier Overwrite Description The first pier Name of a pier section.Thickness of the effective rectangular culated pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction when a Section Designer section is assigned to the pier. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Section Designer.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Pier Overwrite Item Section Top Possible Values Any pier section defined in Section Designer Program calculated.

Thickness of the effective rectangular culated pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction when a Section Designer section is assigned to the pier. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. culated tp. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. > 0 ThickBot Program calculated. See the section titled "Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear" in Chapter 6 for more information. or > 0 Default Value Pier Overwrite Description Program cal. > 0 V3 Thickness Program calculated. 9 Pier Design Overwrites 9-5 .1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Item V3 Length Possible Values Program calculated. Program cal.Chapter 9 .Wall pier thickness at bottom of pier. See the subsection titled "How ETABS Calculates the Default Dimensions" in Chapter 6 for more information. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Section Designer and the Design Pier is 3D item is set to Yes. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. Program cal. See the section titled "Section Designer Pier Effective Section for Shear" in Chapter 6 for more information.Length of the effective rectangular pier culated used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction when a Section Designer section is assigned to the pier. See Figure 6-1. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Section Designer and the Design Pier is 3D item is set to Yes. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated.

9-6 Pier Design Overwrites . See Figure 6-1. See Figure 6-1.Wall pier length at bottom of pier. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. See the subsection below titled "UserDefined Edge Members" for more information. DB2left. See the subsection below titled "UserDefined Edge Members" for more information. DB1left. 0 Width of the bottom of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. See Figure 6-1. See the subsection titled "How ETABS Calculates the Default Dimensions" in Chapter 6 for more information. DB1right. See the subsection below titled "UserDefined Edge Members" for more information. Same as Length of the bottom of a user-defined DB1-left-bot edge member on the right side of a wall pier. or > 0 9 DB1LeftBot ≥0 DB1RightBot ≥0 DB2LeftBot ≥0 Default Value Pier Overwrite Description Program cal. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. Lp. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. culated See Figure 6-1. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. 0 Length of the bottom of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Pier Overwrite Item LengthBot Possible Values Program calculated.

This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. See Figure 6-1. Program calWall pier thickness at top of pier. See the subsection titled "How ETABS Calculates the Default Dimensions" in Chapter 6 for more information. Program cal. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. culated tp. DB2left. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. See the subsection below titled "UserDefined Edge Members" for more information. See Figure 6-1. See the subsection titled "How ETABS Calculates the Default Dimensions" in Chapter 6 for more information. or > 0 LengthTop Program calculated. DB1right. or > 0 DB1LeftTop ≥0 DB1RightTop ≥0 DB2LeftTop ≥0 Default Value Pier Overwrite Description Same as Width of the bottom of a user-defined DB2-left-bot edge member on the right side of a wall pier. 9 Pier Design Overwrites 9-7 . DB1left.1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Item DB2RightBot Possible Values ≥0 ThickTop Program calculated. Lp. See culated Figure 6-1. See Figure 6-1. Same as Length of the top of a user-defined DB1-left-bot edge member on the right side of a wall pier. 0 Width of the top of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section.Wall pier length at top of pier. DB2right. See Figure 6-1.Chapter 9 . See Figure 6-1. 0 Length of the top of a user-defined edge member on the left side of a wall pier.

If you specify your own LL Reduction Factor then ETABS ignores any reduction method specified in the live load reduction preferences and simply calculates the reduced live load for a pier or spandrel by multiplying the specified LL Reduction Factor times the reducible live load. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. >0 Specified in Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing Preferences allowed in edge members. PTmax. See the section titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12. PCmax. DB2right. See Figure 6-1.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Pier Overwrite Item DB2RightTop Material 9 Edge Design PC-max Edge Design PT-max Default Value Pier Overwrite Description Same as Width of the top of a user-defined edge DB2-left-bot member on the right side of a wall pier. Chapter 6 >0 Specified in Maximum ratio of compression reinPreferences forcing allowed in edge members. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. Possible Values ≥0 (Above) Table 9-1: 1997 UBC pier design overwrites LL Reduction Factor If the LL Reduction Factor is program calculated then it is based on the live load reduction method chosen in the live load reduction preferences which are set using the Options menu > Preferences > Live Load Reduction command. 9-8 Pier Design Overwrites . See the section titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12. This item is only active if the rial property "Material Properties From item is set to SimpliProperties" in fied Section. Note that you can use the Define menu > Static Load Cases command to specify that a load case is a reducible live load.section titled pier. This item is only active if the Properties From item is set to Simplified Section. Any defined See the subMaterial property associated with the concrete mate.

DL is a dead load and EQ is a quake load. DL is a dead load and RLL is a reducible live load. For example. Following are the five types of loads that can be included in a design load combination along with an explanation of how the EQ factor is applied to each of the load types. Time History Case: The EQ factor is applied to all time history cases. suppose you have two static load cases labeled DL and EQ. • Static Load: The EQ factor is applied to any static loads designated as a Quake-type load.Chapter 9 . Next suppose that you create a load combination called COMB2 that includes RLL. Response Spectrum Case: The EQ factor is applied to all response spectrum cases. • • • • Pier Design Overwrites 9-9 . For example. Now assume that you create a design load combination called DESCOMB3 that included DL and COMB2. Load Combination: The EQ factor is not applied to any load combination that is included in a design load combination. 9 EQ Factor The EQ (earthquake) factor is a multiplier that is typically applied to the earthquake load in a design load combination. Then for design load combination DESCOMB1 the RLL load is multiplied by the LL reduction factor. Then for design load combination DESCOMB3 the RLL load that is part of COMB2 is not multiplied by the LL reduction factor. The EQ factor is not applied to any other type of static load. suppose you have two static load cases labeled DL and RLL. Now suppose that you create a design load combination named DESCOMB1 that includes DL and RLL.1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Overwrites Important Note: The LL reduction factor is not applied to any load combination that is included in a design load combination. Static Nonlinear Case: The EQ factor is not applied to any static nonlinear cases.

If either DB1 or DB2 is specified as zero then the edge member width is taken the same as the pier thickness and the edge member length is determined by ETABS. 9 . Next suppose that you create a load combination called COMB2 that includes EQ.1 of the 1997 UBC is an example of this.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Now suppose that you create a design load combination named DESCOMB1 that includes DL and EQ. Then for design load combination DESCOMB3 the EQ load that is part of COMB2 is not multiplied by the EQ factor. The ρ factor specified in Section 1630. Table 9-2: 1997 UBC spandrel design overwrites Pier OverPossible Default write Item Values Value Pier Overwrite Description Design this Yes or No Yes Toggle for whether ETABS should deSpandrel sign the spandrel when you click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command. User-Defined Edge Members When defining a user-defined edge member you must specify both a nonzero value for DB1 and a nonzero value for DB2.1. Now assume that you create a design load combination called DESCOMB3 that included DL and COMB2. It also allows you to specify member-specific reliability/redundancy factors that are required by some codes. Then for design load combination DESCOMB1 the EQ load is multiplied by the EQ factor.10 Spandrel Design Overwrites . 9 The EQ factor allows you to design different members for different levels of earthquake loads in the same run. Spandrel Design Overwrites (Below) Table 9-2 lists the 1997 UBC spandrel design overwrites.

ts. See Figure 71.1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Item LL Reduction Factor Possible Values Program calculated. or > 0 Program calculated CoverBotLeft Program calculated. See Figure 7-1. See Figure 7-1. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. Ls. See the previous subsection titled "EQ Factor" for more information. Wall spandrel depth at left side of spandrel. Wall spandrel length. Entering 0 for this item means that it is program calculated. or > 0 Program calculated Program calculated ThickLeft DepthLeft Program calculated.11 .1hs. Distance from bottom of spandrel to centroid of bottom reinforcing. > 0 Default Value Program calculated EQ Factor ≥0 1 Design is Seismic Yes or No Yes Length Program calculated. or > 0 Program calculated. Additional design checks are done for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements.Chapter 9 . See the subsection above titled "LL Reduction Factor" for more information. Toggle for whether ETABS should consider the design as seismic or nonseismic. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. See Figure 7-1. Wall spandrel thickness at left side of spandrel. hs. Multiplier on earthquake loads. or > 0 Program calculated Pier Overwrite Description A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. 9 Spandrel Design Overwrites 9 . Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. dr-bot left on left side of beam. Also in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. If 0 is entered for this item then the program resets it to the default value of 1 when the next design is run.

Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0.1hs. Slab depth for T-beam at right end of spandrel. See Figure 7-1. Wall spandrel depth at right side of spandrel. ds.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Pier Overwrite Item CoverTopLeft Possible Values Program calculated. See Figure 7-1. or > 0 Default Value Program calculated SlabWidthLeft SlabDepthLeft ThickRight ≥0 ≥0 Program calculated. or > 0 0 0 Program calculated 9 DepthRight Program calculated. See Figure 7-1. See Figure 7-1. hs. Distance from bottom of spandrel to centroid of bottom reinforcing. 9 . Slab depth for T-beam at left end of spandrel. Distance from top of spandrel to centroid of top reinforcing. Slab width for T-beam at right end of spandrel. dr-bot right on right side of beam.titled "Default rial property Design Material Property" in Chapter 7 Pier Overwrite Description Distance from top of spandrel to centroid of top reinforcing. See Figure 7-1. See Figure 7-1. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0. Material property associated with the spandrel. dr-top left on left side of beam. Wall spandrel thickness at right side of spandrel. or > 0 Program calculated CoverBotRight Program calculated. See Figure 7-1. bs. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. ts. See Figure 7-1. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated as 0.12 Spandrel Design Overwrites . See Figure 7-1. dr-top right on right side of beam.1hs. or > 0 Program calculated SlabWidthRight SlabDepthRight Material ≥0 ≥0 0 0 Any defined See the section concrete mate. bs. Inputting 0 means the item is to be program calculated. ds. Slab width for T-beam at left end of spandrel.1hs. or > 0 Program calculated CoverTopRight Program calculated.

Chapter 9 . (Above) Table 9-2: 1997 UBC spandrel design overwrites 9 When you view the pier or spandrel overwrites you see a column of check boxes on the left side of the dialog box next to a twocolumn spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet are visible if only one pier or spandrel is selected when you enter the overwrites dialog box. The left column in the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. Making Changes in the Overwrites Dialog Box Making Changes in the Overwrites Dialog Box 9 . The names of the overwrite items in the first column of the spreadsheet are visible. If the drop-down box appears then select a value from the box. to change an overwrite item first check the box to the left of the item to indicate that you want to change it.13 . If multiple piers or spandrels are selected when you enter the dialog box then no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. Left click in this cell and either a drop-down box with several selections appears or you simply see the current item in the cell highlighted. The right column in the spreadsheet contains the overwrite value. Whether you have selected one or multiple piers or spandrels. When you first enter the Composite Beam Overwrites dialog box the check boxes are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate they are inactive and that the items in the cells can not currently be changed. When you check this box the associated cell in the second column of the spreadsheet becomes active.1997 UBC Shear Wall Design Overwrites Pier Overwrite Item Consider Vc Possible Values Yes or No Default Value Yes Pier Overwrite Description Toggle switch for whether to consider Vc (concrete shear capacity) when computing the shear capacity of the spandrel. Otherwise type in whatever value you desire.

9 9 .Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC When you finish making changes to the pier or spandrel overwrites click the OK button to close the dialog box. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by ETABS. If you click the Cancel button to exit the dialog box then any changes you made to the overwrites are ignored and the dialog box is closed. ETABS then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected pier(s) or spandrel(s).14 Making Changes in the Overwrites Dialog Box .

10-1 Eqn. 1.4ΣDL 1. or you can use both default combinations and your own combinations. You may use the default shear wall design load combinations for your design.Chapter 10 10 1997 UBC Design Load Combinations This chapter defines the default 1997 UBC concrete shear wall design load combinations. or you may define your own design load combinations. You can modify the default design load combinations and you can delete them if you wish. 10-2 10 .4ΣDL + 1.1 .7(ΣLL + ΣRLL) Eqn. Default Design Load Combinations The ETABS automatically created design load combinations for concrete shear wall design based on the 1997 UBC are given by Equations 10-1 through 10-10.

4ΣDL + 1. 10 .7WL] Note: ETABS automatically creates codespecific design load combinations for shear wall design.1 [1.1. 1997 UBC Eqn.7(ΣLL + ΣRLL) + 1.9ΣDL + 1. ΣRLL = The sum of all reducible live load (RLL) load cases defined for the model.7(ΣLL + ΣRLL) .1 [1.2 Default Design Load Combinations .5(ΣLL + ΣRLL) .4ΣDL + 1. ΣDL ΣLL = The sum of all dead load (DL) load cases defined for the model.9ΣDL . 10-6 Eqn.1 (0.7WL] 0. 10-9 Eqn. = The sum of all live load (LL) load cases defined for the model. 10-5 Eqn.75[1.75[1. Individual dead load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.3WL 0.2ΣDL + 0. 10-8 Eqn.1. 10-7 Eqn.1. Note that this includes roof live loads as well as floor live loads.0E] 10 1.3WL 1.9ΣDL . See the discussion of the earthquake load component below for additional information on this topic. = Any single earthquake load (E) load case defined for the model. 10-4 Eqn. WL E = Any single wind load (WL) load case defined for the model.9ΣDL + 1.2ΣDL + 0. Dead Load Component The dead load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all dead loads multiplied times the specified factor. 10-10 0.1.0E) 1.Shear Wall Design Manual 0.0E] 1.0E) In Equations 10-1 through 10-10.5(ΣLL + ΣRLL) + 1. 10-3 Eqn.1 (0.

1. The reliability/redundancy factor.Chapter 10 . one for each earthquake load case that is defined. 10 Earthquake Load Component The earthquake load component of the default design load combinations consists of the contribution from a single earthquake load case. Wind Load Component The wind load component of the default design load combinations consists of the contribution from a single wind load case. and should be included by the user in userdefined load combinations. Individual live load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations. that is given in Equation 301 of Section 1630. You can use the Horizontal EQ Factor that is available in the overwrites for this purpose.1 of the 1997 UBC is not specifically considered by ETABS. The user should account for this affect.1. Thus if there are multiple wind load cases defined in the ETABS model. each of Equations 10-7 through 1010 will contribute multiple design load combinations.1 of the 1997 UBC.1997 UBC Design Load Combinations Live Load Component The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all live loads.3 . if necessary. both reducible and unreducible. Default Design Load Combinations 10 . one for each wind load case that is defined. in the multiplier on the dead load in the user-defined load combinations. ρ. Note that ETABS also does not include any affect of Ev given in Equation 30-1 of Section 1630. as necessary. Thus if there are multiple earthquake load cases defined in the ETABS model. Default design load combinations are not created for time history cases or for static nonlinear cases. each of Equations 10-3 through 10-6 will contribute multiple design load combinations. The earthquake load cases considered when creating the default design load combinations include all static load cases that are defined as earthquake loads and all response spectrum cases. multiplied times the specified factor.

When checking the flexural behavior of a two-dimensional wall pier or spandrel there are four possible combinations considered for the contribution of response spectrum load to the design load combination. Default design load combinations are created that include the response spectrum cases.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Design Load Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum In ETABS all response spectrum cases are assumed to be earthquake load cases. Default design load combinations using Equations 10-8 and 10-10 are not created for response spectra. For this reason. ETABS only creates default design load combinations based on Equations 10-7 and 10-9 for response spectra. when checking moment in a wall spandrel. Similarly there are eight possible combinations of P. 10 . Equations 10-7 and 10-8 are redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum and similarly Equations 10-9 and 10-10 are redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum. M2 and M3 considered for three-dimensional wall piers. Note that based on the above. the response spectrum contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a positive shear and then a second time as a negative shear. Similarly. Thus when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel.4 Default Design Load Combinations . Any ETABS shear wall design load combination that includes a response spectrum load case is checked for all possible combinations of signs on the response spectrum values. 10 • • • • +P and +M +P and -M -P and +M -P and -M where P is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. They are: Note: Any ETABS shear wall design load combination that includes a response spectrum load case is checked for all possible combinations of signs on the response spectrum values. the response spectrum contribution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a positive moment and then a second time as a negative moment. The output from a response spectrum is all positive.

the time history contribution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum moment and then a second time as a minimum moment. Typically this is not the real case. when checking moment in a wall spandrel. See Chapter 8 for more information. the time history contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum shear and then a second time as a minimum shear. Designing for each step of a time history gives you the correct correspondence between different response quantities but can be very time consuming. They are: • Pmax and Mmax 10 Default Design Load Combinations 10 . you can either design for the envelope of those results or you can do a design for each step of the time history.) as if they occurred simultaneously. Note: Designing for each step of a time history can be very time consuming. shear and moment and for wall spandrels it gets maximum and minimum values of shear and moment. and in some instances it may be unconservative.Chapter 10 . When checking the flexural behavior of a wall pier there are four possible combinations considered for the contribution of time history load to the design load combination. You specify the type of time history design in the shear wall design preferences.1997 UBC Design Load Combinations Design Load Combinations that Include Time History Results The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any time history results.5 . Similarly. etc. Thus for wall piers it gets maximum and minimum values of axial load. If you want to include time history forces in a design load combination then you must define the load combination yourself. moment. For a design load combination in the ETABS shear wall design module any load combination that includes a time history load case in it is checked for all possible combinations of maximum and minimum time history design values. Thus when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel. When you design for the envelopes the design is for the maximum of each response quantity (axial load. When your design load combination includes time history results. When ETABS gets the envelope results for a time history it gets a maximum and a minimum value for each response quantity.

If a design load combination includes a single static nonlinear case and nothing else. If you want to include static nonlinear results in a design load combination then you must define the load combination yourself. Otherwise the design is only performed for the last step of the static nonlinear analysis. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it then that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories regardless of what is specified for the Time History Design item in the preferences. 10 Design Load Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear Results The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any static nonlinear results.6 Default Design Load Combinations . then the design is performed for each step of the static nonlinear analysis.Shear Wall Design Manual • • • Pmax and Mmin Pmin and Mmax Pmin and Mmin 1997 UBC where P is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. 10 .

and the net area of the pier.1 . Refer to Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6 for an illustration of the dimensions Lp and tp. and the length of the pier. Note that the boundary element requirements are considered separately for each design load case that includes seismic load. 11 . tp. ETABS uses an approach based on the requirements of Section 1921.6. the gross area of the pier. Lp. The net area of the pier is the area bounded by the web thickness. Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements The following information is available for the boundary element check: • • The design forces Pu.Chapter 11 11 1997 UBC Wall Pier Boundary Elements This chapter discusses how ETABS considers the boundary element requirements for concrete wall piers using the 1997 UBC. Ag.4 in the 1997 UBC.6. Acv. The length of the wall pier. Vu and Mu for the pier section.

5 is not considered by ETABS.6.85f'c (Ag . Figure 11-1 shows some examples of symmetrical and unsymmetrical wall piers.2 Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements . Whether the wall pier is symmetrical or unsymmetrical. As. Symmetrical Note: ETABS only considers the requirements of section 1921. 11-1 Once the value of PO is known ETABS calculates four quantities which are used to determine the boundary zone requirements. Only the geometry of the pier is considered. Using this information ETABS calculates the value of PO which is the nominal axial load strength of the wall using Equation 111.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Figure 11-1: Example plan views of symmetrical and unsymmetrical wall piers a. d.As) + fyAs Eqn. PO = 0.4 of the 1997 UBC in determining boundary element requirements. These quantities are: • Pu PO • Pu A g f c' 11 . Unsymmetrical b. that is. is the left side of the pier the same as the right side of the pier.6.6. The material properties of the pier. Note that a pier defined in Section Designer is assumed to be unsymmetrical unless it is made up of a single rectangular shape. f'c and fy.6. Symmetrical c. not the reinforcing. if there is a flexural failure in any design load combination. • • Note: For simplified design only. then ETABS sets As in Eqn. Unsymmetrical • 11 The area of steel in the pier. 11-1 to zero for all design load combinations considered for the pier. This area of steel is either calculated by the program or it is provided by the user. when determining if the pier is symmetrical. Section 1921.

1997 UBC Wall Pier Boundary Elements Figure 11-2: Flowchart of process ETABS uses to determine if boundary elements are required Is Pu compression? Yes No æP ö Is Abs ç u ÷ ≤ 0.Chapter 11 .10? ç Agfc ÷ è ø No Boundary elements are required Yes Yes æ Mu ö ÷ ≤ 1.0? Is Abs ç ç Vu L p ÷ è ø No æ Mu ö ÷ ≤ 3.0? Is Abs ç ç Vu L p ÷ è ø No Boundary elements are required Yes Is Abs (Vu ) ≤ 3A cv f c' ? No Yes Boundary elements are not required Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements 11 .05? ç Agfc ÷ è ø Yes 11 No æ P ö Is Abs ç u ' ÷ ≤ 0.35? çP ÷ è Oø No Boundary element requirements are not checked Yes Is wall symmetrical? Yes No æ P ö Is Abs ç u ' ÷ ≤ 0.3 .

6. 11-2a When Pu is tension: LBZ = 0.3.075ú L p ≥ 0. LBZ.4 Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements .15Lp Figure 11-3 illustrates the boundary zone length LBZ. LBZ LBZ Lp LBZ • • Mu Vu L p 3A cv f c' 11 The flowchart in Figure 11-2 illustrates the process ETABS uses to determine if boundary elements are required.6.6.15Lp for Pu varying from 0. The UBC requires that LBZ vary linearly from 0.15PO and that LBZ shall not be less than 0.15Lp. Note that if Pu exceeds 0.4 in the 1997 UBC. If boundary elements are required then ETABS calculates the minimum required length of the boundary zone at each end of the wall.25Lp to 0.35 PO then the boundary element requirements are not checked. Eqn.6. Based on these requirements ETABS calculates LBZ using either Equation 11-2a or 11-2b depending on whether Pu is compression or tension.15L p ÷ ú ø û Eqn. 11-2b 11 . This is based on 1997 UBC Section 1921. When Pu is compression: é æ P L BZ = ê Abs ç u ç 2P ê è O ë ù ö ÷ + 0. according to the requirements of Section 1921.35PO to 0.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Figure 11-3: Illustration of boundary zone length.

85f'c (Ag . Refer to the figure for properties and forces. The calculations follow: Pu = 1000 kips (given) Lp = 12.5 .06) + 60 * 8.152 < 0.06 = 6576 kips Pu 1000 = = 0. It is reinforced with #5 bars at 12 inches on center on each face.5 feet = 150 inches (given) Ag = 12.85 * 4 (1800 .Chapter 11 .31 in2 = 8. each face Figure 11-4: Wall pier for example calculations f’c = 4 ksi fy = 60 ksi Pu = 1000 kips Vu = 350 kips Mu = 3500 kips 1' 11 Example Figure 11-4 shows the example wall pier.As) + fyAs PO = 0.5 ft * 1 ft = 12.8.1997 UBC Wall Pier Boundary Elements 12'-6" # 5@12” o.5 feet long..35 OK PO 6576 Example 11 .5 ft2 = 1800 in2 Note: Boundary element requirements are considered by ETABS for twoand threedimensional wall piers As = 13 bars * 2 faces * 0.06 in2 f'c = 4 ksi (given) fy = 60 ksi (given) The pier is symmetrical.c. (given) PO = 0. The pier is 12.

7 inches è 2 * 6576 ø 11 11 .139 > 0.6 Example . æ 1000 ö L BZ = ç + 0.Shear Wall Design Manual Pu A g f c' 1000 = 0.075 ÷ * 150 = 22.1 NG 1800 * 4 1997 UBC = Therefore boundary elements are required.

Chapter 12 12 1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design Overview This chapter discusses how ETABS designs and checks concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads using the 1997 UBC. The chapter is broken into three main sections. Next it discusses how ETABS checks piers that are specified by a Section Designer Section.1 . First it describes how ETABS designs piers that are specified by a Simplified Section. For both designing and checking piers it is important that you understand the local axis definition for the pier. This is described in the ETABS User's Manual. The geometry associated with the simplified section is illustrated in the section titled "Simplified 12 . Finally it describes how ETABS designs piers that are specified by a Section Designer Section. Designing a Simplified Pier Section This section discusses how ETABS designs a pier that is assigned a simplified section.

3. In all cases.2 Designing a Simplified Pier Section . If no specific edge member dimensions are specified by you then ETABS assumes that the edge member is the same width as the wall and it determines the required length of the edge member. are: 1. These conditions. the only reinforcing designed by ETABS is that required at the center of the edge members 12 Pier Design Dimensions and Properties" in Chapter 6. This section describes how the ETABS-determined length of the edge member is determined and how ETABS calculates the required reinforcing at the center of the edge member. The pier geometry is defined by a length. whether the edge member size is user-specified or ETABS-determined. There are three possible design conditions for a simplified wall pier. thickness and size of the edge members at each end of the pier (if any). The wall pier has an ETABS-determined (variable length and fixed width) edge member on one end and a userdefined (fixed length and width) edge member on the other end. 2.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Figure 12-1: Design conditions for simplified wall piers Design Condition 1 Wall pier with uniform thickness and ETABS-determined (variable length) edge members Design Condition 2 Wall pier with user-defined edge members Design Condition 3 Wall pier with a user-defined edge member on one end and an ETABSdetermined (variable length) edge member on the other end Note: In all three conditions. The wall pier has user-defined (fixed length and width) edge members on each end. illustrated in Figure 12-1. 12 . ETABS reports the required area of reinforcing steel at the center of the edge member. The wall pier has ETABS-determined (variable length and fixed width) edge members on each end.

and an edge member at the right end of the wall of thickness tp and width B1-right. For a given design section. Also for design loading combinations involving SRSS the Pleft-top and Pright-top forces are obtained first for each load case before the combinations are made. For this design condition the design algorithm focuses on determining the required size (length) of the edge members while limiting the compression and tension reinforcing located at the center of the edge members to user specified maximum ratios. before combining with other loads. Consider the wall pier shown in Figure 12-2.Chapter 12 . Note that for dynamic loads. The moment and axial force are converted to an equivalent force set Pleft-top and Pright-top using the relationships shown in Equations 12-1a and 12-1b. The maximum ratios are specified in the shear wall design preferences and the pier design overwrites as Edge Design PC-Max and Edge Design PT-Max.3 . Pleft-top and Pright-top are obtained at the modal level and the modal combinations are made.5B1− right Eqn. say the top of the wall pier. 12-1a Pright − top = − (L − 0. the wall pier is designed for a factored axial force Pu-top and a factored moment Mu-top. 12-1b For any given loading combination the net values for Pleft-top and Pright-top could be tension or compression.5B1−left − 0. Designing a Simplified Pier Section 12 .5B1−left − 0. for a given design load combination. The program initiates the design procedure by assuming an edge member at the left end of the wall of thickness tp and width B1-left.1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design Design Condition 1 Design condition 1 applies to a wall pier with uniform design thickness and ETABS-determined edge member length. Pleft − top = Pu − top 2 Pu − top 2 + 12 (L M u − top p − 0. (Similar equations apply at the bottom of the pier). Initially B1-left = B1-right = tp.5B1− right M u − top p ) ) Eqn.

Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Figure 12-2: Wall pier for design condition 1 0.5Lp tp 0.5tp tp tp B1-left B2-left B3-left Lp B2-right B3-right B1-right 12 Pleft-top C L Wall Pier Plan Pu-top Mu-top Pright-top Top of pier Right edge member Mu-bot Pleft-bot Pu-bot Wall Pier Elevation Bottom of pier Pright-bot 12 .5tp 0.4 Designing a Simplified Pier Section Left edge member .

5 . The maximum tensile reinforcing to be packed within the tp times B1 concrete edge member is limited by: A st -max = PTmax t p B1 Eqn. for section adequacy.80). 12-6 If Ast is less than or equal to Ast-max and Asc is less than or equal to Asc-max then ETABS will proceed to check the next loading combination.. Ast. From Equation 12-3.5tp) and calculate new values for Pleft-top and Pright-top resulting in new values of Ast and Asc.1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design If any value of Pleft-top or Pright-top is tension then the area of steel required for tension.85f c' A g (Pmax Factor) φ c f y − 0. 12-5 Similarly. the area of steel required for compression. Asc.85f c' (A g − A sc ) + f y A sc ] Eqn. Abs (P) − 0. Designing a Simplified Pier Section 12 . the compression reinforcing is limited by: A sc-max = PC max t p B1 Eqn. is calculated as: A st = P φbf y Eqn.Chapter 12 . otherwise the program will increment the appropriate B1 dimension (left.e. we recommend that you use the default value. This iterative procedure continues until Ast and Asc are within the allowed steel ratios for all design load combinations. Abs (P) = (Pmax Factor ) φ c [0. In general.85f c' 12 A sc = Eqn. right or both depending on which edge member is inadequate) by one-half of the wall thickness to B2 (i. 12-4 If Asc calculates as negative then no compression reinforcing is needed. 1. must satisfy the following relationship. 12-3 where P is either Pleft-top or Pright-top. Ag = tpB1 and the Pmax Factor is defined in the shear wall design preferences (the default is 0. 12-2 If any value of Pleft-top or Pright-top is compression then.

12 .Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC If the value of the width of the edge member B increments to where it reaches a value larger than or equal to Lp/2 the iteration is terminated and a failure condition is reported. Design Condition 2 12 Design condition 2 applies to a wall pier with user-specified edge members at each end of the pier. Wall piers that are declared overstressed using this algorithm could be found to be adequate if the reinforcing steel is user-specified and the wall pier is accurately evaluated using interaction diagrams. The size of the edge members is assumed to be fixed. For this design condition the design algorithm determines the area of steel required in the center edge members and checks if that area gives reinforcing ratios less than the user specified maximum ratios. however. The width of the variable length edge member is equal to the width of the wall. The design is similar to that which has previously been described for design conditions 1 and 2. that is. The size of the user-specified edge member is not changed.6 Designing a Simplified Pier Section . ETABS does not modify them. no iteration is required. This design algorithm is an approximate but convenient algorithm. Design Condition 3 Design condition 3 applies to a wall pier with a user-specified (fixed dimension) edge member at one end of the pier and a variable length (ETABS-determined) edge member at the other end. The design algorithm used is the same as described for condition 1. Iteration only occurs on the size of the variable length edge member.

Details of this process are described later in this chapter in the subsection titled "Details of the Strain Compatibility Analysis".7 . For example. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain about the neutral axis on the section of the pier.1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design Checking a Section Designer Pier Section When you specify that a Section Designer pier section is to be checked. if 24 PMM curves are specified (the default) then there is one curve every 360°/24 curves = 15°.Chapter 12 . We recommend that you use 24 interaction curves (or more) to define a threedimensional interaction surface. This section describes how ETABS generates the interaction surface for the pier and how it determines the demand/capacity ratio for a given design load combination. 12 Checking a Section Designer Pier Section 12 . Interaction Surface General Note: In ETABS the interaction surface is defined by a series of PMM interaction curves that are equally spaced around a 360 degree circle. Each PMM interaction curve that makes up the interaction surface is numerically described by a series of discrete points connected by straight lines. Note that the orientation of the neutral axis is the same for an angle of θ and θ + 180°. Figure 12-3 illustrates the assumed orientation of the pier neutral axis and the associated sides of the neutral axis where the section is in tension (designated T in the figure) or compression (designated C in the figure) for various angles. Only the side of the neutral axis where the section is in tension or compression changes. ETABS creates an interaction surface for that pier and uses that interaction surface to determine the critical flexural demand/capacity ratio for the pier. In ETABS a three-dimensional interaction surface is defined referenced to the P. M2 and M3 axes by a series of PMM interaction curves that are created by rotating the direction of the pier neutral axis in equally spaced increments around a 360 degree circle.

8 Checking a Section Designer Pier Section C T . to be used in creating the interaction curve. If you input an even number for this in the preferences it will be incremented up to the next odd number by ETABS. regardless of the number of curves specified in the preferences. Furthermore.Shear Wall Design Manual Interaction curve is for a neutral axis parallel to this axis Pier section 2 45° 1997 UBC Interaction curve is for a neutral axis parallel to this axis 3 Pier section 2 T C 3 a) Angle is 0 degrees Interaction curve is for a neutral axis parallel to this axis 3 b) Angle is 45 degrees T C Interaction curve is for a neutral axis parallel to this axis 3 Pier section 2 225° 12 C T Pier section 2 a) Angle is 180 degrees b) Angle is 225 degrees (Above) Figure 12-3: Orientation of the pier neutral axis for various angles By default 11 points are used to define a PMM interaction curve. only moments about the M3 axis are considered for two-dimensional walls. Note that when creating an interaction surface for a twodimensional wall pier.3 of the 1997 UBC. greater than or equal to 11. You can change this number in the preferences where you can specify any odd number of points. Formulation of the Interaction Surface The formulation of the interaction surface in ETABS is based consistently on the basic principles of ultimate strength design given in Sections 1910. the 0° curve and the 180° curve. ETABS uses the requirements of force equilibrium and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment 12 . ETABS only considers two interaction curves.2 and 1910.

12-9 Checking a Section Designer Pier Section 12 . Poc = [0. is by default assumed to be equal to φc. This nominal strength is then multiplied by the appropriate strength reduction factor. In cases involving axial tension the strength reduction factor.10f'cAg or φPb to zero. φ. are included in the generation of the interaction curve. is by default equal to φb. φ. The default value is 0.003. Pot = fyAs Eqn.As) + fyAs] Eqn. to obtain the design strength (φPn.90. φ.Chapter 12 . the required strength (Pu. fy. The strength reduction factor. φM2n. φM3n) of the pier. just as the concrete reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0. assuming the φb factor is equal to 1 is called Pot and is given by Equation 12-9. Pb = The axial load at the balanced strain condition where the tension reinforcing reaches the strain corresponding to its specified yield strength. For the pier to be deemed adequate. M2n.70. decreases from the smaller of 0. where: Note: Strength reduction factors are specified in the shear wall design preference. M3u) ≤ (φPn. φM3n) Eqn. 12-8 The theoretical maximum tension force the wall pier can carry. The theoretical maximum compressive force the wall pier can carry. M3u) must be less than or equal to the design strength as indicated in Equation 12-7. M2u. 12 φc = Strength reduction factor for axial compression in a wall pier. 12-7 The effects of the strength reduction factor. M2u. φ is increased linearly from φc to φb as the required axial strength. For low values of axial compression. The default value is 0. φb = Strength reduction factor for bending. φM2n. φ. with or without moment.9 . (Pu. You can revise the strength reduction factors φc and φb in the preferences and the overwrites. Pu = φPn. assuming the φc factor is equal to 1 is called Poc and is given by Equation 12-8.85f'c (Ag . for high axial compression . M3n) of the wall pier.1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design strength (Pn.

φc. Note: You can specify the number of points to be used for creating interaction diagrams in the shear wall preferences and overwrites. Otherwise there will be a moment associated with both Poc and Pot. Notice that the concrete is symmetrical but the reinforcing is not symmetrical in this example.80 as required by the code. Figure 12-5 shows several interaction surfaces for the wall pier illustrated in Figure 12-4. by default 11 points are used to define a single interaction curve.80.As) + fyAs] Eqn. to the value given by Pmax in Equation 12-10. Note the following about Figure 12-5: 12 . The other half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Pb and Pot at approximately equal spacing along the φPn axis. As previously mentioned.80φ[0. 12 The 1997 UBC limits the maximum compressive design strength. φcPn. but also by an additional factor of 0.10 Checking a Section Designer Pier Section 2-#6 .c.85f'c (Ag . Pmax = 0. each face. In all 1997 UBC code designs it is prudent to consider this factor to be 0.. 12-10 Note that the equation defining Pmax reduces Poc not only by a strength reduction factor. When creating a single interaction curve ETABS includes the points at Pb. Half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Pb and Poc at approximately equal spacing along the φPn axis. Poc and Pot on the interaction curve. Figure 12-4 shows a plan view of an example two-dimensional wall pier. In the preferences this factor is called the Pmax Factor and you can specify different values for it if desired. except as noted 1' f’c = 4 ksi fy = 60 ksi 2-#9 2-#9 Figure 12-4: Example twodimensional wall pier with unsymmetrical reinforcing 12'-6" 3" 12 spaces at 1'-0" = 12'-0" 3" If the wall pier geometry and reinforcing is symmetrical in plan then the moments associated with both Poc and Pot are zero.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC # 5@12” o.80φcPoc = 0.

The dashed line shows the effect of setting the Pmax Factor to 1.9 per UBC97 Pmax Factor = 1.7 to 0.80 per UBC97 1000 Pot (Above) Figure 12-5: Interaction curves for example wall pier shown in Figure 12-4 • Since the pier is two-dimensional the interaction surface consists of two interaction curves.0 180° curves Poc -7000 φ Pn -6000 φ = 0. • • Checking a Section Designer Pier Section 12 . The 0° and 180° interaction curves are not symmetric because the wall pier reinforcing is not symmetric. • • • Note: In ETABS tension is positive and compression is negative.0 0° curves -5000 -4000 Pb for 180° curve φPb for 180° curve -3000 -2000 φPb for 0° curve Pb for 0° curve -1000 -12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 12 φM3n φ = 0.Chapter 12 .11 .0. In ETABS compression is negative and tension is positive. One curve is at 0° and the other is at 180°.0 Pmax Factor = 1.9 per UBC97 Pmax Factor = 0. Only M3 moments are considered since this is a two-dimensional example.7 to 0. The smaller interaction surface (drawn with a heavier line) has both the strength reduction factors and the Pmax Factor as specified by the 1997 UBC. The larger interaction surface has both the strength reduction factor and the Pmax Factor set to 1.0.1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design φ = 1.

12 . M3n) of the wall pier.12 Checking a Section Designer Pier Section .7 -4000 -3000 -2000 φ = from φc = 0.9 -6000 -5000 φ = 0. The other three curves. ETABS uses the requirements of force equilibrium and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment strength (Pn.9 and 1. 0.0.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC -7000 φPn φ = 1. The smaller.7 to φt = 0.7. The purpose of showing these interaction curves is to give you more of a sense of how ETABS creates the interaction curve.9 per UBC97 Pmax Factor = 0. Details of the Strain Compatibility Analysis As previously mentioned.7 and 0. Additional interaction curves are also added to Figure 12-6. Figure 12-6 shows the 0° interaction curves for the wall pier illustrated in Figure 12-4.80 per UBC97 12 -2000 -1000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 φM3n 1000 (Above) Figure 12-6: Interaction curves for example wall pier shown in Figure 12-4 • The interaction surfaces shown are created using the default value of 11 points for each interaction curve. and that their values can be revised in the overwrites if desired.0.9 are actually φc and φb. Recall that the strength reduction factors 0. which are plotted for φ = 0. heavier curve in Figure 12-6 has the strength reduction factor and the Pmax Factor as specified in the 1997 UBC.0 φ = 0. M2n. all have Pmax Factors of 1.

(Recall that in ETABS compression is negative and tension is positive.Chapter 12 . In Figure 12-8 the compressive stress in the concrete.003 to plus infinity. Figure 12-8 illustrates the concrete wall pier stress-strain relationship that is obtained from a strain compatibility analysis of a typical plane of linear strain shown in Figure 12-7. When the steel strain is plus infinity the maximum tensile force in the wall pier.g. Pot.1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design Varying neutral axis locations +ε 0. is obtained from the strain compatibility analysis. When the maximum steel strain is equal to the yield strain for the reinforcing (e. Cc.) When the steel strain is -0.003 and the maximum steel strain is varied from -0. Figure 12-7 illustrates varying planes of linear strain such as those that ETABS considers on a wall pier section for a neutral axis orientation angle of 0 degrees.. is calculated using Equation 12-11. 0. In these planes.000 -0. is obtained.003 the maximum compressive force in the wall pier. Poc.13 . the maximum concrete strain is always taken as -0. Checking a Section Designer Pier Section 12 .00207 for fy = 60 ksi) then Pb is obtained.003 Figure 12-7: Varying planes of linear strain Varying Linear Strain Diagram -ε 12 Plan View of Wall Pier The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain on the section of the wall pier.

Next the stress in the reinforcing steel is calculated using Equation 12-12 where εs is the strain. 12-12 12 . Then the strain in all other reinforcing steel is determined based on the assumed plane of linear strain. 12-11 In Figure 12-7 the value for maximum strain in the reinforcing steel is assumed. σs is the stress and fy is the yield stress of the reinforcing steel.85f'cβ1ctp Eqn. Es is the modulus of elasticity.85f'c .Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Figure 12-8: Wall pier stressstrain relationship Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Cs Cs Cs Cs 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Cc a = β1c ε13 s Stress Diagram ε12 s ε11 ε10 s s 12 ε4 ε3 s s Linear Strain Diagram ε2 ε1 s s Plan View of Wall Pier Cc = 0.003 ε9 ε8 s s ε7 ε6 s s ε5 s c 0.14 Checking a Section Designer Pier Section tp ε = 0. σs = εsEs ≤ fy Eqn.

φM2n and φM3n values calculated as described above make up one point on the wall pier interaction diagram. The forces obtained from a given design load combination are Pu and M3u. Additional points on the diagram are obtained by making different assumptions for the maximum steel stress. If the point lies within the interaction curve then the wall Checking a Section Designer Pier Section 12 . φPn = φ(ΣTs.Cc . The point L. Similarly. note that for two-dimensional pier design M2 is ignored.Chapter 12 . This process continues until the points for all of the specified curves have been calculated. 12-14 In Equation 12-14 the tensile force Ts and the compressive forces Cc and Cs are all positive. M3u). considering a different plane of linear strain. If φPn is positive it is tension and if it is negative it is compression. defined by (Pu.15 . Again.ΣCs) ≤ Pmax Eqn. The φPn. the value of φM3n is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 3-axis. 12-13 For the given distribution of strain the value of φPn is calculated using Equation 12-14. and repeating the process. is placed on the interaction diagram as shown in the figure. The forces whose moments are summed to determine φM2n and φM3n are φPn.1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design The force in the reinforcing steel (Ts for tension or Cs for compression) is calculated using Equation 12-13 where: Ts or Cs = σsAs Eqn. 12 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio Refer to Figure 12-9 which shows a typical two-dimensional wall pier interaction diagram. When one interaction curve is complete the next orientation of the neutral axis is assumed and the points for the associated new interaction curve are calculated. The term Pmax is calculated using Equation 12-10. The value of φM2n is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 2-axis. that is. all of the φTs forces and all of the φCs forces. φCc.

The demand/capacity ratio. If OL > OC (or D/C > 1) the point (Pu. Note the following about the demand/capacity ratio: • • If OL = OC (or D/C = 1) the point (Pu. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (extended outward if needed) intersects the interaction curve. The ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. M3u) lies outside of the interaction curve and the wall pier is overstressed. • The wall pier demand/capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the wall with respect to the capacity of the wall. D/C. is given by D/C = OL / OC where OL is the "distance" from point O (the origin) to point L and OC is the "distance" from point O to point C. M3u) lies on the interaction curve and the wall pier is stressed to capacity.16 Checking a Section Designer Pier Section . As a measure of the stress condition in the wall pier a stress ratio is calculated. Note: The process used for checking the demand/capacity ratio of threedimensional piers is similar to that described here for two.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Figure 12-9: Two-dimensional wall pier demand/capacity ratio φPn C Pu Axial Compression Axial Tension O M3u L φM3n 12 pier capacity is adequate. If OL < OC (or D/C < 1) the point (Pu.dimensional piers. M3u) lies within the interaction curve and the wall pier capacity is adequate. If the point lies outside of the interaction curve the wall pier is overstressed. 12 .

ETABS creates a series of interaction surfaces for the pier based on the following items: 1.Chapter 12 . is 0. The location of the reinforcing specified in Section Designer. The size of each reinforcing bar specified in Section Designer relative to the size of the other bars. IPmin. Similarly. The smallest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design preferences as Section Design IP-Min. however. IPmax. The size of the pier as specified in Section Designer.17 .0025 and the maximum. 2. The interaction surfaces are developed for eight different ratios of reinforcing steel area to pier area. 12 Designing a Section Designer Pier Section 12 . 3. is 0. Designing a Section Designer Pier Section When you specify that a Section Designer pier section is to be designed. the largest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design preferences as Section Design IP-Max. The eight reinforcing ratios used are the maximum and the minimum ratios plus six more ratios in between. Table 12-1 illustrates the spacing both in general terms and for a specific example where the minimum reinforcing ratio. the relative size (area) of each rebar compared to the other bars is always kept constant. The pier area is held constant and the rebar area is modified to obtain these different ratios. The spacing between the reinforcing ratios is calculated as an increasing arithmetic series where the space between the first two ratios is equal to one-third of the space between the last two ratios.1997 UBC Wall Pier Flexural Design The demand/capacity ratio for a three-dimensional wall pier is determined in a similar manner to that described here for twodimensional piers.02.

0025 0.0100 0. This process is repeated for all design load combinations and the largest required reinforcing ratio is reported. 12 .0163 0.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Table 12-1: The eight reinforcing ratios used by ETABS Curve 1 2 3 4 5 Ratio IPmin IPmax − IPmin IPmin + 14 7 æ IPmax − IPmin ö IPmin + ç ÷ 3è 14 ø æ IPmax − IPmin ö IPmin + 4 ç ÷ 14 è ø IPmax − IPmin ö æ IPmin + 6 ç ÷ 14 è ø 25 æ IPmax − IPmin ö IPmin + ç ÷ 3 è 14 ø æ IPmax − IPmin ö IPmin + 11 ç ÷ 14 è ø IPmax Example 0.18 Designing a Section Designer Pier Section .99 instead of 1).0075 0. ETABS then uses linear interpolation between the eight interaction surfaces to determine the reinforcing ratio that gives an demand/capacity ratio of 1 (actually ETABS uses 0.0200 12 6 7 8 Once the eight reinforcing ratios are determined ETABS develops interaction surfaces for all eight of the ratios using the process described earlier in this chapter in the section titled "Checking a Section Designer Pier Section. for a given design load combination." Next.0129 0.0038 0. ETABS generates a demand/capacity ratio associated with each of the eight interaction surfaces.0054 0.

1 . 1.Chapter 13 13 1997 UBC Wall Pier Shear Design This chapter discusses how ETABS designs concrete wall piers for shear using the 1997 UBC. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular wall pier section for a particular design loading combination. Vc. Note that in ETABS you can not specify shear reinforcing and then have ETABS check it. Mu and Vu that are acting on the wall pier section. 13 . Note that Pu and Mu are required for the calculation of Vc. Determine the factored forces Pu. Determine the shear force. that can be carried by the concrete. The shear design is performed at stations at the top and bottom of the pier. General The wall pier shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations. ETABS only designs the pier for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required. 2.

6R LW f c' + æ M ö Lp ê Abs ç u ÷ − çV ÷ 2 ê è u ø ë öù ÷ú ÷ú ø t 0. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. Section 1911. is calculated using Equations 13-1 and 13-2.10. Note that these equations are identical to Equations 11-31 and 11-32 in Chapter 19. the shear force carried by the concrete.8L p 4L p ( ) Eqn. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force. If the tension is large enough that Equation 13-1 or Equation 132 results in a negative number then Vc is set to zero.8*Lp.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC 3. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. Vc. 13-2 ú p p ú ú û ( ) Equation 13-2 doesn't apply if Abs æ M u ö − L p is negative or ç çV ÷ 2 ÷ è u ø zero. The first step above needs no further explanation. 13-1 in this chapter is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to lightweight concrete.3R LW f c' t p 0. or if Vu is zero.8L p − 13 all f c' terms ( ) Pu 0.6 of the 1997 UBC with the UBC dimension "d" set equal to 0.2 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity . The term RLW that is used as a multiplier on all f c' terms in this chapter is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to lightweight concrete. where Vc may not be greater than é æ P L p ç1.8L Eqn. Mu and Vu acting on a wall pier section. Vc = 3. thus the negative sign on the second term in Equation 13-1 is consistent with Equation 13 . Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity Note: The term RLW that used as a multiplier on Given the design force set Pu.2 u ê ç Lp t p ê è Vc = ê0. This factor is specified in the concrete material properties. Recall that in ETABS tension is positive. The following two sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the last two above-mentioned steps.25R LW f c' − 0. This factor is specified in the concrete material properties.

Abs (Vu ) must not exceed 10R LW f c' t p 0. Vn = Note: A pier is specified as seismic or nonseismic in the shear wall design overwrites. Additional Requirements for Seismic Piers Note: The phi (φ) factors are set in the shear wall design preferences.8L p ) Note: You can set the output units for the distributed shear reinforcing in the shear wall design preferences.1997 UBC Wall Pier Shear Design 11-31 in the 1997 UBC.10. Similarly the negative sign on the second term in the parenthesis of Equation 13-2 is consistent with Equation 11-32 in the 1997 UBC.3. For shear design of seismic wall piers the following additional requirements are also checked.Chapter 13 . 13-3 where. The φ (phi) factors are specified in the shear wall design preferences. 13-4 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 13 . ( ) per In Equation 13-3 the term φ is equal to φvns for nonseismic piers and to φvs for seismic piers.3 .g. Note that additional requirements for seismic piers are given later in this section. 13 Eqn. square inches per inch) for both seismic and nonseismic wall piers (as indicated by the Design is Seismic item in the pier design overwrites) is given by Equation 13-3. Abs(Vu ) .. the required shear reinforcing in area per unit length (e. Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing Seismic and Nonseismic Piers Given Vu and Vc.8L p φ 1997 UBC Section 1911. The nominal shear strength of the wall pier is limited to: æ ö A Vn = ç 2R LW f c' + v f ys ÷ L p t p ç ÷ tp è ø Eqn.Vc φ Av = f ys (0.

5.5.2R LW f c' L p t p φ vs Av = f ys L p Eqn. 13 .6.2) in all cases.Shear Wall Design Manual where. Also note that the maximum wall pier nominal shear force is limited by ETABS to 8R LW f c' t p L p not 10R LW f c' t p L p . 13-5 13 Note that ETABS conservatively uses 1997 UBC Equation 21-6 (Section 1921. Equation 13-4 is based on Equation 216 in Section 1921.3) might be applicable.6.6. Abs (Vu ) . Vn = 1997 UBC per 1997 Av is the horizontal shear reinforcing per unit vertical length (height) of the wall pier. even in cases where 1997 UBC Equation 21-7 (Section 1921. Abs (Vu ) must not exceed 8R LW f c' t p L p φ vs UBC Section 1921.6.5. Since Vu = φvsVn. Av can be calculated as shown in Equation 13-5. This is a conservative assumption.4 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing .6.2 of the 1997 UBC.5.

Note that ETABS designs spandrels at stations located at the ends of the spandrel.1 . 14 . The required area of reinforcing for flexure is calculated and reported only at the ends of the spandrel beam. The spandrel flexural reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations. torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Effects due to any axial forces. minor direction bending. 14 General Note: ETABS allows both rectangular and T-beam sections for spandrels. In ETABS wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. No design is performed at the center (midlength) of the spandrel.Chapter 14 1997 UBC Spandrel Flexural Design This chapter describes how ETABS designs concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure using the 1997 UBC requirements. ETABS allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for shear wall spandrels.

In ETABS positive beam moments produce bottom steel.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcing for a particular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station.75 times the balanced condition. The procedure used by ETABS for both rectangular and T-beam sections is given below.2 Determining the Maximum Factored Moments . it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to 0. the factored moments for each design load combination at a particular beam station are first obtained. an area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment is carried by compression reinforcing and additional tension reinforcing. • • Determine the maximum factored moment Mu. Determine the required flexural reinforcing. 14 . In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular section. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. 14 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing In ETABS negative beam moments produce top steel. These steps are described in the following sections. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this 0. or as a T-beam section. The flexural design procedure is based on a simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 14-1. Furthermore. You indicate that a spandrel is to be designed as a T-beam by providing appropriate slab width and depth dimensions in the spandrel design overwrites. Determining the Maximum Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcing for spandrels. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and the maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the design load combinations.

This is expressed in Equation 14-1. Mu. 14-1 where C c = 0.85f c' φ b t s Eqn.dr-bot for positive bending and hs . For a rectangular beam. positive moment εc = 0. 14-2 ETABS uses Equation 14-2 to determine the depth of the compression block. a. The depth of the compression block.Chapter 14 .85f'c Cs Cc a = β1c Ts dr-top hs dr-bot dspandrel c Figure 14-1: Rectangular spandrel beam design. the factored moment.003 ε's εs Beam Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram Rectangular Beam Flexural Reinforcing Refer to Figure 14-1.75β1cb.1997 UBC Spandrel Flexural Design ts 0. where Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 14 . a. is resisted by a couple between the concrete in compression and the tension in reinforcing steel. is compared with 0.3 . aö æ M u = C c ç d spandrel − ÷ 2ø è 14 Eqn.dr-top for negative bending.85φ b f c' at s and dspandrel is equal to hs . Equation 14-1 can be solved for the depth of the compression block. a. yielding Equation 14-2. 2 a = d spandrel − d spandrel − 2M u 0.

The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by Equation 14-6.75β1cb then compression reinforcing is required and ETABS calculates required compression and tension reinforcing as follows.75β1cb then no compression reinforcing is required and ETABS calculates the area of tension reinforcing using Equation 14-5. 14-6 The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel.75β1cb. a. is given by Equation 147. As = Mu aö æ φ b f y ç d spandrel − ÷ 2ø è 14 Eqn. and cb. 14-7 14 . The depth of the concrete compression block. cb = 87000 d spandrel 87000 + f y Eqn.65. 14-4 Tension Reinforcing Only Required Note: If the required tension reinforcing exceeds 75% of the balanced reinforcing then ETABS provides compression steel to help resist the applied moment. 14-3 with a maximum of 0. Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required If a > 0. the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis for balanced strain conditions is given by Equation 14-4. 14-5 The steel is placed at the bottom for positive moment and in the top for negative moment. Muc.85 − ( ) Eqn.4 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing .85 and a minimum of 0.05 f c' − 4000 1000 1997 UBC β1 = 0.85f'cabts Eqn.Shear Wall Design Manual 0. is set equal to ab = 0. If a ≤ 0. Cc = 0. a ö æ M uc = φ b C c ç d spandrel − b ÷ 2 ø è Eqn.

85f c' ) Eqn. Cs. is given by Equation 1411.d r ) c Eqn. Eqn. Asw.003E s (c . However.5 . is calculated using Equation 14-12. 14-10 The stress in the compression steel. ETABS does report an overstress when the ratio exceeds 4%. 14-8 The force carried by the compression steel. A 's = Cs φ ' b (f s − 0. 14-11 The term dr in Equations 14-9. ε's. is given by Mus = Mu . the strain in the compression steel. is given by Equation 14-9. 14-12 The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web. A's. 14-9 Referring to Figure 14-1.d r ) c Eqn. f's. Mus. ' εs = 0. is: A sw = M uc a ö æ φ b f y ç d spandrel − b ÷ 2 ø è Eqn. is given by Equation 14-10.Muc Note: ETABS reports the ratio of top and bottom steel required to the web area When compression steel is required these ratios may be large because there is no limit on them. In Equations 14-10 and 14-11 the term c is equal to ab/β 1.1997 UBC Spandrel Flexural Design Therefore the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the additional tension steel. 14-13 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 14 .003 (c . 14-10 and 14-11 is equal to dr-top for positive bending and equal to dr-bot for negative bending.Chapter 14 . Cs = M us d spandrel − d r Eqn. The total required area of compression steel. ' f s' = E s ε s = 14 0.

Asc. designing top steel) the calculation of required steel is as described in the previous subsection for rectangular sections. T-Beam Flexural Reinforcing T-beam action is only considered effective for positive moment. calculated using Equation 14-2 falls within the depth of the T-beam flange. In Equation 14-14 dr is equal to dr-top for positive bending and dr-bot for negative bending. is: A sc = φ b f y (d spandrel − d r ) M us Eqn. As. 14-15 where Asw and Asc are determined from Equations 14-13 and 1414 respectively. a. 14 As = Asw + Asc Eqn. a. The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel. is given by Equation 14-12.e. Thus the total tension reinforcement. is given by Equation 14-15 and the total compression reinforcement. No T-beam data is used in this design. When designing T-beams for negative moment (i.dr-top for negative bending. The method for calculating the required reinforcing steel depends on whether the compression block depth. The total tension reinforcement As is given by Equation 14-15. ds.dr-bot for positive bending and hs . is initially determined using Equation 14-2. 14 . 14-14 In Equations 14-13 and 14-14 dspandrel is equal to hs . See Figure 14-2.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Note that Equation 14-13 is similar to Equation 14-5 that is used when only tension reinforcing is required. A's. As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam and A's at the top for positive bending and vice versa for negative bending. For positive moment the depth of the compression block.. The width of the beam is taken equal to the width of the web.6 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing .

The protruding portion of the flange is shown cross-hatched. Asf. First the tension steel required to balance the compressive force in the flange is determined. is given by Equation 14-16. If necessary compression steel is added to help resist the design moment. respectively.1997 UBC Spandrel Flexural Design bs dr-top ts εc = 0. the subsequent calculations for the required area of reinforcing steel are done in two parts. the subsequent calculations for the reinforcing steel are exactly the same as previously defined for rectangular section design. where β1 and cb are given by Equations 14-3 and 14-4. Compression reinforcement is provided when the dimension "a" exceeds 0.85f'c a1 = β1c Cs Cw Cf 0.003 ε's A's c 0.85f'c ds Tf Concrete Flange Stress Diagram hs dspandrel ds dr-bot As εs Strain Diagram Ts = Tw + Tf Steel Stress Diagram Tw Concrete Web Stress Diagram Beam Section Figure 14-2: Design of a wall spandrel with a Tbeam section. in this case the width of the compression block is taken to be equal to the width of the compression flange. bs.85f'c (bs . Cf. Cf = 0. The compression force in the protruding portion of the flange.7 . If a > ds. is: Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 14 . and second the tension steel required to balance the compressive force in the web is determined.75β1cb.ts)ds Eqn. Refer to Figure 14-2. However. 14-16 The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete flange. 14 • The remainder of this section describes in detail the design process used by ETABS for T-beam spandrels when a > ds.Chapter 14 . positive moment • If a ≤ ds.

Shear Wall Design Manual Cf fy 1997 UBC A sf = Note: T-beam action is only considered for positive moment. d ö æ M uf = φ b C f ç d spandrel − s ÷ 2ø è Eqn. As. A sw = M uw a ö æ φ b f y ç d spandrel − 1 ÷ 2ø è Eqn. As = Asf + Asw Eqn.Muf Eqn. Asw. 14-20 Tension Reinforcing Only Required If a1 ≤ 0. a1. 14-19 14 The web is a rectangular section of width ts and depth hs for which the design depth of the compression block. Mu. Eqn. 14-21 The total tension reinforcement As is given by Equation 14-22.85f c' φ b t s Eqn. is given by Muw = Mu .75β1cb. is recalculated as: 2 a 1 = d spandrel − d spandrel − 2M uw 0. is given by Equation 14-18. respectively. where β1 and cb are calculated from Equations 14-3 and 14-4. 14-18 Therefore the balance of the moment to be carried by the web.8 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing . Muf. 14 . using Equation 14-21. 14-22 The total tension reinforcement. 14-17 The portion of the total moment. given by Equation 14-22 is to be placed at the bottom of the beam for positive bending. then no compression reinforcing is required and ETABS calculates the area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete web. Muw. that is resisted by the flange.

Chapter 14 . 14-24 14 Therefore the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel. a ö æ M uc = φ b C w ç d spandrel − b ÷ 2 ø è Eqn. is given by Equation 14-26.d r -top c ( ) Eqn. respectively. 14-27 The stress in the compression steel. 14-26 The strain in the compression steel. Mus.d r -top c ( ) Eqn. the force carried by the compression steel. is given by Equation 1428. ' εs = 0.003 c . 14-25 Referring to Figure 14-2. where a1 is calculated using Equation 14-20 and β1 and cb are calculated from Equations 14-3 and 14-4. The compressive force developed in the web concrete alone is given by Equation 14-23.75β1cb. then compression reinforcing is required. is given by: Mus = Muw . Cw = 0. ' f s' = E s ε s = 0.75β1cb. 14-23 The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete web in compression and the tension steel.85f'cabts Eqn. is set equal to ab = 0. Cs. ε's. Cs = M us d spandrel − d r -top Eqn.1997 UBC Spandrel Flexural Design Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required If a1 > 0. is given by Equation 1427. In this case the required reinforcing is computed as follows. f's. The depth of the concrete compression block.003E s c . a. 14-28 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 14 . Muc.Muc Eqn.9 . is given by Equation 147.

is given by Equation 14-29.10 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing . is calculated using Equation 14-29. 14-30 14 The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel. A's. The required area of compression steel. 14-31 The total tension reinforcement As is given by Equation 14-15.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC In Equations 14-27 and 14-28 the term c is equal to ab/β 1. 14 . The total tension reinforcement. 14-32 where Asf. As. 1430 and 14-31 respectively. Asw and Asc are determined from Equations 14-17. A 's = Cs φ b f s' Eqn. A's. As = Asf + Asw + Asc Eqn. Asw. is: A sc = φ b f y (d spandrel − d r -top ) M us Eqn. Asc. 14-29 The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web. is: A sw = M uc a ö æ φ b f y ç d spandrel − b ÷ 2 ø è Eqn. is given by Equation 14-32 and the total compression reinforcement. As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam and A's at the top of the beam.

torsion or minor direction shear that may exist 15 . minor direction bending.Chapter 15 1997 UBC Spandrel Shear Design This chapter discusses how ETABS designs concrete wall spandrels for shear using the 1997 UBC. The shear design for both of these types of spandrel sections is identical. 15 General The wall spandrel shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combinations. ETABS allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for wall spandrels.1 . The required area of reinforcing for vertical shear is only calculated at the ends of the spandrel beam. Note that in ETABS you can not specify shear reinforcing and then have ETABS check it. Effects due to any axial forces. In ETABS wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear forces only. ETABS only designs the spandrel for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required.

Section 1911. This factor is specified in the concrete material properties. 15-1 f c' terms in this chapter is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to lightweight concrete.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC in the spandrels must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Equation 15-1 is based on Equation 11-3 in Chapter 21. Determine the shear force. Vc = 2R LW f c' t s d spandrel Eqn. is calculated using Equation 15-1. This factor is specified in the concrete material properties. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. that can be carried by the concrete. 15 .2 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity . If this overwrite is activated then ETABS sets Vc to zero for the spandrel. 15 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity Note: The term RLW that is used as a multiplier on all The shear force carried by the concrete.3. The following two sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the last two above-mentioned steps. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station. Vc. • • • Determine the factored shear force Vu. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. Vc.1. The first step above needs no further explanation.1 of the 1997 UBC. The term RLW that is used as a multiplier on all f c' terms in this chapter is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to lightweight concrete. Note: You can specify in the overwrites that Vc is to be ignored (set to zero) for spandrel shear calculations. Note that there is an overwrite available that allows you to ignore the concrete contribution to the shear strength of the spandrel.

the required force to be carried by the shear reinforcing. square inches per foot) for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels (as indicated in the preferences) is initially calculated using Equation 15-3. Vs = Vn . 15-2 15 If Vs as calculated in Equation 15-2 exceeds 8R LW f c' t s d spandrel then a failure condition is reported per UBC Section 1911.8. For shear design ETABS takes dspandrel to be equal to the smaller of hs-dr-top and hs-dr-bot.6.Vc Vs = f ys d spandrel f ys d spandrel Eqn. Given Vs. 15-4a Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 15 .1997 UBC Spandrel Shear Design Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing One of the terms used in calculating the spandrel shear reinforcing is dspandrel which is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension steel.Vc = Vu .Chapter 15 .Vc φ Eqn. Note: You can set the output units for the distributed shear reinforcing in the shear wall design preferences. Vs.. Note that additional requirements that are checked for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels are given following Equation 15-3. • When Ls d spandrel > 5 ETABS verifies: Vs ≤ 8R LW f c' t s d spandrel .3 .5. Given Vu and Vc. the required vertical shear reinforcing in area per unit length (e.g. 15-3 The following additional checks are also performed for both seismic and nonseismic spandrels. is calculated using Equation 15-2. Seismic and Nonseismic Spandrels In this entire subsection the term φ is equal to φvns for nonseismic spandrels and to φvs for seismic spandrels. Av = Vn . Eqn.

6. 15-4d • When 2 ≤ Ls d spandrel ≤ 5 ETABS verifies: Vn = Ls ö Vu 2 æ ÷R LW f c' t s d spandrel ≤ ç10 + ç φ d spandrel ÷ 3è ø Eqn.5Vc the minimum arφ d spandrel eas of vertical and horizontal shear reinforcing in the spandrel are: Ls > 5 and A v -min = 50t s f ys Eqn. 15-4c Equation 15-4b is based on Equation 11-13 in Section 1911.8 of the 1997 UBC.0015t s A h -min = 0.8.5Vc the minimum ard spandrel φ eas of vertical and horizontal shear reinforcing in the spandrel are: > 5 and A v-min = A h -min = 0 Ls Eqn. For this condition the minimum areas of horizontal and vertical shear reinforcing in the spandrel are: A v-min = 0. ü When Vu > 0. 15-4g 15 . 15 ü When Vu ≤ 0.5. ETABS always uses the smallest value of dspandrel that is applicable to the spandrel. 15-4e otherwise a failure condition is declared per Equation 11-27 in Section 1911. Note: When calculating the Ls /dspandrel term.4 of the 1997 UBC.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC otherwise a failure condition is declared per Section 1911. 15-4b A h -min = 0 Eqn.0025t s Eqn. 15-4f Eqn.4 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing .3 of the 1997 UBC.5.5.

where hs is the height of the spandrel and Ls is the length of the spandrel.Chapter 15 .8. 15-4h otherwise a failure condition is declared per Section 1911.1997 UBC Spandrel Shear Design Ls d spandrel • When < 2 ETABS verifies: Vn = Vu ≤ 8R LW f c' t s d spandrel .8h s ) 2 s .10 of the 1997 UBC. Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 15 .4 of the 1997 UBC. 15-4i Eqn.5 . sinα = 0. φ Eqn. 2 (0.0025t s Eqn. Equations 15-4g and 15-4j are based on Section 1911. 15-4j Equations 15-4f and 15-4i are based on Section 1911. Note that the check in Equation 15-4a is based on Vs whereas the checks in Equations 15-4e and 15-4h are based on Vn. For seismic spandrels only. an area of diagonal shear reinforcement in Ls < 4 using coupling beams is also calculated when d spandrel Equation 15-5. For this condition the minimum areas of horizontal and vertical shear reinforcing in the spandrel are: A v-min = 0. 15-5 where.9 of the 1997 UBC.0015t s A h -min = 0. 15 Seismic Spandrels Only Note: For nonseismic spandrels Avd is reported as zero.8.8h s L2 + (0. in addition to the requirements of the previous subsection.85) f ys sinα Eqn. A vd = Vu .8.

To enter this mode right click on a wall pier or spandrel while the 16 . Refer to the individual chapters for additional information. among other things. This chapter discusses the interactive design and review mode which.1 . 16 General Note: There are three types of shear wall design output. allows you to view tabulated output that is displayed on the screen. Following is a summary of the chapters included in this manual that discuss output. In this context output refers to both an echo of input data and presentation of design results. There are three types of shear wall design output. They are output that is displayed on the ETABS model. • Chapter 4: Interactive Shear Wall Design and Review. tabulated output displayed on screen and tabulated output that is printed. tabulated output displayed on screen and tabulated output that is printed.Chapter 16 Overview of Shear Wall Output This chapter provides an overview of ETABS output for shear wall design. The chapter titles are to some degree selfexplanatory. They are output that is displayed on the ETABS model.

It documents each of the items in the printed Output Summary data and in the printed Detailed Output data. If design results are not currently displayed then first click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Interactive Wall Design command and then right click a pier or spandrel to enter the interactive design and review mode for that pier or spandrel. Chapter 19: Printed Design Output Data. This chapter discusses the shear wall design output information that can be printed using the File menu > Print Tables > Shear Wall Design command. • Chapter 17: Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC design results are displayed. Use the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command to display this data. This chapter discusses the shear wall design input information that can be printed using the File menu > Print Tables > Shear Wall Design command.2 General . Chapter 18: Printed Design Input Data. It documents each of the items in the printed Preferences data and in the printed Summary Input data. This chapter documents the design input and output data that can be displayed directly on the ETABS model. • 16 • 16 .

This chapter describes the shear wall output that is plotted directly on the ETABS model. This output can be displayed on the screen using the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command. if desired. The data is organized into two main groups as follows. and.1 . the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command. • Design Input ü Material ü Thickness ü Pier length/spandrel depth ü Section Designer pier sections 17 .Chapter 17 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model 17 Overview Tip: Click the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info command to display shear wall design data directly on your ETABS model.

Each of these items is described in more detail in subsequent sections of this chapter. The local axis conventions for piers and spandrels are described in the ETABS User's Manual. 17 . Design Input Material When you choose to display the material data ETABS displays the following: • For simplified pier sections the material property for the section. The output plotted directly on piers is plotted along an invisible line that extends from the centroid of the pier section at the bottom of the pier to the centroid of the pier section at the top of the pier.Shear Wall Design Manual • Design Output ü Simplified pier longitudinal reinforcing ü Simplified pier edge members ü Section Designer pier reinforcing ratios ü Section Designer pier D/C ratios ü Spandrel longitudinal reinforcing ü Shear reinforcing ü Pier demand/capacity ratios ü Pier boundary zones 1997 UBC 17 Note that you can not simultaneously display more than one of the above listed items on the model. Similarly. the output plotted directly on spandrels is plotted along an invisible line that extends from the centroid of the spandrel section at the left end of the spandrel to the centroid of the spandrel section at the top of the spandrel. is displayed. which is specified in the pier overwrites. For some of these items it is important that you know the local axis orientation for the elements.2 Design Input .

3 . is displayed at the top and the bottom of the pier. A single material property is displayed for spandrel sections. 17 • As shown in Figure 17-1. as specified in the pier design overwrites. is displayed at the top and the bottom of the pier. and clicking either the Add Pier Section button or the Modify/Show Pier Section button. as specified in the pier design overwrites. When the • Design Input 17 . Thickness When you choose to display the thickness data ETABS displays the following: • For simplified pier sections the pier thickness. is displayed. For Section Designer pier sections the pier shear thickness.Chapter 17 . For spandrels the material property for the section. separate material properties are specified at the top and bottom of all pier sections. which is specified in the spandrel overwrites.Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Figure 17-1: Example of how material property labels are displayed on pier and spandrel elements Conc01 Conc01 Spandrel material property Conc01 Pier material property b) Spandrel a) Pier • For Section Designer pier sections the base material property for the section is displayed. The base material is specified in the Pier Section Data dialog box that is accessed by clicking the Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Define Pier Sections for Checking command.

4 Design Input . Pier Length and Spandrel Depth When you choose to display the pier length and spandrel depth data ETABS displays the following: • For simplified pier sections the pier length. is displayed at the top and the bottom of the pier. • For spandrels the spandrel thickness. is displayed at the left end and the right end of the spandrel. The thickness for the local 3-axis direction forces is always displayed to the right of the thickness for the local 2-axis direction forces. For Section Designer pier sections the pier shear length. Figure 17-2 illustrates how the thicknesses are displayed on the model.00 Top of pier 12.00 12. (Pier lengths and spandrels depths are displayed in a similar manner) pier is a three-dimensional pier then separate thicknesses are displayed for resisting forces in the local 2-axis direction and for resisting forces in the local 3-axis direction. When the pier is a three-dimensional pier then separate lengths are displayed for resisting forces in the local 2-axis direction • 17 . as specified in the pier design overwrites.00 Bottom of Pier 12. is displayed at the top and the bottom of the pier.00 14.00 12.Shear Wall Design Manual 2-dir 3-dir 1997 UBC 12.00 14. as specified in the pier design overwrites.00 12.00 a) Simplified Pier b) 3D Section Designer Pier c) Spandrel 17 Figure 17-2: Example of how thicknesses are displayed on pier and spandrel elements. as specified in the spandrel design overwrites.

e. as specified in the spandrel design overwrites.and 3axis directions. The length for the local 3-axis direction forces is always displayed to the right of the length for the local 2-axis direction forces. Simplified Pier Edge Members When you choose to display the simplified pier edge member data ETABS displays either the user-defined edge member Design Output 17 . 17 Design Output Simplified Pier Longitudinal Reinforcing When you choose to display the simplified pier longitudinal reinforcing data ETABS displays the maximum required area of concentrated reinforcing in the left and right edge members. no Section Designer section is assigned to it) then nothing is displayed. When ETABS displays Section Designer pier sections. The (D) indicates that the pier section is to be designed. If the pier is a simplified pier (i. and for resisting forces in the local 3-axis direction. Reinforcing areas are shown at the top and bottom of the pier.Chapter 17 .Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Note: When pier design results are displayed for both the pier local 2. Data is not displayed for piers that are assigned Section Designer sections. Section Designer Pier Sections When you choose to display the Section Designer pier sections ETABS displays the name of the Section Designer pier assigned to the top and bottom of the pier. the name of the section is always followed by either (C) or (D). the 3-axis direction results are always displayed to the right of the 2axis direction results.. • For spandrels the spandrel depth. if any.5 . is displayed at the left end and the right end of the spandrel. The (C) indicates that the pier section is to be checked. The pier lengths and spandrel depths are displayed in a similar manner to that shown in Figure 17-2 for the pier and spandrel thicknesses.

17 . Edge member lengths are shown at the top and bottom of the pier. Note that if you defined an edge member length (DB1 dimension) in the pier design overwrites then ETABS uses that length in the design and it reports the length here. See the section titled "Designing a Simplified Pier Section" in Chapter 12 for more information. For threedimensional piers the ratio is based on the P-M2-M3 interaction. Only two ratios are reported.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC length (DB1 dimension) or the ETABS-determined edge member length at the left and right ends of the pier. The area of the Section Designer section that is used in computing the ratio is the actual area of the pier. See the Section Designer Manual for more information The required reinforcing is assumed to be provided in the same proportions as specified in the Section Designer section. See the subsection titled "Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio" in Chapter 12 for information on how ETABS calculates the demand/capacity ratio.6 Design Output . one at the top of the pier and one at the bottom of the pier. Data is not displayed for piers that are assigned Section Designer sections. This may be different from the transformed area that is reported by Section Designer. 17 Section Designer Pier Demand/Capacity Ratios When you choose to display the Section Designer pier demand/capacity ratios ETABS displays the maximum demand/capacity ratio at the top and bottom of all piers that are assigned Section Designer sections and are designated to be checked. The reinforcing ratio is equal to the total area of vertical steel in the pier divided by area of the pier. For two-dimensional piers the ratio is based on the P-M3 interaction. This is true whether the pier is considered two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Section Designer Pier Reinforcing Ratios When you choose to display the Section Designer pier reinforcing ratios ETABS displays the maximum required reinforcing ratio at the top and bottom of all piers that are assigned Section Designer sections and are designated to be designed.

Spandrel Longitudinal Reinforcing When you choose to display the spandrel longitudinal reinforcing data ETABS displays the maximum required area of concentrated reinforcing in the top and bottom of the spandrel. For piers shear reinforcing areas are displayed for both the top and the bottom of the piers. The shear reinforcing areas for the local 3-axis direction forces are always displayed to the right of the shear reinforcing areas for the local 2-axis direction forces. The areas associated with two types of shear reinforcing are displayed.Chapter 17 . When the pier is a three-dimensional pier then separate reinforcing areas are displayed for resisting forces in the local 2-axis direction and for resisting forces in the local 3-axis direction. Shear Reinforcing Note: Shear reinforcing is displayed for all piers and spandrels simultaneously. Distributed horizontal shear reinforcement is reported below the invisible line (at the ends of the beam.7 . Reinforcing areas are shown for the left and right sides of the spandrel. This is illustrated in Figure 17-3 a. For three-dimensional piers the ratio is based on the P-M2-M3 interaction. 17 • Design Output 17 . not in the center of the beam) for the left and right end of the beam. When you choose to display the shear reinforcing data ETABS displays the maximum required area of shear reinforcing for both piers and spandrels. one at the top of the pier and one at the bottom of the pier. For two-dimensional piers the ratio is based on the P-M3 interaction. This is true whether the pier is considered two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Those types of reinforcing are: • Distributed vertical shear reinforcement is reported above the invisible line (shown dashed in the figure) for the left and right end of the beam.Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Only two demand/capacity ratios are reported. For spandrel shear reinforcing refer to Figure 17-3b.

17 Spandrel Diagonal Shear Reinforcing In this case the total area of a single leg of diagonal shear reinforcement is reported at each end of the spandrel.57 Figure 17-3: Pier and spandrel shear reinforcing 2-dir Top of pier 3-dir 0.Shear Wall Design Manual Left side of spandrel Right side of spandrel 1997 UBC 0. For two-dimensional piers one boundary element result is displayed at the top of the pier and one at the bottom.79 0.35 0. This steel is only calculated if the Design Type for the spandrel is seismic. For three-dimensional piers two boundary element results are displayed at the top of the pier and two at the bottom.79 Bottom of Pier a) Wall Pier Area of horizontal shear reinforcing per unit height of pier at top and bottom of pier • The total area of a single leg of diagonal shear reinforcement is reported below the invisible line at the center of the beam.8 Design Output 0. or "NC" (short for Not Checked) if boundary zone requirements are not checked because Pu/Po > 0. or "NN" (short for Not Needed) if boundary zones are not required. Pier Boundary Zones When you choose to display the pier boundary zone data ETABS displays either the required boundary zone length.57 b) Wall Spandrel Area of horizontal and vertical shear reinforcing per unit length of spandrel . The result at the top or bottom of the pier applies to both the left and right side of the pier.32 0.35.25 0. These results correspond to forces in the local 2-axis direction and forces 17 .26 Vertical shear reinforcing Horizontal shear reinforcing 0.

Chapter 17 .Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model in the local 3-axis direction. 17 Design Output 17 . The boundary element results for the local 3-axis direction forces are always displayed to the right of the boundary element results for the local 2-axis direction forces. Each of the displayed results applies to both the left and right side of the pier.9 .

18 Preferences This section lists each of the column headings for the shear wall design preferences output together with a description of what is included in the column. Flags and Factors • Time Hist Design: Toggle for whether design load combinations that include a time history are designed for the envelope of the time history or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. These printouts can be obtained using the File menu > Print Tables > Shear Wall Design command.Chapter 18 Printed Design Input Data This chapter discusses the printed design input data that is available for shear wall design. See the section titled "Design Load Combinations that Include Time History Results" in Chapter 10 for more information.1 . It includes a description of the printout for the shear wall design preferences and for the shear wall input summary. 18 . See Chapter 8 for more information.

Simplified Pier Reinforcing Ratio Limits • Edge Memb PT-Max: Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing allowed in edge members of simplified piers. See the section titled "Units" in Chapter 5. φvns. PCmax. See the subsection titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12. φb. See the subsection titled "Formulation of the Interaction Surface" in Chapter 12 for more information. Phi-Vns Factor: The strength reduction factor for shear in a wall pier or spandrel for a nonseismic condition. Phi-Vs Factor: The strength reduction factor for shear in a wall pier or spandrel for a seismic condition.2 Preferences . Area/Length Units: Units used for distributed areas of reinforcing steel. See the section titled "Units" in Chapter 5. Edge Memb PC-Max: Maximum ratio of compression reinforcing allowed in edge members of simplified piers. • • Rebar Units 18 • • Area Units: Units used for concentrated areas of reinforcing steel. Phi-C Factor: The strength reduction factor for axial compression in a wall pier.Shear Wall Design Manual • • • 1997 UBC Phi-B Factor: The strength reduction factor for bending in a wall pier or spandrel. PMax Factor: A factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength. • 18 . φvs. φc. See the subsection titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12. PTmax.

3 . See the section titled "Interaction Surface" in Chapter 12 for more information. See the section titled "Designing a Section Designer Pier Section" in Chapter 12. Pier Height: The height of the pier measured from the bottom of the pier to the top of the pier. See the section titled "Designing a Section Designer Pier Section" in Chapter 12.Printed Design Input Data Interaction Surface Data • Number Curves: Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360 degree interaction surface. • • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. Axis Angle: The angle in degrees measured from the positive global X-axis to the positive local 2-axis of the pier. Sect Des IP-Max: The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. • • • Input Summary This section lists each of the column headings for the shear wall input summary data together with a description of what is included in the column.Chapter 18 . Input Summary 18 . 18 Pier Location Data Note: Use the File menu > Print Tables > Shear Wall Design command to print the input summary. Sect Des IP-Min: The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section. See the section titled "Interaction Surface" in Chapter 12 for more information. Number Points: Number of points used for defining a single curve in a wall pier interaction surface.

Zc Ordinate: The global Z coordinate of the centroid of the considered station (top or bottom of the pier). Design Active: Toggle for whether ETABS will design the pier. It indicates where the properties for the pier section come from. Pier Basic Overwrite Data • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier.Shear Wall Design Manual • • • • 1997 UBC Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. This item corresponds to the Horizontal EQ Factor item in the pier design overwrites. Additional design checks are done for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc." Quake Factor: A multiplier applied to horizontal earthquake loads.4 Input Summary . It is either Yes or No. This item corresponds to the Design this Pier item in the pier design overwrites. Simple means that the pier is a simplified section and Sect Des means that it is assigned Section Designer 18 • • • • 18 . designating the top or the bottom of the pier. Xc Ordinate: The global X coordinate of the centroid of the considered station (top or bottom of the pier). Also in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. See the subsection titled "Horizontal EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information. Props From: This item is either Simple or Sect Des. Yc Ordinate: The global Y coordinate of the centroid of the considered station (top or bottom of the pier). RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. Design Type: This item is either Seismic or Nonseis.

designating the top or the bottom of the pier.." Pier Length: The design length of the pier. Pier Thick: The design thickness of the pier.Chapter 18 .e." Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. If this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. • • Pier Geometry Data (Simplified Section) • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. Pier Material: The material property associated with the pier.Printed Design Input Data sections. it is a Section Designer pier) then this item is N/A. See the subsection titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12. PCmax." DB1 Left: The user-defined length of the edge member at the left end of the pier. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. This item corresponds to the Properties From item in the pier design overwrites.e. Edge Memb PT-Max: Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing allowed in edge members of simplified piers. Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. it is a Section Designer pier) then this item is N/A. If the pier considered is not a simplified pier (i. PTmax. Edge Memb PC-Max: Maximum ratio of compression reinforcing allowed in edge members of simplified piers. • Pier is 3D: This item is either Yes or No indicating whether the pier is considered two-dimensional or threedimensional for design. If the pier considered is not a simplified pier (i. 18 • • • • Input Summary 18 . See Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6.. See the subsection titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12.5 .

Bot Pier Section: The name of the Section Designer pier section assigned to the bottom of the pier.6 Input Summary . DB1 Right: The user-defined length of the edge member at the right end of the pier. V2 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. Pier Geometry Data (Section Designer Section) • • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. The base material is discussed in the Section Designer Manual.Shear Wall Design Manual • • • 1997 UBC DB2 Left: The user-defined width of the edge member at the left end of the pier. See Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6. • • 18 . Top Pier Section: The name of the Section Designer pier section assigned to the top of the pier. See Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6. DB2 Right: The user-defined width of the edge member at the right end of the pier. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. See Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6." V2 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. The base material is discussed in the Section Designer Manual. Top Pier Material: The base material property associated with the section at the top of the pier. Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. This item applies to both the top and bottom of the pier and it corresponds to the V2 Thickness item in the pier design 18 • • Note: The Shear Length and Shear Thick items apply to both the top and the bottom of the pier. Bot Pier Material: The base material property associated with the section at the bottom of the pier. This item applies to both the top and bottom of the pier and it corresponds to the V2 Length item in the pier design overwrites.

Chapter 18 . If the pier is two-dimensional then this item is reported as N/A. Spandrel Length: The length of the spandrel measured from the left end of the spandrel to the right end." • V3 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction.Printed Design Input Data overwrites. This item applies to both the top and bottom of the pier and it corresponds to the V3 Thickness item in the pier design overwrites." • Spandrel Location Data • • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the spandrel. Yc Ordinate: The global Y coordinate of the centroid of the considered station (left or right of the spandrel).7 ." V3 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction. 18 • • • Input Summary 18 . If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. Axis Angle: The angle in degrees measured from the positive global X-axis to the positive local 1-axis of the spandrel. This item applies to both the top and bottom of the pier and it corresponds to the V3 Length item in the pier design overwrites. Xc Ordinate: The global X coordinate of the centroid of the considered station (left or right of the spandrel). If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. If the pier is two-dimensional then this item is reported as N/A. Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating the left end or the right end of the spandrel. Spandrel Label: Label assigned to the spandrel.

Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC Zc Ordinate: The global Z coordinate of the centroid of the considered station (left or right of the spandrel). RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a spandrel is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. Material Label: The material property associated with the spandrel. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc." Design Type: This item is either Seismic or Nonseis. 18 . designating the left end or the right end of the spandrel. Design Active: Toggle for whether ETABS will design the spandrel. Spandrel Label: Label assigned to the spandrel. Spandrel Basic Overwrite Data • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the spandrel. Station Location: This is either Left or Right. It is either Yes or No. This item corresponds to the Design this Spandrel item in the spandrel design overwrites. • 18 • • • Spandrel Geometry Data • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the spandrel.8 Input Summary ." Consider Vc: A toggle switch for whether to consider Vc (the concrete shear capacity) when computing the shear capacity of the spandrel. If this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. Spandrel Label: Label assigned to the spandrel. Additional design checks are done for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. This item is either yes or no. Also in some cases the strength reduction factors are different.

If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc." Flange Width: Full width of the flange for a T-beam.Printed Design Input Data • Spandrel Height: Full height (depth) of the spandrel." Spandrel Thick: Thickness (width) of the spandrel. If the spandrel is not a T-beam then this item is zero.9 .Chapter 18 . Cover Top: Distance from the top of the beam to the centroid of the top longitudinal reinforcing. Flange Depth: Depth of the flange for a T-beam. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc." Cover Bot: Distance from the bottom of the beam to the centroid of the bottom longitudinal reinforcing. If the value of this item is calculated by ETABS then it is reported here as "Prog Calc. For T-beams this is the width of the beam web." • • • • • 18 Input Summary 18 . If the spandrel is not a T-beam then this item is zero.

It includes a description of the printout for the shear wall output summary and for the shear wall detailed output. Simplified Pier Section Design • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. 19 . These printouts can be obtained using the File menu > Print Tables > Shear Wall Design command.1 .Chapter 19 Printed Design Output Data This chapter discusses the printed design output data that is available for shear wall design. Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. 19 Output Summary This section lists each of the column headings for the shear wall output summary together with a description of what is included in the column.

2 Output Summary . or the length of the ETABS-determined edge member at the right side of the pier. Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. As Right: The required area of steel at the center of the edge member at the right side of the pier. Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0. DB1. • • • • 19 • Section Designer Pier Section Design • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. Note that the area of steel reported here is the maximum of the required tension steel and the required compression steel. or it is Not Checked. or the length of the ETABS-determined edge member at the left side of the pier. Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. DB1.Shear Wall Design Manual • • 1997 UBC Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. Edge Memb Left: The length of the user-defined edge member. Edge Memb Right: The length of the user-defined edge member. Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. Av Shear: The required area per unit length (height) of horizontal shear reinforcing steel in the pier. such as 22. or it is Not Needed. Note that the area of steel reported here is the maximum of the required tension steel and the required compression steel. designating the top or the bottom of the pier. 19 .762 inches. designating the top or the bottom of the pier. B-Zone Length: This is a required length.35. As Left: The required area of steel at the center of the edge member at the left side of the pier.

For example. We recommend that you always do this final check by modifying the bar size in the Section Designer section. Required Ratio: The maximum required ratio of reinforcing for the pier.Printed Design Output Data • Pier Section: The name of the Section Designer section assigned to the pier at the considered station location (top or bottom of pier). • • Output Summary 19 . This item only applies to three-dimensional piers. Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. • Current Ratio: The ratio of the actual reinforcing specified in the Section Designer section divided by the area of the Section Designer section. such as 22. B-Zone Length-2: This is a required length. This may be different from the transformed area that is reported by Section Designer. See the Section Designer Manual for more information. Note: The area of the Section Designer section that is used in computing the Required Ratio and the Current Ratio is the actual area of the pier. suppose the Current Ratio (see next item) is 0.0592. This ratio is provided as a benchmark to help you understand how much reinforcing is actually required in the section.35. Av 3-Dir: The maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear in the pier local 3-axis direction. Then the section should be adequate if you triple the size of each bar that is currently specified in the Section Designer section. indicating that the section is to be checked (not designed). The required reinforcing is assumed to be provided in the same proportions as specified in the Section Designer section. • 19 • Note: See Chapter 11 for discussion of the ETABS boundary zone check.0200 and the Required Ratio is 0.Chapter 19 . Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0. This is equal to the total area of vertical steel in the pier divided by area of the pier. or it is Not Checked. or it is Not Needed.762 inches.3 . and rerunning the design. Av 2-Dir: The maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear in the pier local 2-axis direction. This item applies to forces acting in the pier local 2-axis direction.

Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom.762 inches.4 Output Summary . Section Designer Pier Section Check • • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. such as 22.Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC B-Zone Length-3: This is a required length.35. Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required.762 inches. Av 2-Dir: The maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear in the pier local 2-axis direction. Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0. or it is Not Needed. or it is Not Checked. D/C Ratio: The maximum demand/capacity ratio for the pier. Pier Section: The name of the Section Designer section assigned to the pier at the considered station location (top or bottom of pier). Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. designating the top or the bottom of the pier. This item only applies to three-dimensional piers. or it is Not Needed. 19 • • • • 19 . it is reported as N/A for twodimensional piers. B-Zone Length-2: This is a required length.35. This item applies to forces acting in the pier local 2-axis direction. Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. or it is Not Checked. such as 22. This item applies to forces acting in the pier local 3-axis direction and it only applies to three-dimensional piers. Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0. Av 3-Dir: The maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear in the pier local 3-axis direction.

M{bot}: The required area of flexural reinforcing steel at the bottom of the spandrel.762 inches. Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0. See the section titled "Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity" in Chapter 15 for more information. Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. Ah: The required area per unit length (height) of horizontal shear reinforcing steel in the spandrel. Output Summary 19 . Av: The required area per unit length of vertical shear reinforcing steel in the spandrel. Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating the left end or the right end of the spandrel.Chapter 19 . such as 22. Spandrel Label: Label assigned to the spandrel. or it is Not Checked.35. or it is Not Needed. L/d Ratio: The length of the spandrel divided by the depth. Spandrel Design • • • • • Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the spandrel.Printed Design Output Data • B-Zone Length-3: This is a required length. 19 Required Reinforcing Steel • • • • M{top}: The required area of flexural reinforcing steel at the top of the spandrel.5 . Shear Vc: The concrete shear capacity used in the spandrel design. This item applies to forces acting in the pier local 3-axis direction and it only applies to three-dimensional piers and it is reported as N/A for two-dimensional piers.

Axis Angle: The angle in degrees measured from the positive global X-axis to the positive local 2-axis of the pier.Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC Avd: The required area of diagonal shear reinforcing steel in the spandrel. This item is only calculated for seismic piers. designating the top or the bottom of the pier. Spandrel design. 19 Simplified Pier Section Design • • Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. The four types of detailed output available are: • • • • Simplified pier section design. Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. Section Designer pier section design. Each of these types of output is described in separate subsections below.6 Detailed Output Data . • 19 . Section Designer pier section check. Detailed Output Data This section lists each of the column headings for the pier and spandrel detailed output data together with a description of what is included in the column. Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. Location Data • • Pier Height: The height of the pier measured from the bottom of the pier to the top of the pier.

Chapter 19 .7 . it is a Section Designer pier) then this item is N/A. EQ Factor: A multiplier applied to earthquake loads..e. If the pier considered is not a simplified pier (i. • • • 19 • • Detailed Output Data 19 . Flags and Factors • Design Active: Toggle for whether ETABS will design the pier. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the pier design overwrites. Yc Ordinate: The global Y-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered. This item corresponds to the Design this Pier item in the pier design overwrites. If the pier considered is not a simplified pier (i. Design Type: This item is either Seismic or Nonseismic. Edge Memb PC-Max: Maximum ratio of compression reinforcing allowed in edge members of simplified piers. See the subsection titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12. It is either Yes or No. Also in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. it is a Section Designer pier) then this item is N/A.e. Edge Memb PT-Max: Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing allowed in edge members of simplified piers. RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. Zc Ordinate: The global Z-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered. See the subsection titled "EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information. See the subsection titled "Design Condition 1" in Chapter 12. Additional design checks are done for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements.. PCmax.Printed Design Output Data • • • Xc Ordinate: The global X-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered. PTmax.

See Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6. Left Bottom or Right Bottom. designating the location of the reported reinforcing steel. • 19 . You should check the steel area required for both tension and compression design and use the maximum for your pier. Note that the design algorithm is set up such that the edge length used is always the same for tension design and for compression design. Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. Pier Length: The design length of the pier. Tension Design • Station Location: This is Left Top.. Right Top.8 Detailed Output Data . DB1). DB2 Left: The user-defined width of the edge member at the left end of the pier. DB2 Right: The user-defined width of the edge member at the right end of the pier. Pier Thick: The design thickness of the pier. 19 Flexural Design Data The flexural design data is reported separately for tension design and for compression design. See Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6. DB1 Right: The user-defined length of the edge member at the right end of the pier. designating the top or the bottom of the pier.e. Edge Length: Length of the ETABS-determined edge member or length of the user specified edge member (i. See Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6. See Figure 6-1 in Chapter 6. DB1 Left: The user-defined length of the edge member at the left end of the pier.Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Material and Geometry Data • • • • • • • • Pier Material: The material property associated with the pier.

• • • Compression Design • Station Location: This is Left Top. Right Top. Tension Combo: The design load combination associated with the required tension rebar.Chapter 19 . DB1). If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading.Printed Design Output Data • Tension Rebar: Maximum area of reinforcing steel required to resist tension. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Tension Combo. Left Bottom or Right Bottom. Note that the design algorithm is set up such that the edge length used is always the same for tension design and for compression design.e. designating the location of the reported reinforcing steel.. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Compression Combo. • 19 • • • Detailed Output Data 19 . Compression Combo: The design load combination associated with the required compression rebar. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area is displayed in the current units. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Tension Combo.9 . Compression Rebar: Maximum area of reinforcing steel required to resist compression. Edge Length: Length of the ETABS-determined edge member or length of the user specified edge member (i. If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area is displayed in the current units.

If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. B-Zone Length: This is a required length. • 19 .35. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. Note: See Chapter 11 for more information on the boundary element check. Rebar: Maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear. Shear Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified shear reinforcing.10 Detailed Output Data .762 inches. or it is Not Checked. such as 22. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the Shear Combo. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Shear Combo. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Shear Combo. or it is Not Needed. • • • 19 • • Boundary Element Check Data • Station Location: This is either Top 2-dir or Bot 2-dir designating the location (top or bottom) of the boundary element check and the direction of force (pier local 2axis) for which the boundary elements are checked.Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Compression Combo. Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0. Shear Design Data • Station Location: This is either Top 2-dir or Bot 2-dir designating the location (top or bottom) of the reported shear reinforcing steel and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis) for which the steel is provided.

6. Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. Pier Material: The material property associated with the pier.11 . Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the B-Zone Combo. and Pu/Po items with the data from the design load combination that has the largest Pu/Po value.35 then ETABS does not check the boundary zone requirement.Chapter 19 . Otherwise ETABS fills in the data from the design load combination that requires the longest boundary zone length. • • • • • B-Zone Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified B-Zone Length. Pu/Po: The ratio Pu/Po associated with the B-Zone Combo. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the BZone Combo. designating the top or the bottom of the pier. The actual values used for these items are reported elsewhere on the detailed output sheet. • • • RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load.6. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the BZone Combo. Vu. 19 Additional Overwrite Information Some of the input data items reported on the detailed output sheet can either be calculated by the program or user input. Mu. See Section 1921. Pu.3 in the 1997 UBC. Detailed Output Data 19 .Printed Design Output Data When this item is Not Needed or Not Checked ETABS fills in the B-Zone Combo. This area of the output lists those input data items and indicates that they are either Prog Calc (program calculated) or User Input. Note that if the ratio is greater than or equal to 0.

1997 UBC Section Designer Pier Section Design • • Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. • 19 . RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. This item corresponds to the Design this Pier item in the pier design overwrites. It is either Yes or No. Axis Angle: The angle in degrees measured from the positive global X-axis to the positive local 2-axis of the pier. Xc Ordinate: The global X-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered. Yc Ordinate: The global Y-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered.12 Detailed Output Data . designating the top or the bottom of the pier. Pier Length: The design length of the pier.Shear Wall Design Manual • • Pier Thick: The design thickness of the pier. Zc Ordinate: The global Z-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered. Location Data • • Pier Height: The height of the pier measured from the bottom of the pier to the top of the pier. • 19 • • • Flags and Factors • Design Active: Toggle for whether ETABS will design the pier.

V2 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. 19 • • • Detailed Output Data 19 . V2 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. Top Pier Section: The name of the Section Designer section assigned to the top of the pier. Top Pier Material: The base material property associated with the pier section assigned to the top of the pier. Also in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. Additional design checks are done for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. • • Material and Geometry Data • • • Bot Pier Section: The name of the Section Designer section assigned to the bottom of the pier. Bot Pier Material: The base material property associated with the pier section assigned to the bottom of the pier.13 . This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the pier design overwrites. See the subsection titled "EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information.Printed Design Output Data • EQ Factor: A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. The base material is discussed in the Section Designer Manual. Design Type: This item is either Seismic or Nonseismic. Pier is 3D: This item is either Yes or No indicating whether the pier is considered two-dimensional or threedimensional for design.Chapter 19 . The base material is discussed in the Section Designer Manual.

Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC V3 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction. 19 • 19 . This is equal to the total area of vertical steel in the pier divided by area of the pier. V3 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction. and rerunning the design. suppose the Current Reinf Ratio (see next item) is 0. See the Section Designer Manual for more information. This ratio is provided as a benchmark to help you understand how much reinforcing is actually required in the section.0200 and the Required Reinf Ratio is 0. • Current Reinf Ratio: The ratio of the actual reinforcing specified in the Section Designer section divided by the area of the Section Designer section. • Flexural Design Data • Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom designating that the output on the line is for the top or bottom of the pier. Then the section should be adequate if you triple the size of each bar that is currently specified in the Section Designer section.14 Detailed Output Data . This item is reported as N/A if the pier is two-dimensional. This may be different from the transformed area that is reported by Section Designer. Flexural Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified required reinforcing ratio. The required reinforcing is assumed to be provided in the same proportions as specified in the Section Designer section. Required Reinf Ratio: The maximum required ratio of reinforcing for the pier. For example. • Note: The area of the Section Designer section that is used in computing the Required Reinf Ratio and the Current Reinf Ratio is the actual area of the pier. indicating that the section is to be checked (not designed). We recommend that you always do this final check by modifying the bar size in the Section Designer section.0592. This item is reported as N/A if the pier is two-dimensional.

Bot 2-dir or Bot 3-dir. designating the location (top or bottom) of the reported shear reinforcing steel and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis or pier local 3-axis) for which the steel is provided. Shear Design Data • Station Location: This is Top 2-dir. M3u: The factored design moment about the pier local 3-axis associated with the Flexural Combo.Printed Design Output Data • • • Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Flexural Combo. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the Shear Combo. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. • 19 • • • • Detailed Output Data 19 . Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Shear Combo. Shear Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified shear reinforcing.15 .Chapter 19 . If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. M2u: The factored design moment about the pier local 2-axis associated with the Flexural Combo. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Shear Combo. The Top 3-dir and Bot 3-dir items only appear if the Design Pier is 3D item in the pier overwrites is set to Yes for the pier considered. Top 3-dir. Rebar: Maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear.

6. Otherwise ETABS fills in the data from the design load combination that requires the longest boundary zone length.35. • 19 19 . Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. and Pu/Po items with the data from the design load combination that has the largest Pu/Po value.35 then ETABS does not check the boundary zone requirement. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the B-Zone Combo. or it is Not Checked. B-Zone Length: This is a required length. Vu. designating the location (top or bottom) of the boundary element check and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis or pier local 3-axis) for which the boundary elements are checked. • • • • • B-Zone Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified B-Zone Length. Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0.3 in the 1997 UBC. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the BZone Combo. Bot 2-dir or Bot 3-dir. Note: See Chapter 11 for more information on the boundary element check. When this item is Not Needed or Not Checked ETABS fills in the B-Zone Combo. Mu. Note that if the ratio is greater than or equal to 0. See Section 1921. The Top 3-dir and Bot 3-dir items only appear if the Design Pier is 3D item in the pier overwrites is set to Yes for the pier considered. such as 22.6. Pu. Pu/Po: The ratio Pu/Po associated with the B-Zone Combo. or it is Not Needed. Top 3-dir.762 inches. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the BZone Combo.16 Detailed Output Data .Shear Wall Design Manual 1997 UBC Boundary Element Check Data • Station Location: This is Top 2-dir.

• • RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load.Printed Design Output Data Additional Overwrite Information Some of the input data items reported on the detailed output sheet can either be calculated by the program or user input. Location Data • • Pier Height: The height of the pier measured from the bottom of the pier to the top of the pier.Chapter 19 . Detailed Output Data 19 . Axis Angle: The angle in degrees measured from the positive global X-axis to the positive local 2-axis of the pier. This area of the output lists those input data items and indicates that they are either Prog Calc (program calculated) or User Input.17 . V2 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. V3 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction. V2 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. V3 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction. Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the pier. • • • 19 Section Designer Pier Section Check • • Pier Label: Label assigned to the pier. The actual values used for these items are reported elsewhere on the detailed output sheet.

EQ Factor: A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. Also in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the pier design overwrites.Shear Wall Design Manual • • • • 1997 UBC Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. Additional design checks are done for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements. Zc Ordinate: The global Z-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered. Top Pier Section: The name of the Section Designer section assigned to the top of the pier. See the subsection titled "EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information. RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. Yc Ordinate: The global Y-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered. 19 . • • 19 • • Material and Geometry Data • • Bot Pier Section: The name of the Section Designer section assigned to the bottom of the pier. This item corresponds to the Design this Pier item in the pier design overwrites. Design Type: This item is either Seismic or Nonseismic. designating the top or the bottom of the pier. Pier is 3D: This item is either Yes or No indicating whether the pier is considered two-dimensional or threedimensional for design. It is either Yes or No. Flags and Factors • Design Active: Toggle for whether ETABS will design the pier.18 Detailed Output Data . Xc Ordinate: The global X-coordinate of the centroid of the pier station (top or bottom) considered.

This item is reported as N/A if the pier is two-dimensional.Chapter 19 . • • • Detailed Output Data 19 . This item is reported as N/A if the pier is two-dimensional. D/C Ratio: The Demand/Capacity ratio associated with the Flexural Combo. • • • • • 19 Flexural Design Data • Station Location: This is either Top or Bottom. V3 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction.Printed Design Output Data • Bot Pier Material: The base material property associated with the pier section assigned to the bottom of the pier. The base material is discussed in the Section Designer Manual.19 . The base material is discussed in the Section Designer Manual. Flexural Combo: The design load combination that yields the largest flexural Demand/Capacity ratio. V3 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction. V2 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. designating that the output on the line is for the top or bottom of the pier. V2 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. Top Pier Material: The base material property associated with the pier section assigned to the top of the pier. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Flexural Combo.

Bot 2-dir or Bot 3-dir. designating the location (top or bottom) of the boundary element check and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis or pier local 3-axis) for which the boundary elements are checked. Top 3-dir. Shear Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified shear reinforcing. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the Shear Combo. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading.Shear Wall Design Manual • • 1997 UBC M2u: The factored design moment about the pier local 2-axis associated with the Flexural Combo. Shear Design Data • Station Location: This is Top 2-dir.20 Detailed Output Data . The Top 3-dir and Bot 19 . Top 3-dir. designating the location (top or bottom) of the reported shear reinforcing steel and the direction of force (pier local 2-axis or pier local 3-axis) for which the steel is provided. • 19 • • • • Boundary Element Check Data • Station Location: This is Top 2-dir. M3u: The factored design moment about the pier local 3-axis associated with the Flexural Combo. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Shear Combo. Bot 2-dir or Bot 3-dir. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the Shear Combo. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. Rebar: Maximum area per unit length (height) of horizontal reinforcing steel required to resist shear. The Top 3-dir and Bot 3-dir items only appear if the Design Pier is 3D item in the pier overwrites is set to Yes for the pier considered.

3 in the 1997 UBC.35. This area of the output lists those input data items and indicates that they are either Prog Calc (program calculated) or User Input. and Pu/Po items with the data from the design load combination that has the largest Pu/Po value.6. Note: See Chapter 11 for more information on the boundary element check. Not Needed indicates that boundary elements are not required. Note that if the ratio is greater than or equal to 0. Detailed Output Data 19 . Not Checked means that no check for boundary elements is done by ETABS because the ratio Pu/Po is greater than or equal to 0. • • • • • B-Zone Combo: The design load combination associated with the specified B-Zone Length. Otherwise ETABS fills in the data from the design load combination that requires the longest boundary zone length. Pu/Po: The ratio Pu/Po associated with the B-Zone Combo.35 then ETABS does not check the boundary zone requirement. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the BZone Combo. or it is Not Checked. Vu: The factored design shear associated with the BZone Combo.Chapter 19 . See Section 1921.762 inches.6. Mu. such as 22. When this item is Not Needed or Not Checked ETABS fills in the B-Zone Combo. Pu: The factored design axial load associated with the B-Zone Combo. Pu. or it is Not Needed. 19 Additional Overwrite Information Some of the input data items reported on the detailed output sheet can either be calculated by the program or user input.Printed Design Output Data 3-dir items only appear if the Design Pier is 3D item in the pier overwrites is set to Yes for the pier considered. Vu. The actual values used for these items are reported elsewhere on the detailed output sheet.21 . • B-Zone Length: This is a required length.

Shear Wall Design Manual • • 1997 UBC RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a pier is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. V3 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction. V2 Length: Length of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. 19 • Location Data • • Spandrel Length: The length of the spandrel measured from the left end of the spandrel to the right end. • • • 19 . Story Label: Label of the story level associated with the spandrel.22 Detailed Output Data . • • • Spandrel Design • Spandrel Label: Label assigned to the spandrel. Axis Angle: The angle in degrees measured from the positive global X-axis to the positive local 1-axis of the spandrel. V3 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 3-axis direction. Station Location: This is either Left or Right. Yc Ordinate: The global Y-coordinate of the centroid of the spandrel station (left or right) considered. designating the left end or the right end of the spandrel. V2 Thickness: Thickness of the effective rectangular pier used for shear and boundary element design for shear forces in the pier local 2-axis direction. Xc Ordinate: The global X-coordinate of the centroid of the spandrel station (left or right) considered.

Also in some cases the strength reduction factors are different. Consider Vc: A toggle switch for whether to consider Vc (the concrete shear capacity) when computing the shear capacity of the spandrel.Chapter 19 . • • • • 19 Material and Geometry Data • • • • • Spandrel Material: The material property associated with the spandrel. Additional design checks are done for seismic elements compared to nonseismic elements.Printed Design Output Data • Zc Ordinate: The global Z-coordinate of the centroid of the spandrel station (left or right) considered. RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a spandrel is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load.23 . Design Type: This item is either Seismic or Nonseismic. It is either Yes or No. For T-beams this is the width of the beam web. Spandrel Length: The length of the spandrel measured from the left end of the spandrel to the right end. Spandrel Thick: Thickness (width) of the spandrel. This item is either yes or no. Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating the left end or the right end of the spandrel. Spandrel Height: Full height (depth) of the spandrel. This item corresponds to the Design this Spandrel item in the spandrel design overwrites. EQ Factor: A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. Flags and Factors • Design Active: Toggle for whether ETABS will design the spandrel. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the spandrel design overwrites. See the subsection titled "EQ Factor" in Chapter 9 for more information. Detailed Output Data 19 .

Cover Top: Distance from the top of the beam to the centroid of the top longitudinal reinforcing. Top Steel Ratio = • 19 • t s h s − d r − top ( A s top ) Eqn. Cover Bot: Distance from the bottom of the beam to the centroid of the bottom longitudinal reinforcing. If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. Flexural Design Data . 4-1 • • Top Steel Combo: The name of the design load combination that requires the most top steel in the spandrel. If the spandrel is not a T-beam then this item is zero.24 Detailed Output Data . 19 .Top Steel • Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating that the output reported is for the left or right end of the spandrel. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area is displayed in the current units. Top Steel Ratio: The area of top steel divided by the spandrel thickness divided by the distance from the bottom of the spandrel to the centroid of the top steel as shown in Equation 4-1. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Top Steel Combo. If the spandrel is not a T-beam then this item is zero.Shear Wall Design Manual • • • • 1997 UBC Flange Width: Full width of the flange for a T-beam. Flange Depth: Depth of the flange for a T-beam. Top Steel: The area of top steel required for the Top Steel Combo.

4-2 • Bot Steel Combo: The name of the design load combination that requires the most bottom steel in the spandrel. Avert: The area per unit length of vertical shear steel required for the Shear Combo.25 . If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. designating that the output reported is for the left or right end of the spandrel.Printed Design Output Data Flexural Design Data . Bot Steel Ratio = t s (h s − d r − bot ) A s bot • • Eqn. Bot Steel: The area of bottom steel required for the Bot Steel Combo. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading.Chapter 19 . 19 • Shear Design Data • Station Location: This is either Left or Right. • Detailed Output Data 19 .Bottom Steel • Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating that the output reported is for the left or right end of the spandrel. If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area is displayed in the current units. If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. Bot Steel Ratio: The area of bottom steel divided by the spandrel thickness divided by the distance from the top of the spandrel to the centroid of the bottom steel as shown in Equation 4-2. Mu: The factored design moment associated with the Bot Steel Combo.

Vc: The concrete shear capacity at the specified station location.26 Detailed Output Data . If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area is displayed in the current units. Station Location: This is either Left or Right.Shear Wall Design Manual • 1997 UBC Ahoriz: The area per unit length (height) of horizontal shear steel required in the spandrel. • • • Additional Shear Design Data for Seismic Spandrels • 19 Note: This additional shear output data is only provided if the Design Type item in the output titled Basic Overwrite Data is set to Yes for the spandrel. Shear Combo: The name of the design load combination that requires the most vertical shear reinforcing steel in the spandrel. Adiag: The area of diagonal shear steel required for the Shear Combo. If you have specified specific rebar area units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. If you have specified specific rebar area/length units in the shear wall preferences then those units are displayed in the column heading. • • • 19 . If no specific units are displayed in the column heading then the rebar area/length is displayed in the current units. Vu: The factored design shear force at the specified station location associated with the design load combination specified in the Shear Combo column. Vu: The factored design shear force at the specified station location associated with the design load combination specified in the Shear Combo column. Shear Combo: The name of the design load combination that requires the most vertical shear reinforcing steel in the spandrel. designating that the output reported is for the left or right end of the spandrel.

Station Location: This is either Left or Right designating the left end or the right end of the spandrel.Printed Design Output Data Additional Overwrite Information Some of the input data items reported on the detailed output sheet can either be calculated by the program or user input. Spandrel Height: Full height (depth) of the spandrel. Spandrel Length: The length of the spandrel measured from the left end of the spandrel to the right end. 19 Detailed Output Data 19 .Chapter 19 . The actual values used for these items are reported elsewhere on the detailed output sheet. Spandrel Material: The material property associated with the spandrel. For T-beams this is the width of the beam web. Cover Top: Distance from the top of the beam to the centroid of the top longitudinal reinforcing. Spandrel Thick: Thickness (width) of the spandrel. • • • • • • • • RLLF: A reducible live load acting on a spandrel is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. This area of the output lists those input data items and indicates that they are either Prog Calc (program calculated) or User Input. Cover Bot: Distance from the bottom of the beam to the centroid of the bottom longitudinal reinforcing.27 .

3-1 View/Revise Pier Overwrites. pier. 9-11 edge member. 9-3. 9-10. 12-15 design code.Index A analysis section. 5-3. 6-3. 6-5. 9-11. 8-2 design load combinations. shear wall design. 5-2 B boundary zone example. 2-1 design section. 3-2 Define Pier Sections for Checking. 11-1 C code. 11-5 boundary zone requirements. 9-9. 5-5. 3-4 Delete Wall Design Results. 10-1 Design menu commands Shear Wall Design Select Design Combo. pier simplified section. 3-3 Interactive Wall Design. 5-4 diagonal shear reinforcing in a spandrel. 3-4 Display Design Info. 14-4. 9-6. 3-3 Assign Pier Sections for Checking. spandrel. 14-3 D default pier dimensions simplified section. 13-2. pier. design. 12-2 Index-1 . 15-2 cover distance. 8-2 compression steel in a spandrel. 6-3. 7-2. 3-4 design process. 3-4 Reset All Pier/Spandrel Overwrites. 14-9 concrete shear capacity. 15-5 I E earthquake factor. 9-11 define piers and spandrels. 6-5 design station locations. 7-3. 5-1 demand/capacity ratio. 6-2 Section Designer section. 3-3 Start Design/Check of Structure. 9-5 Section Designer section. 3-2 View/Revise Spandrel Overwrites. 5-2. 9-4 default spandrel dimensions.

2-5 shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete. 9-11 S Section Designer. 12-7 interactive shear wall design general. 8-1 printed output. 11-1 pier geometry. 1-5 P pier boundary element check. 9-3. 15-3. 15-3 static nonlinear analysis. 17-1 interactive shear wall design and review. 8-3. 10-4 I L lightweight concrete. 9-1 pier. 9-11. 9-8. 12-5 preferences. 4-1 piers. 15-2 response spectrum. 15-2 live load reduction factor. 13-3 seismic spandrel. 16-1 printed design input input summary.Shear Wall Design Manual output summary. 12-13. 7-1. 7-4 meshing. See output H horizontal shear reinforcing in a spandrel. 9-8. 9-13 1997 UBC F flexural design of a pier check of Section Designer pier section. 14-5. 15-5 selecting piers and spandrels. 2-7 spandrel geometry. 9-2. 5-5 O output displayed on model. 9-2 spandrel. 12-13 in pier reinforcing. 13-3 Pmax Factor. 9-11 shear strength. 14-9 M material properties. 10-6 strain in pier concrete. 13-2. 3-4. 12-14 in spandrel reinforcing. 14-2 shear. 6-5. 5-8 G getting started. 9-2. 6-4. 1-4. 2-4 three-dimensional wall. 12-17 design of simplified pier section. 18-3 preferences. 19-1 overview of shear wall design. 12-17 shear. 9-3 seismic pier. 2-2. 12-1 frame elements for modeling spandrels. 12-5. 5-3. 18-1 printed design output detailed output data. 13-2. 9-4 pier reinforcing flexural. 13-2. 6-5. 7-3 spandrel reinforcing flexural. 15-4 I interaction surface. 4-14 R reduction factor live load. 4-1 overview. 6-2. 9-10 using the overwrites dialog box. 19-6 Index-2 . 1-1 overwrites general. 12-9. shear wall. 15-2 shear wall design process two-dimensional wall. 4-2 spandrels. 12-7 design of Section Designer pier section.

12-14 in spandrel reinforcing. 8-3 V vertical shear reinforcing in a spandrel.Index strain compatibility. 5-3. 14-5. 12-12 stress in pier reinforcing. 10-5 U units. 14-6 time history design. 9-12. 8-2. 15-3 I Index-3 . 14-9 T T-beam design.

- Shear Wall Design Guide
- ETABS Tutorial 1
- Etabs Tutorial
- Etabs Tutorial Wall
- Etabs Manual
- Etabs Files
- 1B Etabs Shear Wall ACI318!99!010
- Etabs Workshop
- Analysis & Design Using ETABS
- Etabs
- ETABS-AUTOMATIC SEISMIC LOADS
- ETABS-Example-RC Building Seismic Load _Time History
- Etabs (Atkins)
- ETABS-Example-RC Building With Shear Wall
- ETABS User's Manual
- Etabs Guide
- SAFE Tutorial- Analysis & Design of Pile Supported Mat Foundation
- Shear wall design per ACI-318 05
- Shear wall design.pdf
- EtTutor
- Drift in ETABS
- Design Examples-shear Walls
- SWD-ACI-530-11
- SHEARWALL-Rev1
- ETABS Model
- ETABS Examples Manual
- Section Designer
- 21 Shear Wall PDF
- Etabs-MAN-003

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