January 2008

Getting Started
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Contents
Make the Transition from Paper to CAD . . . . . . . . . 1
Draw to Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lay Out Your Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Organize Drawing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Establish Drafting Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Draw Efficiently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Draw Accurately . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
View Your Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Create Dimensions and Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Modify Your Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Why You Should Use this Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Tutorials and Command Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Get Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Chapter 2 Work with Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Use the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Cancel a Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Start a Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Undo or Redo Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Chapter 3 Change Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Zoom to Magnify a View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Pan to Reposition a View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter 4 Drawing Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Start a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Plan the Drawing Units and Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Understand Models and Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Organize Drawings with Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Tutorial: Tour a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
iv | Contents
Chapter 5 Draw Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Object Properties Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Draw Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Draw Circles and Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Chapter 6 Precision Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Set Grid and Snap Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Draw with Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Snap to Precise Points on Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Object Snap Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Specify Angles and Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Chapter 7 Make Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Select Objects to Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Erase, Extend, and Trim Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Duplicate Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Move and Rotate Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Fillet Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Use Editing Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Analyze Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Overview of Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Insert Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Overview of Hatches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Insert Hatches or Solid Fills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Chapter 9 Add Text to a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Create and Modify Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Work with Text Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Set Text Size for the Viewport Scaling. . . . . . . . . . . .129
Chapter 10 Add Dimensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Dimensions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Create Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Use Dimensioning Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Create and Modify Dimension Styles . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Modify Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Contents | v
Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Work with Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Choose and Configure Plotters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Plot from a Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
vi
Make the Transition from Paper to
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Draw to Scale | 3
Draw to Scale
Drawing scale is something you consider when laying out your drawing. You establish scale
differently in CAD than you do with manual drafting.
With manual drafting, you
must determine the scale of a
view before you start
drawing. This scale compares
the size of the actual object to
the size of the model drawn
on paper.
With AutoCAD and
AutoCAD LT, you first decide
what units of measurement
you will use, and then draw
your model at 1:1 scale.
For example, when you draw a motor part, the
length of one unit might equal one millimeter
or one inch. When you draw a map, one unit
might equal one kilometer or one mile.
This drawing of a mechanical carriage uses
millimeters for the length of one unit. Views of
the part were scaled later to create the layout
for the printed drawing.
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When you lay out and plot your drawing, you
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Lay Out Your Drawing | 5
Lay Out Your Drawing
On paper, a layout is constrained by the sheet size you use. In CAD, you are not limited to one
particular layout or sheet size.
When you draft manually, you
first select a sheet, which usually
includes a preprinted border and
title block. Then you determine
the location for views—plans,
elevations, sections, and details.
Finally, you start to draw.
With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT,
you first draw your design, or
model, in a working environment
called model space. You can then
create a layout for that model in an environment
called paper space.
A layout represents a drawing sheet. It typically
contains a border, title block, dimensions, general
notes, and one or more views of the model
displayed in layout viewports. Layout viewports are
areas, similar to picture frames or windows,
through which you can see your model. You scale
the views in viewports by zooming in or out.
In this drawing of a cottage, layout viewports
display the model in plan and elevation views.
You create your basic design, or
model, in a drawing area called model
space.
When you’re ready to print, you can arrange
different views of your model in a layout.
Organize Drawing Information | 7
Organize Drawing Information
In both manual drafting and CAD, you need a way to organize your drawing content—a method for
separating, sorting, and editing specific drawing data.
With manual drafting, you can separate
information onto individual transparent
overlays. For example, a building plan might
contain separate overlays for its structural,
electrical, and plumbing components.
With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT, layers are
equivalent to transparent overlays. As with
overlays, you can display, edit, and print layers
separately or in combination.
You can name layers to help track content, and lock layers so
they can't be altered. Assigning settings such as color, linetype, or
lineweight to layers helps you comply with industry standards.
You can also use layers to organize drawing objects for plotting.
Assigning a plot style to a layer makes all the objects drawn on
that layer plot in a similar manner.
This drawing of a press uses layers to define different linetypes
and colors.
Turn off layers to hide complex
details as you work.
Display layers when you need
to see all components.
Establish Drafting Standards | 9
Establish Drafting Standards
Whether you work as a member of a team or on an individual project, developing standards is a
requirement for efficient communication.
Manual drafting requires meticulous
accuracy in drawing linetypes,
lineweights, text, dimensions, and
more. Standards must be established
in the beginning and applied
consistently.
With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT, you
can ensure conformity to industry or
company standards by creating styles
that you can apply consistently.
You can create styles for text, dimensions, and
linetypes. A text style, for example, establishes font and
format characteristics such as height, width, and slant.
You can save styles, layers, layouts, title block and
border information, and some command settings in
drawing template files. Using drawing templates helps
you quickly start new drawings that conform to
standards.
This drawing of a roadway plan uses styles to maintain
drafting standards for text, dimensioning, and
linetypes.
Dimension, text, and linetype
styles can be established in a
template drawing and used for
creating new drawings.
Draw Efficiently | 11
Draw Efficiently
Draw with less effort and revise with more speed: these are two primary reasons you use CAD. You
are provided with a complete set of drawing and editing tools to help eliminate repetitive, time-
consuming drafting tasks.
With manual drafting, you use drawing
tools that include pencils, scales,
compasses, parallel rules, templates, and
erasers. Repetitive drawing and editing
tasks must be done manually.
In AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT, you can
choose from a variety of drawing tools
that create lines, circles, spline curves,
and more.
You can easily move, copy, offset, rotate, and mirror
objects. You can also copy objects between open
drawings.
In this drawing of a trolley, copying and mirroring were
used to create repeated and symmetrical features.
Offsetting was also used to draw parallel lines more
efficiently.
You can save drafting time by drawing one
half of an item and then mirroring it to create
the other half.
Draw Accurately | 13
Draw Accurately
Engineering and architectural drawings require a high degree of accuracy. With CAD, you draft more
accurately than with manual methods.
With manual drafting, you must
draw objects carefully to ensure
correct size and alignment. Objects
drawn to scale must be manually
verified and dimensioned.
With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT,
you can use several methods to
obtain exact dimensions.
The simplest method is to locate
points by snapping to an interval on
a rectangular grid.
Another method is to specify exact coordinates.
Coordinates specify a drawing location by indicating
a point along an X and Y axis or a distance and angle
from another point.
With object snaps, you can snap to locations on
existing objects, such as an endpoint of an arc, the
midpoint of a line, or the center point of a circle.
With polar tracking, you can snap to previously set
angles and specify distances along those angles.
In this drawing of a pumping station, object snaps were
used to ensure that lines connected perfectly. Polar
tracking was used to draw lines at correct angles.
The polar tracking feature
displays visual guidelines at
specific angles and can snap
the cursor to an angle.
With object
snaps, when you
place your cursor
here…
you can snap to the
center point
automatically.
View Your Drawing | 15
View Your Drawing
The power of CAD makes it easy for you to quickly view different parts of your design at different
magnifications.
With manual drafting, the size
and resolution of your drawing
is fixed.
With AutoCAD and AutoCAD
LT, the size and resolution of
your drawing can be changed as
needed.
To do detailed work, you can
increase display size by zooming
in. You can zoom out to display
more of the drawing. To move to another section
of a drawing, you pan the drawing without
changing magnification.
You can zoom and pan to create the best working
conditions. This can be invaluable when working
on large and detailed drawings, such as this
health spa plan.
You can zoom out to see more of your
design, or zoom in to see more detail.
You can pan to shift to another area of your
design.
L
Create Dimensions and Text | 17
Create Dimensions and Text
Creating accurate dimensions and consistent, legible text is a time-consuming task for the manual
drafter. CAD provides ways to streamline this task.
With manual drafting, if you
resize any part of the drawing,
you must erase and then
redraw the dimensions.
Changing text can often
involve relettering the whole
drawing.
With AutoCAD and AutoCAD
LT, you create associative
dimensions and text on the
layout in paper space.
Associative dimensions are
tied to the underlying model.
Changes to the model automatically update the
dimension values.
Standard types of dimensions include linear,
radial, ordinate, angular, baseline, and more.
You can easily revise the content, font, size,
spacing, and rotation of text in dimensions and
notes.
In this detail drawing of a gutter, the text,
leaders, and dimensions describe the required
hardware.
If you make dimensions associative, you can update the
dimension size and value automatically when you
stretch or scale the dimensioned object.
You can create leader lines with associated text. If you
move the text, the leader is adjusted automatically.
Modify Your Drawing | 19
Modify Your Drawing
Revisions are a part of any drawing project. Whether you work on paper or with CAD, you will need
to modify your drawing in some way.
On paper, you must erase and redraw to make revisions to your drawing manually.
CAD eliminates tedious manual editing by providing a variety of editing tools. If
you need to copy all or part of an object, you don’t have to redraw it. If you need
to remove an object, you can erase it with a few clicks of the mouse. And if you
make an error, you can quickly undo your actions.
Once you draw an object, you never need to redraw it. You can modify existing
objects by mirroring, rotating, scaling, stretching, trimming, and more. You can
also change object properties, such as linetype, lineweight, color, and layer, at any
time.
These before-and-after drawings show some typical edits to a house elevation. The revision cloud
feature is used to mark areas of change.
Once you draw something, you can easily copy it without
having to re-create it.
20
Introduction
Why You Should Use this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Tutorials and Command Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Get Additional Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
22 | Chapter 1 Introduction
Why You Should Use this Guide
This Getting Started guide provides an introduction to the most commonly used features of both
AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. Use it to learn the basic features so you can begin working quickly.
Because you are provided with a rich set of features, there are often many ways of accomplishing a
task. This guide focuses on the following:
■ What do you need to know to get started?
■ What is the recommended method for using the features presented?
After you become more familiar with the features, you will find your own ways of working efficiently
based on the type of work that you do.
Tutorials and Command Access
There are severals ways you can access commands in AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. They can be
accessed through the command line, the ribbon, toolbars, palettes, and the Menu Browser.
Because the ribbon might have been customized, and some commands are not accessible from the
ribbon, the tutorials in this guide usually direct you to access commands through the Menu Browser.
Menu Browser
Get Additional Information | 23
NOTE All screen shots and dialog boxes in this guide display AutoCAD LT in the title bar. For the
explanations and tutorials in the Getting Started guide, there is no difference whether you use AutoCAD
or AutoCAD LT. The features presented are identical.
Get Additional Information
Additional resources are available when you need more information. From the Help menu, you can
access the following resources:
■ Help provides procedures, conceptual information, and command descriptions. You can also
press F1 at the Command prompt, in a dialog box, or at a prompt within a command to display
Help information.
■ New Features Workshop provides a series of overviews about new features.
■ Additional Resources provides several options for additional help from the Web.
Access Related Topics in the Help System
Keyword references are displayed at the end of most Getting Started topics. For example, the
following information indicates that you can find concepts, procedures, commands, and system
variables related to the LINE command by entering line in the Index tab of the Help window.
LINE
Try it: Locate a Help topic using a keyword
■ Start AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT and press the F1 key. Then follow the steps in the illustration.
2 Enter a
keyword
3 Double-click to
view a topic
4 Click to display a concept
related to the selected topic
5 Click to list
procedures related to
the selected topic
6 Click to list
commands related to
the selected topic
1 Click the
Index tab
24 | Chapter 1 Introduction
Tutorial: Use the Help System
In this tutorial, you will use the Help system to find information about how to start a drawing with
a template file and how to create a layout.
NOTE It is important to learn how to use the Help system effectively. The Help system can provide
answers to save you from needless frustration.
1 Start AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT and press F1 to display the Help window.
2 In the left pane of the Help window, click the Contents tab if necessary to display the table of
contents. Then click the plus sign (+) next to User’s Guide.
The User’s Guide expands to display a list of chapters.
3 In the left pane, click directly on the title, Start, Organize, and Save a Drawing. The right pane of
the Help window displays links to several topics, with descriptions for each one.
4 In the right pane, click Start a Drawing. Then click Use a Template File to Start a Drawing.
You have navigated to a destination topic in the Help system. Notice that the table of contents
in the left pane displays the topic structure for easy navigation.
Get Additional Information | 25
5 Click the Procedure tab. Then click the first procedure on the list. Click the Procedure tab to
redisplay the list.
6 Click the Quick Reference tab. The Quick Reference tab lists all commands and system variables
that are associated with this topic.
If you click a link on this tab, the Command Reference is opened in Help, and provides details
about command and dialog box options.
7 Next, in the left pane, click the Search tab.
You will now locate topics that contain the word layout.
8 Type the word layout and press ENTER.
Several topics that contain the word layout are displayed. For the best results, enter several
keywords or an exact phrase in quotes.
NOTE You can click the column labeled Title to sort the list of topics alphabetically. Then, click
the column labeled Location to sort the list of topics by book: Command Reference, User’s Guide,
and so on.
9 Scroll down to find the User’s Guide topic, Work on a Layout Tab. Then double-click the topic.
The topic is displayed. But how do you know where you are in the table of contents? How can
you display an adjacent, related topic?
26 | Chapter 1 Introduction
10 In the left pane, click the Contents tab.
The table of contents opens to the current topic. Use this method to find related topics easily.
NOTE If the table of contents does not automatically open to the current topic, click the Concept tab
in the right pane.
11 In the left pane, right-click any topic and then click Close All.
This is a quick method for collapsing the table of contents when too many subtopics are
displayed.
12 Close the Help window.
Get Additional Information | 27
For more information, read Use the Help System Efficiently. In the Help system, on the Contents tab,
click User’s Guide ➤ Get Information ➤ Find the Information You Need ➤ Use the Help System
Efficiently.
Review and Recall
1 What is the purpose of the tabs in the right pane of the Help window?
2 In the left pane of the Help window, when would you use the Contents tab rather than the Index tab?
3 From what menu can you get information about new features?
To get started
Action Menu Browser
Access the Help system Help ➤ Help
Use New Features Workshop Help ➤ New Features Workshop
Find training resources Help ➤ Additional Resources ➤
Online Training Resources
Help system
HELP
28
Work with Commands
Use the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Cancel a Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Start a Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Undo or Redo Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
30 | Chapter 2 Work with Commands
Use the Mouse
Most people use a mouse as their pointing device. On a two-button mouse, the left button is usually
the pick button, used to specify points or select objects in the drawing area. With the right button,
you can display a shortcut menu that contains relevant commands and options. Different shortcut
menus are displayed depending on where you move the cursor.
NOTE To see what options are available in any situation, try right-clicking to display a shortcut menu.
A wheel mouse is a two-button mouse with a small wheel between the buttons. This wheel can be
rotated or pressed down to zoom and pan your drawing quickly. It is highly recommended that you
use a wheel mouse.
Cancel a Command
If you accidentally click in the screen, display a shortcut menu, or start a command, you can always
escape by pressing the ESC key on your keyboard.
Try it: Cancel a selection
■ Click in the drawing area and move the mouse. You are now in an object selection mode. Press
ESC to cancel.
Start a Command
You can start a command using the Menu Browser, a toolbar, a palette, or the command line. Because
AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT are very flexible, you can work in the way that feels most comfortable
to you.
You can choose commands from several different kinds of menus:
specify points or select objects
display a shortcut menu
rotate to zoom, press to pan
Start a Command | 31
■ Menu Browser access is from the bright red button at the top-left corner of the application
window. All the commands for the tutorials in this book are accessible from these menus.
■ The Object Snap menu is displayed when you hold down SHIFT and click the right mouse button.
Object snaps facilitate precision drawing by snapping the cursor onto a feature on an object such
as the endpoint of a line or the center of a circle.
■ Shortcut menus are displayed when you click the right mouse button. Different menus are
displayed when you right-click an object, right-click in the drawing area, right-click a toolbar, or
right-click within a dialog box, palette, or window.
Start Commands on the Command Line
You can initiate commands by typing them on the command line within the command window instead
of using toolbars or menus. Additionally, some commands must be completed on the command line,
regardless of how they are started.
Some commands have abbreviated names or command aliases. For example, you can enter c as an
alias for CIRCLE.
After you type the command on the command line, press ENTER or SPACEBAR to start the
command. You can also repeat the previous command by pressing ENTER or SPACEBAR.
NOTE In this guide and in the Help system, when you are instructed to enter something, type the bold-
face value on the command line, and then press the ENTER key.
Specify a Command Option
When you start a command, you will often see a set of options on the command line. For example,
when you enter the CIRCLE command, the following prompt is displayed on the command line:
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:
The default option, “Specify center point for circle,” is displayed before the square brackets. Alternate
options are displayed between the aquare brackets.
■ To accept the default option, enter coordinate values, or use the pointing device to click a center
point in the drawing area.
■ To choose a different option, enter the capitalized letters in the option name. For example, type
2P and press ENTER to choose the Two-Point option.
command window
command line
32 | Chapter 2 Work with Commands
Use the Dynamic Prompt
In addition to the prompt on the command line, a similar prompt is displayed next to the cursor
called the dynamic prompt.
With the dynamic prompt, you can keep your eyes on your work and you don’t have to look down
to the command line.
To display command options in the dynamic input prompt, press the DOWN ARROW key, and then
click an option on the menu.
Try it: Use the Menu Browser to draw a line
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Click Draw ➤ Click Line.
2 At the Specify First Point prompt, click anywhere in the drawing area to locate a point.
The prompt changes: Specify Next Point or [Undo].
3 At the Specify Next Point or [Undo] prompt, click anywhere else in the drawing area to specify the
endpoint of the line segment.
4 Create a second line segment by clicking again to locate another point.
The Specify Next Point or [Undo] prompt is repeated so you can continue to draw segments until
you end the LINE command.
5 Press ENTER to end the LINE command.
The two line segments that you just created share an endpoint, but are separate objects.
6 Click Modify ➤ Erase, and click each line. Then press ENTER to end the erase command.
Try it: Use the ribbon to draw a line
1 Home tab ➤ Draw panel ➤ Click the Line button.
2 Draw two line segments.
3 Home tab ➤ Modify panel ➤ Click the Erase button.
4 Click each line and then press ENTER to erase the lines.
Start a Command | 33
Try it: Use the command line to draw a line
1 On the command line, type line or the letter L. Press ENTER.
2 Click anywhere in the drawing area to locate a point.
3 At the Specify Next Point or [Undo] prompt, click anywhere else in the drawing area to specify
the endpoint of the line segment.
4 At the Specify Next Point or [Undo] prompt, click anywhere else in the drawing area to specify
the endpoint of the line segment.
5 Type u and press ENTER to undo the last line segment and click another location for the
endpoint.
6 Then type c (Close) and press ENTER to add a third line segment that connects to the initial point
and ends the command.
Try it: Use the command line to draw a circle
1 On the command line, enter circle or the letter c (type c and press ENTER).
2 At the Specify Center Point for Circle prompt, click anywhere in the drawing area to locate a
point.
3 At the Specify Radius of Circle prompt, enter 5 (type 5 and press ENTER).
4 On the command line, press ENTER to repeat the CIRCLE command.
5 Enter 2P to create a circle using two points (type 2P and press ENTER).
6 Click anywhere in the drawing to locate each point.
7 Repeat the CIRCLE command several more times, using each of the other options.
8 When you’re done, enter erase or e, and click each circle to select it. Then press ENTER to erase
the selected circles.
Try it: Use the dynamic prompt to draw a circle
1 At the dynamic prompt, enter circle or the letter c.
2 At the Specify Center Point for Circle prompt, press the DOWN ARROW key.
3 Click one of the CIRCLE options on the menu and complete the command.
34 | Chapter 2 Work with Commands
Undo or Redo Commands
Occasionally you will need to undo some of your work. Two Standard toolbar buttons reverse
mistakes in your drawings.
■ Undo. You can backtrack previous actions. For example, click Undo to delete an object that you
just created.
■ Redo. You can reinstate the actions that you backtracked with Undo. For example, click Redo to
restore the object that you just undid.
Review and Recall
1 What are three ways that you can start a command?
2 What other key can you use to end or repeat a command in addition to ENTER?
3 What should you do to cancel a command?
To get started
Action Shortcut Menu Keyboard
End a command Right-click ➤ Enter ENTER or SPACEBAR
Repeat a command Right-click ➤ Repeat <action> ENTER or SPACEBAR
Cancel a command Right-click ➤ Cancel ESC
Undo the previous command Right-click ➤ Undo <action> U and press ENTER
Help system
OPTIONS, U, UNDO, REDO
Redo
Undo
It will be easier to create or modify objects in
this drawing by zooming in to magnify the
view.
After you finish working on an area, you can
zoom out to get a better overall view.
Once you have zoomed in, you can pan the
view to center the objects you are working on.
Change Views
Zoom to Magnify a View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Pan to Reposition a View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
38 | Chapter 3 Change Views
Zoom to Magnify a View
A view is a specific magnification, position, and orientation of your design. The most common way
to change a view is zooming. Zooming increases or decreases the magnification of the image
displayed in the drawing area.
There are several methods for zooming in your drawings.
Zoom by Moving the Cursor
You can use a pointing device to zoom in real time—that is, to zoom in or out by moving the cursor.
With the Realtime option of the ZOOM command, you drag the cursor up to zoom in; drag it down
to zoom out. If you use a wheel mouse, rotate the top of the wheel forward to zoom in and rotate it
backward to zoom out.
Zoom to a Specified Area
With the Window option of the ZOOM command, you can quickly zoom in on a specific area by
using the mouse to define a rectangular zoom window. The area you define is centered in the new
view.
Zoom to Display the Entire Drawing
Use the Extents option of the ZOOM command to display the entire drawing. This is useful when
you need to return to an overall view quickly. This option is also useful if your drawing area is blank
as a result of zooming in too close on a blank area or panning too far off the drawing area.
zoomed out zoomed in
Pan to Reposition a View | 39
Pan to Reposition a View
Panning is another common way to change a view. Panning moves the position of the image
displayed in any two-dimensional direction.
Pan by Moving the Cursor
You can pan in real time—that is, use the pointing device to reposition the image in the drawing
area. Within the PAN command, drag the cursor to pan the image to a new location. If you use a
wheel mouse, hold the wheel down and move the mouse to pan.
Tutorial: Zoom and Pan
In this tutorial, you can practice zooming and panning operations using the commands in the Menu
Browser or directly with a wheel mouse.
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open.
2 In the Open dialog box, find the Sample folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT program files
folder. Click on each drawing file and open one that looks interesting.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Zoom ➤ Window.
4 Click somewhere near the center of the drawing. Move your cursor to form a rectangular area
and click again.
5 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Pan ➤ Realtime.
6 Drag the cursor in any direction to reposition the view. Press ESC to end the operation.
7 Continue to practice zooming and panning with these options:
■ Zoom Realtime (or use the wheel on a wheel mouse)
■ Zoom Previous
■ Zoom Window
■ Zoom Extents
■ Pan Realtime (or hold the wheel down and move the mouse)
before PAN after PAN
40 | Chapter 3 Change Views
Practice these options until you are comfortable with zooming and panning. These are the most
common options for drawing in 2D.
NOTE If you zoom in and you notice that arcs and circles lose their smoothness, or if you can’t
zoom in or out beyond a limit, you can regenerate the display. Click View menu ➤ Regen All. This
command also removes stray pixels.
8 (Optional) If you have a wheel mouse, you can zoom and pan without entering a command. Try
the following operations:
■ Move your cursor to an area in the drawing and rotate the wheel forward and backward to
zoom in and out. Notice that your cursor location determines the stationary reference point
of your zoom operation.
■ Press the wheel down and drag the view to pan it.
■ Double-click the wheel to zoom to the extents of the drawing.
9 Close the sample drawing without saving it.
Review and Recall
1 What ZOOM option should you use to fit your entire drawing into the drawing area?
2 What is a fast way to redisplay the previous view?
3 What command smooths the display of curves and removes stray pixels?
To get started
Action Menu Browser Ribbon
Pan View ➤ Pan Home tab ➤ Utilities panel ➤
Pan
Zoom View ➤ Zoom Home tab ➤ Utilities panel ➤
Realtime
Reset the display limit for zooming View ➤ Regen
Smooth arcs and circles View ➤ Regen
Help system
PAN, ZOOM, REGEN, REGENALL
Establish layers to organize
information as if on transparent
drawing overlays.
Assign standard lineweights to
ensure that lines will plot the
same way regardless of drawing
scale.
Use various linetypes to
help identify different types
of objects.
Drawing Setup
Start a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Plan the Drawing Units and Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Understand Models and Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Organize Drawings with Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Tutorial: Tour a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
44 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup
Start a Drawing
There are several ways to start a new drawing. The recommended method is to start with a drawing
template file.
A drawing template file contains predefined settings, standards, and definitions that will save you
significant setup time. When you start a drawing with a drawing template, these settings are passed
on to the new drawing. Drawing template files include settings and basic drawing elements that you
will use often, such as
■ Unit type and precision
■ Tool settings and preferences
■ Layer organization
■ Title blocks, borders, and logos
■ Dimension styles
■ Text styles
■ Linetypes and lineweights
■ Plot styles
Your product includes several drawing template files, including some that facilitate compliance with
ANSI, DIN, ISO, and JIS standards. Nevertheless, it is very likely that you will customize one or more
of these, or build your own drawing template files to meet your standards and requirements.
You can create a drawing template file by saving a drawing using the .dwt extension.
drawing template file with
included title block
Start a Drawing | 45
Try it: Open a drawing template file
1 Start a new drawing.
2 In the Select Template dialog box, click one of the following drawing template files and then
click Open.
■ Tutorial-mArch.dwt. Sample architectural template (metric)
■ Tutorial-mMfg.dwt. Sample mechanical design template (metric)
■ Tutorial-iArch.dwt. Sample architectural template (imperial)
■ Tutorial-iMfg.dwt. Sample mechanical design template (imperial)
The metric template files are scaled to use millimeters as the drawing unit, and the imperial template
files are scaled to use inches as the drawing unit.
46 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup
Plan the Drawing Units and Scale
Unlike manual drafting, you don’t need to worry about setting a scale before you start drawing. Even
though you eventually print or plot to paper at a specified scale, you create the model at 1:1 scale.
However, before you start a drawing, you must first decide what drawing units you will use.
Choose the Drawing Units
In AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT, distances are measured in drawing units. In a drawing, one drawing
unit may equal one inch, one millimeter, one meter, or one mile.
Before you begin drawing, you decide what one drawing unit will represent—there is no setting that
determines the length of a drawing unit.
Set the Format of Drawing Units
After you decide what drawing units to use, you can set the format of the drawing units. The format
settings available for linear units are as follows:
■ Architectural. A length of 15.5 units displays as 1’-3 1/2”
■ Decimal. A length of 15.5 units displays as 15.5000
■ Engineering. A length of 15.5 units displays as 1’-3.5”
■ Fractional. A length of 15.5 units displays as 15 1/2
■ Scientific. A length of 15.5 units displays as 1.5000E+1
Shaft
1 unit = 1 mm
(grid spacing = 2 mm)
Office plan
1 unit = 1 inch
(grid spacing = 12 inches)
Plan the Drawing Units and Scale | 47
For example, if you are a mechanical engineer who normally works in millimeters, you would set
the format for linear units to decimal. If you are an architect who normally works in feet and inches,
you would set the format to architectural.
The drawing unit format controls only the display style of the drawing units on-screen, such as in
the display of coordinates and values in the Properties palette, dialog boxes, and prompts.
Try it: Check the drawing unit format and precision
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Units. In the Drawing Units dialog box, notice the display style
selected for linear and for angular units.
NOTE Think of this dialog box as the Drawing Units Format dialog box.
2 Notice the value displayed under Precision. This represents the decimal or fractional rounding
of values displayed on-screen.
3 Close the dialog box.
48 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup
Understand Models and Layouts
The Model and layout buttons on the status bar provide two working environments. You use Model
space to draw a full-size model of your subject. With layout space you can create a multiple-view
layout for plotting.
■ Model space accesses a limitless drawing area. In model space, you first decide whether one unit
represents one millimeter, one meter, one inch, or some other drawing unit. Next, you set the
drawing unit format. Then you draw at 1:1 scale.
■ Layout space accesses drawing layouts. When you set up a layout, you specify the paper size you
want to use. The layout represents a printed drawing sheet in which you can display one or more
views of the model at various scales. This layout environment is called paper space. Here you create
layout viewports that act as windows into model space. Each layout viewport can contain a
different view of the model.
full-size model of a part
created at 1:1 scale
layout with title block and rectangular layout
viewports that contain scaled views
layout with viewports using different scales
Understand Models and Layouts | 49
Try it: Switch between the Model and layout space
1 At the bottom-center of the application window toward the right side, click the Model button.
This action displays Model space, where you create and modify the geometry for your model.
The strip along the bottom of the application window is called the drawing status bar.
2 Right-click the same Model button and click the Display Model and Layout Tabs option. This
displays tabs at the bottom-left of your drawing area.
When you are learning, it’s easier to work with the tabs. You can hide the tabs and return to using
buttons by right-clicking a tab and then clicking Hide Model and Layout tabs from the shortcut
menu.
3 Click the layout tab to the right of the Model tab. Layouts are used to create printed drawings.
The layout has already been prepared, including a sample title block and a layout viewport, the
blue rectangle.
4 On the layout, double-click anywhere within the rectangular viewport area. This is how you
access model space from a layout to pan the model space view and to add dimensions.
Notice that the border of the layout viewport becomes thicker and the crosshairs cursor is active
only within the layout viewport.
5 Double-click in a blank area outside the rectangular viewport. This returns you to paper space.
The border of the layout viewport is no longer as thick and the crosshairs cursor is active within
the entire drawing area.
6 Click the Model tab to return to Model space.
50 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup
Organize Drawings with Layers
Layers are the equivalent of the overlays used in manual drafting. In CAD, they are an important
organizational tool.
Each layer includes an assigned color, linetype, and lineweight. Before you create objects, you set the
layer on which the objects are to be created. This is called the current layer. By default, the current
layer’s color, linetype, and lineweight are assigned automatically to the new objects you create.
Assign Layers
You can organize the drawing by assigning similar components to the same layer. For example, you
can create a layer called Electrical and assign it the color green. Whenever you draw electrical
objects, you switch to that layer. The objects you draw are created on the Electrical layer and are
colored green.
Later, if you don’t want to view or plot electrical objects, you can turn off that layer.
NOTE It is very important to establish and maintain a company-wide layer standard. With a layer
standard, drawing organization will be more logical, consistent, compatible, and maintainable over time.
Layer standards are essential for team projects.
Try it: Display the list of layers in a drawing
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer.
2 In the Layer Properties Manager, notice the name and default properties assigned to each layer.
These layers are just a sample of the types of layers that you will need to use in a well-organized
drawing. There are many layer standards already in use, including those specified in companies
and those recommended by professional organizations.
3 Enlarge the right side of the dialog box to display all of the columns. Click the titles of the Status,
Color, and Name columns to rearrange the order of the layers.
Review the descriptions of each layer in the column on the far right.
walls
furniture
all layers
electrical
Organize Drawings with Layers | 51
Control Layers
To make objects on a layer invisible, you can turn off the layer or freeze it in the Layer Properties
Manager. You can also lock layers to reduce the possibility of modifying objects accidentally.
■ Turn off layers. Use this option rather than freezing if you frequently need to switch a layer’s
visibility.
■ Freeze layers. Use this option if you don’t need a layer to be visible for a long time. Thawing a
frozen layer causes an automatic regeneration of the drawing and is slower than turning a layer
on.
■ Lock layers. Use this option to prevent objects on a layer from being modified. You can still use
the objects on a locked layer for operations that don’t modify the objects. For example, you can
snap to these objects to use them as guides for precision drawing.
52 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup
Tutorial: Tour a Drawing
In this tutorial, you tour a drawing of an arbor and picket fence design.
1 Click Menu browser ➤ File ➤ Open.
2 In the Select File dialog box, find the \Help\GettingStarted folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT
product folder and open arbor.dwg.
For you don’t see the drawing files, check to make sure that the Files of Type drop down list in
the dialog box is set to Drawing (.dwg).
3 Click the Model tab (or click the Model button on the status bar).
4 As you move the mouse over the objects in the drawing, notice that the objects are automatically
highlighted.
5 Zoom and pan in model space to inspect the arbor design.
6 Perform a Zoom Extents to display the entire design.
7 Click the ANSI C Layout tab.
8 Zoom and pan in paper space to inspect the drawing layout.
9 Perform a Zoom Extents to display the entire layout.
10 Click Menu browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer. In the Layer Properties Manager, review the list of layers
that were created to organize this drawing.
Notice that the current layer has a green check next to it.
11 Click several lightbulb icons to turn off several layers.
12 Click the column labeled On to arrange the layers according to whether they are on or off. Then
turn the layers back on.
13 Click the Color column to arrange the layers according to color.
14 Click the Name column and click OK.
15 Close the drawing without saving it.
Tutorial: Tour a Drawing | 53
Review and Recall
1 Why is it important to start a drawing from a drawing template file?
2 What is the difference between choosing drawing units and setting the drawing unit format?
3 What is the difference between the Model tab and a layout tab?
4 What are several benefits to creating a drawing with layers?
To get started
Action Menu Browser Icon
Start a new drawing File ➤ New
Save a drawing template File ➤ Save As
Set the display style of the units Format ➤ Units
Create a layout Insert ➤ Layout ➤ New Layout
Create and modify layers Format ➤ Layer
Help system
NEW, SAVEAS, STARTUP, UNITS, MODEL, LAYOUT, LAYER
Create rectangles easily
Use lines for drawing objects
and for construction geometry
Use circles and arcs to
create regular curves
Offset lines to create parallel lines
Use polylines to combine
line and arc segments
Use splines to create smooth,
non-uniform curves
Draw Objects
Object Properties Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Draw Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Draw Circles and Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
56 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects
Object Properties Overview
All objects that you create have properties. Object properties are settings that control the appearance
and geometric characteristics of an object. The general properties that are common to all objects are
listed below. All other object properties are specific to the type of object.
Assign Object Properties
Typically, you assign object properties using one of the following strategies:
■ By layer. Properties are assigned to a layer. Objects that are drawn on that layer automatically use
those properties.
■ Individual properties. Properties are assigned to objects individually, regardless of the layer that
they are drawn on.
Color Linetype scale Hyperlink
Layer Plot style Lineweight
Linetype Thickness
click the icon to expand or collapse a
category of properties
click to change a property
Right-click to set palette behavior options
Object Properties Overview | 57
Use the Properties Palette
The Properties palette is the primary tool for viewing, setting, and modifying the properties of
objects. The Properties palette operates as follows:
■ If no objects are selected, the Properties palette displays the current default property settings, and
you can set the default properties for all subsequently created objects.
■ When you click an object, the Properties palette displays the properties of that object, and you
can change its properties.
■ If you click multiple objects, the Properties palette displays all the properties that they have in
common, and you can change their common properties.
Try it: Display the Properties palette
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ New.
2 In the Select Template dialog box, click one of the drawing template files and then click Open.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties.
Leaving the palette open keeps it handy. You can turn on Auto-hide to make the Properties palette
appear and disappear when your cursor moves over the Properties palette title bar.
Try it: Change the Auto-hide behavior of the Properties palette
1 Right-click the Properties palette title bar. Click Auto-hide on the shortcut menu.
2 Move the cursor on and off the Properties palette. Leave the Properties palette open.
Use the Properties Panel
You can use the controls in the Properties panel and the Layers panel to view, set, and modify the
properties the same way as the Properties palette. By default, these panels are displayed in the Home
tab of the ribbon located above the drawing area.
The Properties panel provides convenient access to the most important object properties.
Color control
Linetype control
Lineweight
control
Plotstyle control
Properties
panel
58 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects
Use the Layers Panel
The Layers panel controls layers and layer properties. Use the Layer Properties Manager button to
change layer settings. The Layer control, a drop-down list, provides a quick method for changing
several layer properties and for changing the current layer.
Tutorial: Change Object Properties
In this tutorial, you will use several controls to view and change the properties of layers and objects.
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open.
2 In the Select File dialog box, find the \Help\GettingStarted folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT
product folder and open arbor.dwg.
3 Click the Model tab.
4 Move your cursor onto the title bar of the Properties palette to open it.
Examine the current default properties settings.
5 Click a dimension object in the drawing to select it.
Notice that several properties of this object are displayed in the Properties panel on the ribbon.
The layer of the object is Dimension. The color, linetype, and lineweight properties of the object
are set to ByLayer. The color of the Dimension layer is red.
6 Move your cursor onto the title bar of the Properties palette to open it.
Examine the additional properties of the dimension object displayed in the Properties palette.
7 Click several more objects with different colors. Move your cursor onto the title bar of the
Properties palette.
Notice that only the common properties of the objects are listed.
8 Move your cursor off the Properties palette and press ESC to cancel the selection.
Layer
control
make the layer of the currently
selected object the current layer
Layer Properties
Manager
turn off the layer of a selected object
the current layer.
Layers
panel
Object Properties Overview | 59
Change the default color of a layer
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer.
2 In the Layer Properties Manager, click the red box under the Color column of the Dimension
layer.
3 In the Select Color dialog box, click the green box and click OK. Close the Layer Properties
Manager.
Notice that all the objects on the Dimension layer are now green. Because all of the dimensions
are on a single layer, you can change the properties of all objects on that layer in one operation.
Change the color of an individual object
1 Click any green dimension object to select it.
2 Properties panel ➤ Click the Color control ➤ Click Magenta.
The color of the selected object changes to magenta, overriding the green color of the object’s
layer. If you change the layer color, the dimension object’s color will remain magenta.
3 Press ESC to exit.
4 Click the same dimension object.
5 Click the Color control and click ByLayer. This restores the color property behavior of the
dimension object.
Change the current layer
1 Click the Layer control on the Layers panel.
2 Click a different layer to make it the current layer.
All new objects will be created on this layer until you change the current layer to a different one.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer
4 In the Layer Properties Manager, click a layer to select it.
Color control
Properties
panel
Layer control
Layers
panel
60 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects
5 Click the green check mark button at the top of the Layer Properties Manager. Click OK to make
the selected layer the current layer.
6 On the Layers panel, click the Layer control again.
7 Click the lightbulb image for the Dimension layer to turn it off. Then click anywhere in the
drawing area.
All objects on the Dimension layer are now hidden.
8 Use the Layer Properties Manager to turn the Dimension layer back on.
9 Close the drawing without saving it.
Object Properties Overview | 61
Use Linetypes
You can associate a single linetype with all of the objects drawn on the same layer or you can assign
linetypes individually to objects.
To use a linetype, you must first load it into your drawing using the Linetype Manager.
Try it: Load a linetype and make it current
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ New, and select a drawing template file.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Linetype.
3 In the Linetype Manager, click Load.
4 In the Load or Reload Linetypes dialog box, scroll down the list of linetypes and click
HIDDENX2. Click OK.
5 Click Show Details.
Several linetype scaling options are displayed. Notice the Use Paper Space Units for Scaling
option. You check this option if you want linetypes automatically scaled in layout viewports.
6 Click the HIDDENX2 linetype and click Current. Click OK.
CONTINUOUS
HIDDEN
CENTER
PHANTOM
62 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects
Notice that the Properties panel in the ribbon displays the HIDDENX2 linetype as current rather
than BYLAYER. All subsequently created objects will be displayed using this linetype. This setting
overrides the linetype assigned to the current layer.
7 Click the Model tab.
8 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line, and click several locations in the drawing area to draw line
segments. Press ENTER to end the command.
9 Use the Linetype Manager or the Properties panel to return the current linetype to BYLAYER.
All subsequently created objects will be displayed using the linetype assigned to the current layer.
Scale Linetypes
When you scale views in layout viewports, you can create inconsistencies in the appearance of
linetypes. In noncontinuous linetypes, the length of dashes and dots, and the space between them,
may increase or decrease. You can set the scaling to correspond to the model or layout scale or to
remain the same at any zoom scale.
Use the Details area of the Linetype Manager to control the linetype scale in layout viewports.
■ Global Scale Factor. Sets the global scale factor for all linetypes.
■ Current Object Scale. Sets the linetype scale for newly created objects.
■ Use Paper Space Units for Scaling. Scales the linetypes in paper space and model space identically.
To update a linetype scale, you need to regenerate the model space display within a layout viewport
on the layout tab. The steps required are
1 Click a layout tab.
2 Double-click within a layout viewport to enter model space.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Regen.
The linetypes within the layout viewport are scaled according to the viewport display scale setting.
Dashed linetype
scaled to the model
the Dashed linetype
scaled to the layout
Object Properties Overview | 63
Assign Lineweights
Using lineweights, you can create heavy and thin lines to show cuts in sections, depth in elevations,
dimension lines and tick marks, and differences in details. Lineweights are independent of the
current display scale. Objects with a heavier lineweight always appear at the specified line width
regardless of display scale.
Try it: Choose a lineweight and make it current
1 Click the Model tab.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Lineweight.
3 In the Lineweight Settings dialog box, under Lineweights, click a heavier lineweight such as 0.50
mm or 0.020".
4 Click Display Lineweight and click OK.
Notice that the Properties panel displays the new lineweight as current. From now on, objects
that are created will be displayed using the heavier lineweight.
5 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line, and draw several line segments. Press ENTER.
6 Use the Lineweight Settings dialog box or the Properties toolbar to return the current linetype to
BYLAYER.
From now on, objects that are created will be displayed using the lineweight assigned to the
current layer.
7 Practice setting linetypes and lineweights.
NOTE You can assign a color, linetype, or lineweight to individual objects, regardless of the default
layer setting. Whether you choose to assign these properties individually or by layer settings depends on
your drawing organization and company standards.
64 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects
Draw Lines
The line is the most basic object that you will use. A line can be one segment or a series of successive
segments, but each segment is a separate line object. If you need to draw a series of line segments as
a single object, such as in a contour map, you create a polyline object instead.
Create Parallel Lines
An offset line is an exact replica of a line that is drawn at a specified distance from the original line.
You can use the OFFSET command to create parallel lines as well as concentric circles and parallel
curves.
Offsetting objects is a very efficient construction method.
Try it: Offset a line to create parallel lines
1 Draw a line.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Offset.
3 At the offset distance prompt, enter 10.
4 Click the line that you want to offset.
5 Click on one side of the line.
6 Press ENTER to end the command.
Draw Polylines and Polygons
A polyline is a connected sequence of line or arc segments created as a single object. Use polylines for
creating objects such as
■ Traces on printed circuit boards
■ Borders
■ Contour lines, roads, and rivers in maps
■ Segments with fixed or tapered widths
Polygons are closed polylines with equal-length sides and angles. The Polygon command is the
simplest method for creating equilateral triangles, squares, pentagons, hexagons, and so on.
offset arcs
offset lines
Draw Lines | 65
Draw Polylines
To draw each polyline segment, you specify a start point and an endpoint. To draw additional
segments, continue to specify points in your drawing.
Try it: Create a polyline
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Polyline.
2 At each prompt, click a point. After several points, do one of the following:
■ Press ENTER to end the command.
■ Enter c to create a closed loop.
3 Click the polyline. Notice that the segments all belong to a single object.
You can include arc segments in polylines.
Try it: Create a polyline with arc segments
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Polyline.
2 Draw a polyline segment (1 and 2).
3 At the next prompt, enter a to switch to Arc mode and continue with an arc segment (3).
4 Enter L to return to Line mode, and then draw another line segment.
5 End the command.
Try it: Create a rectangle
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Rectangle.
2 Click a location on the screen.
3 Move the cursor diagonally and click another location.
The resulting object is a closed polyline in the shape of a rectangle.
endpoint of arc final segment
3
2
1
66 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects
Try it: Create a polygon
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Polygon.
2 Enter the number of sides, for example, 6.
3 Click a location for the center of the polygon.
4 Specify either the Inscribed or the Circumscribed option. This determines how the distance that
you enter in the next prompt is measured.
5 To specify a “radius” of the polygon, do one of the following:
■ Move the cursor and click a location.
■ Enter a distance.
The resulting object is also a closed polyline.
You can draw polylines of various widths by using the Width and Halfwidth options after you specify
a starting point for a polyline. You can also make polyline segments taper.
Once you create a polyline, you can
■ Separate the polyline into independent segments with the EXPLODE command.
■ Join a polyine to another polyline, line or arc with the JOIN command.
1
2
1
2
inscribed radius circumscribed radius
mixed width uniform width tapered segment
Draw Circles and Arcs | 67
Draw Circles and Arcs
You can create a variety of curved objects, including circles and arcs.
Draw Circles
To create circles, use one of the following methods:
■ Specify the center and radius (default method).
■ Specify the center and diameter.
■ Define the circumference of the circle with two or three points.
■ Create the circle tangent to two existing objects.
■ Create the circle tangent to two objects and specify a radius.
Draw Arcs
To create arcs, you can specify various combinations of center, endpoint, start point, radius, angle,
chord length, and direction values. The following examples illustrate three ways to specify two
points and an included angle.
radius
1
1
3
2
center
2
radius
tangent objects
Center, radius Two points
defining diameter
Three points defining
circumference
Tangent, tangent,
radius
Start, center, angle
1
Center, start, angle
2
Start, end, angle
1
2
included angle
1
2
68 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects
NOTE The FILLET command creates an arc tangent to two existing objects. This is often the preferred
method for creating arcs and will be covered later.
Review and Recall
1 What is the result of setting the color of an object to ByLayer?
2 What is the fastest way to change the current layer to a different one?
3 What would you do to access a complete list of the properties of an object?
4 What command is recommended for creating parallel lines and curves?
5 What type of object is composed of a series of connected segments?
To get started
Action Menu Browser Icon
Set properties Modify menu ➤ Properties
Load, scale, and
manage linetypes
Format ➤ Linetype
Change lineweight settings Format ➤ Lineweight
Draw lines Draw ➤ Line
Draw parallel lines Modify ➤ Offset
Draw polylines Draw ➤ Polyline
Draw polygons Draw ➤ Polygon
Separate polyline segments Modify ➤ Explode
Join polylines Modify ➤ Join
Draw circles Draw ➤ Circle
Draw arcs Draw ➤ Arc
Help system
PROPERTIES, COLOR, LAYER, LINETYPE, LTSCALE, CELTSCALE, PSLTSCALE, LINEWEIGHT, LINE, OFFSET,
PLINE, POLYGON, RECTANG, PEDIT, JOIN, EXPLODE, CIRCLE, ARC
Enter coordinate values to
locate points precisely
Turn on polar tracking to draw
along specified angles
Turn on Ortho to draw
horizontal and vertical
lines
Turn on Grid and Snap to
draw within a predefined
framework
Use object snaps
to locate precise
points on objects
Precision Drawing
Set Grid and Snap Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Draw with Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Snap to Precise Points on Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Object Snap Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Specify Angles and Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
72 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing
Set Grid and Snap Values
The grid and snap features set up a framework that you can use as a guide while drawing.
■ Grid displays a rectangular pattern of dots that extends over the area specified by the drawing grid
limits. The grid helps you align objects and visualize the distances between them. The grid does
not appear in the plotted drawing.
■ Snap restricts the movement of the crosshairs to intervals that you have defined. When Snap is
on, the cursor seems to adhere, or “snap,” to an invisible grid. Snap is useful for specifying precise
points with the cursor.
Set Grid and Snap Spacing
The grid does not necessarily correspond to the current snap interval. You might set a wide grid
spacing to be used as a reference but maintain a closer snap spacing for accuracy in specifying points.
For example, you might set the grid spacing to 10 times the snap spacing in a metric drawing or 12
times the snap spacing in an imperial drawing.
Try it: Constrain the cursor with Snap
1 Start a new drawing.
2 Click the Snap button on the status bar.
Notice that the button changes color to indicate that Snap has been turned on.
3 Move the pointer around in the drawing area while Snap is turned on.
Notice that the cursor seems to adhere, or “snap,” to points at equal intervals in the drawing area.
Try it: Display a grid
1 Click the Grid button on the status bar.
Notice that the grid dots cover a limited area, the grid limits.
2 Turn Grid and Snap off.
If you zoom in or out, you might need to adjust grid spacing to be more appropriate for the new
magnification.
Set Grid and Snap Values | 73
Try it: Change the Grid and Snap spacing
1 Right-click either the Grid or Snap button on the status bar.
2 Click Settings on the shortcut menu.
3 In the Drafting Settings dialog box, specify new spacings for Grid and Snap. Click OK.
4 Turn on Grid and Snap.
Set Grid Limits
Try it: Change the grid limits
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Drawing Limits.
2 Click two points to represent the lower-left and the upper-right corners of a rectangular area.
3 Repeat using two different points.
Grid limits shown by
range of grid dots
74 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing
Draw with Coordinates
Coordinates represent locations in your drawing. When a command prompts you for a point, you
can use the cursor to specify a point in the drawing area or you can enter coordinate values.
Use Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
In two-dimensional space, you specify points on a plane that is similar to a flat sheet of grid paper.
You can enter two-dimensional coordinates as either Cartesian (X,Y) or polar (distance<angle)
coordinates.
■ Cartesian coordinates are measured from two perpendicular lines, the X axis and the Y axis. The
X value specifies horizontal distance, and the Y value specifies vertical distance. For example, the
coordinates 5,3 represent a point 5 units along the X axis and 3 units along the Y axis. The origin
(0,0) indicates where the two axes intersect.
■ Polar coordinates use a distance and an angle to locate a point. For example, the coordinates
5<30 specifies a point that is a distance of 5 units from the origin and at a 30 degree angle from
the X axis.
You can use absolute or relative values with each method. Absolute coordinate values are based on
the origin. Relative coordinate values are based on the last point entered.
Draw with Absolute Cartesian Coordinates
Use absolute Cartesian coordinates when you know the precise X and Y values of the location of the
point. For example, the line in the illustration begins at an X value of –2 and a Y value of 1 and ends
at 3,4. The entries on the command line were as follows:
Command: line
Specify first point: #–2,1
Specify next point or [Undo]: #3,4
Entering the # identifies the coordinates as absolute coordinates.
-X
Y
-Y
X
Y
X –X
-Y
0,0 -2,1
3,4
Draw with Coordinates | 75
Draw with Relative Cartesian Coordinates
Use relative Cartesian coordinates when you know the location of a point in relation to the previous
point. For example, to locate a point relative to the absolute coordinates –2,1, start the next
coordinates with the @ symbol.
Command: line
Specify first point: #–2,1
Specify next point or [Undo]: @5,3
Entering @5,3 locates the same point in this example as entering #3,4 in the previous example.
NOTE Absolute coordinates are entered differently if the Dynamic Input button on the left side of the
status bar is turned off. In that case, the # is not used to specify absolute coordinates.
76 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing
Snap to Precise Points on Objects
Using object snaps is the most important way to specify an exact location on an object without
having to use coordinates. For example, you can use an object snap to draw a line to the exact center
of a circle, to the endpoint of another line segment, or to the tangent on an arc.
You can specify an object snap whenever you are prompted for a point. When you move your cursor
over an object, an active object snap point is identified with AutoSnap markers and tooltips.
Use Single Object Snaps
At any prompt for a point, you can specify a single object snap by holding down SHIFT, right-
clicking, and choosing an object snap from the Object Snap menu.
Once you have specified an object snap, use the cursor to select a location on an object.
NOTE To cycle through all the object snap points available for a particular object, press TAB.
Press SHIFT and right-click to
display the object snap menu
object snaps
Snap to Precise Points on Objects | 77
Set Running Object Snaps
To use the same object snap repeatedly, set it as a running object snap. It will stay active until you
turn it off. For example, you might set Center as a running snap if you need to connect the centers
of a series of circles with a line.
You can set multiple running object snaps, such as Endpoint and Center, as running object snaps.
Running object snaps can be turned on and off from the status bar.
Try it: Change the running object snap settings
1 Right-click Object Snap on the status bar.
2 On the shortcut menu, click Settings.
3 On the Drafting Settings dialog box, select the object snaps you want to use. Click OK.
4 Draw several lines and circles using object snaps to locate points precisely.
78 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing
Object Snap Descriptions
The following table illustrates commonly used object snaps.
Object snap Snaps to
Endpoint Object endpoints
Midpoint Object midpoints
Intersection
Object intersections or, for single object snaps,
locations where intersections would occur if
objects were extended
Center
Center points of circles, arcs, or ellipses
Quadrant
Quadrants of arcs, circles, or ellipses
Perpendicular
Points on objects that form a perpendicular
alignment with the last point specified
Tangent
Point on a circle or arc that, when connected to
the last point, forms a line tangent to the object
Specify Angles and Distances | 79
Specify Angles and Distances
You can quickly specify angles and distances using the polar tracking, direct-distance entry, and
angle override features.
Use Polar Tracking
As you draw lines or move objects, you can use polar tracking to restrict the movement of the cursor
to specified angle increments (the default value is 90 degrees). For example, you can create a series
of perpendicular lines by turning on Polar before you start drawing. Because the lines are constrained
to the horizontal and vertical axes, you can draw faster, knowing that the lines are perpendicular.
Try it: Use polar tracking
1 Click Polar Tracking on the status bar to turn it on.
2 Draw several lines at 90 degrees from each other.
Specify Distances
Use direct distance entry to specify an exact line length quickly—by moving the cursor to indicate a
direction and then entering the distance from the first point. When polar tracking is on, using direct
distance entry helps you draw perpendicular lines of a specified length efficiently.
Polar tracking restricts cursor
movement to specified angles
alignment path
tooltip display of distance and angle
Polar: 1.5<45
Polar tracking constrains the cursor to
an angle, in this case 180 degrees...
then direct distance entry determines
the exact length of the line, in this case,
1000
80 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing
Try it: Draw several lines of specified lengths
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line.
2 Click a point and then move the cursor to the right (0 degrees).
3 Enter a value.
4 Move the cursor up (90 degrees) and enter another value.
5 Repeat several more times and then press ENTER.
Specify an Angle
If the angle that you want to use is not going to be used frequently, you can enter an angle override.
For example, if you start drawing a line at the coordinates –2,1, and want that line to be at a 10
degree angle with a length of 50, you would enter
Command: line
Specify first point: #–2,1
Specify next point or [Undo]: <10
(Move the cursor in the desired direction)
Specify next point or [Undo]: 50
Tutorial: Draw with Precision
In this tutorial, you will practice using several precision tools to create the following drawing, which
can be the beginning of a design for
■ A health spa with exercise pool
■ A catch for a window lock
■ A housing for a motor assembly
NOTE It is important that you save this drawing as you work. It will be used in several future tutorials
in this guide.
Specify Angles and Distances | 81
Start a new drawing
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ New.
2 Select the tutorial drawing template file that is closest to your intended application and units of
measurement:
■ Tutorial-mArch.dwt. Sample architectural template (metric)
■ Tutorial-mMfg.dwt. Sample mechanical design template (metric)
■ Tutorial-iArch.dwt. Sample architectural template (imperial)
■ Tutorial-iMfg.dwt. Sample mechanical design template (imperial)
3 Click the Model tab.
4 Click File ➤ Save. Use MyDesign as the file name.
Use Grid and Snap to create a drawing
1 On the status bar, turn on Grid and Snap. Dynamic Input should also be turned on.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line and click several locations to create a series of line segments
to create the previously illustrated design. The exact dimensions don’t matter, but use reasonable
distances for the design. Press ENTER to end the command.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Circle ➤ Center, Radius.
4 Click a point to locate the center of the circle, and then click another point to specify its radius.
5 Turn Grid and Snap off.
Create a line using object snaps
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Erase.
The crosshairs cursor changes into a square pickbox cursor.
2 Click directly on one of the lines that you created and then press ENTER.
The line is erased, but how do you create another line to take its place with precision?
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line.
4 Press SHIFT and right-click. From the object snap menu, click Endpoint.
5 Move the cursor over an endpoint of a line. When you see an AutoSnap marker, click.
6 Press SHIFT and right-click again. From the object snap menu, click Endpoint.
7 Move the cursor over the opposite endpoint and click. Press ENTER to end the command.
The endpoints of the new line are located exactly at the endpoints of the adjacent lines.
82 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing
8 Do the following:
■ Experiment with creating lines using the following object snaps: Midpoint, Center,
Perpendicular, and Tangent.
■ Turn running object snaps on and create several more lines.
■ Create a line from the center of the circle at a 30 degree angle and 10 units long.
9 Erase any objects that are not part of the illustrated result.
10 Save the drawing. MyDesign should be the file name.
Review and Recall
1 How do you turn off the grid dots in your drawing area?
2 The term origin refers to what coordinate values?
3 Pressing SHIFT while you right-click displays what shortcut menu?
4 What button can you turn on to ensure that the line you are drawing is exactly vertical?
5 What is meant by the term direct distance entry?
To get started
Action Menu Browser
Set Snap and Grid spacing Tools ➤ Drafting Settings, Snap and
Grid tab
Use single object snaps SHIFT+right-click for the
object snap menu

Set running object snaps Tools ➤ Drafting Settings, Object
Snap tab
Change AutoSnap settings Tools ➤ Options, Drafting tab
Change polar settings Tools ➤ Drafting Settings
Help system
GRID, SNAP, DSETTINGS, LIMITS, UCS, DYNMODE, OSNAP, OPTIONS
Use COPY to create duplicates
at locations that you specify
Use MIRROR to create an exact replica
of objects across a mirror line
Use DIST to measure the distance
between two points
Use FILLET to connect
two lines with an arc
Use OFFSET to create parallel
lines and concentric circles
Use TRIM to remove the parts of
objects that extend beyond cutting
edges that you specify
Make Modifications
Select Objects to Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Erase, Extend, and Trim Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Duplicate Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Move and Rotate Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Fillet Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Use Editing Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Analyze Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
86 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Select Objects to Edit
When you edit objects, you select one or more objects to specify a selection set of the objects. You can
use two methods to specify which objects to modify:
■ Choose the command first. Choose an editing command and then select objects to modify.
■ Choose the objects first. Select objects and then start the editing command. In addition, when
you use this method, grips are displayed on the objects that you can use to modify the objects
directly. You can clear a selection by pressing ESC.
Object Selection Methods
The two most common methods to select objects are
■ Select individual objects. Click objects individually.
■ Specify a selection area. Click a rectangular area around the objects to be selected.
Specify a Selection Area
You can select objects by enclosing them in a rectangular selection area. You define a rectangular
selection area in the drawing area by clicking opposite corners. The order in which you specify the
corners makes a difference.
■ Drag from left to right to create a window selection, which selects only objects entirely within the
selection area.
■ Drag from right to left to create a crossing selection, which selects objects within and crossing the
selection area.
NOTE You can remove objects from the selection set by pressing SHIFT and then clicking them.
Objects selected using window selection
1
2
Erase, Extend, and Trim Objects | 87
Erase, Extend, and Trim Objects
These methods delete objects or change their lengths:
■ Erase deletes the entire object.
■ Extend lengthens an object to a precise boundary.
■ Trim shortens an object to a precise boundary and removes the excess.
Erase Objects
You can use all the object selection methods with the ERASE command. The example shows how
you use window selection to erase a section of piping.
Try it: Practice using window and crossing selection
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ New.
2 Create some lines, arcs, and circles.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Erase.
4 Select several objects using a crossing selection and press ENTER.
Notice which objects are selected and erased.
5 Select several more objects using a window selection and press ENTER.
Again, notice which objects are selected and erased.
6 Select the other objects that you created in step 1 individually and press ENTER to erase them.
1
2
Result Selected objects Objects selected with
window selection
88 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Extend Objects
You can extend objects so that they end precisely at a boundary defined by other objects. If you press
ENTER instead of selecting boundary objects, all visible objects in the drawing become potential
boundaries. The illustration shows lines extended precisely to the circle, which is the nearest
boundary.
Try it: Extend an object
1 Create a short line. Then create circle that encompasses the line.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Extend.
3 At the Select Objects prompt, click the circle.
Notice that you select the boundary objects first. The next step is easy to forget.
4 Press ENTER to end boundary selection.
5 At the next Select Objects prompt, click one end of the line and then the other end of the line.
Press ENTER to end the command.
Trim Objects
Trimming objects is very similar to extending them. To trim, you cut an object at an edge defined
by one or more objects. By default, objects defined as cutting edges must intersect the object to be
trimmed.
Select objects to extend nearest to
the end to be extended
Press ENTER to accept
all objects as boundaries
Result
Cutting edges selected
with a crossing selection
Object to trim selected Result
1
2
3
Erase, Extend, and Trim Objects | 89
Try it: Trim an object
1 Create two horizontal lines and two vertical lines as shown in the left side of the previous
illustration.
You can use the Perpendicular object snap to make sure that the two horizontal lines intersect
the vertical line at a right angle.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Trim.
3 At the Select Objects prompt, click locations 1 and 2 as previously illustrated.
Notice that you select the boundary objects first.
4 Press ENTER to end boundary selection.
5 At the next Select Objects prompt, click the vertical line at point 3 as shown. Press ENTER to end
the command.
NOTE With both EXTEND and TRIM, you must accept the selection set of boundary objects by pressing
ENTER, and then select the objects to be trimmed. If you press ENTER without selecting any boundary
objects, all objects become potential boundaries.
90 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Duplicate Objects
There are several ways to make copies of objects:
■ Copy creates new objects at a specified location.
■ Offset creates new objects at a specified distance from selected objects or through a specified
point.
■ Mirror creates a mirror image of objects around a specified mirror line.
Copy Objects
To copy an object, you select one or more objects to copy, specify a start point, called a base point,
and then specify a second point to determine the distance and direction of the copy. The two points
can be anywhere within the drawing. For example, in the following illustration, the circle is copied
from one rectangle to a corresponding location on the second rectangle.
Try it: Copy an object
1 Create two rectangles and a circle as shown on the left side of the previous illustration.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Copy.
3 At the Select Objects prompt, click the circle and press ENTER.
4 At the Specify Base Point prompt, press SHIFT and right-click to display the object snap menu.
Click Endpoint.
5 Click the corner of the rectangle at point 2 as shown.
Result 1 Select the circle
2 Specify a base point (endpoint object snap)
3 Specify second point (endpoint object snap)
Duplicate Objects | 91
6 At the Specify Second Point prompt, press SHIFT and right-click to display the object snap menu.
Click Endpoint.
7 Click the corner of the other rectangle at point 3 as shown.
8 Press ENTER to end the command.
The copied circle is at the same location relative to its enclosing rectangle as the original circle.
You can also copy objects specifying a base point followed by direct distance entry, typically with
polar snap turned on.
The Copy command automatically repeats so you can easily create multiple copies.
Offset Objects
Offsetting creates a new object that seems to trace a selected object at a specified distance. Offsetting
circles creates larger or smaller circles depending on the offset side. For an easy way to create parallel
lines or concentric circles, use offsetting.
Objects selected Base point specified
and a distance entered
Result
enter a distance
Object selected(bush) Result
base point
next point
next point
next point
second point
92 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
NOTE Offsetting several objects followed by trimming or extending them is a very efficient drawing
technique.
Mirror Objects
You mirror objects around a mirror line, which you define with two points. You then choose to
delete or retain the original objects.
Mirroring is useful for creating symmetrical objects. You can draw half the object and quickly mirror
it rather than draw the whole object.
object offset
original object
1
2
3
mirror
line
Objects selected Mirror line defined Result with original retained
4
Move and Rotate Objects | 93
Move and Rotate Objects
An important drawing technique is to create one or more objects and then move or rotate them into
place.
Move Objects
You move objects the same way that you copy them. You select the object to move, specify the base
point (1), and then specify a second point to determine the distance and direction of the move (2).
In the illustration, these steps move the window higher and away from the door.
Rotate Objects
You rotate objects by specifying a base point and a rotation angle. You can specify the rotation angle
by specifying a point or entering a value for the angle.
In the following example, you specify the base point (1) and a second point (2) that determines the
angle of rotation (2) for the orientation of a house.
Instead of specifying the second point in the example, you could have entered -35 to specify the
rotation in degrees.
NOTE By default, a positive angle results in a counter-clockwise rotation. However, this setting can be
changed using the Units command.
1 2
Select objects, specify base point and
new location of the selected objects.
Objects selected Result
1
Base point and angle
of rotation
2
94 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Fillet Corners
Filleting connects two objects with an arc of a specified radius that is tangent to the objects.
Use the Radius option of the Fillet command to specify arc radius of the fillet. Changing the radius
sets the default radius for subsequent fillets. By default, the filleted objects are trimmed as shown in
the illustration.
One useful technique is to set the fillet radius to 0. This results in two objects intersecting in a sharp
corner as illustrated. No arc is created.
NOTE You can hold down SHIFT while selecting the objects to override the current fillet radius with a
value of 0.
You can also fillet circles, arcs, and polylines. More than one possible fillet can exist between circles
and arcs depending on where you select the objects.
Objects selected Result
Radius set to 0,
objects selected
Result
Fillet Corners | 95
Tutorial: Modify Objects with Precision
In the following tutorial, you will use precision drawing techniques to modify part of an assessor’s
map.
The adjoining property owners of an empty city lot persuaded their city council to allow them to
acquire the lot. The only requirement was that the property owners agree on an equitable division.
How would you divide the empty lot?
The proposal accepted by the property owners expanded lots 26 and 27 to make their total lot sizes
equal. The fence between lots 38 and 39 was extended. Lot 38 was larger than the others, but this
benefit was offset by its irregular shape.
empty lot
96 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Use the following procedure to change the boundaries of the lots.
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open.
2 In the Select File dialog box, find the \Help\GettingStarted folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT
product folder and open map.dwg.
3 To simplify the display, turn off the Text layer.
You first create a new property line on the left side of the triangular lot. The top end of the new
property line will be displaced 25.73 feet; and the bottom end of the new property will be
displaced by 39.94 feet. These distances were determined using trial-and-error to make lots 26
and 27 about equal in area, but without making lot 38 too narrow or too large.
To accomplish this task, you create some “construction geometry” that makes the task easier.
4 Use the Circle command and object snaps to create a circle with a radius of 25.73 and a circle
with a radius of 39.94 centered on the intersections as shown in the illustration.
Fillet Corners | 97
5 Use intersection object snaps to create a new property line as shown in the illustration.
6 Erase the old property line and the two construction circles.
98 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Next, extend the old property line to the new one.
7 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Extend.
8 Click the new property line. This line is the boundary for extending the old property line.
9 Press ENTER. This action is important and easily forgotten. It separates the objects that serve as
boundaries from the objects to be extended.
10 Click the old property line near the end to be extended as shown.
Fillet Corners | 99
11 Press ENTER to end the command.
12 Use the same method to extend the other property line to the lower border.
13 Erase the old property lines to open the long, narrow lot.
100 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
14 Draw a short property line using the endpoint object snap between the end points of the
property lines as shown.
The new property lines are complete. But how can you find the new areas of the lots?
Find the areas of the lots
1 On the command line, enter boundary.
2 In the Boundary Creation dialog box, click Pick Points. Then click inside each of the lots. Press
ENTER to end the command.
A closed polyline object is created using the property lines for each lot. These closed polylines
are superimposed upon the existing property lines and can later be erased.
Fillet Corners | 101
NOTE As you move your cursor over the map, different polylines highlight. Where the polylines
share a common boundary, only one of them is highlighted. Press SHIFT and SPACEBAR on a shared
boundary repeatedly to cycle through the overlapping objects at that location.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties.
4 Click one of the boundaries and find the area listed in the Properties palette.
5 Press ESC to clear the selection.
6 Find the area of each of the other lots.
7 Close the map drawing without saving it.
Tutorial: Create a New Drawing with Precision
In the following tutorial, you will create a detail drawing of a type of jet engine mount used to attach
jet engines to commercial aircraft. You will be happy to know that this part is made of a high-
strength, nickel-chromium-iron alloy.
NOTE Each step in this tutorial is not specified in detail. When in doubt, feel free to review earlier
portions in this guide or use the Help system. You can access all the commands in this tutorial using the
Draw and Modify menus.
102 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
1 Start a new drawing using the drawing template file, Tutorial-mMfg.dwt.
This template is for mechanical design drawings using metric units. All distances are assumed to
be in millimeters.
2 On the status bar, click the Model button.
3 Make sure that the Polar and Osnap buttons on the status bar are turned on. The current layer
should be Model-Front.
Create the front view
1 Create a circle with a diameter (not radius) of 50 mm at the coordinates 180,100.
NOTE The precise location of this circle is not critical in this tutorial, but it’s a good idea to make
sure that several significant features coincide with snap locations. For single-view drawings or 3D
models, it’s a good idea to have a significant feature located at the origin (0,0). This is convenient
when referencing a drawing from another drawing such as with assembly drawings.
2 Use the Center object snap to draw a circle with a diameter of 24 using the center point of the
previous circle.
The Center object snap might not be a default running object snap. Press SHIFT and right-click
to access the object snap menu.
3 Using PolarSnap to lock the angle at 0 degrees, copy the two circles to a location 125 mm to the
right.
Command: copy
Select objects: Select the two circles and press ENTER
Specify base point or [Displacement/mOde]: <Displacement> Click the center of the circles and move
your cursor to the right
Specify second point or <use first point as displacement>: 125
Specify second point or [Exit/Undo]: Press ENTER
4 Offset the inner circle on left by 4 mm to the outside.
Command: offset
Specify offset distance or [Through/Erase/Layer]: 4
Select object to offset or [Exit/Undo]: Select the left inner circle
Specify point on side to offset or [Exit/Multiple/Undo]: Click anywhere outside the circles
Fillet Corners | 103
5 Create a circle using the tangent-tangent-radius (Ttr) option. The radius should be 250 mm.
Notice that the AutoSnap marker for tangent is turned on automatically.
Command: circle
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: t
Specify point on object for first tangent of circle: Select an outer circle near the expected tangent location
Specify point on object for second tangent of circle: Select the other outer circle as shown
Specify radius of circle: 250 (only part of the circle is shown in the illustration)
6 Trim the large circle as shown below.
104 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
7 Use the Mirror command to mirror the arc using the center points of the left and right circles to
define the mirror line. Again, use SHIFT and right-click to access the object snap menu.
There are often alternative methods for each step. For example, to create the lower arc, you could
have used the Fillet command to fillet the two outer circles with a radius of 250 mm.
8 Trim the outer-left circle as shown.
The front view of the part is complete. Next, you will use the objects in the front view to create the
top view of the part.
Create the top view
1 Set the current layer to Model-Top. You can use the Layer control on the Layers toolbar, or the
Layer Properties Manager.
2 Use the Quadrant object snap to create a line starting from the left side of the part. With polar
snap on, move the cursor upward and enter 100 to make the line 100 mm long. Create another
100 mm line on the right side of the part.
Fillet Corners | 105
3 Use the Endpoint object snap to create a line connecting the upper ends of the vertical lines.
4 Offset the horizontal line downward by 12 mm.
5 Trim the lower ends of the vertical lines to create the rectangular outline of the top view.
6 Offset the topmost horizontal line upward by 3 mm. Create vertical lines from the quadrants of
the other circles as shown.
7 Trim the four vertical lines representing the silhouette edges of the holes as shown. Don’t forget
to press ENTER after selecting the horizontal boundary line for the trimming.
8 Trim the other vertical lines as shown. Zoom and pan as needed.
boundary line
for trim
106 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
9 Trim the topmost horizontal line as shown.
10 Create a vertical line that starts from the endpoint of the arc and ends perpendicular to the
horizontal line as shown. This line will be the trim boundary for the runout on the part.
11 Trim the horizontal line to the boundary line as shown.
12 Erase the vertical trim boundary line.
boundary line
for trim
boundary line
for trim
erase line
Fillet Corners | 107
13 Extend the remaining vertical line as shown.
14 Add 1 mm fillets to the outside corners.
The top view is almost complete. You still need to change the hidden silhouette edges of the holes
to a dashed linetype.
To change the linetype of the four vertical lines, you will override the linetype property currently
assigned to the lines. As you remember, you can select the objects and then use either the Properties
palette or the Properties panel to specify the required linetype.
Change linetypes
1 Select the four vertical silhoutte edges of the holes.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties.
Notice that because you selected more than one object, only the common properties are listed.
3 On the Properties palette, click Linetype. Click the arrow and, from the list, click
ACAD_ISO02W100.
4 Click Linetype Scale. Type 0.3 for the new linetype scale and press ENTER.
5 Move your cursor off the Properties palette and press ESC to clear the selection.
The four lines are now displayed with a dashed linetype.
NOTE Instead of changing the linetype of the four lines individually, you could have created a new
layer for hidden lines. The linetype property of that layer could then be set to ACAD_ISO02W100.
Then, to change the linetype of the four lines, you would change the layer assignment of the lines to
the new layer.
6 The tutorial is complete. If you want to keep this drawing, save it now.
extend line
silhouette edges
108 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Match Properties
You can easily copy properties of one object to other objects. You can choose to match color, layer,
linetype, linetype scale, lineweight, thickness, plot style, and in some cases dimension styles, text
styles, and hatch patterns.
Try it: Copy the properties from one object to other objects
1 Start a new drawing.
2 Draw several objects with different color properties.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Match Properties.
4 Click the source object from which you want to copy properties.
5 Click the objects to which you want to copy the properties.
You can use the Settings option of the command to select the properties you want to match and clear
the ones you don’t.
Use Editing Aids | 109
Use Editing Aids
The following editing aids help you modify drawings efficiently:
■ Grips edit objects using your cursor and a shortcut menu.
■ Revision clouds identify areas that have been updated.
Edit with Grips
Grips are small squares and arrows that appear on an object after it has been selected. They mark
control locations and are powerful editing tools.
After you select an object, you can click a grip and move it with your cursor. For more options, click
a grip and right-click to display a shortcut menu. Then choose a grip edit mode.
select line click grip
move grip to end of
horizontal line
1
2
grip edit modes
grip edit mode options
110 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Try it: Edit objects using grips
1 Draw several objects.
2 Click several objects to select them and to display their grips.
3 Click a grip on an object and click its new location. This is the default stretch mode.
■ Notice the grip behavior when object snaps are turned on.
■ Notice the grip behavior when you stretch a grip onto another grip.
4 Click a grip on an object and then right-click.
5 Choose a different grip mode such as Move, Mirror, Rotate, or Scale.
6 Press ESC to exit grip editing.
Create Revision Clouds
If you review or redline drawings, you can increase your productivity by using revision clouds to
highlight your markups. You draw the revision cloud around the objects you want to emphasize,
creating a polyline in the shape of a cloud, as shown in the following illustration.
Try it: Create a revision cloud
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Revision Cloud.
2 Click anywhere in the drawing area and move your cursor to encompass an area.
3 Repeat the command and see whether the revision cloud always creates the arcs outward or if
you can trick it.
Analyze Drawings | 111
Analyze Drawings
You can extract information from your model using the inquiry commands. The most commonly
used one is the DIST command.
Use DIST to quickly determine the relationship between two points. You can display the following
information for two points you specify:
■ Distance between them in drawing units
■ Angle between the points in the XY plane
■ Angle of the points from the XY plane
■ Delta, or difference, between the X, Y, and Z coordinate values of each point
Try it: Find the distance and angle between two points
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Tools ➤ Inquiry ➤ Distance.
2 Use an object snap to locate a point on an object.
3 Use another object snap to locate a point on a different object.
4 Review the data displayed in the command window.
5 Press F2 to see the data in a larger window called the Text window.
To get started
Action Menu Browser Icon
Erase objects Modify ➤ Erase
Extend objects Modify ➤ Extend
Trim objects Modify ➤ Trim
Copy objects in a drawing
Copy objects between drawings
Modify ➤ Copy
Edit ➤ Copy
Offset objects Modify ➤ Offset
Mirror objects Modify ➤ Mirror
Move objects Modify ➤ Move
Rotate objects Modify ➤ Rotate
Fillet objects Modify ➤ Fillet
Edit properties Modify ➤ Properties
112 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications
Review and Recall
1 What is the difference between a crossing selection and a window selection?
2 What is the fastest way to create several parallel lines?
3 What is the easiest way to create an arc that is tangent to two other objects?
4 When creating or modifying an object, what do you do to display the object snap menu?
5 What is an easy way to find the distance between two points in a drawing?
Match properties Modify ➤ Match Properties
Create revision clouds Draw ➤ Revision Cloud
Extract information from objects Tools ➤ Inquiry ➤ Distance
Help system
ERASE, EXTEND, TRIM, COPY, COPYCLIP, COPYMODE, PASTECLIP, OFFSET, MIRROR, MOVE, ROTATE,
UNITS, FILLET, PROPERTIES, MATCHPROP, OPTIONS, REVCLOUD, DIST
To get started
Action Menu Browser Icon
Hatch to fill areas with patterns or solid colors
that help identify the subject matter or material
Create blocks when you want
to use drawings or parts of
drawings repeatedly
These symbols, called blocks, represent
standard items such as trees or bushes
Add Symbols and Hatches
Overview of Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Insert Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Overview of Hatches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Insert Hatches or Solid Fills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
116 | Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches
Overview of Blocks
In AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT, symbols are called blocks. A block is a collection of objects that are
associated into a single object. Use blocks to represent objects such as a trees, fasteners, or doors.
Blocks are typically defined and stored in drawings called block libraries, or symbol libraries, from
which they can be inserted into other drawings. An entire drawing can also be inserted as a block.
Blocks may also include block attributes, which store data such as part numbers, dates, and
performance ratings.
Benefits of Blocks
Using blocks makes it easier and faster to get your work done:
■ Draw efficiently by inserting, relocating, and copying blocks rather than individual objects.
■ Build a standard library of frequently used symbols, components, or standard parts.
■ Store associated data with block attributes which can be extracted to create reports.
■ Manage blocks with DesignCenter. DesignCenter provides convenient organization and access to
thousands of symbols on your computer, on your local network, and on the World Wide Web.
Sources of Blocks
There are several sources of blocks that you can use in your drawings.
■ Your computer. Over 300 standard blocks in 15 symbol library drawings are available in the
DesignCenter folder.
■ Your company network. You can also create your own blocks and block libraries, or your
company may already have its own standard libraries.
■ The World Wide Web. Numerous Autodesk and commercial symbol libraries containing
thousands of blocks are available. Access these using the DC Online tab in DesignCenter.
NOTE Creating blocks, block attributes, or block libraries are more advanced topics and are not
covered in this guide.
block references
of fastener
inserted into a
drawing
block definition for
fastener
Insert Blocks | 117
Insert Blocks
You can choose from the following three methods to insert blocks into drawings:
■ Insert dialog box. Place a block by specifying its insertion point, scale, and rotation angle.
■ DesignCenter. Locate symbol libraries and place or drag a block into a drawing or onto a tool
palette. Use DesignCenter to locate and manage a large number of blocks and block libraries.
■ Tool Palettes window. Place or drag a block into a drawing. Use tool palettes to organize and
access your most commonly used blocks.
Tutorial: Adding Blocks
1 Open MyDesign, the drawing that you created and saved in a previous tutorial.
2 Offset the lines to create walls (if it’s a health spa or motor housing) or ridges (if it’s a catch for a
window lock). Use a value for the offset distance that is appropriate for what you are creating.
Clean up the corners using Fillet with the fillet radius set to 0.
118 | Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches
Open a block library
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Tools ➤ DesignCenter.
The DesignCenter window is divided into the tree view on the left side and the content area on
the right side.
2 On the DesignCenter window, click the Folders tab if necessary. In the tree view, navigate to the
Help\GettingStarted\Symbol Libraries folder.
3 Click the plus sign (+) on the block library that’s appropriate for your drawing:
■ Fasteners - Metric.dwg
■ Fasteners - US.dwg
■ Office - Metric.dwg
■ Office - US.dwg
4 Click the Blocks item under the drawing that you just expanded. The blocks become visible in
the Content area of DesignCenter.
Place and relocate blocks with DesignCenter
1 Drag one of the blocks from DesignCenter into your drawing. The precise location is not
important.
2 Click the block. Notice the colored grip that displays. Drag the grip to move the block into place.
3 Click the grip and right-click. On the shortcut menu, click Rotate. Rotate the block either with
the cursor or by entering a rotation angle.
4 In DesignCenter, double-click a different block.
5 In the Insert dialog box, under Rotation, click Specify On-Screen. Click OK.
6 Click a location in your drawing. You are prompted to specify a rotation angle. Rotate the block
either with the cursor or by entering a rotation angle.
7 Close the DesignCenter window.
Place blocks with the Insert dialog box
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Insert ➤ Block.
2 In the Insert dialog box, click the arrow next to the Name box. These are the block definitions
stored in your drawing file. Click one of them and click OK. Specify the location for the block.
3 Add several more blocks to your drawing. Save the drawing.
Access block libraries from the Web
1 Open DesignCenter again.
2 Click the DC Online tab. If you have an Internet connection, you can explore the commercial
symbol libraries that are available.
Overview of Hatches | 119
Overview of Hatches
A hatch pattern is a standard pattern of lines or dots used to highlight an area in a drawing, or to
identify a material such as concrete, steel, or grass. A hatch pattern can also be a solid fill.
Use Standard Hatch Patterns
The DesignCenter folder contains more than 60 industry-standard ISO and imperial hatch patterns.
You can also use hatch patterns from hatch pattern libraries supplied by other companies. Hatch
patterns are stored in hatch pattern files with PAT extensions.
Associative Hatches
By default, hatches are associative. Associative hatches are linked to their boundaries and are updated
when the boundaries are modified. You can remove associativity from a hatch at any time.
Industry-standard
hatch patterns
ANSI31
INSUL
AR-CONC
Hatched object Result of editing
boundary with
nonassociative hatch
Result of editing
boundary with
associative hatch
120 | Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches
Insert Hatches or Solid Fills
You can hatch or fill objects in a drawing using one of these methods:
■ Choose Hatch from the Draw menu or toolbar to create hatches and solid fills.
■ Use DesignCenter to drag hatches into the drawing or onto a tool palette.
■ Use a tool palette to drag commonly used hatches into a drawing quickly.
Define Hatch Boundaries
Hatch boundaries can be any combination of objects such as lines, arcs, circles, polylines, text, and
blocks. Hatch boundaries must enclose an area, but they can include islands (enclosed areas within
the hatch area) that you choose to hatch or leave unhatched.
Result Boundaries detected Internal point selected
internal point
islands
Insert Hatches or Solid Fills | 121
Tutorial: Add Hatches to a Drawing
In this tutorial, you will hatch part of your drawing to look something like this:
1 Open MyDesign, the drawing that you created and saved in the previous tutorial.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Hatch.
3 On the Hatch tab, under Type and Pattern, notice the name of the hatch pattern and the swatch.
Choose a different hatch pattern.
4 Under Boundaries, click Add: Pick Points. Then click anywhere between the parallel lines for the
walls and press ENTER.
5 At the bottom of the dialog box, click Preview.
There are probably several things that you’ll want to change, including the circle being hatched,
the hatch angle, and the hatch spacing.
6 Press ESC to return to the dialog box.
7 Click the > (More Options) button at the bottom-right corner of the dialog box.
8 Under Islands, click Outer. Then click the < (Less Options) button.
9 Under Angle and Scale, change the values for the angle and for the scale. If the hatch is too dense,
increase the value for the scale by a factor of 10.
10 Click Preview. If the hatch is still not acceptable, return to step 6. Otherwise, right-click or press
ENTER to accept the hatch.
11 Save your drawing file.
122 | Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches
Review and Recall
1 What is a block?
2 What is a block library?
3 How can you use object snaps with blocks?
4 What are three ways to hatch an area in a drawing?
5 How do you fill an area with a solid color?
To get started
Action Menu Browser Icons
Insert a blocks Insert ➤ Block
Open DesignCenter Tools ➤ Palettes ➤ DesignCenter
Open the Tool Palettes window Tools ➤ Palettes ➤ Tool Palettes
Hatch an area Draw ➤ Hatch
Tools ➤ Palettes ➤ DesignCenter
Tools ➤ Palettes ➤ Tool Palettes
Help system
ADCENTER, BLOCK, EXPLODE, INSERT, TOOLPALETTES, HATCH
Add Text to a Drawing
Create and Modify Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Work with Text Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Set Text Size for the Viewport Scaling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
126 | Chapter 9 Add Text to a Drawing
Create and Modify Text
AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT provide a text editor to add text to drawings. The text editor consists of
a tab on the ribbon with a set of panels, and a text bounding box with a ruler at the top. These two
components display automatically when you use the Multiline Text command.
With the Multiline Text command, you can choose formatting that affects the entire text object or
only selected text. You can also control indents and specify one or more columns.
Before creating the text, you define the width of the text by specifying the two opposite corners of
a text boundary. Only the width of the box has an effect. The text you enter is inserted in the dialog
box within the width limit and words that don’t fit wrap to the next line.
When using the text editor, you can easily change the width by dragging the right side of the ruler.
NOTE The fastest way to make changes to an existing text object is to double-click it. This opens the
text editor and displays the text in the bounding box.
display options
keep changes and close
set width of
multiline text
objects
paragraph
indent
first-line indent
tab stops
Create and Modify Text | 127
Additional features that are available for text in drawings include the following:
■ Check spelling using a spell checker with customizable dictionaries
■ Locate and correct text with the Find and Replace dialog box
■ Specify several columns of text and adjust the column widths easily
■ Create mirrored text
Try it: Create multiline text objects
1 Start a new drawing.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Text ➤ Multiline Text.
3 Click two points to determine the width of the text object.
4 In the bounding box, type your text.
5 Highlight a word and click some of the formatting options.
These options are similar to those in most word processing applications.
6 Click Close Text Editor on the ribbon.
Try it: Modify an existing multiline text object
1 Double-click the text object.
2 Highlight more words or the entire paragraph and click more formatting options.
3 Click Close Text Editor on the ribbon.
128 | Chapter 9 Add Text to a Drawing
Work with Text Styles
Every text object in a drawing has a text style associated with it. When you enter text, the current
text style is applied, which determines the following properties:
■ Font controls the shapes of the characters
■ Font style controls the italic and boldface formatting for TrueType fonts
■ Height controls the size in drawing units of the text
■ Obliquing angle controls the forward or backward slant of the text
■ Orientation controls the vertical or horizontal alignment of single-line text
■ Other text characteristics controls effects such as wide text and backwards text
Create and Modify Text Styles
Except for the default STANDARD style, you must define any text style that you want to use. Once
you’ve created a style, you can modify its settings, change its name, or delete it when you no longer
need it. When you create or modify a text style, you use the Text Style dialog box.
If you change an existing style’s font, all text in the drawing that uses that style is regenerated using
the new font.
NOTE If you create notes and labels directly on a layout in paper space, no scaling is necessary. Notes
and labels created in model space must be sized to accommodate the scale of the layout viewport.
choose a text
style
create a new
text style
see the changes
you make
specify a font
Set Text Size for the Viewport Scaling | 129
Set Text Size for the Viewport Scaling
You can create text either in model space or on the layout in paper space. The space in which you
create text depends on the circumstances.
■ If the text is more closely associated with the layout, you should create the text in paper space.
With this option, there are no scaling considerations and you create the text at its full size (1:1).
■ If the text is more closely associated with the model, and you anticipate referencing the model
and the text from other drawings or other views, you should create the text in model space. With
this option, the text must usually be scaled.
Preparing one or more views on a drawing layout usually involves displaying them in layout
viewports at various scales other than 1:1. If you create text in model space, you must size it for
correct display and plotting in paper space.
Set Text Size in Model Space
Set the text size in model space using the following formula:
Text size in model space = desired text size / scale of the layout viewport
■ Example 1: If the desired text size is 3 mm and the viewport scale is 1:4 (0.25),
then use 3/0.25 = 12 mm for the text size in model space.
■ Example 2: If the desired text size is 1/8 inch and the viewport scale is 1”=4’ (1:48),
then use (1/8)/(1/48) = 48/8 = 6 inches for the text size in model space.
Creating text directly on the layout is much easier because no scaling is required. It is recommended
that you create view-specific text in model space, and general notes, tables, and labels in paper space.
To get started
Action Menu Browser Icon
Create multiline text Draw ➤ Text ➤ Multiline Text
Modify text Modify ➤ Object ➤ Text
Check the spelling in a drawing Tools ➤ Spelling
Find and replace text Edit ➤ Find
Create text styles Format ➤ Text Style
Help system
FIND, MTEXT, MIRRTEXT, MTEXTED, SPELL, STYLE, SCALETEXT, JUSTIFYTEXT, STYLE, SPACETRANS
130 | Chapter 9 Add Text to a Drawing
Review and Recall
1 What is the fastest way to open the multiline text editor when you need to change existing text?
2 What are some advantages to creating additional text styles?
3 How do you decide whether to create text in paper space or in model space?
4 What text height should you use in model space if the desired text height in paper space is 2.5 mm
and the display scale of the layout viewport is 1/50 (0.02)?
Continued
Linear
(Vertical)
Linear
(Horizontal)
Aligned
Baseline
Center Mark
Ordinate
Diameter
Angular Quick Leader
Radius
Add Dimensions
Dimensions Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Create Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Use Dimensioning Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Create and Modify Dimension Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Modify Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
134 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions
Dimensions Overview
Dimensions show the geometric measurements of objects, the distances or angles between objects,
or the location of a feature. Four general types of dimensions are available:
■ Linear. Measures distances using horizontal, vertical, aligned, rotated, baseline (parallel), and
continued (chain) dimensions.
■ Ordinate. Measures the distance of a point from a specified origin point.
■ Radial. Measures the radii and diameters of arcs and circles.
■ Angular. Measures the angle formed by two lines or three points.
Parts of a Dimension
Dimensions have several distinct elements:
■ Dimension line. Indicates the direction and extent of a dimension. For angles, the dimension line
is an arc.
■ Extension line. Extends from the feature being dimensioned to the dimension line.
■ Dimension text. Reflects dimension value and may include prefixes, suffixes, and tolerances.
Alternatively, you can supply your own text or suppress the text entirely.
■ Arrowhead. Indicates an end of the dimension line. Several types of arrowheads are available,
including architectural ticks and dots.
■ Leader. Forms a solid line leading from an annotation to the referenced feature. Depending on
the dimension style, leaders can be created automatically when dimension text won’t fit between
extension lines. You can also create leader lines to connect text or a block with a feature.
Associative Dimensions and Leaders
By default, dimensions are associative. The measurements displayed by associative dimensions are
updated automatically as you modify the objects with which they are associated.
Leader objects are composed of text, a leader line, and an arrowhead.
■ If the text portion of a leader object is moved, the leader line is also adjusted.
■ If a leader object is associated with a geometric object, and the object is moved, stretched, or
scaled, the arrowhead and the leader portion of the leader object are also updated.
dimension line
extension line
dimension text
arrowhead
leader
Create Dimensions | 135
Create Dimensions
You can dimension lines, arcs, circles, and several other types of objects. There are two primary
methods for creating dimensions:
■ Select an object to dimension (1) and specify the dimension line location (2) as shown in the
following examples.
■ Use object snaps to specify the extension line origins, and then specify the dimension line
location. The extension line origin points can be on separate objects.
Tutorial: Create Dimensions
In this tutorial, you will set the scale for your drawing and add several dimensions to your design.
1 Open MyDesign, the drawing that you created and saved in previous tutorials.
2 Click the layout tab.
Result of selecting a line
for a dimension
Result of selecting a circle
for a dimension
1
2
1
2
136 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions
Set the display scale of the viewport.
1 Click the blue layout viewport border to select it.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties.
3 On the Properties palette, click Display Locked and then No.
NOTE It is strongly recommended that you keep the display in layout viewports locked unless
you’re setting the display scale of the viewport. This prevents you or someone else from accidentally
zooming in or out and changing the display scale.
4 Double-click inside the layout viewport. You are now accessing model space from the layout.
5 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Zoom ➤ Extents.
This step centers your view within the layout viewport.
6 Double-click outside the layout viewport to return to paper space.
You can now specify the precise scale for the floor plan or part.
7 Click the blue layout viewport border to select it. On the Properties palette, under the Misc
category, click Standard Scale.
8 Click the arrow to display a list of scales. Click the one that seems the most appropriate for the
sheet size and the size of your floor plan or part. You can always choose a different scale if
necessary.
9 Lock the layout viewport to prevent accidental changes.
Add dimensions
1 Change the current layer to the Dimensions layer.
It is a good practice to use a separate layer reserved for dimension objects.
2 Double-click inside the layout viewport to access model space.
There is a good reason why you are creating dimensions from the layout tab rather than the
Model tab. When you dimension in model space from the layout tab, the dimensions are
automatically scaled relative to the viewport scale.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Dimension ➤ Linear. Follow the prompts to create several linear
dimensions.
Create Dimensions | 137
4 Experiment with several other types of dimensions.
NOTE Automatic dimension scaling is not turned on in all drawings or drawing template files. It works
only when the system variable DIMSCALE is set to 0. You can enter DIMSCALE on the command line.
Check the Help system topic on DIMSCALE for more information.
Add Text
1 Double-click outside the layout viewport to return to paper space.
2 Change the current layer to the Text layer.
3 Create several notes using the Multiline Text command.
4 Save your drawing.
10
25
15
5
010
138 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions
Use Dimensioning Options
In addition to the basic types of dimensions, the following options are available on the Dimension
menu and toolbar:
■ Center marks and centerlines locate the exact center of circles or arcs.
■ Leader lines connect annotation to drawing features.
■ Geometric tolerances show deviations of form, profile, orientation, location, and runout of
drawing features.
Create Center Marks and Lines
You can easily create a center mark or centerline on a circle or arc. The size and style of center marks
and centerlines are controlled by the dimension style.
Try it: Create center marks and lines
1 Start a new drawing and click the Model tab.
2 Draw a small circle.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Dimension ➤ Center mark
4 Click the circle.
Two lines in the shape of a plus are created at the center of the circle.
You can also create center marks automatically with radius and diameter dimensions.
center mark
centerlines
Use Dimensioning Options | 139
Create Leaders with Annotation
You can create a leader from any point or feature in a drawing. A multileader can use straight line
segments or smooth spline curves. Leader color, scale, and arrowhead style are controlled by the
current multileader style. A small line known as a leader landing usually connects the annotation to
the leader line. Multileader annotations can be multiline text, a feature control frame, or a block
reference.
Try it: Create a multileader
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Dimension ➤ Multileader
2 Click a location for the arrowhead.
3 Click a location for the leader landing.
4 Enter text in the bounding box.
5 Click Close Text Editor on the ribbon.
leader line
leader landing
140 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions
Create and Modify Dimension Styles
Every dimension has a dimension style associated with it. Dimension styles help you establish and
enforce drafting standards. Dimension styles also make changing dimension formats and behavior
easy. A dimension style defines
■ Format and position of dimension lines, extension lines, arrowheads, and center marks
■ Appearance, position, and behavior of dimension text
■ Rules governing text placement and dimension lines
■ Overall dimension scale
■ Format and precision of primary, alternate, and angular dimension units
■ Format and precision of tolerance values
New dimensions use the current settings in the Dimension Style Manager dialog box. The default
STANDARD style is assigned to dimensions until you set another style as current.
Overrides allow for style modifications to the current dimension style. Overrides apply to all
subsequent dimensions created with that style until you make a new style current. They do not
permanently modify a dimension style. You can also override properties of dimensions using the
Properties palette.
Create and Modify Dimension Styles | 141
Specify Dimension Style Options
Regardless of whether you choose New, Modify, or Override in the Dimension Style Manager, the
same set of options are available:
■ Lines sets the appearance and behavior of dimension lines and extension lines.
■ Symbols and Arrows sets the appearance and behavior of dimension arrowheads, center marks,
and centerlines.
■ Text sets the dimension text appearance, placement, and alignment.
■ Fit sets options governing placement of dimension lines, extension lines, and text. It also
includes the setting for automatic dimension scaling.
■ Primary Units sets the format (for example, scientific, decimal, architectural) and precision of
linear and angular dimension units.
■ Alternate Units sets alternate unit format and precision. This feature supports dual dimensions
that display, for example, both metric and imperial units.
■ Tolerances sets tolerance values and precision.
NOTE Creating a dimension style to conform with industry or company standards requires agreement
on many settings. It is important that your organization creates and maintains one or more official
dimension styles.
142 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions
Modify Dimensions
You can modify dimensions with grips or with editing commands. You can also modify or override
dimension styles, as discussed in the previous topic. For significant modifications to a dimension, it
is usually easier to erase and re-create the dimension.
The easiest way to make minor modifications in a dimension is to use grips. For example, you can
easily drag a dimension line to align it with another dimension line.
You can also drag dimension text to a different location.
0.50 0.ê3 0.ê3
0.50
0.ê3
0.50
1 Click dimension
2 Click grip at end of
dimension line
3 Move grip to new
dimension location
15'-0¨ 15'-0¨ 15'-0¨
1 Click dimension
2 Click grip on
dimension text
3 Move grip to relocate
dimension text
Modify Dimensions | 143
To get started
Action Menu Browser Icon
Create linear dimensions Dimension ➤ Linear
Create aligned dimensions Dimension ➤ Aligned
Create ordinate dimensions Dimension ➤ Ordinate
Create radius dimensions Dimension ➤ Radius
Create diameter dimensions Dimension ➤ Diameter
Create angular dimensions Dimension ➤ Angular
Create baseline dimensions Dimension ➤ Baseline
Create continued dimensions Dimension ➤ Continue
Create and modify a
dimension style
Dimension ➤ Dimension Style
Update an existing dimension to reflect a
style change
Dimension ➤ Update
Create a center mark Dimension ➤ Center mark
Create leaders with annotation Dimension ➤ Multileader
Help system
DIMALIGNED, DIMANGULAR, DIMBASELINE, DIMCONTINUE, DIMDIAMETER, DIMJOGGED,
DIMLINEAR, DIMORDINATE, DIMRADIUS, DIMSCALE, DIMSTYLE, DIMEDIT, DIMTEDIT, DIMOVERRIDE,
DIMCENTER, DIMSTYLE, DIMREGEN, MLEADER
144 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions
Review and Recall
1 What is the behavior of associative leaders and associative dimensions?
2 Why should you lock layout viewports?
3 To ensure that dimensions are scaled according to the layout viewport scale, what dimension variable
should be set to 0?
4 What is the easiest way to modify the location of a dimension feature such as the dimension line or
dimension text?
The model
Created at full size (1:1). Text
and dimensions in model
space are scaled to compen-
sate for the scale factors used
in layout viewports
Layout
Represents a
drawing sheet
that includes a
title block, one
or more layout
viewports, and
text objects
Layout viewports
Display one or more views of the model, each of which
can be scaled separately
Plot styles
Temporaily override properties such as
color and lineweight when plotting
Page Setups
Save plot settings by name and
associate them with a layout
Create Layouts and Plots
Work with Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Choose and Configure Plotters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Plot from a Layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
148 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots
Work with Layouts
You use a layout to compose the plotted page. A layout typically includes the following objects:
■ General notes and tables
■ View-specific label blocks and callout blocks (this is an advanced topic not covered in this guide)
■ Layout viewports
Layouts show the page border and actual printing area. The page size and actual printing area
depend on the printer or plotter assigned to the layout.
Create a New Layout
The two most common reasons for creating a new layout are
■ Creating a new drawing template file that includes a different paper size and orientation.
■ Adding a layout with a different paper size, orientation, and title block to an existing drawing.
The easiest way to create a new layout is to use the Create Layout wizard. Once you create a layout,
you can replace the title block and create or delete layout viewports.
page border
printable
area
layout layout viewport, displays
a view of model space
Work with Layouts | 149
Try it: Create a layout
1 Start a new drawing.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Tools ➤ Wizards ➤ Create Layout.
3 Follow the steps in the wizard to create a layout with a different paper size and matching title
block.
4 Right-click the layout tab. On the shortcut menu, click Rename. Enter a new name for the layout.
To save this drawing as a new drawing template file, click Menu Browser ➤ File menu ➤ Save As. In
the Save Drawing As dialog box, under Files of Type, specify a DWT extension.
Use Layout Viewports
Layout viewports on a layout tab display views of model space. The following points summarize the
relationship of layout viewports and model space:
■ The majority of the objects in your drawings are created in model space on the Model tab.
■ To display and scale one or more views of model space in a layout, you create layout viewports.
■ To pan the view and to set layer visibility, enter model space through a layout viewport. You can
control the visibility of layers separately in each layout viewport.
■ For any significant editing of your model, use the Model tab.
■ To create correctly scaled dimensions, enter model space from the layout tab and then dimension
the model.
When you create a new layout, a single layout viewport is added by default. You can add more layout
viewports for independent views such as details and 3D views. Each viewport can have its own scale,
plot properties, and layer visibility settings.
Tutorial: Work with Layout Viewports
In this tutorial, you will practice the most common operations used with layout viewports.
Change the display scale of a view in a layout viewport
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open.
2 In the Select File dialog box, find the \Help\GettingStarted folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT
product folder and open arbor.dwg.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer. In the Layer Properties Manager, click the lightbulb icon
on the Viewport layer to display the objects on that layer.
The blue borders of the layout viewports are now visible.
4 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties. Click the blue border of the upper-right layout
viewport.
5 In the Properties palette, under Misc, click Display Locked. Click the arrow and click No.
The display properties for the layout viewport are now unlocked. Next, you will change the
precise scale of the view displayed in this layout viewport.
150 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots
6 In the Properties palette, click Standard Scale.
7 Click the arrow to display a list of scales and click 1:40.
Notice that the view changes immediately to reflect the new display scale.
8 Double-click inside the layout viewport to enter Model Space. Pan the view as needed, but do not
change the view scale with Zoom. Then double-click anywhere outside the layout viewports to
return to Paper Space.
9 Use the Properties palette to lock the layout viewport.
You lock the layout viewport to prevent accidental panning and zooming in it. Thus, the view
position and scale in the viewport are protected.
Erase a layout viewport
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Erase.
2 Click the border of the upper-right layout viewport and press ENTER.
A layout viewport is an object. Just as other objects, they can be moved, copied, and erased.
Create a new layout viewport
1 Make the Viewport layer the current layer.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Viewports ➤ 1 Viewport.
3 Click two points in a blank area on the layout. The two points are the diagonal corners of the
new layout viewport.
The new layout viewport can overlap an existing viewport.
4 Click the border of the layout viewport to display its grips.
5 Adjust the size of the layout viewport by clicking a grip, moving the cursor, and clicking a new
location. Move the layout viewport with the Move command.
6 Use the Properties palette to set the display scale of the view in the layout viewport.
7 Double-click within the layout viewport and pan the view. Double-click outside of all viewports
to return to paper space.
8 Use the Properties palette to lock the layout viewport.
9 Turn the Viewport layer off.
10 Close the drawing without saving it.
NOTE Always create layout viewports on a separate layer assigned to viewport objects. When you are
ready to plot, turn off the layer to prevent the viewport borders from being plotted.
Choose and Configure Plotters | 151
Choose and Configure Plotters
AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT support a wide range of printers and plotters. Devices with a Windows
printer driver installed are available automatically when you plot unless the plotting option to hide
system printers has been selected. Many plotters that do not have Windows drivers (nonsystem
plotters) can be configured using drivers provided either by Autodesk or by the plotter manufacturer.
You can also configure drivers to save drawings in several file formats. Formats include DWF

(Design
Web Format) files to view drawings in a web browser or external viewer, PostScript files for use with
page layout programs, and raster files.
If an output device is not listed in the Plot or Page Setup dialog boxes, or if its settings are incorrect,
you can easily add or edit printer and plotter configurations.
Add a Plotter Configuration
The Plotter Manager is a folder that provides a method for adding, deleting, and changing plotter
configurations. Plotter configuration files have a .pc3 extension and are stored in the Plotters folder.
To display the Plotters folder, click Menu Browser ➤ File menu ➤ Plotter Manager.
The Plotter Manager includes plotter configuration (PC3) files for every nonsystem printer that you
install. Plotter configuration files can also be created for Windows
®
system printers if you want to
use default properties different from those used by Windows.
To add a plotter configuration, double-click the Add-A-Plotter wizard in the Plotter Manager. The
Add-A-Plotter wizard prompts you for information about your plotter, any network settings, custom
plotter properties, uotupt quality settings, and so on.
Once a new PC3 file is created, the plotter configuration is available for layouts and plotting.
The Plotter Manager
152 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots
Change a Plotter Configuration
The Plotter Configuration Editor is used to
■ Edit the port or file output information
■ Change or add paper sizes and layouts
■ Control vector and raster graphic output
■ Calibrate your plotter
■ Set any of your plotter’s custom properties
To start the Plotter Configuration Editor, either double-click the PC3 file or choose Properties in the
Plot dialog box.
Use Plot Styles to Override Properties (Optional)
A plot style is an optional method to control how each object or layer is plotted. Assigning a plot style
to an object or layer overrides properties such as color and lineweight for plotting. Only the
appearance of plotted objects is affected.
Plot style tables collect groups of plot styles and save them in a file that you can later specify when
plotting. The Plot Style Manager is a folder that contains all the available plot style tables and the
Add-A-Plot Style wizard.
There are two types of plot style tables:
■ Color-dependent plot style tables. An object’s color determines how it is plotted. The files have
the extension .ctb. You cannot assign color-dependent plot styles directly to objects. Instead, to
control how an object is plotted, you change its color. For example, all red objects in a drawing
can be set to plot with a 0.50 mm lineweight.
■ Named plot style tables. Plot styles are assigned directly to objects and layers. The files have the
extension .stb. Using them enables each object in a drawing to be plotted differently, independent
of its color.
Use the Plot Style Manager to add, delete, rename, copy, and edit plot style tables. You can access the
Plot Style Manager from the Files menu.
Plot from a Layout | 153
Plot from a Layout
After you have completed your drawing, you are ready to plot. In the Plot dialog box, you select the
printer or plotter and many other settings that give you complete control of your output.
Before you plot your drawing, it is a good practice to generate a full plot preview. If the image is not
correct, make changes to the plot settings, page setup, and the plot style table attached to the layout.
Page Setups
Because there are so many plot settings, you can name and save them as a page setup using the Page
Setup Manager. When you are ready to plot, you can specify the name of the page setup in the Plot
dialog box.
For example, let’s say you switch to a different plotter for color output. You can quickly restore all
settings associated with that plotter by specifying the name of a previously saved page setup. To
switch back, you can specify the name of the original page setup.
Each layout tab can have an associated named page setup. Page setups are saved in the drawing.
Try it: Create a page setup
1 Start a new drawing. If necessary, click a layout tab.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Page Setup Manager.
select the
area of the
drawing to
plot
select a
page
orientation
generate a
preview
specify a plot
scale
position the layout on
the page
select a
page size
select a
printer
or a
plotter
display or hide options
specify a plot
style
154 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots
3 Click New.
4 In the New Page Setup dialog box, enter My_New_Plotter. Click OK.
5 Change some settings in the Page Setup dialog box. Click OK.
The new page setup name is displayed in the Page Setup Manager.
6 Click My_New_Plotter and click Set Current.
The My_New_Plotter page setup is now associated with the current layout tab.
7 Click Close.
If you don’t specify all the settings in the Page Setup dialog box when you create a layout, you can
set up the page just before you plot.
Tutorial: Plot a Drawing
In this exercise, you edit the page setup for an existing layout, create a new layout, insert a title block
into the new layout, and plot the drawing.
Edit an existing layout
To prepare for plotting from a layout tab, you set up a layout, set up a viewport, and create
dimensions.
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open.
2 In the Select File dialog box, locate the \Help\GettingStarted folder, select plan.dwg, and click
Open.
This is a drawing of a floor plan and elevation.
3 Click the Elevation layout tab.
The Elevation layout uses a page setup that defines the plot area and page size. A specific plotter
configuration is also associated with the Elevation layout.
4 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Page Setup Manager.
5 In the Page Setup Manager, click Modify.
6 Under Plot Style Table (Pen Assignments), open the drop-down list and click the monochrome.ctb
file. If prompted, choose not to apply the plot style table to all other layouts.
7 Select Display Plot Styles. Click OK.
8 Click Close to close the Page Setup Manager.
The drawing is now black and white because the layout shows a preview of the drawing as it will
be plotted with the monochrome plot style table.
9 Click the Model button. Note that the model is still displayed in color.
Create a new layout
1 Make the Viewport layer the current layer.
2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Tools ➤ Wizards ➤ Create Layout.
Plot from a Layout | 155
The Create Layout wizard guides you through the creation of a layout.
3 In the Create Layout wizard, on the Begin page, enter a name for the new layout. Type Elevation
and Floor Plan. Click Next.
4 On the Printer page, select the printer that you want to use to plot this layout. Select DWF6
ePlot.pc3. Click Next.
For this tutorial, you will plot the drawing to a DWF file rather than to a plotter. DWF (Design
Web Format) files are convenient for distributing drawings using email, FTP sites, project
websites, or CDs. DWF files are smaller, faster, and provide greater resolution than other popular
options. DWF files can be viewed using Autodesk® Design Review, a viewer available as a free
download from the Autodesk website.
5 On the Paper Size page, the paper sizes available in the list are based on the printer that you
selected. Select Letter or ANSI A (8.5 x 11.0 inches) for the paper size. Make sure that Paper Size
in Units lists a width of 11.0 inches and a height of 8.5 inches. Click Next.
6 On the Orientation page, click Portrait for that orientation. Click Next.
7 On the Title Block page, click None from the list of available title blocks. Click Next. (You insert
a title block once the layout is created.)
8 On the Define Viewports page, under Viewport Setup, click Array. Leave the Viewport Scale as
Scaled to Fit. (You change the scale later.) In the Rows box, type 2. In the Columns box, type 1.
In the Spacing Between Rows box, type 0.25. In the Spacing Between Columns box, type 0.1. This
creates two viewports, vertically aligned, with a gap between them. Click Next.
9 On the Pick Location page, select Select Location. In the drawing area, click and drag to create a
rectangular layout viewport that is just inside the printable area (the dashed lines).
10 On the Finish page, click Finish to complete the creation of the new layout and viewports.
Notice that two viewports have been created.
select the
Array option.
specify 2 rows
with 1 column.
156 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots
Insert a title block into a layout
1 Make sure that you are on the Elevation and Floor Plan layout tab.
2 Make the Title Block layer the current layer.
3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Insert ➤ Block.
4 In the Insert dialog box, in the Name list, click Letter (portrait).
5 Under Insertion Point, make sure that the Specify On-screen check box is checked.
6 Under Scale, make sure that the Specify On-screen check box is cleared. If necessary, in the X, Y,
and Z boxes, type 1 to set the layout to be plotted full scale.
7 Under Rotation, make sure that the Specify On-screen check box is cleared. If necessary, in the
Angle box, type 0 to keep the title block horizontal. Click OK.
8 Move the cursor to center the title block, and then click to place it on the layout.
Set up the viewports to plot
Now that the layout viewports have been created, you can specify the scale of the model space view
displayed in each viewport.
1 Select both of the viewports by clicking their borders.
2 On the Modify menu, click Properties.
3 In the Properties palette, click Layer and select the Viewports layer from the drop-down list.
Plot from a Layout | 157
4 In the Properties palette, click the Standard Scale box and select 3/32"=1' from the drop-down list
of scales.
5 The model space objects are scaled correctly for plotting at 3/32"=1' (1:128).
6 Double-click inside the top viewport to switch to model space. Pan the image in the viewport
until only the elevation view is displayed.
7 Click inside the bottom viewport to make it current. Pan the image in the viewport until only
the floor plan is displayed.
8 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer.
9 In the Layer Properties Manager, in the Name column, select the Viewports layer. In the Plot
column, click the Plot/No Plot icon to turn off plotting for the Viewport layer.
10 Double-click anywhere outside the viewports to return to paper space. Then lock both viewports.
Plotting is turned off for the viewport borders, but the objects displayed in the viewport are still
plotted. Alternatively, you could have turned off the Viewport layer.
Plot the layout
Now that you have created a layout and have prepared the layout viewports for plotting, you are
ready to plot the drawing.
1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Plot.
The plotter you chose in the wizard is still selected.
2 If necessary, click the > button at the bottom-right corner of the Plot dialog box to display more
plot options.
3 Under Plot Style Table (Pen Assignments), in the Name list, select the monochrome.ctb file.
4 Under Plot Area, click Extents.
5 Under Drawing Orientation, click Portrait.
6 Under Plot Scale, set the scale of the plot to 1:1.
7 Under Plot Offset, click Center the Plot.
8 Click Preview at the bottom of the dialog box. After previewing the plot, press ESC. Click OK to
close the Plot dialog box and plot the drawing to the DWF file.
You could now send the DWF file to a client for review.
9 Click Menu Browser ➤ File menu ➤ Save As. In the Save Drawing As dialog box, enter Plan
Complete in the File Name box, and then click Save.
158 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots
Review and Recall
1 What types of objects are commonly found on a layout tab?
2 How do you specify the scale of a layout viewport?
3 How do you turn off the display of layout viewport borders?
4 How can you use a plot style table?
5 What is a fast way to save plot settings by name?
To get started
Action Menu Browser Ribbon Panel
Create a new layout Insert ➤ Layout Viewports
Create a layout viewport View ➤ Viewports ➤ 1 Viewport Viewports
Scale a view in a layout viewport Tools ➤ Properties Viewports
Add a plotter or modify a plotter
configuration
File ➤ Plotter Manager Plot
Override properties when plotting File ➤ Plot Style Manager Plot
Restore saved settings for plotting File ➤ Page Setup Manager Plot
Plot a layout File ➤ Plot Plot
Help system
LAYOUT, LAYOUTWIZARD, MVIEW, PLOTTERMANAGER, OPTIONS, PAGESETUP, PLOTSTAMP, PLOT,
STYLESMANAGER, PLOTSTYLE, CONVERTPSTYLES, CONVERTCTB
Glossary
Commands and system variables associated with definitions are shown in parentheses at the
end of the definition.
Term Definition
absolute coordinates Coordinate values measured from a coordinate system’s origin. See
also origin, relative coordinates, user coordinate system (UCS),
world coordinates, and world coordinate system (WCS).
aligned dimension A dimension that measures the distance between two points at any
angle. The dimension line is parallel to the line connecting the
dimension’s definition points. (DIMALIGNED)
angle override Locks the cursor for the next point entered. To specify an angle
override, enter a left angle bracket (<) followed by an angle
whenever a command prompts you to specify a point.
angular dimension A dimension that measures angles or arc segments and consists of
text, extension lines, and leaders. (DIMANGULAR)
angular unit The unit of measurement for an angle. Angular units are measured
in decimal degrees, degrees/minutes/seconds, grads, or radians.
annotation Text, dimensions, tolerances, symbols, or notes.
array 1. Multiple copies of selected objects in a rectangular or polar
(radial) pattern. (ARRAY) 2. A collection of data items, each
identified by a subscript or key, arranged so a computer can
examine the collection and retrieve data with the key.
arrowhead A terminator, such as an arrowhead, slash, or dot, at the end of a
dimension line showing where a dimension begins and ends.
associative dimension A dimension that automatically adapts as the associated geometry is
modified. Controlled by the DIMASSOC system variable. See also
exploded dimension.
associative hatching Hatching that conforms to its bounding objects such that modifying
the bounding objects automatically adjusts the hatch. (BHATCH)
attribute definition An object that is included in a block definition to store alphanumeric
data about the block. Attribute values can be predefined or specified
when the block is inserted. Attribute data can be extracted from a
drawing and inserted into external files. (ATTDEF)
160 | Glossary
Auto-hide A palette setting that causes palettes to hide automatically when the
cursor moves off of it and to open automatically when the cursor
moves onto its title bar.
baseline dimensions Multiple dimensions measured from the same baseline. Also called
parallel dimensions.
base point 1. In the context of editing grips, the grip that changes to a solid
color when selected to specify the focus of the subsequent editing
operation. 2. A point for relative distance and angle when copying,
moving, and rotating objects. 3. The insertion base point of the
current drawing. (BASE) 4. The insertion base point for a block
definition. (BLOCK)
block A generic term for one or more objects that are combined to create
a single object. Commonly used for either block definition or block
reference. See also block definition and block reference. (BLOCK)
block definition The name, base point, and set of objects that are combined and
stored in the symbol table of a drawing. See also block and block
reference.
block definition table The nongraphical data area of a drawing file that stores block
definitions.
block instance See block reference.
block reference A compound object that is inserted in a drawing and displays the
data stored in a block definition. Also called instance. See also block
and block definition. (INSERT)
B-spline curve A blended piecewise polynomial curve passing near a given set of
control points. (SPLINE)
BYBLOCK A special object property used to specify that the object inherits the
color or linetype of any block containing it. See also BYLAYER.
BYLAYER A special object property used to specify that the object inherits the
color or linetype associated with its layer. See also BYBLOCK.
command alias A shortcut for a command. For example, CP is an alias for COPY, and
Z is an alias for ZOOM. You define aliases in the PGP file.
command line A text area reserved for keyboard input, prompts, and messages.
command window A text area that displays the command line and a history of prompts
and messages.
continued dimension A type of linear dimension that uses the second extension line origin
of a selected dimension as its first extension line origin, breaking one
long dimension into shorter segments that add up to the total
measurement. Also called chain dimension. (DIMCONTINUE)
crosshairs A type of cursor consisting of two lines that intersect.
Term Definition
Glossary | 161
crossing selection A rectangular area drawn to select objects fully or partly within its
borders. See also window selection.
cursor See crosshairs.
cursor menu See shortcut menu.
CTB file A color-dependent plot style table.
default A predefined value for a program input or parameter. Default values
and options are denoted by angle brackets (<>).
definition table The nongraphical data area of a drawing file that stores block
definitions.
DesignCenter Browses, finds, and previews content, and inserts content, which
includes blocks, hatches, and external references (xrefs).
(ADCENTER)
digital signature Identifies an individual or an organization through a digital ID
(certificate), and enables you to validate (verify the authenticity of) a
file. (SIGVALIDATE)
dimension style A named group of dimension settings that determines the
appearance of the dimension and simplifies the setting of dimension
system variables. (DIMSTYLE)
dimension text The measurement value of dimensioned objects.
dimension variables A set of numeric values, text strings, and settings that control
dimensioning features. (DIMSTYLE)
direct distance entry A method to specify a second point by first moving the cursor to
indicate direction and then entering a distance.
drawing area The area in which your drawings are displayed and modified.
drawing extents The smallest rectangle that contains all objects in a drawing,
positioned on the screen to display the largest possible view of all
objects. (ZOOM)
drawing limits See grid limits.
drawing template file A drawing file with preestablished settings for new drawings.
Drawing template files have a DWT extension.
drawing units The unit of measurement that is used in a drawing. Depending on
the drawing, one drawing unit may equal one inch, one millimeter,
one kilometer, one mile, or some other distance.
DWF For Design Web Format. A highly compressed file format that is
created from a DWG file. DWF files are easy to publish and view on
the Web. See also DWG, DWT, and DXF.
DWT For drawing template. A drawing file that contains standard settings
to be used when creating new drawings. See also DWG.
Term Definition
162 | Glossary
DXF For drawing interchange format. An ASCII or binary file format of an
AutoCAD drawing file for exporting drawings to other applications
or for importing drawings from other applications. See also DWF,
DWG, and DWT.
explode To disassemble a complex object, such as a block, dimension, or
polyline, into simpler objects. In the case of a block, the block
definition is unchanged. The block reference is replaced by the
components of the block. See also block, block definition, and
block reference. (EXPLODE)
extents See drawing extents.
external reference (xref) A drawing file referenced by another drawing. (XREF)
fill A solid color covering an area bounded by lines or curves. (FILL)
floating viewports See layout viewports.
font A character set, which includes letters, numbers, punctuation marks,
and symbols of a distinctive proportion and design.
freeze A setting that suppresses the display of objects on selected layers.
Objects on frozen layers are not displayed, regenerated, or plotted.
Freezing layers shortens regenerating time. See also thaw. (LAYER)
geometry All graphical objects such as lines, circles, arcs, polylines, and
dimensions. Nongraphical objects, such as linetypes, lineweights,
text styles, and layers are not considered geometry. See also named
object.
graphics area See drawing area.
graphics screen See drawing area.
grid An area covered with regularly spaced dots to aid drawing. The
spacing between grid dots is adjustable. Grid dots are not plotted.
See also grid limits. (GRID)
grid limits The user-defined rectangular boundary of the drawing area covered
by dots when the grid is turned on. Also called drawing limits.
(LIMITS)
Grip modes The editing capabilities activated when grips are displayed on an
object: stretching, moving, rotating, scaling, and mirroring.
grips Small squares that appear on objects you select. After selecting the
grip, you edit the object by dragging it with the pointing device
instead of entering commands.
i-drop A method by which a drawing file can be dragged from a web page
and inserted into another drawing.
Term Definition
Glossary | 163
InfoCenter A tool in the upper-right edge of the application window that
accepts keywords to search multiple sources and locations for
information at one time (for example, Help, the New Features
Workshop, web locations, and specified files).
instance See block reference.
island An enclosed area within a hatched area.
layer A logical grouping of data that are like transparent acetate overlays
on a drawing. You can view layers individually or in combination.
(LAYER)
layout The tabbed environment in which you create and design paper
space layout viewports to be plotted. Multiple layouts can be
created for each drawing.
layout viewports Objects that are created in paper space that display views. See also
paper space. (VPORTS)
limits See grid limits.
line font See linetype.
line width See lineweight.
linetype How a line or type of curve is displayed. For example, a continuous
line has a different linetype than a dashed line. Also called line font.
(LINETYPE)
lineweight A width value that can be assigned to all graphical objects except
TrueType
®
fonts and raster images.
mirror To create a new version of an existing object by reflecting it
symmetrically with respect to a prescribed line or plane. (MIRROR)
mode A software setting or operating state.
model A two- or three-dimensional representation of an object.
model viewports A type of display that splits the drawing area into one or more
adjacent rectangular viewing areas. See also layout viewports and
viewport. (VPORTS)
model space One of the two primary spaces in which objects reside. Typically, a
geometric model is placed in a three-dimensional coordinate space
called model space. A final layout of specific views and annotations
of this model is placed in paper space. See also paper space.
(MSPACE)
named object Describes the various types of nongraphical information, such as
styles and definitions, stored with a drawing. Named objects include
linetypes, layers, dimension styles, text styles, block definitions,
layouts, views, and viewport configurations. Named objects are
stored in definition (symbol) tables.
Term Definition
164 | Glossary
node An object snap specification to locate points, dimension definition
points, and dimension text origins.
NURBS For nonuniform rational B-spline curve. A B-spline curve or surface
defined by a series of weighted control points and one or more knot
vectors. See also B-spline curve.
object One or more graphical elements, such as text, dimensions, lines,
circles, or polylines, treated as a single element for creation,
manipulation, and modification. Formerly called entity.
object properties Settings that control the appearance and geometric characteristics
of objects. Properties that are common to all objects include color,
layer, linetype, linetype scale, and 3D thickness. (PROPERTIES)
object snap markers A geometric symbol that is displayed when the cursor moves over
an object. See also object snap mode.
object snap menu The menu that is displayed in the drawing area at the cursor
location when you hold down SHIFT and right-click the pointing
device. See also shortcut menu.
object snap mode Methods for selecting commonly needed points on an object while
you create or edit a drawing. See also running object snap and
object snap override.
object snap override Turning off or changing a running Object Snap mode for input of a
single point. See also Object Snap mode and running object snap.
origin The point where coordinate axes intersect. For example, the origin
of a Cartesian coordinate system is where the X, Y, and Z axes meet
at 0,0,0.
ortho mode Limits pointing device input to horizontal or vertical (relative to the
current snap angle and the user coordinate system). See also snap
angle and user coordinate system (UCS). (ORTHO)
page setup A method of naming and saving plot settings. See also zoom.
(PAGESETUP)
pan To shift the view of a drawing without changing magnification. See
also zoom. (PAN)
paper space One of two primary spaces in which objects reside. Paper space is
used for creating a finished layout for printing or plotting, as
opposed to doing drafting or design work. You design your paper
space viewports using a layout tab. Model space is used for creating
the drawing. You design your model using the Model tab. See also
model space. (PSPACE)
pick button The button on a pointing device that is used to select objects or
specify points on the screen. For example, on a two-button mouse,
the pick button is the left button.
Term Definition
Glossary | 165
pickbox The square cursor used to select an object in the drawing area.
plan view A view orientation from a point on the positive Z axis toward the
origin (0,0,0). (PLAN)
pline See polyline.
point 1. A location in three-dimensional space specified by X, Y, and Z
coordinate values. 2. An object consisting of a single coordinate
location. (POINT)
pointing device A device, such as a mouse or a digitizing puck, that can be used to
interact with the interface and create and edit drawing objects in
the drawing area. A pointing device usually has several buttons,
some of which may be customized to perform commands you
specify.
polar array Objects copied around a specified center point a specified number
of times. (ARRAY)
PolarSnap A precision drawing tool used to snap to incremental distances
along the polar tracking alignment path. See also polar tracking.
polar tracking A precision drawing tool that displays temporary alignment paths
defined by user-specified polar angles. See also PolarSnap.
polyline An object composed of one or more connected line segments or
circular arcs treated as a single object. Also called pline. (PLINE,
PEDIT)
plot style An object property that specifies a set of overrides for color,
dithering, gray scale, pen assignments, screening, linetype,
lineweight, endstyles, joinstyles, and fill styles. Plot styles are applied
at plot time.
plot style table A set of plot styles. Plot styles are defined in plot style tables and
apply to objects only when the plot style table is attached to a
layout or viewport.
prompt A message on the command line that asks for information or
requests action such as specifying a point.
properties See object properties.
properties palette Lists and changes properties of the selected object or set of objects
or, if no objects are selected, the values of default properties
common to all objects. (PROPERTIES)
purge A feature that removes unused definitions such as block definitions,
layers, and text styles from a drawing. (PURGE)
relative coordinates Coordinates specified in relation to previous coordinates.
Term Definition
166 | Glossary
running object snap Setting an Object Snap mode so it continues for subsequent
selections. See also Object Snap mode and object snap override.
(OSNAP)
scale 1. The size of an object compared with other objects. 2. The display
size of the components of noncontinuous linetypes and hatches. 3.
The apparent size of objects in a view with respect to a drawing
sheet. (SCALE, HPSCALE, LTSCALE, CELTSCALE, ZOOM)
selection set One or more selected objects that a command can act upon at the
same time.
shortcut keys Keys and key combinations that start commands; for example,
CTRL +S saves a file. The function keys (F1, F2, and so on) are also
shortcut keys. Also known as accelerator keys.
shortcut menu The menu displayed at your cursor location when you right-click
your pointing device. The shortcut menu and the options it provides
depend on the pointer location and other conditions, such as
whether an object is selected or a command is in progress.
snap See snap angle, snap grid, snap resolution, and PolarSnap.
snap angle The invisible grid that locks the pointer into alignment with the grid
points according to the spacing set by Snap. Snap grid does not
necessarily correspond to the visible grid, which is controlled
separately by GRID. (SNAP)
snap grid The invisible grid that locks the pointer into alignment with the grid
points according to the spacing set by Snap. Snap grid does not
necessarily correspond to the visible grid, which is controlled
separately by GRID. (SNAP)
snap mode A mode for locking a pointing device into alignment with an
invisible rectangular grid. When Snap mode is on, the screen
crosshairs and all input coordinates are snapped to the nearest point
on the grid. The snap resolution defines the spacing of this grid. See
also object snap mode. (SNAP)
spline See B-spline curve and NURBS.
status bar The area at the bottom of the application window that contains
buttons controlling the mode of operation of the program and
displays the coordinates of the cursor location in the drawing area.
STB file For plot style table file. Contains plot styles and their characteristics.
symbol A representation of an item commonly used in drawings. See block.
symbol library A collection of block definitions stored in a single drawing file. See
also block library.
symbol table See definition table and block definition table.
Term Definition
Glossary | 167
system variable A name similar to a command used as a mode, size, or limit. Read-
only system variables, such as DWGNAME, cannot be modified
directly by the user.
template drawing A drawing file with preestablished settings for new drawings such as
aclt.dwt and acltiso.dwt; however, any drawing can be used as a
template.
text style A named, saved collection of settings that determines the
appearance of text characters—for example, stretched, compressed,
oblique, mirrored, or set in a vertical column.
thaw A setting that displays previously frozen layers. See also freeze.
(LAYER)
tiled viewports See model viewports.
tool palette tabbed areas within the Tool Palettes window that provide an
efficient method for organizing, sharing, and placing blocks and
hatches.
tree view A hierarchical list that can be expanded or collapsed to control the
amount of information displayed. Tree views are available in
DesignCenter, the Purge dialog box, and the Help system.
UCS See user coordinate system (UCS).
UCS icon An icon that indicates the orientation of the UCS axes. (UCSICON)
user coordinate system
(UCS)
A user-defined coordinate system that defines the orientation of the
X, Y, and Z axes in 3D space. The UCS determines the default
placement of geometry in a drawing. See also world coordinate
system (WCS).
vertex A location where edges or polyline segments meet.
view A graphical representation of a model from a specific location
(viewpoint) in space. See also viewport. (VPOINT, DVIEW, VIEW)
viewport See model viewports and layout viewports See also view.
(VPORTS)
window selection A rectangular area specified in the drawing area to select multiple
objects at the same time. See also crossing selection and polygon
window selection.
xref See external reference (xref).
zoom To reduce or increase the apparent magnification of the drawing
area. (ZOOM)
Term Definition
168
Index
A
absolute coordinates, 74, 159
accelerator keys (shortcut keys), 166
actions, undoing, 34
Add-A-Plotter wizard, 151
aliases, command, 31, 160
aligned dimensions, 132, 143, 159
aligning text, 128
analyzing drawings, 111
angles
angle overrides, 80, 159
angular units, 159
calculating, 111
hatch patterns, 121
polar coordinates, 74
polar tracking, 79
rotation angles, 93
specifying for arcs, 67
text characters, 128
angular dimensions, 132, 134, 143, 159
angular units, 159
annotations, 134, 139, 159
architectural drawing unit format, 46
architectural template files, 45
arcs
drawing, 67
drawing polylines with, 65
filleting, 68, 94
regenerating view of, 40
areas
finding for objects, 100
selection areas, 86
arrays, 155, 159
arrowheads, 134, 141, 159
associative dimensions, 17, 134, 159
associative hatches, 119, 159
attribute definitions, 159
Autodesk Design Review (DWF viewer), 155
Auto-hide and palettes, 57
Auto-hide feature, 160
AutoSnap markers, 76, 81
axes for coordinates, 74
B
B-spline curves, 160
backwards-reading text, 128
base points, 90, 93, 160
baseline dimensions, 132, 143
black-and-white plotting, 154
blank areas within hatches (islands), 120, 163
block attributes, 116
block definition tables, 160
block definitions, 160
block instances (block references), 160
block libraries, 116, 118
block references, 160
blocks, 114, 116, 160
block attributes, 116
block definition tables, 160
block definitions, 160
block references, 160
inserting, 117
moving, 118
sources of, 116
title blocks, 156
typical uses, 116
See also block libraries
170 | Index
boundaries
editing, 96
extending objects, 88
hatched areas, 120
polylines, 101
text objects, 126
trim boundaries, 106
BYBLOCK property, 160
BYLAYER property, 59, 62, 63, 160
C
calculating distances, angles, or coordinates, 111
callouts (leader lines), 17, 134, 139
Cancel command, 34
Cartesian coordinates, 74, 75
center marks, 132, 138, 141
Center object snap, 78
centering views in layout viwports, 136
centerlines, 138, 141
chain dimensions (continued dimensions), 132,
143, 160
chord length, specifying for arcs, 67
circles, 33, 67, 94, 103
regenerating view of, 40
circumscribed polygons, 66
closing polylines, 65
color-dependent plot style tables (CTB), 152, 161
colors
applying to objects, 59
assigning to layers, 7, 50, 59
color-dependent plot style tables, 152, 161
command aliases, 31, 160
command line, 31, 160
command window, 31, 160
commands
aliases, 31, 160
canceling or undoing, 34
choosing, 30
dynamic prompts, 32
editing commands, 86
ending, 34
help and information, 25
options, 31
repeating, 34
starting at command line, 31
continued dimensions, 132, 143, 160
coordinates and coordinate systems
absolute and relative coordinates, 74, 75, 159,
165
calculating delta, 111
Cartesian coordinates, 74
dynamic input and, 75
origin point, 74, 102
overview, 74
polar coordinates, 74
specifying, 13
COPY command, 84
copying
multiple copies of objects, 91
objects, 84, 90
properties to other objects, 108
corners, filleting, 94
counter-clockwise rotation, 93
crosshairs, 160
See also cursors
crossing selection areas, 86, 161
CTB files (color-dependent plot style tables), 152,
161
current layer, 50, 59
current object scale settings, 62
cursor menus. See shortcut menus
cursors
dynamic prompts displayed by, 32
panning with, 39
pickbox cursor, 81
snapping to a grid, 72
zooming in or out with, 38
cutting edges, 88
D
DC Online tab (in DesignCenter), 118
decimals
drawing unit format, 46
rounding on screen, 47
defaults
defined, 161
property settings, 57
definition tables, 161
deleting objects, 87
delta, calculating, 111
deselecting objects, 86
Design Web Format (DWF) files, 151, 155
DesignCenter, 161
DC Online tab, 118
hatch patterns in, 120
sources of block libraries, 116
diameter dimensions, 132, 143
diameters, 67
digital signatures, 161
dimension lines, 134
Dimension Style Manager dialog box, 140
dimension styles, 140, 161
extension lines, 141
overriding, 140
dimension text, 134, 161
dimension variables, 161
dimensions and dimensioning
accuracy, 13
associative dimensions, 17, 134
center marks and centerlines, 138, 141
creating, 135, 143
dimension styles, 140, 161
Index | 171
dimension variables, 161
editing dimensions, 142
editing properties, 58
elements of dimensions, 134
grips, 142
layers for, 135, 136
moving dimensions, 142
overview, 134
saving styles in templates, 9
scaling, 149
standards for, 141
text, 141, 161
types of, 17, 134, 143
units of measurement, 141
DIMSCALE system variable, 137
direct distance entry, 79, 91, 161
displaying
command options, 32
display scale, 136
grid, 72
layers, 51
properties, 57
Properties palette, 57
regenerating jagged display, 40
viewport properties, 149
DIST command, 84, 111
distances
calculating, 111
direct distance entry, 79, 161
measuring, 84
polar coordinates, 74
polar tracking, 79
dividing polylines, 66
Drafting Settings dialog box, 73, 77
drawing area, 161
drawing extents, 161
drawing interchange format (DXF) files, 162
drawing limits (grid limits), 72, 162
drawing objects
arcs, 67
circles, 33, 67
filleting, 94
lines, 32, 64
overview, 11
polygons, 64
polylines, 64
rectangles, 65
drawing scale. See scales and scaling
drawing template files. See template files
drawing units, 3, 45, 46, 161
drawings and drawing files
coordinate systems, 74
displaying entire drawing, 38
grids, 72
inserting blocks, 117
new drawings, starting, 44
panning a view, 39
plotting, 153
revising, 19
revision clouds, 110
Snap mode, 72
template files, 44
touring, 52
zooming in or out, 15
drivers, printer, 151
DWF (Design Web Format) files, 151, 155, 161
DWT files. See template files
DXF files, 162
dynamic input, 75
Dynamic Input button, 75
E
editing objects
associative hatches and, 119
copying properties, 108
dimensions, 142
duplicating objects, 90
erasing objects, 87
extending objects, 88
filleting, 94
grip edit mode, 109
mirroring, 92
object boundaries, 96
offsetting copies, 91
overview, 19
precision editing, 95
properties, 57, 107
revising drawings, 19
revision clouds, 19, 110
selecting objects to edit, 86
text, 126
text styles, 128
trimming objects, 88
editing plotter configurations, 152
editing text, 126, 128
ellipses, 94
ending commands, 34
Endpoint object snap, 78, 105
endpoints, 65, 67
engineering drawing unit format, 46
entities. See objects
ERASE command, 87
erasing layout viewports, 150
ESC key, 30
EXPLODE command, 66
exploding objects, 66, 162
EXTEND command, 88
extending objects, 88, 98
extension lines, 134, 141
extents, drawing, 162
external references (xrefs), 162
172 | Index
F
FILLET command, 68, 84
filleting objects, 68, 84, 94
fills, 119, 120, 162
fitting options for dimensions, 141
flipping objects (mirroring objects), 84, 92, 104
floating viewports (layout viewports), 146, 163
fonts, 128, 162
formatting
dimensions, 140
drawing units, 46
Text Formatting, 126
fractions, 46, 47
freezing layers, 51, 162
G
geometry, 162
global scale factor for linetypes, 62
graphics area of screen (drawing area), 161
grid limits, 72, 162
grids, 162
displaying or hiding, 72
grid limits, 72, 162
overview, 72
spacing, 72
turning off and on, 72
grip modes, 162
grips, 162
block grips, 118
displaying, 86
editing dimensions, 142
editing objects, 109
grip modes, 162
viewport grips, 150
H
hatches and hatch patterns, 114, 119
associative hatches, 119
inserting, 120
internal points, 121
islands within boundaries, 120
sources of, 119
height of text characters, 128
Help
command Help, 25
Help system, 23
procedural, 25
table of contents (Contents tab), 25
tutorial, 24
hiding
layers, 51, 60
Properties palette, 57
hook lines, 139
horizontal alignment of text, 128
horizontal dimensions, 132
I
i-drop, 162
imperial measurement drawing template files, 45
Info palette, 163
inquiry commands, 111
inscribed polygons, 66
Insert dialog box, 118
inserting blocks, 117, 118, 156
instances (block references), 163
Intersection object snap, 78
intersection snap, 97
islands, 120, 163
ISO standards, 44, 119
italic fonts, 128
J
jagged display, 40
JIS standards, 44
JOIN command, 66
joining polylines, 66
K
keyboard shortcuts (shortcut keys), 166
keywords in Help system, 23
L
labels in model and paper space, 128
Layer Properties Manager, 50, 51, 60, 149
layers, 163
color assignments, 7, 50, 59
current layer, 50, 59
dimensions on, 135, 136
editing properties, 58
freezing, 51
hiding or displaying, 51, 60, 149
Layer Properties Manager, 50, 51, 59, 149
Layers panel, 57
linetype assignments, 7, 62
locking, 51
naming, 7
organizing drawings with, 42, 50
overview, 7, 50
plot styles, 7
properties and, 56, 58
rearranging, 50
viewports layer, 156
Layers panel, 57
Index | 173
layout tab, 48
layout viewports, 146, 163
layouts, 146, 163
compared to models, 48
display scale, 136
linetypes in, 62
overview, 5, 48
page setups and, 153
plotting from, 153
scale and drawing units, 3, 46
switching to model space, 49
text size and, 129
viewports, 146, 163
leader lines (callouts), 17, 134, 139
leader objects, 134
left mouse button, 30
lengthening objects, 88
libraries
block libraries, 116
DesignCenter, 118
DesignCenter Online, 118
limits, grid, 72, 162
line fonts. See linetypes
line widths (lineweights), 7, 42, 63, 163
linear dimensions, 132, 134, 143
linear measurements, 47
lines
angles, 80
centerlines, 138, 141
dimension styles, 141
drawing, 32, 64
exact length, 79
extension lines on dimensions, 134
filleting, 94
hook lines, 139
leader lines, 134, 139
linetypes. See linetypes
lineweights, 7, 42, 63, 163
offsetting, 11
parallel, 64
perpendicular, 79
polylines, 64
tapering, 66
Linetype Manager, 61
linetypes, 163
editing properties, 107
global scale factor, 62
identifying objects with, 42
layer assignments, 7, 62
Linetype Manager, 61
overview, 61
saving styles in templates, 9
scaling, 61, 62
Lineweight Settings dialog box, 63
lineweights, 7, 42, 63, 163
locking
layers, 51
M
magnifying view in viewports. See zooming in or out
markup revision clouds, 110
matching properties between objects, 108
measurement units, 3, 45, 46, 141
mechanical drawing template files, 45
mechanical drawing unit format, 102
menus, 30, 31, 166
metric measurement template files, 45
Midpoint object snap, 78
mirroring objects, 84, 92, 104, 163
Model tab, 48
model viewports, 163
models and model space, 5, 146, 163
compared to layouts, 48
dimensioning and, 136
drawing in model space, 48
extracting information from, 111
formulas for text size, 129
linetypes in, 62
notes and labels in, 128
scale and drawing units, 3
scale and. drawing units, 46
switching to layouts, 49
switching to paper space, 150
text size in, 129
viewports, 163
zooming in or out, 156
modes, defined, 163
mouse devices, 30, 165
moving
blocks, 118
dimensions, 142
objects, 93
panning a view, 39
rotating objects, 93
text in dimensions, 134
Multiline Text panel, 126
multiple copies of objects, 91
N
named layers, 7
named objects, 163
named plot style tables, 152
navigation
Help system, display, 24
New Features Workshop, 23
New Page Setup dialog box, 154
nodes, 164
nonuniform rational B-spline curves, 164
notes, in model and paper space, 128
NURBS (nonuniform rational B-spline curves), 164
174 | Index
O
object properties, 164
object snap markers, 164
Object Snap menu, 31, 76, 164
Object Snap mode, 164
object snap overrides, 164
object snaps
accuracy and, 13
AutoSnap markers, 81
cycling through snap points, 76
dimensions and, 135
markers, 164
overriding, 164
overview, 72
running object snaps, 77
snap angles, 166
snap grid, 166
Snap mode, 164, 166
spacing, 72
types of, 78
objects, 164
associative dimensions, 134
colors, 59
copying properties, 108
displaying on layers, 149
drawing, 11
duplicating, 90
editing properties, 57, 58
erasing, 87
filleting, 94
grips, 109
hatch patterns, 119
linetypes, 61
lineweights, 63
mirroring, 92
moving, 93
offsetting copies, 91
properties, 56, 107, 164
rotating, 93
selecting, 86
trimming edges, 88
oblique text, 128
OFFSET command, 64, 84
offsetting objects, 11, 64, 84, 91, 102
opening
block libraries, 118
template files, 45
ordinate dimensions, 132, 134, 143
orientation
pages, 153
text, 128
origin point, 102
origin points, 74, 164
Ortho mode, 164
overlays, 7
overriding dimension styles, 140
P
page orientation, 153
Page Setup Manager, 153
page setups, 146, 153, 164
page size, 153
PAN command, 39
panels
Layers panel, 57
Properties panel, 57
panning, 15, 39, 164
paper size, 152, 155
paper space, 5, 164
compared to model space, 48
notes and labels in, 128
scaling linetypes in, 62
switching to model space, 49, 150
text size and, 129
parallel dimensions (baseline dimensions), 132, 143
parallel lines, 64
PAT files, 119
PC3 files, 151
perpendicular lines, 79
Perpendicular object snap, 78
pick button, 30, 164
pickbox cursor, 81, 165
plan views, 165
plines. See polylines
Plot dialog box, 153
plot scales, 153
Plot Style Manager, 152
plot style tables (STB) files, 152, 165, 166
plot styles, 7, 146, 152, 165
plotter configuration (PC3) files, 151
Plotter Configuration Editor, 152
Plotter Manager, 151
plotters and plotting
configuring plotters, 151
driver support for, 151
page setups, 153
plot styles, 146, 152
Plotter Configuration Editor, 152
plotting from layouts, 153
previewing, 153
printing viewport borders, 150
scaling in model space, 157
setting up, 153
Plotters folder, 151
pointing devices, 30, 38, 40, 165
points, 165
absolute coordinates, 74, 159
AutoSnap markers, 76, 81
calculating distance or coordinates, 111
coordinate systems. See coordinates and
coordinate systems
origin point, 102
origin points, 74, 164
polar coordinates, 74
relative coordinates, 75, 165
Index | 175
specifying for arcs, 67
specifying for circles, 67
polar arrays, 165
polar coordinates, 74
polar tracking, 13, 79, 165
PolarSnap, 102, 165
polygons, 64
polylines, 64, 165
closing, 65
dividing or joining, 66
filleting, 94
highlighting boundaries, 101
widths, 66
ports, 152
PostScript files, 151
previewing plot areas and settings, 153
printers
plot styles and plot style tables, 152
Plotter Configuration Editor, 152
selecting plotters, 153
support for, 151
procedural Help, 25
prompts, 31, 32, 165
properties, 56
assigning, 56
copying to other objects, 108
editing, 58, 107
layer assignments, 56
matching, 108
Properties palette, 57, 107, 165
Properties panel, 57, 107
viewing, 58
Properties palette, 57, 107, 165
Properties panel, 57
pull-down menus, 30
purging, 165
Q
Quadrant object snap, 78, 104
Quick Leader dimensions, 132
R
radius
filleting objects, 94
specifying for arcs, 67
specifying for circles, 67
specifying for polygons, 66
radius dimensions, 132, 134, 143
raster files, 151
rectangles, 65
redline drawings, 110
regenerating jagged display, 40
relative coordinates, 75, 165
relative values, 74
removing objects, 87
repeating commands, 34, 91
resizing
linetypes, 62
text objects, 126
viewports, 150
revising drawings, 19, 110
See also editing objects
revision clouds, 19, 110
right mouse button, 30
right-click actions, 30
rotating objects, 93, 118
running object snap, 77, 166
S
saving
files as DWF files, 155
files in other formats, 151
scales and scaling, 166
dimensions, 137
drawing units compared to scale, 3, 46
hatch patterns, 121
linetypes, 61, 62
lineweights and, 63
overview, 3
plot scales, 153
setting display scale, 136
text, 129
views in viewports, 5
scientific drawing unit format, 46
secondary dimension styles, 140
Select Template dialog box, 45
selecting
deselecting objects, 86
objects, 86
selection areas, 86
selection sets, 86, 166
sharp corners on objects, 94
shortcut keys, 166
shortcut menus, 30, 31, 166
shortcuts
cycling through snap points, 76
editing text, 126
shortcut keys, 166
sizing
linetypes, 62
text objects, 126
viewports, 150
slant of text characters, 128
smoothing display, 40
Snap and snapping. See object snaps
snap angles, 166
snap grids, 166
Snap mode, 166
snaps
creating drawings with, 81
176 | Index
solid fills, 120, 162
spacing
grid and snap settings, 72
hatch patterns, 121
splines, 94, 160, 164
STANDARD style, 128, 140
start points, 65, 67
starting drawings, 44
status bar, 166
STB files (named plot style tables), 152, 166
styles
dimension styles, 140, 161
drafting standards, 9
plot styles, 152
text styles, 128
switching
between model space and paper space, 150
between models and layouts, 49
between page setups, 153
symbol libraries, 116, 166
DesignCenter Online, 118
opening, 118
symbols
defined, 166
in dimensions, 141
See also blocks
system variables, 167
T
table of contents in Help system, 25
tangent method for drawing circles, 67, 103
Tangent object snap, 78
tapering lines, 66
template files, 44
opening, 45
sample files, 45
templates, 161, 167
drafting standards and, 9
DWT files, 161
text
annotations, 134, 139
dimension text, 134, 141, 161
model space and paper space, 128
saving styles in templates, 9
styles, 128, 167
text editor, 126
Text Formatting, 126
viewports and, 129
width of, 126
text editor, 126
Text Style dialog box, 128
text styles, 9, 128, 167
thawing, 51, 167
tiled viewports (model viewports), 167
title blocks, 156
tolerance options for dimensions, 141
tool palettes, 167
tooltips, 76
topics in Help system, display, 24
tree views, 167
trim boundaries, 106
TRIM command, 84, 88
TrueType fonts, 128
tutorial drawing template files, 45
U
UCS (user coordinate system), 167
UCS icon, 167
undoing actions, 34
units of measurement
in dimensions, 141
drawing units, 3, 46
template files, 45
updating dimensions and leader lines, 134
upside-down text, 128
user coordinate system (UCS), 167
V
variables
dimension variables, 161
system variables, 167
vertical alignment of text, 128
vertical dimensions, 132
vertices, 167
viewports, 146
changing settings, 155
creating, 149
display scale, 136
displaying layers in, 149
erasing, 150
grips, 150
linetype scaling in, 62
model space and paper space overview, 48
modifying, 149
multiple viewports, 155
overlapping, 150
overview, 5
panning, 39
plotting borders, 150
properties, 149
scaling views, 5, 38
sizing, 150
zooming in or out, 156
views, 38, 167
displaying entire drawing, 38
panning, 15, 39
repositioning, 39
See also viewports
visibility of layers, 51
Index | 177
W
wheel mouse, 30, 38, 40
width
polylines, 66
text characters, 128
text objects, 126
window selection areas, 86, 167
Windows printer drivers, 151
X
X and Y values, 74
xrefs (external references), 161, 167
Z
ZOOM command, 38
zooming in or out, 167
overview, 15, 38
scaling views in viewports, 5, 156
178 | Index

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Contents
Make the Transition from Paper to CAD .
Draw to Scale . . . . . . Lay Out Your Drawing . . . Organize Drawing Information Establish Drafting Standards . Draw Efficiently . . . . . Draw Accurately . . . . . View Your Drawing . . . . Create Dimensions and Text . Modify Your Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 1

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Why You Should Use this Guide . Tutorials and Command Access . Get Additional Information . .

Chapter 2

Work with Commands .
Use the Mouse . . . . Cancel a Command . . . Start a Command . . . Undo or Redo Commands .

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Chapter 3

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Zoom to Magnify a View . Pan to Reposition a View .

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Drawing Setup .

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Start a Drawing . . . . . . Plan the Drawing Units and Scale Understand Models and Layouts . Organize Drawings with Layers . Tutorial: Tour a Drawing . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 . . . . . . . . . . Use Dimensioning Options . . . . . . . . Overview of Hatches . . . . . .117 . 67 Object Properties Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . Erase. . . 55 . . . . . . . . . 94 . . . . . . . . . iv | Contents . . . . . 72 74 76 78 79 Set Grid and Snap Values . . . . . . . . . .119 . . . 115 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches Overview of Blocks . . . Draw with Coordinates . . . . . 90 . . . . . . . . . . . .128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Draw Circles and Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 Make Modifications . Modify Dimensions . . . . . . Extend. . Insert Blocks . Insert Hatches or Solid Fills . . 64 . . . . Analyze Drawings . . . . Specify Angles and Distances . . 71 . . . . . . . . Move and Rotate Objects . . . . Create and Modify Dimension Styles . . . .135 . . . . . . .109 . . .Chapter 5 Draw Objects . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use Editing Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Text Size for the Viewport Scaling. . Create Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work with Text Styles . . 125 .142 Dimensions Overview . . . . . . . . Chapter 6 Precision Drawing .140 .129 Create and Modify Text . . 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Trim Objects Duplicate Objects . . 56 . . . .134 . . . . . . . Chapter 10 Add Dimensions. . . . . . . 85 . . . 133 . . . . . . Snap to Precise Points on Objects Object Snap Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Select Objects to Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 . Fillet Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 Chapter 9 Add Text to a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Draw Lines . . . . . . . .

148 . . . . . . . . . . . 147 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . 151 . . Index . . Choose and Configure Plotters Plot from a Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Contents | v . . . .Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots . . . . . . . . 159 . . . . . . . . 153 Work with Layouts . . . . . .

vi .

Make the Transition from Paper to CAD .

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you first decide what units of measurement you will use. You establish scale differently in CAD than you do with manual drafting. you can specify any scale. When you draw a map. the length of one unit might equal one millimeter or one inch. one unit might equal one kilometer or one mile. Views of the part were scaled later to create the layout for the printed drawing. you must determine the scale of a view before you start drawing. This drawing of a mechanical carriage uses millimeters for the length of one unit. and then draw your model at 1:1 scale. For example. With manual drafting. Draw the object at 1:1 scale in the units you choose. when you draw a motor part. Draw to Scale | 3 . This scale compares the size of the actual object to the size of the model drawn on paper. With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. When you lay out and plot your drawing.Draw to Scale Drawing scale is something you consider when laying out your drawing.

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Lay Out Your Drawing On paper. you start to draw. elevations. A layout represents a drawing sheet. In this drawing of a cottage. general notes. When you’re ready to print. you can arrange different views of your model in a layout. similar to picture frames or windows. title block. or model. sections. and one or more views of the model displayed in layout viewports. which usually includes a preprinted border and title block. It typically contains a border. you first draw your design. You can then create a layout for that model in an environment called paper space. With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. Finally. in a working environment called model space. You create your basic design. In CAD. or model. You scale the views in viewports by zooming in or out. Then you determine the location for views—plans. a layout is constrained by the sheet size you use. through which you can see your model. When you draft manually. Lay Out Your Drawing | 5 . in a drawing area called model space. you first select a sheet. and details. dimensions. you are not limited to one particular layout or sheet size. Layout viewports are areas. layout viewports display the model in plan and elevation views.

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or lineweight to layers helps you comply with industry standards. As with overlays. and plumbing components. Assigning a plot style to a layer makes all the objects drawn on that layer plot in a similar manner. With manual drafting. edit. You can name layers to help track content. For example. This drawing of a press uses layers to define different linetypes and colors. You can also use layers to organize drawing objects for plotting.Organize Drawing Information In both manual drafting and CAD. and print layers separately or in combination. sorting. and editing specific drawing data. you need a way to organize your drawing content—a method for separating. Assigning settings such as color. Display layers when you need to see all components. Organize Drawing Information | 7 . linetype. a building plan might contain separate overlays for its structural. and lock layers so they can't be altered. layers are equivalent to transparent overlays. you can separate information onto individual transparent overlays. you can display. Turn off layers to hide complex details as you work. With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. electrical.

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developing standards is a requirement for efficient communication. With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. text. Dimension. and linetype styles can be established in a template drawing and used for creating new drawings. Standards must be established in the beginning and applied consistently. layouts. and slant. dimensions. layers. you can ensure conformity to industry or company standards by creating styles that you can apply consistently. dimensioning. A text style. text. for example. width. You can create styles for text. establishes font and format characteristics such as height. and more. lineweights. and linetypes. and some command settings in drawing template files. title block and border information. Establish Drafting Standards | 9 . This drawing of a roadway plan uses styles to maintain drafting standards for text. You can save styles. Using drawing templates helps you quickly start new drawings that conform to standards. and linetypes. dimensions. Manual drafting requires meticulous accuracy in drawing linetypes.Establish Drafting Standards Whether you work as a member of a team or on an individual project.

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scales. In AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. copying and mirroring were used to create repeated and symmetrical features. and erasers. Repetitive drawing and editing tasks must be done manually. offset. compasses. timeconsuming drafting tasks. You can save drafting time by drawing one half of an item and then mirroring it to create the other half. You can also copy objects between open drawings. copy. parallel rules. Offsetting was also used to draw parallel lines more efficiently. rotate. and mirror objects. spline curves. circles. You are provided with a complete set of drawing and editing tools to help eliminate repetitive. You can easily move. and more. templates. In this drawing of a trolley. you use drawing tools that include pencils. Draw Efficiently | 11 . With manual drafting. you can choose from a variety of drawing tools that create lines.Draw Efficiently Draw with less effort and revise with more speed: these are two primary reasons you use CAD.

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The simplest method is to locate points by snapping to an interval on a rectangular grid. Objects drawn to scale must be manually verified and dimensioned. With object snaps. you can snap to locations on existing objects. you draft more accurately than with manual methods. you can snap to the center point automatically. With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. such as an endpoint of an arc. when you place your cursor here… With manual drafting. you can snap to previously set angles and specify distances along those angles. you can use several methods to obtain exact dimensions. you must draw objects carefully to ensure correct size and alignment. The polar tracking feature displays visual guidelines at specific angles and can snap the cursor to an angle. With object snaps. With CAD. Another method is to specify exact coordinates. or the center point of a circle. In this drawing of a pumping station. Draw Accurately | 13 . the midpoint of a line. Coordinates specify a drawing location by indicating a point along an X and Y axis or a distance and angle from another point. With polar tracking. Polar tracking was used to draw lines at correct angles.Draw Accurately Engineering and architectural drawings require a high degree of accuracy. object snaps were used to ensure that lines connected perfectly.

View Your Drawing
The power of CAD makes it easy for you to quickly view different parts of your design at different magnifications. You can zoom out to see more of your design, or zoom in to see more detail. With manual drafting, the size and resolution of your drawing is fixed. With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT, the size and resolution of your drawing can be changed as needed. To do detailed work, you can increase display size by zooming in. You can zoom out to display more of the drawing. To move to another section of a drawing, you pan the drawing without changing magnification. You can zoom and pan to create the best working conditions. This can be invaluable when working on large and detailed drawings, such as this health spa plan.

You can pan to shift to another area of your design.

View Your Drawing

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Changes to the model automatically update the dimension values. you can update the dimension size and value automatically when you stretch or scale the dimensioned object. angular. and more. If you move the text. baseline. the text. Create Dimensions and Text | 17 . If you make dimensions associative. With manual drafting. You can easily revise the content.Create Dimensions and Text Creating accurate dimensions and consistent. You can create leader lines with associated text. you must erase and then redraw the dimensions. leaders. font. Associative dimensions are tied to the underlying model. In this detail drawing of a gutter. CAD provides ways to streamline this task. and rotation of text in dimensions and notes. you create associative dimensions and text on the layout in paper space. Changing text can often involve relettering the whole drawing. the leader is adjusted automatically. if you resize any part of the drawing. radial. Standard types of dimensions include linear. With AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. ordinate. legible text is a time-consuming task for the manual drafter. and dimensions describe the required hardware. spacing. size.

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such as linetype. you never need to redraw it. These before-and-after drawings show some typical edits to a house elevation. You can modify existing objects by mirroring. If you need to remove an object. On paper. You can also change object properties. you don’t have to redraw it. If you need to copy all or part of an object. rotating. Modify Your Drawing | 19 . at any time. color. trimming. and layer. CAD eliminates tedious manual editing by providing a variety of editing tools. The revision cloud feature is used to mark areas of change. Once you draw an object. and more. you can easily copy it without having to re-create it. scaling. you must erase and redraw to make revisions to your drawing manually. lineweight. And if you make an error. you will need to modify your drawing in some way. Once you draw something. stretching. you can quickly undo your actions. Whether you work on paper or with CAD.Modify Your Drawing Revisions are a part of any drawing project. you can erase it with a few clicks of the mouse.

20 .

Introduction

Why You Should Use this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Tutorials and Command Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Get Additional Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Why You Should Use this Guide
This Getting Started guide provides an introduction to the most commonly used features of both AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. Use it to learn the basic features so you can begin working quickly. Because you are provided with a rich set of features, there are often many ways of accomplishing a task. This guide focuses on the following: ■ What do you need to know to get started? ■ What is the recommended method for using the features presented? After you become more familiar with the features, you will find your own ways of working efficiently based on the type of work that you do.

Tutorials and Command Access
There are severals ways you can access commands in AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. They can be accessed through the command line, the ribbon, toolbars, palettes, and the Menu Browser. Because the ribbon might have been customized, and some commands are not accessible from the ribbon, the tutorials in this guide usually direct you to access commands through the Menu Browser. Menu Browser

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Chapter 1 Introduction

NOTE All screen shots and dialog boxes in this guide display AutoCAD LT in the title bar. For the explanations and tutorials in the Getting Started guide, there is no difference whether you use AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT. The features presented are identical.

Get Additional Information
Additional resources are available when you need more information. From the Help menu, you can access the following resources: ■ Help provides procedures, conceptual information, and command descriptions. You can also press F1 at the Command prompt, in a dialog box, or at a prompt within a command to display Help information. ■ New Features Workshop provides a series of overviews about new features. ■ Additional Resources provides several options for additional help from the Web.

Access Related Topics in the Help System
Keyword references are displayed at the end of most Getting Started topics. For example, the following information indicates that you can find concepts, procedures, commands, and system variables related to the LINE command by entering line in the Index tab of the Help window.
LINE

Try it: Locate a Help topic using a keyword ■ Start AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT and press the F1 key. Then follow the steps in the illustration. 4 Click to display a concept related to the selected topic 5 Click to list procedures related to the selected topic 6 Click to list commands related to the selected topic

1 Click the Index tab 2 Enter a keyword

3 Double-click to view a topic

Get Additional Information

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1 Start AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT and press F1 to display the Help window. with descriptions for each one. click the Contents tab if necessary to display the table of contents. Then click Use a Template File to Start a Drawing. Organize. 4 In the right pane. you will use the Help system to find information about how to start a drawing with a template file and how to create a layout. Notice that the table of contents in the left pane displays the topic structure for easy navigation. Start. The Help system can provide answers to save you from needless frustration. click directly on the title. 3 In the left pane. and Save a Drawing. 24 | Chapter 1 Introduction . Then click the plus sign (+) next to User’s Guide. NOTE It is important to learn how to use the Help system effectively. 2 In the left pane of the Help window. click Start a Drawing. The User’s Guide expands to display a list of chapters. The right pane of the Help window displays links to several topics. You have navigated to a destination topic in the Help system.Tutorial: Use the Help System In this tutorial.

But how do you know where you are in the table of contents? How can you display an adjacent. NOTE You can click the column labeled Title to sort the list of topics alphabetically. related topic? Get Additional Information | 25 . Click the Procedure tab to redisplay the list. and so on.5 Click the Procedure tab. 7 Next. click the column labeled Location to sort the list of topics by book: Command Reference. in the left pane. The topic is displayed. User’s Guide. the Command Reference is opened in Help. The Quick Reference tab lists all commands and system variables that are associated with this topic. You will now locate topics that contain the word layout. and provides details about command and dialog box options. Then double-click the topic. 8 Type the word layout and press ENTER. If you click a link on this tab. Then click the first procedure on the list. enter several keywords or an exact phrase in quotes. Work on a Layout Tab. 9 Scroll down to find the User’s Guide topic. 6 Click the Quick Reference tab. Then. click the Search tab. For the best results. Several topics that contain the word layout are displayed.

This is a quick method for collapsing the table of contents when too many subtopics are displayed.10 In the left pane. 11 In the left pane. The table of contents opens to the current topic. Use this method to find related topics easily. NOTE If the table of contents does not automatically open to the current topic. click the Contents tab. 12 Close the Help window. right-click any topic and then click Close All. 26 | Chapter 1 Introduction . click the Concept tab in the right pane.

To get started Action Access the Help system Use New Features Workshop Find training resources Menu Browser Help ➤ Help Help ➤ New Features Workshop Help ➤ Additional Resources ➤ Online Training Resources Help system HELP Review and Recall 1 What is the purpose of the tabs in the right pane of the Help window? 2 In the left pane of the Help window. In the Help system. click User’s Guide ➤ Get Information ➤ Find the Information You Need ➤ Use the Help System Efficiently. when would you use the Contents tab rather than the Index tab? 3 From what menu can you get information about new features? Get Additional Information | 27 .For more information. on the Contents tab. read Use the Help System Efficiently.

28 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Cancel a Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . 30 Start a Command . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Undo or Redo Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Work with Commands Use the Mouse . . . . . . . . .

or start a command. You can choose commands from several different kinds of menus: 30 | Chapter 2 Work with Commands . specify points or select objects display a shortcut menu rotate to zoom. a toolbar. you can display a shortcut menu that contains relevant commands and options. you can work in the way that feels most comfortable to you. Start a Command You can start a command using the Menu Browser.Use the Mouse Most people use a mouse as their pointing device. On a two-button mouse. you can always escape by pressing the ESC key on your keyboard. press to pan NOTE To see what options are available in any situation. With the right button. or the command line. a palette. A wheel mouse is a two-button mouse with a small wheel between the buttons. Different shortcut menus are displayed depending on where you move the cursor. the left button is usually the pick button. used to specify points or select objects in the drawing area. It is highly recommended that you use a wheel mouse. Because AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT are very flexible. Try it: Cancel a selection ■ Click in the drawing area and move the mouse. You are now in an object selection mode. try right-clicking to display a shortcut menu. Press ESC to cancel. This wheel can be rotated or pressed down to zoom and pan your drawing quickly. display a shortcut menu. Cancel a Command If you accidentally click in the screen.

the following prompt is displayed on the command line: Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: The default option. For example. “Specify center point for circle. right-click in the drawing area. right-click a toolbar. ■ To choose a different option. ■ Shortcut menus are displayed when you click the right mouse button. when you are instructed to enter something. Specify a Command Option When you start a command.■ Menu Browser access is from the bright red button at the top-left corner of the application window. palette. Additionally. enter the capitalized letters in the option name. You can also repeat the previous command by pressing ENTER or SPACEBAR. NOTE In this guide and in the Help system. or use the pointing device to click a center point in the drawing area. For example. type the boldface value on the command line. or window. enter coordinate values. Start a Command | 31 . you will often see a set of options on the command line. Different menus are displayed when you right-click an object. Alternate options are displayed between the aquare brackets. All the commands for the tutorials in this book are accessible from these menus. and then press the ENTER key. or right-click within a dialog box. ■ The Object Snap menu is displayed when you hold down SHIFT and click the right mouse button. For example. After you type the command on the command line. command window command line Some commands have abbreviated names or command aliases. ■ To accept the default option. type 2P and press ENTER to choose the Two-Point option. press ENTER or SPACEBAR to start the command. Object snaps facilitate precision drawing by snapping the cursor onto a feature on an object such as the endpoint of a line or the center of a circle. you can enter c as an alias for CIRCLE. when you enter the CIRCLE command. some commands must be completed on the command line. regardless of how they are started.” is displayed before the square brackets. Start Commands on the Command Line You can initiate commands by typing them on the command line within the command window instead of using toolbars or menus.

With the dynamic prompt. To display command options in the dynamic input prompt. 4 Create a second line segment by clicking again to locate another point. and then click an option on the menu. a similar prompt is displayed next to the cursor called the dynamic prompt. click anywhere else in the drawing area to specify the endpoint of the line segment. 5 Press ENTER to end the LINE command. Draw two line segments. Then press ENTER to end the erase command. click anywhere in the drawing area to locate a point. press the DOWN ARROW key. and click each line. Try it: Use the Menu Browser to draw a line 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Click Draw ➤ Click Line. but are separate objects.Use the Dynamic Prompt In addition to the prompt on the command line. 3 At the Specify Next Point or [Undo] prompt. The Specify Next Point or [Undo] prompt is repeated so you can continue to draw segments until you end the LINE command. 32 | Chapter 2 Work with Commands . you can keep your eyes on your work and you don’t have to look down to the command line. Try it: Use the ribbon to draw a line 1 2 3 4 Home tab ➤ Draw panel ➤ Click the Line button. Home tab ➤ Modify panel ➤ Click the Erase button. Click each line and then press ENTER to erase the lines. 6 Click Modify ➤ Erase. 2 At the Specify First Point prompt. The prompt changes: Specify Next Point or [Undo]. The two line segments that you just created share an endpoint.

Try it: Use the command line to draw a line

1 On the command line, type line or the letter L. Press ENTER. 2 Click anywhere in the drawing area to locate a point. 3 At the Specify Next Point or [Undo] prompt, click anywhere else in the drawing area to specify
the endpoint of the line segment.

4 At the Specify Next Point or [Undo] prompt, click anywhere else in the drawing area to specify
the endpoint of the line segment.

5 Type u and press ENTER to undo the last line segment and click another location for the
endpoint.

6 Then type c (Close) and press ENTER to add a third line segment that connects to the initial point
and ends the command. Try it: Use the command line to draw a circle

1 On the command line, enter circle or the letter c (type c and press ENTER). 2 At the Specify Center Point for Circle prompt, click anywhere in the drawing area to locate a
point.

3 4 5 6 7 8

At the Specify Radius of Circle prompt, enter 5 (type 5 and press ENTER). On the command line, press ENTER to repeat the CIRCLE command. Enter 2P to create a circle using two points (type 2P and press ENTER). Click anywhere in the drawing to locate each point. Repeat the CIRCLE command several more times, using each of the other options. When you’re done, enter erase or e, and click each circle to select it. Then press ENTER to erase the selected circles.

Try it: Use the dynamic prompt to draw a circle

1 At the dynamic prompt, enter circle or the letter c. 2 At the Specify Center Point for Circle prompt, press the DOWN ARROW key. 3 Click one of the CIRCLE options on the menu and complete the command.

Start a Command

|

33

Undo or Redo Commands
Occasionally you will need to undo some of your work. Two Standard toolbar buttons reverse mistakes in your drawings. Undo Redo ■ Undo. You can backtrack previous actions. For example, click Undo to delete an object that you just created. ■ Redo. You can reinstate the actions that you backtracked with Undo. For example, click Redo to restore the object that you just undid.

To get started
Action End a command Repeat a command Cancel a command Undo the previous command Shortcut Menu Right-click ➤ Enter Right-click ➤ Repeat <action> Right-click ➤ Cancel Right-click ➤ Undo <action> Keyboard ENTER or SPACEBAR ENTER or SPACEBAR ESC U and press ENTER

Help system
OPTIONS, U, UNDO, REDO

Review and Recall
1 What are three ways that you can start a command? 2 What other key can you use to end or repeat a command in addition to ENTER? 3 What should you do to cancel a command?

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Chapter 2 Work with Commands

you can zoom out to get a better overall view. you can pan the view to center the objects you are working on. Once you have zoomed in.It will be easier to create or modify objects in this drawing by zooming in to magnify the view. After you finish working on an area. .

. . 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Pan to Reposition a View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Change Views Zoom to Magnify a View. . . . . . . . .

zoomed out zoomed in Zoom to Display the Entire Drawing Use the Extents option of the ZOOM command to display the entire drawing. If you use a wheel mouse. position.Zoom to Magnify a View A view is a specific magnification. you drag the cursor up to zoom in. Zoom by Moving the Cursor You can use a pointing device to zoom in real time—that is. 38 | Chapter 3 Change Views . Zoom to a Specified Area With the Window option of the ZOOM command. to zoom in or out by moving the cursor. and orientation of your design. There are several methods for zooming in your drawings. you can quickly zoom in on a specific area by using the mouse to define a rectangular zoom window. The area you define is centered in the new view. This is useful when you need to return to an overall view quickly. The most common way to change a view is zooming. drag it down to zoom out. With the Realtime option of the ZOOM command. Zooming increases or decreases the magnification of the image displayed in the drawing area. rotate the top of the wheel forward to zoom in and rotate it backward to zoom out. This option is also useful if your drawing area is blank as a result of zooming in too close on a blank area or panning too far off the drawing area.

Pan to Reposition a View Panning is another common way to change a view. Within the PAN command. 2 In the Open dialog box. drag the cursor to pan the image to a new location. 6 Drag the cursor in any direction to reposition the view. before PAN after PAN Pan by Moving the Cursor You can pan in real time—that is. Move your cursor to form a rectangular area and click again. Panning moves the position of the image displayed in any two-dimensional direction. Press ESC to end the operation. use the pointing device to reposition the image in the drawing area. you can practice zooming and panning operations using the commands in the Menu Browser or directly with a wheel mouse. 4 Click somewhere near the center of the drawing. find the Sample folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT program files folder. 3 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Zoom ➤ Window. Tutorial: Zoom and Pan In this tutorial. hold the wheel down and move the mouse to pan. 5 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Pan ➤ Realtime. If you use a wheel mouse. 7 Continue to practice zooming and panning with these options: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Zoom Realtime (or use the wheel on a wheel mouse) Zoom Previous Zoom Window Zoom Extents Pan Realtime (or hold the wheel down and move the mouse) Pan to Reposition a View | 39 . 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open. Click on each drawing file and open one that looks interesting.

REGEN. NOTE If you zoom in and you notice that arcs and circles lose their smoothness. ■ Press the wheel down and drag the view to pan it. ZOOM. REGENALL Review and Recall 1 What ZOOM option should you use to fit your entire drawing into the drawing area? 2 What is a fast way to redisplay the previous view? 3 What command smooths the display of curves and removes stray pixels? 40 | Chapter 3 Change Views . you can zoom and pan without entering a command. ■ Double-click the wheel to zoom to the extents of the drawing. 8 (Optional) If you have a wheel mouse. These are the most common options for drawing in 2D. To get started Action Pan Zoom Reset the display limit for zooming Smooth arcs and circles Menu Browser View ➤ Pan View ➤ Zoom View ➤ Regen View ➤ Regen Ribbon Home tab ➤ Utilities panel ➤ Pan Home tab ➤ Utilities panel ➤ Realtime Help system PAN.Practice these options until you are comfortable with zooming and panning. you can regenerate the display. Click View menu ➤ Regen All. or if you can’t zoom in or out beyond a limit. Notice that your cursor location determines the stationary reference point of your zoom operation. This command also removes stray pixels. Try the following operations: ■ Move your cursor to an area in the drawing and rotate the wheel forward and backward to zoom in and out. 9 Close the sample drawing without saving it.

.

Use various linetypes to help identify different types of objects. .Establish layers to organize information as if on transparent drawing overlays. Assign standard lineweights to ensure that lines will plot the same way regardless of drawing scale.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Tutorial: Tour a Drawing . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Understand Models and Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Plan the Drawing Units and Scale . . . . . . . . . . . .Drawing Setup Start a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Organize Drawings with Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Drawing template files include settings and basic drawing elements that you will use often. and JIS standards. it is very likely that you will customize one or more of these.dwt extension. these settings are passed on to the new drawing. ISO. and logos Dimension styles Text styles Linetypes and lineweights Plot styles drawing template file with included title block Your product includes several drawing template files. and definitions that will save you significant setup time. When you start a drawing with a drawing template. Nevertheless. You can create a drawing template file by saving a drawing using the . A drawing template file contains predefined settings. standards. such as ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Unit type and precision Tool settings and preferences Layer organization Title blocks.Start a Drawing There are several ways to start a new drawing. or build your own drawing template files to meet your standards and requirements. including some that facilitate compliance with ANSI. borders. The recommended method is to start with a drawing template file. DIN. 44 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup .

dwt. 2 In the Select Template dialog box.dwt. ■ ■ ■ ■ Tutorial-mArch. Sample architectural template (imperial) Tutorial-iMfg. and the imperial template files are scaled to use inches as the drawing unit.Try it: Open a drawing template file 1 Start a new drawing.dwt.dwt. Sample mechanical design template (imperial) The metric template files are scaled to use millimeters as the drawing unit. click one of the following drawing template files and then click Open. Sample architectural template (metric) Tutorial-mMfg. Start a Drawing | 45 . Sample mechanical design template (metric) Tutorial-iArch.

Shaft 1 unit = 1 mm (grid spacing = 2 mm) Office plan 1 unit = 1 inch (grid spacing = 12 inches) Before you begin drawing. distances are measured in drawing units. you create the model at 1:1 scale. In a drawing.5 units displays as 1’-3 1/2” Decimal. A length of 15. Even though you eventually print or plot to paper at a specified scale.5 units displays as 1’-3. you decide what one drawing unit will represent—there is no setting that determines the length of a drawing unit. you don’t need to worry about setting a scale before you start drawing. A length of 15.5 units displays as 1. Choose the Drawing Units In AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. before you start a drawing. you must first decide what drawing units you will use. one drawing unit may equal one inch. or one mile.5 units displays as 15. The format settings available for linear units are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Architectural. A length of 15. one meter.5000E+1 46 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup . you can set the format of the drawing units.5” Fractional. Set the Format of Drawing Units After you decide what drawing units to use.5 units displays as 15 1/2 Scientific.Plan the Drawing Units and Scale Unlike manual drafting. A length of 15. one millimeter. A length of 15.5000 Engineering. However.

For example. 3 Close the dialog box. dialog boxes. Try it: Check the drawing unit format and precision 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Units. The drawing unit format controls only the display style of the drawing units on-screen. such as in the display of coordinates and values in the Properties palette. In the Drawing Units dialog box. you would set the format for linear units to decimal. if you are a mechanical engineer who normally works in millimeters. NOTE Think of this dialog box as the Drawing Units Format dialog box. If you are an architect who normally works in feet and inches. This represents the decimal or fractional rounding of values displayed on-screen. 2 Notice the value displayed under Precision. notice the display style selected for linear and for angular units. and prompts. Plan the Drawing Units and Scale | 47 . you would set the format to architectural.

With layout space you can create a multiple-view layout for plotting.Understand Models and Layouts The Model and layout buttons on the status bar provide two working environments. you specify the paper size you want to use. In model space. you set the drawing unit format. one inch. ■ Layout space accesses drawing layouts. When you set up a layout. Next. layout with viewports using different scales 48 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup . The layout represents a printed drawing sheet in which you can display one or more views of the model at various scales. one meter. full-size model of a part created at 1:1 scale layout with title block and rectangular layout viewports that contain scaled views ■ Model space accesses a limitless drawing area. Then you draw at 1:1 scale. Here you create layout viewports that act as windows into model space. Each layout viewport can contain a different view of the model. This layout environment is called paper space. you first decide whether one unit represents one millimeter. or some other drawing unit. You use Model space to draw a full-size model of your subject.

The border of the layout viewport is no longer as thick and the crosshairs cursor is active within the entire drawing area. This displays tabs at the bottom-left of your drawing area. 3 Click the layout tab to the right of the Model tab. including a sample title block and a layout viewport. Layouts are used to create printed drawings. You can hide the tabs and return to using buttons by right-clicking a tab and then clicking Hide Model and Layout tabs from the shortcut menu. This returns you to paper space. it’s easier to work with the tabs. 4 On the layout. The strip along the bottom of the application window is called the drawing status bar. This is how you access model space from a layout to pan the model space view and to add dimensions. This action displays Model space. The layout has already been prepared. Notice that the border of the layout viewport becomes thicker and the crosshairs cursor is active only within the layout viewport. 6 Click the Model tab to return to Model space.Try it: Switch between the Model and layout space 1 At the bottom-center of the application window toward the right side. the blue rectangle. 2 Right-click the same Model button and click the Display Model and Layout Tabs option. click the Model button. When you are learning. 5 Double-click in a blank area outside the rectangular viewport. Understand Models and Layouts | 49 . double-click anywhere within the rectangular viewport area. where you create and modify the geometry for your model.

linetype. Each layer includes an assigned color. Later. linetype. and lineweight. Click the titles of the Status. For example. These layers are just a sample of the types of layers that you will need to use in a well-organized drawing. including those specified in companies and those recommended by professional organizations. and lineweight are assigned automatically to the new objects you create. compatible. walls electrical furniture all layers NOTE It is very important to establish and maintain a company-wide layer standard. they are an important organizational tool. Color. Before you create objects. There are many layer standards already in use. 3 Enlarge the right side of the dialog box to display all of the columns. consistent. Assign Layers You can organize the drawing by assigning similar components to the same layer. and maintainable over time. you can create a layer called Electrical and assign it the color green. you switch to that layer. The objects you draw are created on the Electrical layer and are colored green. you can turn off that layer. Review the descriptions of each layer in the column on the far right. you set the layer on which the objects are to be created. 50 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup . Try it: Display the list of layers in a drawing 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer. 2 In the Layer Properties Manager. notice the name and default properties assigned to each layer. This is called the current layer. Layer standards are essential for team projects. In CAD. With a layer standard. the current layer’s color. if you don’t want to view or plot electrical objects.Organize Drawings with Layers Layers are the equivalent of the overlays used in manual drafting. By default. Whenever you draw electrical objects. and Name columns to rearrange the order of the layers. drawing organization will be more logical.

Use this option to prevent objects on a layer from being modified.Control Layers To make objects on a layer invisible. You can still use the objects on a locked layer for operations that don’t modify the objects. You can also lock layers to reduce the possibility of modifying objects accidentally. For example. you can turn off the layer or freeze it in the Layer Properties Manager. Thawing a frozen layer causes an automatic regeneration of the drawing and is slower than turning a layer on. Use this option rather than freezing if you frequently need to switch a layer’s visibility. ■ Freeze layers. you can snap to these objects to use them as guides for precision drawing. Use this option if you don’t need a layer to be visible for a long time. ■ Turn off layers. Organize Drawings with Layers | 51 . ■ Lock layers.

find the \Help\GettingStarted folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT product folder and open arbor. 7 Click the ANSI C Layout tab. 5 Zoom and pan in model space to inspect the arbor design. 6 Perform a Zoom Extents to display the entire design. check to make sure that the Files of Type drop down list in the dialog box is set to Drawing (. Then turn the layers back on. 2 In the Select File dialog box. you tour a drawing of an arbor and picket fence design. 8 Zoom and pan in paper space to inspect the drawing layout.dwg. 4 As you move the mouse over the objects in the drawing. 1 Click Menu browser ➤ File ➤ Open. 10 Click Menu browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer. Notice that the current layer has a green check next to it. 15 Close the drawing without saving it.dwg). 3 Click the Model tab (or click the Model button on the status bar). review the list of layers that were created to organize this drawing. For you don’t see the drawing files. 52 | Chapter 4 Drawing Setup . 12 Click the column labeled On to arrange the layers according to whether they are on or off. 13 Click the Color column to arrange the layers according to color.Tutorial: Tour a Drawing In this tutorial. 9 Perform a Zoom Extents to display the entire layout. 14 Click the Name column and click OK. In the Layer Properties Manager. 11 Click several lightbulb icons to turn off several layers. notice that the objects are automatically highlighted.

LAYER Review and Recall 1 2 3 4 Why is it important to start a drawing from a drawing template file? What is the difference between choosing drawing units and setting the drawing unit format? What is the difference between the Model tab and a layout tab? What are several benefits to creating a drawing with layers? Tutorial: Tour a Drawing | 53 . UNITS. STARTUP. LAYOUT. SAVEAS.To get started Action Start a new drawing Save a drawing template Set the display style of the units Create a layout Create and modify layers Menu Browser File ➤ New File ➤ Save As Format ➤ Units Insert ➤ Layout ➤ New Layout Format ➤ Layer Icon Help system NEW. MODEL.

Offset lines to create parallel lines Create rectangles easily Use polylines to combine line and arc segments Use circles and arcs to create regular curves Use lines for drawing objects and for construction geometry Use splines to create smooth. non-uniform curves .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Draw Circles and Arcs . 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draw Objects Object Properties Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Draw Lines . . . . .

Objects that are drawn on that layer automatically use those properties. Object properties are settings that control the appearance and geometric characteristics of an object.Object Properties Overview All objects that you create have properties. All other object properties are specific to the type of object. Properties are assigned to a layer. ■ Individual properties. regardless of the layer that they are drawn on. Color Layer Linetype Linetype scale Plot style Thickness Hyperlink Lineweight Assign Object Properties Typically. The general properties that are common to all objects are listed below. click to change a property click the icon to expand or collapse a category of properties Right-click to set palette behavior options 56 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects . you assign object properties using one of the following strategies: ■ By layer. Properties are assigned to objects individually.

■ If you click multiple objects. the Properties palette displays the properties of that object. You can turn on Auto-hide to make the Properties palette appear and disappear when your cursor moves over the Properties palette title bar. and you can change its properties. Leaving the palette open keeps it handy. and modify the properties the same way as the Properties palette. set. 2 Move the cursor on and off the Properties palette. and you can set the default properties for all subsequently created objects. the Properties palette displays all the properties that they have in common. Use the Properties Panel You can use the controls in the Properties panel and the Layers panel to view. 2 In the Select Template dialog box. By default. Color control Properties panel Lineweight control Linetype control Plotstyle control Object Properties Overview | 57 . and modifying the properties of objects. The Properties panel provides convenient access to the most important object properties. setting. Leave the Properties palette open.Use the Properties Palette The Properties palette is the primary tool for viewing. ■ When you click an object. 3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties. click one of the drawing template files and then click Open. these panels are displayed in the Home tab of the ribbon located above the drawing area. Click Auto-hide on the shortcut menu. The Properties palette operates as follows: ■ If no objects are selected. Try it: Change the Auto-hide behavior of the Properties palette 1 Right-click the Properties palette title bar. and you can change their common properties. the Properties palette displays the current default property settings. Try it: Display the Properties palette 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ New.

a drop-down list. The color. you will use several controls to view and change the properties of layers and objects. 8 Move your cursor off the Properties palette and press ESC to cancel the selection. Move your cursor onto the title bar of the Properties palette. The layer of the object is Dimension. 2 In the Select File dialog box. 6 Move your cursor onto the title bar of the Properties palette to open it. 4 Move your cursor onto the title bar of the Properties palette to open it. find the \Help\GettingStarted folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT product folder and open arbor. The Layer control. Notice that only the common properties of the objects are listed. The color of the Dimension layer is red. Examine the additional properties of the dimension object displayed in the Properties palette.dwg. Notice that several properties of this object are displayed in the Properties panel on the ribbon. make the layer of the currently selected object the current layer Layers panel turn off the layer of a selected object the current layer. 58 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects . Layer Properties Manager Layer control Tutorial: Change Object Properties In this tutorial. Use the Layer Properties Manager button to change layer settings. linetype. 7 Click several more objects with different colors. 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open. 3 Click the Model tab. Examine the current default properties settings. and lineweight properties of the object are set to ByLayer. 5 Click a dimension object in the drawing to select it.Use the Layers Panel The Layers panel controls layers and layer properties. provides a quick method for changing several layer properties and for changing the current layer.

click a layer to select it. All new objects will be created on this layer until you change the current layer to a different one. Close the Layer Properties Manager. 4 Click the same dimension object. 2 In the Layer Properties Manager. click the red box under the Color column of the Dimension layer.Change the default color of a layer 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer. 5 Click the Color control and click ByLayer. Change the current layer 1 Click the Layer control on the Layers panel. the dimension object’s color will remain magenta. click the green box and click OK. If you change the layer color. Change the color of an individual object 1 Click any green dimension object to select it. Color control Properties panel The color of the selected object changes to magenta. 3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer 4 In the Layer Properties Manager. overriding the green color of the object’s layer. Object Properties Overview | 59 . Notice that all the objects on the Dimension layer are now green. 3 Press ESC to exit. This restores the color property behavior of the dimension object. you can change the properties of all objects on that layer in one operation. 2 Properties panel ➤ Click the Color control ➤ Click Magenta. Because all of the dimensions are on a single layer. 3 In the Select Color dialog box. Layers panel Layer control 2 Click a different layer to make it the current layer.

click the Layer control again. 60 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects . All objects on the Dimension layer are now hidden. Then click anywhere in the drawing area. Click OK to make the selected layer the current layer. 8 Use the Layer Properties Manager to turn the Dimension layer back on.5 Click the green check mark button at the top of the Layer Properties Manager. 9 Close the drawing without saving it. 7 Click the lightbulb image for the Dimension layer to turn it off. 6 On the Layers panel.

Click OK. CONTINUOUS HIDDEN CENTER PHANTOM To use a linetype. Notice the Use Paper Space Units for Scaling option. 6 Click the HIDDENX2 linetype and click Current. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Linetype.Use Linetypes You can associate a single linetype with all of the objects drawn on the same layer or you can assign linetypes individually to objects. click Load. and select a drawing template file. Several linetype scaling options are displayed. Object Properties Overview | 61 . Try it: Load a linetype and make it current 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ New. you must first load it into your drawing using the Linetype Manager. 4 In the Load or Reload Linetypes dialog box. 3 In the Linetype Manager. You check this option if you want linetypes automatically scaled in layout viewports. 5 Click Show Details. Click OK. scroll down the list of linetypes and click HIDDENX2.

the length of dashes and dots. and the space between them. may increase or decrease. and click several locations in the drawing area to draw line segments. The linetypes within the layout viewport are scaled according to the viewport display scale setting. 2 Double-click within a layout viewport to enter model space. The steps required are 1 Click a layout tab. 9 Use the Linetype Manager or the Properties panel to return the current linetype to BYLAYER. Scales the linetypes in paper space and model space identically. Sets the global scale factor for all linetypes. Sets the linetype scale for newly created objects. 3 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Regen. All subsequently created objects will be displayed using this linetype. you can create inconsistencies in the appearance of linetypes. To update a linetype scale. ■ Global Scale Factor. Dashed linetype scaled to the model the Dashed linetype scaled to the layout Use the Details area of the Linetype Manager to control the linetype scale in layout viewports. ■ Current Object Scale. You can set the scaling to correspond to the model or layout scale or to remain the same at any zoom scale. Press ENTER to end the command. 62 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects .Notice that the Properties panel in the ribbon displays the HIDDENX2 linetype as current rather than BYLAYER. 7 Click the Model tab. This setting overrides the linetype assigned to the current layer. you need to regenerate the model space display within a layout viewport on the layout tab. Scale Linetypes When you scale views in layout viewports. All subsequently created objects will be displayed using the linetype assigned to the current layer. 8 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line. In noncontinuous linetypes. ■ Use Paper Space Units for Scaling.

2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Lineweight. regardless of the default layer setting. you can create heavy and thin lines to show cuts in sections. click a heavier lineweight such as 0. Notice that the Properties panel displays the new lineweight as current. and differences in details. 6 Use the Lineweight Settings dialog box or the Properties toolbar to return the current linetype to BYLAYER. objects that are created will be displayed using the lineweight assigned to the current layer.Assign Lineweights Using lineweights. Object Properties Overview | 63 . NOTE You can assign a color. Whether you choose to assign these properties individually or by layer settings depends on your drawing organization and company standards. Try it: Choose a lineweight and make it current 1 Click the Model tab. Objects with a heavier lineweight always appear at the specified line width regardless of display scale. dimension lines and tick marks. objects that are created will be displayed using the heavier lineweight. under Lineweights. 3 In the Lineweight Settings dialog box. or lineweight to individual objects.50 mm or 0. Lineweights are independent of the current display scale. 7 Practice setting linetypes and lineweights. From now on. From now on. and draw several line segments.020". linetype. 4 Click Display Lineweight and click OK. depth in elevations. 5 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line. Press ENTER.

hexagons. and rivers in maps Segments with fixed or tapered widths Polygons are closed polylines with equal-length sides and angles. 64 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects . such as in a contour map. Press ENTER to end the command.Draw Lines The line is the most basic object that you will use. pentagons. The Polygon command is the simplest method for creating equilateral triangles. Try it: Offset a line to create parallel lines 1 2 3 4 5 6 Draw a line. squares. Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Offset. offset arcs offset lines Offsetting objects is a very efficient construction method. you create a polyline object instead. roads. Click the line that you want to offset. Create Parallel Lines An offset line is an exact replica of a line that is drawn at a specified distance from the original line. You can use the OFFSET command to create parallel lines as well as concentric circles and parallel curves. Use polylines for creating objects such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Traces on printed circuit boards Borders Contour lines. and so on. Click on one side of the line. but each segment is a separate line object. Draw Polylines and Polygons A polyline is a connected sequence of line or arc segments created as a single object. At the offset distance prompt. If you need to draw a series of line segments as a single object. enter 10. A line can be one segment or a series of successive segments.

Try it: Create a polyline 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Polyline. you specify a start point and an endpoint. After several points. 2 At each prompt. The resulting object is a closed polyline in the shape of a rectangle. Draw a polyline segment (1 and 2). To draw additional segments. do one of the following: ■ Press ENTER to end the command. You can include arc segments in polylines. 3 2 1 endpoint of arc final segment Try it: Create a rectangle 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Rectangle. Draw Lines | 65 . 3 Move the cursor diagonally and click another location. Try it: Create a polyline with arc segments 1 2 3 4 5 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Polyline. Notice that the segments all belong to a single object. Enter L to return to Line mode. At the next prompt. End the command. continue to specify points in your drawing.Draw Polylines To draw each polyline segment. and then draw another line segment. click a point. 2 Click a location on the screen. ■ Enter c to create a closed loop. enter a to switch to Arc mode and continue with an arc segment (3). 3 Click the polyline.

inscribed radius circumscribed radius 5 To specify a “radius” of the polygon. The resulting object is also a closed polyline.Try it: Create a polygon 1 2 3 4 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Polygon. You can also make polyline segments taper. 66 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects . Enter the number of sides. for example. Specify either the Inscribed or the Circumscribed option. ■ Enter a distance. line or arc with the JOIN command. This determines how the distance that you enter in the next prompt is measured. Click a location for the center of the polygon. 6. you can ■ Separate the polyline into independent segments with the EXPLODE command. uniform width mixed width tapered segment Once you create a polyline. You can draw polylines of various widths by using the Width and Halfwidth options after you specify a starting point for a polyline. do one of the following: ■ Move the cursor and click a location. ■ Join a polyine to another polyline.

and direction values. angle 1 1 2 Center. start point. use one of the following methods: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the center and radius (default method). Specify the center and diameter. Create the circle tangent to two existing objects.Draw Circles and Arcs You can create a variety of curved objects. radius Center. Create the circle tangent to two objects and specify a radius. you can specify various combinations of center. angle 2 Start. 1 included angle 2 Start. radius center radius 3 1 2 1 2 tangent objects Tangent. angle Draw Circles and Arcs | 67 . angle. radius. chord length. The following examples illustrate three ways to specify two points and an included angle. Draw Circles To create circles. center. tangent. radius Two points defining diameter Three points defining circumference Draw Arcs To create arcs. endpoint. start. Define the circumference of the circle with two or three points. end. including circles and arcs.

JOIN. PSLTSCALE. POLYGON. EXPLODE. PLINE. To get started Action Set properties Load. scale. This is often the preferred method for creating arcs and will be covered later. RECTANG. ARC Review and Recall 1 2 3 4 5 What is the result of setting the color of an object to ByLayer? What is the fastest way to change the current layer to a different one? What would you do to access a complete list of the properties of an object? What command is recommended for creating parallel lines and curves? What type of object is composed of a series of connected segments? 68 | Chapter 5 Draw Objects . PEDIT. and manage linetypes Change lineweight settings Draw lines Draw parallel lines Draw polylines Draw polygons Separate polyline segments Join polylines Draw circles Draw arcs Menu Browser Modify menu ➤ Properties Format ➤ Linetype Format ➤ Lineweight Draw ➤ Line Modify ➤ Offset Draw ➤ Polyline Draw ➤ Polygon Modify ➤ Explode Modify ➤ Join Draw ➤ Circle Draw ➤ Arc Icon Help system PROPERTIES. OFFSET. CELTSCALE. LINE. LTSCALE. CIRCLE. COLOR.NOTE The FILLET command creates an arc tangent to two existing objects. LAYER. LINEWEIGHT. LINETYPE.

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Enter coordinate values to locate points precisely Turn on polar tracking to draw along specified angles Turn on Ortho to draw horizontal and vertical lines Turn on Grid and Snap to draw within a predefined framework Use object snaps to locate precise points on objects .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Specify Angles and Distances . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Draw with Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Object Snap Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Snap to Precise Points on Objects . .Precision Drawing Set Grid and Snap Values . . . . . . . . 79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

When Snap is on. the grid limits. 2 Turn Grid and Snap off. Try it: Display a grid 1 Click the Grid button on the status bar. you might need to adjust grid spacing to be more appropriate for the new magnification. Notice that the grid dots cover a limited area. ■ Grid displays a rectangular pattern of dots that extends over the area specified by the drawing grid limits. you might set the grid spacing to 10 times the snap spacing in a metric drawing or 12 times the snap spacing in an imperial drawing.” to points at equal intervals in the drawing area. The grid helps you align objects and visualize the distances between them. 2 Click the Snap button on the status bar. If you zoom in or out. Try it: Constrain the cursor with Snap 1 Start a new drawing. Set Grid and Snap Spacing The grid does not necessarily correspond to the current snap interval. the cursor seems to adhere. 72 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing . Notice that the button changes color to indicate that Snap has been turned on. Snap is useful for specifying precise points with the cursor. ■ Snap restricts the movement of the crosshairs to intervals that you have defined. You might set a wide grid spacing to be used as a reference but maintain a closer snap spacing for accuracy in specifying points.” to an invisible grid. 3 Move the pointer around in the drawing area while Snap is turned on.Set Grid and Snap Values The grid and snap features set up a framework that you can use as a guide while drawing. The grid does not appear in the plotted drawing. Notice that the cursor seems to adhere. For example. or “snap. or “snap.

Set Grid and Snap Values | 73 . In the Drafting Settings dialog box. Set Grid Limits Grid limits shown by range of grid dots Try it: Change the grid limits 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Drawing Limits. Click OK. Turn on Grid and Snap.Try it: Change the Grid and Snap spacing 1 2 3 4 Right-click either the Grid or Snap button on the status bar. specify new spacings for Grid and Snap. Click Settings on the shortcut menu. 3 Repeat using two different points. 2 Click two points to represent the lower-left and the upper-right corners of a rectangular area.

4 Y 3. you specify points on a plane that is similar to a flat sheet of grid paper. You can use absolute or relative values with each method. 74 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing . The entries on the command line were as follows: Command: line Specify first point: #–2.4. the line in the illustration begins at an X value of –2 and a Y value of 1 and ends at 3.Y) or polar (distance<angle) coordinates.1 Specify next point or [Undo]: #3. you can use the cursor to specify a point in the drawing area or you can enter coordinate values.Draw with Coordinates Coordinates represent locations in your drawing. Absolute coordinate values are based on the origin.1 -Y 0. Use Cartesian and Polar Coordinates In two-dimensional space. the coordinates 5<30 specifies a point that is a distance of 5 units from the origin and at a 30 degree angle from the X axis. Relative coordinate values are based on the last point entered. For example.0) indicates where the two axes intersect. For example.0 Entering the # identifies the coordinates as absolute coordinates. For example. You can enter two-dimensional coordinates as either Cartesian (X.3 represent a point 5 units along the X axis and 3 units along the Y axis. Draw with Absolute Cartesian Coordinates Use absolute Cartesian coordinates when you know the precise X and Y values of the location of the point. the X axis and the Y axis.4 –X X -2. and the Y value specifies vertical distance. The origin (0. ■ Polar coordinates use a distance and an angle to locate a point. ■ Cartesian coordinates are measured from two perpendicular lines. When a command prompts you for a point. The X value specifies horizontal distance. the coordinates 5.

Draw with Coordinates | 75 . NOTE Absolute coordinates are entered differently if the Dynamic Input button on the left side of the status bar is turned off.1. Command: line Specify first point: #–2. For example.3 Entering @5.Draw with Relative Cartesian Coordinates Use relative Cartesian coordinates when you know the location of a point in relation to the previous point. start the next coordinates with the @ symbol.3 locates the same point in this example as entering #3. to locate a point relative to the absolute coordinates –2.1 Specify next point or [Undo]: @5. In that case. the # is not used to specify absolute coordinates.4 in the previous example.

rightclicking. to the endpoint of another line segment. and choosing an object snap from the Object Snap menu. an active object snap point is identified with AutoSnap markers and tooltips. or to the tangent on an arc. you can use an object snap to draw a line to the exact center of a circle. Use Single Object Snaps At any prompt for a point. You can specify an object snap whenever you are prompted for a point.Snap to Precise Points on Objects Using object snaps is the most important way to specify an exact location on an object without having to use coordinates. 76 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing . you can specify a single object snap by holding down SHIFT. use the cursor to select a location on an object. Press SHIFT and right-click to display the object snap menu object snaps NOTE To cycle through all the object snap points available for a particular object. Once you have specified an object snap. When you move your cursor over an object. press TAB. For example.

Set Running Object Snaps To use the same object snap repeatedly. you might set Center as a running snap if you need to connect the centers of a series of circles with a line. For example. as running object snaps. select the object snaps you want to use. You can set multiple running object snaps. On the Drafting Settings dialog box. click Settings. It will stay active until you turn it off. Running object snaps can be turned on and off from the status bar. Draw several lines and circles using object snaps to locate points precisely. Try it: Change the running object snap settings 1 2 3 4 Right-click Object Snap on the status bar. such as Endpoint and Center. Click OK. Snap to Precise Points on Objects | 77 . set it as a running object snap. On the shortcut menu.

circles. for single object snaps. or ellipses Perpendicular Points on objects that form a perpendicular alignment with the last point specified Tangent Point on a circle or arc that. or ellipses Quadrant Quadrants of arcs. forms a line tangent to the object 78 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing . arcs.Object Snap Descriptions The following table illustrates commonly used object snaps. when connected to the last point. locations where intersections would occur if objects were extended Center Center points of circles. Object snap Endpoint Snaps to Object endpoints Midpoint Object midpoints Intersection Object intersections or.

Because the lines are constrained to the horizontal and vertical axes. Polar tracking constrains the cursor to an angle. direct-distance entry. you can use polar tracking to restrict the movement of the cursor to specified angle increments (the default value is 90 degrees).5<45 tooltip display of distance and angle Polar tracking restricts cursor movement to specified angles Try it: Use polar tracking 1 Click Polar Tracking on the status bar to turn it on. alignment path Polar: 1. using direct distance entry helps you draw perpendicular lines of a specified length efficiently. in this case 180 degrees. 1000 Specify Angles and Distances | 79 ..Specify Angles and Distances You can quickly specify angles and distances using the polar tracking. 2 Draw several lines at 90 degrees from each other. and angle override features. knowing that the lines are perpendicular. you can draw faster. you can create a series of perpendicular lines by turning on Polar before you start drawing. in this case. Specify Distances Use direct distance entry to specify an exact line length quickly—by moving the cursor to indicate a direction and then entering the distance from the first point. For example. then direct distance entry determines the exact length of the line.. Use Polar Tracking As you draw lines or move objects. When polar tracking is on.

For example. It will be used in several future tutorials in this guide.Try it: Draw several lines of specified lengths 1 2 3 4 5 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line. Click a point and then move the cursor to the right (0 degrees). you will practice using several precision tools to create the following drawing. Repeat several more times and then press ENTER. Specify an Angle If the angle that you want to use is not going to be used frequently. and want that line to be at a 10 degree angle with a length of 50. you can enter an angle override. if you start drawing a line at the coordinates –2. 80 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing .1. Move the cursor up (90 degrees) and enter another value. Enter a value. which can be the beginning of a design for ■ A health spa with exercise pool ■ A catch for a window lock ■ A housing for a motor assembly NOTE It is important that you save this drawing as you work.1 Specify next point or [Undo]: <10 (Move the cursor in the desired direction) Specify next point or [Undo]: 50 Tutorial: Draw with Precision In this tutorial. you would enter Command: line Specify first point: #–2.

Sample architectural template (metric) Tutorial-mMfg.dwt. Press SHIFT and right-click. turn on Grid and Snap. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line and click several locations to create a series of line segments to create the previously illustrated design. 4 Click a point to locate the center of the circle. click. Move the cursor over the opposite endpoint and click. click Endpoint. Dynamic Input should also be turned on. and then click another point to specify its radius. Press ENTER to end the command.dwt. The endpoints of the new line are located exactly at the endpoints of the adjacent lines. 2 Click directly on one of the lines that you created and then press ENTER. but how do you create another line to take its place with precision? 3 4 5 6 7 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Line. Use MyDesign as the file name. Press SHIFT and right-click again. From the object snap menu. Use Grid and Snap to create a drawing 1 On the status bar. When you see an AutoSnap marker. The line is erased. click Endpoint.Start a new drawing 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ New.dwt. The exact dimensions don’t matter. Sample architectural template (imperial) Tutorial-iMfg. 4 Click File ➤ Save. Move the cursor over an endpoint of a line. Create a line using object snaps 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Erase. From the object snap menu. Press ENTER to end the command. but use reasonable distances for the design. 3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Circle ➤ Center. 2 Select the tutorial drawing template file that is closest to your intended application and units of measurement: ■ ■ ■ ■ Tutorial-mArch. The crosshairs cursor changes into a square pickbox cursor. Sample mechanical design template (metric) Tutorial-iArch. Sample mechanical design template (imperial) 3 Click the Model tab. 5 Turn Grid and Snap off. Specify Angles and Distances | 81 . Radius.dwt.

■ Turn running object snaps on and create several more lines. SNAP. ■ Create a line from the center of the circle at a 30 degree angle and 10 units long. DYNMODE. UCS.8 Do the following: ■ Experiment with creating lines using the following object snaps: Midpoint. 9 Erase any objects that are not part of the illustrated result. 10 Save the drawing. Object Snap tab Tools ➤ Options. LIMITS. DSETTINGS. OPTIONS Review and Recall 1 2 3 4 5 How do you turn off the grid dots in your drawing area? The term origin refers to what coordinate values? Pressing SHIFT while you right-click displays what shortcut menu? What button can you turn on to ensure that the line you are drawing is exactly vertical? What is meant by the term direct distance entry? 82 | Chapter 6 Precision Drawing . and Tangent. Perpendicular. Drafting tab Tools ➤ Drafting Settings Help system GRID. Snap and Grid tab SHIFT+right-click for the object snap menu Tools ➤ Drafting Settings. Center. MyDesign should be the file name. OSNAP. To get started Action Set Snap and Grid spacing Use single object snaps Set running object snaps Change AutoSnap settings Change polar settings Menu Browser Tools ➤ Drafting Settings.

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Use OFFSET to create parallel lines and concentric circles Use TRIM to remove the parts of objects that extend beyond cutting edges that you specify Use FILLET to connect two lines with an arc Use COPY to create duplicates at locations that you specify Use DIST to measure the distance between two points Use MIRROR to create an exact replica of objects across a mirror line .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Move and Rotate Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Fillet Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Use Editing Aids .Make Modifications Select Objects to Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Duplicate Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Analyze Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Trim Objects . . . Extend. . . 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Erase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 Objects selected using window selection ■ Drag from right to left to create a crossing selection. Choose an editing command and then select objects to modify. Specify a Selection Area You can select objects by enclosing them in a rectangular selection area. 86 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . You define a rectangular selection area in the drawing area by clicking opposite corners. which selects objects within and crossing the selection area. ■ Choose the objects first. ■ Specify a selection area.Select Objects to Edit When you edit objects. You can use two methods to specify which objects to modify: ■ Choose the command first. You can clear a selection by pressing ESC. which selects only objects entirely within the selection area. grips are displayed on the objects that you can use to modify the objects directly. Click objects individually. Click a rectangular area around the objects to be selected. ■ Drag from left to right to create a window selection. you select one or more objects to specify a selection set of the objects. The order in which you specify the corners makes a difference. Object Selection Methods The two most common methods to select objects are ■ Select individual objects. NOTE You can remove objects from the selection set by pressing SHIFT and then clicking them. Select objects and then start the editing command. when you use this method. In addition.

The example shows how you use window selection to erase a section of piping. 6 Select the other objects that you created in step 1 individually and press ENTER to erase them.Erase. Extend. and circles. Erase. ■ Extend lengthens an object to a precise boundary. and Trim Objects | 87 . Create some lines. 1 2 Objects selected with window selection Selected objects Result Try it: Practice using window and crossing selection 1 2 3 4 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ New. 5 Select several more objects using a window selection and press ENTER. Select several objects using a crossing selection and press ENTER. and Trim Objects These methods delete objects or change their lengths: ■ Erase deletes the entire object. Again. ■ Trim shortens an object to a precise boundary and removes the excess. Notice which objects are selected and erased. Extend. notice which objects are selected and erased. Erase Objects You can use all the object selection methods with the ERASE command. arcs. Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Erase.

3 At the Select Objects prompt. By default. If you press ENTER instead of selecting boundary objects. The illustration shows lines extended precisely to the circle.Extend Objects You can extend objects so that they end precisely at a boundary defined by other objects. all visible objects in the drawing become potential boundaries. you cut an object at an edge defined by one or more objects. Press ENTER to accept all objects as boundaries Select objects to extend nearest to the end to be extended Result Try it: Extend an object 1 Create a short line. 1 3 2 Cutting edges selected with a crossing selection Object to trim selected Result 88 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . Trim Objects Trimming objects is very similar to extending them. Then create circle that encompasses the line. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Extend. click the circle. click one end of the line and then the other end of the line. The next step is easy to forget. 5 At the next Select Objects prompt. objects defined as cutting edges must intersect the object to be trimmed. To trim. Press ENTER to end the command. 4 Press ENTER to end boundary selection. which is the nearest boundary. Notice that you select the boundary objects first.

click the vertical line at point 3 as shown. Extend. Press ENTER to end the command. 3 At the Select Objects prompt. NOTE With both EXTEND and TRIM. and then select the objects to be trimmed. and Trim Objects | 89 .Try it: Trim an object 1 Create two horizontal lines and two vertical lines as shown in the left side of the previous illustration. all objects become potential boundaries. you must accept the selection set of boundary objects by pressing ENTER. 5 At the next Select Objects prompt. Erase. You can use the Perpendicular object snap to make sure that the two horizontal lines intersect the vertical line at a right angle. If you press ENTER without selecting any boundary objects. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Trim. 4 Press ENTER to end boundary selection. Notice that you select the boundary objects first. click locations 1 and 2 as previously illustrated.

At the Select Objects prompt. you select one or more objects to copy. Copy Objects To copy an object. Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Copy. specify a start point. ■ Offset creates new objects at a specified distance from selected objects or through a specified point. Click Endpoint. For example. At the Specify Base Point prompt. and then specify a second point to determine the distance and direction of the copy. 2 Specify a base point (endpoint object snap) 3 Specify second point (endpoint object snap) 1 Select the circle Try it: Copy an object Result 1 2 3 4 Create two rectangles and a circle as shown on the left side of the previous illustration. in the following illustration. click the circle and press ENTER. ■ Mirror creates a mirror image of objects around a specified mirror line. 90 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications .Duplicate Objects There are several ways to make copies of objects: ■ Copy creates new objects at a specified location. called a base point. press SHIFT and right-click to display the object snap menu. 5 Click the corner of the rectangle at point 2 as shown. the circle is copied from one rectangle to a corresponding location on the second rectangle. The two points can be anywhere within the drawing.

base point next point next point next point Object selected(bush) Result second point Offset Objects Offsetting creates a new object that seems to trace a selected object at a specified distance. 8 Press ENTER to end the command. press SHIFT and right-click to display the object snap menu. enter a distance Objects selected Base point specified and a distance entered Result The Copy command automatically repeats so you can easily create multiple copies. use offsetting. The copied circle is at the same location relative to its enclosing rectangle as the original circle.6 At the Specify Second Point prompt. typically with polar snap turned on. 7 Click the corner of the other rectangle at point 3 as shown. Duplicate Objects | 91 . Click Endpoint. You can also copy objects specifying a base point followed by direct distance entry. For an easy way to create parallel lines or concentric circles. Offsetting circles creates larger or smaller circles depending on the offset side.

Mirror Objects You mirror objects around a mirror line.original object object offset NOTE Offsetting several objects followed by trimming or extending them is a very efficient drawing technique. You can draw half the object and quickly mirror it rather than draw the whole object. 4 mirror line 1 2 Objects selected 3 Mirror line defined Result with original retained Mirroring is useful for creating symmetrical objects. which you define with two points. 92 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . You then choose to delete or retain the original objects.

a positive angle results in a counter-clockwise rotation. you specify the base point (1) and a second point (2) that determines the angle of rotation (2) for the orientation of a house. Move and Rotate Objects | 93 . 1 2 Select objects. 1 2 Objects selected Base point and angle of rotation Result Instead of specifying the second point in the example. NOTE By default. Move Objects You move objects the same way that you copy them. Rotate Objects You rotate objects by specifying a base point and a rotation angle. specify base point and new location of the selected objects. specify the base point (1). and then specify a second point to determine the distance and direction of the move (2). you could have entered -35 to specify the rotation in degrees. In the following example. In the illustration. these steps move the window higher and away from the door. You can specify the rotation angle by specifying a point or entering a value for the angle.Move and Rotate Objects An important drawing technique is to create one or more objects and then move or rotate them into place. this setting can be changed using the Units command. You select the object to move. However.

objects selected Result NOTE You can hold down SHIFT while selecting the objects to override the current fillet radius with a value of 0. You can also fillet circles. This results in two objects intersecting in a sharp corner as illustrated. Radius set to 0. More than one possible fillet can exist between circles and arcs depending on where you select the objects.Fillet Corners Filleting connects two objects with an arc of a specified radius that is tangent to the objects. Changing the radius sets the default radius for subsequent fillets. arcs. Objects selected Result One useful technique is to set the fillet radius to 0. the filleted objects are trimmed as shown in the illustration. By default. No arc is created. Use the Radius option of the Fillet command to specify arc radius of the fillet. 94 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . and polylines.

Tutorial: Modify Objects with Precision In the following tutorial. The adjoining property owners of an empty city lot persuaded their city council to allow them to acquire the lot. Lot 38 was larger than the others. Fillet Corners | 95 . The fence between lots 38 and 39 was extended. but this benefit was offset by its irregular shape. The only requirement was that the property owners agree on an equitable division. empty lot How would you divide the empty lot? The proposal accepted by the property owners expanded lots 26 and 27 to make their total lot sizes equal. you will use precision drawing techniques to modify part of an assessor’s map.

dwg. These distances were determined using trial-and-error to make lots 26 and 27 about equal in area. 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open.94 centered on the intersections as shown in the illustration. 2 In the Select File dialog box. The top end of the new property line will be displaced 25. 4 Use the Circle command and object snaps to create a circle with a radius of 25. you create some “construction geometry” that makes the task easier.73 and a circle with a radius of 39. find the \Help\GettingStarted folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT product folder and open map. To accomplish this task. turn off the Text layer.Use the following procedure to change the boundaries of the lots.94 feet. and the bottom end of the new property will be displaced by 39. 96 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . You first create a new property line on the left side of the triangular lot. but without making lot 38 too narrow or too large. 3 To simplify the display.73 feet.

5 Use intersection object snaps to create a new property line as shown in the illustration. Fillet Corners | 97 . 6 Erase the old property line and the two construction circles.

It separates the objects that serve as boundaries from the objects to be extended. 98 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . This action is important and easily forgotten. 10 Click the old property line near the end to be extended as shown. 8 Click the new property line.Next. This line is the boundary for extending the old property line. 9 Press ENTER. 7 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Extend. extend the old property line to the new one.

13 Erase the old property lines to open the long. 12 Use the same method to extend the other property line to the lower border.11 Press ENTER to end the command. narrow lot. Fillet Corners | 99 .

2 In the Boundary Creation dialog box. Then click inside each of the lots. A closed polyline object is created using the property lines for each lot. Press ENTER to end the command. 100 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . The new property lines are complete.14 Draw a short property line using the endpoint object snap between the end points of the property lines as shown. But how can you find the new areas of the lots? Find the areas of the lots 1 On the command line. click Pick Points. These closed polylines are superimposed upon the existing property lines and can later be erased. enter boundary.

You will be happy to know that this part is made of a highstrength. Tutorial: Create a New Drawing with Precision In the following tutorial. nickel-chromium-iron alloy. You can access all the commands in this tutorial using the Draw and Modify menus. Click one of the boundaries and find the area listed in the Properties palette. Find the area of each of the other lots. only one of them is highlighted. Press SHIFT and SPACEBAR on a shared boundary repeatedly to cycle through the overlapping objects at that location. feel free to review earlier portions in this guide or use the Help system. you will create a detail drawing of a type of jet engine mount used to attach jet engines to commercial aircraft. Fillet Corners | 101 . When in doubt. Press ESC to clear the selection. Where the polylines share a common boundary. NOTE Each step in this tutorial is not specified in detail. 3 4 5 6 7 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties.NOTE As you move your cursor over the map. Close the map drawing without saving it. different polylines highlight.

Command: offset Specify offset distance or [Through/Erase/Layer]: 4 Select object to offset or [Exit/Undo]: Select the left inner circle Specify point on side to offset or [Exit/Multiple/Undo]: Click anywhere outside the circles 102 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications .0). 2 Use the Center object snap to draw a circle with a diameter of 24 using the center point of the previous circle. 3 Make sure that the Polar and Osnap buttons on the status bar are turned on. copy the two circles to a location 125 mm to the right. For single-view drawings or 3D models.100. Command: copy Select objects: Select the two circles and press ENTER Specify base point or [Displacement/mOde]: <Displacement> Click the center of the circles and move your cursor to the right Specify second point or <use first point as displacement>: 125 Specify second point or [Exit/Undo]: Press ENTER 4 Offset the inner circle on left by 4 mm to the outside. Create the front view 1 Create a circle with a diameter (not radius) of 50 mm at the coordinates 180.1 Start a new drawing using the drawing template file. it’s a good idea to have a significant feature located at the origin (0. The current layer should be Model-Front. but it’s a good idea to make sure that several significant features coincide with snap locations. click the Model button. The Center object snap might not be a default running object snap. This is convenient when referencing a drawing from another drawing such as with assembly drawings. 3 Using PolarSnap to lock the angle at 0 degrees. All distances are assumed to be in millimeters. NOTE The precise location of this circle is not critical in this tutorial. Tutorial-mMfg. 2 On the status bar. Press SHIFT and right-click to access the object snap menu.dwt. This template is for mechanical design drawings using metric units.

Command: circle Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: t Specify point on object for first tangent of circle: Select an outer circle near the expected tangent location Specify point on object for second tangent of circle: Select the other outer circle as shown Specify radius of circle: 250 (only part of the circle is shown in the illustration) 6 Trim the large circle as shown below. The radius should be 250 mm. Notice that the AutoSnap marker for tangent is turned on automatically.5 Create a circle using the tangent-tangent-radius (Ttr) option. Fillet Corners | 103 .

Again. Next. or the Layer Properties Manager. You can use the Layer control on the Layers toolbar. 8 Trim the outer-left circle as shown. Create the top view 1 Set the current layer to Model-Top. Create another 100 mm line on the right side of the part. With polar snap on. you could have used the Fillet command to fillet the two outer circles with a radius of 250 mm. The front view of the part is complete. you will use the objects in the front view to create the top view of the part. to create the lower arc. 2 Use the Quadrant object snap to create a line starting from the left side of the part. 104 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . For example. move the cursor upward and enter 100 to make the line 100 mm long. use SHIFT and right-click to access the object snap menu. There are often alternative methods for each step.7 Use the Mirror command to mirror the arc using the center points of the left and right circles to define the mirror line.

Zoom and pan as needed. 4 Offset the horizontal line downward by 12 mm. 6 Offset the topmost horizontal line upward by 3 mm. 5 Trim the lower ends of the vertical lines to create the rectangular outline of the top view. Fillet Corners | 105 . Create vertical lines from the quadrants of the other circles as shown.3 Use the Endpoint object snap to create a line connecting the upper ends of the vertical lines. boundary line for trim 8 Trim the other vertical lines as shown. 7 Trim the four vertical lines representing the silhouette edges of the holes as shown. Don’t forget to press ENTER after selecting the horizontal boundary line for the trimming.

10 Create a vertical line that starts from the endpoint of the arc and ends perpendicular to the horizontal line as shown. This line will be the trim boundary for the runout on the part. boundary line for trim 12 Erase the vertical trim boundary line.boundary line for trim 9 Trim the topmost horizontal line as shown. erase line 106 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . 11 Trim the horizontal line to the boundary line as shown.

The linetype property of that layer could then be set to ACAD_ISO02W100. The four lines are now displayed with a dashed linetype. 5 Move your cursor off the Properties palette and press ESC to clear the selection. you would change the layer assignment of the lines to the new layer. you could have created a new layer for hidden lines. 3 On the Properties palette. Click the arrow and.13 Extend the remaining vertical line as shown.3 for the new linetype scale and press ENTER. 6 The tutorial is complete. You still need to change the hidden silhouette edges of the holes to a dashed linetype. Fillet Corners | 107 . click Linetype. to change the linetype of the four lines. Notice that because you selected more than one object. you will override the linetype property currently assigned to the lines. you can select the objects and then use either the Properties palette or the Properties panel to specify the required linetype. silhouette edges To change the linetype of the four vertical lines. 4 Click Linetype Scale. The top view is almost complete. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties. save it now. As you remember. only the common properties are listed. If you want to keep this drawing. NOTE Instead of changing the linetype of the four lines individually. extend line 14 Add 1 mm fillets to the outside corners. from the list. Type 0. Then. click ACAD_ISO02W100. Change linetypes 1 Select the four vertical silhoutte edges of the holes.

Draw several objects with different color properties. lineweight.Match Properties You can easily copy properties of one object to other objects. You can use the Settings option of the command to select the properties you want to match and clear the ones you don’t. plot style. Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Match Properties. Click the objects to which you want to copy the properties. linetype scale. Click the source object from which you want to copy properties. layer. and hatch patterns. You can choose to match color. and in some cases dimension styles. Try it: Copy the properties from one object to other objects 1 2 3 4 5 Start a new drawing. 108 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . text styles. thickness. linetype.

you can click a grip and move it with your cursor. Edit with Grips Grips are small squares and arrows that appear on an object after it has been selected. click a grip and right-click to display a shortcut menu.Use Editing Aids The following editing aids help you modify drawings efficiently: ■ Grips edit objects using your cursor and a shortcut menu. For more options. They mark control locations and are powerful editing tools. ■ Revision clouds identify areas that have been updated. move grip to end of horizontal line 2 1 select line click grip After you select an object. grip edit modes grip edit mode options Use Editing Aids | 109 . Then choose a grip edit mode.

2 Click several objects to select them and to display their grips. Try it: Create a revision cloud 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Revision Cloud. You draw the revision cloud around the objects you want to emphasize. ■ Notice the grip behavior when you stretch a grip onto another grip. as shown in the following illustration.Try it: Edit objects using grips 1 Draw several objects. 3 Repeat the command and see whether the revision cloud always creates the arcs outward or if you can trick it. 5 Choose a different grip mode such as Move. 4 Click a grip on an object and then right-click. Create Revision Clouds If you review or redline drawings. Mirror. Rotate. or Scale. 110 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . 6 Press ESC to exit grip editing. creating a polyline in the shape of a cloud. 3 Click a grip on an object and click its new location. This is the default stretch mode. you can increase your productivity by using revision clouds to highlight your markups. ■ Notice the grip behavior when object snaps are turned on. 2 Click anywhere in the drawing area and move your cursor to encompass an area.

between the X.Analyze Drawings You can extract information from your model using the inquiry commands. Use an object snap to locate a point on an object. To get started Action Erase objects Extend objects Trim objects Copy objects in a drawing Copy objects between drawings Offset objects Mirror objects Move objects Rotate objects Fillet objects Edit properties Menu Browser Modify ➤ Erase Modify ➤ Extend Modify ➤ Trim Modify ➤ Copy Edit ➤ Copy Modify ➤ Offset Modify ➤ Mirror Modify ➤ Move Modify ➤ Rotate Modify ➤ Fillet Modify ➤ Properties Icon Analyze Drawings | 111 . Use DIST to quickly determine the relationship between two points. You can display the following information for two points you specify: ■ ■ ■ ■ Distance between them in drawing units Angle between the points in the XY plane Angle of the points from the XY plane Delta. and Z coordinate values of each point Try it: Find the distance and angle between two points 1 2 3 4 5 Click Menu Browser ➤ Tools ➤ Inquiry ➤ Distance. or difference. Press F2 to see the data in a larger window called the Text window. Review the data displayed in the command window. The most commonly used one is the DIST command. Use another object snap to locate a point on a different object. Y.

OPTIONS. MATCHPROP. DIST Review and Recall 1 2 3 4 5 What is the difference between a crossing selection and a window selection? What is the fastest way to create several parallel lines? What is the easiest way to create an arc that is tangent to two other objects? When creating or modifying an object. COPY. COPYCLIP. TRIM. FILLET.To get started Action Match properties Create revision clouds Extract information from objects Menu Browser Modify ➤ Match Properties Draw ➤ Revision Cloud Tools ➤ Inquiry ➤ Distance Icon Help system ERASE. PASTECLIP. what do you do to display the object snap menu? What is an easy way to find the distance between two points in a drawing? 112 | Chapter 7 Make Modifications . REVCLOUD. MOVE. UNITS. ROTATE. MIRROR. OFFSET. EXTEND. PROPERTIES. COPYMODE.

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represent standard items such as trees or bushes Create blocks when you want to use drawings or parts of drawings repeatedly Hatch to fill areas with patterns or solid colors that help identify the subject matter or material .These symbols. called blocks.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Overview of Hatches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Insert Blocks . . . 119 Insert Hatches or Solid Fills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Add Symbols and Hatches Overview of Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Access these using the DC Online tab in DesignCenter. Numerous Autodesk and commercial symbol libraries containing thousands of blocks are available. relocating. You can also create your own blocks and block libraries. block references of fastener inserted into a drawing block definition for fastener Blocks may also include block attributes. Build a standard library of frequently used symbols. components. NOTE Creating blocks. symbols are called blocks. or block libraries are more advanced topics and are not covered in this guide. dates. Manage blocks with DesignCenter. DesignCenter provides convenient organization and access to thousands of symbols on your computer. Use blocks to represent objects such as a trees. which store data such as part numbers. or your company may already have its own standard libraries. and copying blocks rather than individual objects.Overview of Blocks In AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. An entire drawing can also be inserted as a block. ■ Your company network. Sources of Blocks There are several sources of blocks that you can use in your drawings. or doors. fasteners. Over 300 standard blocks in 15 symbol library drawings are available in the DesignCenter folder. Blocks are typically defined and stored in drawings called block libraries. block attributes. A block is a collection of objects that are associated into a single object. ■ Your computer. or symbol libraries. and on the World Wide Web. ■ The World Wide Web. 116 | Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches . on your local network. from which they can be inserted into other drawings. Benefits of Blocks Using blocks makes it easier and faster to get your work done: ■ ■ ■ ■ Draw efficiently by inserting. and performance ratings. or standard parts. Store associated data with block attributes which can be extracted to create reports.

scale. the drawing that you created and saved in a previous tutorial. 2 Offset the lines to create walls (if it’s a health spa or motor housing) or ridges (if it’s a catch for a window lock). Clean up the corners using Fillet with the fillet radius set to 0. Locate symbol libraries and place or drag a block into a drawing or onto a tool palette. and rotation angle. Use DesignCenter to locate and manage a large number of blocks and block libraries. Insert Blocks | 117 . Use a value for the offset distance that is appropriate for what you are creating. Use tool palettes to organize and access your most commonly used blocks. Place or drag a block into a drawing.Insert Blocks You can choose from the following three methods to insert blocks into drawings: ■ Insert dialog box. ■ Tool Palettes window. ■ DesignCenter. Place a block by specifying its insertion point. Tutorial: Adding Blocks 1 Open MyDesign.

Place blocks with the Insert dialog box 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Insert ➤ Block.Metric. Notice the colored grip that displays. Save the drawing. 6 Click a location in your drawing. Rotate the block either with the cursor or by entering a rotation angle. Access block libraries from the Web 1 Open DesignCenter again. 3 Add several more blocks to your drawing. 2 On the DesignCenter window. 3 Click the plus sign (+) on the block library that’s appropriate for your drawing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Fasteners . On the shortcut menu. click Rotate. 2 Click the DC Online tab. Drag the grip to move the block into place. click Specify On-Screen. In the tree view. double-click a different block. If you have an Internet connection. Specify the location for the block. 5 In the Insert dialog box. 118 | Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches .dwg Office . under Rotation.US. The blocks become visible in the Content area of DesignCenter. The DesignCenter window is divided into the tree view on the left side and the content area on the right side. The precise location is not important. These are the block definitions stored in your drawing file. Place and relocate blocks with DesignCenter 1 Drag one of the blocks from DesignCenter into your drawing.dwg 4 Click the Blocks item under the drawing that you just expanded. You are prompted to specify a rotation angle. you can explore the commercial symbol libraries that are available. 7 Close the DesignCenter window. 2 In the Insert dialog box. 4 In DesignCenter. click the arrow next to the Name box. Click one of them and click OK.Metric. Click OK.Open a block library 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Tools ➤ DesignCenter.dwg Fasteners .US. Rotate the block either with the cursor or by entering a rotation angle.dwg Office . 2 Click the block. navigate to the Help\GettingStarted\Symbol Libraries folder. click the Folders tab if necessary. 3 Click the grip and right-click.

A hatch pattern can also be a solid fill. Use Standard Hatch Patterns The DesignCenter folder contains more than 60 industry-standard ISO and imperial hatch patterns. Associative hatches are linked to their boundaries and are updated when the boundaries are modified. ANSI31 INSUL AR-CONC Industry-standard hatch patterns Associative Hatches By default. hatches are associative. or grass. Hatched object Result of editing boundary with nonassociative hatch Result of editing boundary with associative hatch Overview of Hatches | 119 . Hatch patterns are stored in hatch pattern files with PAT extensions. or to identify a material such as concrete.Overview of Hatches A hatch pattern is a standard pattern of lines or dots used to highlight an area in a drawing. You can remove associativity from a hatch at any time. steel. You can also use hatch patterns from hatch pattern libraries supplied by other companies.

but they can include islands (enclosed areas within the hatch area) that you choose to hatch or leave unhatched. polylines. and blocks. ■ Use a tool palette to drag commonly used hatches into a drawing quickly. circles. internal point islands Internal point selected Boundaries detected Result 120 | Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches . ■ Use DesignCenter to drag hatches into the drawing or onto a tool palette. Define Hatch Boundaries Hatch boundaries can be any combination of objects such as lines. text. Hatch boundaries must enclose an area. arcs.Insert Hatches or Solid Fills You can hatch or fill objects in a drawing using one of these methods: ■ Choose Hatch from the Draw menu or toolbar to create hatches and solid fills.

2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Hatch. If the hatch is too dense. Then click anywhere between the parallel lines for the walls and press ENTER. Insert Hatches or Solid Fills | 121 . 3 On the Hatch tab. If the hatch is still not acceptable. There are probably several things that you’ll want to change. click Add: Pick Points. Click the > (More Options) button at the bottom-right corner of the dialog box. 10 Click Preview. under Type and Pattern. Under Angle and Scale. right-click or press 11 Save your drawing file. the drawing that you created and saved in the previous tutorial. Then click the < (Less Options) button. Choose a different hatch pattern. including the circle being hatched. increase the value for the scale by a factor of 10. Otherwise. and the hatch spacing. 4 Under Boundaries. click Preview. 6 7 8 9 Press ESC to return to the dialog box. change the values for the angle and for the scale. Under Islands. you will hatch part of your drawing to look something like this: 1 Open MyDesign. the hatch angle.Tutorial: Add Hatches to a Drawing In this tutorial. click Outer. ENTER to accept the hatch. 5 At the bottom of the dialog box. return to step 6. notice the name of the hatch pattern and the swatch.

INSERT. HATCH Review and Recall 1 2 3 4 5 What is a block? What is a block library? How can you use object snaps with blocks? What are three ways to hatch an area in a drawing? How do you fill an area with a solid color? 122 | Chapter 8 Add Symbols and Hatches . EXPLODE. BLOCK.To get started Action Insert a blocks Open DesignCenter Open the Tool Palettes window Hatch an area Menu Browser Insert ➤ Block Tools ➤ Palettes ➤ DesignCenter Tools ➤ Palettes ➤ Tool Palettes Draw ➤ Hatch Tools ➤ Palettes ➤ DesignCenter Tools ➤ Palettes ➤ Tool Palettes Icons Help system ADCENTER. TOOLPALETTES.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Set Text Size for the Viewport Scaling . . . . . . . . . 126 Work with Text Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Add Text to a Drawing Create and Modify Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 . . .

When using the text editor. Before creating the text. you can choose formatting that affects the entire text object or only selected text. You can also control indents and specify one or more columns. Only the width of the box has an effect. you define the width of the text by specifying the two opposite corners of a text boundary. you can easily change the width by dragging the right side of the ruler. These two components display automatically when you use the Multiline Text command. The text editor consists of a tab on the ribbon with a set of panels. and a text bounding box with a ruler at the top. display options tab stops first-line indent keep changes and close paragraph indent set width of multiline text objects With the Multiline Text command. NOTE The fastest way to make changes to an existing text object is to double-click it. This opens the text editor and displays the text in the bounding box. 126 | Chapter 9 Add Text to a Drawing .Create and Modify Text AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT provide a text editor to add text to drawings. The text you enter is inserted in the dialog box within the width limit and words that don’t fit wrap to the next line.

type your text. These options are similar to those in most word processing applications. Highlight a word and click some of the formatting options. Create and Modify Text | 127 . Try it: Modify an existing multiline text object 1 Double-click the text object. 6 Click Close Text Editor on the ribbon. 2 Highlight more words or the entire paragraph and click more formatting options. Click Menu Browser ➤ Draw ➤ Text ➤ Multiline Text.Additional features that are available for text in drawings include the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Check spelling using a spell checker with customizable dictionaries Locate and correct text with the Find and Replace dialog box Specify several columns of text and adjust the column widths easily Create mirrored text Try it: Create multiline text objects 1 2 3 4 5 Start a new drawing. In the bounding box. 3 Click Close Text Editor on the ribbon. Click two points to determine the width of the text object.

NOTE If you create notes and labels directly on a layout in paper space. or delete it when you no longer need it. specify a font create a new text style choose a text style see the changes you make If you change an existing style’s font. you can modify its settings. When you create or modify a text style. Notes and labels created in model space must be sized to accommodate the scale of the layout viewport. change its name. the current text style is applied.Work with Text Styles Every text object in a drawing has a text style associated with it. no scaling is necessary. Once you’ve created a style. you use the Text Style dialog box. all text in the drawing that uses that style is regenerated using the new font. 128 | Chapter 9 Add Text to a Drawing . which determines the following properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Font controls the shapes of the characters Font style controls the italic and boldface formatting for TrueType fonts Height controls the size in drawing units of the text Obliquing angle controls the forward or backward slant of the text Orientation controls the vertical or horizontal alignment of single-line text Other text characteristics controls effects such as wide text and backwards text Create and Modify Text Styles Except for the default STANDARD style. you must define any text style that you want to use. When you enter text.

and you anticipate referencing the model and the text from other drawings or other views.25). and labels in paper space. you must size it for correct display and plotting in paper space. MTEXT. Preparing one or more views on a drawing layout usually involves displaying them in layout viewports at various scales other than 1:1. then use (1/8)/(1/48) = 48/8 = 6 inches for the text size in model space.25 = 12 mm for the text size in model space. STYLE. SPACETRANS Set Text Size for the Viewport Scaling | 129 . ■ If the text is more closely associated with the model. The space in which you create text depends on the circumstances. then use 3/0. you should create the text in paper space. tables. With this option. SPELL.Set Text Size for the Viewport Scaling You can create text either in model space or on the layout in paper space. there are no scaling considerations and you create the text at its full size (1:1). MIRRTEXT. Creating text directly on the layout is much easier because no scaling is required. Set Text Size in Model Space Set the text size in model space using the following formula: Text size in model space = desired text size / scale of the layout viewport ■ Example 1: If the desired text size is 3 mm and the viewport scale is 1:4 (0. If you create text in model space. the text must usually be scaled. JUSTIFYTEXT. you should create the text in model space. ■ If the text is more closely associated with the layout. and general notes. MTEXTED. STYLE. To get started Action Create multiline text Modify text Check the spelling in a drawing Find and replace text Create text styles Menu Browser Draw ➤ Text ➤ Multiline Text Modify ➤ Object ➤ Text Tools ➤ Spelling Edit ➤ Find Format ➤ Text Style Icon Help system FIND. With this option. ■ Example 2: If the desired text size is 1/8 inch and the viewport scale is 1”=4’ (1:48). SCALETEXT. It is recommended that you create view-specific text in model space.

02)? 130 | Chapter 9 Add Text to a Drawing .5 mm and the display scale of the layout viewport is 1/50 (0.Review and Recall 1 2 3 4 What is the fastest way to open the multiline text editor when you need to change existing text? What are some advantages to creating additional text styles? How do you decide whether to create text in paper space or in model space? What text height should you use in model space if the desired text height in paper space is 2.

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Quick Leader Angular Diameter Radius Ordinate Aligned Center Mark Linear (Horizontal) Baseline Linear (Vertical) Continued .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Create Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Add Dimensions Dimensions Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Create and Modify Dimension Styles . . . . . 140 Modify Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Use Dimensioning Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

■ Angular. dimensions are associative. Indicates the direction and extent of a dimension. dimension text arrowhead dimension line extension line leader Associative Dimensions and Leaders By default. and continued (chain) dimensions. stretched. Extends from the feature being dimensioned to the dimension line. or scaled.Dimensions Overview Dimensions show the geometric measurements of objects. Several types of arrowheads are available. 134 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions . Parts of a Dimension Dimensions have several distinct elements: ■ Dimension line. ■ If the text portion of a leader object is moved. or the location of a feature. Four general types of dimensions are available: ■ Linear. the arrowhead and the leader portion of the leader object are also updated. You can also create leader lines to connect text or a block with a feature. ■ Leader. vertical. and an arrowhead. ■ If a leader object is associated with a geometric object. aligned. Measures the distance of a point from a specified origin point. Measures distances using horizontal. Depending on the dimension style. leaders can be created automatically when dimension text won’t fit between extension lines. ■ Radial. Alternatively. suffixes. ■ Extension line. Forms a solid line leading from an annotation to the referenced feature. The measurements displayed by associative dimensions are updated automatically as you modify the objects with which they are associated. a leader line. Measures the angle formed by two lines or three points. rotated. the leader line is also adjusted. Indicates an end of the dimension line. ■ Ordinate. and the object is moved. the distances or angles between objects. Leader objects are composed of text. Reflects dimension value and may include prefixes. including architectural ticks and dots. ■ Dimension text. ■ Arrowhead. For angles. and tolerances. you can supply your own text or suppress the text entirely. baseline (parallel). the dimension line is an arc. Measures the radii and diameters of arcs and circles.

Create Dimensions You can dimension lines. There are two primary methods for creating dimensions: ■ Select an object to dimension (1) and specify the dimension line location (2) as shown in the following examples. The extension line origin points can be on separate objects. the drawing that you created and saved in previous tutorials. 1 Open MyDesign. and several other types of objects. 2 Click the layout tab. 2 1 1 2 Result of selecting a line for a dimension Result of selecting a circle for a dimension ■ Use object snaps to specify the extension line origins. Create Dimensions | 135 . and then specify the dimension line location. you will set the scale for your drawing and add several dimensions to your design. circles. arcs. Tutorial: Create Dimensions In this tutorial.

On the Properties palette. This step centers your view within the layout viewport. When you dimension in model space from the layout tab. 8 Click the arrow to display a list of scales. Follow the prompts to create several linear dimensions. 3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Dimension ➤ Linear. Add dimensions 1 Change the current layer to the Dimensions layer. 1 Click the blue layout viewport border to select it. Click the one that seems the most appropriate for the sheet size and the size of your floor plan or part. You can always choose a different scale if necessary. You are now accessing model space from the layout. 9 Lock the layout viewport to prevent accidental changes. This prevents you or someone else from accidentally zooming in or out and changing the display scale.Set the display scale of the viewport. under the Misc category. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties. 5 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Zoom ➤ Extents. click Standard Scale. 3 On the Properties palette. You can now specify the precise scale for the floor plan or part. 2 Double-click inside the layout viewport to access model space. There is a good reason why you are creating dimensions from the layout tab rather than the Model tab. 136 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions . click Display Locked and then No. NOTE It is strongly recommended that you keep the display in layout viewports locked unless you’re setting the display scale of the viewport. 6 Double-click outside the layout viewport to return to paper space. 7 Click the blue layout viewport border to select it. the dimensions are automatically scaled relative to the viewport scale. 4 Double-click inside the layout viewport. It is a good practice to use a separate layer reserved for dimension objects.

NOTE Automatic dimension scaling is not turned on in all drawings or drawing template files. Create Dimensions | 137 . Add Text 1 2 3 4 Double-click outside the layout viewport to return to paper space.4 Experiment with several other types of dimensions. Change the current layer to the Text layer. Create several notes using the Multiline Text command. Save your drawing. It works only when the system variable DIMSCALE is set to 0. Check the Help system topic on DIMSCALE for more information. You can enter DIMSCALE on the command line.

Use Dimensioning Options In addition to the basic types of dimensions. 138 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions . Two lines in the shape of a plus are created at the center of the circle. Create Center Marks and Lines You can easily create a center mark or centerline on a circle or arc. location. The size and style of center marks and centerlines are controlled by the dimension style. ■ Geometric tolerances show deviations of form. You can also create center marks automatically with radius and diameter dimensions. orientation. Click Menu Browser ➤ Dimension ➤ Center mark Click the circle. Draw a small circle. profile. the following options are available on the Dimension menu and toolbar: ■ Center marks and centerlines locate the exact center of circles or arcs. ■ Leader lines connect annotation to drawing features. centerlines center mark Try it: Create center marks and lines 1 2 3 4 Start a new drawing and click the Model tab. and runout of drawing features.

Click a location for the leader landing. Leader color. Use Dimensioning Options | 139 . a feature control frame.Create Leaders with Annotation You can create a leader from any point or feature in a drawing. leader landing leader line Try it: Create a multileader 1 2 3 4 5 Click Menu Browser ➤ Dimension ➤ Multileader Click a location for the arrowhead. and arrowhead style are controlled by the current multileader style. Click Close Text Editor on the ribbon. scale. or a block reference. A small line known as a leader landing usually connects the annotation to the leader line. Enter text in the bounding box. Multileader annotations can be multiline text. A multileader can use straight line segments or smooth spline curves.

Create and Modify Dimension Styles Every dimension has a dimension style associated with it. arrowheads. Overrides apply to all subsequent dimensions created with that style until you make a new style current. and angular dimension units Format and precision of tolerance values New dimensions use the current settings in the Dimension Style Manager dialog box. They do not permanently modify a dimension style. You can also override properties of dimensions using the Properties palette. alternate. Overrides allow for style modifications to the current dimension style. 140 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions . The default STANDARD style is assigned to dimensions until you set another style as current. Dimension styles help you establish and enforce drafting standards. extension lines. and center marks Appearance. and behavior of dimension text Rules governing text placement and dimension lines Overall dimension scale Format and precision of primary. A dimension style defines ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Format and position of dimension lines. Dimension styles also make changing dimension formats and behavior easy. position.

decimal. ■ Primary Units sets the format (for example. center marks. NOTE Creating a dimension style to conform with industry or company standards requires agreement on many settings. architectural) and precision of linear and angular dimension units. and text. or Override in the Dimension Style Manager. scientific. placement. the same set of options are available: ■ Lines sets the appearance and behavior of dimension lines and extension lines. Create and Modify Dimension Styles | 141 . This feature supports dual dimensions that display.Specify Dimension Style Options Regardless of whether you choose New. both metric and imperial units. ■ Alternate Units sets alternate unit format and precision. for example. It is important that your organization creates and maintains one or more official dimension styles. ■ Symbols and Arrows sets the appearance and behavior of dimension arrowheads. ■ Tolerances sets tolerance values and precision. extension lines. ■ Fit sets options governing placement of dimension lines. ■ Text sets the dimension text appearance. and centerlines. and alignment. Modify. It also includes the setting for automatic dimension scaling.

For significant modifications to a dimension. You can also modify or override dimension styles. it is usually easier to erase and re-create the dimension. The easiest way to make minor modifications in a dimension is to use grips. For example.Modify Dimensions You can modify dimensions with grips or with editing commands. as discussed in the previous topic. you can easily drag a dimension line to align it with another dimension line. 2 Click grip at end of dimension line 3 Move grip to new dimension location 1 Click dimension You can also drag dimension text to a different location. 2 Click grip on dimension text 3 Move grip to relocate dimension text 1 Click dimension 142 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions .

DIMSTYLE. DIMLINEAR. DIMTEDIT. DIMREGEN. DIMEDIT. DIMSCALE. DIMRADIUS. DIMOVERRIDE. DIMJOGGED. DIMANGULAR. MLEADER Modify Dimensions | 143 . DIMORDINATE. DIMCONTINUE.To get started Action Create linear dimensions Create aligned dimensions Create ordinate dimensions Create radius dimensions Create diameter dimensions Create angular dimensions Create baseline dimensions Create continued dimensions Create and modify a dimension style Update an existing dimension to reflect a style change Create a center mark Create leaders with annotation Menu Browser Dimension ➤ Linear Dimension ➤ Aligned Dimension ➤ Ordinate Dimension ➤ Radius Dimension ➤ Diameter Dimension ➤ Angular Dimension ➤ Baseline Dimension ➤ Continue Dimension ➤ Dimension Style Dimension ➤ Update Dimension ➤ Center mark Dimension ➤ Multileader Icon Help system DIMALIGNED. DIMDIAMETER. DIMSTYLE. DIMCENTER. DIMBASELINE.

Review and Recall 1 What is the behavior of associative leaders and associative dimensions? 2 Why should you lock layout viewports? 3 To ensure that dimensions are scaled according to the layout viewport scale. what dimension variable should be set to 0? 4 What is the easiest way to modify the location of a dimension feature such as the dimension line or dimension text? 144 | Chapter 10 Add Dimensions .

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each of which can be scaled separately Plot styles Temporaily override properties such as color and lineweight when plotting Page Setups Save plot settings by name and associate them with a layout Layout Represents a drawing sheet that includes a title block. one or more layout viewports.The model Created at full size (1:1). and text objects . Text and dimensions in model space are scaled to compensate for the scale factors used in layout viewports Layout viewports Display one or more views of the model.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Create Layouts and Plots Work with Layouts . 153 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Plot from a Layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Choose and Configure Plotters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

orientation. displays a view of model space Create a New Layout The two most common reasons for creating a new layout are ■ Creating a new drawing template file that includes a different paper size and orientation. The page size and actual printing area depend on the printer or plotter assigned to the layout. A layout typically includes the following objects: ■ General notes and tables ■ View-specific label blocks and callout blocks (this is an advanced topic not covered in this guide) ■ Layout viewports Layouts show the page border and actual printing area. Once you create a layout. 148 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots . page border printable area layout layout viewport. you can replace the title block and create or delete layout viewports. The easiest way to create a new layout is to use the Create Layout wizard. and title block to an existing drawing. ■ Adding a layout with a different paper size.Work with Layouts You use a layout to compose the plotted page.

■ To create correctly scaled dimensions. you will practice the most common operations used with layout viewports. In the Save Drawing As dialog box. enter model space through a layout viewport. ■ To pan the view and to set layer visibility. Enter a new name for the layout. you will change the precise scale of the view displayed in this layout viewport.Try it: Create a layout 1 Start a new drawing. enter model space from the layout tab and then dimension the model. click the lightbulb icon on the Viewport layer to display the objects on that layer. Work with Layouts | 149 . 4 Right-click the layout tab. You can control the visibility of layers separately in each layout viewport. 3 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer. and layer visibility settings. Use Layout Viewports Layout viewports on a layout tab display views of model space. Change the display scale of a view in a layout viewport 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open. under Misc. Each viewport can have its own scale.dwg. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Tools ➤ Wizards ➤ Create Layout. 4 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Properties. Next. Tutorial: Work with Layout Viewports In this tutorial. 3 Follow the steps in the wizard to create a layout with a different paper size and matching title block. 5 In the Properties palette. plot properties. ■ To display and scale one or more views of model space in a layout. a single layout viewport is added by default. Click the arrow and click No. ■ For any significant editing of your model. The blue borders of the layout viewports are now visible. When you create a new layout. find the \Help\GettingStarted folder in the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT product folder and open arbor. click Display Locked. 2 In the Select File dialog box. specify a DWT extension. On the shortcut menu. click Rename. you create layout viewports. click Menu Browser ➤ File menu ➤ Save As. You can add more layout viewports for independent views such as details and 3D views. To save this drawing as a new drawing template file. use the Model tab. The following points summarize the relationship of layout viewports and model space: ■ The majority of the objects in your drawings are created in model space on the Model tab. Click the blue border of the upper-right layout viewport. The display properties for the layout viewport are now unlocked. In the Layer Properties Manager. under Files of Type.

A layout viewport is an object. 7 Double-click within the layout viewport and pan the view. Just as other objects. 4 Click the border of the layout viewport to display its grips. NOTE Always create layout viewports on a separate layer assigned to viewport objects. 9 Use the Properties palette to lock the layout viewport. Pan the view as needed. and erased. 7 Click the arrow to display a list of scales and click 1:40. 3 Click two points in a blank area on the layout. When you are ready to plot. copied. they can be moved. Move the layout viewport with the Move command. turn off the layer to prevent the viewport borders from being plotted. click Standard Scale. The new layout viewport can overlap an existing viewport. moving the cursor. Then double-click anywhere outside the layout viewports to return to Paper Space. 8 Double-click inside the layout viewport to enter Model Space. Create a new layout viewport 1 Make the Viewport layer the current layer. Notice that the view changes immediately to reflect the new display scale. 8 Use the Properties palette to lock the layout viewport. and clicking a new location. the view position and scale in the viewport are protected. 150 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots . 9 Turn the Viewport layer off. Double-click outside of all viewports to return to paper space. Thus. 6 Use the Properties palette to set the display scale of the view in the layout viewport.6 In the Properties palette. 2 Click the border of the upper-right layout viewport and press ENTER. 10 Close the drawing without saving it. The two points are the diagonal corners of the new layout viewport. but do not change the view scale with Zoom. 5 Adjust the size of the layout viewport by clicking a grip. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ View ➤ Viewports ➤ 1 Viewport. You lock the layout viewport to prevent accidental panning and zooming in it. Erase a layout viewport 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ Modify ➤ Erase.

You can also configure drivers to save drawings in several file formats. If an output device is not listed in the Plot or Page Setup dialog boxes.Choose and Configure Plotters AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT support a wide range of printers and plotters. and so on.pc3 extension and are stored in the Plotters folder. Devices with a Windows printer driver installed are available automatically when you plot unless the plotting option to hide system printers has been selected. uotupt quality settings. deleting. and changing plotter configurations. To display the Plotters folder. Choose and Configure Plotters | 151 . The Add-A-Plotter wizard prompts you for information about your plotter. you can easily add or edit printer and plotter configurations. Add a Plotter Configuration The Plotter Manager is a folder that provides a method for adding. Plotter configuration files can also be created for Windows® system printers if you want to use default properties different from those used by Windows. custom plotter properties. PostScript files for use with page layout programs. or if its settings are incorrect. double-click the Add-A-Plotter wizard in the Plotter Manager. and raster files. The Plotter Manager The Plotter Manager includes plotter configuration (PC3) files for every nonsystem printer that you install. Many plotters that do not have Windows drivers (nonsystem plotters) can be configured using drivers provided either by Autodesk or by the plotter manufacturer. Formats include DWF™ (Design Web Format) files to view drawings in a web browser or external viewer. the plotter configuration is available for layouts and plotting. click Menu Browser ➤ File menu ➤ Plotter Manager. To add a plotter configuration. Once a new PC3 file is created. Plotter configuration files have a . any network settings.

Plot styles are assigned directly to objects and layers. to control how an object is plotted. Plot style tables collect groups of plot styles and save them in a file that you can later specify when plotting. ■ Named plot style tables.50 mm lineweight. rename. You cannot assign color-dependent plot styles directly to objects. Use the Plot Style Manager to add. either double-click the PC3 file or choose Properties in the Plot dialog box. There are two types of plot style tables: ■ Color-dependent plot style tables. independent of its color. Use Plot Styles to Override Properties (Optional) A plot style is an optional method to control how each object or layer is plotted. The files have the extension . You can access the Plot Style Manager from the Files menu.Change a Plotter Configuration The Plotter Configuration Editor is used to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Edit the port or file output information Change or add paper sizes and layouts Control vector and raster graphic output Calibrate your plotter Set any of your plotter’s custom properties To start the Plotter Configuration Editor. all red objects in a drawing can be set to plot with a 0. For example.stb. 152 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots . Using them enables each object in a drawing to be plotted differently. and edit plot style tables. copy. An object’s color determines how it is plotted. The files have the extension . The Plot Style Manager is a folder that contains all the available plot style tables and the Add-A-Plot Style wizard. Assigning a plot style to an object or layer overrides properties such as color and lineweight for plotting. delete. you change its color. Instead. Only the appearance of plotted objects is affected.ctb.

Try it: Create a page setup 1 Start a new drawing. Each layout tab can have an associated named page setup. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Page Setup Manager. If necessary. You can quickly restore all settings associated with that plotter by specifying the name of a previously saved page setup. you are ready to plot. you can name and save them as a page setup using the Page Setup Manager. Page setups are saved in the drawing. When you are ready to plot. page setup. it is a good practice to generate a full plot preview. For example. Page Setups Because there are so many plot settings. In the Plot dialog box. Plot from a Layout | 153 . specify a plot style select a printer or a plotter select a page size select the area of the drawing to plot generate a preview position the layout on the page display or hide options specify a plot scale select a page orientation Before you plot your drawing. let’s say you switch to a different plotter for color output. you select the printer or plotter and many other settings that give you complete control of your output. you can specify the name of the page setup in the Plot dialog box. make changes to the plot settings. click a layout tab. If the image is not correct. you can specify the name of the original page setup. and the plot style table attached to the layout. To switch back.Plot from a Layout After you have completed your drawing.

you can set up the page just before you plot. 7 Select Display Plot Styles. and plot the drawing. locate the \Help\GettingStarted folder. open the drop-down list and click the monochrome. Create a new layout 1 Make the Viewport layer the current layer. 4 In the New Page Setup dialog box. enter My_New_Plotter. Click OK. click Modify. and create dimensions. choose not to apply the plot style table to all other layouts. you set up a layout. A specific plotter configuration is also associated with the Elevation layout. 5 Change some settings in the Page Setup dialog box. The Elevation layout uses a page setup that defines the plot area and page size. select plan. 6 Click My_New_Plotter and click Set Current. 2 In the Select File dialog box. If you don’t specify all the settings in the Page Setup dialog box when you create a layout. 7 Click Close. 8 Click Close to close the Page Setup Manager. you edit the page setup for an existing layout. This is a drawing of a floor plan and elevation. 6 Under Plot Style Table (Pen Assignments). If prompted. 2 Click Menu Browser ➤ Tools ➤ Wizards ➤ Create Layout. The drawing is now black and white because the layout shows a preview of the drawing as it will be plotted with the monochrome plot style table. 9 Click the Model button. Click OK.ctb file.dwg. Tutorial: Plot a Drawing In this exercise. 4 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Page Setup Manager. create a new layout. 5 In the Page Setup Manager. insert a title block into the new layout. 154 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots . and click Open. 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Open. Note that the model is still displayed in color. Edit an existing layout To prepare for plotting from a layout tab. The My_New_Plotter page setup is now associated with the current layout tab. 3 Click the Elevation layout tab.3 Click New. set up a viewport. The new page setup name is displayed in the Page Setup Manager. Click OK.

DWF files are smaller. type 0. Type Elevation and Floor Plan.) In the Rows box. click and drag to create a rectangular layout viewport that is just inside the printable area (the dashed lines).5 inches. vertically aligned. 7 On the Title Block page. FTP sites. Notice that two viewports have been created. under Viewport Setup.) 8 On the Define Viewports page. you will plot the drawing to a DWF file rather than to a plotter. This creates two viewports. Click Next. a viewer available as a free download from the Autodesk website. or CDs. on the Begin page. DWF (Design Web Format) files are convenient for distributing drawings using email. Make sure that Paper Size in Units lists a width of 11. click None from the list of available title blocks. click Portrait for that orientation. type 0. Select DWF6 ePlot. In the Columns box. 5 On the Paper Size page. Click Next. type 2. DWF files can be viewed using Autodesk® Design Review. 9 On the Pick Location page. project websites. specify 2 rows with 1 column.5 x 11. and provide greater resolution than other popular options.1. Click Next. Leave the Viewport Scale as Scaled to Fit. select the printer that you want to use to plot this layout. 4 On the Printer page. select Select Location.0 inches and a height of 8. In the Spacing Between Rows box. enter a name for the new layout.25.pc3. select the Array option. In the Spacing Between Columns box. In the drawing area. Select Letter or ANSI A (8. (You insert a title block once the layout is created. click Finish to complete the creation of the new layout and viewports. click Array.The Create Layout wizard guides you through the creation of a layout. Plot from a Layout | 155 . For this tutorial. Click Next. Click Next. the paper sizes available in the list are based on the printer that you selected. 10 On the Finish page. faster. (You change the scale later. 3 In the Create Layout wizard.0 inches) for the paper size. type 1. Click Next. with a gap between them. 6 On the Orientation page.

Under Scale. Click OK. In the Insert dialog box. make sure that the Specify On-screen check box is cleared.Insert a title block into a layout 1 2 3 4 5 6 Make sure that you are on the Elevation and Floor Plan layout tab. and Z boxes. If necessary. type 0 to keep the title block horizontal. click Layer and select the Viewports layer from the drop-down list. click Letter (portrait). 3 In the Properties palette. Make the Title Block layer the current layer. type 1 to set the layout to be plotted full scale. 2 On the Modify menu. 1 Select both of the viewports by clicking their borders. in the Name list. in the 8 Move the cursor to center the title block. make sure that the Specify On-screen check box is cleared. make sure that the Specify On-screen check box is checked. click Properties. Y. 7 Under Rotation. Set up the viewports to plot Now that the layout viewports have been created. you can specify the scale of the model space view displayed in each viewport. If necessary. in the X. 156 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots . Click Menu Browser ➤ Insert ➤ Block. Angle box. Under Insertion Point. and then click to place it on the layout.

enter Plan Complete in the File Name box. Under Drawing Orientation. 1 Click Menu Browser ➤ File ➤ Plot. you could have turned off the Viewport layer. click Extents. Click Preview at the bottom of the dialog box. After previewing the plot. 3 4 5 6 7 8 Under Plot Style Table (Pen Assignments). Alternatively. click the > button at the bottom-right corner of the Plot dialog box to display more plot options. 9 Click Menu Browser ➤ File menu ➤ Save As. 10 Double-click anywhere outside the viewports to return to paper space. Plotting is turned off for the viewport borders. 9 In the Layer Properties Manager.ctb file. Pan the image in the viewport until only the elevation view is displayed. In the Plot column. Under Plot Area. in the Name column. click the Plot/No Plot icon to turn off plotting for the Viewport layer. The plotter you chose in the wizard is still selected. Pan the image in the viewport until only the floor plan is displayed. click Portrait. in the Name list. and then click Save. Under Plot Scale. You could now send the DWF file to a client for review. Plot from a Layout | 157 . 8 Click Menu Browser ➤ Format ➤ Layer. but the objects displayed in the viewport are still plotted. 7 Click inside the bottom viewport to make it current. select the Viewports layer. press ESC. set the scale of the plot to 1:1. Under Plot Offset.4 In the Properties palette. In the Save Drawing As dialog box. click the Standard Scale box and select 3/32"=1' from the drop-down list of scales. Click OK to close the Plot dialog box and plot the drawing to the DWF file. 5 The model space objects are scaled correctly for plotting at 3/32"=1' (1:128). Plot the layout Now that you have created a layout and have prepared the layout viewports for plotting. select the monochrome. 6 Double-click inside the top viewport to switch to model space. you are ready to plot the drawing. click Center the Plot. Then lock both viewports. 2 If necessary.

PLOTSTYLE. PLOT. PLOTTERMANAGER. OPTIONS. CONVERTPSTYLES. CONVERTCTB Review and Recall 1 2 3 4 5 What types of objects are commonly found on a layout tab? How do you specify the scale of a layout viewport? How do you turn off the display of layout viewport borders? How can you use a plot style table? What is a fast way to save plot settings by name? 158 | Chapter 11 Create Layouts and Plots . STYLESMANAGER. MVIEW. PLOTSTAMP. LAYOUTWIZARD. PAGESETUP.To get started Action Create a new layout Create a layout viewport Scale a view in a layout viewport Add a plotter or modify a plotter configuration Override properties when plotting Restore saved settings for plotting Plot a layout Menu Browser Insert ➤ Layout View ➤ Viewports ➤ 1 Viewport Tools ➤ Properties File ➤ Plotter Manager File ➤ Plot Style Manager File ➤ Page Setup Manager File ➤ Plot Ribbon Panel Viewports Viewports Viewports Plot Plot Plot Plot Help system LAYOUT.

tolerances. (ATTDEF) aligned dimension angle override angular dimension angular unit annotation array arrowhead associative dimension associative hatching attribute definition . and world coordinate system (WCS). relative coordinates. Term absolute coordinates Definition Coordinate values measured from a coordinate system’s origin. The dimension line is parallel to the line connecting the dimension’s definition points. (DIMALIGNED) Locks the cursor for the next point entered. such as an arrowhead. at the end of a dimension line showing where a dimension begins and ends. or radians. A dimension that measures the distance between two points at any angle. grads. user coordinate system (UCS). A dimension that measures angles or arc segments and consists of text. A collection of data items. Controlled by the DIMASSOC system variable. (BHATCH) An object that is included in a block definition to store alphanumeric data about the block. See also origin. Text.Glossary Commands and system variables associated with definitions are shown in parentheses at the end of the definition. or notes. degrees/minutes/seconds. Hatching that conforms to its bounding objects such that modifying the bounding objects automatically adjusts the hatch. and leaders. dimensions. slash. symbols. 1. each identified by a subscript or key. arranged so a computer can examine the collection and retrieve data with the key. Attribute data can be extracted from a drawing and inserted into external files. Multiple copies of selected objects in a rectangular or polar (radial) pattern. or dot. A dimension that automatically adapts as the associated geometry is modified. See also exploded dimension. Attribute values can be predefined or specified when the block is inserted. To specify an angle override. world coordinates. enter a left angle bracket (<) followed by an angle whenever a command prompts you to specify a point. Angular units are measured in decimal degrees. (DIMANGULAR) The unit of measurement for an angle. A terminator. extension lines. (ARRAY) 2.

The nongraphical data area of a drawing file that stores block definitions. moving. See also block and block reference. (BASE) 4. See also BYLAYER. See also block definition and block reference. A type of linear dimension that uses the second extension line origin of a selected dimension as its first extension line origin. A compound object that is inserted in a drawing and displays the data stored in a block definition. and Z is an alias for ZOOM. Commonly used for either block definition or block reference. 3. and set of objects that are combined and stored in the symbol table of a drawing. prompts. A shortcut for a command. You define aliases in the PGP file. 1. breaking one long dimension into shorter segments that add up to the total measurement. For example. Also called parallel dimensions. Also called instance. (INSERT) A blended piecewise polynomial curve passing near a given set of control points. baseline dimensions base point block block definition block definition table block instance block reference B-spline curve BYBLOCK BYLAYER command alias command line command window continued dimension crosshairs 160 | Glossary . and messages. and rotating objects. In the context of editing grips. 2. (SPLINE) A special object property used to specify that the object inherits the color or linetype of any block containing it. A point for relative distance and angle when copying. See block reference. See also BYBLOCK. the grip that changes to a solid color when selected to specify the focus of the subsequent editing operation. CP is an alias for COPY. A special object property used to specify that the object inherits the color or linetype associated with its layer. (BLOCK) The name. A text area that displays the command line and a history of prompts and messages.Term Auto-hide Definition A palette setting that causes palettes to hide automatically when the cursor moves off of it and to open automatically when the cursor moves onto its title bar. The insertion base point of the current drawing. Multiple dimensions measured from the same baseline. The insertion base point for a block definition. (DIMCONTINUE) A type of cursor consisting of two lines that intersect. See also block and block definition. Also called chain dimension. (BLOCK) A generic term for one or more objects that are combined to create a single object. A text area reserved for keyboard input. base point.

See shortcut menu. A highly compressed file format that is created from a DWG file. See also window selection. See also DWG. The unit of measurement that is used in a drawing. Drawing template files have a DWT extension. positioned on the screen to display the largest possible view of all objects. one kilometer. The smallest rectangle that contains all objects in a drawing. and previews content. (DIMSTYLE) The measurement value of dimensioned objects. one mile. A drawing file with preestablished settings for new drawings. For drawing template. and DXF. A predefined value for a program input or parameter. A drawing file that contains standard settings to be used when creating new drawings. and enables you to validate (verify the authenticity of) a file. A set of numeric values. Default values and options are denoted by angle brackets (<>). DWF files are easy to publish and view on the Web. and settings that control dimensioning features. DWT. digital signature dimension style dimension text dimension variables direct distance entry drawing area drawing extents drawing limits drawing template file drawing units DWF DWT Glossary | 161 . one millimeter. See also DWG. (DIMSTYLE) A method to specify a second point by first moving the cursor to indicate direction and then entering a distance. text strings.Term crossing selection cursor cursor menu CTB file default definition table DesignCenter Definition A rectangular area drawn to select objects fully or partly within its borders. and external references (xrefs). which includes blocks. or some other distance. The nongraphical data area of a drawing file that stores block definitions. (ADCENTER) Identifies an individual or an organization through a digital ID (certificate). The area in which your drawings are displayed and modified. See crosshairs. and inserts content. finds. For Design Web Format. (ZOOM) See grid limits. hatches. one drawing unit may equal one inch. Browses. Depending on the drawing. A color-dependent plot style table. (SIGVALIDATE) A named group of dimension settings that determines the appearance of the dimension and simplifies the setting of dimension system variables.

explode extents external reference (xref) fill floating viewports font freeze geometry graphics area graphics screen grid grid limits Grip modes grips i-drop 162 | Glossary . (LIMITS) The editing capabilities activated when grips are displayed on an object: stretching. See also block. regenerated. and mirroring. See drawing area. block definition. The spacing between grid dots is adjustable. text styles. circles. (XREF) A solid color covering an area bounded by lines or curves. dimension. A character set. Grid dots are not plotted. After selecting the grip. into simpler objects. and symbols of a distinctive proportion and design. you edit the object by dragging it with the pointing device instead of entering commands. moving. See also thaw. Freezing layers shortens regenerating time. and layers are not considered geometry. and block reference. DWG. Objects on frozen layers are not displayed. and DWT. (LAYER) All graphical objects such as lines. lineweights. such as a block. arcs. Also called drawing limits. An ASCII or binary file format of an AutoCAD drawing file for exporting drawings to other applications or for importing drawings from other applications. such as linetypes. An area covered with regularly spaced dots to aid drawing. rotating. The block reference is replaced by the components of the block. In the case of a block. the block definition is unchanged. See drawing area. (EXPLODE) See drawing extents. Small squares that appear on objects you select. See also named object. numbers. polylines. or plotted. and dimensions. (GRID) The user-defined rectangular boundary of the drawing area covered by dots when the grid is turned on. (FILL) See layout viewports.Term DXF Definition For drawing interchange format. Nongraphical objects. or polyline. A drawing file referenced by another drawing. See also DWF. which includes letters. To disassemble a complex object. See also grid limits. A method by which a drawing file can be dragged from a web page and inserted into another drawing. punctuation marks. scaling. A setting that suppresses the display of objects on selected layers.

stored with a drawing. the New Features Workshop. See also layout viewports and viewport. See lineweight. See also paper space. a continuous line has a different linetype than a dashed line. See block reference. Multiple layouts can be created for each drawing. such as styles and definitions. layers. Help. web locations. To create a new version of an existing object by reflecting it symmetrically with respect to a prescribed line or plane. Also called line font. An enclosed area within a hatched area. and viewport configurations. and specified files). For example. (MIRROR) A software setting or operating state. A two. a geometric model is placed in a three-dimensional coordinate space called model space. (MSPACE) Describes the various types of nongraphical information. block definitions. views. A final layout of specific views and annotations of this model is placed in paper space. See linetype. How a line or type of curve is displayed. (VPORTS) See grid limits. A type of display that splits the drawing area into one or more adjacent rectangular viewing areas. Named objects are stored in definition (symbol) tables. A logical grouping of data that are like transparent acetate overlays on a drawing. text styles. (LINETYPE) A width value that can be assigned to all graphical objects except TrueType® fonts and raster images. instance island layer layout layout viewports limits line font line width linetype lineweight mirror mode model model viewports model space named object Glossary | 163 . Named objects include linetypes.Term InfoCenter Definition A tool in the upper-right edge of the application window that accepts keywords to search multiple sources and locations for information at one time (for example. See also paper space. Typically. You can view layers individually or in combination. Objects that are created in paper space that display views. (VPORTS) One of the two primary spaces in which objects reside. layouts. dimension styles.or three-dimensional representation of an object. (LAYER) The tabbed environment in which you create and design paper space layout viewports to be plotted.

Properties that are common to all objects include color. See also running object snap and object snap override. the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system is where the X. See also model space. (ORTHO) A method of naming and saving plot settings. For nonuniform rational B-spline curve. Formerly called entity. linetype scale. Methods for selecting commonly needed points on an object while you create or edit a drawing. See also object snap mode. Limits pointing device input to horizontal or vertical (relative to the current snap angle and the user coordinate system). (PROPERTIES) A geometric symbol that is displayed when the cursor moves over an object. See also shortcut menu. and 3D thickness. For example.Term node NURBS Definition An object snap specification to locate points. (PAGESETUP) To shift the view of a drawing without changing magnification. See also snap angle and user coordinate system (UCS). For example. You design your model using the Model tab. See also Object Snap mode and running object snap. layer. Model space is used for creating the drawing.0. One or more graphical elements. manipulation. The menu that is displayed in the drawing area at the cursor location when you hold down SHIFT and right-click the pointing device. as opposed to doing drafting or design work. dimension definition points. Settings that control the appearance and geometric characteristics of objects. and modification. linetype. The point where coordinate axes intersect. the pick button is the left button. (PSPACE) The button on a pointing device that is used to select objects or specify points on the screen. dimensions. such as text. Paper space is used for creating a finished layout for printing or plotting. Turning off or changing a running Object Snap mode for input of a single point. (PAN) One of two primary spaces in which objects reside. Y. treated as a single element for creation. lines. and Z axes meet at 0. and dimension text origins. or polylines.0. See also zoom. object object properties object snap markers object snap menu object snap mode object snap override origin ortho mode page setup pan paper space pick button 164 | Glossary . circles. See also zoom. on a two-button mouse. You design your paper space viewports using a layout tab. A B-spline curve or surface defined by a series of weighted control points and one or more knot vectors. See also B-spline curve.

(ARRAY) A precision drawing tool used to snap to incremental distances along the polar tracking alignment path. A pointing device usually has several buttons. An object consisting of a single coordinate location. pointing device polar array PolarSnap polar tracking polyline plot style plot style table prompt properties properties palette purge relative coordinates Glossary | 165 . if no objects are selected. layers. A message on the command line that asks for information or requests action such as specifying a point. An object composed of one or more connected line segments or circular arcs treated as a single object. A location in three-dimensional space specified by X. (PLAN) See polyline.0. and text styles from a drawing. See object properties. lineweight. and fill styles. (PLINE.0). A view orientation from a point on the positive Z axis toward the origin (0.Term pickbox plan view pline point Definition The square cursor used to select an object in the drawing area. A precision drawing tool that displays temporary alignment paths defined by user-specified polar angles. 2. pen assignments. (POINT) A device. See also PolarSnap. gray scale. 1. Lists and changes properties of the selected object or set of objects or. (PURGE) Coordinates specified in relation to previous coordinates. Plot styles are defined in plot style tables and apply to objects only when the plot style table is attached to a layout or viewport. See also polar tracking. joinstyles. the values of default properties common to all objects. screening. endstyles. A set of plot styles. and Z coordinate values. Plot styles are applied at plot time. PEDIT) An object property that specifies a set of overrides for color. Also called pline. linetype. that can be used to interact with the interface and create and edit drawing objects in the drawing area. Objects copied around a specified center point a specified number of times. dithering. some of which may be customized to perform commands you specify. Y. (PROPERTIES) A feature that removes unused definitions such as block definitions. such as a mouse or a digitizing puck.

The apparent size of objects in a view with respect to a drawing sheet. The invisible grid that locks the pointer into alignment with the grid points according to the spacing set by Snap. LTSCALE. The size of an object compared with other objects. snap grid. See definition table and block definition table. The function keys (F1. The menu displayed at your cursor location when you right-click your pointing device. CELTSCALE. The shortcut menu and the options it provides depend on the pointer location and other conditions.Term running object snap Definition Setting an Object Snap mode so it continues for subsequent selections. ZOOM) One or more selected objects that a command can act upon at the same time. such as whether an object is selected or a command is in progress. The display size of the components of noncontinuous linetypes and hatches. (SNAP) The invisible grid that locks the pointer into alignment with the grid points according to the spacing set by Snap. (SNAP) See B-spline curve and NURBS. Snap grid does not necessarily correspond to the visible grid. A representation of an item commonly used in drawings. scale selection set shortcut keys shortcut menu snap snap angle snap grid snap mode spline status bar STB file symbol symbol library symbol table 166 | Glossary . When Snap mode is on. snap resolution. The snap resolution defines the spacing of this grid. See block. (SCALE. CTRL + S saves a file. (SNAP) A mode for locking a pointing device into alignment with an invisible rectangular grid. See also block library. A collection of block definitions stored in a single drawing file. 2. which is controlled separately by GRID. See snap angle. and so on) are also shortcut keys. which is controlled separately by GRID. (OSNAP) 1. Keys and key combinations that start commands. Contains plot styles and their characteristics. The area at the bottom of the application window that contains buttons controlling the mode of operation of the program and displays the coordinates of the cursor location in the drawing area. See also object snap mode. for example. See also Object Snap mode and object snap override. F2. and PolarSnap. the screen crosshairs and all input coordinates are snapped to the nearest point on the grid. Also known as accelerator keys. HPSCALE. Snap grid does not necessarily correspond to the visible grid. 3. For plot style table file.

and the Help system. A hierarchical list that can be expanded or collapsed to control the amount of information displayed. oblique. The UCS determines the default placement of geometry in a drawing. To reduce or increase the apparent magnification of the drawing area. A named. tabbed areas within the Tool Palettes window that provide an efficient method for organizing. A setting that displays previously frozen layers. See external reference (xref).dwt and acltiso. (ZOOM) template drawing text style thaw tiled viewports tool palette tree view UCS UCS icon user coordinate system (UCS) vertex view viewport window selection xref zoom Glossary | 167 . VIEW) See model viewports and layout viewports See also view.dwt. or limit. or set in a vertical column. however. (UCSICON) A user-defined coordinate system that defines the orientation of the X. See user coordinate system (UCS). compressed. sharing. (VPOINT. See also crossing selection and polygon window selection. A location where edges or polyline segments meet. See also viewport. Tree views are available in DesignCenter. An icon that indicates the orientation of the UCS axes. and Z axes in 3D space.Term system variable Definition A name similar to a command used as a mode. any drawing can be used as a template. size. such as DWGNAME. and placing blocks and hatches. See also freeze. A graphical representation of a model from a specific location (viewpoint) in space. saved collection of settings that determines the appearance of text characters—for example. stretched. DVIEW. (LAYER) See model viewports. (VPORTS) A rectangular area specified in the drawing area to select multiple objects at the same time. A drawing file with preestablished settings for new drawings such as aclt. See also world coordinate system (WCS). Readonly system variables. mirrored. Y. the Purge dialog box. cannot be modified directly by the user.

168 .

116 See also block libraries . 163 block attributes. 111 hatch patterns. 40 areas finding for objects. 155. 134. 160 inserting. 160 block definitions. 93 specifying for arcs. 94 regenerating view of. 160 blocks. 79 rotation angles. 118 block references. 159 architectural drawing unit format. 141. 93. 159 angular units. 114. command. 128 base points. 132. 81 axes for coordinates. 159 calculating. 160 aligned dimensions. 116. 134. 159 arrowheads. 116 block definition tables. 45 arcs drawing. 159 annotations. 119. 80. 156 typical uses. 160 block definitions. 159 associative dimensions. 121 polar coordinates. 86 arrays. 100 selection areas. 143. 134. 128 analyzing drawings. 160 block instances (block references). 159 Autodesk Design Review (DWF viewer). 74. 120. 34 Add-A-Plotter wizard. 132. 160 block libraries. 160 AutoSnap markers. 67 drawing polylines with. 118 sources of. 159 accelerator keys (shortcut keys). 116. 160 block attributes. 151 aliases. 65 filleting. 143. 67 text characters. 160 backwards-reading text. 31.Index A absolute coordinates. 116 block definition tables. 159 angular units. 155 Auto-hide and palettes. 46 architectural template files. 160 block references. 111 angles angle overrides. 159 aligning text. 159 associative hatches. 57 Auto-hide feature. 74 polar tracking. 128 angular dimensions. undoing. 117 moving. 116 title blocks. 68. 139. 74 B B-spline curves. 132. 143 black-and-white plotting. 166 actions. 134. 17. 154 blank areas within hatches (islands). 160 baseline dimensions. 159 attribute definitions. 90. 76.

74. 138. 63. 86. or coordinates. 159. 161 dimensions and dimensioning accuracy. 31. 50. 116 diameter dimensions. 84. 88 D DC Online tab (in DesignCenter). 38 cutting edges. 143. 161 DC Online tab. 134 Dimension Style Manager dialog box. 31 repeating. 132. 143. 40 circumscribed polygons. 94. 78 centering views in layout viwports. 126 trim boundaries. 74 dynamic input and. 94 counter-clockwise rotation. 161 current layer. 34 starting at command line. 96 extending objects. 59 current object scale settings. 74. 160 commands aliases. 34 Cartesian coordinates. 161 170 | Index . 138. 31. 136 centerlines. 13 associative dimensions. 106 BYBLOCK property. 62 cursor menus. 165 calculating delta. 132. 34 help and information. 93 crosshairs. 87 delta. 120 polylines. 160 chord length. 62. 111 callouts (leader lines). angles. 140. 118 decimals drawing unit format. 32 panning with. 134 center marks and centerlines. 135.boundaries editing. 143 dimension styles. 161 colors applying to objects. 140 dimension styles. 67. 161 dimension lines. 161 property settings. 74 polar coordinates. 102 overview. 75 center marks. 161 extension lines. 103 regenerating view of. 59 color-dependent plot style tables. 134. 59 assigning to layers. 81 snapping to a grid. 160 command window. 140 dimension text. 74. 75 origin point. 74 specifying. 138. 161 CTB files (color-dependent plot style tables). 140. 17. 66 closing polylines. 141 Center object snap. 141 chain dimensions (continued dimensions). 111 deselecting objects. 31. 72 zooming in or out with. 141 overriding. 161 dimension variables. 34 choosing. calculating. 90 properties to other objects. 59. 50. 88 hatched areas. 75. 118 hatch patterns in. specifying for arcs. 132. 161 deleting objects. 161 command aliases. 141 creating. 7. 160 canceling or undoing. 30 dynamic prompts. 86 ending. 139 Cancel command. 47 defaults defined. 160 C calculating distances. 134. 25 options. 120 sources of block libraries. 57 definition tables. 152. 86 Design Web Format (DWF) files. 32 editing commands. 152. 33. 160 coordinates and coordinate systems absolute and relative coordinates. 160 See also cursors crossing selection areas. 143 diameters. 111 Cartesian coordinates. 152. 151. 46 rounding on screen. 160 BYLAYER property. 31 continued dimensions. 160 command line. 155 DesignCenter. 101 text objects. 65 color-dependent plot style tables (CTB). 108 corners. 67 circles. 84 copying multiple copies of objects. filleting. 91 objects. 39 pickbox cursor. See shortcut menus cursors dynamic prompts displayed by. 13 COPY command. 67 digital signatures. 31. 17. 132.

94 ending commands. 149 DIST command. 34 Endpoint object snap. 136 moving dimensions. 72. 66 Drafting Settings dialog box. 162 dynamic input. 44 touring. 72 inserting blocks. 79. 142 duplicating objects. 162 drawing objects arcs. 19 revision clouds. 109 mirroring. 15 drivers. 66. 88 extending objects. 9 scaling. See scales and scaling drawing template files. 136 grid. 57 Properties palette. 88 editing plotter configurations. 84. See template files drawing units. 72 template files. 52 zooming in or out. 137 direct distance entry. 111 direct distance entry. 134.dimension variables. 141 extents. 78. 39 plotting. 135. 19. 72 layers. 152 editing text. 150 ESC key. 65 drawing scale. 86 text. 161 drawings and drawing files coordinate systems. 126 text styles. 45. 57. 162 drawing limits (grid limits). 17. 119 copying properties. 67 engineering drawing unit format. 92 object boundaries. 84 polar coordinates. 75 E editing objects associative hatches and. 91. 30 EXPLODE command. 32. 155. 161 types of. 161 displaying command options. 38 grids. 19 precision editing. 75 Dynamic Input button. 126. 40 viewport properties. 73. 65. 96 offsetting copies. 67 circles. 51 properties. 134 grips. 88 filleting. 11 polygons. 88. See objects ERASE command. 161 measuring. 64 polylines. 67 filleting. 162 Index | 171 . 44 panning a view. 32 display scale. 79. starting. 153 revising. 46 entities. 161 drawing extents. 151. 128 trimming objects. 161 editing dimensions. 46. printer. 117 new drawings. 107 revising drawings. 162 EXTEND command. 64 overview. 143 units of measurement. See template files DXF files. 74 displaying entire drawing. 94 grip edit mode. 77 drawing area. 151 DWF (Design Web Format) files. 91 overview. 108 dimensions. 141. 79 dividing polylines. 134. 141 text. 98 extension lines. 74 polar tracking. 58 elements of dimensions. 162 external references (xrefs). 110 selecting objects to edit. drawing. 90 erasing objects. 87 extending objects. 134 saving styles in templates. 105 endpoints. 87 erasing layout viewports. 141 DIMSCALE system variable. 33. 161 DWT files. 19 revision clouds. 95 properties. 161 drawing interchange format (DXF) files. 110 Snap mode. 111 distances calculating. 128 ellipses. 66 exploding objects. 142 overview. 3. 64 rectangles. 94 lines. 149 standards for. 142 layers for. 142 editing properties. 57 regenerating jagged display.

F
FILLET command, 68, 84 filleting objects, 68, 84, 94 fills, 119, 120, 162 fitting options for dimensions, 141 flipping objects (mirroring objects), 84, 92, 104 floating viewports (layout viewports), 146, 163 fonts, 128, 162 formatting dimensions, 140 drawing units, 46 Text Formatting, 126 fractions, 46, 47 freezing layers, 51, 162

horizontal alignment of text, 128 horizontal dimensions, 132

I
i-drop, 162 imperial measurement drawing template files, 45 Info palette, 163 inquiry commands, 111 inscribed polygons, 66 Insert dialog box, 118 inserting blocks, 117, 118, 156 instances (block references), 163 Intersection object snap, 78 intersection snap, 97 islands, 120, 163 ISO standards, 44, 119 italic fonts, 128

G
geometry, 162 global scale factor for linetypes, 62 graphics area of screen (drawing area), 161 grid limits, 72, 162 grids, 162 displaying or hiding, 72 grid limits, 72, 162 overview, 72 spacing, 72 turning off and on, 72 grip modes, 162 grips, 162 block grips, 118 displaying, 86 editing dimensions, 142 editing objects, 109 grip modes, 162 viewport grips, 150

J
jagged display, 40 JIS standards, 44 JOIN command, 66 joining polylines, 66

K
keyboard shortcuts (shortcut keys), 166 keywords in Help system, 23

L
labels in model and paper space, 128 Layer Properties Manager, 50, 51, 60, 149 layers, 163 color assignments, 7, 50, 59 current layer, 50, 59 dimensions on, 135, 136 editing properties, 58 freezing, 51 hiding or displaying, 51, 60, 149 Layer Properties Manager, 50, 51, 59, 149 Layers panel, 57 linetype assignments, 7, 62 locking, 51 naming, 7 organizing drawings with, 42, 50 overview, 7, 50 plot styles, 7 properties and, 56, 58 rearranging, 50 viewports layer, 156 Layers panel, 57

H
hatches and hatch patterns, 114, 119 associative hatches, 119 inserting, 120 internal points, 121 islands within boundaries, 120 sources of, 119 height of text characters, 128 Help command Help, 25 Help system, 23 procedural, 25 table of contents (Contents tab), 25 tutorial, 24 hiding layers, 51, 60 Properties palette, 57 hook lines, 139

172

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Index

layout tab, 48 layout viewports, 146, 163 layouts, 146, 163 compared to models, 48 display scale, 136 linetypes in, 62 overview, 5, 48 page setups and, 153 plotting from, 153 scale and drawing units, 3, 46 switching to model space, 49 text size and, 129 viewports, 146, 163 leader lines (callouts), 17, 134, 139 leader objects, 134 left mouse button, 30 lengthening objects, 88 libraries block libraries, 116 DesignCenter, 118 DesignCenter Online, 118 limits, grid, 72, 162 line fonts. See linetypes line widths (lineweights), 7, 42, 63, 163 linear dimensions, 132, 134, 143 linear measurements, 47 lines angles, 80 centerlines, 138, 141 dimension styles, 141 drawing, 32, 64 exact length, 79 extension lines on dimensions, 134 filleting, 94 hook lines, 139 leader lines, 134, 139 linetypes. See linetypes lineweights, 7, 42, 63, 163 offsetting, 11 parallel, 64 perpendicular, 79 polylines, 64 tapering, 66 Linetype Manager, 61 linetypes, 163 editing properties, 107 global scale factor, 62 identifying objects with, 42 layer assignments, 7, 62 Linetype Manager, 61 overview, 61 saving styles in templates, 9 scaling, 61, 62 Lineweight Settings dialog box, 63 lineweights, 7, 42, 63, 163 locking layers, 51

M
magnifying view in viewports. See zooming in or out markup revision clouds, 110 matching properties between objects, 108 measurement units, 3, 45, 46, 141 mechanical drawing template files, 45 mechanical drawing unit format, 102 menus, 30, 31, 166 metric measurement template files, 45 Midpoint object snap, 78 mirroring objects, 84, 92, 104, 163 Model tab, 48 model viewports, 163 models and model space, 5, 146, 163 compared to layouts, 48 dimensioning and, 136 drawing in model space, 48 extracting information from, 111 formulas for text size, 129 linetypes in, 62 notes and labels in, 128 scale and drawing units, 3 scale and. drawing units, 46 switching to layouts, 49 switching to paper space, 150 text size in, 129 viewports, 163 zooming in or out, 156 modes, defined, 163 mouse devices, 30, 165 moving blocks, 118 dimensions, 142 objects, 93 panning a view, 39 rotating objects, 93 text in dimensions, 134 Multiline Text panel, 126 multiple copies of objects, 91

N
named layers, 7 named objects, 163 named plot style tables, 152 navigation Help system, display, 24 New Features Workshop, 23 New Page Setup dialog box, 154 nodes, 164 nonuniform rational B-spline curves, 164 notes, in model and paper space, 128 NURBS (nonuniform rational B-spline curves), 164

Index

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173

O
object properties, 164 object snap markers, 164 Object Snap menu, 31, 76, 164 Object Snap mode, 164 object snap overrides, 164 object snaps accuracy and, 13 AutoSnap markers, 81 cycling through snap points, 76 dimensions and, 135 markers, 164 overriding, 164 overview, 72 running object snaps, 77 snap angles, 166 snap grid, 166 Snap mode, 164, 166 spacing, 72 types of, 78 objects, 164 associative dimensions, 134 colors, 59 copying properties, 108 displaying on layers, 149 drawing, 11 duplicating, 90 editing properties, 57, 58 erasing, 87 filleting, 94 grips, 109 hatch patterns, 119 linetypes, 61 lineweights, 63 mirroring, 92 moving, 93 offsetting copies, 91 properties, 56, 107, 164 rotating, 93 selecting, 86 trimming edges, 88 oblique text, 128 OFFSET command, 64, 84 offsetting objects, 11, 64, 84, 91, 102 opening block libraries, 118 template files, 45 ordinate dimensions, 132, 134, 143 orientation pages, 153 text, 128 origin point, 102 origin points, 74, 164 Ortho mode, 164 overlays, 7 overriding dimension styles, 140

P
page orientation, 153 Page Setup Manager, 153 page setups, 146, 153, 164 page size, 153 PAN command, 39 panels Layers panel, 57 Properties panel, 57 panning, 15, 39, 164 paper size, 152, 155 paper space, 5, 164 compared to model space, 48 notes and labels in, 128 scaling linetypes in, 62 switching to model space, 49, 150 text size and, 129 parallel dimensions (baseline dimensions), 132, 143 parallel lines, 64 PAT files, 119 PC3 files, 151 perpendicular lines, 79 Perpendicular object snap, 78 pick button, 30, 164 pickbox cursor, 81, 165 plan views, 165 plines. See polylines Plot dialog box, 153 plot scales, 153 Plot Style Manager, 152 plot style tables (STB) files, 152, 165, 166 plot styles, 7, 146, 152, 165 plotter configuration (PC3) files, 151 Plotter Configuration Editor, 152 Plotter Manager, 151 plotters and plotting configuring plotters, 151 driver support for, 151 page setups, 153 plot styles, 146, 152 Plotter Configuration Editor, 152 plotting from layouts, 153 previewing, 153 printing viewport borders, 150 scaling in model space, 157 setting up, 153 Plotters folder, 151 pointing devices, 30, 38, 40, 165 points, 165 absolute coordinates, 74, 159 AutoSnap markers, 76, 81 calculating distance or coordinates, 111 coordinate systems. See coordinates and coordinate systems origin point, 102 origin points, 74, 164 polar coordinates, 74 relative coordinates, 75, 165

174

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Index

134. 107 viewing. 129 views in viewports. 166 snaps creating drawings with. 19. 152 Plotter Configuration Editor. 58 Properties palette. 165 polar coordinates. 40 Snap and snapping. 64. 153 support for. 101 widths. 107 layer assignments. 153 setting display scale. 93. 94 specifying for arcs. 165 Properties panel. 86 selection areas. 66 filleting. 166 sharp corners on objects. 3. 104 Quick Leader dimensions. 165 relative values. 107. 62 lineweights and. 118 running object snap. 56 assigning. 57. 165 properties. 81 Q Quadrant object snap. 155 files in other formats. 66 radius dimensions. 62 text objects. See object snaps snap angles. 132. 67 specifying for polygons. 57 pull-down menus. 136 text. 94 highlighting boundaries. 150 revising drawings. 67 polar arrays. 74 polar tracking.specifying for arcs. 30 rotating objects. 75. 40 relative coordinates. 64 polylines. 102. 65 redline drawings. 165 closing. 107. 30 right-click actions. 166 Snap mode. 143 raster files. 166 snap grids. 151 procedural Help. 86. 165 removing objects. 151 scales and scaling. 165 PolarSnap. 86 selection sets. 166 dimensions. 126 shortcut keys. 166 shortcuts cycling through snap points. 94 shortcut keys. 152 selecting plotters. 126 viewports. 30 purging. 152 PostScript files. 31. 67 specifying for circles. 91 resizing linetypes. 62 text objects. 77. 110 right mouse button. 19. 56 copying to other objects. 150 slant of text characters. 166 shortcut menus. 132 R radius filleting objects. 31. 63 overview. 57. 30. 87 repeating commands. 110 See also editing objects revision clouds. 108 editing. 57. 66 ports. 67 specifying for circles. 110 regenerating jagged display. 140 Select Template dialog box. 56 matching. 137 drawing units compared to scale. 58. 79. 65 dividing or joining. 74 Index | 175 . 165 Properties panel. 61. 126 viewports. 78. 5 scientific drawing unit format. 25 prompts. 34. 46 secondary dimension styles. 86 objects. 3 plot scales. 165 polygons. 121 linetypes. 13. 166 sizing linetypes. 46 hatch patterns. 151 rectangles. 76 editing text. 153 printers plot styles and plot style tables. 45 selecting deselecting objects. 166 S saving files as DWF files. 128 smoothing display. 108 Properties palette. 151 previewing plot areas and settings. 32.

126 Text Style dialog box. 150 linetype scaling in. 128. 116. 129 width of. 39 plotting borders. 167 UCS icon. 128 user coordinate system (UCS). 128 vertical dimensions. 126 Text Formatting. 167 displaying entire drawing. 45 templates. 149 display scale. 39 See also viewports visibility of layers. 128 text styles. 9 plot styles. 161 system variables. 72 hatch patterns. 155 overlapping. 76 topics in Help system. 120. 167 viewports. 118 opening. 140 start points. 45 updating dimensions and leader lines. 78 tapering lines. 45 U UCS (user coordinate system). 128. 140. 167 tooltips. 167 vertical alignment of text. 121 splines. 141 176 | Index . 166 STB files (named plot style tables). 38. 128. 164 STANDARD style. 126 text editor. 126 viewports and. 150 grips. 38 sizing. 118 symbols defined. 5. 67. 106 TRIM command. 44 status bar. 167 trim boundaries. 152. 166 styles dimension styles. 45 sample files. 149 erasing. 9. 132 vertices. 162 spacing grid and snap settings. 134. 24 tree views. 161 text annotations. 141 See also blocks system variables. 103 Tangent object snap. 167 thawing. 156 views. 39 repositioning. 167 title blocks. 161. 141 drawing units. 139 dimension text. 161 drafting standards. 156 tolerance options for dimensions. 155 creating. 150 overview. 44 opening. 160. 128 tutorial drawing template files. 38 panning. 150 between models and layouts. 150 zooming in or out. 49 between page setups. 152 text styles. 65. 128 switching between model space and paper space. 161 model space and paper space. 48 modifying. 136 displaying layers in. 167 tool palettes. 167 text editor. 9 styles. 134 upside-down text. 166 in dimensions. 67 starting drawings. 141. 167 V variables dimension variables. 84. 62 model space and paper space overview. 51 T table of contents in Help system. 153 symbol libraries. 134. 167 undoing actions. 167 drafting standards and.solid fills. 149 scaling views. 15. 88 TrueType fonts. 25 tangent method for drawing circles. 9 DWT files. 128 saving styles in templates. display. 94. 149 multiple viewports. 66 template files. 51. 150 properties. 146 changing settings. 5 panning. 167 tiled viewports (model viewports). 3. 34 units of measurement in dimensions. 46 template files. 166 DesignCenter Online.

86. 38 scaling views in viewports. 74 xrefs (external references). 30. 38 zooming in or out.W wheel mouse. 128 text objects. 38. 151 X X and Y values. 167 Z ZOOM command. 15. 167 Windows printer drivers. 167 overview. 161. 156 Index | 177 . 40 width polylines. 66 text characters. 126 window selection areas. 5.

178 | Index .

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