# Calculus II Final Exam Cheat Sheet

L’Hospital’s Rule: When taking a limit, if you get an indeterminate form i.e.
±∞ 0 , ,etc you take ±∞ 0

the derivative of the top and bottom and evaluate the limit again… Trig Substitution Integration by Parts If the integral contains the following root ∫ udv = uv − ∫ vdu use the given substitution and formula to b b convert into an integral involving trig and = uv |a − ∫ vdu a functions. choose u and dv from integral and compute du by a differentiating u and computing v by integrating dv a 2 − bx 2 ⇒ x = sin θ b Trig Stuff a sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x bx 2 − a 2 ⇒ x = secθ sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1 b 1 1 + tan 2 x = sec 2 x cos 2 x = (1 + cos 2 x) a 2 a 2 + bx 2 ⇒ x = tan θ 2 2 1 + cot x = csc x b 1 sin 2 x = (1 − cos 2 x) 2 Product and Quotients of Trig Functions For ∫ tan n x secm xdx we have the For ∫ sin x cos xdx we have the following:
n m

1. n odd. Strip 1 sine out and convert rest to cosines using sin 2 x = 1 − cos 2 x , then use the substitution u = cos x . 2. m odd. Strip 1 cosine out and convert rest to sines using cos 2 x = 1 − sin 2 x , then use the substitution u = sin x . 3. n and m both odd. Use either 1 or 2 4. n and m both even. Use double angle and/or half angle formulas to reduce the integral into a form that can be integrated.

1.

2.

3. 4.

following: n odd. Strip 1 tangent and 1 secant out and convert the rest to secants using tan 2 x = sec 2 x − 1 , then use the substitution u = sec x m even. Strip 2 secants out and covert rest to tangents using sec2 x = 1 + tan 2 x , then use the substitution u = tan x . n odd and m even. Use either 1 or 2. n even and m odd. Each integral will be dealt with differently.

Centroid b _ 1 1 1 x = ∫ x[ f ( x) − g ( x)]dx y = ∫ {[ f ( x)]2 − [ g ( x)]2 } dx Aa Aa2
_ b

Parabola focus : (0, p ) x 2 = 4 py Directrix y = − p
y 2 = 4 px focus : ( p, 0) directrix : x = − p

x2 y2 + =1 a2 b2 Vertices and foci are always on major axis c 2 = a 2 − b2 Make a box with sides determined by the square root of the denominators. Ellipse

x2 y2 − = 1 or a2 b2 y 2 x2 − =1 a 2 b2 Foci and vertices are always on axis determined by positive squared term. Draw box and make diagonal asymptotes. c2 = a2 + b2 Hyperbola

+ 2 f ( xn−2 ) + 4 f ( xn−1 ) + f ( xn )] a Common Integrals ∫ kdx = kx + c 1 n +1 ∫ x dx = n + 1 x n y x ∫x −1 dx = ln | x | + c 1 1 ∫ ax + b dx = a ln | ax + b | +c ∫ ln udu = u ln(u ) − u + c ∫ e du = e + c n u ∫ cos udu = sin u + c ∫ sin udu = − cos u + c ∫ sec udu = tan u + c ∫ sec u tan udu = sec u + c ∫ csc u cot udu = − csc u + c ∫ csc udu = − cot u + c 2 2 ∫ tan udu = ln | sec u | +c ∫ sec udu = ln | sec u + tan u | +c ∫a ∫ 2 1 1 u du = tan −1   + c 2 +u a a 1 u du = sin −1   + c a a2 − u2 ... Arc Length Cartesian n →∞ b 2 b Differential Equations P (t ) = P0 e k ⋅t Exponential growth dy = g ( x) f ( y ) cross multiply Separable: dx dy Linear: + P ( x) y = Q( x) use I. + 2 f ( xn−1 ) + f ( xn )] a Simpson’s Rule b ∆x ∫ f ( x)dx ≈ 3 [ f ( x0 ) + 4 f ( x1 ) + 2 f ( x2 ) + 4 f ( x3 ) + ... a ≤ x ≤ b  dx   dy  a Parametric Polar b 2  dx   dy   dr  L = ∫   +   dt L = ∫ r2 +   dθ  dt   dt   dθ  a a Surface Area Cartesian & Parametric Area of Polar (not surface area) b b 1 S = ∫ 2π r ⋅ L A = ∫ r 2 dθ 2 a a Midpoint Rule Cartesian to Polar: x = r cos θ y = r sin θ Polar to Cartesian: r 2 = x2 + y2 tan θ = 2 2 b 2 ∫ f ( x)dx ≈ ∆x[ f ( x ) + f ( x ) + .F.F dx L=∫ a  dx   dy  1 +   dx if y = f ( x).. + f ( x )] 1 2 n a b ___ ___ ___ Trapezoid Rule b ∆x ∫ f ( x)dx ≈ 2 [ f ( x0 ) + 2 f ( x1 ) + 2 f ( x2 ) + ..Taylor Series Ratio Test lim ∑ n =0 ∞ f '(a )( x − a) n n! an +1 converges if < 1 an Absolute Convergence: If the absolute value of the series converges the series is said to be absolutely convergent. a ≤ x ≤ b or L = ∫ 1 +   dy if x = f ( y ).