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Boa Bellows Guide

Boa Bellows Guide

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BOA

METALLBÄLGE
RATGEBER
METAL BELLOWS
CONSULTANT












































BOA METAL BELLOWS CONSULTANT Issue 11-05-UK
BOA AG
Expansion Joints
Metal Bellows and Metal Hoses
Station-Ost 1
CH-6023 Rothenburg
Switzerland
Phone: +41 41 289 41 11
Fax: +41 41 289 42 02
E-Mail: info@boa.ch
Homepage: www.boa.ch
BOA METAL BELLOWS CONSULTANT

Contents


1. General Information
 Presenting BOA Group and BOA AG
 Our product range


4

2. Metal Bellows Applications
 Applications for Metal Bellows
 Construction of the BOA Metal Bellows
 Application examples
 General information on the Bellows Tables


6

3. Information on using the
Bellows tables
Calculating the admissible
Bellows data

 Information on the table sections with reference to
calculating the overall length
 Necks
 Connections and joining methods
 Bellows calculation

11

4. Bellows Tables
 Bellows table 1 Bellows made of stainless steel
 Bellows table 2 non-ferrous Metal Bellows

33

5. Quality Management
 Certification
 Non-destructive test methods
 Destructive test methods

61

6. Material Tables
 Table on guide analyses and characteristic strength
values
 Foreign standards / comparison table

63

7. Annex
 Pressure conversion tables
 Conversions
 Enquiry check list
 Corrosion table
 Personal notes
 BOA Group, holding companies and agencies
71


2


3

Presenting BOA Group and BOA AG








BOA Group, Stutensee, Germany
BOA Group is one of the world's leading manufacturers for flexible mechanical
elements for the automotive industry and for a wide range of industrial applica-
tions. The headquarter is based in Stutensee near Karlsruhe /Germany.
Until August 2006 BOA operated under IWKA Balg- und KompensatorenTech-
nologie GmbH. About 20 subsidiaries and holding companies in eleven coun-
tries are now belonging to the new BOA Group. Additionally, the organization
keeps sales and service offices in the most important industrial countries.
BOA Group develops, produces and distributes worldwide stainless steel
components for motor management, exhaust systems and side components for
vehicles. In the industrial division, BOA delivers pressure-tight and flexible
elements for applications in energy technics and technical construction: rail-
way, shipyards, aerospace industry, vacuum technique, measurement and
control as well as armatures.
BOA solutions include both standardized products and customized, individual
elements developed together with the customer.






Product range of BOA Group:

Expansion Joints
For pipe systems in chemical and
refinery plants, power plant engi-
neering, district heating and diesel
engine manufacturing.





4
Metal Bellows
As elastic connections and seals
in valves and fittings, plant and
chemical engineering, electrical
engineering, vacuum technique,
solar and heating installations,
automotive engineering, mea-
surement and control equipment.



1 General Information









BOA AG, Rothenburg, Switzerland
BOA AG, based in Rothenburg near Lucerne, was founded in 1906. Over 200
employees are responsible for development, production, marketing and sales
of high-quality expansion joints, metal bellows, metal hoses and plastics com-
ponents. BOA AG is supported by its subsidiaries and holding companies in
France, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, USA and by agencies in all major
industrial countries.
The partly varying technologies within the BOA Group form a meaningful sym-
biosis for covering the needs of our customers.
BOA AG is an internationally recognized company which is among the market
leaders in its activity fields. BOA AG is EN 9100, ISO 9001 and 14001, as well
as DIN EN 15085-2 and ISO 3834-2 certified.










Metal Hoses
made of stainless steel, used
wherever flexibility and highest
reliability are required, e.g. gas
distribution in private households,
solar and heating engineering, but
also in the automotive industry,
aerospace and other industrial
applications.


Plastics Components
Hose lines, high pressure hoses,
expansion joints and steel piping,
whose parts in direct contact
with the flow are covered by
plastics, offer big advantages,
plastics being mostly resistant
against corrosion. Depending on
the application, these covers are
made of PTFE (Teflon), PFA or
EPDM (rubber).
5

Visit our Website
www. boa.ch
www.boagroup.com
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Construction of the BOA metal bellows
Our metal bellows range includes
single and multi-ply types in a variety
of bellows geometries.
Our wide range and know-how in this
specialist area allows us to find the
best technical and economic solution
to our customers’ problems.
The BOA standard convolution profile
is the compensation tube bend. It
combines all the properties neces-
sary for a pressure vessel with high
flexibility and long life – even when
exposed to high operating pressures.
We also make special convolution
profiles for special applications
• We advise you objectively and
expertly
• We supply you with constructive
installation, manufacturing and
application proposals
• We make trial samples and offer you
very good series production prices.
• We can also supply you with
complete systems
Standard, single ply profile
Single ply Double ply Triple ply
Standard, multi ply profile
02_Applications 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 7
8
Application examples
Plant and chemical
Engineering
Valves
Electrical engineering
• Shaft seals
• Axial face seals
• Bellows couplings
• Tank valves
• Spindle seals for valves
• HT and MT switchgear
• Expansion vessels
• Strain gauges / pressure switches
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Measuring and control engineering
Solar / heating engineering
Vacuum engineering
• Spindle seals
• Pressure gauges / pressure
measuring equipment
• Weighing equipment
• Underfloor heating distributors
• Solar panel connections
• ISO-KF, ISO-K, CF connections and
components
• Valve spindle seals
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02_Applications 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 9
10
Our bellows tables offer a wide range
of bellows sizes and types. For eco-
nomic reasons, we recommend the
standard series marked for smaller
volumes. If different dimensions are
absolutely essential, we can make
other special sizes.
This catalogue contains two separate
tables, one for special steels with the
basic material 1.4571 and one for
non ferrous metals with the basic
material 2.1020. However, these
tables can also be used for other
materials, with the aid of the correc-
tion factors described in the following
section.
Special steel bellows table:
For all special steels listed in our
factor tables.
Non ferrous metal
bellows table:
For bronze 2.1020.
If materials are needed in individual
cases that are not included in our
factor tables, an agreement has to be
made with our factory.
General information on the bellows tables
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Please note:
We not only make the metal bel-
lows, but also can make the
connections using highly economic
processes.
Our supply capability is no way
limited to the metal bellows range
up to DN 114 as described in this
catalogue.
We also make metal bellows up to
10’000 mm and bigger. Let us
know what you need.
02_Applications 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 10
3 Information on using the bellows tables
Calculating the admissible bellows data
Section Section N° Explanation of the table sections Page
3.1 1 Nominal dimension 12
2 Position 12
3.2 3 Inside diameter 12
4 Tolerance 12
5 Outside diameter 12
6 Tolerance 12
3.3 7 Number of plies 12
8 Ply thickness 12
3.4 9 Convolution pitch 12–13
(calculation of the corrugated bellows
length)
3.5 10 Maximum number of convolutions 14
3.6 11–17 Dimensions of the necks 14–19
Connections and
joining methods
3.7 18 Calculated overpressure * 20–25
3.8 19–21 Stroke 26–29
per convolution *
3.9 22–24 Spring rate 30–31
per convolution *
3.10 25 Effective bellows cross-section area 32
3.11 26 Weight per convolution 32
* These items also include calculating the permitted or real values under the
operating conditions concerned.
11
03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 11
12
3.1 Nominal dimension and position
Sections 1 + 2
The nominal dimension indicated
largely corresponds to the inside
diameter of the bellows and also
means that the right bellows can
be found quickly and without any
problem. The bellows, together
with the size and item number
gives a precise indication of the
bellows type selected.
3.2 Bellows inside diameter,
Bellows outside diameter
Sections 3–6
Apart from the diameters and
tolerances listed, different special
types are also available subject to
consultation.
3.3 Number of plies and ply
thickness
Sections 7 + 8
The choice of the number of plies
and thickness depends on the
operating conditions and also the
installation space available. If the
operating data allows the use of a
single ply bellows, this is the
most cost-effective solution. Mul-
ti-ply bellows are mainly used at
high operating pressures to
achieve much better mobility
compared with the more rigid
single ply bellows with the same
pressure resistance.
High pressure bellows with a
higher number of layers are
available on request.
3.4 Convolution pitch, calculating
the corrugated bellows length
Section 9
The convolution pitch corresponds
to the flank to flank distance
(dimension L
w
in the diagram).
In most cases, the corrugated
length (AL) and the total length (TL)
of a bellows can be calcu-lated
sufficiently accurately using the
following approximation formulas
and diagrams.
TL = Total length of the bellows
AL = Active length of the bellows
L
w
= Convolution split according to
table, section 9
L
1-3
= neck lengths according to
table, sections 12, 14, 17
AL = Numbers of convolutions x L
w
TL = AL + 2· L
1-3
Information on the table sections with reference to
calculating the overall length
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 12
Neck AB–AB
AL = 4.5
.
L
w
TL = AL+ (2·L
2
)
Active convolutions = 4
Neck SAG–SAG
AL = 5.5
.
L
w
TL = AL
Active convolutions = 5
Neck SAG–HB
AL = 5
.
L
w
TL = AL + L
1
Active convolutions = 5
Neck IB–IB
AL = 4.5 · L
w
TL = AL + (2·L
3
)
Active convolutions = 4
Neck HB–HB
AL = 4.5
.
L
w
TL = AL+ (2·L
1
)
Active convolutions = 5
Neck IG–AG
AL = 5
.
L
w
TL = AL
Active convolutions = 4.5
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 13
Neck AB – AB
Neck IB – IB
Mainly for small quantities and indi-
vidual components. Which of these
two shapes is more economical
depends on the shaping process and
has to be decided in each individual
case.
14
3.5 Max. number of convolutions
Section 10
The number of convolutions listed in this section represents the maximum
convolution of existing tools. If you want a type with more corrugations,
we will be pleased to discuss what we can offer.
3.6 Edge shapes, connections and joining method
Sections 11–17
The technical bellows tables give the standard necks with detailed dimen-
sions. As has been found in practice, these basic shapes can be
used for most applications. Which neck is the most economical also
depends on the shaping process chosen. The choice of shaping process
is very much influenced by the number of bellows to be manufactured.
Standard-Bordformen
(Die Bordformen können kombiniert angewendet werden)
Bordform HB – HB
Standard necks
(The necks can be used in combination)
Neck HB – HB
Neck SAG – SAG
Particularly economical for medium
and larger numbers using a hydraulic
shaping process
Preferably used for a lip welded join.
In principle, it can be made for any
size and type of bellows.
Necks
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Special necks
(The necks can be used in combination)
Neck with base
Neck AG–AG
Neck IG–IG
Bellows with preformed base
are only possible with larger numbers
and single ply bellows. A base can be
welded or soldered on for small
quantities.
The bellows are separate,
convolution crest – neck AG
or
incorrugation trough – neck IG.
Type mainly for single ply bellows
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16
Soldered connections
A) Soft soldered connections
Joining metal bellows to connections
by soft soldering is only suitable for
bronze bellows. The operating tem-
perature should be limited to 100°C if
normal soft solder is used. Suitable
solders are standardised according
to DIN 1707.
Instructions
1. Avoid strong heat effects on the
metal bellows. This reduces the
strength of the bellows in the
immediate vicinity of the soldered
joint. This applies to flame solde-
ring in particular.
2. In any case, and for heavy valve
parts in particular, it is recommen-
ded that these are heated ade-
quately first and that the metal bel-
lows are only joined to the
connection when the solder flows.
The bellows end should preferably
be tinned first.
3. After soldering, all flux residue
must be carefully removed from
the bellows and the connections,
because this can cause corrosion.
Connections and joining methods
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Bellows with necks IG, AG, SAG are butt welded to the connections.
Necks IG
Necks HB, IB, AB
Necks SAG
Necks AG
Recommended with outside pressure
Necks IG
Recommended with inside pressure
Bellows with cylindrical ends are
connected to the connections by
chamber soldering.
03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 16
B) Brazed connections
Brazed connections are not recom-
mended for bronze bellows. The high
brazing temperatures cause annea-
ling of the bellows in the vicinity of
the connections. The properties of
the bellows change as a result. Bra-
zing is done in cases where welding
cannot be done, e.g. when con-
necting special steel bellows to
malleable cast iron or brass
connections. The brazing is done
as gap brazing.
The most suitable brazing solder is
LAg44 according to DIN 8513. Apart
from having a good temperature resi-
stance up to 200°C, the solder also
has good corrosion resistance.
Brazing instructions
1. Brazing with a silver content of less
than 40% is not recommended
because its high application tempe-
rature causes annealing of the bel-
lows immediately next to the join
with the connection. However,
homogenous bellows properties are
then no longer guaranteed.
2. The residual flux must be removed
from the metal bellows and the
connection after brazing, because
this can cause corrosion of both
components. We recommend the
use of chloride-free flux.
3. High temperature or furnace bra-
zing solders can be used. Remem-
ber, a brazing temperature above
900°C can have a negative effect
on the properties of austenitic bel-
lows, such as pressure strength,
elasticity and life.
17
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The leak-tightness of brazed connections is the same as that of welded
connections.
Neck AB Neck HB, IB
Neck SAG
03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 17
18
Welded connections
Lip welded connections
This form of welding is preferred for
special steel or bronze bellows.
When welding bronze bellows to
connections, the connection must
be made from an easily weldable
Cu material, such as SF-Cu, for
example. Lip welds are made without
welding filler.
Round weld, Neck SAG
Edge weld with
Neck HB, IB, AB
Edge weld with inserted rim
Provision of connections
If the customer wants to provide the
connections for use in our work-
shops, the welding connection sizes
must be carefully specified before-
hand.
Also, sufficient room must be provi-
ded for controlling the welding torch.
Please ask us for our suggestions if
you are not sure.
Connection of 2 bellows with
round seam
Connection of 2 bellows with a
guide part, for example
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 18
Type of welding geometry
with flanges
Because of the welding process,
the distance A is chosen as follows:
A ≥ 6 mm for austenitic
materials
A ≥ 15 mm for highly nickel
alloyed material
Welding a two ply metal bellows
to a connection (enlargement)
19
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20
Bellows calculation
3.7 Calculated overpressure
Section 18
The pressure indicated here is admis-
sible as the maximum operating
pressure up to 20°C, taking the follo-
wing into account:
• Material: The table is based on
material 1.4571 or 2.1020. Other
materials have to be taken into
account through correction factors.
• Operating temperature: with tem-
peratures above 20°C, the factor Tp
according to table 1 (page 24/25)
must be taken into account.
• Type of pressure load: static
pressure load; internal or external
pressure. Dynamic pressure load
requires a reduction. Please consult
us in this respect.
• Number of convolutions: with an
internal pressure, the bellows must
be checked for kinking stability or a
suitable guide used.
• Heat treatment: the following cal-
culations assume that the metal
bellows do not undergo any heat
treatment. If subsequent heat treat-
ment is required, its effect on the
strength of the bellows material has
to be taken into account. In these
cases, we need to check the design
data.
Test pressure
A pressure test at 1.3 times the pres-
sure is permitted briefly above the
calculated overpressure indicated.
Nevertheless, the life and pressure-
resistance of the bellows is fully
maintained. If a higher test pressure
factor is demanded, the admissible
operating pressure must be reduced
accordingly or, if necessary, bellows
with a higher calculated pressure
must be chosen.
Proof
The calculation method for determi-
ning the metal bellows properties
is validated by test series. We re-
commend that you let us check the
bellows calculation. If particular proof
of pressure resistance or life is re-
quired by the inspection authorities,
this needs to be agreed with us. We
provide calculation proof according
to known regulations like AD informa-
tion sheet B13 (Vd TÜV), EJMA,
ASME, CODAP, etc. on request. Plea-
se remember that the special design
specifications according to these
regulations only allow reduced opera-
ting pressures compared with our
catalogue data.
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 20
Outside pressure load
The calculated overpressure according to section 18 has to be corrected for
operating temperatures above 20°C with the temperature factor T
P
according
to table 1 on pages 24 and 25.
Admissible operating pressure
Admissible test overpressure
P
B acc.
= admissible working overpressure [bar ü]
P
P acc.
= admissible test overpressure 20°C
P
R
= calculated overpressure
T
P
= Temperature factor for calculation of the admissible pressure in
higher temperatures (table 1, pages 24 and 25)
P
B acc.
= P
R
.
T
P
[bar ü]
P
P acc.
= P
R
.
1.3 [bar ü]
21
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 21
22
Internal pressure load
In the case of an internal pressure load, the kinking stability of the bellows
that decreases with an increasing number of corrugations must be taken into
account.
If the bellows have an inside guide (e.g. valve-spindle or inside tube) or an out-
side guide (e.g. supporting casing or housing) of a technically perfect design,
the maximum possible operating temperature can be permitted.
If there is no guide, the bellows must not be loaded with more than the pres-
sure calculated according to the following formula:
a) Calculation with existing valve guide as described in «Outside pressure load».
b) Calculating the critical inside pressure with reference to stability if used
without bellows guide.
C
x
= axial spring rate per convolution (bellows table, section 22)
W = total number of convolutions of the bellows
L
w
= corrugated length of a convolution (bellows table, section 9)
T
F
= temperature factor (table 5, page 31)
P
R
= calculated overpressure (bellows table, section 18)
Admissible operating pressure: (assuming that the bellows are firmly clamped
both ends).
Admissible test overpressure with inside pressure load
P
P acc.
= acceptable test overpressure at 20° C
P
critical
=
30
.
C
x
.
T
F
W
2
.
L
w
P
B acc.
=
P
critical
2.25
[bar ü]
P
P acc.
=
P
B acc.
.
1.3
T
F
[bar ü]
≤ P
R
[bar ü]
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Pressure force of the metal bellows
When the metal bellows are pressurised, an axial pressure reaction force
becomes effective. This force has to be taken into account when designing or
planning pipes and equipment. Therefore, the pipes must be provided with
fixed points which, on the one hand, absorb the reaction forces and, on the
other, prevent stretching of the bellows. The fixed points of pipes must have a
suitable stable structure.
(according to table, section 25)
F
R
= reactionary force [N]
P = pressure in
A
b
= Areas of cross section of the bellows (bellows table, section 25)
D
i
= Internal diameter of the bellows (bellows table, section 3)
D
a
= Outside diameter of the bellows (bellows table, section 5)
A fixed point must be provided before and after the bellows.
Guides must be provided for longer pipes.
Advantageous installation:
F
R
= P
.
A
b
[N]
A
b
=
.
(D
i
2
+ (D
i
.
D
a
) + D
a
2
)
π
12
1bar Х 0.1 Х 10
N
cm
2
N
mm
2
N
cm
2
Bellows
Guide Fixed point Fixed point
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24 25
26
3.8 Stroke per convolution
Sections 19–21
Calculating the number of convolutions required
The movement values indicated in sections 19–21 apply to a convolution at a
temperature of 20°C and based on 10,000 load changes.
The following formulas are used to calculate the necessary convolution num-
ber for a predetermined stroke. If the temperature exceeds 20°C, the move-
ment must be reduced with the temperature factor T
B
according to table 2 on
pages 28 and 29.
If a load change number N which differs from the basic value of 10,000 is also
required, the correction must be made with the load change factor N
F
accor-
ding to table 3 on page 29. If the pressure is not used 100%, the movement
can be adapted with the factor F
P
according to table 4 on page 29.
Required number of convolutions for axial movement
Required number of convolutions for lateral movement
Required number of convolutions for angular movement
± ⌬
ax
= axial stroke according to section 19 [ mm ]
± Մ = angular stroke according to section 20 [ ° ]
± ⌬
Lat
= lateral stroke according to section 21 [ mm ]
W = required number of convolutions [ – ]
T
B
= temperature factor (table 2, pages 28 and 29) [ – ]
N
F
= Load alternation factor (table 3, page 29) [ – ]
F
P
= pressure load factor (table 4, page 29) [ – ]
W =
± Stroke
± ⌬
ax
.
N
F
.
T
B
.
F
P
W =
± Angular movement
± Մ
.
N
F
.
T
B
.
F
P
W =
± Lateral stroke
± ⌬
Lat
.
N
F
.
T
B
.
F
P
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 26
If the bellows are designed for a smaller number of load changes than the
basic value of 10,000, any admissible bigger stroke on account of the convo-
lution geometry must be checked by us.
The movement values indicated in the bellows tables are only permitted for
one type of movement with full use, i.e. either an axial, lateral or angular
movement.
Combined loads are permitted provided the total of the percentage part load
does not exceed 100%.
The load change is defined as the movement of the bellows from the neutral
position over the entire stroke range and back to the neutral position. The neu-
tral position, as the start of the movement, can be both the extended position
(maximum bellows length and the compressed position (= minimum bellows
length) or the middle position.
Axial movement angular movement lateral movement
Installation position:
Load change process (full stroke)
S
t
r
o
k
e



a
x
.
Time t
Middle
Position
Extended
Position
Compressed
Position
27
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24 25
30
3.9 Spring rate per convolution
Sections 22–24
Calculating the bellows adjustment forces
The spring characteristic is specified for all 3 types of movement as the speci-
fic value per convolution and decreases with increasing number of corrugati-
ons, i.e. linearly in the case of axial and angular movements and to the power
of 3 in the case of lateral movements. At higher temperatures, the spring cha-
racteristic must be reduced according to the decreasing modulus of elasticity.
The factor T
F
that applies to this is given in table 5 on page 31.
a) Spring characteristic of a bellows with an axial movement
b) Spring characteristic of a bellows with an angular movement
c) Spring characteristic of a bellows with lateral plane parallel movement
C
ax
C
a
C
lat
= Spring rate of the whole bellow
c
ax
c
a
c
lat
= Spring rate per convolution at sections 22, 23, 24
T
F
= Temperature factor to calculate spring rate at higher
temperatures (table 5, page 31)
W = chosen number of convolutions (of a bellow)
The values for the spring characteristics apply to the standard version with
a tolerance of ± 30%. A smaller tolerance requires special measures concer-
ning raw material and production and therefore is only possible subject to
agreement.
C
ax
=
.
T
F
N
mm
c
ax
W
C
a
=
.
T
F
Nm
< ˚
c
a
W
C
lat
=
.
T
F
N
mm
c
lat
W
3
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 30
1)
According to spring rate value of metal bellows of 1.4571 in bellows table 1
2)
According to spring rate value of metal bellows of 2.1020 in bellows table 2
Correction factor T
F
for calculating
the spring rate for higher temperatures
1)
Table 5
Working temperature °C
20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
1.4306 (304 L) 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.79
1.4404 (316 L) 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.79
1.4435 (316 L) 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.79
1.4539 (Alloy 904L) 0.99 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.82 0.78
1.4541 (321) 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.79
1.4571 (316 Ti) 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.79
1.4828 (309) 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55
1.4876 (Alloy 8oo) 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.87 0.83 0.79 0.76
2.4068 (Nickel 200) 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.81 0.75
2.4360 (Alloy 400) 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.86 0.83 0.79
2.4602 (Alloy C-22) 1.03 1.01 0.99 0.95 0.93 0.89
2.4605 (Alloy 59) 1.05 1.04 1.00 0.98 0.95 0.93
2.4610 (Alloy C-4) 1.06 1.04 1.01 0.98 0.94
2.4816 (Alloy 600) 1.07 1.04 1.02 1.00 0.97 0.94
2.4819 (Alloy C-276) 1.04 1.02 1.00 0.97 0.94
2.4856 (Alloy 625) 1.04 0.97 0.93 0.91 0.89 0.85 0.81
2.4858 (Alloy 825) 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.84
2.1020
2)
(Bronze) 1.00 0.99 0.97 0.86
2.1030
2)
0.97 0.96 0.94 0.83
Material
31
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 31
32
3.10 Effective cross-section area
Section 25
The effective cross-section area is an important variable for calculating
the reaction forces that occur as a function of pressure. In the case of
bellows in control elements, e.g. strain gauges or thermostats, these area
and pressure-related forces play an important part.
The effective cross-section area can be calculated as follows:
A
b
= effective cross-section area
D
a
= bellows outside diameter [mm]
D
i
= bellows inside diameter [mm
2
]
3.11 Weight per convolution
Section 26
The values listed here give the approximate weight per convolution. A
guide to the total weight of the bellows can be calculated by multiplying
the weight of each individual convolution by the number of convolutions
chosen.
A
b
= (D
i
2
+ (D
i
.
D
a
) + D
a
2
)
π
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03_Information 20.8.2007 10:17 Uhr Seite 32
Stainless steel bellows
The basic material here is chromium
nickel steel 1.4571 (AISI 316 Ti).
This table applies to all the materials
listed, taking into account the con-
version factors according to tables
1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Example of the name of a bellows
selected:
Bellows table N° 1, DN 18, Item 4
Material 1.4571
Number of convolutions 15
Neck SAG one end
AB the other end
Please provide other operating data
according to the checklist on pages
76 and 77.
Preferred series:
The grey shaded items in the follo-
wing table ( ) are our pre-
ferred series. These bellows should
be used whenever possible because
they are available more quickly.
4 Bellows tables
Bellows table 1
33
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04_Bellows_Tables 20.8.2007 10:23 Uhr Seite 33
HB AB SAG IB
SAG
 d
a
L
1
 d
a
L
2
 d
a
 d
a
L
3
D
i  D
a  n s L
W W P
R

ax

lat
C
ax
C
a
C
lat
A
b
mm mm mm mm  mm mm  mm mm mm mm mm mm mm bar  mm    mm Nmm Nm/ ° Nmm cm
2
g
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
6 1 6,2 0,2 10,0 0,3 1 0,10 1,4 15 6,5   8,7   48 0,09 1,30 0,005 194 0,029 10590 0,52 0,07
9 1 9,4 0,3 14,5 0,4 1 0,10 1,5 187 9,6 13,2 2,1 13,2 10,3 2,0 25 0,20 1,50 0,009 116 0,036 9337 1,12 0,14
2 9,7 0,3 14,5 0,4 1 0,12 1,6 187 9,9 13,2 2,6 13,2 11,5 2,0 41 0,15 1,39 0,006 252 0,080 22174 1,16 0,16
10 1 10,1 0,3 14,5 0,4 1 0,10 1,4 218 10,4 13,0 2,0 13,2 11,5 1,5 34 0,14 1,30 0,005 198 0,065 24259 1,20 0,13
2 10,2 0,3 14,5 0,4 2 0,10 2,1 144 10,6 13,0 2,0 13,2 11,5 1,5 100 0,15 1,40 0,009 504 0,168 27152 1,21 0,26
3 10,5 0,3 15,2 0,4 3 0,10 2,6 114 11,2 13,0 2,0 13,2 11,7 1,5 125 0,18 1,60 0,012 756 0,272 27689 1,30 0,45
13 1 12,7 0,3 18,4 0,4 1 0,12 2,74 108 13 16,9 2,0 15,2 14,2 2,0 38 0,24 1,80 0,014 206 0,109 9963 1,92 0,27
2 12,8 0,3 18,6 0,4 2 0,10 3,74 79 13,1 17,1 2,0 15,2 14,3 2,0 69 0,28 2,00 0,021 361 0,194 9540 1,95 0,49
3 13,6 0,3 20,0 0,4 1 0,12 1,7 108 13,7 18,5 2,0 17,0 15,0 2,0 22 0.25 1.68 0,008 148 0,091 20717 2,24 0,30
4 13,3 0,3 20,0 0,4 2 0,12 2,1 138 13,8 18,5 2,0 17,0 14,3 2,0 49 0,27 1,89 0,012 279 0,169 25293 2,20 0,61
5 13,0 0,3 19,0 0,4 3 0,10 2,4 121 13,8 18,5 2,0 17,0 14,3 2,0 81 0,29 2,04 0,015 377 0,211 24328 2,20 0,68
6 13,6 0,3 20,0 0,4 1 0,10 1,7 174 13,9 18,5 2,0 18,2 15,0 2,0 15 0,30 2,05 0,010 85 0,052 12446 2,24 0,25
7 13,8 0,3 20,0 0,4 2 0,10 2,1 144 14,3 18,5 2,0 18,2 15,3 2,0 41 0,28 1,93 0,012 209 0,131 21120 2,27 0,49
8 14,0 0,3 21,4 0,4 3 0,10 2,6 114 14,7 18,5 2,0 18,2 15,2 2,0 51 0,44 2,86 0,022 207 0,142 14392 2,49 0,89
15 1 15,1 0,3 23,4 0,4 1 0,10 2,20 134 15,2 21,9 2,0 18,5 16,5 2,0 9 0,54 3,23 0,021 43 0,035 4922 2,95 0,36
2 15,1 0,3 22,0 0,4 1 0,12 2,1 228 15,5 20,5 2,0 18,5 16,5 2,0 20 0,30 1,84 0,011 130 0,098 15516 2,73 0,36
3 15,4 0,3 23,4 0,4 2 0,10 2,4 110 15,9 20,5 2,0 18,5 16,9 2,0 23 0,50 2,90 0,021 107 0,088 10436 2,99 0,70
4 15,3 0,3 22,0 0,4 2 0,12 2,5 109 15,9 20,5 2,0 18,5 16,8 2,0 53 0,28 1,75 0,013 323 0,245 27408 2,73 0,71
5 15,5 0,3 23,5 0,4 3 0,12 2,7 114 16,3 20,5 2,0 18,5 16,8 2,0 61 0,40 2,37 0,019 313 0,259 24090 3,02 1,26
6 15,5 0,3 23,0 0,4 3 0,15 2,9 115 16,5 20,5 2,0 18,5 16,8 2,0 110 0,27 1,62 0,014 792 0,641 52336 2,94 1,49
16 1 16,1 0,3 24,0 0,4 1 0,10 1,9 204 16,4 22,5 2,0 21,5 17,5 2,0 9 0,47 2,66 0,014 53 0,047 9289 3,19 0,36
2 16,3 0,3 24,0 0,4 2 0,10 2,2 97 16,8 22,5 2,0 21,5 17,8 2,0 25 0,44 1,85 0,016 126 0,112 15307 3,22 0,71
3 16,3 0,3 24,0 0,4 2 0,15 2,6 97 17,0 22,5 2,0 21,5 17,8 2,0 59 0,29 1,64 0,012 445 0,395 40106 3,22 1,07
4 16,5 0,3 24,0 0,4 3 0,15 2,7 102 17,5 22,5 2,0 21,5 18,0 2,0 107 0,26 1,46 0,012 837 0,749 68514 3,25 1,56
5 16,2 0,3 24,0 0,4 4 0,15 3,0 100 17,5 22,5 2,0 21,5 17,5 2,0 150 0,28 1,58 0,014 1107 0,977 72893 3,20 2,11
18 1 17,6 0,3 27,5 0,4 1 0,10 1,9 166 17,9 25,0 2,5 24,2 20,0 2,5 5 0,74 3,76 0,020 30 0,033 6504 4,05 0,48
2 17,6 0,3 27,5 0,4 1 0,15 2,1 415 18,0 25,0 2,5 24,2 20,0 2,5 13 0,47 2,39 0,015 100 0,111 16716 4,05 0,72
3 18,0 0,3 27,0 0,4 1 0,12 2,1 181 18,4 24,7 2,5 24,2 20,5 2,5 11 0,47 2,40 0,015 73 0,081 12799 4,04 0,54
4 18,1 0,3 27,5 0,4 1 0,20 2,2 173 18,6 25,4 2,5 24,2 20,5 2,5 26 0,31 1,58 0,010 293 0,333 45578 4,14 0,94
5 18,3 0,3 27,0 0,4 2 0,12 2,6 86 18,9 24,9 2,5 24,2 20,8 2,5 27 0,46 2,34 0,017 170 0,191 21296 4,07 1,07
6 17,8 0,3 27,5 0,4 2 0,15 2,6 78 18,4 25,4 2,5 24,2 20,3 2,5 32 0,45 2,29 0,017 235 0,263 26749 4,08 1,44
7 18,1 0,3 27,5 0,4 2 0,20 3,1 80 18,7 25,4 2,5 24,2 20,5 2,5 70 0,32 1,62 0,015 652 0,740 51569 4,13 1,93
8 18,6 0,3 27,0 0,4 3 0,12 3,6 85 19,4 25,0 2,5 24,2 21,0 2,5 60 0,47 2,37 0,025 344 0,391 21190 4,12 1,66
9 18,1 0,3 27,0 0,4 3 0,20 4,0 75 19,4 25,5 2,5 24,2 20,5 2,5 156 0,31 1,56 0,018 1400 1,555 65456 4,03 2,81
20 1 19,6 0,3 29,0 0,4 1 0,10 2,4 169 19,9 26,7 3,0 26,7 21,5 3,0 7 0,68 3,23 0,022 38 0,050 6113 4,69 0,52
2 20,5 0,3 32,0 0,4 1 0,10 2,5 126 20,7 29,7 3,0 26,7 23,0 3,0 4 0,89 3,89 0,029 22 0,033 3502 5,49 0,66
3 19,6 0,3 29,0 0,4 1 0,12 2,4 168 19,9 26,7 3,0 26,7 21,5 3,0 10 0,55 2,60 0,018 66 0,086 10215 4,69 0,62
4 19,5 0,3 29,0 0,4 1 0,15 2,4 169 19,9 26,7 3,0 26,7 21,5 3,0 15 0,44 2,10 0,015 126 0,161 18326 4,67 0,78
5 20,8 0,3 30,5 0,4 1 0,20 2,6 407 21,3 28,4 3,0 26,7 23,0 3,0 26 0,27 1,20 0,009 304 0,438 45903 5,22 1,13
6 19,8 0,3 29,0 0,4 2 0,12 2,6 81 20,4 27,0 3,0 26,7 21,7 3,0 25 0,51 2,42 0,019 155 0,201 19882 4,73 1,23
7 20,0 0,3 28,5 0,4 3 0,12 3,1 83 20,8 27,2 3,0 26,7 22,0 3,0 56 0,45 2,12 0,019 334 0,429 31458 4,66 1,75
(Metal Bellows Consultant page 34) =preferred series (Metal Bellows Consultant page 35)
necks
a
x
i
a
l
l
a
t
e
r
a
l
a
x
i
a
l
AB exterior IB interior
w
e
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h
t

p
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r

c
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c
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e
Stroke per convolution at 10
4
cycles spring rate per convolution
l
a
t
e
r
a
l
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
m
a
x
.

n
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m
b
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r

o
f

c
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v
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u
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s
t
h
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c
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p
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o
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a
l

d
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Basic material
1.4571
bellows-
n
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HB cylindrical
L
e
n
g
t
h

a
c
c
o
r
d
i
n
g

t
o

c
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s
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a
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d

1
1
-
0
5



S
u
b
j
e
c
t

t
o

c
h
a
n
g
e
HB AB SAG IB
SAG
 d
a
L
1
 d
a
L
2
 d
a
 d
a
L
3
D
i  D
a  n s L
W W P
R

ax

lat
C
ax
C
a
C
lat
A
b
mm mm mm mm  mm mm  mm mm mm mm mm mm mm bar  mm    mm Nmm Nm/ ° Nmm cm
2
g
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
necks
a
x
i
a
l
l
a
t
e
r
a
l
a
x
i
a
l
AB exterior IB interior
w
e
i
g
h
t

p
e
r

c
o
n
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
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f
f
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c
t
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v
e

c
r
o
s
s
-
s
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t
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a
l

a
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a
a
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a
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c
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c
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l
a
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d

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p
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s
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e
Stroke per convolution at 10
4
cycles spring rate per convolution
l
a
t
e
r
a
l
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
m
a
x
.

n
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o
f

c
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s
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p
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a
l

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Basic material
1.4571
bellows-
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HB cylindrical
22 1 21,6 0,3 31,5 0,4 1 0,10 2,2 400 21,9 29,3 3,0 29,2 24,0 3,0 6 0,57 2,47 0,016 36 0,056 7950 5,60 0,60
2 21,6 0,3 31,5 0,4 1 0,12 2,2 400 21,9 29,3 3,0 29,2 24,0 3,0 8 0,49 2,11 0,014 63 0,097 13297 5,60 0,71
3 21,6 0,3 31,5 0,4 1 0,15 2,3 399 21,9 29,3 3,0 29,2 24,0 3,0 13 0,38 1,63 0,011 124 0,191 24853 5,60 0,89
4 21,8 0,3 31,5 0,4 2 0,12 2,5 200 22,4 29,5 3,0 29,2 24,2 3,0 22 0,45 1,94 0,015 145 0,225 22195 5,63 1,42
5 21,8 0,3 31,5 0,4 2 0,15 4,8 190 22,4 29,5 3,0 29,2 24,2 3,0 46 0,42 1,82 0,025 337 0,523 15844 5,63 1,96
6 22,0 0,3 31,5 0,4 3 0,12 3,2 200 22,8 29,6 3,0 29,2 24,5 3,0 44 0,45 1,94 0,018 258 0,403 26713 5,67 2,14
7 22,0 0,3 31,5 0,4 3 0,15 3,7 190 23,0 29,6 3,0 29,2 24,5 3,0 72 0,37 1,60 0,017 531 0,830 40736 5,67 2,72
8 22,2 0,3 31,5 0,4 4 0,12 3,6 204 23,3 29,8 3,0 29,2 24,5 3,0 68 0,42 1,79 0,019 418 0,658 34468 5,71 2,84
24 1 24,1 0,3 35,5 0,4 1 0,10 3 300 24,0 33,3 3,0 31,8 26,5 3,0 5 0,87 3,34 0,030 27 0,052 3871 7,06 0,78
2 23,6 0,3 36,5 0,4 1 0,15 3,5 300 24,0 34,3 3,0 31,8 26,0 3,0 9 0,72 2,75 0,028 60 0,119 6826 7,20 1,30
3 24,3 0,3 36,5 0,4 2 0,15 3,1 160 32,2 34,5 3,0 31,8 26,5 3,0 20 0,58 2,17 0,020 158 0,319 22827 7,35 2,47
4 24 0,3 36,5 0,4 3 0,20 4 160 25,2 34,5 3,0 31,8 26,0 3,0 64 0,45 1,72 0,020 588 1,176 49486 7,27 5,03
26 1 25,1 0,3 36,7 0,4 1 0,10 3,5 367 25,3 34,2 3,0 34,2 28,0 3,0 6 0,90 3,35 0,034 27 0,057 3130 7,58 0,85
2 25,1 0,3 36,5 0,4 1 0,12 2,7 344 25,4 34,3 3,0 34,2 28,0 3,0 7 0,63 2,36 0,019 48 0,100 9056 7,53 0,97
3 25,2 0,3 38,0 0,4 1 0,15 2,80 340 25,5 35,5 3,0 34,2 28,0 3,0 8 0,64 2,32 0,019 66 0,144 12639 7,94 1,34
4 25,2 0,3 36,5 0,4 1 0,20 2,7 351 25,7 34,4 3,0 34,2 28,0 3,0 18 0,37 1,36 0,011 233 0,485 44347 7,55 1,59
5 25,1 0,3 34,0 0,4 1 0,20 5,1 220 25,7 32,0 3,0 32,2 28,0 3,0 46 0,30 1,15 0,017 507 0,966 25924 6,91 1,44
6 25,1 0,3 37,0 0,4 1 0,25 2,8 336 25,7 35,0 3,0 34,2 28,0 3,0 26 0,32 1,17 0,010 394 0,829 70627 7,66 2,07
7 25,3 0,3 36,5 0,4 2 0,12 3,2 171 25,9 34,4 3,0 34,2 28,0 3,0 16 0,62 2,30 0,020 109 0,226 17504 7,57 1,91
8 25,3 0,3 36,5 0,4 3 0,12 3,6 170 26,1 34,7 3,0 34,2 28,0 3,0 31 0,64 2,39 0,025 178 0,371 20081 7,57 2,90
28 1 27,6 0,3 39,5 0,4 1 0,10 2,9 300 27,9 37,2 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 4 0,92 3,13 0,026 27 0,066 5544 8,93 0,93
2 27,6 0,3 39,5 0,4 1 0,12 2,9 300 27,9 37,2 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 6 0,72 2,45 0,021 47 0,114 9289 8,93 1,11
3 27,5 0,3 39,5 0,4 1 0,15 3,0 300 27,9 37,2 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 9 0,58 1,97 0,017 88 0,216 16900 8,90 1,39
4 27,9 0,3 39,5 0,4 2 0,12 3,1 165 28,5 37,5 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 15 0,66 2,26 0,021 108 0,267 18610 9,00 2,19
5 27,8 0,3 39,5 0,4 2 0,15 3,3 165 28,5 37,5 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 23 0,52 1,76 0,017 207 0,512 33067 8,97 2,74
6 27,9 0,3 39,5 0,4 3 0,12 3,8 164 28,8 37,7 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 29 0,69 2,34 0,025 176 0,436 21644 9,00 3,32
7 27,7 0,3 39,0 0,4 4 0,12 4,3 167 28,8 37,5 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 46 0,46 2,21 0,028 285 0,692 25729 8,81 4,34
8 28,0 0,3 39,5 0,4 1 0,15 2,8 164 28,5 37,3 3,0 37,2 30,5 3,0 11 0,53 1,79 0,017 102 0,253 16738 9,03 1,38
29 1 29,3 0,3 42,0 0,4 1 0,10 3,7 300 29,5 39,7 3,0 39,2 31,5 3,0 5 1,05 3,37 0,036 24 0,067 3372 10,08 1,08
2 29,1 0,3 41,5 0,4 1 0,12 3,2 312 29,4 39,2 3,0 38,1 31,5 3,0 6 0,80 2,61 0,025 43 0,118 7692 9,88 1,23
3 29,2 0,3 41.5 0,4 1 0,15 3,8 257 29,6 39,2 3,0 38,1 31,5 3,0 11 0,63 2,05 0,023 87 0,237 11281 9.91 1,56
4 29,3 0,3 41,5 0,4 2 0,12 3,6 154 29,8 39,5 3,0 38,1 31,5 3,0 15 0,76 2,47 0,026 98 0,268 13914 9,93 2,45
5 29,5 0,3 41,5 0,4 3 0,12 4,1 156 30,3 39,6 3,0 38,1 32,0 3,0 28 0,72 2,31 0,027 170 0,468 19500 9,98 3,66
6 29,1 0,3 41,4 0,4 4 0,20 4,6 174 30,8 39,3 3,0 38,1 31,5 3,0 103 0,42 1,36 0,018 1126 3,055 99183 9,84 7,99
7 29,2 0,3 40,3 0,4 3 0,25 4,3 174 30,8 39,3 3,0 38,1 31,5 3,0 141 0,26 0,85 0,010 2191 5,778 218730 9,55 6,78
30 1 29,9 0,3 44,5 0,4 1 0,12 3,6 134 30,2 42,5 3,0 40,2 32,5 3,0 4 1,19 3,67 0,038 27 0,082 4415 11,00 1,48
2 30,2 0,3 44,0 0,4 1 0,15 3,8 147 30,6 42,0 3,0 40,2 33,5 3,0 8 0,80 2,48 0,027 64 0,191 9069 10,93 1,79
3 30,7 0,3 45,1 0,4 2 0,15 3,7 134 31,4 43,1 3,0 40,2 33,5 3,0 15 0,83 2,51 0,027 121 0,379 18399 11,41 3,72
4 30,9 0,3 44,0 0,4 3 0,15 4,0 147 31,9 42,3 3,0 40,2 33,5 3,0 28 0,72 2,22 0,026 213 0,653 28040 11,12 4,80
32 1 31,6 0,3 45,0 0,4 1 0,12 3,4 289 31,9 42,3 3,0 42,2 34,5 3,0 5,5 0,90 2,69 0,027 37 0,119 7085 11,63 1,44
2 31,5 0,3 45,0 0,4 1 0,15 3,5 289 32,0 42,3 3,0 42,2 34,5 3,0 8 0,71 2,13 0,021 71 0,226 12942 11,61 1,81
3 31,8 0,3 46,0 0,4 2 0,12 3,0 138 32,4 43,4 3,0 42,2 34,5 3,0 9 0,92 2,72 0,024 66 0,219 16922 12,01 2,97
4 31,7 0,3 45,0 0,4 2 0,15 3,9 147 32,4 42,6 3,0 42,2 34,5 3,0 19 0,71 2,11 0,024 160 0,513 23146 11,66 3,59
5 31,9 0,3 45,0 0,4 3 0,15 4,5 149 32,9 42,8 3,0 42,2 34,5 3,0 36 0,71 2,11 0,028 277 0,894 30604 11,71 5,39
6 32,1 0,3 45,0 0,4 4 0,15 5,2 80 33,5 42,5 3,0 42,2 34,1 3,0 56 0,67 2,00 0,030 445 1,443 36664 11,76 7,21
(Metal Bellows Consultant page 36) =preferred series (Metal Bellows Consultant page 37)
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Stroke per convolution at 10
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cycles spring rate per convolution
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Basic material
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34 1 34,1 0,3 44,3 0,4 1 0,20 2,7 386 34,7 41,7 3,0 40,2 37,0 3,0 25 0,27 0,78 0,006 438 1,471 134620 12,13 1,95
2 34,2 0,3 50,0 0,4 2 0,25 4,7 122 35,4 48,0 3,0 47,2 37,0 3,0 35 0,58 1,57 0,021 487 1,886 59651 14,07 7,59
35 1 35,1 0,3 53,0 0,4 1 0,12 3,4 223 35,5 50,2 3,0 47,2 38,0 3,0 3 1,30 3,30 0,033 18 0,074 4409 15,44 2,08
2 34,8 0,3 50,0 0,4 1 0,15 4,0 263 35,5 47,3 3,0 47,2 38,0 3,0 6 0,99 2,66 0,031 55 0,215 9411 14,27 2,26
3 35,1 0,3 51,0 0,4 1 0,20 4,1 246 35,8 49,4 3,0 47,2 38,0 3,0 11 0,74 1,98 0,023 114 0,462 19234 14,71 3,15
4 35,0 0,3 50,0 0,4 1 0,30 4,3 261 35,7 47,6 3,0 47,2 38,0 3,0 25 0,44 1,17 0,014 466 1,837 69548 14,32 4,47
5 35,2 0,3 50,0 0,4 2 0,15 3,8 130 36,8 47,6 3,0 47,2 38,0 3,0 14 0,84 2,27 0,025 127 0.505 24550 14,39 4,36
6 35,4 0,3 50,0 0,4 3 0,15 4,6 131 36,4 47,8 3,0 47,2 38,0 3,0 28 0,86 2,31 0,031 217 0,865 28570 14,44 6,59
7 35,4 0,3 47,2 0,4 3 0,20 4,9 160 36,8 45,4 3,0 42,2 38,0 3,0 81 0,40 1,11 0,016 1051 3,916 113891 13,47 7,24
38 1 38,4 0,5 54,2 0,6 1 0,10 4,2 366 38,7 45,6 3,0 47,2 41,5 3,0 3,5 1,58 3,92 0,048 17 0,077 3012 17,00 1,74
2 38,1 0,5 53,0 0,6 1 0,15 3,6 366 38,5 45,6 3,0 47,2 41,5 3,0 6 0,88 2,20 0,023 64 0,289 14973 16,43 2,40
3 38,0 0,5 56,0 0,6 1 0,20 3,7 222 38,6 53,4 3,0 51,7 41,5 3,0 7 0,93 2,26 0,025 86 0,412 20271 17,55 3,78
4 37,9 0,5 56,0 0,6 2 0,15 2,9 110 38,7 53,4 3,0 51,7 41,5 3,0 7 1,09 2,67 0,023 75 0,362 28745 17,51 5,51
5 38,2 0,5 56,0 0,6 2 0,20 4,3 110 39,2 53,8 3,0 51,7 41,5 3,0 16 0,91 2,21 0,028 189 0,917 34058 17,61 7,53
6 38,2 0,5 56,0 0,6 2 0,25 4,7 110 39,4 54,0 3,0 51,7 41,5 3,0 26 0,72 1,75 0,024 377 1,824 57701 17,61 9,44
40 1 39,9 0,5 55,0 0,6 1 0,15 3,6 261 40,5 51,8 4,0 51,7 43,5 4,0 6 0,87 2,11 0,022 64 0,316 16373 17,83 2,54
2 40,3 0,5 59,0 0,6 1 0,15 4,5 200 40,6 55,8 4,0 51,7 43,5 4,0 4 1,48 3,42 0,044 34 0,184 6344 19,58 3,19
3 40,7 0,5 53,0 0,6 1 0,20 4,2 300 41,4 50,5 4,0 47,2 44,3 4,0 19 0,44 1,07 0,013 287 1,373 52480 17,33 2,94
4 40,6 0,5 53,0 0,6 1 0,25 4,3 305 41,3 50,5 4,0 47,2 44,0 4,0 29 0,35 0,86 0,011 550 2,632 95983 17,30 3,68
5 40,1 0,5 55,5 0,6 1 0,30 3,9 257 40,9 53,1 4,0 51,7 43,5 4.0 23 0,44 1,04 0,012 501 2,500 110665 18,09 5,18
6 40,2 0,5 55,0 0,6 2 0,15 4,1 129 41,0 52,0 4,0 51,7 43,5 4.0 15 0,83 2,00 0,024 146 0,722 29515 17,93 5,04
7 40,5 0,5 55,0 0,6 3 0,15 4,4 132 41,5 52,3 4,0 51,7 44,0 4.0 26 0,79 1,89 0,024 245 1,219 43252 17,99 7,47
8 40,7 0,5 55,0 0,6 4 0,15 5,5 131 42,1 53,1 4,0 51,7 44,0 4.0 45 0,80 1,90 0,031 396 1,982 44360 18,10 10,10
42 1 42,1 0,5 60,0 0,6 1 0,15 4,6 200 42,5 56,4 4,0 56,2 45,5 4,0 5 1,30 2,92 0,039 41 0,232 7412 20,67 3,22
2 42,0 0,5 60,0 0,6 1 0,20 4,2 219 42,6 56,4 4,0 56,2 45,5 4,0 7 0,97 2,17 0,027 95 0,536 20485 20,63 4,24
3 42,2 0,5 60,0 0,6 2 0,20 4,3 110 43,2 56,8 4,0 51,7 45,5 4,0 16 0,88 1,98 0,025 210 1,197 44477 20,70 8,31
44 1 44,0 0,5 60,0 0,6 1 0,15 4,3 241 44,4 56,3 4,0 56,2 47,4 4,0 6 1,01 2,23 0,028 60 0,352 13059 21,40 3,01
2 44,0 0,5 61,0 0,6 1 0,25 4,7 228 44,7 57,5 4,0 56,2 47,5 4,0 14 0,66 1,43 0,019 230 1,385 43829 21,83 5,31
3 44,2 0,5 60,0 0,6 2 0,15 4,6 119 45,3 56,5 4,0 56,2 47,5 4,0 14 0,96 2,11 0,028 132 0,782 25402 21,47 5,97
4 44,3 0,5 60,0 0,6 2 0,25 5,0 110 45,3 56,5 4,0 56,2 47,5 4,0 38 0,54 1,19 0,017 646 3,836 105422 21,50 9,86
5 44,4 0,5 60,0 0,6 3 0,15 4,9 122 45,5 56,8 4,0 56,2 47,5 4,0 23 0,94 2,07 0,029 221 1,315 37623 21,54 8,85
46 1 46,4 0,5 66,0 0,6 1 0,15 5,1 177 47,1 59,3 4,0 62,2 50,5 4,0 4 1,64 3,35 0,050 35 0,238 6193 25,05 3,89
2 46,5 0,5 69,0 0,6 1 0,20 4,6 177 47,1 65,0 4,0 62,2 50,5 4,0 5 1,56 3,10 0,041 54 0,389 12834 26,51 5,78
3 46,4 0,5 69,0 0,6 1 0,25 4,7 177 47,1 65,0 4,0 62,2 50,5 4,0 7 1,17 2,32 0,031 103 0,748 23675 26,47 7,24
4 46,4 0,5 65,3 0,6 3 0,20 5,5 102 47,9 62,0 4,0 62,2 50,5 4,0 27 1,02 2,09 0,034 309 2,103 47073 24,71 14,75
47 1 47,0 0,5 60,0 0,6 1 0,15 4,4 286 47,5 56,3 4,0 56,2 51,0 4,0 9 0,72 1,54 0,020 97 0,602 20977 22,59 2,52
2 47,0 0,5 66,0 0,6 1 0,20 4,4 207 47,6 62,4 4,0 62,2 51,0 4,0 6 1,08 2,20 0,028 90 0,623 22271 25,30 5,00
3 47,2 0,5 66,0 0,6 2 0,20 5,0 102 48,2 62,8 4,0 62,2 51,0 4,0 16 1,00 2,03 0,029 199 1,388 38759 25,37 9,94
4 47,2 0,5 66,0 0,6 2 0,30 5,7 102 48,6 63,2 4,0 62,2 51,0 4,0 37 0,65 1,32 0,022 693 5,106 102454 25,37 15,00
5 47,4 0,5 66,0 0,6 3 0,25 6,4 102 49,1 63,2 4,0 62,2 51,0 4,0 46 0,80 1,62 0,030 671 4,708 80460 25,45 18,76
(Metal Bellows Consultant page 38) =preferred series (Metal Bellows Consultant page 39)
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49 1 48,9 0,5 66,0 0,6 1 0,20 4,1 230 49,5 61,4 4,0 62,2 53,0 4,0 8 0,77 1,50 0,018 130 0,924 38914 26,11 4,68
2 49,0 0,5 66,0 0,6 1 0,30 3,9 234 49,8 62,0 4,0 62,2 53,0 4,0 19 0,47 0,94 0,011 457 3,301 134940 26,14 6,95
3 49,1 0,5 66,0 0,6 1 0,40 4,1 237 50,1 62,0 4,0 62,2 53,0 4,0 35 0,34 0,68 0,008 1140 8,247 330573 26,18 9,16
4 49,1 0,5 66,0 0,6 1 0,50 5,8 226 50,2 62,0 4,0 62,2 53,0 4,0 60 0,30 0,60 0,010 2144 15,478 311768 26,18 12,00
5 49,1 0,5 66,0 0,6 2 0,20 4,5 120 50,2 62,0 4,0 62,2 53,0 4,0 19 0,72 1,43 0,019 288 2,079 71815 26,18 9,26
6 49,4 0,5 66,0 0,6 3 0,20 5,4 100 50,6 62,0 4,0 62,2 53,0 4,0 36 0,71 1,41 0,022 492 3,580 85597 26,30 13,88
50 1 49,9 0,5 66,0 0,6 1 0,20 3,7 245 50,5 61,4 4,0 62,2 54,0 4,0 9 0,66 1,30 0,014 160 1,172 57560 26,54 4,48
2 50,5 0,5 66,0 0,6 1 0,30 4,9 263 51,4 62,0 4,0 62,2 54,0 4,0 25 0,42 0,83 0,012 610 4,516 127117 26,80 6,77
3 50,7 0,5 66,0 0,6 2 0,30 6,0 99 52,1 62,0 4,0 62,2 54,0 4,0 64 0,41 0,81 0,014 1411 10,491 197569 26,87 13,54
51 1 51,2 0,5 64,8 0,6 1 0,12 3,2 99 51,7 60,8 4,0 60,0 55,0 4,0 5 0,74 1,47 0,014 58 0,429 28052 26,54 2,35
2 51,0 0,5 75,0 0,6 1 0,20 6,2 99 51,7 71,0 4,0 62,2 55,0 4,0 5 1,70 3,09 0,056 49 0,422 7452 31,54 6,97
3 51,2 0,5 72,0 0,6 2 0,25 4,8 99 52,4 67,0 4,0 62,2 55,0 4,0 18 0,88 1,64 0,023 315 2,612 76592 30,06 14,62
4 51,4 0,5 72,0 0,6 3 0,20 6,0 88 52,9 67,0 4,0 62,2 55,0 4,0 23 1,15 2,13 0,037 263 2,183 41111 30,15 17,87
53 1 53,4 0,5 77,6 0,6 1 0,20 4,7 163 54,1 73,5 4,0 68,1 57,5 4,0 4 1,54 2,70 0,037 50 0,463 14168 34,07 7,12
57 1 57,4 0,5 77,0 0,6 1 0,20 4,9 120 58,0 73,0 5,0 73,2 61,5 5,0 6 1,06 1,81 0,026 100 0,989 28310 35,71 6,35
2 57,7 0,5 77,0 0,6 2 0,15 5,3 54 58,7 73,0 5,0 73,2 61,5 5,0 9 1,34 2,28 0,035 94 0,931 23119 35,86 9,47
3 57,7 0,5 77,0 0,6 2 0,20 5,5 54 58,7 73,0 5,0 73,2 61,5 5,0 16 0,97 1,64 0,026 224 2,221 51182 35,85 12,59
4 57,9 0,5 77,0 0,6 2 0,25 6,0 100 58,9 73,0 5,0 73,2 61,5 5,0 25 0,77 1,31 0,023 460 4,569 87186 35,95 15,76
5 57,9 0,5 77,0 0,6 3 0,20 6,2 100 59,2 73,0 5,0 73,2 61,5 5,0 27 0,98 1,67 0,030 374 3,715 66401 35,94 18,87
60 1 60,0 0,5 82,0 0,6 1 0,20 4,6 65 60,7 77,9 5,0 75,2 65,0 5,0 5 1,21 1,95 0,026 75 0,822 27168 39,90 7,31
2 59,9 0,5 82,0 0,6 1 0,25 4,7 63 60,7 77,9 5,0 75,2 65,0 5,0 7 1,02 1,65 0,022 145 1,589 50271 39,84 9,15
3 59,8 0,5 82,0 0,6 1 0,30 4,8 62 60,7 78,0 5,0 75,2 65,0 5,0 11 0,81 1,31 0,018 248 2,722 82520 39,79 11,00
4 60,3 0,5 82,0 0,6 2 0,25 5,3 55 61,6 78,5 5,0 75,2 65,0 5,0 17 0,95 1,53 0,024 326 3,603 86807 40,04 18,10
5 60,1 0,5 82,0 0,6 2 0,30 5,5 53 61,4 78,7 5,0 75,2 65,0 5,0 25 0,78 1,27 0,020 556 6,125 137107 39,93 21,79
6 60,4 0,5 82,0 0,6 3 0,25 6,2 48 62,2 79,5 5,0 75,2 65,0 5,0 30 0,93 1,50 0,027 530 5,869 106258 40,08 27,15
62 1 61,9 0,5 80,0 0,6 1 0,20 5,1 58 62,6 75,9 5,0 75,2 67,0 5,0 8 0,86 1,38 0,020 137 1,508 40466 39,74 6,41
2 61,9 0,5 76,7 0,6 1 0,25 5,3 252 62,7 73,2 5,0 73,2 67,0 5,0 21 0,45 0,75 0,012 489 5,124 123436 37,85 6,76
3 62,1 0,5 82,0 0,6 2 0,20 5,6 52 63,2 78,0 5,0 75,2 67,0 5,0 15 1,02 1,63 0,027 220 2,492 53823 41,01 14,00
4 62,3 0,5 82,0 0,6 2 0,25 7,0 52 63,4 78,5 5,0 75,2 67,0 5,0 26 0,87 1,38 0,028 452 5,133 71967 41,12 17,87
65 1 65,7 0,5 84,0 0,6 1 0,20 5,1 58 66,4 79,8 5,0 75,2 71,0 5,0 8 0,85 1,30 0,019 141 1,726 46317 44,21 6,87
2 65,7 0,5 90,0 0,6 1 0,20 5,1 58 66,4 85,4 5,0 78,0 71,0 5,0 4 1,52 2,24 0,033 61 0,801 21497 47,97 8,85
3 65,9 0,5 80,0 0,6 1 0,30 5,3 235 66,8 75,8 5,0 75,2 71,0 5,0 34 0,33 0,52 0,008 1055 12,259 304407 41,33 8,22
4 65,9 0,5 90,0 0,6 1 0,30 5,3 56 66,8 85,6 5,0 78,0 71,0 5,0 9 0,99 1,45 0,022 212 2,817 69951 48,08 13,20
5 65,7 0,5 80,0 0,6 1 0,40 6,0 50 66,8 75,8 5,0 75,2 71,0 5,0 47 0,30 0,48 0,008 2426 28,112 543700 41,80 11,20
6 65,5 0,5 80,0 0,6 1 0,50 5,7 52 66,8 76,0 5,0 75,2 71,0 5,0 61 0,25 0,40 0,007 4740 54,777 1174672 42,88 13,84
7 65,3 0,5 80,0 0,6 2 0,30 5,9 50 66,8 76,2 5,0 75,2 70,0 5,0 71 0,25 0,55 0,009 2062 23,761 475354 41,58 16,70
8 65,3 0,5 90,0 0,6 2 0,30 6,4 47 66,8 86,2 5,0 78,0 70,0 5,0 20 1,02 1,51 0,028 414 5,447 92511 47,72 26,89
68 1 68,4 0,5 100,0 0,6 1 0,20 4,9 25 69,1 95,4 5,0 88,5 72,0 5,0 2 2,68 3,65 0,052 29 0,444 12709 56,32 11,69
2 68,7 0,5 90,0 0,6 2 0,20 6,1 35 69,8 85,8 5,0 84,2 72,0 5,0 12 1,20 1,73 0,031 198 2,720 49570 49,73 16,63
3 68,7 0,5 90,0 0,6 2 0,25 7,4 35 70,2 86,2 5,0 84,2 72,0 5,0 23 0,97 1,41 0,030 405 5,575 71088 49,84 21,13
4 68,7 0,5 90,0 0,6 2 0,30 7,5 35 70,2 86,2 5,0 84,2 72,0 5,0 32 0,81 1,18 0,026 684 9,399 113575 49,72 25,44
73 1 73,3 0,5 89,0 0,6 1 0,20 5,4 46 74,1 83,5 5,0 84,2 78,5 5,0 11 0.53 0.75 0,012 247 3,548 83598 51,87 6,77
2 73,0 0,5 89,0 0,6 2 0,20 6,0 40 74,0 83,5 5,0 84,2 76,0 5,0 28 0,48 0,67 0,012 565 8,147 157560 51,68 13,36
(Metal Bellows Consultant page 40) =preferred series (Metal Bellows Consultant page 41)
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75 1 75,0 0,5 100,0 0,6 1 0,30 5,6 30 76,0 96,1 5,0 93,7 79,0 5,0 8 0,87 1,14 0,019 217 3,621 79332 60,52 15,63
2 74,8 0,5 100,0 0,6 1 0,40 5,8 30 76,0 96,1 5,0 93,7 79,0 5,0 15 0,62 0,81 0,014 507 8,462 172820 60,39 20,90
3 75,1 0,5 100,0 0,6 2 0,30 6,5 31 76,7 95,5 5,0 93,7 79,0 5,0 19 0,84 1,09 0,021 466 7,793 125169 60,57 31,24
4 75,4 0,5 97,0 0,6 3 0,25 7,2 35 77,3 94,0 5,0 93,7 79,0 5,0 34 0,74 0,98 0,020 662 10,726 143740 58,63 34,63
76 1 76,0 0,5 109,0 0,6 1 0,20 7.4 22 76,8 104,4 5,0 97,0 80,0 5,0 2,5 2,47 3,06 0,066 28 0,524 6580 67,90 14,07
2 75,8 0,5 106,0 0,6 1 0,25 8,5 25 76,7 101,5 5,0 97,0 80,0 5,0 5 1,73 2,18 0,054 72 1,290 12267 65,47 16,47
3 75,8 0,5 107,0 0,6 1 0,30 7,6 23 76,8 104,6 5,0 97,0 80,0 5,0 6 1,39 1,75 0,039 110 2,012 23938 66,22 20,00
4 75,8 0,5 101,0 0,6 2 0,25 6,2 31 77,5 97,0 5,0 93,7 80,0 5,0 13 1,00 1,30 0,023 259 4,421 80044 61,96 26,51
78 1 77,8 0,5 100,0 0,6 1 0,20 5,7 33 78,6 96,0 5,0 93,7 82,0 5,0 5 1,05 1,35 0,023 94 1,617 33725 62,38 9,81
2 78,3 0,5 101,0 0,6 1 0,30 6,1 34 79,3 96,0 5,0 93,7 82,0 5,0 11 0,70 0,89 0,016 300 5,260 97111 63,44 15,12
3 78,1 0,5 100,0 0,6 1 0,40 6,3 34 79,3 96,0 5,0 93,7 82,0 5,0 22 0,47 0,61 0,011 801 13,873 240137 62,57 19,44
4 78,5 0,5 100,0 0,6 2 0,20 6,3 34 79,3 94,8 5,0 93,7 82,0 5,0 12 1,00 1,29 0,024 207 3,576 61905 62,84 19,44
80 1 79,8 0,5 102,0 0,6 1 0,20 6,7 33 80,6 97,4 5,0 93,7 84,0 5,0 6 1,07 1,34 0,026 96 1,731 26182 65,21 10,30
2 80,1 0,5 102,0 0,6 2 0,30 7,0 34 81,7 97,2 5,0 93,7 84,0 5,0 29 0,66 0,82 0,018 730 13,217 159713 65,39 30,35
3 81,3 0,5 104,0 0,6 1 0,15 6,3 32 82,0 99,3 5,0 93,7 85,0 5,0 3 1,57 1,94 0,036 39 0,732 12669 67,75 7,96
4 81,8 0,5 109,0 0,6 2 0,25 7,0 28 83,2 104,0 5,0 97,0 85,0 5,0 11 1,24 1,50 0,030 221 4,388 61522 71,93 31,15
85 1 84,8 0,5 113,0 0,6 1 0,20 6,9 26 85,6 108,4 5,0 102,0 90,0 5,0 3,5 1,68 1,94 0,039 50 1,068 15411 77,33 13,53
2 84,8 0,5 118,0 0,6 1 0,30 6,6 22 85,6 110,0 5,0 104,0 90,0 5,0 4,5 1,55 1,76 0,034 103 2,327 36693 81,45 23,28
3 85,2 0,5 111,2 0,6 1 0,30 8,8 27 86,0 106,0 5,0 104,0 90,0 5,0 10 1,03 1,20 0,031 215 4,521 40478 76,16 19,55
90 1 90,1 0,5 115,0 0,6 1 0,20 6,4 29 91,0 110,4 5,0 105,0 94,0 5,0 4 1,32 1,48 0,027 77 1,768 29657 82,99 12,75
2 90,1 0,5 115,0 0,6 1 0,50 6,3 30 91,6 111,0 5,0 105,0 94,0 5,0 25 0,47 0,53 0,010 1262 28,980 495316 82,97 31,25
92 1 92,0 0,5 116,0 0,6 1 0,25 5,7 31 93,0 111,5 6,0 104,0 96,0 6,0 6,5 0,91 1,00 0,016 174 4,102 87966 85,31 15,46
2 91,9 0,5 115,0 0,6 1 0,30 5,8 32 93,0 110,6 6,0 104,0 96,0 6,0 10 0,71 0,79 0,013 338 7,905 163676 84,38 17,88
3 91,7 0,5 120,0 0,6 1 0,40 6,0 27 93,0 115,8 6,0 105,0 96,0 6,0 12 0,74 0,80 0,014 442 10,821 209287 88,49 28,54
4 92,3 0,5 120,0 0,6 3 0,40 7,2 28 95,2 117,0 6,0 105,0 96,0 6,0 40 0,75 0,80 0,017 1663 40,908 536157 88,93 82,79
5 93,0 0,5 109,0 0,6 2 0,30 7,4 40 94,7 105,0 6,0 104,0 97,0 6,0 54 0,39 0,44 0,009 2206 49,133 623118 80,26 26,75
95 1 94,7 0,5 120,0 0,6 1 0,20 6,4 29 95,6 115,4 6,0 108,0 99,0 6,0 3,5 1,43 1,53 0,028 77 1,943 32596 90,92 13,59
2 94,6 0,5 120,0 0,6 1 0,25 6,4 29 95,6 115,5 6,0 108,0 99,0 6,0 5,5 1,12 1,20 0,023 150 3,750 60940 90,83 17,01
3 94,7 0,5 121,0 0,6 1 0,30 5,4 28 95,8 116,5 6,0 108,0 99,0 6,0 7,0 0,91 0,96 0,015 239 6,062 140723 91,79 20,58
4 95,0 0,5 121,0 0,6 2 0,20 6,8 28 96,3 116,4 6,0 108,0 99,0 6,0 7,5 1,44 1,53 0,030 150 3,808 56572 92,03 27,82
5 95,0 0,5 123,0 0,6 2 0,25 7,3 26 96,5 118,5 6,0 108,0 99,0 6,0 10 1,33 1,40 0,030 235 6,096 77736 93,79 37,34
100 1 100,0 0,5 120,0 0,6 1 0,15 6,5 33 100,3 116,0 6,0 114,2 104,0 6,0 4 1,18 1,23 0,023 69 1,831 30138 95,28 8,81
1 99,8 0,5 121,0 0,6 1 0,25 6,7 33 100,8 116,5 6,0 114,2 104,0 6,0 8 0,82 0,85 0,016 268 7,133 110479 96,01 15,36
2 99,7 0,5 120,0 0,6 1 0,50 9,3 32 101,2 116,0 6,0 114,2 104,0 6,0 36 0,43 0,45 0,012 2445 64,412 507259 95,02 30,94
105 1 104,7 0,5 132,0 0,6 1 0,20 6,2 27 105,6 126,4 6,0 125,2 109,0 6,0 3 1,58 1,53 0,028 69 2,091 36898 110,48 16,02
2 104,7 0,5 132,0 0,6 1 0,30 6,8 26 105,8 126,6 6,0 125,2 109,0 6,0 6,5 1,07 1,04 0,020 231 7,076 106381 110,48 24,13
3 105,0 0,5 132,0 0,6 2 0,20 7,5 26 106,3 126,8 6,0 125,2 109,0 6,0 7,5 1,56 1,51 0,033 147 4,518 55778 110,74 32,19
4 105,0 0,5 132,0 0,6 2 0,30 7,0 27 106,7 127,2 6,0 125,2 109,0 6,0 15 0,99 0,95 0,020 511 15,662 217097 110,73 47,36
(Metal Bellows Consultant page 42) =preferred series (Metal Bellows Consultant page 43)
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110 1 109,7 0,5 139,0 0,6 1 0,20 10,2 23 110,7 133,4 6,0 130,0 114,0 6,0 3,5 2,24 2,06 0,061 60 2,040 13364 121,99 19,15
2 109,6 0,5 139,0 0,6 1 0,25 10,3 23 110,7 133,5 6,0 130,0 114,0 6,0 5,5 1,79 1,65 0,050 113 3,812 24498 121,90 23,96
3 109,6 0,5 130,0 0,6 1 0,30 5,6 35 110,8 124,6 6,0 125,9 114,0 6,0 12 0,57 0,54 0,009 589 18,470 404622 112,98 19,01
4 109,6 0,5 137,0 0,6 1 0,50 9,3 25 111,2 133,0 6,0 130,0 114,0 6,0 21 0,66 0,62 0,017 1102 36,572 288014 119,86 43,79
5 109,9 0,5 137,0 0,6 2 0,30 10,2 25 111,7 132,2 6,0 130,0 114,0 6,0 18 1,18 1,09 0,032 523 17,401 114904 120,14 52,73
114 1 114,2 0,5 144,0 0,6 2 0,30 11,9 23 116,0 139,2 6,0 130,0 118,0 6,0 17 1,50 1,33 0,046 417 15,172 74103 131,44 61,08
(Metal Bellows Consultant page 44) =preferred series (Metal Bellows Consultant page 45/54)
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Bellows table 2
Non-ferrous metal bellows
The basic material used is bronze
2.1020 (CuSn
6
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applies to material 2.1030 (CuSn
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taking into account the conversion
factors according to tables 1, 2, 3, 4
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Example of the name of a bellows
selected:
Bellows table N° 2, DN 18, Item 4
Material 2.1020
Number of convolutions 15
Neck AB one end
IB the other end
Please provide other operating data
according to the checklist on pages
76 and 77.
Preferred series:
The grey shaded items in the follo-
wing table ( ) are our pre-
ferred series. These bellows should
be used whenever possible because
they are available more quickly.
04_Bellows_Tables 20.8.2007 10:23 Uhr Seite 55
HB AB SAG IB
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9.5 1 9,3 0,3 14,4 0,3 1 0,10 1,5 22 9,2 13,0 2,0 13,2 11,2 2,0 12 0,14 1,30 0,006 69 0,021 6532 1,12 0,15
10 1 10,1 0,3 14,5 0,3 1 0,12 1,4 211 10,0 13,0 2,0 13,2 11,5 2,0 26 0,08 0,75 0,003 212 0,070 24594 1,20 0,17
2 10.2 0,3 14,5 0,3 3 0,12 2,7 110 10,5 13,0 2,0 13,2 11,5 2,0 109 0,09 0,85 0,007 982 0,322 30333 1,19 0,55
13 1 12,9 0,3 19,5 0,3 1 0,10 1,7 21 12,9 18,0 2,0 18,2 15,0 2,0 7 0,22 1,55 0,008 44 0,025 6016 2,09 0,26
2 12,9 0,3 19,5 0,3 1 0,12 1,7 21 12,9 18,0 2,0 18,2 15,0 2,0 10 0,18 1,25 0,006 77 0,044 10550 2,09 0,32
3 13,0 0,3 20,0 0,3 2 0,12 2,1 138 13,2 18,0 2,0 18,2 15,0 2,0 23 0,18 1,30 0,008 147 0,088 13639 2,17 0,68
13,5 1 13,6 0,3 20,0 0,3 1 0,12 1,7 170 13,5 18,0 2,0 18,2 15,8 2,0 11 0,17 1,15 0,006 89 0,055 12544 2,24 0,33
14 1 13,8 0,3 20,0 0,3 1 0,12 1,9 32 13,8 18,0 2,0 18,2 15,8 2,0 13 0,16 1,10 0,006 99 0,062 11826 2,27 0,33
15 1 15,0 0,3 22,0 0,3 1 0,10 2,2 220 15,0 20,0 2,0 20,2 17,0 2,0 7 0,27 1,68 0,011 44 0,033 4734 2,72 0,33
2 15,0 0,3 22,0 0,3 1 0,12 2,1 220 15,0 20,0 2,0 20,2 17,0 2,0 10 0,21 1,28 0,008 77 0,058 9154 2,72 0,40
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17,5 1 17,6 0,3 27,0 0,3 1 0,14 2,1 415 17,5 25,0 2,5 24,2 20,0 2,5 6 0,31 1,62 0,010 56 0,061 9332 3,94 0,71
18 1 18,1 0,3 27,0 0,3 1 0,12 2,1 396 18,2 25,0 2,5 24,2 20,5 2,5 5 0,34 1,70 0,010 43 0,048 7551 4,04 0,60
2 18,0 0,3 27,0 0,3 1 0,14 2,4 19 18,0 25,0 2,5 24,2 20,5 2,5 7 0,30 1,55 0,011 66 0,074 8798 4,03 0,71
3 18,1 0,3 27,5 0,3 1 0,20 2,2 170 18,2 25,0 2,5 24,2 20,5 2,5 13 0,21 1,05 0,007 173 0,196 26891 4,12 1,04
4 18,1 0,3 27,5 0,3 2 0,20 3,1 90 18,2 25,0 2,5 24,2 20,5 2,5 35 0,22 1,10 0,010 385 0,437 30426 4,13 2,13
19,5 1 19,5 0,3 29,0 0,3 1 0,14 2,4 300 19,5 26,5 2,5 24,2 22,0 2,5 7 0,32 1,50 0,010 60 0,077 8913 4,67 0,80
21 1 21,1 0,3 31,5 0,3 1 0,14 2,6 370 21,0 29,0 2,5 29,2 24,0 2,5 5 0,41 1,79 0,014 50 0,075 7479 5,50 0,95
21,5 1 21,5 0,3 31,5 0,3 1 0,14 2,3 396 21,7 29,5 2,5 29,2 24,0 2,5 6 0,34 1,46 0,010 59 0,092 12092 5,60 0,92
2 21,5 0,3 29,5 0,3 1 0,17 2,8 11 21,5 29,0 2,5 26,7 24,0 2,5 16 0,20 0,90 0,007 206 0,292 26378 5,15 0,94
3 21,5 0,3 32,0 0,3 1 0,20 2,4 385 21,7 30,0 2,5 29,2 24,0 2,5 11 0,26 1,10 0,008 151 0,237 28210 5,69 1,38
24,5 1 24,6 0,3 36,5 0,3 1 0,17 2,9 330 24,5 34,0 3,0 34,2 27,5 3,0 6 0,42 1,55 0,013 70 0,144 11771 7,42 1,54
25 1 25,2 0,3 36,0 0,3 1 0,17 3,1 14 25,2 34,0 3,0 34,2 28,4 3,0 8 0,36 1,35 0,012 96 0,198 14162 7,43 1,46
2 25,1 0,3 37,0 0,3 1 0,25 2,8 332 25,1 35,0 3,0 34,2 27,5 3,0 13 0,27 1,00 0,008 239 0,504 42915 7,66 2,30
(Metal Bellows Consultant page 56) =preferred series (Metal Bellows Consultant page 57)
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Basic
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2.1020
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cycles spring rate per convolution
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necks
exterior neck AB IB interior neck
necks
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HB AB SAG IB
SAG
 d
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 d
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 d
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 d
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W W P
R

ax

lat
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ax
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lat
A
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mm mm mm mm  mm mm  mm mm mm mm mm mm mm bar  mm    mm Nmm Nm/ ° N/mm cm
2
g
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
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2.1020
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HB cylindrical
stroke per conv. at 10
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cycles spring rate per convolution
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necks
exterior neck AB IB interior neck
necks
27 1 27,0 0,3 39,5 0,3 1 0,17 3,2 315 27,0 37,0 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 6 0,46 1.60 0.015 66 0.161 10800 8,78 1,79
2 27,0 0,3 39,5 0,3 2 0,17 3,5 155 27,2 37,0 3,0 37,2 30,0 3,0 14 0,42 1.45 0.015 147 0.355 19924 8,78 3,55
29 1 28,9 0,3 43,3 0,3 1 0,14 2,9 21 28,9 41,0 3,0 39,2 30,5 3,0 2 0,80 2.50 0.021 26 0,074 6034 10,37 1,77
2 29,0 0,3 41,5 0,3 1 0,14 3,3 310 29,0 39,0 3,0 39,2 32,5 3,0 4 0,60 1.95 0.019 39 0.108 6815 9,86 1,59
29,5 1 29,5 0,3 41,5 0,3 1 0,25 3,7 21 29,5 39,0 3,0 39,2 33,0 3,0 15 0,29 0.95 0.010 267 0.737 37003 9,99 2,80
30 1 30,0 0,3 42,5 0,3 1 0,17 3,7 20 30,0 40,5 3,0 40,2 33,5 3,0 6 0,51 1.60 0.017 74 0.212 10648 10,42 2,02
30,5 1 30,5 0,3 45,0 0,3 1 0,17 3,4 300 30,5 42,0 3,0 40,2 34,0 3,0 4 0,63 1.90 0.019 48 0.150 8896 11,32 2,32
2 30,5 0,3 45,0 0,3 2 0,17 3,7 135 30,7 42,0 3,0 40,2 34,0 3,0 9 0,58 1.75 0.019 104 0.326 16359 11,32 4,62
32 1 31,7 0,3 45,5 0,3 1 0,30 3,8 17 31,7 42,0 3,0 42.2 35,4 3,0 15 0,31 0.90 0.010 332 1.080 51399 11.82 4,08
33,5 1 33,5 0,3 50,0 0,3 1 0,20 3,7 240 33,5 47,0 3,0 47.2 36,5 3,0 4 0,70 1.90 0.021 58 0.223 11179 13.86 3,39
2 33,5 0,3 50,0 0,3 2 0,20 4,1 115 33,7 47,0 3,0 47.2 37,0 3,0 10 0.62 1.70 0.020 127 0.486 19857 13,85 6,76
38 1 38,0 0,3 55,0 0,3 1 0,20 4,0 220 38,0 51,5 3,0 47.2 42,0 4,0 4 0,74 1.80 0.021 60 0.287 12305 17,16 3,99
2 38,0 0,3 55,0 0,3 2 0,20 4,3 110 38,2 51,5 3,0 47.2 42,0 4,0 9 0.68 1.65 0.021 132 0.623 23156 17,16 7,92
40 1 40,7 0,3 55,5 0,3 1 0,30 4,8 20 40,7 51,5 4,0 51,7 45,0 4,0 14 0,39 0.90 0.013 338 1.711 51024 18,30 5,76
2 40,9 0,3 55,0 0,3 1 0,20 4,8 20 40,9 51,5 4,0 51,7 45,0 4,0 7 0,58 1.35 0.019 114 0.574 17115 18,18 3,74
42 1 42,0 0,3 60,0 0,3 1 0,20 4,2 215 42,0 56,0 4,0 56,2 46,5 4,0 4 0.80 1.80 0.021 56 0.321 12498 20,63 4,67
2 42,0 0,3 60,0 0,3 2 0,20 4,6 110 42,2 56,0 4,0 56,2 46,5 4,0 8 0.77 1.70 0.023 122 0.694 22527 20,62 9,30
59 1 59,0 0,3 78,0 0,3 1 0,20 5,0 19 59,0 74,0 5,0 68,1 63,4 5,0 3 1,01 1.65 0.024 67 0.691 18982 37,08 7,02
60 1 60,0 0,3 82,0 0,3 1 0,30 5,0 65 60,0 76,5 5,0 76,7 65,5 5,0 5 0.82 1.30 0.019 152 1.676 46069 39,89 12,13
2 60,0 0,3 82,0 0,3 2 0,30 5,6 50 60,2 76,5 5,0 76,7 65,5 5,0 13 0.71 1.15 0,019 332 3.654 80059 39,88 24,12
66 1 66,0 0,3 90,0 0,3 1 0,30 5,4 280 66,0 84,0 5,0 84,2 70,5 5,0 4 1.00 1.45 0.023 128 1.706 40198 48,14 14,56
2 66,0 0,3 90,0 0,3 2 0,30 6,2 50 66,2 84,0 5,0 84,2 70,5 5,0 11 0.86 1.25 0.023 277 3.685 65859 48,13 29,10
75 1 75,0 0,3 100,0 0,3 1 0,30 5,8 30 75,0 94,0 5,0 93,7 79,0 5,0 4 1.07 1.40 0.023 128 2.154 43995 60,52 17,31
2 75,0 0,3 100,0 0,3 2 0,30 6,6 30 75,2 94,0 5,0 93,7 79,0 5,0 10 0.96 1.25 0.024 277 4.635 73096 60,51 34,57
92 1 92,0 0,3 120,0 0,3 1 0,40 6,4 25 92,0 114,0 6,0 114,2 96,0 6,0 6 0.94 1.00 0.019 271 6.662 111733 88,73 31,53
2 92,0 0,3 120,0 0,3 3 0,40 7,6 25 92,6 114,0 6,0 114,2 96,0 6,0 24 0.76 0.80 0.018 976 23.953 284894 88,69 92,57
(Metal Bellows Consultant page 58/60) =preferred series (Metal Bellows Consultant page 59/61)
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61
5 Quality management
Certification
All the factories belonging to our
Group have a ISO 9001 and 14001
accredited quality system.
Our factories also have other qualifi-
cations and permits which cover the
requirements of the market segment
concerned.
Tests and inspections
The BOA metal bellows can undergo
various quality tests and inspections.
The scope of the test programme
depends on the requirements and
wishes of the customer or inspection
organization.
Our quality assurance programme
and cooperation with the inspection
organizations allow us to supply pro-
ducts to meet the most stringent
demands.
Product quality is a matter of pro-
duction standard and not the tests
that follow. Therefore, our production
methods are generally based on a
high quality level. Consequently, for
reasons of costs, additional tests are
only carried out if the application
concerned absolutely demands this.
If design evidence is required for the
metal bellows in individual cases, we
need to check the admissible opera-
ting data here at the factory on the
basis of an exact specification of the
requirements.
Non-destructive test methods
• Water pressure test
• Leak-tightness test with air or
nitrogen under water
• Leak-tightness test with air and
foaming agents at the welds
(Nekal test)
• Pressure difference test with air
• X-ray test
• Magnetic particle crack test
• Dye penetration test
• Helium leakage test
(<1x10
-9
mbar · l/s)
• Hardness test – including
on the components.
Destructive test methods
• Mechanical strength test
• Cupping test
• Metallographic investigations
• Spectroscopic test
• Stroke test (endurance test) under
pressure and temperature
• Vibration test
• Bursting pressure test
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05_Quality 20.8.2007 10:23 Uhr Seite 61
62
Stroke test to determine the number
of load cycles that can be achieved
Helium leak test
Compared with other leak testing
methods, the helium test can detect
the smallest measurable leakage rate
up to now. Depending on the size of
the test-piece, even a leak of <1x10
-9
mbar · l/s can be detected. The com-
ponent is sealed at both ends with a
special fixture and evacuated to a
vacuum of 10
-2
bar. Helium is applied
to the welds from outside. A leak is
recorded immediately by the mass
spectrometer and the leakage rate
can be read off at the measuring
instrument. An acoustic signal also
indicates a leak.
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05_Quality 20.8.2007 10:23 Uhr Seite 62
63
6 Material tables
Section Tables Explanation of table content Page
6.1 6–7 Table on guide analyses and
characteristic strength values 64–67
6.2 8 Foreign standards/comparison table 68–69
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71
7 Annex
Section Tables Content Page
7.1 Conversion table 72–73
9–11 • Pressure
12 • Throughput
7.2 Conversion table 74–75
13 • Temperature
14 • Length
15 • Area
16 • Volume
17 • Weight
18 • Force
19 • Density
20 • Moments
21 • Spring characteristics
22 • Acceleration
7.3 Enquiry – checklist 76–77
7.4 Corrosion table 78–107
7.5 Personal notes 109
7.6 BOA Group, holding companies, agencies 118 118
07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 71
72
Table 10
1 kp 9,81 N
1 at 0,981 bar
1 kpm 9,81 Nm
1 kp / mm
2
9,81 N / mm
2
1 Mpa 1
.
10
6
Pa = 10 bar
1 bar 1
.
10
5
Pa = 100 kPa
7.1 Pressure conversion tables
Table 11
1 100 1000 0.75 750
1
.
10
-2
1 10 7.5
.
10
-3
7.5
1
.
10
-3
0.1 1 7.5
.
10
-4
0.75
1.33 1.33
.
10
2
1.33
.
10
3
1 1000
1.33
.
10
-3
1.33
.
10
-1
1.33 1
.
10
-3
1
1
.
10
3
1
.
10
5
1
.
10
6
750 7.5
.
10
5
1013 1.01
.
10
5
1.06
.
10
6
760 7.6
.
10
5
981 9.81
.
10
4
9.81
.
10
5
735.6 7.36
.
10
5
9.81
.
10
-2
9.81 98.1 7.36
.
10
-2
73.6
68.9 6.89
.
10
3
6.89
.
10
4
51.71 5.17
.
10
4
Pressure units used in vacuum engineering
mbar
Pa (Nm
-2
)
dyn cm
-2
(µb)
Torr (mm Hg)
micron (µ)
bar
atm
at (kp cm
-2
)
mm WS (kp m
-2
)
psi
mbar Pa (Nm
-2
) dyn cm
-2
(µb) Torr (mm Hg) micron (µ)
0.1 N / mm
2
14.5038 lb / inch
2
1 kp / cm
2
14.2233 lb / inch
2
1 Pascal 14.5038
.
10
-5
lb / inch
2
1 kPascal 14.5038
.
10
-2
lb / inch
2
1 Millipascal 14.5038
.
10
-8
lb / inch
2
1 bar 14.5038 lb / inch
2
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07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 72
1
.
10
-3
9.87
.
10
-4
1.02
.
10
-3
10.2 1.45
.
10
-2
1
.
10
-5
9.87
.
10
-6
1.02
.
10
-5
0.102 1.45
.
10
-4
1
.
10
-6
9.87
.
10
-7
1.02
.
10
-6
1.02
.
10
-2
1.45
.
10
-5
1.33
.
10
-3
1.32
.
10
-3
1.36
.
10
-3
13.6 1.93
.
10
-2
1.33
.
10
-6
1.32
.
10
-6
1.36
.
10
-6
1.36
.
10
-2
1.93
.
10
-5
1 0.987 1.02 1.02
.
10
4
14.5
1.013 1 1.03 1.03
.
10
4
14.7
0.981 0.968 1 1
.
10
4
14.22
9.81
.
10
-5
9.68
.
10
-5
1
.
10
-4
1 1.42
.
10
-3
6.89
.
10
-2
6.8
.
10
-2
7.02
.
10
-2
702 1
73
Table 9
Table 12
General pressure units
mbar
Pa (Nm
-2
)
dyn cm
-2
(µb)
Torr (mm Hg)
micron (µ)
bar
atm
at (kp cm
-2
)
mm WS (kpm
-2
)
psi
bar atm at (kp cm
-2
) mm WS (kpm
-2
) psi
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.
10
-1
7.5
.
10
-1
9.87
.
10
-1
7.5
.
10
2
10 1 7.5 9.87 7.5
.
10
3
1.33 1.33
.
10
-1
1 1.32 10
3
1.01 1.01
.
10
-1
7.6
.
10
-1
1 7.6
.
10
2
1.33
.
10
-3
1.33
.
10
-4
1
.
10
-3
1.32
.
10
-3
1
Conversion of throughput units
mbar l s
-1
Pa m
3
s
-1
Torr l s
-1
atm cm
3
s
-1
lusec
mbar l s
-1
Pa m
3
s
-1
Torr l s
-1
atm cm
3
s
-1
lusec
07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 73
74
Table 15
Table 16
Table 17
1 2.20462
0.453592 1
Weight kg pound
kg
pound
1 0.001 1
.
10
-9
6.1
.
10
-5
3.531
.
10
-8
1000 1 1
.
10
-6
0.061 3.531
.
10
-5
1
.
10
9
1
.
10
6
1 61023.7 35.3147
16387 16.387 1.6387
.
10
-5
1 5.787
.
10
-4
2.832
.
10
7
2.832
.
10
4
0.0283169 1728 1
Volume mm
3
cm
3
m
3
inch
3
feet
3
mm
3
cm
3
m
3
inch
3
feet
3
1 1
.
10
-6
0.00155 1.0764
.
10
-5
1
.
10
6
1 1550 10.7639
645.16 6.452
.
10
-4
1 6.944
.
10
-3
92903 0.092903 144 1
Area mm
2
m
2
inch
2
feet
2
mm
2
m
2
inch
2
feet
2
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Table 13
7.2 Conversions
Table 14
1
5
/9(°F-32) K-273.15
9
/5°C+32 1
9
/5
K-459.67
°C+273.15
5
/9(°F+459.67) 1
Temperature º C º F º K
° C
° F
° K
1 0.001 0.03937 0.00328
1000 1 39.3701 3.2808
25.4 0.0254 1 0.0833
304.8 0.3048 12 1
Length mm m inch feet
mm
m
inch
feet
07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 74
75
Table 18
Table 19
Table 20
Table 21
Table 22
1 3.28084 39.3701
0.3048 1 12
0.0254 0.083333 1
Acceleration m/s
2
ft/s
2
inch/s
2
m/s
2
ft/s
2
inch/s
2
1 9.80665 980665 2.20462
0.101972 1 1
.
10
5
0.224809
1.01972
.
10
-6
1
.
10
-5
1 2.24809
.
10
-6
0.453592 4.44822 444822 1
Force kp N Dyn Ibf
kp
N
Dyn
Ibf
1 0.001 3.61273
.
10
-8
6.2428
.
10
-5
1000 1 3.61273
.
10
-5
0.062428
2.76799
.
10
7
27679.9 1 1728
16018.5 16.0185 578.704
.
10
-6
1
Density g/m
3
kg/m
3
Ib/inch
3
Ib/ft
3
g/m
3
kg/m
3
Ib/inch
3
Ib/ft
3
1 0.101972 0.737561 8.85073
9.80665 1 7.233 86.796
1.35582 0.138255 1 12
0.112985 0.0115213 0.08333 1
Moments Nm kp
.
m Ibf
.
ft Ibf
.
inch
Nm
kp
.
m
Ibf
.
ft
Ibf
.
inch
A
n
n
e
x
1 0.101972 5.7101
10.1972 1 55.991
0.1751 0.01786 1
Spring characteristics N/mm kg/mm Ib/inch
N/mm
kg/mm
Ib/inch
07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 75
76
7.3 Enquiry checklist
Ask for our technical proposals if you want to use metal bellows.
You can provide the information needed to design the bellows with
the aid of this checklist.
Please include an installation diagram if possible.
Copy this list if necessary.
1. Dimensions
Bellows inside diameter (min.) mm
Bellows outside diameter (max.) mm
Available corrugated length mm
Available total length mm
Cross-section area required cm
2
Neck no.
2. Operating data
Operating pressure (bar ü) inside outside
Operating temperature (°C) inside outside
Pressure change bar
Throughput medium inside outside
Test pressure after installation bar121
3. Movement load
Axial mm
Angle degrees
Plane parallel lateral mm
Torsion degrees or Nm
Vibrations ± mm axial / lateral
Vibration frequency Hz
Number load changes with 100% stroke
Number load changes with 100% stroke
Mounting compensation mm
Spring characteristic required N/mm or Nm/º
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07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 76
77
4. Materials
Bellows
Connections
5. Joining to connections (please tick where appropriate)
„ Welding „ Brazing „ Soft soldering
„ Made by BOA „ Made by customer
„ Connections from BOA „ Connections provided by customer
6. Testing of finished bellows at BOA
Leak-tightness test with precision mbarl/sec
Test pressure barü
Other test specifications
7. Quantities required
Annual units
Monthly units
One-off units
Samples units
8. Other information about application,
special requirements
9. Address of company, department, name
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07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 77
78
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7.4 Corrosion table
Technical information
All information, data and tables are
based on information and documenta-
tion provided by the raw materials
manufacturer or our many years'
experience in the field. This informati-
on does not claim to be complete and
is strictly for guidance only. We cannot
accept any liability in this respect. If
the user of our products is uncertain in
any way about the intended use of our
products, we recommend that he car-
ries out his own tests.
It must also be remembered that all
the details concerning chemicals are
based on analytically pure substances
and never on media mixtures. All the
relevant conditions must be observed.
The chemical behaviour of a hose or
spring material often also depends on
the pipe material upstream. All sur-
faces exposed to the medium must
be taken into account, i.e. if there is a
tendency towards corrosion, but the
surface likely to corrode is very small,
the corrosive attack can penetrate
very quickly.
Surface films, deposits, ferritic chips,
etc. can both prevent corrosion (e.g.
thick films) and encourage corrosion
(e.g. chloride-enriched deposits). Ferri-
tic chips can even be referred to as
true corrosion triggers.
Information on the following
corrosion table
The corrosion rate is expressed as a
weight loss per unit of area and time,
e.g. g/mm
2
h or as a reduction in
thickness per unit of time, e.g.
mm/year. The corrosion rate is used
for laboratory tests, whereas the
thickness reduction is more useful for
practical assessments.
In the tables on the following pages,
the corrosion rate or corrosion beha-
viour of the various materials is divi-
ded into resistance classes 0–3,
based on the same corrosive attack.
The meaning of the stages is given in
the following table:
07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 78
79
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Resistance stage
0
1
2
3
Thickness
reduction mm/year
≤0.11
>0.11 ... ≤1.1
>1.1 ... ≤11.0
>11
Resistance
Resistant under normal
operating conditions.
In many cases, resistant under
normal operating conditions,
but should only be used if other
specific material properties do
not allow the use of a stage 0
material.
Medium resistance. Can only
be used in cases of exception.
Not resistant.
Cannot be used at all.
Meaning of the abbreviations used in the tables
L = risk of pitting corrosion
S = risk of stress crack corrosion
Schm= molten, melts
Konz = concentrated substance
SP = boiling (boiling point)
tr = dry (anhydrous)
fe = moist
wh = contains water
wL = aqueous solution
ges = saturated
kg = cold saturated
hg = hot saturated
> 50 = greater than 50
≤ 50 = smaller than or equal to 50
≤ 0.1 = smaller than or equal to 0.1
( ) = different literature information or uncertain values
07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 79
80
A
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Pitting corrosion
Pitting is a special type of corrosion in
electrolytes containing halogen.
The risk of pitting depends on several
factors.
The pitting tendency increases with
- increasing concentration of chloride
ions
- increasing temperature
- increasing electro-chemical potential
of the steel in the electrolytes con-
cerned
The pitting tendency is reduced by
- adding molybdenum (increasing
contents of molybdenum in the steel
reduces the risk of pitting, e.g. Mo
contents between 2% and around 5%)
- higher chromium contents. The
higher the chromium content (>20%),
the more effective even a small quanti-
ty of Mo can be.
Preventing pitting
- reduction of the electro-chemical
potential in the electrolyte concerned,
e.g. by cathodic protection.
Stress crack corrosion
Stress crack corrosion is one of the
types of corrosion that needs several
factors at the same time to be trigge-
red:
- a specific corrosion agent, e.g.
chlorides or alkaline media
- critical system parameters (tempera-
ture, concentration, limit stress)
- a material susceptible to stress crack
corrosion
- static and/or dynamic mechanical
tensile load
Stress crack corrosion is one of the
most unpleasant forms of corrosion,
because it usually leads suddenly and
very quickly to crack damage in
components of any kind. The typical
phenomenon is intercrystalline or trans-
crystalline, undistorted and usually
ramified cracks. Often there is a forced
rupture of the component at the end of
the crack. Stress crack corrosion star-
ting from pitting corrosion, but always
from a local, active weak spot, is also
known. Stress crack corrosion can
occur in non-ferrous metals in the
same way as with austenitic materials.
Information on types of corrosion
07-1_Annex 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 80
81
Acetanilide (Antifebrin) <114 0
Acetate 20 0 0 0 0
Acetate dehydrate 100 20 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
100 SP 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0
98 <54 0 0 0 0
99 <40 0 0 0 0
Acetic anhydride alle 20 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
100 60 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
100 100 3 0 0 0 2 2 0
100 SP 3 0 0 1 3 1 0 0
Acetone 100 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 SP 1 0L 0L 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
all <SP 1 0L 0L 0 1 0 0 0
Acetylene tr 20 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 0
tr 200 2 2 0
fe 20 1
tr 100 <150 0 0 0
Acetylene dichloride wL 5 20 3
tr 100 20 1L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0
tr 100 SP 2L 1L 0 0 0 0 0 0
schm 100 700 0 0 3
fe 100 20 0 0 0 0 3
Acetylenetetrachloride tr 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
tr 100 SP 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3
fe SP 1 1 3 3
Acytelene cellulose <100 20 1 1 1 0 0
Acytelene chlorid 20 1L 0L 1 2 2 3 3 3 0
SP 1L 0L 2 2 2 3 3 3 0
Adhesive, neutral 20 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
sour 20 (1) 0 0 0 (2)
SP 0 0
Adipic acid all 100 0 0
200 0 0
Aethan 20 0 0 0
Aktivine 0.5 20 3 1L 0L 0 1
0.5 SP 3 1L 0L 0 3
Alanine 20 0 0 0
Allylalkohol 100 25 0 0 0 0 1
100 SP 1
Allylchloride 100 25 0 0 0 0
Medium
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 81
82
Alum 100 20 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 3 3 1
wL 10 20 2 0 0 1 1
wL 10 <80 3 0 0 1
wL 10 SP 3 1 0 1
hg SP 3 2 1
Aluminuim Schm 100 750 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Aluminuim acetate wL 3 20 3 0 0 0 0
wL 100 100 3 0 0 1
wL all 20 1
wL kg 20 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 2
wL kg SP 0 0 1
hg SP 0 0 1 2
Aluminuim chloride wL 5 20 3 2L 1L 1 1 1 1 0 2 3 2 0
5 50 3 2L 1L 1 1 1 1 0 3 3 3 0
5 100 3 0
10 20 3 3L 2L 1 1 1 1 0 3 3 3 0 3
10 100 3 0
10 150 3 0
20 20 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3
20 150 3 3
wL 25 20 3 3L 2L 1 1 1 1 0 3 3 3 0
25 60 3 0
25 100 3 2
30 150 3 3
40 122 3 3
80 100 3 3
Aluminium fluorid wL 5 25 3 2 2 1 0 0 0
wL 10 25 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 0 0
Aluminiumformiate 20 2 3 3 0 0
Aluminium hydroxide ges 20 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
ges SP 2 0 0 0
wL 2 20 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
wL 10 20 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Aluminium na-sulphate wL 10 <SP 1
Aluminium nitrate 20 0 0
wL 10 20 0 0 2
wL 10 50 3
Aluminium oxyde 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Aluminium sulphate wL 10 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 3
10 SP 3 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3
50 SP 3 2 1 1 0 3 3 3 3 3
Amber acid 20 0 A
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 82
83
Ammonia tr 10 20 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
fe 20 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 0
wL 10 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0
wL 10 SP 0 0 3 1 1 0
wL 30 20 0 0 0 0
wL 30 SP 0 0 1 1
wL 50 20 0 0 0 0
wL 50 SP 0 0 1 1
wL 100 20 0 0 0 0 0
wL 100 SP 0 0 1 1
Ammonium alume wL 100 20 3 0 0
wL 100 SP 3 3 2
Ammonia bicarbonate all 20 0 0 2 2 1 3 3 3 0 0
wL all hot 0 0 2 2 0 3 3 3 0 0
Ammonia bifluoride wL 100 20 3 0 0 0
20 80 3 0 0 0
Ammonia bromide wL 5 25 3 0 0 2 0 3 3 3 2
wL 10 SP 3 1LS 1LS 1
wL 10 25 3 1LS 1LS 1 3
Ammonia carbonate wL 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2
wL 20 SP 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 3 3
wL 50 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
wL 50 SP 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Ammonia chloride wL 25 20 3 1LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 2
wL 25 SP 3 2LS 1LS 1 1 1 0 3
wL 50 20 3 1LS 0LS 1 0 1 0 0 0
wL 50 SP 3 2LS 1LS 1 1 1 0
Ammonia fluoride wL 20 80 3 2LS 2LS 0 3 3 3
Ammonia formate wL 10 20 0
wL 10 70 0
Ammonia hydroxyde 100 20 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 1
Ammonia nitrate wL 100 20 3 0 0 3 0 3 3 3 0
100 SP 3 0 0 3 0 3 3 3 0
10 25 3 0 0 3 0 3 3 3
Ammonia oxalate 10 20 1 0 0 0
10 SP 3 1 0 0
Ammonia perchlorade wL 10 20 0LS 0LS 1
wL 10 SP 0LS 0LS 1
wL all <70 0LS 0LS 1
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 83
Medium
84
Ammonia persulphate wL 5 20 3 0 0 3 3 1 0 0 2 2
10 25 3 1 1 3 3 0 2 3 3
10 30 3 1 1 3 3 0 2 3 3
20 20 3
20 100 3
Ammonia phosphate 5 25 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 2 2 0
10 20 0 1 0 3 3 3 1
10 60 1 1 0 3
Ammonia rhodanide 5 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 70 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ammonia sulphate wL 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 2 2 0 2L
wL 5 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 3 2 0 2L
wL 10 20 1 0 1 1 2 0 1 3 3 3 0 2L
wL 10 SP 2 0 2 1 2 0 2 3 3 3 0 3L
wL 100 20 0 0 0 1 1 0
wL 100 SP 1 0 0 1 2 0
Ammonia sulphite wL 100 20 2 0 0 3 3 3 2 3 3 3
wL 100 SP 3 0 0 3 3 2 2 3 3 3
Ammoniumfluorsilikat wL 20 40 3 1 0 0
Ammoniummolybdat 100 100 0
Amoniacal copper chloride wL 1 20 1
wL 10 20 3
wL 20 20 3
Amyl acetate 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 SP 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Amyl alcohol 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 SP 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Amyl chloride 100 20 1 0LS 0LS 1 1 1 0 0 0 2
100 SP 1LS 0LS
Amylmercaptan 100 20 0 0 0 0
100 160 0 0 0
Aniline 100 20 0 0 1 0 0 3 3 3 0
100 180 1 1 2 3
Aniline cholours 2 2 2
Anilinhydrochloride wL 5 20 3 3 0
wL 20 100 0
Aniline sulphite wL 10 20 1L
100 20 0
Antimony Schm 100 650 3 3 3 0 3
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 84
Medium
85
Antimony chloride tr 20 0 3 3 0 3
wL 100 1 0 3
Apple acid wL 20 2 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 3 2 2 0 0
wL <50 90 3 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 3 2 2 0 0
wL <50 100 3 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 3 2 2 0 0
Arsenic acid wL 65 3 0 0
Schm 110 3 2 1
Asphalt 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Atmosphere Land -20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Indust. bis 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Sea 30 2 0LS 0S 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2
Azo benzene 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Barium carbonate 20 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Barium chloride Schm 100 1000 3L 3L 1
wL 10 SP 1L 0L 1 1 1 1 0 2 3 3
wL 25 SP 1L 0L 1 0 0
Barium hydroxyde fest 100 20 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 3
wL all 20 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 3
wL all SP 0 0 1
100 815 1 1 0
wL kg 20 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
wL hg SP 0 0 0 0 1 3
50 100 0 1 1 0
Barium nitrate wL all 40 0 0 1 0 2 0 0
wL all SP 0 0 1 0 2 0 0
Schm 600 0 0 0
wL 20 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0
wL >100 3 0 0 1 0 2 0 0
Barium sulphate 25 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Barium sulphite 25 2 0 0 2 3 3 3
Beer 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
100 SP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Beer condiment 20 SP 3 1 3 1
Beet sugar syrup 20 (1) 0 0 0 0
Benzene acid wL all 20 0 0 0 0 0
wL 10 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
wL 10 SP 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3
wL ges 20 0 0 0 0 0
Benzene chloride tr 100 20 0
fe 100 20 3
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 85
Medium
86
Benzene, non-sulfureos 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
100 SP 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Benzene sulphonal acid 91,3 140 3 3 3 1 3
92 200 3 3 3 0 3
Blood (pure) 36 0S 0
Bonder solubilzing 98 0 0
Borax wL 1 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
wL ges 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
wL ges SP 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Schm 3 3 0
Boric acid wL 1 20 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
wL 4 20 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
wL 5 20 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
wL 5 100 3 0 0 2 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
wL ges 20 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
wL all 20 3 0 0 0 0
wL all <SP 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 20 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
Boron 20 0 0
Brandy 20 0 0 1
SP 0 0 3
Bromide water 0,03 20 0L 0L
0,3 20 1L 1L
1 20 3L 3L
Bromine tr 100 20 3L 3L 3L 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 3
tr 100 <65 3L 3L 3L 0 0 1 0 3
tr 100 <370 3L 3L 3L 2 3
fe 100 20 3L 3L 3L 0 0 3 3 2 3 1 0 3
fe 100 50 3L 3L 0 3 3
Butadiene 100 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Butane 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 120 0 0 1
Butter 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
Butter acid 25 20 3 1 2 1 2 1 0 1 0
25 60 3 1 2 0 0
50 20 3 2 0 0
Butter acid 50 60 3 2 0 1
ges 20 3 0 0 2 0 0
ges SP 3 2 0 2 0 1
Buttermilk 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 86
Medium
87
Butyl alcohol 100 20 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 SP 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0
Butyl acetate 20 0 0 1 0 0 0
SP 1
Cadmium Schm 100 350 1 2 2
Schm 100 400 2 2
Calcium Schm 100 800 3 3 3
Calciumbisulphite wL ges 20 3 0 0 0 3 1 0
ges SP 3 2 0 0
20 20 0 0 0
20 SP 1 0 0
Calcium carbonate 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Calium chlorate 100 20 0 0LS 0LS 1 1 1 0 1 1
wL 10 20 0LS 0LS 1 1 1 0 1 1
wL 10 100 2LS 1LS 1 1 1 0 1 1
wL 100 100 2LS 1LS 1 1 1 0 1 1
Calcium Chloride wL 10 20 3 0S 0S 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 0 3
wL 25 20 3 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 1 3 2 0 3
wL 25 SP 3 0LS 0LS 0 0 0 3 0 3
ges 20 3 0L 0L 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 3
ges SP 3 1L 0L 2 0 0 0 3 1L 3
Calcium hydroxyde <50 20 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 3
<50 <SP 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 3
ges 20 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3
ges SP 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 3
Calcium hypochloride wL 10 25 3 3LS 0LS 3 1 1 3 1 0 3
15 50 3 3LS 0LS 1 0 3
20 25 3 3LS 0LS 0 1 3 1 0 3
20 50 3 3LS 0LS 1 0 3
ges <40 3 2LS 1LS 0 0 3
Calcium nitrate 20 100 0 0 0 0
50 100 0 0 0 0
Schm 100 148 0 0 0 0
Calcium sulphate fe 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(Gypsum) SP 3 0 0 1 1
Calcium sulphite wL ges 20 0 0 0 1
ges SP 0 0 0 1
Camphor 20 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Carbon dioxide tr 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
tr 100 <540 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
tr 100 700 3 1
tr 100 1000 3 3
tr all <760
fe 15 25 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 87
Medium
88
Carbon dioxide fe 20 25 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 3
fe 100 25 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3
Carbon oxide, 100 atü 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 <540 3 (0) 3 (1) (3) 0 2 1
Carbon tetrachloride tr 100 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
tr 100 75 0L 0L 0
tr 100 SP 1 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 2
fe 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 1 2 1 0 1
fe SP 1 1L 1L 3 3 2 2 3 1 3
Carnallite wL kg 20 3 0L 0L 0 0
kg SP 3 2LS 1LS 0 0
Castor oil 100 20 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 100 (2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cement fe 20 3
Cheese 20 0 0
Chloramin 20 3 1L 0L 0 0
0,5 SP 3 1L 0L 0 0
Chlorine tr 100 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
tr 100 100 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
tr 100 <250 3 0L 0L 0 0 0 1 3 3 3
tr 100 <400 3 2L 1L 0 0 0 1 3 3
tr 100 500 3L 3L 2L 1 1 0 2 1 3 3
fe 99 20 3L 3L 3L 0 2 1 0 3 3 2 0 3
fe 99 100 3L 3LS 3LS 1 3 3 3 1 3
Chlorine benzene 100 20 0 0LS 0LS 1 1 1 1 0 1 1
100 SP 0LS 0LS 1 1 1 1 0 2
Chlorine calcium fe 20 3 1LS 1LS 1 1 3 1 3
wL 1 20 3 2LS 0LS 0 3
wL 5 20 3 1LS 0LS 0 3 0 3
wL 5 100 3 3LS 3LS 0 1 3
Chlorine dioxide tr 70 2 2 0 0 3 3
wL 0,5 20 3 3 3 1 3 3
wL 1 65 3 3 3 2 3 3
Chlorine sulphinated acid tr 100 20 1LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
fe 99 20 3 2LS 0LS 3 1 1 3 3
wL 10 20 3 3 3 3 0 0 3 3
Chlorine vinegar acid Mono- 50 20 3 3 3 1 1 2 3 3 3
Konz 20 3 3 3 1 1
<70 SP 3 2 1
Di- 100 100 3
Tri- >10 20 3 0L 0L 0 0
SP 3 3 1
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 88
89
Medium
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Chlorine water ges 20 3 1LS 1LS 0 0 3
ges 90 3 2LS 2LS 1 3
Chloroform fe 99 20 3 0LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
fe 99 SP 3 0LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3
Chocolate 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) (0) (0) 0 0
120 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) (0) (0) 0 0
Chromic alum wL ges 20 3 1 0 1 0 0 3 3
wL ges SP 3 3 3 2 3 3
wL 10 20 3 0 0 0 3 1
Chromium acid wL 5 20 3 0 0 3 3 3 1 0 3 3 3 0 1
5 90 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 0
10 20 3 0 0 2 2 2 1 0 3 3 3 0 1
10 SP 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 3 3 3 0 3
50 20 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 0 2
50 SP 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 0 3
Chromium sulphate ges 20 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
90 3 3 2 0 0 1 0 0
Cider 20 0 0 1
Cinammon acid 100 20 3
Cocoa SP 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Coffee wL 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SP 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Copper acetate wL 20 (3) 0 0 (1) (1) (1) 3 3
SP (3) 0 0 3 3
Copper-II-chloride wL 1 20 3 1LS 0LS 0 1 0
wL 1 SP 3 3LS 3LS 0
wL 5 20 3 2LS 1LS 3 1 2 3 2 0 3
wL 40 20 3 3 3 3 1
wL 40 SP 3 3 3 3 3 3 0
wL ges 20 3 3 3 3
Copper-II-cyanide wL 10 20 2 0 0 0
wL 10 SP 3 0 0 1
wL hg SP 3 0 0 3 3 3 1 3 3
Copper-II-nitrate wL 50 20 0 0 3 3 3 0 1 (2) (3) (2) 0 3
wL 50 SP 0 0 3 3 1 0
wL ges 20 0 0 3 3 3 0 1 3 0 3
Copper-II-sulphate all 20 3 0 0 2 2 2 0 (1) (3) (1) 0 3
(copper vitriol) all <SP 3 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 3 0 3
Cotton seed oil 25 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 89
Medium
90
Creosote 20 0 0 0 0 1
SP 3
Creosote 100 20 0 0 0 1 0
100 SP 0 0
Crude oil 100 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 100 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
100 400 3 3 3 3
Cyanide baths 25 0
0
Developer (Photo) 20 0L 0L
Dichlorethene 100 <50 3 2L 1L 1 0
100 SP 0
Dichlorethylene tr <100 <30 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0
tr 100 SP 0L 0L 0 1
<100 <700 3
wh 105 3
wh 1:1 <SP
Dichlorethylene 100 20 0 0L 0L 0 0
100 SP 0L 0L 2 0 1
Diesel oil 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Diesel oil, S <1% 100 20 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
100 100 0 0L 0L 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
Diphenyl 100 20 0 0S 0S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 400 0 0S 0S 0 0
Dripping 20 0 0
Dye liquor
alkaline or neutral 20 0 0 0 0
SP 0 0 0 0
organic sour 20 0 0 0 1
SP 0 0 0 1
heavily sulphuric 20 3 1 0 0 0
SP 3 3 1 0
slightly sulphuric 20 0 0 0 0
SP 3 0 0
Ether 100 20 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
100 SP 0 0 0 0 0
all SP 0 0 0 0 0
Etherial oil
Citrus oil 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Eucalyptus oil SP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Caraway seed oil 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 90
Medium
91
Ethyl acetate 20 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1
all <SP 1 0 0 2 1 1 2 2 2
35 120 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 2
100 20 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 1
100 SP 1 0 0 2 1 1 2 2 2
Ethyl alcohol 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
denaturalized 96 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
96 SP 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ethyl benzene 115 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ethyl chloride 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 0 1
SP 0L 0L 1 3 3 3 0
tr 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
tr SP 0L 0L 1 0 1
fe SP 1 0 3
wL 25 20 0 0 0 0 1 0
wL 50 25 0 0 0 0 1 0
wL 70 25 0 0 0 0 1 0
wL 100 25 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 1 0
wL 5 25 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Ethylene 20 0 0 0
Ethylene bromide 20 0L 0L 0
SP 0L 0L 3
Ehtylene diamide Hydrochloride 100 SP 3 2
Ethylene chloride tr 100 20 0 0L 0L 0 2 0 2 3 2 0 0
wL 100 50 3 1L 1L 1 0 3
tr 100 SP 0L 0L 0 0
fe 100 20 3
wL 100 SP 3
20 1 0 0
Ethylene glycol 100 20 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 0
100 120 0
Ethylene oxyde 20 0 0 0
Exhaust gas
Exhaust gas (diesel) tr 600 3 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 1
(Flue gas) tr 600 3 0L 0L 0 0 0 3
900 3 0 0 0
1100 3 0 0
Fatty acid, high technology 100 60 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1
100 150 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3
100 235 3 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3
100 300 3 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 3
Ferro-gallic-ink 20 0 0L 0L 1
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 91
Medium
92
Fluorbor ether 100 50 0
Fluorine tr 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
tr 100 200 0 1LS 1LS 0 0 0 3 3
tr 100 500 3 0 0 3 3
fe 100 20 3 3 2 0 0 0 3 3 3 3
Formic acid 10 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 SP 3 1 0 2 0 0 0 3
50 20 3 0 0 0 0
50 SP 3 3 1 0 0
80 20 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0
80 SP 3 3 2 2 1 0 0 0 2
100 20 3 0 0 3 0 1 1 1 0
100 SP 3 1 1 3 0
Formic aldehyde 10 20 3 0 0 2 0 0 1
10 70 3 1 0 2
40 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
40 SP 3 0 0 1 0
Freon 100 -40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fruit acid 20 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) 0
SP (2) 0 0 (0) (0) 1 3 1
Fruit juce 20 1 0 0 0 1 3 1 0
SP 1 0 0 0
Fuel, benzene tr 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
tr SP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
wh 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
wh SP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Fural 100 25 2 0 0 2 0
100 SP 3 2
Furaldehyde 20 2 0 0 1 3 1 0
SP 3 0 0 3
Gallic acid wL 1 20 0 0
wL <50 100 2 0
100 20 2 0 0 0
100 SP 3 0 0 3
Gelatine wL 80 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
<40 50 1 1 0 0 0 0
Glass Schm 100 1200 1 1 1
Glucose 20 0 0 0 1 0
Glutamine acid 20 1 0 0 0
80 3 1 1 1
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 92
Medium
93
Glycerin 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 SP 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Glykol acid 20 3 1 1 0 0 1
SP 3 3 3 0 0 1
Gum (raw) 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Heavy fuel 100 20 0L 0L 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hexamethylenetetramine wL 20 60 1 0 0 0
wL 80 60 2 0
Hydrobromic acid 20 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
Hydrocarbon, pure 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hydrochloric acid 0.2 20 3 1LS 1LS (1) 0 0
0.2 50 3 2LS 3LS 0 0
1 50 3 3 3 0 0
1 100 3 3 3 3 (1)
10 20 3 3 3 (2) 1 1
Hydrofluosilic acid 5 40 3 1L 1L 1 (1) 3
100 20 3 1L 2L 1 1 3 1 3
100 100 3 2L 2L 1 2 3
Hydrocyanic acid 20 20 3 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 3 3 3 0 0
Hydrogen 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 300 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 500 3 0 0 0 3 0
Hydrogen fluoride 5 20 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3
100 500 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 3
Hydrogen fluoride acid all 20 3 3L 3L 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3
HF-Alkylation 10 20 3 3L 3L 1 1 1 1 0 2 3 2 3 3
80 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3
90 30 1 0 1 1 3 3
Hydrogen superoxide all 20 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 1 0
30 20 0 0 0 1 2 1
30 70 0 0 0 1 2 1
85 <70 0 0 0
all SP 2 2 0 0 3 1
Hydroquinone 20 1 1 0 0 0
Hydroxylamine sulphate wL 10 20 0 0
wL SP 0 0
Hypochlorous acid 20 0 3
Illuminating gas 20 (1) 0 0 0 0
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 93
94
Inert gas tr 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
fe 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ink 100 20 1 0L 0L 0 3
100 SP 1L 1L 3
Insulin 100 <40 0 0 0 0
Iod tr 100 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 0
100 300 1 0L 0L 3 0 0 2 3
fe 100 20 3 3L 2L 3 3 1 3
Iod, alcohol 7% 20 3 1L 0L 3 3 3 3
Iod hydrogene acid wL 20 3 3 3 3
Iodoform, steam tr 60 0 0 0 0
fe 20 3 0L 0L 0
Iod tincture 20 2L 0L 3
Iron-II-chloride tr 100 20 0 3 3 3 2 0 0
wL 10 20 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 1 0 3
Iron-III-chloride tr 100 20 0 0L 0L 2 2 2 1 0 3 3 3 0 3
wL 10 Sp 3 3L 3L 2 0
wL 50 20 3 3L 3L 2 1 0
wL 50 <SP 3 3L 3L 3 0
Iron-III-nitrate wL 10 20 3 0 0 0
wL all 20 3 0 0
wL all SP 3 0 0
Iron phosphate 98 0 0
( Bonder )
Iron-II-sulphate wL all 20 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 1 1
wL SP 0 0 3 1 1 3
Iron-III-sulphate wL <30 20 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 3
<30 <65 3 0 0 0
<30 80 3 1 0 3 3 3 3
<30 SP 3 1 0
Isopropyl nitrate 20 0
Kerosene 100 20 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) (0) (0)
Lactic acid wL 1 20 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0
1 SP 0 0 0 3
10 20 0 0 (1) 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
10 SP 3 2 3 3 (2) 1 0 3
50 20 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
50 SP 2 1 (1) (0) 0 3
80 20 0 0 0 0
80 SP 2 1 0 3
100 SP 2 1 0 3
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 94
95
Laquer (also varnish) 20 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 0 (1)
Lead 100 360 (0) (2) (1) (2) 2 0 0
600 (0) (2) (1) (3) 0
Lead acetate wL 10 20 0 0 0
wL all SP 0 0
Lead nitrate wL 20 0 0
wL 100 0 0 0
wL 50 20 0 0 3
Lead suggar all 20 0 0 1 1 2 0 2 0 3
all SP 0 0 1 1 2 0 2 0 3
Lead vinegar, basic wL all 20 0 0 1 1 2 0 2 3 2 3
wL all SP 0 0 1 1 2 0 2 3 2 3
Lime-milk 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SP (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lemon acid wL 5 20 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
konz. SP 3 2 2 2 2 1 0 2 0 3
Lemonade 20 (1) 0 0 0 0
Linseed oil 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
200 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) 0
+ 3% H
2
SO
4
200 (3) 1 0 0 0 0 0
Lithium Schm 400 (0) 0 0 0 0 0
Lithium chloride wL kg 3 3 1LS 0 1 0 0 0 0
Lysoform 20 0 0 0 0 0
SP 0 0 0 0 0
Lysol 5 20 (2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 SP (3) 0 0 0 0 0 0
Magnesium Schm 650 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3
Magnesium carbonate 10 SP (0) 1 0 0 1
ges 20 (0) 0 0 0 1
Magnesium chloride tr 100 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 3
wL 5 20 3 0LS 0LS 0 0 0 2 0 2
wL 5 SP 3 2LS 2LS 0 0 0 2 0 3
wL 50 20 3 2LS 1LS 0 0 0 0 3
wL 50 SP 3 2LS 2LS 0 0 0 0 3
Magnesium hydroxyde 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 3 A
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 95
Medium
96
Magnesium sulphate 0.10 20 (0) 0 0 3
5 20 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
10 SP 3 0 0 1 0 0
25 SP 3 0 0 1 1
50 SP 3 0 0 1 0 0
Malonate acid 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
50 1 1 1 1 1 1
100 3 3 3 3 3 3
Manganese dichloride 5 100 3 0LS 0LS 1 1 1 0 3 0 0
10 SP 3 0LS 0LS 1 1 1 0 3 0
50 20 3 0LS 0LS 0 3 0
50 SP 3 0LS 0LS 0 3 0
Meat 20 0 0
Methyl acetate 60 SP (0) 0
Methyl alcohol <100 20 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 SP (1) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Methyl chloride tr 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
fe 20 2 0LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 3
Milk fresh 20 (0) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 (0) (2) 0 0
70 (1) 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 (0)
sour 20 (1) 0 0
sour SP (3) 0 0
Mercury 100 20 0 0 0 0 (3) 0 0 0 3 3 3 (1)
100 50 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
100 370 (0) 3 0 0 3
Mercury chloride 0.1 20 3 0S 0S 0 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 3
0.1 SP 3 1S 0S 1 3 1 0 0 3 3 3 3
0.74 SP 3 2S 2S 1 0 3
10 <80 1 3
Mercury cyanide wL 20 (3) 0 0 3 (3) 3 2 0 3 3 3
Mercury nitrate 20 (3) 0 0 (3) 3 3 3 3
Molybdenum acid wL 10 25 1
Monochloracetic acid wL all 20 3 3 3 (1) 2 (1) 3 1 3 3
30 80 3 3 3 (1) (2) 3 3 3 3 3
Mustard 20 2 0L 0L
Natural gas 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Naphtene 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nickel chloride 10 20 3 1LS 1LS 1 1 1 0 0 3 3 1
10 <60 3 1LS 1LS 0 0 0
80 <95 0
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 96
97
Nickel nitrate wL <10 20 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 0 3
10 25 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 1 3 0 3
<100 30 3 0 0 3 3 3 0 1 3 0 3
Nickel sulfate wL 20 3 0 0 (3) (1) (1) 0 (1) 0 2 1
<60 SP 3 0 0 (3) (1) 0 1
10 25 3 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 3
Nitric acid 1 20 3 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0
1 SP 3 0 0 2 2 3 3 3 0
10 20 3 0 0 2 1 2 1 0 3 3 3 0 2
10 65 3 0 0 3 2 0 3 3 3 0
10 SP 3 0 0 3 3 1 3 3 3 0
15 20 3 0 0 (1) 0
15 SP 3 0 0 3 0
25 20 3 0 0 0 0
25 65 3 0 0 0 0
25 SP 3 0 0 3 0
40 20 3 0 0 0 0
40 65 3 0 0 1 0
40 SP 3 0 0 3 0
50 20 3 0 0 0 0
50 65 3 1 0
50 SP 3 1 1 3 0
65 20 3 0 0 0 0
65 SP 3 (0) 2 3 0
90 20 3 0 0 1 0
90 SP 3 2 2 3 0
99 20 (1) 1 2 3 0
99 SP 3 3 3 0
Konz. 20 3 0 0 0
5 25 3 0 0 1 0 2 0 2
Nitro acid 5 20 0 0
5 75 1
Nitro benzene 100 100 1 1 1 1 1 0
Nitro gas tr alle 540 0 3 3
Nitrogen 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 500 0 1 1 3
100 900 1 3
Nitrogen oxide NOx tr 100 20 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0
fe 100 20 3
Nitrohydrochlorid acid 20 3 3 3L 3L 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3
Novocaine 20 0 0
Oil 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
SP (0) 0 0 (0) (0) (1)
Medium
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 97
Medium
98
Oil acid, tech. 20 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 (0) 0
150 (2) 0 0 0 0 (0) (2) 1 1 0
180 3 1 0 1 0 (0) 3 (1) 3
235 3 2 0 (0) (0) 3 3
Oxalic acid wL 2 20 3 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 0
2 80 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 3 1
5 20 3 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 1
5 80 3 1 0 0 3 2
10 20 3 1 0 2 1 1 1 0 (0) 2 1 2 3
10 SP 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 (3)
30 20 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 0
30 SP 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 3
50 20 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 0
50 SP 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 3
Oxygen 100 -185 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 500 (1) 0 0 0 3 3
Palmitic acid 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
Paraffin Schm 120 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Perchloroethylene wL 100 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3
100 SP (3) 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 (0) (0) (0) 0 3
Petrol tr 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
tr SP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Petroleum (kerosine) 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
100 0 0 0 (2) 0 0 0 0 (0) (1) (0) 0
Petroleum ether 100 20 0 0
100 SP 0 0
Petrolium / fuel 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 SP 0 0 0
Phenic acid rein 100 SP 3 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 3
(Phenol) wL 90 SP 3 1 0 0 (0) 1 0 3
roh 90 20 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
90 SP 3 1 0 (0) 1 3
50 20 (1) (1) 0 0 0 0
50 70 3 1 (1) 0 1 1
Phenolsulphonic acid 30 20 (0) 0 0 0 0
30 120 0 0
Phosphor tr 20 0 0 0 0
Phosphor penta chloride tr 100 20 (0) (0) 1
100 60 (0) (0) 1 A
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 98
Medium
99
Phosphorous acid wL 1 20 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 3 3 0 3
chem. pure 5 20 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 3 3 0 3
10 20 3 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 2 3 3 0 3
10 80 3 0 0 0 1
30 20 3 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0
30 SP 3 1 1 (2) (1) 1 2 2 (1) 3
50 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) 1
50 SP 3 2 1 (2) 3 3 2 1 (0) 3
80 SP 3 3 3 3 (0) 1 2 1 3 1
Phosphorous acid <30 25 3 0 0 0 1
technical <30 SP 3 0 0 1 3
50 25 3 0 0 0 1
50 SP 3 3 2 2 3
85 25 3 0 0 0 3
85 SP 3 3 3 1 3
Pineapple juice 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
85 1 1 0 0
Pit water (sour) 20 3 0 0 3 2 1 2
Potassium Schm 100 100 0 0 0 0 0
600 (0) 0 0
800 (0) 0 0
Potassium acetate Schm 100 292 3 0 0 3
wL 20 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Potassium bi-chromate wL 25 40 3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 0
25 SP 3 0 0 1 3 3 3 (0)
Potassium bi-fluoride wL ges 20 0L 0L
Potassium bi-tartrate wL kg 3 0 0 0 0
(Cream of tartar) wL hg 3 3 1 1 1
Potassium bromide wL 5 20 3 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 1
5 30 3 0L 0L 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2
Potassium carbonate Schm 100 1000 3 3LS 3LS 0 3
wL 50 20 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 0 3
wL 50 SP 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 3
Potassium chlorate wL 5 20 (2) 0L 0 1 1 1 0 (1) (1) (1) 0 0
ges SP 3 0L 0 3 3 3 0 0 1 0 1
Potassium chloride wL 5 85 (2) 0L 0L 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 1 0 3
30 20 (1) 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 3
30 SP 2 1L 0L 0 0 0 1 (2) (2) (1) 0 3
Potassium chromate wL 10 20 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 SP (1) 0 0 0 0
<30 30 0 0 0 1 0 0
Potassium chrom. sulph. wL ges 20 3 1 0 1 0 0 3 3
ges SP 3 3 3 2 (1) 3 3
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 99
Medium
100
Potassium cyanate Schm 100 750 3 3
wL 10 20 (0) 0 0 (1) 3 3 (0) 1
Potassium cyanide wL 10 SP 3 0 0 3 3 3 3
Potassium hydroxide wL 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 3
20 SP 0S 0S 0S 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 3
Potassium hydroxide 50 20 0S 0S 0S 0 0 1 1 0 3
50 SP 0S 3 3 0 0 3 1 1 3 3 3
hg 0S 0S 0S 1 3
Schm 100 360 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3
Potassium hypochloride wL all 20 3 2L 0L 3 3 3 3 0 0 3
all SP 3L 3L 3 3 3 3 1 0 3
Potassium iodide wL 20 (0) 0L 0L 3 3 1 0 0 3
SP (0) 0L 0L 3 3 1 0 0 3
Potassium nitrate wL 25 20 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 (0)
(Saltpetre) 25 SP 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 (0) 0
ges 20 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
ges SP 2 0 0 1
Potassium nitrite all SP 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Potassium oxalate all 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
all SP 0 0 0 0 0 0
Potassium perchlorade wL 25 20 1
75 50 1
Potassium permanganate wL 10 20 0 0 0 0 (1) 0
all SP 3 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Potassium persulphate wL 10 25 (3) 0 0 (3) (3) 0 0 (3) (3) (3)
Potassium sulphate 10 25 0 0 (1) 1 0 1 0 0 (1)
all SP 0 0 0
wL 5 20 3 2 0 0
wL 5 90 3 3 3 3
Propane 100 20 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pyrogallol all 20 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0
all 100 3 (0) 0 1 (0) 0
Quinine-bi-sulphate tr 20 3 3 1 1 0 0 0 0
Quinine sulphate tr 20 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Resina (natural) 100 20 0 0 0 0 1 0
100 300 3 0L 0L 1 1
Salycilic acid tr 100 20 1 0 0 0 0 0
wL 1 80 (3) 0 0 0 0 (1) (1) 0
ges 20 (3) 0 0 0 0 1
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 100
Medium
101
Sea water 20 (1) 0LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 (0)
50 (1) 1LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 0 (0) (1) 0 0 (0)
SP (2) 2LS 1 0 0 0 0 0 (1) (1) (0) 0 (1)
Sewages ( w.o. H
2
SO
4
) <40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0 3
( with H
2
SO
4
) <40 0 0 3 3 3 0 3
Silver bromide 100 20 3 2LS 2LS 1 0 0 3 3 3 0 3
wL 10 25 3 0LS 0LS 0 0
Silver chloride wL 10 20 3 3LS 3LS 0 1 3 3 3 0 3
Silver nitrate wL 10 20 3 0 0 3 3 1 0 1 3 3 3 0 3
wL 10 SP 3 0 0 3 0
wL 20 20 3 0 0 1 0
Schm 100 250 2 0 0
Sodium 100 20 0 0 0 0
100 200 0 0 0 (1)
100 600 (3) 0 0
Sodium acetate wL 10 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ges SP (2) 0 0 (1) 0
Sodium aluminate wL 20 0 0 0
Sodium bi-carbonate wL 10 20 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
10 SP (1) 0 0 1
20 SP 1
Sodium bi-sulphite 10 20 3 0 0 0 1 3 1 (0)
10 SP 3 2 0 3
50 20 3 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 (0)
50 SP 3 0 0 (0)
Sodium bromide wL all 20 3 3LS 2LS 0 3
all SP 3 3LS 2LS 1 3
Sodium carbonate wL 1 20 0 0 0
1 75 1L 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0
kg 20 0 0 3
kg SP 3 0 0 3
Schm 900 3 3 3 (0)
Sodium chlorate 30 20 2 0LS 0LS 0
30 SP 3 0LS 0LS (0)
Sodium chloride wL 3 20 (1) 0LS 0LS 1 0 1 0 (0) 3
3 SP (2) 0LS 0LS 1 0 1 1 (0)
10 20 (2) 0LS 0LS 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1
10 SP (3) 0LS 0LS 1 0 1 1 1
kg 20 (2) 0LS 0LS 1 0 1 0 0 2
kg SP (2) 2LS 0LS 1 0 1 1 (0) 2 A
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 101
Medium
102
Soap wL 1 20 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
wL 1 75 0 0 0 1 0
wL 10 20 0 0
wL 100 0 0 0 0 3
Sodium citrate wL 3.5 20 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3
Sodium cyanide Schm 100 600 (1) 3 3 3 3 3
wL ges 20 3 0 0 3 3 3 3 0 3
Sodium dichromate wL ges 20 0 0 3 3 3 0
Sodium fluoride 10 20 (0) 0LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 (3)
10 SP (0) 0LS 0LS 0 0
kg 20 0LS 0LS 0 0
Sodium hydroxide fest 100 320 (3) 3 3 0 1 0 0 3
wL 5 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 (0) 0 3
5 SP 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 3
25 20 0 0S 0S 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
25 SP 2 1S 1S 0 0 0 1 1 0 3
50 20 0 1S 1S 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
50 SP 2 2S 2S 0 0 0 1 1 0 3
Sodium hyposulfite all 20 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 0
all SP 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 0
Sodium nitrate Schm 100 320 3 0 0 1 3 0
wL 5 20 (2) 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
wL 10 20 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0
wL 30 20 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
wL 30 SP (1) 0 0 1 1 0 0
Sodium nitrite wL 100 20 0 0 2 2 2 1 0 0 0
Sodium perborate wL ges 20 (1) 0 0 1 1
Sodium perchlorate wL 10 20 (2) 0LS 0LS 0
10 SP (3) 0LS 0LS 0
Sodium peroxide wL 10 20 3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 3 3
wL 10 SP 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 3 3 3
Sodium phosphate wL 10 20 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 (0)
10 50 0 0 (0) (0)
10 SP 0 0 3 (1)
Sodium pochloride 10 25 (1) 1LS 0LS (0) (0) (0) 2 3 (1) 0 3
(javel water) 10 50 (3) 1LS 0LS (0) 1 1 0 3
Sodium salicylate (Aspirin) wL ges 20 0 0
Sodium silicate ges 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 (2) A
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 102
Medium
103
Sodium sulfate wL 10 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 SP 3 0 0 1
30 20 3 0 0 1 0
30 SP 3 0 0 1
kg 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
hg 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Sodium sulfide wL 20 20 3 0 0 1 3 0 0 2 1 2 0 3
20 SP 3 0 0 (0) 1 0 3
50 SP 3 0 0 3 (0) 1 0
wL kg 20 3 (0) (0) 1 1 3 0
hg 3 3 1 0 3
Sodium sulfite wL 10 20 (3) 0 0 0 (1) (3) (1) 0
50 20 (3) 0 0 0
50 SP 0 0
Sodium thiosulfate wL 1 20 1 0 0 0 0 0
25 20 3 0 0 0 0 0
25 SP 3 0L 0L 0 1
100 20 3 0 0 1 1 1 2
Sodium triphosphate wL 10 20 1
10 SP 1
25 50 1
Soft soap 20 0 0
Spinning bath <10 80 3 2 1 0 3
<10 80 3 3 3 0 3
Steam fe 100 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
fe 200 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1
tr 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
tr 600 2 0 0 2 1
Stearic acid 100 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0
100 80 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
100 130 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
Sugar wL 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
wL SP 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Sulphite lye 20 0 0
80 2 0
140 3 0
Sulphur tr 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Schm 100 130 (1) 0 0 3 3 (0) 0 0 3 3 3 0
Schm 100 445 3 2 2 0 (0)
fe 20 3 1 0 3 3 3 3 3 0
Sulphur chlorine tr 100 30 0 0LS 0LS 0 0 (0) (0) (0) 0 3
tr 100 SP 0LS 0LS 0
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 103
Medium
104
Sulphur dioxide tr 100 20 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
tr 100 400 1 2 0 3
tr 100 800 3 3 2 3
fe 20 2 0 0 1 3 1 0 1
400 3 1 1 3 0
Sulphur acid 1 20 3 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
1 70 3 1 0 2 1 0 (0)
1 SP 3 1 1 1 3
10 20 3 2 1 1 1 0 2 1 1
10 20 3 2 1 1 1 0 2 1 1
10 70 3 2 2 2 2 0 (3)
40 20 3 1 1 1 0 2 3 2 1 1
80 20 3 3 3 1 0 (1) 3 1 3 2
96 20 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 3 2
96 SP 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Sulphur hydrogen tr 100 20 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
H
2
S tr 100 100 3 0 0 0 0
tr 100 >200 3 0 0 0
tr 100 500 0
tr 20 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 2 3 0 0
Sulphur monoxyde 100 20 1 0 0 (0) (0) 1 0 1 1 0
100 SP 2 0 0 (0) (0) 0
Sulphur trioxide S0
3
fe 100 20
tr 100 20 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 3 0
Sulphurous acid S0
2
fe 200 3 2 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 2
(Gas) fe 300 3 2 0
fe 500 3 2 0
fe 900 3 3 2
Sulphurous acid wL 1 20 3 0 0 2 2 1 0 1
H
2
S0
3
wL 5 20 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1
wL 10 20 3 0 0 0 0
wL ges 20 2 0 0 2 0 1 3
Tannic acid wL 5 20 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
5 SP 3 0 0
10 20 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
10 SP 3 0 0
50 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
50 SP 3 0 0
Tar 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
SP 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Tin Schm 100 300 2 0 0 3 3 3 0 3
Schm 100 400 3 1 1
Schm 100 500 3 3 3
Schm 100 600 3 3 1
Tin chloride 20 3 1LS 1LS 3 3 0 3
SP 3 3LS 3LS 1 3
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 104
Medium
105
Titaniuim sulphate 10 20 1
10 SP 1
Toluene 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 SP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tri-chloro acetic acid >10 20 3 3 0
50 20 3 3 0 0 0
50 100 3 3 1
Trilene tr 100 20 0 0L 0L 0 0 0 0 0 0
tr 100 70 0L 0L 0 3
tr 100 SP 0L 0L 0 0 1 1 1 3
fe 20 2 0L 0L 0 0 1 2 1 3
fe SP 3 1L 0L 0 0 1 2 1 3
Trinitrophenol 20 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0) (0) (0) 0 0
200 3 0 0 0 0 0
Trinitrophenol Schm 100 150 3 3
wL 3 20 3 0 0 1
25 20 3 0 0 3 (1) 3 3 3
ges 20 3 0 0 3 3 3 2 0 3 3 3
Turpentine oil 100 20 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
100 SP 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Tyoglykolacid 20 1
SP 1
Urea 100 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 150 3 1 0 1 3 1 0 3
Uric acid wL konz 20 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3
wL konz 100 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3
Urine 20 0L 0L 0 0 1
40 0L 0L 0
Vaseline 100 ≤SP 0 0 0 0
Vegetable soup SP 0 0
Vinegar 20 0 0 1 3 1 0
SP 0 0 3 3 3 3
Vinegar acid 10 20 3 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 0 0
10 SP 3 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 2
20 20 3 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0
20 SP 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2
50 20 3 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
50 SP 3 3 0 2 1 1 0 0 3 0 2
80 20 3 0L 0L 1 1 0 0 1 0
80 SP 3 3L 0L 1 2 1 0 0 2
99 20 3 0L 0L 2 1 2 0 0 0 0
99 SP 3 1L 1L 2 1 1 0 0 0
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 105
Medium
106
Vinyl chloride 20 0 0 0 0 0
400 1 1 1
Water
H
2
0 dest. 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
dest. SP 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
River water 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
River water SP 0 0 0 1
Tap water hard ≤SP 1 0 0 0 1
Tap water soft ≤SP 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Tap water alkaline ≤SP 2 0 0 0 3
Pit water sour 20 1 0 0 1 1 2 2
Pit water sour 20 1 0 0 2 2 3 3
Mineral water 20 1 0 0 3
Rainwater flowing 20 2 0 0 0 0 1
Rainwater still 20 3
Sweat 20 1 0 0 3
Sea water 20 1 0LS 0LS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
SP 2 2LS 1LS 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3
Water condensate, pure <200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
plus CO
2
<200 2 1 1 0 1 0
plus O
2
<200 2 1 0 1 0 0
plus C
1
<200 2 2LS 2LS 2
plus NH
3
<200 2 0 3 2 0
Wattle wL 20 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
SP 3 0 0 0 0 0
Whiskey 20 3
Wine acidity wL 3 20 0 0 0 0 0
wL 10 20 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
wL 10 SP 3 0 0 2 2 2 0 1 3 3 0 2
wL 25 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
wL 25 SP 1 0 1 0 1 0 3
wL 50 20 0 0 0 0 2
wL 50 SP 1 0 1 0 3
wL 75 20 0 0 0 0 2
wL 75 SP 2 2 1 0 3
wL all 1 0 3
Wine vinegar wL 5 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
Wine, white & red 20 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 3 3
SP 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 3 3
Xylene 20 0 0 0 0
SP 0 0 0 0
Yoghurt 0 3
Zinc Schm 100 500 3 3 3 3 3 3
Zinc chloride wL 5 20 3 3LS 2LS 1 1 1 0 0 2 3 2 0 3
wL 5 SP 3 3LS 2LS 1 2 2 0 1 2 3 2 0 3
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 106
Medium
107
Zinc silicone sulfide wL 30 20 0
wL 30 65 2
wL 40 20 0
wL 50 65 3
Zinc sulphate wL 10 20 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 0 1
wL 25 SP 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 3
wL hg 20 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
wL hg SP 0 0 1 3
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07-2_Korrosionstabelle_UK 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 107
109
7.5 Personal notes
07-3_Notes 20.8.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 109
7.6 BOA-Group/ holding companies/ agencies





















































BOA BKT GmbH
Balg- und Kompensatoren-Technologie
Lorenzstrasse 2-6
D-76297 Stutensee
Phone +49 (0)7244 99-0
Fax +49 (0)7244 99-227
E-Mail marketing@boa-bkt.com
Web www.boa-bkt.com

BOA AG
Expansion J oints
Metal Hoses and Metal Bellows
Station-Ost 1
CH-6023 Rothenburg
Phone +41 (0)41 289 41 11
Fax +41 (0)41 289 42 02
E-Mail info@boa.ch
Web www.boa.ch


BOA AG: subsidiaries / holding companies:

Flexible Solutions Group France SAS
Immeuble Odyssée
Bâtiment D
2-12 Chemin des Femmes
F-91300 MASSY
Phone +33 (0)1 69 10 88 29
Fax +33 (0)1 69 34 48 56
E-Mail fsg@fsg-france.fr
Web www.fsg-france.fr

BOA Nederland B.V.
Postbus 214
NL-5000 AE Tilburg
Phone +31 (0)13 535 06 25
Fax +31 (0)13 536 40 85
E-Mail sales@boanederland.nl
Web www.boanederland.nl


American BOA Inc.
P.O. Box 1301
US-Cumming, Georgia 30028
Phone +1 800 856 4580
Fax +1 770 889 0661
E-Mail sales@boa-us.com
Web www.americanboa.com



Agencies:
in all important industrial countries.
BOA Metallschlauch GmbH
Magdeburger Str. 2
D-06484 Ditfurt
Phone +49 (0)3946 811 269
Fax +49 (0)3946 811 270
E-Mail info@boa-metallschlauch.de
Web www.boa-metallschlauch.de



Famas S.A.
ul. Kopernika 36
PL-90 553 Lódz
Phone +48 42 6648 400
Fax +48 42 6648 401
E-Mail info@famas.com.pl
Web www.famas.com.pl












BOA Holding GmbH
Lorenzstrasse 2-6
D-76297 Stutensee
Germany
Phone +49 (0)72 44 99 0
Fax +49 (0)72 44 99 227
marketing@boa-bkt.com

www.boagroup.com

Expansion J oints
Metal Hoses, Metal Bellows
Station-Ost 1
CH-6023 Rothenburg, Switzerland
Phone +41 (0)41 289 41 11
Fax +41 (0)41 289 42 02
info@boa.ch

www.boa.ch
BOA Group:
Sites in:

Germany: Stutensee, Ditfurt
Switzerland: Rothenburg
USA: Cumming GA
France: Massy, Fère-en-Tardenois, Chassieu
Netherlands: Tilburg
Great Britain: Surrey
Brazil: Embu-Sao Paolo
Argentina: Buenos Aires
Austria: Wien
Czechia: Plzen
Poland: Lodz
China: Shanghai

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BOA AG Expansion Joints Metal Bellows and Metal Hoses Station-Ost 1 CH-6023 Rothenburg Switzerland Phone: +41 41 289 41 11 Fax: +41 41 289 42 02 E-Mail: info@boa.ch Homepage: www.boa.ch

BOA METAL BELLOWS CONSULTANT

Issue 11-05-UK

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