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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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Phn V: GII THIU CHUNG BUNG MY

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PHN V: BUNG MY
CHNG 1: GII THIU CHUNG 1.1 Gii thiu tham s v cc c s la chn H ng lc 1.1.1 Mt s khi nim cn thit Khi ng c l ng c diesel, turbine hi nc, turbine kh, my hi nc l ng c lai truyn ng lc ang hot ng s c cc thng s tiu biu nh: cng sut, vng quay, hiu sut, sut tiu hao nhin liu. Mi quan h gia cc thng s c lng ho vi chnh xc nht nh qua cc cng thc tnh ton. Tuy nhin, do s thay i ca iu kin bn ngoi, s thay i ca bn thn thit b, s thay i ca h thng lc cn m cc h s trong cc cng thc s khng cn nh khi thit k - v cng l kh khn ln cho vic xc nh cng sut, tiu hao nhin liu 1.1.2 Cng sut -Cng sut ch th o xy lanh ng c -Cng sut c ch o u trc cng sut -Cng sut chn vt -Cng sut nh mc l cng sut thit k ng c -Cng sut ti thiu l cng sut khc phc sc cn ma st ca bn thn ng c = khong 2-3 % cng sut nh mc -Cng sut cc i l cng sut ln nht ng c cho php vn hnh trong vng ti a l 2 gi (110 % cng sut nh mc, 103 % vng quay nh mc) -Cng sut cho php vo khong 85 - 90 % cng sut nh mc -Cng sut kinh t cho php tit kim nhin liu khong bng 80 - 85 % cng sut nh mc -Cng sut th buc tu phi nh hn gi tr nh mc sao cho lc y khng lm h cu cng -Cng sut d tr l phn d tr khi tnh chn my chnh dng trong bin ng hoc khc phc tng sc cn v tu -Cng sut ton b l c cng sut chnh v cng sut ph Xc nh cng sut gn ng: Da vo h s hi qun
Ne = D 2 / 3V 3 C

Da theo cng sut t i


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D - lng dn nc ( tn ) Loi tu C/S t i H s hi qun


N e = B.v n

Tu du 0.1-0.4 270-370

Tu hng 0.3-0.9 180-300

Tu container 1-1.5 220-320

Tu khch 0.8-1.5 180-260

Da theo ng cong chn vt B- h s theo tu mu n= 3 vi tu n nh, n< 3 vi tu chy chm; n>3 vi tu cao tc Da theo cch o bng dng c Indicator tnh ra cng sut ch th. Da theo cch o m men xon kiu quang hc hoc in tr cng ti trc chn vt. 1.1.3 Vng quay Vng quay chn vt c xt n hiu sut y ca chn vt v thng nm trong khong 90 ti 250 vng pht l tt nht. Vng quay ng c c th bng hoc ln hn vng quay chn vt ty thuc loi hnh truyn ng trc tip hoc l gin tip. 1.1.4 Hiu sut Hiu sut c ch e =
632,3 trong ge l sut tiu hao nhin liu ring ca g eQH

ng c (kg/HP.h) v QH l nhit tr ca nhin liu ( kcal/kg) Bng 1.1 Sut tiu hao nhin liu v hiu sut mt s h ng lc Loi HTL Turbine hi Diesel Turbine kh Chu trnh nhit Rankine Diesel Braiton Sut tiu hao nhin liu (kg/HP.h) 0.17-0.23 0.19-0.16 0.22-0.32 Hiu sut c ch % 18-14 45-33 45-55

1.1.5 Tnh c ng ca HTL Tnh c ng ca HTL c th hin : -c tnh cng sut v m men -Thi gian khi ng t trng thi ngui/trng thi ch n khi t c cng sut nh mc Bng 1.2 Thi gian khi ng ca ng c

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T trng thi ng c ngui/trng thi T trng thi ng c nng ch n khi t cng sut nh mc Ni hi Diesel cao tc 1.5-8 giy 2-4 gi Turbine hi 4 gi t n ton cng sut (100%) t lc bt Diesel thp tc 2-2.5 gi u khi ng Diesel trung tc 30 pht Turbine hi 1-1.5 gi Diesel cao tc v 5-10 pht Diesel thp tc 1 gi turbine kh Diesel trung tc 30 pht Diesel cao tc v 30 giy ti 4 pht. turbine kh -Thi gian o chiu v t ti cng sut quy nh c th ti 30 - 60 giy i vi tu ln. Thi gian o chiu tu c chn vt bin bc 9-22 giy -Thi gian t lc ton cng sut ti khi dng tu ph thuc vo qun tnh ca tu khi chuyn ng. V d tu c c trn bng 3.7 - 6.3 chiu di tu v cn 90-160 giy; tu ln c trn n 2500 m, thi gian khong 10 pht. 1.1.6 Tnh nng vn hnh/ bo dng v sa cha -Kh nng vn hnh / bo dng / sa cha thun li trong mi hon cnh - n v rung ng trong tiu chun cho php. V d : n tiu chun 85 dB trong bung my tu c; 70 dB trong bung iu khin. 1.1.7 Tnh n nh ca HTL Phi n nh trong c cc tnh hung: -Khi my chnh li -Khi ng c vt vng tn s cm -Khi tu hot ng trong bin ng -Khi chn vt di ln khi mt nc. 1.1.8 tin cy v tui th ca HTL Bng 1.3 Tui th ( thi gian phc v) ca ng c (gi) Diesel cao tc Diesel thp tc Turbine hi 2,500 - 40,000 80,000-120,000 100,000-120,000 Diesel trung tc ng c xng Turbine kh 30,000-60,000 4,000 4,000

1.1.9 La chn HTL Cn c vo tnh nng yu cu v mc ch s dng la chn HTL ph hp vi loi hnh tu Bng 1.4 Tnh gn ng BHP ca my chnh da theo cng sut tng i hoc h s hi qun

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Cng sut Cng sut Hiu qu vn H s hi tng i tng i ti qun (HP/DWT) (HP/khch) (T.Knot/HP) Tu du 0.1-0.4 270-370 Tu hng ri ch x 0.1-0.4 270-370 Tu hng kh bch 0.3-0.9 180-300 ho Tu Container 1.0-1.5 220-320 Tu khch bin 0.8-1.5 0.1-0.4 180-260 Tu cnh ngm 20-75 0.3-4 Tu m kh 60 Tu ph bng 1.3-2.5 Tu trt 0.28-2.8 Khi la chn DTL lai chn vt bin bc hoc qua hp s, bn cnh cc tnh nng u vit cn xem xt thm nhng vn nh bng sau: Bng 1.5 So snh HTL chn vt bin bc v gin tip hp s ( tu hng 20,000 HP) HTL diesel truyn HTL diesel ng trc tip qua CVBB trung tc truyn ng hp s Hiu qu kinh t Thp hn Cao hn 1.72.8% Chi ph u t ban u Cao hn Thp hn 2-3 % Chi ph nhin liu Nhiu hn Thp hn 0.5 % Mc li dng dung tch Thp hn Cao hn 0.5 % khoang Chi ph bi trn Thp hn Cao hn 0.5-2 % Lng du bi trn tiu th Thp hn Cao hn 0.8-1.5 % Chi ph bo tr Thp hn Cao hn 0.2-0.4 % Khi lng HTL 100% 40% Din tch chim ch 100% 80% mi mn s mi xy lanh Nhanh Chm hn Chi ph lao ng bo dng Thp Cao gp 5 ln sppp Cc phng n la chn HTL cho cc loi tu v phng tin vn ti ph hp nn tham kho trong bng sau: Bng 1.6 La chn HTL, Thit b y, Truyn ng
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Loi tu

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Yu t c trng con Yu t HTL nn tu chn Tu cao tc DWT nh Tu cao tc DWT va HTL diesel cao tc

Thit b y v truyn ng 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc chiu 2/ Water jet 3/ m kh 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc chiu 2/ Water jet 3/ m kh 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc chiu 2/ Water jet 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc chiu 2/Chn vt-Truyn ng tip 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc chiu o

HTL diesel cao / trung tc/ turbine kh

HTL diesel cao / Tu cao tc DWT va trung tc/ turbine kh Tu Container Tu Container Tu khch trong sng HTL diesel trung tc v thp tc HTL kh/turbine hi turbine

o o trc o

HTL diesel trung 1/Chn tc/cao tc chiu 2/Chn tip Tu khch vin HTL diesel cao / 1/Chn dng trung tc/ turbine kh/ chiu hi 2/Chn tip Tu du DWT nh v HTL diesel trung 1/Chn va tc/cao tc chiu Tu du DWT ln HTL diesel chm / 1/Chn trung tc/ turbine kh/ chiu hi 2/Chn tip Tu du DWT siu c HTL diesel chm / 1/Chn trung tc/ turbine kh/ chiu hi 2/Chn tip Tu hng kh ch xa HTL diesel chm / 1/Chn trung tc/ turbine kh/ chiu
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vt-hp gim tc o vt-Truyn ng trc vt-hp gim tc o vt-Truyn ng trc vt-hp gim tc o vt-hp gim tc o vt-Truyn ng trc vt-hp gim tc o vt-Truyn ng trc vt-hp gim tc o

Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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hi Tu hng bao kin HTL diesel trung DWT nh tc/cao tc Tu hng bao kin HTL diesel chm / DWT va v ln trung tc/ turbine kh/ hi Tu dch v cng HTL trung tc diesel cao/

Tu dch v du kh

HTL trung tc HTL trung tc HTL trung tc

diesel

cao/

Tu cng trnh Tu c

diesel diesel

cao/ cao/

2/Chn vt-Truyn ng trc tip 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc o chiu 2/Chn vt-Truyn ng trc tip 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc o chiu 2/Chn vt-Truyn ng trc tip 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc o chiu 2/Chn vt-Truyn ng trc tip 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc o chiu chn vt bin bc 2/Chn vt-Truyn ng trc tip 3/Water jet 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc o chiu 2/ Chn vt truyn ng in 1/Chn vt-hp gim tc o chiu 2/ Chn vt bin bc

Sau khi kho st tin hnh chn HTL trong thit k mi theo: -Ch nh ca n t hng -Theo tu mu cng loi -Theo s so snh mt s phng n thit k 1.1.10 Xu th pht trin ng c trn th gii Bng 1. 6 Biu t l (%) HTL ch to mi trn th gii* ng c 2 th ng c 4 th Turbine chm tc trung tc hi/Turbine kh Nm 1972 60 10 30 Nm 1976 56 29 15 Nm 1980 62 29 9 Nm 1984 77 18 5 Nm 1988 73 24 3 Nm 1991 73 24 3 *Trch t "German Marine Equipment" VDMA, Hamburg, Germany, 1994.
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Loi my chnh

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1.2 Truyn ng chn vt 1.2.1H trc Chc nng -Truyn m men xon ca my chnh cho thit b y -Truyn lc y ca chn vt qua gi chu lc y cho thn tu -Trong mt s trng hp cn lai dn thit b ph nh bm, my pht ng trc Yu cu -Bn v tin cy trong mi trng nc -Bo m an ton v dao ng xon, dao ng ngang v dao ng dc -Duy tr ng tm thng trong cc iu kin thay i thi tit bin, hng ho phn b, mn mi ca bc , gi trc Quy phm quy nh: -Vt liu lm h trc phi tho mn cc yu cu v thnh phn ho hc, c tnh v th nghim ( th khng ph hy) -Cc kch thc ng trc lc y/trc trung gian/trc chn vt/bu lng ni trc; chiu dy o trc chn vt/bch khp ni; chiu di gi trc chn vt/gi trc trung gian/ on p cng chn vt trong mi ghp khng then; p sut lm vic ca gi trc ( phn lc ca gi trc) phi tho mn cc cng thc quy phm. -p sut th thy lc ng bao trc, o trc. -Cng thc tnh ton v ni dung o ng sut dao ng xon, xc nh vng tc cm. 1.2.2 Truyn ng trc lc y Truyn ng trc tip chn vt thng Truyn ng trc tip qua chn vt bin bc Truyn ng gin tip qua hp s Truyn ng gin tip qua hp s v c chn vt bin bc Truyn ng h thng pht Water-jet. Truyn ng tu m khng kh Truyn ng chn vt in Truyn ng thy lc chn vt. 1.2.3 Chn vt, m ghp chn vt
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-Chn vt lp ghp c then -Chn vt lp ghp khng then ( s dng co ngt ca l cn chn vt bin dng n hi) -Chn vt bin bc -ai c chn vt phi c chiu ren ngc vi chiu vi chiu quay tin ca chn vt. 1.2.4 Khp ni trc v ly hp C kh nhiu loi khp ni dng cho cc HTL: -Khp ni bng bch lin thng dng cho cc trc trung gian, trc y. trc chn vt khng dng khp ni ny v khng rt ra ngoi tu c -Khp ni cng c then to nn bch trc ( tuc t) -Khp ni cng c mng sng hai ming -Khp ni cn cng khng then ( khp ni n h c bulng cn) -Khp ni cng thy lc SKF: l ca ng lt trong inner sleeve hi ln hn ng knh tip xc vi b mt ca hai trc. b mt ngoi ca n hnh cn v khp vi l cn ca ng lt ngoi outer sleeve dy bng thp hp kim, c cc rnh dn du thy lc , vng m v vnh ren bt kn khe h gia trc v cc ng lt. Khi lp ghp a c hai h thng thy lc ko dn ( tch khp ni ) v y ng bao ngoi. Khi tho khp a h thng tch khp ni vo lm vic -Khp ni n hi dng ng c trung cao tc hoc lai my pht in, gim nh bin dao ng m men xon. -Khp ni n hi Geislinger -Khp ni xm kh -Khp ni cc ng ni hai on trc c khng ng tm ln. -Khp ni thy ng cho php thay i m men truyn nh s trt gia hai phn trc. -Khp ni in t Ly hp ca HTL c th c cc kiu dng sau: -B ly hp khng o chiu: Ly hp ma st c iu khin c kh hoc du thy lc, in t, kh nn.. -B ly hp o chiu kiu ma st, kh nn hoc ly hp gim tc. 1.2.5 Gi trc

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Gi lc y Michell c cc guc y t chnh v tr, bo m hnh thnh ma st t t ln vnh y v thn gi y. x dch dc trc ca gi y Michell khong 0,6-1,0 mm. Gi trung gian dng cc on trc t bch trc trc chn vt n bch ra ng c chnh/bch ra hp s hoc gi y: -Gi c mng bi trn bng du theo kiu vng t nh vng du hoc c cu gt du t cc te ring tng mt, nc bin lm mt gi . - ln dng cho gi trung gian, bi trn bng m, thn gm hai na, cho php lp vo h trc; c mi c tiu chun cho c trc ln. -Gi trung gian Michell c nhiu guc nghing, bi trn bng du, guc t chnh ph hp ti, tc v nht du Gi trc chn vt: -Gi trc chn vt bi trn bng nc c vt liu gi l g, cao su, nha. -Gi trc chn vt bi trn bng du: dng bc lt c cc ng cp du, m bi trn. ng bao trc chn vt: ng bao trc c chc ln kt cu y tu c bit l mt cui cng ng bao trc-ni c gi sau trc chn vt. mt trc ca ng bao trc thng c hn vo tm p gia cng ln vch sau bung my. Mt cui thng c mi ghp ren vi ai c v thanh hm; cng cho php dng mi ghp hn nu chiu di ng khng ln. ng bao trc c th lin mt khi, song thng lm t ba on ghp li. Mt trc ca ng bao trc bi trn bng nc phi c b kn nc; gia ng bao c u ng dn nc t bm n. mt trc v mt cui ca ng bao trc bi trn bng du c b kn du, thng lm kiu simplex.

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CHNG 2: NG LC Y THNG THNG 2.1 Gii thiu Thng thng vic thc hin chc nng ng lc y tu c thc hin thng qua cc chn vt v trong a s cc trng hp ch dng mt chn vt m thi. Chn vt ny quay c nh h thng trc thng c lai bi ng c diesel. Ngoi ra, trong hu ht trng hp chn vt l loi nh bc. Trc lai bao gm trc chn vt hay cn gi l trc ui v t nht c mt trc trung gian. Chn vt thng l ng thau c (hp kim ng -niken-thau nhm) cn trc l thp rn. H ng lc thng thng s dng ng c chnh l ng c diesel. Do s dng chn vt nh bc nn ng c chnh thng l loi ng c o chiu trc tip. Hp s o chiu ch dng vi ng c nh (loi ng c quay mt chiu). S dng nhiu chn vt i vi tu cao tc nh tu khch v tu b hn ch v chiu chm hoc khi cng sut tng cn thit cao qu mc i vi mt chn vt. Sau y l m t bung my ng c thng thng b tr trn tu hng trung bnh. a s cc tu, bung my c b tr pha ui tu v c thu gn ti mc ti thiu v chiu di tng kh nng cao nht b tr khoang hng theo chiu di v lm tu khng b di hn mc cn thit. Tuy nhin, dng v tu thon hn nh tu container ln hn th bung my c t tin thm ra pha trc, khong 1/3 thn tnh t ui tu. Tu khch v tu ro-ro c bung my c b tr u tin tng theo chiu di nhng hn ch v chiu cao gim tn tht ti a theo chiu cao ti ni b tr bung hoc ni xe hi. Cc thit b my mc khc nhau dnh cho h ng lc y v pht in c b tr trong bung my: Cc ng c chnh, my pht in, h thng nc lm mt bng nc ngt v nc bin, h thng khi ng, h thng nhin liu, h thng kh x, h thng du bi trn, h thng khng kh khi ng, v tt c cc h thng ph khc nh h thng lacanh, ballast, h thng kh phc v, h thng nc ngt H thng iu ha khng kh, h thng my lnh thng c lp t ti cc bung ring. Trong bung my cn l ni b tr cc kt d tr khc dnh cho du bi trn, nhin liu Bung my ca tu hng trung bnh thng b tr mt ng c. Bung my tu thy l t hp phc hp, hon chnh. Mi ngi c th thy , trong mt khng gian c thu gn nh ti mc ti a cho php: cc ng c y, h trc, trm pht in, cc cm lm mt v sy nng dnh cho iu ha nhit , thit b x l nhin liu, thit b hm sy nhin liu, nc..., thit b x l cht thi, trm cung cp nc sinh hot, bm nc lm mt v ng ng, trm my nn, cc bm cu ha v h thng phn phi, mi ci dnh cho nhu cu cn thit v thit b hon ton c lp vi ngun lc bn ngoi. c c cc kt

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dng cha nhin liu, du nhn, cha nc sinh hot, cha nc bn cn thit, tt c c loi kt d tr, ha cht, chai gi p sut cao, cc b sinh hn, sy nng v lng cc ln v di cc ng ng dnh cho cc h thng khc nhau c cc vn dnh cho tng ci, c ng knh ph hp v ng dn ti v tr theo yu cu. Tt nhin cc vt t ph tng, thit b d tr cn thit cng c b tr ti .

ang lp t ng c diesel ln b my ca n.

Ngy nay, iu ny c th c th hin nhn thy c qua s tr gip ca cc computer. Tng h thng trn tu c b tr hoc b tr trong bung my u c th hin th qua bn v 3-D, cho php t tng thit b khc nhau vi cc ng ng theo tng mu sc ca chnh chng trn mn hnh c th trnh cho vic b tr thit k cc ng ng phi c lp t ti ni khng c khng gian ph hp hoc ni c cc ng ng khc lp t ri. Trong qu kh trc y cc m hnh ln v phc tp phi c to nn cho thy liu bung my c ch cho thit b lp t khng. 2.2 Loi ng c: ng c lai chn vt c th c chia thnh 3 loi: -ng c diesel 4 k cao tc, vng quay cao hn 960 vg/ph -ng c diesel 4 k trung tc, vng quay nm trong khong 240-960 -ng c diesel thp tc (patanh bn trt) vng quay di 240 vg/ph.

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ng c hai k thp tc hng Man i vi ng c c ln, vic tho lp bo dng c tin hnh ngay trn tu khng th thc hin c nu thiu cc k s lnh ngh v dng c chuyn dng.
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Tho lp piston ng c hai k c ln.

ng c cao tc v trung tc lai chn vt sau khi c gim tc nh hp s. ng c cao tc thng thy tu nh nh l tu lai dt ti cng v tu ni thy. ng c trung tc thng thy cc tu c trung khc nhau v tu ko bin hoc tu ni m chiu co bung my b hn ch nh tu Ro-ro, tu khch. ng c lai chn vt ny cng cn hp s gim tc. ng c thp tc lai trc tip chn vt v thng c lp t trn tu hng ln, nhiu nht cc tu trn 30 000 DWT. Hnh di y m t hnh ct ng c trung tc b tr xi lanh ch V, tng p c lm mt kh tng p. ng c c piston v xi lanh c bit (piston dng bc, xi lanh c lp thm vnh co mui chng mn) v h thng sp pp c lp cnh quay phn chn sp pp gip xoay trn u, lm sch mui bm nm sp pp, lm mn u, chng kt sp pp. Ngoi ra ng c cn trang b h thng iu khin nh thi cho phun nhin liu v cho thi im ng m sp pp.

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Ghi ch :1-Trc khuu c gn i trng 3-Piston dng c bc 5-Vnh co mui chng mn 7- Xi lanh ring bit 9-Np trc khuu 11-Bulong np balie 13-Trc cam bm nhin liu 15-ng dn nhin liu 17-Trc cam iu khin sp pp 19-Sp pp x c cnh hng dng 21-Sp pp khi ng 23-ng dn kh tng p 25-ng dn nc lm mt 27-Turbin tng p kh x 29-Thit b iu chnh thi im sp pp
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2-Thanh truyn 4-S mi xi lanh 6-Np xi lanh 8-Khung cac-te 10-Bulong balie bn sn 12-Bulong np my 14-Bm cao p 16-Thanh y 18-n gnh 20-Sp pp np 22-Vi phun nhin liu 24-ng dn kh x 26-B lm mt kh tng p 28-B iu chnh thi im phun 30-B tc ng ca b iu tc.

Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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2.3 Nhin liu Bn cnh cc vn nh kch thc ca tu, khng gian hin c v cng sut yu cu th nhin liu dng cho ng c cng l mt tiu chun la chn dng ng c loi ny hay loi khc. Du MDO (diesel oil) l loi tt nht, to ra t mui bn nht nhng li t tin. Loi du gi l nhin liu nng (HFO-Heavy Fuel Oil) l loi r hn nhiu nhng yu cu cc h thng b sung nh lm sch v hm sy trc. Loi ny to nhiu cn bn v kh x d. N cng c cha nhiu lu hunh hn du diesel MDO. Loi nhin liu ny ch ph hp cho ng c trung tc v thp tc. ng c cao tc yu cu s dng du diesel cht lng cao. Nhin liu nng c nht cao v khng th qua vi phun phun vo xi lanh nu khng c x l trc. Nhin liu ny cn c hm sy c nht, t trng to iu kin tt nht phn ly nhm loi b nc, cn bn ra khi du ti my phn ly ly tm. Trc khi phun vo ng c, nhin liu ny c hm sy ln na t nht ph hp vic to sng sau khi c phun vo xi lanh ng c.

My lc ly tm loi khng th thiu khi dng nhin liu nng HFO.

Nhin liu trn tu c cha trong kt trn tu, cc bn du. tu hng thng cha du kt y i. Nhin liu thng c tu cp du cung cp qua cc ng rng trc tip ln cc kt ca tu. T cc kt ny nhin liu c bm vo cc kt nh hn trong bung my, thng l cc kt c tn kt lng b tr cao v ti nhin liu nng c lng mt phn cc cn bn v nc xung y kt. Qua cc ming ht b tr cao trong kt lng, nhin liu c bm ti my lc phn ly. Khi qua my lc phn ly, cn bn v nc trong du s c tch ra v xung thng kt cha bn ri s thnh phn du bn sau ny s c x l bng cch bm ln b khi c iu kin hoc t b

Cc u ni quc t ca ng gp du tu container ln.

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ni hi t rc, phn nhin liu c my phn ly lc sch s c dn ti cc kt dng hng ngy c tn l kt trc nht.

H thng nhin liu cho ng c diesel tu ln.

Nhin liu sch t kt trc nht c bm thp p a ti cc phin lc v b hm sy sau ti bm cao p l nhng bm thng c nhim v to p sut cao cng nh nh lng, nh thi im cho nhin liu ti vi phun phun vo bung chy. Thng mi xi lanh s c mt bm nhin liu p sut cao hot ng c lp nhng cng c trng hp ng c nh v ng c trung bnh, cc bm cao p c b tr thnh cm. Du d tha sau bm cao p, ty thuc vo yu cu ca ng c s chy ngc tr li kt trc nht (hoc kt ha trn nu c).

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Mt trong cc kiu ng c mi hin c trang b h thng nhin liu phun chung (common rail fuel system). Bm nhin liu p sut cao c nhim v duy tr p sut phun khng i trong h thng ng nhin liu cao p. Gia cc ng ny v vi phun c b tr van iu khin bng in ng hoc m dng nhin liu ti vi phun. Vic ng hoc m van c iu khin thng qua computer s cho php iu chnh lng cung cp v thi im cung cp theo mun i vi tng xi lanh v cho kh nng iu khin tt trong khi vn hnh. 2.4 Lm mt Tt c cc ng c diesle u sinh nhit v cn lm mt. Vic lm mt ny c th c tin hnh nh khng kh lm mt nhng thng thng l dng nc. C th dng bm ly nc ngoi mn qua h thng thng bin a vo lm mt cho ng c sau y ra ngoi mn qua van mn. H thng ny c ch s dng tu nh hoc mt s tu ln trc y. Tu ln hin ny s dng h thng lm mt kn dng nc c cha cc cht km hm bo v ng c khi n mn. Nc lm mt c lm lnh bu trao i nhit t bn ngoi ng c. Nc bin l tc nhn lm mt nc ngt ti bu trao nhit cng c bm ring ly t ngoi mn v sau khi thc hin trao i nhit nc bin ny cng c a qua ra mn. tu nh thit b trao i nhit c th c b tr ngay ti khoang ly nc hoc van thng bin dng nc bin gii nhit cho b trao i nhit. iu tit kim nhm bm dnh cho nc bin. Ngoi ra cn c th trang b b sinh hn dnh cho kh tng p, b sinh hnh dnh cho cc ng c ph, b sinh hn dng cho ni hi, b sinh hn du nhn, b ngng t my chng ct; cc b sinh hn trn u c th dng nc ngoi mn gii nhit. B sinh hn, bm v cng nh phin lc thng c b tr song song v c kt ni hoc tch ly khi h thng thng qua h thng van cn thit cho php tin hnh bo dng v lm v sinh trong khi ang hot ng. Bn cnh cc bm lm mt chnh, ph v d tr s c cn c cc bm dnh cho h thng cu ha hoc nhm bm la canh, ballast. tng cng tin cy cho cc h thng, thng ngi ta c gng thit k h thng ng cho php dng nhm bm ny thay th hoc b Bm nc lm mt sung cho nhm bm khc nhng vi nhng nguyn tc an ton nh: khng cho php dng bm cu ha ht lacanh bung my.

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2.5 Bi trn

H thng bi trn ng c ln 1-ng c chnh 3-Phin lc ca ht 5-B sinh hn du bi trn 7-Phin lc du bi trn 9-Li du bi trn vo patanh bn trt

2-Kt cha du bi trn r r 4-Bm du bi trn 6-Van iu chnh nhit t ng 8-Bm du bi trn patanh bn trt 10-Li vo du bi trn

ng c diesel no cng cn c bi trn. Thng iu ny c thc hin bng cch bm du qua cc v ti cc cp chi tit ma st vi nhau. ng c nh c bm gn lin ng c cn ng c ln hn dng bm bn ngoi thc hin chc nng a du cng bc ti ni cn thit. Bm du bi trn hu ht l loi bm th tch: loi bnh rng hoc trc vt duy tr p sut, sn lng khng i. Cht lng ca phin lc l tiu chun nh cho vng i hot ng ca ng c. i vi my nh, phin lc kp cho php thay th lm vic thng xuyn c lm sch. tu ln, bn cnh h thng phin lc tinh phc tp cn c h thng t lm sch gn vi my phn ly du trong qu trnh ng c hot ng qua ng du trch t h thng bi trn ti h thng t lm sch phn ly ly

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tm ny hoc trong a s cc trng hp, ngi ta b tr c h thng my lc ly tm ln bn ngoi thc hin chc nng lm sch lin tc cho du bi trn tun hon. Bn cnh chc nng chnh nh bi trn, ty ra b mt du tun hon cn gip gii nhit khi ti cc chi tit ma st vn b nng ln khi my hot ng hoc trong mt s trng hp, du bi trn cn c dn vo lm mt piston thay cho nc lm mt. cc ng c ln, c patanh bn trt, h thng bi trn c th c chia thnh cc h thng bi trn tun hon, h thng bi trn xi lanh, h thng lm mt piston. i vi ng c nh, vic bi trn xi lanh c th thc hin bng phng php vung te: du sau khi bi trn cho nhm trc khuu s tro mt phn ra hai ra cnh ca bc c bin v khi trc ng c quay, lng du ny s phun vung te ln s mi xi lanh pha di piston. Khi piston dch chuyn trong xi lanh, trn c s lp du vung te ni trn, cc xc mng ca piston chuyn ng thc hin lun chc nng to mng du trn thnh vch s mi xi lanh. i vi ng c c ln thng phi dng h thng bi trn xi lanh ring. Du bi trn xi lanh c bm cao p (lubricator) a du vo xi lanh qua cc vi phun b tr xung quanh xi lanh vi p sut nht nh, ti thi im nht nh v liu lng ph thuc vo ch ti ng c. Sau khi thc hin chc nng ca mnh, du bi trn xi lanh d c gp vo kt bn ch khng tun hon nh i vi du bi trn h thng. Du bi trn dng cho mc ch bi trn xi lanh phi c c tnh ring. Mt trong nhng c tnh quan trng ca du bi trn xi lanh l kim (TBN Total Base Number) tng thch ca n vi hm lng lu hunh trong nhin liu nng m ng c s dng. Lng lu hunh trong nhin liu nng khi chy s to ra oxit lu hunh v trong nhng iu kin thun li nht nh c th to nn axit sunfuric gy n mn rt mnh cc chi tit tip xc vi kh chy trong xi lanh. V l , khng nhng du bi trn xi lanh phi tng thch vi nhin liu nng m liu lng cung cp cng phi ph hp vi ti ng c. Ti ng c thp nhng lng cung cp du bi trn xi lanh nhiu cng gy hi do lng kim d khng c trung ha ht s to tro cng lm mi mn xc mng, piston, s mi xi lanh mt cch nhanh chng. Cng v l , ng c hin i, vic cp du bi trn xi lanh c h thng iu khin in t h tr thc hin chc nng bi trn xi lanh chnh xc, hiu qu. Khc vi h thng bi trn xi lanh thng thng, h thng ny c trm bm to p lc du bi trn khng i cho cc cm bi trn tng xi lanh. Vic cp hay ngt du ti xi lanh c cm iu khin chnh v cm phn hi iu khin. Cm iu khin ny cn nhc tn hiu t bng iu khin v tn hiu t cm bin
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ti ng c cng nh v tr trc cam quyt nh cp liu lng du vo xi lanh nh th no c hiu qu tt nht. Cc chi tit khc cng tng t h thng bi trn xilanh thng thng.

H thng du bi trn xi lanh ng c ln

2.6 Khi ng ng c nh dng in t c quy thng qua m t in khi ng. ng c ln hn c khi ng bng cch dng kh nn a vo xi lanh ng c thng qua cc sp pp khi ng trn np xilanh theo mt quy lut cp vo lm ng c quay ging nh chu k hot ng ca ng c khi ang chy n. ng khng kh chnh dn t chai gi ti ng c phi qua van khi ng chnh l van iu khin chnh cho ng kh ti b phn phi kh iu khin ng hoc m sp pp khi ng ng thi van khi ng chnh cng c nhim v a khng kh nn ti tc trc ti sp pp khi ng. B phn phi kh iu khin c ng c lai m bo quy lut cp kh cng nh thi im cp kh iu khin ti cc sp pp khi ng ph hp. Khi c lnh khi ng a ti van khi ng chnh, kh nn vo xilanh s quay ng c, tip nhin liu c phun vo xi lanh v ti vng quay nht nh, qu trnh t chy n duy tr s lm vic lin tc ca ng c th c th dng vic cp kh nn vo ng c.

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Khng kh nn c tn tr trong cc chai kh nn mt p sut yu cu no v c np li bi my nn. p sut yu cu thng l 25 bar.

Chai kh nn v van chn chnh.

My nn kh c lp loi piston thng ng do ng c in lai.

2.7 Kh x S chy to ra kh thi. Kh ny l hn hp rt nng ca dioxit carbon, oxid ni t, nhin liu cha chy ht, lng xy d tha, dioxyt lu hunh, cn mui than. Dioxyt lu hunh l cht c hi. Nu hn hp vi nc chng c th to nn axit, gy n mn ng ng xe lm bng thp, hn na n l loi khng thn thin mi trng. Tt nhin dioxit carbon v oxit ni t cng l cht c hi. Hin ang c gng gim hm lng NOX v SOX. Nhit trong kh x c th c s dng hm sy nhin liu v cho nhiu mc ch khc nh hm sy khu vc sinh hot. Nhng thng thng nht ngi ta tn dng nhit kh x bng bm nc hoc cng cht khc qua thit b trao i nhit gn trong ng x. Nu cht lng l nc, n s ha hi v thit b trao i nhit ny s c gi l ni hi kh x. Khi nc khng bay hi, b trao i nhit li c gi l b tn dng nhit kh x tit kim. Nu nhit lng kh x cao, ngi ta thng t thit b turbine kh x tng p cho khng kh cp vo ng c. 2.8 Khng kh cp vo cho ng c. Khng kh cn thit cp vo xi lanh phc v cho vic t chy nhin liu thng c ly t ngay trong bung my. tu nh, khng kh trong bung my iu kin kh quyn t nhin l trong khi tu ln phi c qut gi sn lng ln do ng c in lai mi m bo lng khng kh cn thit v duy tr nhit bung my theo yu cu. Khng kh tng p sut cp vo ng c gip tng kh nng cng sut ng c bi tng kh nng cung cp thm nhin lin liu chy trong xi lanh ng c.
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Cng sut ca ng c b gii hn bi nhiu th trong c nhit kh x. Nu nhit kh trong xi lanh qu cao, cc van np, x, s mi c th b chy hng hoc b n mn. Do khng kh cp vo xi lanh cng phi c mt lng d no phc v cho mc ch lm mt. Lng khng kh c th c tng ln thm bng cch dng my nn do turbine kh x lai nn kh ln p sut cao trc khi khng kh i vo xi lanh. Khng kh sau khi c nn s c nhit cao do vy cn lm mt khng kh sau tng p. B lm mt kh sau tng p gip tng t trng khng kh do vy tng thm lng khng kh cp vo xi lanh. Nc lm mt t h thng lm mt chnh c s dng cho vic lm mt khng kh ny. Hnh bn: Turbine tng p kh x loi hng trc 1-Li kh x vo turbine 2-Turbine kh x 3-Phin lc khng kh 4-My nn ly tm 5-ng dn kh tng p ra.

2.9 ng trc H trc truyn m men xon ng c to nn chuyn ra chn vt. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, h trc n gin nht v tin cy nht l h thng trc c bng thp c khi. Cc chn vt bin bc cng hon ton tng t nhng phc tp hn, t hn v nhy cm hn vi thng tn h hng. Tt nhin chng c u im ca vic ti u bc m ngi ta cn i vi tng tc cng nh duy tr s vng quay ng c khng i to ra li th ng c chnh lai my pht in ng trc. Thng thng h trc bao gm trc trung gian v trc ui. Trc trung gian cn thit truyn ng xa t my chnh trong bung my ti trc ui ng thi gip cng tc tho lp trc ui d dng. Trong h thng c mt s : mt s trc trung gian v mt s nm trong ng bao trc trc ui. S lng nhiu hay t ph thuc chiu di ca h trc v trng lng ca trc. Chn vt c lp vo trc ui thng bng phng php lp ghp p thy lc.

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Nhng trc ui th h c thng c phn hm ti u cn ni lp chn vt. Thng ngi ta dng then c nh chn vt vi trc loi . Hin nay ngi ta hu nh ch dng phng php lp ghp khng s dng then: chn vt c p cht vo mt cn bng du thy lc.

Cnh chn vt bin bc (CPP) c lp bng bu lng vo mt bch ti u pha sau ca trc ui. Trc chn vt loi ny thng phi c tho ra pha ngoi khi sa cha sau khi r b bnh li hon ton. Trc chn vt bin bc phc tp hn nhiu do cc chc nng thy lc cn thit yu cu bi chn vt, do vy cn phn phi cc tc ng thy lc thng qua trc rng lm thay i bc chn vt trong khi hot ng. Chn vt nh bc thng l loi quay chiu phi. Chn vt bin bc thng li quay chiu tri, iu ny to c tnh li tng t nh c tnh ca chn vt nh bc. Hp s v khp ni Ty theo vng quay ng c diesel lai chn vt v vng quay thit k ca chn vt, ngi ta c th b tr hp s gim tc gia ng c lai v h trc. H thng bnh rng gim tc trong hp s m bo t s truyn theo yu cu gia vng quay ng c v vng quay trc trung gian. Hp s c cha mt lng du bn trong v c trang b bm du bn trong ry du bi trn ln cc bnh rng n khp cng nh cung cp du cho cc cc bnh rng truyn ng. Cc bnh rng trong hp s c th l loi rng thng, rng nghing vng. Loi rng nghing
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vng xon c la chn nhiu hn v t ting n v gim dao ng hn nhng cng l loi t tin hn. Khi my pht in ng trc tham gia vo h trc, hp s c thm chc nng chuyn ti cng sut (PTO). Ty thuc vo s trc vo v ra khi hp s m hp s s c cc hnh dng khc nhau. Khp ni c b tr gia h trc v cc my pht ng trc. Khi s dng hai ng c, mt ng c c th c tch ra bo dng hoc khi my pht ng trc c s dng th mi mt my chnh cng c th m nhn cung cp nng lng cho my pht in ny. V vy my pht ng trc phi c khp ni ly hp. V l do dao ng xon, cn phi c cc c cu n hi. Nhng c cu ny l c cu ri ring bit c tch hp vo khp ni.

Cc phng php truyn ng my pht ng trc, Power Take Off PTO 1-My pht in 2-ng c 3-Hp s 4-Trc

2.10 in nng Tu thy c s h tiu th in nng ng k. My li, qut gi, tt c bm, my nn, my iu ha, cn cu l nhng h tiu th chnh. My pht in do ng c diesel hoc turbine lai cung cp in nng phc v cho cc h tiu th ny. in nng s dng trn tu thng l loi c dng 3 pha t nht trn tu phi c hai my pht in do ng c diesel lai. Khi mt ci h, ci kia sn sng thay th. cho php bo dng mt my pht ny khi tu ang hot ng v phng d tr khng cho ri ro v in nng cung cp thng trn tu b tr my pht in th 3. Tt c cc my u ging ht nhau v mi mt my u c kh nng p ng yu cu in nng ton tu khi hnh trnh trn bin.

ng c lai my pht in 1-ng c diesel 2-My pht in

Khi c hai my pht in tr ln cng hot ng, nng lng in c th c a ln thanh ci thng qua cu dao t ng ca bng in chnh theo ch
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vn c gi l hot ng song song my pht in. Bng ng b c lp t trn bng in ch cho php cu dao t ng ng vo mng khi my pht in cn u ni c cng pha, cng in p v tn s vi cc my pht ang hot ng. Khi c u ni, cc my pht in cng cung cp in nng cho mng in. Cng sut ra ca diesel c iu khin bi b iu tc tng ng c diesel iu chnh lng nhin liu ph hp, duy tr vng quay khng i. Cc my pht in trn tu ln thng to ra in 440 volt v tn s 60 Hz (3-pha) My pht in ng trc hay cn gi l my pht in PTO ang tr thnh ph thng, hu nh l c kt hp vi h ng lc chn vt bin bc p ng yu cu duy tr vng quay khng i. ng c chnh lai my pht s dng du nng r tin thay v du diesel t tin l li th kinh t ca my pht ng trc. Vic cho chy song song cc my pht do ng c diesel lai v my pht ng trc thng c th thc hin trong mt giai on ngn v d nh thi gian chuyn ti chng hn. bo m cng sut in dnh cho cc chc nng thit yu (n hnh trnh, my li, thit b bung li, nh sng bung my v phng ) trong trng hp my pht in b sp, cc tu u trang b mt my pht in s c. My pht in ny cung cp in cho bng in s c. My pht c chuyn mch t ng ln in cho bng s c khi bng in ny khng cn c nhn in t bng in chnh. Kh x thot ra t ng c my chnh cn cha nhiu nhit lng. Vy nn ni hi kh x s dng phn nhit ny to ra hi nhiu khi dng cho nhng h tiu th ln nh turbine hi lai my pht in. Thng turbine hi phi dng hp s gim tc lai my pht in l do vng quay ca turbine rt cao. Trn nhiu tu ln, my pht in do turbine hi ny lai khng nhng dng cho cc nhu cu v in nng cho cc h tiu th khi tu hnh trnh trn bin m cn c th trch cng sut d cho my chnh thng qua h thng truyn ng in c hoc c trng hp thng qua my pht ng trc c thit k c bit c th truyn ng in cho chn vt ch cung cp in trc chn vt (PTI-Power Take In). My pht in turbine hi s dng hi t ni hi kh thi nng cao c hiu sut s dng nng lng ton tu cng nh gim c cng v thi gian lm vic ca my pht in ng c diesel lai. Tuy nhin mt h thng cung cp in nng s dng ngun nng lng kh thi t ng c nh trn rt phc tp v yu cu cao v cht lng ca h thng hi, phi trang b nhiu thit b an ton, bu ngng, bm nc cp, nc lm mt, nc bu ngng v vic x l nc phi rt hon ho. Cc h tiu th in c chia ra hai nhm chnh l nhm thit yu c bn v nhm khng thit yu. Trong trng hp mt in, cc h tiu th khng thit yu c t ng ngt i. Cc h tiu th thit yu nh my li, cc bm du bi trn ng c chnh v nc lm mt, n hnh trnh v thit b trn bung li c duy tr hot ng lu ti a c th.

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2.11 Hm sy Nhit to ra bi ng c thng khng hm p ng tt c cc nhu cu v hm sy cho tu thy. Mt khc, khng phi bao gi ng c chnh cng lun hot ng c nhit lng dnh cho nhu cu ny. Do hu ht cc tu u c ni hi t du nh cung cp hi phc v cho nhu cu sinh hot, hm sy duNi hi t du ny c th kt hp vi ni hi kh x to thnh h thng ni hi lin hp kh x hot ng b tr ln nhau trn c s hon ton t ng. Cc tu hng thun ty c th ch cn dng ni hi nh l . Cc tu du thng c ni hi ln v chng cn dng nhiu hi gi cho hng lng ca chng c kh nng bm c bng cch hm sy hng . Ngoi ra, cc tu du thng s dng bm hng truyn ng bng hi cp hng hoc chuyn hng. cc tu ny cc bm ballast cng thng s dng truyn ng bng hi t ni hi. Ngoi hi nc, cc cht lng khc cng c th c s dng truyn nhit, v d nh du chu nhit. u im ca cc h thng ny l n gin. Nhc im ca chng l du lun mang theo n s nguy him tim nng v ha hon. 2.12 Cc b trao i nhit Nhit c to ra ti rt nhiu ni khc nhau. Nhit ny nht nh phi c tiu tn i. Nhng mt khc cc cht lng v kh nhiu khi li phi c hm sy. Do c kh nhiu b trao i nhit trong mi bung my tu thy: -B sinh hn nc ngt lm mt: Dng cho nc lm mt. -B hm sy nc ngt lm mt: Dng hm sy trc cho ng c diesel -B lm mt du bi trn: Mi mt b dng cho mi ng c diesel ph c gn lin vi ng c, hai b lm mt dnh cho my chnh. -B lm mt khng kh: Dng cho khng kh tng p -B hm sy khng kh: Dng cho mc ch hm sy thng thng, iu ha nhit . -B hm sy nhin liu, du nhn Dng cho nhin liu nng hoc du nhn. Cc loi b lm mt: Loi lm mt ng thng, loi lm mt ng ch U, loi lm mt kiu tm

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2.13 Cc bm Cc bm dng a cc cht lng i ti ni cn thit thng qua cc h thng ca chng. C cc bm khc nhau dng cho cc cht lng khc nhau: -i vi nc lm mt thng s dng cc bm ly tm c p sut thp, lu lng ln. -i vi du bi trn: dng cc bm loi trc vt, bnh rng c p sut v sn lng c duy tr khng i theo yu cu. -i vi nhu cu cp nc cho ni hi: s dng bm ly tm hai hoc nhiu cp hoc bm piston. -i vi bm cu ha: dng bm ly tm p sut cao. -i vi nhin liu nht cao: dng loi bm bnh rng hay trc vt. -i vi bm nc bn: dng bm piston, bm mng 2.14 Kim sot an ton Cc my mc khc nhau trong bung my c kim sot an ton bi h thng iu khin, kim tra. ng c diesel n gin c cng sut 15 kW c h thng bo ng p sut du bi trn ri. Khi p sut du bi trn qu thp, tn hiu n cng vi m thanh chi tai s ni ln thu ht s ch . ng c cng ln, kim sot an ton cng nhiu hn. V d, cc tn hiu bo ng nh: nc lm mt qu nng, p sut nc lm mt qu thp, mc du bi trn qu thp, nhit du bi trn sau lm mt qu cao v v.v bung my hin i ni c b tr s iu hnh iu khin tp trung, tt c cc tn hiu bo ng c a v bung iu khin hin th trng thi khng bnh thng ca chng trn mn hnh thy c v cho php tc ng x l hiu chnh li cho ng c th tin hnh ti bung iu khin ny. Vic x l c th tin hnh bi ngi trc ca hoc t ng hon ton. V d, khi nc lm mt qu nng, lu lng nc c th c tng ln bng cch m rng van iu tit. Khi nhit nc qu thp, van ny c th gim lu lng i. Khi tc ng hiu chnh ny khng c hiu lc: bo ng. 2.15 Dao ng v ting n ng c diesel hot ng to ra dao ng (cc xung khng cn bng). Mi ln chy n trong xi lanh ng c li to ra mt xung truyn qua b my ca ng c ti tu. Chn vt cng l ngun to ra dao ng. Th nht, trng p lc bao quanh cc cnh chn vt ang quay to ra s khc nhau ca p sut ui tu pha trn chn vt. Th hai, cc cnh khi quay c tc khc nhau ti tng v tr ca cnh khi tip cn vi nc. Cc hot ng ny to ra cc xung:
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- phn v tu pha trn cc chn vt -truyn qua ng trc v cc b ca n. Mi phn ca tu c tn s dao ng cng hng (t nhin) ring ca n. Khi cc xung gy ra bi mt s my mc c tn s dao ng trng tn s cng hng ca hp phn ca tu, v xung tc ng mnh s gy dao ng. Ting n c to ra bi dao ng lan truyn trong khng kh v dao ng trong cu trc tu. Ngun chnh ca cc xung trong khng kh l h thng kh x, s chy n trng xi lanh ng c v cc turbine tng p. 2.16 Nc ngt Cc tu khi hnh trnh trn bin su t to ra nc ngt dng cho chng. Nc mn c cho bay hi thnh dng hi ri sau hi c Ngun dao ng. a vo bu ngng to ra cht lng ngng t. chnh l nc ngt. Khi p sut trong ni hi c gim i thp hn p sut kh quyn th thy rng nhit si s thp hn 1000C. Hin tng va ri cho thy kh nng dng nc lm mt ra khi my chnh c nhit cao to ra nc ngt. Nc lm mt ny c ln qua b trao i nhit trong phn di ca trng, ni p sut c gim thp nh s dng bm phun tia. B trao i nhit c nhn gn trong lng nc bin sch ca thit b chng ct s truyn nhit lm nc bin nng ln v si trong iu kin p sut thp. Hi nc bay ln phn trn ca trng ni b tr mt b trao nhit khc c nc bin lnh i qua to ra mt bu ngng t. T b mt cc ng ca bu ngng ny hi nc chuyn thnh pha lng v nh git xung phu hng hnh cn t bn di dn ngng. Nc ngt ngng t c tp trung phu v chy ra ngoi theo ng dn ni vo vo gia phu hng ny v cui cng c dn ra ngoi trng. H thng ny c gi l b chng ct nc.

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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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Mt cch khc to ra nc ngt l lc. Nc bin c bm p sut cao a qua mng lc c cc l m cc nh cc phn t mui khng th chui qua. Nc th qua c v tr thnh nc ngt. Phng php ny c gi l thm thu ngc. 2.17 B tr thit lp ban u cho vic khi ng Trong trng hp mt in ton tu, khng c bnh xc v kh khi ng cng khng cn, thuyn vin trn tu phi c kh nng khi ng cc h thng t trng thi zero. Thng vic to ra ng lc bng cch dng my nn nh c lai bng ng c diesel khi ng tay, thnh thong thm ch cn dng c my nn khng kh dng sc ngi m nh chng m bnh cha khng kh nn nh c np y khng kh nn c p sut theo yu cu, c th khi ng ng c diesel lai my pht in. Khi ng c diesel ny hot ng v cp in ln li, cc h thng khc c th c kch hot tng ci mt. CHNG 3. CC LOI VAN Trn cc tu c rt nhiu ng ng c lp t chuyn vn cc loi cht lng, kh v truyn ti nng lng. cc h thng cc, vic b tr cc van l cn thit v chng phi nhiu dng hay iu chnh lu lng, ni cc khoang hoc cc phn trong mt h thng hoc ch n gin l cch ly h thng khi cc cm ni bn ngoi hoc khng kh bn ngoi. Cc dng van thng thng nht c trnh by di y. 3.1 Van cng V thn van cng nm gia hai mt bch c cng trt vo v ra m hoc ng hon ton hay tng phn hn ch lu lng b phn. V thn c cc vng lm kn lm cho cc mt bn ca cng. Cng cng c vng lm kn c hai pha to iu kin lm kn gp i. y ca v thn cng c nt bt cho php kim tra kn ca van khng cn m ra. Cc vt liu dng lm v thn v cng ko l loi gang, thp rn hoc ng thau. Ty

Van cng 1-thn v 3-cht 5-cht

2-cng ko 4-vng lm kn

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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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thuc vo loi cht lng, kh nng n mn galvanic v nht cht lng m cc loi van c th s khc nhau. u im: - m t 100% -Hai b mt lm kn -Chiu di lp t ngn -Kim sot kn ngay ti ch. Nhc im: -Kch thc theo chiu cao c bit khi lp vi b tc ng thy lc l vn -Nng Gia cng bn b sung l iu cn thit khi s dng trong h thng p sut cao. Dng cc ni: nc lm mt, nc ballast, h thng lacanh, h thng lm hng lng, ng cha chy, ng dn bt foam 3.2 Van cu V thn van cu hnh trn nm gia hai mt bch bn trong c phn chia lm hai na c cho phn trn v phn di c nh dng m thng ti tng mt bch tng ng ca chng. ngn phn chia c l hnh trn c th c ng bi a nm van l chi tit chuyn ng ln v xung c di tc ng ca ti van c ren. Khi a nm van trng thi tch khi tc ng ca ti van, van cu hot ng nh mt van mt chiu. Vt liu dng lm thn v np l gang, ng thau, thp khng r a nm van v van c th l ng thau hoc thp khng r. Ni chung vt liu l loi g s ph thuc loi cht lng c bm. u im: -d bo dng -d iu chnh lu lng -c kh nng kim sot mt chiu.

Van cu 1-V van 3- a

2-Ngn phn chia 4-Ti van

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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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Nhc im: -Hn ch dng chy, gy chy ri -Ch iu khin t xa bng tay (dng ti ko di iu khin). Dng cho: nc lm mt, hi, h thng nc sch khc. 3.3 Van bm V thn van bm c dng vng trn vi ng knh bng ng knh ca ng m van ny lp vi. Trong vng thn van c a trn c th quay c nh ti van. Vng thn van c kp gia cc mt bch ca cc ng ni k bn. Vng thn c lp lp cao su pha trong, to ra van cho a van. v tr m, lu lng gn nh khng b cn: a v tr thng dng. Bng cch quay a i 900 hoc gn 900, a s ng p ln lp cao su ca vng thn van. Lp cao su c th l loi c lu ha (tng tnh n hi) v l loi c th thay c. Cc vt liu: Vng thn bng thp c hoc gang, a bng ng thau, lp cao su loi chng du. Mt bch lp ln vng thn cng c lm nh vy. 1-vng thn van 2-a van 3-cm xoay van. u im: -c di lp t cc ngn -dng lu ng gn nh khng v cn tr -b tc ng n gin (ch dch chuyn theo 900) Nhc im: -iu chnh dng lu lng kh khn. S dng cho: h thng nc lm Van bi cu Van bm

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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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mt, cc van nc bin (ra ngoi mn), h thng hng tu ln v cc ln (VLCC &ULCC). 3.4 Van bi Phn thn v van bi c dng bi trn nm gia hai mt bch. Mt bch phn chia nm ti phn na theo chiu di thn v van. Bn trong thn v van c vng kn dng cho c hai mt bch ny. Mt bi cu c b tr gia cc vng kn c l khot dng ng xuyn tm. Cn van hng ln trn dng quay bi cu gii hn ln nht l 900. Dng lu lng c iu chnh bi vic quay bi cu. Cc vt liu dng ph thuc iu kin s dng. Bi cu hu nh lm bng thp khng r. S dng hu nh ch dnh cho cc ha cht. u im: - kn gp i -khng hn ch nhiu dng chy khi m ht, khng gy vn ng chy ri. Nhc im: -t tin -nng n -iu chnh c hai b kn kh khn. Bn cnh cc loi van k trn cn c bin th ca cc loi van chnh nh -Van kim dng iu chnh chnh xc l bin th ca van cu -Van t l xo l van c th ng kn bng l xo, iu khin t xa kiu bc (git). Gc gc ca chng thng l van cu. -Van an ton m ti mt gi tr p sut cao hn gi tr thit k t bi l xo thng l van cu -Van dng tm l loi van cng ko c dng ci mai. -Van mt chiu tn ti trong mt s loi: Van mt chiu lc (li g) ca bm hng Van cu a t do h thng lm m -van mt chiu li g t bi trng lng trong h thng kh tr CHNG 4: B TR NG NG LA CANH Cc bm v h thng ht kh c b tr gi bung my kh ro c gi l bm v h thng la canh bung my. Thng c ba h thng la canh.

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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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H thng th nht c trang b bm nh c kh nng gii quyt lng lacanh nh thng thng hng ngy. Bm la canh ny bm nc bn (nc v du) vo kt cha la canh bn. T kt ny nc lacanh c bm nh khc bm qua b phn ly du nc v ch c nc sch mi c a ra mn. Nu nc khng sch, n s phi i ti kt cha khc c tn l kt cha bn. H thng th hai trang b bm ln hn c th bm nc lacanh t bung my ra thng ngoi mn nhng h thng ny ch c php dng trong trng hp khn cp. H thng th ba l dng kh nng ht trc tip lacanh bung my bng bm nc lm mt chnh. Sn lng bm ny cc ln dnh cho trng hp bc v ln trong tnh trng khn cp. Trang b v b tr ng ng la canh thuc loi h thng an ton quan trng phi tun th theo lut. Mc ch n gin ca h thng lacanh l bm b ra ngoi lng nc khng mong mun (nc, du bn, nc ngoi mn r r vo bung my). Nhng lut chnh ph ban hnh hoc quy phm do ng kim a ra phi tun th cc lut quc t SOLAS. SOLAS cho rng b tr h thng ng ng la canh, b tr h thng ng ng ballast v b tr h thng ng ng cu ha v b tr trang thit b cu ha phi thnh ba h thng c lp c th thay th cng vic ca nhau nu cn thit nhng vi lu l khng dng h thng lacanh cu ha. Lng nh nc c th tch t trn tu do ngng t, r r ng, do ra, do x bn c bit cc tu m. Vic ngng t xy ra khi khng kh m tip xc vi b mt lnh. Trong cc trng hp thun li, nc chy xung cc b mt v vo ging la canh v t n th c bm ra ngoi mn. Khi nc cn li hng hoc thm vo hng th hng c th h hng. Tu khng c np hm hng c gi l tu m phi c trang b bm c sn lng b sung trong h thng la canh rt ht nc ma ng hoc nc bin ht vo (iu khon 59, mc ph 59 ca SOLAS) H thng la canh hm hng phi c kh nng vt ht nc hm hng v c lm sch cng nhanh cng tt. Cng tc ny phi c ghi vo s lnh ca tu khi tin hnh. i vi mt s loi hng nguy him, h thng la canh phi c kh nng bm nc la canh t bt k hm hng ring bit no. Hng nguy him phi c xp xp cch ly nhau. Giy php ch hng nguy him ca tu rt ch trng loi hng nguy him no c th c tu chuyn ch.

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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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Van ging la canh (i vi lacanh bung my) phi ph hp vi thit b an ton bo m rng hng ha nguy him khng th tnh c xm nhp vo mi trng hoc trong tu. quyt nh lng cht lng trong ging hoc kt ballast hai h thng sau phi c: -Vi h thng thao tc bng tay. o bng dy o dng trong ng o ti tn y ca kt hoc ging la canh cho php o chiu cao cht lng -Vi h thng o t xa. Mc cht lng cho php c t b ch th trong bung my (iu khin t xa). H thng bo ng c th dng phao t ging la canh v khi mc cht lng dng ln s tc ng vo phao . Khi phao b tc ng v ni mc no th tn hiu bo ng s c kch hot. Ngay khi c tn hiu bo ng ging la canh c kch hot, bo ng panel iu khin cng c kch hot. Vi bung my khng ngi iu khin th k s i ca s c thng bo v bo ng. Mc nc kt ballast thng o bng cch dng cc ng thi bong bng kh. p sut cn kh thi ra ti y kt phi thng c p sut nc cho bit mc ca kt s c b cm bin truyn tn hiu thu nhn. Tn hiu ny s c hin th ti bung iu khin lm hng. H thng la canh bao gm cc thnh phn sau: 4.1 Cc bm la canh Cc bm ny phi lun sn sng cho s dng c ngay. Tuy nhin, chng cng c th c s dng cho cc mc ch khc ph hp vi cc quy nh. Bm la canh phi l loi bm t mi. iu ny c ngha l chng khng c nhu cu mi bng nc c th ht nc t khng gian d nh no . 4.2 Cc ph kin (thit b ph) Trong vn ti tu bin, ph kin ngha l cc van, van an ton, cc nt bt, phin lc, b phn phi Mt vi ng ht c gn vo ng gp. Cc ng ht c gn cc van dng ng m chnh cc ng ny. duy tr sn lng cao nht c th khi c nhiu ng ht ti bm ch nn m mt van ht cho mt ging no . Khi qu nhiu van cng m mt lc, kh nng ht ti ging b gim i. Van mt chiu c s dng l loi check valve. Van mt chiu c t trn ng ht trnh nc chy ngc li ging la canh. Hai loi van mt chiu
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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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Ghi ch: 1- cht treo 2- hng dng chy 3- van ng li (ng lin) cn khi ng li (ng gch gch) Vt liu: ng gp l loi ng gang. van, van, ti van bng ng . ng khng b nc bin n mn. 4.3 Cc ng dn la canh chnh ng dn la canh chnh c b tr trong bung my v chy t ng gp ti pha ht ca bm. ng ht chy t ng gp ti cc ngn cn c ni. ng ng la canh chnh thng lm bng thp khng g. H thng la canh trong bung my bao gm 1 h thng trc tip (bt buc) v 1 h thng gin tip. H thng gin tip hot ng thng qua ng gp. 4.4 Cc ng ht Cc hm hng c b tr 4 ging la canh, mi ci mt gc hm hng. Chng phi c ni t chnh ng ht ca mnh ti ng ht chnh. tng ging mc nc s c dn v ty thuc nghing hay chi. 4.5 Ging la canh Ging la canh c np ging c khoan cc l nh y ln ming ging. Trong ging c th b tr b phn hm sy dng hi, ng thi rc dng kh nn. u ht ca ng ht c a xung ging la canh. u ng c li lc rc. Trong phn u ng ht c van mt chiu. Cc ng ht ny c chy ti ng gp. Ti ng gp cn c mt u ht t do. Khi c hin tng r r ln xy ra, ngi ta s dng u t do ny dng bm lm mt my chnh sn lng ln nh mt bm la canh khn cp ht nc ra. iu ny c gi l ht s c. Van c thao tc bng tay c tay van sn ng knh ln ni trn mt sn la canh. 4.6 B ejector B ejector to chn khng nh tc dng nc chy qua n. B ny cng c dng ht la canh, v d ht hm neo. p sut dng nc lu thng qua ejector c to bi bm cu ha l bm c p sut cao hn bm la canh v bm ballast. Nc la canh c ht ra mn ha cng vi dng nc dn do bm cu ha thi qua ejector. 4.7 My phn ly/lm sch nc lacanh Theo Cng c MARPOL nc la canh t bung my khng c php bm thng ra mn. Bt k nc c cha du no u phi qua my phn ly du nc tch du khi nc. Nc mt trng thi nht nh c th c bm qua mn. Du c cho vo kt du bn. My lc phn ly du nc km ng h o hm lng du v h thng bo ng l bt buc i vi tu c trng ti trn 1000

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GT. Nc c bm qua mn khng cho php hm lng tnh theo phn triu (PPM) vt qu 15 ppm (parts per milion). Tham kho thm Chng 6, Cc quy tc/Marpol.

CHNG 5: H THNG BALLAST H thng ballast c dng bm nc bin vo hoc a nc bin ra khi cc kt ballast. Cc lut p dng cho h thng ballast t kht khe hn so vi cc lut p dng cho h thng lacanh. Cc l do tin hnh ballast trn tu hoc chuyn ballast mt khi n c trn tu l: -Nhm ci thin tnh n nh ca tu, c bit khi tu khng ch hng -Nhm tng mn nc ca tu trong trc ci thin kh nng i bin -Nhm thay i chnh lch mn nc mi li -Nhm gim m men un hoc lc ct -Nhm kim sot nghing ca tu trong khi lm hng. Nhiu tu dng h thng chng nghing phc v mc ch ny. -Nhm ci thin kh nng ma n iu ng.

Hp phn phi c th lp vi van mt chiu (dng trong h thng la canh) hoc van chn (dng trong h thng ballast)

H thng chng nghing c s 1-ng ht ca bm 2-ng ht t ging la canh dng gim nghing (ti cng). Cc 3-Tay van iu khin van bm sn lng ln (1000 m3/h) c b 4-Van chn tr gia hai dy kt (mt dy mn phi v mt dy mn tri). Cc bm ny c th chuyn nc t kt ny sang kt khc vi tc ln. H thng hon ton t ng v c dng nhiu cho tu cu, tu container v tu Ro-ro gim nghing c th xy ra trong khi lm hng. Cc kt mi v li, cc kt su v kt y i, cc kt treo thng c dng cha nc ballast.Tt c nhng vn trn ty thuc vo loi tu. Tu du ln ch hng ri thng dng mt trong nhng hm hng dng cho ballast trong khi chy khng hng.

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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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u th khi s dng nc ballast ch khng phi nhin liu ti kt y l cho php thao tc hn trn nh kt. Cc nh thit k xc nh dung tch ballast p ng cc yu cu ti thiu v chiu chm khi tu hot ng c quy nh bi ng kim / IMO. Khong thi gian hnh trnh chuyn i v mc ch ca tu s c tnh n khi quyt nh v khoang hin c cha nc ballast v sn lng ca cc bm ballast.

cc tu nh, cc bm ballast thng ph hp vi hot ng kiu nh cc bm la canh. iu ny lm h thng ballast tch hp mt phn vi h thng la canh ti mc bm ballast c th dng nh bm la canh chnh. Ngc hn vi cc van trong h thng la canh, cc van trong h thng ballast phi l loi van hai chiu v cc kt phi c c kh nng nhn ballast vo v rt ballast ra. Cc kt y i v c cc kt treo tu a phng thc vi mc t hn u c th c nhn ballast trc tip t ngoi qua hng thng bin khng cn dng n bm. Ngy nay, h thng ballast thng c thit k nh l ng vng. Cc van c iu khin t xa dng rt ballast ra hoc nhn ballast vo cc kt ballast.

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Phn V: Gii thiu chung bung my

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Cc ng dn ballast trong kt y i phi c lm t loi cht tng hp nhn to. Cc phn dn qua vch phi bng thp bo m an ton ha hon. Ngy nay ngy cng c nhiu ng lm bng cht tng hp nhn to dng trn tu khng ch h thng ballast m cn c cc h thng khc phc v sinh hot v v sinh. u im chnh ca chng l chng n mn ng thi trng lng nh. Trn tu cng nh trong xng cc ng ny c sa cha d hn. Tnh kinh t ca tu c nng cao hn do mt phn gim gi thnh. Vic gim trng lng ca cc ng cng lm tng kh nng ch hng nhiu hn. Nhc im ca ng tng hp l nhy cm vi nhit thay i v bn km hn so vi ng thp. ng kim thng cho rng cc ng tng hp nhn to c th c dng khi chng khng c nh hng bt li v s hot ng lin tc ca cc thit b ln trong trng hp ha hon hoc sp in ton b. Bt buc phi c cc phng tin sa cha ng nha tng hp nhn to khi tu c s dng cc ng nha tng hp.

CHNG 6: B TR H THNG CU HA Tai nn ha hon chc hn l lm nhiu tu tn hao hn l cc tai nn nh cn, va chm hoc thi tit. Do mt h thng cu ha p ng cc yu cu hp php l cn thit. H thng cu ha c nhim v a nc ti cc ming vi cu ha. H thng bao gm ng ng, bm, van c khp, ng rng, vi phun v b phn phun sng. Bt buc ti thiu phi c ba bm cu ha trn tu. Mt trong cc bm ny l bm cu ha s c phi c t bn ngoi bung my c ng ni trc tip ti ng cu ha trn boong. Phi c van cch ly gia bung my v ng cu ha trn boong trong mi tnh hung ha hon trong bung my th ng cu ha trn boong vn c th dng bm cu ha s c cp nc p sut cao c. Bm cu ha s c t ngoi bung my, c ng ht ni vi van thng bin ring. Bm ny c kh nng t mi v c lai bng ng c chy du ring loi khi ng bng tay.

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