Computer Society of Zambia ICT Training Standards and Professionalism Seminar Zamcom Lodge, Lusaka.

26 May 2005 Website: E-mail:


Presentation By Gabriel S KONAYUMA Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training PO Box 50464 Longacres, Lusaka Zambia
Telephone: +260 1 251331


E-mail: or

INTRODUCTION This paper seeks to explore the trends and issues in curriculum development and review in the technical education, vocational and entrepreneurship training sector in Zambia. The paper looks at the processes in curriculum development and review. The paper is structured as follows: • • • 1.0 Definitions and explanation of terms Curriculum development and review process Trends and issues in curriculum development and review

Definitions and Explanation of Terms 1.1 Curriculum

Curriculum is defined as “all the planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence” (Tanner, 1980:1). Curriculum in the TEVET sector encompasses not only what is written in the Syllabus but also includes among other things, course and programme design, course development and and timetabling. approval, content, teaching and assessment strategies, facilities


Curriculum Development

Curriculum Development refers to “all aspects of the formal curriculum process including review of the current situation, development of aims and objectives, decisions on content and structure, detailing learning activities and teaching methods, developing assessment strategies, evaluation and review procedures.


Curriculum Development Process TEVETA’s Curriculum Development follows the following process: Training Needs Analysis (TNA), determining aims and objectives of the course, and learning outcomes for the trainees. This is followed by deciding on the course content, structure and focus. The next stage is determination of learning activities in line with the content and learning outcomes. This is followed by indication of assessment

methods aligned to the learning outcomes. Course evaluation strategies relevant to the programme aims and objectives are then determined. The diagram below shows the model of curriculum development:


CURRICULUM FOUNDATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Rationale for the Programme Programme Purpose/Goal Program Objectives Entry Requirements Assessment Duration Referrals Failures Programme Evaluation Staffing Certification Progression


CURRICULUM CONTENT 1. Model Title 2. Unit Title 3. Module Aim 4. Module Objectives 5. Nominal Duration 6. Learning Outcomes 7. Conditions for learning 8. Learning Activities 9. Assessment Criteria 10. Assessment Method 11. Resources/References Fig. 1

TEVETA uses the systematic curriculum instructional development (SCID) model for curriculum development. SCID is an efficient and effective method for creating competencybased curriculum and instructional materials. Twenty three components are grouped into five phases: Curriculum Analysis, Curriculum Design, Instructional Development, Training Implementation and Programme Evaluation. The phases in more detail are: Phase 1. Curriculum Analysis comprises six components. First is a needs analysis, in which actual needs are determined. If the need for training is confirmed, a job analysis is next (DACUM approach is recommended). Next is task verification, which can extend involvement in the job analysis from a few to 100 or more expert workers and can provide a


means of rating the importance and difficulty of each task and obtaining other valuable decision-making information. Armed with this information, it is possible to select tasks (or deselect them, as some industry trainers say) for inclusion into the program. The next component in this phase is the standard task analysis. The information obtained in this step is absolutely essential in identifying performance steps and decisions, essential knowledge, industry standards, etc. needed to develop accurate and relevant teaching and learning materials. A sixth component, the literacy task analysis is recommended, but is optional here. Phase 2. Curriculum Design comprises four components. Based on information collected in Phase 1, it is necessary to make decisions about the training approach -- type of instructional program and materials to be developed, the degree to which instruction will be individualized, and support media to be developed. Next is the development of learning objectives for each task of group of tasks, followed by the development of job performance measures. This phases concludes with the preparation of a training plan, which should be fairly detailed and include all aspects of personnel and facility and equipment needs. Implementation of this plan must occur concurrently with the development phase. Phase 3. Instructional Development comprises of four main components, although depending on the type of materials produced, the first two components may vary. One choice -- usually for competency - or performance-based programs -- is to develop a competency profile and then to develop learning guides or modules. The second choice -- usually for more traditional programs -- is to develop a curriculum guide and then to develop lesson plans. The third component in either case is to develop supporting media, which can be simple transparencies, posters and slides, or more expensive videotapes or interactive videodiscs. Appropriate media add variety and clarity to the instructional process, motivate the learner, and help demonstrate or illustrate difficult concepts and procedures. The last step in dvelopment is to pilot-test and revise the materials. This step is important and worth the extra time and money to make needed improvements and modifications. Keep in mind that the purpose of these materials is to help learners achieve the performance objectives as efficiently, effectively, and economically as possible. In many cases, existing materials and resources may be used or adapted. Phase 4. Training Implementation comprises four components, beginning with activating the training plan developed in the design phase. By now, learners have been recruited, instructors selected and trained, and the availability of facilities, supplies, equipment, and

other resources confirmed. The next step, after pre-testing, is to conduct a formative evaluation of learner and instructor performance. This information is invaluable in making incourse corrections, should this become necessary. Documenting training in the form of student achievement and instructor performance records is the final step in this phase. The student competency profiles can be used to report achievement to parents and potential employers as well as to administrators. Phase 5. Program Evaluation, the final phase, comprises three components. With the formative evaluation complete, the next important step is to conduct the summative evaluation to collect data for use in decisions on maintaining or improving the education or training program. This involves gathering data on the overall instructional process, program outcomes, student follow-up, worker productivity, and cost-effectiveness. Analyzing and interpreting this information will lead to recommendations on program improvement and, finally, taking corrective actions. Completion of the evaluation phase produces the performance data and feedback vital to any education or training system concerned with quality management and proving its worth. (Center on Education and Training for Employment, 2005:2). It should be noted that before TEVETA coordinates supervises the curriculum development process, the following measures are in place: Staff (from institutions and industry) are identified, the programmes to develop are identified along with a justification for the programme. This is the planning stage. Planning: This stage will involve convening a Curriculum Development and Review Committee, identifying key issues and trends in the specific content area and assessing needs and issues.

Articulating and Developing: The next stage is articulating and developing the curriculum. This involves as mentioned earlier defining the programme its’ level and programme goal and objectives. This stage will also involve the developing and sequencing of programme modules and units. The curriculum development should also take into account identification of resource materials to assist with programme implementation. This stage will also involve developing assessment items and instruments to measure student or trainee progress.

Validation: Curriculum validation is the process through which independent experts in various disciplines validate (i.e. the checking of the curriculum for correctness or for


compliance). TEVETA ensures that those involved in this exercise were not involved in the curriculum development exercise.

Approval: The TEVET Main Committee is responsible for the approval of developed and validated curricula. Once curricula are approved, they can be used in institutions for training.

Implementation: This is putting the new programme into practice.

Evaluation: This entails updating the programme and determining the success of the programme.


Curriculum Review Process TEVETA’s policy is that a comprehensive review should be done no less often than every five years. A review should be undertaken sooner if conditions warrant. In particular, a review should be undertaken after the duration of each programme e.g. 1 year, 2 years or 3 years. The following steps will be accomplished for each comprehensive review cycle: 1. The review process will be initiated by the training providers, who will notify the TEVETA that a review is due. 2. Information gathering: a. College or institution "assessment" processes include periodic surveys of the College's various stakeholders to identify their needs, and results from the most recent of these surveys should be made available to TEVETA. At a minimum, surveys of students (i.e. past and present), parents, and businesses (employers) should be undertaken. Input from student and "Sector Training Advisory Committees (STACs) should also be collected if possible. b. Institutional management boards and curriculum committees are encouraged to arrange for "standard" syllabi to be updated for all courses required by the respective programmes in a particular field.



Each committee should obtain detailed curriculum information from several competing universities and colleges for use in "benchmarking."


CONCLUSION TEVETA is involved at all stages of curriculum development and review. TEVETA ensures that quality assurance by ensuring that all the stages of Curriculum development and review are adhered to. TEVETA also ensures that the introductory part of the curriculum contains all the relevant information such as programme goal, programme aims and objectives, rationale, entry requirements, programme evaluation, assessment, minimum pass level, referrals and failures, attendance, staffing requirements, course duration and certification are clearly spelt out. TEVETA also ensures that the main curriculum content contains the appropriate modules, units, duration, learning outcomes, learning activities, assessment criteria and methods. TEVETA is committed to ensuring that all curricula are reviewed regularly so that trainees receive the current knowledge, skills and attitudes in order for them to be competent and fit well in the labour market upon graduation.


REFERENCES Tyler, R. A. (1989). Curriculum Model based on the work of Ralph Tyler. [online]. San Diego University, San Diego. Available from: MoraModules/TylerCurrModel.pps. [Accessed on: 24 May 2005]. Center on Education and Training for Employment. Systematic Curriculum Instructional Development. [online]. Ohio: Ohio State University. Available from: [Accessed: 24 May 2005]


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