A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin.

org>∗ 9 November 2009

Abstract
A This document lists 5913 symbols and the corresponding L TEX commands that produce them. Some A of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. All of the fonts and packages used to prepare this document—as well as this document itself—are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org/).

Contents
Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Document Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Body-text symbols A Table 1: L TEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Table 2: Predefined L TEX 2ε Text-mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A X 2 Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode Table 3: L TE ε Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) . . . . . . . . . . . Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 12: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 13: wasysym Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 14: phonetic Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 15: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 16: semtrans Transliteration Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 17: Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 18: tipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 19: extraipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 20: wsuipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 21: phonetic Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 22: metre Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 23: t4phonet Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 24: arcs Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 25: semtrans Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 26: ogonek Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 27: combelow Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17

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∗ The original version of this document was written by David Carlisle, with several additional tables provided by Alexander Holt. See Section 8.8 on page 118 for more information about who did what.

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28: 29: 30: 31: 32: 33: 34: 35: 36: 37: 38: 39: 40: 41:

wsuipa Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . marvosym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . wasysym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . C in h A2e Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . teubner Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . eurosym Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Legal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons . textcomp Old-style Numerals . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols

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18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 28 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 34 35 36 36 36 36

Mathematical symbols Table 42: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols . . . . . Table 43: cmll Unary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 44: Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 45: AMS Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 46: stmaryrd Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 47: wasysym Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators . . . . . . . Table 49: mathabx Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 50: MnSymbol Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . Table 51: mathdesign Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . Table 52: cmll Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 53: shuffle Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 54: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . Table 55: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . Table 56: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators . . . . Table 57: Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . Table 58: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . Table 59: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 60: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 61: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators Table 63: esint Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . Table 64: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators . . Table 65: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators . . Table 66: cmll Large Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . Table 67: Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 68: AMS Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 69: AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 70: stmaryrd Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 71: wasysym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 72: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 73: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations . . . Table 74: mathabx Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 75: mathabx Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . Table 76: MnSymbol Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . Table 77: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations . . . . . Table 78: mathtools Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 79: turnstile Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 80: trsym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 81: trfsigns Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 82: cmll Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 83: colonequals Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . 2

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fourier Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . AMS Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations . . . . wasysym Subset and Superset Relations . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations mathabx Subset and Superset Relations . . . . MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations . . Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Arrows . . . . . . . . . . AMS Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Negated Harpoons . . . . . . . . . harpoon Extensible Harpoons . . . . . . . . . chemarrow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fge Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Spoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Pitchforks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns . . . . . . . . . ulsy Contradiction Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters . . . . . mathabx Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . C in h A2e Number Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters . . . . . upgreek Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . fourier Variant Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters . . . . . AMS Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . .

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36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 44 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 51 51 52

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AMS Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . chemarrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nath Delimiters . MnSymbol Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . .Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 141: 142: 143: 144: 145: 146: 147: 148: 149: 150: 151: 152: 153: 154: 155: 156: 157: 158: 159: 160: 161: 162: 163: 164: 165: 166: 167: 168: 169: 170: 171: 172: 173: 174: 175: 176: 177: 178: 179: 180: 181: 182: 183: 184: 185: 186: 187: 188: 189: 190: 191: 192: 193: 194: 195: 196: 197: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esvect Extensible Accents . . . mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fge Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . overrightarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fge Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathcomp Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemarr Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathdesign Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . MnSymbol Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathtools Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Variable-sized Delimiters . . metre Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . yhmath Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . undertilde Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DotArrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . extpfeil Extensible Arrows . . . MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized Delimiters . . . mathabx Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 64 65 65 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trfsigns Extensible Transform Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols Dots . . . . . . . . . yhmath Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extensible Accents . yhmath Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Extensible Accents . extarrows Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trfsigns Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Large. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathdots Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . AMS Extensible Arrows . . wasysym Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ushort Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 228: milstd Logic Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 234: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 219: steinmetz Extensible Phasor Symbol . . . dingbat Pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 bbding Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 77 Science and technology symbols Table 214: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Table 215: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 231: wasysym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 223: wasysym APL Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 226: keystroke Computer Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 227: ascii Control Characters (CP437) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dingbat Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Xs and Check Marks pifont Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . Table 233: marvosym Safety-related Symbols . . pifont Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 217: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Mayan Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Arrows . Table 221: marvosym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 232: marvosym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 216: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Fists . . . . . . . dozenal Base-12 Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 220: wasysym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . .Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 4 198: 199: 200: 201: 202: 203: 204: 205: 206: 207: 208: 209: 210: 211: 212: 213: fge Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 230: marvosym Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Miscellaneous L TEX 2ε Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Scissors . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 218: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols . . . . pifont Scissors . . . . . . . Table 224: wasysym APL Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . universal Arrows . . . . . . . . . . Dingbats Table 235: Table 236: Table 237: Table 238: Table 239: Table 240: Table 241: Table 242: Table 243: Table 244: Table 245: Table 246: Table 247: Table 248: Table 249: Table 250: Table 251: Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 222: mathabx Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 229: marvosym Communication Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 225: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 6

252: 253: 254: 255: 256: 257: 258: 259: 260: 261: 262: 263: 264: 265: 266: 267: 268:

wasysym Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . universal Xs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Circled Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . fourier Ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . ifsym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . bbding Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . pifont Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . universa Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . universal Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats . . . . . . Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats . . . . . . . Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats . . . . . . .

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77 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 85 85 85 86 86 86 87 87 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 93

Ancient languages Table 269: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk . . . . . . Table 270: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters . . . . . . . . . Table 271: hieroglf Hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 272: linearA Linear A Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 273: linearb Linear B Basic and Optional Letters . . . . Table 274: linearb Linear B Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 275: linearb Linear B Weights and Measures . . . . . . . Table 276: linearb Linear B Ideograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 277: linearb Unidentified Linear B Symbols . . . . . . . Table 278: cypriot Cypriot Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 279: sarabian South Arabian Letters . . . . . . . . . . . Table 280: teubner Archaic Greek Letters and Greek Numerals Other symbols Table 281: textcomp Genealogical Symbols . Table 282: wasysym General Symbols . . . . Table 283: wasysym Circles . . . . . . . . . . Table 284: wasysym Musical Symbols . . . . Table 285: arev Musical Symbols . . . . . . . Table 286: harmony Musical Symbols . . . . Table 287: harmony Musical Accents . . . . . Table 288: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols Table 289: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols . . Table 290: marvosym Navigation Symbols . . Table 291: marvosym Laundry Symbols . . . Table 292: marvosym Information Symbols . Table 293: Other marvosym Symbols . . . . . Table 294: Miscellaneous universa Symbols . Table 295: Miscellaneous universal Symbols . Table 296: Miscellaneous fourier Symbols . . Table 297: ifsym Weather Symbols . . . . . . Table 298: ifsym Alpine Symbols . . . . . . . Table 299: ifsym Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 300: Other ifsym Symbols . . . . . . . Table 301: clock Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 302: epsdice Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 303: hhcount Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 304: hhcount Tally Markers . . . . . . Table 305: skull Symbols . . . . . . . . . . .

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Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 8

306: 307: 308: 309: 310: 311: 312: 313: 314: 315: 316: 317: 318: 319: 320:

Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols . . . skak Chess Informator Symbols . . . . . . skak Chess Pieces and Chessboard Squares igo Go Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . metre Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols . teubner Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . dictsym Dictionary Symbols . . . . . . . . simpsons Characters from The Simpsons . pmboxdraw Box-Drawing Symbols . . . . . staves Magical Staves . . . . . . . . . . . . pigpen Cipher Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . C in h A2e Phases of the Moon . . . . . . . . Other C in h A2e Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . recycle Recycling Symbols . . . . . . . . .

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93 93 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 98 99 100 100 100 100 112 113 114 117 118 121 122 123

Additional Information 8.1 Symbol Name Clashes . . . . . . . . 8.2 Resizing symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Where can I find the symbol for . . . ? 8.4 Math-mode spacing . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Bold mathematical symbols . . . . . 8.6 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference . 8.7 Unicode characters . . . . . . . . . . 8.8 About this document . . . . . . . . . 8.9 Copyright and license . . . . . . . .

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References Index

7

1

Introduction

A A Welcome to the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List! This document strives to be your primary source of L TEX A symbol information: font samples, L TEX commands, packages, usage details, caveats—everything needed to put thousands of different symbols at your disposal. All of the fonts covered herein meet the following criteria:

1. They are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org).
A 2. All of their symbols have L TEX 2ε bindings. That is, a user should be able to access a symbol by name, not just by \char number . A These are not particularly limiting criteria; the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List contains samples of 5913 A symbols—quite a large number. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=instpackages+wherefiles for help with installing new fonts and packages.

1.1

Document Usage

Each section of this document contains a number of font tables. Each table shows a set of symbols, with the A corresponding L TEX command to the right of each symbol. A table’s caption indicates what package needs to be loaded in order to access that table’s symbols. For example, the symbols in Table 39, “textcomp Old-Style Numerals”, are made available by putting “\usepackage{textcomp}” in your document’s preamble. “AMS” means to use the AMS packages, viz. amssymb and/or amsmath. Notes below a table provide additional information about some or all the symbols in that table. One note that appears a few times in this document, particularly in Section 2, indicates that certain symbols do not exist in the OT1 font encoding (Donald Knuth’s original, 7-bit font encoding, which is the A default font encoding for L TEX) and that you should use fontenc to select a different encoding, such as T1 (a common 8-bit font encoding). That means that you should put “\usepackage[ encoding ]{fontenc}” in your document’s preamble, where encoding is, e.g., T1 or LY1. To limit the change in font encoding to the current group, use “\fontencoding{ encoding }\selectfont”. Section 8 contains some additional information about the symbols in this document. It discusses how certain mathematical symbols can vary in height, shows which symbol names are not unique across packages, gives examples of how to create new symbols out of existing symbols, explains how symbols are spaced in A math mode, compares various schemes for boldfacing symbols, presents L TEX ASCII and Latin 1 tables, shows how to input and output Unicode characters, and provides some information about this document itself. A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List ends with an index of all the symbols in the document and various additional useful terms.

1.2

Frequently Requested Symbols

There are a number of symbols that are requested over and over again on comp.text.tex. If you’re looking for such a symbol the following list will help you find it quickly. , as in “Spaces are significant.” ´ ` ¯ ˆ etc. (versus ´ ` ¯ and ˆ ı, ı, ı, ı, ı, ı, i, ı) ¢ e ‰ ∴ ........ ........ 9 14 18 18 19 20 27 30 31 38 .. . .............................. .............. ........................ ...................... 64 67 68 68 68

°, as in “180°” or “15 ” L, F, etc.

............................... .............................. ...................... .............................. .............................. ............................... and and ......................... .........................

N, Z, R, etc.
r

©, ®, and ™

...............................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 107

´, `, etc. (i.e., several accents per character) a e ¯ ˆ <, >, and | (instead of ¡, ¿, and —) ˆ and ˜ (or ∼)

. . . . . . 114

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

8

A Table 1: L TEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters $ ∗ \$ % \% \_ ∗ } \} & \& # \# { \{ The underscore package redefines “_” to produce an underscore in text mode (i. and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. † A Table 3: L TEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode $ ¶ § \$ \P \S c © † \_ \copyright \dag ‡ . and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. 9 .. the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default. accents.. such as punctuation marks.. A Table 2: Predefined L TEX 2ε Text-mode Commands c ˆ ˜ ∗ \ | { } • © † ‡ $ .. it makes it unnecessary to escape the underscore character). the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default. — – ¡ > \textasciicircum∗ \textasciitilde∗ \textasteriskcentered \textbackslash \textbar \textbraceleft† \textbraceright† \textbullet \textcopyright† \textdagger† \textdaggerdbl† \textdollar† \textellipsis† \textemdash \textendash \textexclamdown \textgreater a o r TM < ª º ¶ · ¿ “ ” ‘ ’ ® § £ ™ \textless \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph† \textperiodcentered \textquestiondown \textquotedblleft \textquotedblright \textquoteleft \textquoteright \textregistered \textsection† \textsterling† \texttrademark \textunderscore† \textvisiblespace A Where two symbols are present. ligatures. It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.e. and currency symbols.. £ \ddag \dots \pounds { } \{ \} A Where two symbols are present.2 Body-text symbols This section lists symbols that are intended for use in running text. ∗ \^{} and \~{} can be used instead of \textasciicircum and \textasciitilde. See the discussion of “˜” on page 115.

which is provided by the fc package. use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding. Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks — ˜ \ding{123} \ding{124} ™ d \ding{125} \ding{126} e f 10 \ding{161} \ding{162} g \ding{163} . such as T1. Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 « » \guillemotleft \guillemotright ‹ › \guilsinglleft \guilsinglright „ ‚ \quotedblbase \quotesinglbase " \textquotedbl To get these symbols. Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese Ơ \OHORN ơ \ohorn Ư \UHORN ư \uhorn These characters all need the T5 font encoding.Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode \checkmark \circledR \maltese Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) ˚ a ˚ A Æ æ ∗ \aa \AA \AE \ae Ð ð Ð đ \DH∗ \dh∗ \DJ∗ \dj∗ L l Ŋ ŋ \L \l \NG∗ \ng∗ ø Ø Œ œ \o \O \OE \oe ß SS Þ þ \ss \SS \TH∗ \th∗ Not available in the OT1 font encoding. which is provided by the vntex package. ∗ \m{v} and \m{V} are synonyms for \m{u} and \m{U}. such as T1. Ð ž ‡ § · —   €  \B{D} \B{d} \B{H} \B{h} \B{t} \B{T} \m{b} \m{B} \m{C} °  ð Ð ¡ ‚ ¢ ƒ £ Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages \m{c} \m{D} \M{d} \M{D} \m{d} \m{E} \m{e} \M{E} \M{e} ¤ „ † ¦ À à ‰ © ˆ \m{f} \m{F} \m{G} \m{g} \m{I} \m{i} \m{J} \m{j} \m{K} ¨  ­ ª Š ‘ ± ¬ Œ \m{k} \m{N} \m{n} \m{o} \m{O} \m{P} \m{p} \m{s} \m{S} » › º š ® Ž  ¯ ¶ \M{t} \M{T} \m{t} \m{T} \m{u}∗ \m{U}∗ \m{Y} \m{y} \m{z} –  â Å å \m{Z} \T{E} \T{e} \T{O} \T{o} These characters all need the T4 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding.

ż # á ê Á â ä H Ê Î Ò Ó č É Ö ß Û K Ì ń : ş ę ű Ô ¡ M ñ ë Ð Í ŋ ř _ O % F | " ij ğ 7 \ 9 3 Q ź \textglotstop \texthalflength \texthardsign \texthooktop \texthtb \texthtbardotlessj \texthtc \texthtd \texthtg \texthth \texththeng \texthtk \texthtp \texthtq \texthtrtaild \texthtscg \texthtt \texthvlig \textinvglotstop \textinvscr \textiota \textlambda \textlengthmark \textlhookt \textlhtlongi \textlhtlongy \textlonglegr \textlptr \textltailm \textltailn \textltilde \textlyoghlig \textObardotlessj \textOlyoghlig \textomega \textopencorner \textopeno \textpalhook \textphi \textpipe \textprimstress \textraiseglotstop \textraisevibyi \textramshorns \textrevapostrophe \textreve \textrevepsilon \textrevglotstop \textrevyogh ï ó ù ú ü $ À à ď å Ë @ I ĺ Ï ð Œ ś ö A g V Ú Y ž  tC Ù T þ £ 5 ŕ 4 ľ Õ W î ô õ 6 Ø 2 û L U \textrtailn \textrtailr \textrtails \textrtailt \textrtailz \textrthook \textsca \textscb \textsce \textscg \textsch \textschwa \textsci \textscj \textscl \textscn \textscoelig \textscomega \textscr \textscripta \textscriptg \textscriptv \textscu \textscy \textsecstress \textsoftsign \textstretchc \texttctclig \textteshlig \texttheta \textthorn \texttoneletterstem \texttslig \textturna \textturncelig \textturnh \textturnk \textturnlonglegr \textturnm \textturnmrleg \textturnr \textturnrrtail \textturnscripta \textturnt \textturnv \textturnw \textturny \textupsilon \textupstep Å Ñ Æ Þ ^ ă ą g è Û ň 2 C ć ćý š J ő ť ťC ÿ ý dý S } = / { Ş Ť à dz E (continued on next page) 11 .Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols È b c d é g Ü 1 ł 8 Ý 0 ì B ò \textbabygamma \textbarb \textbarc \textbard \textbardotlessj \textbarg \textbarglotstop \textbari \textbarl \textbaro \textbarrevglotstop \textbaru \textbeltl \textbeta \textbullseye \textceltpal \textchi \textcloseepsilon \textcloseomega \textcloserevepsilon \textcommatailz \textcorner \textcrb \textcrd \textcrg \textcrh \textcrinvglotstop \textcrlambda \textcrtwo \textctc \textctd \textctdctzlig \textctesh \textctj \textctn \textctt \textcttctclig \textctyogh \textctz \textdctzlig \textdoublebaresh \textdoublebarpipe \textdoublebarslash \textdoublepipe \textdoublevertline \textdownstep \textdyoghlig \textdzlig \textepsilon P .

Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols " B . It also defines a command \tone for denoting tone letters (pitches). D 2 % & @ ) H G ˇ 7 5 ’ ( ? T U V . 0 4 \textaolig \textbenttailyogh \textbktailgamma \textctinvglotstop \textctjvar \textctstretchc \textctstretchcvar \textctturnt \textdblig \textdoublebarpipevar \textdoublepipevar \textdownfullarrow \textfemale \textfrbarn \textfrhookd \textfrhookdvar \textfrhookt \textfrtailgamma \textglotstopvari \textglotstopvarii \textglotstopvariii \textgrgamma \textheng \texthmlig 3 . See the tipa documentation for more information.(continued from previous page) S R ě G Ů Ű \textesh \textfishhookr \textg \textgamma \textglobfall \textglobrise Ç Ä ~ ¿ ã í \textrhookrevepsilon \textrhookschwa \textrhoticity \textrptr \textrtaild \textrtaill Š ğ ů Z \textvertline \textvibyi \textvibyy \textwynn \textyogh tipa defines shortcut characters for many of the above. p ! I # < 1 > 6 9 ˆ ˜ F = ¨ ˚ v z * + : / \texthtbardotlessjvar \textinvomega \textinvsca \textinvscripta \textlfishhookrlig \textlhookfour \textlhookp \textlhti \textlooptoprevesh \textnrleg \textObullseye \textpalhooklong \textpalhookvar \textpipevar \textqplig \textrectangle \textretractingvar \textrevscl \textrevscr \textrhooka \textrhooke \textrhookepsilon \textrhookopeno \textrtailhth ´ q r s t w x y ˝ $ ˙ ¯ P Q R S E u { C A 8 ˘ \textrthooklong \textscaolig \textscdelta \textscf \textsck \textscm \textscp \textscq \textspleftarrow \textstretchcvar \textsubdoublearrow \textsubrightarrow \textthornvari \textthornvarii \textthornvariii \textthornvariv \textturnglotstop \textturnsck \textturnscu \textturnthree \textturntwo \textuncrfemale \textupfullarrow 12 .

Table 12: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols 3 ¦  9 F ` e C ˆ „ Y  ‚ c ' ¥  5 Q  x — ” @  e \babygamma \barb \bard \bari \barl \baro \barp \barsci \barscu \baru \clickb \clickc \clickt \closedniomega \closedrevepsilon \crossb \crossd \crossh \crossnilambda \curlyc \curlyesh \curlyyogh \curlyz \dlbari \dz \ejective V " w  h ˜ ¨  ) 6 7 & 4   D d 8 s S q u £ ¤  ’ 2 \eng \er \esh \eth \flapr \glotstop \hookb \hookd \hookg \hookh \hookheng \hookrevepsilon \hv \inva \invf \invglotstop \invh \invlegr \invm \invr \invscr \invscripta \invv \invw \invy \ipagamma R G T i I ¢ © ‘ $ 1 A P b g y ƒ † U d a # f % ™ 0 \labdentalnas \latfric \legm \legr \lz \nialpha \nibeta \nichi \niepsilon \nigamma \niiota \nilambda \niomega \niphi \nisigma \nitheta \niupsilon \nj \oo \openo \reve \reveject \revepsilon \revglotstop \scd \scg ! B X t ¡ ( ‰ ‡ “ §   …  r H W p v € •  f E – \schwa \sci \scn \scr \scripta \scriptg \scriptv \scu \scy \slashb \slashc \slashd \slashu \taild \tailinvr \taill \tailn \tailr \tails \tailt \tailz \tesh \thorn \tildel \yogh Table 13: wasysym Phonetic Symbols D Þ \DH \Thorn \dh \inve þ \openo \thorn Table 14: phonetic Phonetic Symbols j ¡ w n x 4 s d p \barj \barlambda \emgma \engma \enya \epsi \esh \eth \fj f c f ˜ h „ k u h \flap \glottal \hausaB \hausab \hausad \hausaD \hausak \hausaK \hookd i ¯ ™ ¯ h … ¢   m  r \ibar \openo \planck \pwedge \revD \riota \rotm \rotOmega \rotr e w y e p u u — q \rotvara \rotw \roty \schwa \thorn \ubar \udesc \vara \varg i ¨ g v ˚ h x \vari \varomega \varopeno \vod \voicedh \yogh 13 .

Requires the T5 font encoding..{a} \={A}\={a} \^{A}\^{a} Aa ∗ † `a A` ¿a A¿ ˜a A˜ Aa ¯¯ Aa ¸¸ \‘{A}\‘{a} \|{A}\|{a}‡ \~{A}\~{a} \b{A}\b{a} \c{A}\c{a} Aa Aa . For example. 14 . which produce dotless versions of “i” and “j” (viz. “na\"{\i}ve” always produces a correct “na¨ ıve”. combine) letters and accents. Font encodings other than OT1 and newer versions of L TEX properly typeset “na\"{i}ve” as “na¨ ıve”. These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot in encodings that need to composite (i. such as T1. ‡ § Also note the existence of \i and \j. “ı” and “”). Ảả ˝a A˝ Ąą Ÿa AŸ \d{A}\d{a} \G{A}\G{a}‡ \h{A}\h{a}§ \H{A}\H{a} \k{A}\k{a}† ˚a A˚ Aa ˘a A˘ ˇa Aˇ ¼a A¼ \r{A}\r{a} \t{A}\t{a} \u{A}\u{a} \U{A}\U{a}‡ \v{A}\v{a} \newtie{A}\newtie{a}∗ \textcircled{A}\textcircled{a} Requires the textcomp package. while “na\"{i}ve” yields the rather odd-looking “na¨ ive” when using the OT1 font encoding and older A A versions of L TEX.. Requires the T4 font encoding.e. Not available in the OT1 font encoding.{A}\.ž § ¢ ¬    ° Table 15: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols \textcrd \textcrh \textepsilon \textesh \textfjlig \texthtb \texthtc ¡ ¨ ± º à © ª \texthtd \texthtk \texthtp \texthtt \textiota \textltailn \textopeno | ð » ¡ ¬ œ ¶ \textpipe \textrtaild \textrtailt \textschwa \textscriptv \textteshlig \textyogh The idea behind the t4phonet package’s phonetic symbols is to provide an interface to some of the characters in the T4 font encoding (Table 6 on page 10) but using the same names as the tipa characters presented in Table 10 on page 11. provided by the fc package.. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding. provided by the vntex package. Table 16: semtrans Transliteration Symbols \Alif \Ayn Table 17: Text-mode Accents ¨a A¨ ´a A´ ˙˙ Aa ¯a A¯ ˆa Aˆ \"{A}\"{a} \’{A}\’{a} \.

Table 18: tipa Text-mode Accents ´¯ ¯a A´ ´ˇ ˇa A´ Aa ffiffi A< <a ˘a ¯˘ A¯ Ża AŻ ˆa ˙˙ Aˆ §a A§ ˙˙ ˘a A˘ ‚a A‚ İa Aİ Ža AŽ đa Ađ `a ¯¯ A` Źa AŹ Aa „„ Aa flfl Ÿa AŸ ‰a A‰ —— Aa Aa ˛˛ Aa fifi Aa fflffl ˚˚ ¯a A¯ “a A“ Aa Aa ›› Aa ““ Aa ¯¯ Aa ”” Aa ˆˆ Aa ˙˙ Aa ‹‹ Aa –– Aa ffff Aa »» Aa ˚˚ Aa «« Aa ˜˜ Aa ¨¨ \textacutemacron{A}\textacutemacron{a} \textacutewedge{A}\textacutewedge{a} \textadvancing{A}\textadvancing{a} \textbottomtiebar{A}\textbottomtiebar{a} \textbrevemacron{A}\textbrevemacron{a} \textcircumacute{A}\textcircumacute{a} \textcircumdot{A}\textcircumdot{a} \textdotacute{A}\textdotacute{a} \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} \textgravecircum{A}\textgravecircum{a} \textgravedot{A}\textgravedot{a} \textgravemacron{A}\textgravemacron{a} \textgravemid{A}\textgravemid{a} \textinvsubbridge{A}\textinvsubbridge{a} \textlowering{A}\textlowering{a} \textmidacute{A}\textmidacute{a} \textovercross{A}\textovercross{a} \textoverw{A}\textoverw{a} \textpolhook{A}\textpolhook{a} \textraising{A}\textraising{a} \textretracting{A}\textretracting{a} \textringmacron{A}\textringmacron{a} \textroundcap{A}\textroundcap{a} \textseagull{A}\textseagull{a} \textsubacute{A}\textsubacute{a} \textsubarch{A}\textsubarch{a} \textsubbar{A}\textsubbar{a} \textsubbridge{A}\textsubbridge{a} \textsubcircum{A}\textsubcircum{a} \textsubdot{A}\textsubdot{a} \textsubgrave{A}\textsubgrave{a} \textsublhalfring{A}\textsublhalfring{a} \textsubplus{A}\textsubplus{a} \textsubrhalfring{A}\textsubrhalfring{a} \textsubring{A}\textsubring{a} \textsubsquare{A}\textsubsquare{a} \textsubtilde{A}\textsubtilde{a} \textsubumlaut{A}\textsubumlaut{a} (continued on next page) 15 .

Table 19: extraipa Text-mode Accents ”” Aa ”” Ŕ Ŕ ˜a A˜ . \acbar and \acarc compose characters with multiple accents. 16 .(continued from previous page) Aa —— Aa ˇˇ A& &a Aa " " ˜a ˙˙ A˜ >> Aa IJa AIJ \textsubw{A}\textsubw{a} \textsubwedge{A}\textsubwedge{a} \textsuperimposetilde{A}\textsuperimposetilde{a} \textsyllabic{A}\textsyllabic{a} \texttildedot{A}\texttildedot{a} \texttoptiebar{A}\texttoptiebar{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a} tipa defines shortcut sequences for many of the above. ˜a A˜ ˜a A˜ Aa» ˇ»ˇ Aa» » ˚˚ A–a –ˇ ˇ Aa –”–” ˚˚ Aa A– –ˇ»a» ˇ \bibridge{A}\bibridge{a} \crtilde{A}\crtilde{a} \dottedtilde{A}\dottedtilde{a} \doubletilde{A}\doubletilde{a} \finpartvoice{A}\finpartvoice{a} \finpartvoiceless{A}\finpartvoiceless{a} \inipartvoice{A}\inipartvoice{a} \inipartvoiceless{A}\inipartvoiceless{a} \overbridge{A}\overbridge{a} \partvoice{A}\partvoice{a} A– – »a» ˚˚ A¯ ¯a A˙ ˙a Aa ^^ Aa ¯¯ Aa "" "" Aa ¡¡ Aa ¿¿ Aa \partvoiceless{A}\partvoiceless{a} \sliding{A}\sliding{a} \spreadlips{A}\spreadlips{a} \subcorner{A}\subcorner{a} \subdoublebar{A}\subdoublebar{a} \subdoublevert{A}\subdoublevert{a} \sublptr{A}\sublptr{a} \subrptr{A}\subrptr{a} \whistle{A}\whistle{a} Table 20: wsuipa Text-mode Accents Aa gg Aa  \dental{A}\dental{a} \underarch{A}\underarch{a} Table 21: phonetic Text-mode Accents Aa { { \hill{A}\hill{a} \od{A}\od{a} \ohill{A}\ohill{a} Aa ©© Aa A. . a \rc{A}\rc{a} \syl{A}\syl{a} \td{A}\td{a} Aa ˚˚ { { Aa Aa ˜˜ \ut{A}\ut{a} The phonetic package provides a few additional macros for linguistic accents. for example. See the tipa documentation for more information. Lastly. \labvel joins a e two characters with an arc: \labvel{mn} → “mn”. ¯ ¯ \acbar{\’}{a} produces “´” and \acarc{\"}{e} produces “¨”. . Contrast “p\uplett{h}’’ → “ph ” with “p\textsuperscript{h}’’ → “ph ”. \upbar is intended to go between characters as in “x\upbar{}y’’ → “x y”... \uplett behaves like \textsuperscript but uses a smaller font...

Hence. Table 26: ogonek Accents \k{A}\k{a} Table 27: combelow Accents \cb{A}\cb{a} \cb places a comma above letters with descenders.Table 22: metre Text-mode Accents ´´ Aa ˘˘ Aa ˜˜ Aa ¨¨ Aa `` Aa ¯¯ Aa \acutus{A}\acutus{a} \breve{A}\breve{a} \circumflexus{A}\circumflexus{a} \diaeresis{A}\diaeresis{a} \gravis{A}\gravis{a} \macron{A}\macron{a} Ÿa AŸ ¿¿ Aa ¼a A¼ Table 23: t4phonet Text-mode Accents \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} The idea behind the t4phonet package’s text-mode accents is to provide an interface to some of the accents in the T4 font encoding (accents marked with “‡” in Table 17 on page 14) but using the same names as the tipa accents presented in Table 18 on page 15. while “\cb{s}” produces ‘ “s”. 17 .. Table 25: semtrans Accents Aa ¨¨ \D{A}\D{a} aA Aa Aa . See the arcs documentation for more information. . Table 24: arcs Text-mode Accents Aa \overarc{A}\overarc{a} Aa \underarc{A}\underarc{a} The accents shown above scale only to a few characters wide. An optional macro argument alters the effective width of the accented characters. “\cb{g}” produces “g”. Aa ˘˘ \U{A}\U{a} \T{A}\T{a}∗ \T is not actually an accent but a command that rotates its argument 180° using the graphicx package’s \rotatebox command.

For example. not as accents. which are used to compose diacritics with other characters. The mathdesign package redefines \texteuro to be visually compatible with one of three additional fonts: Utopia ( ). See the wsuipa doca a umentation for more information. or Garamond ( ). and \diaunder[\underdots|a] produces “r”. Charter ( ). Table 29: textcomp Diacritics \textacutedbl \textasciiacute \textasciibreve \textasciicaron \textasciidieresis \textasciigrave \textasciimacron \textgravedbl The textcomp package defines all of the above as ordinary characters. Times Roman (\EURtm). Table 32: wasysym Currency Symbols ¢ \cent ¤ 18 \currency . and the marvosym digits listed in Table 197 (\EURdig). However. not as accents.Table 28: wsuipa Diacritics s k u m p \ain \corner \downp \downt \halflength v n q { z \leftp \leftt \length \midtilde \open x ~ w o i \overring \polishhook \rightp \rightt \secstress h j r y | \stress \syllabic \underdots \underring \undertilde } t l \underwedge \upp \upt The wsuipa package defines all of the above as ordinary characters. Table 31: marvosym Currency Symbols ¢  \Denarius \Ecommerce e d \EUR \EURcr D c \EURdig \EURhv e ¦ \EURtm \EyesDollar £ ¡ \Pfund \Shilling The different euro signs are meant to be visually compatible with different fonts— Courier (\EURcr). Helvetica (\EURhv). it does provide \diatop and \diaunder commands. Table 30: textcomp Currency Symbols ¢  ₡ ¤ \textbaht \textcent \textcentoldstyle \textcolonmonetary \textcurrency ∗ $  ₫ € ƒ \textdollar∗ \textdollaroldstyle \textdong \texteuro \textflorin ₤ £ \textguarani \textlira \textnaira \textpeso \textsterling∗ ¥ \textwon \textyen It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. \diatop[\overring|a] produces “x”.

characters are generated from the current body font’s “C” character and therefore may not appear exactly as shown. . the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default.ac. Table 36: fourier Euro Signs \eurologo \texteuro Table 37: textcomp Legal Symbols \textcircledP \textcopyleft c r © ® \textcopyright \textregistered TM ™ \textservicemark \texttrademark A Where two symbols are present. 19 C \ccnc∗ \ccsa∗ . See http://www. and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. See the eurosym documentation for more information.g.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=tradesyms for solutions to common problems that occur when using these symbols (e. The \geneuro. \officialeuro— based on a eurosym package option.Table 33: C in h A2e Currency Symbols ÿ \Euro þ \Pound Table 34: teubner Currency Symbols Ε \denarius \dracma Α \hemiobelion \stater Β \tetartemorion Table 35: eurosym Euro Signs A C \geneuro B C \geneuronarrow C C \geneurowide e \officialeuro \euro is automatically mapped to one of the above—by default. Table 38: cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons \ CC \cc ∗ BY: \ccby $ = \ccnd These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in some DVI viewers.. .tex. getting a “ r ” when you expected to get a “®”).

commands shown above. Table 41: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols \permil 20 . . consider using \oldstylenums{. \texttwooldstyle. and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.Table 39: textcomp Old-style Numerals     \textzerooldstyle \textoneoldstyle \texttwooldstyle \textthreeoldstyle     \textfouroldstyle \textfiveoldstyle \textsixoldstyle \textsevenoldstyle   \texteightoldstyle \textnineoldstyle Rather than use the bulky \textoneoldstyle.} to typeset an old-style number. etc. the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default. ∗ It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. Table 40: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols ∗ ○ ¦ • † ‡ \textasteriskcentered \textbardbl \textbigcircle \textblank \textbrokenbar \textbullet \textdagger∗ \textdaggerdbl∗ \textdblhyphen \textdblhyphenchar \textdiscount \textestimated \textinterrobang \textinterrobangdown \textmusicalnote \textnumero \textopenbullet a o ª º ¶ · ‰ ' ℮ §  ♪ № ◦ \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph∗ \textperiodcentered \textpertenthousand \textperthousand \textpilcrow \textquotesingle \textquotestraightbase \textquotestraightdblbase \textrecipe \textreferencemark \textsection∗ \textthreequartersemdash \texttildelow \texttwelveudash A Where two symbols are present. .

That is.tex for a contradiction symbol. and possibly shorter still when used in various levels of superscripts or subscripts. The moral of the story is that you should be careful always to explain your notation to avoid confusing your readers. they yield a “Missing $ inserted” error message if not used within $.text.. “⇒⇐” (\Rightarrow\Leftarrow). Table 43: cmll Unary Operators ! ˜ ∗ \oc∗ \shift ˆ ´ \shneg \shpos ? \wn∗ \oc and \wn differ from “!” and “?” in terms of their math-mode spacing: $A=!B$ produces “A =!B”. Operators marked as “variable-sized” are taller in displayed formulas. See also the example of \equalsfill on page 108.2 Finally.$.text. or another math-mode environment. Similarly. and “ ” (\textreferencemark). Because of the lack of notational consensus. “L ” and “ ”) are usually produced using one of the math alphabets in Table 213 rather than with an explicit symbol command. · “ ” (\sqcup). Alphanumeric symbols (e. pxfonts. . 21 . and “ =” (\stackrel{\text{\tiny def}}{=}). of the symbols in this section are math-mode only. it is probably better to spell out “Contradiction!” than to use a symbol for this purpose.g.tex.\]. shorter in in-text formulas. Table 42: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols $ . “⊥” (\bot).. “ ” (various 1 ). Look there first if you need a symbol for a transform. discussions on comp. while $A=\oc B$ produces “A = !B”. the average value of a variable x is written by some people as “x” (\overline{x}). In colonequals it’s called \colonequals. . \mathdollar \mathellipsis ¶ § \mathparagraph \mathsection £ \mathsterling \mathunderscore It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. number set. “⊕” (\oplus). 2 Bob Tennent listed these and other disjoint-union symbol possibilities in a November 2007 post to comp. “∪” (\dotcup). . or some other alphanumeric.3 Mathematical symbols Most. by some people as “ x ” (\langle x \rangle). disjoint union may be represented as “ ” (\coprod). Common candidates include “ ” (\triangleq). or any of a number of other symbols. Depending upon the context.. def “≡” (\equiv). and by some people as “ x” or “∅x” (\diameter x or \varnothing x). \[. . and mathtools the symbol is called \coloneqq. the ensuing discussion invariably reveals innumerable ways to represent contradiction in a proof. including “©” (\blitza). for example. but not all.tex have revealed that there are a variety of ways to indicate the mathematical notion of “is defined as”. 1 In txfonts. In mathabx and MnSymbol it’s called \coloneq.text. “ ” (\nleftrightarrow). Although there have been many requests on comp.

Table 45: AMS Binary Operators \barwedge \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxtimes \Cap \centerdot \circledast ∗ \circledcirc \circleddash \Cup \curlyvee \curlywedge \divideontimes \dotplus \doublebarwedge \intercal∗ \leftthreetimes \ltimes \rightthreetimes \rtimes \smallsetminus \veebar Some people use a superscripted \intercal for matrix transpose: “A^\intercal” → “A ”. Table 46: stmaryrd Binary Operators \baro \bbslash \binampersand \bindnasrepma \boxast \boxbar \boxbox \boxbslash \boxcircle \boxdot \boxempty \boxslash \curlyveedownarrow \curlyveeuparrow \curlywedgedownarrow \curlywedgeuparrow \fatbslash \fatsemi \fatslash \interleave \leftslice \merge \minuso \moo \nplus \obar \oblong \obslash \ogreaterthan \olessthan \ovee \owedge \rightslice \sslash \talloblong \varbigcirc \varcurlyvee \varcurlywedge 22 \varoast \varobar \varobslash \varocircle \varodot \varogreaterthan \varolessthan \varominus \varoplus \varoslash \varotimes \varovee \varowedge \vartimes \Ydown \Yleft \Yright \Yup . “AT ”. “raising math symbols”. pxfonts.Table 44: Binary Operators ∗ \amalg \ast \bigcirc \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \bullet \cap \cdot \circ ∪ † ‡ ÷ \cup \dagger \ddagger \diamond \div \lhd∗ \mp \odot \ominus ⊕ ⊗ ± \ \oplus \oslash \otimes \pm \rhd∗ \setminus \sqcap \sqcup \star × \times \triangleleft \triangleright \unlhd∗ \unrhd∗ \uplus \vee \wedge \wr • ∩ · ◦ ∗ ∨ ∧ A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym. for suggestions about altering the height of the superscript. “AT ”. amsfonts.text. txfonts. or wasysym. and \mathsf{T} are other popular choices: “A ”.tex thread. T. amssymb.) \top (Table 139 on page 51). (See the May 2009 comp.

\bigast produces a large-operator version of the \Asterisk binary operator. Similarly. \asterisk produces the same glyph as \ast. Table 50: MnSymbol Binary Operators \amalg \ast \backslashdiv \bowtie \bullet \cap \capdot \capplus \cdot \circ \doublesqcup \doublevee \doublewedge \downtherefore \downY \dtimes \fivedots \hbipropto \hdotdot \lefthalfcap \righttherefore \rightthreetimes \rightY \rtimes \slashdiv \smallprod \sqcap \sqcapdot \sqcapplus \sqcup ∗ ∩ ⋅ ○ (continued on next page) 23 . not a binary operator. and \ast is equivalent to *.Table 47: wasysym Binary Operators \lhd \LHD \ocircle \rhd \RHD \unlhd \unrhd Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators \circledbar \circledbslash \circledvee \circledwedge \invamp \medbullet \medcirc \sqcapplus \sqcupplus Table 49: mathabx Binary Operators ¦ ¦ ˆ    ˆ ¨ § §  ‰ y \ast \Asterisk \barwedge \bigstar \bigvarstar \blackdiamond \cap \circplus \coasterisk \coAsterisk \convolution \cup \curlyvee x £  ¡   ¢  ’ “  ©   \curlywedge \divdot \divideontimes \dotdiv \dotplus \dottimes \doublebarwedge \doublecap \doublecup \ltimes \pluscirc \rtimes \sqbullet ‘ ’ ” • ¥ “ ¤   • ‰ ‘ ” \sqcap \sqcup \sqdoublecap \sqdoublecup \square \squplus \udot \uplus \varstar \vee \veebar \veedoublebar \wedge Many of the above glyphs go by multiple names. but as an ordinary symbol. and \bigcoast produces a large-operator version of the \coAsterisk binary operator. \centerdot is equivalent to \sqbullet.

\Cap as a synonym \doublecap. and. \shortmid as a synonym for \medvert.(continued from previous page) ∪ ÷ \closedcurlyvee \closedcurlywedge \cup \cupdot \cupplus \curlyvee \curlyveedot \curlywedge \curlywedgedot \ddotdot \diamonddots \div \dotmedvert \dotminus \doublecap \doublecup \doublecurlyvee \doublecurlywedge \doublesqcap − + ± \lefthalfcup \lefttherefore \leftthreetimes \leftY \ltimes \medbackslash \medcircle \medslash \medvert \medvertdot \minus \minusdot \mp \neswbipropto \nwsebipropto \plus \pm \righthalfcap \righthalfcup × ∴ ∨ ∧ \sqcupdot \sqcupplus \squaredots \times \udotdot \uptherefore \upY \utimes \vbipropto \vdotdot \vee \veedot \vertbowtie \vertdiv \wedge \wedgedot \wreath MnSymbol defines \setminus and \smallsetminus as synonyms \medbackslash. Table 53: shuffle Binary Operators ¢ \cshuffle ¡ \shuffle Table 54: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators ¨ \odplus 24 . for for for for Table 51: mathdesign Binary Operators \dtimes \udtimes \utimes The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the binary operators shown in Table 45 on page 22. \wr as a synonym \wreath. \Join as a synonym for \bowtie. \Cup as a synonym for \doublecup. Table 52: cmll Binary Operators ` ∗ \parr & \with∗ \with differs from “&” in terms of its math-mode spacing: $A \& B$ produces “A&B”. for example. while $A \with B$ produces “A & B”. \uplus as a synonym \cupplus.

\circledast as a synonym for \oast. \circledcirc as a synonym for \ocirc. \star as a synonym for \thinstar. Table 57: Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcap \bigcup \bigodot \bigoplus \bigotimes \bigsqcup \biguplus \bigvee 25 \bigwedge \coprod \int \oint \prod \sum . \Diamond as a synonym for \meddiamond. ž Ÿ œ f n k e g ™ d h — – Table 55: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators \blacktriangledown \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \blacktriangleup \boxasterisk \boxbackslash \boxbot \boxcirc \boxcoasterisk \boxdiv \boxdot \boxleft \boxminus \boxplus i m ˜ j o l f n k e g ™ d h \boxright \boxslash \boxtimes \boxtop \boxtriangleup \boxvoid \oasterisk \obackslash \obot \ocirc \ocoasterisk \odiv \odot \oleft — – i m ˜ j o l ™ š › ˜ \ominus \oplus \oright \oslash \otimes \otop \otriangleup \ovoid \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup Table 56: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators \boxbackslash \boxbox \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxslash \boxtimes \boxvert \diamondbackslash \diamonddiamond \diamonddot \diamondminus \diamondplus \diamondslash \diamondtimes \diamondvert \downslice \filleddiamond \filledmedsquare \filledmedtriangledown \filledmedtriangleleft \filledmedtriangleright \filledmedtriangleup \filledsquare \filledstar \filledtriangledown \filledtriangleleft \filledtriangleright \filledtriangleup \meddiamond \medsquare \medstar \medtriangledown \medtriangleleft \medtriangleright \medtriangleup \oast \obackslash \ocirc \odot \ominus \oplus \oslash \ostar \otimes \otriangle \overt \pentagram \smalldiamond \smallsquare \smallstar \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup \thinstar \upslice ⊕ ⊗ MnSymbol defines \blacksquare as a synonym for \filledmedsquare. \circleddash as a synonym for \ominus. \diamond as a synonym for \smalldiamond. and. \square and \Box as synonyms for \medsquare.

∗ † Not defined when wasysym is passed the integrals option. Otherwise. Table 61: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators œ¬ –¦ ›« Öö \bigcurlyvee \bigsqcap \bigcurlywedge \bigboxasterisk Ýý Òò Úú ßÿ \bigboxslash \bigboxtimes \bigboxtop \bigboxtriangleup Éé Íí Êê Ïï \bigoright \bigoslash \bigotop \bigotriangleup (continued on next page) 26 . the default A L TEX \int glyph (as shown in Table 57) is used.Table 58: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators \iint \iiiint ··· ··· \iiint \idotsint Table 59: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators \bigbox \bigcurlyvee \bigcurlywedge \biginterleave \bignplus \bigparallel \bigsqcap \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup Table 60: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators \int† \varint∗ \iint \varoint∗ \iiint \oiint None of the preceding symbols are defined when wasysym is passed the nointegrals option. Defined only when wasysym is passed the integrals option.

(continued from previous page) Þþ Ûû Õõ ×÷ Óó Ôô Øø Ññ Ðð Ùù \bigboxbackslash \bigboxbot \bigboxcirc \bigboxcoasterisk \bigboxdiv \bigboxdot \bigboxleft \bigboxminus \bigboxplus \bigboxright Üü ’ ¢ Ææ Îî Ëë Åå Çç Ãã Èè Áá \bigboxvoid \bigcomplementop \bigoasterisk \bigobackslash \bigobot \bigocirc \bigocoasterisk \bigodiv \bigoleft \bigominus Ìì   ˜¨ ‘¡ µ½ ´ ¼ ³ » · ¿ ¶ ¾ \bigovoid \bigplus \bigsquplus \bigtimes \iiint \iint \int \oiint \oint Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators \bigsqcapplus \bigsqcupplus \fint \idotsint \iiiint \iiint \ointclockwise \ointctrclockwise \sqiiint \sqiint \sqint \varoiiintclockwise (continued on next page) 27 .

(continued from previous page) \iint \oiiintclockwise \oiiintctrclockwise \oiiint \oiintclockwise \oiintctrclockwise \oiint \varoiiintctrclockwise \varoiintclockwise \varoiintctrclockwise \varointclockwise \varointctrclockwise \varprod Table 63: esint Variable-sized Math Operators ¯ ffl ˇ ˝ ˜ % # ‚ ˘ \iiiint ˚ \iiint ¨ \iint & \landdownint $ \landupint ‹ \oiint ˙ \dotsint \fint ” › ! ff fl „ \sqiint “ \sqint " \varoiint fi \varointclockwise ffi \varointctrclockwise ı  \ointclockwise ‰ \ointctrclockwise 28 .

29 .Table 64: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcap \bigcapdot \bigcapplus \bigcircle \bigcup \bigcupdot \bigcupplus∗ \bigcurlyvee \bigcurlyveedot \bigcurlywedge \bigcurlywedgedot \bigdoublecurlyvee \bigdoublecurlywedge \bigdoublevee \bigdoublewedge \bigoast \bigobackslash \bigocirc \bigodot \bigominus \bigoplus \bigoslash \bigostar \bigotimes \bigotriangle \bigovert \bigplus \bigsqcap \bigsqcapdot \bigsqcapplus \bigsqcup \bigsqcupdot \bigsqcupplus \bigtimes \bigvee \bigveedot \bigwedge \bigwedgedot ∑ ∏ ∫ \complement \coprod \idotsint \iiiint \iiint \iint \int \landdownint \landupint \lcircleleftint \lcirclerightint \oiint \oint \prod \rcircleleftint \rcirclerightint \strokedint \sum \sumint ∗ MnSymbol defines \biguplus as a synonym for \bigcupplus.

Table 66: cmll Large Math Operators ˙ \bigparr ˘ \bigwith Table 67: Binary Relations ≈ \approx \asymp \bowtie \cong \dashv \doteq ≡ \equiv \frown \Join∗ \mid† \models \parallel ⊥ \perp \prec \preceq \propto \sim \simeq \smile \succ \succeq \vdash | |= ∝ ∼ ∗ A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Contrast “P(A | B)” → “P (A|B)” with “P(A \mid B)” → “P (A | B)”. amsfonts. or wasysym. Garamond ( ). of every symbol—to accompany different text fonts: Utopia ( ). pxfonts. † The difference between \mid and | is that the former is a binary relation while A the latter is a math ordinal. txfonts. Table 68: AMS Binary Relations \approxeq \backepsilon \backsim \backsimeq \because \between \Bumpeq \bumpeq \circeq \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteqdot \eqcirc \fallingdotseq \multimap \pitchfork \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precsim \risingdotseq \shortmid \shortparallel \smallfrown \smallsmile 30 \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succsim \therefore \thickapprox \thicksim \varpropto \Vdash \vDash \Vvdash ∴ ≈ ∼ ∝ .Table 65: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators \intclockwise \ointclockwise \oiiint \ointctrclockwise \oiint The mathdesign package provides three versions of each integral—in fact. Use one of the packages latexsym. Consequently. and Charter ( ). L TEX typesets the two with different surrounding spacing. mathabx. amssymb.

Table 69: AMS Negated Binary Relations \ncong \nmid \nparallel \nprec \npreceq \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsucc \nsucceq \nvDash \nvdash \nVDash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim Table 70: stmaryrd Binary Relations \inplus \niplus Table 71: wasysym Binary Relations \invneg \Join \leadsto \logof \wasypropto Table 72: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations \circledgtr \circledless \colonapprox \Colonapprox \coloneq \Coloneq \Coloneqq \coloneqq∗ \Colonsim \colonsim \Eqcolon \eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon \eqsim ∗ \lJoin \lrtimes \multimap \multimapboth \multimapbothvert \multimapdot \multimapdotboth \multimapdotbothA \multimapdotbothAvert \multimapdotbothB \multimapdotbothBvert \multimapdotbothvert \multimapdotinv \multimapinv \openJoin \opentimes \Perp \preceqq \precneqq \rJoin \strictfi \strictif \strictiff \succeqq \succneqq \varparallel \varparallelinv \VvDash As an alternative to using txfonts/pxfonts. a “:=” symbol can be constructed with “\mathrel{\mathop:}=”. Table 73: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations \napproxeq \nasymp \nbacksim \nbacksimeq \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \nequiv \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceqq \nprecsim \nsimeq \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceqq \nsuccsim 31 \nthickapprox \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \nvarparallel \nvarparallelinv \nVdash .

2  % # & ! ) ¶ · A A Table 74: mathabx Binary Relations \between \botdoteq \Bumpedeq \bumpedeq \circeq \coloneq \corresponds \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \DashV \Dashv \dashVv #  $ ' " Ï Î Æ ¤ Ì E À \divides \dotseq \eqbumped \eqcirc \eqcolon \fallingdotseq \ggcurly \llcurly \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precdot \precsim  Ç ¥ Í Á T  @ D @ D \risingdotseq \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succdot \succsim \therefore \topdoteq \vDash \Vdash \VDash \Vvdash Table 75: mathabx Negated Binary Relations ' ) ¸ ¹ C G 9 C G $ 0 1 % \napprox \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \nDashv \ndashV \ndashv \nDashV \ndashVv \neq \notasymp \notdivides \notequiv w ¢ È ¦ ª Â & ( £ É § « Ã \notperp \nprec \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nsim \nsimeq \nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim B B F 8 F Ê ¬ Ä Ë ­ Å \nvDash \nVDash \nVdash \nvdash \nVvash \precnapprox \precneq \precnsim \succnapprox \succneq \succnsim The \changenotsign command toggles the behavior of \not to produce either a vertical or a diagonal slash through a binary operator. Table 76: MnSymbol Binary Relations ≈ \approx \approxeq \backapprox \backapproxeq \backcong \backeqsim \backsim \backsimeq \backtriplesim \between \eqbump \eqcirc \eqdot \eqsim \equal \equalclosed \equiv \equivclosed \fallingdotseq \hateq \nwfootline \nwfree \nwmodels \nwModels \nwsecrossing \nwseline \Nwseline \nwvdash \nwVdash \prec \seVdash \shortparallel \sim \simeq \succ \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succeq \succsim \swfootline ∼ = ≡ (continued on next page) 32 . “$a \not= b$” can be made to produce either “a = b” or “a = b”. Thus.

(continued from previous page) = ≅ \bumpeq \Bumpeq \circeq \closedequal \closedprec \closedsucc \coloneq \cong \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteq \Doteq \downfootline \downfree \downmodels \downModels \downpropto \downvdash \downVdash ∝ \hcrossing \leftfootline \leftfree \leftmodels \leftModels \leftpropto \leftrightline \Leftrightline \leftslice \leftvdash \leftVdash \nefootline \nefree \nemodels \neModels \neswline \Neswline \nevdash \neVdash \precapprox \preccurlyeq \preceq \precsim \rightfootline \rightfree \rightmodels \rightModels \rightpropto \rightslice \rightvdash \rightVdash \risingdotseq \sefootline \sefree \semodels \seModels \separated \sevdash ⊥ \swfree \swmodels \swModels \swvdash \swVdash \triplesim \updownline \Updownline \upfootline \upfree \upmodels \upModels \uppropto \upvdash \upVdash \vcrossing \Vvdash MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \dashv \diagdown \diagup \divides \doteqdot \models \parallel \perp \propto \relbar \Relbar \varpropto \vDash \VDash \vdash \Vdash (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \leftvdash) \nwseline) \neswline) \updownline) \Doteq) \rightmodels) \Updownline) \upvdash) \leftpropto) \leftrightline) \Leftrightline) \leftpropto) \rightmodels) \rightModels) \rightvdash) \rightVdash) ⊥ ∝ ∝ Table 77: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations \napprox \napproxeq \nbackapprox \nbackapproxeq \nbackcong \nbackeqsim \nbacksim ≠ \neqsim \nequal \nequalclosed \nequiv \nequivclosed \neswcrossing \nfallingdotseq \nnwModels \nnwseline \nNwseline \nnwvdash \nnwVdash \nprec \nprecapprox \nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim \nswfootline \nswfree (continued on next page) 33 .

=: = “=\vcentcolon=” 34 . which produces a colon centered on the font’s math axis: =:= “=:=” vs.(continued from previous page) \nbacksimeq \nbacktriplesim \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \ncirceq \nclosedequal \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \ndoteq \nDoteq \ndownfootline \ndownfree \ndownmodels \ndownModels \ndownvdash \ndownVdash \neqbump \neqcirc \neqdot \nhateq \nleftfootline \nleftfree \nleftmodels \nleftModels \nleftrightline \nLeftrightline \nleftvdash \nleftVdash \nnefootline \nnefree \nnemodels \nneModels \nneswline \nNeswline \nnevdash \nneVdash \nnwfootline \nnwfree \nnwmodels \npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nrightfootline \nrightfree \nrightmodels \nrightModels \nrightvdash \nrightVdash \nrisingdotseq \nsefootline \nsefree \nsemodels \nseModels \nsevdash \nseVdash \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsimeq \nswmodels \nswModels \nswvdash \nswVdash \ntriplesim \nupdownline \nUpdownline \nupfootline \nupfree \nupmodels \nupModels \nupvdash \nupVdash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \ndashv \ndiagdown \ndiagup \ndivides \ne \neq \nmid \nmodels \nparallel \nperp \nrelbar \nRelbar \nvDash \nvdash \nVdash \nVDash (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \nleftvdash) \nnwseline) \nneswline) \nupdownline) \nequal) \nequal) \nupdownline) \nrightmodels) \nUpdownline) \nupvdash) \nleftrightline) \nLeftrightline) \nrightmodels) \nrightvdash) \nrightVdash) \nrightModels) ≠ ≠ Table 78: mathtools Binary Relations ::≈ :≈ := ::= ::− \Colonapprox \colonapprox \coloneqq \Coloneqq \Coloneq :− :∼ ::∼ :: −: \coloneq \colonsim \Colonsim \dblcolon \eqcolon −:: =: =:: \Eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon Similar symbols can be defined using mathtools’s \vcentcolon.

Table 79: turnstile Binary Relations def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc \dddtstile{abc}{def} \ddststile{abc}{def} \ddtstile{abc}{def} \ddttstile{abc}{def} \dndtstile{abc}{def} \dnststile{abc}{def} \dntstile{abc}{def} \dnttstile{abc}{def} \dsdtstile{abc}{def} \dsststile{abc}{def} \dststile{abc}{def} \dsttstile{abc}{def} \dtdtstile{abc}{def} \dtststile{abc}{def} \dttstile{abc}{def} \dtttstile{abc}{def} \nddtstile{abc}{def} \ndststile{abc}{def} \ndtstile{abc}{def} \ndttstile{abc}{def} \nndtstile{abc}{def} \nnststile{abc}{def} def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def \nntstile{abc}{def} \nnttstile{abc}{def} \nsdtstile{abc}{def} \nsststile{abc}{def} \nststile{abc}{def} \nsttstile{abc}{def} \ntdtstile{abc}{def} \ntststile{abc}{def} \nttstile{abc}{def} \ntttstile{abc}{def} \sddtstile{abc}{def} \sdststile{abc}{def} \sdtstile{abc}{def} \sdttstile{abc}{def} \sndtstile{abc}{def} \snststile{abc}{def} \sntstile{abc}{def} \snttstile{abc}{def} \ssdtstile{abc}{def} \ssststile{abc}{def} \sststile{abc}{def} \ssttstile{abc}{def} abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc \stdtstile{abc}{def} \stststile{abc}{def} \sttstile{abc}{def} \stttstile{abc}{def} \tddtstile{abc}{def} \tdststile{abc}{def} \tdtstile{abc}{def} \tdttstile{abc}{def} \tndtstile{abc}{def} \tnststile{abc}{def} \tntstile{abc}{def} \tnttstile{abc}{def} \tsdtstile{abc}{def} \tsststile{abc}{def} \tststile{abc}{def} \tsttstile{abc}{def} \ttdtstile{abc}{def} \ttststile{abc}{def} \tttstile{abc}{def} \ttttstile{abc}{def} Each of the above takes an optional argument that controls the size of the upper and lower expressions. See the turnstile documentation for more information. 35 .

¡ £ Table 80: trsym Binary Relations \InversTransformHoriz \InversTransformVert \TransformHoriz \TransformVert   ¢ Table 81: trfsigns Binary Relations . txfonts.. ... or wasysym.. pxfonts. . . .. Table 86: AMS Subset and Superset Relations \nsubseteq \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqsupset \Subset \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supseteqq \supsetneq 36 \supsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq . mathabx. amsfonts... amssymb. Use one of the packages latexsym.. \dfourier \fourier \laplace \ztransf . . \Dfourier \Fourier \Laplace \Ztransf Table 82: cmll Binary Relations ¨ ˚ \coh \incoh ˝ ˇ \scoh \sincoh Table 83: colonequals Binary Relations ≈: ≈:: :≈ :: ::≈ ::= \approxcolon \approxcoloncolon \colonapprox \coloncolon \coloncolonapprox \coloncolonequals ::− ::∼ := :− :∼ =: \coloncolonminus \coloncolonsim \colonequals \colonminus \colonsim \equalscolon =:: −: −:: : ∼: ∼:: \equalscoloncolon \minuscolon \minuscoloncolon \ratio \simcolon \simcoloncolon Table 84: fourier Binary Relations \nparallelslant \parallelslant Table 85: Subset and Superset Relations \sqsubset∗ \sqsubseteq \sqsupset∗ ∗ ⊂ ⊆ \sqsupseteq \subset \subseteq ⊃ ⊇ \supset \supseteq A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . .

and \varsupsetneqq as a synonym for \supsetneqq. \varsubsetneqq as a synonym for \subsetneqq.Table 87: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations \subsetplus \subsetpluseq \supsetplus \supsetpluseq Table 88: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations \sqsubset \sqsupset Table 89: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nSubset \nsubseteqq \nSupset ‚ – † Ž ‚ – † Ž ƒ — ‡  Table 90: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqSubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nsqsupset \nsqSupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nsubset \nSubset \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq ƒ — ‡  € ” „ Œ ˆ  •  \nsupset \nSupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqSubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq \sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \sqSupset \sqsupset € ” „ Œ ˆ   • …  ‰ ‘ \sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \subset \Subset \subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \supset \Supset Š ’ ‹ “ Š ’ ‹ “ …  ‰ ‘ \supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq \varsqsubsetneq \varsqsubsetneqq \varsqsupsetneq \varsqsupsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq Table 91: MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations \nSqsubset \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nSqsupset \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nSubset \nsubset \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq \nSupset \nsupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \Sqsubset \sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq \sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \Sqsupset \sqsupset \sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \Subset \subset ⊆ \subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supset \supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq ⊃ ⊇ ⊄ ⊂ MnSymbol additionally defines \varsubsetneq as a synonym for \subsetneq. \varsupsetneq as a synonym for \supsetneq. Table 92: Inequalities ≥ \geq \gg ≤ \leq 37 \ll \neq .

Table 93: AMS Inequalities \eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geqq \geqslant \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \gvertneqq \leqq \leqslant \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr \lesssim \lll \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \ngeq \ngeqq \ngeqslant \ngtr \nleq \nleqq \nleqslant \nless Table 94: wasysym Inequalities \apprge \apprle Table 95: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities \ngg \ngtrapprox \ngtrless \ngtrsim \nlessapprox \nlessgtr \nlesssim \nll Table 96: mathabx Inequalities · ¶ ¥ ¯ 4 Ï Ë ­ ³ Å Ç Í \eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geq \geqq \gg \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot ½ ¿ » Á µ ¤ ® Æ Ì ¼ ¾ º \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \gvertneqq \leq \leqq \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr À 3 Î Ê ¬ ² Ä ´ ¹ ¸ § ± \lesssim \ll \lll \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \neqslantgtr \neqslantless \ngeq \ngeqq £ É Ã ¦ ° ¢ È Â « ª © ¨ \ngtr \ngtrapprox \ngtrsim \nleq \nleqq \nless \nlessapprox \nlesssim \nvargeq \nvarleq \vargeq \varleq mathabx defines \leqslant and \le as synonyms for \leq. \nleqslant as a synonym for \nleq. \geqslant and \ge as synonyms for \geq. and \ngeqslant as a synonym for \ngeq. 38 .

Table 97: MnSymbol Inequalities \eqslantgtr \eqslantless ≥ \geq \geqclosed \geqdot \geqq \geqslant \geqslantdot \gg \ggg \gnapprox \gneqq > \gnsim \gtr \gtrapprox \gtrclosed \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqlessslant < ≤ \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrneqqless \gtrsim \leq \leqclosed \leqdot \leqq \leqslant \leqslantdot \less \lessapprox \lessclosed \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqgtrslant \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr \lessneqqgtr \lesssim \ll \lll \lnapprox \lneqq \lnsim \neqslantgtr \neqslantless \ngeq \ngeqclosed \ngeqdot \ngeqq \ngeqslant \ngeqslantdot \ngg \nggg \ngtr \ngtrclosed \ngtrdot \ngtreqless \ngtreqlessslant \ngtreqqless \ngtrless \nleq \nleqclosed \nleqdot \nleqq \nleqslant \nleqslantdot \nless \nlessclosed \nlessdot \nlesseqgtr \nlesseqgtrslant \nlesseqqgtr \nlessgtr \nll \nlll MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \gggtr \gvertneqq \lhd \llless \lvertneqq \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglerighteq \ntriangleright \rhd \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \unlhd \unrhd \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \ggg) \gneqq) \lessclosed) \lll) \lneqq) \nleqclosed) \nlessclosed) \ngeqclosed) \ngtrclosed) \gtrclosed) \leqclosed) \geqclosed) \leqclosed) \geqclosed) \lessclosed) \gtrclosed) Table 98: AMS Triangle Relations \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \trianglelefteq \triangleq \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright 39 .

40 . The title “Triangle Relations” is a bit of a misnomer here as only \triangleeq and \ntriangleeq are defined as TEX relations (class 3 symbols). \lhd and \lessclosed are synonyms for \vartriangleleft. \nleqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglelefteq. \nlessclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleleft. \triangle. \filledmedtriangleleft. respectively. The \largetriangle. symbols are defined as TEX “ordinary” characters (class 0) and all of the remaining characters are defined as TEX binary operators (class 2). \blacktriangleleft. \ngtrclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleright. \rhd and \gtrclosed are synonyms for \vartriangleright. \filledmedtriangledown. and \blacktriangle [sic] are synonyms for. and \ngeqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglerighteq. . \triangleright is a synonym for \medtriangleright. \filledmedtriangleright. \blacktriangledown. . and \filledmedtriangleup.Table 99: stmaryrd Triangle Relations \trianglelefteqslant \ntrianglelefteqslant \trianglerighteqslant \ntrianglerighteqslant Table 100: mathabx Triangle Relations š ž › \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright Ÿ ˜ œ \ntrianglerighteq \triangleleft \trianglelefteq ™  ˜ \triangleright \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft ™ \vartriangleright Table 101: MnSymbol Triangle Relations \filledmedtriangledown \filledmedtriangleleft \filledmedtriangleright \filledmedtriangleup \filledtriangledown \filledtriangleleft \filledtriangleright \filledtriangleup \largetriangledown \largetriangleleft \largetriangleright \largetriangleup \medtriangledown \medtriangleleft \medtriangleright \medtriangleup \ntriangleeq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \otriangle \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup \triangleeq \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for many of the preceding symbols: \triangleq is a synonym for \triangleeq. \unrhd and \geqclosed are synonyms for \trianglerighteq. \vartriangle. \triangleleft is a synonym for \medtriangleleft. \unlhd and \leqclosed are synonyms for \trianglelefteq. \blacktriangleright. \triangledown and \bigtriangledown are synonyms for \medtriangledown. and \bigtriangleup are synonyms for \medtriangleup.

† See the note beneath Table 169 for information about how to put a diagonal arrow across a mathematical expression (as in “ ·B 0 ”) . txfonts. pxfonts. or wasysym.Table 102: Arrows ⇓ ↓ ← → ← ⇐ ⇔ ↔ ∗ \Downarrow \downarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto∗ \leftarrow \Leftarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow ←− ⇐= ←→ ⇐⇒ −→ =⇒ −→ → \longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \Longrightarrow \longrightarrow \mapsto \nearrow† ⇒ → ↑ ⇑ \nwarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrow \searrow \swarrow \uparrow \Uparrow \updownarrow \Updownarrow A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym. Table 103: Harpoons \leftharpoondown \leftharpoonup \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoons Table 104: textcomp Text-mode Arrows ↓ ← \textdownarrow \textleftarrow → ↑ \textrightarrow \textuparrow Table 105: AMS Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \downdownarrows \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \Lleftarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \Rsh \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadrightarrow \upuparrows Table 106: AMS Negated Arrows \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrow Table 107: AMS Harpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \leftrightharpoons \rightleftharpoons 41 \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright . amssymb. amsfonts.

Table 108: stmaryrd Arrows \leftarrowtriangle \leftrightarroweq \leftrightarrowtriangle \lightning \Longmapsfrom \longmapsfrom \Longmapsto ⇐ ← ⇒ \Mapsfrom \mapsfrom \Mapsto \nnearrow \nnwarrow \rightarrowtriangle \shortdownarrow \shortleftarrow \shortrightarrow \shortuparrow \ssearrow \sswarrow ⇐= ←− =⇒ Table 109: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows \boxdotLeft \boxdotleft \boxdotright \boxdotRight \boxLeft \boxleft \boxright \boxRight \circleddotleft \circleddotright \circleleft \circleright \dashleftrightarrow \DiamonddotLeft \Diamonddotleft \Diamonddotright \DiamonddotRight \DiamondLeft \Diamondleft \Diamondright \DiamondRight \leftsquigarrow \Nearrow \Nwarrow \Rrightarrow \Searrow \Swarrow ö ÷ ó õ ô ð ò ñ ê Ó ÿ × ë Table 110: mathabx Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowbotleft \curvearrowbotleftright \curvearrowbotright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowleftright \curvearrowright \dlsh \downdownarrows \downtouparrow \downuparrows \drsh Ð Ð Ø Ô ú ø ü î ï ì í è Õ \leftarrow \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \leftsquigarrow \lefttorightarrow \looparrowdownleft \looparrowdownright \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow Ô æ Ñ Õ Ñ ù ý é × Ö Ö þ Ò \nwarrow \restriction \rightarrow \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \righttoleftarrow \Rsh \searrow \swarrow \updownarrows \uptodownarrow \upuparrows Table 111: mathabx Negated Arrows ö Ú \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow Ü ø \nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow Û ÷ \nrightarrow \nRightarrow 42 .

Þ ß Û å ç ë Table 112: mathabx Harpoons \barleftharpoon \barrightharpoon \downdownharpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \downupharpoons \leftbarharpoon \leftharpoondown à Ø à è Ý ã á Ü â á \leftharpoonup \leftleftharpoons \leftrightharpoon \leftrightharpoons \rightbarharpoon \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoon é Ù ê ä æ Ú \rightleftharpoons \rightrightharpoons \updownharpoons \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \upupharpoons Table 113: MnSymbol Arrows \curvearrowdownup \curvearrowleftright \curvearrownesw \curvearrownwse \curvearrowrightleft \curvearrowsenw \curvearrowswne \curvearrowupdown \dasheddownarrow \dashedleftarrow \dashednearrow \dashednwarrow \dashedrightarrow \dashedsearrow \dashedswarrow \dasheduparrow \Downarrow \downarrow \downarrowtail \downdownarrows \downlsquigarrow \downmapsto \downrsquigarrow \downuparrows \lcirclearrowdown \lcirclearrowleft \lcirclearrowright \lcirclearrowup \lcurvearrowdown \lcurvearrowleft \lcurvearrowne \lcurvearrownw \lcurvearrowright \lcurvearrowse \lcurvearrowsw \lcurvearrowup \Leftarrow ← ⇐ ←→ ⇐⇒ → → ⇒ \longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \longrightarrow \Longrightarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow \Nearrow \nearrowtail \nelsquigarrow \nemapsto \nenearrows \nersquigarrow \neswarrow \Neswarrow \neswarrows \nwarrow \Nwarrow \nwarrowtail \nwlsquigarrow \nwmapsto \nwnwarrows \nwrsquigarrow \nwsearrow \Nwsearrow \nwsearrows \partialvardlcircleleftint∗ \partialvardlcirclerightint∗ \partialvardrcircleleftint∗ \partialvardrcirclerightint∗ \partialvartlcircleleftint∗ \partialvartlcirclerightint∗ \partialvartrcircleleftint∗ \rhookswarrow \rhookuparrow \rightarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightlsquigarrow \rightmapsto \rightrightarrows \rightrsquigarrow \Rrightarrow \Rsh \searrow \Searrow \searrowtail \selsquigarrow \semapsto \senwarrows \sersquigarrow \sesearrows \squigarrowdownup \squigarrowleftright \squigarrownesw \squigarrownwse \squigarrowrightleft \squigarrowsenw \squigarrowswne \squigarrowupdown \swarrow \Swarrow \swarrowtail \swlsquigarrow \swmapsto \swnearrows \swrsquigarrow \swswarrows \twoheaddownarrow → ⇒ ⇓ ↓ ⇐ (continued on next page) 43 .

. int macros are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to produce various types of integrals. . Table 114: MnSymbol Negated Arrows \ncurvearrowdownup \ncurvearrowleftright \ncurvearrownesw \ncurvearrownwse \ncurvearrowrightleft \ncurvearrowsenw \ncurvearrowswne \ncurvearrowupdown \nlhooknwarrow \nlhookrightarrow \nlhooksearrow \nlhookswarrow \nlhookuparrow \nLleftarrow \nnearrow \nNearrow \nrightleftarrows \nrightlsquigarrow \nrightmapsto \nrightrightarrows \nrightrsquigarrow \nRrightarrow \nSearrow \nsearrow (continued on next page) 44 .(continued from previous page) ← ↔ ⇔ \leftarrow \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftlsquigarrow \leftmapsto \leftrightarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrsquigarrow \lhookdownarrow \lhookleftarrow \lhooknearrow \lhooknwarrow \lhookrightarrow \lhooksearrow \lhookswarrow \lhookuparrow \lightning \Lleftarrow \partialvartrcirclerightint∗ \rcirclearrowdown \rcirclearrowleft \rcirclearrowright \rcirclearrowup \rcurvearrowdown \rcurvearrowleft \rcurvearrowne \rcurvearrownw \rcurvearrowright \rcurvearrowse \rcurvearrowsw \rcurvearrowup \rhookdownarrow \rhookleftarrow \rhooknearrow \rhooknwarrow \rhookrightarrow \rhooksearrow ↑ ⇑ ↕ \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadnearrow \twoheadnwarrow \twoheadrightarrow \twoheadsearrow \twoheadswarrow \twoheaduparrow \uparrow \Uparrow \uparrowtail \updownarrow \Updownarrow \updownarrows \uplsquigarrow \upmapsto \uprsquigarrow \upuparrows MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto \leftrightsquigarrow \mapsto \rightsquigarrow ∗ (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as \rcirclearrowup) \lcirclearrowup) \rcurvearrowleft) \lcurvearrowright) \dashedleftarrow) \dashedrightarrow) \rhookleftarrow) \lhookrightarrow) \rightlsquigarrow) \squigarrowleftright) \rightmapsto) \rightlsquigarrow) The \partialvar.

(continued from previous page) \ndasheddownarrow \ndashedleftarrow \ndashednearrow \ndashednwarrow \ndashedrightarrow \ndashedsearrow \ndashedswarrow \ndasheduparrow \ndownarrow \nDownarrow \ndownarrowtail \ndowndownarrows \ndownlsquigarrow \ndownmapsto \ndownrsquigarrow \ndownuparrows \nlcirclearrowdown \nlcirclearrowleft \nlcirclearrowright \nlcirclearrowup \nlcurvearrowdown \nlcurvearrowleft \nlcurvearrowne \nlcurvearrownw \nlcurvearrowright \nlcurvearrowse \nlcurvearrowsw \nlcurvearrowup \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nleftarrowtail \nleftleftarrows \nleftlsquigarrow \nleftmapsto \nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrows \nleftrsquigarrow \nlhookdownarrow \nlhookleftarrow \nlhooknearrow \nnearrowtail \nnelsquigarrow \nnemapsto \nnenearrows \nnersquigarrow \nNeswarrow \nneswarrow \nneswarrows \nNwarrow \nnwarrow \nnwarrowtail \nnwlsquigarrow \nnwmapsto \nnwnwarrows \nnwrsquigarrow \nnwsearrow \nNwsearrow \nnwsearrows \nrcirclearrowdown \nrcirclearrowleft \nrcirclearrowright \nrcirclearrowup \nrcurvearrowdown \nrcurvearrowleft \nrcurvearrowne \nrcurvearrownw \nrcurvearrowright \nrcurvearrowse \nrcurvearrowsw \nrcurvearrowup \nrhookdownarrow \nrhookleftarrow \nrhooknearrow \nrhooknwarrow \nrhookrightarrow \nrhooksearrow \nrhookswarrow \nrhookuparrow \nrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrowtail \nsearrowtail \nselsquigarrow \nsemapsto \nsenwarrows \nsersquigarrow \nsesearrows \nsquigarrowdownup \nsquigarrowleftright \nsquigarrownesw \nsquigarrownwse \nsquigarrowrightleft \nsquigarrowsenw \nsquigarrowswne \nsquigarrowupdown \nswarrow \nSwarrow \nswarrowtail \nswlsquigarrow \nswmapsto \nswnearrows \nswrsquigarrow \nswswarrows \ntwoheaddownarrow \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadnearrow \ntwoheadnwarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \ntwoheadsearrow \ntwoheadswarrow \ntwoheaduparrow \nuparrow \nUparrow \nuparrowtail \nupdownarrow \nUpdownarrow \nupdownarrows \nuplsquigarrow \nupmapsto \nuprsquigarrow \nupuparrows MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: 45 .

the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix can be replaced with “down”. the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix can be replaced with “down”. (In addition. \nupharpooncw can be written as \nrestriction.) 46 . \upharpooncw can be written as \restriction.\ncirclearrowleft \ncirclearrowright \ncurvearrowleft \ncurvearrowright \ndasharrow \ndashleftarrow \ndashrightarrow \ngets \nhookleftarrow \nhookrightarrow \nleadsto \nleftrightsquigarrow \nmapsto \nrightsquigarrow \nto (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \nrcirclearrowup) \nlcirclearrowup) \nrcurvearrowleft) \nlcurvearrowright) \ndashedrightarrow) \ndashedleftarrow) \ndashedrightarrow) \nleftarrow) \nrhookleftarrow) \nlhookrightarrow) \nrightlsquigarrow) \nsquigarrowleftright) \nrightmapsto) \nrightlsquigarrow) \nrightarrow) Table 115: MnSymbol Harpoons \downharpoonccw∗ \downharpooncw∗ \downupharpoons \leftharpoonccw∗ \leftharpooncw∗ \leftrightharpoondownup \leftrightharpoons \leftrightharpoonupdown \neharpoonccw \neharpooncw \neswharpoonnwse ∗ \neswharpoons \neswharpoonsenw \nwharpoonccw \nwharpooncw \nwseharpoonnesw \nwseharpoons \nwseharpoonswne \rightharpoonccw∗ \rightharpooncw∗ \rightleftharpoons \seharpoonccw \seharpooncw \senwharpoons \swharpoonccw \swharpooncw \swneharpoons \updownharpoonleftright \updownharpoonrightleft \updownharpoons \upharpoonccw∗ \upharpooncw∗ Where marked.) Table 116: MnSymbol Negated Harpoons \ndownharpoonccw \ndownharpooncw∗ \ndownupharpoons \nleftharpoonccw∗ \nleftharpooncw∗ \nleftrightharpoondownup \nleftrightharpoons \nleftrightharpoonupdown \nneharpoonccw \nneharpooncw \nneswharpoonnwse ∗ ∗ \nneswharpoons \nneswharpoonsenw \nnwharpoonccw \nnwharpooncw \nnwseharpoonnesw \nnwseharpoons \nnwseharpoonswne \nrightharpoonccw∗ \nrightharpooncw∗ \nrightleftharpoons \nseharpoonccw \nseharpooncw \nsenwharpoons \nswharpoonccw \nswharpooncw \nswneharpoons \nupdownharpoonleftright \nupdownharpoonrightleft \nupdownharpoons \nupharpoonccw∗ \nupharpooncw∗ Where marked. (In addition.

graphics’s \resizebox command). Table 121: MnSymbol Pitchforks \downpitchfork \leftpitchfork \ndownpitchfork \nepitchfork \nleftpitchfork \nnepitchfork ∗ \nnwpitchfork \nrightpitchfork \nsepitchfork \nswpitchfork \nuppitchfork \nwpitchfork \rightpitchfork \sepitchfork \swpitchfork \uppitchfork MnSymbol defines \pitchfork as a synonym for \uppitchfork and \npitchfork as a synonym for \nuppitchfork. not Xdvi) can properly display these symbols.Table 117: harpoon Extensible Harpoons abc abc abc \overleftharp{abc} \overleftharpdown{abc} \overrightharp{abc} abc abc abc \overrightharpdown{abc} \underleftharp{abc} \underleftharpdown{abc} abc abc \underrightharp{abc} \underrightharpdown{abc} All of the harpoon symbols are implemented using the graphics package (specifically. only TEX backends that support graphical transformations (e. 47 .. Table 118: chemarrow Arrows A \chemarrow Table 119: fge Arrows ! \fgerightarrow " \fgeuparrow Table 120: MnSymbol Spoons \downfilledspoon \downspoon \leftfilledspoon \leftspoon \ndownfilledspoon \ndownspoon \nefilledspoon \nespoon \nleftfilledspoon \nleftspoon \nnefilledspoon ∗ \nnespoon \nnwfilledspoon \nnwspoon \nrightfilledspoon \nrightspoon∗ \nsefilledspoon \nsespoon \nswfilledspoon \nswspoon \nupfilledspoon \nupspoon \nwfilledspoon \nwspoon \rightfilledspoon \rightspoon∗ \sefilledspoon \sespoon \swfilledspoon \swspoon \upfilledspoon \upspoon MnSymbol defines \multimap as a synonym for \rightspoon and \nmultimap as a synonym for \nrightspoon.g. Consequently.

\asymp as a synonym for \smilefrown. \smallfrown as a synonym for \frown. and \nasymp as a synonym for \nsmilefrown.Table 122: MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns \doublefrown \doublefrowneq \doublesmile \doublesmileeq \eqfrown \eqsmile \frown \frowneq \frowneqsmile \frownsmile \frownsmileeq \ndoublefrown \ndoublefrowneq \ndoublesmile \ndoublesmileeq \neqfrown \neqsmile \nfrown \nfrowneq \nfrowneqsmile \nfrownsmile \nfrownsmileeq \nsmile ∗ \nsmileeq \nsmileeqfrown \nsmilefrown \nsmilefrowneq \nsqdoublefrown \nsqdoublefrowneq \nsqdoublesmile \nsqdoublesmileeq \nsqeqfrown \nsqeqsmile \nsqfrown \nsqfrowneq \nsqfrowneqsmile \nsqfrownsmile \nsqsmile \nsqsmileeq \nsqsmileeqfrown \nsqsmilefrown \nsqtriplefrown \nsqtriplesmile \ntriplefrown \ntriplesmile \smile \smileeq \smileeqfrown \smilefrown \smilefrowneq \sqdoublefrown \sqdoublefrowneq \sqdoublesmile \sqdoublesmileeq \sqeqfrown \sqeqsmile \sqfrown \sqfrowneq \sqfrowneqsmile \sqfrownsmile \sqsmile \sqsmileeq \sqsmileeqfrown \sqsmilefrown \sqtriplefrown \sqtriplesmile \triplefrown \triplesmile MnSymbol defines \smallsmile as a synonym for \smile. © \blitza  Table 123: ulsy Contradiction Symbols \blitzb  \blitzc  \blitzd  \blitze Table 124: Extension Characters − \relbar = \Relbar Table 125: stmaryrd Extension Characters \Arrownot \arrownot \Mapsfromchar \mapsfromchar \Mapstochar Table 126: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters \Mappedfromchar \mappedfromchar \Mmappedfromchar \mmappedfromchar \Mmapstochar \mmapstochar 48 .

4 for some additional comments regarding log-like symbols. 49 .Table 127: mathabx Extension Characters û ß \mapsfromchar \Mapsfromchar ú Þ \mapstochar \Mapstochar Table 128: Log-like Symbols \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh \cot \coth \csc \deg \det \dim \exp \gcd \hom \inf \ker \lg \lim \liminf \limsup \ln \log \max \min \Pr \sec \sin \sinh \sup \tan \tanh Calling the above “symbols” may be a bit misleading. “atomic math objects”. Table 129: AMS Log-like Symbols inj lim proj lim \injlim \projlim lim − → lim \varinjlim \varliminf lim lim ← − \varlimsup \varprojlim Load the amsmath package to get these symbols. but with proper surrounding spacing. See Section 8.4 for more information about log-like symbols. Downes prefers the more general term.3 Each log-like symbol merely produces the eponymous textual equivalent. See Section 8. As \mod and \pod are arguably not symbols A we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for samples. As \bmod and \pmod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for A L TEX [Dow00] for samples. Ã » 3 Michael \Complex \COMPLEX Ú ¿ Table 130: C in h A2e Number Sets \Integer \INTEGER Î ¼ \Natural \NATURAL Ñ ½ \Rational \RATIONAL Ò ¾ \Real \REAL J.

Table 132: AMS Greek Letters \digamma κ \varkappa Table 133: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ζ η \alphaup \betaup \gammaup \deltaup \epsilonup \varepsilonup \zetaup \etaup θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ \thetaup \varthetaup \iotaup \kappaup \lambdaup \muup \nuup \xiup π ρ σ ς τ υ \piup \varpiup \rhoup \varrhoup \sigmaup \varsigmaup \tauup \upsilonup φ ϕ χ ψ ω \phiup \varphiup \chiup \psiup \omegaup 50 .Table 131: Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ζ η Γ ∆ Θ \alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \varepsilon \zeta \eta \Gamma \Delta \Theta θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ Λ Ξ Π \theta \vartheta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \Lambda \Xi \Pi o π ρ σ ς o \pi \varpi \rho \varrho \sigma \varsigma τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω \tau \upsilon \phi \varphi \chi \psi \omega Σ Υ Φ \Sigma \Upsilon \Phi Ψ Ω \Psi \Omega The remaining Greek majuscules can be produced with ordinary Latin letters. for instance. of course. The symbol “M”. See Section 8. The symbols in this table are intended to be used in mathematical typesetting. Greek body text can be typeset using the babel package’s greek (or polutonikogreek) option—and.5 for examples of how to produce bold Greek letters. a font that provides the glyphs for the Greek alphabet. is used for both an uppercase “m” and an uppercase “µ”.

v. for example. . Table 135: fourier Variant Greek Letters π \pi \varpi \varvarpi ρ \rho \varrho \varvarrho Table 136: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters \varg \varv \varw \vary Pass the varg option to txfonts/pxfonts to replace g. As a result. and y with . Contrast. Table 137: AMS Hebrew Letters \beth \gimel \daleth \aleph (ℵ) appears in Table 201 on page 65. . the glyphs may appear slightly different from the above. “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Symbol) with “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Euler). w. and in every mathematical expression in your document. Table 138: MnSymbol Hebrew Letters ℵ \aleph \beth \gimel \daleth Table 139: Letter-like Symbols ⊥ ∃ \bot \ell \exists ∀ \forall \hbar \Im ı ∈  \imath \in \jmath 51 ∂ \ni \partial \Re ℘ \top \wp .Table 134: upgreek Upright Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ε ζ η Γ ∆ Θ \upalpha \upbeta \upgamma \updelta \upepsilon \upvarepsilon \upzeta \upeta \Upgamma \Updelta \Uptheta θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ Λ Ξ Π \uptheta \upvartheta \upiota \upkappa \uplambda \upmu \upnu \upxi \Uplambda \Upxi \Uppi π ϖ ρ ρ σ σ τ υ Σ Υ Φ \uppi \upvarpi \uprho \upvarrho \upsigma \upvarsigma \uptau \upupsilon \Upsigma \Upupsilon \Upphi φ ϕ χ ψ ω \upphi \upvarphi \upchi \uppsi \upomega Ψ Ω \Uppsi \Upomega upgreek utilizes upright Greek characters from either the PostScript Symbol font (depicted above) or Euler Roman.

Table 144: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols e \e j \im Table 145: mathdesign Letter-like Symbols ∈ ∈ \in \notin \notsmallin \notsmallowns \owns \smallin \smallowns The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the letter-like symbols shown in Table 140. 52 .Table 140: AMS Letter-like Symbols k \Bbbk \circledR \circledS \complement \Finv \Game \hbar \hslash \nexists Table 141: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols ¢ ∗ \mathcent £ \mathsterling∗ \notin \notni It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. \ni for \owns. Table 142: mathabx Letter-like Symbols † e h p q \barin \complement \exists \Finv \Game € i w ‚ ƒ \in \nexists \notbot \notin \notowner v  ‡ f g \nottop \owns \ownsbar \partial \partialslash „ … \varnotin \varnotowner Table 143: MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols ∃ ∀ ∗ \bot \exists \forall ∈ ∉ \in \nexists \nin∗ ∋ \nowns∗ \owns \powerset ℘ \top \wp MnSymbol provides synonyms \notin for \nin. and \intercal for \top.

\fgeN. and \fgeoverU as synonyms for \fgelb.Table 146: fge Letter-like Symbols A c p e ∗ \fgeA \fgec \fged \fgee ı F f ” \fgeeszett \fgeF \fgef \fgelb∗ D C B s \fgeleftB \fgeleftC \fgerightB \fges U \fgeU The fge package defines \fgeeta. Table 147: fourier Letter-like Symbols ∂ \partial \varpartialdiff Table 148: AMS Delimiters \ulcorner \llcorner \urcorner \lrcorner Table 149: stmaryrd Delimiters \Lbag \llceil \llparenthesis \Rbag \rrceil \rrparenthesis \lbag \llfloor \rbag \rrfloor v x z Table 150: mathabx Delimiters \lcorners \ulcorner \llcorner w \rcorners \urcorner \lrcorner y { Table 151: nath Delimiters \niv \vin 53 .

.Table 152: Variable-sized Delimiters ↓   \downarrow \langle \lceil \lfloor ( / ( / ) \ ⇓ \Downarrow \rangle \rceil \rfloor ) \backslash { [ | ↑    [ | \uparrow \updownarrow \{ } ⇑ ] ] \| \Uparrow \Updownarrow \} When used with \left and \right. as in “p|q”). Note that \vert is a synonym for |. these symbols expand to the height of the enclosed math expression. Table 154: AMS Variable-sized Delimiters | \lvert \lVert | \rvert \rVert According to the amsmath documentation [AMS99]. to make an internal “|” expand to the height of the surrounding \left and \right symbols. Variable-sized Delimiters           \lgroup   \rmoustache     \Arrowvert               \bracevert         \rgroup \arrowvert These symbols must be used with \left and \right. Table 155: stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters \llbracket 54 \rrbracket . A similar effect can be achieved in A conventional L TEX using the braket package. redefines \lgroup and \rgroup so that those symbols can work without \left and \right. ε-TEX provides a \middle analogue to \left and \right. however.                \lmoustache Table 153: Large.g. as in “|−z|”) while the \vert and \Vert symbols (Table 152) are intended to be used as operators (e. the preceding symbols are intended to be used as delimiters (e. (This capability is commonly needed when typesetting adjacent bras and kets in Dirac notation: “ φ|ψ ”). and \Vert is a synonym for \|. The mathabx package.g. for example.. \middle can be used.

Table 156: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters v 1 \ldbrack w 9 \rdbrack 7 ~ 7 7 7 7    \lfilet \thickvert ? ? ? \rfilet ?   ~  \vvvert ? Table 157: MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters \lceil \rceil \ulcorner \urcorner \lfloor \rfloor \llcorner \lrcorner \lwavy \rwavy \langle \rangle \lWavy \rWavy \langlebar \ranglebar ( ) \lgroup \rgroup \lsem \rsem \llangle \rrangle \lmoustache \rmoustache \lbrace \rbrace / \backslash < > [ ] \ullcorner \ulrcorner | \| \bracevert \arrowvert \Arrowvert 55 .

56 . “primitive” versions of these symbols are called \lwave. The internal. \rwave. \Vert is a synonym for \|.\vert is a synonym for |. All of the symbols in Table 159 can also be expressed using the \double macro. Hence. \mid and \mvert produce the same symbol as \vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals. \divides produces the same symbol as \vert but designated as a binary operator instead of an ordinal. separate \lVert and \rVert commands are needed to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter. It is therefore an error to specify \left or \right explicitly. \levaw. and \revaw. Table 158: mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters \leftwave \leftevaw \rightwave \rightevaw The definitions of these symbols include a preceding \left or \right. See the nath documentation for examples and additional information. Table 159: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) \lAngle [[ \lBrack \lCeil \lFloor || ∗ \rAngle ]] \rBrack \rCeil \rFloor || \rVert∗ \lVert∗ nath redefines all of the above to include implicit \left and \right commands. \parallel and \mVert produce the same symbol as \Vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals.

Table 160: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) \triple< [[[ ||| ∗ \triple> ]]] ||| \triple] \rtriple|∗ \triple[ \ltriple|∗ Similar to \lVert and \rVert in Table 159. which produce dotless versions of “i ” and “j ”. Table 161: fourier Variable-sized Delimiters \llbracket \rrbracket \VERT Table 162: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters 〈 \textlangle \textlbrackdbl \textlquill 〉 \textrangle \textrbrackdbl \textrquill Table 163: metre Text-mode Delimiters } { \alad \alas \angud \angus } \Alad { \Alas \Angud \Angus † ]] [[ \crux \quadrad \quadras † ]] [[ \Crux \Quadrad \Quadras Table 164: Math-mode Accents a ´ a ¯ a ˘ \acute{a} \bar{a} \breve{a} a ˇ a ¨ a ˙ \check{a} \ddot{a} \dot{a} a ` a ˆ ˚ a \grave{a} \hat{a} \mathring{a} a ˜ a \tilde{a} \vec{a} Also note the existence of \imath and \jmath. (See Table 201 on page 65. “\hat{\imath}” produces a correct “ ˆ ”. For example.) These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. Note that \triple—and the corresponding \double—is actually a macro that takes a delimiter as an argument. ı i 57 . while “\hat{i}” would yield the rather odd-looking “ ˆ ”. \ltriple and \rtriple must be used instead of \triple to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter.

a \dddot{a} a \ddddot{a} These accents are also provided by the mathabx and accents packages and are redefined by the mathdots package if the amsmath and amssymb packages have previously been loaded. All of the variations except for the original AMS ones tighten . \spirituslenis instead uses a crescent accent as in “ — ”. 1998 [L T98].Table 165: AMS Math-mode Accents .. Table 166: MnSymbol Math-mode Accents a \vec{a} Table 167: fge Math-mode Accents – A– a ∗ \spirituslenis{A}\spirituslenis{a}∗ When fge is passed the crescent option... the space between the dots (from a to ˙˙˙ The mathabx and mathdots. a Table 168: yhmath Math-mode Accents ˚ a \ring{a} A This symbol is largely obsolete.. a)... 58 ... versions also ˙˙˙ a a function properly within subscripts and superscripts (x instead of x ) . . as standard L TEX 2ε has supported \mathring A since June..

tex) that automatically solves and typesets—by putting an \overline atop “\big)” and the desired text—long-division problems.Table 169: Extensible Accents › abc ← − abc abc abc √ abc \widetilde{abc}∗ \overleftarrow{abc}† \overline{abc} \overbrace{abc} \sqrt{abc}‡ ” abc − → abc abc abc \widehat{abc}∗ \overrightarrow{abc}† \underline{abc} \underbrace{abc} As demonstrated in a 1997 TUGboat article about typesetting long-division problems [Gib97]. an extensible long-division sign (“ )abc ”) can be faked by putting a “\big)” in a tabular environment with an \hline or \cline in the preceding row. which automatically solves and typesets polynomial-division problems in a similar manner. ∗ These symbols are made more extensible by the MnSymbol package and even more extensible by the yhmath package. For√ example. If you’re looking for an extensible diagonal line or arrow to be used for canceling or 5 reducing mathematical subexpressions (e. “x + −x” or “3 + 2 ”) then consider using the cancel package. See also the polynom package.. √ 3 n “\sqrt[3]{abc}” produces “ abc ” and “\sqrt[n]{abc}” produces “ abc ”. \sqrt typesets nth roots. With an optional argument.g. The article also presents a piece of code (uploaded to CTAN as longdiv. † ‡ Table 170: overrightarrow Extensible Accents = ⇒ abc \Overrightarrow{abc} Table 171: yhmath Extensible Accents ˆ abc ˚ ˆ abc \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc} È abc \widetriangle{abc} Table 172: AMS Extensible Accents ← → abc abc ← − \overleftrightarrow{abc} \underleftarrow{abc} abc ← → abc − → \underleftrightarrow{abc} \underrightarrow{abc} 59 .

See the mathtools documentation for more information.Table 173: MnSymbol Extensible Accents abc abc abc abc abc abc \overbrace{abc} \overgroup{abc} \overlinesegment{abc} \overleftharpoon{abc} \widehat{abc} \wideparen{abc} abc abc abc abc abc \underbrace{abc} \undergroup{abc} \underlinesegment{abc} \overrightharpoon{abc} \widetilde{abc} Table 174: mathtools Extensible Accents abc abc ∗ \overbrace{abc} \overbracket{abc}∗ abc abc \underbrace{abc} \underbracket{abc}∗ \overbracket and \underbracket accept optional arguments that specify the bracket height and thickness. They can expand arbitrarily wide. Table 176: fourier Extensible Accents abc abc \widearc{abc} \wideOarc{abc} abc ˚ abc \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc} 60 . hkkikkj hkkk j abc abc Table 175: mathabx Extensible Accents \overbrace{abc} \overgroup{abc} „ abc | abc Œ abc ˚ Œ abc \widebar{abc} \widecheck{abc} \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc} abc loomoon \underbrace{abc} abc looo n ˆ abc \undergroup{abc} \widearrow{abc} The braces shown for \overbrace and \underbrace appear in their minimum size. however.

The underlines produced by the ushort commands are shorter than those produced by the \underline command. Table 178: undertilde Extensible Accents abc › \utilde{abc} Because \utilde is based on \widetilde it is also made more extensible by the yhmath package. Consider the output from the expression “\ushort{x}\ushort{y}\underline{x}\underline{y}”.Table 177: esvect Extensible Accents #” abc \vv{abc} with package option a #„ abc \vv{abc} with package option b #« abc \vv{abc} with package option c #» abc \vv{abc} with package option d #– abc \vv{abc} with package option e #— abc \vv{abc} with package option f # abc \vv{abc} with package option g #‰ abc \vv{abc} with package option h esvect also defines a \vv* macro which is used to typeset arrows over vector variables with subscripts. which looks like “xyxy”. Table 179: ushort Extensible Accents abc \ushortdw{abc} abc \ushortw{abc} \ushortw and \ushortdw are intended to be used with multi-character arguments (“words”) while \ushortand \ushortd are intended to be used with singlecharacter arguments. See the esvect documentation for more information. Table 180: AMS Extensible Arrows ←− − abc \xleftarrow{abc} −→ − abc \xrightarrow{abc} 61 .

\rarrowfill. and \rightleftharpoonsfill macros. Each of these takes a length argument and produces an arrow of the specified length.Table 181: mathtools Extensible Arrows ←− − −→ − ⇐= = abc abc abc abc \xhookleftarrow{abc} \xhookrightarrow{abc} \xLeftarrow{abc} \xleftharpoondown{abc} \xleftharpoonup{abc} \xleftrightarrow{abc} \xLeftrightarrow{abc} −− −− −→ − =⇒ = − − − − abc abc abc abc abc abc \xleftrightharpoons{abc} \xmapsto{abc} \xRightarrow{abc} \xrightharpoondown{abc} \xrightharpoonup{abc} \xrightleftharpoons{abc} − − − − abc ←→ − ⇐⇒ = abc abc −− −− Table 182: chemarr Extensible Arrows −− −− abc \xrightleftharpoons{abc} Table 183: chemarrow Extensible Arrows abc DG G G G G GG def abc EG G C G GG G G G G def abc GG G G G G GA def abc GG G G G G FG G B G def \autoleftarrow{abc}{def} \autorightarrow{abc}{def} \autoleftrightharpoons{abc}{def} \autorightleftharpoons{abc}{def} In addition to the symbols shown above. Table 184: extarrows Extensible Arrows ⇐⇒ = ←→ − == == ⇐= = ←− − abc abc abc abc abc \xLeftrightarrow{abc} \xleftrightarrow{abc} \xlongequal{abc} \xLongleftarrow{abc} \xlongleftarrow{abc} ⇐=⇒ = ←−→ − = =⇒ − −→ abc abc abc abc \xLongleftrightarrow{abc} \xlongleftrightarrow{abc} \xLongrightarrow{abc} \xlongrightarrow{abc} 62 . \leftrightharpoonsfill. chemarrow also provides \larrowfill.

. adjusting the distance between the arrow and its symbol.4 and the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for more information on math-mode spacing. Table 186: DotArrow Extensible Arrows a \dotarrow{a} The DotArrow package provides mechanisms for lengthening the arrow. . . The mathdots package redefines \ddots and \vdots to make them scale properly with font size. \colon∗ . See A Section 8.. \vdots† While “:” is valid in math mode. See the extpfeil documentation for more information.Table 185: extpfeil Extensible Arrows == == −− −− abc abc \xlongequal{abc} \xtwoheadleftarrow{abc} −→ − −− −− abc abc \xmapsto{abc} \xtwoheadrightarrow{abc} The extpfeil package also provides a \newextarrow command to help you define your own extensible arrow symbols. Table 187: trfsigns Extensible Transform Symbols a \dft{a} a \DFT{a} Table 188: holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols abc def \holter{abc}{def} abc def \polter{abc}{def} Table 189: Dots · ··· ∗ \cdotp \cdots : .) \fixedddots A and \fixedvdots provide the original. † 63 . (They normally scale horizontally but not vertically. \ddots† . See the DotArrow documentation for more information. and altering the arrowhead. fixed-height functionality of L TEX 2ε ’s \ddots and \vdots macros. \ldotp \ldots . \colon uses different surrounding spacing...

\adots . \cdotp and \colon produce the same glyphs as \cdot and \vdotdot respectively but serve as TEX math punctuation (class 6 symbols) instead of TEX binary operators (class 2).Table 190: AMS Dots ··· . \: Table 195: teubner Dots . Table 193: mathdots Dots .. \? ... \dotsi between pairs of integrals. \dotsi \dotsm \dotso ∴ \therefore∗ \because and \therefore are defined as binary relations and therefore also appear in Table 68 on page 30. . The AMS \dots symbols are named according to their intended usage: \dotsb between pairs of binary operators/relations. .. MnSymbol’s dots are defined as single characters instead of as composites of multiple single-dot characters. \iddots Table 194: yhmath Dots . Table 191: wasysym Dots ∴ \wasytherefore Table 192: MnSymbol Dots ⋅ \cdot \ddotdot \ddots \diamonddots \downtherefore \fivedots \hdotdot \hdots \lefttherefore \righttherefore \squaredots \udotdot ∴ \udots \uptherefore \vdotdot \vdots MnSymbol defines \therefore as \uptherefore and \because as \downtherefore.. Furthermore. . . ∗ \because∗ \dotsb \dotsc ··· ··· . and \dotso between other symbol pairs.. \dotsc between pairs of commas. \antilabe . unlike most of the other dot symbols in this document. Also. \. 64 . . All of the above except \hdots and \vdots are defined as binary operators and therefore also appear in Table 50 on page 23. . . \dotsm between pairs of multiplication signs.. . . .

† \clubsuit ♦ ∅ ♥ \Diamond∗ \diamondsuit \emptyset‡ \flat \heartsuit ∞ ¬ \infty \mho∗ \nabla \natural \neg ♠ ` \prime \sharp \spadesuit \surd \triangle A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε .D.Table 196: mathcomp Math Symbols µ \tccentigrade \tcmu Ω \tcohm \tcpertenthousand ‰ \tcperthousand Table 197: marvosym Digits 0 1 \MVZero \MVOne 2 3 \MVTwo \MVThree 4 5 \MVFour \MVFive 6 7 \MVSix \MVSeven 8 9 \MVEight \MVNine Table 198: fge Digits 0 \fgestruckzero 1 \fgestruckone Table 199: dozenal Base-12 Digits X \x E \e H I Table 200: mathabx Mayan Digits \maya{0} \maya{1} P Q \maya{2} \maya{3} R S \maya{4} \maya{5} A Table 201: Miscellaneous L TEX 2ε Math Symbols ℵ \ ♣ ∗ \aleph \angle \backslash \Box∗. Note. consider using the ntheorem package.E. † To use \Box—or any other symbol—as an end-of-proof (Q. amssymb. which properly juxtaposes a symbol with the end of the proof text. Many people prefer the look of AMS’s \varnothing (“∅”.) marker. Use one of the packages latexsym. pxfonts. the other packages produce a squarer \Diamond as depicted above. however. that amsfonts and amssymb define \Diamond to produce the same glyph as \lozenge (“♦”). amsfonts. ‡ 65 . or wasysym. txfonts. Table 202) to that of A L TEX’s \emptyset.

\minushookup as a synonym for \invneg. 66 . \hookdownminus as a synonym for \backneg. \hookupminus as a synonym for \invbackneg. Table 204: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols \Diamondblack \Diamonddot \lambdabar \lambdaslash \varclubsuit \vardiamondsuit \varheartsuit \varspadesuit Table 205: Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols H å ä s \degree \diagdown \diagup \diameter R 5 V 6 \fourth \hash \infty \leftthreetimes b 8 W 7 \measuredangle \pitchfork \propto \rightthreetimes P c Q 5 \second \sphericalangle \third \varhash Table 206: Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols ∠ ⌐ ♣ \angle \backneg \backprime \checkmark \clubsuit \diameter \diamondsuit \flat \heartsuit \infty \invbackneg \invneg ∇ ¬ ′ \maltese \measuredangle \nabla \natural \neg \prime ♠ \sharp \smallint \spadesuit \sphericalangle ∞ MnSymbol defines \emptyset and \varnothing as synonyms for \diameter.Table 202: Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols ∠ \angle \backprime \bigstar \blacklozenge \blacksquare \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown \diagdown \diagup \eth \lozenge \measuredangle \mho \sphericalangle \square \triangledown \varnothing \vartriangle ð ♦ ∅ Table 203: Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols \Box ∗ \Diamond \mho∗ \varangle wasysym also defines an \agemO symbol. which is the same glyph as \mho but is intended for use in text mode. and. \lnot and \minushookdown as synonyms for \neg.

Table 208: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols ° ÷ ⁄ ¬ − ∗ \textdegree∗ \textdiv \textfractionsolidus \textlnot \textminus ½ ¼ ¹ ± √ \textonehalf† \textonequarter† \textonesuperior \textpm \textsurd ¾ ³ × ² \textthreequarters† \textthreesuperior \texttimes \texttwosuperior If you prefer a larger degree symbol you might consider defining one as “\ensuremath{^\circ}” (“◦ ”). and even “c/o”.Table 207: Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols \partialvardint \partialvardlanddownint \partialvardlandupint \partialvardlcircleleftint \partialvardlcirclerightint \partialvardoiint \partialvardoint \partialvardrcircleleftint \partialvardrcirclerightint \partialvardstrokedint \partialvardsumint \partialvartint \partialvartlanddownint \partialvartlandupint \partialvartlcircleleftint \partialvartlcirclerightint \partialvartoiint \partialvartoint \partialvartrcircleleftint \partialvartrcirclerightint \partialvartstrokedint \partialvartsumint These symbols are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to construct the integrals appearing in Table 64 on page 29 but can nevertheless be used in isolation. “3/4”. “1/4”. † Table 209: Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols W = \Anglesign \Corresponds p ÷ \Squaredot \Vectorarrow P \Vectorarrowhigh Table 210: Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols K M O \fgebackslash \fgebaracute \fgebarcap S Q N \fgecap \fgecapbar \fgecup R P i \fgecupacute \fgecupbar \fgeinfty h L \fgelangle \fgeupbracket Table 211: Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols \rightangle Table 212: Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols \steaming \varclub ♦ ♥ \vardiamond \varheart 67 \varspade . nicefrac (part of the units package) or the newer xfrac package can be used to construct vulgar fractions like “1/2”.

angle brackets. For instance. (You may also want to specify “\DeclareFontShape{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}{<->s*[2.2 times its design size for a better blend with typical body fonts. or pxfonts txfonts or pxfonts bbold or mathbbol† mbboard† bbm bbm bbm dsfont dsfont with the sans option china2e‡ eufrak yfonts¶ yfonts¶ yfonts¶ ABCdef12 ABC1 ABC1 ABCdef12 ABCdef12 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCˇf123 ∗ ÁÂà Put “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathpzc}{OT1}{pzc}{m}{it}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathpzc typeset its argument in Zapf Chancery. As a similar trick. and—if the bbgreekl option is passed to mathbbol—Greek letters. “<[( .2]callig15}{}” to set Calligra at 2.) The mathbbol package defines some additional blackboard bold characters: parentheses. manually defined∗ amsfonts. you can typeset the Calligra font’s script “r ” (or other calligraphic symbols) in math mode by loading the calligra package and putting “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathcalligra}{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathcalligra typeset its argument in the Calligra font. txfonts.§ amssymb. square brackets.Table 213: Math Alphabets Font sample ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef  ABC ABC or ABC or ABCdef123 ABC º»¼ Generating command \mathrm{ABCdef123} \mathit{ABCdef123} \mathnormal{ABCdef123} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathpzc{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABC} \varmathbb{ABC} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbbm{ABCdef12} \mathbbmss{ABCdef12} \mathbbmtt{ABCdef12} \mathds{ABC1} \mathds{ABC1} \symA\symB\symC \mathfrak{ABCdef123} \textfrak{ABCdef123} \textswab{ABCdef123} \textgoth{ABCdef123} Required package none none none none mathrsfs calrsfs euscript with the mathcal option euscript with the mathscr option none.

Note that C in h A2e does provide math-mode commands for the most common number-set symbols. Û Ü Ý 68 . “\bbfinalnun\bbyod\bbqof\bbpe” → “ÏÉ×Ô”). )]>” is produced by “\mathbb{\Langle\Lbrack\Lparen\bbalpha\bbbeta\bbgamma\Rparen \Rbrack\Rangle}”. It supports not only the Greek alphabet—including “Greek-like” symbols such as \bbnabla (“š”)—but also all punctuation marks. various currency symbols such as \bbdollar (“$”) and \bbeuro (“û”). They are included in Table 213 because they resemble the blackboardbold symbols that appear in the rest of the table. \symOE (“ ”). C in h A2e provides three umlauted blackboard-bold letters: \symAE (“ ”).. . These are presented in Table 130 on page 49. . In addition to the 26 letters of the English alphabet.g. and the Hebrew alphabet (e. commands provided by the C in h A2e package are actually text-mode commands. and \symUE (“ ”). † ‡ The \sym. mbboard extends the blackboard bold symbol set significantly further.

prior to 1991) version of the AMS’s fonts rendered C. They are included in Table 213 because they are frequently used in a mathematical context. names imply. As of this writing. . however. the fonts provided by the yfonts package are actually text fonts. N. R. A there are no L TEX 2ε packages for utilizing the now-obsolete glyphs.e.. and Z as C. to the fonts/msym10 directory.¶ As their \text. and Z. As some people prefer the older glyphs—much to the AMS’s surprise—and because those glyphs fail to build under modern versions of METAFONT. § 69 . N. An older (i. Berthold Horn uploaded PostScript fonts for the older blackboardbold glyphs to CTAN. . S. R. S.

within \textifsym{. 70 . v|r|v|r|v V mm`hhhbmm Finally. “\textifsym{b}” outputs a blank with the same width as an “ ”. \textifsym supports the display of segmented digits. as would appear on an LCD: “\textifsym{-123. . which provides a wide variety of pulse-diagram symbols within an environment designed specifically for typesetting pulse diagrams.456}” produces “ ”. EIPQFRST Table 217: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol A \AR Table 218: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols \textcelsius \textmho µ \textmu Ω \textohm Table 219: steinmetz Extensible Phasor Symbol abc \phase{abc} The \phase command uses the pict2e package to draw a horizontally and vertically scalable Steinmetz phasor symbol. Consequently. See also the timing package. the following codes are valid: l v l L m w h r h H d h d D ` a < << b c > >> This enables one to write “\textifsym{mm<DDD>mm}” to get “ ” or “\textifsym{L|H|L|H|L}” to get “ ”. .4 Science and technology symbols This section lists symbols that are employed in various branches of science and engineering. See the pict2e documentation for more information. Table 214: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode ° \celsius \degree µ Ω \micro \ohm ‰ \perthousand Table 215: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols ¬ \AC \VHF ¬¬¬¬ \photon F \HF \gluon 3 8 \FallingEdge \LongPulseHigh 9 6 m M Table 216: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols \LongPulseLow \PulseHigh 7 2 \PulseLow \RaisingEdge 4 5 \ShortPulseHigh \ShortPulseLow In addition. \phase works only with those TEX backends supported by pict2e.}.

\Pisces can also be specified with \Zodiac{1} . .Table 220: wasysym Astronomical Symbols ♀ \mercury \venus \astrosun \aries \taurus \gemini \ascnode ♂ \earth \mars \fullmoon \cancer \leo \virgo \descnode \jupiter \saturn \leftmoon \libra \scorpio \sagittarius \conjunction \uranus \neptune \newmoon \aquarius \capricornus \pisces \opposition \vernal \pluto \rightmoon Table 221: marvosym Astronomical Symbols  à Á à á â \Mercury \Venus \Moon \Aries \Taurus \Gemini Ê Ä À ã ä å \Earth \Mars \Sun \Cancer \Leo \Virgo æ ç è \Libra \Scorpio \Sagittarius é ê ë \Capricorn \Aquarius \Pisces Å Æ \Jupiter \Saturn Ç È \Uranus \Neptune É \Pluto Note that \Aries . Table 223: wasysym APL Symbols \APLbox \APLcomment \APLdown \APLdownarrowbox \APLinput ÷ − \APLinv \APLleftarrowbox \APLlog \APLminus \APLrightarrowbox \APLstar \APLup \APLuparrowbox \notbackslash \notslash − \ − / Table 224: wasysym APL Modifiers ◦ \APLcirc{} ∼ \APLnot{} 71 | \APLvert{} . e f w € \Mercury \Venus \fullmoon \Aries g h u  Table 222: mathabx Astronomical Symbols \Earth \Mars \leftmoon \Taurus i p \Jupiter \Saturn \newmoon \Gemini q r \Uranus \Neptune \rightmoon s t d \Pluto \varEarth \Sun x ‚ v mathabx also defines \girl as an alias for \Venus. . . \Zodiac{12}. . \boy as an alias for \Mars. and \Moon as an alias for \leftmoon.

The \keystroke command draws a key with an arbitrary label. which was first utilized by the original IBM PC. \NBSP. “\keystroke{F7}” produces “ F7 ”. not part of CP437. also not part of CP437. uses the symbols \SOH through \US to depict ASCII characters 1–31 and \DEL to depict ASCII character 127. the german option makes \Del produce “ Entf ” instead of “ Del ”. † Table 227: ascii Control Characters (CP437) \SOH \STX \ETX \EOT \ENQ \ACK \BEL \DEL \BS \HT \LF \VT \FF \CR \SO \NBSP \SI \DLE \DCa \DCb \DCc \DCd \NAK \NUL ¦ \SYN \ETB \CAN \EM \SUB \ESC \FS \splitvert \GS \RS \US Code Page 437 (CP437). These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in most DVI viewers. \splitvert is merely the “|” character drawn as it was on the IBM PC. represents a nonbreaking space. For example. 72 . The \NUL symbol. represents ASCII character 0.Table 225: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols Í Ï \ComputerMouse \Keyboard Ñ Ò \ParallelPort \Printer Î Ð \SerialInterface \SerialPort Table 226: keystroke Computer Keys Alt AltGr Break →− Ctrl ↓ Del End ∗ \Alt \AltGr \Break \Ctrl∗ \DArrow \Del∗ \End ∗ ∗ Enter Esc Home Ins ← Num Page ↓ Page ↑ \Enter∗ \Esc∗ \Home \Ins∗ \LArrow \NumLock \PgDown∗ \PgUp ∗ ∗ PrtSc → ← Scroll Shift ⇑ \PrtSc∗ \RArrow \Return \Scroll∗ \Shift∗ \Spacebar \Tab† \UArrow \BSpace† →→ −− −− ↑ Changes based on the language option passed to the keystroke package. For example.

was written as a L TEX 2.Table 228: milstd Logic Gates ¢ £ ¡ ¤    \ANDd \BUFu § ¥ ¨     \NANDl   ©  \ORd \ANDl   " # ! $ ¦ \BusWidth \NANDr \ORl \ANDr \INVd \NANDu \ORr \ANDu \INVl \NORd \ORu \BUFd \INVr \NORl \BUFl \INVu \NORr \BUFr \NANDd \NORu The milstd package. Department of Defense’s MIL-STD-806 standard. at least in the 2000/05/01 version of marvosym.tex file. Table 229: marvosym Communication Symbols k z \Email \Emailct t u \fax \FAX v B \Faxmachine \Letter E H \Lightning \Mobilefone A T \Pickup \Telefon Table 230: marvosym Engineering Symbols " # › • % – \Beam \Bearing \Circpipe \Circsteel \Fixedbearing \Flatsteel ∗ l ’ & L $ ™ \Force \Hexasteel \Lefttorque \Lineload \Loosebearing \Lsteel ‘ ˜ ” ' Ÿ  \Octosteel \Rectpipe \Rectsteel \Righttorque \RoundedLsteel∗ \RoundedTsteel∗ ž — “ œ š \RoundedTTsteel \Squarepipe \Squaresteel \Tsteel \TTsteel \RoundedLsteel and \RoundedTsteel seem to be swapped. not as a L TE ε document with \input milstd. not with the more modern \usepackage{milstd}. Table 231: wasysym Biological Symbols ♀ \female ♂ \male 73 . which provides the digital logic-gate symbols specified by the A U. it must be loaded into a . Consequently.S.09 A X 2 package.

Table 232: marvosym Biological Symbols ~  „ \Female \FEMALE \FemaleFemale … } € \FemaleMale \Hermaphrodite \HERMAPHRODITE | ƒ \MALE \Male \MaleMale { \Neutral Table 233: marvosym Safety-related Symbols h n \Biohazard \BSEfree C J \CEsign \Estatically ` a \Explosionsafe \Laserbeam j ! \Radioactivity \Stopsign Table 234: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols { ‘ ' § — ™ f d l o k \bigbosonloop \bigbosonloopA \bigbosonloopV \gvcropped k l | ’ \hfermion \shfermion \smallbosonloop \smallbosonloopA ( d m \smallbosonloopV \wfermion \whfermion \feyn{a} \feyn{c} \feyn{f} \feyn{fd} \feyn{fl} \feyn{flS} \feyn{fs} e ˜ q g v y { \feyn{fu} \feyn{fv} \feyn{g} \feyn{g1} \feyn{gd} \feyn{gl} \feyn{glB} | z } }s u h j \feyn{glS} \feyn{glu} \feyn{gu} \feyn{gv} \feyn{gvs} \feyn{h} \feyn{hd} u i m  p € x \feyn{hs} \feyn{hu} \feyn{m} \feyn{ms} \feyn{p} \feyn{P} \feyn{x} All other arguments to the \feyn command produce a “ ” symbol. The feyn package provides various commands for composing the preceding symbols into complete Feynman diagrams. c 74 . See the feyn documentation for examples and additional information.

Among other capabilities. rather than name each of the dingbats individually. so be mindful of that fact when searching for a particular symbol. more generally. A The pifont dingbat package warrants special mention. y { Table 235: bbding Arrows \ArrowBoldDownRight \ArrowBoldRightCircled z w \ArrowBoldRightShort \ArrowBoldRightStrobe x \ArrowBoldUpRight Table 236: pifont Arrows   ¡ £ ¤ Ä ¥ À ¦ § \ding{212} \ding{213} \ding{214} \ding{215} \ding{216} \ding{217} \ding{218} \ding{219} \ding{220} ¨ © ª « ¬ ­ ¢ ® ¯ \ding{221} \ding{222} \ding{223} \ding{224} \ding{225} \ding{226} \ding{227} \ding{228} \ding{229} ° ± ² ³ Á ´ Ç µ È \ding{230} \ding{231} \ding{232} \ding{233} \ding{234} \ding{235} \ding{236} \ding{237} \ding{238} ¶ É · ¸ Å ¹ Â Æ º \ding{239} \ding{241} \ding{242} \ding{243} \ding{244} \ding{245} \ding{246} \ding{247} \ding{248} Ã » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ \ding{249} \ding{250} \ding{251} \ding{252} \ding{253} \ding{254}  Table 237: universal Arrows \bauarrow  \bauwhitearrow Table 238: marvosym Scissors s r \Cutleft \Cutline q R \Cutright \Kutline S Q \Leftscissors \Rightscissors § ¦ ¤ £ Table 239: bbding Scissors \ScissorHollowLeft \ScissorHollowRight \ScissorLeft \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom ¥ ¡   ¢ \ScissorLeftBrokenTop \ScissorRight \ScissorRightBrokenBottom \ScissorRightBrokenTop Table 240: pifont Scissors ¡ \ding{33} ¢ \ding{34} 75 Ê \ding{35} £ \ding{36} . However. which outputs the character that lies at a given position in the font. pifont provides a L TEX interface to the Zapf Dingbats font (one of the standard 35 PostScript fonts). The consequence is that the pifont symbols can’t be listed by name in this document’s index. arrows. pifont merely provides a single \ding command. They are commonly used as bullets in itemized lists or.5 Dingbats Dingbats are symbols such as stars. and geometric shapes. as a means to draw attention to the text that follows.

Table 241: dingbat Pencils

W

\largepencil

P

\smallpencil

0 ) 2 1 

Table 242: bbding Pencils and Nibs \NibLeft \NibRight \NibSolidLeft \NibSolidRight

$ ( & #

\PencilLeft \PencilLeftDown \PencilLeftUp \PencilRight

' %

\PencilRightDown \PencilRightUp

Table 243: pifont Pencils and Nibs \ding{46}  \ding{47} i \ding{48}  \ding{49}  \ding{50}

Table 244: dingbat Fists

R D U

\leftpointright \leftthumbsdown \leftthumbsup

L d u

\rightpointleft \rightthumbsdown \rightthumbsup

N

\rightpointright 

 

Table 245: bbding Fists \HandCuffLeft \HandCuffLeftUp \HandCuffRight 



\HandCuffRightUp \HandLeft \HandLeftUp

"  

\HandPencilLeft \HandRight \HandRightUp

Table 246: pifont Fists  \ding{42}  \ding{43}  \ding{44}  \ding{45}

Table 247: fourier Fists \lefthand \righthand

B E R F

Table 248: bbding Crosses and Plusses \Cross \CrossBoldOutline \CrossClowerTips \CrossMaltese

C D 9 @

\CrossOpenShadow \CrossOutline \Plus \PlusCenterOpen 76

8 A

\PlusOutline \PlusThinCenterOpen

Table 249: pifont Crosses and Plusses % & \ding{57} \ding{58} ' ( \ding{59} \ding{60} ¦ § \ding{61} \ding{62} ¨ © \ding{63} \ding{64}

3 4

Table 250: bbding Xs and Check Marks \Checkmark \CheckmarkBold

5 6

\XSolid \XSolidBold

7

\XSolidBrush

Table 251: pifont Xs and Check Marks  \ding{51} \ding{52} ! " \ding{53} \ding{54} # $ \ding{55} \ding{56}

Table 252: wasysym Xs and Check Marks \CheckedBox \Square \XBox

Table 253: universal Xs

¥

\baucross

Table 254: pifont Circled Numbers x y z { | } ~  €  \ding{172} \ding{173} \ding{174} \ding{175} \ding{176} \ding{177} \ding{178} \ding{179} \ding{180} \ding{181} ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ \ding{182} \ding{183} \ding{184} \ding{185} \ding{186} \ding{187} \ding{188} \ding{189} \ding{190} \ding{191} Œ  Ž   ‘ ’ “ ” • \ding{192} \ding{193} \ding{194} \ding{195} \ding{196} \ding{197} \ding{198} \ding{199} \ding{200} \ding{201} – — ˜ ™ š › œ  ž Ÿ \ding{202} \ding{203} \ding{204} \ding{205} \ding{206} \ding{207} \ding{208} \ding{209} \ding{210} \ding{211}

pifont (part of the psnfss package) provides a dingautolist environment which resembles enumerate but uses circled numbers as bullets.4 See the psnfss documentation for more information.

Table 255: wasysym Stars \davidsstar
4 In

\hexstar

\varhexstar

fact, dingautolist can use any set of consecutive Zapf Dingbats symbols.

77

x e f ˆ g h H G  ƒ ‰ r s p i ‚

Table 256: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes \Asterisk \AsteriskBold \AsteriskCenterOpen \AsteriskRoundedEnds \AsteriskThin \AsteriskThinCenterOpen \DavidStar \DavidStarSolid \EightAsterisk \EightFlowerPetal \EightFlowerPetalRemoved \EightStar \EightStarBold \EightStarConvex \EightStarTaper \FiveFlowerOpen

€ V Y c U W X ` a b d I † ‡ S T

\FiveFlowerPetal \FiveStar \FiveStarCenterOpen \FiveStarConvex \FiveStarLines \FiveStarOpen \FiveStarOpenCircled \FiveStarOpenDotted \FiveStarOutline \FiveStarOutlineHeavy \FiveStarShadow \FourAsterisk \FourClowerOpen \FourClowerSolid \FourStar \FourStarOpen

P Q y … w  v ‘ q u – ” • “ ’ t

\JackStar \JackStarBold \SixFlowerAlternate \SixFlowerAltPetal \SixFlowerOpenCenter \SixFlowerPetalDotted \SixFlowerPetalRemoved \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal \SixStar \SixteenStarLight \Snowflake \SnowflakeChevron \SnowflakeChevronBold \Sparkle \SparkleBold \TwelweStar

Table 257: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes  ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 \ding{65} \ding{66} \ding{67} \ding{68} \ding{69} \ding{70} \ding{71} \ding{72} \ding{73} 7 8 9 @ A B C D E \ding{74} \ding{75} \ding{76} \ding{77} \ding{78} \ding{79} \ding{80} \ding{81} \ding{82} F G H I P Q R S T \ding{83} \ding{84} \ding{85} \ding{86} \ding{87} \ding{88} \ding{89} \ding{90} \ding{91} U V W X Y ` a b c \ding{92} \ding{93} \ding{94} \ding{95} \ding{96} \ding{97} \ding{98} \ding{99} \ding{100} d e f g h i p \ding{101} \ding{102} \ding{103} \ding{104} \ding{105} \ding{106} \ding{107}

Table 258: fourier Ornaments \aldine \aldineleft \aldineright \aldinesmall \decofourleft \decofourright \decoone \decosix \decothreeleft \decothreeright \decotwo \floweroneleft \floweroneright \leafleft \leafNE \leafright \starredbullet

Table 259: wasysym Geometric Shapes \hexagon \octagon \pentagon \varhexagon

78

\lozenge as a synonym for \medlozenge. and. \Square and \Cross combine to give “ ”. new symbols. H  7 u 79 .3 for more information about constructing new symbols out of existing symbols.Table 260: MnSymbol Geometric Shapes \filledlargestar \filledlozenge \filledmedlozenge \largecircle \largediamond \largelozenge \largepentagram \largesquare \largestar \largestarofdavid \medlozenge \medstarofdavid ◊ \smalllozenge MnSymbol defines \bigcirc as a synonym for \largecircle. \blacklozenge as a synonym for \filledmedlozenge. \bigstar as a synonym for \filledlargestar. Likewise. See Section 8. Table 261: ifsym Geometric Shapes 7  8 & • G 2 5 4 6 3 ) S  ¥ ¦ § T … † € ƒ ‚ \BigCircle \BigCross \BigDiamondshape \BigHBar \BigLowerDiamond \BigRightDiamond \BigSquare \BigTriangleDown \BigTriangleLeft \BigTriangleRight \BigTriangleUp \BigVBar \Circle \Cross \DiamondShadowA \DiamondShadowB \DiamondShadowC \Diamondshape \FilledBigCircle \FilledBigDiamondshape \FilledBigSquare \FilledBigTriangleDown \FilledBigTriangleLeft „  e ¨ © f u v p s r t q – £ ¤ ™ ˜ d — ' o c \FilledBigTriangleRight \FilledBigTriangleUp \FilledCircle \FilledDiamondShadowA \FilledDiamondShadowC \FilledDiamondshape \FilledSmallCircle \FilledSmallDiamondshape \FilledSmallSquare \FilledSmallTriangleDown \FilledSmallTriangleLeft \FilledSmallTriangleRight \FilledSmallTriangleUp \FilledSquare \FilledSquareShadowA \FilledSquareShadowC \FilledTriangleDown \FilledTriangleLeft \FilledTriangleRight \FilledTriangleUp \HBar \LowerDiamond \RightDiamond i  p (  y d g f h e 1 B A H   ¡ ¢ Q P R I 0 \SmallCircle \SmallCross \SmallDiamondshape \SmallHBar \SmallLowerDiamond \SmallRightDiamond \SmallSquare \SmallTriangleDown \SmallTriangleLeft \SmallTriangleRight \SmallTriangleUp \SmallVBar \SpinDown \SpinUp \Square \SquareShadowA \SquareShadowB \SquareShadowC \TriangleDown \TriangleLeft \TriangleRight \TriangleUp \VBar The ifsym documentation points out that one can use \rlap to combine some of the above into useful. For example. \BigCircle and \FilledSmallCircle combine to give “ ”.

d — p ˜ e ™ s r q r s \CircleShadow \CircleSolid \DiamondSolid \Ellipse \EllipseShadow \EllipseSolid \HalfCircleLeft \HalfCircleRight u v t f k m l h Table 262: bbding Geometric Shapes \Rectangle \RectangleBold \RectangleThin \Square \SquareCastShadowBottomRight \SquareCastShadowTopLeft \SquareCastShadowTopRight \SquareShadowBottomRight j i g o n \SquareShadowTopLeft \SquareShadowTopRight \SquareSolid \TriangleDown \TriangleUp Table 263: pifont Geometric Shapes \ding{108} \ding{109} \ding{110} t Ë u \ding{111} \ding{112} \ding{113} Ì v w \ding{114} \ding{115} \ding{116} x  ‚ \ding{117} \ding{119} \ding{120} ƒ „ \ding{121} \ding{122} ¡ ¤ ¨ Table 264: universa Geometric Shapes \baucircle   \bausquare ¢ \bautriangle Table 265: universal Geometric Shapes \baucircle \baueclipse § … \bauhole \baupunct † £ \bausquare \bautriangle O C D  q Table 266: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats \anchor \carriagereturn \checkmark E C I ! ¨ \eye \filledsquarewithdots \satellitedish S B Z „  \Sborder \squarewithdots \Zborder Table 267: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats \Envelope \OrnamentDiamondSolid \Peace \Phone ©  \PhoneHandset \Plane \SunshineOpenCircled \Tape Table 268: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats ¤ ¥ w \ding{37} \ding{38} \ding{39} v u y \ding{40} \ding{41} \ding{118} h j k \ding{164} \ding{165} \ding{166} l p n \ding{167} \ding{168} \ding{170} m o \ding{171} \ding{169} 80 .

6 Ancient languages This section presents letters and ideograms from various ancient scripts. 81 . In addition.g. See the protosem documentation for more information.. “\textproto{Pakyn}” produces “Pakyn”). Some of these symbols may also be useful in other typesetting contexts. Table 269: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk J h X R K b D S c E M W U T f \PHarrow \PHbee \PHbeehive \PHboomerang \PHbow \PHbullLeg \PHcaptive \PHcarpentryPlane \PHcat \PHchild \PHclub \PHcolumn \PHcomb \PHdolium \PHdove e o H p G a Z Q m N O n k A i \PHeagle \PHflute \PHgaunlet \PHgrater \PHhelmet \PHhide \PHhorn \PHlid \PHlily \PHmanacles \PHmattock \PHoxBack \PHpapyrus \PHpedestrian \PHplaneTree B d l P L Y V r q C I g j s F \PHplumedHead \PHram \PHrosette \PHsaw \PHshield \PHship \PHsling \PHsmallAxe \PHstrainer \PHtattooedHead \PHtiara \PHtunny \PHvine \PHwavyBand \PHwoman Table 270: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters a A b B g d D e \Aaleph \AAaleph \Abeth \AAbeth \Agimel \Adaleth \AAdaleth \Ahe E z w H h T y Y \AAhe \Azayin \Avav \Aheth \AAheth \Ateth \Ayod \AAyod k K l L m n o O \Akaph \AAkaph \Alamed \AAlamed \Amem \Anun \Aayin \AAayin s p P x X q Q r \Asamekh \Ape \AApe \Asade \AAsade \Aqoph \AAqoph \Aresh R S v V t \AAresh \Ashin \Ahelmet \AAhelmet \Atav The protosem package defines abbreviated control sequences for each of the above. single-letter shortcuts can be used within the argument to the \textproto command (e.

Table 272: linearA Linear A Script \LinearAI \LinearAII \LinearAIII \LinearAIV \LinearAV \LinearAVI \LinearAVII \LinearAVIII \LinearAIX \LinearAX \LinearAXI \LinearAXII \LinearAXIII \LinearAXCIX \LinearAC \LinearACI \LinearACII \LinearACIII \LinearACIV \LinearACV \LinearACVI \LinearACVII \LinearACVIII \LinearACIX \LinearACX \LinearACXI \LinearACXCVII \LinearACXCVIII \LinearACXCIX \LinearACC \LinearACCI \LinearACCII \LinearACCIII \LinearACCIV \LinearACCV \LinearACCVI \LinearACCVII \LinearACCVIII \LinearACCIX \LinearACCXCV \LinearACCXCVI \LinearACCXCVII \LinearACCXCVIII \LinearACCXCIX \LinearACCC \LinearACCCI \LinearACCCII \LinearACCCIII \LinearACCCIV \LinearACCCV \LinearACCCVI \LinearACCCVII (continued on next page) 82 .Table 271: hieroglf Hieroglyphics A a B b c C D d ¸ e E f F G g h H \HA \Ha \HB \Hb \Hc \HC \HD \Hd \Hdual \He \HE \Hf \HF \HG \Hg \Hh \HH I i ˝ ˆ ¨ ˜ J j k K L l m M ˇ ´ N \HI \Hi \Hibl \Hibp \Hibs \Hibw \HJ \Hj \Hk \HK \HL \Hl \Hm \HM \Hman \Hms \HN n O o p P ˙ + Q q ? R r s S ¯ / ˚ \Hn \HO \Ho \Hp \HP \Hplural \Hplus \HQ \Hq \Hquery \HR \Hr \Hs \HS \Hscribe \Hslash \Hsv T t ˘ U u V v | w W X x Y y z Z \HT \Ht \Htongue \HU \Hu \HV \Hv \Hvbar \Hw \HW \HX \Hx \HY \Hy \Hz \HZ | 2 \Hone \Hten 3 4 \Hhundred \Hthousand 5 6 \HXthousand \HCthousand 7 \Hmillion The hieroglf package defines alternate control sequences and single-letter shortcuts for each of the above which can be used within the argument to the \textpmhg command (e..g. See the hieroglf documentation for more information. “\textpmhg{Pakin}” produces “Pakin”).

(continued from previous page) \LinearAXIV \LinearAXV \LinearAXVI \LinearAXVII \LinearAXVIII \LinearAXIX \LinearAXX \LinearAXXI \LinearAXXII \LinearAXXIII \LinearAXXIV \LinearAXXV \LinearAXXVI \LinearAXXVII \LinearAXXVIII \LinearAXXIX \LinearAXXX \LinearAXXXI \LinearAXXXII \LinearAXXXIII \LinearAXXXIV \LinearAXXXV \LinearAXXXVI \LinearAXXXVII \LinearAXXXVIII \LinearAXXXIX \LinearAXL \LinearAXLI \LinearAXLII \LinearAXLIII \LinearAXLIV \LinearAXLV \LinearAXLVI \LinearAXLVII \LinearAXLVIII \LinearAXLIX \LinearAL \LinearALI \LinearALII \LinearALIII \LinearALIV \LinearALV \LinearALVI \LinearALVII \LinearALVIII \LinearALIX \LinearALX \LinearALXI \LinearALXII \LinearALXIII \LinearALXIV \LinearALXV \LinearACXII \LinearACXIII \LinearACXIV \LinearACXV \LinearACXVI \LinearACXVII \LinearACXVIII \LinearACXIX \LinearACXX \LinearACXXI \LinearACXXII \LinearACXXIII \LinearACXXIV \LinearACXXV \LinearACXXVI \LinearACXXVII \LinearACXXVIII \LinearACXXIX \LinearACXXX \LinearACXXXI \LinearACXXXII \LinearACXXXIII \LinearACXXXIV \LinearACXXXV \LinearACXXXVI \LinearACXXXVII \LinearACXXXVIII \LinearACXXXIX \LinearACXL \LinearACXLI \LinearACXLII \LinearACXLIII \LinearACXLIV \LinearACXLV \LinearACXLVI \LinearACXLVII \LinearACXLVIII \LinearACXLIX \LinearACL \LinearACLI \LinearACLII \LinearACLIII \LinearACLIV \LinearACLV \LinearACLVI \LinearACLVII \LinearACLVIII \LinearACLIX \LinearACLX \LinearACLXI \LinearACLXII \LinearACLXIII \LinearACCX \LinearACCXI \LinearACCXII \LinearACCXIII \LinearACCXIV \LinearACCXV \LinearACCXVI \LinearACCXVII \LinearACCXVIII \LinearACCXIX \LinearACCXX \LinearACCXXI \LinearACCXXII \LinearACCXXIII \LinearACCXXIV \LinearACCXXV \LinearACCXXVI \LinearACCXXVII \LinearACCXXVIII \LinearACCXXIX \LinearACCXXX \LinearACCXXXI \LinearACCXXXII \LinearACCXXXIII \LinearACCXXXIV \LinearACCXXXV \LinearACCXXXVI \LinearACCXXXVII \LinearACCXXXVIII \LinearACCXXXIX \LinearACCXL \LinearACCXLI \LinearACCXLII \LinearACCXLIII \LinearACCXLIV \LinearACCXLV \LinearACCXLVI \LinearACCXLVII \LinearACCXLVIII \LinearACCXLIX \LinearACCL \LinearACCLI \LinearACCLII \LinearACCLIII \LinearACCLIV \LinearACCLV \LinearACCLVI \LinearACCLVII \LinearACCLVIII \LinearACCLIX \LinearACCLX \LinearACCLXI \LinearACCCVIII \LinearACCCIX \LinearACCCX \LinearACCCXI \LinearACCCXII \LinearACCCXIII \LinearACCCXIV \LinearACCCXV \LinearACCCXVI \LinearACCCXVII \LinearACCCXVIII \LinearACCCXIX \LinearACCCXX \LinearACCCXXI \LinearACCCXXII \LinearACCCXXIII \LinearACCCXXIV \LinearACCCXXV \LinearACCCXXVI \LinearACCCXXVII \LinearACCCXXVIII \LinearACCCXXIX \LinearACCCXXX \LinearACCCXXXI \LinearACCCXXXII \LinearACCCXXXIII \LinearACCCXXXIV \LinearACCCXXXV \LinearACCCXXXVI \LinearACCCXXXVII \LinearACCCXXXVIII \LinearACCCXXXIX \LinearACCCXL \LinearACCCXLI \LinearACCCXLII \LinearACCCXLIII \LinearACCCXLIV \LinearACCCXLV \LinearACCCXLVI \LinearACCCXLVII \LinearACCCXLVIII \LinearACCCXLIX \LinearACCCL \LinearACCCLI \LinearACCCLII \LinearACCCLIII \LinearACCCLIV \LinearACCCLV \LinearACCCLVI \LinearACCCLVII \LinearACCCLVIII \LinearACCCLIX (continued on next page) 83 .

(continued from previous page) \LinearALXVI \LinearALXVII \LinearALXVIII \LinearALXIX \LinearALXX \LinearALXXI \LinearALXXII \LinearALXXIII \LinearALXXIV \LinearALXXV \LinearALXXVI \LinearALXXVII \LinearALXXVIII \LinearALXXIX \LinearALXXX \LinearALXXXI \LinearALXXXII \LinearALXXXIII \LinearALXXXIV \LinearALXXXV \LinearALXXXVI \LinearALXXXVII \LinearALXXXVIII \LinearALXXXIX \LinearALXXXX \LinearAXCI \LinearAXCII \LinearAXCIII \LinearAXCIV \LinearAXCV \LinearAXCVI \LinearAXCVII \LinearAXCVIII \LinearACLXIV \LinearACLXV \LinearACLXVI \LinearACLXVII \LinearACLXVIII \LinearACLXIX \LinearACLXX \LinearACLXXI \LinearACLXXII \LinearACLXXIII \LinearACLXXIV \LinearACLXXV \LinearACLXXVI \LinearACLXXVII \LinearACLXXVIII \LinearACLXXIX \LinearACLXXX \LinearACLXXXI \LinearACLXXXII \LinearACLXXXIII \LinearACLXXXIV \LinearACLXXXV \LinearACLXXXVI \LinearACLXXXVII \LinearACLXXXVIII \LinearACLXXXIX \LinearACLXXXX \LinearACXCI \LinearACXCII \LinearACXCIII \LinearACXCIV \LinearACXCV \LinearACXCVI \LinearACCLXII \LinearACCLXIII \LinearACCLXIV \LinearACCLXV \LinearACCLXVI \LinearACCLXVII \LinearACCLXVIII \LinearACCLXIX \LinearACCLXX \LinearACCLXXI \LinearACCLXXII \LinearACCLXXIII \LinearACCLXXIV \LinearACCLXXV \LinearACCLXXVI \LinearACCLXXVII \LinearACCLXXVIII \LinearACCLXXIX \LinearACCLXXX \LinearACCLXXXI \LinearACCLXXXII \LinearACCLXXXIII \LinearACCLXXXIV \LinearACCLXXXV \LinearACCLXXXVI \LinearACCLXXXVII \LinearACCLXXXVIII \LinearACCLXXXIX \LinearACCLXXXX \LinearACCXCI \LinearACCXCII \LinearACCXCIII \LinearACCXCIV \LinearACCCLX \LinearACCCLXI \LinearACCCLXII \LinearACCCLXIII \LinearACCCLXIV \LinearACCCLXV \LinearACCCLXVI \LinearACCCLXVII \LinearACCCLXVIII \LinearACCCLXIX \LinearACCCLXX \LinearACCCLXXI \LinearACCCLXXII \LinearACCCLXXIII \LinearACCCLXXIV \LinearACCCLXXV \LinearACCCLXXVI \LinearACCCLXXVII \LinearACCCLXXVIII \LinearACCCLXXIX \LinearACCCLXXX \LinearACCCLXXXI \LinearACCCLXXXII \LinearACCCLXXXIII \LinearACCCLXXXIV \LinearACCCLXXXV \LinearACCCLXXXVI \LinearACCCLXXXVII \LinearACCCLXXXVIII \LinearACCCLXXXIX 84 .

Table 275: linearb Linear B Weights and Measures Ď Ĺ \BPtalent \BPvola Ľ Ł \BPvolb \BPvolcd Ń Ă \BPvolcf \BPwta Ą Ć \BPwtb \BPwtc Č \BPwtd These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope. 85 . Table 274: linearb Linear B Numerals ´ ˆ ˜ ¨ ˝ ˚ \BNi \BNii \BNiii \BNiv \BNv \BNvi ˇ ˘ ¯ ˙ ¸ ˛ \BNvii \BNviii \BNix \BNx \BNxx \BNxxx ‚ ‹ › “ ” „ \BNxl \BNl \BNlx \BNlxx \BNlxxx \BNxc « » – — ‌ ‰ \BNc \BNcc \BNccc \BNcd \BNd \BNdc ı ȷ ff fi \BNdcc \BNdccc \BNcm \BNm These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope. See the linearb documentation for more information. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textlinb{\Bpa\Bki\Bna}” and “\textlinb{pcn}” produce “pcn”. for example. < = d D f g x > ? e i \Ba \Baii \Baiii \Bau \Bda \Bde \Bdi \Bdo \Bdu \Bdwe \Bdwo \Be \Bi j J b L k K c h v m M y A \Bja \Bje \Bjo \Bju \Bka \Bke \Bki \Bko \Bku \Bma \Bme \Bmi \Bmo B n N C E F @ o p [ P G H \Bmu \Bna \Bne \Bni \Bno \Bnu \Bnwa \Bo \Bpa \Bpaiii \Bpe \Bpi \Bpo ] I \ q Q X 8 r ^ _ R O U \Bpte \Bpu \Bpuii \Bqa \Bqe \Bqi \Bqo \Bra \Braii \Braiii \Bre \Bri \Bro ‘ V s S Y 1 2 { | t } T 3 \Broii \Bru \Bsa \Bse \Bsi \Bso \Bsu \Bswa \Bswi \Bta \Btaii \Bte \Bti 4 5 ~ u w W 6 7 z Z 9 \Bto \Btu \Btwo \Bu \Bwa \Bwe \Bwi \Bwo \Bza \Bze \Bzo These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.Table 273: linearb Linear B Basic and Optional Letters a .

Table 276: linearb Linear B Ideograms Ž ij Ş ť ľ Ű ň đ § ÿ \BPamphora \BParrow \BPbarley \BPbilly \BPboar \BPbronze \BPbull \BPcauldroni \BPcauldronii \BPchariot ź Ř ŋ Ÿ š ě ş Ź Ů ď \BPchassis \BPcloth \BPcow \BPcup \BPewe \BPfoal \BPgoat \BPgoblet \BPgold \BPhorse ă ț Ț ń ĺ ś ř ł ¡ ż \BPman \BPnanny \BPolive \BPox \BPpig \BPram \BPsheep \BPsow \BPspear \BPsword Š ž Ť Ż IJ İ ą Ś \BPwheat \BPwheel \BPwine \BPwineiih \BPwineiiih \BPwineivh \BPwoman \BPwool These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope. 86 . Table 278: cypriot Cypriot Letters a e g i j b k K c h \Ca \Ce \Cga \Ci \Cja \Cjo \Cka \Cke \Cki \Cko v l L d f q m M y A \Cku \Cla \Cle \Cli \Clo \Clu \Cma \Cme \Cmi \Cmo B n N C E F o p P G \Cmu \Cna \Cne \Cni \Cno \Cnu \Co \Cpa \Cpe \Cpi H I r R O U V s S Y \Cpo \Cpu \Cra \Cre \Cri \Cro \Cru \Csa \Cse \Csi 1 2 t T 3 4 5 u w W \Cso \Csu \Cta \Cte \Cti \Cto \Ctu \Cu \Cwa \Cwe 6 7 x X j b g 9 \Cwi \Cwo \Cxa \Cxe \Cya \Cyo \Cza \Czo These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textcypr or following the \cyprfamily font-selection command within a scope. See the cypriot documentation for more information. Table 277: linearb Unidentified Linear B Symbols fl ffi ffl \BUi \BUii \BUiii ␣ ! " \BUiv \BUv \BUvi # $ % \BUvii \BUviii \BUix & ’ ­ \BUx \BUxi \BUxii ­ \Btwe These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textcypr{\Cpa\Cki\Cna}” and “\textcypr{pcn}” produce “pcn”. for example.

† ‡ 87 .Table 279: sarabian South Arabian Letters a b g d h w \SAa \SAb \SAg \SAd \SAh \SAw z H T y k l \SAz \SAhd \SAtd \SAy \SAk \SAl m n s f ‘ o \SAm \SAn \SAs \SAf \SAlq \SAo x q r S t I \SAsd \SAq \SAr \SAsv \SAt \SAhu D J G Z X B \SAdb \SAtb \SAga \SAzd \SAsa \SAdd These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textsarab or following the \sarabfamily font-selection command within a scope.‡ Ϝ ϟ Ϡ \Digamma∗ \koppa∗ \Sampi ϡ Ϛ ϛ \sampi∗ \Stigma \stigma∗ ϛ \varstigma Technically. regardless of package-loading order. See the sarabian documentation for more information. teubner’s \digamma replaces amssymb’s \digamma. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textsarab{\SAb\SAk\SAn}” and “\textsarab{bkn}” produce “bkn”. Table 280: teubner Archaic Greek Letters and Greek Numerals Ϙ ϙ ϝ ∗ \Coppa† \coppa† \digamma∗. these symbols do not require teubner. it is sufficient to load the babel package with the greek option (upon which teubner depends)—but use \qoppa for \koppa and \ddigamma for \digamma. For compatibility with other naming conventions teubner defines \Koppa as a synonym for \Coppa and \varcoppa as a synonym for \coppa. for example. If both teubner and amssymb are loaded.

musical notes).. \sharp. Table 281: textcomp Genealogical Symbols \textborn \textdied \textdivorced \textleaf \textmarried Table 282: wasysym General Symbols \ataribox \bell \blacksmiley \Bowtie \brokenvert \checked \clock \diameter \DOWNarrow \frownie \invdiameter \kreuz \LEFTarrow \lightning \phone \pointer \recorder \RIGHTarrow ☼ ◊ \smiley \sun \UParrow \wasylozenge Table 283: wasysym Circles \CIRCLE \Circle \LEFTCIRCLE \LEFTcircle \Leftcircle \RIGHTCIRCLE \RIGHTcircle \Rightcircle \leftturn \rightturn Table 284: wasysym Musical Symbols \eighthnote \halfnote \twonotes \fullnote \quarternote See also \flat. others represent motley assortments of whatever the font designer felt like drawing. (Do weather symbols belong under “Science and technology”? Should dice be considered “mathematics”?) While some of the tables contain clearly related groups of symbols (e.g. Table 285: arev Musical Symbols \quarternote ♪ \eighthnote \sixteenthnote See also \flat. and \natural (Table 201 on page 65). 88 . \sharp.7 Other symbols The following are all the symbols that didn’t fit neatly or unambiguously into any of the previous sections. and \natural (Table 201 on page 65).

Table 286: harmony Musical Symbols = = ˇ “ˇ “ ˇ=“ =( ˇ “= = ˇ“ ? D D \AAcht \Acht \AchtBL \AchtBR \AcPa \DD D / D \DDohne \Dohne \Ds \DS \Ganz \GaPa / D s s S S ˘“ < ‰ ˇ=“ =) “ =ˇ=“ ˇ= \Halb \HaPa \Pu \Sech \SechBL \SechBl = = ˇ“ = = ˇ “= @ < \SechBR \SechBr \SePa \UB \Vier \ViPa > \VM \Zwdr \ZwPa ˇ “* A ¯ < ˇ“ > The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony. Table 287: harmony Musical Accents .. “\Takt{c}{0}” produces “S ” and “\Takt{c}{1}” produces “R ”.. and \textreversedvideodbend.” produces “Xd”... \Takt takes two arguments and composes them into a musical time signature..c. Aa \Fermi{A}\Fermi{a} ll \Kr{A}\Kr{a} A a ∗ // Aa A a \Ohne{A}\Ohne{a}∗ \Umd{A}\Umd{a}∗ These symbols take an optional argument which shifts the accent either horizontally or vertically (depending on the command) by the given distance.” produces “X”. manfnt also defines nondescending versions. which it calls. \HH is a special accent command which accepts five period-separated characters and typesets them such that b c “\HH.d. Table 289: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols \manboldkidney \manconcentriccircles \manconcentricdiamond \mancone \mancube \manerrarrow \manfilledquartercircle \manhpennib \manimpossiblecube \mankidney \manlhpenkidney 89 \manpenkidney \manquadrifolium \manquartercircle \manrotatedquadrifolium \manrotatedquartercircle \manstar \mantiltpennib \mantriangledown \mantriangleright \mantriangleup \manvpennib . In addition to the accents shown above. \textdbend. \textlhdbend..b. Table 288: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols \dbend \lhdbend \reversedvideodbend Note that these symbols descend far beneath the baseline. For example. “\Takt{12}{8}” produces “ 12 ”. correspondingly.a.X.X. Aa \Ferli{A}\Ferli{a}∗ . All arguments except the first can be omita ted: “\HH. The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony. As 8 two special cases.

Table 290: marvosym Navigation Symbols · ¸ ¹ \Forward \ForwardToEnd \ForwardToIndex » º ¶ \MoveDown \MoveUp \Rewind ´ µ ½ \RewindToIndex \RewindToStart \ToBottom ¼ \ToTop Table 291: marvosym Laundry Symbols Ø Ó Õ Ë « ¾ ¿ ¬ Ý \AtForty \AtNinetyFive \AtSixty \Bleech \CleaningA \CleaningF \CleaningFF \CleaningP \CleaningPP \Dontwash Ü ¯ ° ± Ì ¨ ²  × Ù \Handwash \IroningI \IroningII \IroningIII \NoBleech \NoChemicalCleaning \NoIroning \NoTumbler \ShortFifty \ShortForty Ô Ö Û Ú  ‰ Š ‹ \ShortNinetyFive \ShortSixty \ShortThirty \SpecialForty \Tumbler \WashCotton \WashSynthetics \WashWool Table 292: marvosym Information Symbols ® V U K X \Bicycle \Checkedbox \Clocklogo \Coffeecup \Crossedbox o x I i y \Football \Gentsroom \Industry \Info \Ladiesroom Z w b \Pointinghand \Wheelchair \Writinghand Table 293: Other marvosym Symbols ˆ ý ¥ ‡ ª \Ankh \Bat \Bouquet \Celtcross \CircledA † F f § Ž \Cross \FHBOlogo \FHBOLOGO \Frowny \FullFHBO Œ ÿ m @ : \Heart \MartinVogel \Mundus \MVAt \MVRightarrow © þ Y \Smiley \Womanface \Yinyang Table 294: Miscellaneous universa Symbols ¤ \bauforms £ \bauhead ¡ ¢  Table 295: Miscellaneous universal Symbols \baudash \bauequal \bauface „    \bauforms \bauhead \bauplus ©  ¦ \bauquarter \bauquestion \bauwindow ƒ \varQ 90 .

. . D 91 . \Thermo{0}.\Thermo{6} produce thermometers that are between 0/6 and 6/6 full of mercury: ¥ ¦ § ¨ ©   Similarly. \xswordsup (“ ”). Table 297: ifsym Weather Symbols ' 2 3 5 4  \Cloud \FilledCloud \FilledRainCloud \FilledSunCloud \FilledWeakRainCloud \Fog #  &  ! ( \Hail \HalfSun \Lightning \NoSun \Rain \RainCloud $ % 1  0 \Sleet \Snow \SnowCloud \Sun \SunCloud \ThinFog " ) 6 \WeakRain \WeakRainCloud \FilledSnowCloud In addition. and a given strength in km/h (0– 100). and \xswordsdown (“ ”). \wind{0}{0}{0} produces “  H ”. hours must be an integer from 0 to 11. and \wind{4}{0}{100} produces “¤ X ”. \wind{2}{0}{0} produces “¢ H ”. and minutes must be an integer multiple of 5 from 0 to 55. \wind{ sun }{ angle }{ strength } will draw wind symbols with a given amount of sun (0–4). For example. \showclock{ hours }{ minutes } outputs a clock displaying the corresponding time. a given angle (in degrees).Table 296: Miscellaneous fourier Symbols \bomb \danger ∗ \grimace \noway \textthing∗ \textxswdown∗ \textxswup∗ fourier defines math-mode aliases for a few of the preceding symbols: \thething (“ ”). For instance.       ™ ˜ Table 298: ifsym Alpine Symbols \SummitSign \StoneMan \Hut \FilledHut \Village ! " # $ \Summit \Mountain \IceMountain \VarMountain \VarIceMountain % & ' ) ( \SurveySign \Joch \Flag \VarFlag \Tent 1 0 \HalfFilledHut \VarSummit \Interval \StopWatchEnd — – Table 299: ifsym Clocks \StopWatchStart \Taschenuhr › ” \VarClock \VarTaschenuhr š \Wecker ifsym also exports a \showclock macro. “\showclock{5}{40}” produces “ ”.

“\fcscore{47}” produces “ ”. . Table 304: hhcount Tally Markers \fcscore{1} \fcscore{2} \fcscore{3} \fcscore{4} \fcscore{5} The \fcscore command accepts values larger than 5. For example. Clock symbols are composed from a font of clock-face fragments using one of four values for \ClockStyle and either \ClockFrametrue or \ClockFrametrue as illustrated above. the clocks in the above table were produced with \clock{15}{41}.¢   ¥ ¦ X X Table 300: Other ifsym Symbols \FilledSectioningDiamond \Fire \Irritant \Cube{1} \Cube{2} \StrokeOne \StrokeTwo   ¤ £ § ¨ XX XX \Letter \PaperLandscape \PaperPortrait \Cube{3} \Cube{4} \StrokeThree \StrokeFour  ¡ @ ©  Y \Radiation \SectioningDiamond \Telephone \Cube{5} \Cube{6} \StrokeFive Table 301: clock Clocks \ClockStyle 0 1 2 3 \ClockFramefalse i ’ 1 i ’ 2 i ’ 3 i ’ \ClockFrametrue 0 i ’ 0 1 i ’ 0 2 i ’ 0 3 i ’ The clock package provides a \clock command to typeset an arbitrary time on an analog clock (and \clocktime to typeset the document’s build time). For example. “\fcdice{47}” produces “ ”. 92 For example. See the clock documentation for more information. Table 302: epsdice Dice \epsdice{1} \epsdice{2} \epsdice{3} \epsdice{4} \epsdice{5} \epsdice{6} Table 303: hhcount Dice \fcdice{1} \fcdice{2} \fcdice{3} \fcdice{4} \fcdice{5} \fcdice{6} The \fcdice command accepts values larger than 6.

Table 305: skull Symbols A \skull Table 306: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols y \rip Table 307: skak Chess Informator Symbols g i b a e X O I + RR P l n V t G \bbetter \bdecisive \betteris \bishoppair \bupperhand \capturesymbol \castlingchar \castlinghyphen \centre \checksymbol \chesscomment \chessetc \chesssee \compensation \counterplay \devadvantage \diagonal d L j H O O-O-O x y m S U N F o r M s \doublepawns \ending \equal \file \kside \longcastling \markera \markerb \mate \morepawns \moreroom \novelty \onlymove \opposbishops \passedpawn \qside \samebishops q O-O T k u R f h J v A E C w c D \seppawns \shortcastling \timelimit \unclear \unitedpawns \various \wbetter \wdecisive \weakpt \with \withattack \withidea \withinit \without \wupperhand \zugzwang 93 .

. } |   ~  ™ Table 309: igo Go Stones \blackstone[\igocircle] \blackstone[\igocross] \blackstone[\igonone] \blackstone[\igosquare] \blackstone[\igotriangle] } |   ~  \whitestone[\igocircle] \whitestone[\igocross] \whitestone[\igonone] \whitestone[\igosquare] \whitestone[\igotriangle] In addition to the symbols shown above. . .Table 308: skak Chess Pieces and Chessboard Squares a b Z j k m n o p l q \BlackBishopOnBlack \BlackBishopOnWhite \BlackEmptySquare \BlackKingOnBlack \BlackKingOnWhite \BlackKnightOnBlack \BlackKnightOnWhite \BlackPawnOnBlack \BlackPawnOnWhite \BlackQueenOnBlack \BlackQueenOnWhite s r B K N p Q R \BlackRookOnBlack \BlackRookOnWhite \symbishop \symking \symknight \sympawn \symqueen \symrook \WhiteBishopOnBlack \WhiteBishopOnWhite \WhiteEmptySquare A B 0 J K M N O P L Q S R \WhiteKingOnBlack \WhiteKingOnWhite \WhiteKnightOnBlack \WhiteKnightOnWhite \WhitePawnOnBlack \WhitePawnOnWhite \WhiteQueenOnBlack \WhiteQueenOnWhite \WhiteRookOnBlack \WhiteRookOnWhite The skak package also provides commands for drawing complete chessboards. and . . . igo’s \blackstone and \whitestone commands accept numbers from 1 to 99 and display them circled as . 94 . . See the skak documentation for more information. respectively. ¡¢£ ™ ¡¢£ The igo package is intended to typeset Go boards (goban). See the igo documentation for more information. . . . . .

four \brevises. 95 . Table 311: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols ÷ < · < · ⊃ × ··· · ∧ > · > · · · ∼ ⊗ ⊕ \anaclasis \antidiple \antidiple* \antisigma \asteriscus \catalexis \diple \diple* \obelus \obelus* \respondens \terminus \terminus* ÷ < · < · × ··· · ∧ ⊃ > · > · · · ∼ ⊗ ⊕ \Anaclasis \Antidiple \Antidiple* \Antisigma \Asteriscus \Catalexis \Diple \Diple* \Obelus \Obelus* \Respondens \Terminus \Terminus* Table 312: teubner Metrical Symbols Ι Θ Κ Ξ Ζ Ψ θ \aeolicbii \aeolicbiii \aeolicbiv \anceps \ancepsdbrevis \banceps \barbbrevis ι ς β γ \barbrevis \bbrevis \brevis \catal \corona \coronainv \hiatus η λ ε δ φ κ \ipercatal \longa \ubarbbrevis \ubarbrevis \ubarsbrevis \ubrevislonga H The teubner package provides a \newmetrics command that helps users combine the preceding symbols as well as other teubner symbols. two \barbbrevises. the predefined \pentam symbol uses \newmetrics to juxtapose six \longas. For example. and a \dBar into “λθλθλ||λββλββλ”.Table 310: metre Metrical Symbols × ´ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ × \a \B \b \Bb \BB \bb \bB \bba \bbb \BBm ˘ ˘ ¯´ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘˘ ˘ ¯¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ´ ˘ ¯ \bBm \bbm \Bbm \bbmb \bbmx \bm \Bm \c \C \Cc ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ´ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯´ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ × \cc \Ccc \m \M \ma \Mb \mb \mBb \mbB \mbb ´ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯¯ ¯ ˘˘ ˘ ¯ ◦◦ ˙ ˙ ¯ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ¯˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ \Mbb \mbbx \oo \p \pm \pp \Pp \ppm \ppp \Ppp ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∼ ∼ ⊗ \Pppp \pppp \Ppppp \ppppp \ps \pxp \Pxp \R \r \T ⊗ ˙ ¯ ˙ ¯ ˙˙ ˙˙ \t \tsbm \tsmb \tsmm \vppm \vpppm \x The preceding symbols are valid only within the argument to the metre command. See the teubner documentation for more information.

Table 313: dictsym Dictionary Symbols a G A B C \dsaeronautical \dsagricultural \dsarchitectural \dsbiological \dschemical c H J L M \dscommercial \dsheraldical \dsjuridical \dsliterary \dsmathematical m X R T \dsmedical \dsmilitary \dsrailways \dstechnical Table 314: simpsons Characters from The Simpsons    ¦     \Bart    ¤    ¢ \Homer        ¨ \Maggie ¡ \SNPP \Burns \Lisa \Marge The location of the characters’ pupils can be controlled with the \Goofy command. each of the above can be prefixed with \Left to make the character face left instead of right:    § \Left\Bart 96 . See A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters [Che97] for more information. Also.

These symbols also appear in the Unicode Box Drawing and Block Element tables. The pmboxdraw package draws the CP437 box-drawing symbols using TEX rules (specifically. See the pmboxdraw documentation for more information. contains the set of box-drawing symbols (sides.and double-ruled boxes) shown above in character positions 176–223. and intersections of single. corners.Table 315: pmboxdraw Box-Drawing Symbols \textblock \textdkshade \textdnblock \textlfblock \textltshade \textrtblock \textSFi \textSFii \textSFiii \textSFiv \textSFix \textSFl \textSFli \textSFlii \textSFliii \textSFliv \textSFv \textSFvi \textSFvii \textSFviii \textSFx \textSFxi \textSFxix \textSFxl \textSFxli \textSFxlii \textSFxliii \textSFxliv \textSFxlix \textSFxlv \textSFxlvi \textSFxlvii \textSFxlviii \textSFxx \textSFxxi \textSFxxii \textSFxxiii \textSFxxiv \textSFxxv \textSFxxvi \textSFxxvii \textSFxxviii \textSFxxxix \textSFxxxvi \textSFxxxvii \textSFxxxviii \textshade \textupblock Code Page 437 (CP437). which was first utilized by the original IBM PC. \vrule) instead of with a font and thereby provides the ability to alter both rule width and the separation between rules. Table 316: staves Magical Staves \staveI \staveII \staveIII \staveIV \staveV \staveVI \staveVII \staveVIII \staveIX \staveX \staveXI \staveXXIV \staveXXV \staveXXVI \staveXXVII \staveXXVIII \staveXXIX \staveXXX \staveXXXI \staveXXXII \staveXXXIII \staveXXXIV \staveXLVII \staveXLVIII \staveXLIX \staveL \staveLI \staveLII \staveLIII \staveLIV \staveLV \staveLVI \staveLVII (continued on next page) 97 .

(continued from previous page) \staveXII \staveXIII \staveXIV \staveXV \staveXVI \staveXVII \staveXVIII \staveXIX \staveXX \staveXXI \staveXXII \staveXXIII \staveXXXV \staveXXXVI \staveXXXVII \staveXXXVIII \staveXXXIX \staveXL \staveXLI \staveXLII \staveXLIII \staveXLIV \staveXLV \staveXLVI \staveLVIII \staveLIX \staveLX \staveLXI \staveLXII \staveLXIII \staveLXIV \staveLXV \staveLXVI \staveLXVII \staveLXVIII The meanings of these symbols are described on the Web site for the Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft at http://www. For example.is/ index.com/25979m). Table 317: pigpen Cipher Symbols A B C D E F G H I {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont A} B} C} D} E} F} G} H} I} J K L M N O P Q R {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont J} K} L} M} N} O} P} Q} R} S T U V W X Y Z {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont S} T} U} V} W} X} Y} Z} { Table 318: C in h A2e Phases of the Moon \MoonPha{1} | \MoonPha{2} } \MoonPha{3} ~ \MoonPha{4}  < Table 319: Other C in h A2e Symbols \Greenpoint \Info # > \Postbox \Request 98 @ \Telephone . \staveL (“ ”) is intended to ward off ghosts and evil spirits.galdrasyning.php?option=com content&task=category&sectionid=5&id=18&Itemid= 60 (TinyURL: http://tinyurl.

g. Fortunately.g. in the words of its author. if you tell METAFONT to proceed past those errors (e. by pressing Enter after each one or by specifying “-interaction=nonstopmode” on the METAFONT command line) it should produce a valid font. “awful code [that] doesn’t even put the logo in a box (properly)”. “{\recycle}”) because they exhibit the side effect of changing the font to the recycle font.. A A \recycle 99 Table 320: recycle Recycling Symbols A \Recycle \RECYCLE .The METAFONT code that implements the recycling symbols shown above is. The commands listed above should be used within a group (e. Expect to receive “Inconsistent equation (off by number )” errors from METAFONT..

unlike the symbols enlarged using \big et al.2 Resizing symbols Mathematical symbols listed in this document as “variable-sized” are designed to stretch vertically. Because the symbols shown belong to the Computer Modern family. 8. First. it comments on the spacing surrounding symbols in math mode. a number of symbol names are not unique. and bottom segments are of a fixed size. Then. \Big. Table 322 on page 102 illustrates what “compatible” means in this context. it lists some statistics about this document itself. The top-middle and middle-bottom segments (which are constrained to be the same character) are repeated as many times as necessary to achieve the desired height. The general procedure is to load the first package. it presents an ASCII and Latin 1 quick-reference guide. the type1cm package needs to be loaded to support font sizes larger than 24. which all use the same math axis regardless of symbol size. and L TEX 2ε itself. However. After that. in an even larger size achieved using \left/\right.tex’s \savesymbol and \restoresymbol macros have been extracted into the savesym package. The top. 8. mathabx redefines a vast number of math symbols in an attempt to improve their look. rename the conflicting symbols. it draws attention to symbol names used by multiple packages. all of the symbols defined by latexsym.3 Where can I find the symbol for . Section 8 does not contain new symbol tables. The txfonts. two symbols made to overlap by backspacing a fixed distance) but do not work with every TEX backend and will produce jagged symbols when scaling a bitmapped font. txfonts and pxfonts redefine a huge number of symbols—essentially. . L TEX will either output an error message or replace an earlier-defined symbol with a later-defined symbol.1 Symbol Name Clashes Unfortunately. they appear in more than one package. and \Bigg sizes.. Rather. And finally. \bigg. (The graphicx package’s \scalebox or \resizebox commands would produce a similar effect. To use the new txfonts/pxfonts symbols without altering the document’s main font. A textcomp. it provides some guidelines for finding symbols and gives some examples regarding how to construct missing symbols out of existing ones. Next. it provides A additional help in using the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List. Note that symbols. ? If you can’t find some symbol you’re looking for in this document. \scalebox and \resizebox are more robust to poorly composed symbols (e. All variable-sized delimiters are defined (by the corresponding . A Examine the L TEX source for this document (symbols. and then load the second package. Table 323 on page 102 presents the symbols \} and \uparrow in their default size.8 Additional Information Unlike the previous sections of this document. merely reset the default font families back to their original values after loading one of those packages: \renewcommand\rmdefault{cmr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{cmss} \renewcommand\ttdefault{cmtt} 8. the various AMS symbol sets. or \left/\right. Each variable-sized symbol comes in one or more basic sizes plus a variation comprising both stretchable and nonstretchable segments. Depending A on how the symbols are defined in each package. in their \big. Using multiple symbols with the same name in the same document—or even merely loading conflicting symbol packages—can be tricky but. and mathabx conflicts are not listed in Table 321 because they are designed to be compatible with the symbols they replace.88 pt. \fontsize is not limited to mathematical delimiters. showing how to enter all of A the standard ASCII/Latin 1 symbols in L TEX. not impossible.) Also. as illustrated by Figure 1 on page 102. Table 321 on the following page presents a selection of name clashes that appear in this document. the \fontsize-enlarged symbol is vertically centered relative to correspondingly large text. . Note how \fontsize makes the symbol wider and thicker. as evidenced by the existence of Table 321.tfm file) in terms of up to five segments. Also. which can be downloaded from CTAN. middle. Similarly.g. there are a few possible explanations: 100 . and—for A contrast—in a large size achieved by changing the font size using L TEX 2ε ’s \fontsize command. pxfonts.tex) for examples of this and other techniques for handling symbol conflicts.

Table 321: Symbol Name Clashes A L TEX 2ε Symbol AMS stmaryrd wasysym mathabx marvosym bbding ifsym dingbat wsuipa ` D S    † Ï B 101 B E Î & \baro \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \checkmark \Circle \Cross \ggg \Letter \lightning \Lightning \lll \Square \Sun \TriangleDown \TriangleUp d À f o n H  Q I .

Table 322: Example of a Benign Name Clash Symbol R \textrecipe Default (Computer Modern) txfonts (Times Roman) R R Table 323: Sample resized delimiters Symbol Default size \big \Big \bigg \Bigg \left / \right \fontsize ™ \} }                  \uparrow ↑                       } ↑                                            −→  top top-middle (extensible) middle   middle-bottom (extensible) bottom Figure 1: Implementation of variable-sized delimiters 102 .

the character can often be entered symbolically. (Cyrillic is supported by the OT2 font encoding.text. tipa’s \textrevepsilon (“3”) or wsuipa’s \revepsilon (“%”) may be used to express the mathematical notion of “such that” in a cleaner manner than with \reflectbox or \rotatebox.dtx contains a number of such definitions. As a few examples. The moral of the story is to be creative with synonyms when searching the index.wikipedia. If there’s some A symbol package that you think should be included in the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List. these effects can be achieved with the graphicx (or graphics) package’s \reflectbox and \rotatebox macros. one can easily define a backward \models sign (“=|”): \def\ismodeledby{=\joinrel\mathrel|} In general. A Even in the last case. which may be useful for representing a carriage return. \char is not strictly necesssary. In fact. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information on all three of those commands. 103 . Of course. For example. The disadvantage of the graphicx/graphics approach is that not every TEX backend handles graphical transformations. the symbol for an impulse train or Tate-Shafarevich group (“ ”) is actually an uppercase sha in the Cyrillic alphabet.org/wiki/Irony mark). “:”. To produce an A A unnamed symbol. but there is no package (as far as I know) for accessing that symbol. a plus sign with a circle around it (“exclusive or” to computer engineers) is “\oplus”. new symbols can be composed from any set of existing characters. As a last resort. horizontal lines (“=”. if the phonetic package is available. cf.”. Xdvi ignores both \reflectbox and \rotatebox. “\Pisymbol{psy}{191}” produces “↵”. but there is no L TEX binding for it. “-”. http://en. Similarly. \models (see Table 67 on page 30) is defined in that file with: \def\models{\mathrel|\joinrel=} where \mathrel and \joinrel are used to control the horizontal spacing. followed by the letter “h”: \def\hbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9muh}} defines a convenient \Pisymbol command for accessing symbols in PostScript fonts by number. • The symbol isn’t defined in any package whatsoever. arrows/harpoons. and \rotatebox[origin=c]{180}{$\iota$} produces the definite-description operator (“ ”).tex is for a reversed or rotated version of an existing symbol. for instance). For instance.7 Joining and overlapping existing symbols A Symbols that do not exist in any font can sometimes be fabricated out of existing symbols.• The symbol isn’t intuitively named. L TEX defines \hbar (“ ”) as a “¯” character (\mathchar’26) followed by a backspace of 9 math units (\mkern-9mu). the ifsym command to draw dice is “\Cube”. While a sha can be defined numerically as “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont\char88}” it may be more intuitive to use the OT2 font encoding’s “SH” ligature: “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont SH}”. all is not lost. Sometimes. and “\Relbar”).t. The L TEX 2ε source file fontdef. For example. and lightning bolts in fonts designed by German speakers may have “blitz” in their names as in the ulsy package. For example. With some simple pattern-matching. For example. 6 As an example. you need to switch to the font explicitly with L TEX 2ε ’s low-level font commands [L T00] 5 and use TEX’s primitive \char command [Knu86a] to request a specific character number in the font. and the various mathextension characters can be combined creatively with miscellaneous other characters to produce a variety of A new symbols. X Reflecting and rotating existing symbols A common request on comp. the PostScript Symbol font contains a “↵” symbol. please send me e-mail at the address listed on the title page. 5 pifont ι For example. \def is the TEX primitive upon A which L TEX’s \newcommand is based. 7 More common symbols for representing “such that” include “|”. For instance. then \textit{\riota} will yield a backend-independent “  ”. and “s.6 Far better is to find a suitable font that contains the desired symbol in the correct orientation. a symbol exists in a font. \textsuperscript{\reflectbox{?}} produces an irony mark (“ ? ”. • The symbol is defined by some package that I overlooked (or deemed unimportant). “\relbar”.

tex post by Donald Arseneau: ◦ \makeatletter \providecommand\barcirc{\mathpalette\@barred\circ} \def\@barred#1#2{\ooalign{\hfil$#1-$\hfil\cr\hfil$#1#2$\hfil\cr}} \newcommand\stst{^{\protect\barcirc}} \makeatother EX’s \stackrel command is similar but is limited to placing a symbol above a binary relation. it vertically centers the result on the math axis.We can just as easily define other barred letters: \def\bbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9mu b}} \def\dbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-12mu d}} (The space after the “mu” is optional but is added for clarity.text. is \ooalign. it must be a character in a math font as opposed to a symbol defined in terms of other symbols. Sometimes an ordinary tabular environment can be co-opted into juxtaposing existing symbols into a new symbol. indivisible symbol.) Enrico Gregorio posted the following symbol definition to comp. Also. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information.5ex}{% \setlength{\tabcolsep}{-. . which vertically centers three \sim (“∼”) symbols with 0. the stmaryrd package’s \minuso command (Table 46 on page 22) provides a similar glyph (“ ”) as a single. “− ”) as a superscripted 9 Plimsoll line (\barcirc. such as “+” and “−” are also vertically centered on the math axis. \barcirc illustrates how to combine symbols using \ooalign. d The amsmath package provides \overset and \underset commands for placing one symbol respectively G above or below another. Note that \dbar requires a greater backward math kern than \bbar. is rendered as “∼”. A \ooalign uses TEX’s tabular syntax instead of L TEX’s (i. There is a TEX primitive called \mathaccent that centers one mathematical symbol atop another. \threesim ∼ aligns properly with other math operators: a ÷ b ∼ c × d.5pt}% \begin{tabular}{@{}cc@{}}% \multicolumn2c*\\[-2ex]*&*% \end{tabular}}}} Note how the space between columns (\tabcolsep) and rows (\\[. The ◦ following example of \ooalign. a −9 mu kern would have produced the less-attractive “¯” glyph. 9 While 8L T A 104 .text. one can define \dotcup (“∪”)—the composition of a \cup and a \cdot—as follows: \newcommand{\dotcup}{\ensuremath{\mathaccent\cdot\cup}} The catch is that \mathaccent requires the accent to be a “math character”. For · example..35 x-heights of space between ∼ them. borrowed from Plain TEX.text. \vcenter is conceptually similar A to “\begin{tabular}{l}” in L TEX but takes a list of vertical material instead of \\-separated rows.tex in March 2004 in response to a query about an alternate way to denote equivalence: \newcommand*{\threesim}{% \mathrel{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip \hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-. “−”). Without ∼ it.tex by * Peter Flynn: \newcommand{\asterism}{\smash{% \raisebox{-. \offinterlineskip is a macro that disables implicit interline spacing. \overset{G}{\sim}8 produces “∼” (sometimes used for “equidecomposable with respect to G”). ∼ A A related L TEX command. with \cr as the row terminator instead of \\). Consider the following definition of \asterism (“**”) from a June 2007 post to comp. However. . a macro that defines a standard-state symbol (\stst. b d”. it creates a single-column tabular environment with zero vertical distance between rows. Another TEX primitive that is useful for composing symbols is \vcenter. ]) is made negative to squeeze the asterisks closer together. Essentially. because it is based directly on TEX’s \ialign primitive.e. Because of \vcenter. \ooalign vertically overlaps symbols and works both within and outside of math mode.) \bbar and \dbar define “¯” and “¯ respectively. is due to an October 2007 comp. For example.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}}}} The \threesim symbol. That is. \threesim would have a full line of vertical spacing between each \sim. (Many operators.

04}{0}{I}\slashed{I}}} \declareslashed{·}{·}{·}{·}{I} affects the meaning of all subsequent \slashed{I} commands in the same scope. on the infrequently used “3” symbol for “such that”discussed on page 103: \newcommand{\suchthat}{% \mathrel{\ooalign{$\ni$\cr\kern-1pt$-$\kern-6. note the \ooalign call’s use of \hfil to horizontally center a minus sign (“−”) and a \circ (“◦”). horizontal and vertical adjustments in symbol-relative units. However. based on whether the current math style is display.tex by Torsten Bronger—composes a sub/superscriptable “⊥” symbol out of \top and \bot (“ ” and “⊥”): \def\topbotatom#1{\hbox{\hbox to 0pt{$#1\bot$\hss}$#1\top$}} \newcommand*{\topbot}{\mathrel{\mathchoice{\topbotatom\displaystyle} {\topbotatom\textstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptscriptstyle}}} The following is another example that uses \mathchoice to construct symbols in different math modes. \mathchoice evaluates one of four expressions. to create a “does not imply” symbol: =⇒ =⇒ \not\Longrightarrow vs.. which is an integral sign with a line through it. \centernot\Longrightarrow See the centernot documentation for more information. which. \centernot centers the slash over its argument.In the preceding code. and the character to be overlapped. \slashed{D} produces “D”. for example. See slashed’s documentation (located in slashed. consider the following code (due to Enrico Gregorio in a June 2007 post to comp. This can be declared as follows: \newcommand{\rqm}{{% \declareslashed{}{\text{-}}{0. For example. relation. In addition.tex) that overlaps a \ni (“ ”) and two minus signs (“− to produce “− an obscure variation −”) −”. script. Making new symbols work in superscripts and subscripts To make composite symbols work properly within subscripts and superscripts. centernot provides a single command. instead of putting the slash at a fixed location. Somewhat simpler than slashed is the centernot package. \def\Xint#1{\mathchoice {\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% 105 . text. in fact facilitates the production of arbitrary overlapped symbols. puts a slash over the subsequent mathematical symbol.) For example. the following L TEX code—posted to comp. etc. As another example of \ooalign. The default behavior is to overwrite a given / character with “/”.4).text. The code defines a principal value integral symbol. \rqm uses amstext’s \text macro (described on the next page) to make \declareslashed use a text-mode hyphen (“-”) instead of a math-mode minus sign (“−”) and to ensure that the hyphen scales properly in size in subscripts and superscripts.text. However. as will be discussed in Section 8. (See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for a more complete descripA tion. the symbol for reduced quadrupole moment (“I”). for example. punctuation. you may need to use TEX’s \mathchoice primitive. the overlapping symbol. although originally designed for producing Feynman slashed-character notation. the \declareslashed command provides the flexibility to specify the mathematical context of the composite character (operator.sty itself) for a detailed usage description of the \slashed and \declareslashed commands. or scriptscript. like \not. \centernot. Consider.5pt$-$}}} The slashed package. \centernot might be used. The preceding definition of \rqm therefore uses an extra set of curly braces to limit that scope to a single \slashed{I}.

For example. “\textstyle”. Sometimes..text. “⊂” (\Xint\subset). \mathpalette is useful when a symbol macro must know which math style is currently in use (e. In March 2002. and the result of the latter is the width of “B”—\llap{.2\ht0 \setbox2=\hbox{\vrule height\ht0 depth -\dimen0}% {\box0\lower0. \rlap overlaps whatever text would normally appear to the right of its argument. and so forth. .tex: \def\hksqrt{\mathpalette\DHLhksqrt} \def\DHLhksqrt#1#2{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1\sqrt{#2\. appear frequently when creating composite characters. or “\scriptscriptstyle”. “ ” (\Xint\circlearrowleft).) \dashint produces a single-dashed integral sign (“−”)..\!\int} \def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$} \vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-. The \Xint macro defined above can also be used to generate a wealth of new integrals: “ ” (\Xint\circlearrowright). while \ddashint produces a double-dashed one (“=”). \rlap (“right overlap”). . “∞” (\Xint\infty). √ ”) as this helps visually distinguish Some people like their square-root signs with a trailing “hook” (i. to set it explicitly within an \mbox).text. amstext’s \text macro is all that is necessary to make composite symbols appear correctly in subscripts and superscripts. the result of the B former is the width of “A”.e. however.tex. again in the current math style. . Donald Arseneau presented a general macro for aligning an arbitrary number of symbols on their horizontal centers and vertical baselines: 10 Note that if your goal is to typeset commutative diagrams or pushout/pullback diagrams. Donald Arseneau posted the following \mathpalette-based definition of a probabilistic-independence symbol (“⊥ to comp. moves two math units to the right. which enables text overlap. \llap (“left overlap”) and its counterpart. overlapping whatever text is already there. Similarly.2 times the \sqrt height at the right of the \sqrt. “A\llap{B}” and “\rlap{A}B” each produce “A”.4pt\box2}} Notice how \DHLhksqrt uses \mathpalette to recover the outer math style (argument #1) from within an \hbox. “ √ √ expressions like “ 3x ” from those like “ 3x”.}$}\dimen0=\ht0 \advance\dimen0-0. The rest of the code is simply using TEX primitives to position a hook of height 0.tex in June 2000: ⊥”) \newcommand\independent{\protect\mathpalette{\protect\independenT}{\perp}} \def\independenT#1#2{\mathrel{\rlap{$#1#2$}\mkern2mu{#1#2}}} The \independent macro uses \mathpalette to pass the \independenT helper macro both the current math style and the \perp symbol. In a June 2002 post to comp. passing it one of “\displaystyle”. followed by the second argument.uk/ faq. Y 106 . The macro is called \mathpalette and it takes two arguments. then you should probably be using X -pic. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more understanding of TEX “boxes” and “dimens”. \llap outputs its argument to the left of the current position. is described later on this page. as in the following definitions of \neswarrow (“ ”) and \nwsearrow (“ ”):10 \newcommand{\neswarrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nearrow$\llap{$\swarrow$}}}} \newcommand{\nwsearrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nwarrow$\llap{$\searrow$}}}} A \text resembles L TEX’s \mbox command but shrinks its argument appropriately when used within a subscript or superscript. \mathpalette invokes the first argument. A L TEX 2ε provides a simple wrapper for \mathchoice that sometimes helps produce terser symbol definitions.5\wd0}} \def\ddashint{\Xint=} \def\dashint{\Xint-} (The preceding code was taken verbatim from the UK TEX Users’ Group FAQ at http://www.g. “\scriptstyle”.tex. } take up zero space. and finally typesets a second—overlapping—copy of \perp. . Dan Luecking posted a \mathpalette-based definition of a hooked square-root symbol to comp. \rlap.text.ac. \independenT typesets \perp in the current math style. } and \rlap{. However.

To draw a version of \ddots with the dots going along the opposite diagonal. For example.}\mkern2mu\raise7\p@\hbox{. Its \accentset command enables any character to be used as an accent. For example. The following code defines an equals sign that extends as far to the right as possible. The basic concept behind \moverlay’s implementation is that \moverlay typesets the given symbols in a table that utilizes a zero \baselineskip.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{. \diaunder[{\diatop[\’|\=]}|\textsubdot{r}] produces “´”. and 1 pt. raised 7 pt.}\mkern1mu}} A \p@ is a L TEX 2ε shortcut for “pt” or “1. symbols composed in the L TEX 2ε source code can be modified with minimal effort to produce useful variations. This causes every row to be typeset at the same vertical position. A just like L TEX’s \hrulefill command: 107 .. \raise4\p@.tex post by Donald Arseneau (June 2003). For instance. \underaccent does the same thing. A Modifying L TEX-generated symbols A Oftentimes.dtx composes the \ddots symbol (see Table 189 on page 63) out of three periods. The dblaccnt package enables L TEX to stack accents. 4 pt. The remaining commands are defined in The TEXbook [Knu86a].}\mkern1mu}} \makeatother \revddots is essentially identical to the mathdots package’s \iddots command or the yhmath package’s \adots command.0pt”. some applications. \accentset{\star}{f} produces “f ” and e \accentset{e}{X} produces “X”. we merely have to reorder the \raise7\p@. respectively: \def\ddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise7\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{. For example. the \topbot command defined on page 105 could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\top\cr\bot}” and the \neswarrow command defined on the previous page could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\nearrow\cr\swarrow}”. See the wsuipa documentation for r ¯ ˙ more information. accents provides ˜ other accent-related features as well.. This enables constructs like \underaccent{\tilde}{V}. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for explanations of the TEX primitives used by \moverlay. and \raise\p@: \makeatletter \def\revddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{. such as transliterations from non-Latin alphabets. which produces “V ”. In addition. the creator of pdfTEX A writes his name as “H`n Th´ Th`nh”. as in “H\‘an a ˆ e a Th\’{\^e} Th\‘anh” (albeit not in the OT1 font encoding). the wsuipa package defines \diatop and \diaunder macros for putting one or more diacritics or accents above or below a given character.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{. see the documentation for more information. but places the accent beneath the character. While various tables in this document show how to add an accent to an existing symbol.. \moverlay takes a list of symbols separated by \cr (TEX’s equivalent of A L TEX’s \\).\makeatletter \def\moverlay{\mathpalette\mov@rlay} \def\mov@rlay#1#2{\leavevmode\vtop{% \baselineskip\z@skip \lineskiplimit-\maxdimen \ialign{\hfil$#1##$\hfil\cr#2\crcr}}} \makeatother A The \makeatletter and \makeatother commands are needed to coerce L TEX into accepting “@” as part of a macro name. fontdef. Creating extensible symbols A relatively simple example of creating extensible symbols stems from a comp. For instance.}\mkern2mu\raise\p@\hbox{. require multiple accents per character. Producing complex accents Accents are a special case of combining existing symbols to make new symbols. The accents package facilitates the fabrication of accents in math mode.text.

\overparenthesis.tex post by Donald Arseneau: \makeatletter \def\overbracket#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underbracket#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\overparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\downparenthfill{$\m@th\braceld\leaders\vrule\hfill\bracerd$} \def\upparenthfill{$\m@th\bracelu\leaders\vrule\hfill\braceru$} \def\upbracketfill{$\m@th\makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width. and \underparenthesis symbols. \underbracket. one can type. Hence. \equalsfill repeats a box containing “=” plus some negative space until it fills the maximum availA able horizontal space.\makeatletter \def\equalsfill{$\m@th\mathord=\mkern-7mu \cleaders\hbox{$\!\mathord=\!$}\hfill \mkern-7mu\mathord=$} \makeatother TEX’s \cleaders and \hfill primitives are the key to understanding \equalsfill’s extensibility.7\p@}}$} \def\downbracketfill{$\m@th \makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height.tex post by Donald Arseneau and subsequent modifications by Billy Yu and Scott Pakin) for typesetting annuity and life-insurance symbols: \DeclareRobustCommand{\actuarial}[2][]{% \def\arraystretch{0}% \setlength\arraycolsep{0. === If all that needs to extend are horizontal and vertical lines—as opposed to repeated symbols such as the A “=” in the previous example—L TEX’s array or tabular environments may suffice.7\p@\@depth2. which stacks one mathematical expression (slightly reduced in size) atop another. “\stackrel{a}{\rightarrow}” produces “→” and “X \stackrel{\text{definition}}{\hbox{\equalsfill}} Y” produces “X = = = = Y ”.text. e.. taken from a May 2002 comp. Essentially.5pt}% \setlength\arrayrulewidth{0. Consider the following code (due to a February 1999 comp. \equalsfill is intended to be used with L TEX’s \stackrel command.3\p@\@width.text.5pt}% \setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle#1#2$}% \begin{array}[b]{*2{@{}>{\scriptstyle}c}|} \cline{2-2}% \rule[1.25pt]{0pt}{\ht0}% #1 & #2% \end{array}% } Using the preceding definition. “$a_{\actuarial{n}}$” to produce “an ” and “$a_{\actuarial[x:]{n}}$” to produce “ax:n ” A more complex example of composing accents is the following definition of extensible \overbracket.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.g.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@}}$} \makeatother a definition 108 .7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height.

which draws characters in the given size. Figure 2 shows the METAFONT code for lightbulb10. the Berry font-naming scheme is largely irrelevant for symbol fonts.. small-caps. they output a left symbol (e. \braceld [“ ”] for \downparenthfill). shown in Figure 3.mf. drawing lines and curves. \downbracketfill. italic.and \underbracket-like brackets of variable width and height (or depth). The basic idea is that \downparenthfill.mf” do not follow the Berry font-naming scheme [Ber01]. 109 . thereby constraining the width of the horizontal rules.mf files for a variety of size s. and other such variants. The METAFONTbook is essential reading. TEX distributions are shipped with a tool called METAFONT which is designed specifically for creating fonts to be used with TEX. thicker symbol: . most. \bracerd [“ ”] for \downparenthfill). defining points. taller. Developing new symbols from scratch Sometimes is it simply not possible to define a new symbol in terms of existing symbols. The code in Figures Figure 2 and Figure 3 is heavily commented and should demonstrate some of the basic concepts behind METAFONT usage: declaring variables. which generally lack bold. The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the authoritative text on METAFONT.mf..Table 324 showcases these accents.g.mf specifies various parameters that produce a 10 pt. A 10 pt.fr/. light bulb then loads lightbulb. which looks much nicer than the alternative—and default—“mechanical scaling”. Ideally. When a lightbulb size . This is called “optical scaling”. vs. 50 pt. lightbulb10.free. 30 pt.11 The first step is to draw this in METAFONT. slanted. Table 324: Manually Composed Extensible Accents abc abc \overbracket{abc} \underbracket{abc} abc abc \overparenthesis{abc} \underparenthesis{abc} Note that the simplewick package provides mechanisms for typesetting Wick contractions. \upparenthfill. which specifies the design size and various font-specific parameters that are a function of the design size.tutorial. 11 I’m A 70 pt. \underbracket. If you plan to design your own symbols with METAFONT. Suppose we need a symbol to represent a light bulb (“A”). a horizontal rule that stretches as wide as possible. vs. Note that the the filenames “lightbulb10. vs. if not all.mf file does not exist for a given size size . A A vs. and preparing to debug or fine-tune the output. 20 pt. which utilize \overbracket. one should produce lightbulb size . It enables. For example. draws a light bulb using the parameters defined in lightbulb10. A vs. Again.mf. not a very good artist. You may also want to read the freely available METAFONT primer located at http://metafont.g. A 40 pt. The A following is an extremely brief tutorial on how to create a new L TEX symbol using METAFONT. A vs. The TEXbook [Knu86a] or another book on TEX primitives is indispensible for understanding how the preceding code works. \overparenthesis. Its primary A X-specific operations not mentioned in The METAFONTbook and to demonstrate purpose is to cover the L TE that symbol-font creation is not necessarily a difficult task. and a size-independent file. 60 pt. for example. the computer mechanically produces a wider. \overbracket.mf” and “lightbulb. and \underparenthesis merely create a table whose width is determined by the given text. the lines that make up the light bulb to retain the same thickness at different font sizes. The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the definitive reference on METAFONT programming. lightbulb. you’ll have to pretend that “A” looks like a light bulb. and a right symbol (e.mf. Fortunately. “\acontraction{}{A}{B}{C}\acontraction[2ex]{A}{B}{C}{D}\bcontraction{}{A}{BC}{D}ABCD” produces ABCD See the simplewick documentation for more information. It is common to separate the font into two files: a size-dependent file. and \upbracketfill do all of the work.

z5 = point 2 − 1/3 of bulb. . bot z3 = (z1 − (0. z67 . directly under z8 . bot z67 = ( 1/2[x6 . % Specify the design size. % Convert to device-specific units. z8 = point 2 + 1/3 of bulb. 5. %% Display key positions and points to help us debug. sb# := 1/4pt#. cap# := 7pt#. % Leave this much space on the side of each character. 7.mf) mode setup. top z1 = (w/2. Figure 2: Sample METAFONT size-specific file (lightbulb10. define corrected pixels(o). z2 . . −1pt. draw z5 . %% Define the points we need. font size 10pt#. % Load the file that draws the actual glyph. penlabels(1. %% Define a light bulb at the character position for “A” %% with width 1/2em#. path bulb. height cap#. . makegrid(0. 6. % Same. 67. but add a device-specific fudge factor. pen bot − o − 1/8pt). w − sb)(0. % Target a given printer. end Figure 3: Sample METAFONT size-independent file (lightbulb.mf) 110 . z6 = (x5 . % Capital letter height is 7 points above the baseline. % Draw the bulb proper. y2 . % z8 lies on the bulb. directly under z5 . "A light bulb". cap. % Use a pen with a small. % z7 is at the bottom. and depth 1pt#. y3 ]). % Define a path for the bulb itself. % z1 is at the top of a circle.. % z2 is at the same height as z4 but the opposite side.. a little to the right of z3 . o# := 1/16pt#. pickup pencircle scaled 1/2pt. sb). % z5 lies on the bulb. % z4 is on the left of the circle. z3 . w/2. w − sb − o)).z6 .font identifier := "LightBulb10". 1/2[y1 . bulb = z1 . z7 = (x8 . y4 ). . a little to the left of z3 . circular tip. x7 ]. % z6 is at the bottom. draw bulb. %% Draw the bulb and the base. h). % The bulb is a closed path. % z3 is at the bottom of the circle. % Amount that curves overshoot borders.z8 . lft z4 = (sb − o. % Label “interesting” x and y coordinates. % Label control points for debugging. z7 . sb. h + o). cap#. z4 . 2. define pixels(em. . 1pt#). 4. rt z2 = (w + sb + o − x4 . 3. . 0). 1/2em#. em# := 10pt#. % z67 lies halfway between z6 and z7 but a jot lower. endchar. % “M” width is 10 points. input lightbulb % Name the font. 0). beginchar("A". cycle. 8). % Draw the base of the bulb.

Similarly.2602gf ⇐ ⇐ Produces lightbulb10. The document “L TEX 2ε Font Selection” [L T00] describes \DeclareFontFamily and \DeclareFontShape in detail. Observe how the grid defined with makegrid at the bottom of Figure 3 draws vertical lines at positions 0.tex which is useful for testing new fonts in a variety of ways.dvi You can then view lightbulb10. One useful routine produces a table of all of the characters in the font: prompt > tex testfont This is TeX.fd. it must be of the form “ encoding family . The filename for a font-description file important. where encoding is the lowercase version of the encoding name (typically “u” for symbol fonts) and family is the name of the font family. To produce a proof of lightbulb10.log. w/2. . L TEX 2ε . y2 . . note that the character code for “A”—the only character defined by lightbulb10. For symbol fonts. this mapping is fairly simple.fd”.fd is first to declare a U-encoded version of the bulb A font family and then to specify that a L TEX 2ε request for a U-encoded version of bulb with a (m)edium font 111 . and h.dvi (1 page.dvi with any DVI viewer. however.3. and w − sb and horizontal lines at positions 0. needs more information before documents A can use the font.mf—is 41 in hexadecimal (base 16) and 101 in octal (base 8). Transcript written on testfont. observe how the penlabels command labels all of the important coordinates: z1 .14159 (Web2C 7. issue the following commands at the operating-system prompt: prompt > mf lightbulb10.mf.tex Name of the font to test = lightbulb10 Now type a test command (\help for help):) *\table *\bye [1] Output written on testfont. but the gist of ubulb. Symbol fonts almost always use the “U” (“Unknown”) font encoding and frequently occur in only one variant: normal weight and non-italicized.mf Most. z8 and z67 . First.2602gf Produces lightbulb10.mf prompt > gftodvi lightbulb10.dvi and illustrated in Figure 5. The resulting table. . In fact. For LightBulb10. A The LightBulb10 font is now usable by TEX. proof mode is METAFONT’s default mode. sb. Version 3.1) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/plain/base/testfont. shows every character in the font. −1pt. To understand how to read the table. The result is shown in Figure 4. which lightbulb. z2 .METAFONT can produce “proofs” of fonts—large. Figure 6 lists A A the contents of ubulb. 1516 bytes). labeled versions that showcase the logical structure of each character.mf defines to lie between z6 and z7 . stored in testfont. TEX distributions include a Plain TEX file called testfont. we create a font-description file that tells L TEX 2ε how to map fonts in a given font family and encoding to a particular font in a particular font size. 1 4 2 8 3 5 7 67 6 Figure 4: Proof diagram of lightbulb10. . if not all. let’s call this “bulb”.

you can use the TEX commands \mathord. and “punctuation” in Section 3 primarily regard the surrounding A spacing.ac. Similarly. (See the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for a nice exposition on the subject. it is also possible. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for the definitive description of math-mode spacing.Test of lightbulb10 on March 11. e. but “max” as part of a p∈P displayed formula. one-character symbol font such as LightBulb10 it would be reasonable to merge ubulb. na¨ alternatives.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=textrace for pointers to tools that can produce Type 1 fonts from METAFONT.sty (Figure 7). The amsmath package makes it straightforward to define new log-like symbols: \DeclareMathOperator{\atan}{atan} \DeclareMathOperator*{\lcm}{lcm} 112 . Because we have only one symbol our style file. The purpose of the “log-like symbols” in Table 128 and Table 129 is to provide the correct amount of spacing around and within multiletter function names. bold) and a (n)ormal font shape (as opposed to. “\max_{p \in P}” produces “maxp∈P ” in text. \mathclose.4 Math-mode spacing Terms such as “binary operators”.tex. with the help of some external tools. e. or “\char’101” (respectively. to produce PostScript Type 1 fonts. \newcommand{\lightbulb}{{\usefont{U}{bulb}{m}{n}A}} A Figure 7: L TEX 2ε style file (lightbulb. In addition to spacing.sty instead of maintaining two separate files.fd) series (as opposed to. However. 8. These have the advantages of rendering better in Adobe® Acrobat® (at least in versions prior to 6. decimal.tfm mechanically scaled to the current font size. \mathop..g. For example. and octal character offsets into the font). you can write “$3 x + \mathord{\downarrow}$” to get the properly spaced ˙ “3x + ↓” rather than the awkward-looking “3x+ ↓”. just as \cup is. is rather trivial. \mathbin. For a simple.0) and of being more memory-efficient when handled by a PostScript interpreter.tex \DeclareFontFamily{U}{bulb}{} \DeclareFontShape{U}{bulb}{m}{n}{<-> lightbulb10}{} A Figure 6: L TEX 2ε font-description file (ubulb. “\char"41”. Table 325 on the following page contrasts the output of the log-like symbols with various. if you want to use \downarrow as a variable (an “ordinary” symbol) instead of a delimiter.) To use a symbol for a different purpose. Contrast ˙ ˙ “$A \dot{\cup} B$” (“A∪B”) with “$A \mathbin{\dot{\cup}} B$” (“A ∪B”). In either case. the log-like symbols also handle ıve subscripts properly.sty) METAFONT normally produces bitmapped fonts. \mathrel. to create a dotted-union symbol (“∪”) that spaces like the ordinary set-union symbol (\cup) it must be defined with \mathbin. lightbulb.g.. and \mathpunct. “relations”. Note that instead of typesetting “A” we could have had \lightbulb typeset “\char65”.fd into lightbulb. italic) should translate into a TEX request for lightbulb10. For example. hexadecimal. \mathopen. 2003 at 1127 ´0 ´10x ´11x ˝8 ´1 A ˝9 ´2 ´3 ´4 ´5 ´6 ´7 ˝4x ˝A ˝B ˝C ˝D ˝E ˝F Figure 5: Font table produced by testfont. a document need only include “\usepackage{lightbulb}” to make the \lightbulb symbol available. See http://www. A The final step is to write a L TEX 2ε style file that defines a name for each symbol in the font.

. Table 327: Producing bold mathematical symbols Package none none none amsbsy amsbsy bm fixmath Code $\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\mathbf{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ \boldmath$\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\pmb{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\boldsymbol{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\bm{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\mathbold{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ Output α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ ÷D (no bold) (faked bold) 12 Note that \displaystyle can be used to force display style within $. With \DeclareMathOperator*. these techniques exhibit variation in their formatting of Latin letters (upright vs. \min).uk/ cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=boldgreek can be used to produce bold mathematical symbols.g. .5 Bold mathematical symbols A L TEX does not normally use bold symbols when typesetting mathematics.. This is useful for limit operators (e.12 Table 326: Defining new log-like symbols Declaration function \DeclareMathOperator \DeclareMathOperator* $\newlogsym {p \in P}$ newlogsymp∈P newlogsymp∈P \[ \newlogsym {p \in P} \] newlogsymp∈P newlogsym p∈P It is common to use a thin space (\. as is common for functions that take a single parameter (e.$ and \textstyle can be used to force text style within \[.g. italic). \lim) and functions that tend to map over a set (e. \liminf. Table 327 contrasts the output produced by these various techniques.g. \limsup. as in “\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\. normal). .. formatting of operators and relations (bold vs. and all of the log-like symbols shown in Table 129 utilize this spacing convention. normal).) between the words of a multiword operators.max}”. \log and \cos). .Table 325: Spacing Around/Within Log-like Symbols A L TEX expression Output r sin θ rsinθ rsinθ rsinθ (best) $r $r $r $r \sin \theta$ sin \theta$ \mbox{sin} \theta$ \mathrm{sin} \theta$ The difference between \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* involves the handling of subscripts. As the table illustrates. . In contrast. and spacing. . subscripts are written beneath log-like symbols in display style and to the right in text style. However.\]). . 113 . .tex. Any of the approaches described at http://www. formatting of Greek letters (bold vs. for example when naming vectors.$) and display style (\[. . \DeclareMathOperator tells TEX that subscripts should always be displayed to the right of the operator. 8. bold symbols are occasionally needed.\]. Table 326 contrasts symbols declared with \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* in both text style ($.ac.

6 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference Table 328 amalgamates data from various other tables in this document into a convenient reference for A L TEX 2ε typesetting of ASCII characters. i. / 0 1 2 . . Z [ \char‘\\ ] \^{} \char‘\_ ‘ a b c . and \textbar. 114 . 9 : . “>”. viz. The first two columns list the character’s ASCII code in decimal and hexadecimal. . z \{ \textbar \} \~{} \texttt > ? @ A B C .} command (or.. and “|”: – Specify a document font encoding other than OT1 (as described on page 8). i. and “|” do work as expected in math mode. . . . i. – Enter the symbols in math mode instead of text mode. • Table 328 shows a close quote for character 39 for consistency with the open quote shown for character 96. 9 : . . Z [ \ ] ˆ ‘ a b c . . . The fourth column lists the L TEX 2ε command to typeset the character as a text A character. z { | } ˜ Body text \textgreater ? @ A B C . and $|$. Z [ \textbackslash ] \^{} \_ ‘ a b c . A straight quote can be typeset using \textquotesingle (cf. . . when \ttfamily is in effect). 13 Donald Knuth didn’t think such symbols were important outside of mathematics so he omitted them from his text fonts. Table 40). respectively. . . . < = Dec 62 63 64 65 66 67 . 9 : . \textless = \texttt ! " \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + .e. . / 0 1 2 . . . “¡”. . 57 58 59 60 61 Hex 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 . . 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 . . A Table 328: L TEX 2ε ASCII Table Dec 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 . 122 123 124 125 126 Hex 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 .. \textless. . . < = Body text ! \textquotedbl \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + . . .S. The third column shows A what the character looks like. . . z \char‘\{ | \char‘\} \~{} The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 328: • “"” is not available in the OT1 font encoding. . Note that for typesetting metavariables many people prefer \textlangle and \textrangle to \textless and \textgreater.e. • The characters “<”. . . more generally. / 0 1 2 . . “¿”. 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E Char > ? @ A B C . and “—” in text mode when using the OT1 font encoding. .8. the characters available on a typical U.13 The following are some alternatives for typesetting “<”. $>$. 39 3A 3B 3C 3D Char ! " # $ % & ’ ( ) * + . computer keyboard. And the fourth column lists the L TEX 2ε command to typeset the character within a \texttt{. . although they produce. 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 .e. – Use the appropriate symbol commands from Table 2 on page 9. . \textgreater. $<$. . . . “ filename ” instead of “<filename>”. “>”..

A • Although “/” does not require any special treatment, L TEX additionally defines a \slash command which outputs the same glyph but permits a line break afterwards. That is, “increase/decrease” is always typeset as a single entity while “increase\slash{}decrease” may be typeset with “increase/” on one line and “decrease” on the next.

• \textasciicircum can be used instead of \^{}, and \textasciitilde can be used instead of \~{}. Note that \textasciitilde and \~{} produce raised, diacritic tildes. “Text” (i.e., vertically centered) tildes can be generated with either the math-mode \sim command (shown in Table 67 on page 30), which produces a somewhat wide “∼”, or the textcomp package’s \texttildelow (shown in Table 40 on page 20), which produces a vertically centered “~” in most fonts but a baseline-oriented “ ” in Computer Modern, txfonts, pxfonts, and various other fonts originating from the TEX world. If your goal is to typeset tildes in URLs or Unix filenames, your best bet is to use the url package, which has a number of nice features such as proper line-breaking of such names. • The various \char commands within \texttt are necessary only in the OT1 font encoding. In other encodings (e.g., T1), commands such as \{, \}, \_, and \textbackslash all work properly. • The code page 437 (IBM PC) version of ASCII characters 1 to 31 can be typeset using the ascii package. See Table 227 on page 72. • To replace “‘” and “’” with the more computer-like (and more visibly distinct) “`” and “'” within a verbatim environment, use the upquote package. Outside of verbatim, you can use \char18 and \char13 to get the modified quote characters. (The former is actually a grave accent.) Similar to Table 328, Table 329 on the next page is an amalgamation of data from other tables in this document. While Table 328 shows how to typeset the 7-bit ASCII character set, Table 329 shows the Latin 1 (Western European) character set, also known as ISO-8859-1. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 329: • A “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Many of the \text. . . accents can also be produced using the accent commands shown in Table 17 on page 14 plus an empty argument. For instance, \={} is essentially the same as \textasciimacron.
A • The commands in the “L TEX 2ε ” columns work both in body text and within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).

• The “£” and “$” glyphs occupy the same slot (36) of the OT1 font encoding, with “£” appearing in italic A fonts and “$” appearing in roman fonts. A problem with L TEX’s default handling of this double-mapping is that “{\sffamily\slshape\pounds}” produces “$”, not “£”. Other font encodings use separate slots for the two characters and are therefore robust to the problem of “£”/”$” conflicts. Authors who use \pounds should select a font encoding other than OT1 (as explained on page 8) or use the textcomp package, which redefines \pounds to use the TS1 font encoding. • Character 173, \-, is shown as “-” but is actually a discretionary hyphen; it appears only at the end of a line. Microsoft® Windows® normally uses a superset of Latin 1 called “Code Page 1252” or “CP1252” for short. CP1252 introduces symbols in the Latin 1 “invalid” range (characters 128–159). Table 330 presents the characters with which CP1252 augments the standard Latin 1 table. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 330: • As in Table 329, a “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Not all characters in the 128–159 range are defined. • Look up “euro signs” in the index for alternatives to \texteuro.

115

A Table 329: L TEX 2ε Latin 1 Table

Dec 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208

Hex A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AD AE AF B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF D0

Char ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § © ª « ¬ ® ° ± ² ³ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ ` A ´ A ˆ A ˜ A ¨ A ˚ A Æ C ¸ ` E ´ E ˆ E ¨ E ` I ´ I ˆ I ¨ I Ð

A L TEX 2ε

Dec (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

Hex D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED EE EF F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF

Char ˜ N ` O ´ O ˆ O ˜ O ¨ O × Ø ` U ´ U ˆ U ¨ U ´ Y Þ ß a ` a ´ a ˆ a ˜ a ¨ ˚ a æ ¸ c ` e ´ e ˆ e ¨ e ` ı ´ ı ˆ ı ¨ ı ð n ˜ o ` o ´ o ˆ o ˜ o ¨ ÷ ø u ` u ´ u ˆ u ¨ y ´ þ y ¨

A L TEX 2ε

!‘ \textcent \pounds \textcurrency \textyen \textbrokenbar \S \textasciidieresis \textcopyright \textordfeminine \guillemotleft \textlnot \\textregistered \textasciimacron \textdegree \textpm \texttwosuperior \textthreesuperior \textasciiacute \textmu \P \textperiodcentered \c{} \textonesuperior \textordmasculine \guillemotright \textonequarter \textonehalf \textthreequarters ?‘ \‘{A} \’{A} \^{A} \~{A} \"{A} \AA \AE \c{C} \‘{E} \’{E} \^{E} \"{E} \‘{I} \’{I} \^{I} \"{I} \DH

(T1) (tc)

(tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc)

(tc) (T1) (tc) (tc) (tc)

\~{N} \‘{O} \’{O} \^{O} \~{O} \"{O} \texttimes \O \‘{U} \’{U} \^{U} \"{U} \’{Y} \TH \ss \‘{a} \’{a} \^{a} \~{a} \"{a} \aa \ae \c{c} \‘{e} \’{e} \^{e} \"{e} \‘{ı} \’{ı} \^{ı} \"{ı} \dh \~{n} \‘{o} \’{o} \^{o} \~{o} \"{o} \textdiv \o \‘{u} \’{u} \^{u} \"{u} \’{y} \th \"{y}

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

116

A Table 330: L TEX 2ε Code Page 1252 Table

Dec 128 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 142

Hex 80 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 8A 8B 8C 8E

Char € ‚ f „ ... † ‡ ˆ ‰ ˇ S ‹ Œ ˇ Z

A L TEX 2ε

Dec (tc) (T1) (T1) 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 158 159

Hex 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B 9C 9E 9F

Char ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ ˇ s › œ ˇ z ¨ Y

A L TEX 2ε

\texteuro \quotesinglbase \textit{f} \quotedblbase \dots \dag \ddag \textasciicircum \textperthousand \v{S} \guilsinglleft \OE \v{Z}

(tc) (T1)

‘ ’ ‘‘ ’’ \textbullet ---\textasciitilde \texttrademark \v{s} \guilsinglright \oe \v{z} \"{Y}

(T1)

While too large to incorporate into this document, a listing of ISO 8879:1986 SGML/XML character entities A and their L TEX equivalents is available from http://www.bitjungle.com/~isoent/. Some of the characters A presented there make use of isoent, a L TEX 2ε package (available from the same URL) that fakes some of the A missing ISO glyphs using the L TEX picture environment.14

8.7

Unicode characters

Unicode is a “universal character set”—a standard for encoding (i.e., assigning unique numbers to) the symbols appearing in many of the world’s languages. While ASCII can represent 128 symbols and Latin 1 can represent 256 symbols, Unicode can represent an astonishing 1,114,112 symbols. A Because TEX and L TEX predate the Unicode standard and Unicode fonts by almost a decade, support for A A Unicode has had to be added to the base TEX and L TEX systems. Note first that L TEX distinguishes between input encoding—the characters used in the .tex file—and output encoding—the characters that appear in the generated .dvi, .pdf, etc. file. Inputting Unicode characters To include Unicode characters in a .tex file, load the ucs package and load the inputenc package with the utf8x A A (“UTF-8 extended”) option.15 These packages enable L TEX to translate UTF-8 sequences to L TEX commands, which are subsequently processed as normal. For example, the UTF-8 text “Copyright © 2009”—“©” is not an ASCII character and therefore cannot be input directly without packages such as ucs/inputenc—is converted internally by inputenc to “Copyright \textcopyright{} 2009” and therefore typeset as “Copyright © 2009”. The ucs/inputenc combination supports only a tiny subset of Unicode’s million-plus symbols. Additional symbols can be added manually using the \DeclareUnicodeCharacter command. A \DeclareUnicodeCharacter takes two arguments: a Unicode number and a L TEX command to execute when the corresponding Unicode character is encountered in the input. For example, the Unicode character “degree celsius” (“ ”) appears at character position U+2103.16 However, “ ” is not one of the characters that ucs and inputenc recognize. The following document shows how to use \DeclareUnicodeCharacter to A tell L TEX that the “ ” character should be treated as a synonym for \textcelsius: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{ucs} \usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}
14 isoent is not featured in this document, because it is not available from CTAN and because the faked symbols are not “true” characters; they exist in only one size, regardless of the body text’s font size. 15 UTF-8 is the 8-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a popular mechanism for representing Unicode symbol numbers as sequences of one to four bytes. 16 The Unicode convention is to express character positions as “U+ hexadecimal number ”.

117

A which XEL TEX extends to accept numbers larger than 255.fd. The Unicode charts list “versicle” at position U+2123 and “response” at position U+211F. Table 108. includes the following new features: 118 . Table 169. Later. The result. Even the table captions and the order of the symbols within each table matched! The AMS symbols (Table 45. 2001. Table 57. 1994. We therefore need to install a font that contains those characters at their proper positions. \end{document} which produces We use “ ” for a versicle and “ ” for a response. See the ucs documentation for more information and for descriptions of the various options that control ucs’s behavior.8 About this document History David Carlisle wrote the first version of this document in October. Scott Pakin took responsibility for maintaining the symbol list and has since implemented A a complete overhaul of the document.) Note how the preceding example uses \char to specify a Unicode character by number. now called. Table 148. The double quotes before the number indicate that the number is represented in hexadecimal instead of decimal.ttf) from the junicode package. Table 105. See the fontspec documentation for more information regarding font selection.\usepackage{textcomp} \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{"2103}{\textcelsius} \begin{document} It was a balmy 21 . The following example defines a \textjuni command that uses fontspec to typeset its argument in Junicode Regular: % Enable direct input of U+2103. Table 131. Table 67. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{fontspec} \newcommand{\textjuni}[1]{{\fontspec{Junicode-Regular}#1}} \begin{document} We use ‘‘\textjuni{\char"2123}’’ for a versicle and ‘‘\textjuni{\char"211F}’’ for a response. It originally contained A all of the native L TEX symbols (Table 44. In January. Table 132. One such font that is freely available from CTAN is Junicode Regular (Junicode-Regular. Table 59. Table 102. Table 125. (Typesetting the entire document in Junicode Regular would be even easier. Table 69. Table 68. To output a Unicode character. By far the easiest approach is to use XEL TEX instead of A A X or ordinary L T X. Table 70.tfm. Table 106. and Table 149). Table 201. 8. Alexander Holt provided the stmaryrd tables (Table 46. The fontspec package makes it easy A for a XEL TEX document to utilize a system font. and Table 202) and an initial Math Alphabets table (Table 213) were added thereafter. Table 153. Table 164. . Outputting Unicode characters A Orthogonal to the ability to include Unicode characters in a L TEX input file is the ability to include a given A Unicode character in the corresponding output file. and a few tables that have since been reorganized) and was designed to be nearly identical to the tables in Chapter 3 of Leslie Lamport’s book [Lam86]. Suppose we want to output the symbols for versicle (“ ”) and response (“ ”) in a document. Table 128. A a XEL TEX document can either include that character directly as UTF-8 text or use TEX’s \char primitive. X L T X handles Unicode input and output natively and can utilize system fonts A pdfL TE E E E directly without having to expose them via . \end{document} which produces It was a balmy 21 . “The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List”. Table 137. Table 152. and other such files.

tex otherwise would have been able to take advantage of. table of contents. Most important is the list A of packages that L TEX couldn’t find. Packages are not listed in any particular order in either Table 331 or Table 332. modify. to help users quickly locate symbols • symbol tables rewritten to list the symbols in alphabetical order A • appendices providing additional information relevant to using symbols in L TEX • tables showing how to typeset all of the characters in the ASCII and Latin 1 font encodings Furthermore. and other symbols.org/ or one of its many mirror sites) in the directory tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive. hyperlinks. the internal structure of the document has been completely altered from David Carlisle’s original version.ctan.tex November 9. ancient languages. Complete. 2009 5913 textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx extraipa wsuipa phonetic ulsy ar metre txfonts mathabx fclfont skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym esvect yfonts yhmath esint mathdots trsym universa upgreek overrightarrow chemarr chemarrow nath trfsigns mathtools phaistos arcs vietnam t4phonet holtpolt semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses mathdesign arev MnSymbol cmll extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile simpsons epsdice feyn universal staves igo colonequals shuffle fourier dozenal pmboxdraw pigpen clock teubner linearA linearb cypriot sarabian china2e harpoon steinmetz milstd recycle DotArrow ushort hhcount ogonek combelow accents nicefrac bm mathrsfs chancery calligra bbold mbboard dsfont bbm none Packages omitted: Table 332: Package versions used in the preparation of this document Name textcomp latexsym Date 2005/09/27 1998/08/17 (continued on next page) 119 . science and technology symbols. Build characteristics Table 331 lists some of this document’s build characteristics. but that symbols. to provide a more user-friendly document structure • an index. and thousands of new symbols • the categorization of the symbol tables into body-text symbols. Table 331: Document Characteristics Characteristic Source file: Build date: Symbols documented: Packages included: Value symbols. Table 332 shows the package date (specified in the . and a frequently-requested symbol list. and reformat. dozens of new font tables.sty file with \ProvidesPackage) for each package that was used to build this document and that specifies a package date. dingbats. mathematical symbols. Most of the changes are geared towards making the document easier to extend.• the addition of a handful of new math alphabets. prebuilt versions of this document are available from CTAN (http://www.

(continued from previous page) Name amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx wsuipa metre txfonts mathabx skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym yfonts mathdots trsym universa upgreek chemarr mathtools phaistos arcs t4phonet semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses arev MnSymbol extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile epsdice feyn universal colonequals shuffle pmboxdraw pigpen clock teubner Date 2002/01/22 1994/03/03 2001/10/01 2003/10/30 2005/04/12 1999/07/01 1999/04/15 2000/08/08 2000/04/18 2002/08/08 2003/01/01 1994/07/16 2001/12/05 2008/01/22 2003/07/29 2008/10/09 2006/05/30 2001/04/27 2002/01/23 1998/08/06 2003/01/08 2006/03/16 2000/06/25 98/08/01 2003/02/12 2006/02/20 2008/08/01 2004/04/23 2004/05/09 2004/06/01 1998/02/10 2004/07/26 2008/05/15 2005/03/18 2007/05/03 2000/09/23 2005/05/20 2005/06/14 2007/01/21 2006/07/27 2003/08/15 2007/06/03 2007/06/23 2007/02/15 2008/02/29 97/12/24 2006/08/01 2008/10/27 2006/05/03 2008/12/07 2001/04/10 2008/02/10 (continued on next page) 120 .

Scott Pakin A This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of the L TEX Project Public License.3c or later is part of all distributions of L TEX version 2006/05/20 or later.txt A and version 1.latex-project. The current maintainer of this work is Scott Pakin.3c of this license or (at your option) any later version. This work has the LPPL maintenance status “maintained”.(continued from previous page) Name linearA linearb cypriot sarabian china2e harpoon steinmetz DotArrow ushort hhcount ogonek combelow accents nicefrac bm calligra Date 2006/03/13 2005/06/22 1999/06/20 2005/11/12 1997/06/01 1994/11/02 2009/06/14 2007/02/12 2001/06/13 1995/03/31 95/07/17 2009/08/23 2006/05/12 1998/08/04 2004/02/26 1996/07/18 8. either version 1. The latest version of this license is in http://www.org/lppl. 121 .9 Copyright and license A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List Copyright © 2009.

4(4):19.ps (also included in many TEX distributions). A [L T98] A A L TEX3 Project Team. 18(2):75–78.0).org/ tex-archive/info/fontname. USA. [Ber01] [Che97] Karl Berry. Short math guide for L TEX. Available from http:// www. A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters. Available from http:// www. 1986. L TEX News. Addison-Wesley. A new math accent.ams.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/fntguide. USA. Addison-Wesley. Available from http://www. volume C of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley. L TEX 2ε font selection. MA. June 1998.pdf (also included in many TEX distributions). Raymond Chen. Available from http://www. 2000. June 1997. 2000. Reading.ctan. User’s Guide for the amsmath Package (Version 2. Knuth.ctan. Fontname: Filenames for TEX fonts. A [L T00] 122 . Version 1. L TEX: A document preparation system. [Gib97] Jeremy Gibbons.References [AMS99] American Mathematical Society.org/tex/short-math-guide. Baskerville. Available from http:// www. Available from ftp://ftp.07. Available from http://tug. A A L TEX3 Project Team.ctan. volume A of Computers and Typesetting.pdf. MA. 1999.ps.ams. 1986. [Knu86a] Donald E. A [Lam86] Leslie Lamport. Reading. September 1997. MA. Issue 9.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/amsldoc. June 2001. [Knu86b] Donald E. The METAFONTbook. USA. December 13. Reading. Hey—it works! TUGboat.pdf.tug. Knuth.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/ltnews09. 1986.html. A [Dow00] Michael Downes. ISSN 1354-5930.org/usergrps/uktug/baskervi/4 4/ bask4 4. July 19.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb18-2/tb55works. The TEXbook. January 30.ctan.

Index
If you’re having trouble locating a symbol, try looking under “T” for “\text. . .”. Many text-mode commands begin with that prefix. Also, accents are shown over/under a gray box (e.g., “ a ” for “\’”). ´ Some symbol entries appear to be listed repeatedly. This happens when multiple packages define identical (or nearly identical) glyphs with the same symbol name.17 Symbols ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ \AAaleph (A) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAayin (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAbeth (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAcht (ˇ “ ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \AAdaleth (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAhe (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAhelmet (V) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAheth (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAkaph (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAlamed (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aaleph (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AApe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAqoph (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAresh (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAsade (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aayin (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAyod (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Abeth (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 absolute value . see \lvert and \rvert abz¨glich . . see \textdiscount u \AC (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \acarc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \acbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 accents . . 14–18, 57–61, 71, 89, 107–109 acute (´) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 a any character as . . . . . 107 arc (a) . . . . . 14–17, 59, 60 breve (˘) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 a caron (ˇ) . . . 14, 18, 57, 60 a cedilla (¸) . . . . . . . . . . 14 circumflex (ˆ) 14–16, 57, 59, a 60 comma-below (a) . . . . . 17 , diæresis (¨) a 14, 17, 18, 57, 68 dot (a or . ) . . . . 14–16, 57 ˙ double acute (˝) . . . 14, 18 a extensible . . . . 59–61, 63, 108–109 grave (`) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 a h´ˇek . . see accents, caron ac hook (ả) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Hungarian umlaut . . . see accents, double acute krouˇek . . see accents, ring z macron (¯) . 14, 17, 18, 57, a 59, 60 multiple per character 15–16, 107 ogonek ( ˛) . . . . . . . 14–17 ring (˚ . 14–16, 18, 57, 58 a) Romanian comma-belo accent . . . . . . . see accents, comma-below trema see accents, diæresis umlaut see accents, diæresis accents (package) . 58, 107, 119, 121 \accentset . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \AchtBL ( ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 = = \Acht (ˇ “( )= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 =

\" (¨) a \# (#) \$ ($) \% (%) \& (&) \’ (´) a ( (() .

.. . .. . . .. ..

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . 14 9, 114 9, 114 9, 114 9, 114 . . . 14 . . . 54

= =

( ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ) ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ) ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 * (*) . \, . . . \- (-) \. (a) ˙ / (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . 113 115, 116 . . . . 14 . . . . 54

/ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \: \; ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 .) . ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 .)

< ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . .) \? ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 [ ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 [ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ] (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ]( ) .. \^ (ˆ) . . a \^{} (ˆ) \| ( ) . . \| ( ) . . \| (a) . . ¿ \= (¯) . . a \={} (¯) |( ) .. | (|) . . . \_ ( ) . . \{ ({) . . \} (}) . . \‘ (`) . . a \~ (˜) . . a \~{} (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . 14 9, 115 . . . 54 54, 56 . . . 14 . . . 14 . . 115

. . . . . . . . 55 30, 54, 56, 57 . . . . . 9, 115 . . . 9, 54, 115 . . . 9, 54, 115 . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . 9, 115

A a (esvect package option) \a (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \AA (˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . A) \aa (˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . a)
17 This

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

61 95 10 10

\AchtBR ( ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \ACK ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \acontraction . . . . . . . . . 109 \AcPa (? ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \actuarial ( ) . . . . . . . . . 108 actuarial symbols . . . . . . . 108 \acute (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 acute (´) . . . . . . . . see accents a \acutus (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 ´ \Adaleth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 adeles (A) . see alphabets, math adjoint (†) . . . . . . . . . see \dag Adobe Acrobat . . . . . . . . . 112 . \adots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 64, 107 advancing . see \textadvancing \AE (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ae (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \aeolicbii (Ι) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \aeolicbiii (Θ) . . . . . . . . 95 \aeolicbiv (Κ) . . . . . . . . 95 \agemO ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Agimel (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ahe (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ahelmet (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aheth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \ain (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Akaph (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Alamed (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \aldine ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \aldineleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \aldineright ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 \aldinesmall ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . 51, 65 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Alif ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \alpha (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 alphabets African . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

occurs frequently between amssymb and mathabx, for example.

123

Cypriot . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Cyrillic . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Greek . . . . . 50, 51, 68, 87 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . 51, 68 hieroglyphic . . . . . . . . . 82 Linear A . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Linear B . . . . . . . . . . . 85 math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 phonetic . . . . . . . . 11–14 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . 81 South Arabian . . . . . . . 87 Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . 10 \alphaup (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 alpine symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Alt ( Alt ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 alternative denial . see \uparrow and | \AltGr ( AltGr ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \amalg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \amalg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Amem (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 ampersand . . . . . . . . . . see \& AMS . 8, 10, 22, 26, 30, 31, 36, 38, 39, 41, 49–54, 58, 59, 61, 64–66, 69, 100, 118 amsbsy (package) . . . . . . . . 113 amsfonts (package) 22, 30, 36, 41, 65, 68 amsmath (package) . . 8, 49, 58, 104, 112 amssymb (package) 8, 22, 30, 36, 41, 58, 65, 68, 87, 119, 120, 123 amstext (package) . . . . 105, 106 \Anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \anceps (Ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \ancepsdbrevis (Ζ) . . . . . . . 95 \anchor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 ancient-language symbols 81–87 and . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge AND gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDd (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDl (£) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDr (¡) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDu (¤) . \angle (∠) . . . \angle ( ) . . . \angle (∠) . . . angle notation . angles . . . . . . . \Anglesign (W) ˚ Angstr¨m unit o math mode text mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . 66 . . 65 . . 66 . . 70 65–67 . . . 67

O

see \mathring . . . . . . see \AA

\Angud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \angud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 angular minutes . . . . see \prime angular seconds . . . see \second \Angus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \angus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 animals . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 82, 86 \Ankh (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 annuity symbols . . . . . . . . 108 \Antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 95 · \Antidiple* (<) . . . . . . . . . 95 · · ) . . . . . . . . . 95 \antidiple* (< · \antilabe (. . ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 .. \Antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Anun (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ape (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 APL modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . 71 symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLcirc (◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLcomment ( ) . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLdownarrowbox ( ) . . . . 71 \APLinput ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLinv (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLleftarrowbox ( ) . . . . 71 \APLlog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLnot (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLrightarrowbox ( ) . . . . 71 \APLstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLuparrowbox ( ) . . . . . . 71 \APLvert ( | ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \apprge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \apprle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \approxcolon (≈:) . . . . . . . 36 \approxcoloncolon (≈::) . . . 36 \approxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Aqoph (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aquarius (ê) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \aquarius ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \AR ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 ar (package) . . . . . . . . 70, 119 arc (a) . . . . . . . . . see accents \arccos (arccos) . . . . . . . . . 49 arcminutes . . . . . . . see \prime arcs (package) . . . . 17, 119, 120 arcseconds . . . . . . . see \second \arcsin (arcsin) . . . . . . . . . 49 \arctan (arctan) . . . . . . . . . 49 \Aresh (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 arev (package) . 67, 88, 119, 120 \arg (arg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Aries (€) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Aries (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \aries ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

\ArrowBoldDownRight ( ) . 75 \ArrowBoldRightCircled ( ) 75 \ArrowBoldRightShort ( ) . . 75 \ArrowBoldRightStrobe ( ) 75 \ArrowBoldUpRight ( ) . . . 75 \Arrownot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \arrownot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 arrows 41–43, 47, 61–63, 72, 75, 81, 86, 90, 103 diagonal, for reducing subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . 59 dotted . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 double-headed, diagonal 106 extensible . . . . . . . 59–63 fletched . . . . . . . . . 47, 75 negated . . . . . . . 41, 42, 44 \Arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 54 \Arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 55 \arrowvert () . . . . . . . . . . 54 \arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 55 Arseneau, Donald 104, 106–108 \Asade (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Asamekh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 ASCII . . 8, 10, 72, 100, 114–115, 117, 119 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ascii (package) 72, 115, 119, 120 \ascnode ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Ashin (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \ast (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Asteriscus (×) . . . . . . . . . 95 ··· · \asteriscus (×) . . . . . . . . . 95 ··· · \Asterisk (¦) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Asterisk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \asterisk (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \AsteriskBold ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \AsteriskCenterOpen ( ) . . 78 \AsteriskRoundedEnds ( ) . 78 asterisks . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 78 \AsteriskThin ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \AsteriskThinCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \asterism (**) . . . . . . . . . 104 * astrological symbols . . . . . . . 71 astronomical symbols . . . 71, 98 \astrosun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \asymp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \asymp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \atan (atan) . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \ataribox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Atav (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ateth (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AtForty (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \AtNinetyFive (Ó) . . . . . . 90 atomic math objects . . 49, 113 \AtSixty (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . 90

y { z w x

x

e g

f ˆ

A

h

124

\autoleftarrow (DG G G GG) . . . 62 \autoleftrightharpoons (EG C) GG GG G G . . . . . . . . . . . 62 . . 62

\autorightarrow (GG G G GA) \autorightleftharpoons GG GG G G (FG B) \Avav (w) . . average . . . . \Ayn ( ) . . . \Ayod (y) . . \Azayin (z) . . . . .

\baro (`) . . . . . . . . . . \barp (e) . . . . . . . . . . barred letters . . . . . . . \barrightharpoon (ß) \barsci (C) . . . . . . . . . \barscu (ˆ) . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 21 14 81 81

   \Bart (¦)

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. 13 . 13 104 . 43 . 13 . 13

B \B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \B (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˘ b (esvect package option) \b (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ \b ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˘ \Ba (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . babel (package) . . . . . . . \babygamma (3) . . . . . . . \backapprox ( ) . . . . . . \backapproxeq ( ) . . . . \backcong ( ) . . . . . . . . \backepsilon ( ) . . . . . \backeqsim ( ) . . . . . . . \backneg (⌐) . . . . . . . . . \backprime ( ) . . . . . . . \backprime ( ) . . . . . . . \backsim ( ) . . . . . . . . \backsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . \backsimeq ( ) . . . . . . \backsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . \backslash (\) . . . . . . . \backslash ( )

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. 50, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54,

10 95 61 14 95 85 87 13 32 32 32 30 32 66 66 66 30 32 30 32 65

\baru („) . . . . . \barwedge (ˆ) . \barwedge ( ) . . base-twelve digits \Bat (ý) . . . . . . \Bau (=) . . . . . \bauarrow ( ) . \baucircle ( ) . \baucircle ( ) \baucross ( ) . \baudash ( ) . . \baueclipse ( ) \bauequal ( ) . \bauface ( ) . . \bauforms ( ) .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

¤ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¨ ¢  „ 

\bauforms ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauhole ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \baupunct ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauquarter ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauquestion ( ) . . . . . . . . 90 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \bauwhitearrow ( ) . . . . . . 75 \bauwindow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \BB ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ˘ \Bb (´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ \bB ( ´ ˘ ˘ \bb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ × ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ \bba (˘ ˘ \bbalpha ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 b \bbb (˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ˘ \bbbeta (

. . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \banceps (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . Karl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bbyod (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barleftharpoon (Þ) . . . . . . . . 68 bbgreekl (mathbbol package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bbslash ( ) . 32 \Bi (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 big O (O) . . .) . 109 \Bda (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . 95 (˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ \bbmx ( ¯ ) . . . . 13 \barl (F) . 95 \barbrevis (ι) . . . 51 \beth ( ) . . . 55  \backslashdiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 \bbm ( ) . . . . . . . . . 85 \bibridge (a) . . . . . . . . . . 80. . . . . . 22 \baro ( vs. . . . . . . . 13 \barlambda (¡) . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . 43 \baro ( ) . . . . . math \bigast (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) . . . . . . . . . 85 \Baiii (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \because ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Baii (. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 ¤ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .Ö. . . 73 \Bearing (#) . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( \bigboxplus ( ) . . . . 85 \Beam (") . . 85 \Bdwo (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbrevis (ς) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \between ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \backtriplesim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) \bigboxbackslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \bigboxdot ( Ø . . . . 85 \Bdo (g) . . . . . . . . 85 \Bde (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .”. . 68 bbold (package) . . . . . . . . 68 \Bbbk (k) . . . . . 68 \bcontraction . . . . . . . . . . Û \bigboxbot ( Õ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \BEL ( ) . 30. . . . . . . 85 \bdecisive (i) . . 95 \bBm ( ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯´ ¯ bbm (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . \bigbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \barb (¦) . . . . . . 119 \bbpe (Ô) . . . . . . . . . 51 \betteris (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \BBm ( ´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ˘ ¯ \bbmb ¯¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . 101. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \bbeuro (û) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbgamma ( ) . . 13 \bari (9) . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdwe (>) . . . . \bigboxasterisk ( Þ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv \Bicycle (®) . 68 \bbetter (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdu (x) . 73 \because ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 \bbdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . 85 \Be (e) . . . . . . . . ) \bigboxminus Ð ) . . . . 50 \beth ( ) . 30 \between ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \bell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . `) . . . . 90 \Big . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘˘ ˘ ¯¯ ¯ \bbnabla (š) . . . 50 \betaup (β) . . 104 ◦ \bard () . . . . . ) \bigboxcirc ( ) . . . . . . . 23 \bigbosonloop () { \bigbosonloopA () ‘ ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ) . . . . . . . 122 \beta (β) . . . . . . . . . . 74 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 \bigbosonloopV () . . . . . . . 68 \bbqof (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . 88 Berry. . . . 13 \barbbrevis (θ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \barj (j) . . . . . . . . 85 banana brackets . . . . . . . . 102 \big . . . . . . . . . . × \bigboxcoasterisk ( ) Ó \bigboxdiv (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \Bdi (f) . . . . 96 13 23 22 65 90 85 75 80 80 77 90 80 90 90 90 £ §   … ©  †   £ ¦ ¢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barin (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \barcirc (−) . . . . . . . 93 \between (2) . . . 74 . 16 ” biconditional . . 95 ˘ ˘ ¯ \Bbm (¯ ) . . . . . . . 68 \bbfinalnun (Ï) . . . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 bbding (package) 75–78. . 95 \bar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . ) \bigboxleft ( Ñ . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 .

. . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigocirc ( ) . . . . . 27 \bigobackslash ( ) . . . 26 \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . 29 ) \bigoright (Í) . . . 29 \bigcupplus ( ) . . . 27 ) \bigominus ( ) . 23 \bigstar ( ) . . . 102 \bigg . . . 29 \bigcurlywedgedot ( ) . . . . . . . 27 ) \bigobackslash ( ) . . . 79 \bigtriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigominus ( ) . . . \blacktriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangleright (Ÿ) \blacktriangleright ( ) \blacktriangleright ( ) \blacktriangleup (œ) . . . . . . . . 26 Ü \bigboxvoid ( ) . . . \blacksquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangleleft ( ) . . 27 \bigsqcupplus ( ) . . 22 \Biohazard (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bjo (b) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigsqcapplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bki (c) . . . . 27 \bigboxslash (Ò) . . . . \Bju (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bke (K) . 26 \bigtriangleup ( vs. . . . . 26 \bigsqcap ( ) . 79 \biginterleave ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34–39. 74 G birds . . . . . . . 126 . . 79 \bignplus ( ) . . . .Ç. . 29 \BigDiamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigoplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 ) \bigsquplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \blacklozenge ( ) . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . \BlackRookOnWhite (r) . . . . . . 25 \bigwedge ( ) . . 22 \bigtriangledown ( ) . . 79 \BigTriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigcomplementop ( ) . bishop . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \BigTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigoast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigtimes ( ) . . 29 \bigcirc ( ) . . 27 \BigCross ( ) . . . . . 26 \bigotriangle ( ) . . . 25 \bigcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwedgedot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 ) \bigocirc ( ) . . . . . . 40 \BigTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . 25 \bigcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . 40 \biguplus ( ) . . 26 \bigoslash ( ) . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcapplus ( ) . . . . . . 27 \bigodot ( ) . . . . . . . \bishoppair (a) \Bja (j) . . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangledown () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BlackQueenOnBlack (l) \BlackQueenOnWhite (q) \BlackRookOnBlack (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) 101 \bigtriangledown ( ) . . . . 79 \bigcup ( ) . . . . . \Bku (v) . . . . . . 25 \biguplus ( ) . . . . . 25 \bigodot ( È . \Bko (h) . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BlackPawnOnBlack ( \blacksmiley ( ) . . . . . . . . 27 \bigplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 2 5 Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \BigLowerDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ˘ \bigwith ( ) . . 79 94 94 94 94 94 94 88 66 25 94 66 40 25 66 40 25 39 40 25 39 40 25 3 4 6 ) . 26 \bigovert (Ì . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigveedot ( ) . . . . 26 \bigoslash ( ) . . . . 29 \BigSquare ( ˜ . . . \blackstone . 100. . . . 48 negated . . . . . . . 26 ß \bigboxtriangleup ( ) . . 29 . . . . . . . 79 \bigdoublecurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 . \bigocoasterisk ( ) . . 26 \bigboxtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigvee ( ) . . . . . . . 29 ( \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . 26 \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . 27 \bigparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 – \bigsqcap ( ) . 29 \bigvarstar () . 22 binary operators . . . \bigoasterisk ( Î . . . 29 ) \bigovoid ( ) . . . . . . 25 \bigotimes ( ) . . . . . . . 74 biological symbols . . . . 30 \binampersand ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Bigg . . . \blacktriangleleft (ž) . \blacktriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) 101 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . . 30 \bigplus ( ) . . . \blacksquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigdoublecurlywedge ( ) . \BlackKingOnWhite (k) . . . . . . 25 \bigsqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . 29 \BigRightDiamond ( ) . . . . . . 23 \BigVBar ( ) . . 66 \bigstar ( ‘ . . . . . 27 \bigstar () . . 29 Ê \bigotop ( ) . . . \blacktriangledown ( ) . 29 \bigcupplus ( œ . . 30–32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 94 94 94 94 \blacklozenge ( ) . 22 \bigcirc ( ) . . . . 29 Ï \bigotriangleup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigdoublevee ( ) . . 29 Ë \bigobot ( Å . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangle ( ) . . . . . . 29 \bigostar ( ) . 29 \bigcoast (§) . 29 \bigsqcapdot ( ) . . . . . . 27 \bigcap ( ) . . . . . . . . 22–25 binary relations . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . 102 \BigHBar ( ) . 29 \bigsqcupplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 à \bigodiv ( ) . . 26 \bigsqcap ( ) . 29 \bigcupdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcupdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 ˙ \bigparr () . . . . . .’. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \BigCircle ( ) . . . . . . 79 \bigcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \BigTriangleRight ( ) . \Bje (J) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigtriangledown ( vs. . . . . . . . 29 \bigdoublewedge ( ) . . . . . . \BlackKingOnBlack (j) . . . . \Bka (k) . . . 29 \bigcurlyveedot › ) . . . . \BlackKnightOnBlack (m) \BlackKnightOnWhite (n) o) . . . . . . . . . . 29 ) \bigoleft ( Á . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Ù 7  8 & • \bigotimes ( ) . 79 ) \bigtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigvee ( ) . . 26 Ú \bigboxtop ( ) . . . . . . . . 82 94 93 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 94 \BlackBishopOnBlack ( a) \BlackBishopOnWhite (b) \BlackEmptySquare ( 94 blackboard bold see alphabets. . .\bigboxright (Ý) . . . . Æ . . 31–33 \bindnasrepma ( ) . . . . 26 \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcapplus ( ) . \BlackPawnOnWhite (p) . . . 29 \bigcapdot ( ) . . 29 \bigsqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigoplus ( É . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ) \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . math \blackdiamond () .

\BPgoat (ş) . . . \BPewe (š) . . . . . . . \BPnanny (ț) . . . 42 \boxdotRight ( ) . . . . . . . 85 \Bni (C) . . 113 \boldmath . \BPcauldroni (đ) \BPcauldronii (§) \BPchariot (ÿ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxdotright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPwine (Ť) . . . . . . . . . 32 \Bouquet (¥) . \Bpuii (\) . . . . . . . 48 \blitzd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bpo (H) . . . . 85 \BNiii (˜) . . . \Bpu (I) . . . . . . 25 \boxplus (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPcow (ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \blitza ( ) . . . . . . 85 \BNv (˝) . . . . . 71 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 86 86 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 127 . . . . \BPvolcd (Ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNii (ˆ) . 85 \BNd (‌) . \BPbull (ň) . . . . \BPbarley (Ş) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Bowtie ( ) . 22 \boxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxcircle ( ) . . . \BPvolcf (Ń) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxvoid (l) . . . . 25 \boxdot (d) . . . . . . 25 \boxtriangleup (o) . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNlx (›) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . 85 \Bmo (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPchassis (ź) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxbar ( ) . 95 ˘ ¯ bm (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \bowtie ( ) . 25 \boxbackslash (n) . . . . . . 85 \BNm (fi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPwineiiih (IJ) . . . 22 \boxslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitze ( ) . \BPwoman (ą) . . . . . 51. . . . . . . \Bpi (G) . . . . . 42 \boxslash (m) . . . . . \BPsow (ł) . . math Boolean logic gates . . . . 85 \Bne (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPvolb (Ľ) . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNviii (˘) . . . . 22 \boxbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . \BPhorse (ď) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPwool (Ś) . . . . . . . . 88 \bowtie ( ) . . . . . 85 \BNdcc (ı) . . . . . \BPbilly (ť) . . . . . . . . 66 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxcirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boy (h) . 85 \bmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxtimes (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 body-text symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bo (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxdotLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \BPwheel (ž) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 \bot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPcloth (Ř) . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ¯ \Bma (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNcc (») . . . . . . . . 25 \boxbackslash ( ) . 9–20 ©     bold symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNlxx (“) . 48 \blitzb ( ) . . . . . . . . 49 \Bmu (B) . 113 \bomb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \BPsheep (ř) . . . . \BPman (ă) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNix (¯) . \BPbronze (Ű) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNx (˙) . . 22 \boxasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPwineivh (İ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Boolean domain (B) . . . . . . . see \textborn bosons . . . . . . . 85 \BNcm (ff) . . . . . 85 \BNxx (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . \BPox (ń) . . . . . . . . . . \BPtalent (Ď) . . . . 85 \BNvi (˚) . \Bpa (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxdot ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \Bm (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNcd (—) . . . . . . . 25 box-drawing symbols . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitzc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bna (n) . . . . . 85 \BNdc (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bme (M) . . . . . . . \BPwineiih (Ż) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxminus ( ) . . \BPwheat (Š) . . . . . . . 25 \boxdiv (™) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 block-element symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .blank . . 85 \BNxc („) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPboar (ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPolive (Ț) . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPspear (¡) . . . . \BPvola (Ĺ) . . 85 \BNlxxx (”) . . . \BPfoal (ě) . . . . 121 \bm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \bm ( ) . . . . . . 85 \BNxl (‚) . . . . . . . 52 \botdoteq () . . . . 22 \boxLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bnwa (@) . . . 119. . . . . . . \BPamphora (Ž) . 65 \Box ( ) . . . . . . 25 \boxslash ( ) . . . . . . . . \Bpe (P) . . . . 73 born . . 42 \boxminus (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . \BParrow (ij) . 85 \BNdccc (ȷ) . . . 42 \boxdotleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bnu (F) . . . . . . \Bpaiii ([) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxbot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \bot (⊥) . . . 85 \BNiv (¨) . \BPpig (ĺ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textblank \Bleech (Ë) . . . . . . . . 85 \BNccc (–) . . . 25 \boxtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bno (E) . . . . . . . . 22 \boxcoasterisk (g) . . 85 \BNi (´) . . . . . . . . . \BPram (ś) . . . 25 \boxminus ( ) . . 97 \boxast ( ) . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNl (‹) . . 25 \boxtop (j) . . . 85 \BNxxx (˛) . . . . . . 22 \boxdot ( ) . . . . \BPsword (ż) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNvii (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxempty ( ) . . . . . . . . . 113. . . . . . . . \BPcup (Ÿ) . . . . . \Bpte (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxright (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \boldsymbol . . . \BPgoblet (Ź) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPgold (Ů) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bmi (y) . . . 85 \BNc («) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 23 \centerdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . 68 \CAN ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Btwo (~) \Bu (u) . . . . . . . . . . 85 . . . . a \brevis (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bse (S) . . 85 \BPwtb (Ą) . . . . . 85 \brokenvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUiv (␣) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \BUFu ( ) . . . . . . . . .\BPwta (Ă) . . . . \Break ( Break \breve (˘) . see accents celestial bodies . . . . . . 68. 115. 98 \celsius ( ) . . 17 accents . . . . . . . . . . .    \Burns () . . . . . . . 70 \Celtcross (‡) . \Bzo (9) . . . 32 \Bumpeq ( ) . . 63 \Ce (e) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 85 \Bqo (8) . . .. . .. . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 \centernot . . . .. 88 \CheckedBox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Cartesian product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71. . . 85 \BUFd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPwtc (Ć) ... . 86 \bullet (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bswa ({) . . . . . . . . . . 59 \Cancer (ã) . . . . . . . . . . 86 calligra (package) . . . . . 93 \castlinghyphen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \cent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 . . . 72 cancel (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Ca (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 calrsfs (package) . 30 \check (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bte (T) . . . . . . . . see delimiters \Braii (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BSEfree (n) . . . . . . . 85 \Bqa (q) . . . . . . 85 . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bto (4) . . . . 95 cclicenses (package) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Bsu (2) . . . . . . 55 brackets . . 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BUvi (") . . 88 Bronger. 10. . . . . . . . 23 \cap (∩) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 93 \Bri (O) . 23. . . . 93 \catal (γ) . . 77 \Checkedbox (V) . . 18 \centerdot () . . . 88. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Cap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Charter (font) . . . . . see \^ Carlisle. . . . . . . . 61 \c (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUix (%) . . . . . . 85 \Btwe (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bqe (Q) . . . . 71 \cancer ( ) . . . . . . . . . 64 \cdotp (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \breve (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Bre (R) . . . . . 93 card suits . . . . . . . . . . \Bwe (W) . . . . . . . 105 centigrade . . . . . . . . . . 73 \bracevert ( ) . . . . 24 \cap (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 \Bru (V) . . 93 cents . 14. . . . . . 86 chancery (package) . . 90 \Checkmark ( ) . . . 85 \BS ( ) . . . . . 77. . . . . . . . 74 \Cga (g) . . . 73 \BUi (fl) . \bracerd ( ) . .. . . . . 30 \bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bze (Z) . . . . . 32 \bumpedeq (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˘ breve (˘) . . . . . . . . . 64 \cdots (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bso (1) . . . . . see \textcelsius \centre (I) . .. . 85 \Bqi (X) . . 85 \Bta (t) . . . . . . . . 95 catamorphism . . . . . . . 85 \Bti (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUiii (ffl) . . . . . . . . . 95 \ccby ( BY: ) . . . . . . . . see accents a carriage return . 54 \BUFr () . . . . . . 73 buffers . . . . . 86 Cedi . 66. . . 94 \castlingchar (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Cap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Capricorn (é) . . . .. . . \braceld ( ) . 103 \carriagereturn ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 119 \changenotsign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David . . . 57 check marks . . . . . . 32 \char . \Bwi (6) . . 95 \Catalexis (∧) . 85 \Braiii (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Cc ( ) . . . 95 \cc ( CC ) . . 67 caret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . \BUviii ($) \BUx (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112. see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \cb (a) . . . . . . . . . 121 Calligra (font) . . . . . . 19 \Ccc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \capdot ( ) . . 22 \bullet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . see \textcent \CEsign (C) . . . . . 19 \ccnd ( = ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 \ccnc ( $ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 \checked ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Broii (‘) . . . . . see \textcolonmonetary cedilla (¸) . . 54 109 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 80. . . . 23 bullseye . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Bsi (Y) . . . . see \textbullseye \Bumpedeq (%) . . . . . . . 90. . . . . . . . . 73 C \C ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bra (r) . bra . 118. . . 22 \cap (∩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUii (ffi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 128 C \BusWidth ( ) \BUv (!) . . . . 85 braket (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \cdotp (⋅) . . . . . . . . \Bza (z) . . . . . . . . 85 \Bswi (|) \Btaii (}) . . . . . . . . . . 119 caron (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \ccsa ( ) . . 19 \cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 a \c ( ) . 95 c (esvect package option) . see . . . . . . . 19 \cdot (·) . . \Bwa (w) . . . . . 23 \capplus ( ) . . . . 22 centernot (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 95 \catalexis (∧) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Bsa (s) . . . . . . .. 85 \BPwtd (Č) . . . 104 \cdot (⋅) . . see \aleph care of (c/o) . 85 \Btu (5) . . . . . \BUxi (’) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bro (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 cardinality . . . . . . . . .   \bracevert ()  . . . . . . . \BUxii (­) . . . . . . 71 \capturesymbol (X) . . . . . . . . . 73 \BUFl () . . . . . . . . . 96 73 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 \capricornus ( ) . . . \BUvii (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 C \ 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–67. . . . . . 33 \bupperhand (e) . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . 85 \BSpace ( →− ) . . .. . . . 17 . . see \times castle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . Torsten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. . . . . . . . \Bwo (7) . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 30 \circeq ( ) . . . . . . . . 88. . . . . . . . 86 \Cla (l) . 122 chess symbols . . . . . 94 \chesscomment (RR) . . 62. . . . . . . . . 30. . 115 \Coffeecup (K) . . . . . . 36 \coloncolonsim (::∼) . . . . . . . . 25 \circleddash ( ) . . . 80 \clubsuit (♣) . . 22 \circledcirc ( ) . . 88 \Circle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \closedniomega (c) . . . . . . . . . . . 115 table . . . . . . . 90 \Cli (d) . 34 \coloneqq (:=) . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \Cmo (A) . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cni (C) . . . . 105 \circ (○) . . . . . . 86 \Cku (v) . . . 32 \circeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 92 \clocktime . . . . . . . 33 \CIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . 93 chemarr (package) . . . . 36 coins. . . . . . . . 36 \colonapprox (:≈) . . . . 25 \circleddot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . 42 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . . 13 \closedsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . . 86 \clickb (Y) . 86 \Cke (K) . 36 \coloncolonequals (::=) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \chi (χ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \ClockStyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \chemarrow (A) . . . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneqq (::=) . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . 101 \Circle ( ) . . . 86 \Cko (h) . . . . . . . 34 \colonsim ( ) . 65 \clubsuit (♣) . . . 121 combinatorial logic gates . 77 \checksymbol (+) . . 92 \ClockFrametrue . . . . . . . . . 79 \Circle ( vs. . . 17 ˜ \Cja (j) . 34 \colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \CircledA (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colonsim (:∼) . 34 \coloneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ci (i) . . . . . . . 120 chemarrow (package) 47. . . . . 93 \chessetc (P) . . . . . . . . 86 cmll (package) 21. . . . . see \oslash \circledtimes . . . . . . . . . . . . see \otimes \circledvee ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 \Colonapprox (::≈) . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cnu (F) . . . . 62. . 13 \Clo (f) . 52 \circledS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cle (L) . . . . . . . . 33 \Coloneqq ( ) . . . . 80 \CheckmarkBold ( ) . 98 \circ (◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . 90 \CleaningFF (¿) . . . 13 \clickt (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cme (M) . . . . . . . . . . 41 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . 33 \closedrevepsilon (') . 21. ancient . . 10. . . . 120 d — \clock ( ) . . . . see \circleddotright \circledplus . . . . . . . . . . . 29 complete shuffle product ( ) 24 \COMPLEX ( ) . . . 36 \coloncolonapprox (::≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . see . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \coasterisk (§) . . 73 circumflex (ˆ) . 41 \circlearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \circleright ( ) . . . . . . . 23 D D 4 S S \circledwedge ( ) . . . . . . . 36 \Coloneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 cipher symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \clock ( ) . 101 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneq (!) . . . . . . . . ) . . . . 31 \coloneq ( =) . . 86 \Cka (k) . . . . . . 86 \Cne (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \circledless ( ) . 42 \circlearrowright ( ) . . 31 \coloncolon (::) . . . 68. . . . . . . 79–80. 24 \closedcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . 86 1 i ’  \Cna (n) . . . . . . . 98. . . 86 clubs (suit) . . 22. . . 44 \circlearrowright (÷) . . . . . 36. . . . . . 23 code page 1252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103–108 \compensation (n) . . . . . . 86 clock (package) . . . . . 86 \Cmu (B) . 36 \colonminus (:−) . . . . . 65–67. . . . . . . . 90 \CleaningP (¬) . . . . . . . ) . . 86 \Co (o) . . . . . . . . . 73 commutative diagrams . . . . . . . 8. . . 90 \circledast ( ) . . 25 \circledbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . .text. . . . . . . . . 23 \circledcirc ( ) . 86 \Cjo (b) . . . 90 \CleaningF (¾) . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneq (::−) . . . . . . 73 \circplus (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90–92 \ClockFramefalse . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneqq ( ) . . . . 63 \colon ( : ) . . . . . . . . 44 circled numbers . . . . . 36 \Colonsim ( ) . . . . 97. see \oplus \circledR ( ) . . . 36 \coloncolonminus (::−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \coh (¨) . . . . . . . . . . 50 china2e (package) 19. . . . . . . 93. . . . . . . . . . . . 73 comma-below accent (a) . . . . . see \odot \circleddotleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . see \circleddotleft \circledotright . . . 66 \checkmark ( vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . 22 \circleddash ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 \Colonsim (::∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \complement ( ) . . . . . . 32 \coloneq (:−) . . . . 64 \Colonapprox ( ) . .tex (newsgroup) . . 13 \clickc () . . . . . . 13 \closedprec ( ) . . . . . . . . 91 clovers . . . . . 24 \closedequal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 » à ¢ 129 . . 88. . . . . . . 80 \CircleSolid ( ) . . . . 19 \colon . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cno (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Circsteel (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raymond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92. . . 119. . . . 88 clock symbols . 106 comp. . . . . . . 67. . . . . . . . . . 120 \colonequals (:=) . . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Complex ( ) . . 94 \CircleShadow ( ) . . . . . . . 52 \circledslash . . . . . 72. . . 66 \Cma (m) . . . . . . . . 42 circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \circledbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colonapprox (:≈) . . . . . . . . . 23 \circeq (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \circledminus . 31 colonequals (package) 21. . . . . . . . . . . . 121 \chiup (χ) . . . . . . 52 \complement ( ) . 78 \Clu (q) . . . . . . . . 93 \chesssee (l) . . . . . 42 \circleddotright ( ) . . . . 92 \closedcurlyvee ( ) . . . 63 \colon ( ) . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . 80 \Circpipe (›) . . . . . 47 Chen. . . . . see accents a \circumflexus (a) . . . . . accents communication symbols . . . 90 \CleaningPP ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \coAsterisk (§) . . . 42 \circledgtr ( ) . . 77. 86 \Cmi (y) . 22 \circledast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \CleaningA («) . . . . 23 \circleleft ( ) . . . . . 33 \Cloud ( ) . see \ominus \circledotleft . .\checkmark ( ) . . . . . 36 \colonsim (:∼) . . . . . . . . . 21. 10 \checkmark ( ) . . . . 86 \Cki (c) . 88 \circlearrowleft (ö) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \Clocklogo (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 combelow (package) 17. . . . . . . . 117 code page 437 . . . . . . 93 \complement (e) . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlyyogh (—) . . . . 86 \Cya (j) . 32 \cos (cos) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 130 . . \dashrightarrow \dasheddownarrow ( ) . . . . 44 \curvearrowrightleft ( ) . 18 currency symbols . . 121 \Cza (g) . . . . . . 49 \cot (cot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \curvearrowswne ( ) . \daleth ( ) . 22 ¥¦§¨© \curlywedge (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cwo (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \curvearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \cyprfamily . . . . 42 \curvearrowdownup ( ) . . 77. . . 13 \curlyeqprec (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Ctrl ( Ctrl ) . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \curlyeqprec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \currency (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 contradiction symbols . . . see alphabets. . 86 cypriot (package) . 76 \CrossOutline ( ) . 112 \cup (∪) . . . . 75 cutoff subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dag (†) . . . . . 22 \curlyvee ( ) . . .complex numbers (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Coppa (Ϙ) . . . . . . . . 86 \Cwi (6) . . 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cto (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \curlyesh (x) . . . . . 97 \corona ( ) . . . . 43 \curvearrowleft (ð) . . 24 \cup (‰) . 77. . . 24 \cupplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \ComputerMouse (Í) . . . . . . 42 \curvearrowbotright (ô) . . . . 86 \Cpo (H) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \crossh (5) . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \corresponds ()) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \counterplay (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Czo (9) . . . . . . 13 \curlyvee (y) . . . . . . . . . 32 \curlyeqsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 61 . . . . . . 13 \CrossOpenShadow ( ) . . 72 B E R F D C ¢  B  \Ctu (5) . 93 Courier (font) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \curlyeqsucc (·) . . . 22 \Cup ( ) . 14 Comprehensive TEX Archive Network . . . . . logical . . . . . 86 \csc (csc) . . . . 23 \curlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlyveeuparrow ( ) . see . . 24 \Csi (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 conjunction. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \curvearrowbotleftright (õ) . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \coppa (ϙ) . . see \equiv \conjunction ( ) . . . . . . 76 \CrossClowerTips ( ) . . . . . . 43 \Cutleft (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge and \& consequence relations . . 18 CP1252 . . . . . . . . 57 \Csa (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \curlyeqprec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Creative Commons licenses . 86 \Cwe (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \curlyz (”) . . . 90 cross ratio . 76 \crossd () . . . . . . . . . \dasharrow . . ¨ d (esvect package option) \d (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cro (U) . . 86 \Cpu (I) . . . . 30 \curlyeqsucc ( ) . . . see \dotdiv \Cutright (q) . . . . . . . . ) . 19. . 43 \curvearrowright (ñ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \Cwa (w) . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlywedgeuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \Cup ( ) . . . . . 86 \Cta (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Corresponds (=) . . 25 \coprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90. . . 29 copyright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . \danger ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \CrossMaltese ( ) . . . 76 crotchet . . . . . . 68 \curvearrowbotleft (ó) . . 9 \corner (k) . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . 76. . . . . 23 \curlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cpi (G) . . . . 49. . . . 23 \cup (∪) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 D \D (a) . 86 crucifixes . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \curvearrowleft ( ) . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . 48 control characters . . . . . . . . . 86. 17 . 22 \curlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76. . . . . . see code page 1252 CP437 . . 16 a \Cru (V) . . . 90 crosses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Computer Modern (font) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cross ( ) . . . . . 72 converse implication . . . . . . vs. . . . . . 72 \cr . . . . . . 43 \curvearrowupdown ( ) . 75 \Cutline (r) . . . 86 \cshuffle ( ) . . 24 \cupdot ( ) . . . . . 18 corners. . . . . . see code page 437 \Cpa (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 . . . . . . . 86 \Cube ( ) 92. . . 13 \CrossBoldOutline ( ) . 13 \Crossedbox (X) . . . . . . . . . . 104 \Cra (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \Cross († vs. . . . . . . . 33 congruent . . . . . 86 \Cyo (b) . 86 Cypriot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cti (3) . . . . 89 . . 86 \Cu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cre (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 CTAN see Comprehensive TEX Archive Network \Cte (T) . . . . . . . . 42 \curvearrowright ( ) . . . 72 \cong ( ) . see musical symbols Ŕ \crtilde (˜) . . . . 8. . . see \leftarrow and \subset converse nonimplication . 42 \curvearrowleftright ( ) . . . . . 24 \curlywedgedownarrow ( ) . 102. . . . . . . . . see \nleftarrow and \nsubset \convolution () . 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . math composited accents . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \coronainv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 cube root . 117–119 computer hardware symbols . 24 \curlyc () . . 24 \curlyveedownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . 86 \Cpe (P) . . . . . . 76 \Cross (†) . . . . . . 76 \crossnilambda (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \copyright (©) . . . 90 \Crux (†) . . . . . . . . . . 86 \CR ( ) . 42 \curvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 100. . . . 72 computer keys . . . . . 72 . . . . 86 \Cxe (X) . . . . . . . . . 24 \curlyveedot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . 101 \Cross ( ) . . . . 21. . . . 19 crescent (fge package option) 58 \Cri (O) . . . . . . . . . 57 \crux (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \cosh (cosh) . . 49 \coth (coth) . . 86 \Cxa (x) . . . . \daleth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \curvearrowleftright (ò) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. . . . . see \textrecipe \crossb (¥) . . . . 43 \curvearrownwse ( ) . . . . . . . dangerous bend symbols \DArrow ( ↓ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \curlywedgedot ( ) . . . . . . box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \curvearrowsenw ( ) . . . . . . . . 104. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \coprod ( ) . \dagger (†) . . 49 \Cse (S) . . . . . . 86 \Csu (2) . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cso (1) . . . . . 43 \curvearrownesw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \cong (≅) . . . . . . .

. 80. . . . . . . . . . . . \Diamonddotleft ( ) . . . see \textquotedbl \div (÷) . . . . .. . see \diaeresis (a) . . .. .. . . \diamonddiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 111 111 113 113 105 117 . 63 T ¥ ¦ § p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 discount . . . 35 ) . 50 \delta (δ) . 87 digital logic gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 66 . . . . diacritics . .. . . . \decothreeleft ( ) . 72 \Del ( Del ) . . . \diagup ( ) . . . . . . 105. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ¨ diæresis (¨) . . . . . . 117 . . . 131 ι \dashedleftarrow ( ) \dashednearrow ( ) . . 63 . . \Diamondblack ( ) . . 25 \diatop . . 24 \divdot (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 77 dingbat (package) . . . . 43 . . \diameter (s) . . . . . . . 72 . . \DCb ( ) . 43 . \DeclareMathOperator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Diamonddot ( ) . . .. . . . \DeclareUnicodeCharacter \decofourleft ( ) . . . . . . . \Diamonddotright ( ) . \Dashv (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dashint (− ) . . . . . . . . . . \dft ( ) . . 72 . . . .. . . 30 . . . . . . \ddagger (‡) . 21.. . . . 43 . .. . 49 \devadvantage (t) . . . . . . . . .. 65 LCD . . . . . . see \textdiscount discretionary hyphen . . . . . . 41 . . . . . \Diamond ( ) . . . . . . . 80 \diamondsuit (♦) . . . . . . . . . . . 103 definition symbols . . . 120 died . . 42 diamonds . . .. . . . . . . . . 25 . . 42 \Diamondleft ( ) . . .. .. . . . . .. \DashV (A) . . .. . . . . 72 . . . . 59 non-commutative . 95 · Dirac notation . see \textdied differential. 43 . . . .. 18. \ddddot ( ) .. . 16 g derivitive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 78 . . . .. . . . . . . . . inexact . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . 55. . . . . \diamond ( ) . . . . 66 . . . . . . . \dashleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dbar (¯ . . . . 23 \divideontimes () . \dashrightarrow ( ) . 50 demisemiquaver . . 33 . 66 . 44 . . 22 . 93 . . . . . . . . \Diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \diamondbackslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dashleftrightarrow ( \dashrightarrow ( ) . 49 \ding . . 87 \digamma (ϝ) . . 66 . \dblcolon (::) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 32 . . . . 119. . . . . .. . . . \DD (D ) . . 95 . . . . . \diagdown ( ) . .. 79 \diamondslash ( ) . . 96 dictsym (package) . . . . 64 \DiamondLeft ( ) . 95 · · \diple* (>) . . . . . 25 . . . . 42 ) . . . 22 \divides (#) . . . . . . . . \dh (ð) . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \displaystyle . . 80 \DiamondShadowA ( ) . . . . . D \ddag (‡) . . \diamonddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 . . 25 \diamondplus ( ) . . . 70 Mayan .. . 18 \denarius (Ε) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . see a \diagdown (å) . 42 . . . . . . . . . . 116 . . . . . . see \textdegree \DEL ( ) . see musical symbols \Denarius (¢) . . . . . . 25 . . . 24. \diagdown ( ) . . 25 \diamondvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ddots ( ) . . . . 89 . . . . . 65 old-style .. . 104 . . 33 division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \Denarius delimiters .H G \Dfourier ( \dfourier ( \DFT ( . 41 . . . . . . 92. . . . \DCd ( ) . . . . . . . 66 . . . 57 variable-sized . . 73 digits . . . . . . 53–57 text-mode . . . . . . . . . . 78 . . . . . 42 . . . 78 . 116 accents . . . . . . . . . 64 ) . \decothreeright ( ) . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . ) . \diamond ( ) . . . .. . . . \dashv ( ) . . . .. . . . 120 dingbat symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \DavidStar ( ) . . . . 65–67. . 32 \divides ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \decotwo ( ) . . 10. . . . . 65 . . . 88 . \dashVv (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . \DavidStarSolid ( ) . . . . .. .. . . . 58 . . . . .. . . . . 25 \DiamondRight ( ) . . \ddashint (= ) . . . . . . . \dBar (||) . 25 \DiamondSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 44 . . ... . . . . . . . . 77 . . . . \DeclareFontShape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \diple (>) . \diagup (ä) . 33 . . . . / D \ddot (¨) . .. \DCc ( ) . . 106. . . . 32 . . 66 \degree (°) . . . . 113 ditto marks .. . . . . . . . . 11–14. . . . . . . \ddots ( . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \degree (H) . . . . 96. \decosix ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Deleatur . . .. . . . \dashv ( ) . . 78 . . 22 \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . 80 dingautolist . . . 107 dice . . . . . . 13 10. . . 25 . . .. . . . . . . . . . 106 .. . . . \DH (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 42 \diamondminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \diagonal (G) . . dblaccnt (package) . . . . . . \DiamonddotRight ( ) . . . . . . . \davidsstar ( ) . . . 54–57 wavy-line . . 79 \Diamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . ... . 108 \deg (deg) . . . \dddot ( ) . 43 . . . . . . . . \DeclareFontFamily . . 89 9. . . 78 . . . . . . . . . 43 . . ) ) . . .. . . \dh ( ) . 107 . . 75–78. . . 56 \Delta (∆) . . . . . 93 \diamonddots ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 70 \dim (dim) . 19 \dental (a) . . . . . . . . . \ddotdot ( ) . \diagup ( ) . . . ) . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 78 \ddttstile ( ) . 21 . . . 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \declareslashed . . .. . 21 disjunction . 20 segmented . . . . 22. . \dashedrightarrow ( ) \dashedsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \dashednwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 71 \det (det) . . . . . . . 50. . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . 79 \DiamondShadowB ( ) . . . . . .. .. . . . . . \Diamond ( ) . . d) \dbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . 76. . \decofourright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . \DCa ( ) . . . . 17 accents . . . . . . 70 degrees . . . . . . . . . . . .. . \diameter ( ) . . . . . 78 . . . \DH (Ð) . . . . 13 10. \ddststile ( \ddtstile ( . 65 \diamondsuit ( ) . . . . . . partial .. . . 18. . .. . . 115 disjoint union . . .. . . . . . . . . \diameter ( ) . . . . \DeclareMathOperator* . . 119. \dashleftarrow ( ) . ... . . . . 66 \diamondtimes ( ) . . see \partial \descnode ( ) . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . 58 definite-description operator ( ) . 23 \divideontimes ( ) . . 79 \DiamondShadowC ( ) . . 108. . . . . \decoone ( ) . . . . 79–80 diamonds (suit) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 dictionary symbols . . . 42 \Diamondright ( ) . . . . 107 . . . . 75–80 \Diple (>) . . 95 · \Diple* (>) . . . . . . 87 \digamma ( ) . . 24. . . . 107 \diaunder . . . . . . . 63 \dddtstile ( \ddigamma (ϝ) \DDohne (D ) . ) . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \DiamonddotLeft ( ) . . 50 \deltaup (δ) . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . 66 . 101.. . . . . . 35 87 89 57 64 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . see \dbar \Digamma (Ϝ) . . 78 . 36 . . . . . . 78 . . . 66 . . . . . . 63. . . . . \diameter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \dashedswarrow ( ) . . . . . \dasheduparrow ( ) . . . ..

. . . . math element of . . . . . . . . \downY ( ) . \downt (m) . . . 23 \doublebarwedge ( ) . . . . 71 \earth ( ) . \downbracketfill . . . . \downarrowtail ( ) . \doublecurlywedge ( ) \doublefrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \dotsm (· · · ) . 43 . . . \doublecup . . 71 \Earth (Ê) . 71 \Ecommerce () . . . . . . . . . . . see accents a \doublebarwedge () . . . . . . . . . \doublewedge ( ) . . . . . . 43 . . \dscommercial (c) . . . . . \Downarrow (⇓) . . 96 \dststile ( \dsttstile ( \dtdtstile ( ) . . \downrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . 24 \dtimes ( ) . . . . . . dozenal digits .. . 96 . . . . . \dsdtstile ( ) . . . . . see \doteqdot \Doteq ( ) . . . . 109 . . . . . . . . . . \DOWNarrow ( ) . . . . \Downarrow (⇓) . . . . \downuparrows ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \dstechnical (T) . . 35 \dtimes ( ) . . . . . . . 89 / dollar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 65. . . . . . . . 63–65. see accents ˙ dot symbols . . . . \downarrow (↓) . \doublecap (’) . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \dotsb (· · · ) . 64 \dotsc (. . . . . . \downupharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . . . \downtherefore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. 64 \dotseq () . . . . . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \drsh (ë) . . . ) . \downdownarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . \downharpoonright (ç) \downharpoonright ( ) \downlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 eighth note see musical symbols \eighthnote (♪) . . . . 52 \e (E) . . . . . . 19 42 89 89 96 96 96 96 96 96 . . . . 93 . 61 \e (e ) . 42 . . \dsheraldical (H) . . . . . \downvdash ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \dnttstile ( do not enter . . . . . 104 \dotdiv (¡) . . . . 43 . . 33 . . . . 43 . . . \doublecup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . 107 DotArrow (package) 63. 43 49. . . \downpitchfork ( ) . . \dottedtilde (˜) . 21. . . . . . . . . . 78 \EightFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) . . . . 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textdivorced \DJ (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \downp (u) . . \downharpoonccw ( ) . . \downharpoonleft (å) . . .division times . . . . Michael J. . . . 25 . . . . . . \dsrailways (R) . . . . . . . 112 . . \downdownarrows (Ó) . . . . . \downfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . 48 . . 23 . . . 42 . . . 33 dotless j () text mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . \doublefrowneq ( ) . . . . \downarrow (↓) . . . . . . . . . . 88 \EightStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . see \Cap . . . . 35 \dnststile ( ) . . . \dsliterary (L) . . . . . . . . 64 dotted arrows . . . . . . . . \downfree ( ) . . . . . . \doublesqcap ( ) . . . \downuparrows (×) . . . . \downupharpoons (ë) . 23 \double . . . . . . . . 112 . . . . . \dsmilitary (X) . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . 65 text mode . . . . . . 119. . . 43 . 23 \dotplus ( ) . . . . 33 . \downVdash ( ) . . . . \doublecup (“) . . . . . \doublesmileeq ( ) . . . 42 \dndtstile ( ) . . . . 78 \EightStarConvex ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \EightFlowerPetal ( ) . . . . . . 24 \dotminus ( ) . . . . ) . \downmodels ( ) . . \doublesqcup ( ) . \dsjuridical (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \EightStarBold ( ) . . . \downdownharpoons (Û) Downes. 23 . . . . . . \downpropto ( ) . \doubletilde (˜) . 23 \dtststile ( \dttstile ( \dtttstile ( ) . \doublesmile ( ) . . . . . \doublepawns (d) . 63 ˙ dotted union (∪) . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . 105 \Dohne (D) . \downtouparrow (ÿ) . . . . . . . a \doublevee ( ) . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \nexists does not imply . . . . . . 9. . . 96 . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72. . . . . 13 E e (esvect package option) . . . . 111 \dz () . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . 65 \dotmedvert ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \Doteq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \eighthnote ( ) . . 48 . . . . . . 70 electromotive force (E) . . . 48 . . . . 24 . . . . . . 33 \doteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . .) . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \doublecurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . 57 double acute (˝) . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dschemical (C) . . . . 90 \dot ( ˙ ) . . . 57. . 24 \dotplus ( ) . 47 . S \Ds (s . . . . . . 23. . \downharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . \downModels ( ) . . . 48 . . . . 16 a \dottimes (¢) . 41 . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s) \dsaeronautical (a) \dsagricultural (G) \dsarchitectural (A) \dsbiological (B) . 35 ) . . . \downfootline ( ) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \downarrow . . . 41. . 35 \dntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 dot accent (a or . see alphabets. . . . . . . . 119 . . . . 32 \dotsi (· · ·¯ . . . 96 . . . . . . . dsfont (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \ejective (e) . . . . . 121 ) . . . . 65 \dracma ( ) . . see \noway does not divide . . . 96 . . . . . . . . . see \textdollar dollar sign . 35 ) . . . . . . 54 . . . . 33 \doteqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . dozenal (package) . . . . . . 35 duodecimal (base-12) digits . 56. . . 33 . 122 . . . 96 . . 64 . . . \downdownarrows ( ) . . 54 . . 64 \dotso (. . . . . . . . . . 30 \doteqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 65 DVI . . . . . . 14 dotless i (ı) math mode . 22 \doublecap . . . . . . . 117 dots (ellipses) . . . . . . . 78 \EightStarTaper ( ) . . 30 \doteq ( ) . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . 33 . \downspoon ( ) . . . . . . 35 ) . 10 \dj (đ) . . . . . . . . 64 ) \dotsint ( ) . . 13 \DLE ( ) . 22 \dots (. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \in  ƒ ‰ r s p i 132 . . . . 9. . . 35 68. . . . . 57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 electrical symbols . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 . . . . . . . . . see \nmid does not exist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 . . . . \DS (S ) . . 10 \dlbari (@) . \downparenthfill . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64. . . . . . 24 see \Cup . . . 23 . . . . . 24 . . \downslice ( ) . \dsmathematical (M) \dsmedical (m) . . 63 \dotarrow ( · \dotcup (∪) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 dotless j () math mode . . . . . \downharpoonleft ( ) . . . . . . 96 \dsststile ( ) . . . 72 \dlsh (ê) . 43 . . . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 43 . see \$ \Dontwash (Ý) . . . . . . . . . . . . \downmapsto ( ) . . . . . . 23 . 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . see \divideontimes divorced . . . 33 . . . . . . 96 . . . 18 . . . . . 47 . . . . . . . . 54 \Earth (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 ε-TEX . . . 23 . . . . \doublecap ( ) . 18 \EightAsterisk ( ) . . . .

. . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 female . . . . . . 80 \EllipseSolid ( ) . . . 72 \Email (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \er (") . . z \feyn{gl} () . . . . . 13 \emptyset (∅) . . . . . 48. 18 F f (esvect package option) . . . . . . 92 fclfont (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \epsilon ( ) . . . 31 \eqdot ( ) . . . . 13 \esh (s) . . . 74 \feyn{fs} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \eqcirc ( ) . . . . . . . 68 Euler Roman . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . 80 ellipses (dots) . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 ellipses (ovals) . . . 72 end of proof . . \Ferli (a) . . . . . 73 \engma (n) . . . . 32 \eqbumped ($) . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . 31 \eqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . 18 \EURdig (D) . . . . . see \vert evil spirits . . . . 38 \eqslantgtr ( ) . . 16. 74 \feyn{fl} () . . 13 \eth (d) . 32 \eqcirc (') . . . . 50 \ETB ( ) . 32 \eqslantgtr (·) . . 19 blackboard bold . . 63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 evaluated at . 61 extension characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \exists (∃) . . . . 10. 13 engineering symbols . . . . . . 74 feyn (package) . . . . . . . . . 65 \ending (L) . . . . . . . 63. . . . 13 es-zet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 envelopes . . . . . . . . 38 \eqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . }s \feyn{gv} () . . . . . \Fermi (a) . . . . . . . . . 70 \fatbslash ( ) . . 36 \equalsfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ss \ESC ( ) . . . 52 \exp (exp) . . . . . . . see \equiv. 89 fermions . . . . . . . . 80 \EyesDollar (¦) . . . . 72 \Esc ( Esc ) . 73 fc (package) . . . 93 \eng (V) . . . . 120 extensible accents . . . . . . 22 \fatsemi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . { \feyn{glS} () . . 39 \eqslantless (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \eye ( ) . . . . 61. 9 \esh (w) . . . . . . . . 32 \fallingdotseq ( ) . 52 \exists (∃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \Estatically (J) . . . 31 \Eqcolon (−::) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \equiv (≡) . . . . . 73 \FemaleFemale („) . . . . . . . . . . . 59–63 extensible symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . 51 \Ellipse ( ) . . . . 74 \feyn{fd} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Faxmachine (v) . . . . . . . . . 73 \fax (t) . . 72. . . . 66 \eth () . . . . . 63–65. . . . 72 epsdice (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \etaup (η) . 74 \Female (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . creating 107– 109 extensible tildes . . 71. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \rightleftharpoons \equiv (≡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and \oplus exclusive or . 18 \Euro ( ) . . . . . 119 ) . . . 51 \EUR (e ) . . . . . 68 \eurologo ( ) . . . . . . . . } \feyn{g} (g) . . . . 73 \Emailct (z) . . . . 70. \feyn{ms} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{f} ( ) . 65 \emptyset ( ) . 19 euro signs . 80. . \feyn{hu} (i) . . . . 19 \euro . . . . . . 72 eufrak (package) . . 28. . . . . 32 \FallingEdge ( ) . . . . 74 \FemaleMale (…) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \eqcolon (") . . . \feyn{P} (€) . . . . . . . 73. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and \threesim \equivclosed ( ) . 13 \ENQ ( ) . . . . 120 Feynman slashed character notation . . . . . . 50 \epsilonup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \equal (j) . . . . . . 120 \EURtm (e) . . 74 \feyn{a} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88. . . 31 \Eqqcolon (=::) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104  equilibrium . 74 3 ÿ E ™ d o l k e ˜ f q v \feyn{glB} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 extarrows (package) 62. . \feyn{gvs} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \eqcolon (−:) . . 90. 38 \eqslantless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{h} (h) . 72 \eth (ð) . . . 19 eurosym (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . — 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 133 . . . . . . . . 72 entails . . . . . 49 \Explosionsafe (`) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \emgma (w) . . . . . . . . 72 escapable characters . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . 50 \eqbump ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . \feyn{hd} (j) . 22 \FAX (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \epsdice ( \epsi (4) . . . . . . . . \feyn{hs} (u) . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{m} (m) . . . . . . . . . 34 \eqqcolon (=:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . 108–109 extensible arrows . . . . 18 euscript (package) . . . . . see \models \Enter ( Enter ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Eqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . . 91. . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{c} ( ) . . . . . . . . \leftrightarrow. 61 faces . 48 \Eqqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \eqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \eqcirc ( ) . . 92. . . . . . . . 74 estimated . . . . 103 \exists (h) . . 92 \fcscore ( feet . . . . 48 \equal (=) . . . . 120 extraipa (package) . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{fv} () . . . . . . . . . 39 \eqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 98 \enya (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59–61. . 32 \equalscolon (=:) . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . 13 \EOT ( ) . . . 74 \feyn{fu} ( ) . . see \prime and \textquotesingle \FEMALE () . . . . . . . . . 98 exclusive disjunction . . . 72 ˜ e ™ \Envelope ( ) . . . . 74 \female (♀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\ell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \fatslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \End ( End ) . . . 34 \eqqcolon ( ) . . 49 extpfeil (package) . . 38 \eqslantless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{flS} () . . . . . . . . . . 80 \EllipseShadow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{gd} ( ) . . see \textestimated esvect (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 esint (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 equidecomposable . . . . . . . . . 119 \eta (η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \eqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \eqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ETX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \fcdice ( ) . . 74 \feyn{g1} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . y \feyn{gu} (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \nleftrightarrow \nequiv. . . . . | \feyn{glu} () . . . 59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \fallingdotseq ( ) . . . . . 89 . 36 \equalscoloncolon (=::) . . . 120 ) . . . . 18 \EURhv (c) . . 119. . . . . . . . . 119. . 80 \EM ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Feynman-diagram symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \equalclosed ( ) . . . . 18 \EURcr (d) . . . . . . . 30 \fallingdotseq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30 Computer Modern 100. . . . . 79 \FilledCloud ( ) . 16 ˚ \fint ( ) . . . . 47 \fgerightB (B) . . . 114. . . . . . . . . . 91 \filleddiamond ( ) . . 119. . . . 79 \FilledBigTriangleDown ( ) 79 \FilledBigTriangleLeft ( ) 79 \FilledBigTriangleRight ( ) . . 53 \fgeeta (”) . 68 Zapf Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \fixedddots ( . . . . . . . . . . . 102. . . . . . . 30 Helvetica . . . . . 53 \fgeuparrow (") . . . . see \textflorin \floweroneleft ( ) . 53 \fgeleftB (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Courier . . . . . 91 \filledlargestar ( ) . . 30 Zapf Chancery . . 73 fletched arrows . . . 65 \fgestruckzero (0) . . . . . . . . 102 Type 1 . . . . . . . . . 40 \FilledTriangleLeft ( ) . . . 10. . . . . . . . . 53 \fgerightarrow (!) . see fists finite field (F) . . 78 \FiveStarOutlineHeavy ( ) 78 \FiveStarShadow ( ) . . . 90 field (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . 78 \FiveStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 67. . . . . . . . . 67 \fgelangle (h) . 8 LY1 . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 14. . . 91 font encodings Latin 1 . 78 Flynn. . . see alphabets. . . . 91 \FilledTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . 68 Charter . . . . . . . . 27 ffl \fint ( ) . . 91 finger. . 115 T4 . . . 103 Times Roman . . 64 \FiveFlowerOpen ( ) . . . . . . 107 fontenc (package) . . . . 79 \FilledBigTriangleUp ( ) . .\feyn{p} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .dtx (file) . . . . 79 \filledlozenge ( ) . . 8 8-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \flat ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 40 \filledmedtriangleright ( ) . . . . 52 \Finv ( ) . . . . . . 47. . 25 \filledmedtriangledown ( ) 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \FilledSectioningDiamond ( ) . . . . . 8 fonts Calligra . . . . . . . . 78 flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 T5 . . . . . 120 fge-digits . . . 52 \Fire ( ) . . . 40 \FilledWeakRainCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 103. . ) . . . . . . . . . 77 c U W X ` a b d '  134 . . . 18 Garamond . 65. . . 13 \flapr (h) . . . . . . . 67 \fgecupbar (P) . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarOutline ( ) . . . . 14 TS1 . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . 47 \fgeupbracket (L) . . . . . . .) fixmath (package) . . . . . . 79 \FilledSquareShadowC ( ) . . . . . . . 53 \fgeinfty (i) . . 79 \FilledSmallDiamondshape ( ) . . . . 53 \fgeoverU (”) . . . . . . . . . pointing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeF (F) . . . 76 \fivedots ( ) . 115 \fontencoding . . 79 \filledtriangledown ( ) 25. . . . . . . . 92 \FilledSmallCircle ( ) . 14. . . . . . 67 \fgec (c) . . . . . . . . . 18 Symbol . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgelb . . . . . . . 93 \FilledBigCircle ( ) . . . . . 79 ! ¢ v s r u p t – $ q £ ¤ … € † ƒ ‚ „ e   f ¨ © \filledsquarewithdots ( ) 80 \filledstar ( ) . . . . . . . . 25 \FilledSquareShadowA ( ) . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeN (”) . . . . . 40 \filledmedtriangleup ( ) 25. 72 fge (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \FiveStar ( ) . 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . 79 \filledtriangleright ( ) 25. . . . . . . 67 \fgebarcap (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \filledtriangleup ( ) . . . 80 florin . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgestruckone (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . 8. . . . . . . 10. 104 \Fog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . 63 . . . . . 79 p x \filledmedsquare ( ) . . 53 \fges (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarOpenCircled ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 75. . 78 \FiveStarOpenDotted ( ) . . . . . . . . . 74 \FF ( ) . . . 75 fleurons . . . math \finpartvoice (a») . . . . . . . . . . math \file (H) . . 16 ˇ \finpartvoiceless (a») . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgebackslash (K) . 40 \FilledRainCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \filledsquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 8 ASCII . 115 fontdef. . . 107. 115 limiting scope of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Flatsteel (–) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \FilledDiamondShadowA ( ) 79 \FilledDiamondShadowC ( ) 79 \FilledDiamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . 115 7-bit . . . 79 \filledtriangleleft ( ) 25. . . . . . 119 font encodings . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleUp ( ) 79 \FilledSnowCloud ( ) . . 78 \FiveFlowerPetal ( ) . . . . . . . . 115 OT2 . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \FilledTriangleUp ( ) . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 67 \fged (p) . 67 \fgecapbar (Q) . . . . 79 \filledmedlozenge ( ) . 79 \FilledHut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . 78 # C ™ ˜ d — "  V ‚ € Y \FiveStarConvex ( ) . . . 13 \Flag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgecupacute (R) . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . 113 \fj (p) . . . . . . Peter . . . . . . 67 \fgebaracute (M) . . 53 \fgecap (S) . . . . 18. . . . . 65 \fgeU (U) . . . . . . 53 \fgee (e) . . . . . . . . see \strictif fists . . 40 \filledmedtriangleleft ( ) 25. . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarLines ( ) . . . . . 67 \FHBOLOGO (f) . \fixedvdots (. . 28 \Finv (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \FHBOlogo (F) . . . . . . . . . . 40 \FilledTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . 114. . 79 \FilledCircle ( ) . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Utopia . . . . . . . . . . 92 fish hook . . . . . . 78 \floweroneright ( ) . . 103 T1 . . . . . . 25. . . . . . 58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \FilledSunCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 OT1 8. 10. . . 63 . . . 91 \flap (f) . . . . . 65. 53 \fgeleftC (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \flat ( ) . 79 \FilledBigDiamondshape ( ) 79 \FilledBigSquare ( ) . 119 document . . . . . . . . 91 \FilledSquare ( ) . . . . . 18. . . . 53 \fgeeszett (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{x} () . . . . . . . 78 \Fixedbearing (%) . 65 \fgeA (A) . . . . 67 \fgecup (N) . . 79 \FilledSmallSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 78. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgelb (”) . . . 14. . 53 \fgef (f) . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 50 \gamma (γ) . . . 102 . . . . . . . . 30 \frown ( ) . . . . 52 \Game ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtrdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 fraktur . . 52 \Gamma (Γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 grave (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 S T G \G (a) . . . 39 Go boards . 39 german (keystroke package option) . . . 76. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FourClowerOpen ( ) . . 117 . . . . .\fontsize . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqqless ( ) \gtrless (») . 94 \geq (¥) . see inequalities greatest lower bound see \sqcap Greek . . . . . 39 § H \H (˝) . . . . . . . . 71 \fullnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \grave (`) . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . 19 \Greenpoint ( ) . . 78 \fourth (R) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Fourier ( ) . . . . . 98 Frege logic symbols 47. . . . \gvertneqq ( ) . . . . . 90. . . . . . . . . 19 C \geneurowide (C ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \Game (q) . . 72 \FullFHBO (Ž) . . . \guillemotright (») \guilsinglleft (‹) . . . . . . . 48 \Frowny (§) . . . . . . 91 \FS ( ) . . . . . 118 . . . . . . . 74 \gnapprox (Ë) . \guilsinglright (›) \gvcropped ( ) . . \gtrless ( ) . 78 . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . \gtrsim ( ) . . \gtrsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . 50. . . . . . 72 \gets . . 100. . . . . . . . . 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . fontspec (package) . . . . . 39 \gtreqlessslant ( ) . . . . . 51 \gimel ( ) . 39 10. . . . . . . . see \geq \Gemini (‚) . . . \forall (∀) . 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . 78. . 89 \GaPa (<) . . . . 74 . . . 88 \HalfSun ( ) . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Gentsroom (x) . . . . . 39 \geqslant ( ) . . . . 68 bold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leftarrow \gg (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a h (esvect package option) \h (ả) . . . . 91. . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . 19 C \geneuronarrow (B ) . . . . . . . see accents a \gravis (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 . . . . . . 39 \geqq (¯) . . \ForwardToIndex (¹) \FourAsterisk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . 38 \ggg ( vs. . 49 \ge . . . . Jeremy . . . . \ForwardToEnd (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \HandCuffLeftUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 50 \Ganz (¯ ) . . . . . 90 . . . . 40 \gtrdot (Í) . . \gvertneqq (µ) . . . . . . . 71 globe . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \girl (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FourClowerSolid ( ) I † ‡ 100. . . . 17. . . 39 \gtreqless (½) . . . 88 \geneuro (A ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 \grimace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 C gensymb (package) . 48 \frowneqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . 72. . . . . 50. . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . 51 blackboard bold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 fourier (package) 19. . 38 \gtrdot ( ) . . . . 88. . . 103 graphicx (package) . . . . . 39. . . . \HA (A) . . . . . . 94 goban . 89 half note . . . . . . . . . . . . 78–80. . . . . . . 116 10. . . . . . 38 \gtrapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \guillemotleft («) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \gammaup (γ) . . . . . . . . . . 40 \geqdot ( ) . . . 36. . . . 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 greek (babel package option) 50. . . . . math Freemason’s cipher . . . . . . 117 10. . . . . \Football (o) . . . . . . 88 \frownsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geqslant ( ) . . 38 \geq (≥) . . . . 38 \gnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 61 14 82 \Ha (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gg ( ) . . . . . 90 geometric shapes . . . . . . . see \ggg \gggtr ( ) . 48 \frowneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . Enrico . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Ÿ g (esvect package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 . . . 39. . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . 18 \halfnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqslantdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 71 genealogical symbols . . . 38 \gtrapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 96 graphics (package) . . . . . . 119 \fourier ( ) . . . 65. . 90 frowny faces . . . . 38 \gtreqless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \glottal (c) . 39 \gtrapprox (Ç) . 122 \gimel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 upright . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Gibbons. . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . math \HandCuffLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . 39 \gtreqqless (¿) . . . . . . . . 32 \ggg (Ï) . . . . . 38 \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 gluons . . . 91 \GS ( ) . . . 71 \Gemini (â) . . . 18. . . . . . . 38 \geq (≥) . . . . . . . 48 \frownsmileeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \gvertneqq ( ) . . 80 \HalfFilledHut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38  \gtreqqless ( ) . . . 80 \HalfCircleRight ( ) . . . 50. 94 Go stones . . . . . . . . 91 Hamiltonian (H) see alphabets. . . . . . . 37 \gg ( ) . . . . . . . \Forward (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Gregorio. . . . . . 38 \ggg ( ) . 39 38 38 39 \gtrneqqless ( ) . . . 78 \FourStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \gtr (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 polytonic . . . math \FourStar ( ) . . . . . 87 Greek coins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \frownie ( ) . . . . . . . . . 30 \gcd (gcd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see accents ac a \Hail ( ) . 36 Fourier transform (F) . . . . . 90 \glotstop (˜) . . 38 \geqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see musical symbols \HalfCircleLeft ( ) . . . 71 \gemini ( ) . 48 frown symbols . . . . . \gtrless ( ) . 39 \gtrclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Garamond (font) . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \ggcurly (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnsim ( ) . . . . . . . 38 \gneq ( ) . 38 \gnapprox ( ) . 38 \geqq ( ) . . . \Force (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60. . . . . 38 \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . 57. . . 71 \fullmoon ( ) . . . . 90 . . . . 17 ` greater-than signs . 90 \fullmoon (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . Ï) . . 39 ghosts . . . . . . . . . . 13 \gluon ( ) . . . . . 91 \Halb (˘ “ ) . . 39 \gneq (­) . . . . 76  s 1 r    135 . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gggtr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gnsim (Å) . . . . . . . . . 67 \frown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . 94 \Goofy . . . . . 38 \gneqq (³) . . . . . . . . 39 \gtrsim (Á) . . . . . . . . . 91 \halflength (p) . . . 104. . 66 fractions . . . 101 \ggg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \forall (∀) . . . . . . . . . . 82 h´ˇek (ˇ) . . 116 10.

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . { \Hplus (+) . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Hh (h) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . .. 121 harpoons . . . . . . . . . .. . . 82 \Hibs (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . 82 \Hman (ˇ) . . . \hookrightarrow ( ) . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HQ (Q) . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 82 \Hq (q) . . . . . . . . 74 . . 82 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . . \hfil . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . \Hl (l) . 82 \Hd (d) . Helvetica (font) . . . . . . . . . 82 .    \Homer (¤) . . 82 \Htongue (˘) . . . . \hookheng (7) . . . . 115 Icelandic staves . . . . . 73 . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . \Hr (r) . \hookleftarrow ( ) . . . . 105 . . . . 79 51. . . . . . . . . \hookleftarrow (← ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hookrevepsilon (&) . . . . . . . . . \Ht (t) . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . \Hb (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \hausaB (f) . ... . . . . . . . . . . 76 \HandLeftUp ( ) . . . . 89 \HH (H) . . . . \Hdual (¸) . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . 23 . . . . . . . 14 i \i (ı) . 16 . . 13 . . . . . . \hookh (6) . . . . . . . 82 Holt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hausad (h) . . . . 82 \Hx (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 89. . . 82 \Hibp (ˆ) . . . 33 \HCthousand (6) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 96 . . . . . . . . . . . 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . 72 k . . . . . \HM (M) . . 82 \HU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hausaD („) . . . . . \Hthousand (4) . . . . . 82 \Hslash (/) \hslash ( ) \Hsv (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \hateq ( ) . . . . 82 82 82 82 106 . . . 82 \HJ (J) . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . 108 \ibar (¯) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82 holtpolt (package) . \iddots ( . . . 82 52 82 82 72 82 82 . . . . . . . . 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hilbert space (H) math \hill (a) . . \HG (G) . . . . . . . . 90 65–67. 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 see alphabets. . . 82 \Hscribe (¯) . . . . . . . . . . 82 . 13 . . Hebrew . . . . . . . 89 harmony (package) . . . 90 \HaPa (<) . . . 78 . . 97. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \heartsuit (♥) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . \Hten (2) . . \hv (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . 82 \Hi (i) . . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . 13 \hausaK (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106. . 66 hash mark .\HandCuffRight ( ) . . 82 \Hms (´) \HN (N) \Hn (n) \HO (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Hvbar (|) \HW (W) . . . . . . 63. . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . Alexander . . . . see \hookb (¨) . . . . . . . . see \# \hat (ˆ) . . .. . 91 . 82 Hungarian umlaut (˝) see accents a \Hut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \heartsuit ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HXthousand (5) . . . . . \hookrightarrow ( →) . \HK (K) . . discretionary .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 92. . 119. . . . 64 . . \HBar ( ) . . . 13 \HB (B) . . . . . . . . \HT ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \HandPencilLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hbar ( ) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . 82    " \HH . . . . . \He (e) . . see \Longleftrightarrow 136 . 82 82 82 82  \Hc (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82. . . . 47 \hash (5) . hhcount (package) \Hhundred (3) . . . 74 . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . 13 \hausab (˜) . 119. . . . . 69 82 82 82   \HI (I) . . hook accent (ả) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 \holter ( ) . \HE (E) . . . 68 . . 49 \Home ( Home ) . 82 82 13 82 82 \Ho (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hexstar ( ) . . 19 . 76 \HandCuffRightUp ( ) . . \HV (V) . . 121 . . . . . \Hg (g) . . . . . . . . . . \hdotdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 hyphen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Hw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hookdownminus (⌐) . . . . . . . . see fists \Handwash (Ü) . . . \Hplural (˙) . . . . 82 . . . . . . . 82 \HD (D) . 82 Horn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 i IBM PC . . . . . \hdots ( ) . ) . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Heart (Œ) . . 14 \ialign . . . . . . . . 70 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . \HT (T) . . . . . . . . . . . heads . . . . \Hf (f) . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hibw (˜) . . . . \Hj (j) . 26 \idotsint ( ) . . . . . . . 120 . . . . . . . . 104. . . . . . . . 82 accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hemiobelion (Α) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hquery (?) \HR (R) . . \hfermion ( ) . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hearts (suit) . . . . . . . . . . . hieroglf (package) hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HY (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \hom (hom) . . . . \Hone (|) . . . . . . . . 46. .. . . . . . . . . \hookd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \iddots () . . . . . 41. . . .. . . \hbipropto ( \HC (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \HF (F) . 82 \HX (X) . \Hv (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \hcrossing ( ) . 82 \hiatus (H ) . . . . . . 97 \IceMountain ( ) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 76 hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . 76 \HandRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 82 82 82 82 \Hs (s) . . . 76 \HandRightUp ( ) . . . .. . 107 \idotsint ( ··· ) . . . . . . . . 52. . . . . . . 115 \HZ (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . \HS (S) . ... . . . . . . 82 \Hmillion (7) . . . 82 \Hu (u) . \hksqrt ( \HL (L) . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hz (z) . . 43.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hookg ()) . . \HERMAPHRODITE (€) \Hermaphrodite (}) \hexagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . \Hexasteel (’) . 27 " \idotsint ( ) . \HF (F) . \hookupminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \iff . . . . . 13 . . . . Berthold \HP (P) . . . . . \Hk (k) √. . . . . . 13 \hausak (k) . . \hookd (h) . . . \Hp (p) . . . . . . . 76 \HandLeft ( ) . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . 41 . . . 91 \Hm (m) . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 . . . . . . . . 120 harpoon (package) . . . . . . 82 \Hy (y) . . . 82 see faces . . . . . . 64 . 95 \Hibl (˝) . . . . . . . . 66 I ¨ . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 joint denial . . . . . . . . . . . . 105–106 integrals (wasysym package option) . . . 52 \interleave ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \invglotstop (d) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \lambdaslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igonone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \jupiter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 . Kronecker product Kronecker sum . . . . . . 52 \imath (ı) . . . . 122 . . 72 72. . . . . . . . . . . . \iota (ι) . . . . . . . . . . 91. . . . . . . . . 73 13 13 31 66 73 13 13 13 ¡ £ \INVr (!) . . . 114. . . . . . . . . . 94 \iiiint ( ) . . . . . \invamp ( ) . . 92. . 103 inverters . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . ket . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . 106 stochastic . . . . . . . . 28 ˜ \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . see \cap \Interval ( ) . . . . . . . . \invneg ( ) \invneg ( ) . . . . see \second and \textquotedbl \incoh (˚) . . . . . . . . . . 50 \lambdabar ( ) . . . . 66 \inipartvoice (a) . . . . 52 \in (∈) . 14 \JackStar ( ) . . . . . . . . 52 inches . . 28 \iiiint µ ) . . .ttf (file) 118 \Jupiter (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \INTEGER ( ) . . . . . 10 \l (l) . 106 ⊥) \Industry (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \downarrow junicode (package) . . 70. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 . 36 independence probabilistic . . . 49 \Integer ( ) . . . . . . . . . 26 \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \varprojlim \InversTransformHoriz ( ) 36 \InversTransformVert ( ) . . . 49 integers (Z) see alphabets. . . . 106 statistical . . . . . . 71 P Q & \INVd (") . . . 13 \labvel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . < 73 13 13 13 50 103 . . . 94 \igocross ( ) . . . 28 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79. . . . 90 103 K \k (a) . . 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 L \L (L) . . 29 ( \iiint ( ) . . . . . \invscr (u) . . . \invscripta (£) \INVu ($) . 51 \im (j) . . . 26 irrational numbers (J) alphabets. . . . . . 50 \lambda (λ) . . 72 . . . . 27 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . \IroningI (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Jewish star . . 101. . . . . keystroke (package) \keystroke ( ) king . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 infimum . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . . . 78 \JackStarBold ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \labdentalnas (R) . . . see \infty \Info ( ) . . . . 90 inequalities . . . 54 . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \inva ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inputenc (package) \Ins ( Ins ) . . . 26. . . . . \invbackneg ( )   ¿ Ú ™ . ) \kreuz ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . 27 \iiint ( ) . 90 Lagrangian (L) . . 66 \infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 information symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \jmath () . . . . . . . Knuth. . . . . . . . . . . . . see . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \iiint ´ ) . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . 16 – ˚ } } | |     ~ ~ \injlim (inj lim) . Donald E. . . 94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igocross ( ) . . . . . . . see \inf and \sqcap infinity (∞) . . \Keyboard (Ï) . .. . . . . . . . . . 120 igo (package) . . 36 inverted symbols 11–13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \intclockwise ( ) . 13 \INVl (#) \invlegr (s) \invm (S) . . ³ \int ( ) . . . . . . . . \Kr ( l . . . . . . . . . 51 \in (∈) . . . . . \invv (¤) . . . . . . . \kappaup (κ) . . . . . 16 –ˇ \inipartvoiceless (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . 26 . . . . . . . . . . 22 intersection . . . . . . . . . . iota. . . . . 92 103 117 117  \int (∫) . . . . . . . 88 see \otimes . \inplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. \Koppa (Ϙ) . . \ipagamma (2) . . 91 13 23 66 J \j () . . . . 50 . . . . 120 . 16 \Ladiesroom (y) . . . . . . . 90 . . . . symbols by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . 57 \Joch ( ) . 25–30. . . . . . . . . . \ismodeledby (=|) . . . . 94 \igocircle ( ) . . . . . . . 26 \intercal ( ) . 13 inverse limit . . . see \dbar \inf (inf) . . . . . 93 \infty (V) . . . . . . . keyboard symbols keys. . . 37–39 inexact differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . \Kutline (R) . . . . 29 ( \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . . . . \invr (q) . . . . . . \kappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \igocircle ( ) . . . . . krouˇek (˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \iiiint ( ) . . . see \oplus see accents . 57 \impliedby see \Longleftarrow \implies see \Longrightarrow and \vdash impulse train . . 27 25. \invy (’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \k ( ˛) . . . . . . 73 \invf (D) . \ker (ker) . . 73 \invdiameter ( ) . . . 13 \invh (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igotriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . \ipercatal (η) . . . . . 98 \Info (i) . . . . . . . 27 ˝ \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . math \Lambda (Λ) . . . . . . . 94 \igonone ( ) . . . . . . . math integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . knight . . .. . . .ifsym (package) . 26 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Join ( ) . . . . . 71 \Jupiter (Å) . . \koppa (ϟ) . . . . . . . . . 66 137 . . . 91 \Join ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \invw () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Im ( ) . . . 17. . 94 \igotriangle ( ) . . 94 \igosquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Junicode-Regular. . . 72 . . . . 88 \inve ( ) . math \Irritant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 informator symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \joinrel . . . . . . . . . . 66. . . . . . . . \int ( ) . . . . . . 94 \igosquare ( ) . \IroningII (°) \IroningIII (±) irony mark (? ) . . . . . 22 \intercal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . see sha \in (€) . . . . upside-down \iotaup (ι) . . . . . . . . . z a) \kside (O) . . . . ISO character entities isoent (package) . . 52 \in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . 27 ˇ \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . see \bot \independent (⊥ . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94. . . . . . 14 . . . 77. . 72 . . . . . . . . . computer . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . . . . . .

math Laplacian (∆) . . . . . . 36. . . 40 \largetriangleright ( ) . . . . . . . 113 \lcorners (v) . . . . . . . . 79 \largestarofdavid ( ) . . . see \Delta Laplacian ( 2 ) . . . 90 \Lbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . 55 \Laplace ( ) . . . 30. . . 22 \leftslice ( ) . . . . 88 \Leftarrow (⇐) . . . 33 \leftvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 41 \leftrightarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73. . . . . . . . .\lambdaup (λ) . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowright ( ) . . . . . . \land . . . . . 122 A L TEX 2ε . . . . . . 42 \leftrightarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . % . . . . 88 \Leftcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \leftmodels ( ) . . . 53 \lcurvearrowdown ( ) . 79 \largetriangledown ( ) . . 100. . 107. 63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . \lefthalfcap ( ) . . 100. . . . 71 \leftp (v) . . . . . 76 \leftpropto (∝) . . . . . . . . 55 \ldotp (. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . . . . 26. . . . . . . . 44 \leftModels ( ) . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . \langle ( ) . . . 33 \leftrightsquigarrow (ú) 42 \leftrightsquigarrow ( ) 41 \leftrightsquigarrow ( ) . . 43 \lcirclearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . \leftfilledspoon ( ) \leftfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 49. . 79 \largestar ( ) . . . . . 14. 72 \larrowfill . . . . 106. . . . . . . 100. \leftharpoondown (â) \leftharpoondown ( ) \leftharpoonup (à) . . . . . . . . . . see \leq \leadsto ( ) . . . . math \Left . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 . 114–117. 8. . . . . 20. . . 41 \leadsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 75. . . . LCD digits . . . 44 \leftrightarrow (Ø) . . . . 42 \Lefttorque (&) . . . . 43 \lcirclearrowright ( ) . . 33 \Leftrightarrow (⇔) . 62 \Laserbeam (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \langlebar ( ) . 117–119. 44 \leftarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . 69. . . . 40 \largetriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . 78 \leafright ( ) . . . . . . . . 40 \LArrow ( ← ) . . . . 78.) . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . \lCeil ( ) . . . . . . 47 \leftsquigarrow (ø) . . . 41 \leftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . \lefthalfcup ( ) . . 43 \lcurvearrowup ( ) . . . . . 96 \left . . 40 \largetriangleup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \lefttorightarrow (ü) . . . 73 \leftturn ( ) . . . . 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lAngle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 8. 122 . . \leftleftarrows ( ) . . 88 \leftevaw ( ) . . . . . 62 \leftrightharpoonupdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 113. . . . . 36 Laplace transform (L) . . . 76 \largepentagram ( ) . . . . . . 29 \lcm (lcm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lefthand ( ) . . . . . . \lceil ( ) . . . . . . . Lamport. . . . . . . . 44 \leftarrowtriangle ( ) . 65. 43 \leftrightharpoondownup ( ) . 63 \le . 42 \leftt (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112. . . . . . \leftharpoonup ( ) . . . . . . 33 \leftspoon ( ) . 73. . . . . . 74 A L TEX . . . . . . . \leftleftarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . 43 \lcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . 33 \leftmoon (u) . 118. 24 9. . . 46 \leftrightharpoons (è) . . . . . . . . . . .) . . 43 \lcurvearrowse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \langle ( ) . 41 \Leftrightarrow (⇔) . . . . . 78 leaves . . . . 9. . . 44 \leftrightarrowtriangle ( ) . 21. 24. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . 43 \ldbrack (v) . \leftfree ( ) . . . . \Langle (<) . . . 56. . . . . . \legr (i) . . . . . . 103. \landupint ( ) . . . . 41. . see \nabla \largecircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 116 laundry symbols . 54. . legal symbols \legm (T) . . . . . . . 79 \largesquare ( ) . . . . . . 111. 102 \LEFTarrow ( ) . . . . 88 \leftVdash ( ) . . 103–109. . . . . 101. . . . . . 13 . . . \leftleftarrows (Ð) . . . 79 \largepencil ( W) . . . . 63 \ldots (. . . . . 18 \leftpitchfork ( ) . . 88 \LEFTcircle ( ) . . 41 \leftrightarrow (↔) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \largelozenge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \Leftscissors (S) . . . . . . 122 latexsym (package) 22. . . . . 55 68 56 70 56 54 \lceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Leftarrow (⇐) . . . . . 44 leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 table . . see \wedge . 43 \lcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . 29 . . . . . 8. . . . 58. see \textleaf \leafleft ( ) . . . . . . . . 71 \leftmoon ( ) . . 78 \leafNE ( ) . 36 \laplace ( ) . . . 44 \leftmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . 42 \leftarrow (←) . . . . . . 115. . . . . 66 \leftthreetimes ( ) . . . . . . . 18 \lefttherefore ( ) . . 43 \leftarrow (Ð) . . . . . . . . 24 \leftthumbsdown ( ) . . 29 \lcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . 28 . 42 \leftrightarrows (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \LEFTCIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . 33 \leftrightline ( ) . . . . 41. . . . . . 47 \leftpointright ( ) . . . . . . . 19. 21. . . . . . 44 \leftrightarroweq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrownw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47 33 33 23 24 76 46 46 43 41 43 41 42 41 . 50 . . . . . . 75 \leftslice ( ) . . . . . . . . . 121. . . . . 42 \leftsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \leftbarharpoon (Ü) . . . . 55 \lcirclearrowdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. 80 Lefschetz motive (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowne ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \leftharpooncw ( ) . . . \leftharpoonccw ( ) . . . . 31. 79 \largediamond ( ) . . . . . . 22 \leftthreetimes ( ) . 53 \lbrace ( ) \Lbrack ([) . 44 \leftleftharpoons (Ø) . . . . 63. . . . . . 44 \leftrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 41 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . 64 \leftthreetimes (6) . . 76 \leftthumbsup ( ) . . . . . \lBrack ([[) . 46 \Leftrightline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 65. 30. 54. . . . \landdownint ( ) \landdownint ( ) # \landupint ( ) . . . 119 \latfric (G) . 13 138 . . 115. . 46 \leftrightharpoonsfill . . . . 68 . . . 43 \leftlsquigarrow ( ) . . Leslie . . . . . 42 \leftrightarrow (↔) . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . 112. . . . 42 \leftrightharpoon (à) . 29 . . . . 41 \leftarrowtail ( ) . 43 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . . . 53 \lbag ( ) . . 33 R D U \leftwave ( ) \leftY ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 .

. . . . 44 \lhookswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . ) . 82 Linear B . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXI ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXIX ( ) . . . 39 . 112 \Lightning (E vs. . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . \leqq (®) . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . \leq (≤) . . . 111 lightbulb10. . . . 108 \lightbulb (A) . . \Letter ( ) . . 42 \lightning ( vs. 82 \LinearACCCIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXII ( ) . . . . \Letter (B vs. \LinearACCCXIII ( ) . . 82. . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 7 \lFloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 . 38 . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \leo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCL ( ) . ) \Letter (B) . \LinearACCCXL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \libra ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXI ( ) . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLIX ( ) . . . . .mf (file) . . . . . . 38 . . . \LinearACCCXXIII ( ) . 86 Linear A . . . \LinearACCCXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 101 . . . . . \LinearACCCXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLVI ( ) . . . . 89 \lhookdownarrow ( ) . . 54 \lfloor ( ) . . . . . . 73 . \LinearACCCLXIX ( ) . . 38 . . . \LinearACCCXLII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \leqq ( ) . . . . 55 \lg (lg) . . . . . . \leq (¤) . \LinearACCCVII ( ) . . . 83 \LinearACCCLVII ( ) . . . . \lesssim ( ) . . . . \lessapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lessneqqgtr ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCXXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 37. 88 \lim (lim) . . . . 39 . . see \lessapprox (Æ) . 38 . . . \LinearACCCLXXVI ( ) . 38 . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . \LinearACCCXVIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCXLV ( ) . . . . \leqslantdot ( ) . . \LinearACCCXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . \lesseqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . \lessgtr ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXVII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCLXV ( ) . 44 \lhooknearrow ( ) . \LinearACCCLXX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lessdot (Ì) . . . . . . . \lesseqqgtr ( ) \lessgtr (º) . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109–111 lightbulb. . 52 linearA (package) . 112 lightbulb10. . 38 . 83 \LinearACCCLIV ( ) . . . . . letter-like symbols letters . 72 \lfilet (7) . 82 \LinearACCCIV ( ) . 71 . . . 40 . \LinearACCCLXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . variant Latin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . \lessapprox ( ) . . . . 49 . . . . 112 lightbulb. . 44 \lhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . 39 .mf (file) . ) . . . . . . . . . 39 inequalities . \LinearACCCXLI ( ) . . . . . \lesseqgtrslant ( ) \lesseqqgtr (¾) . . \leq (≤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . less-than signs . \LinearACCCXLIV ( ) . . 44 \lhooknwarrow ( ) . 71 Lie derivative (L) see alphabets. . . 39 \lesssim (À) . 23 \lhd ( ) . 49. . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLIII ( ) . 55 \LHD ( ) . . . . \LinearACCCXX ( ) . . . 38 . \LinearACCCXII ( ) . 83 \LinearACCCLVIII ( ) . . . \LinearACCCXXVI ( ) . . . 51     \levaw ( ) . . . . . . 39. . . . . 44 \lhookuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lesseqgtr ( ) . . . . . 56 \LF ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCCLXI ( ) . . . . . 111 lightbulb10. . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 82 \LinearACC ( ) . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLI ( ) . . . \LinearACCCLXXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . \lesseqgtr (¼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 . math life-insurance symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 \Lightning ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . 109–111 lightbulb10. \LinearACCCLXXX ( ) . . . \LinearACCCXV ( ) . . 39 . . . . . . . . . 21–23. . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . 29–30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7 \lhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \leqq ( ) .\length (q) . . . \LinearACCCLXXIX ( ) . 104 . \LinearACCCXLIII ( ) . \LinearACCCXVI ( ) . . . . 101 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXLIX ( ) . . . . . non-ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Lightning (E) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCI ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . .2602gf (file) . . . \LinearACCCLXXXV ( ) . . . . \LinearACCCLXXII ( ) . . . . . 39 38 38 39 \lesseqqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . 84   \LinearACCCLXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXI ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCCX ( ) . . . . . 113 \liminf (lim inf) . \LinearACCCLXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .dvi (file) . . . . . \LinearACCCXLVI ( ) .sty (file) . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXVII ( ) . . . barred . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLX ( ) . \LinearACCCVIII ( ) . . 49. 39 . . . \lesssim ( ) . . . . . . . . . \leqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \linbfamily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \lhookleftarrow ( ) . . . . 82 \LinearACCCIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 113 limits . . . 25. . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACCCV ( ) . . . . . . . . . \lessgtr ( ) . \LinearACCCLXXXIX ( ) . . . . . 51. . . . . . \lgroup () . . 40 . \less (<) . . . . . . 44 \Libra (æ) . 39 . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCC ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49. \leqclosed ( ) . . . . . . 39 . . . \LinearACCCXXI ( ) . . . . 71 . . \LinearACCCXXX ( ) . . . 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 139 . . . . . . . . . . 86 linear implication see \multimap linear logic symbols . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51–53 see alphabets . . . . . . 85. . . \LinearACCCXLVII ( ) . . . . . . . . 44 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . 44 \lhooksearrow ( ) . . 121 \LinearAC ( ) . . . . . 56 \lfloor ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXVIII ( ) . . . . 10 . \LinearACCCXLVIII ( ) . . . \LinearACCCXXV ( ) . . . . \LinearACCCXXII ( ) . 49 \limsup (lim sup) . . \Leo (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leqslant ( ) . . . . . \leqdot ( ) . . . 73 \lightning ( ) . 40 \lhdbend ( ) . \lessdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . . . 84 \LinearACCCLXII ( ) . \lessdot ( ) . . . . \lessclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tfm (file) . . . . 82 \LinearACCCII ( ) . . . . . . . . . slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXVIII ( ) . . . . 54 \lgroup ( ) . . . . . . . .

. \LinearACCLXX ( ) . . . \LinearACLXXXIII ( ) . \LinearACCLXXIX ( ) . . . \LinearACCXIV ( ) . . \LinearACLIII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACVII ( ) . . . \LinearACCLXIV ( ) . . . \LinearACCXL ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACLXXXX ( ) . . . \LinearACCLXIX ( ) . \LinearACLVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXLI ( ) . . \LinearACXCVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXXIX ( ) . . . . \LinearACLI ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLXVII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXIV ( ) . . . . \LinearACCLXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACCLXXXX ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXXV ( ) . . . \LinearACCXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLVII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXVI ( ) . . . \LinearACCCXXXVI ( ) . . . \LinearACCLXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . .\LinearACCCXXXII ( ) . . \LinearACLXXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCV ( ) . . . \LinearACCLI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLVIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXCII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACX ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXVI ( ) . \LinearACCXCVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXCIV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCIX ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCXLV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXIII ( ) . . . \LinearACCXXIV ( ) . \LinearACLXVIII ( ) . . . \LinearACCCXXXIX ( ) . . . \LinearACLXXXIV ( ) . . . . . \LinearACXCIV ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCV ( ) . \LinearACCXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXVI ( ) . \LinearACLXXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCLII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLIII ( ) . . . . \LinearACXLV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACLXXII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXXVI ( ) . \LinearACCXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXLIV ( ) . \LinearACCXXI ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCXLIV ( ) . . . \LinearACXLVI ( ) . \LinearACLXV ( ) . \LinearACIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXIV ( ) . \LinearACCLXXXI ( ) . . . . \LinearACXVI ( ) . . . \LinearACCLXI ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCXLII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXIV ( ) . . . \LinearACXX ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXCI ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACXLVII ( ) . . \LinearACCXXIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXXVII ( ) . . . \LinearACCIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLV ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXXX ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXVIII ( ) \LinearACCXXX ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCXCVIII ( ) \LinearACCXI ( ) . \LinearACCXIII ( ) . . . . \LinearACLX ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXLVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXVIII ( ) . . . . \LinearACXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXVII ( ) . . \LinearACCLX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 82 82 84 84 84 84 82 84 84 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 140 . . . . . \LinearACCCXXXIV ( ) . \LinearACCXLI ( ) . . . . . \LinearACLIV ( ) . . \LinearACLV ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCXLVIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACLXXV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXIV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXXIX ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCVI ( ) . . . \LinearACII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXX ( ) . . . \LinearACXLVIII ( ) . \LinearACCLXXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXIII ( ) . . . \LinearACXLIII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXIX ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCIV ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXXIX ( ) . \LinearACLII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXX ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACXCVIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXCVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCVIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLIX ( ) . . . \LinearACLXXXVII ( ) . 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 \LinearACLXIII ( ) . \LinearACCXCIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCI ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXI ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACXCIX ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXXXII ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXXXV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXXVII ( ) \LinearACCCXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACCI ( ) . \LinearACL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXX ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXXXIV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACXLII ( ) . \LinearACCLIX ( ) . . . . . . . 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 84 \LinearACCXCIX ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXLIII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXXIII ( ) . \LinearACXLIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXV ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLXV ( ) . . \LinearACCLVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXVII ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXIX ( ) . . \LinearACLXVI ( ) . . . \LinearACCCXXXIII ( ) . . \LinearACCXXXVI ( ) . . \LinearACCLXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXV ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXVIII ( ) . \LinearACCLXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCX ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACLXXIII ( ) . . \LinearACCXCV ( ) . . . . . \LinearACLXXVII ( ) . . . \LinearACXI ( ) . . . \LinearACXCIII ( ) . . \LinearACVIII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACIX ( ) . . . \LinearACLXXVIII ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXXIX ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACXL ( ) . \LinearACCXLVI ( ) . . \LinearACCXLIX ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXXVII ( ) \LinearACCXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACI ( ) . . . . . . . . .

. 95 \longcastling (O-O-O) . . . . . . \LinearACXXXIV ( ) . . . . see \neg \lnot (¬) . . \LinearACXXVI ( ) . . \LinearACXXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . \llfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 . . . . \Lleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 49 \lnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLVI ( ) . Î) . \LinearALXXXIV ( ) . . . \LinearAL ( ) . . 83 \LinearAXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lnot . . . . . 113 logic gates . . . . . . . . . . \LinearAII ( ) . . \LinearALXXVIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearALVI ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACXXXII ( ) . . . . . 84 \LinearALXXXVIII ( ) . 49. . . . . . . see \multimap long division . 53 \llcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCIII ( ) . 73 linguistic symbols . . . . . . . . . see \wedge not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearAIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXX ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXLVII ( ) . . . . . . 119. . . . . 54 \lmoustache ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLIX ( ) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXI ( ) . . . . 84 \LinearAXCIV ( ) . . . . 38 \lnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXII ( ) . . . . . . . . 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49. . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXV ( ) . . . . 82 \LinearAXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lll (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . \llless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXI ( ) . . 84 \LinearALXXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . 39 \lneq (¬) . . see alphabets. . 83 \LinearAXVI ( ) . . \LinearALIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 logical operators and . 121 \Lineload (L) . . 59 141 . . . . .. . . . 53 \llcorner (z) . . . . . . . \LinearALXXXIII ( ) . \LinearACXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . \LinearALXIV ( ) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXVII ( ) . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXVI ( ) . . 83 \LinearAXLIII ( ) . . . . . . . 38 . 83 \LinearAXXXIX ( ) . . . 84 \LinearAV ( ) . . . . \LinearACXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXVIII ( ) . . . . . 53 . . . . . . \LinearALXXII ( ) . . . . . . see \vee \logof ( ) . \LinearACXXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALVIII ( ) . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXCI ( ) . . \LinearALII ( ) . . . \LinearALXVII ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXXIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACXXXI ( ) . . 38 \lneqq ( ) . \LinearALXI ( ) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVI ( ) . . . . 82 \LinearAX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearALXXXX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXXVIII ( ) \LinearAI ( ) . . . . 83 \LinearAXXIX ( ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLI ( ) . . . . . \LinearALX ( ) . . \LinearALIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \longa (λ) . . . . 31 lollipop . . .. . . .. . . \LinearALXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXIII ( ) . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVIII ( ) . . . . . 93 longdiv (package) . \LinearALIII ( ) . math \log (log) . . . . . . \LinearACXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    ¢) . . . . . . . 55 \llcurly (Î) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCIX ( ) . . . 82 \LinearAXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXX ( ) . . . \lll ( ) . . 55 \llap . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearAIX ( ) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lll ( ) . . . 84 \LinearAXCVIII ( ) . . 84 \LinearAXI ( ) . . . . \LinearALXX ( ) . . . . . \LinearALI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCVI ( ) . . . . . . . 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 \LinearALXXXV ( ) . 113 log-like symbols . . . 82 \LinearAXIII ( ) . . . . \LinearALXXIV ( ) . . . . \LinearACXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAVI ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearAIV ( ) . . . . . 83 \LinearAXV ( ) . . . . . 39 see \lll . . . . . . \LinearACXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXXVII ( ) . . . . . . \lll ( vs. . . . . . . . \LinearACXXVIII ( ) \LinearACXXX ( ) . . . \LinearALXXXI ( ) . . . . see \neg and \sim or . . . . . . . . . . . . \llless ( ) . . \Lleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXCV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \ln (ln) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnsim ( ) . 54 \llbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLVIII ( ) . . . \llparenthesis ( )  \lmoustache () . . . \LinearACXXXVI ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXXVII ( ) . . . \ll ( ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneq ( ) . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . \LinearALXXXII ( ) . . 84 \LinearALXXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \lnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXVI ( ) . . . 38 \lneqq (²) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \llceil ( ) . 83 linearb (package) 85. . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXVII ( ) . . . . . \ll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLV ( ) . . 86. . \LinearALXXIX ( ) . . .\LinearACXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnsim ( ) . . \LinearALXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALVII ( ) . . 83 \LinearAXXIV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearALXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXXIX ( ) . . . . . \LinearACXXVII ( ) . . . . \LinearALXVIII ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 \llbracket ( ) . . . . . 39 local ring (O) . . . . . \LinearALV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 53 \llcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–14 \Lisa ( \lJoin ( ) \ll (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 31 38 37 39 \llangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \maltese ( ) . . . . . 101. 119. . . . \lvert (|) . . . . . . 112 \mathbold . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material conditional . . 43. . . . . 43 \looparrowright (í) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 89 \manquartercircle ( ) . . . . . . . 74 \male (♂) . . . 74 \Male (|) . . . . . 41 \Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 41 \Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 43 \longleftrightarrow (←→) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . 123 \mathaccent . 71 \mars (♂) . . . . . 89 \mankidney ( ) . . . . . . . . 58. 107. . . . . . 68 \lrcorner ({) . . 42 \Longmapsto (=⇒) . . . 49 \Mapstochar () . . 68 \mathcent (¢) .. . . . . . . . . . . 107 \makeatother . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mapsfrom (←) . . . 49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \MaleMale (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \mathchoice . . 68 \mathbbmtt . . . . . . . . . . . . \lVert (||) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . \ltriple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \maltese ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \longleftarrow (← ) . . . . . 89 \manpenkidney ( ) . .) . . . 43 \Loosebearing ($) . . 48 \mapstochar (Þ) . . . . . . . . . 71 \Mars (Ä) . . .. . (× \macron (a) ¯ macron (¯) a 8 9 o \lrcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . .. 71–75. . . . 43 . . . . . . . 90. . . . . . . . . . 41 \looparrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \manfilledquartercircle ( ) 89 manfnt (package) . . 71. 26. . . . . . 44     . . . 89 \manrotatedquartercircle ( ) . . . 18. . 64. . . 41 \mapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 81. . 119 \mathdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \Maggie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Mapsfromchar () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56. . 66. 56 . . . \lVert ( ) . . . . . . . . . \M (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . 89 \manquadrifolium ( ) . . 42 \longmapsfrom (←−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60. . . . . . . 53 \lwavy ( ) . . . . . .. 48 \Mapsfrom (⇐) . . . . . . . . . . 89 \manstar ( ) . . . . . 49 \M . . . . .. 68    \Marge (¨) 142 . . . . . . . . 41 \LongPulseHigh ( ) . . 57 . . . . \ltimes ( ) . . . 95 . . 24. . . . . . . . \ma ¯¯) . . . 89. Luecking. . . . . . 48 \mapsfromchar (ß) . . . . . . 36–38. . . . . . . . . . 43 \longmapsto (−→) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathellipsis (. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 marvosym (package) . 70 \LongPulseLow ( ) . . . . . . 42 \looparrowdownright (ï) . . . . . . . . 89 \manrotatedquadrifolium ( ) . 42 \longmapsto ( →) . . 66 man . . . . . . . 30. . . 97 majuscules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. 65. . . 65. . . 21 mathdots (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathbf . . 43 \longrightarrow (−→) . 79 lowering . . . 42 \looparrowleft ( ) . . . 23 . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \longrightarrow ( →) . 93 \markerb (y) . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material implication . . . . . . 17 accents \lwave ( ) . . . 41 \looparrowleft ( ) . 63. . . . . . . . 120 \manhpennib ( ) . . 42. . . . . . 42 \looparrowleft (ì) . . . . . . . . . 53 \lrcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mantriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \Lparen (() . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Mapstochar (ú) . . . 93 material biconditional . . . . 48 \mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . . . \Lsh (è) . . . . . . 89 \mantriangleup ( ) . . . . . . . 113 mathcal (euscript package option) . . 42 \Mapsfromchar (û) . . . . . . . . . . 89 \manlhpenkidney ( ) . . . . 113 \mathbin . . .. 89 \manimpossiblecube ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \manerrarrow ( ) . .. . 104 \mathbb . . 58. . . . . .. . . . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset material equivalence .. . . . . . . . . . see \textlowering \lozenge (♦) . 98 \mate (m) . . 89 \manvpennib ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 73 . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . 68 \mathbbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mancube ( ) . . . . . . . . . 13 M . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . 71. . 120 \mathds . 38 . 112 mathcomp (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120. . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lrJoin .. . . . 25. . . . . . . 90 \manboldkidney ( ) . .. . 56 \lWavy ( ) . 48 \Mapsto (⇒) . . 107 \MALE ( ) . . . 96 magical signs . . . . . 95 . . . . . . . . . 41 \looparrowdownleft (î) . \m .. . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset material nonimplication . . . . see \textmarried \Mars (h) . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathcal . 105. . . . . . . . . . 119. 68 mathabx (package) 21. . \ltimes ( ) . . . . . . 24 . . . . 52–55. . . 89 \manconcentriccircles ( ) 89 \manconcentricdiamond ( ) 89 \mancone ( ) . . . \ltimes () . . . . 93 married . . . . . . . . 95 . . . . . . . . . . see . . 41 . . .. . 21–69 \mathfrak . . . . . . . . . .\Longleftarrow (⇐=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Lsh ( ) . . . . . . . 89 \mantriangleright ( ) . 68 mathbbol (package) . 55 \lz (I) . . . Dan . 93. 42 \mapsto (→) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathbbmss . \lsemantic . . . . . . . \m ( ) . . . . . . . 50 \makeatletter . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Lsteel (™) . . . 54 . . . . . 96 \markera (x) . . 23. see \Join \lrtimes ( ) . . 71 \MartinVogel (ÿ) . . 101 masonic cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73. 10 . . . . . . . 66 \lozenge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mantiltpennib ( ) . . . . 106 \mathclose .. . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . 21 mathematical symbols . . 43 \longleftrightarrow (←→) 41 \Longmapsfrom (⇐=) . . \lvertneqq (´) \lvertneqq ( ) \lvertneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \looparrowright ( ) . . see \nrightarrow and \nsupset math alphabets . . . . . 49 \mapsfromchar () . . 41 \Longrightarrow ( ⇒) . . . 55 see \ldbrack . . . 41 \Longleftarrow (⇐ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 male . . . . . . . . 52. . . .. . . see \vee \LowerDiamond ( ) . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \longleftarrow (←−) . 67. . 65 mathdesign (package) 18. . . . . . . . . 70 \Longrightarrow (=⇒) . . 40. . . 31 \lsem ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \lor . . . .¯ . . . . . . 89 \Mappedfromchar () . . . . . . 67. . . . . \Lsh ( ) .

. . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . 64. . 25 \medstarofdavid ( ) . . 21 \max (max) . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \merge ( ) . . 65 \MVTwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . 65 \MVRightarrow (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \DH \maya . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVOne (1) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVNine (9) . . . . . 43–48. . . . . . . 48 \Mmapstochar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ComputerMouse \MoveDown (») . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 mathrsfs (package) . . 50 \multimap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . 109. . . . . 31 \multimap ( ) . . . . . . . natural numbers alphabets. . . . 95 \mho ( ) . 112 \mathord . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . 98 \morepawns (S) . . . . . . 95 ˘ \mbb (¯ ¯ ˘ (package) . . 65 \MVThree (3) . see \in \Mercury (e) . 88. . . . . . 48 \mmapstochar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \mathpalette . 65 \MVFour (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 MIL-STD-806 . 21 \Mmappedfromchar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 (N) . angular . . 95. . . . . . . 66 \minushookup ( ) . . . . . see \textperthousand milstd (package) . . . . . . . \NAK ( ) . 25 \medstar ( ) . . \napprox ( ) . 48 \mmappedfromchar ( ) . 120 metre . \nabla (∇) . . 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ¯ ˘ \mb (¯) . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . 57. . . 68 \mathsection (§) . 68 \mathrel . . 31 multiple accents per character 107 multiplicative disjunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55. . . . . . . . . 112 \medbackslash ( ) . . . .. . . . . . . . 23 \medcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nabla ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32–34. . . . . . . . . . 95 metrical symbols . . . . . . . . . and \parr \Mundus (m) . . . . . . . . 40 \medtriangleright ( ) . 109–112 METAFONTbook symbols . . . . . 71 \Mercury (Â) . . . . . . . . . 71 \Moon (Á) . . . . . 40 \medtriangleup ( ) . . 24 membership . . . . . . 79 \medslash ( ) . . . .. NAND gates . . . . . 62. . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \mp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \midtilde ({) . . . . . . . . . 56. . . . . . . . . . 89 musixtex (package) . . . 68. . 112 \mathpzc . . . 23–25. . . . . . . 39. 95 ˘ \mbB (¯ ¯ ˘´) . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . see \prime miscellaneous symbols 65–67. . 112 \mathring (˚) . . . . . . 52 \mathsterling (£) . . 40 \medvert ( ) . . . 49 Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient . . . . 57. . . . . . . . . . 22 \Moon (u) . . . . . 93 \moreroom (U) . . . . . 22 METAFONT . . . . . . 21 \mathpunct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. 112 \mathopen . . . . . . . . . . 119. 89 \muup (µ) . . . . . . 103. . 66 \measuredangle ( ) . . . . 24 \minushookdown (¬) . . nath (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \minuso ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 millesimal sign . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapinv ( ) . . . 21 mathtools (package) . 69. 30. . . . . . . . . . 71 \MoonPha . . . 66. . . . . 90 \moverlay . 65 \MVFive (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . math monetary symbols . .¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. . 65 66 72 73 \NANDd (¦) . . . . 52. . . 88 . . . . . . . \nasymp ( ) . . . . . 98 musical symbols 20. . . . 113 minim . . . . 56 \middle . . . . .˘ ˘ ¯ \mbox . . . . . \napproxeq ( ) \napproxeq ( ) \nasymp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . 66 \measuredangle ( ) . . 57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothvert ( ) . 68. . . . . 66 micro . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothA ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . 31 \multimapdot ( ) . . . . . . 120 \Mobilefone (H) . . . 79 \medtriangledown ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ´ ¯ ˘ ) . . . . 40 \medtriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothB ( ) . . . . . . . 120 \mathunderscore ( ) . . . . 70 Microsoft® Windows® . \invamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotboth ( ) . 65 \MVZero (0) . . . . . 36 \minuscoloncolon (−::) . . . 67. . . . . 71 \mercury ( ) . . 49 . . . . 58 \mathrm . . . . . . . . 68 \mathnormal . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 mathscr (euscript package option) . . . . . . . 49. . . see alphabets. . . . . 49 \models (|=) . . . . . . 106 \measuredangle (b) . 37. . . 115 \mid (|) . . 119 \min (min) . . 21 \mathsterling (£) . . 90 \MVEight (8) . 31 . . 33 . . . . . . . . 68 \mathop . . . . . . . . . see \bindnasrepma. . . . . 65. . 50 \MVAt (@) . 53. . . . 24 \medsquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Natural ( ) . . . . . . . 58–60. . . 89 metre (package) . . 65. . . 25. . . . . . .\mathit . . . . 17. . . 24 \medvertdot ( ) . 104 minutes. . . . . . 24 \mu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see musical symbols minus . . . . . . . 119 ˘ mbboard \mbbx (¯ ) . . . . . . . 65 N . . 103 \models ( ) . . . . . 60. . . . . 73 \NANDl (§) \NANDr (¥) \NANDu (¨) \napprox (') . . . \natural ( ) . . . . . 91 mouse . . . 95 \Mbb (¯ ´ ¯ ˘ ˘ \mBb (¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 moduli space . . . . 90 \MVSeven (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 MnSymbol (package) . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothAvert ( ) . . 24 \medbullet ( ) . . . . . 95 ˘ ) . . . . . . . . \NATURAL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothBvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \medlozenge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . 73. . . . . . . . . \natural ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 \mathparagraph (¶) . . . . 47 \multimapboth ( ) . 119 . . . . . 24 \meddiamond ( ) . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . 90 Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . see math 143 . . see \textminus \minus (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \MoveUp (º) . . . . . . . . 73 \mod . 24 \minuscolon (−:) . . . . 30. . . . . . . 18. 79. . 36 \minusdot ( ) . . see \dotdiv \moo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textmu \micro (µ) . 23 \medcircle ( ) . . . . 31 \multimapbothvert ( ) . . . . 90 \mp ( ) . . . . . . . 95 ¯ ˘ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVSix (6) . . . . 66. . . . . . . . . . . . 66 mechanical scaling . 49 . 31 \multimapdotinv ( ) . . . . 73 ! ¼ Î . . . . . . . . 88–99 “Missing $ inserted” . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Mb (´) . . 68 monus . . . 93 \Mountain ( ) . 21. . . . . . 68 \mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 119. . . .

. . . . 32 \neq ( ) . . . . . . . \ngeqslantdot ( ) \ngets ( ) . . . . . . . . \ndasheduparrow ( ) . . . . . . \nDashV (C) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . \ndowndownarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nequivclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . \ncurlyeqsucc (¹) . . . \ndststile ( . \ngeq ( ) . . . . \ngg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 144 . . . . . \ncong ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncurvearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . 65 \neg (¬) . . 43 . . . . . . \nespoon ( ) . . \ncong ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 . . 52 . 90 33 33 33 33 31 33 31 34 34 72 31 34 31 34 34 46 46 34 32 31 34 32 34 32 34 44 46 44 44 44 46 44 44 44 44 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 32 32 32 32 34 32 35 34 34 34 34 34 48 48 48 \ndoublesmileeq ( ) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \nearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . see \neq \ne (≠) . . . . . . . . 39 \neqslantless (¸) . . . . \newmoon ( ) . . . . \ndownarrowtail ( ) . \ndownuparrows ( ) . . . \ngeqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \newextarrow . . . . \nDownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 42 \Nearrow ( ) . . . \nequal (≠) . . 47 \Neptune (r) . . . . . . . \neVdash ( ) . . . . . 38 39 38 39 39 46 38 39 39 38 38 39 38 38 40 39 \ngtreqless ( ) . . . 74 . . . . . . \NG (Ŋ) . . . . . . \nbumpeq ( ) . . . . \ngtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 negation . . . \ndoublefrown ( ) \ndoublefrowneq ( \ndoublesmile ( ) . . . 33 . . . . 40 . . . . . \neswcrossing ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \neswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nbacktriplesim ( ) . . . . . \ndownmodels ( ) . \ndashedsearrow ( ) . . . . . \ndashedrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . \ncong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . \ngeqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ng (ŋ) . \ncurvearrownwse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbacksim ( ) . . . \nfrownsmile ( ) . . . . . \ncirclearrowleft ( ) . . . . . 71 . . . . . . 35 \ndttstile ( ) . . . . .. \ndashv (9) . 43 \nearrowtail ( ) . . . . 43 \nepitchfork ( ) . . \ndownupharpoons ( ) . 34 \neqcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 14 . 46 . \ndiagdown ( ) . . \ngeq (§) . 39 . . . . . 35 \ndtstile ( ) . \ncurlyeqprec (¸) . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . \ngtrdot ( ) . . . . . 71 \neq ($) . . . 33 . . . . . 33 \neqslantgtr (¹) . . . .. . . 34 \Nearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nexists ( ) .. . \ndownharpooncw ( ) . 71 . . . \ndashrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . \nclosedequal ( ) . . . . . . . . . \newtie (a) . . . 48 . . 71 \neptune ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeqdot ( ) . . . . 46 . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbacksimeq ( ) . \ndivides ( ) . . . . .. . . . . \nequiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nBumpeq ( ) . . . . \nbumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ncurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . \ngeqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 . . . . . . . \neswharpoonsenw ( ) \Neswline ( ) . . \ncurlyeqprec ( ) . . 43 . . 34 \neqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nbackapprox ( ) . . . . 43 \nearrow (Õ) . . . . .. . . . . . 106. .. . . . \ngg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashV (G) . . 38 . . . .. . . . . . . \ndashv ( ) . \ngtrclosed ( ) . \nexists ( ) . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . \nfrowneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \neswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \neswline ( ) . . . 42 \nearrow ( ) . . . . . \nDashv (C) . . . . . . . . . 47 \nefootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . \newmetrics . 33 \nenearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nemodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ncirclearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbackcong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashleftarrow ( ) . . \ndownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . 10 . . . . . . . . \nevdash ( ) . . . . . . . \ncirceq ( ) . . \ndownModels ( ) . . . . . \ndasheddownarrow ( ) . \neswharpoonnwse ( ) \neswharpoons ( ) . \nbackapproxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nddtstile ( ) . . . . . 43 \nemapsto ( ) . . . .navigation symbols . 33 . 34 \neqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nBumpeq ( ) . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 . . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . . . . 46 \neharpooncw ( ) . . . \nfallingdotseq ( ) . 33 . 33 . . .. . . . . . . . . . \nDoteq ( ) . . . . \neswarrows ( ) . . 52 . . . . \ndashedleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeqq (±) . . . . . \ngtrapprox (É) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \NBSP ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nfrownsmileeq ( ) . . 39 \neqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 . . . \nbacksimeq ( ) . . \ndownfilledspoon ( ) \ndownfootline ( ) . . 48 45 45 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 47 45 47 45 46 34 34 ) . \ncurvearrowrightleft ( ) \ncurvearrowsenw ( ) . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbackeqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . \ndashVv (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashednwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngtr (£) . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbacksim ( ) . \newmoon (x) . . . . \ndiagup ( ) . . . . . . 43 \neModels ( ) . . . . . . \nersquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ne . . . . . . . 37 \neq (≠) . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 106. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndownrsquigarrow ( ) \ndownspoon ( ) . . . . \nequiv ( ) . . . . \ngtrapprox ( ) . . . \nggg ( ) . . . . . \ncurvearrowswne ( ) . . . . . \ncurvearrowdownup ( ) . . . . . \Neswarrow ( ) . . . . . . \ndownfree ( ) . \ndownpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . \ngeq ( ) . 46 . .. . . . . . . . 41. . . . \ncurvearrowupdown ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 . . . \nequalclosed ( ) . . . . . 71 \Neptune (È) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \neqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg and \sim \neharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeqclosed ( ) . . . 39. . . 43 \nefilledspoon ( ) . . . .. . . . . 48 \neqsim ( ) . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nfrown ( ) . \ndownharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . \ndashedswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ndownvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqbump ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nelsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Neutral ({) . . . . 95 . . . . . . . . . \ndownVdash ( ) . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . 33 \nefree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashednearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeqq ( ) . . \nexists (i) . . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqsucc ( ) . . . . . \neswbipropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \ndownlsquigarrow ( ) \ndownmapsto ( ) . \nfrowneqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . \ndoteq ( ) . . .. . . . . \ngtr ( ) . . . . . . . \ndasharrow ( ) . . . . . \ncurvearrowleftright ( ) \ncurvearrownesw ( ) . . 38 \neqslantless ( ) . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .\ngtreqlessslant ( ) . 46 \nleftrightharpoons ( ) . . 39 \ngtrless ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nnenearrows ( ) . . \nNearrow ( ) . . . 42 \nleftrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwfilledspoon ( ) . . 45 \nlcirclearrowleft ( ) . . \nll ( ) . . . . . . \nleqq ( ) . . . 51. . . . . . . 38 \nleqq ( ) . . \nnemodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftModels ( ) . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftharpoonccw ( ) . . \nneswline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nNwsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftfilledspoon ( ) . . \nmodels ( ) . . . . . . 34 \nhookleftarrow ( ) . . . \nless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . \nnwpitchfork ( ) . . 38 39 38 38 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 38 39 44 39 \nmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . 13 \niupsilon (†) . . . . . . . \nnwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . \nnwModels ( ) . . 39 \nlesseqgtrslant ( ) . .. . . . . . . . . 41 \nleftarrow ( ) . . 45 \nlcurvearrowse ( ) . . . . . . . . . 13 \niplus ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nleftlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nnwlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwfree ( ) . . . . \nlhookrightarrow ( ) \nlhooksearrow ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . . \nnwarrowtail ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nleqslantdot ( ) \nless (¢) . . \nnwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nhateq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwrsquigarrow ( ) . . \nnwharpooncw ( ) . . . \nnwnwarrows ( ) . . . . . . \nnearrowtail ( ) . . \nlesssim (Â) . . . . . . . . 46 \nhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 105 \ni (∋) . 34 \nleftvdash ( ) . \nnefree ( ) . . . 39 \ngtrsim (Ã) . . . . . . . 46 \nleftrightharpoonupdown ( ) . . . . . . . 31 \nisigma (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrownw ( ) . . . . . . . \nnearrow ( ) . . . . 39 \nlessgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \NibRight ( ) . . . . . . . 34 \nleftfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlhookdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \nLeftarrow ( ) . . . . 45 \nleftarrowtail ( ) . . . 121 \nichi (‘) . . . 13 \nin (∉) . . . . \nnwseharpoonnesw ( ) \nnwseharpoons ( ) . . . . . . \nleqslant ( ) . . . 47 \nleftVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nneswarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nnevdash ( ) . . . \nneVdash ( ) . 42 \nLeftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowne ( ) . . . \nlhookuparrow ( ) . . . . .. . \nmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \NibSolidRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nibar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 45 \nleftrightarrow (Ü) . . . . \nnwseline ( ) . 45 \nlcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . 13 \NibLeft ( ) . . . 45 \nleadsto ( ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . \nlessapprox (È) \nlessapprox ( ) \nlessclosed ( ) \nlessdot ( ) . . . . 76 nicefrac (package) . 34 \nleftrightline ( ) . . . . . 46 \ni ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \nLeftrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlessgtr ( ) . . . . . \nneswharpoonsenw ( ) \nNeswline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nitheta (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 nibs . . . 47 \nleftfootline ( ) . . . . . . . 42 \nleftarrow ( ) . . . . \nnwsearrow ( ) . . . . . 13 \nigamma (1) . \nNwarrow ( ) . . . \nnststile ( ) . . . . . . . \nnefilledspoon ( ) . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwspoon ( ) . . . . . . 45 \nleftrightarrows ( ) . \nnwmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowup ( ) . . . 45 \nlcirclearrowright ( ) . . . . \nnersquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ownsbar \nibeta (©) . . . . . . 13 \niv ( ) .. . . . . . . 39 \nleqq (°) . . . . . . . 46 \nLeftarrow (ö) . . . . . . . 41 \nLeftrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nLeftrightline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nndtstile ( ) . . . . . .. . . . 46 \nleftharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . \nneswarrow ( ) . 13 \nlcirclearrowdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niiota (A) . . . . . . . 39 \ngtreqqless ( ) . . . . . 53 \nj (U) . . . . . . . . \nnwsearrows ( ) . . 21. . . . . . . \nnearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 0 ) 2 1 \nleftmapsto ( ) . . . . . . 38 \nleq ( ) . . . . . . 52 \nialpha (¢) . . 39 \nlesseqqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nmultimap ( ) . 45 \nlcurvearrowright ( ) . . . . . . 47 \nLeftrightarrow (ø) . . . . . \nneModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nneswharpoonnwse ( ) \nneswharpoons ( ) . . . . \nLleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nleqslant ( ) . . . . . . . \nlhookswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 38 39 38 39 39 38 38 39 38 38 40 39 \nlesseqgtr ( ) . . . .. . . 76 \NibSolidLeft ( ) . . . . . . \nlll ( ) . \nnwVdash ( ) . 45 \nleftarrow (Ú) . . . . . . \nnwmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nless ( ) . 45 \nleftspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrsim ( ) . . . 34 \nleq (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlhooknwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niepsilon ($) . . . . . . 40 \nleqdot ( ) . . . . 45 \nlcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . \nnespoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlesssim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftrightsquigarrow ( ) 46 \nleftrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowdown ( ) . . 13 \niphi (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nilambda (P) . . . . . . . 39 \nleqclosed ( ) . . 46 31 34 34 47 35 44 42 44 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 45 47 45 47 45 45 45 46 46 46 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 45 42 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 33 34 45 47 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 33 33 47 33 145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnelsquigarrow ( ) . . . . \nneharpoonccw ( ) . . . . \nnemapsto ( ) . 38 \nleq ( ) . . . . \nnwseharpoonswne ( ) \nNwseline ( ) . . . . . . . \nnefootline ( ) . . . . \nnepitchfork ( ) . . 34 \nleftmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \nleftrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlhookleftarrow ( ) \nlhooknearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nneharpooncw ( ) . . 52 \niomega (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nmid ( ) . . 46 \nleftleftarrows ( ) .. . . . . . . . \nNeswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . \nnwharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftrightharpoondownup ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . .

. . . . . \nrightVdash ( ) . . . . . . . \nrightleftharpoons ( ) \nrightlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightrsquigarrow ( ) . 34 \nparallelslant ( ) . . . 32. . . . . 33 no entry . . . . . . \nsenwarrows ( ) . . . . . . . \nprecsim (Â) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 nonbreaking space . . \nsmilefrown ( ) . 52 \notsmallowns ( ) . . . . . . . . . 73 \NoSun ( ) . \nsqSupset (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nparallel ( ) . . . . . . . 32 \notasymp (0) . . . . . . . \nsqfrowneqsmile ( ) . . . . 73 norm . 93 \noway ( ) . . . . . 32 31 34 31 32 31 34 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 34 34 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 42 41 45 42 41 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 44 46 44 44 34 34 47 44 44 47 46 34 34 34 44 35 44 44 45 47 \nsefootline ( ) . . \nsqsubset (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . 22 \nprec (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqSubset (–) . 71 / \notsmallin ( ) . . . . . 31 \npreccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . \nrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightmapsto ( ) . . . . . 90 \NoChemicalCleaning (¨) . . .. . . . . 90 \novelty (N) . \nseVdash ( ) . 32 \npreccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . 32 \notin (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightarrow (Û) . . . . . . . \nsqfrowneq ( ) . . . . . \nsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nseharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . \nsqdoublefrowneq ( ) \nsqdoublesmile ( ) . . . . . . . 52 \notowns . . \nrightrightarrows ( ) . . \nrightharpooncw ( ) . see \noway \NoBleech (Ì) . . . . . . . see \notowner and \notni \notperp (w) . . . . . . . . . 73 \NORl () . . . \nsqsupseteq (‡) . . . . . . . . \nseharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqdoublesmileeq ( ) \nsqeqfrown ( ) . . . . . 32 \notequiv (%) . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \not . . \nrightmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightfilledspoon ( ) \nrightfootline ( ) . . . . . \nsimeq (() . . . . . . . \nsemapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. \nsqsupseteq ( ) . \nsespoon ( ) . . . . . . . 34  \npreceq (ª) . 32 \notslash (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 non-commutative division . \nsqsubseteq (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nSearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nsqeqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . 31 \nprec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightleftarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . \nsqsubset ( ) . . 34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 45 46 47 45 45 47 34 34 31 34 31 34 32 31 34 32 31 34 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 146 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrhookdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notowner (ƒ) . . . . . . . . \nrightfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nsqsubseteqq ( ) . . \nsmileeqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nseModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsevdash ( ) . \nsqsupseteq ( ) . . \nrightModels ( ) . . 32 \notbackslash (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \ \notbot (w) . . . \npreceqq ( ) . \nrightsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nrcurvearrownw ( ) . . . . 36 \nperp ( ) . 91 not . \nselsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsepitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsenwharpoons ( ) . . . . . \nshortparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 nointegrals (wasysym package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nRelbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notdivides (1) . 52 \NoTumbler () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nRrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . \nsmilefrowneq ( ) . . . . . . . \nSqsupset ( ) . . 52 \notni ( ) . . . . 52 \notin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nshortmid ( ) . . . . . \nRightarrow (÷) . . . . . . . . \nrhookswarrow ( ) . . . . . . ) . . . \nsim (&) . \nrisingdotseq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsimeq ( ) . \nrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nrhooknearrow ( ) . 73 \NORd () . . . \nsqsubset ( ) . . . . . \nsqsubseteq ( ) . . . \nSqsubset ( ) . . . . . . 105 not equal (= vs. . \nrcurvearrowne ( ) . . . . . . . =) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \NORu () . 52 \notin (∈) . . . . . . . 32 \nprec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrhookleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \nowns ( ) . . . . . . 31 \nprecapprox ( ) . . 52 \nottop (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsersquigarrow ( ) . . \npreceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nshortmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . see \lVert and \rVert \NORr () . . . . . . . . . \nrhookuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nshortparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsmileeqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . \nsqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . \nrightspoon ( ) . . .. . . . . . \nsqdoublefrown ( ) . \nsemodels ( ) . . . . \nsqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsmilefrown ( ) . . . . \nsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowright ( ) . \nsqfrownsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsmileeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrhooksearrow ( ) . . . . . 33 \nprecapprox (È) . . . 52 \notin (∉) . . . . . . . \nsearrowtail ( ) \nsefilledspoon ( . 31 \nparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . 26 \NoIroning (²) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . \nsesearrows ( ) . . \nsqsubseteqq (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . .\nnwvdash ( ) . . \nrcurvearrowup ( ) . . . . \nsqfrown ( ) . . 47 \nplus ( ) . . . . \nrightpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsefree ( ) . . . . . . \nrhooknwarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nRightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsmileeq ( ) . . . . 72 NOR gates . . . . . . . . . \nprecsim ( ) . . . . . . \nsqsupset ( ) . . . . . 33 \npreccurlyeq (¦) . . . . . . . . . 32 \nprecapprox ( ) . . . . . . \npreceq ( ) . . . \nrelbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nRightarrow ( ) . . . . \nrightvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrestriction ( ) . . \nprecsim ( ) . . . . . . \nsqsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . \nrcirclearrowdown ( ) \nrcirclearrowleft ( ) \nrcirclearrowright ( ) \nrcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . . . 34 \npitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43 \nwModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ntttstile ( ) . . . 20 \NumLock ( Num ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ntwoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . . . 39. . . . . . . 45 \nuparrow ( ) . . 94 numerals Linear B . . . . . . . . \nsquigarrowdownup ( ) \nsquigarrowleftright ( \nsquigarrownesw ( ) . . . . . \nswVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsuccsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nVDash ( ) . . . 34 \nvdash (8) . . . . . 43 \nwpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nswswarrows ( ) . . . . 34 \nupvdash ( ) . . . ntheorem (package) . . \nswvdash ( ) . . . 46 \nUpdownline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nupdownharpoonleftright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nu (ν) . . . . . . . \nsupseteq ( ) . \nsuccsim ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsubset (⊄) . 45 \nupdownarrow ( ) . 34 \nVdash (F) . .. . . . 32 \nvDash ( ) . . 46 \nuplsquigarrow ( ) . .. . . . 34 \nupfree ( ) . . . \ntrianglelefteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \nUparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . \ntrianglelefteqslant ( ) \ntriangleright (›) . \nsucceq («) . . . . . . . . 35 \nststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntrianglerighteqslant ( ) \ntriplefrown ( ) . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . \nSubset (–) . \nsubseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nvDash (B) . . . . . . . . \nsucccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nVdash ( ) . 32 \nwfree ( ) . . \ntrianglerighteq (Ÿ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsucc (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nswharpooncw ( ) . . . . 45 \ntwoheadnearrow ( ) . 38 \nvarleq (ª) . . . . . . . . \nSupset ( ) . . . . . . . . 50 \nvargeq («) . . . . . . . . . 31 \nvarparallelinv ( ) . \nthickapprox ( ) . . . . . 32 \Nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 32 \nwmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . .\nsqsupseteqq () . . . . . . . . . . \nsupseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nUpdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nsucceqq ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \nupdownharpoonrightleft ( ) . . . . 35 \nsttstile ( ) . . . . \nSubset ( ) . . . . 41. . . . . 31 \nVDash (B) . . 32 \nVDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nswarrowtail ( ) . . . . 32 \nVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . ) . . . . \ntriangleleft (š) . . . . 38 \nvarparallel ( ) . . . . . 72 null infinity see alphabets. . . . . . 46 \nwharpooncw ( ) . . . 42 \nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsupseteq (‡) . 34 \nuup (ν) . . . . . . . . . 77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ntrianglerighteq ( ) . . . . \nswfilledspoon ( ) \nswfootline ( ) . . . . 46 \nwlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \nvdash ( ) . . . \nsuccapprox (É) . \nsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nsquigarrowupdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 45 \ntwoheaduparrow ( ) . . 42 \Nwarrow ( ) . . . 31 \nvdash ( ) . . . . . . . 47 \nwfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . \ntriangleeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsupseteqq () . . . 45 \nupdownarrows ( ) . . . \nswfree ( ) . . .. . . . . . . . . . \nswharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . 34 \nupharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nupModels ( ) . . . . . \ntrianglelefteq ( ) . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . 35 \nttstile ( ) . . 46 \nupharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nwnwarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \ntwoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . \nsuccapprox ( ) . 46 \nupdownharpoons ( ) . math null set . . . \nsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . math number sign . . . . \nsucccurlyeq (§) . . see digits circled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 48 48 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 \nswlsquigarrow ( ) \nswmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntriangleright ( ) . . . . . \nsststile ( . . \nSupset (—) . . . . . . . . . . .. \nsuccapprox ( ) . . . . \nswneharpoons ( ) . . \nswrsquigarrow ( ) \nswspoon ( ) . . . \nsqtriplesmile ( ) . \ntdtstile ( . . . \nsupseteqq ( ) . . . . 47 \nuprsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \ntwoheadnwarrow ( ) . see \SNPP \NUL ( ) . . . . \ntrianglerighteq ( ) . . . . \nSwarrow ( ) . . . . 34 \nupdownline ( ) . . . . . . . . \nSubset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsubseteqq (Ž) . . 35 \ntwoheaddownarrow ( ) . 35 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 37 37 32 31 33 32 31 33 32 31 33 32 31 33 31 32 31 33 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 45 45 45 47 33 33 46 46 ) . \ntststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nupuparrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupspoon ( ) . . . 85 old style . . . . . . . . 34 \nuppitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 147 . . . . . \nswModels ( ) . 45 \ntwoheadsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntriplesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsucceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nswnearrows ( ) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \ntwoheadrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nuparrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . 31 \ntwoheadrightarrow ( ) . . . 43 \nwarrow (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsubseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupVdash ( ) . . . . . . 66 number sets see alphabets. . . \nsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsucccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \ntwoheadswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . \nswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . \nto ( ) . . . 32 \nwharpoonccw ( ) . . \nSupset ( ) . . . . . . \nswpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . \nsquigarrowrightleft ( \nsquigarrowsenw ( ) . . . . . . . 31 \nvDash ( ) . . . . . . \ntriplesim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsucc ( ) . . . . 34 \nVvash (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . 45 \nupmapsto ( ) . \nsucceq ( ) . . . . \ntriangleright ( ) . . . \nsuccsim (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nupfootline ( ) . 39. . . . . . . . . 34 \nupmodels ( ) . . \nswmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntrianglelefteq (ž) . . \nsquigarrownwse ( ) . . . . . \nsubseteq (†) . . . . . . . 50 nuclear power plant . . . . . 106 \nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . \nsubset (‚) . 45 45 34 34 45 46 47 45 47 45 34 34 65 31 46 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 40 48 34 48 ) . . . .. . . . \nsqsupseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . see \textnumero numbers . . . . . . . . . . \nsqtriplefrown ( ) . . . . . . . 34 \nupfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsquigarrowswne ( ) . .

. . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \p ( ) . . . . . . 25 \opposbishops (o) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 95 \obelus ( ) . . . . . . \overleftharpdown ( ) . . . . 22–25 logical see logical operators set . . . . . . . . . 60 ) . 25 \odplus ( ) . . \oslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \oplus (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . 13 \opentimes ( ) . . . . . . . 25 \obackslash ( ) . . . . . . → \overleftrightarrow (← ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ORl () . . . . . . .. . . \nwsecrossing ( ) . . 21 \oplus (–) . . . . . . . . . 80 \ORr (©) . 25 \obslash ( ) . . . . . . . 25 \oint ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \Omega (Ω) . 73 . . . . . 121 ogonek ( ˛) . . . . . \nwsearrows ( ) . . . . . 10. 25 \obar ( ) . . . 22. . 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . . . . . . \otop (j) . . . . . 107 148 . \overlinesegment ( ) . . . see alphabets. 59 59. . . . . . . . . 10 \o (ø) . . \oslash (m) . 25 \ocirc ( ) . . . . . . . . 27 \oint ( ) . . . . . .. . . 43 . . . . 29 \oiintclockwise ( ) . . . . 32 . . 52 P \P (¶) . . 31 operators binary . . . \owns ( ) . . . see \textohm \ohm (Ω) . . . . . 46 . \otimes (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 orthogonal to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 ) . . . . . . . . . 60 60 59 47 47 60 59 59 60 \overgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nwseline ( ) . − \overleftarrow (←) . . . . . . . \otimes (⊗) . . . . . 16 hk k j k \overgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \octagon ( ) . . . . . 13 \openo ( ) . . . . . .. \nwspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \overrightharpdown ( ) \overrightharpoon ( ) \overring (x) . 71 optical scaling . . . . . . . . see \vee OR gates . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Ohne (a) . . . . . . \overparenthesis ( ) ⇒ \Overrightarrow (= ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \overbrace ( \overbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \overleftharpoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 · \oblong ( ) . . . . see set operators unary . . . . . . . \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \oo (◦◦) . . . . 25 \onlymove (F) . . . . . . 17. . 78. 32 . 47 . . . . . . . 29 \ointclockwise ( ) . . 25 \odot ( ) . . . . . . . . see accents \ogreaterthan ( ) . . . . . . . . .. . see \bot \ORu () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \oplus (⊕) . . . . . . 22 \oc () . . . . . . 105 \open (z) . 28 ¶ \oint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 50 \oast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . 104 . . 24 \OE (Œ) . . . . . . 73 \ORd () . . . . . . . . 22 { \ohill (a) . .. . overrightarrow (package) → \overrightarrow (− ) . . . . . 104. . 20 \oldstylenums . . . . 52 . . . 23 \ocoasterisk (g) . . . . . . 25 \odot (d) . . . . . . . . hk ik j k k q O \O (Ø) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \offinterlineskip . 60 \overbrace ( ) . . . . . 60 \overbracket ” ) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 106 . . . . . . . . \ovoid (l) . . . . . 22 see \ni . 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . 10. . . . . . . . . 73 \od (a) . 25. . . 89 / \OHORN (Ơ) . . . . . . . 104 ogonek (package) . 25 \ocircle ( ) . . . . . . . 28 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . 95 · \obelus* ( · ) . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . 119. . . 109 options . . . . . . . . 117 \officialeuro (e) . . . . \Nwsearrow ( ) . ... . . . . . . . . . 16 ˚ \odiv (™) . . . . . 27 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 22 \Obelus ( ) . . . 27 ı \ointclockwise ( ) . . . \nwVdash ( ) . . . . . . ‚ \oiint ( ) . \overset . . . . . 117 \oe (œ) . . . . . \ostar ( ) . . . . \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . 30 old-style digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . math \openJoin ( ) . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . . . . 10 \oiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Obelus* ( · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \overline ( ) . . . . \nwseharpoonnesw ( ) \nwseharpoons ( ) . . . \nwseharpoonswne ( ) \Nwseline ( ) . . . \otimes (⊗) . . ..\nwrsquigarrow ( ) . . .. 109 ( \overbridge (a) . . . . 21. . . . . . . . 73 \oright (i) . 20 \oleft (h) . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 open unit disk (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ooalign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 25 . . . . . . 119 . . . . . . . 108. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \oasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . math \Octosteel (‘) . . . . . . . . . . \overleftharp ( ) . . . . . . . . . 13 \openo (™) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \oiiint ( ) .. . . . . . . . 50 \ominus (—) . . . . . . 22 \ominus ( ) . . . . . . 95 \p@ ˙ . . . . . . . \ownsbar (‡) . . . .. 50 \omegaup (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 ¨ \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 octonions (O) . . . . .. . . . . . . 16 ohm . . . \overrightharp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \oo (d) . . . . . . \nwvdash ( ) . . . 10 o (o) . \otriangleup (o) ovals . . 21 \ocirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ominus ( ) . . . 28 \oiintctrclockwise ( ) . . . . .. . \owns (∋) . . 46 . . . 30 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . \owns () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \oiiintclockwise ( ) \oiiintctrclockwise ( · \oiint ( ) . . . . . 25 \olessthan ( ) . . . 25 \obackslash (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . 93 \opposition ( ) . . . . . . 22 \odot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 109 . \otriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \omega (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \oslash ( ) . . . .. . 24 . . \nwsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 28 27 28 28 30 \OrnamentDiamondSolid ( ) 80 ornaments . . . . 10 \ohorn (ơ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \obot (k) . . 25 . 31 \openo (a) . . . . . see package options or . . . . . . . . 108. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ovee ( ) . \owns . . . . . . . \owedge ( ) . 59 . . . . . . .. \overt ( ) .. . . . . \nwsebipropto ( ) . . . 73 25 22 25 25 25 22 25 25 40 25 80 22 17 \overbrace ( \overbrace ( ) . . . . \nwsearrow ( ) . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . \overarc (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36–38. . . . . . 61. 113 amsfonts 22. . . . 103 graphicx . . . . 68. . . 36–38. . 67 universa . 68 nointegrals (wasysym) . . . . . . 14. 48. . 36. . . . . . . . . . 80. 87. . . 42. 119 epsdice . 119. . . 60. . . . . . 119. . . 103. . . . 119. . . . . . . . 89 nath . . 119 bm . . . . . . 72. . . 19. 14. . 118 fourier 19. . . . . . 120 babel . . . 119. . 120 mathrsfs . . 120 arev . . 66. . . . . 119. 71–75. . . . . 92. . . . 39. . . 120 centernot . 107. . . 119. 50. . . . . . 41. 120. . 91. . 119 eufrak . 120 extarrows . . . . 61 f (esvect) . 119. . . . . . 101. 119. . 67. . . . . 58. 119. . . 119. 119. . 119. 119 phaistos . . . . . . . . 18–20. . . . . . . . 119 colonequals 21. 101. . 97. . 61. . . . 56. 37. . . . 53. . . 121 calrsfs . . . . . . 72. 119. . 120 pigpen . . . 119 rotating . . 119 timing . . . 101. . . 121 dozenal . . . . . 59 accents . . . 96. . 67. 80. 119 mathtools . . 119 esvect . . 121 hieroglf . . 94. . 79. . . . . 120 harpoon . . . 77 pxfonts . . 49. . . . 61 g (esvect) . . . . 81. . . 92. . . . . 113. . . 89. . . . 119. . . 14–17. 26. . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . 93. . . 92. . . . 28. 70. . . . . 65. . . . . 14 fclfont . . 65 mathdesign . . 119. . . . . . 41. . . 53. . 120 euscript . . . . . 63. . . . 67. 120 polynom . . 119. . . . . 35. . . 115 url . 115. . . 68. . . . 119. 65. . . . . . 36. 86. 103. . 62. . . 61 b (esvect) . . 40. . . . 119. 34. . 43. . . . . 22. . . . 58. 119 ifsym . . 119. 119 trsym . . . 120 musixtex . . . 80. 100. . 119 nicefrac . . . . . . . . 68 utf8x (inputenc) . . . . 29. 58. . . 54 calligra . 49. 119. 24. 24. . 68 eurosym . . . 36–38. . . 120 dingbat 76. . . . . . . . . 123 amstext . 120 skull .package options a (esvect) . . . . 119. . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . 8. . . . 120 fge . 119. 100. . . . . . . 14. . . 70 pifont . . . 94. . 120 slashed . 117 junicode . . 119. 17. . . 120. . . 121 braket . . . . . 17. . 119. . . . . . . . . 48. 95. . . 53. . . . 119. 53. . . . . 21. . . . 40. 104. . 120 extraipa . . 119 steinmetz . . 82. . . . . 120 latexsym . . . 51. . 61 german (keystroke) . . 119. . 17. . . . . 80. . 23. 120 extpfeil . 25. 30. 121 dblaccnt . . . . 16. . . 54. . . . . . . 37. . . . . 120 marvosym 18. . . . . . . . 118 ulsy . . . . 57. . . . 41. 16. 65. 119 metre . 56. 17. . . . . 93. . . . . . 115. . . . 119 fc . 102. . . . . . . 121 cypriot . . 52. 120 chemarrow . . . 85. . . 17. . 119. 52–55. . 47. 119. 68 amsmath 8. . . . . . . . 81. . . . . 68. 68. 120 fixmath . . . 107 dictsym . . 103. 107. . . . 61 bbgreekl (mathbbol) . . . . 100 semtrans . 9. . 17. . 77. 31. 119. . 119. . . 59. . . . . . . 120 units . 70. . 104. . . . . . . . . . . . 19. 119 china2e 19. 119. . 123 mathbbol . . . 68. 32. . 119 mathdots . . 63. 120 combelow . . . . . . 64. . . 120 phonetic . . . . 119 MnSymbol . 103. . 119. . . 109 simpsons . 88. . 68 cancel . 49. . 21. 65. . . 65. . 119 pict2e . 22. 89. 70 tipa 11. 119. 120 simplewick . 68. 51. . . . . . . 76. . . . . . . . . 14. . . . 121 overrightarrow . . . 121 ntheorem . . . . 120 textcomp 8. . 119 arcs . . 59 cclicenses . 50–52. 121 amsbsy . . 119. . 30. . 65 ogonek . 63. 68 c (esvect) . 120 ascii . . 60. . . . . . . . . . . 115 ushort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. 119. . 31. . 91. 43–48. 36. 119. 63. . . . 61 integrals (wasysym) . . . . 119. . . 100. . 117 varg (txfonts/pxfonts) . . . 120 holtpolt . . . . 119. . . . 119. . . . 30. 101. . 36. . 119 dsfont . 99. . . . 42. 60. . . . 63. . 119. 119 feyn . . . . 40. . . . . 24. . . . . 97. . . . . . 119. . 51. 106 ar . . 27. 10. . 119. . . . 87. . 17. 48. . . 73. 52. . 64. . 67. . 51 packages longdiv . . . 78. . . . 121 savesym . . 50–52. . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . 121 clock . 119. . . . . 115. . 120 tipx . 120 esint . . . 103 harmony . . 119. 120 bbm . . . . . . 105 staves . 120 type1cm . 41. . 87 bbding 75–78. . . . . 119 gensymb . . . 72 greek (babel) . . . . 119. 9 undertilde . 115 fontspec . . . . . . 64. . . . . 117. . . 70 graphics . . . . 90. . . 118–120 t4phonet . 68. 119 underscore . . 30. . . . . . . . 65. . . . . 36. . . . 120 cmll . 24. . . 119. . . . . . . . . 72 sarabian . 32–34. 68 mathscr (euscript) . . . . . . 119 bbold . 58. 103. . . . 119. 67. . 41. . . 68. 26 polutonikogreek (babel) . . . 119. . . . . 70. . . 119. . . 12. . 90. 26. 62. 8. 119 149 . . 36. 50. . 119 chemarr . . 121 manfnt . . . . 120 teubner 19. . . 26 mathcal (euscript) . . . . 98. 41. 21–23. . 67. . 70. . 120 upgreek . 79. . . . . . 62. . . . . . 47. . 93. . . . 119 linearA . . . 100. . . . . . . 30. 71. . . 65. 42. 61 e (esvect) . 48. . . . . . 74. . 86. . . 57. 120 milstd . 22. . 67. . 57. . . 120 turnstile . . . . 100. . 119. . . . . 68 mathcomp . 47. 112 amssymb . 119. 87 h (esvect) . 119. 21–23. . 121 hhcount . 30. . . 96. . . . 120 upquote . 21. . . . 120 pmboxdraw . . . 105 chancery . . 115 recycle . . 27. . . 117 isoent . . . . 113 fontenc . 100 ucs . . . . . 95. 119. . 119 skak . . 120 universal 75. . . . 121 stmaryrd . 118 keystroke . . . . 65. . . 120 psnfss . . . 105. 18. . 119. 59 protosem . . 119. . . . . . 120 igo . 120 mbboard . . 21. . . . . . 119. . . . 12. . . . . . . . . 58–60. . 119. . . . . . . . . 120 shuffle . 66. . 80. 68. 10. 65. . 57. 100. 101 mathabx . . . 119. 61 crescent (fge) . 119. 58. . 119. . 13. . 92. . . . 101. . . 55. 119. 31. . . 66. 66. . . . 121 vietnam . . . 30. . . . . 47. 19. . . . . . . . . 120 DotArrow . 87. 82. . 42. . . . 68. . . . 75–78. . . . 61. . . . 120 trfsigns . . . . . . . 98. . . . . . . . . 52. . . 23–25. 121 linearb . . 120 txfonts . 90. . . 62. . 88. . 119. 30. . . . . . 68. . . . . . 50 sans (dsfont) . . . . 58. 119 inputenc . . 58 d (esvect) .

. . . 74 \PHoxBack (n) . . . . . . . . . 69. . 81 \PHdove (f) . . . . 72 \parallelslant ( ) . . . 81 \PHpapyrus (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78. . see faces percent sign . . . . . . . 67 \partialvartoint ( ) . . . 67 \partialvardstrokedint ( ) 67 \partialvardsumint ( ) . . 106 \perp (⊥) . . . . . 61. . . . 67 ¤ £ \partialvartrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . 31 \perp (⊥) . 88 \PhoneHandset ( ) phonetic (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . 108. . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvartstrokedint ( ) 67 \partialvartsumint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 101. . . . . . . 81 \PHbullLeg (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHplaneTree (i) . . 81 \phase ( ) . 67 \partialvardlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHplumedHead (B) . . 70. . . . . . 26. . . . 107. . . . . . . 14 wasysym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHdolium (T) . . 59. . 67 \partialvartint ( ) . . . 20. . 64–66. . 52 \partial (∂) . . . . . . . 81 \PHshield (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 13. . . . . . . . 73. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \P \parallel ( ) . . . . . 25 \pentam (λθλθλ||λββλββλ) . . . . . 43 \partialvardlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . 81 \PHstrainer (q) . . 81 \PHflute (o) . . 81 \PHgaunlet (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHsling (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvardoint ( ) . . . 76 pencils . . . 67 \partialvardoiint ( ) . . . . . 76 \PencilRightUp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. . 88. 70 phasor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHcat (c) . 76 \pentagon ( ) . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHtattooedHead (C) . . . 119. . . 81 \PHclub (M) . . . . . . 81 \PHcarpentryPlane (S) . 81 . . . . . . . . 81 \PHlily (m) . . . 18. . . . . . . . 36–38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \partialvardint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \parr (`) . . . . . . . . 76 \PencilRight ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 \PencilRightDown ( ) . . . . . . . 81 ! \PHhelmet (G) . . . 118 \PaperLandscape ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . 119 Pakin. . . . . 67 particle-physics symbols . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHship (Y) . . 81 \PHgrater (p) . . . . . . . . 81 pharmaceutical prescription see \textrecipe \PHchild (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–14 . . . . . . 10. . . . 13. 81 \PHarrow (J) . 20 \Perp ( ) . . 18. . . . . . . . . . Scott . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . 81 50 50 50 $ ( & # ' % \PHlid (Q) . 72 phaistos (package) . . . . . . . 81 \PHcaptive (D) . . . . 81 \PHhorn (Z) \Phi (Φ) . photons . . . 30. . . 81 \PHcolumn (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . 76 \PencilLeftDown ( ) . . . . . . 118 \Peace ( ) . . . . . . . . . 101. 120 wsuipa 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Phone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . 70 \Pfund (£) . . . . . 72 \PgUp ( Page ↑ ) . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . 92 par see \bindnasrepma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \pentagram ( ) . . . . . . . . 51 \partial (∂) . see \% \permil ( ) . 16. . . . . . . 24 \partial (f ) . . . . 119 phonetic symbols . . 81 \PHram (d) . . . . 67 \partialvartoiint ( ) . . . . 18 \PgDown ( Page ↓ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and \parr paragraph mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHbow (K) . . 67 \partialvardlanddownint ( ) 67 \partialvardlandupint ( ) 67 \partialvardlcircleleftint ( ) . . 120 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHsaw (P) . . 81 \PHsmallAxe (r) . . . . \photon (¬¬¬¬) . . . . . . . 80 \phone ( ) . . 81 \PHmanacles (N) \PHmattock (O) . . . . . . . ¨ © . . 95 people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77. . . 81 \PHrosette (l) . . . . . . . . 67 yfonts . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 parts per thousand . . . 81 \PHeagle (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHhide (a) . . . . 81 \PHcomb (U) . . . . . . . . . . 64. . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvardrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107. . . . . 92 \PaperPortrait ( ) . . 53 \partialslash (g ) . . . . 33 \perthousand (‰) . 81 150 . . . . 56 \parallel ( ) . . 43 \partialvardrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 –ˇ \partvoiceless (a») . . . . . . 43 \partialvardlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. . . . . . . 67 \partialvartlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . 67 \partialvardrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . 43 \partialvartrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 yhmath 58. . . . . 93 pawn . 33 \ParallelPort (Ñ) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \partialvartrcirclerightint ( ) . 80 \PencilLeft ( ) . 22. . . . . . . . 81 \PHpedestrian (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartlcircleleftint ( ) . . 70 . . . . . . 67 \partialvartlanddownint ( ) 67 \partialvartlandupint ( ) 67 \partialvartlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 120 xfrac . . \phiup (φ) . . 71. . . . . . . . . . . \invamp. 16 – ˚ \passedpawn (r) . . . 81 \PHbeehive (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . . . . 67 \partialvartrcirclerightint ( ) . . . 81 \PHboomerang (R) . . .vntex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \PencilLeftUp ( ) . 94 A pdfL TEX . . . . . \phi (φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textperthousand \partvoice (a») . 70 \PHbee (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . . .

. . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont N} (N) . . . . . . 50 \pi (π) . . . 13 \Plane ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48. . . 33 prescription . . . . 49 \prec ( ) . . . . . . . .\PHtiara (I) . . . math \powerset ( ) . . . 33 \preccurlyeq (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont P} (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 pronunciation symbols . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Pisymbol . . . . . . . 65 proper subset/superset . . . . . 32 \precnapprox ( ) . . . . \Quadrad (]]) Q . . . 98 {\pigpenfont L} (L) . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont T} (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. . . 59 polytonic Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \ppppp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 PostScript fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 planets . . . . . . . . . 66. . . . . . . . 30 \propto (∝) . 88 pointing finger . . .. . . . . . 41. . . . . . . 30 \precapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . 98 {\pigpenfont J} (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . . . . . 51. . . . 95 ˙˙) \Ppp (¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont F} (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 proto-Semitic symbols . . . . 65 \piup (π) . . . . 50 psnfss (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \pointer ( ) . . . . . . . 76. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 # þ \preceq ( ) . . . . 120 \pmod . . . . . . . 119. . . . see fists \Pointinghand (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 projective space (P) . . . . . 100. 66 \Printer (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \preccurlyeq ( ) . . . 98 {\pigpenfont I} (I) . 50 polygons . . . . . 31. 106 pulse diagram symbols . . 65 87 93 57 151 . 104 \Plus ( ) . . . 90 \polishhook (~) . . . . 76 \Pluto (s) . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont Q} (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \pitchfork (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 pict2e (package) . . . . . . . see \textrecipe present-value symbols . . . . . . 75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50–52. . 76 plusses . 71 playing cards . . . . . . . . . . . . 65. see alphabets. . . . . . . 119 \PrtSc ( PrtSc ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \Pppp (˙ ) . . . . . . . . 97 \Psi (Ψ) . . . . . . 52 \Pp (˙) . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Pitman’s base-12 symbols . 66 \propto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . 68. 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 physical symbols . . 120 \ProvidesPackage . 50 \psiup (ψ) . 63  polutonikogreek (babel package option) . 70 \PulseLow ( ) . 32 \precsim ( ) . 78. . 50 \psi (ψ) . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont H} (H) . . 50 \planck (¯ h) . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \pitchfork ( ) . . 103 \Pound ( ) . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \Pr (Pr) ˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont Y} (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont B} (B) . . . . . . . . 23 \PlusOutline ( ) . . . . . . . 30 \precsim ( ) . . . 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \Pu (‰ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \pp (˙˙ ) . . end of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 6 7 ˙ Q. . . . . 51 \Pickup (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \precdot (Ì) . . 95 \pxp (˙˙ ) . . 95 ˙ ˙ \pppp ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 polynom (package) . . . . . . . . 81 \PHtunny (g) . . . . . 31 \precnsim (Ä) . . . . 71 \pisces ( ) . . . . . . . . 116 power set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont S} (S) . . . . . . . . . . 18 9 8 @ A \polter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36–38. . . . . . . . . 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont K} (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont W} (W) . 95 \ppm (˙ ) . . 77 \PlusThinCenterOpen ( ) . . 95 ˙ ˙ \ppp (˙˙ ) . .. . . . . . 27. . 98 {\pigpenfont V} (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHvine (j) . . . 32 \precapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . 31 \precnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \precneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 pigpen cipher . . . math \projlim (proj lim) . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont U} (U) . . . . 115 \Pxp (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \precnapprox (Ê) . 72 printer’s fist . . . . . . 120 pigpen (package) . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \pm ( ) .E. . 47 pitchfork symbols . . . . . . 21–23. . 70 \PulseHigh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont D} (D) . . . . . . . 32 \precapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont G} (G) . . . . . . . 49 \pod . . . . . . . . . 76 \plus (+) . 98. . . . . . . . see fists probabilistic independence . . . 71 \pluto ( ) . 98 {\pigpenfont A} (A) . 71 \Pluto (É) . . . . . . . . . 106 \prod ( ) . . . . . . 81 \PHwoman (F) . . . 98 {\pigpenfont M} (M) . . . . . 10 pushout diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \qside (M) . . . . . . . . . 106 \pwedge (…) . . . . . . 59 polynomial division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. . . . . . . . . . . 31 \precnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \Ppppp (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 pilcrow . . . . . . see \subsetneq/\supsetneq proper vertices . 32 \preceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \pluscirc (©) . 32 \preccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . 75–78. . . see card suits Plimsoll line . . . . . 50 \pi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 plus-or-minus sign . . 103. 113 pmboxdraw (package) . . . . . . . 70 \Pi (Π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \prec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont O} (O) . 70 pifont (package) . . . . . . . . . 89 pullback diagrams . . . 81 \PHwavyBand (s) . 119. . . 65 \prime (′) . 108 \prime ( ) . . . . . 50 \Postbox ( ) . 95 ˙ \pmb ¯. . . . . . . . . . . . see \textpipe \Pisces (ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \prod (∏) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 PostScript . 98 {\pigpenfont R} (R) . 13 pxfonts (package) . . . . . . . . . 22 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 protosem (package) 81. . . . . 19 \pounds (£) . 71 \pm (±) . 34 \precneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 punctuation . 98 {\pigpenfont E} (E) . . . . . 72 \ps ( ) . . . . . . . . . . see \pm \PlusCenterOpen ( ) . . . 98 {\pigpenfont C} (C) . . . . . 33 \preceqq ( ) . . . 75. see phonetic symbols proof. . . 32 \precnsim ( ) . . . . . . . \qoppa (ϟ) . 69. . . . . . . 74 \propto (W) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont Z} (Z) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont X} (X) . . . . . . . 34 \precsim (À) . 95 pseudographics . 66 \pitchfork ( ) . . . . see \P pipe . . . . . .

41 \rightarrow (→) . . . \Rational ( ) . \rcirclearrowdown ( \rcirclearrowleft ( \rcirclearrowright ( \rcirclearrowup ( ) \rcircleleftint ( ) . . 100 \restriction . . .. . . . . . . . 44 . . . \revepsilon (%) . . . . see . . 42 \rightbarharpoon (Ý) . . . . . \rarrowfill . . 55 \ranglebar ( ) . 103 \relbar ( ) . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . 103 \Relbar ( ) . 117 \quotesinglbase (‚) . 57 quarter note see musical symbols \quarternote ( ) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 . . . . . . 41 \rightarrowtail ( ) . . . . . 80 rectangles . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Rectsteel (”) . . . . . \rightharpoonup ( ) . . . . . . 44 \recycle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt and \surd \Radioactivity (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \revD (¢) . . math quaver . . . . . . . 89 13 90 90 90 ¾ Ò \rfilet (?) . . 100. . 22. 44 \rhookrightarrow ( ) . 54 \rgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \Re ( ) . . . © \rCeil ( ) . . . 88 \Rectangle ( ) . 44 \rcurvearrowse ( ) . 70 \Rangle (>) . . 74 \Rain ( ) . . . . . \RewindToStart (µ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \rfloor () . 95 \respondens ( ∼) . . . . . . . . 80 \RectangleBold ( ) . . 44 \rcurvearrowup ( ) . 99 recycling symbols . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . 73 recycle (package) .. . . . . . . . 80 \Rectpipe (˜) . . 55 \rgroup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 reduced quadrupole moment see \rqm \reflectbox . . . 43 \rightarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . 88 \quarternote ( ) . . . . . . . 34–39. 80 \RectangleThin ( ) . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13. . . . 43 \rightarrow (Ñ) . \rightharpoonccw ( ) \rightharpooncw ( ) . . . 67 \RIGHTarrow ( ) . . 23 \rhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . \rightfree ( ) . . . . . . . . 72 62 36 49 49 see see . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . . 55 \RHD ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \ratio (:) . . . 54    \rcurvearrownw ( ) . rational numbers (Q) . . . . . . . . . reverse solidus . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . 23 \rhd ( ) . . see \upharpoonright \restriction (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightleftarrows (Õ) \rightleftarrows ( ) \rightleftarrows ( ) \rightleftharpoon (á) . . . . 14 a) \r (∼) . . . . . . 43 \RIGHTCIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . \rceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rcirclerightint ( ) \rcorners (w) . . . . . . . . . . 50 \right . . . . . . . . . \reveject (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 R \R (∼) . . . . . . . 50 \rho (ρ ) . . . . . . . 30 binary 30–32. . . . 56. . . . . . . . . . . . . \righthalfcap ( ) . . . . . . . 99. . . . . . . . 49 real numbers (R) see alphabets. . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . 31–33 triangle . 44 \rcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 33 33 24 24 76 46 46 43 41 43 41 42 41 43 43 \revaw ( ) . . . . . . . see \textraising \RaisingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . 44 \rhookleftarrow ( ) . . . ) . . . 72 return . 43 \rhookuparrow ( ) . . . . . 44 \rhooknearrow ( ) . . . . . . 51 \rhookdownarrow ( ) . 13 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 152 . . . . . ? ? . . . 51 \REAL ( ) . . . 88 \Rightarrow (⇒) . 48. . . . . . . . . . . . \rbag ( ) . math rationalized Planck constant \hbar \Rbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 retracting see \textretracting \Return ( ← ) . 43 \rhoup (ρ) . . . 56 \rangle ( ) . . . . . . . . \rc (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 response ( ) . \Rewind (¶) . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\quadrad (]]) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \restriction ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) ) ) . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \righthalfcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. 44 \rhooknwarrow ( ) . 43 \rightarrowtriangle ( ) . . . . 102 \rightangle ( ) . . . \revddots ( . . see \textrecipe \recorder ( ) . . . . . . 55 68 56 16 56 54 ½ Ñ \rbrace ( ) \Rbrack (]) . . . . 53 . . \reve (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \RIGHTcircle ( ) . . . . alphabets. 88 quaternions (H) see alphabets. . . . . . . . 95 \Radiation ( ) . . 33 \Request ( ) . 94 \quotedblbase („) . . . 88 \Rightcircle ( ) . . math recipe . . . . \rightharpoondown (ã) \rightharpoondown ( ) \rightharpoonup (á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Rightarrow (⇒) . . . . . . . . 29 . 44 . 88 \RightDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 \Respondens (∼) . . . . . . . 55 \RArrow ( → ) . . \RewindToIndex (´) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . 55 ? \rFloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \rhookswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \reversedvideodbend ( \revglotstop (™) . . 48. . 98 \resizebox . . \rcurvearrowdown ( ) \rcurvearrowleft ( ) \rcurvearrowne ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \rightarrow (→) . . . . . . . 91 raising . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . see \textregistered relational symbols . . \textbackslash reversed symbols . . . . . . . \rBrack (]]) . . . . . . . . see carriage return A > c \rightevaw ( ) . 40 \Relbar (=) . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \rho (ρ) . . . . . .. 21. . . . . . . \rceil ( ) . . 103 registered trademark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 \restoresymbol . . . . . . . 98. .. . . 33 \relbar (−) . . . . . \righthand ( ) . . 48 negated binary . . . . 95 \r (˚ . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowright ( ) . . 47. . . . . 91 \RainCloud ( ) . . . 57 \quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . 92 radicals . . 44 \rhooksearrow ( ) . . . . .. .. . . . . . 57 \Quadras ([[) . . . . 79 u v t 2 \rangle ( ) . 56 \rightfilledspoon ( ) \rightfootline ( ) . . 68 \rAngle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 56 \rfloor ( ) . 44 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \RATIONAL ( ) . . . . . see musical symbols queen . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \rdbrack (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . 49 \Real ( ) . . .

. . . . . \rightslice ( ) . . . . . . . . . 87 \samebishops (s) . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . 9. . . . . 13 \scoh (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rtimes () \rtimes ( ) \rtimes ( ) \rtriple . . . . 71 \Saturn (Æ) . . . 87 \sarabfamily . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \saturn ( ) . \rightpropto ( ) . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \SAf (f) . 87 ¤ § ¦   ¡ ¥ £ ¢ 153 . . . . . . . 105 \rrangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see accents rook . . . . . \rightt (o) . . . . 87 \SAr (r) . . . 87 \SAsv (S) . . . . . . 87 \SAsd (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rrbracket ( ) . . . . . . \rightsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAtd (T) . . . . . . . . . 13 Schwartz distribution spaces see alphabets. \rightmapsto ( ) . roots . . 74 . . . . . 87 . . . L \rightpointright ( ) . . . . .. . . . . . . \Rsh (é) . 70–74 \ScissorHollowLeft ( ) . . . . 55 Roman coins . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . \rightthreetimes ( ) . . . . . \rrparenthesis ( ) \RS ( ) . \rightrightarrows ( ) . . . . . . \Rsh ( ) . . 87 \Sborder ( ) . . 13 \scg (0) . . . 11–13. . . . . . 13 \RoundedLsteel (Ÿ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightsquigarrow (ù) . . . see \sqrt \rotatebox . 87 \sampi (ϡ) . 94 . . 116 . 75 \ScissorHollowRight ( ) . . 33 . . . . .. . \SAh (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . 87 sans (dsfont package option) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . \righttoleftarrow (ý) . . . 75 \scn (X) . . . . . .. \SAhd (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . 87 . . 87 . 87 \SAsa (X) . . . . . . . . . . . \rightturn ( ) . .. . 93 \Sampi (Ϡ) . . 87 \SAt (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAtb (J) . . . . \rVert (||) . . . . . . . . . \rightpointleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \rightmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 \scd ( ) . . . 100 \SAw (w) . . . . . . . . 71 savesym (package) . . . 87 sarabian (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Rparen ()) . . 19 Romanian comma-belo accent (a) . . . 22 . . 100 \savesymbol . 55 see \rdbrack . . . . . . \Sagittarius (è) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . safety-related symbols \SAg (g) . . . . . . .. . . \rlap . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 scientific symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . \ring (˚) . . 54 \rmoustache ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightvdash ( ) . . . . . 121 \SAs (s) . . . . \SAb (b) . . . . . . 68 \rqm (I) . . . . . . . . N . . .. . . . . 106 \rWavy ( ) . . .. . . 56 \rightY ( ) . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . 87 . . . . \rightmodels ( ) . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAy (y) . . . . . . . . .. . . . \rightrightharpoons (Ù) \rightrsquigarrow ( ) . . . .\rightleftharpoons (é) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoonsfill \rightlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . \SAdb (D) . . . . . . . ring in equal to . . . . . \rightthumbsup ( ) . . . . 54 \rrbracket ( ) . . . . . \SAa (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . 109. . 87 \SAq (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \sagittarius ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAzd (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 41 41 46 62 43 43 33 33 71 71 18 47 76 76 33 42 41 43 43 43 75 22 33 47 42 41 44 18 64 66 22 23 76 76 42 73 88 33 33 d u . 19. . . . . . 87 \SAl (l) . . . . \rrfloor ( ) . \rightsquigarrow ( ) . . 36 \Scorpio (ç) . . . . \rsem ( ) . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAlq (‘) . . . . \rightrightarrows (Ñ) . . 75 \ScissorRightBrokenTop ( ) 75 scissors .. . 112 optical . 75 \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . .. . . . \rightModels ( ) . . .. . . . . 55 S \S (§) . . \rightmoon (v) .  \rmoustache () . . . . . . . 13 \rotw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . \rvert (|) . . 79. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Rrightarrow ( ) \Rrightarrow ( ) . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . \righttherefore ( ) . . . . . . 71 . \risingdotseq () \risingdotseq ( ) \risingdotseq ( ) \rJoin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 S \rwave ( ) . . . 80 \scalebox . . . . . . . . . . 57 \rrceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . see \models \Saturn (p) . \SAdd (B) . . . 68 \SAo (o) . . . \rightspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rwavy ( ) . . . . \rightp (w) . . 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. 13 \schwa (!) . . 100 scaling mechanical . . . 13 \schwa (e) . . . . . . . . ring (˚ . . . . . . . . . \Rightscissors (Q) . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Righttorque (') . \rip (y) . . . . . . . . . 56 \rightwave ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 53 42 43 53 72 \SAk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rotOmega () . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 103 rotated symbols . . 57 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \scr (t) . . . . 75 \ScissorLeft ( ) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . \rVert ( ) . . . math \sci (B) . .. . . . 75 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . a) ring equal to . . . \Rsh ( ) . 56 . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . \rightthumbsdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 103 rotating (package) . 13 I . \SAhu (I) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rotvara (e) .. . . . . . . \rightthreetimes (7) . . . . \SAga (G) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 satisfies . . . . . . . . . .. . . \rsemantic . 13 \rotr (r) . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightVdash ( ) . . . \SAd (d) . \riota ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \roty (y) . . . . . \rightthreetimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 73 \RoundedTsteel () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87. . . . 87 \SAn (n) . . . . . . . . . . \rightrightarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . 54 . 75 \ScissorLeftBrokenTop ( ) 75 \ScissorRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . 87 \SAz (z) . . . . . . . . . . \rightslice ( ) . . 72 \rotm (m) . . . . 58 see accents see \circeq see \eqcirc . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . 87 \satellitedish ( ) . . . . . . . . 87 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . 73 \RoundedTTsteel (ž) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \scorpio ( ) .

. . . 35 ) . . . . . . 17 \seModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 43 . . 21 \shortcastling (O-O) . . . . . 74 \SmallCircle ( ) . . . 17. . 115 \slashb (§) . . . . . . . . 42 \showclock . 103 \sharp ( ) . . . . . . 33 SGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ShortNinetyFive (Ô) . . . . . . . . 70 \shortrightarrow ( ) . 49 \sincoh (ˇ) . \sepitchfork ( ) . . . . . . 72 \shift (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 shuffle (package) . . . . . . . . 50 \sigmaup (σ) . . . . . 106 \scriptstyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 slashed (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \SmallDiamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \seppawns (q) . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 \scriptv (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . math \sefilledspoon ( ) . see \Searrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \SmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . 88 \sharp ( ) . 74 \smallbosonloopA () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seagull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \smallsetminus ( ) . . . . . . see \in union . . . . . . . . . . 79 \smallin ( ) . . . \separated ( ) . . 30 \simeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . see \S \SectioningDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 \smallsquare ( ) . . . . . 79 \smalltriangleleft (š) . . . . . . \SerialInterface (Î) \SerialPort (Ð) . . . . . . 13 \scy (“) . 49 \sdttstile ( ) . 66 \SmallLowerDiamond ( ) . . . . . . 25 \smalltriangleleft ( ) 25. 88 skak (package) . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . math \scripta (¡) . . . . . . . . 35 \textseagull . 105 slashed. . . . . . . . . . 30 \smallsmile ( ) . . . 93. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \sim (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \sespoon ( ) . . . . . 94. . . . . 105 slashed letters . . . 24 shuffle product ( ) . . 23. 47 set operators intersection . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . 13 \slashc () . . 105. . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \smallint ( ) . 74 \Shift ( Shift ⇑ ) . 36 \simcoloncolon (∼::) . . 41. . 119. . . . . . 66 \shfermion () . 78 sixteenth note . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . . 79 \SmallCross ( ) . . . . . 96. . . 79 \smalldiamond ( ) . . . 18 section mark . . 91 \shpos (´) . . \searrowtail ( ) \sec (sec) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \shortleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . 105 \slashu (…) . . . . . 70 \ShortPulseLow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \shortparallel ( ) . . 120 skull (package) . . see musical symbols semidirect products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \smalllozenge (◊) . . . . 46 \selectfont . 25 \smallstar ( ) . . 42 . see musical symbols \sixteenthnote ( ) . . . . . 89 . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 24. . . 36 \simeq ( ) . . . 78 \SixStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \Searrow ( ) . . . . . . 22 \smallsetminus ( ) . . . 33 \semodels ( ) . . . . 40 \SmallTriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 72 \Sigma (Σ) . . 33 \sefree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \ShortThirty (Û) . . . . . . . . . 13 \Sleet ( ) . 30 \smallfrown ( ) . . 79 \smallfrown ( ) . . 119. . 32 simplewick (package) . . . . . 42 \shortmid ( ) . . . angular . . \Sech (ˇ “) )= . . . . . 120 \shuffle ( ) . see \second \secstress (i) . . . . 13 \Scroll ( Scroll ) . . . . . . . . . . \searrow ( ) . 42 \ShortSixty (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . 24 \smallsmile ( ) . . . . . 49 X l 4 5 ¡ ¡ y) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \setminus ( ) . .sty (file) . . . \searrow (×) . . . . . 43 semibreve . . 21 \Shilling (¡) . . . . . . 43 \senwharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 sha ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \SI ( ) . 24 \seVdash ( ) . . 76 \smallprod ( ) . . . . . . . 33 semtrans (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \shortmid ( ) . . . . . . . . 90 \shortuparrow ( ) . . 43 . . . . . . 79 \smallowns ( ) . . . . . . . . . 93 \shortdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 32 \simcolon (∼:) . . . 42 \ShortFifty (×) . 72 \scu (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . 92 sedenions (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \SmallRightDiamond ( ) . . . . 74 \smallbosonloopV () . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 semantic valuation . . . . . . . . . 119. . . 52 \smallpencil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \sddtstile ( \sdststile ( \sdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \sefootline ( ) . 78 \SixteenStarLight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 ¡ \SePa ( @ ) . . . 105 \slashed . . 25 \smalltriangledown ( ) 25. . . . . 46 \seharpooncw ( ) . . . 66 seconds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \SixFlowerPetalDotted () \SixFlowerAlternate ( 78 78 78 78 \SixFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) 78 \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal ( ) . . . . . . . . . 13 \slashd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \selsquigarrow ( ) . . . 93 \slash (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . see \cap membership . 90 \shortparallel ( ) . . . . . . 16 ¯) \smallbosonloop () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 segmented digits . . . . 32 \sevdash ( ) . . 91 \sliding (a . . . . . . . 120 \skull ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \shneg (ˆ) . \SixFlowerAltPetal (…) . . . 13 \slashdiv ( ) . 25 ‘ v q u A  | ’ ( i  p (  P y d g f h e 154 . . . \searrow ( ) . . . . . 89 33 47 93 72 72 \sersquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 50 \sigma (σ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \smalltriangledown (™) . . . . . . 54–57 \semapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . 70 \seharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . .script letters see alphabets. . 50 \sim (∼) . . . . 32 \ShortPulseHigh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \SixFlowerOpenCenter (w) . . . . . 106 . . . 109 simpsons (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 = = = = \SechBl ( ˇ “ = ) = \SechBR ( ˇ “ = ) = ˇ “=) \SechBr ( ˇ \SechBL (= “ ) = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . 89 \second (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \sinh (sinh) . . . . 120 \senwarrows ( ) . . 96 \sin (sin) . . . 79 \smalltriangleright (›) . . . . . . . 13 \scriptg (() . . 104. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . 79 \smalltriangleup (˜) . . . . . 14. 13 \scriptscriptstyle . . 105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \sesearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \SmallTriangleRight ( ) . . 48 \SmallSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \SmallHBar ( ) . . 90 \ShortForty (Ù) . . . . . . . see \cup \setminus (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. . . . . . . . 25 \SmallTriangleDown ( ) . 25 \smalltriangleright ( ) 25. . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . 119 Simpsons characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 semiquaver see musical symbols semitic transliteration . . . . . . . . .

\sqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . \sqsubset (€) . 78 \starredbullet ( ) . . 37 . . . . . . . . \sqsmileeq ( ) . . . . . . . 72 \SOH ( ) . . 48 . . 37 . . √ \sqrt ( ) . . . . . 80 . . . 23 . 48 . 22 \sqcap ( ) . . \sqeqsmile ( ) . . . ... \sqsupsetneq (‰) . . . . . . . \sqSubset (”) . . . . . \smilefrown ( ) . . . . . 23 \sqcapdot ( ) . . 37 . . 48 . . 37 . . . . 80 \SquareShadowTopRight ( ) 80 \SquareSolid ( ) . . .. . \smileeq ( ) . . . .. . . 58 \splitvert (¦) . . . . 40 79 30 48 48 48 48 48 48 90 88 98 35 91 91 78 78 78 78 “ ’ A B \sqcupdot ( ) . . . . . . . \sqsupseteqq ( ) .. . . . . . \sqiiint ( ) . . . . . . .. 23 \sqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqsmilefrown ( ) . . . 28 . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . .\smalltriangleup ( ) . . . . . . . . 37 . . 80 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 23 10 10 \ssdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \SO ( ) . 73 k l m   ¡ h ¢ g j i \squarewithdots ( ) . . . . 48 . . 77 . . . \sqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 “special” characters . . . \squigarrownwse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \sqdoublecap (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textvisiblespace \Spacebar ( ) . . . . . . . . \smiley ( ) . . 108 standard state . . . \sqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . 19 statistical independence . \sqdoublefrown ( ) . . \Snowflake ( ) . . . . . . . . . 65–67. \SnowCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqdoublesmileeq ( ) \sqeqfrown ( ) . \sqint ( ) . . \sqsubsetneqq ( ) . . 23 ¡ • 25. .. 97 ) . 36 . 16 ˙ \sqbullet () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . \sqsubseteqq ( ) . . . . 24. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . \Square ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \SpinDown () . . . . 37 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . 72. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 37 . . . ) . . . . . . . \sqtriplefrown ( ) . . .. smile symbols . . . . \sqsupsetneq ( ) . . \sqsupset () . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . 88. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \smile ( ) . . . . 66 \sphericalangle ( ) . . . . . 37 36. . . . 106 \staveI ( \staveII ( \staveIII ( \staveIV ( \staveIX ( \staveL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. 48 . . . 27 . . 78 sparkles . . . . . . 90. . . 97 ) . . 77. . . . 37 . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . 37 . \sqtriplesmile ( ) . 35 \snttstile ( ) . . 104 \star ( ) . . . . . \sqdoublecup (•) . . . . . . . . . 80 \SquareCastShadowTopRight ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . \sqsupsetneqq ( ) . . . . .. 37 . . . . . . . . . . 79 \SquareShadowBottomRight ( ) . . ” \sqiint ( ) . . 80 \Squaredot (÷) . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . 80 \SquareShadowC ( ) . \sqfrowneqsmile ( ) . 90 \sphericalangle (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqsupset ( ) . . . . . 1   – ” \SNPP ( ) . . 77–79 \stater ( ) . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqiint ( ) . . . 66. . . .. . . 104. . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . 23 . . . . 36 . . . . . . 23 . . 80 \Squaresteel (“) . 21. . . . . . see \hksqrt \SquareCastShadowBottomRight ( ) . . . . . . 98 155 . \squigarrowswne ( ) . . . . . \squplus (“) . \sqsubset ( ) . . 101 . . . . . . . . . . \SmallVBar ( ) . . 79 . \Smiley (©) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 37 . . . . 22 \sqcup ( ) . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . B . . . . . \squigarrowupdown ( ) . 48 . . . . 65 \spadesuit (♠) . . 37 . . . . . . . . . 72 spoon symbols . \squigarrowdownup ( ) \squigarrowleftright ( \squigarrownesw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 \snststile ( ) . . . . \smilefrowneq ( ) . . . . . . . \square ( ) . . . . . \sqfrown ( ) . . .. . . . . . . . . › \sqint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 South Arabian alphabet . . . smiley faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . see \sqrt hooked . 72 spades (suit) . . . . 37 . . . . . \sqfrowneq ( ) . 78 \SparkleBold ( ) . . . . . . . . \Sqsupset ( ) . . 48 . . \sqfrownsmile ( ) . . . . . . . \Snow ( ) . . . . 94 \SquareShadowA ( ) . . . . . .. . . . \Square ( ) . . . . . 37 . 79 \SquareShadowB ( ) . . . \sqsubseteq („) . . \Sqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . \sqsubseteqq (Œ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . 23 \sqcap (‘) . . . . . . . . . \SnowflakeChevronBold ( snowflakes . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \star ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . \smileeqfrown ( ) . . . . \sqdoublefrowneq ( ) \sqdoublesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 Star of David . . \sqsupsetneqq (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \SquareCastShadowTopLeft ( ) . 48 . . . . . . .. . . . 42 \sslash ( ) . . . . 27 . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . 66 \Sparkle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 stars . . . . . . . 66 \square ( ) . . . . . . . . 22 \ssststile ( \sststile ( ) . . . . . . .. . .. . 21. . . . \sqsupseteq ( ) . . . 79 \SpinUp () . \square (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . \sqsmileeqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 66 \sphericalangle ( ) . . . . . . \sqsubsetneq (ˆ) . . . . . 9 \SpecialForty (Ú) . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \stackrel . . \ss (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 37 . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . 37 .. . . . . . 37 . \sqSupset (•) . \sqsupseteq ( ) . \sqsmile ( ) . vs. . \squigarrowrightleft ( \squigarrowsenw ( ) . . \sndtstile ( ) . . . . 23 \sqcap ( ) .. . 67 \squaredots ( ) . . . . . . . . \sqsupseteqq () . . . . . . \SnowflakeChevron ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 79–80. . . 23 \sqcapplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ssearrow ( ) . . . . 79 \SquareShadowTopLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . \sqsubseteq ( ) . 97 ) . . . \Square ( vs. . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . \sqsubsetneq ( ) .. 58 \spirituslenis (—) . . . . . . \SS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 . . 87 space thin . . . . . . . 35 \sswarrow ( ) . .. . . . . . . . 113 visible . . . . 79 – \spirituslenis (a) . . 80 \spadesuit (♠) . . . . . 35 \ssttstile ( ) . . . 23 \sqcup (’) . . . . . . . . . \Square ( ) . \sqcupplus ( ) . . 48 . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 47 \spreadlips (a) . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Squarepipe (—) . . . . 37 . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \smile ( ) . . . . . . . . \sqsupseteq (…) . . . 37 . H f f H . 23 \sqcapplus ( ) . . . \sqsubsetneqq () . 73 squares . . . . . \sqcupplus ( ) . . .. . . . .. 35 \sntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 square root . .. . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . .. . .

. 98 ) . . . 37 . . . . . . . see \pounds stick figures . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . \strictif ( ) . . . . . . 98 ) . subsets . . 98 ) . . . . . 98 ) . . 98 . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . \subcorner (a) . 97 ) . . . . 97 ) . . \succnsim ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . ˜ —) . . . . . 97 ) . . . . 97 ) . . . . \succsim (Á) . . . . . . . . . . \Subset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . . . . \StrokeThree ( ) \StrokeTwo ( ) . . \succnsim ( ) . \subset (€) . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . 91 \Stopsign (!) . . . . . . . 119 \staveV ( \staveVI ( \staveVII ( \staveVIII ( \staveX ( \staveXI ( \staveXII ( \staveXIII ( \staveXIV ( \staveXIX ( \staveXL ( \staveXLI ( \staveXLII ( \staveXLIII ( \staveXLIV ( \staveXLIX ( \staveXLV ( \staveXLVI ( \staveXLVII ( ) ) ) . \subsetneq (ˆ) . \Subset ( ) . . 32 . . . . . . . 87 \stigma (ϛ) . . . . 37 . \strokedint ( ) . . . . . \subseteqq (Œ) . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74  ) . . \subsetneqq ( ) . . . . . .. . . . ◦ \stst (− ) . . . . . 37 36. . . . 97 \staveXV ( ) . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . 53. . . . . . . . . \succsim ( ) . 36 . . \succapprox (Ç) . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . \succnsim (Å) . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . \subseteqq ( ) . . \subset (⊂) . . \subseteq (⊆) . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . 87 stmaryrd (package) 22. ^ \subdoublebar (a) . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . \StrokeFive ( ) \StrokeFour ( ) . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . 118–120 stochastic independence see \bot \StoneMan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 staves (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveLXVIII ( ) . \succnapprox ( ) . . 37 . . . . . \succcurlyeq ( ) . . . . . 101. . . . . . . 37 . . . . . 98 . 31. . . 98 \staveXVI ( \staveXVII ( \staveXVIII ( \staveXX ( \staveXXI ( \staveXXII ( ) ) . . . . 36 . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \succneqq ( ) . 98 ) . . \succ ( ) . . . . 32 . 37 . . . . \subsetneq ( ) . . . . . \subsetplus ( ) . . 36 . . \strictfi ( ) . . . . 104. . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. . 30 . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . 97 \staveXLVIII ( ) . . . . 32 . 37 . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . . . \succnapprox ( ) . . . . 97 ) . . 98 ) . . . . 98 ) . . 91 \StopWatchStart ( \stress (h) . . \succnapprox (Ë) . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . \subseteq (⊆) . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Steinmetz phasor notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \steaming ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 . . . . . . . . . . \succeqq ( ) . \subset (⊂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . 91 18 31 31 31 29 92 92 \STX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . \strictiff ( ) . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . 72 72 74 16 16 16 16 16 ) . . . . . . . . . . ¡ \subrptr (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \StrokeOne ( ) . . . . \succeq ( ) . . . . . . . 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . \succapprox ( ) . . . . . . 26. . . . 97 ) . 31 . 35 . . . . . 36 . . . "". . \succdot (Í) . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . \SUB ( ) . . . 98 ) . . . 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 staves . . . . . 67 steinmetz (package) 70. . 97. . . . . . 37 . . \subsetneq ( ) . . 98 \staveXXIII ( \staveXXIV ( \staveXXIX ( \staveXXV ( \staveXXVI ( \staveXXVII ( \staveXXVIII ( \staveXXX ( \staveXXXI ( \staveXXXII ( \staveXXXIII ( \staveXXXIV ( \staveXXXIX ( \staveXXXV ( \staveXXXVI ( \staveXXXVII ( \staveXXXVIII ( \stdtstile ( ) ) ) . . . . . \sublptr (a) . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ) . . . . 92 . . 98 ) . . . . . . \subsetneqq ( ) . . . 35 ) . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . 98 . . 42. . . . . 97 \StopWatchEnd ( ) . . . . \subsetneqq () . . . 98 ) . . . . . . \succneq (­) . . . . . . . 92 . . . 97 ) . \subseteqq ( ) . 97 ) . . . 97 ) . . 97 ) . \subsetpluseq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \stststile ( \sttstile ( \stttstile ( X XXX XX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . 98 ) . . subscripts ¿ new symbols used in \Subset (”) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Stigma (Ϛ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ) . . 105 . . . . 97 . . . . subatomic particles . \succcurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . ¯ \subdoublevert (a) . . . 98 ) . 98 ) . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . Y XXXX . . . . . \succ ( ) . . . . . . . 98 ) . 30 156 . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . 48. . . . . . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . \succapprox ( ) . . 34 . . . . 98 ) . 92 104 ) . . . . . . . . .\staveLI ( \staveLII ( \staveLIII ( \staveLIV ( \staveLIX ( \staveLV ( \staveLVI ( \staveLVII ( \staveLVIII ( \staveLX ( \staveLXI ( \staveLXII ( \staveLXIII ( \staveLXIV ( \staveLXV ( \staveLXVI ( \staveLXVII ( ) . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . \subseteq („) . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ) . 54. . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 sterling . . . . . . . . . . . . \succeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ) . . 98 ) . . 35 ) . .. . . . 36 . . . . . . . \succcurlyeq (¥) . 37 . . .

. 71 astrological . . . . . . . . . . . 80. 73 genealogical . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . 67 frown . 119 \symC ( ) . . 49. . . . . . 70 recycling . . . . 37 \supseteq (…) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . 11–14 physical . . . . . . . . . . . . 90–92 communication . . . . 73 computer hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \sympawn (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \t (a) . . . . 36 \supsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . −− \tabcolsep . . . . . . . . 43 \swarrow (Ö) . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . 93 inverted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteq (⊇) . . . . . . . . 71 \sun (☼) . . 36 \Supset ( ) . 70–74 TEXbook . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . 74 Phaistos disk . . 102 weather . . . . . 14 upside-down 11–13. . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supset (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetpluseq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Knuth’s . 51. . . . . . . 17. 103 safety-related . . . . . . . . . 107–109 Feynman diagram . . . . . . . 102. . . 51 . . 43 \swModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 113 box-drawing . . . 91 \Sun (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 such that . . . . . . . 30 reversed . . d) . . tacks . 51–53 life insurance . . . . . . . 37 supremum . . . . . 91 ancient language . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sim \swVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneq (‰) . 73 extensible . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . 90 informator . . . . . . . . . . 95 miscellaneous . . . 100. . . . . . 106. . . . . 91 \swpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . 71 symbols. . . . 46 \swharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 keyboard . . . 65–67. . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . 90 legal . 18. . . . 88. . 42 \Swarrow ( ) . . . . . 88 general . 103 rotated . . . 19. . . . . . . 46 swords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70–74 Simpsons characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 chess . . . . . . . . . . 70 pitchfork . . . . . . 98. . . . . . . . . . . . 63. . . . . . 107 \swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 cipher . . . . 81 pulse diagram . . . . . 11–14. 11–14 log-like . 21. . . . . . . 74 scientific . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . 88. \T ( ) . . 70. . 89 navigation . . 108 dictionary . . . . . 91 \Sun (d) . . 47 \swfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 \Sun ( ) . . . . 89 laundry . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 electrical . . . . . . . . . . 46 \swlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 mathematical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 non-commutative division 63 particle physics . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swneharpoons ( ) . . 108 APL . . . . 99 relational . 36. 47 staves . . . 52 linguistic . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Frege logic . . . \T (⊗) . . . . . 68 dangerous bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \supseteq (⊇) . . . . . . 48 gates. . . . . . . . . 70. 88 \SunCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Symbol (font) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 information . . 36 \supset (⊃) . 37 \supsetneqq (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–80 dot . . 68 \SYN ( ) . 89 metrical . 95 14. . . . . . . 81 phonetic . . . . . . . . . 89 definition . 72 contradiction . . . . . . . . 65. . . . 105 \suchthat (− ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66. . 88 Go stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 swung dash . . . . . . . . 68 \symAE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \sup (sup) . 37 ` \surd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 technological . 68 \symking (K) . . . . . . . . 104 .157 a \succsim ( ) . . . . . . . 36 \supsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 \swspoon ( ) . . . . . 25. 47 \swswarrows ( ) . . . 71 astronomical . . . 47. . . 68 \symB ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \swfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71. . . . . . . . . . . . 103 symbols actuarial . . . . . 37 \supsetplus ( ) . . . . . . 30. 65 \SurveySign ( ) . . . 48 spoon . . . . . . . . . . 18 \symA ( ) . . . 108 linear logic . . 43 \swfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . 37 \supset () . . . . . . 37 \supseteqq () . . . . . . 103. . 96 dingbat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59–63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Sun (À vs. . . . . 94 \symUE ( ) . . 11–13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteqq ( ) . . . 53. . 21. . 49 superscripts new symbols used in . . . . 33 \swvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . 113 Á Û Â logic . . . . . 33 \swmodels ( ) . 94 \symOE ( ) . . . 17. . . 68 \symbishop (B) . . . . 97 body-text . . . . . . 21–23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . 66 Pitman’s base-12 . . . 47. . 73 magical signs . . 33 \syl (a) . . . . . . 43 \swmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 98 clock . . . . . \t (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \SunshineOpenCircled ( ) . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–30. . 37 \Supset ( ) . . . 48 currency . . 94 \symrook (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 105 supersets . . . . . . 33 \swnearrows ( ) . . . . . .tex (file) . . . . . 37 \supsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 108 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . see \sup \Supset (•) . . . . . . . . 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–20 bold . . . 16 \syllabic (j) . . . . 68 musical . . 89 transliteration . . . . . 43 \swarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . 88–99 monetary . . . . 65 present value . . . . . . 29 \Summit ( ) . . 116 letter-like . 51. . 11–13. . . 64. . 72 Ã Ü Ý T \T . 29 \sumint ( ) . . . . 97 subset and superset 36. . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . 25 \sum (∑) . . . . . . 91 \Swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . . . . . . 42 \swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 18. 91 \SummitSign ( ) . . . . . . . 100. . 105 − \sum ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 91 zodiacal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29–30. . . 114 variable-sized . . . . . . 70 engineering . . . . . . 108 alpine . . . . . . 21–69 METAFONTbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \swharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . . 74 block-element . . 36 \supseteqq ( ) . . . t4phonet (package) 120 →→ \Tab ( −− ) . . . digital logic . . . . . . . . 81–87 annuity . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47     „ % \swrsquigarrow ( ) . 94 \symqueen (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \symknight (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 smile . 9. . . . 98 biological . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vs. . .

. . . . 88. . . 11 .\taild () . . . 95 \terminus (⊗) . . . \tailr (p) . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . 116 \textasciigrave ( ) . . . . . . . . 114. 15 a ¯ \textacutewedge (´) . 15 ffi \textaolig (") . . 85. . . . 91 see sha . . . . . . . 15 a ˙ \textdotbreve (˘) . . . . 50 . 18 \textbar (|) . . 18 \textasciimacron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . \textctyogh (ÿ) . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . . 88 \textdkshade ( ) . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . . \Takt . . . . . 20. .. . . . . . . . . . . \Tape ( ) . . 11 \textbackslash (\) . 11 \textcolonmonetary (₡) . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . . .. \tan (tan) . . . . 20 \textbktailgamma (. . . 20 \textdiv (÷) . . \textcrd (ą) . 11 \textbarl (ł) . . 111–113. . . . . \textctz (ý) . . 9 \textbraceright (}) .. . . . . . . \textdaggerdbl (‡) . 15 a \textdoublevbaraccent (a) . . . . . . . . . .dvi (file) . . . . . . .. . . \tcpertenthousand ( \tcperthousand (‰) . . . 18. 116 \textbullet (•) . . . . . . 18 \textacutemacron (´) . 11 . . . . 116 \textasciitilde (˜) 9. . 115. . . 11 \textcloseomega (Ñ) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \textdiscount ( ) . . 9. . . . . . . 112 symbols from . . . \textcypr . . . . . . 11 \textbigcircle (○) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 testfont. . . . . . . 71 see \top . . . . . . 115 \textbaht ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbaro (8) . . 95 \tesh () . . . . . . . . 95 \Terminus* (⊕) . . 18 \textdollaroldstyle () . . .. \textdagger (†) . 14 . . . . . 11 \textbarg (g) . . 98 Tennent. 105. . \textctturnt (@) . . . . . 73 \Telephone ( ) . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . 12 \textbeta (B) . . . . . . 65 . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . 15 a) ˙ \textcloseepsilon (Å) . . 122 TEXbook. . . . . . . . . . \tailn (W) . \tailinvr (r) . . \textcrh (è) . . . . . . . . . .) . . . . . . . . 11 . . 11 \texteightoldstyle () . 11 18. \Taurus () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textcrh (§) . . . . . . . . . . \tails (v) . . 117 \textasteriskcentered (∗) . 116 \textcentoldstyle () . . . . . . . 57. . 17 ¼ \textdoublevertline (Ş) . . 65 . . . . . . . 120 TEX . . . The 103–107. . . . . 11 . . . . 86 . . . 11 \textcent (¢) . . . . . . . . \textctc (C) . . 12 \textdctzlig (dý) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textasciiacute ( ) . . . . \tccentigrade ( ) . . . . . . 12 . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . 11 \textbari (1) . 15 < \textbraceleft ({) . . 11 . . 11 \textdzlig (dz) . 11 . \tauup (τ) . . . . 95. . . . 11 / \textdoublegrave (‚) . . 95 \terminus* (⊕) . . 89 \textdblhyphen ( ) . 92 \Telephone ( ) . . . \textcurrency (¤) . . . . . . 65 . \tddtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9. . . . 14 . . \taurus ( ) . . 67. . . . . . . 112 \tetartemorion (Β) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textdong (₫) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textdoublevbaraccent (İ) . . . 97. . . . 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 89 22 92 49 49 80 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . \td (a) . Tate-Shafarevich group \tau (τ ) . 11 . . 11 \textcloserevepsilon (Æ) . . 18 \textdotacute (§) .. . . . 65 ) . . . . . . . 9. \textctjvar (2) . . . . .. . . . . 65 . . . 15 a ¯ \textbrokenbar (¦) . . 117 \textceltpal ( ) . . . . . \Taurus (á) . . . . . . . \tailz (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 11 \textcelsius ( ) . . . . . . .. . . \textcttctclig (ťC) . . . . 115. . . 18–20. . . . . . 67 \textdivorced ( ) . \textctstretchcvar (&) \textctt (ť) . 15 a \textdoublegrave (a) . . . . 12 . 11 \textbenttailyogh (B) . . 11 \textbarc (c) . . . . . 11 \textbeltl (ì) . . \textctinvglotstop (D) \textctj (J) . 64. . . . . . 11 . . . . . \textcrinvglotstop (Û) \textcrlambda (ň) . . . . . . . . . . . \textctd (ć) . . . . 11 \textdegree (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bob . 15 a \textcircumdot (ˆ . . 9. . 35 \tdttstile ( technological symbols . . 11 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .tex (file) . . . . 19 \textcircumacute (Ż) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 testfont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textcrd (ž) . 70. . . . . . . . 116 \textcorner (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \textcopyright (©) . . . . . . . . . \textctdctzlig (ćý) . . . 12 \textdoublebarslash (=) . . . . . 70–74 \Telefon (T) . . . 12 . 20 \textdblhyphenchar ( ) . . . . 9 \textbrevemacron (˘) . . . . . . . 14. . . 21. . . . . \tcohm (Ω) . . 11 \textcircled ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textdnblock ( ) . 11 textcomp (package) . . . . 15 a \textdoublebaresh (S) . 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . \tdststile ( \tdtstile ( ) – . . . . . . 17 Ÿ \textdoublepipe ({) . . . . . 111. . . 18 \textchi ( . . . . . . . 41. 109. . . . 70. . 11 . . 11 \textcrb (ă) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 11 . . . . \taill (H) . . . . . . 97 \textdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . 103–109. . . 11 \textdyoghlig (Ã) . . . . . . . . 9. 12 \textdownstep (Ť) . . . . . . . . . 117. . . . . . . . . \textctstretchc (%) . . . . . . . . . . . \textcrg (g) . . . 70. . 114 \textbarb (b) . 21 \Tent ( ) . . 117 \textasciidieresis ( ) 18. . . . . 11 . 15 a ˇ \textadvancing (a) . 18. 9. 64. 115 \textasciimacron ( ) 18. . . . . . . . 18 \textasciicircum (ˆ) . . . \tailt (€) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \textbottomtiebar (a) . 11 \textbard (d) . . . . . . . . . \talloblong ( ) tally markers .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . 11 \textdoublebarpipe (}) . . . . . . . . . .. . . 11 \textdownarrow (↓) . . . . 115. . . . . . 9. . 12 \textblank ( ) . 11 \textdoublepipevar (G) . .. . 9. . 67. 91 \Terminus (⊗) . . 20 \textblock ( ) . . 11 \textbardbl ( ) . 119. . . . . . 119 \textcopyleft ( ) . . . . . 11 \textbaru (0) . . . . . . . . . 40. 47. . . 11 \textbarrevglotstop (Ý) . . . . . 20 \textbardotlessj (é) . . . . . . 9. . .. 11 . 41 \textdownfullarrow (ˇ) .  \Taschenuhr ( ) . . . . . . . 20 ) \textdbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.. . . 20 \textbabygamma (È) . . 11 . . . 19 teubner (package) 19. \textctesh (š) . . 116 . . . . . . . . . . . 118. . . . . . tautology . . 14 \textcircledP ( ) . 11 . 97 \textborn ( ) . 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . 18 \textcommatailz (Þ) . 89 \text . . . . . . . . 20 158 . 106 \textacutedbl ( ) . . . . . 20 \textdblig ()) . . . . . \textctn (ő) . . . . . . 116 @ @ ( \textasciibreve ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textasciicaron ( ) . . . . 116 \textdied ( ) . . . . . . \tanh (tanh) . . . . . 87. . . . . . . \textcrtwo (2) . . . . 20. 117 \textbullseye (ò) . . . . . . . 16 . . 11 \textbarglotstop (Ü) . . . . . . . 11 \textdoublebarpipevar (H) . . . . \tcmu (µ) . . . . . .

. . 11 \textrevepsilon (3) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textiota (à) . 9 \textemdash (—) . . 11 \texthardsign (ż) .) . 20 . . \textltilde (ë) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \texthmlig (4) . 15 „ \textiota (Ì) . . 11 \textless (<) . . . . . . . . . 114 \textrbrackdbl ( ) . 114 \textlbrackdbl ( ) . . . . . 12 \textquestiondown (¿) . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 a — \textoverw (a) . . . \textlonglegr (Ô) . 11 \textpalhooklong (ˆ) . . . . 20. 82 \textpolhook (a) . 11 \texthtb (á) . . . . . 57 . \textlhookt (ş) . . . . 11. . . . 117 \textpeso ( ) . . . . . . . 11 \textglotstopvari (T) . . . 12 \textinvscr (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textlhtlongi (ę) . . . . . 116 . . . . . 11 \texthth (H) . . . . . . 12 . . 9. . . . . . . \textohm (Ω) . 12 \textglobrise (Ű) . . . . 12 \textglotstop (P) . . . . . 11 \textopeno (O) . 11 \textraising (a) . \textOlyoghlig (ŋ) . . . . . . 11 . 15 ffl \textretractingvar (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \textretracting (a) . . . . . . . 9 \textepsilon (E) . . 114 \textquotedblleft (“) . . . . 68 \textgravecircum (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtc (°) . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textmidacute (Ÿ) . . 20 \textraiseglotstop (ij) . . . . . . . \textnumero (№) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textglobfall (Ů) . . . . . . . . . 19 \texteuro ( ) . . . . 20 \textopencorner (_) . . \textlooptoprevesh (>) \textlowering (a) . . 12 . . 11 85. 20 . 11 \textrevscl (v) . 9 \textquoteleft (‘) . . . . . . . . . 12 \texthtc (Á) . . \textlquill ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \textreversedvideodbend ( ) . . . 11 \texthtrtaild (č) . . . 97 \textlfishhookrlig (I) . . . . 19. 14 \textflorin (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \textleaf ( ) . . . . . 9. . 14 \textordfeminine (ª) 9. . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . 11 \texthtd (¡) . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . \textlnot (¬) . . . . . . 15 a \textgravemacron (`) . . . . . . 41 \textlengthmark (:) . . . . 11 \texthtb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \textovercross (‰) . . . . . . 12 \textfrhookt (?) . . . . . \textlinb . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \textqplig (=) . . . . . . . \textltailn (ñ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \textltailm (M) . 18 \texthalflength (. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 a ¯ \textgravemid (Ź) . . . . . . . . . 20 \textfractionsolidus (⁄) . . . 15 . . 114 \textlfblock ( ) . 67. . . . . 9 \textquotedbl (") . . . . . . fl \textlptr (¡) . . . 14 \texthtd (â) . . 11 \textifsym . . 12 \texthooktop (#) . . . 11 \texthtp (±) . . . . 15 a \textgravedbl ( ) . . . . . 21 \textregistered (®) 9. . . 89 \textrevglotstop (Q) . . 14 . 12 \textinvsca (p) . . 114 \textgrgamma (. . 11 \textinvscripta (!) . . . 14 \texthtq (Ó) . . . \textltailn (©) . . . . 15 a \textgreater (>) . . . \textlhookp (<) . . . 9. . 18 \textfouroldstyle () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ˛ \textprimstress (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 67. . \textmusicalnote (♪) . 11 . . 117 \textexclamdown (¡) . . . 70 \textinterrobang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \textpertenthousand ( ) . . \textlira (₤) . . . . . . . . . . . . \textomega (ř) . . . \textlhtlongy (ű) . . . . . 12 \textfiveoldstyle () . . . . 14 \textlambda (ń) . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textendash (–) . . . \textmarried ( ) . . . . . . . 11 . 70 . 20 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textfishhookr (R) . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 11 . 12 \textinvsubbridge (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textquoteright (’) . . . . . 11 \textpilcrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textquotesingle (') . . 15 . . . . . . 20 \textperiodcentered (·) . . . 14 \texthtbardotlessj (ê) . 12 \textesh (¬) . . . . 70 . . . 116 \textpmhg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textlangle (〈) . . . \textlyoghlig (Ð) . 88 \textleftarrow (←) . 12 \textg (ě) . . 11 \textepsilon (¢) . . . . . 12 \textreferencemark ( ) 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textglotstopvariii (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\textellipsis (. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textproto . . . 20 \textinvglotstop (Û) . . . . . . 12 \textgoth . . . . . . 116 \textonesuperior (¹) . . 15 fi \textramshorns (7) . . . . . . . 11 \textraisevibyi (ğ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textpalhookvar (˜) . . . 11 . . . . 11 \textheng (0) . a \textminus (−) . 97 . 11 \texththeng (Ê) . . . . . . . . 20 \textfjlig () . 114 \textquotestraightbase ( ) 20 \textquotestraightdblbase ( ) . . . . 116 \textoneoldstyle . . 12 \textfrhookdvar (() . . . 67 70. . . . . . . . . 20 \textonequarter (¼) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrangle (〉) . . . . . . . . . 57. . . . . 12 \textparagraph (¶) . 20. 20. . . . . . . . . 11 . 12 . 57 \textrecipe ( ) . . . . . 14 \textesh (S) . . . . . . . . 9 \textfemale (7) . . 68 \textfrbarn (5) . . . . . . . \textlhookfour (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 116 . . . . . 14 \texthtg (ä) . . 11 . . . . 12 \textfrtailgamma (-) . 11 . . . . . 15 \textpalhook (%) . . . . . . \textnaira ( ) . . . . . . . . . 18 \textgravedot (đ) . . . \textObardotlessj (Í) \textObullseye (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 . 115.) . . . . . . . \textltshade ( ) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textquotedblright (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrevapostrophe (\) . 14 \texthvlig (ß) . . . . 11 \textpipe (|) . . 12 159 . 11 \texthtscg (É) . . . . . . 11 \textopeno (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtp (Ò) . . . . . . . 14 \textpipevar (F) . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . \textmu (µ) . . . 11 \texthtt (Ö) . . . . 116 \textopenbullet (◦) . . . . . 20 \textinterrobangdown ( ) . . 12 \textlhdbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtk (¨) . . . . . . . . . 14 \textestimated (℮) . . . . 11 \texthtbardotlessjvar (3) . . . 18 \textphi (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 . . . 11 \texthtt (º) . . . . . . 102 \textrectangle (¨) . . . . . \textlhti (1) . . \textonehalf (½) . . . . 12 \textpm (±) . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . 18 \texteuro (€) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. . 11 \textinvomega (. . . \textmho ( ) . . . . . . . . . 20 \texteuro ( ) . . . . . 116 \textordmasculine (º) . . . . 20 \textoneoldstyle () . . . 11 \textreve (9) . . . . 11 . . . . . 12 \textfrhookd (’) . . . . 11 \texthtk (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. 20 \textperthousand (‰) 20. . . 18 67. . . . . . . . 12 \textguarani ( ) . . . .) . . 67 \textfrak . . . . . 12 \textgamma (G) . . . . . . 67. . . . . . . . . . \textnineoldstyle () \textnrleg (6) . 12 \textglotstopvarii (U) . . . . .

. . 16 ˇ \textsuperimposetilde (a) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 — \textsubwedge (a) . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. \textrightarrow (→) . . . \textrtaild (ã) . .. . . . . .. . \textscriptg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \textuncrfemale (8) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 97 \textSFxxii ( ) . . . . . 68 \textsyllabic (a) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxiv ( ) . . . . . . . .. . 16 \textsurd (√) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. \textrevyogh (ź) . . 91 \textthorn (þ) . . . . . . .. . . \textscoelig (Œ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFix ( ) . . . . . . \textrquill ( ) . . . . . \textscu (Ú) . . 18 \textstretchc (Â) . . . . .. . . . . 11 \textturnsck (u) . . . . . 15 \textsubdot (a) ˆ . . 11 \textvbaraccent (IJ) . \textscr (ö) . . . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubumlaut ˜ ) . 97 \textSFxi ( ) . . 11 \texttoptiebar (> . . . . . 97 \textSFxxiii ( ) . . . . .. . . . 97 \textSFxliii ( ) . . . . . . . . 15 “ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textthornvarii (Q) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnglotstop (E) . 97 \textSFxxxix ( ) . . . 97 \textSFxliv ( ) . . . . 9 \textuparrow (↑) . . . . . . . . . . . . \textSFiii ( ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . 15 ” \textsubcircum (a) . . 15 \textsubtilde (a) . . . . . 97 \textSFvii ( ) . . . . . . . . . \textrtailz (ü) . \textrtaill (í) . .. . 97 \textSFxxviii ( ) . \textscq (y) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnscripta (6) . . \textrtailr (ó) . . . . ˙ \textsubdoublearrow (˙) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlix ( ) . . . . . . . . . .\textrevscr (z) .. . . . . . 105. \textseagull (a) . 106. . 97 \textSFli ( ) . . . 97 \textSFl ( ) . 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 41 15 15 12 57 12 14 12 12 11 11 11 11 14 11 97 11 12 87 11 12 11 12 11 12 11 11 11 14 11 11 12 11 12 11 11 11 12 12 11 11 11 11 14 11 11 15 11 20 19 20 97 97 97 \textSFiv ( ) . . . . \textscriptv (V) . . . . 97 \textsixoldstyle () . . . . . . . . 11 \textturna (5) . . . . a \textrptr (¿) . 12 \textstyle . . . . \textringmacron (˚) . . 16 a \textvbaraccent (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. \textscdelta (r) . . . . 16 a) \texttrademark (™) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFv ( ) . . . . . . . 11 \textthing ( ) . . . . . \textsce (ď) . . 97 \textSFxlvi ( ) . . . . . . . . 20 \textthreequarters (¾) 67. . 11 \textturnm (W) . . 11 \textturnscu ({) . . . .. .. . 97 \textSFvi ( ) . . 97 \textupfullarrow (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . \textscg (å) . . . 11 \textturnmrleg (î) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 11 \textstretchcvar ($) . . . . . . . . . . 12 160 . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFlii ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textrthook ($) . \textscl (Ï) . .. . . . . .. . . \textrthooklong (´) . . . . . . . \textrhoticity (~) . . . \textscm (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \texttwooldstyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textscb (à) . . . . 97 \textSFxxv ( ) . . . 20. . \textsch (Ë) . . . . . 14 \texttheta (T) . . . . \textrhooke (*) . . . . . . 11 \textspleftarrow (˝) . . . . . . . . 9. . . .. . . . . . \textrtails (ù) . . 11 \textturnr (ô) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 20 \texttwooldstyle () . . . 12 \textturnv (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . 12 \textthornvariv (S) . . . 15 » \textsubrightarrow (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlvii ( ) . 11 \textupstep ( ) . . . 15 ff \textsubrhalfring (a) . . . . . . . . 19. . . . \textscriptv (¬) . . 16 ˙ \texttildelow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textteshlig (Ù) . . 11 \textturnk (ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxx ( ) . . . . . . \textscripta (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texttwelveudash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textrhooka ( ) .. . . . . . \textrhookopeno (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxxvi ( ) . . . . . . . .. \textrhookrevepsilon (Ç) \textrhookschwa (Ä) . . . 11 \textturnlonglegr (Õ) . . . . . . . . .. . 97 \textSFxxxviii ( ) . . . . . . \textscy (Y) . \textsca (À) . . . . \textschwa (@) . 16 & \textsuperscript . . . . . . . . . . . \textsubw (a) . .. 97 \textSFxlviii ( ) . . . . . . . ... . . . \textrtaild (ð) . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnt (Ø) . .. . . . . . . . 15 ˚ « \textsubsquare (a) . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . .. \textsck (t) . . . . . 97 \textSFxl ( ) . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlv ( ) . . . 20 \textsoftsign (ž) . . . 12 \textthreeoldstyle () . . . . .. . . . 117 \texttslig ( ) . . 11 \textturncelig (ŕ) . . . . . . . . . 116 \textthreequartersemdash () . . . . . . \textsevenoldstyle () . . . . . . \textsection (§) . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . 11 \textturnthree (C) . . . \textscn (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxvii ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \textscaolig (q) . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \textsubacute (a) . . . . . . . . 11 \textturny (L) . . . . \textsecstress ( ) .. . . 67 \texttoneletterstem (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \textswab . . . . . . 97 \textSFxli ( ) . . . . . .. . a ¯ \textroundcap (“) . \textSFii ( ) . . . . . . . . 11 \textthornvari (P) . . . 97 \textSFliv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textvibyi (ğ) . . 12 \textsterling (£) . . . . . 11 \textteshlig (œ) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnw (û) . . . . .. . . . \textscf (s) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textunderscore ( ) . . 97 \textSFxxxvii ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textscj (ĺ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxvi ( ) . . 12 \textturntwo (A) .. . . . 15 \textsubbar (a) ¯ \textsubbridge (a) . \textrhookepsilon (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textrtailt (ú) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textthornvariii (R) . . . . 17 ¿ \textvertline (Š) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 – \textsubplus (a) . . \textrtailn (ï) . . 9. . . 115 \texttimes (×) . \textschwa (¡) . . . . 20 \texttwosuperior (²) . . . . 67. . . . . . . . . . 20 \textthreesuperior (³) 67. . . . . \textrtailt (») . . . . 97 \textSFx ( ) . \textSFi ( ) . . . . . . . . . \textsci (I) . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlii ( ) . . . 116 \texttildedot (˜ a) . . . . . 97 \textSFxix ( ) . . . . . . . . . 15 ‹ \textsublhalfring (a) . . . . . . . 12 \textsubring (a) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . \textrtailhth (/) . . \textscomega (ś) . . . . . . . 12 \textturnh (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnrrtail (õ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textsarab . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 " \texttctclig (tC) . 9. . .. . . . . . . 97 \textSFviii ( ) . . \textscp (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textsubgrave (a) . ¨ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textservicemark ( ) . .. . \textrtblock ( ) . .. . 12 \textvibyy (ů) . 15 (a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFliii ( ) . 12 \textupsilon (U) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \textupblock ( ) . .. . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textshade ( ) . . . 15 › \textsubarch (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ..

. . 32 torus (T) . 35 . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . 64 \Thermo . . . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . 59. . . 52. . . . . . . . . . . . 14 transpose . . . . . 105 \top ( ) . . . . . . . 120 \TwelweStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \triangleright ( ) . . . 91 \textxswup ( ) . . . . . see check marks tilde 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \twoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . 18 \textwynn ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ubarsbrevis (φ) \ubrevislonga (κ) ubulb. . . . . 112 117. . . . . . . see \texttrademark \TransformHoriz ( ) . . 113 \ThinFog ( ) . . . 20. . . . . . 41. 27. . . 36 transforms . . . . 40 \trianglerighteqslant ( ) 40 triangles . . . . . . . . . 14 \textzerooldstyle () . 12 \textxswdown ( ) . . . see \textperthousand ∼ \threesim (∼) . . . . . . 24. . . 52 \topbot (⊥) . . 107 \topdoteq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \thinstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \udots ( ) . . . . ) \ubar (u) . . . 118 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \uhorn (ư) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \trianglelefteq ( ) . 44 \twonotes ( ) . 79 \triangleright (™) . . 101 \TriangleUp ( ) . . 35 \tntstile ( ) . . . . . 12 \textyogh (¶) . . . . . 59 \Tumbler () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . 40 \triangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . .fd (file) . . . . . . . 42. . . . 103. . 101 \TriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . 115 extensible . . . . . . 92 \timelimit (T) . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 type1cm (package) . . . . . . ¼ \u (˘) . . . 61. . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \TH (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \triangleq ( ) . H`n Th´ . . . 31. . . . 55 \ullcorner ( ) . . 95 \ttdtstile ( \ttststile ( \tttstile ( \ttttstile ( ) ) . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . 44 \twoheadnearrow ( ) . . . . . . . 95 \tsststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . 73   ¢ Q o Q o P  TUGboat . see accents a trfsigns (package) 36. . . . . . . . . . 30. . 10. . . . . 105. . . . 40 \triangleright ( ) . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \thickvert (~) . . . . . . . 50–52. . . 66 \triangledown ( ) . . . 119. . . . . . 13 . . 15–16. . 35 \to . . . . . . . . . . . 48 trsym (package) . . . . . . . . 57 \triplefrown ( ) . . 107 \tildel (E) . . 30 \thicksim (∼) . . . . 59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . 41 \twoheadrightarrow ( ) . . . 68. 9 \textwon ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36–38. . . . 13 thousandths . . . 73. . . . . . . . 95 . 90 trademark . . . . . . . . see alphabets. 24 . . 13 \thorn (f) . . see \pitchfork trema (¨) . . . 18. . \udesc (u) . . 100 Type 1 (font) . . . . . math \ToTop (¼) . . 94 \TriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 116 \textyogh (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \trianglelefteqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . 35 ) . 102. 18. . . . . . . . 32 \therefore (∴) . 102 timing (package) . . . 91 \textyen (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \TriangleRight ( ) . . . . \UB (< . 21. . . 40 \trianglerighteq () . 55 thin space . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . 48 \triplesim ( ) . . . . . . . . ˘ \U (a) . . . 48. . . . . . . . . . . . 66. . . 64 . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . . 78 twiddle . . . . . 44 \twoheaduparrow ( ) . . . . . 119 \triangle ( ) . 53 \ulcorner ( ) . . . 63. . . . 61 vertically centered . . . . . . . . . 91. 95 \tsmm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \twoheadswarrow ( ) . . . 55 \ulrcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 40 triangle relations . . . . . . 65 \triangle ( ) . 72 . . . . . 79–80. . . . . . . . . 14–17. . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ∼ tick . . . . . . 64 \therefore (∴) . 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . see musical symbols \Thorn (Þ) . . \ubarbbrevis (ε) \ubarbrevis (δ) . . . . 63 \TransformVert ( ) . . . . . . 120 \tsbm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \TriangleDown ( vs. . . . . . . . . . . . 90 turnstile (package) . . . . . . . 55 ulsy (package) . . . 35 \tsmb ( ) . . . . . see \rightarrow \ToBottom (½) . . 17 transliteration symbols . . . \udotdot ( ) . . . . . 35 \tnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 transliteration semitic . . . . . . 13 \thorn (p) . . 93 \times (×) . 66 thirty-second note . ) . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . ucs (package) . . . ) . 51. . . 88 txfonts (package) . . . . a \UArrow ( ↑ ) . . . . . . 40 \TriangleLeft ( ) . . . . . 80 \triangledown ( ) . . . . . 70 tipa (package) 11. . . 18. . . . . . \ulcorner ( ) . . . . . 35 \Tsteel (œ) . . . . 39 \trianglerighteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 40 \trianglelefteq ( ) . 24 Times Roman (font) . . 35 \tnststile ( ) . 13 time of day . \UHORN (Ư) . . . . 13 . . 21–23. . . . . 119. . . . 39. 40 \TriangleDown ( ) . . 10. \udtimes ( ) . . . . . 116 Th`nh. . . . . 90 \tone . . . . 35 161 . . . . . . . . 40 \trianglelefteq (œ) . . . 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \udot (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \thetaup (θ) . . see accents a \tsdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . 107. . 80 \triple . . . . . . 25 \third (Q) . . . . 120 tipx (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. . . . . 65. . 41 \twoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . . . 79 \triangleleft (˜) . . . . 95 111. . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . 119 \Umd ( a) . . . . . . . . 89 umlaut (¨) . . . . . . . . 48. . . . . 13 \thorn (þ) . . . . . 39 \triangleq ( ) . . . 22 transversal intersection . 44 \twoheadsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \TTsteel (š) . . . . . . . . . 112 t R n I n I U \U (a) . 12 \top ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Theta (Θ) . . . . . see tilde \twoheaddownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 107 a a ˆ e \therefore (T) . . .\textvisiblespace ( ) . . . . . . . . 50 \thething ( ) . . . . . 44 \twoheadnwarrow ( ) . 35. . 22 \triangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . 40 \trianglerighteq ( ) . 11. . . . . . . . . . 57. . 79 \TriangleUp ( vs. . . . . 120 \tndtstile ( ) . 115 \tilde (˜) . . . 119. . . . . 50 \theta (θ) . . . . . 22. . 66. . . . . 39. . . . . . . 39. . . . . . 91 \thickapprox (≈) . . . . . 116 \th (þ) . . . . 40 \triangleeq ( ) . . . . 33 \triplesmile ( ) . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \times (×) . . . . . \ulcorner (x) . . . . . . 44 \twoheadrightarrow ( ) . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . . 73 \tststile ( \tsttstile ( ) . . . . 95 . . . . . . . . . . .

23 \unrhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . 60 ) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 93 107 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 121 \ushort ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \updownarrows (Ö) . 44 \upModels ( ) . . . . 16 ˜ UTF-8 .. . . . . 18 \underwedge (}) . 88 \Uparrow (⇑) . . 108. . . . . 51 upright Greek letters . 24 Utopia (font) . . 51 \upsigma (σ) . .. . . . . 61 \ushortdw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 44 \updownarrow ( ) . . 41 \upharpoonright (æ) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . math \unitedpawns (u) . . . . . . . . . \upvarpi (ϖ) . . . . . 51 \upbracketfill . 40 \unrhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . 115 \US ( ) . . \varangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see underline underscore (package) . . . . \varcurlyvee ( ) › . . . 21. . . . 39.  \underbrace (lo mo n) o o \underbrace ( \underbrace ( . . \upzeta (ζ) . . 59. . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \updownharpoons ( ) . . . . \varbigcirc ( ) \VarClock ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \upslice ( ) . . . . . . . 33 \updownline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . 18 \undergroup (lo o n) . . . . \upvarsigma (σ) . . . . . 24 \utimes ( ) . . 21 . 60 59 47 47 59 61 59 60 \underleftarrow (←) . math universa (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 \upchi (χ) . . . . . . . 51 \upomega (ω) . . . . . . . . \upvarphi (ϕ) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \upbar . . . . \underaccent . 55 url (package) . . . . . \Upxi (Ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . 109 \underrightarrow (− ) . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . 9 \underset . 51 \uprsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 51 \uppitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \updownarrows ( ) . . \upvarrho (ρ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 33 \upmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. 51 \Upomega (Ω) . . . . \upsilonup (υ) . . . 103 \Upsigma (Σ) . . . . . .. . . . 41. . . . 50. . .. . . \underline ( ) . 119. . . \uranus ( ) . 51 \upeta (η) . . . 51 \upphi (φ) . . . . 100 \uparrow (↑) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \upharpoonright ( ) . . . . 77. 54 \Uparrow (⇑) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \underbrace ( ) .. . . \upsilon (υ) . . . . . . . . . . \Uranus (q) . . . . . 17. . . . 39. . . 41 \upiota (ι) . . . . . 16 \uplsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 \upharpoonccw ( ) . \uptodownarrow (þ) \upuparrows (Ò) . . 67 unity (1) . . . . . . \upuparrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \ut (a) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . \unclear (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upkappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97. 51 \Upsilon (Υ) . . . 119. . . . . . . . \varclub ( ) . . . . 119.unary operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Uptheta (Θ) . . .. 51 \upnu (ν) . . . . . . 16 \upbeta (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \updownharpoonleftright ( ) 46 \updownharpoonrightleft ( ) 46 \updownharpoons (ê) . . . . . 60 ) . . . . 33 \upfree ( ) . \upuparrows ( ) . . 51 \Updownarrow ( ) . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . \upvarepsilon (ε) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 undertilde (package) 61. . . . . . . . . . . 33 \upepsilon (ε) . . . \upupsilon (υ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \uppropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \uparrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ushort (package) . . . . . . . . . 120 universal (package) 75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \cup unit disk (D) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 54. . . . . . . . . 41. . . . − \underleftharp ( ) . . . . 59 → \underrightharp ( ) . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 50 50 50 25 47 18 51 64 51 51 42 42 41 44 43 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 33 33 51 51 24 51 71 71 71 53 53 \urcorner ( ) . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \upfootline ( ) . see alphabets. . \upY ( ) . . . . . . . . . \upVdash ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . 51 upgreek (package) . 117 \utilde ( ) . . . 115 \uprho (ρ) . . . . . . 46 \Updownline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \underleftharpdown ( ) . . .. . . 54 \updownarrow (↕) . .. . . 51 \uppsi (ψ) . . . . . . 18 underscore . . . . . . 33 \Uppsi (Ψ) . . . . . . . 51 upquote (package) . . . . . 51 \upfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \underring (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117. 118 utf8x (inputenc package option) . \upupharpoons (Ú) \Upupsilon (Υ) . a \vara (—) . . . . . \uptherefore (∴) . . . . . . . . . 51 \Updelta (∆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \uplus () . . . . \upvdash (⊥) . . 51 \Uppi (Π) . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 upside-down symbols 11–13. 46 \upharpooncw ( ) . \uptheta (θ) . . . . 90. . . . 90. . . . . . . \underarc (a) . 18. . . 18 \upparenthfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \uplus ( ) . 18 Unicode . . . . . . . . 40 \upalpha (α) . 59 . . 109 \Upphi (Φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \underarch (a) . . . . \upt (l) . . . . . . . 61 \utimes ( ) . . . . . . . \urcorner (y) . . . . . . . . . . . \upxi (ξ) . . . . . 23 \unlhd ( ) . see alphabets. .. . . . . . 51 \UParrow ( ) . . . . . . . .. . 24 \upmapsto ( ) . . \underlinesegment ( ) . . . . . . . . 61 \ushortw ( ) . . . .. . 33 \upmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 \underbracket ( ) \underbracket ( ) \underdots (r) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \uppi (π) . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . 51 \upgamma (γ) . 72 \usepackage . 93 units (package) . 120 \undertilde (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \upharpoonleft ( ) . . 51 \uplett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \updelta (δ) . . . . . . 23 \uplus ( ) . . . 51 \upp (t) . . . . . . 51 \Uplambda (Λ) . . . . . . 51 \uplambda (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varclubsuit ( ) \varcoppa (ϙ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \upspoon ( ) . . . . .. . . . . . . . 117–118 union . . . .. . . . . .. 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61. . . . . 14 13 66 22 91 67 66 87 22 162 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Updownarrow ( ) . . . . . \uptau (τ) . .. . . . . . . 30 V \v (ˇ) . . . . . . . . 44 upside-down symbols . . . . 47 \underrightharpdown ( ) . . . 46 \upharpoonleft (ä) . 33 \Upgamma (Γ) . . . . . . \urcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \upvartheta (ϑ) . . . 22. . . . . . . . \underleftrightarrow (← ) → underline . 80. . . . . . . 60 o \undergroup ( ) . . . . . . . \underparenthesis ( ) 108. . . 120 \unlhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Uranus (Ç) . . . . . 44 \uparrow (↑) . . . . .

. . 67 \varheartsuit ( ) . . . . . . . . 71 \varepsilon (ε) . . . \vbipropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 32 30 33 32 30 33 30 33 64 63 64 58 57 67 67 23 22 24 23 22 24 23 71 71 71 71 118 \VERT ( ) . .. . . . . . . . \varstigma (ϛ) . 26 \various (R) . . . . . . . . \varpi ( ) . . . . . . . . 49 − → \varint ( ) . . 24 . . . . . . see \overline \ViPa (> ) . . . \vert (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \veedot ( ) . \vvvert (~) . . . . . . \vdots (. . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . 39 39. . . . . . 22 \varodot ( ) . . . . 33 . . .. . . \varsubsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \varQ ( ) . . . . . 22 \varobslash ( ) . . . . . 13 \varoplus ( ) . . . . \veedoublebar (‘) . . . . \Venus (Ã) . . . \VarSummit ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 71 71 89 14 13 13 95 95 97 72 61 31 32 30 33 55   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \VvDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 22 \varparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . W \WashCotton (‰) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \varlimsup (lim) . . . . . . . . . 22 \varogreaterthan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. 91 \vin ( ) . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 68 \VarMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vietnam (package) . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 . \varsubsetneq (Š) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 50 \VarFlag ( ) . . . .. . . .) \vdots ( ) . . . 22 \varovee ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varpi ( ) . . . . . . . . \veebar (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \varoiiintctrclockwise ( ) . . 22 . . . 93 \varkappa (κ) . \Vier (ˇ “ ) . . . . . . \varvarpi ( ) . . . . . . . 28 \varoiintclockwise ( ) . 79 . 66 \varEarth (t) . . . . . . 50 \varepsilonup (ε) . . . . . . . \vee (∨) . 31 53 50 50 50 51 50 28 49 30 33 90 50 51 50 50 50 67 66 37 37 37 37 23 87 37 36 37 37 36 37 91 37 36 37 37 36 37 \VDash ( ) . . . 22 \vardiamond (♦) . . . . . . . 91 \varinjlim (lim) . 22 \varomega (¨) . 22 \varobar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 50 . . \varsupsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . ” . . . . . 24. . . ← − \varpropto (∝) . . . . . . \vDash ( ) . . . . . 10. . . . . . 22 \varoiiintclockwise ( ) . . . \varprod ( ) . . . . \varvarrho ( ) . \vcentcolon (:) . . . . . . . . \varsupsetneqq ( ) . 51 . 24 . . \Vectorarrow (p) . . . . \vertbowtie ( ) \vertdiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \varoast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varowedge ( ) . \varsigma (ς) . . . . . . \varphiup (ϕ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Virgo (å) . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \varnothing (∅) . . . . 49 \varmathbb . . . . . . . . \varrho ( ) . . . . . \varspade ( ) . 51 . . . . . . . . 66 \varheart (♥) . . . . . . . . 91 varg (txfonts/pxfonts package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vcenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \venus (♀) . . . . . . . \Vdash (D) . . . \varsubsetneq ( ) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . \vDash ( ) . . . . . \vec ( ) . . . . . . . \vee (∨) . . . . . . . . . 119 0 . . . . . . . . . . \VHF ( ) . \varrho ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varrhoup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \varw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vernal ( ) . . . . . . . . . 40 . . 32 \Village ( ) . . . . . . 38 \varhash (5) . . ƒ . . . .. . \VBar ( ) . 90 \WashSynthetics (Š) . . . . . . 40 . . 53 vinculum . .. . . . . 50 . .\varcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \varotimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \VT ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \varointclockwise ( ) . . . 22 \varoslash ( ) . . . . . . 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . \vartimes ( ) . . . . \varsubsetneqq (’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \virgo ( ) . . . . 28 ! \varoiint ( ) . . . 77 \vari (i) . . 56 54. . . . . . . \vv ( #») . 66 \varhexagon ( ) . \varsupsetneqq (“) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . 52 \varnotowner (…) . . . . . . . 51 \varg (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \vardiamondsuit ( ) . . . . . . . . \varpartialdiff ( ) . . . . \varsupsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \varnotin („) . . . . . 0 \VarTaschenuhr ( ) . . . . . . . . . \varspadesuit ( ) . 28 \varolessthan ( ) . . . . . 22 \varopeno (g) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \varointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . 28 \varoiintctrclockwise ( ) 28 \varoint ( ) . \vartheta (ϑ) . . . . . . . . . .. 28 fl \varointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . 57 \Vert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \varg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vcrossing ( ) . . . \vary ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 . \vartriangleleft (˜) \vartriangleleft ( ) \vartriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 variable-sized symbols . . . . 102 \VarIceMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . . \varsubsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vppm ( ˙ ) . . . \vartriangle ( ) . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . \Vvdash (D) . \varprojlim (lim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . \VM (>) . \varpropto (∝) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 40 . . . . . 39 39. . . . . . . . . . ˚ \voicedh (h) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . \vpppm ¯˙ ) . . . . . . . . . 50 \varleq (¨) . . 78 \varhexstar ( ) . \vDash (@) . . . . . . 22 \varocircle ( ) . \vartriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \vargeq (©) . . . \vec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vntex (package) \vod (v) . . \VDash (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \varnothing ( ) . . . . . \Venus (f) . \varsubsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \varpiup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . ( \vrule ¯ . . . \vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \varthetaup (ϑ) . . . . \varphi (ϕ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . versicle ( ) . . . . . \Vvdash ( ) . \vdotdot ( ) . . . . . .. 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vartriangleright (™) \vartriangleright ( ) \vartriangleright ( ) \varv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . \varsigmaup (ς) .. . . . . . . . . \Vvdash ( ) . \varsqsubsetneq (Š) \varsqsubsetneqq (’) \varsqsupsetneq (‹) \varsqsupsetneqq (“) \varstar () . . . . . . . . . . \varsupsetneq (‹) . . . 28 ff \varointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \veebar ( ) . 25–30. . . . . . . 31 ) $ # \varparallelinv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . \varsupsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \Vectorarrowhigh (P) \vee (•) . 38 \varliminf (lim) . 13 \varominus ( ) . .

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 62 94 \whitestone . . . . . . ˙˙ \XBox ( ) . . . . . . . 107. 90 \Yleft ( ) . . . . . . . 67 \xhookleftarrow (← ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \wr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widearrow (t) . . . 93 \withinit (C) .. . . 59. . . . 22 \yogh (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \WeakRain ( ) . . 90 \Womanface (þ) . 60 \widetilde ( ) . . . . . . . 71. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \widetilde (̃) . . . . 56 \wbetter (f) . . 62 \xmapsto (− →) . . . 120 \wupperhand (c) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . 59 \wind . see \textwon world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. 78. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weierstrass ℘ function \wfermion ( ) . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . \XSolid ( ) . . . . 61. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Yright ( ) . . 94 whole note see musical symbols Wick contractions . . . . . . . . . . . \Zodiac . . . .. . . . . . . . 62 \xleftharpoonup ( −) . . . . . . 62 \xrightleftharpoons (− ) . 59. . . . . . . . see \textyen yfonts (package) 68. . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . 93 X \x (X) . . 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \xLongleftrightarrow (⇐=⇒) = . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . 64–66. . . . . . . zodiacal symbols . . . . . . . . . . \wedge (”) . . 77 47. . . . . 63 = \xlongequal (==) . . 62 \xLongrightarrow (=⇒) . . . . . . . . 31 wasysym (package) . . . . 61 \xrightharpoondown (− ) . . . . . . . 93 \wn (?) . . . . . . . . . 118 . . . see \wr \Writinghand (b) . 90 wsuipa (package) 13. . . 91 \WeakRainCloud ( ) . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 woman . . . . 60 Z . . . 62 − Xs . . \XSolidBold ( ) \XSolidBrush ( ) \xswordsdown ( ) \xswordsup ( ) . . . . .. . . . . . . 77. . . . . . . . 69. . . . 73. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 . . . . . . . . . 89 \ZwPa ( A ) . . 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Y Y \Ydown ( ) . 101. . . 101. 62 50 50 50 . \wedge (∧) . . . . . . . . . 22 Yu. 119. . . . . . . . 24 \wreath ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widehat ( ) . 64. . . . .. . 109 \widearc ( ) . . 107. . . . . . . . Xdvi . . 108 \Yup ( ) . . . . 62 \xlongequal (==) . . . . . . . . . 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widebar (s) . . . 93 \weakpt (J) . . . .. . 22 yen . . . . 62 − \xrightleftharpoons (− ) . . . \WhiteQueenOnBlack (L) \WhiteQueenOnWhite (Q) \WhiteRookOnBlack (S) . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . \wedgedot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \with (v) . 120 yhmath (package) 58. . . . . 90 \wp (℘) . . . . . . . . . . . =) \xLeftarrow (⇐ . . . 91 window . . . . . . . . 117 \xRightarrow (= ) . \zeta (ζ) . . . . 115 \with (&) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widecheck (q) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \withattack (A) . . . . 93 \Zwdr (ˇ “* ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . \WhiteKnightOnBlack (M) \WhiteKnightOnWhite (N) \WhitePawnOnBlack (O) . . . . 93 \withidea (E) . 103 . 88. . . . . . . . \WhiteKingOnBlack (J) . . . . 36 − \xleftrightharpoons (− ) . \WhiteBishopOnBlack ( . . \xi (ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \wideparen ( ) \wideparen ( ) \wideparen (Û) u \widering (˚) . . . . . . . . . \wedge (∧) . . . . . . . 74 . . .. . . . . . . ... š d m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77. . 62 ⇒ \xrightarrow (− →) . . . . 93 \without (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \wasylozenge (◊) . . . . Û . . . . . . . . . 62 = \xlongrightarrow (−→) . . Billy . . . . ˚) . . . 55. . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \Yinyang (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \whistle (a) . . . 65 . 62 \xleftarrow (← . . .. . . . 88 \wasypropto ( ) . . . . 24 wreath product . . . . . .. . . . . . . ) . 60 60 59 60 60 \xLongleftarrow (⇐=) . . . . . . . 13 \yogh (x) . . . . . . . A XEL TEX . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . \WhitePawnOnWhite (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 A) \WhiteBishopOnWhite (B) \WhiteEmptySquare (0) . . . . \whfermion ( ) . . . . \WhiteRookOnWhite (R) . . 61 −) \xleftharpoondown ( −) .. . . . . . . . . . . . 24 see \wp . . . . . 62 \xlongleftrightarrow (←−→) − . . . . . 62 = − \xlongleftarrow (←−) . . . . 81. . . . . 61 \widetriangle (Ê) . . . 75. . . . . . . . . . . . 62 − \xhookrightarrow ( − ) → \Xi (Ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 77 80 50 50 71 71 \Ztransf ( . . . . . . 64 wavy-line delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \widering ( \widering (˚) . . . \Wheelchair (w) . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . 70. . . . . . 13. . . 103. . . . . . 41. . 90 . . 60 \wideparen (u) . 91 weather symbols . .. . 90 won . . 51 \wp (℘) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 62 = \ztransf ( ) . 62 \xLeftrightarrow (⇐ ⇒) \xLeftrightarrow (⇐ ⇒) \xleftrightarrow (← →) \xleftrightarrow (← →) . 62 \xrightharpoonup (− ) . 36–38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \wr ( ) . . . .\WashWool (‹) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \xiup (ξ) . . . . . . 120 \wasytherefore (∴) . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \zugzwang (D) . . \zetaup (ζ) . . . 89 164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \wideOarc ( ) . . . . . 60 \widehat ( ) . . . . . 90 77 77 77 91 91 63 \xtwoheadleftarrow ( − −) − \xtwoheadrightarrow (− − ) 63 − X -pic . \WhiteKingOnWhite (K) . 62 − →) \xmapsto (− . . . . . . . . 95 . . . . . . 63 XML . .. . . . 22 Z Zapf Chancery (font) Zapf Dingbats (font) \Zborder ( ) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 23. . . . .   \Wecker ( ) . . . . . \x (˙˙) . . . . . . . . . xfrac (package) 5 6 7 . . . . . 90 Windows® . . 93 \wdecisive (h) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . .

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