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UNIT 2

MECHANICAL VIBRATION

J.M. KRODKIEWSKI

2006

THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

.

1

2

MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS

Copyright

C

2006 by J.M. Krodkiewski

The University of Melbourne

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Printed by:

CONTENTS

0.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

I MODELLING AND ANALYSIS 7

1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM

LINEAR SYSTEMS 9

1.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . 9

1.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . . . 28

1.2.1 Free vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

1.2.2 Forced vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

1.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

2 MECHANICAL VIBRATIONOF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM

LINEAR SYSTEMS 66

2.1 MODELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

2.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

2.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . . 91

2.2.1 General case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

2.2.2 Modal analysis - case of small damping . . . . . . . . . . 100

2.2.3 Kinetic and potential energy functions - Dissipation

function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

2.2.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

2.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

2.3.1 Balancing of rotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

2.3.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 148

3.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

3.1.1 Modelling of strings, rods and shafts . . . . . . . . . . . 148

3.1.2 Modelling of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

CONTENTS 4

3.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

3.2.1 Free vibration of strings, rods and shafts . . . . . . . . . 154

3.2.2 Free vibrations of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

3.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

4 APPROXIMATION OF THE CONTINUOUS SYSTEM BY DIS-

CRETE MODELS 188

4.1 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS . . . . . . . . . 189

4.1.1 Rigid Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

4.1.2 Finite Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

4.2 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

4.3 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . 201

4.3.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

4.3.2 Condensation of the damping matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . 203

4.3.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . 203

4.3.4 Condensation of the external forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

4.4 PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

II EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 212

5 MODAL ANALYSIS OF ASYSTEMWITH3 DEGREES OF FREE-

DOM 213

5.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION . . . . . 213

5.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

5.2.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

5.2.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

5.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . 216

5.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped

system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

5.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates

- transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

5.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural

modes from the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

5.4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

5.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters . . 218

5.4.2 Measurements of the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . 219

5.4.3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters . . . . 220

5.5 WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

INTRODUCTION. 5

0.1 INTRODUCTION.

The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background

and engineering applications of the theory of vibrations of mechanical systems. It is

divided into two parts. Part one, Modelling and Analysis, is devoted to this solu-

tion of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the linear

models. The second part, Experimental Investigation, describes the laboratory

work recommended for this course.

Part one consists of four chapters.

The ﬁrst chapter, Mechanical Vibration of One-Degree-Of-Freedom

Linear System, illustrates modelling and analysis of these engineering problems

that can be approximated by means of the one degree of freedom system. Infor-

mation included in this chapter, as a part of the second year subject Mechanics 1,

where already conveyed to the students and are not to be lectured during this course.

However, since this knowledge is essential for a proper understanding of the following

material, students should study it in their own time.

Chapter two is devoted to modeling and analysis of these mechanical systems

that can be approximated by means of the Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom models.

The Newton’s-Euler’s approach, Lagrange’s equations and the inﬂuence coeﬃcients

method are utilized for the purpose of creation of the mathematical model. The

considerations are limited to the linear system only. In the general case of damping

the process of looking for the natural frequencies and the system forced response

is provided. Application of the modal analysis to the case of the small structural

damping results in solution of the initial problem and the forced response. Dynamic

balancing of the rotating elements and the passive control of vibrations by means of

the dynamic absorber of vibrations illustrate application of the theory presented to

the engineering problems.

Chapter three, Vibration of Continuous Systems, is concerned with the

problems of vibration associated with one-dimensional continuous systems such as

string, rods, shafts, and beams. The natural frequencies and the natural modes are

used for the exact solutions of the free and forced vibrations. This chapter forms a

base for development of discretization methods presented in the next chapter

In chapter four, Approximation of the Continuous Systems by Dis-

crete Models, two the most important, for engineering applications, methods of

approximation of the continuous systems by the discrete models are presented. The

Rigid Element Method and the Final Element Method are explained and utilized to

produce the inertia and stiﬀness matrices of the free-free beam. Employment of these

matrices to the solution of the engineering problems is demonstrated on a number of

examples. The presented condensation techniques allow to keep size of the discrete

mathematical model on a reasonably low level.

Each chapter is supplied with several engineering problems. Solution to some

of them are provided. Solution to the other problems should be produced by students

during tutorials and in their own time.

Part two gives the theoretical background and description of the laboratory

experiments. One of them is devoted to the experimental determination of the nat-

ural modes and the corresponding natural frequencies of a Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom-

INTRODUCTION. 6

System. The other demonstrates the balancing techniques.

Part I

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS

7

8

Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problems that aims to-

wards producing its mathematical description. This mathematical description can

be obtained by taking advantage of the known laws of physics. These laws can not

be directly applied to the real system. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many

assumptions that simplify the engineering problems to such extend that the physic

laws may be applied. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model.

Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical

description that is called mathematical model. Process of solving of the mathematical

model is called analysis and yields solution to the problem considered. One of the

most frequently encounter in engineering type of motion is the oscillatory motion of

a mechanical system about its equilibrium position. Such a type of motion is called

vibration. This part deals with study of linear vibrations of mechanical system.

Chapter 1

MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM

LINEAR SYSTEMS

DEFINITION: Any oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its

equilibrium position is called vibration.

1.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

DEFINITION: Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problem

that aims for producing its mathematical description.

The mathematical description of the engineering problem one can obtain by

taking advantage of the known lows of physics. These lows can not be directly

applied to the real system. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions

that simplify the problem to such an extend that the physic laws may by apply. This

part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. Application of the physics

law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description which is called

mathematical model.

1.1.1 Physical model

As an example of vibration let us consider the vertical motion of the body 1 suspended

on the rod 2 shown in Fig. 1. If the body is forced out from its equilibrium position

and then it is released, each point of the system performs an independent oscillatory

motion. Therefore, in general, one has to introduce an inﬁnite number of independent

coordinates x

i

to determine uniquely its motion.

t

x

i

i

1

2

Figure 1

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 10

DEFINITION: The number of independent coordinates one has to use to

determine the position of a mechanical system is called number of degrees of

freedom

According to this deﬁnition each real system has an inﬁnite number of degrees

of freedom. Adaptation of certain assumptions, in many cases, may results in reduc-

tion of this number of degrees of freedom. For example, if one assume that the rod

2 is massless and the body 1 is rigid, only one coordinate is suﬃcient to determine

uniquely the whole system. The displacement x of the rigid body 1 can be chosen as

the independent coordinate (see Fig. 2).

t

x

i

x

i

x

1

2

Figure 2

Position x

i

of all the other points of our system depends on x. If the rod

is uniform, its instantaneous position as a function of x is shown in Fig. 2. The

following analysis will be restricted to system with one degree of freedom only.

To produce the equation of the vibration of the body 1, one has to produce

its free body diagram. In the case considered the free body diagram is shown in Fig.

3.

t

x

1

R

G

Figure 3

The gravity force is denoted by G whereas the force R represents so called

restoring force. In a general case, the restoring force R is a non-linear function of

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 11

the displacement x and the instantaneous velocity ˙ x of the body 1 (R = R(x, ˙ x)).

The relationship between the restoring force R and the elongation x as well as the

velocity ˙ x is shown in Fig. 4a) and b) respectively.

x

x

.

R R

0

0

a)

b)

Figure 4

If it is possible to limit the consideration to vibration within a small vicinity

of the system equilibrium position, the non-linear relationship, shown in Fig. 4 can

be linearized.

R=R(x, ˙ x) ≈ kx +c ˙ x (1.1)

The ﬁrst term represents the system elasticity and the second one reﬂects the system’s

ability for dissipation of energy. k is called stiﬀness and c is called coeﬃcient of

damping. The future analysis will be limited to cases for which such a linearization

is acceptable form the engineering point of view. Such cases usually are refer to as

linear vibration and the system considered is call linear system.

Result of this part of modelling is called physical model. The physical model

that reﬂects all the above mention assumption is called one-degree-of-freedom linear

system. For presentation of the physical model we use symbols shown in the Fig. 5.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 12

m

ϕ

x

m,I

m

k

A, J, E

ϕ

k

c

ϕ

.

c

rigid block of mass

rigid body of mass

m

m and moment of inertia I

particle of of mass m

massless spring of stifness k

massless beam area second moment of area and Young modulus A, J E

(linear motion)

(angular motion)

(linear motion)

massless spring of stifness k (angular motion)

massless damper of damping coefficient c (linear motion)

massless damper of damping coefficient c (angular motion)

Figure 5

1.1.2 Mathematical model

To analyze motion of a system it is necessary to develop a mathematical description

that approximates its dynamic behavior. This mathematical description is referred to

as the mathematical model. This mathematical model can be obtained by application

of the known physic lows to the adopted physical model. The creation of the phys-

ical model, has been explained in the previous section. In this section principle of

producing of the mathematical model for the one-degree-of-freedom system is shown.

Let us consider system shown in Fig. 6.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 13

k

m

c

x

mg

s

k x

Figure 6

Let as assume that the system is in an equilibrium. To develop the mathe-

matical model we take advantage of Newton’s generalized equations. This require

introduction of the absolute system of coordinates. In this chapter we are assuming

that the origin of the absolute system of coordinates coincides with the centre of

gravity of the body while the body stays at its equilibrium position as shown in Fig.

6. The resultant force of all static forces (in the example considered gravity force

mg and interaction force due to the static elongation of spring kx

s

) is equal to zero.

Therefore, these forces do not have to be included in the Newton’s equations. If the

system is out of the equilibrium position (see Fig. 7) by a distance x, there is an

increment in the interaction force between the spring and the block. This increment

is called restoring force.

k

m

c

x

mg

s

k x

-k\x\=-kx

x>0

x<0

k\x\=-kx

Figure 7

In our case the magnitude of the restoring force is |F

R

| = k |x|

If x > 0, the restoring force is opposite to the positive direction of axis x.

Hence F

R

= −k |x| = −kx

If x < 0, the restoring force has the same direction as axis x. Hence F

R

=

+k |x| = −kx

Therefore the restoring force always can be represented in the equation of motion by

term

F

R

= −kx (1.2)

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 14

k

m

c

x

mg

s

k x

-c\x\=-cx

x>0

x<0

.

.

.

+c\x\=-cx

. .

.

Figure 8

Creating the equation of motion one has to take into consideration the interac-

tion force between the damper and the block considered (see Fig. 8). This interaction

force is called damping force and its absolute value is |F

D

| = c | ˙ x| . A very similar to

the above consideration leads to conclusion that the damping force can be represented

in the equation of motion by the following term

F

D

= −c ˙ x (1.3)

k

m

c

x

F (t)

ex

Figure 9

The assumption that the system is linear allows to apply the superposition

rules and add these forces together with the external force F

ex

(t) (see Fig. 9). Hence,

the equation of motion of the block of mass m is

m¨ x = −kx −c ˙ x +F

ex

(t) (1.4)

Transformation of the above equation into the standard form yields

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = f(t) (1.5)

where

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 15

ω

n

=

r

k

m

; 2ςω

n

=

c

m

; f(t) =

F

ex

(t)

m

(1.6)

ω

n

- is called natural frequency of the undamped system

ς - is called damping factor or damping ratio

f(t) - is called unit external excitation

The equation 1.5 is known as the mathematical model of the linear vibration

of the one-degree-of-freedom system.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 16

1.1.3 Problems

Problem 1

A

c

y

k

1

k

2

m

Figure 10

The block of mass m (see Fig. 10)is restricted to move along the vertical axis.

It is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k

1

, the spring of stiﬀness k

2

and the damper

of damping coeﬃcient c. The upper end of the spring k

2

moves along the inertial axis

y and its motion is governed by the following equation

y

A

= a sinωt

were a is the amplitude of motion and ω is its angular frequency. Produce the equation

of motion of the block.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 17

Solution

A

c

y

k

1

k

2

m

x

Figure 11

Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with

the centre of gravity of the block 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see

Fig. 11. Application of the Newton’s low results in the following equation of motion

m¨ x = −k

2

x −k

1

x +k

2

y −c ˙ x (1.7)

Its standard form is

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = q sinωt (1.8)

where

ω

2

n

=

k

1

+k

2

m

2ςω

n

=

c

m

q =

k

2

a

m

(1.9)

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 18

Problem 2

r

R

1

2

Figure 12

The cylinder 1 (see Fig. 12) of mass m and radius r is plunged into a liquid

of density d. The cylindric container 2 has a radius R. Produce the formula for the

period of the vertical oscillation of the cylinder.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 19

Solution

r

R

x

x

G

z

V

V

1

2

Figure 13

Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with

the centre of gravity of the cylinder 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position

(see Fig. 13. If the cylinder is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance

x, the hydrostatic force acting on the cylinder is reduced by

∆H = (x +z) dgπr

2

(1.10)

Since the volume V

1

must be equal to the volume V

2

we have

V

1

= πr

2

x = V

2

= π

¡

R

2

−r

2

¢

z (1.11)

Therefore

z =

r

2

R

2

−r

2

x (1.12)

Introducing the above relationship into the formula 1.10 one can get that

∆H =

µ

x +

r

2

R

2

−r

2

x

¶

dgπr

2

= πdg

µ

R

2

r

2

R

2

−r

2

¶

x (1.13)

According to the Newton’s law we have

m¨ x = −dgπ

µ

R

2

r

2

R

2

−r

2

¶

x (1.14)

The standard form of this equation of motion is

¨ x +ω

2

n

x = 0 (1.15)

where

ω

2

n

=

dg

m

π

µ

R

2

r

2

R

2

−r

2

¶

(1.16)

The period of the free oscillation of the cylinder is

T

n

=

2π

ω

n

=

2π

Rr

s

m(R

2

−r

2

)

πdg

=

2

Rr

s

mπ (R

2

−r

2

)

dg

(1.17)

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 20

Problem 3

c

R

G

D

L

m

1

Figure 14

The disk 1 of mass mand radius R(see Fig. 14) is supported by an elastic shaft

of diameter D and length L. The elastic properties of the shaft are determined by

the shear modulus G. The disk can oscillate about the vertical axis and the damping

is modelled by the linear damper of a damping coeﬃcient c. Produce equation of

motion of the disk

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 21

Solution

c

R

G

D

L

m

1

ϕ

Figure 15

Motion of the disk is governed by the generalized Newton’s equation

I ¨ ϕ = −k

s

ϕ −cR

2

˙ ϕ (1.18)

where

I =

mR

2

2

- the moment of inertia of the disk

k

s

=

T

ϕ

=

T

TL

JG

=

JG

L

=

πD

4

G

32L

the stiﬀness of the rod

Introduction of the above expressions into the equation 1.18 yields

I ¨ ϕ +cR

2

˙ ϕ +

πD

4

G

32L

ϕ = 0 (1.19)

or

¨ ϕ + 2ςω

n

˙ ϕ +ω

2

n

ϕ = 0 (1.20)

where

ω

2

n

=

πD

4

G

32LI

2ςω

n

=

cR

2

I

(1.21)

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 22

Problem 4

O

k

c

l

b

a

1

m

Figure 16

The thin and uniform plate 1 of mass m (see Fig. 16) can rotate about

the horizontal axis O. The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position.

The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. Produce the

equation of motion of the plate.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 23

Solution

O

k

c

l

b

a

1

m

ϕ

Figure 17

Motion of the plate along the coordinate ϕ (see Fig. 17) is govern by the

generalized Newton’s equation

I ¨ ϕ = M (1.22)

The moment of inertia of the plate 1 about its axis of rotation is

I =

mb

2

6

(1.23)

The moment which act on the plate due to the interaction with the spring k and the

damper c is

M = −kl

2

ϕ −cb

2

˙ ϕ (1.24)

Hence

mb

2

6

¨ ϕ +kl

2

ϕ +cb

2

˙ ϕ = 0 (1.25)

or

¨ ϕ + 2ςω

n

˙ ϕ +ω

2

n

ϕ = 0 (1.26)

where

ω

2

n

=

6kl

2

mb

2

2ςω

n

=

6c

m

(1.27)

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 24

Problem 5

E,I

M

m

ω t

l

c

µ

Figure 18

The electric motor of mass M (see Fig. 18)is mounted on the massless beam of

length l, the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and the Young modulus

E. The shaft of the motor has a mass m and rotates with the angular velocity ω. Its

unbalance (the distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity)

is µ. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of

the damping coeﬃcient c. Produce the equation of motion of the system.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 25

Problem 6

y

A

0

c

k

d D

l

L

Figure 19

The wheel shown in the Fig. 19 is made of the material of a density . It

can oscillate about the horizontal axis O. The wheel is supported by the spring of

stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. The right hand end of the

damper moves along the horizontal axis y and its motion is given by the following

equation

y = a sin ωt

Produce the equation of motion of the system

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 26

Problem 7

L

r

1

2

Figure 20

The cylinder 1 of mass m is attached to the rigid and massless rod 2 to form

the pendulum shown in the Fig. 20. Produce the formula for the period of oscillation

of the pendulum.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 27

Problem 8

O

k

c

l

b

a

1

m

Figure 21

The thin and uniform plate 1 (see Fig. 21) of mass m can rotate about the

horizontal axis O. The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position. The

damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. Produce the formula

for the natural frequency of the system.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 28

1.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

1.2.1 Free vibration

DEFINITION: It is said that a system performs free vibration if there are

no external forces (forces that are explicitly dependent on time) acting on this

system.

In this section, according to the above deﬁnition, it is assumed that the resul-

tant of all external forces f(t) is equal to zero. Hence, the mathematical model that

is analyzed in this section takes form

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = 0 (1.28)

The equation 1.28 is classiﬁed as linear homogeneous ordinary diﬀerential equation of

second order. If one assume that the damping ratio ς is equal to zero, the equation

1.28 governs the free motion of the undamped system.

¨ x +ω

2

n

x = 0 (1.29)

Free vibration of an undamped system

The general solution of the homogeneous equation 1.29 is a linear combination of its

two particular linearly independent solutions. These solutions can be obtained by

means of the following procedure. The particular solution can be predicted in the

form 1.30.

x = e

λt

(1.30)

Introduction of the solution 1.30 into the equation 1.29 yields the characteristic equa-

tion

λ

2

+ω

2

n

= 0 (1.31)

This characteristic equation has two roots

λ

1

= +iω

n

and λ

2

= −iω

n

(1.32)

Hence, in this case, the independent particular solution are

x

1

= sin ω

n

t and x

2

= cos ω

n

t (1.33)

Their linear combination is the wanted general solution and approximates the free

vibration of the undamped system.

x = C

s

sinω

n

t +C

c

cos ω

n

t (1.34)

The two constants C

s

and C

c

should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions which

reﬂect the way the free vibrations were initiated. To get an unique solution it is nec-

essary to specify the initial position and the initial velocity of the system considered.

Hence, let us assume that at the instant t = 0 the system was at the position x

0

and

was forced to move with the initial velocity v

0

. Introduction of these initial conditions

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 29

into the equation 1.34 results in two algebraic equation that are linear with respect

to the unknown constants C

s

and C

c

.

C

c

= x

0

C

s

ω

n

= v

0

(1.35)

According to 1.34, the particular solution that represents the free vibration of the

system is

x =

v

0

ω

n

sinω

n

t +x

0

cos ω

n

t =

= C sin(ω

n

t +α) (1.36)

where

C =

s

(x

0

)

2

+

µ

v

0

ω

n

¶

2

; α = arctan

Ã

x

0

v

0

ω

n

!

(1.37)

For ω

n

= 1[1/s], x

0

= 1[m] v

0

= 1[m/s] and ς = 0 the free motion is shown in Fig.

22 The free motion, in the case considered is periodic.

40

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

10 20 30 50

x[m]

t[s]

C

T

n

α

x

o

v

o

Figure 22

DEFINITION: The shortest time after which parameters of motion repeat

themselves is called period and the motion is called periodic motion.

According to this deﬁnition, since the sine function has a period equal to 2π,

we have

sin(ω

n

(t +T

n

) +α) = sin(ω

n

t +α + 2π) (1.38)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 30

Hence, the period of the undamped free vibrations is

T

n

=

2π

ω

n

(1.39)

Free vibration of a damped system

If the damping ratio is not equal to zero, the equation of the free motion is

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = 0 (1.40)

Introduction of the equation 1.30 into 1.40 yields the characteristic equation

λ

2

+ 2ςω

n

λ +ω

2

n

= 0 (1.41)

The characteristic equation has two roots

λ

1,2

=

−2ςω

n

±

p

(2ςω

n

)

2

−4ω

2

n

2

= −ςω

n

±ω

n

p

ς

2

−1 (1.42)

The particular solution depend on category of the above roots. Three cases are

possible

Case one - underdamped vibration

If ς < 1, the characteristic equation has two complex conjugated roots and

this case is often referred to as the underdamped vibration.

λ

1,2

= −ςω

n

±iω

n

p

1 −ς

2

= −ςω

n

±iω

d

(1.43)

where

ω

d

= ω

n

p

1 −ς

2

(1.44)

The particular solutions are

x

1

= e

−ςω

n

t

sin ω

d

t and x

2

= e

−ςω

n

t

cos ω

d

t (1.45)

and their linear combination is

x = e

−ςω

n

t

(C

s

sin ω

d

t +C

c

cos ω

d

t) (1.46)

For the following initial conditions

x |

t=0

= x

0

˙ x |

t=0

= v

0

(1.47)

the two constants C

s

and C

c

are

C

s

=

v

0

+ςω

n

x

0

ω

d

C

c

= x

0

(1.48)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 31

Introduction of the expressions 1.48 into 1.46 produces the free motion in the following

form

x = e

−ςωnt

(C

s

sinω

d

t +C

c

cos ω

d

t) = Ce

−ςωnt

sin(ω

d

t +α) (1.49)

where

C =

s

µ

v

0

+ςω

n

x

0

ω

d

¶

2

+ (x

0

)

2

; α = arctan

x

0

ω

d

v

0

+ςω

n

x

0

; ω

d

= ω

n

p

1 −ς

2

(1.50)

For ω

n

= 1[1/s], x

0

= 1[m] v

0

= 1[m/s] and ς = .1 the free motion is shown in Fig.

23In this case the motion is not periodic but the time T

d

(see Fig. 23) between every

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

10 20 30 40 50

x[m]

t[s]

T

d

T

d

x(t)

x(t+ T

d

t

x

o

v

o

)

Figure 23

second zero-point is constant and it is called period of the dumped vibration. It is easy

to see from the expression 1.49 that

T

d

=

2π

ω

d

(1.51)

DEFINITION: Natural logarithm of ratio of two displacements x(t) and

x(t + T

d

) that are one period apart is called logarithmic decrement of damping

and will be denoted by δ.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 32

It will be shown that the logaritmic decrement is constant. Indeed

δ = ln

x(t)

x(t +T

d

)

= ln

Ce

−ςωnt

sin(ω

d

t +α)

Ce

−ςωn(t+T

d

)

sin(ω

d

(t +T

d

) +α)

=

= ln

Ce

−ςω

n

t

sin(ω

d

t +α)

Ce

−ςωnt

e

−ςωnT

d

sin(ω

d

t + 2π +α)

= ςω

n

T

d

=

2πςω

n

ω

d

=

2πςω

n

ω

n

√

1 −ς

2

=

=

2πς

√

1 −ς

2

(1.52)

This formula is frequently used for the experimental determination of the damping

ratio ς.

ς =

δ

p

4π

2

+δ

2

(1.53)

The other parameter ω

n

that exists in the mathematical model 1.40 can be easily

identiﬁed by measuring the period of the free motion T

d

. According to the formula

1.44 and 1.51

ω

n

=

ω

d

√

1 −ς

2

=

2π

T

d

√

1 −ς

2

(1.54)

Case two - critically damped vibration

If ς = 1, the characteristic equation has two real and equal one to each other

roots and this case is often referred to as the critically damped vibration

λ

1,2

= −ςω

n

(1.55)

The particular solutions are

x

1

= e

−ςω

n

t

and x

2

= te

−ςω

n

t

(1.56)

and their linear combination is

x = C

s

e

−ςω

n

t

+C

c

te

−ςω

n

t

(1.57)

For the following initial conditions

x |

t=0

= x

0

˙ x |

t=0

= v

0

(1.58)

the two constants C

s

and C

c

are as follow

C

s

= x

0

C

c

= v

0

+x

0

ω

n

(1.59)

Introduction of the expressions 1.59 into 1.57 produces expression for the free motion

in the following form

x = e

−ςω

n

t

(x

0

+t(v

0

+x

0

ω

n

)) (1.60)

For ω

n

= 1[1/s], x

0

= 1[m] v

0

= 1[m/s] and ς = 1. the free motion is shown in

Fig. 24. The critical damping oﬀers for the system the possibly faster return to its

equilibrium position.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 33

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

10 20 30 40 50

x[m]

t[s]

v

o

x

o

Figure 24

Case three - overdamped vibration

If ς > 1, the characteristic equation has two real roots and this case is often

referred to as the overdamped vibration.

λ

1,2

= −ςω

n

±ω

n

p

ς

2

−1 = ω

n

(−ς ±

p

ς

2

−1) (1.61)

The particular solutions are

x

1

= e

−ω

n

(ς+

√

ς

2

−1)t

and x

2

= e

−ω

n

(ς−

√

ς

2

−1)t

(1.62)

and their linear combination is

x = e

−ω

n

t

³

C

s

e

ω

n

√

ς

2

−1)t

+C

c

e

−ω

n

√

ς

2

−1)t

´

(1.63)

For the following initial conditions

x |

t=0

= x

0

˙ x |

t=0

= v

0

(1.64)

the two constants C

s

and C

c

are as follow

C

s

=

+

v

0

ω

n

+x

0

(+ς +

√

ς

2

−1)

2

√

ς

2

−1

C

c

=

−

v

0

ω

n

+x

0

(−ς +

√

ς

2

−1)

2

√

ς

2

−1

(1.65)

For ω

n

= 1[1/s], x

0

= 1[m] v

0

= 1[m/s] and ς = 5. the free motion is shown in Fig.

25

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 34

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

10 20 30 40 50

x[m]

t[s]

v

o

x

o

Figure 25

1.2.2 Forced vibration

In a general case motion of a vibrating systemis due to both, the initial conditions and

the exciting force. The mathematical model, according to the previous consideration,

is the linear non-homogeneous diﬀerential equation of second order.

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = f(t) (1.66)

where

ω

n

=

r

k

m

; 2ςω

n

=

c

m

; f(t) =

F

ex

(t)

m

(1.67)

The general solution of this mathematical model is a superposition of the general

solution of the homogeneous equation x

g

and the particular solution of the non-

homogeneous equation x

p

.

x = x

g

+x

p

(1.68)

The general solution of the homogeneous equation has been produced in the previous

section and for the underdamped vibration it is

x

g

= e

−ςω

n

t

(C

s

sinω

d

t +C

c

cos ω

d

t) = Ce

−ςω

n

t

sin(ω

d

t +α) (1.69)

To produce the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation, let as assume

that the excitation can be approximated by a harmonic function. Such a case is

referred to as the harmonic excitation.

f(t) = q sin ωt (1.70)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 35

In the above equation q represents the amplitude of the unit excitation and ω is the

excitation frequency. Introduction of the expression 1.70 into equation 1.66 yields

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = q sinωt (1.71)

In this case it is easy to predict mode of the particular solution

x

p

= A

s

sin ωt +A

c

cos ωt (1.72)

where A

s

and A

c

are constant. The function 1.72 is the particular solution if and

only if it fulﬁls the equation 1.71 for any instant of time. Therefore, implementing it

in equation 1.71 one can get

¡

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)A

s

−2ςω

n

ωA

c

¢

sin ωt+

¡

2ςω

n

ωA

s

+ (ω

2

n

−ω

2

)A

c

¢

cos ωt = q sinωt (1.73)

This relationship is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)A

s

−2ςω

n

ωA

c

= q

2ςω

n

ωA

s

+ (ω

2

n

−ω

2

)A

c

= 0 (1.74)

Solution of the above equations yields the expression for the constant A

s

and A

c

A

s

=

¯

¯

¯

¯

q −2ςω

n

ω

0 (ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

) −2ςω

n

ω

2ςω

n

ω (ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

¯

¯

¯

¯

=

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)q

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+ 4(ςω

n

)

2

ω

2

A

c

=

¯

¯

¯

¯

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

) q

2ςω

n

ω 0

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

) −2ςω

n

ω

2ςω

n

ω (ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

¯

¯

¯

¯

=

−2(ςω

n

)ωq

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+ 4(ςω

n

)

2

ω

2

(1.75)

Introduction of the expressions 1.75 into the predicted solution 1.72 yields

x

p

= A

s

sin ωt +A

c

cos ωt = Asin(ωt +ϕ) (1.76)

where

A =

p

A

2

s

+A

2

c

=

q

p

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+ 4(ςω

n

)

2

ω

2

ϕ = arctan

A

c

A

s

= −arctan

2(ςω

n

)ω

ω

2

n

−ω

2

(1.77)

or

A =

q

ω

2

n

q

(1 −(

ω

ω

n

)

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

(

ω

ω

n

)

2

ϕ = −arctan

2ς

ω

ω

n

1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

(1.78)

Introducing 1.69 and 1.76 into the 1.68 one can obtain the general solution of the

equation of motion 1.71 in the following form

x = Ce

−ςω

n

t

sin(ω

d

t +α) +Asin(ωt +ϕ) (1.79)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 36

The constants C and α should be chosen to fullﬁl the required initial conditions.

For the following initial conditions

x |

t=0

= x

0

˙ x |

t=0

= v

0

(1.80)

one can get the following set of the algebraic equations for determination of the

parameters C and α

x

0

= C

o

sinα

o

+Asin ϕ

v

0

= −C

o

ςω

n

sin α

o

+C

o

ω

d

cos α

o

+Aω cos ϕ (1.81)

Introduction of the solution of the equations 1.81 (C

o,

α

o

) to the general solution,

yields particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation that represents the forced

vibration of the system considered.

x = C

o

e

−ςωnt

sin(ω

d

t +α

o

) +Asin(ωt +ϕ) (1.82)

This solution, for the following numerical data ς = 0.1, ω

n

= 1[1/s], ω = 2[1/s],

C

o

= 1[m], α

o

= 1[rd], A = 0.165205[m], ϕ = 0.126835[rd] is shown in Fig. 26

(curve c).The solution 1.82 is assembled out of two terms. First term represents an

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

20 40 60

x[m]

t[s]

transient state of the forced vibration

steady state of the forced vibration

a b

c

A

Figure 26

oscillations with frequency equal to the natural frequency of the damped system ω

d

.

Motion represented by this term, due to the existing damping, decays to zero (curve

a in Fig. 1.82) and determines time of the transient state of the forced vibrations.

Hence, after an usually short time, the transient state changes into the steady state

represented by the second term in equation 1.82 (curve b in Fig. 1.82)

x = Asin(ωt +ϕ) (1.83)

This harmonic term has amplitude A determined by the formula 1.77. It does not

depend on the initial conditions and is called amplitude of the forced vibration. Mo-

tion approximated by the equation 1.83 is usually referred to as the system forced

vibration.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 37

Both, the exciting force f(t) = q sin ωt (1.70) and the (steady state) forced

vibration x = Asin(ωt +ϕ) (1.83) are harmonic. Therefore, they can be represented

by means of two vectors ’rotating’ with the same angular velocity ω (see Fig. 27).One

x

A

ω t

ϕ

q

Asin( t+ )

ϕ

ω

qsin( t ) ω

Figure 27

can see from the above interpretation that the angular displacement ϕ is the phase

between the exciting force and the displacement it causes. Therefore ϕ is called phase

of the forced vibration.

Because the transient state, from engineering point of view play secondary

role, in the following sections the steady state forced vibration will be considered

only.

Forced response due to rotating elements - force transmitted to foundation.

x

µ

ωt

m µ ω

2

sin ωt x

M

m

m µ ω

2

sin ωt

M

k c

R

m µ ω

2

a)

b)

Figure 28

One of many possible excitation of vibrations is excitation caused by inertia

forces produced by moving elements. The possibly simplest case of vibration cased

by this type of excitation is shown in Fig. 28. The rotor of an electrical motor rotates

with the constant angular velocity ω. If µ represents the static imbalance of the rotor

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 38

and m is its mass, then the rotor produces the centrifugal force

F = mµω

2

(1.84)

Its component along the vertical axis x is

F

x

= mµω

2

sinωt (1.85)

The motor of mass M is supported by means of a beam of the stiﬀness k. The

damping properties are approximated by the damping coeﬃcient c. Let us model

vibration of the system. The physical model of the problem described is shown in

Fig. 28b). Taking advantage of the earlier described method of formulation the

mathematical model we have

M¨ x = −kx −c ˙ x +mµω

2

sin ωt (1.86)

Transformation of this equation into the standard form yields

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = q sinωt (1.87)

where

ω

n

=

r

k

M

2ςω

n

=

c

M

q =

mµω

2

M

(1.88)

Hence, the steady state forced vibration are

x = Asin(ωt +ϕ) (1.89)

where according to 1.77

A =

q

ω

2

n

q

(1 −(

ω

ω

n

)

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

(

ω

ω

n

)

2

ϕ = −arctan

2ς

ω

ωn

1 −(

ω

ω

n

)

2

(1.90)

or, taking into consideration 1.88

A =

m

M

µ(

ω

ω

n

)

2

q

(1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

(

ω

ωn

)

2

ϕ = −arctan

2ς

ω

ω

n

1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

(1.91)

The ratio

A

m

M

µ

, is called the magniﬁcation factor, Its magnitude and the phase ϕ as

a function of the ratio

ω

ωn

for diﬀerent damping factor ς is shown in Fig. 29.If the

frequency of excitation changes from zero to the value equal to the natural frequency

ω

n

, the amplitude of the forced vibration is growing. Its maximum depends on the

damping ratio and appears for ω > ω

n

. The phenomenon at which amplitude of

the forced vibration is maximum is called amplitude resonance. If the frequency of

excitation tends towards inﬁnity, the amplitude of the forced vibration tends to

m

M

µ.

For ω = ω

n

, regardless the damping involved, phase of the forced vibration is equal

to 90

o

. This phenomenon is called phase resonance. If the frequency of excitation

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 39

0

2

4

6

1

2

3

-180

-135

-90

-45

0

1 2 3

=0 ζ

=0.1 ζ

=0.25

ζ

=0.5 ζ

=1.0 ζ

=1.5 ζ

ϕ

n

ω

ω

A

µ

m

M

1

=0 ζ

=0.1 ζ

=0.25

ζ

=0.5 ζ

=1.0 ζ

=1.5 ζ

Figure 29

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 40

tends to inﬁnity, the phase tends to 180

o

. Hence the response of the system tends to

be in the anti-phase with the excitation.

The force transmitted to the foundation R, according to the physical model

shown in Fig. 28b) is

R(t) = kx +c ˙ x = kAsin(ωt +ϕ) +cAω cos(ωt +ϕ) = A

√

k

2

+c

2

ω

2

sin(ωt +ϕ +δ)

(1.92)

The amplitude of the reaction is

|R| = A

√

k

2

+c

2

ω

2

= AM

p

ω

4

n

+ 4ς

2

ω

2

n

ω

2

=

= mµω

2

q

1 + 4ς

2

(

ω

ω

n

)

2

q

(1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

(

ω

ωn

)

2

The ampliﬁcation ratio

|R|

mµω

2

of the reaction as a function of the ratio

ω

ω

n

is shown in

Fig. 30.For the frequency of excitation ω < 1.4ω

n

the force transmitted to foundation

0

2

4

6

0 1 2 3

n

ω

ω

R

µ m

2

ω

1

1.4

=0 ζ

=0.1 ζ

=0.25

ζ

=0.5 ζ

=1.0 ζ

=1.5 ζ

Figure 30

is greater then the centrifugal force itself with its maximum close to frequency ω

n

.

For ω > 1.4ω

n

this reaction is smaller then the excitation force and tends to zero

when the frequency of excitation approaches inﬁnity.

Forced response due to the kinematic excitation - vibration isolation

The physical model of a system with the kinematic excitation is shown in Fig. 31b).

Motion of the point B along the axis y causes vibration of the block M. This physical

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 41

L

y

M

k

c

y

x

a

v

R

G

B

a)

b)

Figure 31

model can be used to analyze vibration of a bus caused by the roughness of the

surface of the road shown in Fig. 31a). The stiﬀness k of the spring and the damping

coeﬃcient c represent the dynamic properties of the bus shock-absorbers. The block

of mass M stands for the body of the bus. If the surface can be approximated by the

sine-wave of the amplitude a and length L and the bus is travelling with the constant

velocity v, the period of the harmonic excitation is

T =

L

v

(1.93)

Hence, the frequency of excitation, according to 1.39 is

ω =

2πv

L

(1.94)

and the motion of the point B along the axis y can approximated as follows

y = a sin ωt (1.95)

The equation of motion of the bus is

M¨ x = −kx −c ˙ x +ky +c ˙ y (1.96)

Introduction of 1.95 yields

M¨ x +c ˙ x +kx = ka sin ωt +caω cos ωt

or

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = ω

2

n

a sin ωt + 2ςω

n

ωa cos ωt = q sin(ωt +α) (1.97)

where

q = aω

2

n

r

1 + 4ς

2

(

ω

ω

n

)

2

(1.98)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 42

Without any harm to the generality of the considerations one can neglect the phase

α and adopt the mathematical model in the following form

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = q sinωt (1.99)

Motion of the block along axis x is governed by the equation 1.83

x = Asin(ωt +ϕ)

where

A =

q

ω

2

n

q

(1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

(

ω

ωn

)

2

ϕ = −arctan

2ς

ω

ω

n

1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

(1.100)

Introduction of equation 1.98 gives

A =

a

q

1 + 4ς

2

(

ω

ωn

)

2

q

(1 −(

ω

ω

n

)

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

(

ω

ω

n

)

2

ϕ = −arctan

2ς

ω

ωn

1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

(1.101)

The magnifying factor

A

a

and the phase ϕ as a function of

ω

ωn

is shown in Fig. 32.

For ω < 1.4ω

n

it is possible to arrange for the bus to have vibration smaller than the

amplitude of the kinematic excitation

The expression for the reaction force transmitted to the foundation is

R = kx +c ˙ x −ky −c ˙ y = kAsin(ωt +ϕ) +cωAcos(ωt +ϕ) −ka sin ωt −cωa cos ωt

= |R| sin(ωt +γ) (1.102)

Problem of minimizing the reaction force R (e.g. 1.92) or the amplitude A (e.g..

1.101) is called vibration isolation.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 43

-180

-135

-90

-45

0

1 2 3

ϕ

n

ω

ω

A

a

0

2

4

6

0 1 2 3

=0 ζ

=0.1 ζ

=0.25

ζ

=0.5 ζ

=1.0 ζ

=1.5 ζ

=0 ζ

=0.1 ζ

=0.25

ζ

=0.5 ζ

=1.0 ζ

=1.5 ζ

Figure 32

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 44

1.2.3 Problems

Free vibrations

Problem 9

1

2

H

k c

Figure 33

The carriage 1 of the lift shown in Fig. 33 operates between ﬂoors of a building.

The distance between the highest and the lowest ﬂoor is H = 30m. The average mass

of the carriage is m = 500kg. To attenuate the impact between the carriage and the

basement in the case the rope 3 is broken, the shock absorber 2 is to be installed.

Calculate the stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c of the shock-absorber

which assure that the deceleration during the impact is smaller then 200m/s

2

.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 45

Solution

In the worst case scenario, the lift is at the level H when the rope brakes.

H

k c

x

x

mg

Figure 34

Due to the gravity force the lift is falling down with the initial velocity equal to zero.

Equation of motion of the lift is

m¨ x = mg (1.103)

By double side by side integrating of the above equation one can get

x = A+Bt +

g

2

t

2

(1.104)

Introduction of the following initial conditions

x |

t=0

= 0 ˙ x |

t=0

= 0

yields A = 0 and B = 0 and results in the following equation of motion

x =

g

2

t

2

(1.105)

Hence, the time the lift reaches the shock-absorber is

t

o

=

s

2H

g

(1.106)

Since

v = ˙ x = gt (1.107)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 46

the velocity of the lift at the time of the impact with the shock-absorber is

v

o

= ˙ x |

t=to

=

p

2Hg (1.108)

To analyze the motion of the lift after impact let us introduce the inertial axis y

in such a way that its origin coincides with the upper end of the shock-absorber at

the instant of impact (see Fig. 35).Since at the instant of impact the spring k is

H

k

c

x

y

mg

y

Figure 35

uncompressed, the equation of motion after the lift has reached the shock-absorber is

m¨ y +c ˙ y +ky = mg (1.109)

or in the standardized form

¨ y + 2ςω

n

˙ y +ω

2

n

y = g (1.110)

where

ω

n

=

r

k

m

; 2ςω

n

=

c

m

(1.111)

It is easy to see that in the case considered the particular solution of the non-

homogeneous equation is

y

p

=

g

ω

2

n

(1.112)

The best performance of the shock-absorber is expected if the damping is critical

(ς = 1). In this case, there exists one double root and the general solution of the

homogeneous equation is

y

g

= C

1

e

−ω

n

t

+C

2

te

−ω

n

t

(1.113)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 47

Therefore the general solution of the non-homogeneous equation as the sum of y

p

and

y

g

is

y = C

1

e

−ωnt

+C

2

te

−ωnt

+

g

ω

2

n

(1.114)

This equation has to fullﬁl the following initial conditions

y |

t=0

= 0 ˙ y |

t=0

= v

o

(1.115)

Introduction of these initial conditions into the equation 1.113 yields

C

1

= −

g

ω

2

n

C

2

= v

o

−

g

ω

n

(1.116)

and results in the following equation of motion

y =

µ

−

g

ω

2

n

¶

e

−ω

n

t

+

µ

v

o

−

g

ω

n

¶

te

−ω

n

t

+

g

ω

2

n

=

g

ω

2

n

¡

1 −e

−ω

n

t

¢

+

µ

v

o

−

g

ω

n

¶

te

−ω

n

t

= D

¡

1 −e

−ω

n

t

¢

+Ete

−ω

n

t

(1.117)

where

D =

g

ω

2

n

E = v

o

−

g

ω

n

(1.118)

Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.117 yields acceleration during the impact

¨ y =

¡

−Dω

2

n

−2Eω

n

¢

e

−ω

n

t

+Eω

2

n

te

−ω

n

t

(1.119)

By inspection of the function 1.118, one can see that the maximum of the deceleration

occurs for time t = 0. Hence the maximum of deceleration is

a

max

= ¨ y |

t=0

=

¯

¯

−Dω

2

n

−2Eω

n

¯

¯

(1.120)

If

v

o

>

g

ω

n

(1.121)

both constants E and D are positive. Hence

a

max

= Dω

2

n

+ 2Eω

n

= g + 2v

o

ω

n

−2g = 2v

o

ω

n

−g (1.122)

This deceleration has to be smaller then the allowed deceleration a

a

= 200ms

−2

.

2v

o

ω

n

−g < a

a

(1.123)

It follows

ω

n

<

a

a

+g

2

√

2Hg

=

200 + 10

2

√

2 · 30 · 10

= 4.28s

−1

(1.124)

Since ω

n

=

q

k

m

, the stiﬀness of the shock-absorber is

k = ω

2

n

m = 4.28

2

· 500 = 9160N/m (1.125)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 48

and the damping coeﬃcient

c = 2ςω

n

m = 2 · 1 · 4.28 · 500 = 4280Ns/m (1.126)

Our computation can be accepted only if the inequality 1.121 is fullﬁl. Indeed

v

o

=

p

2Hg =

√

2 · 30 · 10 = 24.5 >

g

ω

n

=

10

4.28

= 2.4m/s (1.127)

The displacement of the lift, its velocity and acceleration during the impact as a

function of time is shown in Fig. 36

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 49

displacement

time [s]

y [m]

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

v [m/s]

velocity

time [s]

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

0.25 0.5 0.75 1

acceleration

time [s]

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

50

0.25 0.5 0.75 1

a [m/s ]

2

Figure 36

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 50

Problem 10

The power winch W was mounted on the truss T as shown in Fig. 37a) To

T

R

W k

m

c

x

a)

b)

Figure 37

analyze the vibrations of the power winch the installation was modelled by the one

degree of freedom physical model shown in Fig. 38b). In this ﬁgure the equivalent

mass, stiﬀness and damping coeﬃcient are denoted by m, k and c respectively. Origin

of the axis x coincides with the centre of gravity of the weight m when the system

rests in its equilibrium position.

To identify the unknown parameters m, k, and c, the following experiment was

carried out. The winch was loaded with the weight equal to M

1

= 1000kg as shown in

Fig. 38. Then the load was released allowing the installation to perform the vertical

T

R

W

M

l

L

Figure 38

oscillations in x direction. Record of those oscillations is presented in Fig. 39.

Calculate the parameters m, k, and c.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 51

4

3

1 2

time [s]

-0.003

-0.002

-0.001

0

0.001

0.002

0.003

x[m]

Figure 39

Answer

m = 7000kg; k = 3000000Nm

−1

; c = 15000Nsm

−1

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 52

Problem 11

T

R

W k

m

c

x

a)

b)

Figure 40

The winch W shown in Fig. 40 is modelled as a system with one degree of

freedom of mass m stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c. The winch is lifting the

block of mass M with the constant velocity v

o

(see Fig. 41).Assuming that the rope

T

R

W

M

Figure 41

R is not extendible produce expression for the tension in the rope R before and after

the block will lose contact with the ﬂoor.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 53

Solution

Tension in the rope R before the contact is lost

In the ﬁrst stage of lifting the block M, it stays motionlessly at the ﬂoor

whereas the lift itself is going down with respect to the inertial axis x with the

constant velocity v

o

. The tension T in the rope R varies between 0 and Mg.

0 < T 0 Mg (1.128)

If origin of the inertial axis x coincides with the gravity centre when the unloaded

winch is at its equilibrium, the equation of motion of the winch is

m¨ x +c ˙ x +kx = −T (1.129)

In the above equation ¨ x = 0 (the winch is moving with the constant velocity v

o

),

˙ x = −v

o

and x = −v

o

t. Hence

−T = c(−v

o

) +k(−v

o

t) (1.130)

The equation 1.130 governs motion of the winch till the tension T will reach value

Mg. Therefore the equation 1.130 allows the time of separation t

s

to be obtained.

t

s

=

Mg −cv

o

kv

o

(1.131)

At the instant of separation the winch will be at the position determined by the

following formula

x

s

= −v

o

t

s

= −

Mg −cv

o

k

(1.132)

If Mg < cv

o

then x

s

= t

s

= 0.

If Mg > cv

o

T = cv

o

+kv

o

t for 0 < t < t

s

(1.133)

Tension in the rope R after the contact of the weight with the ﬂoor is lost

Without any harm to the generality of the further consideration one may

assume that the time corresponding to the instant of separation is equal to 0.

For t > 0, the equation of motion of the winch and the block (see Fig. 42) are

as following

m¨ x +c ˙ x +kx = −T

M¨ x

b

= T −Mg (1.134)

Since the rope R is not extendible, the instantaneous length of the rope L is

L = L

o

−v

o

t (1.135)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 54

k

m

c

x

T

T

Mg

x

x

b

L

Figure 42

Where L

o

stands for the initial length of the rope (the lenght the rope had at the

instance t = 0). Taking into account that

L = x −x

b

(1.136)

we have

x

b

= x −L = x −L

o

+v

o

t (1.137)

Introduction of the equation 1.137 into 1.134 yields

m¨ x +c ˙ x +kx = −T

M¨ x = T −Mg (1.138)

Elimination of the unknown tension force allows the equation of motion of the winch

to be formulated

(m+M)¨ x +c ˙ x +kx = −Mg (1.139)

The standardized form is as following

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = q (1.140)

where

ω

n

=

r

k

m+M

; 2ςω

n

=

c

m+M

; q = −

Mg

m+M

(1.141)

The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation can be predicted as a con-

stant magnitude A. Hence

ω

2

n

A = q; A =

q

ω

2

n

(1.142)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 55

The general solution of the mathematical model 1.140 is

x = e

−ςωnt

(C

s

sin ω

d

t +C

c

cos ω

d

t) +A (1.143)

where

ω

d

= ω

n

p

1 −ς

2

(1.144)

This solution has to fulﬁll the following initial conditions

for t = 0 x = x

s

˙ x = −v

o

(1.145)

Introduction of these initial conditions into the solution 1.143 yields the following

expressions for the constants C

s

and C

c

C

s

=

−v

o

+ςω

n

(x

s

−A)

ω

d

C

c

= x

s

+A (1.146)

Hence,

x = e

−ςω

n

t

µ

−v

o

+ςω

n

(x

s

−A)

ω

d

sinω

d

t + (x

s

+A) cos ω

d

t

¶

+A (1.147)

The time history diagram of the above function is shown in Fig.43 The tension is

x

t

x

s

T

d

x

max

A

O

Figure 43

determined by the equation 1.138

T = M¨ x +Mg (1.148)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 56

Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.147 yields the wanted tension as a function

of time

T = Mg +Me

−ςωnt

¡

C

s

(ςω

n

)

2

+ 2C

c

ςω

n

ω

d

−C

s

ω

2

d

¢

sinω

d

t

+Me

−ςω

n

t

¡

C

c

(ςω

n

)

2

−2C

s

ςω

n

ω

d

+C

c

ω

2

d

¢

cos ω

d

t (1.149)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 57

Forced vibration

Problem 12

E,I

M

m

ω t

l

c

µ

B

A

Figure 44

The electric motor of mass M (see Fig. 44) is mounted on the massless beam

of length l, the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and Young modulus E.

Shaft of the motor, of mass m, rotates with the constant angular velocity ω and its

unbalance (distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is

µ. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the

damping coeﬃcient c. Produce expression for the amplitude of the forced vibration

of the motor as well as the interaction forces transmitted to the foundation at the

points A and B.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 58

Solution

E,I

M

m

ω t

l

c

µ

x

m ω µ

2

A

B

Figure 45

Application of the Newton’s approach to the system shown in Fig. 45 results

in the following diﬀerential equations of motion.

M¨ x = −kx −c ˙ x +mµω

2

sin ωt (1.150)

where k stands for the stiﬀness of the beam EI.

k =

48EI

l

3

(1.151)

Its standardized form is

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = q sinωt (1.152)

where

ω

n

=

r

k

M

2ςω

n

=

c

m+M

q =

mµω

2

M

(1.153)

The particular solution of the equation 1.152

x = Asin (ωt +ϕ) (1.154)

where

A =

q

ω

2

n

q

(1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

(

ω

ωn

)

2

ϕ = −arctan

2ς

ω

ω

n

1 −(

ω

ωn

)

2

(1.155)

represents the forced vibrations of the system. In the above formula A stands for the

amplitude of the forced vibrations of the motor. The interaction force at the point

A can be determined from equilibrium of forces acting on the beam at an arbitrarily

chosen position x (see Fig 46).

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 59

E,I

0.5k

l

x

x

x 0.5k

x

kx

A

D

Figure 46

The force needed to displace the point D by x is equal to kx. Hence, the

reaction at the point A is

R

A

= −0.5kx = −0.5kAsin (ωt +ϕ) (1.156)

B

x

x

c

c

D

x c

x

Figure 47

To move the point D (see Fig. 47) with the velocity ˙ x the force c ˙ x is required.

Hence, from the equilibrium of the damper one can see that the reaction at the point

B is

R

B

= −c ˙ x = −cωAsin(ωt +ϕ)

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 60

Problem 13

x

z

y

z=x-y

1

2

3

4

5

Figure 48

Figure 48 presents a seismic transducer. Its base 2 is attached to the vibrating

object 1. The seismic weight 3 of mass m is supported by the spring 4 of stiﬀness k and

the damper 5 of the damping coeﬃcient c.This transducer records the displacement

z = x −y (1.157)

where y is the absolute displacement of the vibration object 1 and x is the absolute

displacement of the seismic weight 3. Upon assuming that the object 1 performs a

harmonic motion

y = a sin ωt (1.158)

derive the formula for the ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ of the amplitude of vibration of

the object 1 of this transducer ( κ =

amplitude of z

amplitude of y

) as a function of the non-dimensional

frequency

ω

ωn

.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 61

Solution

The equation of motion of the system shown in Fig. 48 is

m¨ x +c ˙ x +kx = c ˙ y +ky (1.159)

Its standardize form is

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = aq

c

cos ωt +aq

s

sin ωt (1.160)

where

ω

n

=

r

k

m

2ςω

n

=

c

m

q

c

=

c

m

ω q

s

=

k

m

(1.161)

Simpliﬁcation of the right side of the above equation yields

¨ x + 2ςω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = aq sin (ωt +α) (1.162)

where

q =

p

q

2

c

+q

2

s

= ω

2

n

s

4ς

2

µ

ω

ω

n

¶

2

+ 1 α = arctan

q

c

q

s

= arctan 2ς

ω

ω

n

(1.163)

According to equation 1.76 (page 35) the particular solution of the equation 1.162 is

x

p

= aAsin(ωt +α +ϕ) (1.164)

where

A =

r

4ς

2

³

ω

ωn

´

2

+ 1

s

µ

1 −

³

ω

ω

n

´

2

¶

2

+ 4ς

2

³

ω

ω

n

´

2

ϕ = −arctan

2ς

ω

ω

n

1 −

³

ω

ω

n

´

2

(1.165)

Hence the record of the transducer is

z = x −y = aAsin(ωt +α +ϕ) −a sin ωt =

= aAcos (α +ϕ) sinωt +aAsin(α +ϕ) cos ωt −a sinωt =

= (aAcos (α +ϕ) −a) sinωt +aAsin(α +ϕ) cos ωt (1.166)

The amplitude of this record is

amp

z

=

q

(aAcos (α +ϕ) −a)

2

+ (aAsin(α +ϕ))

2

= a

p

A

2

+ 1 −2Acos(α +ϕ)

(1.167)

Therefore, the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation is

κ =

amp

z

amp

y

=

p

A

2

+ 1 −2Acos(α +ϕ) (1.168)

The diagram presented in Fig.49 shows this ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ as a function

of the ratio

ω

ωn

.If the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation κ is equal to one, the record of the

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 62

amplitude of vibration (amp

z

) is equal to the amplitude of vibration of the object

(amp

y

= a). It almost happends, as one can see from the diagram 49, if the frequency

ω of the recorded vibrations is twice greater than the natural frequency ω

n

of the

transducer and the damping ratio ς is 0.25.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 2 3 4 5

ω/

n

ω

κ

ζ=0.1

ζ=0.25

ζ=0.5

Figure 49

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 63

Problem 14

O

A B

α

x

a

b

c

d

k

G

C

Figure 50

The physical model of a vibrating table is shown in Fig. 50. It can be con-

sidered as a rigid body of the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through

its centre of gravity I

G

. It is supported with by means of the spring of the stiﬀness

k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. The motion of the lower end of the

spring with respect to the absolute coordinate x can be approximated as follows

x = X cos ωt

where X stands for the amplitude of the oscillations of the point C and ω stands for

the frequency of these oscillations.

Produce:

1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the vibrating table and present it in

the standard form

2. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the table caused

by the motion of the point C

3. the expression for the interaction force at the point A

4. the expression for the driving force that has to be applied to the point C

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 64

Problem 15

Y

1

2

x

G

G

L/2

L

A

B

C

c

k

L/2

a

α

Figure 51

Two uniform rods (1 and 2), each of length L and mass m, were joined together

to form the pendulum whose physical model is depicted in Fig. 51. The pendulum

performs small oscillations α about the axis through the point A. At the point B it

is supported by a spring of stiﬀness k and a damper of damping coeﬃcient c. The

point C of the damper is driven along the axis Y and its motion is approximated by

the following function

Y = Asin ωt

Produce:

1. The expression for the position x

G

of the center of gravity G of the pendulum

Answer:

x

G

=

3

4

L −a

2. The expression for the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the axis through

the point A.

Answer:

I

A

=

17

12

mL

2

+ 2maH2 −3mLa

3. The diﬀerential equation of motion of the pendulum

Answer:

¨ α + 2ζω

n

˙ α +ω

2

n

α = q cos ωt

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 65

where: 2ζω

n

=

ca

I

A

; ω

2

n

=

2mgx

G

+ka

I

A

q =

Aωca

I

A

4. The expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the pendulum

Answer:

A

α

=

q

ω

n

u

k

1−

(

ω

ω

n

)

2

l

2

+4ζ

2

(

ω

ω

n

)

2

5. The driving force that must be applied to the point C to assure the assumed

motion .

D = c(Aω cos ωt −aA

α

cos(ωt +ϕ)) ϕ = −arctan

2ζ

ω

ωn

1−

(

ω

ω

n

)

2

Chapter 2

MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM

LINEAR SYSTEMS

Since in the nature massless or rigid elements do not exist, therefore each of the

particle the real element is made of can moves independently. It follows that to

determine its position with respect to the inertial space one has to introduce inﬁnite

number of coordinates. Hence, according to the previously introduce deﬁnition, the

number of degrees of freedom of each real element is equal to inﬁnity. But in many

vibration problems, with acceptable accuracy, the real elements can be represented

by a limited number of rigid elements connected to each other by means of massless

elements representing the elastic and damping properties. This process is called

discretization and the ﬁnal result of this process is called multi-degree-of-freedom

system. In this chapter it will be assumed that forces produced by these massless

m

i

k

i

c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij

c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

Figure 1

elements (springs and dampers) are linear functions of displacements and velocities

respectively.

2.1 MODELLING

2.1.1 Physical model

Fig. 1 shows part of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. Usually, to describe motion of

such a system a set of local generalized coordinates is introduced. These coordinates

(x

i

, x

j

, y

i

(t)) are motionless with respect to a global (inertial) system of coordinates

MODELLING 67

(not shown in the Fig. 1). The coordinate y

i

(t) is not independent (is an explicit

function of time) whereas the coordinates x

i

, and x

j

are independent and their number

determines the number of degree of freedom of the system. Origin of each coordinate

coincides with the centre of gravity of individual bodies when the whole system is at

its equilibrium position. For this equilibrium position all the static forces acting on

individual bodies produces the resultant force equal to zero.

2.1.2 Mathematical model

It will be shown in this section that the equation of motion of the multi-degree of

freedom linear system has the following form

m¨ x+c˙ x+kx=F(t)

where

m - is the inertia matrix

c - is the damping matrix

k- is the stiﬀness matrix

F - is the external excitation matrix

x- is the displacement matrix

There are many methods that allow the mathematical model to be formulated.

In the following sections a few of them are presented.

Newton-Euler method of formulation of the mathematical model

To develop the equations of motion of the system described, one may utilize the

Newton’s or Euler’s equations. Since in case considered the body of mass m

i

performs

a plane motion hence the Newton’s equations may be used.

m

i

¨ x

i

= F (2.1)

If the system stays at its equilibrium position, as it was mention earlier, the resultant

of all static forces is equal zero. Therefore, the force F must contains forces due to

the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position only. To ﬁgure these

forces out let us move the mass m

i

out of its equilibrium position by the displacement

x

i

. The conﬁguration a) shown in the ﬁgure below is achieved.

MODELLING 68

a)

x

i

6= 0

x

j

= 0

y

i

= 0

˙ x

i

= 0

˙ x

j

= 0

˙ y

i

= 0

b)

x

i

= 0

x

j

6= 0

y

i

= 0

˙ x

i

= 0

˙ x

j

= 0

˙ y

i

= 0

c)

x

i

= 0

x

j

= 0

y

i

6= 0

˙ x

i

= 0

˙ x

j

= 0

˙ y

i

= 0

d)

x

i

= 0

x

j

= 0

y

i

= 0

˙ x

i

6= 0

˙ x

j

= 0

˙ y

i

= 0

e)

x

i

= 0

x

j

= 0

y

i

= 0

˙ x

i

= 0

˙ x

j

6= 0

˙ y

i

= 0

f)

x

i

= 0

x

j

= 0

y

i

= 0

˙ x

i

= 0

˙ x

j

= 0

˙ y

i

6= 0

m

i

k

i

c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

x

i

kij i

- x

ki i

- x

m

i

k

i

c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

x

j

kij j

+ x

m

i

k

i c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

y

i

k

i i + y m

i

k

i

c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

x

i

c

ij i

- x

ci i

- x

m

i

k

i

c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

x

j

c

ij j

+ x

m

i

k

i

c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

y

j

m

i

¨ x

i

= −k

i

x

i

−k

ij

x

i

+k

ij

x

j

+k

i

y

i

(t) −c

i

˙ x

i

−c

ij

˙ x

i

+c

ij

˙ x

j

+0

(2.2)

Due to this displacement there are two forces k

i

x

i

and k

ij

x

i

acting on the considered

mass m

i

. Both of them must be taken with sign ’-’ because the positive displacement

x

i

causes forces opposite to the positive direction of axis x

i

. Similar consideration

carried out for the displacements along the axis x

j

(conﬁguration b)) and axis y

i

(

conﬁguration c)) results in the term +k

ij

x

j

. and +k

i

y

i

(t) respectively. Up to now it

has been assumed that the velocities of the system along all coordinates are equal

to zero and because of this the dampers do not produce any force. The last three

conﬁgurations (d, e, and f) allow to take these forces into account. Due to motion of

the system along the coordinate x

i

with velocity ˙ x

i

two additional forces are created

by the dampers c

i

and c

ij.

they are −c

i

˙ x

i

and −c

ij

˙ x

i

. Both of them are caused by

positive velocity and have sense opposite to the positive sense of axis x

i

. Therefore

they have to be taken with the sign ’-’. The forces caused by motion along the axis

x

j

(conﬁguration e)) and axis y

i

( conﬁguration f)) results in the term +c

ij

˙ x

j

. and 0

respectively. Since the system is linear, one can add all this forces together to obtain

m

i

¨ x

i

= −k

i

x

i

−k

ij

x

i

+k

ij

x

j

+k

i

y

i

(t) −c

i

˙ x

i

−c

ij

˙ x

i

+c

ij

˙ x

j

(2.3)

After standardization we have the ﬁnal form of equation of motion of the mass m

i

.

m

i

¨ x

i

+ (c

i

+c

ij

) ˙ x

i

−c

ij

˙ x

j

+ (k

i

+k

ij

)x

i

−k

ij

x

j

= k

i

y

i

(t) (2.4)

To accomplished the mathematical model, one has to carry out similar consideration

for each mass involved in the system. As a result of these consideration we are getting

set of diﬀerential equation containing as many equations as the number of degree of

freedom.

MODELLING 69

Lagrange method of formulation of the mathematical model

The same set of equation of motion one can get by utilization of the Lagrange’s

equations

d

dt

(

∂

∂ ˙ q

m

T) −

∂

∂q

m

T +

∂V

∂q

m

= Q

m

m = 1, 2, ....M (2.5)

where

T - is the system kinetic energy function

V - stands for the potential energy function

Q

m

- is the generalized force along the generalized coordinate q

m

The kinetic energy function of the system considered is equal to sum of the

kinetic energy stored in the individual rigid bodies the system is made of. Hence

T =

I

X

i=1

_

_

1

2

m

i

v

2

i

+

1

2

£

ω

ix

ω

iy

ω

iz

¤

_

_

I

ix

0 0

0 I

iy

0

0 0 I

iz

_

_

_

_

ω

ix

ω

iy

ω

iz

_

_

_

_

(2.6)

where

m

i

- mass of the rigid body

v

i

- absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the body

ω

ix,

ω

iy,

ω

iz,

- components of the absolute angular velocity of the body

I

ix

, I

iy

, I

iz

- The principal moments of inertia of the body about axes through

its centre of gravity

Potential energy function V for the gravity force acting on the link i shown in Fig. 2

is

V

i

= m

i

gr

GiZ

(2.7)

Z

X

Y

O

r

G

i

G

i

i

r

GiZ

Figure 2

Potential energy for the spring s of stiﬀness k

s

and uncompressed length l

s

(see Fig. 3) is

V

s

=

1

2

k

s

(|r

A

−r

B

| −l

s

)

2

(2.8)

MODELLING 70

Z

X

Y

O

A

B

s

r

A

r

B

Figure 3

Potential energy function for all conservative forces acting on the system is

V =

I

X

i=1

V

i

+

S

X

s=1

V

s

(2.9)

In a general case the damping forces should be classiﬁed as non-conservative ones

and, as such, should be included in the generalized force Q

m

. It must be remembered

that the Lagrange’s equations yield, in general case, a non-linear mathematical model.

Therefore, before application of the developed in this chapter methods of analysis, the

linearization process must be carried out. The following formula allows for any non-

linear multi-variable function to be linearized in vicinity of the system equilibrium

position q

o

1

, ...q

o

m

, ...q

o

M

f(q

1

, ...q

m

, ...q

M

, ˙ q

1

, ... ˙ q

m

, ... ˙ q

M

) = f(q

o

1

, ...q

o

m

, ...q

o

M

, 0, ...0, ...0)+

+

P

M

m=1

∂f

∂q

m

(q

o

1

, ...q

o

m

, ...q

o

M

, 0, ...0, ...0) ∆q

m

+

P

M

m=1

∂f

∂ ˙ q

m

(q

o

1

, ...q

o

m

, ...q

o

M

, 0, ...0, ...0) ∆˙ q

m

(2.10)

In the case of the system shown in Fig. 1 the kinetic energy function is

T =

1

2

m

i

˙ x

2

i

+

1

2

m

j

˙ x

2

j

+ · · ·· (2.11)

Dots in the above equation represents this part of the kinetic energy function that

does not depend on the generalized coordinate x

i

.

If the system takes an arbitral position that is shown in Fig. 4, elongation of

the springs k

i

and k

ij

are respectively

∆l

i

= x

i

−y

i

∆l

ij

= x

j

−x

i

(2.12)

MODELLING 71

m

i

k

i

c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij

c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

m

i

k

i

c

i

m

j

x

i

k

ij

c

ij

x

j

y (t)

i

x

j

x

i

y

i

Figure 4

Therefore, the potential energy function is

V =

1

2

k

i

(x

i

−y

i

)

2

+

1

2

k

ij

(x

j

−x

i

)

2

+ · · ·· (2.13)

Again, dots stands for this part of the potential energy function that does not depend

on the generalized coordinate x

i

. It should be noted that the above potential energy

function represents increment of the potential energy stored in the springs due to

the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position. Therefore the above

function does not include the potential energy due to the static deﬂection of the

springs. It follows that the conservative forces due to the static deﬂections can not

be produced from this potential energy function. They, together with the gravity

forces, produce resultant equal to zero. Hence, if the potential energy due to the

static deﬂections is not included in the function 2.13 the potential energy due to

gravitation must not be included in the function 2.13 either. If the potential energy

due to the static deﬂections is included in the function 2.13 the potential energy due

to gravitation must be included in the function 2.13 too.

Generally, the force produced by the dampers is included in the generalized

force Q

m

. But, very often, for convenience, a damping function (dissipation function)

D is introduced into the Lagrange’s equation to produce the damping forces. The

function D does not represent the dissipation energy but has such a property that its

partial derivative produces the damping forces. The damping function is created by

analogy to the creation of the potential energy function. The stiﬀness k is replaced

by the damping coeﬃcient c and the generalized displacements are replaced by the

generalized velocities. Hence, in the considered case, since the lower end of the damper

is motionless, the damping function is

D =

1

2

c

i

( ˙ x

i

)

2

+

1

2

c

ij

( ˙ x

j

− ˙ x

i

)

2

+ · · ·· (2.14)

The Lagrange’s equation with the damping function takes form

d

dt

(

∂

∂ ˙ q

m

T) −

∂

∂q

m

T +

∂V

∂q

m

+

∂D

∂ ˙ q

m

= Q

m

m = 1, 2, ....M (2.15)

MODELLING 72

Introduction of the equations 2.11, 2.13 and 2.14 into equation 2.15 yields the equation

of the motion of the mass m

i

.

m

i

¨ x

i

+ (c

i

+c

ij

) ˙ x

i

−c

ij

˙ x

j

+ (k

i

+k

ij

)x

i

−k

ij

x

j

= k

i

y

i

(t) (2.16)

The inﬂuence coeﬃcient method

m

j

m

i

F

j

x

j

x

i

x

ij

Figure 5

Let us consider the ﬂexible structure shown in Fig. 5. Let us assume that the masses

m

i

and m

j

can move along the coordinate x

i

and x

j

respectively. Let us apply to this

system a static force F

j

along the coordinate x

j

. Let x

ij

be the displacement of the

system along the coordinate x

i

caused by the force F

j

.

DEFINITION: The ratio

δ

ij

=

x

ij

F

j

(2.17)

is called the inﬂuence coeﬃcient

It can be easily proved (see Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem) that for any structure

δ

ij

= δ

ji

(2.18)

If one apply forces along all I generalized coordinates x

i

along which the system

is allowed to move, the displacement along the i − th coordinate, according to the

superposition principle, is.

x

i

=

I

X

j=1

δ

ij

F

j

i = 1, 2, ......I (2.19)

These linear relationships can be written in the matrix form

x = δF (2.20)

MODELLING 73

The inverse transformation permits to produce forces that have to act on the system

along the individual coordinates if the system is at an arbitrarily chosen position x.

F = δ

−1

x (2.21)

The inverse matrix δ

−1

is called stiﬀness matrix and will be denoted by k.

k = δ

−1

(2.22)

Hence according to equation 2.21 is

F

i

=

I

X

j=1

k

ij

x

j

(2.23)

If the system considered moves and its instantaneous position is determined by the

vector x (x

1

, ....x

j

, ...x

J

) the force that acts on the particle m

i

is

f

i

= −F

i

= −

I

X

j=1

k

ij

x

j

(2.24)

Hence, application of the third Newton’s law to the particle i yields the equation of

its motion in the following form

m

i

¨ x

i

+

I

X

j=1

k

ij

x

j

= 0 (2.25)

MODELLING 74

2.1.3 Problems

Problem 16

l

1 2

R

Figure 6

The disk 1 of radius R, and mass m is attached to the massless beam 2 of

radius r, length l and the Young modulus E as shown in Fig. 6 Develop equations of

motion of this system.

MODELLING 75

Solution.

l

1 2

R

y

ϕ

y

z

F

d

M

d

Figure 7

The motion of the disk shown in Fig. 7 is governed by Newton’s equations

m¨ y = F

d

I ¨ ϕ

y

= M

d

(2.26)

In the above mathematical model

I =

1

4

mR

2

- moment of inertia of the disk about axis x

F

d

, M

d

- forces acting on the disk due to its interaction with the beam

The interaction forces F

d

and M

d

can be expressed as a function of the dis-

placements y and ϕ

y

by means of the inﬂuence coeﬃcient method.

l

2

z

y

y

ϕ

y

M

F

s

s

Figure 8

If the beam is loaded with force F

s

(see Fig. 8), the corresponding displace-

ments y and ϕ

y

are

y =

l

3

3EJ

F

s

ϕ

y

=

l

2

2EJ

F

s

(2.27)

If the beam is loaded with force M

s

(see Fig. 8), the corresponding displacements y

and ϕ

y

are

y =

l

2

2EJ

M

s

, ϕ

y

=

l

EJ

M

s

(2.28)

MODELLING 76

Hence the total displacement along coordinates y and ϕ

y

are

y =

l

3

3EJ

F

s

+

l

2

2EJ

M

s

ϕ

y

=

l

2

2EJ

F

s

+

l

EJ

M

s

(2.29)

or in matrix form

·

y

ϕ

y

¸

=

·

l

3

3EJ

l

2

2EJ

l

2

2EJ

l

EJ

¸ ·

F

s

M

s

¸

(2.30)

where

J =

π r

4

4

(2.31)

The inverse transformation yields the wanted forces as function of the displacements

·

F

s

M

s

¸

=

·

l

3

3EJ

l

2

2EJ

l

2

2EJ

l

EJ

¸

−1

·

y

ϕ

y

¸

=

·

k

11

k

12

k

21

k

22

¸ ·

y

ϕ

y

¸

(2.32)

Since, according to the second Newton’s law

·

F

d

M

d

¸

= −

·

F

s

M

s

¸

(2.33)

the equation of motion takes the following form

·

m 0

0 I

¸ ·

¨ y

¨ ϕ

y

¸

= −

·

k

11

k

12

k

21

k

22

¸ ·

y

ϕ

y

¸

(2.34)

Hence, the ﬁnal mathematical model of the system considered is

m¨ x +kx = 0 (2.35)

where

m =

·

m 0

0 I

¸

; k =

·

k

11

k

12

k

21

k

22

¸

; x =

·

y

ϕ

y

¸

(2.36)

MODELLING 77

Problem 17

k

G

k

1

l1

2

l2

Figure 9

A rigid beam of mass m and the moments of inertia I about axis through

its centre of gravity G is supported by massless springs k

1

, and as shown in Fig. 9.

Produce equations of motion of the system.

MODELLING 78

Solution.

k

G

y

1

l1

l2

k2

y

ϕ

y =y+ϕ

l

2

2

ϕ

l

1

1

O

F

M

y =y-

Figure 10

The system has two degree of freedom. Let us then introduce the two coordi-

nates y and ϕ as shown in Fig. 10.

The force F and the moment M that act on the beam due to its motion along

coordinates y and ϕ are

F = −y

1

k

1

−y

2

k

2

= −(y −ϕl

1

)k

1

−(y +ϕl

2

)k

2

= −[(k

1

+k

2

)y + (k

2

l

2

−k

1

l

1

)ϕ]

M = +y

1

k

1

l

1

−y

2

k

2

l

2

= +(y −ϕl

1

)k

1

l

1

−(y +ϕl

2

)k

2

l

2

= −[(k

2

l

2

−k

1

l

1

)y + (k

1

l

2

1

+yk

2

l

2

2

)ϕ (2.37)

Hence, the generalized Newton’s equations yield

m¨ y = F = −[(k

11

+k

2

)y + (k

2

l

2

−k

1

l

1

)ϕ]

I ¨ ϕ = M = −[(k

2

l

2

−k

1

l

1

)y + (k

1

l

2

1

+yk

2

l

2

2

)ϕ (2.38)

The matrix form of the system equations of motion is

m¨ x +kx = 0 (2.39)

where

m =

·

m 0

0 I

¸

; k =

·

k

1

+k

2

k

2

l

2

−k

1

l

1

k

2

l

2

−k

1

l

1

k

1

l

2

1

+k

2

l

2

2

¸

; x =

·

y

ϕ

¸

(2.40)

MODELLING 79

Problem 18

1

2

k k

R r 3

4

A

Figure 11

The link 1 of a mass m

1

, shown in Fig. 11), can move along the horizontal

slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. The ball 2 of mass m

2

and a radius r and the massless rod 4 form a rigid body. This body is hinged to the

link 1 at the point A. All motion is in the vertical plane. Use Lagrange’s approach

to derive equations of small vibrations of the system about its equilibrium position.

I =

2

5

m

2

r

2

– moment of inertia of the ball about axis through its centre of gravity.

MODELLING 80

Solution

1

2

k

k

R

r

3

x

y

x

o

G

r

G

ϕ

Figure 12

The system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates x

and ϕ are shown in Fig. 12. The kinetic energy of the system T is equal to the sum

of the kinetic energy of the link 1 T

1

and the link 2 T

2

.

T = T

1

+T

2

=

1

2

m

1

˙ x

2

+

1

2

m

2

v

2

G

+

1

2

I ˙ ϕ

2

(2.41)

The absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the ball v

G

can be obtained by

diﬀerentiation of its absolute position vector. According to Fig .12, this position

vector is

r

G

= i(x +Rsin ϕ) +j( −Rcos ϕ) (2.42)

Hence

v

G

= ˙ r

G

= i( ˙ x +R˙ ϕcos ϕ) +j(R˙ ϕsin ϕ) (2.43)

The required squared magnitude of this velocity is

v

2

G

= ( ˙ x +R˙ ϕcos ϕ)

2

+ (R˙ ϕsinϕ)

2

= ˙ x

2

+ 2 ˙ xR˙ ϕcos ϕ +R

2

˙ ϕ

2

(2.44)

Introduction of Eq. 2.44 into Eq. 2.41 yields the kinetic energy function of the system

as a function of the generalized coordinates x and ϕ.

T =

1

2

m

1

˙ x

2

+

1

2

m

2

( ˙ x

2

+ 2 ˙ xR˙ ϕcos ϕ +R

2

˙ ϕ

2

) +

1

2

I ˙ ϕ

2

=

1

2

(m

1

+m

2

) ˙ x

2

+m

2

R˙ x ˙ ϕcos ϕ +

1

2

(m

2

R

2

+I) ˙ ϕ

2

(2.45)

The potential energy function is due the energy stored in the springs and the energy

due to gravitation.

V = 2

1

2

kx

2

−m

2

gRcos ϕ (2.46)

MODELLING 81

In the case considered, the Lagrange’s equations can be adopted in the following form

d

dt

µ

∂T

∂ ˙ x

¶

−

∂T

∂x

+

∂V

∂x

= 0

d

dt

µ

∂T

∂ ˙ ϕ

¶

−

∂T

∂ϕ

+

∂V

∂ϕ

= 0 (2.47)

The individual terms that appeare in the above equation are

d

dt

µ

∂T

∂ ˙ x

¶

=

d

dt

((m

1

+m

2

) ˙ x +m

2

R˙ ϕcos ϕ) =

= (m

1

+m

2

)¨ x +m

2

R¨ ϕcos ϕ −m

2

R˙ ϕ

2

sin ϕ (2.48)

∂T

∂x

= 0 (2.49)

∂V

∂x

= 2kx (2.50)

d

dt

µ

∂T

∂ ˙ ϕ

¶

=

d

dt

¡

m

2

R˙ xcos ϕ + (m

2

R

2

+I) ˙ ϕ

¢

=

= (m

2

R

2

+I)¨ ϕ +m

2

R¨ xcos ϕ −m

2

R˙ x ˙ ϕsin ϕ (2.51)

∂T

∂ϕ

= −m

2

R˙ x ˙ ϕsinϕ (2.52)

∂V

∂ϕ

= m

2

gRsin ϕ (2.53)

Hence, according to Eq. 2.47, we have the following equations of motion

(m

1

+m

2

)¨ x +m

2

R¨ ϕcos ϕ −m

2

R˙ ϕ

2

sinϕ + 2kx = 0

(m

2

R

2

+I)¨ ϕ +m

2

R¨ xcos ϕ +m

2

gRsin ϕ = 0 (2.54)

For small magnitudes of x and ϕ, sinϕ

∼

= ϕ, cos ϕ

∼

= 1, ˙ ϕ

2

∼

= 0. Taking this into

account the linearized equations of motion are

(m

1

+m

2

)¨ x +m

2

R¨ ϕ + 2kx = 0

(m

2

R

2

+I)¨ ϕ +m

2

R¨ x +m

2

gRϕ = 0 (2.55)

Their matrix form is

m¨ x +kx = 0 (2.56)

where

m =

·

m

1

+m

2

m

2

R

m

2

R m

2

R

2

+I

¸

, k =

·

2k 0

0 m

2

gR

¸

, x =

·

x

ϕ

¸

(2.57)

MODELLING 82

Problem 19

k

k

k k

q

1

q

2

l

l

A

1

A

2

Figure 13

Two identical and uniform rods shown in Fig. 13, each of mass m and length l,

are joined together to form an inverse double pendulum. The pendulum is supported

by four springs, all of stiﬀness k, in such way that its vertical position (q

1

= 0 and

q

2

= 0) is its stable equilibrium position. Produce equation of small vibrations of the

pendulum about this equilibrium position.

MODELLING 83

Problem 20

l

1

2

EI

4

3 4

R

l

3

GJ

o

Figure 14

The disk 1 of mass m

1

and radius R shown in Fig. 14, is fasten to the massless

and ﬂexible shaft 3. The left hand end of the massless and ﬂexible beam 4 is rigidly

attached to the disk 1. At its right hand side the particle 2 of m

2

is placed. Derive

equations for analysis of small vibrations of the system.

MODELLING 84

Problem 21

k

R

I

2

R

k

I

1

I

3

J

2

l

2

G

2 J

1

l

1

G

1

Figure 15

A belt gear was modelled as shown in Fig. 15. The shafts are assumed to

be massless and their length the second moment of inertia and the shear modulus is

denoted by l, J, and G respectively. The disks have moments of inertia I

1

, I

2

, and I

3

.

The belt is modelled as the spring of a stiﬀness k. Derive the diﬀerential equations

for the torsional vibrations of the system.

MODELLING 85

Problem 22

D

I

1

I

2

I

3

J

2

l

2

G

2

J

1

l

1

G

1

1

D

2

Figure 16

In Fig. 16 the physical model of a gear box is presented. Derive equations for

the torsional vibrations of the gear box. The shafts the gears are mounted on are

massless.

MODELLING 86

Problem 23

B

O

Y

X

C

α

l

l

l

l

l

l

A

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Figure 17

Fig. 17 shows a mechanical system. Link 1 of the system is motionless with

respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY . The links 2 and 3 are hinged to

the link 1 at the point O. The links 4 and 5 join the links 2 and 3 with the collar 6.

The spring 7 has a stiﬀness k and its uncompressed length is equal to 2l. The system

has one degree of freedom and its position may be determined by one generalized

coordinate α. The links 4 5 and 6 are assumed to be massless. The links 2 and 3

can be treated as thin and uniform bars each of length 2l and mass m.

Derive equations of the small vibration of the system about its equilibrium

position.

MODELLING 87

Problem 24

m

m m

T

l

4

l

4

l

4

l

4

Figure 18

Three beads, each of mass m are attached to the massless string shown in Fig.

18. The string has length l and is loaded with the tensile force T. Derive equation of

motion of the beads

MODELLING 88

Problem 25

R q

1

q

2

l

m

Figure 19

On the massless string of length l the ball of mass m and radius R is suspended

(see Fig. 19). Derive equation of motion of the system.

MODELLING 89

Problem 26

k

c

m

k

s1 s2

k

2

I

1

I

1

I

2

I

i i

R

Figure 20

Fig. 20 presents the physical model of a winch. The shafts of the torsional

stiﬀness k

s1

and k

s2

as well as the gear of ratio i are massless. To the right hand end

of the shaft k

s2

the rotor of the moment of inertia I

2

is attached. The left hand end

of the shaft k

s1

is connected to the drum of the moment of inertia I

1

. The rope is

modelled as a massless spring of the stiﬀness k. At its end the block of mass m is

fastened. The damper of the damping coeﬃcient c represents the damping properties

of the system.

Produce the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system.

MODELLING 90

Problem 27

Z

X

x

z

G

C

R

4R

3π

O

α

Figure 21

The semi-cylinder of mass m and radius R shown in Fig. 49 is free to roll

over the horizontal plane XY without slipping. The instantaneous angular position

of this semi-cylinder is determined by the angular displacement α. Produce

1. the equation of small oscillations of the semi-cylinder (take advantage of the

Lagrange’s equations)

Answer:

¡

I

G

+mR

2

¡

1 +

16

9π

2

+

8

3π

¢¢

¨ α +

4

3

R

π

α = 0

where I

G

=

1

2

mR

2

−m

¡

4

3

R

π

¢

2

2. the expression for period of these oscillations.

Answer:

T =

2π

v

4

3

R

π

(

I

G

+mR

2

(

1+

16

9π

2

+

8

3π

))

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 91

Problem 28

I

1

I

2

J

3

l

3

G

3

J

1

l

1

G

1

J

2

l

2

G

2

J

4

l

4

G

4

Figure 22

The two disks of moments of inertia I

1

and I

2

are join together by means of

the massless shafts as is shown in Fig. 50. The dynamic properties of the shafts are

determined by their lenghts l, the second moments of area J and the shear modulus

G. Produce the diﬀerential equations of motion.

2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

The analysis carried out in the previous section leads to conclusion that the mathe-

matical model of the linear multi-degree-of -freedom system is as follows

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = F(t) (2.58)

where

m - matrix of inertia

c - matrix of damping

k - matrix of stiﬀness

F(t)- vector of the external excitation

x- vector of the generalized coordinates

2.2.1 General case

In the general case of the multi-degree-of-freedom system the matrices c and k do not

necessary have to be symmetrical. Such a situation takes place, for example, if the

mechanical structure interacts with ﬂuid or air (oil bearings, ﬂatter of plane wings

etc.). Since the equation 2.58 is linear, its general solution is always equal to the sum

of the general solution of the homogeneous equation x

g

and the particular solution

of the non-homogeneous equation x

p

.

x = x

g

+x

p

(2.59)

The homogeneous equation

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = 0 (2.60)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 92

corresponds to the case when the excitation F(t) is not present. Therefore, its gen-

eral solution represents the free (natural) vibrations of the system. The particular

solution of the non-homogeneous equation 2.58 represents the vibrations caused by

the excitation force F(t). It is often refered to as the forced vibrations.

Free vibrations - natural frequencies- stability of the equilibrium position

To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2.60 to so

called state-space coordinates. Let

y = ˙ x (2.61)

be the vector of the generalized velocities. Introduction of Eq. 2.61 into Eq. 2.60

yields the following set of the diﬀerential equations of ﬁrst order.

˙ x = y

˙ y = −m

−1

kx −m

−1

cy (2.62)

The above equations can be rewritten as follows

˙ z = Az (2.63)

where

z =

·

x

y

¸

, A =

·

0 1

−m

−1

k −m

−1

c

¸

(2.64)

Solution of the above equation can be predicted in the form 2.65.

z = z

0

e

rt

(2.65)

Introduction of Eq. 2.65 into Eq. 2.63 results in a set of the homogeneous algebraic

equations which are linear with respect to the vector z

0

.

[A−1r] z

0

= 0 (2.66)

The equations 2.66 have non-zero solution if and only if the characteristic determinant

is equal to 0.

|[A−1r]| = 0 (2.67)

The process of searching for a solution of the equation 2.67 is called eigenvalue problem

and the process of searching for the corresponding vector z

0

is called eigenvector

problem. Both of them can be easily solved by means of the commercially available

computer programs.

The roots r

n

are usually complex and conjugated.

r

n

= h

n

±iω

n

n = 1.....N (2.68)

Their number N is equal to the number of degree of freedom of the system considered.

The particular solutions corresponding to the complex roots 2.68 are

z

n1

= e

h

n

t

(Re(z

0n

) cos ω

n

t −Im(z

0n

) sin ω

n

t)

z

n2

= e

h

n

t

(Re(z

0n

) sin ω

n

t + Im(z

0n

) cos ω

n

t) n = 1.....N (2.69)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 93

In the above expressions Re(z

0

n

) and Im(z

0

n

) stand for the real and imaginary part

of the complex and conjugated eigenvector z

0

n

associated with the n

th

root of the

set 2.68 respectively. The particular solutions 2.69 allow to formulate the general

solution that approximates the system free vibrations..

z =[z

11

, z

12,

z

21

, z

22,

z

31

, z

32,

.....z

n1

, z

n2,

.........z

N1

, z

N2

] C (2.70)

As one can see from the formulae 2.69, the imaginary parts of roots r

n

represent

the natural frequencies of the system and their real parts represent rate of

decay of the free vibrations. The system with N degree of freedom possesses

N natural frequencies. The equation 2.70 indicates that the free motion of a multi-

degree-of-freedom system is a linear combination of the solutions 2.69.

A graphical interpretation of the solutions 2.69 is given in Fig. 23 for the

positive and negative magnitude of h

n

.The problem of searching for the vector of the

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 t

z

h>0

/ π ω

n

n

T = 2

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 t

z

/ π ω

n

n

T = 2

h<0

Figure 23

constant magnitudes C is called initial problem. In the general case, this problem is

diﬃcult and goes beyond the scope of this lectures.

The roots 2.68 allow the stability of the system equilibrium position to be

determined.

If all roots r

n

of the equation 2.68 have negative real parts then the

equilibrium position of the system considered is stable.

If at least one root of the equation 2.68 has positive real part then

the equilibrium position of the system considered is unstable.

Forced vibrations - transfer functions

The response to the external excitation F(t) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is

determined by the particular solution of the mathematical model 2.58.

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = F(t) (2.71)

Let us assume that the excitation force F(t) is a sum of K addends. For the further

analysis let us assume that each of them has the following form

F

k

= F

k

o

cos(ωt +ϕ

k

o

) (2.72)

To facilitate the process of looking for the particular solution of equation 2.71, let us

introduce the complex excitation force by adding to the expression 2.72 the imaginary

part.

f

k

= F

k

o

cos(ωt +ϕ

k

o

) +iF

k

o

sin(ωt +ϕ

k

o

) (2.73)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 94

The relationship between the complex excitation f

k

and the real excitation is shown

in Fig. 24. According to Euler’s formula the complex excitation may be rewritten as

ω

k

f

t

0

k

F

ϕ

0

k

Re

Im

0

k

F cos( ) ωt+ϕ

0

k

k

F

ω t

ϕ

0

k

ω t

0

k

F

Figure 24

follows

f

k

= F

k

o

e

i(ωt+ϕ

k

o

)

= F

k

o

e

iϕ

k

o

e

iωt

= f

k

o

e

iωt

(2.74)

Here, f

k

o

is a complex number that depends on the amplitude and phase of the external

excitation. Introduction of Eq. 2.74 into Eq. 2.71 yields

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = f

o

e

iωt

(2.75)

Now, the particular solution of Eq. 2.75 can be predicted in the complex form 2.76

x

c

= ae

iωt

(2.76)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 95

Introduction of Eq. 2.76 into Eq. 2.75 produces set of the algebraic equations which

are linear with respect to the unknown vector a.

¡

−ω

2

m+iωc +k

¢

a = f

o

(2.77)

Its solution is

a =

¡

−ω

2

m+iωc +k

¢

−1

f

o

(2.78)

Therefore, according to Eq. 2.76, the response of the system x

c

due to the complex

force f is

x

c

= (Re(a) +i Im(a))(cos ωt +i sin ωt) (2.79)

Response of the system x due to the real excitation F is represented by the real part

of the solution 2.79.

x = Re(a) cos ωt −Im(a) sin ωt (2.80)

Motion of the system considered along the coordinate x

k

, according to 2.80 is

x

k

= x

k

o

cos(ωt +β

k

) (2.81)

where

x

k

o

=

p

Re(a

k

)

2

+ Im(a

k

)

2

β

k

= arc tan

Im(a

k

)

Re(a

k

)

(2.82)

It is easy to see from 2.79 that the amplitude of the forced vibration x

k

o

is equal to the

absolute value of the complex amplitude a

k

, and its phase β

k

is equal to the phase

between the complex amplitudes a

k

and the vector e

iωt

. This ﬁndings are presented

in Fig. 25.

The complex matrix

¡

−ω

2

m+iωc +k

¢

−1

(2.83)

will be denoted by R(iω) and it is called matrix of transfer functions. It transfers,

according to 2.78, the vector of the complex excitation f

o

e

iωt

into the vector of the

complex displacement x

c

= ae

iωt

.

x

c

= ae

iωt

= R(iω)f

o

e

iωt

(2.84)

It is easy to see that the element R

pq

(iω) of the matrix of transfer functions represents

the complex displacement (amplitude and phase) of the system along the coordinates

x

p

caused by the unit excitation 1e

iωt

along the coordinate x

q

. Example of three

elements of a matrix of the transform functions are presented in Fig. 26. The ﬁrst

two diagrams present the real and the imaginary parts of the complex transform

functions whereas the last two present its absolute value (amplitude) and phase.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 96

ω

k

f

t

0

k

F

ϕ

0

k

Re

Im

0

k

F cos( ) ωt+

ϕ

0

k

k

F

ω t

ϕ

0

k

ω t

0

k

F

β

0

k

β

0

k

0

k

x

0

k

x

0

k

x cos( ) ωt+

β

0

k

k

x

k

a

Figure 25

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 97

-0.0003

-0.0002

-0.0001

0

0.0001

0.0002

0.0003

0.0004

0.0005

0.0006

500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s

transfer function m/N (imaginary part)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

-0.004

-0.003

-0.002

-0.001

0

0.001

0.002

0.003

500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s

transfer functions m/N (real parts)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

0

0.0005

0.001

0.0015

0.002

0.0025

0.003

0.0035

0

500 1000 1500

frequency rad/s

transfer function m/N (modulus)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

-4

-2

0

2

4

500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s

transfer functions m/N (phase)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

Figure 26

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 98

Experimental determination of the transfer functions

F(t)

x(t)

t

t

Fourier

transformation

F

x(

p

q

p

q

( )

)

iω

iω

ω

ω

R

i pq

(iω

)

___

x(

p

)

iω

F

q

( )

iω

ω

F

q

x

q

x

p

x

p

Figure 27

In order to produce the transfer function between the coordinate x

p

and the coor-

dinate x

q

(see Fig. 27) let us apply force F

q

(t) along the coordinate x

q

and record

it simultaneously with the system response x

p

(t) along the coordinate x

p

. Fourier

transformation applied to these functions

F

q

(iω) =

Z

+∞

−∞

e

−iωt

F

q

(t)dt

x

p

(iω) =

Z

+∞

−∞

e

−iωt

x

p

(t)dt (2.85)

yields the Fourier transforms in the frequency domain x

p

(iω) and F

q

(iω). The am-

plitude of the complex functions x

p

(iω) and F

q

(iω)

|x

p

(iω)| =

q

Re(x

p

(iω))

2

+ Im(x

p

(iω))

2

|F

q

(iω)| =

q

Re(F

q

(iω))

2

+ Im(F

q

(iω))

2

(2.86)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 99

represents the amplitude of displacement and force respectively as a function of the

frequency ω. The corresponding phases are determined by the following formulae.

ϕ

xp

= arctan

Im(x

p

(iω))

Re(x

p

(iω))

ϕ

Fq

= arctan

Im(F

q

(iω))

Re(F

q

(iω))

(2.87)

These Fourier transforms allow the transfer function R

pq

(iω) to be computed.

R

pq

(iω) =

x

p

(iω)

F

q

(iω)

(2.88)

The above formula determines response of the system along coordinate x

p

caused by

the harmonic excitation F

q

along the coordinate x

q

.

x

p

(iω) = R

pq

(iω)F

q

(iω) (2.89)

Since the system considered is by assumption linear, the response along the coordinate

x

p

caused by set of forces acting along coordinates N coordinates x

q

, according to

the superposition principle, is

x

p

(iω) =

q=N

X

q=1

R

pq

(iω)F

q

(iω) q = 1....N (2.90)

Application of the above described experimental procedure to all coordinates involved

in the modelling (p = 1....N) allows to formulate the matrix of the transfer functions

R

pq

(iω).The relationship above can be rewritten in the following matrix form

x(iω) = R

pq

(iω)F(iω) p = 1....N, q = 1....N (2.91)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 100

2.2.2 Modal analysis - case of small damping

In the following analysis it will be assumed that the matrices m, c and k are square

and symmetrical. Size of these matrices is N × N where N is the number of the

system degree of freedom. If the vector of the external excitation F(t) is equal to

zero, it is said that the system performs free vibrations. According to the above

deﬁnition the free vibrations are governed by the homogeneous set of equations

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = 0 (2.92)

Free vibration of the undamped system - eigenvalue and eigenvector prob-

lem

If the damping is neglected the equation of the free vibrations is

m¨ x +kx = 0 (2.93)

It is easy to see that

x = Xcos ωt (2.94)

is a particular solution of the equation 2.93. Indeed, introduction of Eq. 2.94 into

2.93 yields

(−ω

2

m+k)Xcos ωt = 0 (2.95)

and the diﬀerential equation 2.93 is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if the following

set of the homogeneous algebraic equations is fulﬁlled.

(−ω

2

m+k)X = 0 (2.96)

In turn, the above set of equations has the non-zero solutions if and only if its char-

acteristic determinant is equal to zero

¯

¯

−ω

2

m+k

¯

¯

= 0 (2.97)

The above characteristic equation, for any physical system, has N positive roots with

respect to the parameter ω

2

. Hence, the parameter ω can take any of the following

values

±ω

1

, ±ω

2

, ±ω

3

, ..... ±ω

n

, .... ±ω

N

(2.98)

As one can see from Eq. 2.94, these parameters have the physical meaning only for

positive values. They represent frequencies of the system free vibrations. They are

called natural frequencies. The number of diﬀerent natural frequencies is therefore

equal to the number of degree of freedom. For each of the possible natural frequencies

ω

n

the system of equations 2.96 becomes linearly dependent and therefore has inﬁnite

number of solution X

n

. Its follows that if X

n

is a solution of Eq. 2.96, the vector

C

n

X

n

(2.99)

where C

n

is arbitrarily chosen constant, is solution of the Eq. 2.96 too. The vector X

n

represents so called natural mode of vibration associated with the natural frequency

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 101

ω

n

. It determines the shape that the system must possess to oscillate harmonically

with the frequency ω

n

.

For example, if a beam with four concentrated masses is considered (see Fig.

28) the vector X

n

contains four numbers

X

n

= [X

1n

, X

2n

, X

3n

, X

4n

]

T

(2.100)

If the system is deﬂected according to the this vector and allowed to move with the

Tn

X

1n

X

2n

X

3n

X

4n

x

3n

x =X cos t

3n

ω

n

t

Figure 28

initial velocity equal to zero, it will oscillate with the frequency ω

n

. There are four

such a natural modes and four corresponding natural frequencies for this system.

The problem of the determination of the natural frequencies is called eigen-

value problem and searching for the corresponding natural modes is called eigenvector

problem. Therefore the natural frequencies are very often referred to as eigenvalue

and the natural modes as eigenvectors.

Now, one can say that the process of determination of the particular solution

x

n

= X

n

cos ω

n

t (2.101)

of the equation 2.93 has been accomplished. There are N such particular solutions.

In similar manner one can prove that

x

n

= X

n

sinω

n

t (2.102)

is a particular solution too. Since the solutions ?? and 2.102 are linearly independent,

their linear combination forms the general solution of the equation 2.93

x

n

=

N

X

n=1

(S

n

X

n

sinω

n

t +C

n

X

n

cos ω

n

t) (2.103)

The 2N constants S

n

and C

n

should be chosen to satisfy the 2N initial conditions.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 102

Properties of the natural modes.

Each eigenvector has to fulﬁll the Eq. 2.96. Hence,

−ω

2

n

mX

n

+kX

n

= 0

−ω

2

m

mX

m

+kX

m

= 0 (2.104)

Primultiplying the ﬁrst equation by X

T

m

and the second equation by X

T

n

one can get

−ω

2

n

X

T

m

mX

n

+X

T

m

kX

n

= 0

−ω

2

m

X

T

n

mX

m

+X

T

n

kX

m

= 0 (2.105)

Since matrices m and k are symmetrical

X

T

m

kX

n

= X

T

n

kX

m

and X

T

m

mX

n

= X

T

n

mX

m

(2.106)

Now, primultiplying the ﬁrst equation of set 2.105 by -1 and then adding them to-

gether we are getting

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

m

)X

T

n

mX

m

= 0 (2.107)

Since for n 6= m (ω

2

n

−ω

2

m

) 6= 0,

X

T

n

mX

m

= 0 for n 6= m (2.108)

If n = m, since (ω

2

n

− ω

2

n

) = 0, the product X

T

n

mX

n

does not have to be equal to

zero. Let this product be equal to λ

2

n

X

T

n

mX

n

= λ

2

n

(2.109)

Division of the above equation by λ

2

n

yields

(

1

λ

n

X

T

n

)m(

1

λ

n

X

n

) = 1 (2.110)

But according to 2.99

1

λ

n

X

n

is eigenvector too. Let us denot it by Ξ

n

Ξ

n

=

1

λ

n

X

n

(2.111)

The process of producing of the eigenvectors Ξ

n

is called normalization and the

eigenvector Ξ

n

is called normalized eigenvector or normalized mode. According to

2.110,

Ξ

T

n

mΞ

n

= 1 (2.112)

Taking into account Eq’s 2.108 and 2.112 one can conclude that

Ξ

T

n

mΞ

m

=

½

0 if n 6= m

1 if n = m

¾

(2.113)

It is said that eigenvectors Ξ

n

and Ξ

m

that fulﬁll the above conditions are orthogonal

with respect to the inertia matrix m.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 103

Owning to the above orthogonality condition, the second of the equations

2.105 yields

Ξ

T

n

kΞ

m

=

½

0 if n 6= m

ω

2

n

if n = m

¾

(2.114)

It means that the normalized modes are orthogonal with respect to the matrix of

stiﬀness.

The modal modes Ξ

n

can be arranged in a square matrix of order N known

as the modal matrix Ξ .

Ξ =[Ξ

1

, Ξ

2

, .....Ξ

n

, ......Ξ

N

] where N is number of degrees of freedom (2.115)

It is easy to see that the developed orthogonality conditions yields

Ξ

T

mΞ = 1

Ξ

T

kΞ = ω

2

(2.116)

where ω

2

is a square diagonal matrix containing the squared natural frequencies ω

2

n

ω

2

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ω

2

1

0 . 0 . 0

0 ω

2

2

. 0 . 0

. . . . . .

0 0 . ω

2

n

. 0

. . . . . .

0 0 . 0 . ω

2

N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(2.117)

Normal coordinates - modal damping

Motion of any real system is always associated with a dissipation of energy. Vibrations

of any mechanical structures are coupled with deﬂections of the elastic elements.

These deﬂections, in turn, cause friction between the particles the elements are made

of. The damping caused by such an internal friction and damping due to friction of

these elements against the surrounding medium is usually referred to as the structural

damping. In many cases, particularly if the system considered is furnished with

special devices design for dissipation of energy called dampers, the structural damping

can be omitted. But in case of absence of such devices, the structural damping has

to be taken into account. The structural damping is extremely diﬃcult or simply

impossible to be predicted by means of any analytical methods. In such cases the

matrix of damping c (see Eq. 2.92) is assumed as the following combination of the

matrix of inertia m and stiﬀness k with the unknown coeﬃcients µ and κ.

c =µm+κk (2.118)

This coeﬃcients are to be determined experimentally.

It will be shown that application of the following linear transformation

x = Ξη (2.119)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 104

to the mathematical model

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = F(t) (2.120)

results in its decoupling. Indeed, introduction of the transformation 2.119 into 2.120

yields

mΞ¨ η +cΞ˙ η +kΞη = F(t) (2.121)

Primultiplying both sides of the above equation by Ξ

T

we obtain

Ξ

T

mΞ¨ η +Ξ

T

(µm+κk)Ξ˙ η +Ξ

T

kΞη = Ξ

T

F(t) (2.122)

Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions 2.116 we are getting set of indepen-

dent equations

1¨ η +γ ˙ η +ω

2

n

η = Ξ

T

F(t) (2.123)

where

1 - the unit matrix

ω

2

n

and γ = (µ1+κω

2

n

) - diagonal matrices

Hence, each equation of the above set has the following form

¨ η

n

+ 2ς

n

ω

n

˙ η

n

+ω

2

n

η

n

= Ξ

T

n

F(t) n = 1, 2, ...N (2.124)

The coeﬃcients ς

n

= (µ+κω

2

n

)/2ω

n

are often referred to as the modal damping ratio.

Solution of each of the above equations can be obtained independently and

according to the discussion carried out in the ﬁrst chapter (page 30, Eq. 1.46) can

be written as follows

η

n

= e

−ς

n

ω

n

t

(C

sn

sin ω

dn

t +C

cn

cos ω

dn

t) +η

pn

(2.125)

where ω

dn

= ω

n

p

1 −ς

2

n

and η

pn

stands for the particular solution of the non-

homogeneous equation 2.124. Problem of determination of this particular solution is

considered in the next section.

Introduction of the solutions 2.125 into equation 2.119 yields motion of the

system along the physical coordinates x.

Response to the harmonic excitation - transfer functions

Let us solve the Eq. 2.124 for response of the system due to the harmonic excitation

along coordinate x

q

. In this case the right hand side of the equation 2.124 takes form

Ξ

T

n

F(t) = Ξ

T

n

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

0

.

F

q

e

iωt

.

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

= Ξ

qn

F

q

e

iωt

(2.126)

Hence

¨ η

n

+ 2ς

n

ω

n

˙ η

n

+ω

2

n

η

n

= Ξ

qn

F

q

e

iωt

n = 1, 2, ...N (2.127)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 105

Therefore

η

n

=

Ξ

qn

F

q

ω

2

n

−ω

2

+ 2ς

n

ω

n

ωi

e

iωt

n = 1, 2, ...N (2.128)

Since

x = Ξη (2.129)

response along coordinate x

p

x

p

= e

iωt

N

X

n=1

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

F

q

ω

2

n

−ω

2

+ 2ς

n

ω

n

ωi

(2.130)

transfer function between coordinate p and the others

x

p

F

q

e

iωt

=

N

X

n=1

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

ω

2

n

−ω

2

+ 2ς

n

ω

n

ωi

q = 1, 2, .......N (2.131)

R

pq

(iω) =

x

p

F

q

e

iωt

=

P

N

n=1

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

((ω

2

n

−ω

2

)−2ς

n

ω

n

ωi)

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+4ς

2

n

ω

2

n

ω

2

=

=

P

N

n=1

³

ΞpnΞqn(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+4ς

2

n

ω

2

n

ω

2

+

−2ΞpnΞqnς

n

ωnωi

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+4ς

2

n

ω

2

n

ω

2

´

q = 1, 2, .......N

(2.132)

if ω

∼

= ω

n

R

pq

(iω)

∼

=

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

4ς

2

n

ω

2

n

ω

2

+

−Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

i

2ς

n

ω

n

ω

q = 1, 2, .......N (2.133)

Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer func-

tions

The transfer functions R

pq

(iω) can be easily obtained by means of a simple experi-

ment (see page 98). They allow the natural frequencies, natural modes and the modal

damping to be identiﬁed. It can be seen from the equation 2.133 that the real part of

the transfer function R

pq

(iω) is equal to zero for the frequency equal to the natural

frequency ω

n

. Hence the zero-points of the real part of the transfer functions deter-

mine the system natural frequencies. From the same equation it is apparent that the

imaginary parts corresponding to ω

∼

= ω

n

and measured for diﬀerent q = 1, 2, .......N,

yield the natural modes with accuracy to the constant magnitude C = −

2ς

n

ω

2

n

Ξ

np

Ξ

nq

= C Im(R

pq

(iω

n

)) q = 1, 2, .......N (2.134)

Alternatively, The natural frequencies and the natural modes can be extracted from

diagrams of the magnitudes and phases of the transfer function.

The phase ϕ since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for

ω = ω

n

is equal to 90

o

ϕ = arctan

Im(R

pq

(iω

n

))

Re (R

pq

(iω

n

))

= arctan ∞= 90

o

(2.135)

This property allows the natural frequencies to be determined.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 106

Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω

n

, its mod-

ulus is equal to the imaginary part. Therefore the modulus of the transfer functions

corresponding ω = ω

n

determine the natural modes

|R

pq

(iω)| =

¯

¯

¯

¯

Ξ

pn

2ς

n

ω

2

n

Ξ

qn

¯

¯

¯

¯

(2.136)

An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode

from the transfer functions is shown in Fig. 29

0

0.00005

0.0001

0.00015

0.0002

0.00025

1500 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s

transfer functions m/N (modulus)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

1500 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s

transfer functions m/N (phase)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

π/2

−π/2

1

2

3

natural frequency

natural mode

Figure 29

Determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the

transfer functions is referred to as modal analysis.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 107

2.2.3 Kinetic and potential energy functions - Dissipation function

In this section the kinetic energy function, the potential energy function and the

dissipation function are formulated for a linear system governed by the equation

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = F(t) (2.137)

where the matrices m, c and k are symmetric and positive deﬁnite matrices.

Kinetic energy function

Let us consider function

T =

1

2

˙ x

T

m˙ x ˙ x ={ ˙ x

1

, ...... ˙ x

n

........ ˙ x

N

}

T

(2.138)

Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting

T =

1

2

{ ˙ x

1

, .. ˙ x

n

.. ˙ x

N

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

P

m=N

m=1

m

1m

˙ x

m

.................

P

m=N

m=1

m

nm

˙ x

m

..................

P

m=N

m=1

m

Nm

˙ x

m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

=

1

2

n=N

X

n=1

Ã

˙ x

n

m=N

X

m=1

m

nm

˙ x

m

!

(2.139)

=

1

2

n=N

X

n=1

m=N

X

m=1

m

nm

˙ x

n

˙ x

m

If this function is positive deﬁnite (is always positive and is equal to zero if and only

if all variables ˙ x

n

are equal to zero) the corresponding matrix m is called positive

deﬁnite matrix.

If T is the kinetic energy function, according to Lagrange’s equations should

be

d

dt

µ

∂T

∂ ˙ x

n

¶

−

∂T

∂x

n

= {m

n1

, ..m

nn

..m

nN

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¨ x

1

....

¨ x

n

.....

¨ x

N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(2.140)

Let us prove that the function 2.138 fulﬁlls the requirement 2.140.

d

dt

µ

∂T

∂ ˙ x

n

¶

−

∂T

∂x

n

=

d

dt

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

{0, 0..1..0}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

P

m=N

m=1

m

1m

˙ x

m

.................

P

m=N

m=1

m

nm

˙ x

m

..................

P

m=N

m=1

m

Nm

˙ x

m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

+ { ˙ x

1

, .. ˙ x

n

.. ˙ x

N

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

m

1n

.......

m

mn

.......

m

NN

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

=

=

d

dt

Ã

1

2

Ã

m=N

X

m=1

m

nm

˙ x

m

+

m=N

X

m=1

m

mn

˙ x

m

!!

(2.141)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 108

Since m

nm

= m

mn

d

dt

µ

∂T

∂ ˙ x

n

¶

−

∂T

∂x

n

=

d

dt

Ã

1

2

2

m=N

X

m=1

m

nm

˙ x

m

!

=

d

dt

Ã

m=N

X

m=1

m

nm

˙ x

m

!

(2.142)

=

m=N

X

m=1

m

nm

¨ x

m

= {m

n1

, ......m

nn

........m

nN

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¨ x

1

....

¨ x

n

.....

¨ x

N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Now we may conclude that the function 2.138 is the kinetic energy function if the

matrix m is symmetric and positive deﬁnite.

Potential energy function

Let us consider function

V =

1

2

x

T

kx x ={x

1

......x

n

........x

N

}

T

(2.143)

Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting

V =

1

2

{x

1

, x

2

..x

n

..x

N

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

P

m=N

m=1

k

1m

x

m

.................

P

m=N

m=1

k

nm

˙ x

m

..................

P

m=N

m=1

k

Nm

˙ x

m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

=

1

2

n=N

X

n=1

Ã

x

n

m=N

X

m=1

k

nm

x

m

!

(2.144)

=

1

2

n=N

X

n=1

m=N

X

m=1

k

nm

x

n

x

m

If V is the potential energy function, it must be positive deﬁnite and according to

Lagrange’s equations should fulﬁlls the following relationship

∂V

∂x

n

= {k

n1

, ......k

nn

........k

nN

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

x

1

....

x

n

.....

x

N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 (2.145)

Let us prove that the function 2.143 fulﬁlls the requirement 2.145.

∂V

∂x

n

=

1

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

{0, 0..1..0}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

P

m=N

m=1

k

1m

x

m

.................

P

m=N

m=1

k

nm

x

m

..................

P

m=N

m=1

k

Nm

x

m

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

+ {x

1

, ..x

n

..x

N

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

k

1n

.......

k

mn

.......

k

NN

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

=

=

1

2

Ã

m=N

X

m=1

k

nm

x

m

+

m=N

X

m=1

k

mn

x

m

!

(2.146)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 109

Since m

nm

= m

mn

∂V

∂x

n

=

1

2

2

m=N

X

m=1

k

nm

x

m

=

m=N

X

m=1

k

nm

x

m

= {k

n1

, ......k

nn

........k

nN

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

x

1

....

x

n

.....

x

N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(2.147)

Now we may conclude that the function 2.143 is the kinetic energy function if the

matrix k is symmetric and positive deﬁnite.

Dissipation function

It is easy to notice, having in mind the previous consideration, that the function

D =

1

2

˙ x

T

c˙ x ˙ x ={ ˙ x

1

, ...... ˙ x

n

........ ˙ x

N

}

T

(2.148)

fulﬁlls the following relationship

∂D

∂ ˙ x

n

= {c

n1

, ......c

nn

........c

nN

}

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

˙ x

1

....

˙ x

n

.....

˙ x

N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(2.149)

It follows that if the matrix of damping is symmetrical and positive deﬁnite, such a

damping can be included in the Lagrange’s equation in the following way

d

dt

µ

∂T

∂ ˙ x

n

¶

−

∂T

∂x

n

+

∂V

∂x

n

+

∂D

∂ ˙ x

n

= Q

n

(2.150)

The function D is called dissipation function. It must be noted that the dissi-

pation function does not represent the dissipation energy.

The damping forces, in a general case, are not conservative and have to be

included in the generalized force Q

n

.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 110

2.2.4 Problems

Problem 29

m

1 J

1

l

1

E

1

J

2

E

2

m

2

k

l

2

2

l

2

2

A

c

y

B

Figure 30

The point A of the system shown in Fig. 30 moves according to the following

equation

y = A

1

sin(f

1

t) +A

2

sin(f

2

t) (2.151)

where A

1

and A

2

are amplitudes of this motion and f

1

and f

2

are the corresponding

frequencies.

Produce

1. the diﬀerential equations of motion

2. the natural frequencies

3. the steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation y

4. the exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state

motion

5. the reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B. .

Given are:

l

1

= 1m E

1

= 0.2 · 10

12

N/m

2

J

1

= 1 · 10

−8

m

4

m

1

= 10kg

l

2

= 2m E

2

= 0.2 · 10

12

N/m

2

J

2

= 1 · 10

−8

m

4

m

2

= 20kg

k = 10000N/m

c = 100Ns/m

A

1

= 0.01m f

1

= 30rad/s

A

2

= 0.01m f

2

= 35rad/s

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 111

Solution

1. The diﬀerential equations of motion

m

1 J

1

l

1

E

1

J

2

E

2

m

2

y

1 k

l

2

2

l

2

2

A

c

y

B

y

2

Figure 31

Utilization of the Newton-Euler approach for modelling of the system shown

in Fig. 31 allows to develop its mathematical model.

m

1

¨ y

1

= −k

1

y

1

−ky

1

+ky

2

m

2

¨ y

2

= −k

2

y

2

−ky

2

+ky

1

−c ˙ y

2

+c ˙ y (2.152)

Its matrix form is

·

m

1

m

2

¸ ·

¨ y

1

¨ y

2

¸

+

·

0

c

¸ ·

˙ y

1

˙ y

2

¸

+

·

k +k

1

−k

−k k +k

2

¸ ·

y

1

y

2

¸

=

·

0

c ˙ y

¸

(2.153)

or shorter

m¨ y +c˙ y +ky = F(t) (2.154)

where

m =

·

m

1

0

0 m

2

¸

; c =

·

0 0

0 c

¸

; k =

·

k +k

1

−k

−k k +k

2

¸

; F(t) =

·

0

c ˙ y

¸

(2.155)

Taking into consideration Eq. 2.151, the excitation c ˙ y is

c ˙ y = cA

1

f

1

cos(f

1

t) +cA

2

f

2

cos(f

2

t) = a

1

cos(f

1

t) +a

2

cos(f

2

t) (2.156)

where

a

1

= cA

1

f

1

; a

2

= cA

2

f

2

Introduction of Eq. 2.156 into the equation of motion 2.154 yields

m¨ y +c˙ y +ky = F

1

(t) +F

2

(t) (2.157)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 112

where

F

1

(t) =

·

0

a

1

cos(f

1

t)

¸

; F

2

(t) =

·

0

a

2

cos(f

2

t)

¸

(2.158)

For the given numerical data the stiﬀness of the beam 1 at the point of attachment

of the mass 1 is

k

1

=

3E

1

J

1

l

3

1

=

3 · 0.2 · 10

12

· 1 · 10

−8

1

3

= 6000N/m (2.159)

The stiﬀness of the beam 2 at the point of attachment of the mass 2 is

k

2

=

48E

2

J

2

l

3

2

=

48 · 0.2 · 10

12

· 1 · 10

−8

2

3

= 12000N/m (2.160)

Hence

m =

·

10 0

0 20

¸

; c =

·

0 0

0 100

¸

; k =

·

16000 −10000

−10000 22000

¸

F

1

(t) =

·

0

30 cos(30t)

¸

; F

2

(t) =

·

0

35 cos(35t)

¸

(2.161)

2. Free motion - the natural frequencies

To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2.157

to the state-space coordinates. The substitution

w = ˙ y (2.162)

results in the following set of equations

˙ z = Az (2.163)

where

z =

·

y

w

¸

, A =

·

0 1

−m

−1

k −m

−1

c

¸

=

_

¸

¸

_

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

−1600.0 1000 0 0

500 −1100 0 −5

_

¸

¸

_

(2.164)

Solution of the eigenvalue problem yields the following complex roots

ω

1

= −1. 6741 ± 24. 483i

ω

2

= −0. 8259 ± 45. 734i (2.165)

For underdamped system the imaginary part of the above roots represents the natural

frequency of the damped system. The real part indicates the rate of decay of the free

vibrations.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 113

Solution of the eigenvector problem produces the following complex vectors.

Re z

01

=

_

¸

¸

_

−1. 6392 × 10

−2

−1. 7637 × 10

−2

. 38263

. 35302

_

¸

¸

_

, Imz

01

=

_

¸

¸

_

−1. 4508 × 10

−2

−1. 3213 × 10

−2

−. 37705

−. 40969

_

¸

¸

_

Re z

02

=

_

¸

¸

_

1. 9755 × 10

−2

−1. 0154 × 10

−2

. 26033

−5. 9162 × 10

−2

_

¸

¸

_

, Imz

02

=

_

¸

¸

_

−6. 049 × 10

−3

1. 477 × 10

−3

. 90847

−. 46561

_

¸

¸

_

(2.166)

According to 2.69, the particular solutions are

z

11

= e

h

1

t

(Re(z

01

) cos ω

1

t −Im(z

01

) sin ω

1

t) =

= e

−1. 6741t

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

_

−1. 6392 × 10

−2

−1. 7637 × 10

−2

. 38263

. 35302

_

¸

¸

_

cos 24. 483t −

_

¸

¸

_

−1. 4508 × 10

−2

−1. 3213 × 10

−2

−. 37705

−. 40969

_

¸

¸

_

sin24. 483t

_

_

_

_

z

12

= e

h

1

t

(Re(z

01

) sin ω

1

t + Im(z

01

) cos ω

1

t) =

= e

−1. 6741t

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

_

−1. 6392 × 10

−2

−1. 7637 × 10

−2

. 38263

. 35302

_

¸

¸

_

sin24. 483t +

_

¸

¸

_

−1. 4508 × 10

−2

−1. 3213 × 10

−2

−. 37705

−. 40969

_

¸

¸

_

cos 24. 483t

_

_

_

_

z

21

= e

h

2

t

(Re(z

02

) cos ω

2

t −Im(z

02

) sin ω

2

t) =

= e

−0. 8259t

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

_

1. 9755 × 10

−2

−1. 0154 × 10

−2

. 26033

−5. 9162 × 10

−2

_

¸

¸

_

cos 45. 734t −

_

¸

¸

_

−6. 049 × 10

−3

1. 477 × 10

−3

. 90847

−. 46561

_

¸

¸

_

sin 45. 734t

_

_

_

_

z

22

= e

h

2

t

(Re(z

02

) sin ω

2

t + Im(z

02

) cos ω

2

t) =

= e

−0. 8259t

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

_

1. 9755 × 10

−2

−1. 0154 × 10

−2

. 26033

−5. 9162 × 10

−2

_

¸

¸

_

sin45. 734t +

_

¸

¸

_

−6. 049 × 10

−3

1. 477 × 10

−3

. 90847

−. 46561

_

¸

¸

_

cos 45. 734t

_

_

_

_

(2.167)

The two ﬁrst rows in the above solutions represent displacement along the coordinates

y

1

and y

2

respectively. The two last rows represents the generalized velocities along

the coordinates y

1

and y

2

. Example of the motion along the coordinate y

1

, associated

with the particular solution z

11

(y

111

) and z

21

(y

211

)

y

111

= e

−1. 6741t

(−1. 6392 × 10

−2

cos 24. 483t + 1. 4508 × 10

−2

sin 24. 483t)

y

211

= e

−0. 8259t

(1. 9755 × 10

−2

cos 45. 734t + 6. 049 × 10

−3

sin 45. 734t) (2.168)

are presented in Fig 32.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 114

t[s]

4 3

2 1

0

0.01

-0.01

-0.02

y

111

[m]

t[s]

4

3 2

0

0.01

-0.01

-0.02

y

211

[m]

1

Figure 32

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 115

3. The steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation

According to the given data, motion of the point A is

y = 0.01 · sin(30 · t) + 0.01 · sin(35 · t) (2.169)

t[s] 1.5 1 0.5

y[m]

0.01

0

-0.01

-0.02

Figure 33

The time history diagram of this motion is given in Fig. 33

The particular solution y, which represents the forced vibration, according to

the superposition rule, is

y = y

1

+y

2

(2.170)

where y

1

is the particular solution of the equation 2.171

m¨ y +c˙ y +ky = F

1

(t) (2.171)

and y

2

is the particular solution of the equation 2.172

m¨ y +c˙ y +ky = F

2

(t) (2.172)

To produce the particular solution of the equation 2.171 let us introduce the complex

excitation

F

c

1

(t) =

·

0

a

1

cos(f

1

t) +ia

1

sin(f

1

t)

¸

=

·

0

a

1

e

if

1

t

¸

=

·

0

a

1

¸

e

if

1

t

=

= F

10

e

if

1

t

=

·

0

30

¸

e

i30t

(2.173)

Hence the equation of motion takes form

m¨ y +c˙ y +ky = F

10

e

if

1

t

(2.174)

Its particular solution is

y

c

1

= y

c

10

e

if

1

t

(2.175)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 116

where

y

c

10

= (−f

2

1

m+if

1

c +k)

−1

F

10

=

=

µ

−30

2

·

10 0

0 20

¸

+ 30i

·

0 0

0 100

¸

+

·

16000 −10000

−10000 22000

¸¶

−1

·

0

30

¸

=

=

·

−.00 384 −.00 112i

−2. 688 × 10

−3

−7. 84 × 10

−4

i

¸

(2.176)

The motion of the system, as the real part of 2.175 is

y

1

= Re

µ·

−.00 384 −.00 112i

−2. 688 × 10

−3

−7. 84 × 10

−4

i

¸

e

i30t

¶

=

·

−.00 384 cos 30t +.00 112 sin 30t

−2. 688 × 10

−3

cos 30t + 7. 84 × 10

−4

sin 30t

¸

Similarly, one can obtained motion due to the excitation F

2

(t)

y

c

20

= (−f

2

2

m+if

2

c +k)

−1

F

20

=

=

µ

−35

2

·

10 0

0 20

¸

+ 35i

·

0 0

0 100

¸

+

·

16000 −10000

−10000 22000

¸¶

−1

·

0

35

¸

=

=

·

−3. 1546 × 10

−3

−3. 7855 × 10

−4

i

−1. 183 × 10

−3

−1. 4196 × 10

−4

i

¸

(2.177)

Hence

y

2

= Re

µ·

−3. 1546 × 10

−3

−3. 7855 × 10

−4

i

−1. 183 × 10

−3

−1. 4196 × 10

−4

i

¸

e

i35t

¶

=

·

−3. 1546 × 10

−3

cos 35t + 3. 7855 × 10

−4

sin 35t

−1. 183 × 10

−3

cos 35t + 1. 4196 × 10

−4

sin35t

¸

(2.178)

The resultant motion of the system due to both components of excitation is

y = y

1

+y

2

=

·

−.00 384 cos 30t +.00 112 sin30t

−2. 688 × 10

−3

cos 30t + 7. 84 × 10

−4

sin30t

¸

+

+

·

−3. 1546 × 10

−3

cos 35t + 3. 7855 × 10

−4

sin35t

−1. 183 × 10

−3

cos 35t + 1. 4196 × 10

−4

sin35t

¸

=

·

−.00 38 cos 30t +.00 11 sin 30t −3. 15 × 10

−3

cos 35t + 3. 78 × 10

−4

sin35t

−2. 6 × 10

−3

cos 30t + 7. 8 × 10

−4

sin 30t −1. 1 × 10

−3

cos 35t + 1. 41 × 10

−4

sin 35t

¸

(2.179)

This resultant motion of the system along the coordinates y

1

and y

2

, computed

according to the equation 2.179, is shown in Fig. 34 and 35 respectively.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 117

t[s]

1.5

1

0.5

y

1

[m]

0.005

0

-0.005

-0.01

Figure 34

t[s]

1.5 1

0.5

0.005

0

-0.005

-0.01

y

2

[m]

Figure 35

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 118

4. The exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady

state motion

m

2

A

c

y

y

2

y

2

y

.

.

Figure 36

To develop the expression for the force necessary to move the point A according

to the assumed motion 2.169, let us consider the damper c shown in Fig. 36. If the

point A moves with the velocity ˙ y and in the same time the mass m

2

moves with the

velocity ˙ y

2

, the relative velocity of the point A with respect to the mass m

2

is

v = ˙ y − ˙ y

2

(2.180)

Therefore, to realize this motion, it is necessary to apply at the point A the following

force

F

A

= c ( ˙ y − ˙ y

2

) (2.181)

Hence, according to the equation 2.169 and 2.179 we have

F

A

= 100(

d

dt

(0.01 · sin 30t + 0.01 · sin35t) +

−

d

dt

(−2. 6 · 10

−3

cos 30t + 7. 8 · 10

−4

sin 30t+

−1. 1 · 10

−3

cos 35t + 1. 4 · 10

−4

sin 35t)) =

= 27. 648 cos 30t + 34. 503 cos 35t −8. 064 sin 30t −4. 1405 sin 35t[N]

(2.182)

Diagram of this force is presented in Fig.37

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 119

t[s] 1.5

1 0.5

F

A

[N]

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

Figure 37

5. The reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B.

R

B

M

B

P

J

1

l

1

E

1

B

y

1

Figure 38

According to Fig. 38

R

B

= P

M

B

= Pl

1

(2.183)

where P is dependent on the instantaneous displacement y

1

. This relationship is

determined by the formula 2.159

P = k

1

y

1

=

3E

1

J

1

l

3

1

y

1

=

3 · 0.2 · 10

12

· 1 · 10

−8

1

3

= 6000y

1

(2.184)

The motion along the coordinate y

1

is determined by the function 2.179

y

1

= −.00 38 cos 30t +.00 11 sin30t−3. 15×10

−3

cos 35t +3. 78×10

−4

sin35t (2.185)

Hence

R

B

=6000

¡

−.00 38 cos 30t+.00 11 sin30t−3. 15×10

−3

cos 35t + 3. 78×10

−4

sin 35t

¢

M

B

=6000·1·

¡

−.00 38 cos 30t+.00 11 sin 30t−3. 15×10

−3

cos 35t+3. 78×10

−4

sin 35t

¢

(2.186)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 120

Problem 30

The link 1 of a mass m

1

, shown in Fig. 39, can move along the horizontal

slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. The ball 2 of mass m

2

and a radius r is hinged to the link 1 at the point A by means of the massless and

rigid rod 4. All motion is in the vertical plane. The equation of motion, in terms of

the coordinates x and ϕ (see Fig. 40) have been formulated in page 81 to be

m¨ x +kx = 0 (2.187)

where

m =

·

m

1

+m

2

m

2

R

m

2

R m

2

R

2

+I

¸

, k =

·

2k 0

0 m

2

gR

¸

, x =

·

x

ϕ

¸

, I =

2

5

m

2

r

2

(2.188)

At the instant t = 0, the link 1 was placed to the position shown in Fig. 41 and

released with the initial velocity equal to zero.

For the following data:

m

1

= 2 kg

m

2

= 1 kg

R = 0.1 m

r = .05 m

k = 1000 N/m

a = 0.01 m

Produce:

1. the natural frequencies of the system

2. the normalized natural modes

3. the diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates

4. the equation motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ due to

the given initial conditions.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 121

1

2

k k

R

r 3

4

A

Figure 39

1

2

k

k

R

r

3

x

y

x

o

G

ϕ

Figure 40

1

2

k

k

R

r

3

x

y

a

o

Figure 41

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 122

Solution

1. The natural frequencies and the natural modes

According to the given numerical data the moment of inertia of the ball, the

inertia matrix and the stuﬃness matrix are

I =

2

5

· 1 · 0.05

2

= 0.001 kgm

2

m =

·

2 + 1 1 · 0.1

1 · 0.1 1 · 0.1

2

+ 0.001

¸

=

·

3.0 . 1

. 1 .0 11

¸

(2.189)

k =

·

1000 0

0 1 · 10 · 0.1

¸

=

·

1000.0 0

0 1.0

¸

According to 2.96 (page 100) one can write the following set of equations

(−ω

2

n

m+k)X = 0 (2.190)

where ω stands for the natural frequency and X is the corresponding natural mode.

Hence for the given numerical data we are getting

·

−3.0ω

2

n

+ 1000.0 −. 1ω

2

n

−. 1ω

2

n

−.0 11ω

2

n

+ 1.0

¸ ·

X

Φ

¸

=

·

0

0

¸

(2.191)

This set of equations has non-zero solution if and only if its determinant is equal to

zero. Hence the equation for the natural frequencies is.

¯

¯

¯

¯

·

−3.0ω

2

n

+ 1000.0 −. 1ω

2

n

−. 1ω

2

n

−.0 11ω

2

n

+ 1.0

¸¯

¯

¯

¯

= .0 23ω

4

n

−14.0ω

2

n

+ 1000.0 = 0 (2.192)

Its roots:

£

22. 936 −22. 936 9. 091 3 −9. 091 3

¤

yield the wanted natural frequencies

ω

1

= 9. 0913 ω

2

= 22. 936 [s

−1

] (2.193)

For ω

n

= ω

1

= 9. 0913 the equations 2.191 become linearly dependent. Therefore,

one of the unknown can be chosen arbitrarily (e.g. X

1

= 1) and the other may be

produced from the ﬁrst equation of the set 2.191.

X

1

= 1

−3.0X

1

ω

2

1

+ 1000.0X

1

−. 1ω

2

1

Φ

1

= 0 (2.194)

Φ

1

=

1

. 1 · 9.0913

2

−3.0 · 9.09

2

+ 1000.0) = 90.99

These two numbers form the ﬁrst mode of vibrations corresponding to the ﬁrst

natural frequency ω

1

.Similar consideration, carried out for the natural frequency

ω

2

= 22. 936,yields the second mode.

X

2

= 1

Φ

2

=

1

. 1 · 22.936

2

¡

−3.0 · 22.936

2

+ 1000.0

¢

= −10.991 (2.195)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 123

Now, one can create the modal matrix

X = [X

1

, X

2

] =

·

1 1

90.99 −10.991

¸

(2.196)

In this case the modal matrix has two eigenvectors X

1

and X

2

.

X

1

=

·

1

90.99

¸

; X

2

=

·

1

−10.991

¸

(2.197)

2. Normalization of the natural modes

According to 2.109 the normalization factor is

X

T

n

mX

n

= λ

2

n

(2.198)

Hence

λ

2

1

=

£

1 90. 99

¤

·

3.0 . 1

. 1 .0 11

¸ ·

1

90.99

¸

= 112. 27

λ

1

=

√

112. 27 = 10. 596 (2.199)

Division of the eigenvector X

1

by the factor λ

1

yields the normalized mode Ξ

1

.

Ξ

1

=

1

10. 596

·

1

90.99

¸

=

·

9. 4375 × 10

−2

8. 5872

¸

(2.200)

Similar procedure allows the second normalized mode to be obtained

λ

2

2

=

£

1 −10.991

¤

·

3.0 . 1

. 1 .0 11

¸ ·

1

−10.991

¸

= 2. 1306

λ

2

=

√

2. 1306 = 1. 4597

Ξ

2

=

1

1. 4597

·

1

−10.991

¸

=

·

. 68507

−7. 5296

¸

(2.201)

These two vectors forms the normalized modal matrix Ξ.

Ξ =

·

9. 4375 × 10

−2

. 68507

8. 5872 −7. 5296

¸

(2.202)

The normalized eigenvectors must be orthogonal with respect to both the inertia

matrix and the stiﬀness matrix. Indeed.

Ξ

T

mΞ =

=

·

9. 4375 × 10

−2

8. 5872

. 68507 −7. 5296

¸ ·

3.0 . 1

. 1 .0 11

¸ ·

9. 4375 × 10

−2

. 68507

8. 5872 −7. 5296

¸

=

·

1 0

0 1

¸

(2.203)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 124

and

Ξ

T

kΞ =

=

·

9. 4375 × 10

−2

8. 5872

. 68507 −7. 5296

¸ ·

1000 0

0 1 · 10 · 0.1

¸ ·

9. 4375 × 10

−2

. 68507

8. 5872 −7. 5296

¸

=

·

82. 647 0

0 526. 02

¸

=

·

(9. 091)

2

0

0 (22. 935)

2

¸

=

·

ω

2

1

0

0 ω

2

2

¸

(2.204)

3. The diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates

Introducing the substitution 2.119

x = Ξη (2.205)

that in the case considered has the following form

·

X

Φ

¸

= Ξη = Ξ

·

η

1

η

2

¸

(2.206)

into 2.187 and premultiplying them from the left hand side by Ξ

T

we are getting the

diﬀerential equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates η.

(Ξ

T

mΞ)¨ η+(Ξ

T

kΞ)η = 0 (2.207)

Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions, the equations of motion are of the

following form

·

1 0

0 1

¸

¨ η +

·

(9. 091)

2

0

0 (22. 935)

2

¸

η = 0 (2.208)

or

¨ η

1

+ (9. 091)

2

η

1

= 0

¨ η

2

+ (22. 935)

2

η

2

= 0 (2.209)

The general solution of the above set of the diﬀerential equations, according to 1.36

is

η

1

=

v

01

ω

1

sinω

1

t +η

01

cos ω

1

t

η

2

=

v

02

ω

2

sinω

2

t +η

02

cos ω

2

t (2.210)

Where η

01

and η

02

stand for the initial position whereas v

01

and v

02

stand for the

initial velocity of the system along the normal coordinates. These initial conditions

must be formulated along the normal coordinates. It can be obtained by transforming

the initial conditions from the physical coordinates to the normal coordinates.

·

η

01

η

02

¸

= Ξ

−1

·

X

o

Φ

o

¸

= Ξ

−1

·

a

0

¸

=

·

1.142 .1039

1.3024 −1.4313 × 10

−2

¸ ·

0.01

0

¸

=

·

.01142

1.3024 × 10

−2

¸

(2.211)

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 125

·

v

01

v

02

¸

=

·

0

0

¸

(2.212)

Introduction of the above initial conditions into the equations 2.210 results in motion

of the system along the normal coordinates

η

1

= η

01

cos ω

1

t = .01142 cos 9.091t

η

2

= η

02

cos ω

2

t = 1.3024 × 10

−2

cos 22.935t (2.213)

4. The equations of motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ

To produce equation of motion along the physical coordinates, one has to

transform the motion along the normal coordinates beck to the physical ones. Hence,

using the relationship 2.205, we are getting

·

X

Φ

¸

= Ξη =

·

9. 4375 × 10

−2

. 68507

8. 5872 −7. 5296

¸ ·

.01142 cos 9.091t

1.3024 × 10

−2

cos 22.935t

¸

=

=

·

1. 0778 × 10

−3

cos 9. 091t + 8. 9224 × 10

−3

cos 22. 935t

9. 8066 × 10

−2

cos 9. 091t −9. 8066 × 10

−2

cos 22. 935t

¸

(2.214)

This motion is presented in Fig. 42 and 43

-0.01

-0.005

0

0.005

0.01

0.5 1 1.5 t[s]

X[m]

Figure 42

-0.15

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.5 1 1.5 t[s]

Φ [rad]

Figure 43

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 126

Problem 31

1

A

B

C

D

F=F cos t

o

ω

2

L

l

3

k

c

M, I

A

E,J

Figure 44

The rigid beam 1 of mass M, length L and the moment of inertia about

its point of rotation I

A

, is supported by means of the spring of stiﬀness k and the

damper of the damping coeﬃcient c as shown in Fig. 44. The beam 2 is massless

and the Young’s modulus E and the second moment of area J determine its dynamic

properties. Its end D is ﬁxed and the particle 3 of mass m is attached to the end C.

Derive an expression for the ﬁxing moment and the ﬁxing force at the point

D due to the exciting force F that is applied to the system at the point B.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 127

Problem 32

1 2

O

1

O

2

a

b

k

1

k

2

k

c

ω F cos t

1 1

ω F cos t

2 2

A

I

O1

m

1

I

O2

m

2

G

1

G

2

s

1 s

2

Figure 45

The two rods, 1 and 2, are suspended in the vertical plane as shown in Fig. 45.

Their mass and their moment of inertia about their points of rotation are respectively

m

1

, I

O1

, and m

2

, I

O2

. These rods are connected to each other by means of springs

of the stiﬀness k, k

1

, k

2

and as well as the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. The

centres of gravity of these rods are denoted by G

1

and G

2

respectively. Vibrations of

the systemare excited by the two harmonic forces of amplitudes F

1

, F

2

and frequencies

ω

1

and ω

2

.

Produce

1. the diﬀerential equation of the small vibrations of the system in the matrix form

Answer:

M¨ x +C˙ x +Kx = F

M =

·

I

o1

0

0 I

o2

¸

; C =

·

ca

2

−ca

2

−ca

2

ca

2

¸

; K =

·

k

1

a

2

+kb

2

+m

1

gs

1

−kb

2

−kb

2

k

2

a

2

+kb

2

+m

2

gs

2

¸

;

x =

·

ϕ

1

ϕ

2

¸

; F =

·

F

1

b

0

¸

cos ω

1

t +

·

0

−F

2

b

¸

cos ω

2

t

2. the expression for the forced vibrations of the rods

Answer:

X = X

1

+X

2

X

1

- particular solutionof equation M¨ x +C˙ x +Kx =

·

F

1

b

0

¸

cos ω

1

t

X

2

- particular solutionof equation M¨ x +C˙ x +Kx =

·

0

−F

2

b

¸

cos ω

2

t

3. the expression for the dynamic reaction at the point A.

Answer:

R

A

= Φ

2

ak

2

; Φ

2

- the lower element of the matrix X

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 128

Problem 33

A

G

B

C

c

1

k

1

k

2

c

2

m

2

D

m

1

,I

A

M

m

a

b

h

µ

ω

1

2

3

Figure 46

The rigid beam 1 (see Fig. 46) is hinged at the point A and is supported at

the point C by means of the spring of stiﬀness k

1

and the damper of the damping

coeﬃcient c

1

. Its mass and its moment of inertia about A are m

1

and I

A

respectively.

The motor 3 is mounted on this beam. It can be approximated by a particle of the

mass M that is concentrated at the point G that is located by the dimensions h and

a. The rotor of this motor rotates with the constant velocity ω. Its mass is equal

to m and its unbalance is µ. To attenuate the vibrations of the beam the block 2

of mass m

2

was attached. The damping coeﬃcient of the damper between the beam

and the block is denoted by c

2

and the stiﬀness of the supporting spring in denoted

by k

2

.

Produce

1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the standard

matrix form.

Answer:

M¨ x +C˙ x +Kx = F

M =

·

I

A

+M(h

2

+a

2

) 0

0 m

2

¸

; C =

·

c

1

b

2

+c

2

a

2

−c

2

a

−c

2

a c

2

¸

; K =

·

k

1

b 0

0 k

2

¸

;

x =

·

α

x

¸

; F =

·

mµω

2

√

h

2

+a

2

0

¸

cos ωt

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 129

α - the angular displacement of the beam1; x - the linear displacement of the block

2

2. Produce the expression for the interaction forces at the point A and D.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 130

Problem 34

l l

C D

A

B

l

k

α

k

β

F

G

Figure 47

Three uniform platforms each of the length l, the mass m and the moment

of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity I

G

are hinged together to form a

bridge that is shown in Fig. 47. This bridge is supported by means of two springs

each of the stiﬀness k. This system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized

coordinates are denoted by α and β. There is an excitation force F applied at the

hinge C. This force can be adopted in the following form

F = F

o

cos ωt

Produce:

1. the diﬀerential equations of motion of the system and present them in the standard

form

Answer:

M¨ x +Kx = F

M =

·

2

3

−

1

6

−

1

6

2

3

¸

ml

2

; K =

·

1 0

0 1

¸

kl

2

; x =

·

α

β

¸

; F =

·

0

F

o

l

¸

cos ωt

2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system

Answer:

|K−1ω

n

| = 0

3. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the system

Answer:

X =[−ω

2

M+K]

−1

·

0

F

o

l

¸

cos ωt =

·

A

B

¸

4. the expression for the interaction force between the spring attached to the hinge

B and the ground

Answer:

R = Akl cos ωt

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 131

Problem 35

A

k

1

m

1

,I

A

m

L

k

c

x

y

ϕ

B

1

2

Figure 48

Figure. 48 shows the physical model of a trolley. It was modelled as a system

with two degree of freedom. Its position is determined by two generalized coordinates

x and ϕ. The moment of inertia of he trolley about the point A is denoted by I

A

and

its mass by m

1

. The dynamic properties of the shock-absorber are approximated by

the spring of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. Mass of the wheels

2 are denoted by m and the stiﬀness of its tire is k

1

. Motion of the trolley is excited

by roughnees of the road. It causes motion of the point B according to the following

function.

y = Asin ωt

Produce:

1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system

2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system

3. the expression for the amplitudes of the steady state vibration of the system

4. the expression for the amplitude of the interaction force between the tire

and suface of the road..

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 132

Problem 36

c

1

k

1

k

2

c

3

m

1

m

2

,I

2

1

2

3

m

3

k

3

r

4

y

A

B

Figure 49

In Fig. 49 the physical model of a winch is shown. The blocks 1 and 3 are

rigid and their masses are respectively m

1

and m

3

respectively. The rigid pulley 2

has radius r, mass m

2

and the moment of inertia about its axis of rotation I

2

. The

elastic properties of the rope 4 are modeled by two springs of stiﬀness k

1

and k

2

. The

point A moves with respect to the axis y according to the following equation.

y = a cos ωt

Produce:

1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following

matrix form.

M¨ x +C˙ x +Kx = F

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 133

Answer:

M =

_

_

m

1

0 0

0 m

2

+m

3

0

0 0 I

2

_

_

; C =

_

_

c

1

0 0

0 c

3

0

0 0 0

_

_

K =

_

_

k

1

−k

1

−k

1

r

−k

1

k

1

+k

2

+k

3

k

1

r −k

2

r

−k

1

r k

1

r −k

2

r (k

1

+k

2

) r

2

_

_

F =

_

_

0

k

3

0

_

_

cos ωt; x =

_

_

x

1

x

2

ϕ

_

_

x

1

- the linear displacement of the block 1

x

2

- the linear displacement of the pulley 2 and the block 3

ϕ - the angular displacement of the pulley 2

2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system

Answer:

The particular solution x

p

of the equation M¨ x +C˙ x +Kx = F

The ﬁrst element x

p1

of the matrix x

p

represents displacement of the block 1

3. the expression for the interaction force at point B.

Answer

R

B

= c

1

˙ x

p1

Problem 37

k

1

k

2

I

1

k

3

I

2

I

3

D

1

D

2

T

3

Figure 50

Figure 50 shows the physical model of a compressor. The disks of moment of

inertia I

1

, I

2

, and I

3

are connected to each other by means of the massless shafts that

the torsional stiﬀness are k

1

, k

2

and k

3

respectively. The shaft k

1

is connected to the

shaft k

2

by means of the gear of ratio i = D

1

/D

2

. There is a torque T

3

applied to the

disk I

3

. It can be approximated by the following function

T

3

= T cos ωt

Produce:

1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following

matrix form.

M¨ x +C˙ x +Kx = F

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 134

Answer:

M =

_

_

I

1

I

2

I

3

_

_

; C = 0; K =

_

_

k

e

−k

e

0

−k

e

k

e

+k

3

−k

3

0 −k

3

k

3

_

_

; x =

_

_

ϕ

1

ϕ

2

ϕ

3

_

_

where k

e

=

k

1

k

2

k

1

+i

2

k

2

2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system

3. the expression for the toque transmitted through the shaft k1.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 135

Problem 38

k

c

1

G

2

1

2

b

a

A

X

O

k

c

2

c

c

G

1

l

q

2

q

1

Y

B

M=M

o

cosωt

Figure 51

Two rigid bodies 1 and 2 were hinged together at the point A to form the

double pendulum whose physical model is shown in Fig.51. These bodies possess

masses m

1

and m

2

and the moments of inertia about the axis through their centers

of gravity (G1, G2) are I

1

and I

2

respectively. The system has two degrees of freedom

and the generalized coordinates are denoted by q

1

and q

2

. Vibrations of the pendulum

about the horizontal axis Z are excited by the harmonic moment M applied to the

body 1.

Produce:

1. the diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the pendulum and present it in the

following matrix form

M¨ x +C˙ x +Kx = F

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 136

Take advantage of Lagrange’s equations.

Answer:

x =

·

q

1

q

2

¸

; M =

·

I

G1

+m

1

c

2

1

+I

G2

+m

2

(l +c

2

)

2

I

G2

+m

2

c

2

(l +c

2

)

I

G2

+m

2

c

2

(l +c

2

) I

G2

m

2

c

2

2

¸

;

K =

·

m

1

gc

1

+m

2

g(l +c

2

) m

2

gc

2

m

2

gc

2

m

2

gc

2

+ 2kb

2

¸

; C =

·

0 0

0 2ca

2

¸

; F =

·

M

o

0

¸

2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the pendulum

3. the expression for the interaction force between the damper and the body 1 at the

point B.

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 137

2.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

2.3.1 Balancing of rotors

Let us consider a rigid rotor that rotates with an angular velocity ω about the axis

A−A (see Fig. 52).

U

ω

i

1 2

U

i1

U

i2

F

1

F

2

ϕ

1

ϕ

2 A

A

B

B

m

1 m

2

U

1

U

2

x

1

x

2

ωt

ωt

Figure 52

In a general case, due to the limited accuracy of manufacturing, the centres

of gravity of the individual cross-sections do not have to coincide with this axis of

rotation. They are distributed along, usually unknown, line B −B. Its follows that

due to rotation of this body at each cross-section i there exists the centrifugal force U

i

(see Fig. 52). Each of this forces can be replaced by two forces U

i1

and U

i2

acting in

two arbitrarily chosen planes. Each of them is perpendicular to the axis of rotation,

therefore their resultants U

1

and U

2

are perpendicular to the axis of rotation too.

Hence, one can eliminate this unbalance of the rotor by means of two weights of

mass m

1

and m

2

attached at such a position that the centrifugal forces F

1

and F

2

balance the resultant forces U

1

and U

2

. The process of searching for magnitude of

the unbalance forces U

1

and U

2

and their phases ϕ

1

and ϕ

2

is called balancing. The

balancing of a rotor can be performed with help of a specially design machines before

it is installed or can be carried out after its installation ’in its own bearings’. The

second approach for balancing rotors is consider in this section.

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 138

U

2

ϕ

2

x

2

ωt

1 2

ωt

ϕ

1

x

1

U

1

ωt

3 4

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

4

t

x

3

x

3

β

3

β

4

β

3

a

3

U

1o

U

2o

ωt ωt

ωt

a

4

1

2

3

4

5

a

3o

a

4o

Figure 53

Let us consider the rotating machine shown in Fig. 53. According to the

above discussion, if the rotor of this machine can be approximated by a rigid body,

the unbalance forces can be represented by forces U

1

and U

2

in two arbitrarily chosen

plane. These two arbitrarily chosen planes,denoted in Fig. 53 by nubers 1 and 2, are

called balancing plane. Although the selection of the balancing planes is arbitrary,

there are numerous practical considerations for proper selection. For long rotors, for

example, the balancing planes should be chosen as far apart as possible. Furthermore,

these plane should oﬀer an easy access and allow additional weights to be attached.

These unbalance forces excite vibrations of this machine. Let us arrange for these

vibrations to be recorded in two arbitrarily chosen planes. These planes, marked in

Fig. 53 by numbers 3 and 4, are called measurement planes. Let a

3

and a

4

be the

complex displacements measured in the measurement plasen along the coordinates

x

3

and x

4

with help of the two transducers 3 and 4. The transducer 5, which is

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 139

called key phasor, creates a timing reference mark on the rotor. This mark, shown

in Fig. 53 by N, allows the phases of the unbalance forces (ϕ

1

, ϕ

2

) and the phases

of the recorded displacements (β

1

, β

2

) to be measured. The equation 2.84 oﬀers

the relationship between the unknown unbalance forces U

1

and U

2

and the measured

displacements a

3

and a

4

.

·

a

3

a

4

¸

=

·

R

31

(iω) R

32

(iω)

R

41

(iω) R

42

(iω)

¸ ·

U

1

U

2

¸

(2.215)

where

a

3

= a

3o

e

iβ

3

, a

4

= a

4o

e

iβ

4

, U

1

= U

1o

e

iϕ

1

, U

2

= U

2o

e

iϕ

2

(2.216)

If the transfer functions R

i,j

(iω) would be known, this relation would allow the un-

know magnitudes of the unbalance as well as their phases to be determined. In order

to identify the transfer functions two additional tests are required.

Test (1)

U

2

ϕ

2

x

2

ωt

1 2

ωt

ϕ

1

x

1

U

1

ωt

3 4

x

3

β

4

β

3

a

3

U

1o

U

2o

ωt ωt

a

4

a

3o

a

4o

µ

(1)

m

(1)

(1)

U

U

o

(1)

ϕ

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Figure 54

An additionl trial weight of mass m

(1)

(see Fig 54) is attached in the balancing

plane 1 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ

(1)

and the know

distance µ

(1)

. The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U

1

and U

2

) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U

(1)

. The amplitude

of this force U

(1)

is

U

(1)

o

= m

(1)

µ

(1)

ω

2

(2.217)

The response of the system is recorded in both measurment planes so the amplitudes

a

(1)

3o

and a

(1)

4o

as well as the phases β

(1)

3

and β

(1)

4

can be obtained. There is the following

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 140

relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions.

"

a

(1)

3

a

(1)

4

#

=

·

R

31

(iω) R

32

(iω)

R

41

(iω) R

42

(iω)

¸ ·

U

1

+U

(1)

U

2

¸

(2.218)

a

(1)

3

= a

(1)

3o

e

iβ

(1)

3

, a

(1)

4

= a

(1)

4o

e

iβ

(1)

4

, U

1

= U

1o

e

iϕ

1

, U

2

= U

2o

e

iϕ

2

, U

(1)

= U

(1)

o

e

iϕ

(1)

(2.219)

Test (2)

U

2

ϕ

2

x

2

ωt

1 2

ωt

ϕ

1

x

1

U

1

ωt

3 4

x

3

β

4

β

3

a

3

U

1o

U

2o

ωt ωt

a

4

a

3o

a

4o

µ

(2)

m

(2)

(2)

U

U

o

(2)

ϕ

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Figure 55

An additional trial weight of mass m

(2)

(see Fig 55) is attached in the balancing

plane 2 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ

(2)

and the know

distance µ

(2)

. The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U

1

and U

2

) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U

(2)

. The amplitude

of this force U

(2)

is

U

(2)

o

= m

(2)

µ

(2)

ω

2

(2.220)

The response of the system is recorded in both measurement planes so the amplitudes

a

(2)

3o

and a

(2)

4o

as well as the phases β

(2)

3

and β

(2)

4

can be obtained. There is the following

relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions.

"

a

(2)

3

a

(2)

4

#

=

·

R

31

(iω) R

32

(iω)

R

41

(iω) R

42

(iω)

¸ ·

U

1

U

2

+U

(2)

¸

(2.221)

a

(2)

3

= a

(2)

3o

e

iβ

(2)

3

, a

(2)

4

= a

(2)

4o

e

iβ

(2)

4

, U

1

= U

1o

e

iϕ

1

, U

2

= U

2o

e

iϕ

2

, U

(2)

= U

(2)

o

e

iϕ

(2)

(2.222)

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 141

The formulated equations 2.215, 2.218 and 2.221 allow the unknown transfer functions

and the wanted unbalances U

1

and U

2

to be computed. To achieve that let us subtract

the equations 2.215 from 2.218

Ã"

a

(1)

3

a

(1)

4

#

−

·

a

3

a

4

¸

!

=

·

R

31

(iω) R

32

(iω)

R

41

(iω) R

42

(iω)

¸ µ·

U

1

+U

(1)

U

2

¸

−

·

U

1

U

2

¸¶

"

a

(1)

3

−a

3

a

(1)

4

−a

4

#

=

·

R

31

(iω) R

32

(iω)

R

41

(iω) R

42

(iω)

¸ ·

U

(1)

0

¸

"

a

(1)

3

−a

3

a

(1)

4

−a

4

#

=

·

R

31

(iω)U

(1)

R

41

(iω)U

(1)

¸

R

31

(iω) =

a

(1)

3

−a

3

U

(1)

=

a

(1)

3o

e

iβ

(1)

3

−a

3o

e

iβ

3

U

(1)

o

e

iϕ

(1)

R

41

(iω) =

a

(1)

4

−a

4

U

(1)

=

a

(1)

4o

e

iβ

(1)

4

−a

4o

e

iβ

4

U

(1)

o

e

iϕ

(1)

(2.223)

Similarly, if one subtracts equations 2.215 from 2.221 one can get

R

32

(iω) =

a

(2)

3

−a

3

U

(2)

=

a

(2)

3o

e

iβ

(2)

3

−a

3o

e

iβ

3

U

(2)

o

e

iϕ

(2)

R

42

(iω) =

a

(2)

4

−a

4

U

(2)

=

a

(2)

4o

e

iβ

(2)

4

−a

4o

e

iβ

4

U

(2)

o

e

iϕ

(2)

(2.224)

Now, the wanted complex imbalances U

1

and U

2

in the plane 1 and 2 may be computed

from the equation 2.215

·

U

1

U

2

¸

=

·

R

31

(iω) R

32

(iω)

R

41

(iω) R

42

(iω)

¸

−1

·

a

3

a

4

¸

(2.225)

where a

3

and a

4

represent the know response of the system without the additional

weights.

·

U

1

U

2

¸

=

·

R

31

(iω) R

32

(iω)

R

41

(iω) R

42

(iω)

¸

−1

·

a

3o

e

iβ

3

a

4o

e

iβ

4

¸

=

·

U

1o

e

iϕ

1

U

2o

e

iϕ

2

¸

(2.226)

The amplitudes U

1o

and U

2o

determine the weights m

1

and m

2

that should be attached

in the balancing planes

m

1

=

U

1

r

1

ω

2

m

2

=

U

2

r

2

ω

2

(2.227)

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 142

These weights, to balance the rotor, should be place at angular position (see Fig. 56)

β

1

= 180

o

+ϕ

1

β

2

= 180

o

+ϕ

2

(2.228)

1 2

ϕ

1

3 4

β

2

ω t ω t

β

1

m

2

r

2

r

1

m

1

ϕ

2

x

1

x

2

U

1

U

1o

U

2o

U

2

ω t

x 1

x 2

x 3

x 4

1

2

3

4

5

Figure 56

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 143

2.3.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations

Let us consider vibration of the ventilator shown in Fig. 57a). Vibration of this

ventilator are due to the imbalance u if its rotor.

x

µ

ωt

m µ ω

2

cos ωt x

M

m

m µ ω

2

cos ωt

M

K

m µω

2

a)

b)

r

r

r

r

Figure 57

Let us assume that the system has the following parameters:

M = 100 kg - total mass of the ventilator

m

r

= 20 kg - mass of rotor of the ventilator

K = 9000000 N/m - stiﬀness of the supporting beam

ω = 314 rad/s the ventilator’s operating speed

µ = .0001 m - distance between the axis of rotation and the centre of gravity

u = m

r

µ = 20 · .0001 = .00 2 kgm - imbalance of the rotor

The natural frequency of the system is

ω

n

=

r

K

M

=

r

9000000

100

= 300 (2.229)

Hence, within the range of the rotor angular speed 0 < ω < 500 the system can be

approximated by system with one degree of freedom. Its physical model is shown in

Fig. 57b). The following mathematical model

M¨ x +Kx = m

r

µω

2

cos ωt (2.230)

¨ x +ω

2

n

x = q cos ωt (2.231)

q =

u

M

ω

2

=

0.002

100

ω

2

= .0000 2ω

2

(2.232)

allows the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the ventilator A to be predicted.

A =

¯

¯

¯

¯

q

ω

2

n

−ω

2

¯

¯

¯

¯

=

¯

¯

¯

¯

.0000 2ω

2

300

2

−ω

2

¯

¯

¯

¯

(2.233)

Its values, as a function of the angular speed of the rotor is shown in Fig. 58

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 144

0

0.0001

100 200 300 400

A

1

[m]

ω[ 1/s]

Figure 58

As it can be seen from this diagram, the ventilator develops large vibration in

vicinity of its working speed ω = 314 rad/s and has to pass the critical speed during

the run up. Such a solution is not acceptable. One of a possible way of reducing

these vibration is to furnish the ventilator with the absorber of vibration shown in

ﬁg 59

x

µ

ωt

m µ ω

2

cos ωt x

M

m

m µ ω

2

cos ωt

M

K

m µ ω

2

a)

b)

c k

r

r

m

r

y

y

c

m

k

r

Figure 59

It comprises block of mass m, elastic element of stiﬀness k and damper of the

damping coeﬃcient c. Application of the Newton’s - Euler’s method, results in the

following mathematical model.

M¨ x + (K +k)x −ky +c ˙ x −c ˙ y = uω

2

cosωt

m¨ y −kx +ky −c ˙ x +c ˙ y = 0 (2.234)

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 145

Its matrix form is

·

M 0

0 m

¸ ·

¨ x

¨ y

¸

+

·

+c −c

−c +c

¸ ·

˙ x

˙ y

¸

+

·

K +k −k

−k +k

¸ ·

x

y

¸

=

·

uω

2

cos ωt

0

¸

(2.235)

To analyze the forced vibrations let us introduce the complex excitation

·

M 0

0 m

¸ ·

¨ x

¨ y

¸

+

·

+c −c

−c +c

¸ ·

˙ x

˙ y

¸

+

·

K +k −k

−k +k

¸ ·

x

y

¸

=

=

·

uω

2

cos ωt +iuω

2

sin ωt

0

¸

=

·

uω

2

e

iωt

0

¸

=

·

uω

2

0

¸

e

iωt

(2.236)

Introducing notations

m =

·

M 0

0 m

¸

; c =

·

+c −c

−c +c

¸

; k =

·

K +k −k

−k +k

¸

; q =

·

uω

2

0

¸

; x =

·

x

y

¸

(2.237)

The above equations takes form

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = qe

iωt

(2.238)

If one predicts the particular solution as

x = Ae

iωt

(2.239)

and than introduces it into the equation 2.238 one obtains the formula for the am-

plitude of the forced vibration

A =

¯

¯

(−ω

2

m+iωc +k)

−1

q

¯

¯

(2.240)

Remarkable results we are getting if parameters k and m of the absorber fulﬁll the

following relationship

r

k

m

= ω = 314 (2.241)

To show it let us assume

m = 25 kg

and compute the value of the stiﬀness k from the formula 2.241

k = mω

2

= 25 · 314

2

= 2. 4649 × 10

6

N/m

Introduction of this data into equation 2.240 and the zero damping results in the

following response A

1

and A

2

of the system along the coordinates x and y respectively.

A =

·

A

1

A

2

¸

=

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

µ

−ω

2

·

100 0

0 25

¸

+iω

·

0 0

0 0

¸

+

·

11.5 −2. 46

−2. 46 2. 46

¸

10

6

¶

−1

·

0.002 · ω

2

0

¸

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

(2.242)

Amplitude A

1

, representing vibrations of the ventilator, as a function of the angular

speed of its rotor is presented in Fig. 60:

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 146

0

0.0001

100

200 300

400

A

1

[m]

ω[1/s]

Figure 60

One can notice that the amplitude of vibration for the working speed ω = 314

rad/s is equal to zero. But the ventilator still has to pass resonance in vicinity of

ω = 240 rad/s. To improve the dynamic response, let us analyze the inﬂuence of the

damping coeﬃcient c.

·

A

1

A

2

¸

=

=

µ

−ω

2

·

100 0

0 25

¸

+iω

·

c c

c c

¸

10

3

+

·

11.5 −2. 46

−2. 46 2. 46

¸

10

6

¶

−1

·

0.002 · ω

2

0

¸

(2.243)

The amplitudes of the forced vibration of the ventilator for diﬀerent values of the

damping coeﬃcient c, computed according to the formula 2.243 are collected in the

Table 1. It can be noticed, that by increasing the damping coeﬃcient c one can lower

amplitude of vibrations in all region of frequency. The best results of attenuation of

vibrations can be achieved if the two local maxima are equal to each other. This case

is shown in the last raw of the table 1. Application of the absorber of vibrations oﬀers

a safe operation in region of the angular speed 0 < ω < 500 rad/s. The amplitude is

less than 0.00004 m. Damping coeﬃcient lager then 5000 results in increment of the

amplitude of the ventilator’s forced vibrations. If the damping tends to inﬁnity, The

relative motion is ceased and the system behaves like the undamped system with one

degree of freedom.

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 147

.

Table 1

m = 25

k = 2. 46 × 10

6

c = 0

0

0.0001

100 200

300 400 ω[1/s]

A

1

[m]

m = 25

k = 2. 46 × 10

6

c = 1000

400 300 200 100 0

0.0001

0

A

1

[m]

ω[1/s]

m = 25

k = 2. 46 × 10

6

c = 2500

400 300 200 100 0

0.0001

0

A

1

[m]

ω[1/s]

m = 25

k = 2. 46 × 10

6

c = 5000

0

0.0001

100 200 300 400

0

A

1

[m]

ω[1/s

]

m = 25

k = 1.75 × 10

6

c = 5000

0

0.0001

100 200 300 400

0

A

1

[m]

ω[1/s]

Chapter 3

VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS

3.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS

3.1.1 Modelling of strings, rods and shafts

Modelling of stings

y(z,t) ∂

z ∂

y(z,t)

y(z,t) ∂

z ∂

2

y(z,t) ∂

z ∂

2

dz +

T

dz

T

T

f(z,t)

z

z

y

ρ A(z), (z)

Figure 1

Strings are elastic elements that are subjected to tensile forces (see Fig. 1).

It is assumed that the tensile force T is large enough to neglect its variations due to

small motion of the string around its equilibrium position. In the Fig. 1 A(z) stands

for area of cross-section of the string and (z) is its density. Motion of the string is

caused by the unit vertical load f(z, t) that in a general case can be a function of

time t and the position z. Let us consider element dz of the sting. Its position is

determined by the coordinate z and its mass dm is

dm = A(z)(z)dz (3.1)

The free body diagram of this element is shown in Fig. 1. According to the second

Newton’s law

dm

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

= −T

∂y(z, t)

∂z

+T

µ

∂y(z, t)

∂z

+

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

dz

¶

+f(z, t)dz (3.2)

MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 149

Introduction of Eq. 3.1 into Eq. 3.2 and its simpliﬁcation yields

A(z)(z)

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

dz −T

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

dz = f(z, t)dz (3.3)

If one divide this equation by A(z)(z)dz it takes form

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

−

T

A(z)(z)

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

=

f(z, t)

A(z)(z)

(3.4)

If the string is uniform ( A and ρ are independent of z ) the equation of motion is

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

= q(z, t) (3.5)

where

λ

2

=

T

A

; q(z, t) =

f(z, t)

A

(3.6)

Modelling of rods

y(z,t)

dz

f(z,t)

z

z

ρ E(z), A(z), (z)

dz

F(z,t)

F(z,t) ∂

z ∂

dz

+ F(z,t)

z

F(z,t)

F(z,t)

F(z,t) ∂

z ∂

dz

+ F(z,t)

Figure 2

MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 150

Rods are elastic elements that are subjected to the axial forces. Let as consider

a rod of the cross-section A(z), Young’s modulus E(z) and the density (z). Motion

of the rod is excited by the axial force f(z, t) that, in a general case, can be a function

of position z and time t. Let us consider the highlighted in Fig. 2 element dz. Its

instantaneous position is determined by the displacement y(z, t). Application of the

second Newton’s law to the free body diagram of the element yields.

dm

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

= −F(z, t) +F(z, t) +

∂F(z, t)

∂z

dz +f(z, t)dz (3.7)

The axial force F(z, t) is related to the elongation of the element by Hooke’s law

F(z, t) = A(z)E(z)

∂y(z,t)

∂z

dz

dz

= A(z)E(z)

∂y(z, t)

∂z

(3.8)

Upon introducing the above expression into Eq. 3.7 one may obtain

dm

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

−

∂

∂z

µ

A(z)E(z)

∂y(z, t)

∂z

¶

dz = f(z, t)dz (3.9)

Since mass of the element is

dm = A(z)(z)dz (3.10)

the equation of motion of the element is

A(z)(z)

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

−

∂

∂z

µ

A(z)E(z)

∂y(z, t)

∂z

¶

= f(z, t)dz (3.11)

If the rod is uniform ( A, E, are constant) one can get

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

= q(z, t) (3.12)

where

λ

2

=

E

; q(z, t) =

f(z, t)

A

(3.13)

Modelling of shafts

Shafts are elastic elements that are subjected to torques. Let us assume that the

torque τ(z, t) is distributed along the axis z and is a function of time t (see Fig. 3).

The shaft has the shear modulus G(z), the density (z), the cross-section area A(z)

and the second moment of area J(z). Due to the moment τ(z, t), the shaft performs

the torsional vibrations and the instantaneous angular position of the cross-section

at z is ϕ(z, t). The angular position at the distance z +dz is by the total diﬀerential

∂ϕ(z,t)

∂z

dz greater. Let us consider the element dz of the shaft. Its moment of inertia

about the axis z is

dI =

Z

A

r

2

dA(z)dz = (z)dz

Z

A

r

2

dA = J(z)(z)dz (3.14)

MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 151

dz z

z

ρ G(z), E(z), A(z), (z)

T(z,t)

z

(z,t)

(z,t)

ϕ

(z,t) τ

T(z,t) ∂

z ∂

dz

+ T(z,t)

ϕ

(z,t) ∂

z ∂

dz

+ (z,t)

ϕ

ϕ

(z,t) ∂

z ∂

dz

+ (z,t)

ϕ

ϕ

(z,t)

ϕ

Figure 3

Owning to the generalized Newton’s law we can write the following equation

dI

∂

2

ϕ(z, t)

∂t

2

= −T(z, t) +T(z, t) +

∂T(z, t)

∂z

dz +τ(z, t)dz (3.15)

After introduction of Eq. 3.14 and an elementary simpliﬁcation the equation 3.15

takes form

J(z)(z)

∂

2

ϕ(z, t)

∂t

2

−

∂T(z, t)

∂z

= τ(z, t) (3.16)

If we introduce the relationship between the torque T(z, t) and the deﬂection ϕ(z, t)

∂ϕ(z, t)

∂z

dz =

T(z, t)dz

G(z)J(z)

(3.17)

into Eq. 3.16 we are getting

J(z)(z)

∂

2

ϕ(z, t)

∂t

2

−

∂

∂z

G(z)J(z)

µ

∂ϕ(z, t)

∂z

¶

= τ(z, t) (3.18)

MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 152

If J(z), (z) and G(z) are constant, the equation of motion takes form.

∂

2

ϕ(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

∂

2

ϕ(z, t)

∂z

2

= q(z, t) (3.19)

where

λ

2

=

G

; q(z, t) =

τ(z, t)

J

(3.20)

3.1.2 Modelling of beams

dz

f(z,t)

z

z

ρ E(z),J(z), A(z), (z)

y(z,t)

y

M(z,t)

V(z,t)

V(z,t) ∂

z ∂

dz

+ V(z,t)

M(z,t) ∂

z ∂

dz

+ M(z,t)

G

f(z,t)

dz/2

Figure 4

Beams are elastic elements that are subjected to lateral loads (forces or mo-

ments that have their vectors perpendicular to the centre line of a beam). Let us

consider a beam of the second moment of area J(z), cross-section A(z), density (z)

and the Young’s modulus E(z). The beam performs vibrations due to the external dis-

tributed unit load f(z, t). The instantaneous position of the element dz is highlighted

in Fig. 4. The equation of motion of the beam in the z direction is

dm

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

= +V (z, t) −V (z, t) −

∂V (z, t)

∂z

dz +f(z, t)dz (3.21)

If one neglect the inertia moment associated with rotation of the element dz, sum of

MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 153

the moments about the point G has to be equal to zero

V (z, t)

dz

2

+

µ

V (z, t) +

∂V (z, t)

∂z

dz

¶

dz

2

+M(z, t) −

µ

M(z, t) +

∂M(z, t)

∂z

dz

¶

= 0

(3.22)

Simpliﬁcation of the above equation and omission of the terms of order higher then

one with respect to dz, yields the relationship between the bending moment M and

the shearing force V.

V (z, t) =

∂M(z, t)

∂z

(3.23)

Since mass of the element dz is

dm = A(z)(z)dz (3.24)

and taking into account Eq. 3.23, one can get the equation of motion in the following

form

A(z)(z)

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

+

∂M

2

(z, t)

∂z

2

= f(z, t) (3.25)

The mechanics of solids oﬀers the following relationship between the deﬂection of the

beam y(z, t) and the bending moment M(z, t).

M(z, t) = E(z)J(z)

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

(3.26)

Introduction of equation 3.26 into equation 3.25 yields

A(z)(z)

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

+

∂

2

∂z

2

µ

E(z)J(z)

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

¶

= f(z, t) (3.27)

If the following parameters of the beam A, J, E and are constant, motion of the

beam is governed by the following equation

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

+λ

2

∂

4

y(z, t)

∂z

4

= q(z, t) (3.28)

where

λ

2

=

EJ

A

; q(z, t) =

f(z, t)

A

(3.29)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 154

3.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS

As could be seen from the previous section, vibrations of strings, rods and shafts are

described by the same mathematical model. Therefore, its analysis can be discussed

simultaneously. The strict solution can be produced only if parameters of the system

considered are constant. In this case the governing equation

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

= q(z, t) (3.30)

is classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with

constant coeﬃcients ( λ

2

). The general solution, a function of two variables, is sum

of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of

the non-homogeneous equation. If the external excitation q(z, t) = 0, the equation

3.30 describes the free vibration of the system due to a non-zero initial excitation

determined by the initial conditions.

3.2.1 Free vibration of strings, rods and shafts

The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation

of Eq. 3.30

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

= 0 (3.31)

Boundary conditions - natural frequencies and natural modes

Let us predict the particular solution of the above equation in a form of the product

of two functions. One of them is a function of the position z and the other one is a

harmonic function of time t.

y(z, t) = Y (z) sin ω

n

t (3.32)

Introduction of the predicted solution 3.32 into equation 3.31 yields the following

ordinary diﬀerential equation

−ω

2

n

Y (z) −λ

2

Y

II

(z) = 0 (3.33)

or

Y

II

(z) +β

2

n

Y (z) = 0 (3.34)

where

β

n

=

ω

n

λ

(3.35)

The general solution of this equation is

Y

n

(z) = S

n

sin β

n

z +C

n

cos β

n

z (3.36)

where

β

n

= ω

n

r

A

T

for strings (3.37)

β

n

= ω

n

r

E

for rods (3.38)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 155

β

n

= ω

n

r

G

for shafts (3.39)

The values for the parameter β

n

as well as the constants S

n

and C

n

should be chosen

to fulﬁll the boundary conditions. Some of the boundary conditions for strings, rods

and shafts are shown in the following table.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 156

Table 3.1

y

z

l

string

for z = 0 Y

n

= 0

for z = l Y

n

= 0

z

l

free-free rod

for z = 0 F = AEY

I

n

= 0

for z = l F = AEY

I

n

= 0

z

l

ﬁxed-free rod

for z = 0 Y

n

= 0

for z = l F = AEY

I

n

= 0

z

l

k

ﬁxed-elasticaly supported rod

for z = 0 Y

n

= 0

for z = l F = AEY

I

n

= −kY

n

z

l

ﬁxed-ﬁxed rod

for z = 0 Y

n

= 0

for z = l Y

n

= 0

z

l

free-free shaft

for z = 0 T = GJY

I

n

= 0

for z = l T = GJY

I

n

= 0

z

l

ﬁxed free shaft

for z = 0 Y

n

= 0

for z = l T = GJY

I

n

= 0

z

l

ﬁxed-ﬁxed shaft

for z = 0 Y

n

= 0

for z = l Y

n

= 0

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 157

To demonstrate the way of the determination of the natural frequencies and

the corresponding natural modes, let us consider the ﬁxed on both ends shaft (last

row of the above Table). For this case the boundary conditions are

for z = 0 Y

n

= 0

for z = l Y

n

= 0 (3.40)

Introduction of this boundary conditions into the solution 3.36, results in a set of two

homogeneous algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants S

n

and C

n

.

0 = 0 · S

n

+ 1 · C

n

0 = (sinβ

n

l)S

n

+ (cos β

n

l)C

n

(3.41)

Its matrix form is

·

0 1

sinβ

n

l cos β

n

l

¸ ·

S

n

C

n

¸

=

·

0

0

¸

(3.42)

This set of equations has non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant

is equal to zero.

¯

¯

¯

¯

0 1

sinβ

n

l cos β

n

l

¯

¯

¯

¯

= 0 (3.43)

Hence, in this particular case we have

sinβ

n

l = 0 (3.44)

This equation is called characteristic equation and has inﬁnite number of solution.

Since β

n

and l are always positive, only positive roots of the above equation has the

physical meaning

β

1

=

π

l

, β

2

=

2π

l

, ........ β

n

=

nπ

l

, ........... n = 1, 2, ....∞ (3.45)

Taking advantage of equation 3.39 one can compute the natural frequencies to be

β

n

= ω

n

p

G

ω

n

= β

n

s

G

=

nπ

l

s

G

n = 1, 2, ....∞ (3.46)

For each of this natural frequencies the set of equations 3.41 becomes linearly de-

pendant and one of the constants can be chosen arbitrarily. If one choose arbitrarily

S

n

,say S

n

= 1, according to the ﬁrst equation of the set 3.41, C

n

has to be equal to

0. Therefore we can conclude that the predicted solution, according to 3.36, in the

case considered is

Y

n

(z) = sinβ

n

z = sin

nπ

l

z n = 1, 2, ....∞ (3.47)

The functions Y

n

(z)are called eigenfunctions or natural modes and the corresponding

roots ω

n

are called eigenvalues or natural frequencies. The above analysis allows to

conclude that a continuous system possesses inﬁnite number of the natural frequencies

and inﬁnite number of the corresponding natural modes. The ﬁrst mode is called

fundamental mode and the corresponding frequency is called fundamental natural

frequency. In the case of free vibrations of the shaft, the natural modes determine

the angular positions of the cross-section of the shaft ϕ(z). A few ﬁrst of them are

shown in Fig. 5

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 158

z

ϕ

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

l=1

(z)

Figure 5

Orthogonality of the natural modes

Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Y

i

(z) and Y

j

(z). Both of them

must fulﬁll the equation 3.33

−ω

2

n

Y (z) −λ

2

Y

II

(z) = 0

Hence

−ω

2

i

Y

i

(z) −λ

2

Y

II

i

(z) = 0 (3.48)

−ω

2

j

Y

j

(z) −λ

2

Y

II

j

(z) = 0 (3.49)

Premultiplying the equation 3.48 by Y

j

(z) and the equation 3.49 by Y

i

(z) and then

integrating them side by side one can get

ω

2

i

Z

l

0

Y

i

(z)Y

j

(z)dz +λ

2

Z

l

0

Y

II

i

(z)Y

j

(z)dz = 0

ω

2

j

Z

l

0

Y

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz +λ

2

Z

l

0

Y

II

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz = 0 (3.50)

The second integrals can be integrated by parts. Hence

ω

2

i

Z

l

0

Y

i

(z)Y

j

(z)dz +λ

2

³

Y

I

i

(z)Y

j

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

−λ

2

Z

l

0

Y

I

i

(z)Y

I

j

(z)dz = 0

ω

2

j

Z

l

0

Y

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz +λ

2

³

Y

I

J

(z)Y

i

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

−λ

2

Z

l

0

Y

I

i

(z)Y

I

j

(z)dz = 0 (3.51)

Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields

¡

ω

2

i

−ω

2

j

¢

Z

l

0

Y

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz +λ

2

³

¡

Y

I

i

(z)Y

j

(z)

¢¯

¯

l

0

−

¡

Y

I

J

(z)Y

i

(z)

¢¯

¯

l

0

´

= 0 (3.52)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 159

It is easy to show that for any boundary conditions the second expression is equal to

zero

¡

Y

I

i

(z)Y

j

(z)

¢¯

¯

l

0

−

¡

Y

I

J

(z)Y

i

(z)

¢¯

¯

l

0

= Y

I

i

(l)Y

j

(l)−Y

I

i

(0)Y

j

(0)−Y

I

J

(l)Y

i

(l)+Y

I

J

(0)Y

i

(0) = 0

(3.53)

Hence,

Z

l

0

Y

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz = 0 (3.54)

The above property of the eigenfunctions is called orthogonality condition.

General solution of the homogeneous equation

According to 3.32 one of the particular solution of the equation 3.31 can be adopted

in the following form

y(z, t) = Y (z) sin ω

n

t (3.55)

At this stage of consideration the function Y (z) is known and we are able to produce

inﬁnite number of such particular solutions.

y

n

(z, t) = Y

n

(z) sin ω

n

t n = 1, 2, 3.....∞ (3.56)

Since the equation 3.31 is of second order with respect to time, to fulﬁll initial con-

ditions we need second set of linearly independent solution. It the same manner as

it was done in the previous section one may prove that the following functions form

the required linearly independent set of solution.

y

n

(z, t) = Y

n

(z) cos ω

n

t n = 1, 2, 3.....∞ (3.57)

Hence, the general solution of the equation 3.31 eventually may be adopted in the

following form.

y(z, t) =

∞

X

n=1

S

n

Y

n

(z) sinω

n

t +C

n

Y

n

(z) cos ω

n

t (3.58)

This solution has to fulﬁll the initial conditions. The initial conditions determine the

initial position Y

0

(z) and the initial velocity V

0

(z) of the system considered for the

time t equal to zero.

y(z, 0) = Y

0

(z)

∂

∂t

y(z, 0) = V

0

(z) (3.59)

To produce the constant S

n

and C

n

let us introduce the solution 3.58 into the above

initial conditions. This operation results in the following two equations.

Y

0

(z) =

∞

X

n=1

C

n

Y

n

(z)

V

0

(z) =

∞

X

n=1

S

n

ω

n

Y

n

(z) (3.60)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 160

To determine the unknown constants S

n

and C

n

, let us multiply the above equations

by Y

m

(z) and then integrate them side by side

Z

l

0

Y

0

(z)Y

m

(z)dz =

∞

X

n=1

C

n

Z

l

0

Y

n

(z)Y

m

(z)dz

Z

l

0

V

0

(z)Y

m

(z)dz =

∞

X

n=1

S

n

ω

n

Z

l

0

Y

n

(z)Y

m

(z)dz (3.61)

Taking advantage of the developed orthogonality conditions 3.54 the wanted constants

S

n

and C

n

are

C

n

=

R

l

0

Y

0

(z)Y

n

(z)dz

R

l

0

Y

2

n

(z)dz

S

n

=

1

ω

n

R

l

0

V

0

(z)Y

n

(z)dz

R

l

0

Y

2

n

(z)dz

(3.62)

For the example considered in the previous section the above formulae, according to

3.47, take form

C

n

=

R

l

0

Y

0

(z) sin

nπ

l

zdz

R

l

0

¡

sin

nπ

l

z

¢

2

dz

S

n

=

1

ω

n

R

l

0

V

0

(z) sin

nπ

l

zdz

R

l

0

¡

sin

nπ

l

z

¢

2

dz

(3.63)

3.2.2 Free vibrations of beams

For the uniform beam the equation of motion was derived to be

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

+λ

2

∂

4

y(z, t)

∂z

4

= q(z, t) (3.64)

This equation can be classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables

( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ

2

). Its order with respect to time is 2 and

with respect to z is equal to 4. The general solution, a function of two variables, is

sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution

of the non-homogeneous equation. If the external excitation q(z, t) = 0, the equation

3.64 describes the free vibration of the beam due to a non-zero initial conditions.

The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous

equation of 3.64.

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

+λ

2

∂

4

y(z, t)

∂z

4

= 0 (3.65)

Boundary conditions - natural frequencies and natural modes

Similarly to the analysis of strings and shafts, let us predict the solution of the above

equation in the form of a product of two functions. One of them is a function of the

position z and the other is the harmonic function of time t.

y(z, t) = Y (z) sin ω

n

t (3.66)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 161

Introduction of the predicted solution 3.66 into equation 3.65 yields the following

ordinary diﬀerential equation

−ω

2

n

Y (z) +λ

2

Y

IV

(z) = 0 (3.67)

or

Y

IV

(z) −β

4

n

Y (z) = 0 (3.68)

where

β

4

n

=

ω

2

n

λ

2

=

Aρ

EJ

ω

2

n

(3.69)

The standard form of its particular solution is

Y (z) = e

rz

(3.70)

Introduction of this solution into the equation 3.68 yields the characteristic equation

r

4

= β

4

n

(3.71)

Its roots

r

1

= β

n

r

2

= −β

n

r

3

= iβ

n

r

2

= −iβ

n

(3.72)

determine the set of the linearly independent particular solution.

Y

1

(z) = e

β

n

z

Y

2

(z) = e

−β

n

z

Y

3

(z) = e

iβ

n

z

Y

1

(z) = e

−iβ

n

z

(3.73)

Alternatively, one can choose their combinations as the set of the independent solu-

tions

Y

1

(z) =

e

β

n

z

−e

−β

n

z

2

= sinh β

n

z Y

2

(z) =

e

β

n

z

+e

−β

n

z

2

= cosh β

n

z

Y

3

(z) =

e

iβ

n

z

−e

−iβ

n

z

2

= sin β

n

z Y

2

(z) =

e

iβ

n

z

+e

−iβ

n

z

2

= cos β

n

z (3.74)

A graphical interpretation of these functions for β

n

= 1 is given in Fig. 6.

-4

-2

0

2

4

-4 -2 2 4 z

Y (z)

1

Y (z)

2

Y (z)

3

Y (z)

4

Figure 6

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 162

The general solution of the equation 3.68, as a linear combination of these

particular solutions is

Y

n

(z) = A

n

sinh β

n

z +B

n

cosh β

n

z +C

n

sinβ

n

z +D

n

cos β

n

z

(3.75)

Values for the parameter β

n

as well as for the constants A

n

, B

n

, C

n

and D

n

should

be chosen to fulﬁll boundary conditions. Since this equation is of fourth order, one

has to produce four boundary conditions reﬂecting the conditions at both ends of the

beam. They involve the function Y (z) and its ﬁrst three derivatives with respect to

z.

Y

n

(z) = A

n

sinh β

n

z +B

n

cosh β

n

z +C

n

sinβ

n

z +D

n

cos β

n

z

(3.76)

Y

I

n

(z) = A

n

β

n

coshβ

n

z +B

n

β

n

sinh β

n

z +C

n

β

n

cos β

n

z −D

n

β

n

sinβ

n

z

(3.77)

Y

II

n

(z) = A

n

β

2

n

sinh β

n

z +B

n

β

2

n

cosh β

n

z −C

n

β

2

n

sin β

n

z −D

n

β

2

n

cos β

n

z

(3.78)

Y

I

n

(z) = A

n

β

3

n

coshβ

n

z +B

n

β

3

n

sinh β

n

z −C

n

β

3

n

cos β

n

z = D

n

β

3

n

sinβ

n

z

(3.79)

The boundary conditions for some cases of beams are shown in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2

z

l

Y

O

free-free beam

for z = 0 M(0) = EJY

II

(0) = 0

for z = 0 V (0) = EJY

III

(0) = 0

for z = l M(l) = EJY

II

(l) = 0

for z = l V (l) = EJY

III

(l) = 0

z

l

Y

O

ﬁxed-free beam

for z = 0 Y (0) = 0

for z = 0 Y

I

(0) = 0

for z = l M(l) = EJY

II

(l) = 0

for z = l V (l) = EJY

III

(l) = 0

z

l

Y

O

pined-ﬁxed beam

for z = 0 Y (0) = 0

for z = 0 M(0) = EJY

II

(0) = 0

for z = l Y (l) = 0

for z = l Y

I

(l) = 0

z

l

Y

O

k

k

elasticaly supported beam

for z = 0 M(0) = EJY

II

(0) = 0

for z = 0 V (0) = EJY

III

(0) = −kY (0)

for z = l M(l) = EJY

II

(l) = 0

for z = l V (l) = EJY

III

(l) = +kY (l)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 163

Let us take advantage of the boundary conditions corresponding to the free-

free beam in order to determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes.

for z = 0 M(0) = EJY

II

(0) = 0

for z = 0 V (0) = EJY

III

(0) = 0

for z = l M(l) = EJY

II

(l) = 0

for z = l V (l) = EJY

III

(l) = 0

(3.80)

Introduction of the functions 3.78 and 3.79 into the above boundary conditions results

in the following set of algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the constants

A

n

, B

n

, C

n

and D

n

.

_

¸

¸

_

0 β

2

n

0 −β

2

n

β

3

n

0 −β

3

n

0

β

2

n

sinhβ

n

l β

2

n

cosh β

n

l −β

2

n

sin β

n

l −β

2

n

cos β

n

l

β

3

n

coshβ

n

l β

3

n

sinhβ

n

l −β

3

n

cos β

n

l β

3

n

sinβ

n

l

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

A

n

B

n

C

n

D

n

_

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

_

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

_

(3.81)

They have a non-zero solution if and only if their characteristic determinant is equal

to zero. This condition forms the characteristic equation

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

0 1 0 −1

1 0 −1 0

sinhβ

n

l coshβ

n

l −sin β

n

l −cos β

n

l

cosh β

n

l sinh β

n

l −cos β

n

l sin β

n

l

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

= 0 (3.82)

that, after simpliﬁcation, takes the following form

coshβ

n

l cos β

n

l −1 = 0 (3.83)

This characteristic equation is transcendental and therefore has inﬁnite number of

roots. Solution of this equation, within a limited range of the parameter β

n

l is shown

in Fig. 7

The ﬁrst few roots are

β

0

l = 0 β

1

l = 4.73 β

2

l = 7.85 β

3

l = 11......... (3.84)

As one can see from the diagram 7, the characteristic equation has double root of zero

magnitude. Since the beam considered is free-free in space, this root is associated with

the possible translation and rotation of the beam as a rigid body. These two modes,

corresponding to the zero root are shown in Fig. 8a) and b). Modes corresponding

to the non-zero roots can be produced according to the following procedure.

For any root of the characteristic equation the set of equations 3.81, since

its characteristic determinant is zero, becomes linearly dependant. Therefore, it is

possible to choose arbitrarily one of the constants (for example A

n

) and the other

can be obtained from three arbitrarily chosen equations 3.81. If we take advantage

of the second, third and fourth equation we are getting

_

_

0 −1 0

coshβ

n

l −sin β

n

l −cos β

n

l

sinh β

n

l −cos β

n

l sin β

n

l

_

_

_

_

B

n

C

n

D

n

_

_

= −

_

_

1

sinh β

n

l

coshβ

n

l

_

_

A

n

(3.85)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 164

-20

-10

0

10

20

5 10 15

l β

n

l β

1

l β

2

l β

3

l β

0

cosh cos -1=0

l β

n

l β

n

Figure 7

Hence, for A

n

= −1 we have

_

_

B

n

C

n

D

n

_

_

=

_

_

0 −1 0

cosh β

n

l −sinβ

n

l −cos β

n

l

sinhβ

n

l −cos β

n

l sin β

n

l

_

_

−1

_

_

1

sinh β

n

l

coshβ

n

l

_

_

(3.86)

For the ﬁrst non-zero root β

1

l = 4.73 the above set of equations yields values for

constants B

1

, C

1

and D

1

_

_

B

1

C

1

D

1

_

_

=

_

_

0 −1 0

cosh4.73 −sin4.73 −cos 4.73

sinh 4.73 −cos 4.73 sin 4.73

_

_

−1

_

_

1

sinh 4.73

cosh 4.73

_

_

=

_

_

1.017 8

−1.0

1.0177

_

_

(3.87)

Hence, the corresponding mode, according to Eq. 3.75 is

Y

1

(z) = −1.0 sinh4.73z + 1.0178 cosh4.73z −1.0 sin4.73z + 1.0177 cos 4.73z (3.88)

Its graphical representation is shown in Fig. 8c).

In the same manner one can produce modes for all the other characteristic

roots. Modes for β

2

l = 7.85 and β

3

l = 11 are shown in Fig. 8d) and e) respectively.

The formula 3.69 allows the natural frequencies to be computed.

ω

n

= β

2

n

s

EJ

Aρ

=

(β

n

l)

2

l

2

s

EJ

Aρ

(3.89)

Eventually, taking into account the predicted solution 3.66, the particular solution is

y(z, t) = S

n

Y

n

(z) sinω

n

t (3.90)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 165

-2

-1

0

1

2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

-2

-1

0

1

2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

-2

-1

0

1

2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

-2

-1

0

1

2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

-2

-1

0

1

2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

0

Y (z)

0

Y (z)

1

Y (z)

2

Y (z)

3

Y (z)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Figure 8

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 166

where Y

n

(z) and ω

n

are uniquely determined and S

n

is an arbitrarily chosen constant.

In the same manner we can show that the function

y(z, t) = C

n

Y

n

(z) cos ω

n

t (3.91)

is the linearly independent particular solution too. It follows that the following linear

combination

n=∞

X

n=1

Y

n

(z) (S

n

sin ω

n

t +C

n

cos ω

n

t) (3.92)

where

Y

1

(z) = −1.0 sinh4.73z + 1.0178 cosh 4.73z −1.0 sin4.73z + 1.0177 cos 4.73z

Y

2

(z) = ..................... (3.93)

.....................

is the general solution of the equation 3.65. The constants S

n

and C

n

should be

chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions.

Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily cho-

sen natural modes Y

i

(z) and Y

j

(z). Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3.67

−ω

2

n

Y (z) +λ

2

Y

IV

(z) = 0

Hence

−ω

2

i

Y

i

(z) +λ

2

Y

IV

i

(z) = 0 (3.94)

−ω

2

j

Y

j

(z) +λ

2

Y

IV

j

(z) = 0 (3.95)

Premultiplying the equation 3.94 by Y

j

(z) and the equation 3.95 by Y

i

(z) and then

integrating them side by side one can get

−ω

2

i

Z

l

0

Y

i

(z)Y

j

(z)dz +λ

2

Z

l

0

Y

IV

i

(z)Y

j

(z)dz = 0

−ω

2

j

Z

l

0

Y

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz +λ

2

Z

l

0

Y

IV

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz = 0 (3.96)

The second integrals can be integrated by parts. Hence

−ω

2

i

Z

l

0

Y

i

(z)Y

j

(z)dz +λ

2

³

Y

III

i

(z)Y

j

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

−λ

2

Z

l

0

Y

III

i

(z)Y

I

j

(z)dz = 0

−ω

2

j

Z

l

0

Y

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz +λ

2

³

Y

III

J

(z)Y

i

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

−λ

2

Z

l

0

Y

III

i

(z)Y

I

j

(z)dz = 0

(3.97)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 167

Let us apply the same procedure to the last integral again

−ω

2

i

R

l

0

Y

i

(z)Y

j

(z)dz +λ

2

³

Y

III

i

(z)Y

j

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

+

−λ

2

³

Y

II

i

(z)Y

I

j

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

+λ

2

R

l

0

Y

II

i

(z)Y

II

j

(z)dz = 0

(3.98)

−ω

2

j

R

l

0

Y

i

(z)Y

j

(z)dz +λ

2

³

Y

III

j

(z)Y

i

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

+

−λ

2

³

Y

II

j

(z)Y

I

i

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

+λ

2

R

l

0

Y

II

i

(z)Y

II

j

(z)dz = 0

Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields

¡

ω

2

i

−ω

2

j

¢ R

l

0

Y

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz+

−λ

2

³

Y

III

i

(z)Y

j

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

+λ

2

³

Y

II

i

(z)Y

I

j

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

+λ

2

³

Y

III

j

(z)Y

i

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

−λ

2

³

Y

II

j

(z)Y

I

i

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

= 0

(3.99)

The expression

−λ

2

³

Y

III

i

(z)Y

j

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

+λ

2

³

Y

II

i

(z)Y

I

j

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

+λ

2

³

Y

III

j

(z)Y

i

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

−λ

2

³

Y

II

j

(z)Y

I

i

(z)

¯

¯

l

0

´

(3.100)

depends exclusively on boundary conditions. It is easy to show that for any possible

boundary conditions this expression is equal to zero. Hence,

Z

l

0

Y

j

(z)Y

i

(z)dz = 0 (3.101)

The above property of the natural modes is called orthogonality condition and play

a very important role in further development of the theory of vibrations.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 168

3.2.3 Problems

Problem 39

z

G

1

, A

1

, ρ

1

, J

1

G

2

, A

2

, ρ

2

, J

2

l

1

l

2

Figure 9

For the shaft shown in Fig. 9 produce equation for its natural frequencies.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 169

Solution

For

0 < z < l

1

(3.102)

motion of the system, according to 3.19, is governed by the following equation

∂

2

ϕ

1

(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

1

∂

2

ϕ

1

(z, t)

∂z

2

= 0 (3.103)

where

λ

2

1

=

G

1

1

(3.104)

Similarly, one may say that within range

l

1

< z < l

1

+l

2

(3.105)

motion of the shaft is governed by

∂

2

ϕ

2

(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

2

∂

2

ϕ

2

(z, t)

∂z

2

= 0 (3.106)

where

λ

2

2

=

G

2

2

(3.107)

Both parts of the shaft must have the same natural frequencies. Therefore the par-

ticular solution of the above equations must be of the following form

ϕ

1

(z, t) = Φ

1

(z) sinω

n

t (3.108)

ϕ

2

(z, t) = Φ

2

(z) sinω

n

t (3.109)

Introduction of these solutions into the equations of motion yields, according to 3.34,

Φ

II

1

(z) +β

2

n1

Φ

1

(z) = 0 (3.110)

Φ

II

2

(z) +β

2

n2

Φ

2

(z) = 0 (3.111)

where

β

n1

=

ω

n

λ

1

β

n2

=

ω

n

λ

2

(3.112)

These two equations are coupled together by the following boundary conditions

for z = 0 Φ

1

(0) = 0

for z = l

1

Φ

1

(l

1

) = Φ

2

(l

1

)

for z = l

1

G

1

J

1

Φ

I

1

(l

1

) = G

2

J

2

Φ

I

2

(l

1

)

for z = l

1

+l

2

Φ

I

2

(l

1

+l

2

) = 0 (3.113)

The ﬁrst boundary condition reﬂects the fact that the left hand end of the shaft is

ﬁxed. The second and the third condition represent the continuity of the angular

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 170

displacement and continuity of the torque. The last condition says that the torque

at the free end is zero. Since the general solution of equation 3.110 and 3.111are

Φ

1

(z) = S

n1

sin

ω

n

λ

1

z +C

n1

cos

ω

n

λ

1

z (3.114)

Φ

2

(z) = S

n2

sin

ω

n

λ

2

z +C

n2

cos

ω

n

λ

2

z (3.115)

the formulated boundary conditions results in the following set of equations

C

n1

= 0

S

n1

sin

ω

n

λ

1

l

1

+C

n1

cos

ω

n

λ

1

l

1

−S

n2

sin

ω

n

λ

2

l

2

−C

n2

cos

ω

n

λ

2

l

2

= 0

S

n1

G

1

J

1

ωn

λ

1

cos

ωn

λ

1

l

1

−C

n1

G

1

J

1

ωn

λ

1

sin

ωn

λ

1

l

1

+

−S

n2

G

2

J

2

ω

n

λ

2

cos

ω

n

λ

2

l

1

+C

n2

G

2

J

2

ω

n

λ

2

sin

ω

n

λ

2

l

1

= 0

+S

n2

ω

n

λ

2

cos

ω

n

λ

2

(l

1

+l

2

) −C

n2

ω

n

λ

2

sin

ω

n

λ

2

(l

1

+l

2

) = 0

(3.116)

Its matrix for is

[A]

_

¸

¸

_

S

n1

C

n1

S

n2

C

n2

_

¸

¸

_

= 0 (3.117)

where

[A] =

_

¸

¸

_

0 1 0 0

sin

ωn

λ

1

l

1

cos

ωn

λ

1

l

1

−sin

ωn

λ

2

l

2

−cos

ωn

λ

2

l

2

G

1

J

1

ωn

λ

1

cos

ωn

λ

1

l

1

−G

1

J

1

ωn

λ

1

sin

ωn

λ

1

l

1

−G

2

J

2

ωn

λ

2

cos

ωn

λ

2

l

1

G

2

J

2

ωn

λ

2

sin

ωn

λ

2

l

1

0 0

ω

n

λ

2

cos

ω

n

λ

2

(l

1

+l

2

) −

ω

n

λ

2

sin

ω

n

λ

2

(l

1

+l

2

)

_

¸

¸

_

This homogeneous set of equations has the non-zero solutions if and only if its char-

acteristic determinant is equal to zero.

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

0 1 0 0

sin

ω

n

λ

1

l

1

cos

ω

n

λ

1

l

1

−sin

ω

n

λ

2

l

2

−cos

ω

n

λ

2

l

2

G

1

J

1

ωn

λ

1

cos

ωn

λ

1

l

1

−G

1

J

1

ωn

λ

1

sin

ωn

λ

1

l

1

−G

2

J

2

ωn

λ

2

cos

ωn

λ

2

l

1

G

2

J

2

ωn

λ

2

sin

ωn

λ

2

l

1

0 0

ωn

λ

2

cos

ωn

λ

2

(l

1

+l

2

) −

ωn

λ

2

sin

ωn

λ

2

(l

1

+l

2

)

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

= 0

(3.118)

Solution of this equation for the roots ω

n

yields the wanted natural frequencies of the

shaft.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 171

Problem 40

z

l

E , A ,

ρ

m

1

2

Figure 10

The uniform rod 1, shown in Fig. 10, is connected to the block 2 of mass

m. Compute the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of this

assembly.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 172

Solution

The equation of motion of the rod, according to Eq. 3.12, is

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

= 0 (3.119)

where

λ

2

=

E

(3.120)

To produce the boundary conditions let us consider the block 2 with the adjusted

inﬁnitesimal element (see Fig. 11).

z

l

y(l,t)

y

m

F(l,t)

Figure 11

Equation of motion of the block, according to the Newton’s law, is

m

∂

2

y(l, t)

∂t

2

= −F(l, t) (3.121)

or, taking advantage of the relationship 3.8

m

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=l

= −AE

∂y(z, t)

∂z

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=l

(3.122)

This equation together with the condition corresponding to the upper end of the rod

y(0, t) = 0 (3.123)

forms boundary conditions for the equation 3.119.

(

y(0, t) = 0

m

∂

2

y(z,t)

∂t

2

¯

¯

¯

z=l

= −AE

∂y(z,t)

∂z

¯

¯

¯

z=l

(3.124)

Introduction of the particular solution (see Eq. 3.32)

y(z, t) = Y (z) sin ω

n

t (3.125)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 173

into the equation of motion 3.119 and the boundary conditions 3.124 yields the ordi-

nary diﬀerential equation

Y

II

(z) +β

2

n

Y (z) = 0; β

n

=

ω

n

λ

(3.126)

with boundary conditions

½

Y (0) = 0

mω

2

n

Y (l) −AEY

I

(l) = 0

(3.127)

The general solution of the equation 3.126, according to 3.36, is

Y

n

(z) = S

n

sin β

n

z +C

n

cos β

n

z (3.128)

Introduction of this solution into boundary conditions yields

½

C

n

= 0

mω

2

n

(S

n

sinβ

n

z +C

n

cos β

n

z) −AE(S

n

β

n

cos β

n

z −C

n

β

n

sinβ

n

z) = 0

(3.129)

or

¡

mω

2

n

sin β

n

z −AEβ

n

cos β

n

z

¢

S

n

= 0 (3.130)

Hence, the characteristic equation, after taking advantage of 3.126, is

mω

2

n

sin

ω

n

λ

z −AE

ω

n

λ

cos

ω

n

λ

z = 0 (3.131)

or after simpliﬁcation

tan

ω

n

λ

l −

AE

λω

n

m

= 0 (3.132)

For the following numerical data

l = 1m

E = 2.1 × 10

11

N/m

2

A = 25 × 10

−4

m

2

ρ = 7800kg/m

3

λ =

q

E

ρ

= 5188.7m/s

m

r

= A×l ×ρ = 19.5kg - mass of the rod

m = 20kg - mass of the block

the characteristic equation takes the following form

f(ω

n

) = tan

³

ω

n

5188.7

´

−

5059.0

ω

n

= 0 (3.133)

Its solution f(ω = 0 is shown in Fig. 12.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 174

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000

ω

n

f( ) ω

n

Figure 12

The ﬁrst three natural frequencies, according to the diagram 12 are

ω

1

= 4400, ω

2

= 17720, ω

1

= 33400 s

−1

(3.134)

The corresponding natural modes, according to 3.128, are

Y

n

(z) = S

n

sin β

n

z = S

n

sin

ω

n

λ

z = S

n

sin

ω

n

5188.7

z (3.135)

For the ﬁrst three natural frequencies the corresponding natural modes

Y

1

(z) = sin

4400

5188.7

z Y

2

(z) = sin

17720

5188.7

z Y

3

(z) = sin

33400

5188.7

z (3.136)

are presented in Fig. 13, 14 and 15 respectively.If we neglect the mass of the rod, the

system becomes of one degree of freedom and its the only one natural frequency is

ω

1

=

r

k

m

=

r

EA

lm

=

r

2.1 × 10

11

× 25 × 10

−4

20

= 5123s

−1

(3.137)

and the corresponding mode is a straight line.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 175

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

Y (z)

1

Figure 13

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

Y (z)

2

Figure 14

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

Y (z)

3

Figure 15

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 176

Problem 41

Produce natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxed-

elastically supported beam shown in Fig. 16

z

l

k

y

O

Figure 16

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 177

Solution

According to the equation 3.65, the equation of motion of the beam is

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

+λ

2

∂

4

y(z, t)

∂z

4

= 0 (3.138)

Its particular solution can be sought in the following form

y(z, t) = Y

n

(z) sinω

n

t (3.139)

the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions. At the left hand end the dis-

placement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero. Hence,

y(z, t)|

z=0

= 0 (3.140)

∂y(z, t)

∂z

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=0

= 0 (3.141)

The right hand end, with the forces acting on it, is shown in Fig. 17. Equilibrium

z

l

k

y

O

z

dz

k y(z,t)|

z=l

V(z,t)|

z=l

M(z,t)|

z=l

Figure 17

conditions for the element dz which have to be fulﬁll for any instant of time, forms

the boundary conditions associated with the right hand end

M(z, t)|

z=l

= E(z)J(z)

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=l

= 0 (3.142)

V (z, t)|

z=l

=

∂M(z, t)

∂z

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=l

=

∂

∂z

EJ

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=l

= ky(z, t)|

z=l

(3.143)

Introduction of the solution 3.139 into the above boundary conditions yields

Y

n

(z)|

z=0

= 0

Y

I

n

(z)

¯

¯

z=0

= 0

Y

II

n

(z)

¯

¯

z=l

= 0

α Y

III

n

(z)

¯

¯

z=l

− Y

n

(z)|

z=l

= 0 (3.144)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 178

where

α =

EJ

k

(3.145)

According to the equations 3.76 to 3.79 the expressions for the natural modes Y

n

(z)

and their derivatives are

Y

n

(z) = A

n

sinh β

n

z +B

n

coshβ

n

z +C

n

sin β

n

z +D

n

cos β

n

z

Y

I

n

(z) = A

n

β

n

cosh β

n

z +B

n

β

n

sinhβ

n

z +C

n

β

n

cos β

n

z −D

n

β

n

sin β

n

z

Y

II

n

(z) = A

n

β

2

n

sinhβ

n

z +B

n

β

2

n

coshβ

n

z −C

n

β

2

n

sinβ

n

z −D

n

β

2

n

cos β

n

z

Y

III

n

(z) = A

n

β

3

n

cosh β

n

z +B

n

β

3

n

sinhβ

n

z −C

n

β

3

n

cos β

n

z +D

n

β

3

n

sin β

n

z

(3.146)

where (see Eq. 3.69)

β

4

n

=

ω

2

n

λ

2

=

Aρ

EJ

ω

2

n

(3.147)

Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3.144 results in

the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants

A

n

, B

n

, C

n

and D

n

.

B

n

+D

n

= 0

A

n

+C

n

= 0

A

n

β

2

n

sinh β

n

l +B

n

β

2

n

cosh β

n

l −C

n

β

2

n

sin β

n

l −D

n

β

2

n

cos β

n

l = 0

A

n

β

3

n

αcosh β

n

l +B

n

β

3

n

αsinh β

n

l −C

n

β

3

n

αcos β

n

l +D

n

β

3

n

αsin β

n

l

−(A

n

sinhβ

n

l +B

n

coshβ

n

l +C

n

sin β

n

l +D

n

cos β

n

l) = 0

(3.148)

The matrix form of these equations is presented below

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

sinhβ

n

l cosh β

n

l −sin β

n

l −cos β

n

l

β

3

n

αcosh β

n

l

−sinhβ

n

l

β

3

n

αsinh β

n

l

−cosh β

n

l

−β

3

n

αcos β

n

l

−sin β

n

l

β

3

n

αsin β

n

l

−cos β

n

l

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

A

n

B

n

C

n

D

n

_

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

_

0

0

0

0

_

¸

¸

_

(3.149)

The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic

determinant is equal to zero.

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

sinhβ

n

l cosh β

n

l −sin β

n

l −cos β

n

l

β

3

n

αcosh β

n

l

−sinhβ

n

l

β

3

n

αsinh β

n

l

−cosh β

n

l

−β

3

n

αcos β

n

l

−sin β

n

l

β

3

n

αsinβ

n

l

−cos β

n

l

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

= 0 (3.150)

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 179

For the following data

E = 2.1 × 10

11

N/m

2

ρ = 7800kg/m

3

A = 0.03 × 0.01 = 0.0003m

2

J =

0.03×0.01

3

12

= 2.5 × 10

−9

m

4

k = 10000N/m

l = 1m

α =

EJ

k

=

2.1×10

11

×2.5×10

−9

10000

= 0.0525

the characteristic equation takes form

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

sinhβ

n

coshβ

n

−sin β

n

−cos β

n

.0525β

3

n

coshβ

n

−sinhβ

n

.0525β

3

n

sinh β

n

−coshβ

n

−.0525β

3

n

cos β

n

−sin β

n

.0525β

3

n

sinβ

n

−cos β

n

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

¯

= 0

(3.151)

Solution of this equation for its roots β

n

is presented in Fig.18

-200

-100

0

100

200

2 4 6 8 β

n

Figure 18

From this diagram the ﬁrst three roots are

β

1

= 2.942m

−1

β

2

= 4.884m

−1

(3.152)

β

3

= 7.888m

−1

The relationship 3.147

β

4

n

=

Aρ

EJ

ω

2

n

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 180

oﬀers values for the wanted natural frequencies

ω

1

=

s

β

4

1

EJ

Aρ

= 129.6s

−1

ω

2

=

s

β

4

2

EJ

Aρ

= 357.3s

−1

(3.153)

ω

2

=

s

β

4

3

EJ

Aρ

= 932.0s

−1

For each of these roots the set of equations 3.149 becomes linearly dependant. Hence

one of the unknown constants can be chosen arbitrarily (e.g. D

n

= 1) and the last

equation can be crossed out. The three remaining equations allow the constants A

n

,

B

n

, and C

n

to be computed.

_

_

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

sinh β

n

l cosh β

n

l −sin β

n

l −cos β

n

l

_

_

_

¸

¸

_

A

n

B

n

C

n

1

_

¸

¸

_

=

_

_

0

0

0

_

_

(3.154)

_

_

0 1 0

1 0 1

sinh β

n

l coshβ

n

l −sinβ

n

l

_

_

_

_

A

n

B

n

C

n

_

_

+

_

_

1

0

−cos β

n

l

_

_

=

_

_

0

0

0

_

_

(3.155)

_

_

A

n

B

n

C

n

_

_

= −

_

_

0 1 0

1 0 1

sinh β

n

l coshβ

n

l −sin β

n

l

_

_

−1

_

_

1

0

−cos β

n

l

_

_

(3.156)

For the ﬁrst three roots the numerical values of these constants are

_

_

A

1

B

1

C

1

_

_

=

_

_

.883

−1.0

−.883

_

_

;

_

_

A

2

B

2

C

2

_

_

=

_

_

1.02

−1.0

−1.02

_

_

;

_

_

A

3

B

3

C

3

_

_

=

_

_

1.0

−1.0

−1.0

_

_

(3.157)

Introducing them into the ﬁrst function of 3.146 and remembering that D

n

= 1, we

are getting the corresponding natural modes

Y

1

(z) = .883 sinh 2.942z −1.0 cosh 2.942z −.883 sin 2.942z + 1 cos 2.942z

Y

2

(z) = 1.02 sinh 4.884z −1.0 cosh 4.884z −1.02 sin 4.884z + 1 cos 4.884z

Y

3

(z) = 1.0 sinh 7.888z −1.0 cosh 7.888z −1.0 sin7.888z + 1 cos 7.888z (3.158)

The graphical interpretation of these natural modes is given in Fig. 19

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 181

-2

-1

0

1

2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

Y (z)

2

1 3

Y (z)

Y (z)

Figure 19

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 182

Problem 42

ρ , G, J

o

l

k

L

k

1

2

z

2

Figure 20

The left hand end of the shaft 1 shown in Fig. 20 is ﬁxed. Its right hand end is

supported by means of the massless and rigid beam 2 of length L that is connected to

two springs each of the stiﬀness k. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies

of the shaft.

Answer:

2

GJo

kL

2

ωn

λ

cot

ωn

λ

l + 1 = 0 where λ

2

=

G

ρ

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 183

Problem 43

ρ , G, J

o

l

1

2

z

2

Figure 21

Two rigid discs 2 (see Fig. 21) are joined together by means of the shaft 1 of

the length l. The moment of inertia of each disc about the axis z is I.

Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly.

Answer:

¯

¯

¯

¯

β

n

α

n

β

n

cos β

n

l −α

n

sinβ

n

l −β

n

sinβ

n

l −α

n

cos β

n

l

¯

¯

¯

¯

= 0

where β

n

= ω

n

p

G

α

n

=

Iω

2

n

GJ

o

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 184

Problem 44

y

z

l, E, J, A,

ρ

l

Figure 22

The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. 22.

Produce the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam

Answer:

sinh β

n

l cos β

n

l −sinβ

n

l cosh β

n

l = 0 β

n

=

p

ω

n

λ

λ =

EJ

Aρ

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 185

Problem 45

ρ , E, A

l

1

z

2

k

Figure 23

The uniform rod 1 shown in Fig. 23 is supported by means of the massless

spring of stiﬀness k.

Produce the equation for the natural frequencies.

Problem 46

y

z

l, E, J, A,

ρ

l

Figure 24

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 186

The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. 24.

Produce:

1. the boundary conditions for the equation (1)

Answer:

for z = 0 (1) Y = 0 (2) Y

00

= 0

for z = l (3) Y

0

= 0 (4) Y

000

= 0

2. the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam

Answer:

cosβl = 0

where β =

4

q

EJ

Aρω

2

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 187

Problem 47

ρ

1

, G

1

, J

O1

l

1

2

z

3

ρ

2

, G

2

, J

O2

Figure 25

The left hand ends of the two shafts (1 and 2) depicted in the Fig. 25 are

welded to a motionless wall. Their right hand ends are welded to the plate 3. The

moment of inertia of the plate about the axis z is I

z

. This assembly performs the

torsional vibration about axis z. The dynamic properties of the shafts are deﬁned

by their density ρ

1

and ρ

2

, their shear modulus G

1

and G

2

and the second polar

moment of area J

O1

and J

O2

respectively.

Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly described.

The diﬀerential equation of motion of a shaft is.

∂

2

ϕ(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

∂

2

ϕ(z, t)

∂z

2

= 0

where

λ

2

=

G

ρ

G - shear modulus

ρ — density

Answer:

β

1

cot

ω

n

λ

1

l +β

2

cot

ω

n

λ

2

l = 1; where; β

1

=

J

O1

ρ

1

I

z

; β

2

=

J

O2

ρ

2

I

z

; λ

1

=

q

G

1

ρ

1

; λ

2

=

q

G

2

ρ

2

Chapter 4

APPROXIMATION OF THE CONTINUOUS SYSTEM BY

DISCRETE MODELS

The theory developed in the previous chapter provides a deep inside into the dynamic

behavior of the continuous system. However, the utilization of this theory for the

solution of an engineering problem encounters often a great deal of diﬃculties. In

the engineering design such elements like shafts or beams has a variable cross-section

along its length (see Fig. 1) and can be divided into a number of uniform sections.It

y

z

n

m

z=l

n

Figure 1

follows that the equation of motion for each uniform section has to be joint together

with help of the continuity conditions. In case of a beam, the equations of motion of

the uniform elements n and m can be described by two diﬀerential equations of the

form 3.28 (page 153

∂

2

y

n

(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

n

∂

4

y

n

(z, t)

∂z

4

= q

n

(z, t) (4.1)

∂

2

y

m

(z, t)

∂t

2

−λ

2

m

∂

4

y

m

(z, t)

∂z

4

= q

m

(z, t) (4.2)

where, according to 3.29

λ

2

n

=

E

n

J

n

A

n

n

; q

n

(z, t) =

f

n

(z, t)

A

n

n

λ

2

m

=

E

m

J

m

A

m

m

; q

m

(z, t) =

f

m

(z, t)

A

m

m

(4.3)

Each of them could be solved within their uniformity range. These equations have to

fulﬁll the following continuity conditions

y

n

(z, t)|

z=ln

= y

m

(z, t)|

z=lm

∂y

n

(z, t)

∂z

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=l

n

=

∂y

m

(z, t)

∂z

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=l

m

(4.4)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 189

In the engineering applications number of these conditions is large and the solution

of equations of motion of the beam, although still possible, is unpractical and te-

dious. Therefore, in most of the engineering problems the continuous systems are

approximated by the multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Process of determination of

the inertia matrix and the stiﬀness matrix of a continuous system is called discretiza-

tion. This process is demonstrated in the next sections taking beam as an example

but it can be apply to any continuous element.

4.1 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

The commercially available computer packages allow to produce stiﬀness and inertia

matrix of free in space beam along coordinates y

n

and ϕ

yn

(see Fig. 2) associated

with an arbitrary chosen number N of points. These distinguished points n are called

nodes.The most popular approaches for creation of the stiﬀness and inertia matrices

1 2 ......... n .............................................................. N

y

n

ϕ

n

y

Figure 2

are called Rigid Element Method and Finite Element Method.

4.1.1 Rigid Elements Method.

Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam

According to the Rigid Element Method, the beam is divided into a suﬃcient, for

necessary accuracy, number of segments I of constant cross-section (Fig . 3a))The

bending and shearing properties of each segment are represented by two springs of

stiﬀness k

M

i

and k

T

i

respectively (Fig. 3.b). Equivalence of both, the actual element

(Fig. 4a) and its model (Fig. 4b) requires equal angular deﬂection ( δ

r

i

= δ

e

i

) caused

by the same bending moment M

i

.

Since

δ

r

i

=

M

i

l

i

2EJ

i

and δ

e

i

=

M

i

2k

M

i

(4.5)

the bending stiﬀness is

k

M

i

=

EJ

i

l

i

(4.6)

Similarly, the equivalence of shearing deﬂections (y

r

i

= y

e

i

) caused by the same

shearing force T

i

(Fig. 4c and Fig. 4d)

y

r

i

= l

i

γ

r

i

=

T

i

l

i

GA

i

and y

e

i

=

T

i

k

T

i

(4.7)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 190

.....

..... .....

.....

l

l l

l

i-1

i i+1

i

k

T

i

k

M

i

G

i

m

i

i

m

i

i

y

k

M

i

k

M

i -1

k

M

i+1

k

T

i k

T

i

-1

+1

m

i

i

+1

+1

l

i

r

i

l

i+1

r

i+1

a)

b)

c)

d)

z z z z

z

l

i-1

/2 l /

i

2

I

I

I

Figure 3

k

T

i

T

i

T

i y

e

i

y

r

i

T

i

T

i

l

i l

i

M

i M

i

δ

r

i

k

M

i

M

i

M

i

δ

i

e

E,J

i

G,A

i

a)

b)

c)

d)

δ

i

e

2

Figure 4

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 191

yields

k

T

i

=

GA

i

l

i

(4.8)

The right hand part of the segment l

i−1

and the left hand part of the subsequent

segment l

i

, form a section (Fig. 3c). Each section is considered rigid and its inertia

properties are represented by mass m

i

and moments of inertia I

i

. In this way a

complete symmetry is obtained that gives simple programming for computer analysis.

Application of the Lagrange’s equations to the physical model is shown in Fig.

3d) results in the following equations of motion.

m¨ y +ky = 0 (4.9)

where

m =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

M

1,1

.. 0 0 0 .. 0

˙. ˙.˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙.˙. ˙.

0 .. M

i−1,i−1

0 0 .. 0

0 .. 0 M

i,i

0 .. 0

0 .. 0 0 M

i+1,i+1

.. 0

˙. ˙.˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙.˙. ˙.

0 .. 0 0 0 .. M

N,N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.10)

k =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

K

1,1

.. 0 0 0 .. 0

˙. ˙.˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙.˙. ˙.

0 .. K

i−1,i−1

K

i−1,i

0 .. 0

0 .. K

i,i−1

K

i,i

K

i,i+1

.. 0

0 .. 0 K

i+1,i

K

i+1,i+1

.. 0

˙. ˙.˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙.˙. ˙.

0 .. 0 0 0 .. K

N,N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.11)

y

b

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

y

1

:

y

i−1

y

i

y

i+1

:

y

N

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.12)

N = I + 1 (4.13)

M

i,i

=

·

m

i

0

0 I

i

¸

(4.14)

K

i,i−1

=

·

−k

T

i−1

−k

T

i−1

z

r

i−1

+k

T

i−1

z

l

i

−k

M

i−1

+k

T

i−1

z

r

i−1

z

l

i

¸

(4.15)

K

i,i

=

·

+k

T

i−1

+k

T

i

+k

T

i−1

z

l

i

+k

T

i

z

r

i

+k

T

i−1

z

l

i

+k

T

i

z

r

i

+k

M

i−1

+k

T

i−1

z

2

l

i

+k

T

i

z

2

r

i

¸

(4.16)

K

i,i+1

=

·

−k

T

i

+k

T

i

z

l

i+1

−k

T

i

z

r

i

−k

M

i

+k

T

i

z

l

i+1

z

r

i

¸

(4.17)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 192

y

i

=

·

y

i

ϕ

y

i

¸

(4.18)

The geometrical interpretation of the vector of coordinates 4.18 is given in Fig. 5.The

z

y

element 1 element N element i

node 1 node N node i

y

i

ϕ

yi

O

i

Figure 5

coordinates y

i

, ϕ

yi

are associated with nodes which are located at the centre of gravity

of the rigid elements.

Introduction of the external forces

If there is a set of forces acting on the rigid element, each of them (e.g. F

i

) can

be equivalently replaced by the force F

i

applied to the node O

i

and the moment

M

i

= a

i

· F

i

as shown in Fig. 6. This equivalent set of forces along the nodal

z

y

element i

node i

y

i

ϕ

yi

O

i

a

i

F

i

F

i

M

i

Figure 6

coordinates y

i

, ϕ

yi

should be added to the mathematical model 4.19. In a general

case these forces can be independent of time (static forces) or they can depend on

time (excitation forces). Introducing notations F

s

for the static forces and F(t) for

the excitation forces, the equation of motion of the free-free beam takes the following

form.

m¨ y +ky = F

s

+F(t) (4.19)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 193

4.1.2 Finite Elements Method.

Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam

According to the Finite Elements Method, the shaft is divided into a number of the

uniform and ﬂexible elements. The i −th element is shown in Fig. 7. In this ﬁgure

z

y

l

y

y

i

i2

i1

ϕ

yi1

ϕ

yi2

E J

i i

A

i

ρ

i

1

2

Figure 7

E

i

, J

i

, A

i

, and ρ

i

stand for Young modulus, second moment of area about the neutral

axis, area of cross-section and the unit mass of the element. The diﬀerential equation

of the statically deﬂected line of the element in the plane yz is

E

i

J

i

d

4

y(z)

dz

4

= 0 (4.20)

Integration of the above equation four times yields

y(z) =

1

6

C

1

z

3

+

1

2

C

2

z

2

+C

3

z +C

4

(4.21)

The constants of integration C

j

(j = 1, 2, 3, 4) must be chosen to fulﬁll the following

boundary conditions

y(z)|

z=0

= y

i1

;

dy(z)

dz

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=0

= ϕ

yi1

y(z)|

z=l

i

= y

i2

;

dy(z)

dz

¯

¯

¯

¯

z=l

i

= ϕ

yi2

(4.22)

The parameters y

i1

and y

i2

are called nodal displacements and the parameters ϕ

i1

and ϕ

i2

are called nodal rotations. The nodes are denoted by numbers 1 and 2.

Introduction of the solution 4.21 into the above boundary conditions results in the

following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants C

j

.

_

¸

¸

_

0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0

1

6

l

3

i

1

2

l

2

i

l

i

1

1

2

l

2

i

l

i

1 0

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

C

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

_

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

_

y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

_

¸

¸

_

(4.23)

Its solution yields the integration constants C

j

.

_

¸

¸

_

C

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

_

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

_

0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0

1

6

l

3

i

1

2

l

2

i

l

i

1

1

2

l

2

i

l

i

1 0

_

¸

¸

_

−1

_

¸

¸

_

y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

_

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

_

6

l

3

i

(2y

i1

+l

i

ϕ

yi1

−2y

i2

+l

i

ϕ

yi2

)

2

l

2

i

(−3y

i1

−2l

i

ϕ

yi1

+ 3y

i2

−l

i

ϕ

yi2

)

ϕ

yi1

y

i1

_

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.24)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 194

After introduction of Eq. 4.24 into the equation of the deﬂected line 4.21 one may

get it in the following form.

y(z) =

"

1 −3

µ

z

l

i

¶

2

+ 2

µ

z

l

i

¶

3

#

y

i1

+

"

µ

z

l

i

¶

−2

µ

z

l

i

¶

2

+

µ

z

l

i

¶

3

#

l

i

ϕ

yi1

+

"

3

µ

z

l

i

¶

2

−2

µ

z

l

i

¶

3

#

y

i2

+

"

−

µ

z

l

i

¶

2

+

µ

z

l

i

¶

3

#

l

i

ϕ

yi2

= {H(z)}

T

{y} (4.25)

where

{H(z)} =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

H

1

H

2

l

i

H

3

H

4

l

i

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 −3

³

z

l

i

´

2

+ 2

³

z

l

i

´

3

·

³

z

l

i

´

−2

³

z

l

i

´

2

+

³

z

l

i

´

3

¸

l

i

3

³

z

l

i

´

2

−2

³

z

l

i

´

3

·

−

³

z

l

i

´

2

+

³

z

l

i

´

3

¸

l

i

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.26)

{y} =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

(4.27)

Functions H

1

, H

2

, H

3

, H

4

(see Eq. 4.26) are known as Hermite cubics or shape func-

tions. The matrix {y} contains the nodal coordinates. As it can be seen from Eq.

4.25 the deﬂected line of the ﬁnite element is assembled out of terms which are linear

with respect to the nodal coordinates.

If the ﬁnite element performs motion with respect to the stationary system of

coordinates xyz, it is assumed that the motion in the plane yz can be approximated

by the following equation.

y(z, t) = {H(z)}

T

{y (t)} (4.28)

As one can see from the equation 4.28, between two subsequent nodes, the dynamic

deﬂection line is approximated by the static deﬂection line. It should be noted that

this assumption is acceptable only if the considered element is reasonably short.

The following mathematical manipulations are aimed to replace the continues

mathematical model of the element considered

E

i

J

i

∂

4

y(z, t)

∂z

4

−ρ

i

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂t

2

= 0 (4.29)

by its discreet representation along the nodal coordinates

[m

i

] {¨ y (t)} + [k

i

] {y (t)} = 0. (4.30)

In the above equations ρ

i

stands for the unit mass of the ﬁnite element and [m

i

] and

[k

i

] stands for the inertia and stiﬀness matrix respectively. These two matrices are

going to be developed from the two following criteria:

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 195

1. The kinetic energy stored in the continues physical model of the ﬁnite

element must be equal to the kinetic energy stored in its discreet physical model.

2. The potential energy stored in the continues physical model of the ﬁnite

element must be equal to the potential energy stored in its discreet physical model.

The kinetic energy stored in the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element

is

T =

1

2

Z

l

i

0

ρ

i

µ

∂y(z, t)

∂t

¶

2

dz

=

1

2

Z

l

i

0

ρ

i

µ

∂y(z, t)

∂t

¶µ

∂y(z, t)

∂t

¶

dz

=

1

2

Z

l

i

0

ρ

i

³

{ ˙ y (t)}

T

{H(z)}

´³

{H(z)}

T

{ ˙ y (t)}

´

dz

=

1

2

{ ˙ y (t)}

T

·

ρ

i

Z

l

i

0

{H(z)} {H(z)}

T

dz

¸

{ ˙ y (t)}

=

1

2

{ ˙ y (t)}

T

_

_

_

_

ρ

i

Z

l

i

0

_

¸

¸

_

H

2

1

H

1

H

2

l

i

H

1

H

3

H

1

H

4

l

i

H

2

H

1

l

i

H

2

2

l

2

i

H

2

H

3

l

i

H

2

H

4

l

2

i

H

3

H

1

H

3

H

2

l

i

H

2

3

H

3

H

4

l

i

H

4

H

11

l

i

H

4

H

2

l

2

i

H

4

H

3

l

i

H

2

4

l

2

i

_

¸

¸

_

dz

_

_

_

_

{ ˙ y (t)}

(4.31)

It is easy to see that the last row of Eq. 4.31 represents kinetic energy function

of the discreet physical model (compare with Eq. 2.138 page 107) along the nodal

coordinates y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

with the following matrix of inertia.

m

i

= ρ

i

Z

l

i

0

_

¸

¸

_

H

2

1

H

1

H

2

l

i

H

1

H

3

H

1

H

4

l

i

H

2

H

1

l

i

H

2

2

l

2

i

H

2

H

3

l

i

H

2

H

4

l

2

i

H

3

H

1

H

3

H

2

l

i

H

2

3

H

3

H

4

l

i

H

4

H

1

l

i

H

4

H

2

l

2

i

H

4

H

3

l

i

H

2

4

l

2

i

_

¸

¸

_

dz

= ρ

i

l

i

_

¸

¸

_

13

35

11

210

l

i

9

70

−

13

420

l

i

11

210

l

i

1

105

l

2

i

13

420

l

i

−

1

140

l

2

i

9

70

13

420

l

i

13

35

−

11

210

l

i

−

13

420

l

i

−

1

140

l

2

i

−

11

210

l

i

1

105

l

2

i

_

¸

¸

_

= m

i

_

¸

¸

_

13

35

11

210

l

i

9

70

−

13

420

l

i

11

210

l

i

1

105

l

2

i

13

420

l

i

−

1

140

l

2

i

9

70

13

420

l

i

13

35

−

11

210

l

i

−

13

420

l

i

−

1

140

l

2

i

−

11

210

l

i

1

105

l

2

i

_

¸

¸

_

(4.32)

In the last formula m

i

stands for mass of the ﬁnite element.

To take advantage of the second criterion let us produce expression for the

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 196

potential energy function for the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element.

V =

1

2

Z

l

i

0

E

i

J

i

µ

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

¶

2

dz

=

1

2

Z

l

i

0

E

i

J

i

µ

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

¶µ

∂

2

y(z, t)

∂z

2

¶

dz

=

1

2

Z

l

i

0

E

i

J

i

µ

{y (t)}

T

½

d

2

H(z)

dz

2

¾¶

Ã

½

d

2

H(z)

dz

2

¾

T

{y (t)}

!

dz

=

1

2

{y (t)}

T

"

E

i

J

i

Z

l

i

0

½

d

2

H(z)

dz

2

¾½

d

2

H(z)

dz

2

¾

T

dz

#

{y (t)}

=

1

2

{y (t)}

T

_

_

_

_

E

i

J

i

Z

l

i

0

_

¸

¸

_

¡

H

00

1

¢

2

H

00

1

H

00

2

l

i

H

00

1

H

00

3

H

00

1

H

00

4

l

i

H

00

2

H

00

1

l

i

(H

00

2

)

2

l

2

i

H

00

2

H

00

3

l

i

H

00

2

H

00

4

l

2

i

H

00

3

H

00

1

H

00

3

H

00

2

l

i

(H

00

3

)

2

H

00

3

H

00

4

l

i

H

00

4

H

00

1

l

i

H

00

4

H

00

2

l

2

i

H

00

4

H

00

3

l

i

(H

00

4

)

2

l

2

i

_

¸

¸

_

dz

_

_

_

_

{y (t)}

(4.33)

As one can see from Eq. 4.33, to fulﬁll the second criterion, the stiﬀness matrix along

the nodal coordinates y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

must be as follows.

k

i

= E

i

J

i

Z

l

i

0

_

¸

¸

_

¡

H

00

1

¢

2

H

00

1

H

00

2

l

i

H

00

1

H

00

3

H

00

1

H

00

4

l

i

H

00

2

H

00

1

l

i

(H

00

2

)

2

l

2

i

H

00

2

H

00

3

l

i

H

00

2

H

00

4

l

2

i

H

00

3

H

00

1

H

00

3

H

00

2

l

i

(H

00

3

)

2

H

00

3

H

00

4

l

i

H

00

4

H

00

1

l

i

H

00

4

H

00

2

l

2

i

H

00

4

H

00

3

l

i

(H

00

4

)

2

l

2

i

_

¸

¸

_

dz

=

E

i

J

i

l

3

i

_

¸

¸

_

12 6l

i

−12 6l

i

6l

i

4l

2

i

−6l

i

2l

2

i

−12 −6l

i

12 −6l

i

6l

i

2l

2

i

−6l

i

4l

2

i

_

¸

¸

_

(4.34)

Hence, the mathematical model of the element considered can be written as

m

i

¨ y

i

+k

i

y

i

= R

yi

(4.35)

The vector R

i

represents the interaction forces between the neighborhood elements.

R

yi

=

£

R

yi1

R

ϕyi1

R

yi2

R

ϕyi2

¤

T

(4.36)

In exactly the same manner one can create mathematical model for the next

to the right hand side element of the shaft, say element j.

m

j

¨ y

j

+k

j

y

j

= R

yj

(4.37)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 197

where

m

j

= m

j

_

¸

¸

_

13

35

11

210

l

j

9

70

−

13

420

l

j

11

210

l

j

1

105

l

2

j

13

420

l

j

−

1

140

l

2

j

9

70

13

420

l

j

13

35

−

11

210

l

j

−

13

420

l

j

−

1

140

l

2

j

−

11

210

l

j

1

105

l

2

j

_

¸

¸

_

k

j

=

E

j

A

j

l

3

j

_

¸

¸

_

12 6l

j

−12 6l

j

6l

j

4l

2

j

−6l

j

2l

2

j

−12 −6l

j

12 −6l

j

6l

j

2l

2

j

−6l

j

4l

2

j

_

¸

¸

_

(4.38)

y

j

=

£

y

j1

ϕ

yj1

y

j2

ϕ

yj2

¤

T

(4.39)

R

yi

=

£

R

yj1

R

ϕyj1

R

yj2

R

ϕyj2

¤

T

(4.40)

These two equations of motion (4.35 4.37), associated with the two elements i and j,

have to fulﬁll the compatibility (continuity and equilibrium) conditions. These condi-

tions allow to join those two elements to create one mathematical model representing

both elements. In the case considered here, the compatibility conditions between the

two elements i and j correspond to the left hand side node of the element i and the

right hand side node of the element j. For these nodes the continuity conditions take

form

·

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

¸

=

·

y

j1

ϕ

yj1

¸

=

·

y

ij

ϕ

yij

¸

(4.41)

and the equilibrium conditions are

·

R

yi2

R

ϕyi2

¸

+

·

R

yj1

R

ϕyj1

¸

=

·

0

0

¸

(4.42)

They results in the following mathematical model of the joint elements.

m

ij

¨ y

ij

+k

ij

y

ij

= R

yij

(4.43)

where

m

ij

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

13

35

m

i

11

210

l

i

m

i

9

70

m

i

−

13

420

l

i

m

i

0 0

11

210

l

i

m

i

1

105

l

2

i

m

i

13

420

l

i

m

i

−

1

140

l

2

i

m

i

0 0

9

70

m

i

13

420

l

i

m

i

13

35

(m

i

+m

j

)

11

210

(−l

i

m

i

+l

j

m

j

)

9

70

m

j

−

13

420

l

j

m

j

−

13

420

l

i

m

i

−

1

140

l

2

i

m

i

11

210

(−l

i

m

i

+l

j

m

j

)

1

105

(l

2

i

m

i

+l

2

j

m

j

)

13

420

l

j

m

j

−

1

140

l

2

j

m

j

0 0

9

70

m

j

13

420

l

j

m

j

13

35

m

j

−

11

210

l

j

m

j

0 0 −

13

420

l

j

m

j

−

1

140

l

2

j

m

j

−

11

210

l

j

m

j

1

105

l

2

j

m

j

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.44)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 198

k

ij

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

12

E

i

A

i

l

3

i

6

E

i

A

i

l

2

i

−12

E

i

A

i

l

3

i

6

E

i

A

i

l

2

i

0 0

6

E

i

A

i

l

2

i

4

E

i

A

i

l

i

−6

E

i

A

i

l

2

i

2

E

i

A

i

l

i

0 0

−129

E

i

A

i

l

3

i

−6

E

i

A

i

l

2

i

12(

E

i

A

i

l

3

i

+

E

j

A

j

l

3

j

) 6(−

E

i

A

i

l

2

i

+

E

j

A

j

l

2

j

) −12

E

j

A

j

l

3

j

6

E

j

A

j

l

2

j

6

E

i

A

i

l

2

i

2

E

i

A

i

l

i

6(−

E

i

A

i

l

2

i

+

E

j

A

j

l

2

j

) 4(

E

i

A

i

l

i

+

E

j

A

j

l

j

) −6

E

j

A

j

l

2

j

2

E

j

A

j

l

j

0 0 −12

E

j

A

j

l

3

j

−6

E

j

A

j

l

2

j

12

E

j

A

j

l

3

j

−6

E

j

A

j

l

2

j

0 0 6

E

j

A

j

l

2

j

2

E

j

A

j

l

j

−6

E

j

A

j

l

2

j

4

E

j

A

j

l

j

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.45)

y

ij

=

£

y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

ij

ϕ

yij

y

j2

ϕ

yj2

¤

T

(4.46)

R

ij

=

£

R

yi1

R

ϕyi1

0 0 R

yj2

R

ϕyj2

¤

T

(4.47)

Repetition of the described procedure to all elements of the shaft results in

the mathematical model of the shaft in the plane yz.

m¨ y +ky = 0 (4.48)

The geometrical interpretation of the nodal coordinates appearing in the Eq. 4.46 is

given in Fig. 8.

z

y

element 1 element N-1 element i

node 1 node N node i

y

i

ϕ

yi

O

i

Figure 8

The coordinates y

i

and ϕ

yi

are associated with nodes that are located at the

ends of the ﬁnite elements.

Introduction of the external forces

Since the ﬁnite element is considered elastic, the treatment of the external forces

presented in the previous section can not be applied. In this case one has to take

advantage of the principle of the virtual work. It says that the virtual work produced

by a force F

i

(see Fig. 9) on the displacement y

i

is equal to the virtual work produced

by a set of forces along the coordinates y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

. Hence

∂W

i

= F

i

· y

i

(a

i

, t) = {F

i1

, M

i1

, F

i2

, M

i2

}

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

(4.49)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 199

But according to 4.28

z

y

l

y

y

i

i2

i1

ϕ

yi1

ϕ

yi2

E J

i i

A

i

ρ

i

1

2

F

i

a

i

Figure 9

y(a

i

, t) = {H(a

i

)}

T

{y (t)} =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 −3

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+ 2

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

·

³

a

i

l

i

´

−2

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

¸

l

i

3

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

−2

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

·

−

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

¸

l

i

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

T

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

(4.50)

Introduction of the above expression into the expression for the virtual work yields

∂W

i

= F

i

·

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 −3

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+ 2

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

·

³

a

i

l

i

´

−2

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

¸

l

i

3

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

−2

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

·

−

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

¸

l

i

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

T

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

y

i1

ϕ

yi1

y

i2

ϕ

yi2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

(4.51)

Hence, the vector of forces along the nodal coordinates is

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

F

i1

M

i1

F

i2

M

i2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

= F

i

·

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 −3

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+ 2

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

·

³

a

i

l

i

´

−2

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

¸

l

i

3

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

−2

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

·

−

³

a

i

l

i

´

2

+

³

a

i

l

i

´

3

¸

l

i

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.52)

This forces have to be introduced into the equation of motion 4.48

m¨ y +ky = F

s

+F(t) (4.53)

where, similarly as before, F

s

stands for the static forces and F(t) stands for the

excitation forces.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 200

4.2 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

O

z

O

i

y

y

i

ϕ

y i

B

i

b

y

i

Figure 10

Let us assume that the free-free beam is rigidly supported upon several sup-

ports B

i

(see Fig. 10). The instantaneous position of these supports is determine

with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz by coordinates b

y

i

(t) . Let

us denote by b vector of such coordinates.

b =

_

¸

_

.

.

.

b

y

i

(t)

.

.

.

_

¸

_

(4.54)

Let us reorganize vector of coordinates of the shaft

y =

©

ϕ

xN

, y

1

ϕ

y1

, ......y

N

ϕ

yN

ª

T

(4.55)

in such a way that its upper part y

b

contains coordinates along which the shaft is

rigidly supported and its lower part y

r

contains all the remaining coordinates

y =

·

y

b

y

r

¸

(4.56)

Let us assume that the mathematical model of the beam

m¨ y +ky = F (4.57)

is organized with respect to the above vector y of coordinates.

·

m

bb

m

br

m

rb

m

rr

¸ ·

¨ y

b

¨ y

r

¸

+

·

k

bb

k

br

k

rb

k

rr

¸ ·

y

b

y

r

¸

=

·

F

b

F

r

¸

(4.58)

Partitioning of the above equations results in the following set of equations

m

bb

¨ y

b

+m

br

¨ y

r

+k

bb

y

b

+k

br

y

r

= F

b

m

rb

¨ y

b

+m

rr

¨ y

r

+k

rb

y

b

+k

rr

y

r

= F

r

(4.59)

CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 201

Motion of the beam along the coordinates y

b

is determined by the boundary condi-

tions 4.54. Hence, the vector y

b

in the mathematical model 4.59 must be replaced by

b.

m

bb

¨

b +m

br

¨ y

r

+k

bb

b +k

br

y

r

= F

b

m

rb

¨

b +m

rr

¨ y

r

+k

rb

b +k

rr

y

r

= F

r

(4.60)

The second equation governs motion of the supported beam and can be rewritten as

follows

m

rr

¨ y

r

+k

rr

y

r

= F

r

−m

rb

¨

b

b

−k

rs

b

b

(4.61)

The last two terms represent the kinematic excitation of the beam cause by motion

of its supports. The vector b, in a general case, contains elements that are known

functions of time. Hence the above equation can be solved for motion along the

coordinates y

r

. Let

y

r

= Y

r

(t) (4.62)

be a solution of this equation. This solution approximate motion of the beam along

the remaining coordinates y

r

.

The vector F

b

in the ﬁrst equation of the set 4.60 represents forces of the

interaction between the moving beam and its supports. These interaction forces can

be now determined.

F

b

= m

bb

¨

b +m

br

¨

Y

r

+k

bb

b +k

br

Y

r

(t) (4.63)

4.3 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS

In many engineering problems, due to a large number of the uniform sections of the

element to be modelled, number of the ﬁnal elements is large too. It follows that the

size of the matrices involved in the discreet mathematical model

m¨ y +c˙ y +ky = F (4.64)

can be too large to carry out the necessary analysis of the mathematical model. In this

section a procedure for reducing the size of mathematical models will be developed.

Let us assume, that the equation 4.64 is arranged in such a way that the

coordinates, which are to be eliminated due to the condensation procedure y

e

, are

located in the upper part of the vector y and these, which are to be retained for

further consideration y

r

, are located in its lower part.

y =

·

y

e

y

r

¸

(4.65)

Partitioning of the equations 4.64 yields

·

m

ee

m

er

m

re

m

rr

¸ ·

¨ y

e

¨ y

r

¸

+

·

c

ee

c

er

c

re

c

rr

¸ ·

˙ y

e

˙ y

r

¸

+

·

k

ee

k

er

k

re

k

rr

¸ ·

y

e

y

r

¸

=

·

F

e

F

r

¸

(4.66)

To eliminate the coordinates y

e

from the mathematical model 4.66, one have to

determine the relationship between the coordinates y

e

and the coordinates y

r

. One

CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 202

of many possibilities is to assume that the coordinates y

e

are obeyed to the static

relationship.

·

k

ee

k

er

k

re

k

rr

¸ ·

y

e

y

r

¸

=

·

0

0

¸

(4.67)

Hence, upon partitioning equation 4.67 one may obtain

k

ee

y

e

+k

er

y

r

= 0 (4.68)

Therefore the sought relationship is

y

e

= hy

r

(4.69)

where

h = −k

−1

ee

k

er

(4.70)

Once the relationship is established, one may formulate the following criteria of con-

densation:

1. Kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the

same.

2. Dissipation function of the system before and after condensation must be

the same.

3. Potential energy of the system before and after condensation must be the

same.

4. Virtual work done by all the external forces before and after condensation

must be the same.

4.3.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix.

According to the ﬁrst criterion, the kinetic energy of the system before and after

condensation must be the same. The kinetic energy of the system before condensation

is

T =

1

2

£

˙ y

T

e

˙ y

T

r

¤

·

m

ee

m

er

m

re

m

rr

¸ ·

˙ y

e

˙ y

r

¸

=

1

2

¡

˙ y

T

e

m

ee

˙ y

e

+ ˙ y

T

e

m

er

˙ y

r

+ ˙ y

T

r

m

re

˙ y

e

+ ˙ y

T

r

m

rr

˙ y

r

¢

(4.71)

Introduction of 4.69 yields

T =

1

2

³

[h˙ y

r

]

T

m

ee

h˙ y

r

+ [h˙ y

r

]

T

m

er

˙ y

r

+ ˙ y

T

r

m

re

h˙ y

r

+˙ y

T

r

m

rr

˙ y

r

´

=

1

2

¡

˙ y

T

r

h

T

m

ee

h˙ y

r

+˙ y

T

r

h

T

m

er

˙ y

r

+˙ y

T

r

m

re

h˙ y

r

+˙ y

T

r

m

rr

˙ y

r

¢

=

1

2

¡

˙ y

T

r

£

h

T

m

ee

h +h

T

m

er

+m

re

h +m

rr

¤

˙ y

r

¢

(4.72)

Hence, if the kinetic energy after condensation is to be the same, the inertia matrix

after condensation m

c

must be equal to

m

c

= h

T

m

ee

h +h

T

m

er

+m

re

h +m

rr

(4.73)

CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 203

4.3.2 Condensation of the damping matrix.

Since formula for the dissipation function is of the same form as formula for the

kinetic energy, repetition of the above derivation leads to the following deﬁnition of

the condensed damping matrix

c

c

= h

T

c

ee

h +h

T

c

er

+c

re

h +c

rr

(4.74)

4.3.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix.

Taking advantage from deﬁnition of potential energy of the system considered

V =

1

2

£

y

T

e

y

T

r

¤

·

k

ee

k

er

k

re

k

rr

¸ ·

y

e

y

r

¸

=

1

2

¡

y

T

e

k

ee

y

e

+y

T

e

k

er

y

r

+y

T

r

k

re

y

e

+y

T

r

k

rr

y

r

¢

(4.75)

one can arrive to conclusion that the condensed stiﬀness matrix is of the form 4.76

k

c

= h

T

k

ee

h +h

T

k

er

+k

re

h +k

rr

(4.76)

It is easy to show that sum of the ﬁrst two terms in the above expression is equal to

zero. Indeed, according to 4.70, they can be transformed as following.

h

T

k

ee

h +h

T

k

er

= (−k

−1

ee

k

er

)

T

k

ee

(−k

−1

ee

k

er

) + (−k

−1

ee

k

er

)

T

k

er

= −(−k

−1

ee

k

er

)

T

k

er

+ (−k

−1

ee

k

er

)

T

k

er

= 0 (4.77)

Hence,

k

c

= k

re

h +k

rr

(4.78)

4.3.4 Condensation of the external forces.

The virtual work performed by external forces F on the displacements y is

δW =

£

y

T

e

y

T

r

¤

·

F

e

F

r

¸

= y

T

e

F

e

+y

T

r

F

r

(4.79)

Introduction of 4.69 into the above equation yields

δW = (hy

r

)

T

F

e

+y

T

r

F

r

=

¡

y

T

r

h

T

¢

F

e

+y

T

r

F

r

= y

T

r

¡

h

T

F

e

+F

r

¢

(4.80)

Hence,

F

c

=

¡

h

T

F

e

+F

r

¢

(4.81)

The condensed mathematical model, according to the above consideration, can

be adopted as follows

m

c

¨ y

c

+c

c

˙ y

c

+k

c

y

c

= F

c

(4.82)

where

y

c

= y

r

(4.83)

After the equation 4.82 is solved, the relationship 4.69

y

e

= hy

c

permits to produce displacement along the ’cut oﬀ’ coordinates.

PROBLEMS 204

4.4 PROBLEMS

Problem 48

Produce the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the

ﬁxed-elastically supported uniform beam shown in Fig. 11.

z

l

k

y

O

Figure 11

The exact solution of this problem is presented in page 177 for the following

data

E = 2.1 × 10

11

N/m

2

ρ = 7800kg/m

3

A = 0.03 × 0.01 = 0.0003m

2

J =

0.03×0.01

3

12

= 2.5 × 10

−9

m

4

k = 10000N/m

l = 1m

α =

EJ

k

=

2.1×10

11

×2.5×10

−9

10000

= 0.0525

Use this data to produce the solution by means of approximation of this beam with

10 ﬁnite elements.

PROBLEMS 205

Solution

To create the mathematical model of the free-free beam, it was divided into

ten ﬁnite elements as shown in Fig. 12. The computed mathematical model is

z

l

y

O

y

1

ϕ

1

y

2

ϕ

2

y

11

ϕ

11

Figure 12

m¨ y +ky = 0; y ={y

1

, ϕ

1

, y

2

, ϕ

2

, ......, y

11

, ϕ

11

}

T

(4.84)

The inﬂuence of the spring can be represented by the force −ky

11

acting along the

coordinate y

11

(see Fig. 13).

z

l

-ky

11

y

O

y

11

ϕ

11

Figure 13

This force should be introduced to the right hand side of the equation 4.84.

m¨ y +ky = −

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

0

0

....

ky

11

0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

0 0 .... .... 0

0 0 .... .... 0

.... .... .... .... ....

0 0 .... k 0

0 0 .... 0 0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

y

1

ϕ

1

....

y

11

ϕ

11

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

= −k

1

y (4.85)

Therefore, the equation of the beam supported by the spring is

m¨ y +k

s

y = 0 (4.86)

PROBLEMS 206

where

k

s

= k +k

1

= k+

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

0 0 .... .... 0

0 0 .... .... 0

.... .... .... .... ....

0 0 .... k 0

0 0 .... 0 0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(4.87)

To introduce the boundary conditions associated with the left hand side of the beam,

let us partition the above mathematical model in such a manner that all the coordi-

nates involved in this boundary conditions are included in the vector y

1

.

·

m

11

m

12

m

21

m

22

¸ ·

¨ y

1

¨ y

2

¸

+

·

k

s11

k

s12

k

s21

k

s22

¸ ·

y

1

y

2

¸

=0 (4.88)

where

y

1

= {y

1

, ϕ

1

}

T

y

2

= {y

2

, ϕ

2

, ...., y

11

, ϕ

11

}

T

(4.89)

z

l

-ky

11

y

O

y

1

=0

ϕ

1

=0

y

2

ϕ

2

y

11

ϕ

11

R

M

Figure 14

According to the boundary conditions (see Fig. 14)

y

1

= {y

1

, ϕ

1

}

T

= {0, 0}

T

(4.90)

and

R

1

= {R, M}

T

(4.91)

Introduction of 4.90 and 4.91 into 4.88 yields

·

m

11

m

12

m

21

m

22

¸ ·

0

¨ y

2

¸

+

·

k

s11

k

s12

k

s21

k

s22

¸ ·

0

y

2

¸

=

·

R

1

0

¸

(4.92)

This equation is equivalent to two equations as follows

m

12

¨ y

2

+k

s12

y

2

= R

1

(4.93)

m

22

¨ y

2

+k

s22

y

2

= 0 (4.94)

PROBLEMS 207

The second equation 4.94 is the equation of motion of the supported beam. It was

solved for the natural modes and the natural frequencies. Results of this computation

is shown in Fig. 15 by boxes and in the ﬁrst column of the Table below. This results

are compare with natural modes (continuous line in Fig. 15) and natural frequencies

(second column in the Table) obtained by solving the continuous mathematical model

( see problem page 176). The equation 4.93 allows the vector of the interation forces

R

1

to be computed.

- 2

- 1

0

1

2

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1

z

Y

1

(z)

z

l

k

y

O

Y

3

(z) Y

2

(z)

Figure 15

Table

natural frequenciesof

the descreet system

[1/sec]

natural frequencies of

the continuous system

[1/sec]

1 129.5 129.65

2 357.6 357.3

3 933.4 932.0

PROBLEMS 208

Problem 49

The mathematical model of a free-free beam shown in Fig. 16 along coordi-

nates x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, x

4

is as follows

m¨ x +kx = 0 (4.95)

m =

_

¸

¸

_

m

11

m

12

m

13

m

14

m

21

m

22

m

23

m

24

m

31

m

32

m

33

m

34

m

41

m

42

m

43

m

44

_

¸

¸

_

; k =

_

¸

¸

_

k

11

k

12

k

13

m

14

k

21

k

22

k

23

k

24

k

31

k

32

k

33

k

34

k

41

k

42

k

43

k

44

_

¸

¸

_

; x =

_

¸

¸

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

4

_

¸

¸

_

(4.96)

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

4

1 2

3 4

Figure 16

This beam is supported upon three rigid pedestals along coordinates x

1

, x

2

, x

3

as shown in Fig. 17.

1 2

3

Z

X

a

3

a sinωt

2

Figure 17

The motion of these supports with respect to the inertial system of coordinate

XZ is given by the following equations

X

1

= 0

X

2

= a

2

sinωt

X

3

= a

3

(4.97)

Derive expressions for :

1. the static deﬂection curve,

2. the interaction forces between the beam and the supports

PROBLEMS 209

Solution

Partitioning of the equations 4.95 with respect to the vector of boundary

conditions 4.97 results in the following equation

m¨ x +kx = R (4.98)

where

·

m

11

m

12

m

21

m

22

¸ ·

¨ x

1

¨ x

2

¸

+

·

k

11

k

12

k

21

k

22

¸ ·

x

1

x

2

¸

=

·

R

1

R

2

¸

(4.99)

m

11

=

_

_

m

11

m

12

m

13

m

21

m

22

m

23

m

31

m

32

m

33

_

_

; m

12

=

_

_

m

14

m

24

m

34

_

_

; m

21

=

£

m

41

m

42

m

43

¤

; m

22

= m

44

(4.100)

k

11

=

_

_

k

11

k

12

k

13

k

21

k

22

k

23

k

31

k

32

k

33

_

_

; k

12

=

_

_

k

14

k

24

k

34

_

_

; k

21

=

£

k

41

k

42

k

43

¤

; k

22

= k

44

(4.101)

x

1

=

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

_

_

; x

2

=x

4

; R

1

=

_

_

R

1

R

2

R

3

_

_

; R

2

=0 (4.102)

or

m

11

¨ x

1

+m

12

¨ x

2

+k

11

x

1

+k

12

x

2

= R

1

(4.103)

m

21

¨ x

1

+m

22

¨ x

2

+k

21

x

1

+k

22

x

2

= 0 (4.104)

Introduction of boundary conditions 4.97 into the equation 4.104 yields

m

44

¨ x

4

+k

44

x

4

= −

£

m

41

m

42

m

43

¤

_

_

¨ x

1

¨ x

2

¨ x

3

_

_

−

£

k

41

k

42

k

43

¤

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

_

_

(4.105)

where

_

_

¨ x

1

¨ x

2

¨ x

3

_

_

=

_

_

0

−a

2

ω

2

sinωt

0

_

_

;

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

_

_

=

_

_

0

a

2

sin ωt

a

3

_

_

(4.106)

or

m

44

¨ x

4

+k

44

x

4

= (m

42

a

2

ω

2

−k

42

a

2

) sin ωt −k

43

a

3

(4.107)

The static deﬂection is due to the time independent term −k

43

a

3

in the right hand

side of the equation 4.107.

m

44

¨ x

4

+k

44

x

4

= −k

43

a

3

(4.108)

The particular solution of the equation 4.108 is

x

4

= x

s

(4.109)

k

44

x

s

= −k

43

a

3

(4.110)

PROBLEMS 210

x

s

=

−k

43

a

3

k

44

(4.111)

Its graphical representation is given in Fig. 18

1

2

3

Z

X

a

3

4

x

s

Figure 18

The forced response due to motion of the support 2 (X

2

= a

2

sinωt) is repre-

sented by the particular solution due to the time dependant term.

m

44

¨ x

4

+k

44

x

4

= (m

42

a

2

ω

2

−k

42

a

2

) sin ωt (4.112)

For the above equation, the particular solution may be predicted as follows

x

4

= x

d

sinωt (4.113)

Implementation of the solution 4.113 into the equation 4.112 yields the wanted am-

plitude of the forced vibration x

d

.

x

d

=

(m

42

a

2

ω

2

−k

42

a

2

)

−ω

2

m

44

+k

44

(4.114)

The resultant motion of the system considered is shown in Fig. 19

1 2

3

Z

X

a

3 4

x

s

a sinω t

2

x sinω t

d

Figure 19

This motion causes interaction forces along these coordinates along which the

system is attached to the base. These forces can computed from equation 4.103.

m

11

¨ x

1

+m

12

¨ x

2

+k

11

x

1

+k

12

x

2

= R

1

(4.115)

In this equation x

1

stands for the given boundary conditions

x

1

=

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

_

_

=

_

_

0

a

2

sinωt

a

3

_

_

; ¨ x

1=

_

_

¨ x

1

¨ x

2

¨ x

3

_

_

=

_

_

0

−a

2

ω

2

sin ωt

0

_

_

(4.116)

PROBLEMS 211

and x

2

represents, known at this stage, motion of the system along the coordinate 4

x

2

= x

4

= x

s

+x

d

sin ωt ¨ x

2

= ¨ x

4

=

d

2

dt

2

(x

s

+x

d

sin ωt) = −x

d

ω

2

sinωt; (4.117)

Hence, the wanted vector of interaction forces is as follows

R

1

= m

11

_

_

0

−a

2

ω

2

sinωt

0

_

_

+k

11

_

_

0

a

2

sin ωt

a

3

_

_

+m

12

(−x

d

ω

2

sin ω)+k

12

(x

s

+x

d

sin ωt)

(4.118)

Part II

EXPERIMENTAL

INVESTIGATION

212

Chapter 5

MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF

FREEDOM

5.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 12

Figure 1

The vibrating object 2, 3, and 4 (see Fig.1) is attached to the base 1. It consists

of the three rectangular blocks 2 joint together by means of the two springs 3. The

spaces between the blocks 2 are ﬁlled in with the foam 4 in order to increase the

structural damping. The transducer 5 allows the acceleration of the highest block to

be measured in the horizontal direction. The hammer 6 is used to induce vibrations

of the object. It is furnished with the piezoelectric transducer 7 that permits the

impulse of the force applied to the object to be measured. The rubber tip 8 is used

MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 214

to smooth and extend the impulse of force. Both, the acceleration of the object and

the impulse of the force can be simultaneously recorded and stored in the memory

of the spectrum analyzer 10. These data allow the transfer functions to be produced

and sent to the personal computer 11 for further analysis.

5.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT

5.2.1 Physical model

x

3

m

3

k

3

c

3

x

2

m

2

k

2

c

2

x

1

m

1

k

1

c

1

Figure 2

The base 1, which is considered rigid and motionless, forms a reference system

for measuring its vibrations. The blocks 2 are assumed to be rigid and the springs 3 are

by assumption massless. Motion of the blocks is restricted to one horizontal direction

only. Hence, according to these assumptions, the system can be approximated by

three degrees of freedom physical model. The three independent coordinates x

1

, x

2

and x

3

are shown in Fig.2. Magnitudes of the stuﬃness k

1

, k

2

and k

3

of the springs

can be analytically assessed. To this end let us consider one spring shown in Fig. 3

The diﬀerential equation of the deﬂection of the spring is

EJ

d

2

x

dz

2

= M −Fz =

FH

2

−Fz (5.1)

Double integration results in the following equation of the bending line.

EJ

dx

dz

=

FH

2

z −

F

2

z

2

+A (5.2)

EJx =

FH

4

z

2

−

F

6

z

3

+Az +B (5.3)

MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 215

z

x

H

x(H)

z

w

t

F

F

M=FH/2

M=FH/2

EJ

Figure 3

Taking advantage of the boundary conditions associated with the lower end of the

spring, one can arrived to the following expression for the bending line.

x =

1

EJ

µ

FH

4

z

2

−

F

6

z

3

¶

(5.4)

Hence, the deﬂection of the upper end is

x(H) =

1

EJ

µ

FH

4

H

2

−

F

6

H

3

¶

=

1

12EJ

FH

3

(5.5)

Therefore the stiﬀness of one spring is

k =

F

x(H)

=

12EJ

H

3

(5.6)

where

J =

wt

3

12

(5.7)

Since we deal with a set of two springs between the blocks, the stiﬀness k

i

shown in

the physical model can be computed according to the following formula.

k

i

=

24E

i

J

i

H

3

i

(5.8)

5.2.2 Mathematical model

Application of the Newton’s equations to the developed physical model results in the

following set of diﬀerential equations

m

1

¨ x

1

+ (c

1

+c

2

) ˙ x

1

+ (−c

2

) ˙ x

2

+ (k

1

+k

2

)x

1

+ (−k

2

)x

2

= F

1

m

2

¨ x

2

+ (−c

2

) ˙ x

1

+ (c

2

+c

3

) ˙ x

2

+ (−c

3

) ˙ x

3

+ (−k

2

)x

1

+ (k

2

+k

3

)x

2

+ (−k

3

)x

3

= F

2

m

3

¨ x

3

+ (−c

3

) ˙ x

2

+c

3

˙ x

3

+ (−k

3

)x

2

+k

3

x

3

= F

3

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL 216

These equations can be rewritten as following

m¨ x +c˙ x +kx = F (5.9)

where

m =

_

_

m

1

0 0

0 m

2

0

0 0 m

3

_

_

; c =

_

_

c

1

+c

2

−c

2

0

−c

2

c

2

+c

3

−c

3

0 −c

3

c

3

_

_

k =

_

_

k

1

+k

2

−k

2

0

−k

2

k

2

+k

3

−k

3

0 −k

3

k

3

_

_

; x =

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

_

_

; F =

_

_

F

1

F

2

F

3

_

_

(5.10)

The vector F represents the external excitation that can be applied to the system.

5.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

5.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system.

The matrix of inertia and the matrix of stiﬀness can be assessed from the dimensions

of the object. Hence, the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes

of the undamped system can be produced. Implementation of the particular solution

x = Xcos ωt (5.11)

into the equation of the free motion of the undamped system

m¨ x +kx = F (5.12)

results in a set of the algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the vector

X.

¡

−ω

2

m+k

¢

X = 0 (5.13)

Solution of the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem yields the natural frequencies and

the corresponding natural modes.

±ω

1

, ±ω

2

, ±ω

3

(5.14)

Ξ =[Ξ

1

, Ξ

2

, Ξ

2

] (5.15)

For detailed explanation see pages 100 to 103

5.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer

functions

If one assume that the damping matrix is of the following form

c =µm+κk (5.16)

the equations of motion 5.9 can be expressed in terms of the normal coordinates

η = Ξ

−1

x (see section normal coordinates - modal damping page 103)

¨ η

n

+ 2ξ

n

ω

n

˙ η

n

+ω

2

n

η

n

= Ξ

T

n

F(t), n = 1, 2, 3 (5.17)

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL 217

The response of the system along the coordinate x

p

due to the harmonic excitation

F

q

e

iωt

along the coordinate x

q

, according to the formula 2.130 (page 105), is

x

p

= e

iωt

N

X

n=1

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

F

q

ω

2

n

−ω

2

+ 2ς

n

ω

n

ωi

(5.18)

Hence the acceleration along the coordinate x

p

as the second derivative with respect

to time, is

¨ x

p

= −ω

2

e

iωt

N

X

n=1

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

F

q

ω

2

n

−ω

2

+ 2ς

n

ω

n

ωi

(5.19)

It follows that the transfer function between the coordinate x

p

and x

q

, according to

2.132 is

R

pq

(iω) =

¨ x

p

F

q

e

iωt

= −ω

2

x

p

F

q

e

iωt

=

= −ω

2

N

X

n=1

µ

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

n

ω

2

n

ω

2

+

−2Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

ς

n

ω

n

ωi

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+ 4ς

2

n

ω

2

n

ω

2

¶

q = 1, 2, 3

(5.20)

The modal damping ratios ς

1

, ς

2

and ς

3

are unknown and are to be identiﬁed by ﬁtting

the analytical transfer functions into the experimental ones. Since the transducer

5 (Fig. 1) produces acceleration, the laboratory installation permits to obtain the

acceleration to force transfer function. The theory on the experimental determination

of the transfer functions is given in the section Experimental determination of the

transfer functions (page 98).

5.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from

the transfer functions

The problem of determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from

the displacement - force transfer functions was explained in details in section

Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions (page

105). Let us do similar manipulation on the acceleration - force transfer function.

First of all let us notice that

if ω

∼

= ω

n

R

pq

(iω

n

)

∼

= −ω

2

µ

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

4ς

2

n

ω

2

n

ω

2

+

−Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

i

2ς

n

ω

n

ω

¶

q = 1, 2, 3 (5.21)

Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω

n

, its absolute

value is equal to the absolute value of the imaginary part.

|R

pq

(iω

n

)|

∼

=

¯

¯

¯

¯

Ξ

pn

Ξ

qn

2ς

n

¯

¯

¯

¯

q = 1, 2, 3 (5.22)

and phase ϕ for ω = ω

n

ϕ = arctan

Im(R

pq

(iω

n

))

Re(R

pq

(iω

n

))

= arctan ∞= ±90

o

(5.23)

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 218

Hence, the frequencies ω corresponding to the phase ±90

o

are the wanted natural

frequencies ω

n

.

Because ς

n

and Ξ

pn

are constants, magnitudes of the absolute value of the

transfer functions for ω = ω

n

represents the modes Ξ

1n

, Ξ

2n

, Ξ

3n

associated with the

n − th natural frequency. An example of extracting the natural frequency and the

corresponding natural mode from the transfer function is shown in Fig. 4

0

0.00005

0.0001

0.00015

0.0002

0.00025

1500 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s

transfer functions m/N (modulus)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

1500 1600 1700 1800

frequency rad/s

transfer functions m/N (phase)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

π/2

−π/2

natural frequency

natural mode

1

2

Figure 4

5.4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

5.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters

The physical model is determined by the following parameters

m

1

, m

2

m

3

- masses of the blocks

k

1

, k

2

k

3

- stiﬀness of the springs

c

1

, c

2

c

3

- damping coeﬃcients

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 219

The blocks were weighted before assembly and their masses are

m

1

= 0.670kg

m

2

= 0.595kg

m

3

= 0.595kg

The formula 5.7 and 5.8

k

i

=

24EJ

H

3

i

; J =

wt

3

12

(5.24)

allows the stiﬀness k

i

to be computed.

The following set of data is required

E = 0.21 × 10

12

N/m

2

w = ......................m to be measured during the laboratory session

t = ......................m to be measured during the laboratory session

H

1

= ......................m to be measured during the laboratory session

H

2

= ......................m to be measured during the laboratory session

H

3

= ......................m to be measured during the laboratory session

The damping coeﬃcients c

i

are diﬃcult to be assessed. Alternatively the damping

properties of the system can be uniquely deﬁned by means of the three modal damp-

ing ratios ς

1

, ς

2

and ς

3

(see equation 5.17). ξ = 1 corresponds to the critical damping.

Inspection of the free vibrations of the object lead to the conclusion that the damp-

ing is much smaller then the critical one. Hence, as the ﬁrst approximation of the

damping, let us adopt the following damping ratios

ς

1

= 0.01

ς

2

= 0.01

ς

2

= 0.01

5.4.2 Measurements of the transfer functions

According to the description given in section Experimental determination of the trans-

fer functions (page 98) to produce the transfer function R

pq

(iω) you have to measure

response of the system along the coordinate x

p

due to impulse along the coordinate

x

q

. Since the transducer 5 (Fig. 1) is permanently attached to the mass m

3

and the

impulse can be applied along the coordinates x

1

, x

2

or x

3

, the laboratory installation

permits the following transfer functions to be obtained.

R

31

(iω) R

32

(iω) R

33

(iω) (5.25)

The hammer 6 should be used to introduce the impulse. To obtain a reliable result,

10 measurements are to be averaged to get one transfer function. These impulses

should be applied to the middle of the block. The spectrum analyzer must show the

’waiting for trigger’ sign before the subsequent impulse is applied.

As the equipment used is delicate and expensive, one has to observe the fol-

lowing;

1. always place the hammer on the pad provided when it is not used

2. when applying the impulse to the object make sure that the impulse is not

excessive

Harder impact does not produce better results.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 220

5.4.3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters

In a general case, the identiﬁcation of a physical model parameters from the transfer

functions bases on a very complicated curve ﬁtting procedures. In this experiment,

to ﬁt the analytical transfer functions into the experimental one, we are going to use

the trial and error method. We assume that the following parameters

m

1

, m

2

, m

3

, H

1

, H

2

, H

3

, w, E (5.26)

were assessed with a suﬃcient accuracy. Uncertain are

t, ξ

1

, ξ

2

, ξ

3

(5.27)

Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift

of the natural frequencies to the right). Use the parameters ξ

i

to align the picks of

the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio

results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function). Work on one (say

R

33

(iω) transfer function only.

WORKSHEET 221

5.5 WORKSHEET

1. Initial parameters of physical model

Measure the missing parameters and insert them to the table below

m

1

= 0.670kg

Mass of the block

1

H

1

= ..................m

length of the spring

1

m

2

= 0.595kg

Mass of the block

2

H

2

= ..................m

length of the spring

2

m

1

= 0.595kg

Mass of the block

3

H

3

= ..................m

length of the spring

3

ξ

1

= 0.01

damping ratio

of mode 1

E = 0.21 × 10

12

N/m

2

Young’s

modulus

ξ

2

= 0.01

damping ratio

of mode 2

w = .....................m

width of the

springs

ξ

3

= 0.01

damping ratio

of mode 3

t = .....................m

thickness of the

springs

Run program ’Prac3’

∗

and choose menu ’Input data’ to enter the above data.

Set excitation coordinate 3, response coordinate 3.

Save the initial data.

2. Experimental acceleration-force transfer functions R

33

(iω)

Choose menu ’Frequency response measurements’

Set up the spectrum analyzer by execution of the sub-menu ’Setup analyzer’

Choose sub-menu ’Perform measurement’, execute it and apply 10 times im-

pulse along the coordinates 3

Choose sub-menu ’Time/Frequency domain toggle’ to see the measured trans-

fer function

Choose sub-menu ’Transfer TRF to computer’ and execute it

Exit menu ’Frequency response measurements’

Choose ’Response display/plot’ to display the transfer functions

3. Identiﬁcation of the thickness t and the modal damping ratios ξ

i

You can see both the experimental and analytical transfer function R

33

(iω).

By varying t, ξ

1

, ξ

2

, ξ

3

in the input data, try to ﬁt the analytical data into the

experimental one. Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment

of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right). Use the parameters ξ

i

to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the

modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function).

∗

program designed by Dr. T. Chalko

WORKSHEET 222

Record the identiﬁed parameters in the following table

m

1

= 0.670kg

Mass of the block

1

H

1

= ..................m

length of the spring

1

m

2

= 0.595kg

Mass of the block

2

H

2

= ..................m

length of the spring

2

m

1

= 0.595kg

Mass of the block

3

H

3

= ..................m

length of the spring

3

ξ

1

= 0.01

damping ratio

of mode 1

E = 0.21 × 10

12

N/m

2

Young’s

modulus

ξ

2

= 0.01

damping ratio

of mode 2

w = .....................m

width of the

springs

ξ

3

= 0.01

damping ratio

of mode 3

t = .....................m

thickness of the

springs

Save the identiﬁed parameters.

Plot the analytical and the experimental transfer function R

33

(iω)

4. Experimental and analytical transfer functions R

31

(iω) and R

32

(iω)

Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 1 and the

response coordinate to 3

Repeat all steps of the section 2

Plot the transfer function R

31

(iω)

Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 2 and the

response coordinate to 3

Repeat all steps of the section 2

Plot the transfer function R

32

(iω)

5. Natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes

Choose menu ’Mode shapes display/plot’ to produce the analytical frequencies

and modes

Plot the natural modes

From plots of the experimental transfer functions R

31

(iω), R

32

(iω), R

33

(iω)

determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes

Insert the experimental and analytical frequencies into the table below

natural frequency

1

natural frequency

2

natural frequency

3

analytical ......................... ......................... .........................

experimental ......................... ......................... .........................

6. Conclusions

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