HISTORICAL PRECINCT OF ADDIRIYYAH

May 06, 2004

Development Manual

HISTORICAL PRECINCT OF ADDIRIYYAH

Development Manual

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 General Provisions
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Planning the Addiriyyah Historical Precinct 1.1.2 Development Objectives and Strategy 1.1.3 The Development Manual

2
2 2 3

1.2

Development of the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah
1.2.1 Location 1.2.2 Urban Context 1.2.3 History and Heritage 1.2.4 The Project Areas 1.2.5 Physical Characteristics 1.2.6 Urban Design Plan

4
4 5 6 9 12 13

1.3

Development Manual
1.3.1 Purpose and Intent 1.3.2 Applicability 1.3.3 Governing Authority 1.3.4 Governing Laws and Regulations 1.3.5 Interpretation 1.3.6 Amendments 1.3.7 Approval Procedures

15
15 15 16 16 16 16 17

2

Development Controls
2.1 Development Control Documents
2.1.1 Specific Definitions 2.1.2 Permitted Land Uses 2.1.3 Site Plan

19
19 21 21

2.2

Urban Design
2.2.1 Townscape, Building Masses and Volumes 2.2.2 Privacy 2.2.3 Subdivisions 2.2.4 Setbacks 2.2.5 Walls 2.2.6 Parking

23
23 23 24 24 24 25

2.3

Farm Development
2.3.1 Permitted Uses 2.3.2 Regulations

27
27 27

2.4

External Building Elements
2.4.1 Elevations 2.4.2 Roofs 2.4.3 Openings 2.4.4 Decoration 2.4.5 Signage 2.4.6 Technical Features and Equipment

28
28 28 28 29 29 31

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
2.5 Internal Layout
2.5.1 Courtyards 2.5.2 Natural Light and Ventilation 2.5.3 Planting

32
32 32 32

2.6 2.7 2.8

Materials, Colors and Textures Site Services Demolition Works

33 33 34

3

Design Guidelines
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 General Design Requirements 3.1.2 Approach to Landscape / Site Design 3.1.3 Approach to Building Design

36
36 36 36

3.2

Factors Affecting Design
3.2.1 Cultural Factors 3.2.2 Climatic Factors

37
37 38

3.3

Urban Design
3.3.1 Townscape, Building Massing and Volumes 3.3.2 Open Spaces and Streetscape 3.3.3 Walls 3.3.4 Farms 3.3.5 Parking Requirements

39
39 40 41 42 43

3.4

External Building Elements
3.4.1 Elevations 3.4.2 Roofs 3.4.3 Openings 3.4.4 Decoration 3.4.5 Signage 3.4.6 Technical Features and Equipment

44
44 46 46 48 51 54

3.5

Internal Layout
3.5.1 Courtyards 3.5.2 Natural Light and Ventilation 3.5.3 Planting

56
56 57 58

3.6 3.7

Materials, Colors and Textures Building with Earth
3.7.1 Properties of Earth and Building Materials 3.7.2 Loam Plasters 3.7.3 Rammed Earth Flooring 3.7.4 Ceiling Construction and Intermediate Floors 3.7.5 Earth Covered Roofs

59 61
62 64 64 65 65

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 Prototypes and Examples
4.1 4.2 4.3 Traditional Housign Concept Contemporary Architectural Design Selected Elements Study (Al Soraiha Suq) 67 68 69

Annexes
ANNEX 1: Site Plans per Precinct ANNEX 2: Development Control Tables per Precinct ANNEX 3: List of Literature

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1 General Provisions

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1.1

GENERAL PROVISIONS
Introduction
• To encourage the conservation and realization of a desirable and aesthetic environment in the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah; • To encourage and promote development which features amenities and excellence in the form of variations in building types, settings, and the adaptation to and conservation of topography and other natural features; • To encourage creative approaches to the use of land and related physical developments; • To encourage the preservation and enhancement of land or buildings of unique or outstanding scenic and cultural significance; • To minimize incompatible and unsightly surroundings and visual blight, which prevent orderly community development and reduce community property values. • To encourage the continued use or reuse of existing historically or architecturally important buildings and of structures which contribute to the character of the precinct, and effectively prevent their demolition or removal; • To prevent inappropriate alterations of buildings of historic value; • To assure that new buildings are designed and built in a compatible manner with the character of the precinct in its wider terms; • To assure that changes to contemporary buildings and new construction do not detract from adjacent historic buildings.

1.1.1 Planning the Addiriyyah Historical Precinct
Governed by a Royal Decree, the Arriyadh Development Authority (ADA) has been entrusted with the task of investigating, developing and executing the Addiriyyah Redevelopment Program. This has been achieved by the preparation of a detailed Urban Design Plan together with the Final Design of all intended elements of publicly-provided infrastructure including the hard and softscape areas. Now, a Design Manual has been set up to ensure that new designs respect the traditional building pattern of Addiriyyah that is representative of the indigenous architecture of the Najd region.

1.1.2 Development Objectives and Strategy
The clear objectives of the ADA spring directly from the perception that the Addiriyyah Historical Precinct is an irreplaceable part of the Saudi heritage that should be conserved for future generations to enjoy. In this sense, the reversal of urban decay through renovation and upgrading will lead to a modern, well-serviced urban area. With reference to new developments, it is not meant to prevent expansion or change of the urban fabric, but to insure that new developments are in harmony with the traditional and inherited values of building practice in the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah. In more detail, the following development objectives should be pursued:

Urban fabric of Addiriyyah May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual Page 2

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1.3 The Development Manual Purpose
This manual has been prepared to guide and assist the property owners in the design and planning of sites and buildings within the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah. Its purpose is to provide site specific information and also to make the developer aware of the overall context within which development will take place, and to be cognizant of the high expectations the Authority has regarding development within the Addiriyyah Historical Precinct. In order to achieve this goal, the Development Manual intends to • classify and regulate the use of buildings, structures and land in accordance with the Final Urban Design Plan and sound planning practices, • regulate massing, layout and design requirements of buildings and other structures.

Scope
The scope of the Development Manual is organized in five parts that together explain the requirements to be met by those intending to renovate and restore buildings in the Addiriyyah Historical Precinct or to construct new ones: General Provisions Following a general presentation of the Addiriyyah Historical Precinct planning concept, general conditions and regulations are explained. Development Controls This section defines specific requirements for the residential, commercial and mixed-use development, and provides minimum standards for associated landscape works. The aim is to control the massing and the quality of the designs of future development. Design Guidelines The architectural design guidelines elaborate on the built form, architectural features and details, materials, colors and texture, which are regarded to be crucial variables requiring consistency in implementation. Prototypes and Examples Several test design examples for selected building complexes have been developed to illustrate the architectural objectives associated with Addiriyyah. The prototypes – a housing concept and the central souq – show both a more traditionally oriented design approach as well as a contemporary interpretation of a planning task. Annex The annex contains all Site Plans and Development Control Tables per precinct. A List of Literature completes the Manual.

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1.2

GENERAL PROVISIONS
Development of the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah

1.2.1 Location
Addiriyyah is a settlement located on the Wadi Hanifah to the northwest of Arriyadh, covering an area of about 10 square kilometers. The Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah covers about 6 square kilometers of that area along the Wadi Hanifah, and comprises a group of settlements spread among date palm farms and vegetable gardens. As a whole, the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah, within its historical boundaries, is one of the most important national heritage sites of Saudi Arabia as for many years it was the capital of the first Saudi State.

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.2.2 Urban Context
The Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah has the status of a special suburb in the Metropolitan Development Strategy for Arriyadh (MEDSTAR). Its role within this strategy is considered as a nucleus for a major recreation and special tourist attraction precinct to the north along the Wadi Hanifah escarpment. In addition to this aspect, the town’s rich heritage provides a historical dimension to Arriyadh, in the same way as the proximity of Arriyadh provides the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah with economic and social opportunities. The Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah redevelopment program will prolong this vision and create an integrated relationship for the benefit of both urban entities.

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.2.3 History and Heritage
As the capital of the First Saudi State, and as the birthplace of Sheikh Mohammad bin Abdul Wahab‘s doctrine, Addiriyyah‘s historic importance is unquestioned. By the late 1780s, Addiriyyah had consolidated its political and religious position in the Najd region, and in the following years its influence spanned from Al-Jouf in the north to Jizan to the south, and from the Red Sea to the Arabian Gulf. With the taking of the holy cities of Makkah and Madinah, the Ottomans became anxious to suppress this reform movement and sent forces into Arabia to deal with the Saudi State. In the two military campaigns conducted in 1811 and 1815, the pashas of Egypt, Muhammad Ali and later his son Ibrahim Pasha, regained Hijaz and subsequently attacked and destroyed Addiriyyah in 1818. In the following two centuries, Riyadh was established as the capital of the kingdom. Addiriyyah declined and its building structures decayed. Along with the rise of Riyadh in the last decades, the town of Addiriyyah has experienced a growing interest in populating the oasis. This trend has led to the provision of modern services and means of increasing economic growth. As a result, the construction and expansion of modern Addiriyyah was planned. This new development took the form of gridiron streets and plots. Today, the Historical Precinct is considered, to some extent, to be part of the metropolitan sprawl of Arriyadh.

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

Aerial view of Addiriyyah - ca. 1390 (1970)

Aerial view of Addiriyyah - 1403 (1983) May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual Page 7

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

Aerial view of Addiriyyah - 1420 (2000)

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.2.4 The Project Areas

Area 1: Al-Turaif Area On the south-western side of the Wadi, Al-Turaif is the jewel of the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah. The abandoned settlement was the location of many of Saudi Arabia’s significant historical events. Main Design Tasks: • Establish Al-Turaif as the most important historical cultural site within the Kingdom by continuing to develop museum and interpretative venues within the area. • Restore the historic entity of Al-Turaif, including the entry points, edges, boundary walls, centers of activity, etc.
Al Turaif

• Create a chain of interpretive venues connected by a pedestrian path.

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

Area 2: Al-Bujairy, Al-Moreeh and Thwaihra Quarters This area is the southern gateway into the Historical Precinct. It also serves the function as a transition zone between the visitors’ support development and Al-Turaif. This transition is important in experiencing the environment of the wadi and Al-Turaif in their intended contexts. Main Design Tasks: • Establishment of the Sheikh Mohammad Bin Abdul Wahab Center comprising the mosque, guidance center, Qur’an Dara, library, lecture hall, media center and a scholar’ residence. • Upgrade the existing buildings and encourage residential development within the historical boundaries. Area 3: Al-Soraiha and Samhan Area The plan for Area 3 accommodates the visitors’ support facilities like information center, crafts center, shopping district, food courts etc, while repairing the historic urban fabric. This area will become the center of tourism activity in the precinct. Main Design Tasks • Restore this portion of the historical area to act as the active heart of Addiriyyah not only as a cultural center but also as the central commercial and residential district. • Follow the historical reference to trace the urban fabric. Area 4: Al-Thahra and Al-Roqia Area The urban design plan for Area 4 provides for improvements to create a desirable living environment for the residents. Main Design Tasks • Residential rehabilitation to support a living community. • Restoration and refurbishment of existing ruined earth brick structures. • New infill structures to consolidate the established urban pattern of development.
Al-Thara and Al-Roqia Al-Soraiha and Samhan Al-Bujairy, Al-Moreeh and Thwaihra

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

Area 5: New Al-Turaif The urban design plan proposes a no-development zone. Main Design Tasks: • All actions should maintain the natural and ecological properties of the area and its surroundings.

New Al-Turaif

Area 6: Farms’ Area The farms sustain the historic use of the wadi valley for agriculture and allow for a recreational use (agrotourism) within this farm setting. The urban design plan enhances this agricultural use and makes the farms more accessible to visitors. Main Design Tasks • Maintain the oasis character of the farms and gardens as much as possible. • Ensure that future development here is of a type, quality, and density that support the oasis character of this area.
Farms Area

• Ensure the maintenance of the escarpment. Area 7: Al-Wadi The Wadi within the Historical Precinct acts as part of the interpretation of the settlement’s history in the desert and the main visitor gateway to Addiriyyah. Main Design Tasks • Provide a continuous cross-section for the Wadi in terms of landscape design and surface materials. • Restore and build new flood protection walls according to design guidelines that are based on existing traditional walls.
Al-Wadi

• Stop encroachment into the wadi by private land owners.

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

Area 8: Ghassiba This is a purely archeological site and will be a destination for visitors and scholars. Main Design Tasks: • Provide pedestrian access to the archeological site • Provide parking area and small information facilities

Ghassiba

1.2.5 Physical Characteristics
The Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah features four defined land forms: the wadi, the farms and gardens, the escarpment and the plateau. The Wadi The wadi is the corridor of a seasonal river. Most of the time, the wadi is dry, with an occasional water stream. In wet periods, the wadi collects all rainwater from the catchment area, and after heavy rainfall it becomes a fast flowing river with a substantial volume of water. The wadi is currently used for through traffic and to serve the entrances of the farms. Being surrounded by fences and walls, there is a high sense of enclosure. Additionally it also serves as an Infrastructure corridor. However it is not yet appreciated as the source of life for the settlement in this area. The Farms and Gardens The fertile soil and the relatively high water table established the wadi bed as farming land. Commercial and recreational farms and gardens, which continue the tradition of early oases and agricultural settlements, are currently located here.
Farms Area

The Wadi

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

The Escarpment The escarpment defines the wadi’s perimeters. It is characterized by layers of rock, differing in height and ruggedness. Occasional branches of the wadi contribute to the richness of the wadi bank line and provide access from the elevated grounds of the plateau in to the wadi floor.

The Escarpment

The Plateau The plateau covers the elevated grounds adjacent to the wadi. Traditionally, as the higher grounds were not suitable for farming, they were developed as fortified clusters of settlements.

The Plateau

1.2.6 Urban Design Plan
The future development of the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah is shown on the Urban Design Plan on the following page. The document defines the overall urban structure and pattern. The information given includes statements on building blocks, streets, alleys, green and open spaces, parks, farm land. In the case of discrepancy bewteen the Urban Design Plan and the Site Plan, the Site Plan governs the development.

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

URBAN DESIGN PLAN

This illustration is not legally binding and is subject to changes.

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1.3

GENERAL PROVISIONS
Development Provisions
Remodeling Any structure rebuilt or restored shall be considered to be a new structure. If any structure is remodelled it must comply with the specifications of the Development Manual. New uses If a use of any structure is changed to another, then the new use must comply with the specifications of the Development Manual. Establishment of as new use does not require the existing structure to conform to the lot size requirement. Exemptions The following utility installations shall be exempt from the provisions of the Development Manual: • underground utilities and infrastructure, • poles, wires, cables, conduits, vaults, laterals, pipes mains, valves or similar equipment for distribution to consumers of telephones, power, gas or water, • the collection of sewage or surface water operated by a public utility but not including substations located on or above ground.

1.3.1 Purpose and Intent
The purpose of this Development Manual is to regulate the use of land within the Addiriyyah Historical Precinct for a specific site, the boundaries of which are shown in the Site Plans, and to ensure that all new buildings respect the architectural character and heritage in Addiriyyah.

1.3.2 Applicability
This Document shall apply to all new developments, redevelopments and alterations in the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah as given in the Site Plan, meaning any physical change to building structures, whether all or any are publicly or privately, wholly or partially owned or sponsored. New structures All new structures built after date of effect of the Development Manual shall comply with all of its provisions.

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GENERAL PROVISIONS
When discrepancies, inconsistencies or ambiguities exist within the Controls, the Authority shall interpret them and give a decision to clarify the issue.

Heritage buildings Heritage buildings as identified by the Final Urban Design shall be exempt from the provisions of the Development Manual, provided that proposals for their restoration or rehabilitation do not materially affect the height, the lot area coverage or floor area ratio of the building as they would have been when originally constructed.

1.3.6 Amendments
Changes to the Development Manual may be required from time to time. These changes or amendments must accord with the spirit of the Final Urban Design and be approved by the Authority.

1.3.3 Governing Authority
The Arriyadh Development Authority (ADA) The ADA has been directed by the High Executive Committee for the development of Arriyadh to implement the Master Plan for the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah. In order to insure that the objectives and high urban design ideals of the Urban Design Plan are implemented, the Authority has adopted a number of regulations and procedures to guide and control development within the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah. They are of a minimal nature and are not intended to restrict innovative design of high standard. It is the objective of the Authority to encourage high quality design and workmanship and to make the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah a prestigious example of architecture and urban design within Arriyadh and the Kingdom.

1.3.4
Law #1 Law #2

Governing Laws and Regulations
(...) (...)

Regulations for Antiquities In addition to this document, the Regulations for Antiquities, issued by the High Supreme of Tourism, Department of Antiquities, apply.

1.3.5 Interpretation
The Development Manual shall be interpreted within the laws of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Where this Manual imposes greater restrictions upon the use of land or buildings than may be imposed elsewhere, their provisions shall prevail.

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.3.7 Approval Procedures
Design Concept The Authority will not accept any formal submission until the developer’s architect / designer has met with the Authority’s planning staff and discussed in detail the contents of the Design Brief, in particular the implications of the Authority’s requirements regarding: • the maintenance of privacy within the site and the respect for the privacy of the adjoining sites; • the total restriction upon the public exposure of rooftop equipment and/or the fitting of any utility equipment to the external facade of the building; • the requirement for design and construction of the highest international standards. Further, the developer’s architect / designer must have visited the site, carried out a proper site analysis and feature survey, and have made a personal presentation to the Authority of the complete initial design concept package, having regard to site opportunities and constraints and the Authority‘s requirements. Preliminary Design The developer shall prepare and submit to the Authority for its approval a proposed Preliminary Design including the following documents: • Site plan including topography • Schematic architectural drawings • Schematic landscape plan • Schematic grading plan • Perspectives • A model • A design statement Final Design Following approval by the Authority of the Preliminary design, the developer shall prepare and submit to the Authority for its approval a proposed Final Design including the following documents: • Site plan including topography • Final architectural drawings • Final landscape plan • Grading plan • Fences and walls • Pedestrian and Traffic Movement Plan • Irrigation plan • Utility layout plan • Area calculations • Samples of materials, colours, textures Building Permit Following approval by the Autjority of the Final design, the Developer shall apply to the Authority for a Building Permit, authorizing the developer to commence and proceed with work.

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2 Development Controls
H
2 F1 H1 E17 E16

F
E10 E7

E18 E19 E20

E15

G1

G2

E9

E8

E13

E
E12 E5 E3 E11 E6 E4 E2

C8

G4 G5

E14

9
C7 E1 C6 C5

2

80%

D10

D7

9.5 11.5
D8

D

D6

D9
Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

E
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2.1

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS
Development Control Documents
LA

2.1.1 Specific Definitions
Building Area The total projected horizontal area of all buildings of a site projected at ground level, excluding the area of any atrium/courtyard at ground level. The area is measured to the centre of party walls and to the outside of outer walls, but excludes that portion of eaves or other projections from the building which do not project beyond one metre. Gross Floor Area (GFA) The sum of the horizontal area of all floors of a building or buildings including mezzanines and lightwells measured from the outside of all external walls and from the centre of party walls, but excluding any atriums, courtyards, or areas at basement level, which are not capable of use for human habitation or any business purposes, or loading areas and external building maintenance or service areas; 50% of any area of any verandah whether covered or uncovered; and 50% of any areas at ground floor level used for car parking purposes. Lot Area Coverage (LAC) The ratio of the building area to the area of the lot on which the building is situated. The LAC defines the total size of unbuilt spaces on the lot; e.g. an LAC of 80% means that a minimum of 20% of the lot must be free of construction, therefore be used as yards or light wells. Maximum Building Height The vertical distance from the average surrounding street / pavement grade to the finished height of rooftop structures.
Lot Area: LA Floor Areas: A1 A2 A3

A1

A2

A3

=

625 m²

= = =

500 m² 394 m² + 56 m²x 0.5 (Terrace) 75 m² + 188 m² x 0.5 (Terrace)

Building Area: BA = Gross Floor Area: GFA = = Lot Area Coverage: LAC = =

500 m²

A1+A2+A3 1116 m²

BA / LA 80%

Example for GFA, LAC and FAR

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DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

Build-to Line The build-to line determines the perimeter of the building towards the street frontage. On the ground floor level, setbacks are permitted on a maximum length of 50% of from the build-to line in order to create internal courtyards or light wells.
E5

C8

Building Block A building block determines a cluster of connected buildings. Building Window

E3

C7 E4 E1 C6 C

The building window determines the area in which the building must be situated. Outside the building window, no building construction is allowed. Setbacks from the building window line are permitted. A building window is always 20 meters deep. This is to allow a reasonnable depth of the building structures. Building windows must always be subdivided into building blocks with street frontages of max. 40m length. Between these building blocks, passageways of 8m width have to be implemented. Court Yard / Light Well Court yards and light wells are open spaces inside the buliding structure that are open from the ground floor level to the sky. Any structure in a court yard/light well is only permitted if it does not affect the provision of fresh air and daylight to the rooms adjacent to the court yard/light well.

E2

Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m) Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

D10

D7

D8

B3

D

D6

D9

Example for building control regulations

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DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS
• A maximum GFA of commercial / production use may be defined in the Control Tables. Handcraft production and trade • Handcraft centers; • Trade and commercial use related to handcrafts activities; • Residential use related related to handcrafts activities. Market, retail • Medium-intensity commercial use, market areas. Governmental • Government and municipal services, public and semi-public facilities. Religious facilities • Larger mosque, imam’s housing. Hotel • Hotels and hotel-associated uses such as apartments, parking areas, parks and open spaces, service areas; • Boarding houses and other accomodation. Educational facilities • Schools of general education, vocational schools and colleges, schools for the disabled; • Kindergartens, after-school care centers, day nurseries; • Youth centers, meeting points for young people.

2.1.2 Permitted Land Uses
Uses which might affect the health or the well-being of the inhabitants are not allowed in the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah. In particular, environmentpolluting uses (water, air, noise) will not be accepted by the Authority. In the following, the permitted uses are defined for each land use category as defined in the Final Urban Design Plan. Any use that is not defined or is in conflict with the intent of the definition is prohibited and must be refused unless it is approved as a „variation“ of the individual use provisions. Protected heritage area • Services related to the museal use of the sites. Residential use • Residential buildings; • Private accomodation; • Services for daily needs: shops, neighbourhood mosque, dispensary, kindergarten, elementary school, health care. Mixed use • Residential buildings; • Offices, administration and services; • Gastronomy (e.g. Restaurant, Cafeteria); • Medium-intensity commercial use, which is compliant to residential use, such as shops and kiosks; • Low intensity production such as craftsmen’s studios with low noise generation;

2.1.3 The Site Plan
As shown on the following page, this document defines massing and layout of buildings, including mandatory design requirements. It also comprises key planning data to be adhered to by the developer. Additionally, the permitted uses associated with the building structures are defined in this document.
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DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

L21

Legend Residential Mixed use Market / Retail Handcraft production and trade

L1

L20

L19

L18

L17

Religious facilities
L16 J15 J14 L15 J11 J12 L14 J10 J9 J13

Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel
J8 J7 J6

2

80%
L13

9.5 11.5

Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.

Build-to line
J5 J4

2

80%

N4

N3

N2

N1

L12

2

80%

9.5 11.5

Building window Arcade permitted
J3

9.5 11.5
N5 N6 N9 N7 N10

N
N8 N11 N12 N13 N15 N14

L11

J
J2 L6

L10

L9

L8 L7

L
L5 M6 K16 K15 K22

J1 L4 L3 L2 L1

No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m) Precinct boundary

I14 M5 M1 K13 K14 K12 K10 I13

I12

B3
I11 I9 I10

Block number within precinct

M
M2

K19 K20

K6

K
K18 K17 K11 K7 K24 K25 K27

K2

K23 K21

K3 K1

I8

I
I7 I6 I5 I4

2

80%

Lot usage table:
Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

9.5 11.5

2 9.5

80% 11.5

M4 M3 K26

K4

2
I3

80%

K30

K29 K8 K28

K5

H10

9.5 11.5
I1

K9 H6

2

80%
H9

Max. height of main structure Max. height of roof structure

H8

9.5 11.5

H4 H7

H5

H
H2 H3 F1 H1 E17 E16

3

40%

2

80%

12.5 14.5

N Scale 1:2,000
25m 50m 100m 150m 200m

9.5 11.5
E18 E19 E20 E15

F
E10 E7

2

80%
G1

9.5 11.5
G2

E9

E8

E13

G
G6 G7

G3 G4 G5 E14 E12

E
E5 E3 E11 E6 E4 E2

C8

2
C7

80%
Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.

9.5 11.5
E1 C6 C5

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah

C4

2

80%

D10

D7

C

C3

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS SITE PLAN
March 2004

9.5 11.5
D8

D

C2 D6

D9 C1

Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.
A6

D4

D1

2

80%
D5 D3 D2 B8

2
A5

80%

9.5 11.5

9.5 11.5

B9 B6

B7 A4 B3

B
2 80%
B5 B2 B4 B1

A3

A
A2

9.5 11.5

A1

B10

Arriyadh Development Authority PO Box 94501 Arriyadh 11614 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

AS&P - Albert Speer & Partner GmbH Hedderichstraße 108-110 60596 Frankfurt a.M. Germany

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2.2

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS
Urban Design
Volumes

2.2.1 Townscape, Building Masses and

Townscape New buildings shall be compatible with the their surroundings and the historical context of Addiriyyah. Their design, particularly exterior walls and facades, shall be influenced by adjoining buildings. Building Masses The maximum number of storeys in the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah is generally two, except for the hotel project in Precinct F. Buildings with an accessible roof may have a roof-top structure covering 25% of the first floor area. Building height For the typical two-storey building, the elevation above the average surrounding street level must not exceed 9,50 m. The highest point of the roof-top structure including any technical equipment as for example rooftop water tanks must not be higher than 11,5m above street level. The finished ground floor level should not be higher than 30 cm (2 steps) above finished street level.
+7.60m +7.30m +6.80m +11.10m +10.60m +10.10m +9.40m
2,5m 1,8m

1,0m

+4.00m +3.50m

+0.30m +0.00m

Dimenions of a typical two-storey building

2.2.2 Privacy
No structure shall be allowed in any zone unless it can be shown by plans and elevations to the satisfaction of the Authority that the privacy of existing or proposed neighbouring parcels is maintained. The Developer remains responsible for ensuring that the privacy of adjoining neighbours is protected. • Existing topography and lot uses must be considered when undertaking development measures. • Privacy is to be maintained by an integrated approach to the orientation, positioning, and design of windows and parapet walls. • Screens are not permitted as a means of achieving privacy. • Overlooking of areas outside the subject site is only permitted if the area proposed to be overlooked is a public open space or commercial development.
May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

Where the final inspection reveals that overlooking of adjoining neighbours is possible from the subject lot, the Authority will require that remedial works to prevent such overlooking be undertaken to the satisfaction of the Authority prior to the issue of the Completion Certificate.

Ensuring privacy

3,2m

0,5m

2,8m

0,8m

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DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

2.2.3 Subdivisions
While block outlines are tentatively defined, the division of each cluster into houses is arbitrary. This should be left for responsive development and urbanization of such vacant sites, following the same principles of Islamic laws and regional customary rules (‘urf ) previously adopted in Addiriyyah to develop its original urban fabric. Thus, the right of ownership and protecting the visual privacy, while developing successively constructed adjacent houses, are the main parameters shaping the clusters’ internal layout and thus responsible for the shape of the outer walls of the houses and their articulation. The outer edge of the blocks in this area shall follow the historical reference of the urban setting as close as possible. A minimum parcel area of 200 sqm must be respected. Internal subdivision should not result in acute angles of less than 75 degrees. Street frontages of new-built structures shall not exceed 40m in length.

2.2.4 Setbacks
Buildings shall be built to the build-to lines or within the building windows as depicted in the Site Plan. Setbacks are permitted on a maximum length of 50% of the build-to line to allow for internal courtyards or light wells. Overhead projections or floor cantilevers are not permissible in any direction, neither to the roads nor to the neighbours. Exceptions can be permitted by the Authority where they are well-founded.

2.2.5 Walls
Enclosing walls along the lot boundary are subject to all relevant design regulations for external building elements such as for privacy, external openings, materials, colors, textures etc. Lot enclosing walls shall have a minimum height of 3m. Transparent fencing is not permitted.

Proposed enlcosing wall design

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2.2.6 Parking
General All new building activities and other significant land-use changes generating traffic will only be approved if sufficient parking spaces for cars are provided. Location of parking lots Parking spaces must be provided on-site or in a short distance from the site (max. 200m). Parking garages If the provision of adequate parking spaces cannot be achieved outside the building, parking spaces must be provided in an underground parking garage. This usually requires the construction of the garage before the parcellation of the building block. Shading For every four outside parking spaces, one widecanopy shade tree shall be planted to shade the

3,00

3,00 6,00 7,50 6,00

6,00

6,00

6,00

Orientation 90º

0 3 ,0

0 3, 0

0 6 ,0

0 6 ,0

Orientation 60º
6,70 5,50 6,70 6,70 6,50 6,70

6, 00

6, 00

00 3,

00 3,

6,36

5,00

6,36

6,36

6,00

6,36

Orientation 45º

3 ,0 0

3 ,0 0

6 ,0 0

6 ,0 0

5,60

5,00

5,60

5,60

5,50

5,60

Orientation 30º

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Possible parking arrangements

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DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

vehicles. Alternatively and at the Authority’s discretion shading structures may also be built.Size of Parking Spaces Parking spaces must have the following minimum dimensions: - Parking space for automobiles: 3.0m by 5.5m - Parking space for automobiles for handicapped persons: 3.5m by 5.5m Required Number of Parking Spaces The following table depicts the required number of parking spaces according to land use, i.e. the generator of traffic.

1. 1.1 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4. 4.1 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6. 6.1 6.2 7. 7.1 8. 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4

Residential buildings Detached houses, apartment buildings and other buildings with flats Buildings with offices, administration and services Commercial facilities Shops, business premises Supermarkets, shopping malls above 1,200 sqm Kiosks Craftsmen’s shops, other commercial facilities Meeting places Mosques and meeting places for religious purposes Sport facilities Sports fields without visitor seating (practice fields) Gymnasiums without visitor seating and sports schools, fitness centres Gymnasiums with seats for visitors Club houses and properties as far as not listed above Gastronomy and accommodation Restaurants, cafés, snack bars Hotels, boarding houses, other accommodation Health care facilities Hospitals, health centers Educational facilities Primary schools Other schools of general education, vocational schools, vocational colleges, special schools for the disabled Kindergartens, after-school care centres, day nurseries Youth centres, meeting points for young people 1 per 50 pupils 1 per 30 pupils 1 per 35 children, at least 5 1 per 30 seats
Table of parking space requirements

1 for an apartment of 100 sqm GFA; 0.5 per every 50 sqm GFA more than 100 sqm. 1 per 80 sqm GFA 1 per 80 sqm GFA, at least 2 per shop 1 per 60 sqm GFA 1 1 per 100 sqm GFA 1 per 30 worshippers 1 per 250 m² sports area 1 per 50 m² hall-area or usable area 1 per 50 m² hall-area, 1 per 20 seats additionally 1 per 200 sqm GFA 1 for a restaurant-area 40 sqm and less; 1 for each 20 sqm restaurant-part if the total area is over 40 sqm 1 per 4 guest rooms, 1 per 10 staff personell 1 per 6 beds

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2.3

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS
Farm Development

Currently Addiriyyah’s farms are in a period of transitition from commercial agricultural use towards the use primarily for residential/lodging purposes. This trend should be halted in order not to forfeit Addiriyyah’s historic function as a farming community. In order to fulfil this goal an economically viable development framework must be provided.

2.3.1 Permitted Uses
The following developments will be permitted on farm land: • The construction of rest areas/buildings, tourist accommodations and facilities ancillary to these uses, • Leisure facilities, such as swimming pools and sports grounds of appropriate scale for the above-mentioned touristic uses.

2.3.2 Regulations
The following regulations apply to building and development activities within this area: On farms with a land area of more than 10,000 m2, 10% of the area may be built upon to accommodate the above-mentioned uses. On farms with a land area of less than 10,000 m2, a maximum of 500 m2 may be built upon to accommodate these uses. All existing plants and trees should be maintained, especially palm trees. Should it, however, be necessary for develoment purposes to remove a palm tree, each tree removed must be replaced by three new trees.

Land use in the farms is currently subject to changes

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2.4

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS
External Building Elements

2.4.1 Elevations
Building elevations must conform in proportion and design to the neighbourhood’s character as illustrated in the Design Guidelines. The subdivision of the wall plane shall establish a rhythm similar to the historic buildings of Addiriyyah.

2.4.2 Roofs
Roofs in Addiriyyah are flat and encircled by a parapet wall. Where a roof-top terrace is accessible for residential purposes, 1.80m high parapet walls must ensure that all privacy concerns of neighbouring lots are maintained. Where access is proposed solely for maintenance, access to the roof shall be by trap door or by other forms of restricted access. In this case, parapet walls must only be 1.00m high.

Example for facade design

Parapets for roof-top terraces

2.4.3 Openings
The location, size and orientation of all external openings has to respect privacy matters. Windows Windows towards public streets must be square or vertically oriented (standing) rectangles. The maximum width of outside window openings is 90cm. The material for external window frames, shutters and door leaves is wood. Roller shutters are not permitted. Shop windows behind colonnades The regulations for window openings do not affect shop windows behind colonnades. Doors The maximum width of door openings is 150cm per leaf, the maximum number of leaves per opening is two. Doors should be treated against weather and termites. No door openings are permitted within 6m of a corner of the building structure to a street.
Example for design of external openings

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2.4.4 Decoration
When using decorative motifs in the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah, the design must follow the historical patterns and dimensions. A comprehensive guide to traditional building ornamentation in Addiriyyah can be found in the Design Guidelines.

Typical decoration in Addiriyyah

2.4.5 Signage
The location and size of signs shall be consistent with the proportions and scale of the elements within the structure’s facade. Signs shall be located where architectural features or details suggest a location, size or shape of the sign. Signs shall be placed on the facade area of the ground floor or the facade of the parapet of a first floor terrace. They shall also be placed consistent with signs on adjoing and opposite buildings to establish a visual continuity among the facades. Wall signs Wall signs are permitted in three principle locations, or zones, on the facade. These are:
Design example for signage

0,50m

0,25m

• Above windows/doors: the sign shall be placed at a height of 25cm above the opening and shall be not more than 60cm in height.

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0,50m

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0,50m 0,50m

0,25m

• Above awnings: the sign shall be placed at a height of 25cm above the awning and shall be not more than 60cm in height.

0,60m

0,25m

• Within the colonnades: the sign shall be placed on the interior facade of the colonnade and shall be not more than 60cm in height.

In all three cases, the size and proportions of the sign must conform to the proportion of the defining facade element, e.g. window opening, awning, etc., and shall never overlay architectural or structural divisions in the buildings or between one building and another. They should also not obscure, overlap, or cut into any architectural detail. Projecting signs Projecting signs will not be permitted in the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah.Illuminated signs Illuminated signs are permitted. Illumination must come from an indirect light source, e.g. from behind or under the sign. Spotlights are permitted on the condition that they do not glare any passers-by. However, flashing signs, moving, altering or animated signs are prohibited. Furthermore, the installation of light boxes is prohibited.
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0,60m

2

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

Sign material and colors Signs shall be of wood, metal or plexiglass (transparent plexiglass allowed). The sign’s color must be compatible to the historical environment as defined in the Chapter Materials, Colors and Textures. Advertising banners are permitted on a temporary basis only.

2.4.6 Technical Features and Equipment
All building facades are to be free of fixtures or utility fittings such as stormwater pipes, electrical ducting, air-condition units and ducting, etc. Roof-mounted mechanical or utility equipment must be placed in a way that it cannot be seen from public spaces in Addiriyyah. The method of screening must be architecturally integrated into the structure in terms of materials, colors and size. Any fixtures, fittings, or equipment such as pipes, tanks, compressors, air vents, etc. proposed for rooftop installation shall be screened by a solid parapet of at least equal height to the equipment.

Good placement of technical equipment

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2.5

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS
Internal Layout

2.5.1 Courtyards
In residential buildings or apartments, one or more courtyards must be available to and usable by the inhabitants. The minimum size of the main courtyard is 10% of the ground floor area. Each side of the main courtyard is to be at least 3m in length. Courtyard walls which are lot enclosing walls must be at minimum 3m high. For these, the same stipulations apply as for enclosing walls, especially regarding privacy issues.

Proposed courtyard design

2.5.2 Natural Light and Ventilation
Each room must have openings either to the outside or to a courtyard/light well, to allow for natural lighting and ventilation. The size of these openings must exceed 10% of the room’s floor area. Any structure in a court yard/light well is only permitted if it does not affect the provision of fresh air and daylight to the rooms adjacent to the court yard/light well. Minimum size of light wells The minimum size of a light well in each direction is: • 20% of the highest adjacent building wall for living rooms, • 10% of the highest adjacent building wall for service rooms. If ventilation devices are placed in a light well, the minimum size of the light well must be increased by 50%. Nonwithstanding the calculated size, the minimum size of a light well shall not be below 1m by 1m.

2.5.3 Planting
For every 50sqm of unbuilt lot area - including courtyard areas and light wells - at least one wide-canopy shade tree must be planted and maintained.

Planting in the courtyard

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2.6

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS
Materials, Colors and Textures

Materials The building material for all new, above-ground external walls and enclosing walls is compacted earth brick. For renovation issues, earth plastering shall be used. Exceptions must be justified and approved by the Authority. Above-ground base walls can be made of Riyadh limestone or of concrete. If concrete is used, the visible portions of the walls shall have a mud brick or Riyadh limestone cladding. Colors and Textures The color for all building elements on the outside of the buldings and walls is the natural earth color (No. Y30R or S2020). Columns, reveals and decorative elements may have a bright white color. Wooden elements, such as door leaves and window shutters, may be decorated with traditional patterns in bright colors.

Materials, colors and textures

2.7

Site Services

Technical infrastructure services as for potable water, sewerage, electricity and telecommunication are available at the site. Each respective Developer is expected to undertake the construction of all site works, utility services, landscaping and buildings on the site at his own expense and in accordance with his own plans within specified time limits and in compliance with the requirements of the Authority. Coordinates, levels and sizes of services must be clearly shown on the Developer‘s plans required to be submitted to the Authority in accordance with the Authority‘s Development Control Procedures. With respect to the cost of refuse collection, water, power and other utility services supplied to the Land Parcel, the conditions and tariffs of the respective utility agency will apply.

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2.8

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS
Demolition Works

No worthwhile building should be lost to Addiriyyah traditional environment unless it is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that very effort has been exerted by all concerned to find practical ways of keeping it. Only then the demolition application can be granted especially when it is replaced by another building also appropriate to the whole context and serving the same function. The conditions and regulations listed below apply when demolishing connected earth houses within the Addiriyyah Historical Precinct. Subject to the regulations are all landowners, contractors, and those who intend to demolish their dwellings or the shared earth buildings, or those who have a demolition permit granted by the ADA. Demolition is to follow all necessary safety measures and is to avoid any future damages to the adjacent buildings When demolishing existing connected buildings, the instructions listed below should be followed: • Machinery causing strong vibrations is not to be used due to its damaging effect on existing buildings. • Manual equipment is to be used to clear ruins. • Heavy transportation machinery should be kept off-site and remain on main roads of the neighbourhood. • High-pressure water or air hoses are not to be used in the process of cleaning to ensure the safety of the neighbouring buildings. • Existing shared boundary walls should not be removed. Instead a new wall adjacent (not shared) to the existing boundary wall should be built. This applies in particular when existing buildings are being renovated/restored in order to uphold safety requirements.

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3 Design Guidelines

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3.1

DESIGN GUIDELINES
Introduction
3.1.2 Approach to Site / Landscape Design
The existing character of Addiriyyah historical precinct and the nearby areas should be the starting point for the design of all open and green areas. In this sense, grading, vegetation removal and other changes to the building site shall be minimized where natural beauty exists. Large cut and fill and impervious surfaces should be avoided. Landscape treatment should be provided to enhance the building design and other site improvements.

3.1.1 General Design Requirements
There are some general design requirements that must be considered in any new development and which are applicable to all areas considered: • Addiriyyah’s architectural character is the recommended style for the whole area. Buildings should therefore reflect a design that considers site location, conditions, and surrounding development. • A consistent visual identity shall be applied to all sides of buildings visible to the general public. In these areas, all building elevations shall have an equivalent level of quality in materials, detailing and design. • Building technologies and standards should reflect a modern interpretation of traditional techniques. • Building design shall incorporate traditional building materials such as earth-brick, stone and wood. • As the creation of a unique urban fabric is the overall goal, any development should provide transition to and from adjacent uses, especially regarding building location, size and scale.

3.1.3 Approach to Building Design
The Design Guidelines are meant to assist and guide the property owners, encouraging them to develop inspiring architectural designs, which at the same time are responsive to the urban setting of Addiriyyah. Thus, the architecture of new houses - be they renovated or newly built - must be carefully woven into the fabric of the living community. In this sense, the traditional setting should be respected, giving due consideration to scale, height, massing and the use of appropriate materials.

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tion. This is because care has been taken over time by successive builders to relate each new form to previous ones. This visual continuity has been broken in the last 25 years and new buildings have not been integrated into the traditional sense of place in historic Addiriyyah. However, it should be possible to introduce totally new buildings to evoke and enhance the visual flavor of the traditional area provided that it is skilfully done, through the establishment of compatible relationships.

This approach does not mean that new structures have to copy adjacent historic or traditional buildings in detail. Rather, the buildings must blend with traditional architectural qualities, recreating the harmonious urban fabric as the main characteristic of Addiriyyah. This includes using the historic architectural vernacular, as well as interpreting and translating the underlying design principles. The clusters of earth-brick houses existing in the precinct give the impression of careful composi-

3.2

Factors Affecting Design
most decorated room in the house because of its symbolic nature for the family in its relationship to the outside world. Apart from the primacy of the majlis, most rooms lack a specific function and can be used for dining, sleeping and domestic activities. Such flexibility of arrangement is reinforced by the absence of fixed furniture. The heart of the traditional house is the private interior courtyard which is basically square or rectangular. This acts as a focus for the shared family activities providing seclusion and privacy. It is usually surrounded by circulation space on at least two sides which gives access to the rooms surrounding it. However, access to the Majlis and men’s quarters is indirect to ensure privacy for women.

3.2.1 Cultural Factors
Islamic culture determines the organisation of domestic life as well as participation in the economic and religious life of a community. This has a direct impact upon urban organisation which has traditionally been based on a system of public, semi-public and private spaces. These vary in their degree of accessibility and enclosure. Public Spaces Public areas are associated with major public buildings such as mosques, shops and work places. Semi-public spaces Semi-public spaces characterise quarters or districts formed by relatively small homogeneous communities which have common ethnic or occupational ties. Such quarters provide a balance of social identity and security and link the life of individuals as expressed by the family unit. Private spaces The traditional Islamic house is introverted. Intrusion of the outside world into the house has been discouraged and privacy for women within the household is guaranteed by physical barriers. However, where suitably protected, women have been allowed to observe public life from behind screens, whether outside or within the house itself. Traditional houses in Addiriyyah have a reception room (majlis) in which to entertain guests. It is used for recreation, relaxation and discussion and is the
May 06, 2004

Functional layout of a traditional courtyard house Page 37

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DESIGN GUIDELINES

3.2.2 Climatic Factors
Away from the coast, the Najd Region is characterized by large diurnal temperature differences. They are a result of the intense solar radiation during the day and quick cooling down under the cloudless night sky. Arriyadh has a hot dry summer with temperatures of up to 46ºC, a cold winter even with frost at night, and has infrequent but periodically heavy rainfall and dust storms. North-westerly winds prevail. Because of this severe climate, building orientation shading and choice of external materials are particularly important matters to consider. Traditional buildings have evolved over centuries with solutions to the climate which give comfortable and convenient houses. The courtyard house design is the traditional response to the harsh environment. Interior courtyards have a dual climatic function: provision of light to rooms in the introverted house and provision of air flow through the house to cool and ventilate it. In relation to the latter, the diurnal cycle leads to cool air at night which sinks down into the courtyard and flows into its surrounding rooms. It acts as a store of cool air until the sun’s rays hit the courtyard floor later in the day. This sets up convection currents that help to ventilate the house in association with raised building fabric temperatures. Traditional buildings have been based upon adobe and masonry construction, the massiveness of which helps to control excessive heat gain and loss in the house’s interior. Contemporary thin wall materials can only provide acceptable internal conditions with reliance on air conditioning. Rough external surfaces tend to have low levels of reflection and serve to control glare and discomfort. The smoothness and light colour of many contemporary building materials can create the reverse effect and give an unpleasant environment.

Traditional urban design has developed efficient solutions to control the climate

Protection against dust-laden wind is a factor to be taken seriously in relation to door and window design. Traditional dwellings have very few external openings and doorways are commonly recessed or setback from the narrow access ways. These are features which help to control and alleviate problems of dust infiltration.

Courtyard houses have been the traditional answer to severe climatic conditions

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3.3

DESIGN GUIDELINES
Urban Design

3.3.1 Townscape, Building Massing and Volumes
Traditional Urban Design in Addiriyyah The urban fabric of Addiriyyah stands as a typical example of a traditional Arab-Islamic city, especially with its winding lanes and irregular outer walls. Yet it is special because lanes are intersected and not cul-de-sac, which is common in most ArabIslamic cities. The urban unit of historic Addiriyyah is the cluster: each cluster is composed of a group of houses which are placed in such way that maximum protection is secured. Each group of clusters agglomerate to form public spaces as well as semi-private intrinsic spaces. Rewaq-type mosques are common and exist within different spots in the historical clusters. While cluster outlines are tentatively defined, the division of each cluster into houses is arbitrary. This should be left for responsive development and urbanization of such vacant sites, following the same principles of Islamic laws and regional customary rules (‘urf ) adopted before in Addiriyyah to develop its original urban fabric. Thus, the right of ownership and the protection of visual privacy, while developing successively constructed adjacent houses, are the main parameters shaping the clusters’ infillings and are thus responsible for the shape of the outer walls of the houses and their articulation.

Traditional massing and volumes

Landmarks exist within the garrison architecture of Addiriyyah, which help to mark the skyline of the Historical Precinct: the fortification towers and barbicans mark gateways to historic forts with their typical Najd square-section towers. Another type of tower is the tapered cylindrical tower. The mosque minarets took the form of squared-shaft towers. New Urban Design The Final Urban Design Plan follows the traces of historical Addiriyyah. Wherever possible, the spirit and pattern of the old settlement should be kept or brought back to life.

The urban and architectural character of Addiriyyah is so significant that it should be preserved to the maximum limits possible. May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual Page 39

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DESIGN GUIDELINES

3.3.2 Open Spaces and Streetscape
Traditional Urban Design in Addiriyyah Public Spaces, “maidan”, do not have a defi ned geometrical shape, similar to the irregular rahabas (open spaces) in the medieval cities in general. They are always bounded by a palace or a fort and the outer sides of residential clusters. The use of colonnades was not common, even for buildings by the maidan. Public urban space might be appropriated during special occasions, like feasts, to accommodate market activities using light-weight and semi-light structures. Other spaces were already designed as market places with rows of shops and light-weight structure (made of reeds), such as porticos or arcades. Semi-private streets separated the urban clusters. Sometimes they received careful treatment with seats along ornamented walls, usually without openings for privacy. The width of the inner winding streets was less than the building heights. This gave a relatively narrow street profile, and produced the desired shades on the houses’ walls and streets.

Street in a historical residential quarter

New Urban Design The small streets between the clusters should be designed to support their function as semi-private spaces, related closely to the house entrances. Their design should be oriented towards pedestrian use, allowing only for the entrance of residents’ cars. Modern elements, such as car facilities, street lights, signage etc. should be unobtrusive and well-designed, so as not to conflict with the general image.

New public space in Riyadh May 06, 2004

Street in Addiriyyah

New residential development in Medina, Tunis Page 40

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3.3.3 Walls
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah Walls are especially common in farms. They are built of dressed stone of varying courses, while other examples might be finished with plain plastering. The only color contrast is that obtained from the contrast between the opening and crenellations, lime-washed or covered with stucco in a bright white color. New Design New walls should be built with traditional materials (limestone and mud). Existing concrete walls should be plastered with mud or painted an muden color. Metal fences should be replaced by walls as soon as they are to be renovated.

Historic wadi wall in Addiriyyah

Farm wall with inadequate building material May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

Well-designed walls in Addiriyyah Page 41

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DESIGN GUIDELINES

3.3.4 Farms
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah Planting in Addiriyyah has always been concentrated on the farms and gardens along the wadi. Although dates are no longer the staple food of Arabia, land owners still develop farms with the principal aim of growing the different varieties of palm trees, out of pride in this deep-rooted agricultural heritage. But palms also still have a basic agricultural function, to provide the partially shaded and humid environment for other food-plants: fruits, vegetables, herbs and cereals. So any planting scheme where water conservation is a priority will still be based around palms. New Design The farms are in a transformation period from agricultural use to large residential and lodging uses. This trend should be stopped so as not to lose the area’s historic function as a farming community. However, a certain amount of commercial development will be allowed for mainly tourist businesses.

Vegetation in the farms is important for the microclimate in the Wadi Hannifah

Within strict limits, it will be allowed to construct rest houses, tourist residences and support facilities and to provide leisure facilities such as swimming pools and recreation areas.

Palms provide the shaded and humid environment for other food plants May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual Page 42

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DESIGN GUIDELINES

3.3.5 Parking Requirements
The issue of parking requirements rises from the needs of the existing and future inhabitants and is, as an extrinsic urban element in relation to the historical layout of Addiriyyah, a task which is an integral part of urban design. Four solutions for parking space can be formulated:
Unsolved parking situation in Addiriyyah

Parking inside the building This solution bans the car from the historical townscape. It is recommended to design the garage as an integral part of the house, either with well-designed doors (see chapter “openings”) or as an open covered space delineated by colonnades.

Parking on the plot If the urban design plan for the plot allows for this, parked cars could be sheltered under a shade roof or under trees in the rear setback of the plot. Obviously, street access must always be guaranteed.

On-Street Parking When permitted in the urban design plan, cars can be parked on the streets. These parking spaces could be reserved for visitors and clients and be shaded by trees or light structures.

Parking on central parking lots If it is not possibile to accommodate parking requirements in the above mentioned locations, private or public parking lots in allocated urban spaces will have to be provided to cover for the demand. Parking lots should always be well shaded, whether by lightweight roof structures or by trees. Security on parking lots can be assured by surveillance or by a good, clearly arranged location.
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Good solutions for parking requirements Page 43

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3.4

DESIGN GUIDELINES
External Building Elements

3.4.1 Elevations
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah Traditionally there was not much articulation in Addiriyyah’s built form. Outer walls were not punctuated by any protrusions, even on the second floor. The drama of shade and light was achieved only through the mews marking cluster entryways. New Building Design A consistent visual identity shall be applied to all elevations of buildings visible to the general public. In these areas, all building elevations shall have an equivalent level of quality of materials, detailing, and window placement. Abrupt ending of architectural details shall be avoided with no radical change in details or features or materials.
Traditional facades in Al Turaif, Addiriyyah

Inadequate elevations in the context of Addiriyyah May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

Renovated traditional facades Page 44

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DESIGN GUIDELINES

New building design should keep to the tradition of creating plain, calm facades. Colonnades should be only used for public buildings and facades towards important urban spaces. Buildings facing streets shall incorporate pedestrianscaled entrances that provide an expression of human activity or use in relation to building size. Doors, windows, entrances, and other features should be designed to respond to the size of the human body and not give the appearance of anonymity or exaggerative potency.

Interesting facades created with a reduced architecture

Restored facades in Najd style

Proposed design for elevations - left side: mixed use, right side: housing May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual Page 45

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3.4.2 Roofs
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah The roofs in Addiriyyah have traditionally been flat; except for singular buildings (e.g. the Turkish bath in Al-Turaif), no cupola have been used. As the historical Addiriyyah is surrounded by higher ground, the roofscape of the settlement is an important issue for the settlement’s appearance. New Building Design Roofs of modern buildings tend to be congested with technical equipment, such as antennae, satellite dishes and air conditioning equipment. The goal is to avoid technical equipment with high visual impact; no installations should be seen from the street level, nor should they be obtrusive when overlooked from higher ground. The roof should be regarded as the fifth facade of the building. The place for technical fixtures should be designed in order not to have visual impact on the roofscape.

3.4.3 Openings
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah Generally, the percentage of openings in facades ranged from 8% to 10% of the gross area of the facade. Doors were usually narrow and at their minimum height. They were often preceded with two or three steps. On the ground floor, windows were small and at a high level so that privacy of the inner spaces could be ensured. The proportion of these windows was mainly square. Their average dimension was usually 60 x 60cm, with 15cm white stucco frames.

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On the second floor these windows became rectangular with the same width as in the ground floor and double height. The window’s lintel was sometimes arc-shaped. Window shutters and doors have usually been plain wooden elements, supported by horizontal and vertical beams. They were often decorated by brightly colored, simple, geometrical motifs. Doors might be decorated by a thick, protruded wide frame made of stucco, plain or concise with abstract motifs. Renovation Work As a general rule, original doors and windows should be retained. If they are in poor order, they should be repaired. Replacement should be accepted only where repair is clearly out of question. Where the original door or window or their framing have been lost, efforts should always be made to achieve a replacement which is appropriate to the property and correctly located in relation to the facade of the building. Decorative features should always be retained and repaired as necessary. Original features and detailing, which will sometimes be lost or removed during renovation, should always be carefully respected. Cheap repairs and poor workmanship only accelerate decay and usually result in longer-term problems which lead to much higher costs later. New Design The design of the facade openings should be according to the historical archetype, e.g. small openings with vertical (standing) orientation. Large shop windows did not occur in the Historical Addiriyyah building design. However, as they make part of contemporary daily life, they will be permitted on the ground floor level of new building design.

Original doors and window shutters should be renovated

Shop windows with sunblinds May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

Examples for new door design Page 47

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Shop windows must be standing format (vertical orientation) in order not to break the scale of the facade. They might be set back from the street and shaded by a colonnade walk. In case no colonnade is forseen, external sunblinds (awnings) above shop windows will be appropriate in some cases.

3.4.4 Decoration
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah Decorative details in Addiriyyah have been mainly achieved through plastered mud brickwork, using various techniques of brick placement, e.g. dogteeth motifs, and openings that formulate decorative patterns, mainly triangular shapes. Medallions and decorative bands made of stucco were also used. Crenellation is a traditional motif for decorating wall cornices. The most common type is the stepped crenellation. As this kind of ornament can emphasize special urban environments, the use of this element should be reserved to buildings of public interest. New Building Design Decoration in the future Addiriyyah architecture should be unobtrusive. It must not necessarily copy the historical patterns, but if copying them, it must keep to the shapes and dimensions as close as possible. On the next page, the exact dimensions of the traditional decoration in Addiriyyah will be illustrated.

Contemporary architectural interpretation of decoration May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

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Dimensions of traditional ornamental patterns

Ornamental Pattern (1)

Triangle module

Ornamental Pattern (2)

Ornamental Pattern (3)

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Dimensions of traditional crenellations and windows

Square window - left: outside, right: inside

Rectangular window - left: outside, right: inside

Crenellations - left: section, right: elevation

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3.4.5 Signage
General Provisions The contemporary practice of signage and advertisement tends to be excessive. Countless signs of different format and material form their own townscape and mask architectural details. The historical townscape of Addiriyyah can only be percepted when signage is based on quality rather than quantity. Therefore strict regulations have been set up for the development of the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah. Location and Size All signs in the Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah should refer to the establishment they are fixed to. General advertisement without reference to the Precinct will not be accepted.

Townscape dominated by signage

Signs must always be carefully located to respect the architectural form and detailing of the particular building to which they will be attached. Signage should never overlay architectural or structural divisions in the buildings or between one building and another. They should also not obscure, overlap, or cut into any architectural detail.

Proposed signage with shopping windows - section, elevation

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Proposed signage with arcades - section, elevation

The allowed location and the maximum size for signs have been fixed in the Development Regulations. However, the display area of a sign should only be as big as necessary and as small as possible. The challenge of designing a beautiful, unobtrusive sign in harmony with the architecture should be taken seriously, as this is an important contribution to the townscape of Addiriyyah. Material If signage boards are used, they should be of a material and color that is compatible to the historical environment. Timber boards might be used as well as transparent plexiglass boards. Plastic boards are only the second best solution. The color of the board should be an earthen or dark color, but never glaring. Signage boards should be fixed directly to the wall. Single letters fixed or painted directly above a shop window and advertising material placed inside the building is preferable to a sign board. Letters might be made of plastics, but an upscale design will employ metal, processed with special finishing. Protrusions, cantilever arms or standing signs are no favored solutions because they disturb the calm and smooth expression of the typical Addiriyyah facades. Advertising banners should be discouraged. However, for temporary advertisement this kind of signs might be employed.
Well-designed shop signs May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual Page 52 Unobtrusive design achieved through lettering

Advertisement signs integrate into building design

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Illumination Illumination of signage should be indirect, e.g. from behind or under the sign. Spotlights are a good solution as well, as long they do not glare any passers-by. Illumination in Addiriyyah has to be free from any moving, altering, blinking or flashing effects. Furthermore, the installation of light boxes will not be accepted.

Good examples for the illumination of shop signs May 06, 2004

Light boxes shall not be used in Addiriyyah Page 53

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3.4.6 Technical Features and Equipment
To accommodate the modern needs of a highly technical world, old buildings should also accommodate technical features in order to be competitive. Thus ventilation openings, air conditioning, communication networks and electric lighting should all be accommodated within the historical environment of Addiriyyah. General The general aim is to integrate all technical fixtures into a high quality building design. This means that facades are to be free from obtrusive fixtures. As the building’s roof is considered to be the “fifth facade”, installations on the roof have to be integrated thoroughly into the roofscape. Wherever possible, technical fixtures should be placed behind parapets; sometimes wooden grilles will have to be employed for masking bigger devices. Air conditioning Generally, all units, especially compressors, should not be exposed or attached to the elevation. Compressors and piping systems fixed on the roofs should not be visible from the street level. Water tanks Most buildings in Addiriyyah will have water tanks placed on the building’s roof. Therefore, good design solutions for water tanks are very important. Water tanks must be masked by parapets and/or wooden grilles; however, the best solution is the integration of the water tank into the rooftop structure.

Technical fi xtures visible from the street level

1,50m

Technical fi xtures hidden behind parapets

Proposed solution for the placement of water tanks - section through a building roof Page 54

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Antennae, satellite TV The transmission of TV programs will be provided by cable. All buildings in the Historical Precinct will be offered a connection to this network. For new buildings, the use of this network is obligatory. Cables Cable risers should, wherever possible, occupy re-entrant angles or the space behind down pipes or immediately beneath string or band courses, or follow the line of other pipes and cabling. Exposed cable runs should be kept to a minimum. All proposals should seek to have the least physical and visual impact upon historic fabric. The presence on a principal facade of existing cabling or on another facade of badly located cabling does not justify the addition of further cabling which will make an unsatisfactory situation worse. Telecommunication Installations Telecommunication companies installing equipment should operate under a particular license. A license may, for example, require that within conservation areas all service lines are installed underground and not carried above ground on poles, unless the telephone wooden trunks are considered to be a constituent characteristic feature especially in the historic area 1, some parts of area 2, and the rural area 6 where such fixtures were first introduced in the first half of the 20th century and they still preserve their original fixtures. External Plumbing and Flues External rainwater drain pipes should not be exposed. Rainwater drainage on the roof can be achieved by tube-shape waterspouts made of wood. Generally, plumbing should not be exposed, especially on the principal facades. Plastic pipe work should not be used externally because of its unsatisfactory appearance and possible leakage or damage by vandalism. Cash Dispensing Machines Cash dispensing machines (ATM’s) should be accommodated within existing openings, or be fixed in a carefully designed compartment that respects the facade.
Obtrusive cable and communications installations

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3.5

DESIGN GUIDELINES
Internal Layout

3.5.1 Courtyards
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah The central courtyard has been the most distinctive element to secure illumination and ventilation in the different building types. It provides privacy for the individual household and acts as a filter for dust and noise, thus providing an ideal method of moderating climatic extremes. It is the key element marking the plan of any house and distinguishing the urban tissue in Addiriyyah. New Building Design Inner courts should be employed as the main illumination and ventilation source for the houses, respecting the architectural typology of the traditional Addiriyyah mansions; this should comply with the void-solid ratio distinguishing the Addiriyyah traditional architecture. The building could utilize a central open-air court or several smaller courts. providing sun, light and ventilation. The following matters shall be given high priority in the courtyard design: • Adaptive open space designs which keeps water and maintenance needs low. • Tree planting, wherever possible, to achieve maximum shading and microclimatic effects without excessive water demands. • No asphalting and dark colored surfaces to minimise heat radiation. • The use of pergolas, light roofs and tent structures to create shaded courtyard areas adaptable for recreational use.

Traditional courtyards in Addiriyyah

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3.5.2 Natural Light and Ventilation
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah The prevalence of the courtyard house is a ubiquitous response to a hostile climate. New Building Design Although traditional ventilation systems are quite effective, most new buildings will employ modern air-conditioning systems. In this case, wind scoops or wind-towers might be adjoined to provide fresh and cool air in the courtyard during the hottest time of the day. Wind scoops are ventilation flues carried above the roof to catch cool and clean air. They are facing the prevailing wind direction and divert air to the rooms below in a reversed chimney action. Through the rooms the air passes into the courtyard, feeding the convection cycle. The interior courtyard is an excellent modifier of hot and dry climates, being an air-well collecting dense, cool air at night. To reach a more effective cooling (5 to 10°C) of the incoming breeze, it is conceivable to install waterfilled porous pottery jars and/or water-basins in the wind-tower.
Venturi System Keeps Scoop Facing Wind Hot Air

Swivel Scoop Ducting Hot Air Cooler Pads Water Tank Pump System

Since protected from the morning sun, all surrounding spaces stay cool till well into the day.

Chimney

Pressurized Water Line Room Patio Cool Air Vent Opening

functional diagram of a wind tower

Once the sun reaches the court, the air heats up and rises, creating convection currents and cross-ventilation, particularly when the surrounding spaces have secondary ventilation openings from adjacent narrow and cool alleys. Wind scoops and wind towers were uncommon in the Najd region.
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3.5.3 Planting
Traditional Design in Addiriyyah Courtyards in old houses in Addiriyyah were often planted with small fruit trees such as lemon or pomgranate trees, as well as even a single date palm. Trees and hedges around the house and in the courtyard block the air movement and the speed of the wind with their foliage mass, and thus act as shelter from unpleasant winds, creating high and low pressure zones. New Design The microclimate in the courtyards can be considerably ameliorated by providing plants and water features. Plants filter sand and dust; act as a noise buffer and reduce the brightness and intensity of sunlight whilst lowering the heat reflection of uncovered ground. By evaporating water, plants help to cool the air inside the courtyard. The same cooling effect will be achieved by a water basin or a fountain.

Restored courtyard design in al-Udhaibat, Addiriyyah

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3.6

DESIGN GUIDELINES
Materials, Colors and Textures

Traditional Design in Addiriyyah Surface treatment in Addiriyyah varied significantly using different types of stone masonry, in wide and narrow courses or even alternately used with mud bricks. However, the most common surface treatment in Addiriyyah was plain plastering covering the stone or brick work. The regular texture is a smooth-finish mud plastering covering fine courses of mud bricks. Occasionally medium and hard textures are obtained, depending on the plastered construction materials, (rubble of stone or rough stone masonry); however, these variations are mostly common in farm structures and fences. Stones (rubble and complete stones) and mud bricks depend on the type of the building and the location. On rocky outcrops, buildings had a stone base. Stone might be also used in the lower courses of the ground floor to be followed by mud-brick courses. Reeds and tree trunks were also used for shades, porticos, and ceilings. Gypsum stucco was used to balance the visual monotony which occurred due to employing, almost solely, mud plastering. Lime wash was also used to paint in white some features especially those located on the upper parts of the facade, such as crenellations, as well as frames to openings. Windows and doors were made of natural wood left unfinished, plain or decorated with bright colors (red, blue and yellow), These were the only places in a building’s elevation exhibiting bright colors.

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New Building Design As regards the outside of the buildings, materials, colors and textures should keep to the traditional Addiriyyah appearance. The traditional color scale should be used for all outside building elements: natural mud colour for walls; white for ornament, for wall exclusions and accompaniment of openings; bright colors for traditional painted motifs on wooden elements. Modern metal elements such as letter boxes, signs, etc. could be painted unobtrusively in a dark anthracite gray or black. Inside the buildings and in the courtyards, however, the range of finishing can be more freely interpreted. Courtyards could, for example, have a more contemporary design, e.g. large openings with glass facades, sash windows, flexible shadow elements, modern lighting elements or water features.

Traditional material employed at al-Udhaibat, Addiriyyah

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3.7

DESIGN GUIDELINES
Building with Earth

Ancient City of Shibam, Yemen, 16/17 century, built with natural earth material

3.7.1 Properties of Earth as Building Material
Loam The scientific name for a clayey soil used as building material is loam. Loam is a product of erosion from rock in the mud’s crust. The erosion occurs mainly through the mechanical grinding of rock by the movement of glaciers, water and wind or through thermal expansion and contraction of rock, or by expansion of freezing water in the crevices of the rock. In addition, due to organic acids prevalent in plants, chemical reactions due to water and oxygen also lead to rock erosion. The composition and varying properties of loam depend on the place where the loam is found. The gravelly mountainous loams, for instance, are more suitable for rammed mud (provided it contains sufficient clay), while the riverside loams are often siltier and are therefore less weather resistant and weaker in compression.

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Effect of water If loam becomes wet it swells and changes from a solid to a plastic stage. The swelling of loam when in contact with water and its shrinking when drying out is disadvantageous for its use as a building material. Swelling only occurs if loam comes into direct contact with so much water that it loses its solid stage. The absorption of humidity from the air, however, does not lead to swelling. Effect of vapor While loam in contact with water swells and gets weak, under the influence of vapor it absorbs the humidity but remains solid and retains its rigidity without swelling. The humidity balancing effect of loam Porous material has the ability to absorb humidity from the ambient air and to desorb humidity into the air, thereby bringing about a humidity balance in the room climate. The equilibrium moisture content depends on the temperature and the humidity of the ambient air. The effectiveness of this balancing process also depends upon the speed of the absorption or desorption. The absorption curves from both sides of 11.5 cm thick unplastered walls of different materials over 16 days are shown in the figure to the right. The results show that mud bricks absorbed 50 times as much moisture as solid bricks burnt under high temperature. Influence of heat The common perception that mud is a very good material for thermal insulation cannot be proved. A massive wall of rammed mud without straw or other light aggregates has nearly the same insulating effect as a massive wall of burnt bricks. The volume of air entrained in the pores of a material and its humidity are relevant for the thermal insulation effect. The lighter the material, the more its thermal insulation, and the more humid the material, the lower is its insulating effect.

Absorption curves of different building materials May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual Page 62

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Decrement factor and time lag Decrement factor and time lag are the characteristics of an exterior wall of a building to damp, and delay the outside temperature amplitude to the interior. A wall with a high thermal storage capacity creates a large time lag and decrement of the heat, while a wall with high thermal insulation reduces only the temperature amplitude. Thermal capacity In a climate with hot days and cold nights in which the average temperature lies within the comfort zone (usually 18° to 27°C) thermal capacity is very important to create a comfortable indoor atmosphere. In the figures to the right, the effect of the material and the form of the building on the interior climate is shown by readings from two test buildings of equal volume constructed in 1964 in Cairo, Egypt. One was built of 50 cm thick mud walls and mud brick vaults, and the other of 10 cm thick precast concrete elements with a flat roof. While the diurnal variation of the outside temperature was 13°C, the temperature inside the mud house varied only by 4°C, and in the concrete house, the variation was 16°C. Thus, the amplitude was four times as much in the concrete house as compared to the mud house. In the concrete house, the temperature was 5°C higher than outside at 4 pm, whereas inside the mud-house, it was 5°C lower than it was outside at the same time. Increasing of thermal insulation The thermal insulation of loam can be increased by adding porous substances such as straw, reeds, seaweed, cork and other light plant matter. Naturally or artificially foamed mineral particles like pumice, lava, expanded clay, foamed glass, expanded perlite or foamed plant matter like expanded cork can also be added. Waste products like sawdust, wood shavings, husk of grains can also be used, but because of their higher density, exhibit a lesser insulation effect. The more porous the mixture, the lighter it is and the greater its thermal insulation. Drying It is seldom possible to say when a loam wall is dry, but the drying process is in any case faster than that of a masonry or concrete wall. If there is dry warm weather and sufficient air movement,
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Temperature amplitudes inside and outside the building (1) building with 50cm mud brick wall

Temperature amplitudes inside and outside the building (2) building with 10cm prefab concrete wall

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shrinkage stops after only a few days. After three weeks the wall feels completely dry though the water content is still slightly higher than the equilibrium moisture content. Fixing fasteners into the wall Although a mud block walls is not as strong as a burnt brick wall, heavy shelves or wall-hung cabinets can easily be fixed to the wall using screws and dowels. The dowel hole, however, should be drilled large enough to prevent the block from cracking.

3.7.2 Loam Plasters
Loam plasters mainly consist of sand and silt with only as much clay as is necessary (usually between 5% to 12%) for developing their adhesive and binding forces. It is difficult to state what the proportions of an ideal loam plaster should be, because not only does the proportion of clay, silt and sand influence the properties, but also the grain size distribution of the sand fraction itself, the water content, the type of clay, the method of preparation and the additives. In order to test the appropriateness of loam plasters, samples with varied compositions should be tested. Loam plasters stick very well not only on loam surfaces, but also on brick, concrete and stone surfaces, if the surface is rough enough. As loam plaster does not chemically react with the ground, the surface has to be sufficiently rough in order to develop a good physical bond. To ensure that the plaster adheres better, it is also possible to use latching in the form of galvanised wire mesh, plastic mesh, reed mats, etc. on the ground before plastering.

3.7.3 Rammed Earth Flooring
Hardwearing floor surfaces need to meet very high standards. They must resist pressure abrasion, be waterproof and show no cracks. It is very difficult to build such surfaces from loam, but if carefully done, it is not impossible. The most difficult criterion is to achieve sufficient strength against abrasion (surface hardness). It is often easier to avoid the effort to achieve this requirement by using brick, timber or stone floor tiles over the loam, or to cover the loam with a carpet, rug, fabric etc.

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3.7.4 Ceiling Construction and Intermediate Floors
Vaulted loam floors (“jack arch floors”) are easy to be built from adobes or green bricks as shown in fig. A, B and C in the illustration to the right. A non-loadbearing loam vault made by pouring lightweight loam over a curved reed mat is shown in fig. D.

3.7.5 Earth Covered Roofs
Flat roofs covered with mud have been used for centuries in traditional rural architecture in dry climate zones. One of the greatest challenges to building is to make successful, weather resistant loam roofs that could also prove durable in rainy areas. The cost of a typical roof structure for a single house is usually about 25% to 30% of the total building cost. In areas where there is little rainfall, shrinkage cracks are not a problem. When water enters these cracks, the clayey loam swells and seals the cracks. Only in some cases are additional coatings used. In Anatolia, Turkey, special clayey soil with a high salt content is taken from the banks of the Salt Lakes in order to seal loam roofs. This loam keeps moist for longer periods due to the hygroscopic property of the salt, and prevents water penetration while it remains in this state. If shrinkage cracks occur while drying, swelling takes place with the rain and seals the cracks. When the rain has washed off some of the salt, reducing the self-sealing effect of the top layer, the residents either sprinkle salt or pour salt water on it so as to regenerate this property of the roof (Dalokay, 1969). When making loam covered flat roofs, it should be kept in mind that roof edges are susceptible to mechanical damage especially by wind and water erosion. This can be prevented by solutions of the type shown in fig. 27 A-D. If the surface of the roof is intended to be walked upon, tiles are recommended (fig. 27 D).

Traditional roof construction

Construction of loam covered flat roof edges

Reference to more detailed information can be found in the list of literature.

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4 Prototypes and Examples

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4.1

PROTOTYPES AND EXAMPLES
Traditional Housing Concept
Air conditioning can be installed in each room of the housing unit; however the courtyard will be under natural conditions. »Wind-towers« and »ventilationchimneys« can be used to achieve natural cooling in the courtyards. A row of shops has been integrated into the given historical building structure; these are accessible through a colonnade on the northern side of the cluster.

Within the traditional concept, the housing units are organized around a central courtyard. Every unit will receive a modern »Plug-In«, which is a module containing the bathroom and kitchen. To guarantee privacy on the ground floor, the »PlugIn« also contains the stairs to the upper floor and a straight angled wall element. Guests and Visitors have a separate entrance to the dining and living rooms. In such a way complete privacy can be maintained on the ground floor, and the courtyard is open for family use.

Office Storage
Shop Shop Patio Room Dining Living Entrance

Room Terrace Terrace WindTower Room

WindTower
Courtyard

Room Courtyard Room Room Living Entrance Patio Entrance Room Dining

WindTower

Shop

Room Room
Room

WindTower

Room

Room

Room Room

Room Terrace Terrace Terrace

Patio Courtyard Room

WindTower
Courtyard

Shop Room Living Patio Dining Living Patio Dining Entrance

Room Room WindTower Room Terrace Room Room Room Room Room Room Room WindTower Room Room

WindTower

Living

Dining Entrance

Room Entrance

Entrance Courtyard

WindTower Room

WindTower

Ground floor
Entrance Room Room Room

First floor
Terrace

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4.2

PROTOTYPES AND EXAMPLES
Contemporary Architectural Design
by a module containing sanitary rooms, kitchen and stairs. On the first floor there will be private bedrooms and a bathroom for the family. A row of shops has been integrated into the given historical building structure. The shops are accessible through a colonnade on the northern side of the cluster.

This contemporary design concept is based on the idea of providing full air conditioning to all rooms of the unit. For that reason, the central courtyard will be replaced by two peripheral courtyards. The ground floor of the house is seperated into a private part and a part for guests and visitors, linked

Office Storage Entrance
Office

Office
Entrance

Terrace

Room

Dining

Living
Living Living

Room

Bath

Entrance Living Patio Entrance
Dining

Room

Room Room
Room Terrace
Offi ce

Entrance Patio Living
Dining

Room Terrace Room Room
Offi ce

Living

Living
Dining

Patio

Patio

Room

Room

Terrace Room
Ro om Ro om Ro Terr ace Terr ace om

Family Entrance

Fam En ily tran ce

Livi ng

Din ing Livi ng En tran ce

Ground floor

Fam En ily tran ce Livi ng Patio

First floor

Terr ace Ro

om Ba

th

Perspective View

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4.3

PROTOTYPES AND EXAMPLES
Selected Elements Study (Al Soraiha Suq)
stroll through the whole area while being shelterd from the sun and heat. We suggest to integrate the access stairs and elevators to the parking garage into the passageways between streets and courtyards. The classical rectangular suq structure is integrated into the irregular form of the building footprints. On the one hand, this provides an interesting architectural contrast, and on the other hand, it meets the structural needs of the underground parking garage.

Within the Addiriyyah »Al Soraiha« quarter a new commercial and handicraft area will be implemented into the reconstructed footprint of the historical buildings. In this prototype study we suggest to build a new structure within the old shape, built atop an underground parking garage. One of the main features of the new development is a long shade-roof, which extends in an east-west direction and links together the various building clusters and their internal courtyards. Under the shade-roof vistors and tourists can

Plan Scale 1:1000

Shadow Roof

Example: Contemporary Suq May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

Example: Shadow Roof Page 69

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PROTOTYPES AND EXAMPLES

The following drawings illustrate the two basic approaches to the task: • firstly a design with shops along the streets and in the courtyards, • secondly a proposal that sets back the shopfronts from the street to form long rows of colonnades. The design on the previous page shows a combination that brings together the advantages of both approaches.

»Courtyard design«

»Colonnades design«

Garage

Sample images

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Perspective View from South East

Section through the central area

Proposed facade design May 06, 2004 Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual Page 71

ANNEXES
Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location A Mixed use Refer to location map

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location D Residential, mixed use, religious facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location L Mixed use Refer to location map

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location H Governmental / educational facilities, hotel, religious facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

ANNEX 1: SITE PLANS PER PRECINCT

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

D

C2 D6

C1

Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.
A6

D4

D1

2
A5

80%

D5 D3

D2

9.5 11.5

B8

B9 B6

B7 A4 B3

B
2 80%
B5 B2 B4 B1

A3

A
A2

9.5 11.5

A1

B10

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000 Site Plan PRECINCT

A

D

C2 D6

C1

Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.
A6

D4

D1

2
A5

80%

D5 D3

D2

9.5 11.5

B8

B9 B6

B7 A4 B3

B
2 80%
B5 B2 B4 B1

A3

A
A2

9.5 11.5

A1

B10

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

B

E7

C8 E5

2
E3 C7 E4 E1 C6 C5

80%
Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.

9.5 11.5

E2 C4 D10 D7

C

C3

D8

D

C2 D6

D9 C1

Buildi facad Buildi 8m wi and a and M
A6

D4

D1

2

80%
D5 D3 D2 B8

9.5 11.5

A5 B9 B6 B7 B3

B
Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

C

C8 E5

2
E3 C7

80%
Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings o 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.

9.5 11.5
6 E4 E1 C6 C5 E2 C4 D10 D7

C

C3

D8

D

C2 D6

D9 C1

Bu fac Bu 8m an an
A6

D4

D1

2

80%
D5 D3 D2 B8

9.5 11.5

A5 B9 B6 B7 B3

B
2 80%
B5 B2
Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

B4

9.5 11.5

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

D

H
2 F1 H1 E17 E16

F
E10 E7

E18 E19 E20

E15

G1

G2

E9

E8

E13

E
E12 E5 E3 E11 E6 E4 E2

C8

G4 G5

E14

9
C7 E1 C6 C5

2

80%

D10

D7

9.5 11.5
D8

D

D6

D9
Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

E

3
F1

40%

12.5 14.5

F
E7

C8 E5

2
E3 C7 E4 E1 C6 C5

80%
Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.

9.5 11.5

E2 C4 D10 D7

C
2

C3

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

F

H8

H9 H7

H4

H5

H
H2 H3 H1 E17 E16 E18 E19 E20

2

80%

9.5 11.5
E15

2

80%
G1

E10

9.5 11.5
G2

E9

E8

E13

G
G6 G7

G3 G4 G5 E11 E14 E12

E
E5 E E6 E4 E2

2

80%

9.5 11.5

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

G

K6 K2 I10

I9

K3 K1

I8

I
I7 I6 I5 I4

2

80%

9.5 11.5

K4

K5

H10

I3

H6 H8

I1

H9 H7

H4

H5

H
H2 H3 H1 E17 E16 E18 E19 E20

2

80%

9.5 11.5
E15

2

80%
G1

E10

9.5 11.5
Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

G2 Lot usage table:
Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

E9

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

H

J3

J2

J1 L2 L1

I14 K12 K10 I13

I12

I11 K6

I9 K2 I10

K
K11 K7

K3 K1

I8

I
I7 I6 I5 I4

2

80%

9.5 11.5

K4

K8

K5

H10

I3

K9 H6 H8 I1

H9 H7

H4

H5

H
H2 H3

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000 Site Plan PRECINCT

I

J15

J14

J13

J11 J12

J10

J9

J8

J7

J6

2

80%
J5 J4

9.5 11.5

J
J2 L2 L1

J3

J1

I14 K12 K10 I13

I12

I11 K6

I9 K2 I10

K
K11
Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade

K3 K1

I8

I
I7

2

80%

9.5 11.5

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

J

J
J2

L
L5 K16 K15 K22

L4

L3

L2 L1

I14 K13 K14 K12 K10 I13

K19 K20

K6

K
K18 K17 K11 K7 K24 K25 K27

K2

I10

K23 K21

K3 K1

M3 K26

K4

K30

K29 K8 K28

K5

K9

2

80%
H9

H8

9.5 11.5

H7

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

K

L21

L1

L20

L19

L18

L17

J15 L16 J13

J14 L15

J11 J12

J10

2

80%
L13

L14

9.5 11.5

Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.

J8

2

80%
J5

N2

N1

L12

2

80%

9.5 11.5

9.5 11.5

N9

N
N8 N11 N12 N13 N15 N14

L11

J
J2 L6

L10

L9

L8 L7

L
L5 M6 K16 K15 K22

L4

L3

L2 L1

I14 M5 M1 K13 K14 K12 K10 I13

M
M2

K19 K20

K6

K
K17 K11 K7 K24 K25 K27

K2

I10

K23 K21

K18

K3 K1

2 9.5

80% 11.5

M4 M3 K26

K4

K30

K29 K8 K28

K5

K9

2

80%
H9

H8

9.5 11.5

H7

H

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m 10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:4,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

L

80% 11.5
L13

L14

Building windows are 20m in depth. Street facades must not be longer than 40m. Buildings must be interrupted by openings of 8m width. Location of openings is variable and at the discretion of the site developer and Municipality.

N1

L12

2

80%

9.5 11.5

N
N8 N11 N12 N15 N14

L11

L10

L9

L8 L7 L6

L
L5 M6 K16 K K22

M5 M1

M
M2

2 9.5

80% 11.5

M4 M3

K30

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

M

2

80%
L13

L14

9.5 11.5

N4

N3

N2

N1

L12

N5 N6 N9 N7 N10

N
N8 N11 N12 N13 N15 N14

L11

L10

M5

Legend Residential Mixed use Retail / Market Religious facilities Governmental / Educational facilities Hotel Handcraft production and trade
5m10m 20m 30m 50m

Lot usage table: Build-to line Building window Arcade permitted No door openings permitted (within arc, radius 6m)
Max. height of main structure Lot Area Coverage (LAC) Maximum No. of floors

2

80%

9.5 11.5
Precinct boundary Block number within precinct

Max. height of roof structure

Development Controls

B3

N Scale 1:2,000

Site Plan PRECINCT

N

ANNEX 2: DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLES PER PRECINCT

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT A

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location A Mixed use Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT B

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location B Residential, religious facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT C

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location C Mixed use Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT D

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location D Residential, mixed use, religious facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT E

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location E Mixed use, religious facilities, governmental / educational facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT F

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location F Hotel Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 40% 12.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 14.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 3 plus permissable roof-top structure Allowed Allowed court yards recommended

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT G

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location G Residential Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT H

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location H Governmental / educational facilities, hotel, religious facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT I

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location I Residential, mixed use Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

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Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT J

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location J Residential, mixed use, religious facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT K

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location K Residential, mixed use, market/retail, religious facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT L

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location L Mixed use Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT M

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location M Residential, mixed use, governmental / educational facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL TABLE - PRECINCT N

Characteristics
Precinct Permitted land uses Location N Residential, mixed use, religious facilities Refer to location map

Development controls: Massing
Maximum lot area coverage (LAC) Maximum building height Maximum no. of floors Setbacks ground floor Setbacks upper floors Main (contiguous) court yard area 80% 9.5 m from street level to top of parapet, 11.5 m to top of permissable roof-top structure 2 plus permissable roof-top structure Not allowed from build-to lines; allowed from colonnade lines (colonnades/arcades on the colonnade line) and from building envelope lines (no restriction) Allowed Minimum 10% of the ground floor area (plus unrestricted additional court yards)

Development controls: Architecture
Building material outside existing buildings Building material outside new buildings Building material inside Facade openings Roof Colonnades/arcades Walls: existing construction Plastering: Loam plastering or equal (color nr. Y30R or S2020) Walls: compacted earth blocks Finishing: loam plastering Not restricted For residential units, total opening surface must not exceed 20% of facade surface Flat with encircling parapet Permitted unconditionally inside buildings; permitted outside only if indicated in the site plan

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

ANNEX 3: LIST OF LITERATURE

• Facey, William: Back to Earth, Adobe Building in Saudi Arabia Riyadh 1997

• Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Arriyadh Development Authority (Publisher): Riyadh Diplomatic Quarter Implementation Handbook Riyadh 1978

• Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Arriyadh Development Authority (Publisher): Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah, Stage-III, Development Guidelines & Regulations Riyadh 2003

• Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Arriyadh Development Authority (Publisher): Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah, Stage-III, Final Urban and Infrastructure Design Riyadh 2003

• Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Minisrty of Education (Publisher): The Salwa Palace Extension and Abdullah Bin Saud Palace at Al-Tureif - Diryya Riyadh (no Year)

• Minke, Gernot: Earth Construction Handbook Southhampton (UK) 2000

• Ragette, Friedrich: Traditional Domestic Architecture of the Arab Region American University of Sharjah 2003

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Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual

This brochure was prepared by Albert Speer & Partner GmbH Architects, Planners

Post Box D-60559

70 09 63 Frankfurt am Main / Germany

Phone Fax E-mail Internet

0049 - 69 / 60 50 11 100 0049 - 69 / 60 50 11 500 mail@as-p.de www.as-p.de

May 06, 2004

Historical Precinct of Addiriyyah - Development Manual