# Module

9 Non-conventional machining
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur

IIT Kharagpur .Lesson 36 Ultrasonic Machining (USM) Version 2 ME.

particularly if the work material is brittle. Draw variation in MRR with different process parameters vii. List three applications of USM xi. F. IIT Kharagpur . the work material. propagation and brittle fracture of the Version 2 ME. 9. iv. List three limitations of USM 1. Generally the tool is pressed downward with a feed force. As the tool vibrates over the workpiece. iii. Develop mathematical model relating MRR with USM parameters vi. The abrasive particles. the abrasive particles act as the indenters and indent both the work material and the tool.2. Introduction Ultrasonic machining is a non-traditional machining process. Between the tool and workpiece. Draw schematically the USM equipment x. USM is grouped under the mechanical group NTM processes. ii. F Slurry of abrasive and water Horn Vibration frequency f ~ 19 .Instructional Objectives i. as they indent.25 kHz Amplitude. due to crack initiation. Fig. 9. Describe the basic mechanism of material removal in USM Identify the process parameters of USM Identify the machining characteristics of USM Analyse the effect of process parameters on material removal rate (MRR) v.1 The USM process In ultrasonic machining. Force.1 briefly depicts the USM process. Identify major components of USM equipment viii. a tool of desired shape vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency (19 ~ 25 kHz) with an amplitude of around 15 – 50 μm over the workpiece.2. the machining zone is flooded with hard abrasive particles generally in the form of a water based slurry. a ~ 10 – 50 μm Tool Work Fig. State the working principle of USM equipment ix. would remove the same.

2. 2. but it is estimated to be rather insignificant.material. During indentation. IIT Kharagpur . strong and ductile materials like steel. followed by indentation and brittle fracture of the workpiece. As the tool vibrates. Thus. cracks would develop just below the contact site. then as indentation progresses the cracks would propagate due to increase in stress and ultimately lead to brittle fracture of the work material under each individual interaction site between the abrasive grits and the workpiece. db db db db dg Fig.2 Schematic representation of abrasive grit Version 2 ME. In the current model. all the abrasives are considered to be identical in shape and size. db and which is related to the grit diameter by db = μdg2. it leads to indentation of the abrasive grits. The abrasive particles are characterised by the average grit diameter. in the current model.2. Thus an abrasive is characterised by μ and dg. Hence. 9. due to Hertzian contact stresses.2. USM is generally used for machining brittle work material. The model does consider the deformation of the tool. Mechanisms of Material Removal in USM and its modelling As has been mentioned earlier. USM is mainly used for machining brittle materials {which are poor conductors of electricity and thus cannot be processed by Electrochemical and Electro-discharge machining (ECM and ED)}. stainless steel and other ductile metallic alloys. 9. Other than this brittle failure of the work material due to indentation some material removal may occur due to free flowing impact of the abrasives against the work material and related solid-solid impact erosion. Thus the tools are made of tough. An abrasive particle is considered to be spherical but with local spherical bulges as shown in Fig. dg. material removal would be assumed to take place only due to impact of abrasives between tool and workpiece. The tool material should be such that indentation by the abrasive grits does not lead to brittle failure. Material removal primarily occurs due to the indentation of the hard abrasive grits on the brittle work material. It is further assumed that the local spherical bulges have a uniform diameter.

n.3 Interaction between grit and workpiece and tool As the indentation proceeds.2.2.2. as the work material is brittle. then it comes in contact with the abrasive. Fig. Fig. for sometime.3 AB 2 = AC 2 + BC 2 ⎛ db ⎞ ⎛d ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ b − δ w ⎟ + x2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 x = dbδw neglecting δw2 as δw << db 2 3/2 ∴ Γ w = π (dbδ w ) 3 If at any moment of time. 9. Due to the indentation.f 2 3/2 = π (δ w d b ) nf 3 Now as the tool and workpiece would be pressing against each other. 9. brittle fracture takes place leading to hemi-spherical fracture of diameter ‘2x’ under the contact zone. At full indentation. Therefore material removal per abrasive grit is given as 2 Γ w = πx 3 3 Now from Fig. And then the indentation process starts and finally completes with an indentation of δw and δt on the work and tool respectively. there are an average ‘n’ of grits and the tool is vibrating at a frequency ‘f’ then material removal rate can be expressed as 2 2 MRRw = Γw .4 Version 2 ME. which is already in contact with the job. Tool db abrasive grit db Work A B db 2x C D δw Hemispherical material removed due to brittle Fig. contact being established via the abrasive grit. the contact zone between the abrasive grit and workpiece is established and the same grows. the indentation depth in the work material is characterised by δw.2. the local spherical bulges contact the surfaces and the indentation process is characterised by db rather than by dg. it vibrates freely.During indentation by the abrasive grit onto the workpiece and the tool. IIT Kharagpur . The contact zone is circular in nature and is characterised by its diameter ‘2x’. 9. both of them would deform or wear out. As the tool vibrates.3 shows the interaction between the abrasive grit and the workpiece and tool. 9.

Thus total impulse on the tool can be expressed as 1 It = n. Thus only during its first quarter of its cycle it can derive an abrasive towards interaction with the tool and workpiece as shown in Fig. Thus the time of indentation τ can be roughly estimated as T(δ w + δ t ) δ τ Tδ = ⇒ τ = = ao T / 4 4a o 4a o Now during machining.4 Interaction between grit and workpiece and tool to depict the workpiece and tool deformations Version 2 ME. Now in the USM. 9. The tool vibrates in a harmonic motion. some part is used to engage the tool with abrasive particle as shown in Fig. then Fmax = σ w πx 2 1 ∴ F = σ w π x 2τ nf 2 T (δw + δ t ) 1 F = nf σ w π x 2 2 4ao Tool Amplitude. 9. 9. IIT Kharagpur . Fmaxτ 2 where Fmax is the maximum indentation force per abrasive.n.4.f 2 Again.2. if the flow strength of work material is taken as σw. the tool is fed with an average force F 1 Thus F = Fmaxτ . the impulse of force on the tool and work would be balanced. Out of this quarter cycle.5.schematically depicts the same assuming the work to be rigid for easy depiction.f .2. a δ = δw + δt Work Fig.2.

(fT ). IIT Kharagpur . ‘F’ can be written as 1 T F = nfσ w πx 2 δ w (1 + λ ) 2 4a o 1 6 AC T F= .2.9.πdbδ w δ w (1 + λ ) 2 2 πd g 4a o F= 3AC d2 g .5 Change in tool position due to ultrasonic vibration of the tool If ‘A’ is total surface area of the tool facing the workpiece. σw 4a o 2 dbδ w (1 + λ ) Version 2 ME. δt σw = =λ δw σ t Again combining.δ ao τ T/4 T/2 Fig.σ w .f . then volume of abrasive slurry of one grit thickness is Adg If n is the number of grits then the total volume of n grits is πd g 3 n 6 Thus the concentration of abrasive grits in the slurry is related as follows: n 3 πd g 6 = Ad g C 3 πd g n πd 2 g C= 6 = n 6A Ad g ∴ n= 6 AC 2 πd g Now it is expected that indentation would be inversely proportional to the flow strength then.

f 3 2 6cA = π .Boronsilicarbide . the process parameters which govern the ultrasonic machining process have been identified and the same are listed below along with material parameters • Amplitude of vibration (ao) – 15 – 50 μm • Frequency of vibration (f) – 19 – 25 kHz • Feed force (F) – related to tool dimensions • Feed pressure (p) • Abrasive size – 15 μm – 150 μm • Abrasive material – Al2O3 .Diamond • Flow strength of work material • Flow strength of the tool material • Contact area of the tool – A • Volume concentration of abrasive in water slurry – C Fig. MRR = Γw nf 2 = πx 3n. σ w 4a o 2 μd2δ w (1 + λ ) g 2 δw = 4a oF 3 μACσ w (1 + λ ) Now. Version 2 ME.2.f . During discussion and analysis as presented in the previous section.f .⎨ ⎬ ⎩3 μAcσ w (1 + λ )⎭ α c1/ 4 A1/ 4F 3 / 4ao 3 / 4d g f σw α dg f 3/4 1/ 4 (1 + λ ) 3/4 μ3/ 4 c Ap3 / 4ao 3 / 4 σw 3/4 (1 + λ ) 3/4 μ3/ 4 3. IIT Kharagpur . μd g 2δ w 2 3/4 ( ) 3/2 = 4cAd g μ MRR ⎧ ⎫ 4Fao .f .B4C . 9.SiC .x 3 2 3 πd g = 4π cA πd g .6 depicts the effect of parameters on MRR.(d bδ w )3 / 2 = 2 3/2 4cA dg .F= 3AC d2 g (fT ). Process Parameters and their Effects.f .

The workpiece is mounted on a vice. 9. which generates the ultrasonic vibration Version 2 ME. MRR. The table can further be lowered or raised to accommodate work of different thickness. Q MRR f F ao .7) • Slurry delivery and return system • Feed mechanism to provide a downward feed force on the tool during machining • The transducer. MRR. Q Fig. Q MRR dg f B4C . it has additional features to carry out USM of brittle work material. 6 MRR Al2O3 λ= σw σt c Fig. which can be located at the desired position under the tool using a 2 axis table.ao . IIT Kharagpur .2.2. Machine The basic mechanical structure of an USM is very similar to a drill press. The typical elements of an USM are (Fig.6 Effect of machining parameters on MRR 4. MRR. 9. However.

Feed motion transducer horn workpiece Slurry to machining zone Return slurry Slurry pump Slurry tank Fig. 9.8 shows a typical magnetostrictive transducer along with horn. IIT Kharagpur . The transducer for USM works on the following principle • Piezoelectric effect • Magnetostrictive effect • Electrostrictive effect Magnetostrictive transducers are most popular and robust amongst all.2. Fig. Version 2 ME. which mechanically amplifies the vibration to the required amplitude of 15 – 50 μm and accommodates the tool at its tip.• The horn or concentrator. which amplifies and concentrates the vibration to the tool from the transducer. 9.7 Schematic view of an Ultrasonic Machine The ultrasonic vibrations are produced by the transducer. The transducer is driven by suitable signal generator followed by power amplifier. The horn or concentrator is a wave-guide.2.

IIT Kharagpur . Machining.8 Working of horn as mechanical amplifier of amplitude of vibration The horn or concentrator can be of different shape like • Tapered or conical • Exponential • Stepped Machining of tapered or stepped horn is much easier as compared to the exponential one. Fig. Version 2 ME. 9.2. 9. carbides etc.2.2. square. 9.Power amplifier Coolant in Horn Signal generator Vibration propagation Tool Fig.9 tapered stepped Different Horns used in USM 5. semiconductors. irregular shaped holes and surface impressions. Used for machining round. wire drawing. glass. Applications • • • Used for machining hard and brittle metallic alloys. ceramics. punching or small blanking dies.9 shows different horns used in USM exponential Fig.

For the first problem. Version 2 ME. Increasing volume concentration of abrasive in slurry would affect MRR in the following manner (i) increase MRR (ii) decrease MRR (iii) would not change MRR (iv) initially decrease and then increase MRR 4. Limitations • • • Low MRR Rather high tool wear Low depth of hole Quiz Test 1. 3. What would be the effect on MRR.6. Which of the following material is not generally machined by USM (i) Copper (ii) Glass (iii) Silicon (iv) Germanium 2. from the initial setting the frequency is increased from 20 kHz to 25 kHz. For the above problem. If 100 μm grits were used. USM can be classified as the following type of non-traditional machining process (i) electrical (ii) optical (iii) mechanical (iv) chemical Problems 1. Tool in USM is generally made of (i) Glass (ii) Ceramic (iii) Carbides (iv) Steel 3. the feed force is increased by 50% along with a reduction in concentration by 70%. IIT Kharagpur . what would be the MRR? 2. Determine new MRR. Glass is being machined at a MRR of 6 mm3/min by Al2O3 abrasive grits having a grit dia of 150 μm.

Soln.3 ) x(1. 20 fold Soln. to Prob.⎜ NEW ⎜F ⎝ OLD 3/4 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 3/4 MRR OLD = (0.Answers to the Quiz 1 – (a) 2 – (d) 3 – (a) 4 – (c) Solutions to the Problems Soln. IIT Kharagpur . 2 MRR α 3 c 1/ 4 F 3 / 4 a o / 4 A 1/ 4 d g f σw 3/4 (1 + λ ) 3/4 μ 3/4 MRR = kf keeping all other variables same f 25 ∴ MRRNEW = new . x 6 = 6.MRR OLD = x6 = 7. to Prob. 1 MRR α c 1 / 4 F 3 / 4 a 3 / 4 A 1/ 4 d g f o σw 3/4 (1 + λ ) 3/4 μ 3/4 Thus MRR = kdg keeping all other variables unchanged d g2 MRR1 d g1 = ⇒ MRR 2 = MRR1 ∴ MRR 2 d g2 dg1 MRR 2 = 6 x 100 = 4 mm3/min 150 Ans.5 ) Almost no change in MRR. 3 MRR α 3 c 1 / 4 F 3 / 4 a o / 4 A 1/ 4 d g f σw 3/4 (1 + λ ) 3/4 μ 3/4 MRR = kC 1/ 4F 3 / 4 Keeping all other variables constant ∴ MRRNEW ⎛ C = ⎜ NEW ⎜ C ⎝ OLD 1/ 4 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ 4 ⎛F .5 mm3/min Ans.02 mm 3 / min Version 2 ME. to Prob.