Common misconceptions. The facts. Page 1 1 1 Page 1 1 1 1 2 Page 2 2 2 2 Page 3 3 3 3 3 Page 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 Page 7 7 8 8 9 Page 9 Page 10 10 10 10 Page 11 11 11 11 11 11
Height above finished floor level. Depth. Overhangs. (Above & around appliances.) Special shapes. (Physical restrictions.) Special shapes. (Aesthetic qualities.)
Risks to be assessed:
Fire. Health & hygiene. Occupational health. Commercial.
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Calculation of air duties:
How to minimise the risks:
Fire. Health & hygiene. Occupational health.
Face velocity. Air change rate. Cooking equipment values. Other considerations.
Treatment of extract air:
Contaminants in the air. Baffle grease filtration. Mesh grease filtration. Ultra violet grease & odour filtration. Electrostatic precipitation. Carbon filtration. HEPA filtration. Water mist filtration. Odour Neutralising. Heat recovery. Recirculation of extracted air. Point of discharge to atmosphere. Extract air treatment choices. (Tabulation.)
Materials. Method. Finishes. Drainage points.
Conventional - extract only. Peripheral - extract only. Conventional – extract & supply air. Peripheral – extract & supply air. Induction – a special note. High level bakery oven – extract only. Dishwash – extract only. Condense only. Low level / Pass over / Backbar – extract only. Re-circulation.
Calculation of supply air duties:
When & when not to have powered supply air. Supply air volume calculation. Introduction of powered supply air. Introduction of non-powered supply air.
Ventilated ceilings: (General comment.)
Cassette type. Plenum type. What certain recognised bodies’ state. Summary.
Treatment of supply air:
Filtration. Heating and / or cooling.
Fans & accessories:
The ‘Canopy-ceiling’: Lighting:
General. Types & design. Emergency.
Fire suppression systems:
Carbon dioxide. Dry powder / chemical. Foam. Fine water particle / fog systems. Wet chemical.
General. Fan blade types. Fan enclosures. Temperature ratings & insulation. Motor drive types. Fan speed control. Motor protection. Noise attenuation. Wiring.
Sizing. Construction. Routes to atmosphere. Fire resistance. Access for cleaning & maintenance. Insulation.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • Web: www.kitchen-ventilation.co.uk
Sizing. Construction. Routes to atmosphere. Fire resistance. Access for cleaning & maintenance. Insulation.
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System safety features & considerations:
Gas shut-down interlock. Noise levels.
Why have splashbacks? Materials & construction.
Services distribution units:
Why have a service distribution unit? Configuration. Construction & materials. Separation & compartmentation of services. Gas & electrical knock-off.
Surveying. Installation. Commissioning.
C.D.M. & design risk assessment: System maintenance: Care & maintenance of stainless steel:
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: email@example.com • Web: www.kitchen-ventilation.co.uk
Common Misconceptions of Kitchen Ventilation:
In commercial kitchens the prime concern of owners, designers and managers is, more often than not, the ability to produce as much food product, as quickly and efficiently as possible, with as little “up-front” capital cost as can be achieved and all with the minimum of running costs. Cooking appliances and food production machinery directly produce saleable products and therefore revenue; so they are nearly always at the top of a list of priorities. A ventilation system on the other hand, does not directly earn money and so is usually at the bottom of a list of priorities. For these reasons, kitchen ventilation systems are often perceived as a “necessary evil” to be provided in their cheapest form to “satisfy” the planning application or Environmental Health Officer because in the eyes of the proprietor, they serve no other purpose! All too often a kitchen ventilation system is left to be “fitted” into a scheme with little or no physical space allowed in the building and with an unreasonably low budget allocated. These are potentially very dangerous ideas.
Risks to be Assessed & Addressed
The fuel for most kitchen fires is cooking oil and meat fat, which emit greasy vapours during the cooking process. These vapours condense upon surfaces with which they come into contact, creating a highly flammable coating. In a kitchen without a canopy this coating would cover most of the walls and ceiling and in the event of a flash fire or flare up the consequences would certainly be disastrous. This risk affects any user of the building in which the kitchen is situated e.g. customers, employees and probably the general public.
Health & Hygiene Risks:
This same greasy coating of condensed vapours covering kitchen walls, ceilings and other surfaces also creates the ideal habitat and food source for bacteria.
Occupational Health Risks for Operatives:
A working kitchen is a dangerous place at the best of times. It is essential that kitchen staff are provided with an environment which allows them to carry out their jobs in the most efficient and safe way possible. Comfort is a key factor in achieving this and the greatest discomfort in a kitchen is the heat and humidity build-up created by the cooking process itself. Radiant heat is particularly difficult to deal with and it cannot be removed; only its effect on operatives can be relieved. The other major risk to occupational health is of an epidemiological nature caused by long term exposure of operatives to the fumes given off by both the cooking process and from the burning of fuel within the appliances themselves. Further information concerning the risk from cooking fumes is available in the form of the Health and Safety Executive Sector Information Minute SIM 5/2001/18 ‘Importance of good ventilation in commercial kitchens and industrial cooking areas’. This document states within its conclusions “it is important that fume extraction systems to current standards are provided and maintained” and refers to HSE Sheet 10 ‘Ventilation of kitchens in catering establishments’ for guidance. Additional information on this matter is available in the form of research into Wok cooking and lung cancer carried out by the Shanghai Cancer Institute (National Cancer Institute 1995; 87: 836-841), domestic gas appliances and respiratory illness (Lancet report 1996).
In reality, a kitchen cannot operate without a properly designed and functioning ventilation system. A poorly ventilated kitchen will expose the owners, operatives and customers to very real and life threatening risks. In addition to these obvious hazards, the risks of commercial losses are potentially enormous. As we have now established that every kitchen must have a properly designed and manufactured ventilation system, it follows that every building containing a kitchen must be designed with sufficient space to accommodate such a system with all of its components. A proper budget should therefore be allocated to reduce unnecessary future “accidents” and costs. Consultants, designers, suppliers and owners have a ‘duty of care’ to ensure that and kitchen ventilation system is fit for purpose. This encompasses not only the original design but any design alterations. Owners also have a ‘duty of care’ to ensure that the ventilation system is properly cleaned and maintained as appropriate. (Failure to undertake this may render them liable for any third party claims following an incident.)
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • Web: www.kitchen-ventilation.co.uk
In the event that any of the above risks were actually to occur, the list of potential commercial losses is almost endless and many of them would probably result in the closure of a business. Here are a few broad examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Loss of management time. Loss of profit through temporary closure. Permanent closure through loss of income. Loss of man hours through illness. Legal costs to defend law suits brought by disgruntled or injured employees (or ex-employees). Legal costs to defend law suits brought by dissatisfied or injured customers of the business (or consumers). Drastically increased insurance premiums. Commercial fines imposed by safety enforcement authorities. Legal costs to defend criminal negligence charges brought by health and safety enforcement authorities. management
How to Minimise the Risks
To combat all of these problems effectively, a kitchen must have a means of containment for the fumes given off in the cooking process. (ie: a canopy or similar system.) This system must then have both powered extract and supply air. The extract volume should be large enough to create fume capture and to remove the amount of fumes given off from the specific range of cooking appliances it serves. The supply air volume should be 85% of the total extract so as to leave a negative pressure in the room, thus restricting cooking odours and fumes to the kitchen.
A canopy will reduce the amount of damage caused by fire because it will retain greasy fumes in a fire-resistant compartment. (ie: the canopy itself.) Flames are restricted to an area where they can do little damage and a kitchen could conceivably re-open after a little redecoration. At worst the fire will be contained for the maximum achievable period, affording the occupants of the establishment valuable extra time to escape.
Health & Hygiene Risks:
A canopy with integral grease filtration will capture and retain grease, thus confining the breeding ground for bacteria to an easily cleaned and sterile environment.
10. Possible imprisonment for upper following criminal proceedings.
Occupational Health Risks for Operatives:
The majority of air extracted from any kitchen is drawn out via the canopy, removing fumes and convected heat. A well designed ventilation system will help cool the operatives in such a way as to relieve the effects of radiant heat.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: email@example.com • Web: www.kitchen-ventilation.co.uk
kitchen-ventilation. mean lower running costs and reduced ductwork sizes. providing a snagging point upon which cleaning cloths or fingers can be caught. all of which are potential dirt traps. WALL OR ISLAND CANOPIES:
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Another benefit is that the filter panels are ideally positioned for easy access and maintenance. are not normally necessary. for use where the replacement air into the kitchen is being supplied by other means and where there is no requirement to introduce air through the canopy.co. Fryer canopy) in a large kitchen. The minimum grade of stainless steel should be type 304 and for special applications. giving greatly improved fume capture and collection. WALL OR ISLAND CANOPIES:
As kitchen specifications have become more stringent with regard to cleanliness it is no longer acceptable to use canopies with an external framework and / or visible fixings. This leaves a smooth easily cleaned surface as well as being aesthetically superior to the “old-fashioned” riveted or framed canopies. water vapour will have very little chance to condense on the canopy surfaces before being extracted. Type 304 stainless steel is extremely durable with a long life span retaining its aesthetic finish throughout. Wall or Island Canopies:
These are the most basic form of extract canopy. this canopy is less efficient in terms of performance and running costs compared with other canopy configurations.co.
A satin polished “brush” finish (sometimes referred to as “dull polish”) is generally applied to stainless steel sheet and sections for use in a kitchen environment.uk • Web: www.Canopy Construction
Stainless steel is now generally acknowledged as the only material whose properties are suited for use within a kitchen. Wall or Island Canopies:
The peripheral design has the filters mounted along the outside edge of the canopy rather than in the centre as with the more conventional style. due to basic design.
Conventional Extract Only.
PERIPHERAL EXTRACT-ONLY. If extract rates are properly calculated. It has excellent fire resisting properties due to its extremely high melting point and is recognised as a food safe substance due to its relatively inert nature. It is probably the most practical and cost effective finish available.
Peripheral Extract Only. type 316 or higher should be considered.uk
. Canopies should have a fully folded construction incorporating as few joints as possible and have no visible fixings. Any condensation that does collect in the channels will evaporate as fast as it accumulates. Any visible joints should be internal and hidden. Reduced extract volumes. However.
CONVENTIONAL EXTRACT-ONLY. It is regularly used in schools and Local Authority type projects where there is a limited budget. It is also an unsightly component of the canopy and the thread or fixings of the drain point will protrude within the channel. there are a range of other brush polishes as well as “Mirror” finishes available usually at additional cost. Stainless steel can also accept polyester powder coating or other heat-applied paint finishes for special aesthetic applications where necessary.g. or for use as a second canopy (e. Ideal for use in virtually every situation due to its efficiency and reasonably low capital cost. Lower in cost.
Canopy Drainage Points:
Drain points within the condensate collection channels. more duct connections may be required to the filter housings. (Important when considering CDM regulations) The kitchen equipment layout must be known in order to calculate the extract rate and in some instances.
to provide total ventilation from one unit. It does however increase the total plan area required for the canopy. This produces much more efficient collection of fumes.co. WALL OR ISLAND CANOPIES:
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. This reduces the need for extensive ductwork runs in the ceiling void. It has the addition of a 300mm wide insulated supply plenum chamber fitted to the front face of a wall canopy (or the long edges of an island canopy). The supply air enters the kitchen via diffuser panels fitted with filter media to prevent atmospheric contaminants entering the cooking area. Wall or Island Canopies:
The peripheral design arranges filters along the outside edge of the canopy rather than in the centre as with conventionally styled canopies.kitchen-ventilation. It also reduces the need for extensive ductwork runs in the ceiling void. to provide total ventilation from one unit.uk
. It does however increase the total plan area required for the canopy. It has the addition of a 300mm wide insulated supply plenum chamber fitted to the front face of a wall canopy (or the long edges of an island canopy). Another benefit is that the filter panels are positioned where they can be easily accessed for maintenance and cleaning (important when considering CDM regulations). Wall or Island Canopies:
These are the most basic form of extract canopy where replacement air into the kitchen is required to be supplied from the canopy.
Peripheral Extract & Supply Air. The incoming air is delivered at a low velocity to diffuse with and displace the air being extracted. WALL OR ISLAND CANOPIES:
PERIPHERAL EXTRACT AND SUPPLY-AIR.co.
CONVENTIONAL EXTRACT AND SUPPLY-AIR. mean lower running costs and reduced ductwork sizes.Conventional Extract & Supply Air.uk • Web: www. Reduced extract volumes. The supply air enters the kitchen via diffuser panels fitted with filter media to prevent atmospheric contaminants entering the cooking area.
Dishwash Extract Only Canopies:
These are small. simple and stand-alone canopies specifically designed for powered extract from dishwasher and steriliser sink areas.Induction Canopies – A Special Note:
Induction canopies are considered to be out-dated these days. it does cause complications and is less cost effective because larger plant and duct sizes are required. Low level canopies are extremely useful where low structural ceiling heights preclude the use of conventional canopies which hang down from the soffit. At best.
Low Level / Passover / Back-Bar Extract Only Canopies:
These canopies are designed to extract within close proximity of the cooking or servery equipment whether through design or site restraints. They are still occasionally used but special rules are to be applied for calculating the volumes and many designers use the wrong figures and methods.co. In short.uk • Web: www.
Condense Only Canopies:
These are not recommended for use. They sit directly over the front edge of an oven so as to extract from directly above the opening door and capture the rapidly rising plume of steam. WALL OR ISLAND CANOPIES:
DISH-WASH EXTRACT-ONLY CANOPIES:
CONDENSE ONLY CANOPIES:
High-Level Bakery Oven Extract Only Canopies:
These canopies are built specifically to suit the dimensions and output of ovens within a commercial bakery area and can be designed to incorporate flues and vents for direct steam removal from the oven assisting in the overall extraction requirements. condense canopies only protect wall and ceiling finishes from deterioration caused by the condensation and steam arising from appliances but will do nothing to evacuate that steam from larger dishwash machines.kitchen-ventilation.uk
. They are expensive to fabricate and not as efficient as perceived when originally introduced.co. high level positioning can make maintenance a little more difficult but this is a pre-requisite of the cooking method.
HIGH LEVEL BAKERY-OVEN EXTRACT ONLY CANOPIES:
LOW LEVEL / PASSOVER / BACK BAR EXTRACT-ONLY CANOPIES
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Whilst it does provide good edge capture for fumes. Low level servery canopies allow an unobstructed view into the cooking area as there is rarely any ductwork running vertically from the hood. a less expensive and more efficient option is the Peripheral Extract canopy. Unfortunately. Air is extracted with ductwork and fan via an extract grille positioned within the canopy to suit ductwork requirements. Supply air is still required from another source within the kitchen.
. the principle of re-circulating air has two main draw backs: Firstly no gas appliances can be served as the canopy and filters cannot remove the Carbon Monoxide and other exhaust gases created. grease and odours.Recirculation Canopies:
Re-circulation canopies are applicable where there is a need to create either temporary cooking areas or where it is simply not possible to get a clear ductwork route from the kitchen area to outside. bag filters for removal of smaller particulates and high quality impregnated carbon filters for odour reduction. However. The canopy should provide a means of drastically reducing the amount of steam.
Refer to ‘Recirculation of extracted air’ on page 19 for further details and information. Secondly. As such each of these canopies will contain a fairly comprehensive bank of filter types including primary baffle filters for grease reduction. secondary mesh panels for further grease and dust removal.uk • Web: www.co.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. heat build-up can potentially be a problem so it would be necessary to allow for a suitable cooling system to be fitted in the kitchen. from the air to be returned.kitchen-ventilation. or the cooking area must be of sufficiently large volume. as well as some smoke.
Be Accommodated Without Being Subjected To The Extremely High Temperatures Associated With Kitchen Extract & A Coating In Grease. condenses and falls to low level. it has been seen that even with regular cleaning the cassettes & grid accrue a difficult-to-remove coating of baked-on grease. It is known that whilst baffle type filtration is the best system for grease removal. The following information has been compiled from reports upon actual installations and from discussions with: • • • • • • Designers of ventilated ceilings People who have sold ventilated ceilings People who have project engineered ventilated ceilings Installers of ventilated ceilings Customers of ventilated ceiling manufacturers End-Users of ventilated ceilings
Fume Collection & Containment Capability:
Because of the nature of all ventilated ceilings currently marketed. Steam & Other Deposits? How Can Fully Airtight Connections & Seals Be Created To The Standards Required by H. some are supply air panels and some are blank panels. The divisions and plenums are usually formed by the building structure together with plasterboard down stands.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. They are generally arranged within the grid to cover the various items of cooking apparatus below.B.
Grease Filtration Efficiency:
The principle of filtration employed in all cassette type ventilated ceilings is bafflement of airflow. as to how or with what materials this should be achieved. These systems rely upon the extremities of the room in which they are installed to contain all contaminants.S. have been comparing ventilated ceilings with canopies of poor quality and design or in extremely old installations. This effect has been witnessed at several installations.. This problem is obviously exacerbated where said plume of steam drifts into the locality of a supply air section where it will be more quickly condensed and blown around. in the event of one or more steamers being opened.P.A.
It has become apparent that the main reason for the popularity of ventilated ceilings lies in the perceived high aesthetic value of the completed product. food and oils being used. there are no skirts or valances of a canopy to contain the spread of Flame at high level. The various manufacturers’ guidelines indicate that the grid can be installed as low as 2400mm affl and as high as 3500mm affl although there seem to be no firm statements or instructions.
Cassette Type Ventilated Ceilings
These are the type of ceilings which have been most commonly used.
What Then Happens To The Grease & Contaminants Which Will Inevitably Be Carried Through The Filtering System? The Area Above The Visible Façade Of The Ceiling:
As previously mentioned.V. C. N. Fire will be free to spread across the underside of a ceiling without restriction.co. Fire Risk is greatly increased.F.. the void area above the cassette grid is sub-divided to create extract and supply plenums.co. It is also considered aesthetically pleasing not to have downstands or intrusions into the kitchen from above. & Other Recognised Bodies? Fire Risk:
Due to the problems of containment and those caused by the ceiling void. Some of these tiles are grease filter panels. This obviously raises many questions over design responsibility. it is clear that many of the individuals involved in making the decision to specify on these grounds.kitchen-ventilation. In kitchens where ventilated ceilings have been installed for long periods of time.
How Can The Vast Array Of Services. the plume of steam caused will erupt upwards and then drift around the ceiling area until either it is eventually extracted or until it cools.uk
. This then gives a “clear line” of sight across the kitchen area.C.E. it is not possible for any localised capture or containment of cooking fumes to occur. giving an unsightly brown tinge in patches where high out-put cooking is situated below. Whilst this is a wholly subjective topic and is a matter of individual taste. it is incapable of reaching efficiencies of more than 80 to 90%. the use of “ventilated ceilings” as an alternative to canopies has become increasingly common.uk • Web: www. Open-ended ducts are brought through the void to terminate in their respective extract or supply plenum without direct connection to the filter system. In simplest form they consist of a suspended ceiling grid retaining shaped tiles. This relies upon air moving at high velocity through a series of turns and restrictions forcing grease particles to be thrown out of the air stream and then impinge upon adjacent surfaces.I. Which Run Through Most Ceiling Voids. For example.A. The void area above the ceiling is then left largely for the Main Contractor to sort out and sub-divide into extract and supply sections with few guidelines actually offered. at absolute best and will more likely be around 50 to 70% dependant upon the combination of types of cooking process. This is not usually part of the ventilated ceiling contract and is generally left for the main contractor to provide. In the event of a “flare-up”.General Comment on Ventilated Ceilings
Over the past five to ten years.
What Happens When Fire Passes Through the Grid System Into A Grease Soaked Plenum. of the performance of properly designed canopies. reference is made only to Canopies and their components as an accepted method of Kitchen Ventilation. it will rarely be inspected and even more rarely cleaned. In practice.co. a prime selling point of ventilated ceilings is that they are highly flexible in the event of a redesign of cooking equipment layout below. Usually the ductwork connects directly to the back of the filter systems and so the risks associated with the cassette ceiling’s void would be removed.
How Often Is A Kitchen Layout Changed So Radically That It Does Not Require A New Ventilation System Anyway? How Can A Ventilated Ceiling Be More Flexible Than A Canopy When It Is Sub-Divided Into Extract And Supply Plenums Above The Ceiling Grid?
There is very little in the way of documentation or track record to suggest that Ventilated Ceilings are either a good or bad idea in principle. Ventilated Ceilings are not recognised or referred to in any way in "NFPA96" and although “nothing in the standard is intended to prevent the use of other methods or devices” it goes on to say “provided that sufficient technical data is submitted to demonstrate that the proposed method or device is equivalent in quality. no baffle type filter can form a 100% barrier to flame and therefore. It is then simple to see how having to remove all of these cassettes from a mounting height of between 2400 and 3500 mm affl and then wash them individually. they do not perform to the generally accepted and recognised standards of the industry and actually fall far short in almost all respects.” However. Upon reading the standard. the standard gives no specification or design criteria for the ceiling. partitions & services within the void. As unfiltered grease exits the rear of the filter section.
It is claimed that extra low running costs can be achieved with a ventilated ceiling.
What Certain Recognised Bodies State In Their Publications: The National Fire Protection Association:
In “NFPA96 Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations 1994 Edition”. In addition to these problems.
Plenum ceilings generally suffer from the same symptoms as cassette ceilings with the disadvantage of having the aesthetics spoiled by downward protrusions into the clear line of vision. However. fire is able to pass into the ceiling void.uk • Web: www.Although manufacturers claim otherwise. “BS6173:2001” and all other proven calculation methods. Or Void. this cannot possibly be so if the designer of the ventilated ceiling has ventilated the equipment according to the recognised formulae as stated in "HVCA's DW/172". the provision of a fully integrated demountable ventilated ceiling. comprising air supply / extract modules and lighting is the preferred system.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. this is clearly not true nor is it often applicable. building fabric does not lend itself to ease of cleaning. a greasy coating will cover all exposed surfaces. strength. Maintenance & CDM Implications:
Another main selling point of ventilated ceilings is the idea that they create a low maintenance alternative to conventional canopy. (This event is precisely what modern canopies were invented to avoid). Being of mostly porous materials. From the information gained. The cassettes are often of such a design. fire endurance. This clearly contravenes the Food Safety Act. With Unprotected Services & Structural Members Running Through It? Hygiene Risk:
For the same reasons that cause the increased fire risk. Coupled with the fact that it is hidden from view almost permanently. durability and safety to that prescribed by this standard”. hygiene is an area of extreme concern. it is obvious that a ventilated ceiling can meet very few of the mandatory criteria lain down.co. This coating of grease then creates the ideal breeding ground for bacteria and vermin and will eventually be the point from which unpleasant odours can emanate.
Once again. is going to be vastly more time consuming than the cleaning of comparatively few filters and flat surfaces of a conventional canopy. effectiveness. Over a period of time.uk
. that they are difficult to handle and are of quite a flimsy and easily damaged construction. there remain the large grease soaked areas within the void itself. which cannot be attained by a canopy. “CIBSE Guide”. This is clearly not the case as most of these ceilings are designed on the basis of using multiple cassettes.
Defence Estate – Ministry of Defence:
The Defence Estates “Design & Maintenance Guide 18 – September 1999 Edition” under the heading of “Choice of Ventilation System” states “For new build and major refurbishments.
All Of This Is Situated Immediately Above An Area Where Fresh Food Is Supposed To Be Prepared & Cooked. it will then deposit itself upon the building structure.kitchen-ventilation.
efficient grease filtration. Fire suppression systems can be fitted in the same way as they would within a conventional canopy.kitchen-ventilation. having been developed on the continent. However. equipment coverage and infill supply-air sections between extract compartments. and therefore the greater dissipation of the plume of fumes. The main differences between conventional canopies and the new Canopy-Ceiling are to do with mounting heights. There are many of these systems installed and running to the satisfaction of their users. The filtration. This system is referred to as a ‘Canopy-Ceiling’. full containment of greasy fumes from the kitchen to the point of discharge.uk • Web: www. all of this is based upon proven and used technology. The typical mounting height of a Canopy-Ceiling would be from 2200mm to 2400mm affl to the underside giving a more spacious and airy feel to the kitchen in general. where cooking methods vary greatly from those employed in the UK and the USA. probably the result of the systems currently available. total fume capture. plenum systems and containment are all components common to both conventional canopies and the ‘Canopy-Ceiling’.uk
.co. Thus to compensate for the added distance from the equipment to the point of capture.
The ‘Canopy Ceiling’
A ventilated ceiling system has been developed which provides a clean aesthetic line within the kitchen environment. These points together with the aforementioned problems are broadly speaking.
THE CANOPY CEILING
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: email@example.com.The current standard of ventilated ceiling installations seems to allow systems which are potentially hazardous to health due to unacceptably high fire and hygiene risks. peripheral overhangs for extract compartments should between 450 and 700mm. carefully controlled supply-air delivery and most importantly. Extract and supply-air volume design criteria remain essentially the same as that for canopies. lighting. It is clear that there are several advantages to a ventilated ceiling system and it would seem logical that an alternative design should be sought which encompasses all of the aesthetic advantages of a ventilated ceiling combined with the functional advantages of canopies.
who will not be familiar with their surroundings. surface mounted wiring should be avoided. In this case a maintained emergency lighting system should be used.co. The light housing should be capable of operating at the high temperatures generated by the cooking appliances. for this reason a toughened glass diffuser is recommended. canopy by the canopy manufacturer. however.Lighting
Kitchen lighting should be designed to achieve levels of 500 lux at the work surface in any food preparation areas and 300 lux in other areas such as walkways and store areas.
Emergency lighting should be powerful enough to provide a minimum of 1 lux along the entirety of the escape route from the kitchen. Where used above food preparation areas the following criteria should be met: • The light fittings should be housed in an easily cleaned housing with no gaps or crevices where dirt or grease can collect.kitchen-ventilation.co. it is advisable to use a number of lower powered units rather than a few high power units. there are exceptions. lights should be pre-wired to a light connection box mounted at an agreed position on the canopy for final wiring to a switched electrical supply by others. Due to the possibility of failure.
Types of Lighting and Design:
Fluorescent lighting is the most common option due to its economic advantages and can consist of a number of different configurations. Emergency lighting should normally be provided by the contractor responsible for designing the general kitchen lighting system. The light housing diffuser should be constructed from a shatter proof material such as toughened glass or polycarbonate. a non maintained emergency lighting system may be used.
Emergency lighting is required to illuminate a safe exit route from within the kitchen should the normal means of lighting fail. This means that the emergency lighting lamps are always being tested under normal operation and any failure can be noted and repaired at normal times. such as ceiling grid fittings. Ventilated ceilings. where the light fitting is within a kitchen canopy or ventilated ceiling above cooking appliances. The emergency lighting should be capable of operating for at least one hour. surface mounted fittings and recessed units.
• Where canopy lighting is being provided as part of the
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation.
Where the kitchen is occupied by operatives that are familiar with their surroundings. This system requires that in the event that the normal electrical supply cuts off.
Additionally. Emergency lighting systems must comply with BS52661:1999. the following criteria also apply: • The light housing should be sealed against the ingress of grease and moisture and should be constructed to meet the levels of protection described by IP rating 55 – protection against dust and jets of water from all directions. ideally the unit should be recessed into the ceiling. In the case of recessed units this IP rating applies to the visible/cooking side of the unit.uk
. This consists of separate light units to the normal lighting scheme that are not normally powered. Wiring and connection to the light unit should be hidden and suitably heat rated and protected within the canopy. Tungsten fittings are less common within the main kitchen area but are used within kitchen canopies. This is in addition to any natural light which although beneficial should not be included when calculating lighting levels. This duration should be increased if the kitchen forms part of a large building when other areas may need to evacuate through the kitchen. This system is not suitable if the general public. the lighting should activate within five seconds of the normal lighting failing. the emergency lighting utilises the same lamps that were being powered by the normal supply. Emergency lighting should also be provided within the kitchen and this topic is covered separately within this guide. Easy access should be provided to replace consumable components such as tubes and starters. An automatic monitoring and switching system is used to switch on the separate emergency lights if the normal supply is cut off. often mounted in bulkhead units to save cost.uk • Web: www.10 -
. plenum ceilings and kitchen extract canopies that occupy a large part of the kitchen should also include emergency lighting. are likely to be within or passing through the kitchen.
It has a good flame knock down. which displaces oxygen in large amounts. It can often compact in storage which can cause unreliability when discharge is required.co. causing rapid cooling to help prevent re-ignition. It must have between 40-70% atmospheric saturation to be effective. In fact. except in critical situations as part of the fight against the destruction of the Earth’s ozone layer. As a result. Energy efficient equipment is highly insulated to reduce fuel consumption but this means they keep cooking oils and appliances hotter. usually pure water in a kitchen environment. resulting in low down time for a kitchen. namely vegetable cooking oils and ‘energy efficient’ cooking equipment. European Union Legislation came into force preventing the fitting and re-filling of Halon in fire suppression systems. longer and make the extinguishing of fire more difficult. as well as good business sense. work by smothering fires and can only extinguish efficiently where the fire is on a horizontal surface to allow pooling of foam over the fuel. not only reducing the heat but starving the fire of oxygen.
Dry Powder / Chemical:
Like Carbon Dioxide. because water is applied in atomised form onto the surface of the oil and equipment. resulting in the immediate spreading of the fire with considerably more violent fire consequences. This is unsightly and makes cleaning very difficult. A distinct disadvantage is that there is an array of visible pipe work hanging down from canopy ceilings so as to target nozzles on specific items of equipment.
Not recommended for use due to the Health & Safety issues surrounding it. but on contact with grease. Foam fire suppressants do contain high water contents and as such are extremely dangerous on electrical and high oil content equipment (eg: fryers)
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. This process ensures that only negligible amounts of water penetrate the fat. it is important that kitchen equipment and the canopy above it are covered by a good fire suppression system. Generally the least expensive system and a reasonable clean up time after discharge. oil and surrounding areas. This effect is avoided by using a fine water mist system. it is not effective as once oxygen is allowed back in. It also potentially increases the risk of a reflash once the initial fire has been put out. Also like Carbon Dioxide. At the end of December 2002. Therefore. there are Health & Safety issues over dry powder as it is corrosive to numerous materials and is toxic. in the interests of personal safety.uk • Web: www. it can not be discharged once the fire has been detected as time is required to allow personnel to escape.kitchen-ventilation. its usage has become less acceptable. Whilst having very good flame knock down properties. it can put a kitchen out of action for long periods post discharge due to clean up and down time. Whilst vegetable oils are a more healthy option compared with animal fats. It is supplied like a water mist suppressant from a nozzle. it is easy to clean after discharge.11 -
. removing heat and preventing oxygen from aiding the fire. they burn at a higher temperature and create fires that are more difficult to extinguish. this type of suppressant is not foam.co. As CO2 is dangerous when used in ‘total flood’ situations.Fire Suppression Systems
There are two significant changes in commercial food preparation that have had a huge impact on kitchen fire protection in recent years. the risk of re-ignition is high. this leaves five options for Fire Suppression systems available:-
Fine Water Particle Systems:
Water in conventional form is not suitable to extinguish or control oil and fat based fires. usually it is extremely hazardous because the penetration of water and the resultant expansion of water into steam will cause a fat explosion. dry powder is not effective on deep seated fires as the risk of re-ignition is high. contaminant free and therefore the kitchens operational ‘down time’ is low.
Ordinary foam suppressants have a slower flame knock-down. Initial installation can be expensive. average clean up time and a twelve year storage life before recharging. Being water based. oil and hot surfaces saponifies into a foam gel.
Strictly speaking. It is an inexpensive agent supplied via an inexpensive system. In a deep seated fire (ie: a fire with a long burn life).uk
. Carbon Dioxide is also regarded as a ‘greenhouse gas’ and as such.
CANOPY OVERHANG PLAN
Consideration should also be given to the distance between the cooking surface and the bottom of the grease filter housing. the overall length and width dimensions of the canopy should allow for minimum overhangs of 300mm for work-top cooking and 600mm for coverage of combination steamers and certain types of baking ovens. column or down-stand.
Height above Finished Floor Level:
The height of a canopy should be between 2000 and 2100mm to underside of lowest point of the canopy from finished floor level.
Overhangs above and Around Cooking Equipment:
In plan. the canopy should be fully worked around the obstacle so as to encase it in a fire resistant and easily cleaned enclosure of stainless steel to the same specification as the canopy itself. However this is often not achievable especially in refurbishments and so it is necessary to incorporate a beam.Canopy Sizing
The dimensions. 400mm internal depth is considered suitable.uk • Web: www. It is therefore becoming a more regular requirement that canopies become even more of an architectural feature. any shallower and containment of fumes will be compromised. This will also help to prevent the potential of fire-flares being drawn into the grease filters and possibly ignite grease and oil deposits beyond.
Special Shapes to Incorporate Physical Restrictions of Building Structure:
Canopies should be positioned away from structural intrusion from the building it serves wherever possible. overhangs. location and air movement of a canopy are all inextricably linked. The following are what have now become the accepted standards for these design parameters of conventional overhead type canopies.co. any deeper and the filters and lights can become inaccessible for maintenance. Special shapes such as straight hipped (tent shaped). having been proven by many years of practical application:
Where salamander grills are mounted in close proximity to the grease filter housing the manufacturer of the appliance should provide a deflector cowl to encourage products of combustion to be directed away from housing and cool before being drawn through the filters. This is based upon a taller than average chef with a reasonably sized hat on.12 -
. cylindrical. mounting height.
The canopy depth dimension is defined as the dimension from the top edge to the underside. Use of these special shapes does not preclude the requirement to manufacture to the standards laid down for standard canopies and extra care should be taken not to forego function for aesthetics as it is possible to combine the two quite adequately. To maximise fume capture from any front face opening oven.co. This should be sufficient to allow for plume expansion and the draw on the plume created when the door is opened.
Special Shapes to give Improved Aesthetic Qualities:
There is a move these days to bring much of the cooking of speciality foods to the “front of house” for the customer to enjoy the entire process.uk
. conical and even elliptical canopies are all now regularly requested by designers and end users. curved in plan (to fit circular wall layouts). In such a case. if one is altered.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. then another must change to compensate for the initial alteration. DW/172 recommends a minimum allowance of 450mm to avoid the risk of excessive temperatures or fire in the filters. the overhang must be equivalent to the door opening arc size plus 100mm.
. The Total Equipment Volume is a figure which accounts for all of the fumes and contaminants given off by the equipment but it does not necessarily mean that the canopy will collect all of those contaminants efficiently. However it would not be unusual these days. The rules and figures for calculation given below all assume that the preceding design criteria for canopy sizing have been followed. For instance. it should still be applied if any other form of volume calculation provides a lower figure. to find air changes in the region of 70 to 120 when applying the correct equipment calculations. Specialist applications in food factories for instance will need special considerations because equipment sizes will be vastly increased and as such will create their own set of unique problems. will require a correction factor to allow for the reduced containment or fume-capture capability. There are many other variations which do not fit the rules perfectly and each must be considered on its own merits.35m/s (face velocity) x ?m2 (canopy plan area) = ?m3/s (extract volume) The figure of 0. This however is not the Total Extract Volume. The combined area (m2) and velocity (m/s) will give an extract volume. There are definite right and wrong ways to calculate extract duties and below is a summary of the methods most commonly referred to. the quantity of carbon monoxide produced and the amount of smoke and steam generated together with a factor for diversity of usage.Calculation of Extract Air Duties
Calculation of the extract duty for any kitchen canopy is probably the most critical part of the design process.
Air Change Rate Method:
This is an old calculation method and is virtually irrelevant these days for the purposes of calculating kitchen extract duties.uk • Web: www. The old rule used to be that a kitchen should have 30 to 40 Air Changes per Hour. Canopies which are too shallow (less than 350mm overall). because it takes no account of the type or quantity of cooking equipment to be covered nor does it consider cooking methods or equipment usage.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org/s originally derives from the average velocity required across the face of a canopy in order for fumes at the outer edge to be entrained and collected thus avoiding over-spill into the room area.13 -
Cooking Equipment Values:
This is the most accurate and safe method to use and relies upon a list of cooking equipment output figures as compiled in the table overleaf. It is utilised by applying a velocity across the face (plan area) of the canopy of 0. a little extra air movement should be allowed – say 15% to 20% more depending upon the actual ceiling height. Therefore strictly speaking. because it has a very direct effect. It is also critical. The calculation then is a simple matter of multiplying the surface area of each item of equipment under a canopy.
It represents an air movement specific to each item of equipment. The Total Extract Volume is then gained by applying the figures given in the second table of “correction factors for canopy types”: Take the Total Equipment Volume.kitchen-ventilation. which encompasses the amount of expanded air given off. There are more variables to be considered at this point and it is also the area which is least understood by people who have an influence over design.co.co. the necessary capture velocity is easily achieved without the need for a high average across the entire canopy face area. choose the extract rate factor for the canopy type being used and add the two together to give the Total Extract Volume. Often extract duties are “trimmed” to fit a budget for plant or to save space in a plant room or void. by its specific velocity coefficient. in kitchens with low ceiling heights (up to 2400 affl) there is a good chance of an excessive build-up of heat because there is too little head room for convected heat to dissipate.
Face Velocity Method:
In the first instance. both on cost and physical space. (m3/s) eg: 0. In such an instance. The individual equipment volumes should then be added together to provide a Total Equipment Volume for the canopy. or mounted higher than 2100mm for some reason. “velocity coefficient” listed in the fifth column from the left is the most important figure.
When calculating kitchen extract duties there are always other considerations to be made which are too complex to be incorporated in the simple calculations above. this is really only a guide calculation for preparing approximate budget costs for canopies and plant. This is actually still very relevant and applicable to modern canopies of conventional configuration where the filter bank is situated along the centre of an island canopy or at the rear edge of a wall mounted canopy.35m/s. However with the advent of more efficient peripheral extract canopies where the point of extract is concentrated at the point of possible overspill.
000 0.52 0.40 No.30 0.40 0.35 0.000 0. of items to be covered.15 0.000 0.000 0.25 0.32 0.50 0.35 0.45 0.000 0.000 0.45 0.000
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: email@example.com 0.40 0.25 0.000 0.40 0.000 0.24 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.30 0.25 0.000
0.000 0.95 1.30 0.30 0.000 0.000 0.co.55 0.75 0.14 -
.000 0.000 0.03 0.000 0.45 0.25 0.55 0.000 0.000 0.55 0.000 0.000 0.50 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.30 0.20 0.000 0.000 0.45 0.000 0.uk
.000 0.000 0.000 0.03 0.38 0.03 0.35 0.000 0.25 0.30 0.75 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.25 0.uk • Web: www.000 0.000 0.000 0.51 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.20 0.45 0.000 0.000 0.20 0.000 0.35 0.24 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.10 1.55 0.20 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.30 0.35 0.Extract Duty Calculation Sheet
Equipment Calculation to DW/172
Items of equipment covered by canopy Miscellaneous Benches / Infills / Work-tops: Sink: Pass-through Dish-Washer: Pan-Wash / Utensil-Washer: Rack / Flight Dish-Washer: Heating / Water Coffee Maker: Microwave Oven / Toaster: Bains Marie / Hot Cupboard: Servery Counter / Heat Gantry: Water Boiler / Still / Beverage Unit: Light Duty Boiling Pan / Tilting Kettle: Refrigeration Unit: General Cooking Induction Hob / Ceramic Stove: Pastry / Bakery Oven: Heavy Duty Boiling Pan: Pasta Cooker: Steamer / Pressure Cooker: Steaming / Roasting Oven: Combination Steaming Oven: Tandoori Oven: Pizza Oven: Convection Oven: Bratt Pan / Tilting Skillet: Boiling / Hob Top / Stock-pot Stove: (no oven) Open Top Range & Oven: Deep Fat Fryer: (Low / Med Duty) Toasting Grille: (Low / Med Duty) High Output / Flame Cooking Griddle: (Mild Steel) Griddle: (Chrome) Deep Fat Bratt Pan: Conveyor Pizza Oven: Heavy Duty Fryer / Frying Range: Rotisserie: Solid Top Range & Oven: Chain Broiler: (Burger Conveyor) Salamander / Steak Grille: Chargrille / Charbroiler: Wok Range: Wok Range: (Induction) Mesquite Grille:
Plan dimensions: (mm) 0 0 600 800 2000 500 600 1600 1600 400 500 800 600 900 800 500 800 800 900 900 1200 900 800 800 900 600 700 900 900 900 1200 900 900 900 800 800 900 1800 1000 900 800 500 600 800 800 400 600 800 800 400 500 800 600 900 800 800 800 800 800 900 1000 800 800 800 800 600 450 800 800 800 1000 600 600 800 800 500 800 800 800 900 Co-efficient: (m3/s per m2) Gas Elec 0.kitchen-ventilation.75 0.000 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Extract volume for item (m3/s)
0.30 0.26 0.30 0.000 0.30 0.000 0.15 0.000 0.000
Overhead wall mounted conventional canopy
Overhead single sided island conventional canopy
Overhead double sided island conventional canopy
TOTAL EXTRACT RATE FOR CANOPY:
0.10 0.35 0.15 0.000 0.03 0.000
TOTAL EXTRACT RATE FOR EQUIPMENT:
Correction factors for canopy type:
Low level / pass-over canopy Open both ends: Open one end: Closed both ends: Open both ends: Open one end: Closed both ends: Open both ends: Open one end: Closed both ends: Open both ends: Open one end: Closed both ends: Extract Rate Factor 15% 10% 5% 25% 20% 15% 50% 40% 30% 35% 25% 15% Option (1 or 0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0.40 0.35 0.000 0.000 0.co.30 0.20 0.
There have been many losses of buildings due to duct fires aided by accumulation of grease deposits. As the grease laden air passes through the filter. Principles of baffle filtration are also applied to achieve the same objectives where the baffles are fitted as integral part of the extract plenums in non conventional canopies such as the water wash and water mist systems. They work by impingement of airborne particles upon the woven mesh media of the panel. The efficiency of filters is dependent on the size of particles being filtered. It should be removed from the air stream to prevent accumulation of grease in the ductwork.15 -
. and is present in the air in particulate form). For comparison the eye of a needle is 1230 microns. where as oil smoke is 0. DW/172 includes an expanded section on grease filtration and makes reference to filter testing to the UK standard of LPS1263.uk • Web: www.co. Approximately 98% of all air particles are 5 microns or less.
Baffle Grease Filtration:
The most common type of filters used at the point of extraction for the removal of grease and vapours are baffle type panels. polycyclic hydrocarbons (A broad class of compounds that is formed primarily from combustion. particulate and gaseous. (The relevant tests are based on procedures that are already in place – American UL1046 (F Class) for flame arrestance and German VDI2052 (G Class) for grease extraction efficiency.kitchen-ventilation.
microns or less in size. These will handle high volumes at low resistance but will clog up with congealed grease. The nature and quantities of the pollutants emitted depend on cooking stuffs. which is completely different from the water vapour and grease released as a result of frying frozen chips. Baffle filters consist of a number of interlocking vanes. airflow is disrupted by a series of forced changes in direction and velocity. Particles are commonly measured in microns.) Baffle type filters are positive flame barriers which drastically reduce the chances of fire passing through to the ductwork however their effectiveness is dependent on exact design of the interlocking of baffles. styles of cooking. The above pollutants are a major source of particulate matter. This test provides a ‘GF’ rating for the filter tested and is based on both grease removal efficiency and flame resistance. cooking oils used and on the cooking fuel. For example particle sizes for meat fat may be heavier compared to fine vegetable fats.co. as a result the grease becomes separated in the air stream and is deposited on the vertical vanes. To minimise the complaints or concerns from the public and other commercial establishments. Filter efficiencies which may be quoted at 90 to 95% may be true for one particle size range but not for a whole range of particle sizes experienced in practical cooking. They are approx. Panels should be manufactured from type 304 (minimum grade) stainless steel. Particles of 1 micron or less adhere to surfaces by molecular adhesion. There are several ways of treating cooking emissions and effectiveness of these control measures are governed by the particle sizes of contaminants. Steam Grease Odours resulting from the cooking process. these problems are more prominent in urban areas where the restaurants and hot food shops are situated in close proximity to dwellings. oil and charcoal. The majority of harmful particles are 3
Mesh Grease Filtration:
Mesh filters are really only useable in a kitchen extract system as a secondary filter media.uk
. To tackle this issue. Contaminants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are also emitted from the cooking appliances. which is a metric unit of measurement. Effluents from cooking processes need to be treated allowing for clean air to be discharged in to the atmosphere.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. The grease is drained off through weep holes on the bottom of the vanes and flows into collection drawers.Treatment of Extract Air before Discharge
Emissions from commercial kitchens have contributed to local environmental problems for many years. These work by the centrifugal force of the air travelling through a series of turns and restrictions. The Environment Protection Act 1990 makes allowances for nuisance caused by commercial cooking. 40 to 60% efficient. They have reasonable self-balancing properties for airflow and are approximately 65 to 80% efficient.
Contaminants in the Air Extracted from Kitchens:
The most common contaminants in air extracted from kitchens are: • • • • • Smoke Products of combustion from direct-fuelled appliances such as gas. and other organic compounds in ambient air as a direct result of emissions from commercial cooking. the Local Planning Authority needs to approve extract ventilation system and odour control equipment. Grease needs to be taken out at the source point to minimise the risk of fire from dirty ductwork. Proprietors and operators of restaurants and food business need to take necessary actions to minimize the emissions and prevent odour nuisances to residents or other commercial premises in close proximity of the catering establishment.03 to 1 micron.
The exhaust from cooking process produces two phases of contaminants. putting stress on plant and increasing fire risk.
uk • Web: www.
Ultra Violet Grease & Odour Filtration:
This relatively new concept of filtration uses special UV lamps. as ozone vented into the atmosphere at low level can be a nuisance smell. the UV Grease and Odour Destruction System has significantly lower operating costs. a catalyst unit may be added further downstream in the ductwork to ensure that all excess ozone is eliminated prior to discharge. the UV module should be used in conjunction with an electro static precipitator. This filtration method is ideal as pre filters before carbon filtration to protect the carbon from grease contamination.
Conventional ventilation filters only remove particulate matter and therefore some other means must be employed to treat and remove gases. in kitchen ventilation systems. followed by watermist then secondary baffle filtration. For example. relating to feasibility of the system. in an ideal scenario. mould.kitchen-ventilation. Compliance with local environmental issues of high residential and occupational areas is easily met. Initial capital and maintenance costs are high. although is not effective in removing smoke particles. the grease compounds are broken down. The UV lamps operate in the UV-C band and produce ozone under controlled conditions by special gas discharge tubes. micro switches and pressure switches that even prevent the lamps from running without airflow. which greatly minimize fan requirements. The grease laden and odorous air will firstly be pre filtered by high efficiency baffle filters to remove as much of the larger particles of grease as possible prior to the extract air entering the UV module. either directly. Where UV-C is used to produce ozone. a charging section and a collection section. principally grease laden and odorous extract air. This is achieved by safety interlocks. and are poor fire barriers.
At this point. there are occupational exposure standards (OES). and other contaminants. Alternatively.16 -
Electrostatic precipitators can achieve high collection efficiency for oily fume or smoke. UV grease and odour control is a very effective method in extracting grease and odours from medium to high output operations. The size and number of UV-C modules required in the extract system depends upon the Total Extract Volume required for the cooking range. safety features are incorporated to ensure that the tubes can not be operated where they are seen. because the ventilation system operates under negative pressure. Other benefits of the system include a constant overall pressure drop. maintenance costs and fuel / power consumption. A commonly used and readily available product to achieve this goal is activated carbon. According to COSHH and the HSE (guidance sheet EH38 revised). by the processes of photolysis and ozonolysis Operation of the UV system is automatically linked to the starting of the extract fan. However. Electrostatic precipitators are composed of two sections. The primary filters are cleanable. the electro-static precipitator could be replaced by a HEPA filter after the carbon filtration. Normally this small level of ozone will either be destroyed prior to leaving the duct or safely discharged at high level. the grease laden and odorous air would be pre filtered (using primary baffle filters). it is important to protect the eyes with special goggles against UV rays. Within the module.uk
. the UV module would be incorporated. All criteria. The end products of the continuous destruction to these organic compounds are carbon dioxide and water vapour. by reflection or during unauthorised opening of the lamp housing. where there are short duct runs and/or low level discharge areas. Lower fan power requirements also translate into quieter operation. . reduced fire risks and it virtually eliminates the need for duct cleaning. Ozone is not discharged into the working area. Electronic air cleaners create low-pressure drops.co. They also need to be cleaned or replaced regularly. it oxidises and essentially destroys bacteria. The air stream leaving the UV module will also contain a degree of ozone. for the treatment of organic compounds.co. viruses and organic materials such as fats. These should not be used as primary filters but are an effective source of secondary filtration to protect further filtration elements. As with all gases. oxidised and removed from the air stream. The charging section uses ionizer wires to impart a positive charge to the incoming smoke. for more effective filtration. In these circumstances. followed by an electro-static precipitator and then carbon filtration. odours and vapours. of which UV-C is the most severe. Clean air is then discharged into the atmosphere or re-circulated back into the general air stream. The charged particles are then drawn into a secondary electric field where they are collected on a series of metal plates. therefore increasing the efficiency and preserving the life expectancy of the system. which translate into energy savings as compared to other types of air cleaning systems. as well as other factors including duct size and even the type of food to be cooked. Whilst the initial capital costs are comparable with other systems available. As ozone is a more powerful oxidising agent than oxygen at normal temperatures.They are more effective in filtering dust than grease. however they are limited to the removal of grease and other considerations should be given if odour control is a major priority. including the effective and safe discharge and local authority requirements must be considered at the design and survey stage. UV modules can be used in conjunction with other filtration components. In some instances. fume. an important factor in considering routine maintenance costs and disposal issues. (In carbon systems the pressure drop is higher as allowance needs to be made for the pressure drop when the system is dirty) reduced nuisance from kitchen extraction.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation.
99 percent efficiency for particles 0. It is important to note that the high humidity encountered in many food processing / cooking operations can be damaging to activated carbon. Most HEPA’s use a woven glass material that does not rot or retain moisture. animals and plants. Due to the high efficiency of these filters.quality” activated carbon. Activated carbon is good for filtering out organic (carbon based) impurities and a few other chemicals. an activated carbon will be ineffective at which point. Its uses are widespread. Hot vapour passing through the mist is cooled. i. This extraordinary large adsorption area has an excellent degree of separation and an ability to accumulate harmful substances. particles are trapped. This is done to enhance the removal efficiency and capacity for a specific contaminant that is not effectively captured by the virgin nonimpregnated activated carbon. see below.17 -
. it must be replaced. Large particulates need to be removed prior to carbon filtration.co. These filters are rated at 99. followed by mesh filtration. It is treated with steam to open up tiny pores between the carbon atoms. Activated carbon works by adsorbing impurities through chemical attraction. Efficiency of the removal of the odour is also dependent on the dwell time in the carbon cells. They should be easily accessible to allow for regular replacement. the more efficient and longer lived the carbon filters will be. which runs continuously throughout the cooking process. It is produced from organic materials such as coal. A virgin non-impregnated activated carbon is useful in the removal of general volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) or hydrocarbons. it should be the last form of filtration. they are paper-like filters made of randomly positioned fibres that create narrow passages with many twists and turns. and are frequently applied as a general purpose catch all material for non-critical applications. in order to achieve this the exhaust air needs to be slowed down to a velocity of 1 to 1½ seconds dwell time. Developed by the Atomic energy Commission during World War II to remove radioactive dust from industrial exhaust.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Activated carbon filters are available in two forms. clogging holes and making the grid smaller. A mixture of water and grease makes the removal of grease easier. When certain chemicals pass next to the carbon surface.
HEPA filters are rarely used in commercial kitchen applications. where as water mist filtration contributes directly to the filtration process. peat. For these filters to be effective in kitchen ventilation they should be fitted at the end of the duct run. there would be primary filtration through baffles. In kitchen applications it is essential that pre-filters are used to protect the carbon and efforts should be made to prevent grease particles from reaching the carbon filters. As carbon removes odours by physical absorption.Active carbon has proved useful for separation (adsorption) of air impurities in the form of gases and vapours that have harmed the environment with their toxicity and odour and can be harmful to people. but certain impurities will not be removed. They are excellent at adsorbing odours or coloured substances from gases or liquids. as they are not attracted to the carbon. Installation of such filtration adds cost to plant due to increased system resistances.
Water Mist Filtration:
There is confusion over the purpose and abilities of water wash and water mist systems. coconut shells. The huge surface areas of the carbon give countless bonding sites. however they are effective in the removal of smoke. The better the pre-filtration. duct or plenum sizes need to be increased which in turn will require a larger physical space to accommodate the carbon filtration plant. activated carbons filters are used to adsorb odour from cooking and are normally installed inside the work system as from the canopy as possible. Once all the bonding sites are filled. Special manufacturing techniques are used to achieve highly porous carbons that have surface areas of 300-2000 square metres per gram. By passing cooking fumes through a wall of cold-water mist. As the air passes through. or a combination of both.uk • Web: www.3 microns in size. higher efficiency of grease removal can be achieved. Use of carbon filtration is an expensive process. They have higher resistance to air flow thus requiring more powerful plant.
Maintenance costs are high because filters need replacing regularly. sugar that are thermally processed to produce an “air. then either UV or ESP filtration.kitchen-ventilation. Activated carbon can come in many shapes. For more specific and critical gas phase control. which enables the filter to be even more efficient with ongoing use. In an ideal set up. but cater for routine cleaning of internally inaccessible surfaces and sometimes fire protection. Local Authority approval is required before carbon filtration is used in kitchen extract systems. and other tiny airborne contaminants. causing the grease particles to condense and increase in size. where not only the initial capital costs are high but also the maintenance costs. “virgin non-impregnated carbon and impregnated carbon”. they need to be protected by pre filters to prevent grease reaching them. In kitchen ventilation applications. Time intervals of the maintenance are dependant on the cooking process and also the types of carbon filters being used. activated carbons are impregnated with speciality chemicals. grease accumulation on the carbon face causes “blinding” of its open pore structure and so reduces performance. water wash systems do not contribute to the filtration process. sizes and forms. then finally carbon filtration. In order to reduce the velocity. they attach to the surface and are trapped.e.
and the cycle starts again. as well as maintenance and day to day running costs of water mist systems are high compared to conventional filtration and extract methods. If heat recovery is to be employed.As a result they drop out of the air stream more easily when passing through the air turns of baffle filtration. The most common heat recovery ventilation (HRV) devices are as follows: Plate heat Recuperator .
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Heat is transferred through the plates with no cross contamination between the exhaust and supply air. the vapour condenses back into liquid again transferring heat energy. a heat recuperator in any form. In this system there is no risk of contamination as the liquid circulates in a closed system. A major disadvantage with water mist is that nozzles and drainage are susceptible to clogging up due to calcium build up. There is no cross contamination in this process but it has low efficiency (50 to 70%).the exhaust air and supply air pass on each side of a number of plates. combined in some cases with a small degree of electrostatic filtration to encourage the chemical vapour to combine with the contaminants within the extract duct. Heat recovery systems for commercial and institutional buildings are often complex. This product generally operates by pumping a chemical agent into the extract air flow.co. The system can also suffer from balancing problems as the amount of chemicals being pumped into the airflow must be closely matched to the air being extracted. and may outweigh the benefits of lower utility bills. This tertiary filtration must remove sufficient moisture to prevent leakage from ductwork joints further downstream in the system often in other less accessible parts of the building before the point of discharge. Heat is transferred from the exhaust air duct to the water battery in it and transferred to the water battery in the supply duct. One of the disadvantages of this system is its low efficiency (45 to 60%). Rotary Recuperator (Heat Wheel) – Heat is transferred by rotating wheel between exhaust and supply. As an addition to filtration. upstream filtration must be as efficient as possible to give the recuperator the best chance of working. whilst too little will not mask the contaminant odour. some manufacturers offer an odour neutralising product. They have high efficiency (50 to 80%). however in practice there are leakages. The two most common ways of recovering heat from kitchen areas are by ‘air to air’ or ‘air to water’ transfer. This problem can also occur where there is not a constant or similar range of odours throughout the cooking process. and hence the supply air is heated by it. They operate on a vaporising / condensing cycle. The efficiency of water mist systems when incorporated with baffle pre and post filtration can be as much as 90 to 98% in the removal of certain sizes of grease particle. acts as highly efficient grease filter and as such will need a high level of maintenance. ‘Air to air’ transfer removes heat from the exhaust air and transfers to the incoming supply air whereas in the ‘air to water’ method the heat is transferred to a domestic water pipe. hence efficiency is drastically reduced unless a strict maintenance regime is implemented and high quality water treatment is applied. This means that for a properly designed system.uk • Web: www. Heat recovery can be regulated by a by-pass valve which controls the exhaust intakes and allows fresh air to by-pass the recuperator. As the supply air passes over the pipes. the aim being to reduce the perceived level of nuisance odours detectable to the human nose at the point of discharge to atmosphere. The down side to this system is that it does not remove contaminants from the airflow and therefore does not provide any protection from fire or reduce cleaning intervals. They have a high efficiency (75 to 85%).co. and involve many related factors which need to be seriously considered for proper operation. the air must be thoroughly filtered after the introduction of water-mist to the airflow and before entering the ductwork. The product has the advantage of being relatively low cost to install compared with the cost of installing fine particulate filtration systems and does not add significant resistance to airflow. Battery heat Recuperator – Water or water / glycol mix circulates between the water battery in the exhaust air duct and the water battery in the supply duct. hot exhaust air causes the fluid in the lower part of the pipes to vaporise and the heat is transferred to the supply air passing over the upper section. Heat pipes – These are self contained units. A combination of baffle and UV filtration should be utilised at the very minimum. Initial capital and maintenance cost are high. Initial capital expenditure.
Recovery of heat energy that would otherwise be lost or removed from a specific space can be beneficial and its conservation is very important. . Too much chemical can cause a nuisance smell of it’s own. The chemical itself has an odour designed to mask that of the cooking odour.kitchen-ventilation. For kitchen ventilation systems. They can be regulated by increasing or decreasing the water flow.uk
The ideal method of reducing cooking odours is to destroy or remove as much of the contaminant particles from within the extract airflow as possible. The wheel consists of segments packed with coarsely knitted metal mesh. which consist of a closed system of pipes filled with a liquid that vaporises when it is heated by the exhaust air.
uk • Web: www. Supply air diffusers and cooling jets
• • •
The best method of discharging kitchen extract is by use of a high velocity outlet utilising a terminal air speed of 12 to 15 m/s. Where possible. • •
Point of Discharge to Atmosphere:
A properly designed discharge system can often reduce the need for other filtration methods.19 -
. Sufficient separation distance should be provided between potential receptors in the vicinity of the catering establishments to minimise odour nuisance. the filtered air is then re-introduced into the canopy via an integral supply air plenum. In Sports stadia. Therefore positioning of the exhaust outlet is a top priority to avoid causing or contributing to local air pollution and to minimise any cross contamination with the supply system.
With a re-circulating system it should be noted that gas cooking appliances cannot be used as there is no reliable method of removing carbon monoxide in practical application.
The system has a series of filtration levels as listed overleaf.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Where there are planning restrictions over external duct/discharge points In temporary sites. Sufficient distance should be allowed between the exhaust point and any supply air intakes. which distributes the air through the front face diffuser panels. in say a basement or kitchen without external walls. re-circulation canopies may be the only option in tackling certain problems. the ductwork and discharge points should be located such that it is not aesthetically offensive. low noise fan & control system. back into the Kitchen:
Designing a kitchen ventilation system can pose considerable challenges depending on the building structure. Where there is a requirement to use only fire rated ductwork through a building.kitchen-ventilation.Recirculation of Extracted Air. by the use of plates or caps. shops and exhibitions. semi-mobile and not be part of a building structure. The terminal device should include a bird guard mesh of no more than 1 inch squared grid and a drainable elbow joint below. The standard filtration components of a re-circulating system could include: • • • • • • • Baffle grease filters Mesh grease filters Bag filters (varying grades) Activated carbon filters or UV filtration HEPA filters A high efficiency. and as such can be used in the following circumstances: • • • • • Where the duct discharge to atmosphere is not possible. Systems of this type can be free standing. Although rare in commercial kitchen environments.co. Exhaust outlets must be directed vertically. The following points should be considered when deciding upon the point of discharge: • The outlets should be positioned where ventilation is good and emissions are dispersed without any hindrance. It is recommended that ‘China-man’s hat’ type of cowls should not be used. as these results in higher static pressure.co. Efforts should be made to minimise any deflection or restrictions of the emissions. unless it can be demonstrated that it would be more advantageous to direct the outlet in other directions. Discharge points should be positioned at least 1000mm above any opening window. noise and the potential re-entry of the exhaust due to downdraught.
it is necessary to do this in order to give at least some guidance upon how filtration methods should be chosen and the following tables are designed for this purpose.Tabulation of Extract Air Treatment Choices:
To define different cooking establishments. Italian/French restaurants.uk • Web: www. family pub restaurants. is a little bit subjective. the types of food they cook.uk
. Small low output fast food restaurants. steak houses. Mexican restaurants. must be utilised with awareness of other considerations such as proximity to neighbouring buildings and domestic property and adjustments to selection must be made accordingly. Government institutions (schools/hospitals/elderly person’s homes).
DESCRIPTION Pub & Bar Food. high output fast food restaurants.kitchen-ventilation. office and workplace kitchens. However.co.co. supermarket restaurants.
HIGH VERY HIGH
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. pizza restaurants. the way they cook that food and the intensity with which they produce their product. coffee/tea shops. hotel restaurants. Each therefore.20 -
. Food factories. kebab/chip shops. Large. small cafes. Oriental & Asian restaurants.
co. If high level discharge cannot be achieved. pre-filter required.uk • Web: www. if this is not the case it may be possible to reduce the filter requirement.
Wipe down components regularly. see above. Grease Filtration Will filter approximately 65 to 80% of large grease particles.
Will not filter smoke effectively.uk
. Will filter grease but will clog quickly . Will clog up frequently.
Not a flame barrier.
Very effective smoke particle filtration. Not a flame barrier.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Drastically reduces fire risk in downstream ductwork.
Primary filter. The table has been designed for a worse case scenario where the kitchen is in close proximity to other buildings and / or a dwelling.co.
Effective odour reduction.
Slight reduction in odour but not effective. Must be protected by primary. all categories from Light to Medium / High should be moved up to the next category. secondary and electrostatic filters. Installation notes Maintenance Clean in commercial dishwasher.prefilters required. see above. Will filter up to 50% of large grease particles.
HEPA media must be disposed of and replaced regularly. efficiency increased if used after water mist. pre-filter required.Cooking Establishment Categories:
Filtration / Establishment Application:
Establishment Category Filter Type
Light Option ‘A’ Baffle Mesh Electrostatic Carbon Ultra Violet HEPA
Yes No No No No No
Light / Medium Option ‘A’
Yes Consider Consider No No No
Medium Option ‘A’
Yes Consider Consider Consider No No
Medium / High Option ‘A’
Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
High Option ‘A’
Yes Yes Yes Yes No Consider
Very High Option ‘A’
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Consider
Yes No No No Consider No
Yes No No No Consider No
Yes No No No Consider No
Yes No No No Yes No
Yes No No No Yes Consider
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Consider
Note: This table assumes that all discharge will be at high level.21 -
Will not filter smoke effectively.
Slight reduction in odour but not effective. Odour Filtration Slight reduction in odour but not effective. pre-filter required. Replace tubes.
Filtration Types & Abilities:
Filter Ability Flame Barrier Positive flame barrier will prevent flames entering ductwork.
Will destroy up to 99% of large grease particles.
Regular swap out of collection media to manufacturer. use as secondary filtration only. Should be protected by primary filters.
Used as a secondary filter to protect electrostatic and carbon.
Will filter smoke effectively. Must be protected by primary and secondary filters.
Will filter grease but will clog quickly .
Not a flame barrier. Only to be used in extreme situations and only after full grease removal upstream in system. Carbon cells must be disposed of and replaced regularly.
Clean in commercial dishwasher.prefilters required.
Slight reduction in odour but not effective. Will filter up to 99% of fine grease particles.kitchenventilation.
Will not filter smoke effectively and pre-filters will be required.
Effective odour reduction. Smoke Filtration Will not filter smoke effectively.
Not a flame barrier. pre-filter required.
Not a flame barrier.
there should be some means of filtration.Calculation of Supply Air Duties
When & when not to have Powered Supply-Air Input:
Whilst there is no legislation dictating the requirements of supply air into kitchen areas. but for a general guideline. Infiltrated air is naturally drawn into the area from open serving hatches. In the same way.
Supply Air Volume Calculation:
In accordance with recommendations from DW/172 and the HSE Catering Sheet 10. ‘drawing in’ the in swinging doors and creating a vacuum against the out swinging doors. the HSE recommend that the air velocities do not exceed 0. corridors and adjoining rooms. to avoid unpleasant draughts. Any naturally ducted airways should be as short in length as possible and at high level.25m/s to avoid complaints of draughts and cooling effects on food. the system should ‘provide 85% of the total extract volume. The supply air plenums can be fitted with ‘spot coolers’. fire and hygiene risks.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: email@example.com. It is important to get the balance right as too much negative pressure can affect doors and windows within the kitchen area. it makes sense that you need to replace the air you extract. Where make up air is being drawn via a serving hatch or counter.22 -
. The supply fans can be roof or wall mounted with preliminary and secondary filtration.
The powered supply system is the preferred method of introducing air into the cooking environment for a number of reasons. The naturally supplied air is likely to contain contaminants and pests from either outside or other areas of the building. a kitchen.co. In reality. These grilles do however help minimise the pressure on opening and closure of the doors.uk • Web: www. or canopy. to help combat the problems of radiant heat. as well as diffuser panels to assist with the directional requirements of the supply air. this matter is occasionally overlooked in the initial building design stages.0 and 1. should have a supply air system. causing issues with health and safety and fire legislation. it is imperative that any doors and windows should be fitted with fly screens or similar. and in order for the extract system to function correctly.5m/s air flow velocity. This arrangement keeps the kitchen under negative pressure to prevent the escape of cooking odours. where powered input is required. with the remaining 15% infiltrating naturally into the kitchen from surrounding areas’ dependant on the construction of the building. whether in the form of a natural ducted airway or grille. if the total air change rate exceeds 20 per hour. there is usually insufficient space to accommodate enough grilles to handle the supply required. Logically. is likely to restrict the ventilation and this must be considered when selecting grille sizes. Where supply air is delivered through permanent diffusers.co.
Any form of filtration.
Where incoming air is drawn in naturally. then powered supply is required.uk
. there is a reduction in cross drafts and vacuums due to the reduction in negative pressure and there is less strain on the extract fan unit as it is no longer extracting and pulling in make up air from other areas at the same time. without affecting other areas of the building. there needs to be an allowance of between 1. Each kitchen should be looked at individually to decide whether powered supply is required or not. There is more control over the air flow regardless of filters. Powered supply air can either be delivered at the perimeter of the canopy through an integral plenum. or at another location within the kitchen to suit the end users needs. Whilst door transfer grilles may be used in conjunction with other input devices.
Because still water freezes faster than flowing water. Axial fan blades have a tendency to load with grease / contaminants becoming unbalanced and so making the fan vibrate and create noise. “these filters should be made of a synthetic material and have a minimum efficiency of F6”. these have a high resistance to airflow and are quite expensive to install. The water is conducted from below and flows upwards through the battery.23 -
.kitchen-ventilation. however the running costs are relatively low. A larger axial fan will produce higher noise levels.
Fans & Accessories:
The main design considerations for kitchen extract fans are. As such. it is also usual to fit an internal pump to keep the water flowing through the battery. The electric heating battery is made up of enclosed metal filaments. Axial fans are simple. insects and the bacteria they carry. size and cost. of which there are two types.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. volume. resistance. easy to fit and come in a variety of formats such as plate mounted.co.uk • Web: www. In practice this means that a much larger axial fan is required in place of a more compact centrifugal or mixed flow unit. mixed flow and centrifugal. such as the resistance from canopy baffle filters. an electric heating battery or a water heating battery.
Fan Blade Types: Axial
The most commonly found fan type in existing and especially older kitchen extract systems. with a secondary filter between the fan and the kitchen area for the removal of finer particles. This type of fan consists of a propeller mounted in a cylindrical housing.
Heating and / or Cooling:
The following applies to installations in Britain and countries of similar climate. often a problem encountered in well ventilated kitchens. The three main fan types generally found within kitchen extract systems are.co. Ideally. Water heating batteries are fitted with pipes and fins running through the air stream (similar to a vehicles radiator) to maximise the surface area. axial.Treatment of Supply Air
All supply air into the kitchen environment needs to be filtered to remove the risks of airborne contaminants. The balancing of incoming and extracted air should help prevent the kitchen from becoming too hot although in most cases the outside air is colder than the required temperature for the supply air. In contrast to the electric heating battery. They have an additional advantage over other fan types discussed here in that they can run in reverse to change the direction of flow.uk
. although only at approximately 60% volume. Electric heating batteries have a low resistance to air flow and are cheap to buy and install. Electric heater batteries are cheap to install and have a low pressure drop although the battery has to be fitted with overheating protection due to the considerable heat inertia of the metal filaments. Water heating batteries need to be protected against ice and freezing temperatures to save the pipes from cracking. allowing any bubbles to collect at the highest point and be easily drained off. it is sometimes necessary to warm the air before it enters the building. noise level. According to DW/172. from entering the controlled area. Most water heating batteries have frost protection which prevents the intake of air when there is a risk of freezing. pests. Glass fibre products must not be used. especially where high resistance is a factor. but have expensive running costs. The disadvantage with axial fans is that they are not particularly efficient. This would require the use of a heater battery. cheap. as described below. duct mounted or circular flanged units with a straight through air flow pattern. which create electrical resistance and convert the energy to heat. there should be a filter between the outside and the fan to prevent large particles clogging up the fans mechanism.
but are not as well suited for kitchen extract when compared to backward curved fans for the following reasons: • Not as efficient.kitchen-ventilation. larger backward curved blades. The air is drawn into the rotating drum and thrown out through the blades. small. Backward curved: fewer. The resultant centrifugal force allows the fan to handle higher resistance when compared to an axial fan.uk • Web: www.co.V. this is not usually a requirement of kitchen extract systems.uk
. Mixed flow fans are usually mounted in straight duct sections with straight through air flow although plate mounted versions are available but less common. although axial fans have been the most popular fan type for small to medium kitchen extract systems in the past. the two types generally used are as described below: • • Forward curved: many tightly packed.co.
(Forward Curved Centrifugal)
A centrifugal fan (often known as a radial fan) is similar in shape to a drum.24 -
. Mixed flow fans cannot be electrically reversed to change the direction of airflow although however.
Forward curved centrifugal fans are cheaper and smaller than backward curved centrifugal fans. Plate mounted centrifugal fans are also available. The air flows in an axial direction but is then deflected 45o by the impellor. When compared to an axial fan.Mixed Flow The design mixed flow impellor is halfway between an axial and centrifugal blade pattern. This makes them ideal kitchen canopy fans. In summary. forward curved blades. a mixed flow fan is generally more efficient and will cope with a higher level of resistance. Centrifugal fans cannot be electrically reversed to change the direction of airflow although this is not usually a requirement of kitchen extract systems. Minimum amount of system resistance required or unit will over speed/over heat.
• • •
Blades collect grease and are difficult to clean.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. where the end of the drum is solid and the sides consist of blades. Sharper performance curve. mixed flow and centrifugal are now more and more commonplace as they are better suited to cope with the higher resistance levels caused by baffle filters and secondary filtration such as carbon or U. Backward curved centrifugal fans are of similar efficiency to mixed flow fans but at a far higher resistance level. There are different formats of centrifugal fan based on the type of blades fitted.
Centrifugal fans can be mounted as straight through duct fans but are more efficient when used to turn the airflow through 90o.
Plate fans can be fitted to a wall opening and are useful for simple wall mounted extract canopies with rear or end extract.co. Vertical discharge fans are suitable for extract only but mushroom (side intake / discharge) cowls are often supplied with a fan that can be fitted either way to allow them to be installed for extract or supply usage.25 -
. Where supply and extract roof fans are located nearby.Fan Enclosures: Roof Fans
Roof fans are designed to fit on to a timber or steelwork curb and either discharge vertically or downwards by means of a mushroom shaped cowl. This means that the fan blades can be attached directly to the outside of the rotor and the whole motor is then an integral part of the fan.uk
. In cases such as schools where the usage and temperatures are usually lower. This type of fan is only really suitable for smaller systems with low volumes. This newer type of motor has some distinct advantages. The performance of the fan is actually slightly better when used in the 90o arrangement due to the characteristics of the centrifugal impellor. The fan can be used either way round for supply or extract and can often be fitted with the motor out of air stream. vertical discharge cowls should be used for extract and mushroom cowls for supply in order to reduce cross contamination.
Adaptable Box Fans
Adaptable box fans consist of a centrifugal type fan mounted in a box shaped framework with removable panels. it is more compact than a traditional fan and motor combination and the motor is cooled by the transported air. Class F insulation is recommended for temperatures up to 155oC and should be considered in most cases or Class B for up to 130oC may be suitable for a wash up or other low risk area. By re-arranging panels the fan can be used either as a straight through fan or can be used to form a bend by turning the air through 90o. Ideally these fans should be mounted horizontally so if the roof is pitched the curb should be built up to provide a horizontal mount for the fan.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. an air handling unit may be required.
Direct Drive Fans
Direct drive is where the motor is connected directly to the fan. either by the drive shaft on a conventional motor or integrated in the case of an external rotor motor.
Custom Housings & Air Handling Units
Where the extract or supply volume is too high for ‘off the shelf’ fans. It should be noted that whilst fans fitted with motors out of the air stream are generally more expensive.
External Rotor Motor
A more recent type of fan motor.
Motor & Drive Types: Squirrel Cage Motors
Most fan motors are traditional ‘squirrel cage’ type motors. The fan can be fitted either way round for extract or supply but cross contamination will occur if supply and extract fans are too close to each other. The casing is usually cast with external heat-dissipating fins along the length and in some cases a small fan blows air along the fins to further cool the motor. making it more suitable for speed control. this can be custom built to accommodate a larger motor and impellor than found in standard fan ranges and may well require belt drive.uk • Web: www. Due to the nature of its integral construction.kitchen-ventilation. They are usually limited to axial type fans although small centrifugal plate fans are available. This type of motor can be used on either belt driven or direct drive fans (see below).
Temperature Ratings & Insulation:
Where a fan is likely to be subject to high temperatures and levels of grease. these are the most common type of commercial AC motor available and generally consist of a casing housing all the motor internals sealed from the outside to prevent the ingress of dust and moisture. this type of motor is only suitable for direct drive fans (see below). they tend to require less maintenance and have a longer motor life. resistances and contamination levels such as dish-wash extract or very low out-put “bar meals” type catering.co. This type of fan is more compact and usually cheaper than a belt driven fan and is well suited to most small to medium sized kitchen ventilation systems. No roof mounted ductwork is required so installation is straightforward. These motor-out of air stream models are known as bifurcated fans because the air passage is split and transported around either side of the motor. the ‘external rotor’ motor works on the same principal as the traditional motor discussed above but the stator and the motor have swapped places. the rotor is on the outside and the stator on the inside. such as fast food restaurants and other high output establishments. a standard configuration motor may be used providing the Motor is suitably insulated.
Duct mounted fans consist of a fan mounted within a section of ductwork which is normally flanged at each end to allow connection into a duct run. If speed control is required this type of fan will usually require the use of an inverter. the motor should be mounted out of the air stream.
Large and controllers. Larger fans usually require a frequency inverter. a transformer or a frequency inverter. so not infinitely variable. step-less. No form of speed adjustment so system cannot be tuned when commissioned.kitchen-ventilation. Tends to get hot and makes a humming noise. Small to medium sized kitchen ventilation fans may be controlled by a simple on/off switch. This allows for a more powerful motor to be connected to a fan with blades of a steeper pitch. Complex controls. Each of these control methods are described in brief below:
Have steps. it should not be altered outside of predetermined parameters. Infinitely variable. More difficult to wire. Very easy to wire and cheap. harmonics. although there is a minimum start speed. Motor protection available when one transformer used per fan.
Can cause fan noise problems by creating harmonic vibration in the motor and should be avoided where noise is an issue.co.Belt Drive Fans
Belt drive fans consist of a separate motor and fan unit connected to each other by a fan belt and pulleys. Alteration of the fan settings by the kitchen staff should be avoided because it could imbalance the extract to supply air ratio. For these reasons. Small and unobtrusive.co.
Transformer Speed Controllers
• • • • • • • • Does not cause noise problems from the fan motor. The advantages of this type of drive are that more air can be moved at a lower and quieter motor speed.
• • • • The simplest method of fan control. (Usually digitally from 1 to 100%. No form of motor protection (TK). this may be reduced by changing set-up on the inverter. heavy compared with electronic
Fan Speed Controllers:
Speed control is essential to allow accurate commissioning of the system and adjustment of fan speed as secondary filters become dirty. should not be adjusted by untrained personnel. One controller should not be used for more than one fan unless the motor cases are shielded.26 -
. usually five. the belt absorbs vibration from the motor and reduces noise levels and the pulleys can be adjusted to change the fan speed. Easy to wire by an experienced electrician. Motor protection available. This type of fan is generally used on larger kitchen ventilation systems and is often mounted in air handling units. an electronic speed controller. Requires an un-switched electrical supply.uk
. ventilated control cabinet or in a supervisor’s office. (Usually speeds 1 and 2. Too little or too great an air movement for the canopy design will result in a serious decrease in grease filtration efficiency as filter size and quantity are determined by a single air movement duty at the optimum efficiency of the filter. Multiple fans can be connected to one transformer without special consideration. More expensive than electronic controllers. Can cause noise problems from the fan.)
Frequency Inverter Speed Control
• • Controls speed by adjusting frequency. speed control.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Life expectancy of motor bearings is reduced when operating at lower speeds.uk • Web: www. Life expectancy of motor bearings is reduced when operating at lower speeds.
• • • • • •
Electronic Speed Controllers
• • • • The cheapest form of speed control. Infinitely variable speed control. or if turned down too low could reduce the extract to a point where it is not ventilating the combustion fumes properly. Where fitted.) Most expensive type of control compared to the others listed here. once a system is set up and commissioned. Easy to wire by an experienced electrician. controls should be mounted either in a lockable. Control usually 60-100% of rated voltage.
this will reduce the design performance of the attenuator. Where an axial fan will reverse the airflow if wired the wrong way round. This should be taken into account when selection is made. possibly leading to failure of the fan. a mixed flow or centrifugal will not so there is no obvious indication that the wiring is incorrect. the area between the liner and the outer skin is filled with a sound absorbing material such as inorganic glass fibre. This may require a larger and possibly noisier fan to be selected. The duct and baffles are fitted with a perforated metal liner.co.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. the use of silencers should be avoided. If motor protection (TK) is utilised.co.uk
. controller or both at great expense. Due to their construction. to the point where it not longer effectively reduces noise.kitchen-ventilation. The sound absorbing material is also an excellent grease absorbing material. DW/172 states that “Where in-line attenuators are used. they shall be constructed so that there is no grease impregnation into the acoustic media. These silencers usually consist of a rectangular or circular length of flanged duct which is fitted with internal baffles. the effectiveness of the material to absorb sound is reduced as it becomes saturated. This is advantageous as it indicates to the operator that there is a problem with the motor overheating whereas without TK protection the fan could be tripping out and re-starting for some time without the operator being aware. on kitchen extract ducts.Motor Protection (TK)
Without motor protection. when possible. The fan motor will not start again until it cools down and the controller is re-set. causing a fire and health hazard as the lining becomes saturated. A further point to be aware of when considering duct silencers is that they restrict the airflow thereby increasing duct pressure. then when the fan motor cuts out it sends a signal to the controller. Furthermore. It is therefore necessary where possible.”
It is essential to ensure that any electrical connection to a fan or fan controller is carried out by a qualified electrician who has experience of this type of installation.uk • Web: www.27 -
. A protective membrane shall be specified for this purpose. Incorrect wiring can easily destroy a fan. to ensure that the fan selection meets the specified noise criteria without the use of silencers.
Attenuation in the form of conventional silencers is often used to reduce low frequency noise created by ventilation fans. a fan motor will cut out when it overheats and automatically start again when it cools down.
The extract point should also be well clear of and ideally above any unprotected openings or windows where fumes or smoke may be drawn back into the building. conventional ductwork may be used providing it is suitably clad in fire rated material. reinforcement can be achieved using formed angle or channel sections secured to the duct. and expensive. (See ‘Fire Resistance’ below. the ideal route of any kitchen extract duct should be straight to atmosphere as directly as possible without passing through any other rooms or breaching any fire compartments. Longitudinal joints should not be sited at the bottom of the duct.
Where extract ductwork runs through cold areas of a building externally mounted insulation should be considered to prevent condensation forming within the ductwork. The extract point must be clear of external fire escapes. the duct itself should either be constructed so that its fire resistance is at least as high as the compartment it passes through or.Extract Ductwork
The sizing of ductwork is generally a trade off between overall dimensions and noise / resistance levels. corner cleats are fitted. Adjustable joints should be sealed with a silicone sealant and the duct should be reinforced within 200mm of the joint.
Routes to Atmosphere:
Where possible. therefore a separate flange can be fitted to the duct providing that the flange corners are either fully welded or in the case of proprietary duct flange systems. an ideal solution is to fully weld the joint but this is not always practical. where extract ductwork passes through fire compartments such as floors or walls.8mm. Volume control dampers and turning vanes should be avoided where possible as they form grease traps. Fire dampers must not be used within extract ductwork.co. These joints should be fully sealed with a silicone type sealant or fitted with a gasket. Increased resistance levels require more powerful. Higher velocities will increase noise and resistance levels.) The minimum quantity of bends should be used and all internal surfaces should be smooth and clear of obstructions.co.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation.
Ductwork within the fire compartment of the kitchen that does not pass through other fire compartments has no special requirements to that stated above (under ‘Construction’). For further information concerning this matter refer to BS 55889:1999. The extract outlet should be positioned to ensure the extracted fumes cannot be pulled back into the building by any nearby intake fans. Adjustable joints. For further information regarding this we would suggest referring to HVCA documents DW/144 and DW/172.uk
. can be used to connect the duct to the canopy spigot. temperatures within the duct will not become high enough to ignite any grease build up.28 -
Any vertical sections of ductwork should have a drain opening at the bottom and some means of grease collection under the drain.uk • Web: www. Ductwork should be sized to allow a velocity of 6m/s where connection to the canopy occurs and 8m/s in general extract duct runs. Longitudinal joints should be air tight and leak proof. Again. fans. the ductwork should be externally insulated so that in the event of a fire outside the duct. Flexible connections should be constructed from a material with a suitable half hour fire rating. Cross joints should be air tight and leak proof. ideally fully welded or formed by a grooved or lock seam with sealant applied afterwards. Additionally. alternatively.) Backdraught shutters should not be used. often referred to as telescopic or slip joints. Fire dampers should not be fitted to kitchen extract ductwork.
Access for Cleaning & Maintenance:
All internal surfaces of the extract duct must be accessible for cleaning. Swept bends may be substituted for turning vanes. ‘off the shelf’ flexible connections supplied with most fans are rarely adequate.kitchen-ventilation. (See ‘Fire Resistance’ below for further information.
Kitchen extract ductwork that discharges straight to atmosphere and does not pass through fire compartments should be constructed from galvanised or stainless steel with a minimum thickness of 0.
) The minimum quantity of bends should be used and all internal surfaces should be smooth and clear of obstructions. Ductwork should be sized to allow a velocity of 5m/s where connection to the canopy occurs and 7m/s in general extract duct runs. should not be used as it is likely to become blocked. ideally fully welded or formed by a grooved or lock seam with sealant applied afterwards. All tempered supply air ducts should be insulated to prevent internal condensation and heat loss. often referred to as telescopic or slip joints.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. can be used to connect the duct to the canopy spigot. increased resistance levels require more powerful. the ideal route of any supply duct should be as short and straight as possible without passing through any other rooms or breaching any fire compartments. Where ductwork passes through fire compartments such as floors or walls between other rooms. therefore a separate flange can be fitted to the duct providing the flange corners are either fully welded or in the case of proprietary duct flange systems. and expensive.
Ductwork within the fire compartment of the kitchen that does not pass through other fire compartments has no special requirements to that stated above (under ‘Construction’).
Access for Cleaning & Maintenance:
All internal surfaces of the extract duct must be accessible for cleaning. these should be easily accessible for maintenance and replacement. Longitudinal joints should be air tight and leak proof. Higher velocities will increase noise and resistance levels. The prevailing winds should be considered to avoid cross contamination from any extracted fumes. For further information regarding this we would suggest referring to HVCA documents DW/144 and DW/172.co. A fine mesh.uk
. (See ‘Fire Resistance’ below.
Kitchen supply air ductwork should be constructed from galvanised or stainless steel with a minimum thickness of 0. an ideal solution is to fully weld the joint but this is not always practical.co.29 -
. Disposable filter panels should be fitted within the ductwork in a position where they are not open to the elements but can be easily accessed for inspection and replacement.uk • Web: www. Again. Adjustable joints. corner cleats are fitted. Any vertical sections of ductwork should have a drain opening at the bottom. These joints should be fully sealed with a silicone type sealant or fitted with a gasket. Longitudinal joints should not be sited at the bottom of the duct.Supply-Air Ductwork
The sizing of ductwork is generally a trade off between overall dimensions and noise / resistance levels. reinforcement can be achieved using formed angle or channel sections secured to the duct. fire dampers must be fitted within each penetrated structure to prevent the spread of fire. Adjustable joints should be sealed with a silicone sealant and the duct should be reinforced within 200mm of the joint. non tempered supply ductwork should be insulated wherever the duct passes through an area where the temperature outside the duct is warmer than the air within the duct. again.8mm.
Routes to Atmosphere:
Where possible. such as insect mesh.
To prevent condensation forming on the external surfaces of the duct. The supply air inlet point should be positioned well clear of any contaminated air extraction points and known polluted areas such as low level on a busy street. fans. Cross joints should be air tight and leak proof. Alternatively.kitchen-ventilation. disposable filter media should be fitted to the supply air diffusers within the building. A mesh should be fitted to the input point of sufficient density to prevent small birds from being drawn into the duct.
If there is a completely new kitchen ventilation system installation. so there is confirmation that there is a definite air movement. installation of new fans and ductwork as well as the canopy. Airflow in the ductwork should be monitored and signal sent to the gas solenoid valve in the event of the ventilation system ceasing. the gas valve interlock will open and the power to the gas will be switched off. when the fan is switched on. Pressure differential switches should be used in preference to paddle type.System Safety Features & Considerations
Gas Shut-down Interlock:
A gas supply system must be interlocked with the ventilation systems in accordance with BS6173:2001 (Specification for Installation of gas-fired appliances for use in all types of catering establishments (2nd and 3rd family gases)): “The gas supply system shall be interlocked with any mechanical ventilation supply or extract system. however many manufacturers permit the installation of their appliances without the use of the flue. i. the standard does not apply in full if parts of the ventilation system are modified or if there is a like for like replacement of the existing cooking appliances. This is a fail-safe means of monitoring airflow. as it will not be deemed as a new installation. This is to ensure that the products of combustion from gas and oil fired appliances are removed efficiently. The requirements of the standard apply in full under the following circumstances: • • • If there is a completely new kitchen installation.uk
After carrying out the risk assessments. which in turn switches on the gas solenoids.co.e. is set into the power monitor and. The ultimate objective of introducing BS6173:2001 is to make the kitchen a safer place to work and to reduce the risk of fire. and this will normally require the fitting of an automatic valve”. recommendations should be given to the person responsible for the kitchen with regards to the requirements of the regulations and the feasibility of upgrading the installation.kitchen-ventilation. The monitors use the current draw from the fan motors as a means of positive proving of the operation of the fans. The gas supply should not come on until the fan is running.co. provided there is a powered extract and the appliances are under a canopy. The regulation (GSUIR) states that interlocks should be provided for power operated flues. A fan current set point.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. If used switches should be inspected and cleaned regularly by a competent person as part of the maintenance schedule for the building.uk • Web: www. it is the duty of the building designer and building owners / users to ensure an interlock is fitted to comply with BS6173:2001. Duct pressure switches are used. If there is a substantial alteration to the existing ventilation system or part replacement of an existing system. The switches make part of the circuit with the electrical control panel. some types of deep fat fryers and convection ovens) with dedicated flue systems are installed. As the extract system is performing the same function as a flue system. which provide positive confirmation that the fans are running. adjustable. It is also to make certain that sufficient air is provided for complete combustion at burning appliances and to enable the occupants to breathe adequately and provide comfortable working conditions. namely Regulation 27(4) of the Gas Safety (Installation & Use) Regulations (GSIUR) that needs to be complied with in conjunction with BS6173:2001. the mechanical or ductwork contractor will cover all aspects of “Emergency Isolation Systems”. Duct pressure switches must be fitted on straight runs of the ductwork where there is minimal turbulent air. however on occasions where a whole new system is to be installed. which are commonly used to monitor air flows within ducts and provide a switched output on detection of air flow or air flow failure. Many existing kitchen installations do not comply with the current requirements and in order to avoid major modifications. Interlocks should be provided for both the powered supply air and extract air. There is however another regulation. thus providing more accurate readings. as it is more efficient due to the fact that paddle switches encourage accumulation of grease and dirt.30 -
. If there is a substantial alteration to the existing cooking equipment line up. There are two types of switches. paddle and pressure differential. GSUIR applies where kitchen appliances (e. In preference to fan pressure switches fan power monitors. Application of the above requirements has presented many difficulties with regards to the installation of new cooking equipment and maintenance work in existing kitchens. In the majority of installations. The pressure switches are fitted to verify that there is air movement within the ducts.g. If the current level falls below the set point during the fan’s operation. risk assessments should be carried out to health and safety arising from the current installation not complying with BS6173:2001.
Currently. the power monitor will only activate the gas valve interlock when the set point is reached. injury and death. GSUIR would consider this as a “power operated flue”.
According to the 5th Edition of the Woods Practical Guide to Noise Control.31 -
. where the ear is more sensitive. It is unreasonable to specify by Noise Rating instead of Decibels. from roof mounted plant etc. The plant location and positioning within the building. noise ratings are measured in octave bands and dependant on frequency.uk • Web: www. The first difficulty is in the practicality of designing bespoke installations each time to these levels. There are a number of considerations that must be taken into account when specifying fans and plant for the commercial kitchen environment. Whilst decibel recordings are a straight forward measurement of sound.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. There are two standard methods for rating the acceptability of indoor environments for the purposes of hearing preservation. please refer to HSE Food Information Sheet No. external noise levels. However.kitchen-ventilation. As a general rule. is given a higher noise rating than a lower measurement. as well as the structure of the building must also be considered. speech communication and annoyance . For further information on noise reduction within the industry.co.Decibels (dB) and Noise Rating (NR). Where plant has to remain in the working area.Noise Levels:
Whilst no agency has overall control or responsibility for all aspects of environmental noise policy and legislation. noise levels should play a very important part in the selection of fans and ancillaries. the recommended level for kitchens is 40 to 50 NR (up to 73dB max). Because of the inherent complexity of the NR scale it almost becomes a separate discipline for design and commissioning. Information and advice on sound levels is readily available from fan manufacturers to inform your decision.uk
.co.. 32. and when stating a specific noise rating. it is important to state the frequency of the desired rating. High frequency noise. could be subject to the guidelines of a local authority and dependant on the surrounding environment. the more usual levels specified of 40 to 50NR are extremely low for a working kitchen and in most cases will compromise the performance of the system if adhered to. it could be a consideration enclosing it within a sound insulating enclosure. The second is then to verify each design by measurement after commissioning. There is no single piece of legislation that makes it clear what noise levels are allowed within the commercial kitchen environment. unless a full analysis of the frequencies is carried out by a suitably qualified person.
The top section of the spine is usually reserved for the electrical services and the lower one for the mechanical services.kitchen-ventilation.
Materials & Construction:
Splashbacks should be manufactured from folded and braced stainless steel sheet and the structure behind should be of a suitably fire rated material. Mechanical and electrical services can be provided to the cooking equipment with ease as they can be designed to accommodate services entry points from high or low levels. Once installed. Visible fixings should be kept to the minimum and. where installed. A properly manufactured and installed stainless steel splashback is extremely easy to keep clean. and should extend up to ceiling level or. gaps between the panels and the building structure should be fully sealed with food grade silicon sealant. to the range of cooking equipment.
SDU’s can come in a variety of shapes and forms. Stainless steel splashbacks provide an ideal wall covering within food preparation areas where washable surfaces are not only essential but also a pre-requisite of UK health regulations. where possible. otherwise known as SDU’s are a means of distributing electrical and mechanical services in a covered sealed void from the point of entry in to the kitchen space.Splashbacks
Why have Splashbacks?
Some local authorities no longer permit the use of ceramic tiles to the rear of the cookline as these may crack and provide an area for grease ingress as well as a potential harbour of vermin and bacteria. durable and provides an attractive finish to the kitchen. From an installation point of view SDU’s are ideal because they can minimise coordination problems on site. minimising collection of dirt and grease between or behind the cooking appliances.32 -
. especially if the services are integrally fitted in the factory prior to delivery. one for the electrical and the other for the mechanical services runs.
Why have a Services Distribution Unit?
SDU’s are ideal for separating and enclosing mechanical and electrical services in a stainless steel housing which is aesthetically pleasing.co.uk • Web: www.co. Openings for electrical or mechanical services may be cut into the splashback to agreed positions. up to the underside of a kitchen canopy. The splash-backs should start at approximately 100mm above the floor level. avoided altogether.uk
. Likewise the spines normally consist of two compartments. They can be also be used to house local an electrical distribution board and components of fire suppression systems.
Services Distribution Units
Services distribution units. while the other should house the mechanical services. From a health and safety aspect.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. One riser should house the electrical services. they provide easily cleanable surfaces and easier access between cooking equipment. the exact distance is subject to the depth of the floor coving. but normally comprise two vertical columns known as risers and a horizontal run known as a spine running between them.
(ie: Gas and water pipes.co. The majority of the SDU’s are specified to be fitted to house the electrical and mechanical services where the kitchen appliances are set out in an island configuration. The SDU’s can also be designed to have both services risers on one end and a supporting leg on the other.
Gas & Electrical Knock-off:
If service distribution units are fitted out ‘Knock off’ buttons should be positioned.) Access panels. In cases where services are required to be fitted out.uk • Web: www. This is to comply with DW/172 and BS6173:2001. The most common configuration is the rugby goal post type.SDU’s should be configured to suit site constraints and service entry points as well as the equipment layouts. in an accessible position near the exit from the catering areas including the risers. External seams should be sealed with food grade sealant. screw fixed.co. ventilation grilles should be installed both at high and low level in order to prevent any potential gas build-up. inverted ‘U’ shape. For riser compartments containing gas services. ‘H’ shape.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. where the services entry points are from ground level. these should be carried out in the factory to save time and problems on site.uk
. followed by the football goal post type.
Construction & Materials:
SDU’s should be manufactured from folded and welded type 304 grade stainless steel. Individual risers are also sometimes required to house either the mechanical or electrical services or both. Competent persons or a specialist company must be employed to carry out the gas and electrical work to comply with the relevant regulations. Services risers should be provided with adjustable telescopic feet to allow for any discrepancy in floor to ceiling heights or the canopy mounting height as well as uneven floor finish. If joints are required in the horizontal spines. should be provided to gain access to the risers and spines as per customer requirements. electrical and mechanical services must be separated and must be water tight.
Separation & Compartmentation of Services:
In accordance with BS7671. however occasionally they may be required to serve wall mounted ranges.33 -
. at both ends. they should be formed with internal standing seam joints and fitted with stainless steel nuts and bolts. The mechanical services compartment should be fitted with pipework support grid to provide support for the mechanical services. The horizontal spine should have a removable lid for access to the electrical compartment fitted with cable trays for installation of electrical wiring. special enclosures must be fitted to completely separate the services. In cases where fitting of mechanical services within the electrical spine or riser is unavoidable.kitchen-ventilation. One hinged access door with quick release latches should be fitted on the mechanical riser to gain access to the gas shut-off valve for maintenance purposes. where the services entry point is from high level.
internal room pressures and the very sensitive nature of the instrument used for the job. To carry out the necessary site safety plan risk assessments and method statements in accordance with current legislation on Health & Safety.
• • •
The process of installation must be carried out by trained personnel who are fully conversant with the health and safety requirements of working on a building site. cross-drafts.uk • Web: www. The control knob positions for any fan speed regulators should be recorded and clearly marked on the controller or a notice placed adjacent to the control noting the optimum settings for performance. The following details should be measured and recorded as applicable: • • • Total extract volumes through each system and relative percentage of design. Noise level within the work-space. humidity barometric pressure.Site-Work
Important information for design input comes from the survey of the particular site itself. Noise level at the point of discharge or adjacent to plant if outside. However this is only necessary after the process of balancing airflow with dampers and fan speed regulation has been carried out. This process is notoriously difficult for gaining accurate results because of the many factors which influence airflow readings such as air temperature.
For this reason it is necessary to carry out the process three times over and take an average of the three results for the final commissioning figures. Regular reference to the site specific instructions and a site safety plan will be necessary. handling etc.
Commissioning of the kitchen extract system is the point at which all of the aforementioned design information is finally pulled together and made to function as per the original intent and specification.co. then it will be necessary to agree and confirm the intended finished dimensions with the customer and builder. Total supply-air volumes through each system and relative percentage of design. This site survey usually takes place after preliminary design and prices are agreed and the purposes of the survey are as follows: • To determine the access route from the offloading point where the goods will be delivered and to ascertain the maximum sizes of components which can be transported / carried to the point of installation.34 -
. If for some reason the structure to which the canopy or other components of the system fit is not built or incomplete.co. To generally liaise over and confirm the delivery. They must be trained in the use of any plant required to assist in the process of installation and work in conjunction with other trades in the area.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. installation and completion programmes with the customer and main contractor. To check the physical dimensions of the building structure and confirm that the canopy as designed will fit to those constraints. Extract and supply airflows should be measured at the face of the filters or diffusers using a timed averaging method. To confirm that the intended method of fixing to the building structure is suitable for the application.uk
. Total light out-put level at the working plane.kitchen-ventilation. access. To confirm site plant requirements for lifting.
To quote from the HSC booklet entitled Designing for Health & Safety in Construction – a guide for designers on the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994: “The CDM Regulations are needed because of the unacceptably high rate of death.kitchen-ventilation. To give an indication of some of the considerations in the context of Kitchen canopies.D.uk • Web: www. repair.C. a design risk assessment must be carried out. refurbishment and eventual demolition.M.co. consider the ramifications of their designs on the Health Safety and Welfare of those who not only have to build and install the product on site but also those who must later use. CDM is an ongoing process in any project which must start at the point of initial design but which can only be confirmed at the point of survey. injury and ill health associated with all types of project ranging from new works through to subsequent maintenance. the following is a “typical” CDM risk assessment.co.uk
. & Design Risk Assessment
CDM is an abbreviation for the “Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. The Intention of the regulations in this situation is to make designers of products and areas of a building site. maintain and replace or dispose of the product at a later date. To really cover and consider these issues properly.35 -
Design to incorporate retention wires for diffuser and components are to be easily removed. Full instructions and recommendations on cleaning and maintenance of Light fittings to be forwarded as a part of the operation and maintenance manual for the project.
Hygiene risk Condensation Cooking.
Positions of canopy "site joints" to allow module sizes to be easily handled in prevailing site conditions. Considerations made and actions taken at design stage. Full instructions and recommendations on cleaning methods and cycles to be forwarded as a part of the operation and maintenance manual for the project. obstacles such as dwarf walls. or digits.
Canopy design to incorporate thermal insulation behind Evaluation of effected areas / surfaces to be horizontal surfaces and where cold supply-air and carried out at drawing stage.co.
Cleaning of canopy surfaces. Roller pallets / dolly wheels and lift trucks to be used. cleaning and maintenance of grease filter panels to be forwarded as a part of the operation and maintenance manual for the project. glass diffuser whilst being maintained or whilst cooking. type 304 stainless steel.Britannia
Project Title: Risk Assessments carried out by:
Kitchen Ventilation Ltd. End user to create own risk assessments and safe systems of work including silicone replacement timetable. For these reasons the scope of our design input is limited by retractions which are outside our control and therefore design assessments for our products should also be sought from the major decision makers on each project. All site installation staff to be trained in.
9 Cleaning of extract plenums. or trapping.
Insulation of canopy surfaces. Installation team and any other tradesmen in area during installation. state of ground to be covered. area during it's use in the building structural materials.
Cuts / abrasions
Snagging of sharp edges. Full site survey and collaboration with other Positions of canopy "site joints" to allow module contractors to be undertaken. components in site conditions. End user must produce own risk assessments and safe systems of work. End user to create own risk assessments and safe systems of work. moist extract air pass either side of a single skin of canopy surface. Risk rating with considerations and Recommended control options to be utilised. availability of lifts / stairs to higher floors if required and size of doorways / corridors. headroom.
Maintenance of light fittings.
Crushing / trapping. trips build-up from maintenance & falls temperature operatives postdifferentials at installation and high humidity customers of the food facility.
8 Changing of supply-air inlet filters Muscle strain / Inaccessible or falls from difficult to height remove panel design. Filter design to allow for reasonably easily handled size and weight with minimum sharp edges and fitted handles. All fixings to be hidden or shrouded. Full instructions and recommendations on cleaning cycles to be forwarded as a part of the operation and maintenance manual for the project. Light unit design to allow easy access through the diffuser.E.kitchen-ventilation. cleaning & maintenance operatives postinstallation. Full site survey to be undertaken taking into account where delivery vehicles can be parked.
Utilise minimum recommended mounting height of 2000mm affl. Cooking.
Cooking. Diffuser design to incorporate easy-to-remove lift and pull design.
Minor cuts or Shattering of ingestion. Probability x Severity = Risk
Ref no. cleaning & Diffuser glass to be of 4mm toughened stypolite. awkward location within canopy. cuts / crushing handling large or trapping. points of access into building. Activity / element to be assessed Offloading and positioning canopy components.
2 Installation of canopies Crushing / over fixed immoveable trapping. Materials from which canopy is manufactured to have high fire resistance.
Full instructions and recommendations on cleaning methods and cycles to be forwarded as a part of the operation and maintenance manual for the project.
~ DESIGN RISK ASSESSMENTS.
Canopy originally designed in reasonably handled sections for installation.
Muscle strain Positioning of Maintenance light units in operatives postawkward installation. Full instructions and recommendations on cleaning and maintenance of grease filter panels to be forwarded as a part of the operations and maintenance manual for the project. Dismantling contractor / team to carry out own risk assessments and develop safe working procedure. Jim Dixon. Fire / hygiene Grease build risk up on inaccessible surfaces Cleaning & maintenance operatives postinstallation & users of building Canopy design to incorporate adequately sized and positioned cleaning access panels or doors into plenum areas if fitted.
0% to 20% risk = TRIVIAL RISK
21% to 45% risk = ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED 46% to 70% = NOT ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED DANGEROUS CONDITION: STOP WORK IMMEDIATELY!!!
71% UPWARDS =
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation.
Design of panels and trays to allow size and robustness Full instructions and recommendations on for cleaning in typical commercial dish-washer.
Fixing / suspension of canopy from structure. Hygiene risk.
NOTES ON THE SCOPE OF THIS DESIGN RISK ASSESSMENT: Our product is designed and manufactured to meet or exceed the requirements current standards. Collapse of canopy and/or lifting equipment during positioning. Cleaning & maintenance operatives postinstallation. Canopy design to incorporate its own supply-air filtration behind input diffusers. components in site conditions.
Use of glass in light diffusers. End user must produce own risk assessments and safe systems of work. location within canopy. We offer many configurations and types of product but the choice of which product is used on a project is usually pre-determined by either the written specification and drawings of others or the budgetary constraints placed on the project by the client. Full instructions and recommendations on cleaning and maintenance of Light fittings to be forwarded as a part of the operations and maintenance manual for the project. Bodily impact Insufficient to head. installation and cooking operatives after installation. As installed drawings supplied with O & M manuals.uk
. The assessments below only cover areas where we have some decision making power to alter design. Canopy manufactured from recyclable stainless steel.uk • Web: www. Collapse of canopy due to failure of fixings. All edges to be deburred or have safety edges applied. To be increased as operational requirements dictate Canopy design to utilise easily cleaned and robust material I.
Muscle strain / Difficulty in Dismantlers at time of cuts / crushing handling large demolition. maintenance Diffuser frame to have safety retention wires fitted. Cooking. Silicone seals degrading with time and use. Try to arrange removal or sizes to be easily handled in prevailing site delay of installation of obstacles or arrange for scaffold conditions. warm. Canopy configuration design to position banks of filters as low down and as near the periphery as possible to reduce need for use of ladders and avoid reaching over cooking equipment.
Removal of grease filters Muscle strain / Positioning of from canopy for cuts to hands filter panels in maintenance. cleaning & Specification and use of food safe sealant. End user to create own risk assessments and safe systems of work. Panels to be designed in easily handled sizes Full instructions and recommendations on accessing & replacing supply filtration to be forwarded as a part of the operation and maintenance manual for the project. use of site handling aids. Cleaning & maintenance operatives postinstallation. cleaning & and slips.
Mounting heights. operatives postinstallation and customers of the food facility. Birendra Shrestha & Steve Mason. maintenance operatives postinstallation and customers of the food facility.
Who is at risk?
Muscle strain / Difficulty in Installation team.
14 Use of silicone sealant. manual handling. Use of formal site safety plan. End user must create own risk assessments and safe systems of work. guides and codes of practice.
Cleaning of grease filter Dermatitis panels and collection trays
Contact with cleaning substances
Cleaning & maintenance operatives postinstallation.co.
Dismantling and disposal of product when redundant. End user to create own risk assessments and safe systems of work. Use of formal site safety plan.
Project reference number: Date of assessment:
Ian Levin.36 -
. Cleaning & maintenance operatives postinstallation. platform upon which to build canopy up to be supplied by others.
Installation team any Proposal of fixing type to customer for written Training of installation staff in correct use of other tradesmen in approval from main contractor or structural engineer of approved fixings.
The final point to remember is that regular inspections must take place of all surfaces but especially non-visible ones – what is out of sight is often out of mind and is therefore neglected. Grease filters by their very nature will have a coating of grease and therefore will be slippery and difficult to handle. the way they cook them and the intensity with which he produce their product is a little bit subjective. When re-installing filters. lowest edge. who are experienced at maintenance of these sorts of system available on site. The following tables give an indication as to how often certain types of installation should be cleaned. the types of food they cook.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Once again. No matter how well finished a filter panel may be.co.co. However. However. followed by a clear water rinse is usually quite adequate for our equipment. However. site specific risk assessment of these hazards should be carried out. gripping. then it needs cleaning. is mostly subjective and responsibility is ultimately with the manager of the facility. It is strongly recommended that an in-house.uk • Web: www. it is easy to cut soft water-soaked skin during the cleaning process.e. If left unattended. it is necessary to do this in order to give at least some guidance upon how maintenance should be carried out and the following table is designed for this purpose but it must be utilised with awareness of other considerations such as proximity to other buildings and domestic property. An enhanced aesthetic appearance will be achieved if the cleaned surface is finally wiped dry. Suitable gloves can be obtained easily through most suppliers of personal protective equipment. it is imperative that operatives wear proper. the amount of grease carried through any filtration system will depend very much on the type of cooking and ingredients used. Canopies and their components must be designed to be easy to clean. as well as the detergents and cleaning agents used. cut-resistant work-gloves for protection against metal edges.37 -
. always make sure that they are the right way around i. with any framework drain holes at the front. Grease filters and grease collection drawers should be designed.
No grease filtration is 100% efficient and therefore there will always be a certain amount of grease carried through the filters and deposited on the internal surfaces of the filter housings. a specialist should definitely sought and if in-house staff members are to be used. for general guidance we suggest the following: To define establishments. suitable access equipment and or safe working procedures may be required. When too long a period is left between cleans. Providing that cleaning intervals are not left too long. Deciding upon when cleaning should take place and how often. Inspections of this nature should be included in the maintenance schedule for any kitchen installation. The cleaning cycle for a canopy and its components will depend not only upon the regularity and duration of cooking below but also upon the type of cooking and the ingredients used.uk
. grease will become baked-on and require special attention. ESP or Carbon Cells. In the case of specialist odour removal systems such as UV. plenums and ductwork. the simplest guide to follow is that if a surface or component looks dirty. this layer of grease on the non-visible surfaces of the canopy creates both hygiene and fire risks. sized and constructed to be robust enough to withstand regular washing in a commercial dishwasher as this is the most thorough and labour-efficient method of cleaning them. Access to filters for removal & replacement will often mean reaching above head height and as such. When handling any components of a canopy.System Maintenance
We always recommend that if there are no specially trained staff.kitchen-ventilation. washing with soap or mild detergent and warm water. that a specialist sub-contractor be engaged and retained for the purpose. they will require special training in monitoring. For these reasons it is necessary to have a deep clean operation carried on a maximum of a six-monthly cycle and even as often as three-monthly in extreme situations. testing and handling of the various components.
kitchen-ventilation. Mexican restaurants. high output fast food restaurants. Food factories. Oriental & Asian restaurants. small cafes.38 -
. Small low output fast food restaurants. office and workplace kitchens. family pub restaurants.
Component Cleaning Cycles:
Filter Type Light Baffle filter wash cycle Mesh filter wash cycle Electrostatic filter – Maintenance swap out Carbon filter replacement UV Tube wipe down UV Tube replacement Grease drawers clean Ductwork clean* 7 Days 7 Days 12 Months Light/Medium 7 Days 7 Days 6 Months 2 Months 8000 Hours 7 Days 12 Months
Establishment Category Medium 5 Days 5 Days 6 Months 6 Months 6 Weeks 8000 Hours 5 Days 8 Months Medium/High 3 Days 5 Days 5 Months 5 Months 4 Weeks 8000 Hours 3 Days 6 Months High 1 Day 5 Days 3 Months 3 Months 2 Weeks 8000 Hours 1 Day 4 Months Very High 1 Day 5 Days 3 Months 3 Months 1 Week 8000 Hours 1 Day 3 Months
Note! Regular visual inspection should be carried out on all components. *If there is UV in system. kebab/chip shops. steak houses.Establishment Categories:
Category Light Description Pub & Bar Food.uk • Web: www. Italian/French restaurants.co.uk
. supermarket restaurants. pizza restaurants. hotel restaurants.co. coffee/tea shops. Large. increase cleaning interval by 3 times
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Government institutions (schools/hospitals/elderly person’s homes).
Rust and other corrosion products. e.
Fingerprints. An enhanced aesthetic appearance will be achieved if the cleaned surface is finally wiped dry. clean water and then wipe dry if necessary After application.uk
. Provided the grade of stainless steel and the surface finish are correctly selected and cleaning schedules carried out on a regular basis. Where surface contamination is suspected. clean water and then wipe dry if necessary May continue using mild cleaning cream to give a final clean After application. Deeper scratches apply in direction of polishing
After application. Modern processes use many cleaners. use a sponge or clean cloth to rinse with warm. use a sponge or clean cloth to rinse with warm. salt deposits and marine conditions. all finishes
Soap and water or organic solvent such as Acetone or Alcohol
Stubborn stains. all finishes
CLEANING AGENT Soap or mild detergent and water (such as fairy liquid)
COMMENTS After application.kitchen-ventilation. (e. clean water and then wipe dry if necessary Do not use ordinary steel wool.39 -
. allowed to stand for 14-20 minutes before being washed away with water. Advice is often sought concerning the frequency of cleaning stainless steel and the answer is quite simple 'clean the metal when it is dirty in order to restore its original appearance'. use a sponge or clean cloth to rinse with warm. Frequency and cost of cleaning is lower with stainless steel than with any other materials and will often outweigh the initial higher cost of this superior product. Where stainless steel has become extremely dirty with signs of surface discolouration (perhaps following a period of neglect or misuse) methods of cleaning are detailed on the chart overleaf. Food handling. These deposits may be minute particles of iron or rust from other sources used on the building of new premises and not removed until after stainless steel items have been fixed. clean water and then wipe dry if necessary
Factors Affecting Maintenance
Surface contamination and the formation of deposits must be prevented.
With care taken during fabrication and installation. warm surface of any quality of stainless steel).Care & Maintenance of Stainless Steel
All grades of stainless steel will stain and discolour due to surface deposits and can never be accepted as completely maintenance free.
usually quite adequate for domestic and architectural equipment.g.g. all finishes
Mild cleaning solutions such as abrasive free stainless steel cleaning creams. good performance and long service life are assured. clean water and then wipe dry if necessary After application. increases the speed of discolouration and therefore requires the maintenance to be on a more frequent basis.co. aerospace and certain nuclear applications require extremely high levels of cleanliness applicable to each industry.uk • Web: www. sterilizers and bleaches for hygienic purposes. If this should happen the acid solution must be removed immediately by copious applications of water. The cleaning solution applied with a swab. use a sponge or clean cloth to rinse with warm. use a sponge or clean cloth to rinse with warm. immediate attention to cleaning after site fixing will encourage a trouble free product. Washing with soap or a mild detergent and warm water followed by a clear water rinse is
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. A working environment which offers more aggressive conditions. Strong acid solutions are sometimes used to clean masonry and tiling of buildings but they should never be permitted to come into contact with metals. This may vary from one to four times a year for external applications or it may be once a day for an item in hygienic or aggressive situations.
PROBLEM Routine cleaning. Slight scratchesimpregnated nylon pads. pharmaceutical. although more attention than normal may be required if the installation period has been prolonged. In order to achieve maximum corrosion resistance the surface of the stainless steel must be kept clean. cleaning before handing over to the client should present no special problems. all finishes
Scratches on brush satin finished finish
General Cleaning Methods
Stainless steel is easy to clean. Industrial and even naturally occurring atmospheric conditions can produce deposits which can be equally corrosive e. Iron particles can become embedded in stainless steel and cause further damage. when used in accordance with makers instructions are safe but not if incorrectly used. Polishing with scurfs dressed with iron free abrasives. discolouration all finishes Oil/Grease marks. All these proprietary solutions. hot humidity. such as in a swimming pool. Soap and water or organic solvent such as Acetone or Alcohol Oxalic Acid. including stainless steel.co.
mild abrasion only. the steel should then be dried with a soft cloth to prevent water spotting.Precautions
Acids should only be used for on site cleaning when all other methods have been proved unsatisfactory.uk • Web: www.co. followed by a clear water rinse is usually quite adequate for domestic. such as scrubbing with a nylon or other non-scratching scourer. Rubber gloves should be used and care taken to see that acid cleaners are not spilt over adjacent areas. Stainless steel soap pads. are quite suitable. It is the responsibility of the reader to ensure the methods and designs used are suitable for any particular application and he should satisfy himself before proceeding with a product or system not designed. or otherwise. If the water is hard. In all instances follow the manufacturer’s safety instructions. is accepted for loss or damage incurred due to this information.40 -
. Ordinary steel wool soap pads should never be used as they may leave particles of mild steel on the surface of the stainless steel which may cause localised areas of rusting.co. It should be noted that nearly all abrasive cleaners will scratch the bright annealed or 2B finish of stainless steel. A bright annealed of 2B finish will be permanently marked by the use of abrasives which therefore should be avoided at all costs. In general. heavy dirt or rust which may resist normal cleaning methods can be removed using a proprietary stainless steel cleaner followed by a clear water rinse. On other finishes the cleaner should be used in the direction of the polish.uk
. A clean dust and grit free cloth should be used to avoid scratching. Special precautions are necessary with oxalic acid.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: sales@kitchen-ventilation. Some deposits and stains encountered in catering and medical applications can be difficult to remove. perhaps following periods of neglect or after being subjected to a particularly aggressive environment. and washing with soap or a mild detergent and warm water.
Whilst every care is taken in ensuring the information contained herein is accurate. Stainless steel is easy to clean. Solvents should not be used in enclosed places. Stainless steel's smooth and pore-free surface does not harbour bacteria and is easily cleaned. verified manufactured and supplied by Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Limited. Smoking must be avoided when using solvents. Discolouration. In all cases.
Thorough cleaning is particularly important in catering and medical applications where cleanliness is required not only for aesthetic purposes but also for hygiene. architectural and commercial catering equipment. if necessary using the most vigorous techniques.
The information in this publication may not be regarded as a guarantee for the proprieties of materials or products dealt with or of their processing.
Cleaning Catering Equipment
When the steel has become extremely dirty. my be necessary. the mildest cleaning procedure that will do the job efficiently should be used. however. cleaning is carried out to restore the original surface appearance to prevent corrosion and maintain hygienic conditions. no responsibility implied.kitchen-ventilation.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: email@example.com
.uk • Web: www.kitchen-ventilation.
Britannia Kitchen Ventilation Ltd • Phone: 01926 811300 • Fax: 01926 811484 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • Web: www.