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(eBook) Bible Study - SATAN - His Origin and Mission (God, Jesus, Bible)

(eBook) Bible Study - SATAN - His Origin and Mission (God, Jesus, Bible)

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Bert Thompson, Ph.D.

To read more on Satan, the Trinity in the Old Testament, and the Messiah, go to page 22 and on. Enjoy!

First Edition, Copyright © 1999 Apologetics Press Second Printing, Copyright © 2001 Apologetics Press ISBN: 0-932859-31-3
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INTRODUCTION IS SATAN REAL? ............................................................................................................... 1 ............................................................................................................... 1 The Reality of Satan in the Old Testament..................................................................... 2 The Reality of Satan in the New Testament ................................................................... 3 SATAN’S ORIGIN ............................................................................................................... 4 Is Satan Deity? ............................................................................................................... 4 Was Satan Created “Evil”?............................................................................................. 5 Is Satan a Fallen Angel? ................................................................................................. 6 When Did Satan Become Evil? ...................................................................................... 7 WHY HAS SATAN ARRAYED HIMSELF AGAINST BOTH GOD AND MAN?.................................... 7 WHY HAS GOD ALLOWED SATAN TO CONTINUE TO EXIST ........................................................... 9 WHAT IS SATAN’S MISSION? WHAT ARE SATAN’S POWERS? CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX I APPENDIX II ........................................................................................................... 9 ........................................................................................................... 11 ........................................................................................................... 13 ............................................................................................................... 14 Is Satan “Lucifer”? ......................................................................................................... 15 “Resist the Devil…” .......................................................................................... 17 HOW DOES SATAN CARRY OUT HIS MISSION AGAINST HUMANITY?.......................................... 10 WHAT IS SATAN’S ULTIMATE DESTINY? ............................................................................................. 12

To read more on Satan, the Trinity in the Old Testament, and the Messiah, go to page 22 and on. Enjoy!


Bert Thompson, Ph.D.
s we make our way through this pilgrimage called “life,” surely we would count among the strongest aspirations of the human heart the desire to be content and happy—not in the mediocre sense of those words, but instead to be genuinely fulfilled and at peace both with ourselves and with the world in general. Oh, how we would like to be able to say with the writer of old (and actually mean it): “This is the day which Jehovah hath made; we will rejoice and be glad in it” (Psalm 118:24). But, as each of us knows all too well from personal experience, not every day causes us to “rejoice and be glad.” The simple truth is that things do not always go our way. Plans go awry. Fortunes are forfeited. Friendships are broken. Lives are lost. To echo the words of that ancient patriarch so famous for his perseverance in the face of adversity, “Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble” (Job 14:1). Facing the routine vicissitudes of life would be difficult enough on its own, without any outside force “stacking the deck.” Unfortunately, however, there is an outside force marshaled against us. Within the pages of Holy Writ, that “outside force” is identified by a variety of designations, but likely the best known and most widely used is the name: Satan. In the Old Testament (where we first are introduced to the word, and where it is used approximately nineteen times), etymologically the Hebrew term satan is related to an Aramaic verb that means “to lie in wait,” “to oppose,” or “to set oneself in opposition to.” On occasion the term was employed to describe in non-specific terms any adversary, but whenever it was accompanied by the definite article (i.e., the adversary), it always indicated a proper name associated with mankind’s greatest adversary, Satan (Hiebert, 1975, 5:282). In the New Testament (where the term Satan is used thirty-six times), the Greek word for Satan (satanas) indicates an adversary, opponent, or enemy, and “is always used of ‘Satan,’ the adversary…” (Vine, et al., 1985, p. 547). Another designation for our Great Adversary—“devil”—is used thirty-three times in the New Testament, and “...came into English through the German language from the Greek word diabolos. Diabolos means a slanderer, treacherous informer and, traitor” (Overton, 1976, 5[4]:3). Exactly who is this devil, Satan, who has established himself as God’s archfiend and mankind’s ardent foe? Is he real? If he is, what is his origin? Why has he arrayed himself against both God and man? What is his mission? What are his powers? And what is his ultimate destiny? These are questions that cry out from the human heart for answers. Fortunately, God’s Word provides those answers.


Throughout history, both those who do not accept the Bible as the Word of God (unbelievers), and those who accept it but only marginally so (religious liberals), have disavowed the existence of Satan as a real, personal, spiritual being. Rather, they speak of him as a “myth,” and of his dealings with mankind as “legends” invented as vehicles of “moral teaching” intended to impart great spiritual truths. But neither he nor his activities is accepted as historical reality. For example, atheistic writer Isaac Asimov, who was serving as president of the American Humanist Association at the time of his death in 1992, wrote:
By New Testament times, the Jews had developed, in full detail, the legend that Satan had been the leader of the “fallen angels.” These were angels who rebelled against God by refusing to bow down before Adam when that first man was created, using as their argument that they were made of light and man only of clay.

- 2 Satan, the leader of the rebels, thought, in his pride, to supplant God. The rebelling angels were, however, hurled out of heaven and into Hell. By the time this legend was developed the Jews had come under Greek influence and they may have perhaps been swayed by Greek myths concerning the attempts of the Titans, and later the Giants, to defeat Zeus and assume mastery of the universe. Both Titans and Giants were defeated and imprisoned underground. But whether Greek-inspired or not, the legend came to be firmly fixed in Jewish consciousness (1968, p. 540, emp. added; see also pp. 408-410).

The assessment of liberal-leaning religious writers does not sound much different. Andrew Zenos of Presbyterian Theological Seminary in Chicago suggested:
The apparent incongruity of a person (i.e., Satan) with such a frame of mind consorting with the other “sons of God” in the courts of heaven, giving an account of himself to, and speaking on familiar terms with, God, disappears when the narrative is seen to be constructed, not as a picture of realities, but as a vehicle of moral teaching... (1936, p. 811).

Forty-five years later, Neal D. Buffaloe and N. Patrick Murray co-authored a text in which they wrote: “By contrast [to the literal, historical view of Genesis—BT], the mainstream of Biblical scholarship rejects the literal historicity of the Genesis stories prior to Chapter 12, and finds the literature of parable and symbol in the early chapters of Genesis.” Later, in referring to the events of these chapters, including Satan’s temptation of Eve in the Garden of Eden, the authors stated that “these things never were...” (1981, pp. 5,8). Because unbelievers reject belief in the spirit entity known as God (and, not coincidentally, the Bible as His Word), it hardly is shocking that they simultaneously repudiate belief in the spirit being known as Satan (whose actual existence can be documented only within God’s Word). Skepticism of, and opposition to, spiritual matters on the part of unbelievers should be expected. Skepticism of, and opposition to, such matters on the part of those professing to be believers should not. The same Bible that informs the religious liberal about the existence of the God in Whom he proclaims to believe, also informs him of the existence of Satan—in whom he does not believe. Where is the consistency? Furthermore, consider the emphasis on Satan within the whole of the Sacred Text, the importance placed on the fact of his existence by both the biblical writers and the Son of God Himself, and the critical role he has played in the necessity of God’s great plan of salvation for mankind. The Reality of Satan in the Old Testament From the first book of the Bible (Genesis) to the last (Revelation), the existence of the devil as a real, literal adversary is affirmed. Our first introduction to Satan occurs in Genesis 3 as he arrives on the scene in the form of a serpent to tempt Eve. Speaking of the historical nature of this account, Melancthon W. Jacobus observed:
That there was a real serpent in this transaction cannot be doubted any more than we can doubt the real history throughout. Here, where the facts speak, further explanations are not necessary, nor fitted to the time of the beginning. (1) The real serpent is contrasted with the other animals (vs. 1). (2) In the New Testament, allusion is made to a real serpent in referring to the history (2 Cor. 11:3,14; 1 Jn. 3:8; Rev. 20:2). Yet (3) that there was in the transaction a superior agent, Satan himself, who made use of the serpent, is plain from his being referred to as “the old Serpent, called the Devil and Satan” (Rev. 12:9)—“a murderer from the beginning” (Jn. 8:44) [1864, 1:112].

Additional Old Testament testimony addresses the historical existence of Satan. In 1 Chronicles 21:1, the text states: “And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel.” Six verses later, this simple statement is found: “And God was displeased with this thing; therefore he smote Israel” (1 Chronicles 21:7). Israel suffered as a direct result of Satan’s workings in the life of her monarch. In the book of Job, Satan retains a place of great prominence—more, perhaps, than in any other Bible book. In the first two chapters alone, he is mentioned at least fourteen times. In fact, Job 2:1-2 records a conversation between this mendacious despot and God:

cf. lust of the eye. and said.. so he sought to solicit Christ to sin similarly (Matt. and have seen the end of the Lord. And Jehovah said unto Satan. how that the Lord is full of pity. but with a real. 75). p.” The entire theological thrust of the book of Job is utterly dependent upon the actual existence of Satan. 422. In describing the spiritual importance of this scene. 1980. 1996). and merciful” (5:11). and Heaven’s ultimate superiority over him. yea. deceit. p. Interestingly. Without his act of overt condemnation. p. it was an expression of contempt signifying all that was the opposite of holiness and purity—hardly a name the Lord would apply to some harmless. Had the devil succeeded in causing Christ to sin. legendary. 4:1-11). Luke 4:1-13). 1956. and the entire human race would have been forever lost! (1980.” “lord of the flies. his adversarial nature toward God and mankind. the prophet recorded a vision “. Further.” or “lord of dung” (Easton. n.. not “the evil” but “the evil one” (1962. conditioned upon a moral and spiritual reformation. “the always tempting one”—which suggests his characteristic activity. cf. historical events—could. we call them blessed that endured: ye have heard of the patience of Job. Jehovah that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee: is not this a brand plucked out of the fire?” (3:1-2).. As such. a present tense participle—literally expanded. and the vainglory of life (I John 2:16). and merciful”—based on literal. . and from walking up and down in it. provide much comfort to those whose lives were in imminent danger. and did provide such comfort in times of peril. and more of his cunning. Of paramount importance is the record of his temptation of the Son of God (Matthew 4:1-11. Wayne Jackson has suggested: As the serpent seduced Eve (Gen. Jesus referred to Satan as “Beelzebub” (Matthew 12:27). the existence of Satan is reaffirmed. 972). Satan’s part in this scenario cannot be overstated. of which he was the representative” (Hengstenberg. he is denominated “the tempter” in that narrative. In Zechariah 3:1-10.3 Again it came to pass on the day when the sons of God came to present themselves before Jehovah. so hateful to him. and hypocrisy is revealed. factually present. He seeks to overthrow the Throne of Grace. “From whence comest thou?” And Satan answered Jehovah. would. to deny the right of God to pardon the sinner. 76). the New Testament book of James boldly refers to Job’s dealings with Satan: “Behold.intended to show that Jehovah’s people. A few chapters later. What possible meaning could this have had to first-century saints who were enduring extreme persecution and intense suffering as a result of their faith? An imaginary fight between a non-existent devil and a mythical patriarch could not. The Reality of Satan in the New Testament Within the pages of the New Testament. and God’s response to it.d. The Greek term is peirazon. And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of Jehovah. 3:6) through the manifold channels of the lust of the flesh. a term that originally meant “lord of refuse. The accounts of the evangelists and the behaviour and words of Jesus show clearly that we are not here concerned with a mere “principle” of evil. Zechariah’s message would be lost. But a promise that “the Lord is full of pity. II Cor. And Jehovah said unto Satan. The activity and historical reality of Satan in the Old Covenant set the stage for the urgency of God’s plan of salvation in the New. 64). 5:21). the Lord could not have served as the blemishless sin-offering (I Peter 1:19. p. O Satan. mythical character of antiquity. one writer commented: “Satan was ready to challenge the Lord’s own institution for the forgiveness of sin. could again enjoy prosperity” (Jackson. and to turn it into a seat of judgment and condemnation” (Laetsch. who was clothed with dirty garments that symbolized “the sins of the whole nation. and would not. p. “Jehovah rebuke thee.. also Psalm 109:3-8). that Satan came also among them to present himself before Jehovah. Erich Sauer has noted: The whole story of the temptation of Jesus proves beyond all doubt that we are here concerned with a factual and personal conflict between two protagonists. In Zechariah’s vision. speaking and active person. “From going to and fro in the earth. Satan appeared as an adversary of Joshua the high priest. and Satan standing at his right hand to be his adversary.

Deity is omniscient. he first had to “ask” for them (Luke 22:31). but. In addition. Isaiah 45:12) or destroy (2 Peter 3:10). Satan asked to have you that he might sift you as wheat” (Luke 22:31). p. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me. He is referred to as “God Almighty” (Genesis 17:1) Who cannot “be restrained” (Job 42:2). thou knowest it altogether. 2 Cor. he is not omnipotent.. Thou searchest out my path and my lying down. by comparison. sickness (Acts 10:38). Satan. Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising. but very real. for he tempted Christ. and even “ministers” who disguise themselves as righteous (2 Corinthians 11:15).. A fact often overlooked within this text is that the pronoun “you” in the Greek is plural. and lamented the fact that “the whole world lieth in the evil one” (1 John 5:19). and art acquainted with all my ways. 1980. Deity is eternal. For example. in whose heart no evil thought could ever have arisen (John 14:30. “[T]here is no creature that is not manifest in his sight: but all things are naked and laid open before the eyes of him with whom we have to do” (Hebrews 4:13). Heb. Is Satan Deity? Although quite powerful. Indeed. thou hast searched me. lo. and especially in the latter. but the future as well (Acts 15:18).every hidden thing. and death (Hebrews 2:14). When he sought to “sift” the apostles as wheat. He alone retains the power to instill life (Genesis 2:7) and to raise the dead (Ephesians 1:20). 4:15). Scripture affirms: “Greater is he [God] that is in you than he [Satan] that is in the world” (1 John 4:4).4 Christ’s apostles also addressed the fact of Satan’s existence. Deity is omnipotent. it is high. does not possess these qualities. well-reasoned conclusion as to how he came into existence. 76). The authors of Vine’s Expository Dictionary made an important observation when they stated: “Satan” is not simply the personification of evil influences in the heart. Simon. and Who is “the Alpha and the Omega. I cannot attain unto it (139:1-6). as well as the one who leads men astray (2 Thessalonians 2:9-10). 547). moreover his personality is asserted in both the OT and NT.. He is “at hand” and “afar off” (Jeremiah 23:23-24). since Satan is depicted within the pages of the New Testament as their ardent enemy. The apostle John noted that “the devil sinneth from the beginning” (1 John 3:8). is exactly the opposite—i. He is able to “bring every work into judgment. p. whether it be good. who is and who was and who is to come” (Revelation 1:8). various New Testament writers referred to Satan as the author of sin (1 John 3:8). For example. Paul’s thorn in the flesh was said to have been “a messenger of Satan” (2 Corinthians 12:7). the following. for example. the NT would have made this evident (1985. Thou understandest my thought afar off. For there is not a word in my tongue. O Jehovah. Consider. whereas if the OT language was intended to be figurative. His . 5:21. yet there is adequate information to draw a logical.. the Lord informed Peter: “Simon. The apostle Paul spoke of “the prince of the power of the air” (Ephesians 2:2) who has his “devices” (2 Corinthians 2:11). Further.. God not only knows the past and the present. What the New Testament makes evident. And certainly they knew of which they spoke. But perhaps most sinister is the fact that it was Satan who “put into the heart of Judas Iscariot” the idea to betray his Lord (John 13:2). Clues to this fact are scattered throughout the pages of Holy Writ. By “the thunder of his power” (Job 26:1314) He has the might to create (Genesis 1:1. SATAN’S ORIGIN The Bible does not address specifically the origin of Satan.. Scripture speaks of “the eternal God” (Deuteronomy 33:27) Whose “years shall have no end” (Psalm 102:27).. and known me. or whether it be evil” (Ecclesiastes 12:14).e. behold. that Satan is not figurative. Satan is not omnipresent. however.. Satan does not enjoy the status of deity. “how unsearchable are his judgments... indicating that Satan wanted all of the apostles (see Jackson. The psalmist wrote: O Jehovah. and his ways past tracing out” (Romans 11:33). Deity is omnipresent.

cf.. and create evil. Was Satan Created “Evil”? But what was Satan originally? When was he created? And was he created “evil”? The biblical evidence may be summarized as follows. God did not create Satan as an evil adversary.. and carefully wield that knowledge to resist him. I make peace and create evil [viz. verse 7. as they had been created originally. added). I also control nations]. and. as Wayne Jackson has explained. 1:16). we conclude.5 position as “god of this world” (2 Corinthians 4:4) was “delivered” unto him (Luke 4:6). equally means that his work will be restrained in a certain realm. and the repetition of the word with the emphasis “very” at the close of the whole creation. that doeth all these things”—indicates that God does. “Thus. Satan is not omniscient. in fact. evil principle. If Satan does not partake of the nature of deity.” (1978. whatever else Satan may have been originally. I make peace. as he described the coming judgment upon Babylon. He is not intelligent enough to outwit us in order to “snatch” us from the Lord’s hand (John 10:28). and create darkness. 1:67). rather. it is obvious that he is a created being. the existence of anything evil in the creation of God is absolutely denied. That. he was good.. whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers” (Col. added). thou shalt not be able to put it away: and desolation shall come upon thee suddenly. Isaiah said: Therefore shall evil come upon thee. If we are sufficiently knowledgeable of the Word of God. emp. I am Jehovah. is exactly what he is. punishment) upon them. I am Jehovah that doeth all these things. God similarly warned Israel that if the Hebrew nation forged an untoward alliance with Egypt. but will “flee” (James 4:17. p. was announcing to the (as yet unborn) Cyrus. it was very good (emp. 78. this would include Satan as he originally was (1980. have suggested that God’s statement in Isaiah 45:7—“I form the light. Thus. In discussing the apocalyptic literature of the book of Revelation. I control nature].. Omnipresence. and the hypothesis entirely refuted. king of Persia. 262). since such is contrary to God’s holy nature (see Isaiah 6:3). . When he eventually is cast permanently into his place of eternal torment. which thou knowest not (emp. that the six days’ work merely subdued and fettered an ungodly. In verse 11.” God’s point was this: “I form light and create darkness [viz.).. Deuteronomy 32:4 describes Jehovah as the “God of faithfulness and without iniquity. is not restrained. Thus. The only possible conclusion one can reach regarding Satan is that he is not deity. in the heavens and upon the earth. In their Old Testament commentary on the Pentateuch. Genesis 1:31 records: “And God saw everything that he had made. which had already forced its way into it (1968.. were good. scholars have observed that ‘evil’ can be used with a purely secular meaning to denote physical injury (Jeremiah 39:12). by definition.. Some. Matthew 4:4). Hardeman Nichols observed: “The binding of Satan. behold. things visible and things invisible. thou shalt not know the dawning thereof: and mischief shall fall upon thee. The “evil” that God “created” was desolation due to the wickedness of the Babylonian empire.” Later in chapter 47. his intention to use the monarch as an instrument for punishment. He would bring “evil” (i. he must be a created being.e. In Isaiah 31:1-2. the devil does not possess a superior knowledge sufficient to overcome us. in orig. Notice in Isaiah 45:7 how the word “evil” is employed in direct contrast to “peace. which speaks of Satan’s being “bound” (20:2).[S]ince the devil is not of the nature of deity. But such a conclusion has serious implications. the devil will be powerless to resist (Revelation 20:10).. Keil and Delitzsch have observed: By the application of the term “good” to everything that God made. p. there is a commentary that further explains how the word “evil” is used in chapter 45. through the prophet. then he cannot be eternal. Further. or times of distress (Amos 6:3). create things that are evil.” An in-depth examination of the passage in Isaiah reveals that God. for all things and beings (outside the class of deity) are the result of creation—“for in him were all things created. The Scriptures categorically state that all things. Satan became evil. The statement obviously can have no reference to moral evil. and . This view results from a misunderstanding of the use of the word “evil” within the context of that passage. however.

his rejoinder was: “Thou speakest as one of the foolish women speaketh. which is why Peter referred to the “angels when they sinned. it is clear that God created angels (just as He has men) with the powers of reason and free will. What? Shall we receive good at the hand of God. emp. There is a hint of this in the Old Testament book of Job. of this heavenly revolt. therefore. Since Scripture speaks of “the devil and his angels. and that he (along with others) departed from a righteous state and rebelled against God. and the freedom to refuse to fear and serve God. emp. he putteth no trust in his servants. reference is made to just such an event. Turner commented: This is to say that angels had the freedom of choice—the freedom to fear and serve God. But the simple pass on.. From references such as these. then. 82). and speaks of “the devil and his angels” (Matthew 25:41. for them to sin. has suggested that “. the New Testament seems to confirm that such a revolt did take place. God creates evil only in the sense that he brings punishment or calamity upon those who do evil.” But John wrote that sin is “lawlessness” (i. and his angels he chargeth with folly” (Job 4:18). p.the only possible conclusion is that the devil is the leader of a group of angels who rebelled against God and were therefore expelled from heaven to eventually spend eternity in hell” (Workman. The meaning of this statement from Solomon is that the prudent man sees public calamity approaching. and that there had been some revolt there among a part.. and suffer for it” (Prov. has God created criminal or moral evil. there can be no true holiness (1989. as Lloyd Ecrement has noted: “They. It is possible. In no sense.. 33). and he uses all lawful means to secure himself..rebellion is generally attempted only by the headstrong and obstinate” (1978. certain of the angels chose wrongly. Eliphaz said of God: “Behold. But. Without intellect and freedom of absolute choice. In some fashion. therefore. but simply a rebellion against Him—they abuse the powers of reason and a free will given to them by God” (1961. angels could not be holy as God is holy. Job’s meaning is clear: shall we not receive punishment and correction from the hand of Jehovah. transgression of God’s law. If they choose evil rather than good. emp.e.6 that is its significance in Isaiah 45:7” (Jackson. 1984. which rendered it possible that others might revolt also (1949. 1:lxiii. and hideth himself. and committed them to pits of darkness. Morris similarly observed: .. 22:3). 1981. p. he hath kept in everlasting bonds under darkness unto the judgment of the great day” (Jude 6). p. Since the Bible also refers to Satan as “the prince of demons” (Matthew 12:24). but left their proper habitation. What brought about this Satanic rebellion? Nichols. 1[5]:4). have the ability to choose good or evil. but certainly not necessary. that is no reflection upon their Creator. Indeed. Is Satan a Fallen Angel? There is compelling textual evidence within the Bible which indicates that originally Satan was one of the angels who inhabited the heavenly realm. the angels’ sin consisted of breaking God’s law by not keeping their “proper habitation. Apparently. Thus. renowned commentator Albert Barnes wrote: Language like this would hardly be employed unless there was a belief that even the holiness of the angels was not incorruptible. p. 262). noted: Solomon wrote: “A prudent man seeth the evil. The apostle Peter said that “God spared not angels when they sinned. 1:84). but cast them down to hell. which made it possible for them both to think and to choose. Turner Sr. coupled with responsibility. added). in speaking about sedition against legitimately established authority.” it becomes reasonable to suggest that Satan was either the instigator. to be reserved unto judgment” (2 Peter 2:4). in orig. or leader (or both). In the absence of free will.. In two separate passages. and shall we not receive evil?” (Job 2:10. “.). Evil here is put for dangers and calamities that befall men. When Job’s wife proposed that he curse God and die. In no sense has God provoked or brought about evil in any angel or man (1989. Henry M. Another inspired New Testament writer wrote: “And angels that kept not their own principality. as well as innumerable blessings? The late Rex A. 79).” but instead departing from whatever appropriate position it was that God had established for them. 1 John 3:4). In discussing this wording. added).

In Job 38:4-7 we are told that the angels were present when the foundations of the earth were laid. without beginning or endings. Whitcomb. Douglas Kelly also has advocated such a position. What is definite is that angels are creatures.. and that their creation and transgression occurred sometime prior to God’s bringing the Earth into existence. Kelly. 70].. This was the original sin of Satan. 69. Knowles has commented: “Before creation of the world He created the angels. and mentions the angels just before reference to “laying the foundations of the earth. 93. When Did Satan Become Evil? But when. too. but stressed caution. It is accurate to state. once inhabited the heavenly realm but. 3:14. His obstinate attempt to usurp God’s authority cost him his position among the heavenly host and doomed him to “everlasting bonds under darkness” (Jude 6). WHY HAS SATAN ARRAYED HIMSELF AGAINST BOTH GOD AND MAN? In any study of Satan.7 tells of their singing and their shout for joy at the creation of the earth” (1972. nor any other text in Scripture. It is significant to remember. 78.” Thus they appear after the creation of all things and before the earth is made a solid body. disobeyed that law.5)” (1994. p. and are presumably not meant to be interpreted in the same precise. regardless of the battlefield he chose as his theater of war. Regardless of the exact time of their creation. created spirits who were (and are) amenable to God’s law.. when he wrote: Neither Genesis. rejecting God’s Word and trying to become God Himself (1971. wanting more power and authority. the question is bound to arise: Why has Satan established himself as God’s archfiend and man’s ardent foe? No doubt a portion of the answer can be found in the fact that he. therefore. his sedition gained him nothing and cost him everything. Perhaps the angels were brought into being on the very first day of creation. In speaking of God and His original creation. exactly. Poetic though its literary form is. 1980.” was cast “down to hell” (2 Peter 2:4). for Job 38:6. p. Psalm 104:2-5 speaks of the shining of God’s light during the original creative process.94). 80. and regardless of the strength or numbers of his army. p. Such passages may take us as far as we can go safely in consideration of the question: when were the angels first created? (1997. eternal consequences. What else could there be in heaven to battle for? It is possible that he may have harbored bitter envy and selfish ambition in his heart. and were rejoicing over it all. it must mean something. for they observed the process and rejoiced over it (Psa. p. p. These passages from Job and Psalms are certainly poetic. Turner. Reserve is necessary on such a speculative subject that has not been revealed to us by God in his Word.. in both man and angels. but prior to the creation of the Earth itself (see Jackson. Satan’s insurrection failed miserably. of course. that Satan. and those dismissed from the heavenly realm with him. 69). Victor Knowles added: Perhaps Satan became proud of his position as an angel and reached out. 1997. In the end. that angels are finite. John C. 214-215). but only the Triune God is eternal. did all of this take place? Numerous conservative scholars have suggested that likely the creation of the angels occurred during the first day of the creation week. 93.7 The root of all sin. as a result of his defiant rebellion against the great “I Am.. and as a result were cast from their spiritual abode. pp. 1994. and bear reference to a true state of affairs. and thus do have a beginning.. p. the fact remains that certain of the angels. Knowles. for James says that such “wisdom” is “of the devil” (Jas. the simple fact of the matter is that—in the most important contest of his existence—He lost! . and that failure had dire. p. 43). Satan among them. is the twin sin of unbelief and pride—the refusal to submit to God’s will as revealed by His own Word and the accompanying assertion of self-sufficiency which enthrones the creature and his own will in the place of God.15) [1994. 1972. chronological sense required by Genesis 1 and 2.. They are immortal. 43). p. states when the angelic beings were actually created. Whitcomb concurred when he wrote that the angels “must have been created at the very beginning of the first day of creation. pp. are fallen angels. 148:2. Regardless of the battle plan he adopted to challenge the Creator of the Universe. 1989.

another repository of satanic revenge would have to be found. It was through mankind that Satan would exact his revenge—the emphasis here being on the word “through. he nevertheless planned future skirmishes.8 The conditions of his ultimate surrender were harsh. Make no mistake about it. see Vine. p. with the creation of man. Weep in sadness at the Great Adversary’s so successfully convincing Judas to betray His Lord (John 13:2) that Christ referred to him as “the devil” (John 6:70). 60). 1985. although he had been completely vanquished. Remember the devil as Joshua’s adversary (Zechariah 3:1ff. being tempted and convinced to sin (1 Chronicles 21:1. It is a fight to the finish!” (1976. Had Jesus yielded. 89). As the “prince of this world” (John 12:31). Job (Job 1-2). in the eternal absence of His Creator-God. for that all sinned” (emp. Satan stalks about “as a roaring lion. is why Satan is identified within Scripture as the “king of the abyss. Sweet revenge—despoiling the “apple of God’s eye” and the zenith of His creative genius! Thus. and man would have been doomed— destined to inhabit forever the “blackness of darkness” (Jude 13) in the eternal presence of his most vituperative enemy. Cower in fear (as the early church did—Acts 5:11) at the results of his having persuaded Ananias to lie to the Godhead (Acts 5:3). King David. and his ignominious band of outlaws (“sons of the evil one”—Matthew 13:38). and man’s ardent foe. the battle was on—and has been ever since.7). 1996). 3:9-23). . and so death passed unto all men. et al.. but. added).). as through one man sin entered into the world. Vindictive by nature (Revelation 12:12). tremble in dismay at the potential ruin of humanity. 1:18-32.” 2 Corinthians 6:15. and determined to be “the deceiver of the whole world” (Revelation 12:9).” Revelation 9:11. had Satan succeeded in causing Christ to sin when he tempted Him in the wilderness those many years ago (Matthew 4:1-11). Richard Batey wrote: “Paul’s point is rather that since the power of sin is a universal human experience (Rom. no doubt. Witness.” the “Destroyer” (“Apollyon.” As the apostle Paul stated in Romans 5:12: “Therefore. and the “wicked one” (“Belial.seeking whom he may devour” (1 Peter 5:8). Take notice of Israel’s beloved monarch.. Adam” (1969. there would have remained “no more a sacrifice for sins” (Hebrews 10:26). Basil Overton warned: “Satan is out to get us. indeed. He. thus he employs various methods to attack man. God’s power was too great. he set his face against all that is righteous and holy—and never once looked back. more important. Man thus became the agent who caused sin to be in the world. p. But strike back at whom? It was futile to attempt a second mutiny. Nothing short of an absolute victory will assuage him. Or. 1:72). “the enemy” (Matthew 13:39). it is a “no holds barred/winner take all” battle. Although his armies had been thoroughly routed. in possession of cunning devices (2 Corinthians 2:11). Ezekiel 18:20). which. and tragedies visited upon the Old Testament patriarch. While he had lost the war. his cruel deception of Eve (Genesis 3:1-6) with its temporal and eternal consequences of physical/spiritual death (1 Corinthians 15:21. nothing short of a hell filled with every single member of the human race will dissuade him. see Easton. 5[4]:3). And who better to serve as the recipient of hell’s unrighteous indignation than mankind—the only creature in the Universe made “in the image and likeness of God” (Genesis 1:26-27)? As Turner has suggested: “Satan cannot attack God directly. Satan was determined not to go gently into the night. or how he hindered the apostle’s missionary efforts (1 Thessalonians 2:18). He will take advantage of us if we let him.. and death through sin. this power must have come into the world through the representative man. Commit to memory Beelzebub’s part in Paul’s thorn in the flesh (2 Corinthians 12:7). Recall the trials. He is. for example. Their goal is the spiritual annihilation of mankind. His anger at having been defeated fueled his determination to strike back in revenge. have worked their ruthless quackery on mankind from the moment the serpent met Eve in the Garden of Eden. God’s master creation” (1980. In his war against Heaven. and His omnipotence too all-consuming (Job 42:2. tribulations.. Another target was needed. Satan will stop at nothing. and although the Victor had imposed the worst kind of permanent exile. 1 John 4:4).. He is God’s archfiend. Satan has arrayed himself against both God and man.

He most certainly does—and has since the day he was cast from the heavenly portals. I am convinced. since at times it affords opportunities for mankind to witness God working amidst His creation. there may be more to Satan’s continued existence than simply the angels’ immortal nature. but they will always exist (1989. Jesus spoke of the righteous who one day would inhabit heaven. said that man was “created for my glory” (Isaiah 43:7). Scripture delineates angelic beings as immortal. so that my name may be declared throughout all the Earth” (Exodus 9:15. and stated that “neither can they die any more.” But do not let the fact that he is spirit rather than flesh trick you into thinking he has no mission. but only the Triune God is eternal” (1997. then it follows logically that angels cannot die. until he is through using him to test and purify a people for his ultimate glory and purposes” (1974. speaking for Jehovah. why not simply impose on him the same death penalty that civilized nations have imposed on murderers from time immemorial (cf. temporarily. to show you my power. Certainly. In his thought-provoking work. 33]. God may have “allowed Satan to retain his power. added). the evil as well as the good. we may not profess to know. thus. another question comes to mind: Why has God allowed Satan to continue to exist? Since he is denominated within the pages of Scripture as “a murderer” (John 8:44). As Douglas Kelly correctly observed. They also reveal that the devil’s existence is not at variance with Heaven’s eternal plan. But. and the nature of the spirit beings (angels) that He created. and the more will be passed upon them. and you would have been cut off from the earth. they—whether righteous or sinful—never will cease to exist. WHAT IS SATAN’S MISSION? Were Satan made of flesh and bone. 83). Simply stated. angels (and this certainly would include Satan prior to his fall) “are immortal. p. 93). While the Godhead is eternal. p. Numbers 35:16)? What possible justification could God have for allowing one so wicked to continue to live? The answer. In John 9. Punishments and prescribed limits have been passed upon evil spirits. Within this passage. emp. as T. 91[16]:245). realizing that the “secret things belong unto Jehovah our God” (Deuteronomy 29:29). .9 - WHY HAS GOD ALLOWED SATAN TO CONTINUE TO EXIST? As we study this enemy. Turner addressed the issue of Satan’s continued existence when he wrote: Why did God not destroy Satan when he sinned? Why let Satan continue to exist and influence others to sin? The answer here lies in God’s nature—his eternal nature which he has passed on to angels as well as to men—for there will never be a time when the spirits or angels. There is a clue regarding this point in the text of Luke 20:33-36. Systematic Theology. that mission is the complete destruction of all humanity in hell. What all this entails. we might employ an oft’-used phrase and describe him as “a man with a mission. Indeed. When Jesus’ disciples inquired as to the reason for his predicament. p. humans and angels are immortal. God’s glory was exemplified by mankind’s creation because Isaiah. But the Scriptures do reveal enough information for us to conclude that Satan’s continued existence follows logically from the immortal nature of angelic beings. Lloyd Ecrement has suggested: Perhaps the reason might well be expressed in the words the Lord asked Moses to say to wicked Pharaoh: “For by now I could have put forth my hand and struck you and your people with pestilence.16) [1961. from a purely human vantage point. However. has to do with the nature of God. will cease to exist. but for this purpose have I let you live.. and if they are equal to the angels. In addressing the question of exactly why Satan persists. the continuation of evil—even for a brief period— generally is not viewed as either desirable or ideal. He responded that it was so that “the works of God should be made manifest in him” (John 9:3. the story is recounted of a man who had been born blind. for they are equal unto the angels. Pierce Brown has proposed.” If righteous humans who will inhabit heaven cannot die.

To his credit. Sanderson when he wrote: “These alone should make us fearfully concerned” (1978. our “adversary”. As an example of this point. After even a cursory glance at these appellations. 2 Corinthians 6:15). 120[43]:678). (e) the “Great Dragon” (Revelation 12:9). 1961. and enticed.. However. surely we could agree with L. he is not the immediate cause of sin. Satan tempts. Wayne Jackson has written: “Disease. when it hath conceived. exactly.e. We are answerable and responsible for our own sins. bringeth forth death (1:14-15). “wicked one”. Judas eventually lamented: “I have sinned in that I betrayed innocent blood” (Matthew 27:4). (b) “the god of this world” (2 Corinthians 4:4). (c) “the prince of the powers of the air” (Ephesians 2:2). . Satan’s names describe his mission. does Satan do this? HOW DOES SATAN CARRY OUT HISMISSION AGAINST HUMANITY? The Bible makes it clear that the devil is the originator. His primary goal is to alienate men from God by causing them to sin. override man’s free will. (f) “Beelzebub” (i. (l) a “murderer” (John 8:44). Similar lessons are taught in Acts 5 and 2 Samuel 12. Matthew 12:24). beareth sin: and the sin. 76]. To be tempted is not sin. (d) the father of lies (John 8:44). 34). prince of demons.. (j) “the tempter” (1 Thessalonians 3:5). consider the apostle who betrayed the Son of God. we are free moral agents.. (g) the “wicked one” (Matthew 13:38). when Ananias and Sapphira lied about the amount they had received from the sale of a piece of land (and the amount they subsequently professed to have donated to the church). p. David realized that not even powerful potentates are immune to the personal responsibility that accompanies transgression of God’s law. (p) “Belial” (i. God endowed us with reason and a free will. wife of Urriah the Hittite. when he is drawn away by his own lust. But how.e. emp. he brought about such woes and hence he is really the murderer of the human family (John 8:44)” [1980. in other words. Even in his final hours. The apostle wanted Ananias to know that he. Peter inquired of Ananias: “How is it that thou hast conceived this thing in thy heart? Thou has not lied unto men. Satan (i. infirmity and death are ultimately the responsibility of Satan. “David said unto Nathan. when it is fullgrown. (i) the ruler of darkness (Ephesians 6:12). the father. added). it is important to recognize that while Satan is the originator of sin. (h) “the prince of this world” (John 12:31). but to yield to temptation is sin. he did not attempt to lay the blame for his sin at someone else’s feet. p.. A man must yield to Satan’s temptation and desire before he becomes guilty of sin. James affirmed this in his epistle when he wrote: But each man is tempted. After hearing the evidence against him. (k) “accuser of the brethren” (Revelation 12:10). John wrote: “[H]e that doeth sin is of the devil. for the devil sinneth from the beginning” (1 John 3:8). bore the guilt for his sin. and cannot. He could not claim (with any legitimacy): “The devil made me do it. but unto God” (Acts 5:4. In speaking to this point. the prophet Nathan was sent by God to convict King David of the sin of adultery with Bathsheba.e. therefore we have the ability to choose good or evil. (m) “the enemy” (Matthew 13:39). Overcome by the grotesque nature of his dastardly deed. Matthew 4:1). thereby robbing them of the freedom that God’s Word alone can impart (John 8:32). (n) “a roaring lion” (1 Peter 5:8).10 Within Scripture. and (q) “angel of the bottomless pit” (Revelation 9:11). slanderer. This he did. of sin. In Acts 5.” In 2 Samuel 12. but he cannot compel men to do evil against their wills.e.. His main objective is to make men his slaves. for by his introduction of sin into the world. Satan’s constant coercion and tantalizing temptation do not. I have sinned against Jehovah” (12:13). Zechariah 3:1) routinely is denominated by such unseemly designations as: (a) the devil (i. notwithstanding the temptation and influence of the devil. and our own responsibility (Ecrement.O. Then the lust. personally. (o) a “serpent” (2 Corinthians 11:3). So our sins are our own.

that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. In Ephesians 6:11. 5[4]:3). that his powers do have limits. 3:7). When the devil robbed Job of his family and earthly possessions. Satan is not omnipotent—a fact that even he recognized. and how is it wielded? WHAT ARE SATAN’S POWERS? There can be no doubt that. It is interesting and characteristic that according to the Bible Satan is fundamentally a liar and his kingdom is a kingdom founded upon lies and deceit” (1939.. p. He will deceive you if you do not work at the job of fighting back at him” (Overton.” (Overton. then.. Wayne Jackson summarized some of that evidence when he acknowledged that the deceiver: (1) Delights in blinding the minds of the unbelieving that the light of the gospel should not dawn upon them (II Cor. dishonest. as the lord of this planet. he could offer its possessions to “whomsoever I will” (Luke 4:6). Sweet wrote: “Satan’s power consists principally in his ability to deceive.” Methodeias “is from the Greek verb that means to trace. 4:14. Interestingly. . 14:30. The Lord however left this claim of the devil’s uncontradicted and merely declared that man should worship and serve God alone (Luke 4:8). The Scriptures make it clear. and even when he afflicted Job physically. We would do well to recognize the same thing the Son of God recognized: Satan is an important and powerful foe! As powerful as he is. deceitful hypocrite. and employs his “wiles”—a deliberate planning or system (Eph. Sanderson has suggested that Satan’s traits “clearly show the Devil to be a cunning. devices. Adding to this assessment. p. he first had to “ask” for them (Luke 22:31). if only He would fall down and worship him (Matthew 4:9). L. The devil is a skilled artisan. to investigate. 1976.” The word “devices” in this text derives from the Greek noemata. This same thought lies behind the various sayings of Jesus in which He calls Satan “the Prince of this world” (John 12:31. 16:11) [1962. But what power does Satan have that allows him to accomplish his task of deceiving humanity? How extensive is that power. Satan is powerful in his own right. When the devil tempted the Son of God in the wilderness. 11:14. purposes. he admitted that his earthly reign “hath been delivered unto me” (Luke 4:6).” The word “wiles” derives from the Greek methodeias. 4:4). (2) To accomplish this he does not hesitate to transform himself into an angel of light along with his ministers who pretend to be ministers of righteousness (II Cor. He is truthless. how. Paul spoke of the fact that “no advantage may be gained over us by Satan: for we are not ignorant of his devices.15).M. designs. if some such legal basis for Satan’s dominion in the world had not existed. (4) He is full of trickery. to handle cunningly. and fraudulent in every possible way” (1978.. Jesus refuted neither Satan’s position as “god of this world” nor his ability to impose his will upon it. however. Otherwise Jesus would only have had to point out that the necessary presuppositions for Satan’s legal claim to and ability to dispose of the glory of the world simply did not exist. 81]. which “refers to intelligent notions. deceit is perhaps Satan’s most powerful tool. 1976. 120[43]:678). 5[4]:3). etc. During his temptation of Christ. Erich Sauer therefore concluded: This whole offer would have been unreal from the first for the Lord as a temptation. He has his snares (I Tim. from which we get our English word “methods. (3) When people are inclined not to believe the truth. 4:2693).” Satan pressures us “with all deceit of unrighteousness” (2 Thessalonians 2:10). he did so only with the expressed permission of God (Job 1:12. therefore. Through his “devices” and “wiles. he offered Him all the power and glory of the kingdoms of this world. His justification for this insidious offer was based on his claim that. 66].. With this He recognized in principle the tempter’s right to dispose of the kingdoms of this world in this present age.11 If we are responsible for our own actions. When he sought to “sift” Christ’s apostles as wheat. Paul admonished Christians to “put on the whole armor of God. does Satan influence us to sin? In 2 Corinthians 2:11. The New Testament provides ample evidence to substantiate such a conclusion. 6:11) [1980. to handle methodically. Indeed. 2:6). as “god of this world” (2 Corinthians 4:4). the devil takes the gospel from their hearts (Luke 8:12).

sent that I might know your faith. He will influence men to conceal or distort truth for the purpose of misleading. He tempts (Matthew 4:1. Or. Revelation. then? Hardly! Although the Scriptures repeatedly affirm Satan’s immense power. and so hard.” Like a well-hidden. which is written in apocalyptic literature that is highly figurative. the message is one not only of comfort. presents a vivid picture of God’s archfiend and man’s ardent enemy. Satan is a master of deceit and is well aware that half lies mixed with half truths more often do the trick and will more easily be swallowed and digested. Ephesians 6:11). Pierce Brown observed that “apparently he is able to make some sort of suggestions to the heart” (1974. lest by any means the tempter had tempted you. other-worldly adversary in these words: He is the great pretender and the first liar and hypocrite with special skills in deception. he provided a picture window into which we may peer to observe the way Satan works among men. because of their professed faith in the Son of God. Revelation 12:9-10). Satan. 3). pp. 2 Corinthians 12:7). Among Satan’s impressive powers are these. Matthew 16:22-23. especially. he is able to strike in an instant. He lays snares for men (2 Timothy 2:26. He undermines the sanctity of the home (1 Corinthians 7:3-5). sweet-talking “angel”. as being “bound” (vs. he would prefer a tree to hide behind than an open field and would prefer an ambush over an open warfare. WHAT IS SATAN’S ULTIMATE DESTINY? Is all lost.. Zechariah 3:14. and our labor should be in vain (1 Thessalonians 3:5) The apostle’s inner stirrings on behalf of those he had worked so long. Virgil Leach assessed our much-feared. He perverts the Word of God (Genesis 3:1-4). John 13:2. Within this book. He blinds men to truth (2 Corinthians 4:4). Little wonder Paul wrote to the Thessalonians: For this cause I also. 21:1-5. He sows tares among God’s wheat (Matthew 13:24-30. We know this to be the case because the Scriptures testify eloquently to the fact that Satan—far from having free reign—has been “bound. He afflicts (Job 2:7. He prompts both saints and sinners to transgress the laws of God (1 Chronicles 21:1. yet whose intentions all the while are as insincere as they are sanctimonious. piety. If he cannot overthrow truth he will neutralize it. 1415). No one escapes his trickery. 1 Timothy 3:7). not that he will not use an out-and-out lie should it fit the occasion. He hinders the work of God’s servants (1 Thessalonians 2:18). they likewise affirm that “he [God] that is in you is greater than he [Satan] that is in the world” (1 John 4:4). dissimulation and pretense are used in all his maneuvers. 20:8-10). cheating and fraud. but also of ultimate victory over the devil and his forces. water it down to dilute it. What awesome powers the devil commands! What subtle meanness he exhibits! One moment he presents himself as an innocent-faced. Acts 5:3). The twentieth chapter. He steals the Word of God from human hearts (Matthew 13:19). craftiness.12 But what powers. using what is perhaps the most insidious disguise at his disposal.. exactly.. Loving darkness. to wrest from the devil’s grasp were based on his knowledge that they faced daily a formidable foe who was more than capable of ravishing both their bodies and their souls.. Like a carnivorous lion ready for the hunt (1 Peter 5:8). As Hardeman Nichols has suggested: . Satan employs his power of “suggestions to the heart” to pervert the truth. every man knows something of deception. Luke 13:16. Qualities of guile. And he even makes accusations against God’s children before Heaven’s throne (Job 1:6-11. Our adversary would desire to plant his “Judas kiss” on the cheek of every man (1977.36-43). He instigates false doctrine (1 Timothy 4:1-3). 91[16]:5).” The concluding book of the New Testament. the next he is a ravenous mammal or slithering reptile. 2) and “cast into the abyss” (vs. Satan waits to devour us via his “suggestions to the heart. Acts 10:38. was written to offer encouragement to firstcentury Christians who. In his book. 2:3-6. and righteousness. He deceives (Revelation 12:9. are in his possession? When T. injecting the poison of his venom into the minds of men. coiled snake (Revelation 20:2). when I could no longer forbear. he even may portray himself as an “angel of light” (2 Corinthians 11:14) who feigns humility. Get Thee Behind Me Satan. were threatened hourly with severe persecution “even unto death” (Revelation 2:10).

the antithesis of the prophets. unclean spirits have ceased to control men as they did in the time of the ministry of Christ and the apostles (1972. and they shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever (Revelation 20:10). then will be fulfilled once and for all: “He [Christ] shall bruise thy [Satan’s] head. that he might destroy the works of the devil” (I John 3:8). If we do not appreciate the final triumph of every righteous person. for “to this end was the Son of God manifested. fortunately that no longer is the case. 1998. Our Lord will be victorious over Heaven’s Great Adversary. where are also the beast and the false prophet. that is.. And.M. would cease. but also sealed his ultimate doom. go to page 22 and on. and the Messiah. in fact. God’s covenant pledge. Luke 4:41. The fate that awaits this traitorous tyrant is clear: And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone. unclean spirits. Eternal punishment in hell has been “prepared for the devil and his angels” (Matthew 25:41). Concerning the devil. To read more on Satan. made with our forefathers in Genesis 3:15. he stated that eventually the Lord would “cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land” (13:1-2). With the earthly reign of Satan brought to an end. In the conquest of Christ over Satan and his forces. 392). Sweet correctly observed that in our day and age there is no evidence that “Satan is able to any extent to introduce disorder into the physical universe or directly operate in the lives of men” (1939. 263). God put a restraint upon him” (p. then we shall be able to say with the psalmist of old: “This is the day which Jehovah hath made. we have not been sufficiently blessed by this study (1978. it has been tightened. For example.” The paradise lost of Genesis will have become the paradise regained of Revelation. p.13 If in our study of Revelation 20 we fail to see the final overthrow of Satan and his collaborators. Nichols went on to write that “[w]hen. we have missed a major truth. Homer Hailey remarked: Likewise. 260). While it is true that in the first century the devil and his minions were able to affect people physically (cf. when the prophet Zechariah foretold of the coming of the Messiah and spoke of the blessings that would attend His reign. Enjoy! . Concerning Zechariah’s prophecy. That restraint never has been removed. It is via the power inherent in His own death and resurrection that He will “bring to nought him that had the power of death. p. we will rejoice and be glad in it” (118:24). and the eternal bliss of God’s saints secure. the Trinity in the Old Testament. p. the reader is referred to Jackson.] CONCLUSION God not only “bound” Satan. L. 1990. 8:26-33). in the unspecified eternity before the world he initiated his rebellion. the devil” (Hebrews 2:14). 2694). [For a more in-depth discussion of these points than the limited space here will allow.

The Early Earth (Grand Rapids. Hengstenberg. Jacobus. “Satan. Isaac (1968). United Kingdom: Christian Focus Publications). E. Rex A. (1961).” The Restorer. 18:25-31. Whitcomb. ed. John C. and Franz Delitzsch (1968 edition).W. The Letter of Paul to the Romans (Austin. (1980). November. MI: Eerdmans).” Giving a Reason for Our Hope. Brown. Fearn. (1971). TX: Quality). Richard (1969).H. Systematic Theology (Montgomery. Wayne (1990). T. Douglas F. NJ: Craig Press). Hardeman (1978). Get Thee Behind Me Satan (Abilene. Morris. Knowles. ed. Melancthon W. C. Easton’s Bible Dictionary (Oak Harbor. Keil. Patrick Murray (1981). “The Binding of Satan. (1978). The King of the Earth (Grand Rapids.F. (1996).” International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Grand Rapids. “Miracles. Jackson. Buffaloe. “Satan. ed. (no date). (1997). “Satan. Sanderson. Christology of the Old Testament (MacDonald Dill AFB: MacDonald Publishing). Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville. MI: Eerdmans).251. and N. Virgil (1977). and William White (1985).. Pierce (1974). Winford Claiborne (Henderson. ed. Commentary on the Old Testament—The Pentateuch (Grand Rapids. L. Angels and Demons (Joplin. and Destiny (Grand Rapids. D. Wendell Winkler (Fort Worth. TN: East Tennessee School of Preaching). Kelly.E. TX: Winkler Publications).” Reason & Revelation.” Premillennialism: True or False. Laetsch. 5[4]:3. TN: Nelson). Easton. “Demons: Ancient Superstition or Historical Reality?.” Essays in Apologetics. Andrew C. Vine. (1975). Merrill C. Erich (1962). ed. “Is the Devil a Fallen Angel?. Merrill F. TN: FreedHardeman College). MI: Eerdmans). AL: Apologetics Press). the Bible. Barnes. Creationism and Evolution (Little Rock. (1939). AR: The Bookmark). Gary (1981). MI: Baker). Wayne (1984). MI: Baker). Hiebert.14 - REFERENCES Asimov. “Some Questions and Answers About Satan. Sweet. W. Homer (1972). Turner. Melancthon W. Man. Bert Thompson and Wayne Jackson (Montgomery. Leach. Hailey.” Barnes’ Notes on the Old and New Testaments (Grand Rapids. The Minor Prophets (St. Tenney (Grand Rapids.. Jackson. Wayne (1980).” Gospel Advocate. Neal D. Jackson. PA: Presbyterian Board of Publication). MI: Eerdmans). L.” Firm Foundation. Victor (1994). Creation and Change (Geanies House. Lloyd L.” A New Standard Bible Dictionary.” The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. M. 1[5]:4. Henry M. “Satan. Louis. October 26. . MO: College Press). Zenos. Tucker (Knoxville. “Questions and Answers. A Commentary on the Minor Prophets (Grand Rapids. 91[16]:245.G. “Satan. Ecrement. ed. Jackson. (1972). 120 [43]:678. Asimov’s Guide to the Bible: The Old Testament (New York: Avon). (1864). MO: Concordia). April 16. Batey. TX: Sweet).O. April. Sauer. Unger. Wayne (1998). The Bible Has the Answer (Nutley.” The World Evangelist. Critical and Explanatory Notes on Genesis (Philadelphia. MI: Zondervan). Albert (1949 edition). WA: Logos Research Systems). Sr. Basil (1976).M. M. Nichols.” Great Doctrines of the Bible. “Job. MI: Baker). Theo (1956). Jacobus (New York: Funk and Wagnalls). April. Overton. “The Devil and His Wiles. AL: Alabama Christian School of Religion). Workman.E. (1936).

status of the (soon to be former) ruler. He is denominated as a “man” (vs. Worms would eat his body. but designed that himself and his laws should be regarded as supreme” (1950.. likely believing that the term described the planet Venus. the pagan monarch eventually would experience both the collapse of his kingdom and the loss of his life—an ignominious end that is described in vivid and powerful terms. the demise of corrupt national powers is frequently depicted under the imagery of falling heavenly luminaries (cf. Although there are numerous examples from both categories that could be listed. what is its meaning. once-lofty-but-now-diminished. 1987. ‘How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased’!” In his commentary on Isaiah. from the root. and hedgehogs would trample his grave (vss. not in a king’s sarcophagus. the name Lucifer came to be synonymous with Satan. “Sheol from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming. meaning “to shine” or “to bear light. 19-20). As a result of his egotistical self-deification. but nevertheless true.23). His complete overthrow was likened to the falling of the morning star” (1954. But is Satan “Lucifer”? No. Zerr observed that such phrases were “. son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground. 383-405) known as the Latin Vulgate. . and is here called ben-shachar (son of the dawn). and is it a synonym for “Satan”? Here are the facts.15 - APPENDIX I IS SATAN “LUCIFER”? Go to page 32 to read more on this topic! It is sad. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds. they borrowed the name from Jerome’s Bible translation (A. perhaps one of the most popular misconceptions among Bible believers is that Satan also is designated as “Lucifer” within the pages of the Bible. And when the ruler finally descends into his eternal grave... 16). The chest-pounding boast of the impudent potentate was: I will ascend into heaven. and I will sit upon the mount of congregation. employed the Latin term “Lucifer” (“light-bearing”) to designate “the morning star” (Venus). 32:7). This kind of phraseology should not be surprising since “[i]n the O. captives of that hidden realm will taunt him by saying. The context into which verse 12 fits begins in verse 4 where God told Isaiah to “take up this parable against the king of Babylon. Only later did the suggestion originate that Isaiah 14:12ff. that on occasion Bible students attribute to God’s Word facts and concepts that it neither teaches nor advocates. The word “Lucifer” is used in the King James Version only once. 23:15). I will exalt my throne above the stars of God. 16) who would die in disrepute and whose body would be buried. Albert Barnes explained that God’s wrath was kindled against the king because the ruler “intended not to acknowledge any superior either in heaven or earth. 11.M. O Lucifer. However. 7:311). but in pits reserved for the downtrodden masses (vss. 3:265).T.. “Is this the man that made the earth to tremble. Instead. in the uttermost parts of the north.” Keil and Delitzsch noted that “[i]t derives its name in other ancient languages also from its striking brilliancy.D. Jerome. 13-14). ASV]” (Jackson. Ezek. hence. hâlâl. “son of the dawn”) to depict the once-shining-but-now-dimmed.. in Isaiah 14:12: “How art thou fallen from heaven.used figuratively in this verse to symbolize the dignity and splendor of the Babylonian monarch.. that did shake kingdoms?” (vs. 1:272). quite appropriately in this context the Babylonian monarch is described as a fallen star [cf. the KJV translators did not translate hℜlℜl as Lucifer because of something inherent in the Hebrew term itself. E. It was in this context that Isaiah referred to the king of Babylon as “the morning star” (“son of the morning”. he is not.” (1982. which didst weaken the nations!” The Hebrew word translated “Lucifer” is hℜlℜl (or heylel). and say. In his Bible Commentary. What is the origin of the name Lucifer. These ill-advised beliefs run the entire gamut—from harmless misinterpretations to potentially soul-threatening false doctrines.” the prophet proclaimed to the once-powerful king. 13:10. Eventually. I will make myself like the Most High (vss. Isa. was speaking of the devil.

was derived from this passage. but Satan is the monarch of a kingdom of spiritual darkness (cf. Coffman. (1954).M. but actually militates against it. has no physical body. Zerr. And so on. August. Albert (1950 edition). as a name given to the devil. The king was called “a man” whose body was to be eaten by worms. The context presented in Isaiah 4:4-16 not only does not portray Satan as Lucifer..without any warrant whatever. “Your Question & My Answer.” Christian Courier. which reached back as far as the grey twilight of primeval times.F..16 Nowhere within the context of Isaiah 14.” as a synonym. The Babylonian ruler was to die and be buried—fates neither of which Satan is destined to endure. Burton Coffman wrote: “We are glad that our version (ASV) leaves the word Lucifer out of this rendition.. MI: Baker). Jackson. Keil. 23:15. The Major Prophets—Isaiah (Abilene.is a perfectly appropriate one for the king of Babel. however.Satan does not enter into this passage as a subject at all” (1990. In fact. Commentary on the Old Testament—Isaiah (Grand Rapids. The monarch lived in and abided over a “golden city” (vs. on account of the early date of the Babylonian culture. 312).. In his commentary on Isaiah. KY: Guardian of Truth Publications). as a spirit. 312-313). MI: Eerdmans). “. Keil and Delitzsch firmly proclaimed that “Lucifer. E. but Satan.. 4). Wayne (1987). and also because of its predominate astrological character” (1982. is Satan depicted as Lucifer. . as relating to the apostasy and punishment of the angelic leaders” (pp.. C. p. quite the opposite is true. James Burton (1990). Ephesians 6:12). REFERENCES Barnes.. because. (1982 edition). TX: ACU Press). 141). Bible Commentary (Bowling Green. p. and Franz Delitzsch. They then correctly concluded that “Lucifer. Barnes’ Notes on the Old and New Testaments—Isaiah (Grand Rapids.

against the world-rulers of this darkness. Abraham. wavered not through unbelief. and the sword of the Spirit. against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. which is the word of God: with all prayer and supplication praying at all seasons in the Spirit. Satan may have the power to ensnare us. Rather. it seems that humanity has taken one step forward and two steps backward in this critical conflict between good and evil. And take the helmet of salvation. nor lukewarm (Revelation 3:15-16). withal taking up the shield of faith. having girded your loins with truth. we cannot. to stand (Ephesians 6:10-13). after which the Scriptures state simply: “Then the devil leaveth him” (Matthew 4:11). Wherefore take up the whole armor of God. One modern. non-inspired writer lamented: “Even now there are millions who consciously worship Satan and many more millions who are increasingly open in their hatred of God” (Morris. even our faith” (1 John 5:4). But we have a part to play in that deliverance. giving glory to God. knowing that we are beaten down and destroyed by a foe whose powers know no limits? What shall be the end of this matter? While we never should underestimate Satan’s power and ability. he was able also to perform” (Romans 4:20-21). inspired writer lamented: “[F]or all have sinned. p. unmovable faith is the key (1 Peter 5:9.. Like Abraham of old. cf. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood. But how do we accomplish this? What weapons may be found in our arsenal? And how may they be employed successfully against this. We must not. “looking unto the promise of God. and being fully assured that what he had promised. Steadfast. and raise the white flag in ultimate surrender. 1971. exactly. we need battle armor. but waxed strong through faith. we must stand firm. John wrote: “For whatsoever is begotten of God overcometh the world: and this is the victory that hath overcome the world. that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. against the powers. Truly. the most pervasive and powerful of enemies? First. which is why Paul wrote: Put on the whole armor of God. Neither can we be double-minded (James 1:8). but against the principalities. be “ignorant of his devices” (2 Corinthians 2:11). is the “whole armor of God”? The apostle went on to explain himself in the same context when he wrote: Stand therefore. 1 Corinthians 15:58). Is not this the exact same weaponry employed by our Lord in His spiritual struggle with Satan in the wilderness? Each time the devil tempted Him. 1 Timothy 2:14). One ancient. At times. What. that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day. and watching thereunto in all perseverance and supplication for all the saints (Ephesians 6:14-18). but Jehovah has the power to remove us from that snare (2 Timothy 2:26). having done all. Not a very pretty picture. and. the Lord’s resistance was couched in the repetitive refrain: “It is written…” (Matthew 4:4. and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace.17 - APPENDIX II “RESIST THE DEVIL…” Go to page 30 to read the article "Is the World in a Conflict Between Good and Evil?" The warfare for the souls of men has continued ever since Eve first fell prey to Satan’s deceit in the great long ago (Genesis 3:1-6. and fall short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23). 215). and having put on the breastplate of righteousness. “the Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptation” (2 Peter 2:9). with the end result being that “the wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23).10). neither should we underestimate the power and ability of our great God and His Word. we must be alert to the ever-present danger that our enemy represents. . wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one. give up. is it? Is our battle against God’s archfiend and man’s ardent enemy a losing one? Are Satan’s powers too great for us to overcome? Shall we simply give in.7.

We may defect from God’s army if we so desire. and with the faithful of all the ages: “But thanks be to God. NEB). The Bible Has the Answer (Nutley. which is in Christ Jesus our Lord (Romans 8:35-39). nor principalities. We were accounted as sheep for the slaughter. He indicated that some of those Christians had become so wicked as to know the “deep things of Satan” (Revelation 2:24). if we adamantly refuse to give in or give up. or persecution. nor life. and become “AWOL” as a result. who giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Corinthians 15:57). became so filled with the essence of Satan that Jesus referred to him as the “devil” (John 6:70). They removed the helmet of salvation. (1971). Paul wrote: “There hath no temptation taken you but such as man can bear: but God is faithful. NJ: Craig Press). neither will He allow us to be tempted beyond what we are able to endure. can say: Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation. Second. REFERENCES Morris. or anguish. pleads our case. The Hebrew writer said that “he is able to save to the uttermost them that draw near unto God through him. and he will flee from you” (James 4:7. but will with the temptation make also the way of escape. nor angels. Through the millennia. let us never forget that victory is within our grasp. When God spoke through John to the church at Thyatira. they never would be able to say with the great apostle to the Gentiles. Henry M. They grew weary of the battle. nor any other creature. and refuses to forsake us. like Paul. we.” They stripped away the loincloth of truth. nor powers. Third. When Paul wrote the Ephesian Christians.. Fourth. They set aside the “whole armor of God. Jesus Christ the righteous” (1 John 2:1). he warned: “Leave no loop-hole for the devil” (4:27. If we steep ourselves in a working knowledge of God’s Word. The same apostle that wrote the beautiful book of Revelation to comfort first-century saints who were losing their lives daily to the “evil one” also wrote: “We have an Advocate with the Father. seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them” (7:25). . many have done exactly that. nor things present. or nakedness. or famine. that neither death. They laid down the shield of faith. For I am persuaded. were so overcome by the devil that Paul told Timothy he had “delivered [them] unto Satan” (1 Timothy 1:20). The outcome of the battle for the souls of men already has been decided. As a result. if we take courage and press on. nor depth. for example. They took off the shoes of the gospel of peace. What a horrible indictment! And what a needless waste! Obviously. that ye enter not into temptation” (Matthew 26:41). in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us. Two early Christians. What a great consolation—to know that the Son of God stands before the great white throne in the city set foursquare to plead our case before the “Judge of all the earth” Who will “do what is right” (Genesis 18:25). nor height. we must realize that while God will not necessarily act to prevent our temptation by Satan. we should remember that while Satan indeed may be the “accuser of the brethren” (Revelation 12:10). these individuals had ignored the Lord’s admonition: “Watch and pray. But some did. years later the inspired James would write: “Resist the devil. we have an Advocate—Jesus the Christ—Who stands with us. But they did so at their own peril. As Paul said: “And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly” (Romans 16:20). that ye may be able to endure it” (1 Corinthians 10:13). protects us. or sword? Even as it is written.” Nay. “For thy sake we are killed all the day long. and gave up.18 Seizing upon Christ’s example. Hymenaeus and Alexander. Judas. or peril. They discarded the breastplate of righteousness. added). emp. nor things to come. who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able. shall be able to separate us from the love of God.

and create evil. then. Why weren’t the rabbis stunned by these Jewish teachings on Satan? Because the Hebrew Scriptures explicitly declare that the Almighty Himself places both the good and the evil that He created before mankind in order to provide His prime creation with free will. Satan was the highest-ranking angel who. the angel of evil. through his own act of spiritual defiance and outright . These edifying verses underscore the fundamental biblical teaching that it is the perfect spiritual balance of good and evil in the world that confronts every searching soul. which is a translation that could hardly be construed as friendly to the Jewish faith. and death and evil. I was astounded at your answer and was more astounded that the other rabbis present did not step into the discussion. In Isaiah 45:7. I did not invent these verses. I form the light. the prophet describes God’s creation plan when he reports that. pose a serious theological problem for Christians who maintain that God did not create Satan. as you were. I the Lord do all these things. According to Christian doctrine. This is the Almighty’s divine sovereign plan for creation: It is through man’s personal decision to turn away from evil and choose good that virtue can be attained. not “astounded” by the Judaism that was taught in Buffalo that evening.Who Is Satan? Question: Dear Rabbi Singer: When you were in Buffalo. Isaiah 45:7 and Deuteronomy 30:15. Deuteronomy 30:15 states. Awaiting your reply. the Bible I used in the above quotations is the King James Version. NY in November of ‘96. I make peace. therefore. In your explanation of Satan and other fallen angels you attributed the creation of evil to G-d thus making Him responsible for evil. and create darkness. There are at least 87 references to G-d’s holiness in Leviticus alone! In 11:44 G-d says. nor did I tamper with them. I [God] have set before thee this day life and good. See. “I AM HOLY. you were asked your view on angels and specifically about Satan. that He cannot tolerate evil in His presence. In fact. A seeker after truth Answer: The rabbis to whom you made reference have spent their entire lives immersed in the study of the Jewish scriptures as well as other sacred Jewish literature and were. during the extended question and answer time. however. can you attribute evil to G-d? I am interested in the Biblical support for your statement.” Is not holiness the absence of sin? There are many scriptures to prove that G-d hates sin (evil). I have a fair understanding of Judaism and have found nothing in all of my reading to support your view as traditional. How.

the Torah attests to this principle and in Isaiah 45:7. Job is immediately put to the test and. the prophet echoes this message when he declares that the Almighty Himself creates evil. meaning “messenger. suggests that God created something imperfect or defective. the Christian teaching that Satan was originally intended by God to be a good angel but. Although this well-known Christian doctrine has much in common with the pagan Zoroastrian Persian dualism out of which it was born. became the chief adversary and slanderer of God and the embodiment of evil in this world. it is completely alien to the teachings of the Jewish faith and the words of the Jewish scriptures. In no part of the Bible is this more evident than in the Book of Job. Satan appears with other angels before God and suggests that Job’s steadfast faithfulness would not withstand personal pain and utter destitution. Satan’s purpose in seducing man away from God poses no problem because Satan is only an agent of God. God could never create something as sinister as the devil himself. Rather. Satan included.” Throughout the Bible. was apparently too problematic for the Christian translators of the NIV Bible (New International Version). I form the light and create darkness. which also means “messenger. however. This biblical principle. They clearly recognized that a Bible which asserts that God creates evil calls into question one of Christendom’s most cherished teachings on salvation. Satan obediently follows his Creator’s instructions. I. in an act of outright defiance. How can the church insist that man is totally depraved when his God placed him in a world where he is free to choose good over evil? How can the church hold to a doctrine of election or predestination when free will is man’s to express? How can Christians maintain that God did not create evil when the Jewish scriptures clearly state otherwise? Understandably. . derived from the Greek word angelos. Therefore. In Christian theology God never created evil. by the third chapter. Satan’s unyielding wickedness is the result of his own spiritual rebellion. There is not one example in the Jewish scriptures where any angel. in Jewish terms it stands out as the embodiment of God’s salvation program for mankind. It is worth noting that the Hebrew word for angel is malach. begins to struggle. do all these things. The Almighty grants this request. I bring prosperity and create disaster. Still.disobedience. He is only the author of righteousness and perfection. While in Christian terms Job’s personal spiritual triumph is a theological impossibility. in a moment of despair. an angel is a messenger of God who carries out the divine will of the Almighty. Satan then requests from God the chance to test Job’s virtue. As a servant of the Almighty. In Deuteronomy 30:15. He questions his Maker as to why he was created and. ceased to function as God had intended him to. For the Jewish faith. In fact. Satan faithfully carries out the divine will of his Creator as he does in all his tasks. the NIV translators saw fit to alter the prophet’s words by rendering the offensive Hebrew word rah as “disaster” instead of correctly translating it as “bad” or “evil. wishes aloud that he had perished in his mother’s womb. In the first chapter of Job. the Lord. by the end of this unparalleled biblical narrative.” The same is true for the English word angel. but He meticulously outlines for Satan what he may and may not do when putting Job to the test. Satan is one of the many angels mentioned in the Bible. opposes God’s will. as you maintained in your question. Job’s virtue prevails over Satan’s unyielding torment.” The NIV Bible therefore mistranslates Isaiah 45:7 to read.

com Jewish Articles and Response to Christian claims on G-d and the Messiah. First. In 14:12 Nebuchadnezzar is compared to the planet Venus whose light is still visible in the morning yet vanishes with the rise of the sun. Yours. Nebuchadnezzar’s reign shone brilliantly for a short time. They argue that Isaiah’s mention of the fallen “morning star” refers to Satan’s ultimate demise at the end of time when Satan will finally be cast into a lake of fire as articulated in the twentieth chapter of the Book of Revelation. Like the light of Venus. This skewed understanding created by the NIV mistranslation effectively conceals Isaiah’s original message. and say. however.com/my/tgoldman0/prophet.The word “disaster” inserted by the NIV is so ambiguous that the uninformed reader would easily come to the conclusion that it refers to such things as earthquakes and hurricanes. distortions and falsehood of.” One final point is in order here. as the prophets foretold. the KJV (King James Version) does correctly translate this verse and render the Hebrew word rah as “evil. the golden city ceased! Throughout this chapter and the preceding chapter of Isaiah. How hath the oppressor ceased. two serious problems with this assertion.kosherjudaism.org/cr/index.. There are. was eventually overshadowed by the nation of Israel whose light endured and outlived this arrogant nation who tormented and exiled her. Jesus. Christianity.jewsforjudaism. how do they explain Revelation 22:16 where Jesus is called the “morning star” as well? Secondly. In 14:4 the prophet explicitly names the king of Babylon as the subject of the prophecy. . at the end.org Response to Missionaries www.MessiahTruth. As mentioned above.TorahAtlanta. a cursory reading of the fourteenth chapter of Isaiah reveals that the “morning star” spoken of in Isaiah 14:12 is referring to Nebuchadnessar. and not to Satan. Christians often point to Isaiah 14:12 as a biblical reference to support their teachings of the final and complete downfall of Satan which brings to an end the long and otherwise successful career of this fallen angel. yet.. That thou shall take up this proverb against the king of Babylon. messiah. http://www. trinity.outreachjudaism. the prophet foretells the rise and fall of this arrogant king who would use his unbridled power to plunder Jerusalem and destroy its Temple but. http://jdstone.angelfire..org An international organization that responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults.com/counter.htm Archive of Articles.com : The Real Jewish Messiah www. the wicked King of Babylon. Rabbi Tovia Singer PLEASE visit these useful websites for more information: www.html Reveals the error. http://www.. if Christians maintain that the “morning star” is a reference to Satan.htm An Explanation of Christians Prophecies www. would suffer a cataclysmic downfall.

They see the most amazing sights. They are all saved in the end. on the condition that they never show it to anyone else. and all the kids are allowed into the factory with one adult relative. Five children win. Mr.confectionery in general. The winners of the contest will be allowed to enter and tour the factory together. the owner. and they all suffer the consequences.Does Judaism Believe in Satan? (This article should be read after my article Why Did G-d Create the World?) The Christians don't understand how an angel of G-d can try to seduce people to disobey G-d. They are of course all excited. The day comes. and tells them they will get all that money and more. One gets all swollen up and blue from some gum she should not have taken. Incorporated. that produces the world's greatest chocolates. What. See. Now they just wait until the day they are to enter the factory and see the great wonders that no one else has ever been allowed to see. We reject that interpretation entirely. and eat the most amazing (and impossible to actually exist in real life) foods. One of the things Wonka gives each of the kids is an Everlasting Gobstopper. four of the kids break the rules by taking stuff they should not have taken. does Judaism teach about Satan? Did you ever see the movie Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory? (It's one of the few examples of where a story from a book was changed for the screen without ruining the experience. One of the rules is: no eating of any products inside the factory without express permission. and no one ever leaves. they will have to sign a contract and follow the rules.) The story is about a very famous chocolate factory. Afterwards. so don't worry. they will go home with a lifetime supply of chocolate. No one ever enters the factory. it hasn't been mass produced or marketed yet. That is. During the tour of the factory. but they must leave the factory without the lifetime supply of chocolate. and ruin Wonka. And so on. candies -. each of the winners of the contest is secretly visited by a man named Arthur Slugworth. TV stations and reporters interview them. Slugworth shows them a lot of cash. One of the kids jumps into a pool of chocolate and is sucked up into the pipes. . President of Slugworth Chocolates. then. Before the big day comes. Wonka. This is completely contrary to everything Judaism believes. *IF* they follow the rules. and they have to take her away and squeeze her until she gets skinny again. because they broke the rules. when they leave. called Willy Wonka's Chocolate Factory. Mr. and Wonka's competition wants to get an advance sample of this product so he can get it out first. However. so they came to the unsupported conclusion that Satan must have rebelled against G-d. if only they steal out of the factory a candy called an Everlasting Gobstopper. runs a contest. and the whole world is excited with them.

The Evil Inclination tries to prevent us from doing good. Wonka's desk and returns the Gobstopper to him. and Charlie feels bad.) Notice. using Wilkinsin to offer the temptation. and jumps up in delight! He tells Charlie that he has won! Charlie has no idea of what he's talking about. so he survives until the end of the tour. so we can overcome our evil temptations. and tells them to leave. also breaks the rules. and so he set up the contest to find an honest child he could train as his successor. So. And that's how they view Satan. Upset. The ability to choose between good and evil is what gives us free will. we need something to deter us. But Mr. He drinks some Fizzy drink he was not supposed to take. but no one seems to know. the parable is not exact. It gives us the ability to do the wrong thing. Anyone who either ate food he wasn't supposed to eat or brought a Gobstopper to Slugworth was dishonest. Wonka yells at him for drinking the Fuzzy drink. . It seems that Wonka was looking to retire. Just as Slugworth is really Wilkinson doing what Wonka asked him to do. By presenting us with the opportunity to do evil. (See my article On the Nature of Free Will. That is the ability to do evil. and we never have. when Charlie realizes that no matter how he feels. Jews do not see it that way. Charlie asks him for the lifetime supply of chocolate.Charlie. Temptation is there to try and deter us. Charlie Bucket and his grandfather are the only ones left. So he goes to Mr. the good of the World to Come. But his grandfather is angry. so he doesn't say anything. Then Wonka calls in Wilkinson. G-d created the Hinderer to give us work to do in this world (see my article Why did G-d Create the World?). and PASS the test. Mr. it gives us the ability to choose between good and evil. That is the purpose of Satan. Charlie will not be getting a lifetime supply of chocolate either. Wonka says good bye to them. At the end of the tour. Satan is an angel whose purpose has been determined by G-d. that Wonka himself gave each of the children a Gobstopper. Satan is also not working for himself. Christians take Slugworth at face value: a reprehensible competitor who will stop at nothing to undo Wonka. his aide. and then gave them the opportunity to break the rule. Satan is here to make things difficult for us. and would not become the successor. the main character. stealing and breaking rules is bad. because Hashem has commanded the Evil Inclination to do that. to try to prevent him from doing something. So he himself set up the choice. He doesn't get hurt in the process. (Okay." To hinder someone means to hold him back. Wonka sees that. also. Why? To give us free will. and he tells Charlie that they'll give Mr. Wonka has somehow found out that Charlie drank the Fizzy drink. it gives us the ability to look at evil and refuse to do it. and therefore broke the rules. And Wilkinson is Slugworth! Slugworth was sent out to each of the children to test them! To see how they would respond. More importantly. They are about to leave. but I think you get my point. The Hebrew word "Satan" means "Hinderer. Slugworth an Everlasting Gobstopper. in order for us to work for the good that Hashem wants to give us. Satan is our Evil Inclination (Yetzer Hara).

and the presence of Hashem's holiness permeates them entirely. but we are movers. That's not their purpose. as the Christians think. and also will merit reward in the Afterlife. I do so many sins. (Seraphim are a type of angel. He said to the Rabbi. In other words. Angels are therefore said to be "standing. They do as Hashem commands them. as the Children of Israel. without any physical or unholy presence. are therefore constantly and fully aware of Hashem's Presence everywhere. That is what you were created for! Hashem has enough angels in heaven. just like every other angel. angels are stuck at whatever level Hashem created them. the Talmud says that men are greater than angels.) Spiritually. so to speak. unlike humans. have the power to overcome even angels. An angel could not stop serving G-d even if he tried. Isaiah. which means humans among angels. if you had no Evil Inclination? Your purpose in life is to overcome your personal Evil Inclination. so that you could improve yourself." Humans can improve themselves. standing." Therefore the Prophet Zachariah told the High Priest.. everywhere in the universe. . and angels are made of the same thing. a rebellious angel. very troubled. Angels have no Satan to tempt them. We all have temptations. you and your sons after you will be the High Priests. Therefore.. and can do no wrong. and they cannot rise any higher than they are. He doesn't need one more. humans have Satan to tempt us. "This is what Hashem. to keep on improving ourselves. for we can fight with an angel (Satan) and win. throughout the day. There is holiness everywhere in Creation. The Prophet Zachariah was saying that in the Next World they will be walkers among the standers. and if you observe My safeguards. They are. Who would be Satan's Satan? An ultra-Satan? The truth is that Satan has a job to do. For that reason. we are described as "walkers. How impossible! The angels are spiritual and holy. and I want to stop sinning!" The Rabbi answered. Humans are different. A man once came to a great Rabbi. Satan is not.. and that is their purpose in this world." They cannot become better. And angels have no free will. Our purpose is to keep on moving. and you and your sons will thus guard my Holy Temple. Humans can rise by improving themselves. cannot improve themselves. where righteous people go after death. Furthermore. however. says "Seraphim were standing around Him. Angels. "Then what would be your purpose in this world. when describing a Heavenly scene. Could you stay dry in the ocean? An angel could not stop being holy. and to keep on rising. if we work at it. and I will make you walkers among these who are standing" (Zachariah 3:7). L-rd of Hosts says: if you walk in My ways.Each of us every day fights with Satan." (Isaiah 6:2). Hashem was promising the High Priest that he and his children will be High Priests. "Please pray to Hashem to take away my Evil Inclination. Angels. He created you human. But we. in the World of Souls. So the angels are referred to as perpetually standing.

He's not Satan. but unfortunately not unusual). The Talmud says that the Evil Inclination constantly attempts to destroy us spiritually. None of us are capable of destroying Satan. which I will not go into now. Satan is not in competition with G-d. All judgment will have been passed and performed." someone who. How does one recognize Satan? For that we need to live a Torah life. After that. and Hashem constantly helps us and gives us the means with which to overcome our Evil Inclinations." many of whom don't even know they are helping him. and the same angel who carries out the death sentence. And Hashem helps us do this. and the angel who prosecutes us in Heaven. for example. He's not even happy when people obey him and sin. There will no longer be any need for a Tempting Angel. And Satan has many "helpers. and the Next World begins. and Satan does not want followers or worshipers. learning from Rabbis and other religiously developed Jewish people. Nor does he wear a business suit. There will no longer be sin. and has decided to do evil. Satan does not have a rival kingdom. the snake in the Garden of Eden was not Satan either. The snake had his own motivations. Or maybe he needs your help. no. or a Prosecuting Angel. . The angel who tries to make us sin is the same angel who accuses us in the Heavenly Court. Satan is a force of evil in the world that we must resist. Satan most often appears as a desire within you. Of course. It may be simply that he doesn't want to sin alone. the Day of Judgment will take place. Satan does not wear a red suit. So now we have to revise our understanding of Satan. It is difficult (if at all possible) to cite any of these as being more important than any of the others. and there will no longer be death. He's someone who has not resisted Satan. periodic introspection. To mention a few: Torah study. or carry a trident. an Angel of Death. What we are expected and commanded to do is to gain the upper hand over our personal Satans. it's because he himself feels he can gain something from it. He's now trying to tempt you to sin. Satan is the angel who tempts us. Satan will cease to exist. Whenever a human being tries to tempt another person to sin. and actual self-development by means of performing the Mitzvos. for whatever reason. He was what the Torah calls a "Seducer. When this world comes to an end. He is also the Angel of Death. There could be any number of motivations. This means a host of things that work together. He personally has something to gain from your sinning. tries to get other people to sin. spending quality and quantity time among Observant Jewish people. Likewise. Satan is not a fallen angel. Satan is merely an angel with a dirty job. there is no shortage of things in the world to tempt us to sin. It will not be a sad day at all. A shadylooking character in the street walks over to you and offers to sell you some stolen property. Or maybe he just gets emotional satisfaction out of seeing you go against what you believe (in which case he is a very sick person. though confused Christians think it was. Satan's work will be done. but not because he wants you to sin per se.And how do we do it? By constant battle with the Evil Inclination. constantly. So.

That's the reason we exist too -. They exist merely to follow Hashem's instructions.htm Archive of Articles.outreachjudaism. http://www. with human emotions and desires. That's when the good times will begin.com/counter.TorahAtlanta. http://jdstone. trinity.Nor will it be unfair treatment of Satan. Christianity.angelfire. "Is the World in a Conflict Between Good and Evil?" If you're a Christian. When the struggle is over we will begin to receive the reward for having struggled. But that was not the purpose of our being created.. Jesus.com : The Real Jewish Messiah www.to follow Hashem's instructions for the greater glory of Hashem.kosherjudaism.org Response to Missionaries www.jewsforjudaism. PLEASE visit these useful websites for more information: www.com/my/tgoldman0/prophet.. Read more about this in my article. Angels are not like humans. distortions and falsehood of.org/cr/index. for the greater glory of Hashem. http://www. take a look at this article: "Who Is Satan?" by Rabbi Tovia Singer. and we were put into this world to struggle against Satan. messiah. and/or you're here looking for Scriptural arguments and polemics.htm An Explanation of Christians Prophecies www. We will be brought in to the Next World.. So Satan was created to struggle against us. ..com Jewish Articles and Response to Christian claims on G-d and the Messiah.org An international organization that responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults.html Reveals the error. It will be like turning off a machine.MessiahTruth. and the struggle will end.

If we ignore the Evil Inclination. G-d created both good and evil. and we have always seen it differently. G-d also gave us Commandments. one good and one evil. the angel called Satan. we become more spiritual. and fulfilling G-d's Commandments. Zoroastrianism. then we get closer to G-d. Something you get for free you do not appreciate. in the future there will come a time when the universe as we know it will come to an end. and later to Manichaeism. . G-d created the universe because G-d wanted to do good. G-d wants people to appreciate it. Then we will begin to get our eternal reward -the ultimate goodness! This world is here merely for us to do good things in. and the World To Come will begin. however. The Bible says so. and the Next World is for the reward. What is evil? Not fulfilling G-d's will. Some ancient religions believed that there are two forces in the universe.Is the World in a Conflict Between Good and Evil? (This article should be read after my article Does Judaism Believe in Satan?) In Judaism we do not see it as there being a conflict between good and evil. made the devil less powerful than G-d. And in that world we will continue to grow in holiness. whose job it is to tempt us to do evil. So there had to be people to receive that good. and the Tempting Angel tempts us to find reasons not to keep those Commandments. but still made him a rebel against G-d. And in fact. So. in Isaiah 45:7. we merit the reward of the ultimate goodness. By ignoring the temptations. So G-d decided that people would have to work for it. We have been granted the glorious opportunity to attain holiness and ultimate goodness. if you got something amazingly good for free. Judaism sees it differently. By doing so. and that they are constantly warring with each other. you would be embarrassed by it. This was common to Mithraism. you don't deserve it. So we see our lives in this world as an opportunity. Christianity. But G-d does not want to just give away good as a present. and you were allowed to enjoy it for all eternity. Satan is not a rebellious angel. and our souls gain more power over ourselves. You didn't work for it. G-d created the Evil Inclination. and become more holy. What is that work? Well. and receive the ultimate goodness as a reward for work. Christianity.

So. the more it becomes easier to do the right thing in that area. http://www. is doing what G-d has commanded him to do.html Reveals the error. It is completely up to us.com Jewish Articles and Response to Christian claims on G-d and the Messiah. we become stronger in that thing.. . The more we continue to let the good prevail. We have the free choice to choose. Within each of us there are many struggles.htm An Explanation of Christians Prophecies www. So each trait usually has to be worked on by itself. because by fighting against our wrong desires we are working to gain the ultimate goodness. http://jdstone. Developing our faith helps us in many areas. for example.com/my/tgoldman0/prophet. for example.TorahAtlanta. http://www. And possibly the greatest temptation is in the area of having faith in G-d.MessiahTruth. We want to do the right thing.. trinity. He is giving us temptations. And that's the way it is with every individual characteristic trait.org/cr/index. The Evil Inclination. messiah. There is only the struggle within each of us. but we desire to do the wrong thing. but something like humility helps with most of the others. For example.. But when we perfect one characteristic trait. distortions and falsehood of.outreachjudaism. Conversely. the harder it is to stop. PLEASE visit these useful websites for more information: www.So it is not that there is an ultimate struggle of good versus evil.org Response to Missionaries www. A humble person might not tell gossip either. we have a desire to tell harmful gossip about someone. and continue to hold ourselves back whenever we feel the temptation.htm Archive of Articles. Someone who has learned never to gossip might still steal. A humble person will be less likely to get angry at someone else.com/counter.kosherjudaism. When we let our Good Inclination prevail about one thing. if we work on becoming humble. sometimes that will help us in other areas. But a humble person might still lie. and that is what G-d wants us to do. also known as Satan. it does not always help with another. Jesus.angelfire. it becomes easier and easier to stop gossiping.jewsforjudaism.. or sleep late when he or she knows that there is a chore or other responsibility to deal with. Say. Christianity. We can do either the right thing or the wrong thing.com : The Real Jewish Messiah www. there is no ultimate struggle of good versus evil. If we hold ourselves back from doing it. the more we gossip.org An international organization that responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults.

but used versions translated . and nowhere else: "How art thou fallen from heaven. 47-48 explains: "Lucifer makes his appearance in the fourteenth chapter of the Old Testament book of Isaiah."Lucifer" a problem for Christianity & Mormonism Al Case 1 The word "Lucifer" in Isaiah 14:12 presents a minor problem to mainstream Christianity. King James I to translate the Bible into current English did not use the original Hebrew texts. and the bright and morning star. which didst weaken the nations!" The first problem is that Lucifer is a Latin name. So "Lucifer" is nothing more than an ancient Latin name for the morning star. the Devil. a creature not even mentioned in the original Hebrew text. which can best be translated as "Day star. son of Shahar. The name derives from the Latin term lucem ferre. who during his lifetime had persecuted the children of Israel.. writers. I consulted a scholar at the library of the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. Jerome had mistranslated the Hebraic metaphor. or bearer. son of the Dawn. bringer. had decided for themselves that they wanted the story to be about a fallen angel." and over the centuries a metamorphosis took place. and becomes a huge obstacle for the claims of Mormonism. written before there was a Roman language? To find the answer. pp. Lucifer was the name given to the morning star (the star we now know by another Roman name. the fourteenth chapter of Isaiah is not about a fallen angel. The Hebrew scholar could only speculate that some early Christian scribes... Jerome in the fourth century." Why Lucifer? In Roman astronomy.the Prince of Darkness. O Lucifer. "Day star. The morning star appears in the heavens just before dawn. Jesus refers to himself as the morning star in Revelation 22:16: "I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. and in Christian tradition Lucifer is now the same as Satan. In the original Hebrew text. It becomes a much larger problem to Bible literalists. I asked." The name evokes the golden glitter of a proud king's dress and court (much as his personal splendor earned for King Louis XIV of France the appellation. cast out of heaven to rule eternally in hell. Robinson in A Pilgrim's Path. So how did it find its way into a Hebrew manuscript. It contains no mention of Satan. was Satan given in this chapter of Isaiah. the bringer of light. but about a fallen Babylonian king. What Hebrew name. Theologians. of light. at the twelfth verse. Lucifer the morning star became a disobedient angel. either by name or reference. which describes the angel who fell to become the ruler of hell? The answer was a surprise. writing in the Latin tongue used by the Church. heralding the rising sun. son of the Dawn. and --. largely by St. I am the root and the offspring of David. That can be confusing for Christians who identify Christ himself as the morning star.ironically --. and to whom they gave the name "Lucifer. Venus). son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground. John J. and poets interwove the myth with the doctrine of the Fall." as "Lucifer. a term used as a central theme in many Christian sermons.." In the Hebrew text the expression used to describe the Babylonian king before his death is Helal. The scholars authorized by . "The Sun King")." And so there are those who do not read beyond the King James Version of the .

This underworld demon. the Doctrine & Covenants..." This phrase means. and a similar thought is expressed in Luke 10:18 by Jesus. which describes a war in heaven based. David Grinspoon comments on the historical aspects of the word as follows: "The origin of the Judeo-Christian Devil as an angel fallen from heaven into the depths of hell is mirrored in the descent of Venus from shining morning star to the darkness below. So why is this a problem to Christians? Christians now generally believe that Satan (or the Devil or Lucifer who they equate with Satan) is a being who has always existed. Later Christians (and Mormons) were in equating "Lucifer" with "Satan". This passage refers first to the fall of that earthly king. How does the confusion in translating this verse arise? The Hebrew of this passage reads: "heleyl.. a 3rd century BC translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Greek. He was copying the King James Version of the Bible.' This is also the term used for Jesus in Revelation 22:16.Bible.. in 2 Peter 1:19. they also think that the 'prophets' of the Old Testament believed in this creature. This incorrect doctrine also spread into a third set of Mormon scriptures. ben shachar" which can be literally translated "shining one. He uses it as a name for a new sun in the solar system which is correct since the new sun is a second 'morning star' of 'original' 'light-bearing' substance--not some evil being of religious mythology. it is translated as "heosphoros" which also means Venus as a morning star. .. Jerome wasn't in error. So why is Lucifer a far bigger problem to Mormons? Mormons claim that an ancient record (the Book of Mormon) was written beginning in about 600 BC." Verse 12 is a part of this taunt song. the concept of Satan has evolved over the years . that was not its first meaning. Isaiah is using this metaphor for a bright light. still feared today by people in many . he included the Lucifer verse in the Book of Mormon. where the Greek text has exactly the same term: 'phos-phoros' 'lightbearer. Arthur Clarke. the Pearl of Great Price. "Lucifer" actually meant Venus as a morning star. Another book of Mormon (LDS) scripture. Was Jerome in error? Not at all. though not the greatest light to illustrate the apparent power of the Babylonian king which then faded. "this passage is often related to Satan. and the author in 600 BC supposedly copied Isaiah in Isaiah's original words. . Obviously he wasn't copying what Isaiah actually wrote. The Isaiah scripture is used as proof (and has been used as such for hundreds of years now). Its primary meaning is given in Isaiah 14:4 which says that when Israel is restored they will "take up this taunt against the king of Babylon . son of dawn. Therefore. again literally. who say 'Lucifer is Satan: so says the Word of God'. on Joseph Smith's incorrect interpretation of the word "Lucifer" which only appears in Isaiah.. On a lighter note. furthers this problem in 76:26 when it affirms the false Christian doctrine that "Lucifer" means Satan.. in his fictional book 2061 correctly uses the word "Lucifer"." Therefore. When Joseph Smith pretended to translate the supposed 'ancient record'. In Latin at the time. the planet Venus when it appears as a morning star. Lucifer wasn't equated with Satan until after Jerome. In the Septuagint. The irony for those who believe that "Lucifer" refers to Satan is that the same title ('morning star' or 'light-bearer') is used to refer to Jesus. in part." Henry Neufeld (a Christian who comments on Biblical sticky issues) went on to say. As Elaine Pagels explains though. How did the translation "Lucifer" arise? This word comes from Jerome's Latin Vulgate.

.parts of the world.lds-mormon. http://jdstone.shtml Source: ©2001-2005 Christianity Revealed http://jdstone. distortions and falsehood of . He has a BS in Accounting.jewsforjudaism.htm An Explanation of Christians Prophecies www.outreachjudaism.MessiahTruth.com : The Real Jewish Messiah www...org/cr/index. is also called Lucifer.htm Archive of Articles.org Response to Missionaries www.kosherjudaism. and a MAcc with emphasis in tax from Brigham Young University. 17) Actually. Footnote: 1.com/counter. trinity.com Jewish Articles and Response to Christian claims on G-d and the Messiah. Christianity . http://www. . http://www..angelfire. Jesus. which was originally a Latin name for Venus as a morning star.org/cr/ PLEASE visit these useful websites for more information: www. minor in Japanese." (Venus Revealed p. Grinspoon should just refer to the "Christian Devil" since the Jews never believed in such a creature and still don't to this day.org An international organization that responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults. messiah.com/my/tgoldman0/prophet.html Reveals the error.com/lucifer.TorahAtlanta. http://www. Al Case is an Assistant Professor of Business at Southern Oregon University.

However. 8) Because no person has ever fulfilled the picture painted in the Bible of this future King. 10) According to Biblical tradition. and not just someone coming in his spirit. it is unlikely that it could be considered the most important concept in the Bible. Exodus 29:7.The Jewish Concept of Messiah and the Jewish Response to Christian Claims 1) The word “Messiah” is an English rendering of the Hebrew word “Mashiach”. Since the Bible makes no explicit reference to the Messiah. Zechariah 8:23. they have a “first coming” perspective. II Samuel 23:1. 5) Many of these prophetic passages speak of a descendant of King David who will rule Israel during the age of perfection. 2) There are many Messiahs in the Bible.” I Samuel 26:11. 6) Since every King is a Messiah. b] When asked about his identity. 60:1518. Indeed.a difficulty in light of its conspicuous absence from scripture. For example: “G-d forbid that I [David] should stretch out my hand against the L-rd’s Messiah [Saul]. 7) The Bible never speaks about believing in the Messiah. Jeremiah 31:33-34. Jesus claims that John the Baptist was Elijah (Matthew 11:13-14.he claimed no association with Elijah at all. Elijah the prophet will reappear before the coming of the Messiah (Malachi 4:5-6). Amos 9:13-15. . Bar Cochba and Shabbtai Tzvi have been rejected. by convention. in Jewish thought. in Christian thought. Cf. whose translation is “Anointed”. we refer to this future anointed one as The Messiah. The above is the only description in the Bible of a Davidic descendant who is to come in the future. Jeremiah 23:5-6. 17:10-13). Hosea 3:4-5. the Messiah is paramount. Psalms 20:6. it won’t require belief or faith. It usually refers to a person initiated into G-d’s service by being anointed with oil. Ezekiel 34:11-31. Isaiah 45:1. Jewish people still await the coming of the Messiah. The Bible never speaks about the Messiah returning after an initial appearance. We will recognize the Messiah by seeing who the King of Israel is at the time of complete universal perfection. The Gospel of Luke 1:17 tries to get around this problem by claiming that John the Baptist came in the spirit of Elijah. when John the Baptist was asked if he was Elijah. The “second coming” theory is a desperate attempt to explain away Jesus’ failure. 3) The Hebrew word “HaMashiach” (lit. Isaiah 2:1-4. selfevident to any person. II Kings 9:3). Since every King and High Priest was anointed with oil. However: a] Malachi predicted that Elijah himself would return.. the Messiah) describing a future anointed person to come does not appear anywhere in the Bible. Because his reign will be an historically verifiable reality. 9) The claim that Jesus will fulfill the Messianic prophesies when he returns does not give him any credibility for his “first” coming. (Having oil poured on his head. Micah 4:1-4. including Jesus of Nazareth. Zephaniah 3:9. 14:9. John the Baptist didn’t claim to have come in the spirit of Elijah . I Kings 1:39.. The Biblical passages which Christians are forced to regard as second coming (#5 above) don’t speak of someone returning. each may be referred to as “an anointed one” (a Mashiach or a Messiah). Hosea 2:2022. Cf. However. In the Greek Testament. 4) Where does the Jewish concept of Messiah come from? One of the central themes of Biblical prophesy is the promise of a future age of perfection characterized by universal peace and recognition of G-d. he denied it (John 1:21). 33:14-16. All past Messianic claimants. 30:7-10. Isaiah 32:15-18. 37:21-28. Isaiah 11:1-9. the Messianic idea is not the most crucial.

If Mary descends from them. not mother. it then claims that Jesus resulted from a virgin birth. The concept of Messiah is Jewish. 1:18.org. 17:11-14. To answer this difficult problem. b) Joseph could never pass on by adoption that which he doesn’t have. The Jewish Messiah JEWS FOR JUDAISM PO Box 15059 Baltimore.jewsforjudaism. (Jeremiah 22:30. and passed on his genealogy via adoption. (Luke 3:31) d] Luke 3:27 lists Shealtiel and Zerubbabel in his genealogy. Because Joseph descended from Jeconiah (Mat. To find out about it go to the source. and.c] The prophesy about the return of Elijah says that he would restore the hearts of the fathers to their children.org ® Visit us at www. b] Even if Mary can trace herself back to David. Mary was not from a legitimate Messianic family. There is no evidence that John the Baptist accomplished this. 28:4-6) The third chapter of Luke is useless because it goes through David’s son Nathan. 7:14. the Messiah must be a descendent of David through his son Solomon (II Sam. The third chapter of Luke traces Joseph’s genealogy. These two also appear in Matthew 1:12 as descendants of the cursed Jeconiah. (Jeremiah 23:5. According to the Bible. that Joseph was not his father. as shown in the third chapter of Luke. it would also disqualify her from being a Messianic progenitor. Ezra 2:59. 33:17. not Solomon. There are two problems with this claim: a) there is no Biblical basis for the idea of a father passing on his tribal line by adoption.jewsforjudaism. 1:18-23) In response. MD 21282 Phone: 410-602-0276 Fax: 410-602-0578 National Hotline: 800-477-6631 email: baltimore@jewsforjudaism. (Mat. apologists claim that Jesus traces himself back to King David through his mother Mary. Ezekiel 34:23-24) Although the Greek Testament traces the genealogy of Joseph (husband of Mary) back to David. There are four basic problems with this claim: a] There is no evidence that Mary descends from David.org 4601 Community Drive West Palm Beach. If you have questions about what Judaism has said about the promised Messiah for the last three millenia or want to know how to answer the Christian claims. please check out our website: www. Cf. 36:30). it is claimed that Joseph adopted Jesus. I Chron. A priest who adopts a son from another tribe cannot make him a priest by adoption. 22:9-10. c] Even if family line could go through the mother. who allegedly descends from David. FL 33417 561-478-0700 x171 . drop us a line or give us a call. and the hearts of the children to their fathers. not Mary’s. since tribal affiliation goes only through the father. Num. the Messiah must be a descendent of King David. that doesn’t help Jesus. 11) According to the Jewish Bible. 1:11) he fell under the curse of that king that none of his descendants could ever sit as king upon the throne of David.

we find the words of the Hebrew prophets that describe the Moshiach and the Messianic era.com 1 The Real Messiah: Personal References and Job Description Regarding who the Messiah will be there are two main questions. First. [1] · The Messiah will be a Prophet. [2] · The Messiah will be observant of Jewish law.www. and Warrior. [3] · The Messiah will be an honest and kind judge. [5] · He will rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple will be restored. that is. What kind of person will the Moshiach be? Second. Israel. What the words of the prophets reveal is a checklist of “personal and professional qualifications” for the job. Again. some of our greatest sages have been mistaken about the validity of a Messianic claim. it is no easy task. we do as we always do. we have been given the tools to determine whether an individual who purports to be the Messiah fulfills the prophetic requirements. died. Throughout history. what will his job be? To answer these questions. Later in history (late 1600’s) a man named Shabbatai Tzvi generated an enormous following of Jews believing him to be the long-awaited redeemer. This shows both the willingness to accept and embrace the Messiah as well as the difficulty of the task of determining the voracity of a messianic claim. the great Talmudic sage and arguably the most respected leader of his day. some of the generation’s most prominent leaders proclaimed him Moshiach. The best that we can do is to look at the sources provided and try to draw a conclusion. Ultimately he. and therefore could not fulfill the role of Messiah. Bar Kochba died shortly thereafter and consequently everyone realized that he was not the Messiah. In both of these cases. [4] Job Description · The Messiah will bring the Jewish people back to their land.com . Sage. In other words. too. The scriptures make very clear what is minimally necessary for someone to be considered the Messiah. Rabbi Akiva.torahatlanta. some great sages mistakenly thought that these men fulfilled the biblical prophecies regarding the Messiah. Anyone whose lineage does not trace back to King David cannot serve as Messiah. However. [6] www. Even so. Personal status · The Messiah will be a direct descendant of King David.torahatlanta. pronounced that a man called Bar Kochba was indeed the awaited Messiah.

Tribal lineage is never changed through adoption.com . they suggest that the lineage can be traced through Joseph even though he was only Jesus adoptive father. “it’s a mystery. (Whether a person is born Jewish or gentile is determined by the status of the mother only.torahatlanta. It will be the end of the predator-prey relationship in the animal kingdom. and no more discussion is necessary. Jesus had no paternal lineage at all! Christians confronted with this fact attempt to resolve it in one of three ways. one that most Jews find unsatisfying. The third explanation is really a universal fallback position. when confronted with a difficulty in the text of the New Testament or in the rationale of a particular line of thought. so to speak. the fact that Jesus was not from King David alone is enough to disqualify him from being the Moshiach. When we look at the above sources. Was Jesus from King David. brother. This has no basis in the Hebrew Bible or Jewish law. Furthermore. In any case. when there is one). [9] 2 Do they Match? Many Jews find it hard to give a solid answer when they’re asked why Jews believe that Jesus was not the Messiah. he did not do what the prophets tell us the Messiah must do.com · He will teach the Jews to observe the Torah and inspire the Jewish people with faith in G-d. it should be clear that Jesus simply did not fit the personal profile of the Moshiach. [7] · The Messiah will usher in an era of world peace. [8] · There will be complete harmony in nature. if the mother is Jewish. oftentimes Christians will answer. He might have met other criteria for the job. and the Constitution requires that the President must be born in the United States. First. Jesus was not from David. however. www. the missionaries will sometimes claim that the lineage can be traced through Mary. there is never a case in the Hebrew bible or in Jewish law where tribal identification goes through the mother. However. of the tribe of Judah? Christians agree with us that tribal lineage is traced through the father. Having been fathered by G-d and not by a human father. [7] · He will likewise teach the gentiles about G-d. but rather a way of avoiding a difficult truth. but since he was born overseas. Again. He failed to meet the first requirement. Jews often feel that this isn’t an answer to their question. and there will be no aggression from animals towards humans. then the tribal designation is only determined by the Jewish biological father. According to universal Christian teachings.www. then all his other qualifications are meaningless. Let’s look carefully at the life and times of Jesus and see if he fulfilled all of the above prophecies. and therefore the child is Jewish.torahatlanta. you just have to have faith”. Second. That is. It’s similar to asking if Henry Kissinger could have run for President. thereby bringing to mankind a universal knowledge of G-d.

then there really isn’t anything more to talk about. not do anything that he was supposed to do. die. Secondly.com 3 So. Gentiles Towards Spirituality We saw that the prophets taught that the Messiah will inspire Jews to be observant of Jewish law and enthusiastic about their awareness of G-d. the one who was to have brought peace and harmony). for the sake of gaining a more complete understanding of the issue. including Jesus. with any “candidate” for Messiah.torahatlanta. Firstly. www. Peace. Since Jesus wasn’t from King David. too. Jesus lived and died while the Temple was still standing. How do the Christians answer this? There is a two-part answer. we’ll go over the criteria for Moshiach and see if indeed any of them were accomplished by Jesus.torahatlanta. but he’ll accomplish those things with the Second Coming and b) that Jesus. gentiles will be knowledgeable about G-d and will be loyal to Him and to the Jewish nation. would only take place a century after Jesus’ death. That is between every individual and G-d (see related article Necessary and Sufficient). Jesus did not do what the Messiah will have to do. Love and Understanding Likewise with the prophesies regarding world peace and harmony in nature.com . Also. really came to forgive humanity for their sins and to do away with observance of the commandments. (It is painfully ironic that we have seen some of the world’s most heinous acts of murder and persecution done in the name of Jesus. There will be a universal acknowledgment of and loyalty to G-d. Obviously this is yet to occur. where the prophets predicted that we would be scattered to the four corners of the earth. the prophets did not teach that the Messiah would appear. Rebuilding the Temple Likewise rebuilding Jerusalem and the Temple. as the Prophet states that Moshiach must be. It is clear that. He had no opportunity to fulfill that prophecy. Their argument is: a) that indeed he did not do what the Messiah will do. The doctrine of the Second Coming was invented in order to answer the obvious question of why Jesus didn’t do the Messiah’s job. and reappear thousands of years later to do the job. Inspire Jews Towards Observance. item by item.www. as the son of G-d. the Jews were still living in their land! The exile. Not only have nations not disarmed. there is no indication in any Jewish source that it is the job of the Messiah to forgive us for our sins. humanity is as warlike and violent as ever. It simply has no source in the Hebrew Bible. Nevertheless. Job Description Ingathering of the Exile Jesus did not bring the Jews back to Israel from exile. He was not the Messiah. He simply wasn’t able to because during his lifetime.

And many people will go and say. He will be internationally recognized as the world’s leader. and he will teach us of his ways. The spirit of the L-rd shall rest on him. that the L-rd shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people. and will be exalted above the hills. While it may take a little time – months. and they shall all have one shepherd. neither decide after the hearing of his ears. will be their G-d. Know the L-rd. that shall be left…” (Isaiah 11:11-14) [6] “And it shall come to pass in the last days. from the least of them to the greatest of them. His line shall continue forever. and will be their G-d. and a branch will grow out of his roots…” (Isaiah 11:1) [2] “And the spirit of the L-rd will rest upon him. the spirit of wisdom and understanding. And I. but with righteousness shall he judge the poor. say the L-rd. my servant David. in fact. and every man his brother.torahatlanta. that the mountain of the L-rd’s house shall be established on the top of the mountains.has arrived.www. His delight shall be in the fear of the L-rd. Come. the spirit of counsel and might…” (Isaiah 11:2) [3] “A shoot shall come out of the stump of Jesse. and his throne endure before me like the sun. the spirit of counsel and might. and we will walk in his paths. the L-rd. the spirit of wisdom and understanding. for out of Zion will go forth Torah. and my servant David shall be prince among them." Isaiah 11:3) [5] “And it shall come to pass in that day. [7] “This will be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days. the Messiah. I will put my Torah in their inward parts.” (Isaiah 11:1-3) “My servant David shall be king over them.” (Psalm 89:35-36) “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of (David’s father) Yishay. They will follow my ordinances and be careful to observe my statutes…and my servant David shall be their prince forever. once he is established as such there will be no doubt in anyone’s mind as to his legitimacy. and the word of the L-rd from Jerusalem. 4 [1] “I will set up over them one shepherd.com . have spoken. the L-rd. for they shall all know Me.” (Jeremiah 31:32-33) www. the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the L-rd. The state of world peace and harmony in nature will make it more than obvious that the time – and the person .com In Conclusion When the Messiah indeed appears. and let us go up to the mountain of the L-rd. and a branch shall grow out of his roots. perhaps a year or two – to confirm that he is. and he shall feed them. for I will forgive their iniquity. and I will remember their sin no more. there will be no need for an article like this one. says the Lrd. and write it in their hearts.” (Isaiah 2:2-3).” (Ezekiel 37:24-25) [4] “…and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes. he shall feed them and be their shepherd. to the house of the G-d of Jacob.torahatlanta. saying. and all the nations will flow unto it.” (Ezekiel 34:23-24) “Once and for all I have sworn by my holiness. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor. and they shall be my people. I will not lie to David. I.

www. as the waters cover the sea.com .MessiahTruth. distortions and falsehood of .com/ PLEASE visit these useful websites for more information: www.com : The Real Jewish Messiah www.torahatlanta.. They will not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain.. Jesus. and a little child will lead them…and the lion will eat straw like the ox. trinity.com [8] “…and they shall beat their swords into plowshares. for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the L-rd. And the nursing child will play on the hole of the cobra.kosherjudaism. http://jdstone. and the weaned child will put his hand on the viper’s nest.” (Isaiah 2:4) 5 [9] “The wolf shall live with the lamb..torahatlanta.org/cr/index..outreachjudaism.jewsforjudaism. Christianity .htm An Explanation of Christians Prophecies www.org An international organization that responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults. http://www.com/my/tgoldman0/prophet.html Reveals the error. messiah. http://www.htm Archive of Articles.torahatlanta. neither shall they learn war any more.com/counter. and their spears into pruning hooks. (Isaiah 11:6-9) Source: http://www.com Response to Missionaries www.angelfire. and the leopard will lie down with the kid. and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together. nation shall not lift up sword against nation.

and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth. No prophet went silent on the uncompromising radical monotheism demanded by the God of Israel. The only Bible I own is the one she gave me and it is a King James. Let’s examine Genesis 1:26. “Let US make man in OUR image. though. knew nothing about a trinity of persons in the godhead. Answer: No area of Jewish literature could be more inhospitable to the Christian doctrine of the triune godhead than the Torah and the writings of its prophetic messengers. Because the prophets relayed their divine message on the nature of God with such timeless clarity. plural Us and Our being the proof. and they shall rule over the fish of the sea. A Messianic Jew is working overtime to try to convince me that I need JC. missionaries undertake a formidable task when they seek to “prove” the doctrine of the Trinity from the Jewish scriptures. as I was raised in a non-religious home. “Let Us Make Man in Our Image”? Question: Dear Rabbi Singer. It is on the strength of these sacred texts that the Jew has preserved the concept of one.” stating that JC was part of creation with G-d.Did Somebody Find the Trinity in the First Chapter of the Bible? To Whom Was God Speaking to When He Said. I am trying very hard to learn more of my Jewish religion. few texts in Tanach could hold any promise for the church to raise up as a support for their teachings on the Trinity. and over all the earth. One of the most popular verses used by missionaries as a proof text for the Trinity is Genesis 1:26. to whom these sublime declarations about the nature of the Almighty were given. Understandably. “Let us make man in our image. after our likeness. the defenders of Christendom flaunted the very few verses that they managed to somehow skew into a supposed support for this alien doctrine. Understandably. and over the fowl of the sky. This verse appears in missionary literature quite often in spite of the fact that this argument has been answered countless times throughout the centuries. She recently showed me Genesis 1:26. and over the cattle.” . single. And God said. unique Creator God Who alone is worthy of worship. The Jewish people. therefore. Can you explain the plural in this verse to me? I want to have an intelligent answer.

the evangelical Christian author Gordon J. and the Almighty spoke majestically in the plural. however. Yet. a great number of Trinitarian Christian scholars have long abandoned the notion that Genesis 1:26 implies a plurality of persons in the godhead. Let’s read the comments of a number of preeminent Trinitarian Bible scholars on this subject. Christians have traditionally seen [Genesis 1:26] as adumbrating [foreshadowing] the Trinity. Our. who is no foe of the Trinity and authored a widely respected two-volume commentary on the Book of Genesis. Us . . similarly remarks on this verse. . consulting His heavenly court. announcing His crowning work to the members of His heavenly court. Yet in its commentary on Genesis 1:26. For example. Our .4 The 10-volume commentary by Keil and Delitzsch is considered by many to be the most influential exposition on the “Old Testament” in evangelical circles.3 The Liberty Annotated Study Bible. writes in his short and to-the-point annotation on Genesis 1:26. a highly regarded dispensationalist professor of Biblical Studies at the Philadelphia College of Bible and author of the widely read Bible commentary. missionaries advance the above verse in as evidence that there was a plurality in the godhead which was responsible for creation. . . I Kings 22:19-23. we find. The Ryrie Study Bible. What other explanation could adequately account for the Bible’s use of the plural pronouns such as “us” and “our” in this verse? This argument. 11:7. God speaks as the Creator-king. Our. The plural pronoun “Us” is most likely a majestic plural from the standpoint of Hebrew grammar and syntax. Us . Jeremiah 23:18)2 Charles Caldwell Ryrie. It is now universally admitted that this was not what the plural meant to the original author. . . Job 15:8.1 If you had attended any one of my lectures you would know that the New International Version is hardly a Bible that can be construed as being friendly to Judaism. Plurals of majesty. . Wenham.With limited knowledge of the Jewish scriptures. (see 3:22. In fact. is grievously flawed. a Bible commentary published by the Reverend Jerry Falwell’s Liberty University. Christian scholars overwhelmingly agree that the plural pronoun in this verse is a reference to God’s ministering angels who were created previously. Isaiah 6:8. Rather. the NIV Study Bible also writes in its commentary on Genesis 1:26. writes on this verse.

” The verses cited are: Genesis 3:22. to guard the way to the tree of life.”6 I will close this letter with one final note. to know good and evil. the oneness of God remains the binding thread which unites the Jewish people in history and witness. therefore. At the end of its comment on this verse. This use of the majestic plural in Genesis 3:22-24 is what is intended by the NIV Study Bible’s annotation on Genesis 1:26 (above). The teachings of the Torah were designed to set forever in the national conscience of the .all of whom are Trinitarian -. At the end of the third chapter of Genesis the Almighty relates to His angels that Adam and his wife have eaten from the Tree of Knowledge and must therefore be prevented from eating from the Tree of Life as well. Bear in mind that regardless of the turbulent quarrels that fester among us. regard it either as pluralis majestatis . No other explanation is left. Job 15:8. lest he put out his hand and take also of the tree of life. God continues to use the pronoun “us” as He speaks with His angels. “Behold. only two chapters later.therefore the Lord God sent him out of the Garden of Eden to till the ground from which he was taken. In fact. . modern commentators. Then the Lord God said.” The Creator then instructs his angels known as Cherubim to stand at the gate of the Garden of Eden waving a flaming sword so that mankind is prevented from entering the Garden and eating from the Tree of Life. 11:7. and He placed cherubim at the east of the Garden of Eden. These verses convey to the attentive Bible reader that the heavenly abode of the Creator is filled with the ministering angels who attend the Almighty and to whom He repeatedly refers when using the plural pronoun “Us. And now. Let’s examine Genesis 3:22-24. but rather a majestic address to the angelic hosts of heaven? Why would the comments of the above conservative Christian writers so perfectly harmonize with the Jewish teaching on this verse? The answer to this question is simple. . than to regard it as pluralis majestatis . and eat. I Kings 22:19-23. This is not so odd a question when we consider the inner conflict that has followed our people throughout our extraordinary history. for if man would gain access to the Tree of Life he will “become like one of us.5 The question that immediately comes to mind is: What would compel these evangelical scholars -. and a flaming sword which turned every way. Isaiah 6:8. and Jeremiah 23:18. on the contrary.to determinedly conclude that Genesis 1:26 does not suggest the Trinity.The plural “We” was regarded by the fathers and earlier theologians almost unanimously as indicative of the Trinity. . . Outsiders often wonder what binding force keeps the Jewish people united in faith. So He drove out the man. and live forever” -. announcing His crowning work to the members of His heavenly court.” He is addressing His ministering angels. the NIV Study Bible provides a number of Bible sources from the Jewish scriptures to support its position that “God speaks as the Creator-king. If you search the Bible you will find that when the Almighty speaks of “us” or “our. the man has become like one of Us. .

each one had six wings: with two he covered his face. p. 2 3 Charles Caldwell Ryrie. high and lifted up. p. 8) ______ Source: www. . 7. Sincerely yours. NIV Study Bible. Jerry Falwell (Executive Editor). . 27. I. “Whom shall I send. Chicago: Moody Press. 1985. Word Biblical Commentary on Genesis. 9. 8. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. “Here am I! Send me. p. Wenham. p. 62. p. 1978. I saw the Lord sitting on a throne. Word Books. which reads. Liberty Annotated Study Bible.org . Vol. Peabody: Hendric. 1987. Rabbi Tovia Singer Footnotes: 1 Gordon J.. Above it stood seraphim.Jewsforjudaism. and with two he flew . Keil & Delitzsch. Lynchburg: Liberty University. and the train of His robe filled the Temple.outreachjudaism. 6 5 4 A similar verse describing God as He converses with His ministering angels is found in the beginning of the sixth chapter of Isaiah.” (Isaiah 6:1. saying. 1989. Commentary on the Old Testament. In the year that King Uzziah died.Jewish people the idea that God is one alone and therefore the only object of our devotion and worship. with two he covered his feet. 1988.com & www. The Ryrie Study Bible (Dallas Theological Seminary). I heard the voice of the Lord. and who will go for Us?” Then I said. Also.

and both of her contentions are erroneous. a Christian business associate made a point that in the very first verse of Genesis Gd is referred to as “Elohim” which is plural. you will notice that none of them.) received formal approval in the Christian community.” I will begin by saying that you can rest assured that the Hebrew tongue is a foreign language to your business associate. no wonder that this pagan doctrine was unknown to authors of the New Testament. her flawed declaration was born out of a desperate desire to weave the Trinity out of whole Jewish cloth. Your business associate went out on an even more fragile limb when she proclaimed that this plural syntax is somehow indicative of the “plural form of three. They insist that in scripture the use of the Hebrew letters yod and mem (pronounced “im”). she concludes. These well-documented events occurred under circumstances confused with political agitation and . It is. and underscores how frustrated Trinitarians can become in their rash effort to somehow shore up this alien church doctrine. She also said that it is a plural form of three (something I have never heard before). If you examine the few verses evangelicals use from the Jewish scriptures as they seek to buttress the doctrine of the Trinity. her second point cannot. missionaries point to the plural form of the Hebrew word Elohim. While her first assertion can be easily explained away by her lack of familiarity with the biblical language. Church history reveals that it was not until three hundred years after the birth of Christianity that the doctrine of the Bianity (325 C. speaks of three persons.E. Yesterday. provides ample evidence from Tanach that there is a plurality within the nature of God. You are setting the record straight -. at the end of the word Elohim as a plural suffix. In essence. even in Christian terms.” I could sense from where this irresponsible contrivance is coming. While I too have never heard any missionary make the astounding claim that plurals somehow mean “a plural form of three.E. Her latter comment that the plural suffix in Elohim is indicative of “a plural form of three” is particularly preposterous. many Trinitarians brazenly refer to the name of God as it appears in the first verse in the Bible to advance their contention that there are three persons sharing in the godhead. Bear in mind.Did Somebody Find the Trinity in the Name of God? Question: Dear Rabbi Singer. therefore. First. is proof of the Trinity! Why is Gd’s name plural in this verse? Answer: The question with which you were confronted by your business associate is one of the more well-known arguments used by missionaries to defend their most untenable creed.1 which is one of the names of God frequently used in the Torah.one that has needed correction for almost 2000 years! Thank you. with limited knowledge of the Jewish Bible and the language in which it was written. The doctrine of the Trinity emerged out of the crucible of the Catholic Church long after the Christian century.) and Trinity (381 C. It is difficult to imagine a notion more hostile to the pure monotheism preached in the Jewish scriptures than the Christian teaching that there is a plurality within the divine nature of God. That. nor is there any secret as to whose loins gave birth to this aberrant creed. let me say that what you are doing is a great service to Jews and the religious community at large. This is an impossible task. there is no mystery as to the origins of the Trinity. the doctrine of the Trinity. Yet. More specifically.

and Your care has preserved my spirit. For example. which is hardly a translation or annotation which could be construed as friendly to the Jewish faith. In essence. it is important that you understand the crucial message the name Elohim conveys to the Children of Israel. “I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth. (Job 10:12) The fact that the name of God. meaning “life. (New International Version Study Bible. 1) Why does the Torah employ this intensive plural name for the Almighty throughout the Torah? 2) Why is this name predominant throughout the creation narrative in the beginning of Genesis? . the Christian author writes in his commentary on Genesis 1:1. in the singular. Understandably. what good will my life (chayim) be to me?” (Genesis 27:46) You have granted me life (chayim) and favor. For example. The word Elohim possesses a plural intensive syntax and is singular in meaning. in the New International Version Study Bible (NIV). “See. p. There is an enormous difficulty with the interpretation that the name Elohim signifies a sort of plurality in the godhead.) Finally. 6. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. also written in the plural? Clearly. Elohim.” (KJV) Are missionaries going to claim that there was a plurality of persons in Moses? Is your associate going to insist that Moses was part of a Trinity? The notion that Moses. And the LORD said unto Moses. how can missionaries explain that the identical word Elohim in Tanach refers to Moses as well? Regarding Moses. missionaries undertake a formidable task when they seek to prove this fourth century doctrine from a radically monotheistic Torah which is timeless. the Jewish people never believed in a Trinity.” as in Elohim. The Hebrew noun Elohim is plural but the verb is singular. and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet. in Exodus 7:1. I have made thee a god (Elohim) to Pharaoh. who is called Elohim in the Torah. why wasn’t the name Je-hova. this sort of Trinitarian argument is baseless. This use of the plural expresses intensification rather than number and has been called the plural of majesty. I am certain that many of our website readers are familiar with the Hebrew word chayim. throughout the Bible. the Torah says. does not in any way imply a plurality in the godhead is well known and widely recognized even among Trinitarian Christians. which is by far the most frequently used name for God in the Jewish scriptures. for if Elohim implies a plurality of persons. two questions must be answered. a normal usage in the OT when reference is to the one true God.” Notice that this word contains the identical plural suffix “im. 1985. This is selfevident from the fact that the verb “created” (bara) in Genesis 1:1 is in the singular. or of potentiality. like these who are the daughters of the land. if Jacob takes a wife of the daughters of Heth. possessed more than one person is preposterous. This linguistic pattern is well known and widely used throughout the Jewish scriptures. Let’s examine your business associate’s claim.radical dissention. and the church adopted it under enormous political pressure from the most pagan segments of the Catholic Church. To clarify. yet it repeatedly means “life”. God created. Moreover. Examples are: And Rebekah said to Isaac. if the name of God is to signify a plurality in the godhead.

is alone worthy of worship.both canonical and rabbinical -. appears more frequently than any other name of God throughout the first two chapters of Genesis. Creator of all matter. This chapter is well known to the Jewish people because the congregation joyously sings this Psalm in the synagogue every Sabbath morning as the Torah is being placed back into the ark.outreachjudaism. which means “might” or “power. Best wishes for a happy and healthy New Year. For example.There is a fundamental principal regarding the many names of the Almighty as they appear in the Torah -. It is for this reason that the name of God. They saw a powerful and perplexing energy emanating from the sun. ______ Source: www. The Torah of Israel had a very different and uplifting message for mankind. which is no exception to this rule. havu la’donai b’nai eylim.org . comes from the Hebrew root el. The ancients were awestruck by the forces which sustained them. Rabbi Tovia Singer Footnote: 1 Due to the sanctity of the name of God which appears on this page.com & www. This matter is indisputable. The name Elohim. O sons of the mighty. They craved an abundant harvest and boundless fertility. All the forces of the world emerged from the God of Abraham. What do these noble words mean? “Ascribe to the LORD. In these two chapters the Almighty is creating all the powers and forces which fill the universe. All the forces and energies in the universe. Isaac. emanated from the One Creator of the universe. knew nothing about a plurality of persons in the godhead. the God Who created the sun on the fourth day created fish on the fifth. we find this word used in the famous opening words to Psalm 29. Sincerely yours.” (New American Standard Bible) We can now have deeper understanding of the message behind the sacred name Elohim. The pagan world ascribed a god for each of the powers in the world which they observed and on whom they depended. Elohim.” This common root appears in a variety of words throughout the Jewish scriptures. No fact could be more firmly established once all of our literature -. and venerated each of them with mysterious and sometimes gruesome rites. please do not print out this article and discard it. to whom God revealed Himself at the foot of Mount Sinai. Elohim. In fact.Jewsforjudaism. and they worshiped the sun god.they are exalted descriptions of the God of Israel. This God. all the might and power that man could behold. and they appointed gods for them as well. There is no sun god to be venerated. and Jacob.is taken as a guide. You can now begin to understand why the nation of Israel. This grand message was contained in the name of God.

Prince of Peace." If we accept the first translation. and the STAFF of their SHOULDER. "a son was given." He speaks of a boy who already exists. G-d is naming the boy "Prince of Peace. Isaiah speaks in the past tense: "A child was born". Roman oppression of Israel grew worse. namely Jesus. increased its joy: they rejoice before You like the joy at harvest time. Missionaries identify the Prince of Peace with Jesus by ignoring context. the ROD that oppressed them. Everlasting Father. Mighty G-d. 9:4For every tumultuous battle is with great noise and garments rolled in blood. If someone says "The Indians had a great victory" it makes a great difference if he is referring to the Cleveland Indians. The boy lived In Isaiah' s time. Although Jesus claimed that his kingdom was "not of this world". from now to forever. This enemy is referred to as a "yoke"." (alternate translation: Wonderful Counselor. as in the day of Midian. We see that Isaiah is speaking of Israel's deliverance from an military enemy. and the New . Eternal Father called his name "Prince of Peace")." Missionaries claim that since a boy is called "mighty G-d. The zeal of the L-rd of hosts will do this. no boy is called "G-d." Rather. to us a son was given: and the government is on his shoulder: and his name was called Wonderful Counselor. "Government shall be upon his shoulder" cannot refer to Jesus. context is critical. "burden" and "rod" that oppresses Israel on the "shoulder. Let us look at the verse preceding verses: Isaiah 9:1 "The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light: those who dwelled in the land of the shadow of death. to establish it and sustain it with justice and righteousness. but it became a blaze consumed by fire. upon them has light shone. This victory is compared to the victory over Midian (Judges 7). as they would rejoice when dividing the spoil. in which "mighty G-d" is part of the boy's name.WHO IS THE PRINCE OF PEACE? When interpreting the Bible. on the throne of David and his kingdom. this too gives no support for missionaries. 9:3 For You smashed the YOKE of their BURDEN. or the removal of British imperialism in India. How much does this have to do with the birth of Jesus centuries after Isaiah? Nothing! The Jewish people experienced nothing of the sort at that time. Mighty G-d. eternal father" this must refer to a man-god. not any future birth. the defeat of General Custer. Isaiah 9:5 "For unto us a child was born." The Prince of Peace led the Jewish people at the time of victory. 9:2 You exalted the nation. Furthermore. Is this so? If we follow the alternate translation (which is perfectly consistent with Hebrew syntax). culminating in the destruction of the Temple decades later. who had no political office." Isaiah 9:6 "For the increase of government and endless peace.

" Assyria is the rod that afflicted Israel." The prophet again refers to Assyria as a rod. yoke. Isaiah 10:5 "Woe to Assyria. They are referred by the same terms (rod. They arose in the morning and behold they were all dead corpses (II Kings 19:35). and the STAFF in their hand is My wrath. Isaiah 10:24 "Therefore so says the Lord G-D of hosts. as if a STAFF lifts one that is not wood. as he described the enemy and Israel in chapter nine. and as his STAFF was upon the sea [of Reeds]. Isaiah 10:15 "Shall the ax glory over the one who chops with it? Shall the saw be greater than the one who wields it? It is as if a ROD could shake those who lift it up. and shall lift up his STAFF against you. Assyria angered G-d by refusing to recognize that G-d was using them as His rod. ." The defeat of Assyria did occur in one day.Testament depicts Pilate as calling him "King of the Jews" at his crucifixion. and carry him like the manner of Egypt." The prophet describes Assyria as a "yoke" upon Israel's "shoulder". burden) mentioned in chapter nine. Isaiah 10:26 "And the L-rd of hosts will arouse a ROD for him." The prophet makes a comparison to the defeat of Midian as he did in chapter nine. like the defeat of MIDIAN at the rock of Oreb. and they arrogantly attributed their strength to themselves. and his Holy One for a flame: and it shall burn and consume his thorns and weeds in one day. How can Isaiah say "from now" about someone to be born centuries after these words are spoken? Clearly the Prince of Peace's reign begins in Isaiah's time. G-d will reciprocally raise a "rod" and "staff" against Assyria itself. So which event is Isaiah discussing? That is not difficult to answer. this does not fulfill the prophecy of Isaiah." The manner of victory against Assyria is also described by Isaiah. in the manner of Egypt. The Hebrew term MISRAH refers to actual political office. Isaiah 10:17 "And the light of Israel shall be for a fire. be not afraid of Assyria: though he will smite you with a ROD. the ROD of Mine anger." My people that dwell in Zion. The very next chapter tells us. "From now and to eternity" does not apply to Jesus. Assyria is the enemy mentioned previously. "It came to pass on that night than an angel of G-d went out and slew one hundred eighty-five thousand of the camp of Assyria.

Isaiah refers to an "EL GIBOR. "Eternity" is understood in context as: until the end of Hezekiah's life. missionaries assume this is describing a god. As it is clear that the Prince of Peace lived during Isaiah's time. eternal father. Powers subordinate to G-d are referred to as EL (Exodus 15:11). it is incorrect that naming a person or thing after G-d indicates that the object being named is G-d. and ignoring historical context. that He will remove his BURDEN from off your SHOULDER." Tovia means "good G-d. There is no proof that Isaiah is speaking of a divine human. "I will not carry out My wrath. Clearly Jerusalem is not to be worshipped. we will now counter the missionary claim that Isaiah 9:5 refers to a divine human. Hezekiah was the king who enjoyed the quick destruction of Assyria at a time when his own kingdom appeared to be lost. nothing could be more anti-Biblical than the idea of a divine human. Jacob calls an altar "G-d. AVI AD. People too are named after G-d in Hebrew." Second. He is Hezekiah. He was a son of King Ahaz at the time Isaiah spoke." Jerusalem is called 'The L-rd our righteousness (Jeremiah 33:16)." First. he can be identified. for I am G-d and not a man (Hosea 11:9). Judges are called ELOHIM (Exodus 21:6)." Missionaries make two mistakes regarding "mighty G-d. G-d of Israel (Genesis 33:20)." Why is Hezekiah called "eternal father?" Misreading the preceding words. Through him the dynasty of David was preserved. So is Moses (Exodus 7:1). In fact. When Hannah said of her son Samuel "and abide there forever (I Samuel 1:22)" she was not speaking of an absolute eternity. Hezekiah is the Prince of Peace who reigns during the miraculous defeat of Assyria. . then is the Prince of Peace? Since he is associated with the downfall of Assyria. and the YOKE will be destroyed because of oil." Clearly Jacob is not saying the altar is divine.Isaiah 10:27 "It will be on that day. This righteous man removed idolatry and led his people to repentance. it is a misconception that EL always means G-d. It is asked how "from now and to eternity" can apply to Hezekiah if the Jewish people were sent into exile after his death. and his YOKE from your neck." The literal translation is "mighty G-d. Summary: Context shows Isaiah is speaking of a boy born in his time. He remains a father of the Jews to this day. Chananya means "gracious G-d. The Davidic dynasty was perpetuated in his merit and will culminate in the coming of the Messiah. Their names are a tribute to G-d. The Bible uses EL and ELOHIM to refer to agents of power. Hezekiah is an eternal father in the sense that he is the King of the Jews who upheld the House of David. I will not recant and destroy Ephraim." Who.

distortions and falsehood of.htm An Explanation of Christians Prophecies www. messiah.htm Archive of Articles.html Reveals the error..org An international organization that responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults.MessiahTruth.angelfire.TorahAtlanta.kosherjudaism.Isaiah makes no reference whatsoever to a divine human.jewsforjudaism.com Response to Missionaries www. Source: SimplyJewish... trinity.. . Missionaries manipulate Isaiah 9:5 to promote a different religion. http://jdstone. http://www.com PLEASE visit these useful websites for more information: www.org -.com Jewish Articles and Response to Christian claims on G-d and the Messiah. Christianity. Jesus. http://www.com : The Real Jewish Messiah www.http://www.outreachjudaism.anti-missionary.org/cr/index.com/my/tgoldman0/prophet.com/counter.

com/ e-book Their Hollow Inheritance – A Comprehensive Refutation of Christian Missionaries by Michoel Drazin http://www.com Jewish Articles and Response to Christian claims on G-d and the Messiah.att.simplyjewish.kosherjudaism.org An international organization that responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults.org If you want to understand the differences recognized by Jews and Christians alike.com/toshuv/ The Anti-Missionary Gateway of the Being Jewish Web Site http://www.PLEASE visit these useful websites for more information: www. distortions and falsehood of xianity http://www.com/audio/jewish-response-to-christian-missionaries.beingjewish.org/phpBB2/index. .angelfire. trinity.outreachjudaism.com : The Real Jewish Messiah www.org Response to Missionaries www.php Jews for Judaism . messiah.drazin.jewsforjudaism. http://jdstone.com/counter.TorahAtlanta.org/cr/index.simpletoremember.jewsforjudaism.htm An Explanation of Christians Prophecies www.MessiahTruth.Keeping Jews Jewish http://home. SIMPLY JEWISH! IS FOR YOU http://www.html Reveals the error. www. Jesus & Christianity http://www.com/my/tgoldman0/prophet.htm “Jewish Response To Christian Missionaries" MP3s tapes & in-depth guide.net/%7Efiddlerzvi/j4j_no.htm Archive of Articles.html Messianic Verses in the TaNaCh http://www.

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