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Type 2 Co Ordination in LV switchgear

Type 2 Co Ordination in LV switchgear

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Published by kapil
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Published by: kapil on Sep 27, 2011
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TOPICS

1) REQUIREMENTS AS PER STANDARDS.

2) FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS. 3) TYPE 2 CO-ORDINATION

L.V. SWITCHGEAR STANDARDS IEC 60947/IS:13947
PART  PART  PART  PART

1 2 3 4

 


FUSES  MCBs


GENERAL RULES CIRCUIT BREAKERS SDF/SD CONTACTORS, RELAYS, STARTERS, IS:13703 IS:8828/IEC 60898

Standards for Circuit Breakers

IS 13947 ( Part 2 )‫‏‬  IEC 60947-2  EN 60947-2  BSEN 60947-2

Highlights of New Standards

  

Utilization category - A & B New short circuit duties - Ics, Icu & Icw Special Sequence of testing

UTILIZATION CATEGORY
Category : A
Circuit breakers not specifically intended for selectivity under short circuit conditions
(i.e.) without an intentional time delay and therefore without a short time withstand current rating

UTILIZATION CATEGORY
Category : B
Circuit breakers specifically intended for selectivity under short circuit conditions. Such breakers must have an intentional time delay option and a short time withstand rating (Icw).

TEST SEQUENCE
As Per IS 13947 (Part 2) / IEC 60947.2 Test Sequence I - Tests
General performance Tripping limits & characteristics Dielectric properties characteristics Mechanical operation and electrical operations Overload performance (6In, 12 operations)‫‏‬ Verification of dielectric withstand Verification of temperature rise Verification of overload release

Minimum expectations Ie (A)
0 - 100 100 - 315 315 - 630 630 - 2500

No. of Operating Cycles
Without Current 8500 7000 4000 2500 With Current 1500 1000 1000 500 Total 10000 8000 5000 3000

Implication of Sequence 1

Minimum mechanical and electrical life specified for different current ratings  Temperature rise to be done on breaker after the mechanical/electrical life /overload tests are done.  Re-Verification of dielectric test and overload characteristics at the end of mechanical /electrical/overload tests

SHORT CIRCUIT PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES
P1 & P2 CATEGORIES AS PER IS 2516 SUPERSEDED IN IS 13947 BY :
RATED ULTIMATE S.C. BREAKING CAPACITY (Icu)

and
RATED SERVICE S.C. BREAKING CAPACITY (Ics) Ics SHOULD BE 25% or 50% or 75% or 100% of Icu

TEST SEQUENCE
As Per IS 13947 (Part 2) / IEC 60947.2

Test Sequence II - Tests

Rated service S/C breaking capacity (O-CO-CO) Verification of operational capability (Electrical life = 5%) Verification of dielectric withstand Verification of temperature rise Verification of overload release

Implication of Ics rating
   


Must clear three S.C. faults: O - CO - CO cycle Must pass dielectric strength test Overload characteristics to be maintained Must be able to carry full load current without excessive temperature rise (<80) Can be used till next replacement May not clear any more short circuit fault, but should be capable of performing normal operations.

TEST SEQUENCE
As Per IS 13947 (Part 2) / IEC 60947.2 Test Sequence III - Tests Verification of overload release Rated ultimate s/c breaking capacity (O-CO) Verification of dielectric withstand

Implication of Icu rating

Must clear two S.C. shots : O - CO Cycle  Must pass dielectric strength test  May not be able to carry full load current  Needs immediate replacement

TEST SEQUENCE
As Per IS 13947 (Part 2) / IEC 60947.2 Test Sequence IV - Tests Rated Short Time Withstand current (Icw) Pass claimed value of Icw for claimed time. Combined Sequence Do Icw, Ics on the same breaker

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS
(As per IS 13234 : 1992 & IEC Pub 909 : 1988)

WHAT IS FAULT LEVEL FAULT LEVEL AT ANY GIVEN POINT OF THE INSTALLATION IS THE MAXIMUM CURRENT THAT CAN FLOW IN CASE OF S/C AT THAT POINT

PURPOSE OF FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS

FOR SELECTING S.C.P.Ds OF ADEQUATE S/C BREAKING CAPACITY

FOR SELECTING BUSBARS, BUSBAR SUPPORTS, CABLES & SWITCHGEARS, DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND THERMAL & MECHANICAL STRESSES BECAUSE OF S/C
TO DO CURRENT BASED DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN CBs

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS
TYPES OF FAULTS

SYMMETRICAL THREE PHASE FAULT

ASYMMETRICAL

LINE TO LINE
DOUBLE LINE TO EARTH LINE TO EARTH

LVSM4.PPT/NRS

SOURCES OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS
 ELECTRIC  D.G

UTILITY SYSTEMS

SETS  CONDENSERS  MOTORS

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT
SOURCE : UTILITY SYSTEM THE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WILL CONSIST OF FOLLOWING COMPONENTS :
 THE

AC COMPONENT WITH CONSTANT AMPLITUDE  THE DECAYING DC COMPONENT

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT
WAVEFORM
CURRENT TOP ENVELOPE DECAYING DC COMPONENT

IP

TIME

BOTTOM ENVELOPE

CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS
WHAT ?
     

TYPE OF SHORT CIRCUIT : THREE PHASE BOLTED SHORT CIRCUIT IMPEDANCES OF BUSBAR/SWITCHGEAR/C.T. /JOINTS ARE NEGLECTED TRANSFORMERS ARE CONNECTED TO INFINITE BUS ON H.T. SIDE TRANSFORMER TAP IS IN THE MAX. POSITION S/C CURRENT WAVEFORM IS A PURE SINE WAVE DISCHARGE CURRENT OF CAPACITORS ARE NEGLECTED

CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

1 . 05 * LINE VOLTAGE

I S/C

=
3 * (Z
TR

+ Z

CABLE )‫‏‬

% Z * 10 * KV 2 Z TR = (in ohms) KVA

LVSM4.PPT/NRS

CASE STUDY

STEP 1 : SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
PCC
TRANSFORMER 1600 KVA G 12 

STANDBY GENERATOR 1250 KVA

11  21 
22 

)  ‫‏‬

)  ‫‏‬

F1

)  ‫‏‬

) 

13

‫‏‬

) ‫‏‬

23 

)  ‫‏‬

24 

) ‫‏‬

350 A

300 A

300 A

MCC
31

BUSBAR
) 

U/G CABLE

M4

M1

M2

M3

150HP

100HP

100HP

150HP

F2

‫‏‬

)  ‫‏‬

CB SDF STARTER

STEP 2 : SYSTEM DATA
TRANSFORMER : 11/0.433 KV
1600 KVA %R = 0.94 %X = 5.46 %Z = 5.54

STEP 2 : SYSTEM DATA
CABLE : R = 0.062 /KM
X = 0.079 /KM LENGTH OF CABLE, 21 TO 31= 100M

INDUCTION MOTORS : M1, IrM = 200A
M2, IrM = 135A M3, IrM = 135A M4, IrM = 200A

STEP 3 : CALCULATION OF RT & XT
 RT = 10 (%R)(SECONDARY KV)2 KVA 10 (0.94)(0.433)2 1600

=

= 0.001102 OHMS

10 (%X)(SECONDARY KV)2  XT = KVA = 10 (5.46)(0.433)2 1600 = 0.006398 OHMS

STEP 4 : CALCULATION OF RL & XL
 RL = 0.062 × 0.1 = 0.0062 OHMS

 XL = 0.079 × 0.1 = 0.0079 OHMS

STEP 5 : CALCULATION OF ‘Z’ UP TO THE POINT OF FAULT
 TOTAL ‘Z’ UP TO FAULT LOCATION F1 =  (RT)2 + (XT)2 =  (0.001102)2 + (0.006398)2 = 0.00649 

STEP 5 : CALCULATION OF ‘Z’ UP TO THE POINT OF FAULT
 TOTAL ‘Z’ UP TO FAULT LOCATION F2

=  (RT + RL)2 + (XT + XL)2 =  (0.007302)2 + (0.01430)2
= 0.01606 

STEP 6 : CALCULATION OF RMS VALUE OF S/C CURRENT AT THE POINT OF FAULT
 IK AT FAULT LOCATION F1 =
c Un 3 Z 1.05 × 415 = 3 × 0.00649

= 38765 A OR 38.77 kA

STEP 6 : CALCULATION OF RMS VALUE OF S/C CURRENT AT THE POINT OF FAULT
 IK AT FAULT LOCATION F2 =
c Un 3 Z 1.05 × 415 = 3 × 0.01606

= 15665 A OR 15.67 kA

STEP 7 : CALCULATION OF MAKING CAPACITY AS PER STANDARD IEC 60947-2
Short-circuit breaking capacity (kA) 4.5<= I<=6 6< I<=10 10< I<=20 Power factor Multiplying factor 1.5 1.7 2.0

0.7 0.5 0.3

20< I<=50
50< I

0.25
0.2

2.1
2.2

STEP 8 : CALCULATION OF PEAK VALUE OF S/C CURRENT AT THE POINT OF FAULT
 IP AT FAULT LOCATION F1 = 2.1 × 38.77
= 81.41 kA (PEAK)‫‏‬

 IP AT FAULT LOCATION F2 = 2 × 15.67
= 31.34 kA (PEAK)‫‏‬

CALCULATION OF X AND R FOR GENERATOR


    

The value of xd″ will be given in percentage terms. Calculate xd″ in ohms. Calculate R in ohms as per data in standard: Rg =0.15 xd″ for generators less than 1000V Rg =0.07 xd″ for generators up to 100MVA Rg =0.05 xd″ for generators 100MVA and above. Apply correction factor and recalculate R and X. Find Z and use in the formulae.

TYPE 2 CO-ORDINATION WITH FUSES/MCCB/MPCB for MOTOR FEEDERS

MOTOR FEEDER

S.C.P.D.: Fuse / MCCB/MPCB
(Isolation & Short Circuit Protection)

S.C.P.D.

Starter

M

Starter: Contactor - Normal / overload operations +  Relay - Overload protection up to locked rotor current

Discrimination
Contactor should carry, make and break normal and overload currents  Relay should provide protection against small overloads and single phasing.  Fuse/MCCB/MPCB should provide short circuit protection.

Types of Co-ordination
( IS 13947 / IEC 60947 )‫‏‬ TYPE 1
Damage to contactor & overload relay is acceptable. No discharge beyond the enclosure is permitted.

TYPE 2
No damage to overload relay or other parts is allowed. Light welding of contacts of the contactor is permitted if they can be easily separated (e.g. by a screw driver) without significant deformation

Type 1 and Type 2 co-ordination

„r‟‫‏‬Current Low fault current corresponding to rating of the feeder (AC-3 Rating) „Iq‟‫‏‬Current‫‏‬ Maximum fault current assigned by the manufacturer for the combination “p”‫‏‬current Co-ordination between relay and fuse/MCCB/ MPCB in overload zone

“r”‫‏‬current‫‏‬values
Ie(AC3) in A
0-16A 16-63A 63-125A 125-315A 315-630A 630-1000A 1000-1600A

Prospective‫‏‬current‫“‏‬r”‫‏‏‬
1kA 3kA 5kA 10kA 18kA 30kA 42kA

Discrimination
TIME

Relay

H.R.C. Fuse

CONTACTOR BREAKING CAPACITY

Ico

CURRENT

Type 2 Co-ordination benefits

Safe and reliable performance of products during normal and overload conditions  Proper and proven co-ordination with short circuit protective device IS / IEC / EN now make verification of coordination with S.C.P.D. a mandatory requirement

THANK YOU

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