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The International Rice Reserach Newsletter objective is: "To expedite communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and for ricebased cropping systems. This publication will report what scientists are doing to increase the production of rice, inasmuch as this crop feeds the most densely populated and land-scarce nations in the world . . . IRRN is a mechanism to help rice scientists keep each other informed of current research findings." The concise reports contained in IRRN are meant to encourage rice scientists and workers to communicate with one another. In this way, readers can obtain more detailed information on the research reported. Please examine the criteria, guidelines, and research categories that follow. If you have comments or suggestions, please write the editor, IRRN, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. We look forward to your continuing interest in IRRN. Criteria for IRRN research report has international, or pan-national, relevance has rice environment relevance advances rice knowledge uses appropriate research design and data collection methodology reports appropriate, adequate data applies appropriate analysis, using appropriate statistical techniques reaches supportable conclusions Guidelines for contributors The International Rice Research Newsletter is a compilation of brief reports of current research on topics of interest to rice scientists all over the world. Contributions should be reports of recent work and work-inprogress that have broad, pan-national interest and application. Only reports of work conducted during the immediate past three years should be submitted. Research reported in IRRN should be verified. Single season, single trial field experiments are not accepted. All field trials should be repeated across more than one season, in multiple seasons, or in more than one location, as appropriate. All experiments should include replication and a check or control treatment. All work should have pan-national relevance. Reports of routine screening trials of varieties, fertilizer, and cropping methods using standard methodologies to establish local recommendations are not accepted. Normally, no more than one report will be accepted from a single experiment. Two or more items about the same work submitted at the same time will be returned for merging. Submission at different times of multiple reports from the same experiment is highly inappropriate. Detection of such submissions will result in rejection of all. Please observe the following guidelines in preparing submissions: Limit each report to two pages of double-spaced typewritten text and no more than two figures (graphs, tables, or photos). Do not cite references or include a bibliography. Organize the report into a brief statement of research objectives, a brief description of project design, and a brief discussion of results. Relate results to the objectives. Report appropriate statistical analysis. Specify the rice production environment (irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, deepwater, tidal wetlands). Specify the type of rice culture (transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded). Specify seasons by characteristic weather (wet season, dry season, monsoon) and by months. Do not use local terms for seasons or, if used, define them. Use standard, internationally recognized terms to describe rice plant parts, growth stages, environments, management practices, etc. Do not use local names. Provide genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines. For soil nutrient studies, be sure to include a standard soil profile description, classification, and relevant soil properties. Provide scientific names for diseases, insects, weeds, and crop plants. Do not use common names or local names alone. Quantify survey data (infection percentage, degree of severity, sampling base, etc.). When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, tolerance, etc., report the actual quantification of damage due to stress that was used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurements used. Use generic names, not trade names, for all chemicals. Use international measurements. Do not use local units of measure. Express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t/ha) for field studies and in grams per pot (g/pot) or per specified length (in meters) row (g/ row) for small scale studies. Express all economic data in terms of the US$. Do not use local monetary units. Economic information should be presented at the exchange rate US$:local currency at the time data were collected. When using acronyms or abbreviations, write the name in full on first mention, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation. Define any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in a table or graph in a footnote or caption/ legend. Categories of research published GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT genetic resources genetics breeding methods yield potential grain quality pest resistance diseases insects other pests stress tolerance drought excess water adverse temperature adverse soils integrated germplasm improvement irrigated rainfed lowland upland deepwater tidal wetlands seed technology CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT soils soil microbiology physiology and plant nutrition fertilizer management inorganic sources organic sources crop management integrated pest management diseases insects weeds other pests water management farming systems farm machinery postharvest technology economic analysis ENVIRONMENT SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Genetic resources 5 Oryza minuta is not endemic to the Philippines Breeding methods 5 Identification of promising CMS, maintainer, and restorer lines for developing Philippine rice hybrids 6 Low light-tolerant restorers in hybrid rice breeding 7 Physiological traits of certain restorers in hybrid rice breeding Yield potential 7 Effect of nitrogen level on the relation between sink-source parameters and grain yield 8 Rice varieties direct-seeded in puddled soil during boro season in West Bengal 8 Variation in rice husk-kernel ratio (HKR) 9 Lectins in living organisms interact with silicon Grain quality 9 Grain quality of F1 rice hybrids 10 Relationship among grain shape, size, and head rice recovery (HRR) in indica rice Pest resistancediseases 10 Noncapsid protein (NCP) used for serological assay in indexing rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV)-infected plants 11 Nonspecific reaction in ELISA of viruses in rice roots Pest resistanceinsects 11 Resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) in rice germplasm in Raipur, Madhya Pradesh (MP), India 12 Promising cultivars with resistance to gall midge (GM) in Kerala, India 12 Virulence of brown planthopper (BPH) in Raipur, India 13 Evaluating rice cultivars for yellow stem borer (YSB) resistance 13 Field reaction of rice breeding lines to brown planthopper (BPH) in Pondicherry, India 14 Sources of resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) in rice 14 Virulence of a new biotype of brown planthopper (BPH) in Mekong Delta 15 Yield losses due to stalk-eyed fly (SEF) in Nigeria Stress tolerance 15 A simple technique for mass screening of rice germplasm tolerant of photo-oxidation Stress tolerantexcess water 16 Effect of submergence on rice yield Stress to1eranceadverse soils 17 Promising salt-tolerant F 1 anther culture derivatives (ACDs) Integrated germplasm improvementirrigated 17 Performance of Basmati rices in Rajasthan 18 Ptb 45 (Matta Triveni), a promising rice variety for dry season in Kerala, India Integrated germplasm improvementrainfed lowland 18 BR319-1-HR38 and IR74 released as gogorancah varieties in Indonesia 19 CSR10, a newly released dwarf rice for salt-affected soils 19 Five lowland rice cultivars released in Turkey


Fertilizer managementinorganic sources 20 Effect of P fertilizer on sulfur loss in flooded soil Fertilizer managementorganic sources 20 Green manure (GM) management and its effect on lowland rice yield Crop management 21 Managing rice ratoons 21 Effect of plant growth enhancer on lowland rice yield 22 Effect of nitrogen levels and soil moisture conservation practices on rainfed rice 22 Technical inefficiency of rice production in Chiang Mai, Thailand Integrated pest managementdiseases 23 Seed sprout extracts for control of rice tungro disease (RTD) 23 Survey of Pakistans rice crop for bakanae disease 24 Effect of N fertilization on false smut of rice 24 Serological classification of Indian strains of the rice bacterial blight (BB) pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) with monoclonal antibodies 25 Identification of bacterial blight (BB) pathotype of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae in Batalagoda, Sri Lanka 25 Evaluation of chitinase production as a criterion for selecting bacterial antagonists for biological control of rice sheath blight (ShB) Integrated pest managementinsects 26 Influence of lunar phase on yellow stem borer (YSB) attraction to light trap 26 Effect of foliar insecticide sprays on rice leaffolder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guene and rice yield 27 Influence of weather factors on light trap catches of yellow stem borer (YSB) Integrated pest managementother pests 27 Use of ducks to control golden apple snail Ampullarius ( Pomacea ) canaliculata in irrigated rice 27 Plant parasitic nematodes associated with upland rice in Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia Farming systems 28 Rice - fish farming system for Hunan, China 29 Productivity of rainfed rice-based cropping systems in West Bengal Farm machinery 29 Development of spinning brush VLV pesticide applicator


30 Impact of extension contact on technology adoption

31 31 31 31 31 31 International Rice Research Institute Conference 1992 Short training courses Course on lowland development Symposium proceedings Deployment of Bacillus thuringiensis discussed at meeting New IRRI publications

Genetic resources
Oryza minuta is not endemic to the Philippines
D. A. Vaughan, International Rice Germplasm Center, IRRI; and G. Gorogo, Department of Primary Industry, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

The diploid species Oryza officinalis and tetraploid species O. minuta have been confused in the literature. The two species, however, can be clearly distinguished on the basis of spikelet dimension, panicle structure, and habit. Herbarium studies show O. minuta had previously been found only in the Philippines. O. officinalis is widely distributed from India to Papua New Guinea. On the islands of the Malay archipelago, it has been collected in Sabah, Sarawak, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Java, Halmahera, Bacan Island, and Western Province of Papua New Guinea. We report finding several populations of O. minuta (see figure) around Wasua village (08:20S latitude, 142:50E longitude) in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. The stoloniferous species was growing, either in shade or partial sunlight, beside a small creek in sago swamps. We did not find O. officinalis in the area, but did collect it along the south coast of Western Province. Spikelets of O. minuta populations in the Philippines are thicker than those of populations collected in Papua New Guinea (see table).

Distribution of Oryza minuta (


Spikelet dimensions of Oryza minuta. Collection no. Site Philippines Luzon Samar Leyte Southern Leyte Papua New Guinea Western Province Western Province Western Province Western Province Spikelet dimensiona (mm) Length 4.7 4.5 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.2 4.5 4.7 Width 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 Thickness 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.4 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0

P90-1 P90-6 P90-17 P90-19 91PNG-17 91PNG-18 91PNG-19 91PNG-20

a Mean of 10 measurements per population.

Breeding methods
Identification of promising CMS, maintainer, and restorer lines for developing Philippine rice hybrids
R. J. Lara, I. A. dela Cruz, and M. S. F. Ablaza, Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), Maligaya, Muoz, Nueva Ecija; and S. S. Virmani, IRRI

Five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines obtained from IRRI were evaluated at three locations in the Philippines for pollen sterility, spikelet fertility of bagged panicles, field reaction to rice tungro virus, and days to 50% flowering. Stable CMS lines were V20 A and IR46830 A (both with CMS-WA cytoplasm), and IR54755 A (CMS-ARC cytoplasm). CMS lines IR58025 A and

IR62829 A were nearly stable for male sterility (Table 1). IR54755 A, IR58025 A, and IR62829 A showed slight to no infection with tungro viruses. Outcrossing potential of IR62829 A, IR58025 A, and V20 A was acceptable. CMS lines flowered at 81102 d at IRRI, but at 102-116 d at Banaue (high altitude, lower temperature). IR58025 A and IR62829 A

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

Table 1. Behavior of some CMS lines at 3 locations in the Philippines. Pollen a sterility CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS S CS PS S Seed setting (%) of bagged panicles 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.33 0 2.20 0.05 Reaction to RTV b Outcrossing potentialc Days to 50% flowering 83 102 81 86 108 89 81 108 88 102 116 90 85 105 84

CMS line


V20 A

IR46830 A

IR54755 A

IR58025 A

IR62829 A

IRRI Banaue San Mateo IRRI Banaue San Mateo IRRI Banaue San Mateo IRRI Banaue San Mateo IRRI Banaue San Mateo


a CS = completely sterile (0% fertility), S = sterile (1.10% fertility), PS = partially sterile (11.30% fertility), b RTV = rice tungro

viruses. R = no infection, I = slight infection, S = severe infection. cOutcrossing potential on 19 scale: 1 = high and 9 = low.

were selected to develop heterotic rice hybrids. We made 251 testcrosses using elite lines, IR62829 A, and IR58025 A to identify maintainers and restorers. Pollen sterility was 98100% in testcross F 1 s. This indicates that the male parent is a maintainer that can be converted into a CMS line by recurrent backcrossing. Testcross F1 s showed normal seed setting (more than 75%), indicating that the elite line is a restorer and can be used as a male parent in developing heterotic rice hybrids. We identified 14 maintainer and 18 restorer lines (Table 2). Maintainer lines have been backcrossed 13 times to convert them into CMS lines. Restorers are being purified by re-test crossing single plants before use in developing experimental rice hybrids for yield testing.

Table 2. Maintainer and restorer lines identified at Philippine Rice Research Institute, 1990-91 dry seasons.

Low light-tolerant restorers in hybrid rice breeding

K. S. Murty and S. K. Dey, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006, India

Cultivar Maintainers BPI 30-2 MRC22387-859 BPI 121-407 IR5537-32-D IR55548-05 IR57893-26 IR60076-04 IR60080-45 IR57934-02 IR60077-09 IR60080-35 IR60080-41 IR55543-51-B Cavitena Restorers BPI Ri 10 MRCl1055-432-23 MRCl8186-611 MRC18624-1466 MRC22367-807 Mantika Banguin PR21209-389-5 RP1057-393-1 OR141-99 IR66 IR3380-60-1-2-2 IR31432-9-3-2 BR11-461-1 BR425-189-1-6-2-1-2 BR316-15-4-4-1 BR11 IR60080-27 PR23342-5

Tester CMS line IR62829 A V20 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR58025 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR54755 A IR54755 A IR54755 A IR54755 A IR58025 A IR58025 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A IR62829 A

Backcrosses (no.) 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Low light during reproductive and ripening phases can critically constrain rice productivity during wet season.
TDM (g/m 2 ) Light
872 866 775 983 1190 896 654 888 974 625 993 713 930 937 1029 856 1013 719 854 759 978 88 1 79 94 133 22 1

We studied the low-light adaptability of 19 IRRI purified restorers during dry season. Wooden screens artificially shaded plants (50% normal light) from 35 d after planting to harvest. Controls were maintained under normal sunlight. The experiment was laid out in a splitplot design with three replications. The

Effect of 50% shade from 35 d to harvest on total dry matter (TDM) and yield of restorers. 1990 dry season.

IR36 IR46 IR50 IR54 IR58 IR64 Milyang 54 ARC1 1353 IR4422-480-2-3-3 IR9761-19-1 IR13419-113-1 IR13524-21-2-3-3-2-2 IR19058-107-1 IR19392-211-1 IR21916-128-2-2-3 IR25912-63-2-2 IR27315-145-1-3 IR28178-70-2-3 IR29723-143-3-2-1 Annapurna (check) Jaya (check) Mean LSD (0.05) Treatments (T) Variety (V) V at same T T for same V

Reduction (%)
51.3 58.4 35.5 46.3 70.6 46.5 27.7 39.0 38.5 33.8 58.3 57.2 38.0 54.6 57.6 45.6 54.6 25.3 48.9 48.5 46.4 46.8

Yield (g/m 2) Light

405 440 399 406 450 446 302 373 338 305 483 365 413 466 493 435 318 291 424 326 40 1 394 21 55 77 89

Reduction (%)
58.0 78.2 49.9 52.5 73.8 54.3 38.4 53.6 38.2 46.0 69.6 67.7 43.8 61.2 69.0 68.5 58.2 38.5 70.0 61.3 42.6 56.8

433 360 500 528 350 479 473 542 599 414 414 305 577 425 436 466 460 537 436 39 1 524 459

170 96 200 193 118 204 186 173 209 165 147 118 232 181 153 137 133 179 127 126 230 165

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

two light treatments were in the main plots and the restorers in the subplots. Total dry matter (TDM) and yield were recorded at harvest. Low light reduced mean TDM 47% and yield 57%. Reductions ranged between 25-71% for TDM and 38-78%

for yield (see table). TDM and yield were higher in IR54, IR58, IR134 19- 1 13- 1, and IR21916-128-2-2-3 under light. IR19058-107-1, Milyang 54, IR4422480-2-3-3, and IR28178-70-2-3 all showed little reduction in TDM and yield percentages under low light. This

indicates their high yield capability under low-light stress. Physiologically effective restorers, especially IR 19058-107-1, may be useful in developing superior rice hybrids for low-light monsoon areas.

Physiological traits of certain restorers in hybrid rice breeding

K. S. Murty, S. K. Dey, and P. J. Jachuck, Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), Cuttack 753006, India

Physiological traits of selected restorers from IRRI. Cuttack, India, 1989 wet season.

Restorer IR36 IR46 IR50 IR54 IR58 IR64 Milyang 54 ARC11353 IR4422-480-2-3-3 IR9761-19-1 IR13419-113-1 IR13524-21-2-3-3-2-2 IR19058-107-1 IR19392-211-1 IR21916-128-2-2-3 IR25912-63-2-2 IR27315-145-1-3 IR28178-70-2-3 IR29512-81-2-1 IR29723-143-3-2-1 Annapurna (check) Jaya (check) Mean LSD (0.05)

Pn (mg CO 2/ dm2 per h) 36.3 28.9 34.3 30.4 40.4 35.5 35.2 25.2 26.2 39.3 24.3 35.5 27.3 33.3 29.6 35.3 24.4 28.9 31.9 26.7 31.6 38.4 31.7 3.4

LAI F 2.48 3.78 2.46 3.80 2.05 2.88 2.34 4.47 4.15 2.28 4.49 2.60 4.94 2.47 3.09 6.39 4.85 4.17 3.71 5.13 2.09 2.71 3.51 0.95

Pn LAI (g/m2 per h) 8.9 10.9 8.4 11.5 8.3 10.2 8.2 11.3 11.1 9.0 10.9 9.2 13.5 8.2 9.1 22.5 11.8 12.0 11.8 13.7 6.6 10.4 10.8 3.5

Total DM (g/m2 ) 30 d 99 86 88 109 121 123 96 129 140 105 103 118 150 130 90 110 112 109 83 137 109 86 110 ns Flowering 619 617 394 691 420 600 498 1124 886 550 818 534 1213 564 564 1010 886 869 955 953 429 582 717 I62 Harvest 887 901 537 789 569 758 606 1326 1074 714 964 707 1547 751 701 1365 1161 1192 1227 1194 590 798 925 179

Yield (g/m2 ) 339 262 207 289 234 256 188 478 347 198 233 228 458 238 196 456 389 482 476 490 279 318 320 85

Restorers have been selected for cytoplasmic genetic male sterile lines based on fertility restoration and general combining ability for yield. We tested the photosynthetic potential, growth, and yield efficiency of 20 purified IRRI restorers against controls Annapurna (early) and Jaya (medium) under field conditions during the 1989 wet season. We periodically drew samples to assess leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter (DM) production. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the top three leaves at flowering was measured with the LI-6000 Portable Photosynthesis System at near saturated light (above 900 E/m2 per s). The high Pn entries IR58 and IR9761 19-1 had low LAI (see table), resulting in low canopy photosynthesis (Pn LAI). IR25912-63-2-2, with moderate Pn and

high LAI, recorded high canopy Pn, DM, and yield. IR19058-107-1 was especially efficient in LAI at flowering, DM production, and yield. To develop stable,

superior F 1 hybrids with high yield potential, IR25912-63-2-2 and IR19058107- 1 may be useful for heterotic combination of physiological traits.

Yield potential
Effect of nitrogen level on the relation between sinksource parameters and grain yield
P. S. Deshmukh and N. M. Chau, Plant Physiology Division; and F. U. Zaman, Genetics Division, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi 110012, India

We studied correlation coefficients between sink-source parameters and grain yield in lowland rice. In a field

experiment at IARI during the 1988 kharif (monsoon), seedlings of C-1907, Pusa 169, and Pusa 312 were transplanted at 20- 10-cm spacing. The experiment was laid out in a splitplot design with three replications. Various growth and biochemical parameters were recorded at different stages and then correlated with grain yield. Nitrogen levels were in the main plots and cultivars in the subplots. Grain yield correlated better with source than sink parameters particularly LAI and total chlorophyll content at flowering stage (Table 1). An increased

Table 1. Correlation values between different sink and source parameters and grain yield. IARI, 1988 kharif.

r value a
Sink components Panicles (no./m 2) 1000-grain weight (g) Spikelets (no./m 2) Sink size 0.46* 0.49 * 0.46* 0.42*

Source components LAI 0.70** Total chlorophyll content at flowering stage 0.60** Leaf N content at flowering stage 0.43*
a Significant at 5% (*) and 1 % (**) levels.

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

Table 2. Effect of N level on LAI, unfilled grain percentage, and grain yield. IARI, 1988 kharif. N level (kg/ha) 0 50 100 LSD (0.05) LAI 3.06 3.80 4.10 0.67 Unfilled spikelets (%) 11.92 13.75 16.60 2.08 Grain yield (t/ha) 4.64 5.20 5.87 0.39

Yield and growth duration of some rice varieties under 3 systems of crop establishment. Chinsurah, India, 198586 boro. Variety Dular CR126-42-1 IET1444 IET5851 HPU741 IR36 IR50 IR56 IR60 IET4786 IET4094 Mean Durationa (d) NSD 120 144 144 142 136 136 150 150 136 151 156 142 SD 123 144 150 144 140 155 151 151 140 156 157 146 SST 132 158 158 158 162 163 162 162 163 163 162 158 (NSD-SST) 12 14 14 16 26 27 12 12 27 12 6 16 NSD 2.0 5.2 4.3 5.2 4.8 5.3 5.6 5.3 4.8 4.7 4.3 4.7 Grain yield (t/ha) SD 2.2 4.3 5.6 4.5 4.0 5.2 5.3 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.5 4.8 SST 2.9 4.3 4.3 4.6 4.0 4.7 4.9 4.5 4.7 5.6 6.1 4.6 Mean 2.4 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.3 5.0 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.3

LAI (source) due to applied N, however, led to a larger gap between grain number/m2 and spikelet number/m2. This resulted in a higher sterility percentage (Table 2).

a Seeding dates were 9 Dec, 13 Dec, and 13 Dec; transplanting date was 13 Jan.

Rice varieties direct-seeded in puddled soil during boro season in West Bengal
A. K. Mitra, A. Roy, and S. K. B. Roy, Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, West Bengal, India Boro season rice in West Bengal grows with supplemental irrigation during NovMay after the wet season rice harvest in lowland and deepwater ecosystems. The area under boro rice has increased from 0.3 million ha in 1980 to 0.7 million ha in 1990. Average grain yield is 4.5 t/ha. We direct-seeded 11 modern semidwarf rices in puddled soil at Chinsurah to decrease irrigation costs during boro 198586. Three methods were used: direct seeding of nonsprouted seed (NSD), direct seeding of sprouted seed (SD), and seedbed with sprouted seed and subsequent transplanting (SST). We sowed the nonsprouted seed 4 d before the sprouted seed. Crop duration was slightly less under NSD (142 d) than under SD (146 d); plants in SST matured at 158 d (see table). Growth duration for HPU741, IR36, and IR60 differed more (26-27 d) than that for IET4786, IR56, and CR12642-1 (12-14 d). Grain yield was approximately the same, but some varietiesIR36, IR50, CR126-42-1, and IET5851yielded higher (5.2-5.6 t/ha) under NSD. IR56, IR60, and IET1444 yielded higher under SD, while IET4094 and IET4786 yielded higher under SST. Results indicate that early harvest of direct seeded rice is possible without

sacrificing grain yield. Compared with transplanting, direct seeding shortens the growth duration an average of 16 d, and

saves four to five irrigations during the reproductive phase.

Variation in rice husk-kernel ratio (HKR)

R. K. Das and N. M. Miah, Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh Increasing the ratio of grain to biomass (harvest index [HI]) is a way to improve rice yields in the tropics. Reduced partitioning of dry weight to the husk could improve HI. We examined seasonal variations in HKR in modem rice varieties BR1, BR3,

BR9, BR12, and BR16 grown at the BRRI farm during the 198586 transplanted aus, transplanted aman, and boro seasons. Plots had four 5.4-m rows each with 25- 20-cm spacing and were laid out in randomized complete block design with five replications. Fertilizer was 80-26-33 kg NPK/ha, 23 kg Zn/ha, and 100 kg gypsum/ha. Filled spikelets (specific gravity = 1.10) of each harvest were separated with salt solution and dried at 80 C for 5 d. Husk and kernel weights were determined for 100 g seed/season per

Table 1. Varietal difference in HKR in 3 seasons. BRRI, Gazipur, 1985-86.

Variety BR1 BR3 BR9 BR12 BR16 Av

HKR Transplanted aus 0.256 0.269 0.290 0.267 0.267 0.270 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.002 Transplanted aman 0.232 0.261 0.261 0.253 0.259 0.253

Boro 0.229 0.263 0.260 0.250 0.258 0.252 0.004 0.004 0.00l 0.003 0.001

0.004 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002

Table 2. Genetic parameters for HKR in 3 seasons. BRRI, Gazipur, 198586.




Variance ratio b 36.53** 24.96** 31.21**




Mean Heritability genetic (%) advance (%) 87.66 82.74 85.79 9.71 9.00 10.49

Transplanted aus Transplanted aman Boro

0.2500.298 0.2270.273 0.2220.276

0.270 0.253 0.252

5.377 5.280 5.937

5.035 4.803 5.500

1.888 2.194 2.237

a PCV = phenotypic coefficient of variability, GCV = genotypic coefficient of variability, ECV = environmental coefficient of variability. b** = significant at 1% level.

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

replication. A rubber dehusker was used to dehull the grain. The HKRs (husk weight divided by kernel weight) of a variety in transplanted aman and boro seasons were similar but numerically higher than those in

transplanted aus, which had comparatively lower spikelet fills. Clear HKR differences occurred in the five varieties. HKR variation was wide and environmental coefficient of variability was low in all seasons, indicating that HKR

is less responsive to environmental factors. Heritability for HKR was high; genetic advance was more or less similar in the three seasons. HKR may be a nearly stable indicator in screening for cultivars with lower husk content.

Lectins in living organisms interact with silicon

N. E. Alyoshin, E. R. Avakyan, E. M. Sorochinskaya, N. G. Turnanyan, and E. P. Alyoshin, Krasnodar Agricultural Biotechnological Centre, P.O. Belozernoe, Krasnodar 353204, USSR

An unspecified interaction of lectins with silicon compounds exists in the tissues of silicophiles, both in living organisms and in histological preparations. Scientists need to consider this phenomenon when they use lectins, immunochemicals, and their dyes in silicophile studies. Lectin preparations (including stains) were previously considered to interact specifically with sugars or their residues.

Silica structures of the rice husk of Krasnodarsky 424. Microspodography 20

We have shown that during rice husk microspodography the lectins interact actively with silicon compounds that are present in large amounts in silicophile tissues (see figure). Silica can comprise up to 20% of some rice tissue dry matter.

Attention to this may prevent erroneous conclusions that interactions were with sugars rather than with silicon compounds.

Grain quality
Grain quality of F 1 rice hybrids
Y. P. Khanna, J. S. Bijral, T. R. Sharma, B. B. Gupta, C. L. Raina, and K. S. Kanwal, SKUAST, Regional Agriculture Research Station (RARS), R. S. Pura (Jammu) 181102, India

Nine rice hybrids developed at RARS and check cultivar Jaya were evaluated for physicochemical and cooked rice characteristics. Standard methods were used to analyze dried grain with about 12% moisture content. Recovery varied from 78 to 80% for hulling and from 72.5 to 75.5% for milling. Five of the hybrids

showed significantly higher head rice recovery than Jaya (RHR1, RHR4, RHR6, RHR7, and RHR9). The rest (except RHR5) were statistically at par with Jaya (see table). Head rice recovery was very high, which suggests undermilling of rice by a Kett Polisher (model TP 20).

Physicochemical characters of F1 rice hybrids a at RARS, R. S. Pura, India. Hybrid or variety RHRI RHR2 RHR3 RHR4 RHR5 RHR6 RHR7 RHR8 RHR9 Jaya Cross combination Zhen Shan 97 A/IR3 1868 V20 A/IR31802 Zhen Shan 97 A/IR8585 Zhen Shan 97 A/IR31802 Zhen Shan 97 A/IET1410 Zhen Shan 97 A/VL 15 VA20 A/IR3 1851 IR48483 A/IR83619 IR46830 A/IR36 Check LSD (0.05) Hulling (%) 80.0 78.0 78.0 78.5 78.0 79.5 79.5 78.0 79.0 79.0 0.5 Milling (%) 75.0 73.0 72.5 75.5 73.5 74.5 74.0 73.0 74.0 74.5 0.7 Head rice (%) 73.5 68.5 70.0 72.0 68.0 70.5 71.0 69.5 71.0 69.0 1.2 Length (mm) 5.60 6.65 5.84 5.67 6.98 5.66 6.59 6.14 6.62 6.37 0.36 Width (mm) 2.27 2.26 2.41 2.36 1.99 2.71 2.34 2.39 2.09 2.57 0.14 L/W Abdominal ratio 2.47 2.94 2.42 2.40 3.51 2.09 2.82 2.57 3.17 2.48 white b Alkali spreading value 2.0 2.0 4.0 2.0 6.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 7.0 1.3 Water uptake (%) 165 160 170 150 350 200 140 150 140 350 59 Volume expansion ratio 3.7 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.0 0.7 Elongation ratio 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.7 0.1 Amylose (%) 19.2 17.0 17.0 17.0 20.3 20.9 17.5 16.0 19.2 29.6 2.70

OP Present Present Absent Absent Present Present OP Absent Present

aAv of 2 replications. bOP = occasionally present.

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

Length/width ratio of the milled grain ranged from 2.09 to 3.51. All hybrids except RHR5 and RHR9 displayed some degree of abdominal white. Volume

expansion ratio and elongation ratio after cooking of hybrids were statistically at par with or significantly inferior to Jaya. Water uptake values of all hybrids,

except RHR5 (alkali spreading value 6), were significantly lower than that of Jaya. Amylose content was 1620.9% for hybrids and 29.6% for Jaya.

Relationship among grain shape, size, and head rice recovery (HRR) in indica rice
Yan Wenchao, Qiu Bieqin, Jin Qingsheng, and Luo Rubi, Crop Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China

We grew 19 conventional indica rice cultivars in a randomized block design with three replications. Seedlings (32-dold) were transplanted 2 May 1990 at 16.7- 13.3-cm spacing. Five plants from each plot were randomly selected at harvest to measure 1,000-grain weight (GW), rough rice length, breadth, length/breadth (L/B) ratio, and HRR.

1. Relationship between grain length and head rice recovery in 19 indica rice cultivars. Hangzhou. China, 1990.

2. Relationship between L/B and HRR in 19 indica rice cultivars. Hangzhou, China, 1990.

The negative correlation between grain length and HRR was highly significant (Fig. l), as was the correlation between L/B ratio and HRR (Fig. 2).

HRR was inversely associated with length and L/B ratio, but seems not to be associated with GW and breadth. The correlation varied more in grain length and L/B ratio than in GW or breadth.

Pest resistance diseases

Noncapsid protein (NCP) used for serological assay in indexing rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV)-infected plants
G. J. Miranda and H. Koganezawa, IRRI

but not with purified RGSV and healthy plants in DAS-ELISA. Using indirect ELISA greatly increased sensitivity. NCP was detected

RGSV-infected plants were found to produce 24 kDa NCP which is common to all tenuivimses. We prepared antisera against NCP produced by RGSV. Antiserum from NCP purified by differential pH precipitation and single ultra centrifugation reacted strongly with purified RGSV and infected plants, but not with healthy plants in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). This indicates a slight contamination of viral coat protein in NCP preparation. NCP was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The antiserum produced reacted positively with purified NCP and infected plants,

in purified NCP preparation at a concentration less than 10 ng/ml and in sap from infected plants diluted to 10 -5. Sap from healthy rice plants never positively reacted (see figure). Antiserum produced from a purified NCP obtained from differential pH precipitation can be used to routinely index RGSV-infected plants instead of using RGSV antibody, which is laborious to prepare. Antiserum produced from SDS-PAGE can be used to specifically detect NCP in infected plants. RGSV-NCP antisera reacted with NCP of rice stripe virus in a double diffusion test, indicating a close relationship between the viruses.

Absorbance (405 nm) values for indirect and DASELISA tests during the 24 kDa antiserum purified by SDS-PAGE. The purified NCP, RGSV, and plant sap were adjusted to an initial concentration of 1 mg/ml, A 260= 3.0, 1 g tissue/ml, respectively.

Surveys of disease or insect incidence severity in one environment are useful only if the information is related to other variables (e.g., climatic factors, crop intensification, cultivars, management practices, etc.). By itself, information an incidence in one environment does not increase scientific knowledge.


IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

Nonspecific reaction in ELISA of viruses in rice roots

E. L. Coloquio and H. Koganezawa, IRRI

Number of healthy plants showing positive reaction a in ELISA using 4 virus antisera.

Plant ageb (wk) 5 6 7 8 9

Plants (no.) Culms RTBV 0 0 0 2 1 RTSV 0 0 0 1 7 RRSV 0 0 0 1 RGSV 0 0 0 0 RTBV 7 1 0 2 8 7 0 0 3 17 Roots RTSV RRSV 2 0 1 8 RGSV 3 0 0 4

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been routinely used to detect rice viruses. An initial test of rice roots indicated that many apparently healthy plants collected from IRRI fields reacted positively for rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV). We examined whether a nonspecific reaction or false positive reaction occurs in ELISA of different rice plant parts. We tested 18 healthy 3- to 9-wk-old TN1 plants. Seedlings were kept in a screen cage and sprayed with cypermethrin 5 wettable powder at 2 and 6 wk to prevent rice virus infections. Plant samples were collected weekly and subdivided into leaf blades, leaf sheaths, culms, and roots. Samples were weighed, homogenized in 10X volume of 0.02 M phosphate buffer solution Tween, and assayed by double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA

a Positive reaction defined as >0.05 of ELlSA value and >3 the negative mean of healthy leaf blades at 10-d-old seedling stage. No virus was detected in leaf blades and sheath. bNo virus was detected in any plant parts at 3 and 4 wk.

using four virus antisera: rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), RRSV, and rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV). Four plants, each infected with a virus, served as controls. Rice viruses were not detected in leaf blades and leaf sheaths throughout the experiment, indicating that all plants were healthy. But some root samples of the 5and 9-wk-old plants tested positive for al four virus antisera (see table). Mean ELISA absorbance values of positive reactions for root samples obtained during weeks 5 and 9 were 0.17 for RTBV, 0.36 for RTSV, 0.36 fo

RRSV, and 0.18 for RGSV; values for samples from infected plants were 0.45 for RTBV, 0.64 for RTSV, 1.06 for RRSV, and 0.33 for RGSV. Only a few root samples at 6, 7, and 8 wk and a few culm samples at 8 and 9 wk showed positive reactions. The obtained ELISA values were low compared with those from infected roots. Results suggest that nonspecific reactions in ELISAnot caused by the virus occurred when rice roots were tested. ELISA data from leaves and healthy roots should accompany data for virusinfected roots to accurately interpret results.

Pest resistanceinsects
Resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) in rice germplasm in Raipur, Madhya Pradesh (MP), India
D. J. Pophaly and D. K. Rana, Entomology Department, I.G.K.V.V., Raipur (MP), India

Five hundred germplasm accessions from Madhya Pradesh Rice Research Institute (MPRRI) were screened for resistance to BPH Nilaparvata lugens. Susceptible TN1 and resistant Ptb 33 were used as check varieties. We sowed seed in wooden seedboxes in the greenhouse during 198990. Ten-dold seedlings were uniformly infested with second- to third-instar BPH nymphs. Damage for all entries was scored using the Standard evaluation system for rice when TN1 died. Entries scoring <3 were retested several times. We selected 13 resistant varieties for evaluation of BPH honeydew excretion. Two-day-old BPH females (starved for 5 h) were caged in a chamber at the base

of 35-d-old plants. During the next 24 h, BPHs excreted blue honeydew spots on bromocresol green-treated filter paper on the chamber floor. All 13 varieties restricted the BPH feeding rate, which was 0.96 to 6.32 mm2/female. The feeding rate was heavy (192 mm2/female) on susceptible TN1

(see table). The low feeding rate indicates that resistant plants have feeding-deterrent or antifeedant chemicals. Each female excreted extremely low amounts of honeydew on Chapdo (0.96 mm2), Pandari Ajan (1.24 mm2), and Bakawa (5.34 mm2). These varieties suggest the possibility of ecogenetic diversity in Bastar district.

Resistance of MPRRI rice germplasm to BPH. Raipur (MP), India.

Variety Chapdo Bundiyabanko Barhi Dhaura Basan La1Basant Bakiya Ama Koyali Agyasal Pandari Ajan Lal Basant Bataroo Bhakawa Chhatri PTB33 (resistant check) TN1 (susceptible check)

Damage score a 1.5 1.7 2.2 2.4 1.5 2.4 0.6 1.6 1.2 1.5 2.1 1.7 1.6 1.6 9.0

Honeydew excreted in 24 h (mm 2 /female) 0.96 5.29 1.96 3.01 5.55 6.52 3.47 2.04 1.24 5.65 6.00 5.34 3.30 6.8 192.0

Seed origin (district) Bastar Raipur Mandla Damoh Jabalpur Chhatarpur Rajnandgaon Raigarh Bastar Jabalpur Narsinghpur Bastar Gwalior

a By the Standard evaluation system for rice scale 09.

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)


Promising cultivars with resistance to gall midge (GM) in Kerala, India

N. Rema Bai, R. Devika, A. Regina, and C. A. Joseph, Rice Research Station, Moncompu, India

Reaction of rice cultivars to gall midge incidence in Kerala, India.

IET no. Parentage Incidence of gall midge Score (09 scale) 3 0 3 0 3 1 0 0 0 3 0 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 5 7 9 Silvershoot (%) 5.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 2.6 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 13.4 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 7.3 0.0 13.5 40.0 53.0 12.6 Grain yield (t/ha) 5.2 6.4 4.9 4.5 5.6 4.7 7.1 6.7 3.8 6.8 5.1 5.0 6.0 7.8 4.8 6.2 5.8 3.4 4.6 3.9 2.8 2.6

A severe GM outbreak in Kuttanad, Kerala, caused damage that exceeded 50% in many varieties during the 1990 wet season (AprMay to AugSep). We evaluated 53 breeding lines from the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, for GM resistance under natural conditions. Checks were susceptible Jaya and resistant Mahaveera. Each entry was planted in 5- 2-m plots laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Damage ranged from 0 to 58%. Damage severity in Mahaveera was 40%. Pest infestation was scored at 40 d after transplanting using the Standard evaluation system for rice (SES). Eleven entries were highly resistant (score 0 to

10774 11515 12169 12170 12183 12185 12186 12187 12188 12189 12193 12795 12799 12800 12804 12806 12808 12809 12814

Sona/W1263 IET5656/RP1579 CB11/Ratna Ash/Kranti ARC5723/ARC6650/RP1579-38 Swarnadhan/ARC6650 IR50/Phalguna IR50/Phalguna IR50/Phalguna Ratna/ARC10654 Ratna/IET6858 Rajendra/ARC6650 Phalguna/IR50 Phalguna/IR36 IET6858/ARC6172 IR50/Phalguna Prasanna/IET5688 Manasarovar/ET6187 SYE75/IR28 Suraksha Mahaveera Jaya LSD

1), 6 resistant (score 3), 3 moderately resistant (score 3, and 3 1 susceptible

(score 7). Jaya showed a high incidence (score 9) (see table).

Virulence of brown planthopper (BPH) in Raipur, India

D. J. Pophaly and D. K. Rana, Entomology Department, I.G.K.V.V., Raipur, Madhya Pradesh (MP), India

Table 2. Reaction of DRP a Hyderabad, and Pattambi donors of resistance to the Raipur BPH population.
Donor Plant damage Score Hyderabad 5.29 2.28 2.32 3.84 3.17 1.77 1.16 2.65 1.74 1.88 1.85 1.94 1.03 1.01 1.41 1.35 1.97 2.61 Rating b S R R MR MR R R R R R R R R R R R R R Donor Plant damage Score Pattambi 6.6 8.5 7.22 4.41 2.11 0.68 2.08 6.17 4.40 7.96 5.92 2.57 4.24 5.3 9.0 0.92 Rating b S S S MR R R R S MR S S R MR S S R

BPH Nilaparvata lugens is becoming a major rice pest in Chhattisgarh region in MP. To determine BPH virulence in the area, we evaluated BPH resistance in
Table 1. Resistance of selected donors to the BPHpopulation in Raipur, MP, India, 1989-90. a BPH gene
Bph 9 bph 6 Bph 3 Bph 1 bph2 R check S check bph5 bph4


Honeydew in 24 h (mm2/ a Score Rating female) Damage

4.1 0.5 5.0 9.0 9.0 1.6 9.0 0.8 7.7 9.0 MR R MR S S R S R S S 12.61 18.66 31.51 78.89 132.37 6.80 66.34 10.10 19.20 32.37

Andrewsali ARC 10660 ARC11321 ARC6632 ARC10654 ARC5981 ARC6172 Majila ARC6601 ARC5780 (b) ARC6610 ARC5984 ARC6650 ARC10550 Velluthacheera Manoharsali Soinphul PTB33 (R check)

KAU8754 KAU8755 KAU8756 KAU8770 MO 5 Jyoti Rashmi Bharthi KAU8772 KAU25331 KAU25333 BR51 Pavizam Triveni KAU1727 PTB33 (R check)

Balamawee Swarnalata Rathu Heenati Mudgo ASD7 PTB33 TN 1 ARC10550 Babawee TN 1

a DRR = Directorate Rice Research, Hyderabad. AP. bR = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, S = susceptible.

a R = resistant, MR =moderately resistant, S = susceptible.

donors from Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), Pattambi (Kerala), and IRRI, Philippines during 198990. The standard seedling test showed Mudgo (Bph 1), ASD7 (bph 2), and Babawee ( bph 4) to be highly susceptible; Rathu Heenati ( Bph 3) and Balamawee ( Bph 9), moderately

resistant; and Swarnalata (bph 6) and ARC10550 (bph 5), resistant (Table 1). BPH honeydew excretion test confirmed the results. Hyderabad donors were also resistant in Raipur, indicating similar virulency patterns at both locations (Table 2). Of the 15 donors from Pattambi, 8 were


IRRN 17:l (February 1992)

susceptible; 5, resistant; and 3, moderately resistant. Results indicated that the Pattambi BPH population is likely to be less virulent than that at Raipur or Hyderabad.

Field reaction a of rice varieties to YSB under natural infestation, Tirur, India, 1988.

Accession TM8089 TM2011 TM4640 TM4309 TPS1 PMK1 IET7511 TKM9 ADT37 TM6012 TM5656 TM5118 TM10232 TM1086 TM5670 TM4937 TM4955 TM4865 TM8601 TM8381 TM8602 TM4300 TMA1087 TNAU891434 TNAU840337 TNAU6790/2 TNAU6540/2 TNAU843062 PM1381 PM1340 MW10 AS26556 ACM38 CO 11 IR20 ADT38 CO 43 ADT39 White Ponni W1263 Jaya

Parentage Self from TKM9 C22/TKM6/TR50 BAM3/IR50 BAM3/IR50 IR8/Kattaisamba CO 25/ADT31 Ras/Barket TKM7/IR8 BG280-2/PTB33 C22/BJ1 IR50/TKM9 BAM3/IR50 TKM6/IET1444 Ponni/ME80 IR50/TKM9 BAM3/IR50 BAM3/IR50 AC76/TKM8 TKM9/ADT9/CR141/IR26 lR262/CR1106-190 CO 31/22 IR262/Bhavani Ponni/CH1039 IET6262/TBAY1756 TKM9/White Ponni BAM3/TN1 GMR2/BAM3 IET4141/CO 43 IR13564-149-3/ASD4 IR13564/ASD4 MTU15/Yaikyakunantoku IET5233/IR2153-26-3-5-2 ASD4/TKM6 GEB24/ O. perennis IR262/CR106-190 IR1529/IR4432/IR7963 Daral/IR20 IR8/IR20 Tg 65/ME80 MTU15/Eswarakora TN1/T14

Deadheart score b 15 DT 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 7 7 5 7 7 7 5 9 7 7 5 5 7 7 1 9 30 DT 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 7 7 3 9 45 DT 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 3 9

Whitehead score 10 d before harvest 9 9 9 7 9 9 9 5 9 3 9 9 9 7 9 9 9 9 9 7 9 9 7 9 9 9 7 9 7 7 9 9 9 7 5 9 9 9 7 3 9

Evaluating rice cultivars for yellow stem borer (YSB) resistance

S. Ramakrishnan and M. S. Venugopal, Horticultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu G.D. Naidu Agricultural University, Udhagamandalam 643001, Tamil Nadu, India

Forty-one rice cultivars were screened for field resistance to YSB during 1988 at the Rice Research Station, Tirur, India. Seedlings (30-d-old) for each entry were spaced at 20 10 cm in three 4-m rows in a randomized block design with three replications. Susceptible check Jaya was planted in single rows between entries in each replication and in three rows between replications. Deadheart was counted 15, 30, and 45 d after transplanting (DT) and whitehead at 10 d before harvest for 20 randomly selected hills for each entry. Infestation was scored using the Standard evaluation system for rice (SES). W1263 was resistant at 15 DT and moderately resistant at other times. TM8089, TM2011, and CO 43 were moderately susceptible at 15 and 30 DT. TKM9 was moderately susceptible at all times (see table).

aDeadheart and whitehead scores by SES. bDT = days after transplanting.

Field reaction of rice breeding lines to brown planthopper (BPH) in Pondicherry, India
B. Rajendran, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pondicherry 605009, India

Field reaction of selected breeding lines to BPH in Pondicherry, India, 1988 and 1989 wet seasons.

Designation BPT2217 BPT4363 BPT4365 RP1579-13-11-12 RP1746-1723-8 RP2332-16-3 RP2332-18-15 RP2332-19-9-6 RP2362-227-22 RP2542-1657-194 RP2.543-1444-46 RP2.543-1464-152 RP2547-985-100 RP2547-1059-118 IR50 (local susceptible check) ADT36 (local check) PY3 (local resistant check) TN1 (standard susceptible check)

Cross BPT3291/ARC6650 BPT3291/Velluthacheera BPT3291/Vellathacheera Phalguna/ARC6650 RPA5824/RP79-9//Rasi///PTB21 Ratna/ARC10654 Ratna/ARC10654 Ratna/ARC10654 Nagarjuna/ARC5989 Swarnadhan/RP1579-37 Rasi/RP1579-38 Rasi/RP1579-38 RP2205/RP1579-38 RP2205/RP1579-38

BPH damage score a 1988 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 9 3 1 9 1989 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 9 3 3 9 Mean 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 9 3 2 9

Reaction to other pests b

BPH Nilaparvata lugens (Stl) is an important pest in Pondicherry region, especially in sornavari season (May to Aug/Sep). During 1988 and 1989 wet seasons (Jun-Sep) 143 entries of advanced rice breeding lines (including local susceptible and resistant checks) From the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, were screened in the field against BPH.


a By the Standard evaluation system for rice. b RTV-P = rice tungro virus present, LF-S = leaffolder susceptible.

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)


Test entries were planted in two rows of 10 hills each, alternated with a skip row of susceptible check TN1. Closer spacing (15 10 cm) and a topdressing of extra N above the recommended dose were used to induce higher BPH incidence in the trials. We scored entries in the field during peak BPH incidence and when TN1 died. Promising entries that recorded BPH damage score of 2-3 were BPT2217, BPT4363, BPT4365, RP2332-19-9-6, RP2362-227-22, RP2542-1657-194, RP2543-1444-46, RP2543-1464-152, local check ADT36, and local resistant check PY3 (see table). RP1746-1723-8, RP2332-16-3, and RP2332-18-15 were resistant to BPH (score 3), but susceptible to leaffolder.

Resistant entries and BPH score. Designation Sinna Sivappu Lekham Samba Kuru Hondarawala IR40 IR25984-92-1-3 IRI552 IR5741-73-2-3 IR22082-41-2 IR24 IR9830-26-3-3 CR266-407-4 RP2695-5-7-32 RP2068-32-2-2 MTU5194 RP2695-5-8-31 MTU5295 RP2068-17-2-2 RP1579-56-1907 RP1756-39 TNAU BPHR8275 MTU4870

Origin Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Philippines Philippines Philippines Philippines Philippines Philippines Philippines India India India India India India India India India India India

Damage score (0-9) 2.9 2.6 1.2 2.4 2.5 1.2 2.8 2.1 2.5 2.7 1.2 1.5 1.6 I.7 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.4 2.4 1.6

Designation RP1015-45-114-1 KAU1734-2 b RP1015-100-25-4 KAU2084 b KAU169 b KAU126 b KAU153-1 b KAU168 b KAU93 b MO 4 b MO 5b MO 6 b MO 7b M102 b RP1015-15-7-7-2 RP1579-73-1864 RP1579-1863-73-32-53 ARC6650 M66-B-45-1 PTB33 (resistant check) b TN1 (susceptible check)

Origin India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India Indonesia India Taiwan

Damage score (0-9) 1.8 2.9 2.7 1.2 2.7 2.6 1.6 2.7 2.2 2.8 2.6 2.0 2.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.9 1.8 2.4 8.7

Sources of resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) in rice

N. Remu Bai and V. Gopinathan Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India

a Scored by SES. All entries except TN1 were resistant. b From Kerala.

Virulence of a new biotype of brown planthopper (BPH) in Mekong Delta

Luong Minh Chau, Plant Protection Department, Cuulong Delta Rice Research Institute, Omon, Haugiang, Vietnam

We studied 108 rice cultivars to identify sources of resistance to the local biotype of BPH Nilaparvata lugens (Stl) under laboratory conditions using the bulk seedling test. Test entries were sown in 20-cm rows, 5 cm apart, in 60- 45- 10-cm wooden boxes at Rice Research Station, Moncompu, Kerala, from 1985 to 1988. Each box contained 24 lines including four of susceptible check TN1 and two of resistant check PTB33. Seedlings were thinned to 20 per row at 7 d. Seedboxes were placed inside 70- 55- 15-cm trays with 5 cm of water in them. Trays were kept inside a screening cage. After 1 wk each seedling was infested with an average of five secondinstar BPH nymphs. Damage was scored by the Standard evaluation system for rice (SES) scale when about 90% of TN1 had died. Screening was repeated three times. Forty rice cultivars were resistant (see table), 22 moderately resistant, 13 moderately susceptible, and 33 highly susceptible. Resistant entries were of diverse origin: Indonesia (1), Sri Lanka (3), Philippines (7), and India (29). Of the Indian types, 13 (and PTB33) were from Kerala.

Six BPH populations from five ecological areas in the Mekong Delta were collected to determine their virulence on rice using the modified bulk seedling test.

Differential check varieties were seeded in 20-cm rows, 5 cm apart, in 60 40- 10-cm seedboxes with three replications. Test varieties were infested 7 d after seeding with 5-8 second- and third-instar nymphs per seedling. Damage was visually rated using the Standard evaluation system for rice (19) when the susceptible check TN1 had died. All new biotype populations killed TN1. Mudgo (Bph 1) was moderately

Reactiona of BPH on differential check varieties, Mekong Delta, 1990-91. Site, season Host of BPH population IR64 MTL 85 MTL 85 BPH score a on TN1 (none) 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Mudgo ( Bph 1) 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 7 7 ASD7 ( bph 2) 9 7 7 9 7 9 7 9 7 7 9 9 Rathu Heenati ( Bph 3) 3 3 0 5 5 5 3 3 1 1 5 5 PTB33 (digenic) 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 Babawee ( bph 4) 3 3 5 3 5 5 1 5 7 7 5 5

Angiang 1990 WS 1991 DS Angiang 1990 WS 1991 DS Tiengiang 1990 WS 1991 DS Haugiang 1990 WS 1991 DS Minh hai 1990 WS 1991 DS Cuulong 1990 WS 1991 DS

OM59-7 IR42 IR19660

a Av of 3 replications. By the Standard evaluation system for rice scale.


IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

susceptible or susceptible to new BPH populations, except the Minh hai population. The resistance of ASD7 (bph 2) broke down in Mekong Delta, indicating that biotype 2 BPH had developed a new, distinct biotype. Rathu Heenati ( Bph 3) was particularly resistant to Angiang, Haugiang, and Minh hai populations, but moderately susceptible to those of Tiengiang and Cuulong. PTB33 (digenic gene) was still resistant to all populations. Babawee ( bph 4) was moderately susceptible to the new BPH biotype. BPH virulence in Mekong Delta is becoming higher than that of biotype 2 because of natural adaptive selections. Reactions of different populations in various areas were not similar; therefore they were geographically biotypes of BPH somewhere in Mekong Delta.

Effect of SEF damage on grain yields of 4 lowland irrigated rices. a IITA, Nigeria, 1989 wet season. Total hills (no.) 56 276 76 124 Grain yield (g/hill, X SD) Infested tillers 120% 2140% > 41 <60% (0) 22.0 10.0 (5) 10.0 0.0 (3) 6.7 3.6 (6) Av pooled 27.0 14.9 18.0 13.1 12.3 9.6 6.0 8.3 35.8 19.0 18.1 10.0 16.0 21.6 7.0 7.0 Healthy hill Yield loss/hill (g) 8.8 0.1 2.9 9.3

Rice variety

FARO 8 (MAS) ITA306 TN1 IR20


30.2 16.7 23.3 13.0 (43) (57) 17.1 7.8 14.9 11.0 (41) (54) 17.7 9.0 11.6 9.0 (29) (68) 18.3 12.5 12.0 8.8 (50) (44)

Values in parentheses indicate hills infested (%) in that category.

hills to minimize differences in yield potential. The largest percentage of hills showed 120% damage (except those of IR20). Yield losses to SEF varied among varieties and damage varied within categories (except in ITA306).

Grain weight declined with increased SEF damage in all rice varieties except ITA306 (see table). This confirmed our field observation that SEF-damaged ITA306 plants recover from infestation; we could not detect yield losses at this damage level.

Yield losses due to stalkeyed fly (SEF) in Nigeria

R. C. Joshi, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria (present address: 192 Sun Antonio. Los Baos, Laguna, Philippines); C. J. Angcla, Entomology Department, University of the Philippines at Los Baos, Laguna, Philippines; and M. N. Ukwungwu, National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Nigeria

Stress tolerance
A simple technique for mass screening of rice germplasm tolerant of photo-oxidation
Jiao Demao and Gu Xinying, Institute of Agrobiological Genetics and Physiology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China

Heavy infestation (deadheart) of SEF Diopsis longicornis Macquart is observed every year at the IITA experimental farm in Nigeria. This infestation precedes the off-season when SEF adults emerge from weeds to colonize early transplanted rice. We studied yield losses caused by SEF in early 1989 wet season (WS) in four irrigated lowland rices: FARO 8 (MAS), ITA306, TN1, and IR20. Grain yields from single hills were compared. SEF damage was at its peak 2 wk after transplanting. Infested and healthy hills were randomly selected, tagged, SEF damage (% per hill) assessed, and grain yields (at maturity) recorded. Hills were monitored weekly for pests other than SEF, but none attained threshold level. Damaged tillers from each hill were categorized (see table). Hills with an equal number of productive tillers were selected from both infested and healthy

Photo-oxidation of chlorophyll is a physiological effect on rice under stress

conditions. We developed a simple technique to screen rice germplasm tolerant of photo-oxidation. Eight mature rice leaves/plant were detached at different growth stages and submerged in a white tray filled with water containing 1030 ppm CO2 and 0.5 0.6% O2 under sunlight at 3035 C for 5 7 d. A transparent glass bar covered the leaves to prevent floating. Leaf color was graded at the end of treatment on a scale of 15 (see table). Photo-oxidation-tolerant varieties were

Gradesa of leaf color in various varieties at heading stage.

Varieties b Grade 1 Nan geng 35 (J) 02428 (J) 729 (J) 020 (J) Yayou 2 (J) Grade 2 BR 1083-4 1-2-4-2- 1 (I) Hualienyu 124 (J) Tngy 1 (J) Tian rui 408 (I) Niu jiaonuo (J) Grade 3 Nan nong da 4008 (I) 3037 (I) Pusa 33 (I) C662083 (I) Palghar 31-1-3 (I) IR44526-47-3-2 (I) Ge 1868-5-4 (I) Ha 361 (I) Zong yu 87-1 (I) Tai nan sen 12 (I) Min ke zao 6 (I) CT6417-2-1-1-1p (I) Nan nong nuo 4001 (I) Let 9702 (I) Sipi 681032 (I) Xiao jia nuo (I) IR36 (I) Nj 701 35 (I) Xiang zhong sen 2 (I) Milyang 23 (I) Grade 4 Jia nong xian yu 23 (I) Taiyin1 (I) Yanxuan 156 (I) Shan you 63 (I) Nan geng 11A/C57 (J) 7901-TR16-1-1 (I) E 164 (I) Shui tuan 287 (I) IRI346 (I) Della (I) Minyu 4399 (I) Zhong yu 4376 (I) Yunxia 32 (1) Nancarp A (1) Bknlr-75091 (I) Jia nong xian yu 23 (I) Min ke zao 1 (I) Ai ma hang (I) Leah (I) Grade 5 Milyang 23 (I) IB29B (I) Nj 57161 (I) NJ 67022 (I) Guicha 02 (I) IR58 (I) Sixizhan (I) Colombia (I) Laijing (I) ITA222 (I)

a Grades (scores) 1 = green, 2 = yellowish tip, 3 = yellowish 1/3, 4 = yellowish 1/2 , 5 = yellowish whole leaf. bJ = japonica, I = indica.

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)


graded 1-2. Varieties considered sensitive were graded 4-5. We submerged detached leaves from Shanyou 63 (a photo-oxidation-sensitive indica hybrid rice) in low CO2, low O2 pure water under three light intensities (see figure). Chlorophyll contents under dark, weak light (180 E/m2 per s), and stronger light (600 E/m2 per s) were reduced by 31.4, 50.6, 70.4%, respectively ([pretreatment posttreatment]/pretreatment 100%). Decrease in chlorophyll content was correlated with increase in light intensity, indicating that higher light is a major factor in destroying photosynthetic pigment (especially chlorophyll a). Chlorophyll content in leaves floating on the water under ambient atmosphere (CO2 340 ppm, O2 21%) for 6 d decreased by 86.4, 75.0, 88.2%, respectively, for the three intensities. Darkness is a major cause under ambient air conditions of inducing destruction of photosynthetic pigment. We tested 59 rice germplasm resources at heading stage from different areas and countries for tolerance to photo-oxidation using this technique.

Effect of different light intensities on chlorophyll content of excised Shan you 63 leaves (a) immersed in water and (b) floated on water.

Results showed japonica rice as more tolerant than indica (see table). Leaf color in most indica rices scored 3-5. Indica cultivars BR1083-41-2-4-2-1 and Tian rui 408 were selected as tolerant

of photo-oxidation (grade 2) based on leaf color. Results suggest that pure water and sunlight could be used to accelerate photo-oxidation of rice leaves.

Stress toleranceexcess water

Effect of submergence on rice yield
R. Rajendran, S. Santhanabosu, P. K. Selvaraj, and V. S. Shanmugasundaram, Soil and Water Management Research Institute (SWMRI), Kattuthottam, Thanjavur 613501, India

yield at all three growth stages. Yields were lowest when the crop was inundated to 75% plant height during flowering. When flooding occurs during flowering, water should be drained to prevent yield loss. This is nearly impossible, however, in delta coastal areas where incessant monsoon rains usually coincide with vulnerable crop stages.

10-cm spacing. Water levels were 25, 50, and 75% of total plant height during maximum tillering, panicle initiation, and flowering. Control plots had 5 cm of water, Inundation at 25-75% plant height generally significantly reduced grain

Nearly 40,500 ha of rice in the Cauvery Delta of Thanjavur District are submerged up to 1 m or deeper for 8-15 d during the northeast monsoon (Oct-Nov). CR1009 (Ponmani) can withstand inundation better than such varieties as ADT39, IR20, and Co 43. We conducted experiments in 1988-89 and 1989-90 during samba season (AugJan) at SWMRI to determine the effects of inundation at various growth stages and submergence depths. Plots (40 m 2) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. We transplanted 35-d-old CR1009 at 20-

Effect of inundation depth at various crop stages on grain yield of CR1009 rice (160 d). Rice yield (t/ha) at indicated depth of inundation a Crop stage 25% Maximum tillering Panicle initiation Flowering Control (5cm water after depletion) Mean 6.7 6.1 5.8 1988-89 50% 5.8 5.9 5.2 75% 5.7 5.5 3.2 Mean 5.9 5.8 4.7 25% 6.9 6.6 6.4 1989-90 50% 6.6 6.3 6.1 75% 6.6 5.8 4.4 Mean 6.7 6.2 5.6




6.1 Depth or stage: Interaction


5.6 SE 0.0 LSD (0.05) 0.2 SE 0.1 LSD (0.05) 0.3


6.0 Depth or stage: Interaction

SE 0.2 LSD (0.05) 0.7 SE 0.4 LSD (0.05) 1.2

a Inundation depth is expressed as percent of plant height.


IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

Stress tolerance adverse soils

Promising salt-tolerant F1 anther culture derivatives (ACDs)
R. K. Singh and B. Mishra, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001, India; and D. Senadhira, IRRI

ANOVA and promising entries of F 1 ACDs. Promising entry Days to flowering 135.0 135.7 133.0 103.7 115.3 117.0 125.3 98.7 124.2 125.7 132.7 101.2 DF Plant height (m) Gudha 0.57 0.66 0.73 0.57 1.02 0.97 0.99 0.66 0.88 0.85 0.79 0.62 MS Days to flowering 11.9 500.6* 2175.0* 57.6* 3.9 1.9 0.7 2.7 Plant height (m) 0.036 0.048* 4.472* 0.031* 0.006 0.085 0.030 0.120

Panicle bearing tillers (no./plant) 7.3 6.0 6.3 9.6 11.3 10.3 12.3 11.6 8.8 8.6 11.1 10.6

Yield (kg/3 m2) 0.446 0.270 0.266 0.453 1.707 1.590 1.420 1.413 0.986 0.911 0.727 0.933

AC6533-3 AC6549 AC6534-1 CSR10 AC6534-1 AC6534-4 IR1500-AC-17 CSR10 AC6534-I AC6534-4 IR1500-AC-17 CSR10 SV


We evaluated 15 selected ACDs developed at IRRI (IR51500-AC-17, IR51491-AC-1, IR51491-AC-5, IR51491-AC-6, IR51491-AC-7, IR51485-AC-2, IR51485-AC-3, IR51485-AC-4, AC6533-3, AC6533-4, AC6534-1, AC6534-3, AC6534-4, AC6549, AC6554-2) and tolerant check variety CSR10 for salt tolerance. Field trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications at two sites with different salt stress levels. Gudha had a pH2 of 10.32 and Mundlana had a pH2 of 8.23-9.45 and ECe 3.88-10.74 dS/m. Chemical amendments were not applied to the soil. Forty-day-old seedlings (raised in better soils) were transplanted at 15- 15-cm spacing. Three doses of N (150 kg/ha total) and one basal dose of Zn (5.75 kg/ha) were applied. ACDs differed significantly in 50% flowering, plant height, tillers/plant, and productivity (see table). Many derivatives


Panicle bearing tillers (no./plant) 4.11 15.20* 201.30* 3.70 3.60 1.84 0.65

Yield 2 (kg/3 m ) 0.065 0.536* 8.239* 0.463* 0.049 0.214 0.075 0.303

Replications within locations Genotypes (g) Locations(1) gl Residual error LSD g 1 gl


4 15 1 15 60

* = significant at p = 0.05.

exhibited salt tolerance at par with that of CSR 10. Delayed flowering and maturity of ACDs were the most undesirable traits compared with the early heading and

maturity of check CSR10. We selected AC6534-1 and AC6534-4 as promising lines for our breeding strategies to enhance the salt-affected soil productivity.

Integrated germplasm improvementirrigated

Performance of Basmati rices in Rajasthan
R. S. Tripathi and R. Pandya, Agriculture Research Station, Banswara 327001, India

popular variety with short, slender grain and strong aroma, 3.5 t/ha (Table 1). Mahi Sugandha significantly

outyielded other varieties, including Basmati 370, in All India Coordinated Trials during kharif 1990. Mahi Sugandha

Table 1. Mean performance of Basmati cultures in Rajasthan, India, 1988-90.

Traditional Basmati rices remain popular in Banswara although they yield poorly and are prone to lodging. We conducted trials for Basmati rices from 1988 to 1990. Mahi Sugandha, a semidwarf, photoperiod-insensitive variety with basmati-type grains, yielded the most at 5.6 t/ha. Basmati 370 averaged 3.7 t/ha and Kali Kamod, a

Variety Mahi Sugandha IET8580 IET8581 IET8365 IET10366 IET10651 Kali Kamod (c) Basmati 370 (c)

Av yield (t/ha) 5.6 4.9 4.3 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.7

% increase over Basmati 370 50.6 30.9 15.1

Days to flowering 102 98 99 100 99 121 105 107

Plant height (cm) 92 84 74 91 111 102 118 125

Panicles (no./m2 ) 489 385 455 450 356 210 275 280

Panicle length (cm) 31.7 25.0 20.7 24.7 27.0 23.5 21.6 27.2

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Table 2. Grain quality character of Mahi Sugandha and Basmati 370. Character Hulling (%) Milling (%) Head rice recovery (%) L/B ratio Classification Grain length (mm) Length of cooked rice (mm) Kernel color Kernel elongation ratio Water uptake Volume expansion Alkali value Amylose (%) Test weight (g) Aroma Abdominal white Mahi Sugandha 79.9 69.4 50.2 3.34 Long, slender 5.7 10.2 White 1.8 355 2.0 6.0 27.0 20.5 Strong Absent Basmati 370 79.0 64.5 39.2 3.48 Long, slender 6.2 10.8 White 1.6 300 3.2 5.0 22.3 21.2 Strong Occasionally present

yielded 57.8% more than Basmati 370, which averaged 3.0 t/ha at four locations. Mahi Sugandha came from BK79/ Basmati 370. It matures in 130- 135 d from seed and possesses ideal plant type with upright leaves, synchronized tillering, and late leaf senescence. Panicles are fully exserted and compact. They have long, slender, straw-colored grains that are free from abdominal white and strongly scented like Basmati 370 (Table 2).

Ptb 45 (Matta Triveni), a promising rice variety for dry season in Kerala, India
I. Johnkutty and P. B. Mathews, AICARPECF Unit, Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy 680651, Thrissur, Kerala, India

Grain yield at different locations in 1988 and 1989 dry seasons. Yield (t/ha) Variety Kodakara Matta Triveni Annapoorna LSD (0.05) 3.4 2.1 0.2 1988 Annamanada 4.7 4.1 0.2 Pananchery 3.2 2.8 0.2 Overall 3.8 3.0 Annamanada 3.7 3.2 0.3 1989 Pananchery 3.5 2.8 0.2 Overall 3.6 3.0

Farmers in Kerala prefer high-yielding, short-duration rice varieties for the dry season (Dec/Jan to Apr/May) to allow for timely planting of the succeeding monsoon crop. Annapoorna (90-100 d) has been the most popular variety cultivated. A short-duration (100 d) rice variety Ptb 45 (Matta Triveni) was recently released by the Agricultural Research Station, Pattambi, Kerala. The pureline

selection from Triveni (a white bran variety) is semitall with long, compact, and exserted panicles and red, mediumbold grains. Ptb 45 was compared with Annapoorna under transplanted conditions in different irrigated farming situations in Keralas central region during DS 1988 and 1989.

Matta Triveni consistently outyielded Annapooma at all locations in both years (see table). Matta Triveni averaged 3.7 t grain/ha compared with 3 t/ha for Annapooma. Although the variety is reported to be susceptible to blast and sheath blight, incidence was less in Matta Triveni than in Annapoorna in the trials.

Integrated germplasm improvementrainfed lowland

BR3191HR38 and IR74 released as gogorancah varieties in Indonesia
O. Suherman, Sriwidodo, Djafar Baco, and S. Andyantoro, Maros Research Institute for Food Crops (MORIF), P.O. Box 173, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia
Table 1. Yield performance of Cenranae (BR319-1-HR38) and IR74 on gogorancah culture. MORIF, Indonesia. Grain yield (t/ha) Cenranae 6.0 4.7 5.2 4.1 5.3 IR74 6.0 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.7 GHGRM-7 5.4 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.7 IR2117839-PI 4.7 3.3 4.2 4.2 4.4 Cenranae increase (%) over Cisokan 20 38 44 24 23 Cikapundung 22 51 49 21 26 IR74 increase (%) over Cisokan 16 21 19 27 9 Cikapundung 18 32 23 23 12


Gogorancah is a direct seeded rice culture for dryland conditions that also are flooded by maximum tillering stage. It was developed in rainfed areas using early-maturing lowland rice varieties, such as IR36 and Cisokan. We conducted yield trials laid out in randomized complete block design with

MORIF farm research (198689) Multilocation trials (198789) Adaptive research trial at Sidondo, Central Sulawesi (1988-89) Adaptive research trial at East Nusatenggara (198889) Adaptive research trial at Wawotobi, Southeast Sulawesi (198889)


IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

four replications to evaluate four varieties or lines at five rainfed lowland sites. Seeding rate was 60 kg/ha; plant spacing was 30 cm between rows. N, P, and K were applied at 200, 39, and 52 kg/ha, respectively. Integrated pest management was practiced. The field was handweeded 3 and 7 wk after planting. Line BR319-1-HR38 and variety IR74 had continuous good performances for gogorancah cultural practices in the rainfed area of South Sulawesi. BR319-1HR38 was released as Cenranae in Mar 1991 by the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture.

Table 2. Agronomic traits and physiological character of Cenranae (BR319-1-HR38) and IR74. MORlF, 1991. Variety or line Cenranaea IR74

Maturity (d) 112 110

Plant height (cm) 120 95

Panicles (no./hill) 11 16

1,000grain wt (g) 30 25

Reactiona to brown planthopper biotypes 1 R R 2 MS R 3 S R


Bacterial blight R MR

Rice tungro disease R R


R = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, MS = moderately susceptible, S = susceptible.

Cenranae yielded 20-44% more than the best regional check, Cisokan, and 2155% more than another check, Cikapundung, in several trials (Table 1). Cenranae is medium tall, has a medium number of tillers/hill, and high 1,000-grain

weight. Cenranae only resists BPH biotype 1 (Table 2). Both Cenranae and IR74 are suggested as gogorancah varieties for rainfed conditions in dry climates.

CSR10, a newly released dwarf rice for salt-affected soils

B. Mishra, R. K. Singh, and R. K. Bhattacharyya, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001, India

Performance of salt-tolerant rice variety CSR10 in different trials. Trials Breeding station (moderate stress) National Saline Alkaline Tolerant Varietal Trial 1986 and 1987 (sodic and saline environments) Av grain yield (t/ha) CSR10 5.7 3.1 Check 4.9 (CSR1) 2.7 (Pokkali) Increase (%) over check 15.8 14.8 Trials Minikit trials (sodic, saline, and saline-sodic environments) Adaptive trials (saline-sodic environment) Av grain yield (t/ha) CSR10 3.8 Check 2.6 (Jaya) Increase (%) over check 46.1

CSR10 is a short-duration (120-125 d) salt-tolerant rice variety developed for cultivation in saline soils. It combines salt tolerance and dwarfism from M40-431-24114 (F1 mutant of CSR1/IR8) and highyielding ability from Jaya. It was released by Central Variety Release Committee for sodic and saline soils in India. This variety can tolerate sodicity stress up to pH 10.2, exchangeable sodium percentage 73 without soil amendment, and salinity up to ECe 10 dS/ m. CSR10 is dwarf (80-85 cm) with compact plant type. It has a strong culm, photoperiod insensitivity, fertilizer responsiveness, and grain yield potential of 5-6 t/ha in nonstressed (normal) soils and 3-4.5 t/ha in highly deteriorated saltaffected soils. The short, bold kernels have acceptable cooking and eating quality. It is a white rice with high amylose content. CSR10 yielded 2.7-5.7 t grain/ha compared with 1.9-4.9 t/ha for various checks in several trials (see table). No soil amendments were applied in the trials. Marginal farmers can grow this variety as a biological amendment to enhance barren land productivity. Cultivation of CSR10 for three consecutive seasons improves soil and reduces sodicity stress.


1.9 (Saket 4)


Five lowland rice cultivars released in Turkey

H. Surek, H. Aydin, N. Bese, and M. Negis, Thrace Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), P.O. Box 16, 22001 Edirne, Turkey

TARI developed and released lowland cultivars Altinyazi, Trakya, Meric, Ipsala,
Grain yield (t/ha) 7.5 8.5 7.0 8.0 8.2

and Ergene in Turkey in 1990. Turkish consumers prefer Ipsala and Meric because of their high grain quality. Ergene is an early variety. Altinyazi is a cold-tolerant variety. Some agronomic and quality characteristics of these cultivars are given in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Some agronomic characteristics of newly released rice cultivars. Variety Altinyazi Trakya Ergene Meric Ipsala Pedigree (cross) TR-6 (Baldo/Ribel) TR- 13 (Baldo/ Komsomolsky) TR-19 (Delta/Zoria) TR-22 (Delta/Akceltik) TR-81 (Rodina/Delta) Plant height (cm) 112 113 100 100 110 Days to maturity (d) 127 128 117 125 125 Panicle length (cm) 18.6 18.1 17.4 17.9 20.1 Filled grains (no./panicle) 110 122 95 101 110 Sterility (%) 10.1 24.6 11.8 14.6 21.8

Table 2. Some grain quality characteristics of newly released rice cultivars. Variety Altinyazi Trakya Ergene Meric Ipsala Brown rice Length (mm) 7.2 6.9 7.4 7.3 7.8 Breadth (mm) 2.3 3.2 2.9 2.3 3.1 1000-grain weight (g) 36 38 37 38 40 Appearance of polished rice Translucent with white belly Translucent Translucent Translucent Translucent

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)



Fertilizer managementinorganic sources
Effect of P fertilizer on sulfur loss in flooded soil
S. A. Haque, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
Sulfur balance sheet for rice.

A lysimeter experiment was conducted on silt loam soil of a noncalcareous dark grey floodplain (Haplaquept) to investigate the effect of phosphate fertilizer on soil S loss and S balance in rice. Soil had pH 6.6, 1.06% organic C, 0.09% total N, 13 ppm available P, 12 ppm S, and 0.13 exchangeable K meq. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications/ treatment during 1990 aus (May-Aug). The test crop was BR2 (Mala). Eighty kg N/ha, 33 kg K/ha, 20 kg S/ha, and 5 kg Zn/ha were basally applied along with

three P rates (0, 26, and 52.8 kg P/ha). Aus is the heavy rainfall period in Bangladesh. From 26 May to 23 Aug, 1,135.9 mm rain fell in Mymensingh. Rainwater S content varied from 0.99 to 1.25 ppm. Irrigation water used in lysimeters to maintain water level at 5 cm above the root surface contained 0.50-0.75 ppm S. Phosphate treatments appeared to have the dominant effect on S content in leachate, which ranged from 1.23 to 4.08 ppm, with a maximum S loss of 54.2 kg/ ha occurring in the P120 treatment (see table). The P60 treatment recorded both the highest rice plant S uptake (10.9 kg/ha) and the highest grain yield (4.2 t/ha). A negative S balance for rice was generated using inputs and S losses to

Item Yield (t/ha) Grain Straw S input (kg/ha) Fertilizer Irrigation Rain S uptake (kg/ha) Grain Straw S loss (kg/ha) Leachate S balance (kg/ha)

P0 3.6 4.8 20 15.7 12.5 2.8 4.4 41.6 0.6

P60 4.2 5.2 20 15.7 12.5 5.6 5.3 45.3 8.1

P120 3.5 4.6 20 15.7 12.5 2.3 4.3 54.2 12.6

draw a balance sheet (see table). Phosphate fertilizer increased the S loss from flooded soil, resulting in a higher negative S balance for rice.

Fertilizer managementorganic sources

Green manure (GM) management and its effect on lowland rice yield
P. Balasubramaniyan and SP. Palaniappan, Centre for Soil and Crop Management Studies, Tamil Nadu G.D. Naidu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 3, India

1990-Feb 1991. GM levels (no GM, GM grown in situ and incorporated, and GM transported and incorporated) and time allowed before planting were in the main

plots. N levels (0, 50, 100 kg/ha) were in the subplots. Daincha seeds were sown on three different dates at 1-wk intervals to allow time after GM incorporation and before planting rice. Daincha was incorporated
Straw yield (t/ha) Mean 4.0 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.0 5.5 5.3 5.2 4.7 4.9 4.9 N level (kg/ha) 0 2.5 3.6 3.2 3.8 4.1 4.9 5.3 3.6 5.0 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.4 LSD (0.05) 0.69 ns 0.37 ns 50 4.1 4.5 4.2 4.2 5.2 6.7 6.8 4.4 6.1 5.1 5.0 4.7 5.6 100 4.8 5.2 6.0 6.5 5.9 6.8 6.8 6.2 6.4 6.0 5.9 5.8 6.4 Mean 3.8 4.4 4.5 4.7 5.1 6.1 6.3 4.8 5.8 4.9 4.9 5.5

Effect of GM management on rice yield. Coimbatore, India, Nov 1990-Feb 1991. Period between GM incorporation and rice planting (d) 1 7 15 1 7 15 1 7 15 1 7 15 LSD (0.05) GM Time interval N levels Interaction Grain yield (t/ha) N level (kg/ha) 0 2.9 3.7 3.6 4.4 4.4 4.8 5.2 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.3 0.24 ns 0.27 ns 50 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.5 4.9 4.7 4.9 5.0 100 4.7 5.1 5.5 4.9 5.4 5.1 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.3 5.2 5.5 5.4


Daincha Sesbania aculeata is an important GM crop in the lowland rice ecosystem in Tamil Nadu. We compared the effect of incorporating GM grown in situ with that transported from elsewhere and incorporated. We also studied the possibility of planting rice immediately after GM incorporation. The experimental field soil in Coimbatore wetlands was clay loam classified as Typic Haplustalf with a pH of 8.3. It was low in available N (148.5 kg/ha), medium in P (Bray P, 18.9 kg/ha), and high in K (ammonium acetate K, 595 kg/ha). A split-plot design was laid out and replicated three times during Nov

No GM GM grown in situ GM transported and incorporated Mean


IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

at a uniform rate of 12.5 t/ha at 50 d of growth (N was 1.1% of fresh biomass). Excess was removed from the field. GM sown simultaneously in an adjacent field was cut, transported, and incorporated in the other treatment. Short-duration (105 d) rice variety ADT36 was planted 1, 7, and 15 d after

GM incorporation. We planted at different days after submergence in the no-GM plot. P and potash were basally applied to all plots; N was applied at varied rates and split as 50% basal, 25% active tillering, and 25% panicle initiation stages. Grain yield was recorded at 14% moisture; straw was sun-dried.

GM significantly increased rice grain and straw yields (see table). GM transported and incorporated gave the highest yield. Time interval after incorporation showed no significant variation in yield. This indicates the possibility of planting rice the day after GM incorporation. N at 100 kg/ha gave the highest yield.

Crop management
Managing rice ratoons
S. Sahoo and D. Lenka, Agronomy Department, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, India

Table 1. Yield and yield characters of ratoon crops. a Panicles (no./m 2 ) Fertility level (kg/ha) K N P 20 4.3 8.3 40 8.7 16.7 60 13 25 LSD (0.05) Stubble height (cm) 10 20 LSD (0.05) Cultural practice No beushaning Beushaning Mean
a ns

Grains (no./panicle)

Chaffy grains (no./panicle)

1,000grain wt (g)

Yield (t/ha) Grain Straw

Beushaning is the practice of plowing young rice crops in 510 cm of standing water followed by laddering, redistributing seedlings to fill gaps, and hand weeding. Beushaning loosens and aerates the soil, enhances tillering and root growth, and improves drought and pest tolerance. We conducted field research to determine whether beushaning also improves ratoon rice yield. CR1009 was grown during 1989 monsoon (JulDec) and ratooned during 198990 summer (DecApr). It was transplanted and fertilized with 60-13-25 kg NPK/ha. We harvested after 166 d and left 10- or 20-cm stubble. The ratoon was fertilized at 20-4.3-8.3, 40-8.7-16.7, or 60-13-25 kg NPK/ha. Half of the ratoon crop was beushaned. Combinations of these treatments (2 3 2) were imposed on the ratoon crop laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Sarathi (119 d) was transplanted during summer for comparison. Application of 60-13-25 kg NPK/ha to the ratoon crop significantly increased panicles/m2, grains/panicle, and grain weight (Table 1). Beushaning had no significant effect on any of the yield-contributing characters. Though it increased the tillering ability of the stubble, it decreased hills/m2. Ratoons from 10-cm-high stubble yielded 2 t/ha, 0.54 t more than the yield of ratoons from 20-cm-high stubble.

299 281 389 49 333 313 ns 332 314 323

67 70 77 2 74 69 2 72 71 72

16.0 15.7 14.3 ns 14.0 16.6 2.5 15.5 15.1 15.3

21.8 22.3 23.7 0.8 22.4 22.8 ns 22.5 22.7 22.6

1.6 1.8 1.8 ns 2.0 1.5 0.3 1.7 1.8 1.8

2.3 2.6 2.5 ns 2.9 2.1 0.5 2.4 2.5 2.5

= not significant.

Straw yield was also greater for the 10cm stubble. The ratoon crop yielded approximately half as much as the main crop. Ratoon crop duration was 47 d less than that of the main crop (Table 2). The summer crop Sarathi yield was higher than that of the ratoon. Cultivation
Table 2. Comparison of main and ratoon crops. Character Plant height (cm) Hills (no./m 2) Tillers (no./m 2) Tillers (no/hill) Panicles (no./m 2) Panicles affected by stem borer (no./m2) Grains (no./panicle) Chaffy grains (no./panicle) Panicle length (cm) 1,000-grain weight (g) Grain yield (t/ha) Straw yield (t/ha) Chaffy grain yield (t/ha) Duration (d) Grains (kg/ha per d) Main crop Sarathi 77.6 49.6 270 5.4 244 20.6 124 22 22.2 24.3 3.2 4.9 0.3 166 19.5 Ratoon crop CR1009 47.1 44.9 451 9.9 323 14.2 72 15 16.7 22.6 1.8 2.5 0.1 119 14.7

cost was $142/ha for the ratoon crop and $209/ha for the summer crop. Net profit was $15/ha more for the summer crop. Ratooning should not be practiced unless problems such as waterlogging or time constraints confront farmers.

Effect of plant growth enhancer on lowland rice yield

P. S. Ongkingco and F. D. Garcia, Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya, Muoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

We studied the effect of WOKOZIM, a growth enhancer extracted from seaweed, on lowland rice yield in 1989 wet season (WS) and 1990 dry season (DS) at irrigated sites in Maligaya and in Midsayap, North Cotabato. Trials were laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications. Wetbed seedlings were transplanted 21 d after sowing. Treatments were the recommended fertilizer rate (60-30-30 kg NPK/ha in WS and 90-30-

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)


Effect of WOKOZIM on lowland rice yields in Maligaya, Nueva Ecija, and Midsayap, Cotabato, 1989 WS and 1990 DS. Treatment NPK (kg/ha) 1989 WS 60-30-30 60-30-30 90-30-30 90-30-30 1990 DS 90-30-30 90-30-30 120-30-30 120-30-30 WOKOZIM (ml/ha) 0 450 0 450 0 450 0 450 Grain yield a (t/ha) Maligaya IR64 2.8 b 3.4 ab 3.1 ab 3.7 a IR72 4.6 b 5.0 ab 4.6 b 5.2 a Midsayap IR72 3.6 b 4.2 a 3.4 b 4.1 a IR74 2.8 a 3.2 a 2.6 a 2.9 a

Effects of tillage practices and N levels on grain and straw yields of rainfed rice, 1990. Treatment a Tillage practices Dry seeding (DSR) DSR + halod (H) DSR with deep tillage (DT) DSRDT + H DSR + lantana mulch (LM) DSRDT + LM LSD (0.05) Yield (t/ha) Grain 1.2 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.5 Straw 3.0 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.3 ns Treatment a N levels (kg/ha) 40 80 120 LSD (0.05) Yield (t/ha) Grain 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.0 Straw 2.8 3.5 3.8 3.3

a Halod is plowing fields with standing water when rice is 15-20 cm.

a Mean of four replications. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by LSD.

Dry seeded rice (DSR) with deep tillage + halod (DSRDT + H) produced the most grain at 1.71 t/ha. Tillage

practice did not influence straw yield. Grain and straw yields increased significantly as N rates increased.

30 kg NPK/ha in DS); recommended fertilizer rate + WOKOZIM; farmers fertilizer rate (90-30-30 kg NPK/ha in WS and 120-30-30 kg NPK/ha in DS); and farmers fertilizer rate + WOKOZIM. We applied WOKOZIM to IR64 (WS) and IR72 (DS) at Maligaya and IR72 (WS) and IR74 (DS) in Midsayap. WOKOZIM increased yield 16-21% during WS and 8-14% during DS (see table). We attributed this increase to more tillers, higher percentage of filled grains, and heavier grains. Other agronomic parameters showed no statistical differences among treatments.

Technical inefficiency of rice production in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Zheng Rentian, Agricultural Systems Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50002, Thailand

Effect of nitrogen levels and soil moisture conservation practices on rainfed rice
K. Bassi, D. Tseten, and V. K. Sharma, Agronomy Department, Himachal Pradesh (HP) Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur I76062, HP, India

We studied how six tillage methods and three N application levels affected grain and straw yields of rice during 1990 wet season. The soil was silty-clay loam with pH 5.8, 9.3 g organic C/ha, 502.8 kg available N/ha, 4.7 kg available P/ha, and 272.3 kg available K/ha in the top 15 cm. The experiment was laid out in splitplot design with three replications. Tillage methods were in the main plots, N levels in the subplots (see table).

Rice is grown mainly during the wet season (Jun-Oct), followed by dry season (Nov-May) crops, in the lowland irrigated Chiang Mai Valley. Rice yields vary even with the same input levels, suggesting technical inefficiencies in production. We randomly sampled and interviewed 193 rice farmers using a structured questionnaire. We collected 1989 data from four cropping systems: rice soybean, rice - potato, rice - tomato, and rice - garlic. We analyzed the data using the stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontier production model. Per farm rice grain output was the dependent variable. Independent variables were per farm inputs of cropping area, labor, fertilizer, pesticides, and herbicides. Two error terms were specified: a random error with normal distribution (variation in yield due to random stresses beyond farmers control, such as bad weather) and a one-sided error with halfnormal distribution (loss due to farmer inefficiency). Farmers averaged 7.5% rice yield loss, meaning the average sampled rice yield

was only 92.5% of potential yield (see table). Rice yield loss to technical inefficiency was more than 10% for 19 farmers. The most inefficient farmer lost 26.1%. The T-test showed that inefficiency statistics were significant (p = 0.01). Further research, however, is needed to determine if increasing mean yield by 7.5% would be economical through the technical means considered in this analysis.
Potential and observed rice grain yield in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 1989. a Actual yield (t/ha) Potential yield (t/ha) Yield loss due to technical inefficiency Percent Amount (kg/ha)
aBased on 193 observations.

4.2 4.6 7.5 342

Space limitations prevent IRRN from publishing solely yield and yield component data from fertilizer field trials that are not conducted for at least two cropping seasons or at two differing sites. Publication of work in a single season or at one site is limited to manuscripts that provide either a) data and analysis beyond yield and yield components (e.g., floodwater parameters, microbial populations, soil mineral N dynamics, organic acid concentrations, or mineralization rates for organic N sources), or b) novel ways of interpreting yield and yield component data across seasons and sites.


IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

Integrated pest managementdiseases

Seed sprout extracts for control of rice tungro disease (RTD)
P. Narayanasamy and R. Viswanathan, Plant Pathology Department, Tamil Nadu G.D. Naidu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 6410031 India
Effect of seed sprout extracts on tungro infection in CO 43 rice plants. Plant source of extract Pigeonpea Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Mungbean Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek Black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Lablab Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet var puspureus Lablab Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet var Soybean Glycine max L. Horse gram Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Bengal gram Cicer arietinum L. Alfalfa Medicago sativa L. Prosopis cineraria (L.) Durce Subabul Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Sesbania rostrata Brem & Oberm. Control (water spray) LSD (P = 0.05) 4.8 Variety CO 5 CO 5 CoBG 305 CO 4 CO 9 (vegetable type) CO 10 (grain type) CO 1 CO 1 CO 3 CO 1

Concentration (%) 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 S 10 5 10 5 10 5 10

Infection (%) 12 8 16 12 20 12 20 16 36 24 32 20 36 20 52 48 36 24 24 20 60 48 32 28 24 20 76

Reduction (%) over a control 84.3 89.5 79.0 84.3 73.8 84.3 73.8 79.0 55.0 68.6 60.0 73.8 55.0 73.8 32.9 37.1 55.0 68.6 68.6 73.8 21.4 37.1 60.0 63.3 68.6 73.8 (66.65) (71.09) (62.73) (66.65) (59.21) (66.65) (59.21) (62.73) (47.86) (55.92) (50.78) (59.21) (47.86) (59.21) (35.10) (37.52) (47.86) (55.92) (55.92) (59.21) (27.56) (37.52) (50.78) (52.71) (55.92) (59.21) (0.57)

Some botanical extracts reportedly reduce the infection of plant viruses. We tested the effect of seed sprout extracts of leguminous plants (see table) in reducing RTD infection. We soaked the seeds in water for 72 h. We macerated the sprouts after diluting the extract with distilled water to get a 10% concentration (wt/vol). Extracts were sprayed at 5 and 10% concentration, on twenty-five 15-d-old CO 43 rice seedlings per treatment. Teepol was added to the spray at 1 ml/liter. Plants sprayed with distilled water and teepol served as control. Rice plants were infested 24 h after treatment with two viruliferous Nephotettix virescens Distant per plant. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design. We calculated the percentage of infected plants after infection symptoms developed and the percent reduction in infection over the control (see table).

CO 1

aValues in parentheses are sine transformed ones. bVarietal designation is not available.

Extract from pigeonpea, mungbean, and black gram at 10% concentrations reduced infection 84.389.5% over the control. Extracts at 10% concentration were more effective than those at 5%.
Bakanae disease incidence in rice in Pakistan, 1990.

Extracts from other plants also reduced infection by 21.479%. Experiments are being conducted to find how different fractions of the extracts affect infection.

Survey of Pakistan's rice crop for bakanae disease

M. I. Ahmed and T. Raza, Plant Pathology Department, University qf Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Fields surveyed (no.) 3 7 4 21 16 4 19 3 18 3

Disease incidence (%)/field Range 1.3 9.2 1.3 2.1 1.9 21.2 3.1 17.7 2.1 7.2 3.9 7.3 Average 4.1 1.5 3.9 15.1 4.7 5.5


Fields surveyed (no.) 10 9 11 12 4 4 12 13 9 3 10

Disease incidence (%)/field Range 1.0 0.7 3.0 1.3 2.1 7.0 3.1 2.2 2.7 7.3 11.1 3.9 63 43.1 11.2 3.1 Average 1.3 5.2 9.2 2.1 12.2 21.3 7.1 2.5

We randomly surveyed about 200 nearly mature ricefields in 22 localities in Pakistan for bakanae disease from Oct to Nov 1990. Field identification was based on plant appearance. Typical symptoms were elongated plants. The disease was confirmed in the laboratory by isolating the pathogen Fusarium moniliforme Sheld from diseased plants and backinoculating it to rice. Disease incidence percentagethe number of infected plants per 200 plants

Bannu Daska D.G. Khan Faisalabad Gujranwala Hafizabad Jaranwala Kambar Kasur Khuzdar

Nankana Sahib Narowal Okara Sahiwal Saidu Sawat Sheikhupura Sialkot Sumandri Umarkot Vihari

in each fieldranged from no symptoms in some areas to 63% around Sheikhupura (see table). The results

suggest bakanae disease is becoming significant in Pakistan's ricefields.

IRRN 17: 1 (February 1992)


Effect of N fertilization on false smut of rice

H. S. Dhindsa and K. S. Aulakh, Plant Pathology Department, Punjah Agricultural University (PAU). Ludhiana 141004, Punjah, India

We studied the effect of different N fertilizer levels on false smut Ustilaginoidea virens incidence. Rice varieties PR106 and PR109 were transplanted in 5- 2-m plots laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. N was applied in the main plot; varieties were in the subplot. Composite soil samples from 1015 cm were found deficient in N and P. PAU recommendations were followed, except

N was applied at 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, and 250 kg/ha in three splits. The first third of N (and 25 kg P/ha) was applied before puddling. The other splits were applied 3 and 6 wk after transplanting. Disease incidence increased as N level: increased (see table). Disease incidence in PR106 increased significantly when N levels went from 0 to 62.5 and 125 to 250 kg/ha. Disease incidence in PR109 was statistically more with every increase in N except from 125 to 187.5 kg/ha. Both varieties differed significantly in disease incidence at each N level. Linear regression analysis produced slopes of 0.0163 (PR106) and 0.0077 (PR109). The difference in slopes produced a t value of 7.947 that is highly significant at 6 degrees of freedom.

Effect of N on false smut incidence in rice. kg N/ha 0 62.5 I25 187.5 250 Mean LSD 0.05 False smut incidence PR106 1.4 (6.7) 3.3 ( 10.4) 4.2 (11.8) 4.7 (12.6) 5.8 (14.00) 3.9 (11.1) N 1.05 PR109 1.3 (6.4) 2.0 (8.0) 2.5 (9.1) 3.0 (9.8) 3.2 ( 10.3) 2.4 (8.7) Varieties 1.06

Mean 1.4 (6.5) 2.6 (9.2) 3.3 (10.4) 3.8 (11.2) 4.5 (12.1) 3.1 (9.9) N varieties nonsignificant

a Percent infected grain at crop maturity. Figures in parentheses are are sine transformations. LSD is applicable to these values only.

Serological classification of Indian strains of the rice bacterial blight (BB) pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) with monoclonal antibodies
S. S. Gnanamanickam, Center for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Madras 600025, India; Faiz-Ur Rehman, A. M. Alvarez, and A. A. Benedict, Plant Pathology and Microbiology Departments, University of Hawaii, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA

Serological classificationa of Indian strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). MAb X1 Xco-1 Xco-2 Xco-5 Xco-T G 4-7 Strains (no.) Presence or absence of Indian strain in given serogroup I + + + 51 IIa + + + 3 IIb + + 2 V + + 1 VI + + 2 VII + + 11

a + = strain reacts with the given MAb, = strain does not react with the given MAb.

Pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been generated and used to analyze the surface antigens that indicate the inherent variability in the BB pathogen. We studied the serological diversity of the Indian population of Xoo, and how the serotypes related to the pathogen's three races. Six MAbs were reacted with 70 strains of the pathogen from different areas. Three of the MAbsXco-1, Xco-2, and Xco-5had been used in India. But XcoT was generated recently to target specific pathogen strains T1 and T2 that Xco-1 (the pathovar-specific antibody) did not recognize (see table); G 4-7 was generated to target Xco-2 negative strains; and genus-specific X1 was used as a control.

All strains of xanthomonads associated with rice seed that were positive for MAb X1 but negative for Xoo-specific MAbs have been nonpathogenic on rice. Thus, pathovar-specific MAb Xco-1 was a quick BB indicator. Six serogroups were identified among the 70 Xoo strains based on antibody reactivity. Serogroup I had 51 strains that were positive for MAbs X1, Xco-1, and Xco-2 but negative for Xco5 (see table). Nineteen strains of the Indian Xoo population formed five new serogroups: IIa, IIb, V, VI, and VII. Strains T1 and T2, recognized by a strain-specific antibody (Xco-T), represent serogroup VI. The T strains are less virulent than several other strains and do not affect any of the differential rice cultivars;

therefore they do not belong to any of the three races of the pathogen previously identified in India. Several Indian pathogen strains represent a serogroup that was not recognized by any of the Xoo-specific antibodies (see table). The serotypes do not correspond to Indian races. This study indicates that the pathotype/race classification may not adequately represent the diversity of the Indian population. More significant is that all Xoo strains previously examined from a worldwide collection reacted with MAb Xco-1, while 14 of 70 Indian strains were negative for MAb Xco-1 and Xco-2. Thus, a distinct population has been identified.


IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

Identification of bacterial blight (BB) pathotype of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae in Batalagoda, Sri Lanka
N. Dissanayake and W. J. Ponnawila, Central Rice Breeding Station, Batalagoda, Ibbagamuwa, Sri Lanka

Reaction of differential rice varieties of Japan and IRRI and selected varieties with BB-resistance genes to various BB pathotype groups identified in several countries.

Reaction a to Differential variety

Resistance gene identified Philippine (IRRI) pathotypes c V S R R S R R R R S S I S S S R R S R R R S R II S S S R R S S R R R R III IV S S S R R S S R R S R S S S R R S S S R R R S R S S R S S R S R S S S S S S S MR S R S S MR S S R S S Isolate Indian from pathotypes d Batalagoda Ia Ib II

Japanese pathotypes b I II S S R R R R S R R S R III S S S R R R S R R S R IV S S S S S S S R R S S

Kinmaze e Kogyoku e Tetep e Wasaikoku Java 14 e IR8 f IR20

f f e

To identify which genes confer resistance to the BB pathotype found in Batalagoda, we compared it with identified pathotypes from Japan, the Philippines, and India. Differential rice varieties from Japan and IRRI and selected varieties with resistance genes were inoculated at maximum tillering during 1990 dry season and 1990-9 1 wet season. We evaluated plant resistance 2 wk after inoculation using Standard evaluation system for rice. The standard resistant check was DV85; standard susceptible varieties were Bg 34-6 and Seerage samba. Pathogenicity patterns of the bacterial isolate from Batalagoda differed from those of the five pathotypes from Japan and four from the Philippines (see table), but were similar to that of the Indian pathotype group Ia. Only xa 4, xa 7, and xa 13 confer resistance to the

IRl545-339 DV85

Cas 209 f Campo-selek Chugoku 45 IR22 Malagkit sungsong Khao Loy Nhay Bj 1 TN1 Bg 34-6 Seerage samba

None Xa 1 xa 12 Xa 1 Xa 2 Xa 3 Xa 1 Xa 3 xa 12 Xa 11 Xa 1 Xa 4 xa 12 xa 5 xa 5 Xa 7 Xa 10 Xa 3 Xa 3 Xa 4 Xa-6 xa 9 xa 13 Xa 14







= susceptible, R = resistant, MR = moderately differential variety. f IRRI differential variety.

resistant. bRecorded


1980. d Recorded

1980. eJapanese

pathotype found in Batalagoda, supporting an earlier observation that South

Asian pathotypes are more virulent than those of Japan and the Philippines.

Evaluation of chitinase production as a criterion for selecting bacterial antagonists for biological control of rice sheath blight (ShB)
K. V. Thara and S. S. Gnanamanickam, CAS in Botany, University of Madras, Madras 600025, India; and T. W. Mew, IRRI Chitinase may have a role in hydrolyzing the chitin in cell walls of Rhizoctonia solani and thus reduce the pathogen's aggressiveness. We studied whether strong chitinase production in a strain correlates with its ability to inhibit R. solani growth in agar plates and suppress ShB in rice plants.

Evaluation of bacterial strains for suppression of ShB in IR50. Madras, India, 1990-91. Bacterial strain NF83 NFl00 NFl0l NF104 NF110 NF118 NF124 NF164 NF181 NF188 NF227 NF243 NF336 NF340 NF353 NF354 F6 F11 F12 F75 F76

Chitinase production a 1 1 1 3 1 5 3 5 4 0 5 0 0 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 0

ShB suppression (%) Greenhouse 50.4 68.0 0.0 3.8 52.6 12.8 51.4 33.9 49.0 58.5 52.6 47.5 56.2 25.4 3.4 55.4 72.1 12.7 47.8 43.6 38.9 Field 0.0 8.8 1.9 14.0 9.2 2.9 6.5 12.2 4.0 18.7 19.7 9.6 5.1 0.0 0.0 5.0 34.3 19.2 32.8 6.6 18.9

Bacterial strain F80 F88 F92 F100 F1 F111 F114 F115 F125 F126 F141 F142 F145 F147 F156 F158 F159 F160 F161 Check

Chitinase production a 4 0 4 0 l00 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0

ShB suppression (%) Greenhouse 68.5 33.5 34.6 45.4 76.9 67.7 48.8 47.4 62.1 9.7 0.0 28.8 70.4 28.8 28.8 45.4 0.0 49.3 43.4 0.0 Field 4.9 13.3 3.7 12.0 15.4 19.2 5.9 15.5 21.3 18.2 16.7 20.7 18.4 20.7 21.5 15.0 20.4 16.2 3.5 0.0

= negative, 1-3 = weakly positive, 4-5 = strongly positive.

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)


We screened more than 1,000 bacterial strains for chitinase production by using 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl B-Dglucosaminide (4-Muf. Glc NAc) to detect chitobiose activity. Chitobiose is a product of the degradation of chitin by chitinase. Chitinase and chitobiose are produced concomitantly. Bacteria were incubated at 37 C for 10 min in 4-Muf. Glc NAc (Sigma) buffered substrate solution. Cells were then covered with one drop of a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and exposed to UV light at 366 nm. Chitinase produc-

ers showed intense blue fluorescence and were scored on a 1-5 scale (see table). Of the total bacterial strains, 43% were negative for chitinase production, 33.6% were weak producers, and 23.4% were strong producers. The 40 bacterial strains that were shortlisted (on the basis of pathogen inhibition) for greenhouse and seedbed evaluations showed no correlation between chitinase production and inhibition of R. solani in in vitro tests. Chitinase production and ShB suppression did not correlate in the greenhouse and field (seedbed) either (see table).

The fluorescent strains (F6, F12, F125, F14.5) that suppressed ShB most in greenhouse and seedbed tests of IR50 rice produced no or very little chitinase. Strain F6 suppressed ShB the best but had weak chitinase activity. It appears that the chitinase production test is not the sole indicator in selecting promising bacterial strains for biological control. Promising strains that do not produce chitinase may have other disease suppression actions.

Integrated pest managementinsects

Influence of lunar phase on yellow stem borer (YSB) attraction to light trap
S. Ramakrishnan and M. S. Venugopal, Horticultural Research Station, Udhagamandalam 643001, Tamil Nadu, India

bulb (MRL-T 200 W), were used to attract moths for 12 lunar months from Apr 1988 to Mar 1989. We categorized moth catches into four

lunar phases: full moon, last quarter, new moon, and first quarter. The number of moths caught in traps during different lunar phases did not vary significantly (see table).
YSB moths a (no.)

Influence of lunar phase on light trap catch of YSB moths. Trap MRL-T 125 W MRL-T 200 W

We studied the effect of lunar phases on YSB Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) moth light trap catches. Two modified Robinson light traps, one with a 125-watt mercury vapor lamp (MRL-T 125 W) and the other with a 200-watt incandescent

Full moon 29.66 (4.221) 42.92 (5.614)

Last quarter 55.75 (5.697) 97.85 (8.024)

New moon 58.08 (6.257) 143.25 (9.700)

First quarter 28.58 (4.682) 54.75 (6.511)

aMean of 12 lunar months. Figures in parentheses are transformed values.

Effect of foliar insecticide sprays on rice leaffolder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guene and rice yield
T. Bhudhasamai, P. Silapasorn, and N. Chantaraprapha, Rice Entomology Research Group, Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok 10903, Thailand

Effects of foliar insecticide sprays on LF control and yield in the field, Chachoengsao, Thailand, 1989 dry season. Insecticide Rate (g ai/ha) 300 410 520 50 100 250 75 525 300 LF-damaged leaves (no./20 hills) at 50 DT a 102.00 bc 34.25 a 12.25 a 100.75 bc 118.00 bc 131.75 bc 13.75 a 7.25 a 92.75 b 140.25 c Yield (t/ha) 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.1 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7

A field trial with 10 treatments and four replications was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a farmer's field in central Thailand in 1989. Rice variety RD7 was transplanted into 5- 6-m plots. Using a knapsack sprayer, we applied insecticides diluted with 500 liters of water/ha at 20, 35, and 50 d after transplanting (DT).

BPMC + a cypermethrin BPMC + a cypermethrin Buprofezin Buprofezin Buprofezin + MIPC Buprofezin + fenvalerate BPMC + fenvalerate Monocrotophos Control


a Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by Duncan's multiple range test. DT =days after transplanting.

Average number of LF-damaged leaves at 50 DT significantly differed among treatments (see table). Plots sprayed with BPMC + fenvalerate, buprofezin + fenvalerate, and BPMC +

a cypermethrin had less leaf damage. Yields were not significantly different among plots, indicating that high LF damage may not decrease yield.


IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)

Influence of weather factors on light trap catches of yellow stem borer (YSB)
S. Ramakrishnan and M. S. Venugopal, Horticultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu G.D. Naidu Agricultural University, Udhagamandalam 643001, Tamil Nadu, India

Multiple regression between YSB catches in different light traps and weather parameters a at RRS, Tirur.

Trap LBL-T 40 W MRL-T 125 W MRL-T 200 W LBL-T 40 W MRL-T 125 W + MRL-T 200 W

Multiple regression equation 93.07197 + 0.05877x1 0.86273x 2 0.3 1734x3 0.83071x4 88.30018 1.06939x1 0.06741x2 0.56557x3 0.50919x 4 201.77216 1.69501x1 0.89709x2 0.92290x 3 1.28137x 4 356.64844 2.18550x1 1.98679x2 1.86689x3 2.46711x4

R2 0.34962 0.33739 0.30677 0.32607

Light trap catches of YSB were recorded for a year (1988-89) using three light traps: a local bamboo light trap with an ordinary incandescent 40-watt bulb (LBL-T 40 W) and two modified Robinson light traps, one with a 125-watt mercury vapor lamp (MRL-T 125 W) and the other with a 200-watt incandescent bulb (MRL-T 200 W). Traps were

a x = maximum temperature, x = minimum temperature, x = rainfall, x = relative humidity. 2 3 4 1

installed 100 m apart at the Rice Research Station (RRS), Tirur. Multiple regression analysis was used to study the influence of weather elements on YSB catches. Mean weather parameters for the corresponding week were compared with light trap catches.

The regression equation explained 35% of the variation in LBL-T 40 W, 33.7% in MRL-T 125 W, and 30.7% in MRL-T 200 W, and 32.6% in the three traps collectively (see table). Weather factors did not significantly contribute to the trap catches, irrespective of light trap design.

Integrated pest managementother pests

Use of ducks to control golden apple snail Ampullarius (Pomacea) canaliculata in irrigated rice
P. C. Pantua, S. V. Mercado, F. O. Lanting, and E. B. Nuevo, Centralized Research Farm, IRRI

Treatments were replicated five times. Ducks remained in the plots for 2 d (8 h/d) and were then removed. Rice variety IR72 (12 d old) was transplanted the next day. Snail populations were estimated again for each plot at 7 d after transplantTable 1. Efficiency of different duck densities in reducing snail populations in irrigated rice. IRRI, May 1991. Duck density/plot 0 2 4 8 16 32 Snail control (%) in 7 d 13.4 b 89.2 a 77.2 a 91.4 a 97.2 a 95.8 a

ing using the same procedure. Rice was examined for snail damage. Two ducks/plot (200/ha) significantly reduced both the snail population (Table I) and damage to rice, with four or more per plot increasing effectiveness (Table 2). Results show that ducks are a potential alternative to chemical molluscicides in controlling the golden apple snail.
Table 2. Snail damage in irrigated rice at 7 d after transplanting with different densities of ducks, IRRI, May 1991. Duck density/plot 0 2 4 8 16 32 Snail-damaged rice hills a (no./100 m 2) 17.4 8.2 6.6 5.2 2.0 4.0 c bc b b a b

The golden apple snail was introduced in the Philippines as a source of food and income in the early 1980s. It spread into rice and now infests 400,000 ha. Farmers controlled the pest with chemical molluscicides until use was suspended because of safety and environmental concerns. Some Filipino farmers have used ducks (an important income source) to control the golden apple snail in rice. But no previous studies had documented the efficacy of ducks in suppressing snails or the stocking density needed for good results. We conducted a field experiment on the IRRI farm to determine how many ducks are needed to control snails in 1 ha of irrigated rice during the dry season (May 1991). Snails were up to 3 cm in diameter and were not fully grown. The 10- 10-m experimental plots were irrigated. Snails were counted 2 d later in five 1-m quadrats to estimate populations. Ducks (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32/ plot) were then introduced.

a Means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by Duncan's multiple range test (CV = 29%).

a Means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by Duncan's multiple range test.

Plant parasitic nematodes associated with upIand rice in Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia
J. C. Prot, IRRI; M. Herman, Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops; and A. Ahmadin, Sukarami Agricultural Research Institute for Food Crops (SARIF) Indonesia

We conducted a preliminary survey to identify the major plant parasitic

nematodes in upland rice in Sitiung. Deforestation and opening agricultural land at the site began 15 yr ago; upland rice has been cultivated for 13 yr. We collected 141 soil and root samples of a second upland rice crop, 1 yr after deforestation, at the SARIF experimental station in Sitiung (new fields = NF), and of 13-yr-old continuously cropped upland ricefields (old fields = OF). The third set was from

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)


farmers fields where upland rice has been grown for 113 yr (farmers fields = FF). Eight plant parasitic nematode genera were observed: Criconemella, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Trychodorus, and Xiphinema. Frequency (% of samples containing the genera) and abundance (log of the average number per dm3 of soil and g of root) were calculated in each field type for the four most important genera: Criconemella, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Xiphinema (see figure). Nematodes are considered potentially economically important when detected in >30% of surveyed fields. Nematodes are considered crop parasites when 200 individuals are recovered per dm3 of soil (abundance = 2.3) or an average of more than 20 individuals are recovered from 1 g of root (abundance = 1.3). Hoplolaimus, Rotylenchulus, and Trychodorus were detected in only 1, 1, and 3 samples, respectively, indicating they are not important upland rice parasites in Sitiung. Population densities of Helicotylenchus were low in 13% of the samples. High population densities of the four most important nematodes were observed in the rhizosphere and roots of upland rice, indicating they are parasites. The prevalent genus of plant parasitic nematode (Pratylenchus) in Sitiung was found in 66% of the samples. Duration of rice cultivation affected its occurrence, with detection in 39% of NF and 100% of OF. Criconemella was detected in 43% of OF. High population densities of Meloidogyne were in a few locations

Frequency and abundance per dm3 of soil and g of root of the major plant parasitic nematodes associated with upland rice in Sitiung, Sumatra, Indonesia. Vertical line = when nematode genera are considered frequent (>30%). Horizontal line = when abundance index >2.3 in soil and 1.3 in roots.

(16%). Xiphinema was frequently detected in NF (31%), but nor in OF (7%). Population with the highest frequency appears to shift from Xiphinema to Pratylenchus with increased years of cultivation.

Pratylenchus seems to be the main concern, but methods used to control it must not favor buildup of Meloidogyne and Criconemella populations.

Farming systems
Rice - fish farming system for Hunan, China
Shen Huashan, Chen Shujun, and Yang Guangli, Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China

About 87,000 ha were devoted to rice fish farming in Hunan Province in 1990. We evaluated the suitability and economics of the rice - fish system in 199091. Soil was Quaternary period red earth with pH 6.1, 0.8% organic C, and 140.2, 38, and 127 ppm available N, P, and K, respectively.

The multiple system experiment consisted of the three dominant patterns in Hunan and was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Varieties used were early rice Wei You 35, late rice Wei You 64, and rape variety Xiang 11. Rice - azolla - rape had the highest rice yield (Table 1), but the lowest


IRRN 17:l (February 1992)

Table 1. Yield and income from rice - fish farming system. Hunan, China, 199091. Farming system Rice - rape (control) Rice - azolla - rape Rice - azolla - fish - rape Yield (t/ha) Rice 13.8 14.2 12.9 Rape 1.2 1.2 1.2 Fish Gross return ($/ha) 2068.9 2119.2 2490.8 Net return ($/ha) 1145.0 1167.9 1501.1 Benefitcost ratio 1.24 1.21 1.52


Table 2. Energy transformation of rice - fish farming system. Hunan, China, 199091. Rice - rape (control) Total Organic Inorganic Commodity Total Product Secondary product By-product Output:input Product:inorganic Product:commodity Inorganic:input Light use efficiency (%) Energy input (10 8J/ha) 2274 1594 268 413 Energy output (10 8 J/ha) 3774.1 2119.9 1654.2 Energy efficiency 1.66 7.92 5.14 0.12 1.03 Rice - azolla rape 2647.0 1984 260 404 4647 2182.4 2465 1.76 8.40 5.41 0.10 1.23 Rice - azolla fish - rape 2739 2082 252 404 4626 2092 69 2465 1.69 8.29 5.17 0.09 1.21

benefit-cost ratio. Gross return, net return, and benefit-cost ratio were highest in the rice - azolla - fish - rape farming system. Rice - azolla - rape gave the highest energy output, output-input energy ratio, product energy-inorganic energy ratio, product energy-commodity energy ratio, and light use efficiency (Table 2). Inorganic energy-input energy ratio was lowest in rice - azolla - fish - rape system.

Productivity of rainfed ricebased cropping systems in West Bengal

N. R. Das andA. Kashyapi, Agronomy Department, FacultyofAgriculture,Bidhan ChandraKrishiViswavidyalaya,Kalyani 741235, WestBengal,India We studied the relative productivity of summer crops and their effect on wet

season (WS) rice and their residual effect on lentil Lens culinaris L. The rice-based cropping systems were evaluated under rainfed conditions in the subhumid tropics during 1989-91. The soil was clayey loam with pH 6.8, 0.61% organic C, 0.062% total N, 15 kg available P, and 160 kg available K/ha. WS rice fertilized with 0, 50, or 100 kg N/ha was transplanted after the

Effect of crops and N level on wet rice yields and aftereffect on lentil under rainfed condition. West Bengal, India, 198991. Crop yield (t/ha) Treatment

1st crop Grain/ fiber Straw/ stock 0.0 8.1 2.7 7.8 9.1 5.5 1.4

2d crop (rice) Grain Straw

3d crop (lentil) Grain Stock

Total Grain/ fiber 3.1 6.6 5.4 5.5 3.9 4.9 Straw/ stock 4.6 14.6 6.8 14.1 13.2 10.7

Net returns (US$ha)

harvest of a fallow check and four upland crops: jute cultivar Basudev, direct seeded rice MW 10, mungbean cultivar Pusa Baisakhi, and sesame cultivar Tilottama. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design on 8- 2-m plots. All summer crops were sown 2 May and harvested 31 Jul; IR36 rice was transplanted 7 Aug (25 d after seeding) at 25- 25-cm spacing, with 4 seedlings/ hill. K and P (25 kg/ha each) were applied to the rice, which was harvested 14 Nov. Lentil (B77) was broadcast 19 Nov and harvested 28 Feb. No fertilizer was used. Grain and straw yields of rice were maximum after either jute or mungbean (see table). Results were similar for thirdcrop lentil grain and stock yields. Jute rice - lentil showed the maximum crop production and net return among the 3crop systems. The mungbean - rice lentil sequence was second. Grain and straw/stock yields of both rice and lentil increased as the N level increased. Net returns of rice also increased.

Cropping system Fallow - rice - lentil Jute - rice - lentil Rice (d) - rice - lentil Mungbean - rice - lentil Sesame - rice - lentil Mean LSD (0.05) N level in rice (kg/ha) 0 50 100 Mean LSD (0.05)

Farm machinery
312 1212 816 980 644

0.0 1.8 2.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.2

1.7 3.2 1.6 3.2 1.6 2.3 0.2 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.3 2.0

2.0 3.7 1.8 3.7 1.7 2.6 0.2 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.6 0.1

1.4 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.4 0.1 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 ns

2.6 2.8 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.5 0.1 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.5 ns

Development of spinning brush VLV pesticide applicator

N. K. Awadhwal, G. R. Quick, and E. F. Cabrido, IRRI

3.4 3.7 4.1 3.7

4.8 5.1 5.5 5.1

376 440 528

a Mean of 2 yr. ns = not significant. bRice (d) = direct seeded rice.

The spinning brush very low volume (VLV) pesticide applicator is a new lowcost system that reduces labor. It works on the principle that when the bristles of

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Characteristics of spray delivered from different pesticide applicators,a IRRI. Equipment Brush applicator Micro ULVA (orange nozzle, 6 V) b CP 15 (HC 60) b CP 16 (Blue) Tung Ho (H. cone) VMD (m) 187 105 90 230 200 NMD (m) 90 73 70 125 70 VMD/ NMD 2.07 1.43 1.28 1.84 2.85 Swath width (cm) 100 150 60 50 50 Droplet density Mean (no./cm2 ) 43.1 127.5 32.9 81.2 35.5 CV (%) 30.2 47.0 60.1 48.3 41.0

a Mention of a commercial product is for specific information only and should not be construed as product endorsement by IRRI. b

Nozzle identification in parentheses.

Spinning brush VLV pesticide applicator. A. Brush atomizer. B. Main frame. C. Bevel gear. D. Chemical container. E. Nozzle. F. Deflector.

a wet brush are forcibly deflected and then allowed to bounce back swiftly, a spray of fine droplets is generated. The pesticide applicator consists of a rotary brush atomizer mounted on the end of a shaft that passes through a pipe frame. The structure is rotated manually with a bevel gear (see figure). An air bleed system is built into the lid of a 1liter container mounted on the frame. Chemical flows by gravity at a reasonably constant rate and drips onto the brush bristles. A sheet metal deflector generates a spray when the brush is rotated.

Droplets from the brush applicator have a volume median diameter (VMD) of 187 m, smaller than that of knapsack sprayers CP16 and Tung Ho but bigger than that of CP15 and Micro ULVA droplets (see table). The ratio of VMD to number median diameter (NMD) for the brush applicator was 2.07 compared with 2.85 for Tung Ho, indicating greater uniformity in droplet size from the brush. The brush applicator had a mean droplet density of 43.1 droplets/cm2 (CV 30.2%), which is adequate for pesticide application. The brush applicator applied pre- and post-emergence herbicides as well as other sprayers in replicated field trials. One application of butachlor (1.5 kg ai/ha) reduced weed intensity significantly (P <0.05) from 28.5 g/m 2 in the unsprayed treatment to 5.9 g/m 2 with the 2 brush applicator, 9.7 g/m with a knapsack sprayer, and 4.6 g/m 2 with a spinning disc applicator (SE 6.98).

Mean application rates for the brush applicator were 14.6 liters/ha for butachlor and 12.2 for 2,4-D (CV 0.76.1%) with the operator walking at an average speed of 0.5 m/s. The brush applicator covers a 1-m swath on the operators right-hand side. The empty applicator weighs about 2.2 kg. Its operation requires less effort than a knapsack sprayer. It requires 12-15 liters of water and about 6 h to cover 1 ha, whereas a knapsack sprayer requires more than 200 liters of water and 14 h/ ha when water is available at the field boundary. The brush applicator can be fabricated in local workshops and should be marketable for about US$20.00. A patent application has been filed in the Philippines. Blueprints are available free to interested manufacturers from IRRIs Agricultural Engineering Division.


Impact of extension contact on technology adoption
M. Wijeratne, Agricultural Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka

We investigated the impact of extension contact on technology adoption in a ricebased farming system in Matara District, Sri Lanka. One hundred randomly selected rice farmers were interviewed with the use of a pretested questionnaire. An index was constructed to measure the

degree of adoption of eight innovations: modem varieties, dapog nursery, transplanting, chemical fertilizers, chemical weed control, chemical pest and disease control, thresher use, and stubble clearing. Farmers were grouped into early and late adopters. Frequency of extension visits was nil/few or frequent (at least once in 2 mo). Adopter categories were then cross-tabulated with frequency of extension worker visits (see table) Twenty-two (85%) of the early adopters received frequent extension

visits compared with 42 (57%) of the late adopters. The 2 test indicated a significant relationship (at 0.05 level) between frequency of extension contacts and technology adoption. This implies that with more frequent visits, farmer adoption is earlier.
Association of extension visit frequency and farmer (n = 100) technology adoption. Frequency of visits Nil/few Frequent Early adopters (no.) 4 22 Late adopters (no.) 32 42


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International Rice Research Conference 1992
The International Rice Research Conference (IRRC) will be held 21-25 Apr 1992 at IRRI. It will focus on technological advances in irrigated lowland rice, with some discussion on favorable rainfed lowland rice. Major topics will be hybrid rice, impact of modern technology on environment and health, advances in rice pest science and management, and nutrient processes and management. Participation is by invitation.

Course on lowland development

The International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE) announces the first Senior Advanced Course on Lowland Development, 15 Sep-2 Oct 1992 at Delft, The Netherlands. The course focuses on professionals actively working in land and water development, particularly in lowland areas. Admission deadline is 1 Aug 1992. More information is available from IHE, Oude Delft 95, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands. Telephone: +31-15-78 80 21 Telex: 38099 ihe nl Cable: interwater Fax: +31-15-12 29 21

Deployment of Bacillus thuringiensis discussed at meeting

Forty scientists discussed the deployment of Bacillus thuringiesis (Bt) endotoxin in engineered rice plants 10-13 Jul 1991 at IRRI. The Bt endotoxin appears to have considerable potential in controlling insect pests such as yellow and striped stem borers, leaffolders, and gall midge. Participants recommended that IRRI lead future work on Bt deployment in rice. IRRI will hold collaborative meetings, develop standard Bt bioassay procedures, investigate genetic variability in stem borer populations under Bt treatment, expand in-house research, and cooperate with other organizations to develop and evaluate transgenic rice. IRRI has the largest collection of Bt grains, with nearly 4,000 already isolated. It has more than 40 types/combinations and at least two previously unknown toxins. IRRI will develop procedures for making the strains available to some laboratories.

Short training courses

Communication planning, training methods, management, audiovisual material production, and evaluation techniques are topics of 3-6 wk courses, scheduled from August to November 1992, by the Development Training and Communication Planning (DTCP) unit of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Courses are designed to give practical knowledge and skills for use in rural development projects in AsiaPacific countries. For more information, contact the training coordinator, DTCP/UNDP, 5th Floor, Bonifacio Building, University of Life Campus, Meralco Ave., Pasig, Metro Manila, Philippines. Cable: UNDEVCOM Manila. Telexes: 29018 DTCP PH, 63342 DTCP PN, Phones: 673-6401 to 4, Fax: (632) 8 16-406 1 or (632) 673-6405.

Symposium proceedings
Rice Production on Acid Soils of the Tropics --Proceedings of an international symposium, 26-30 Jun 1989. P. Deturck and F.N. Ponnamperuma, editors. 305 pages. US$10 (developing countries) or $20 (others), plus postage $10 (airmail) or $1 (surface mail). Make checks payable to Publications Division, Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

New IRRI publications

A century of rice improvement in Burma, by U Khin Win Rice genetics II Home chefs of the world

IRRN 17:1 (February 1992)


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