3 The Most Important Question of All 4 Consider the Evidence 7 Which Approach Is More Reasonable?

10 The Bible’s Viewpoint How to Make a Marriage Succeed 12 Climate Summits—Just Talk? 14 Tingatinga—Art That Makes You Smile 16 Was It Designed? The Sea Urchin’s Self-Sharpening Tooth 17 Young People Ask Where Can I Find Good Entertainment? 20 Mexico’s Liquid Ambassador 21 How I Found the Answer to Injustice 24 Dengue—A Growing Menace 26 John Foxe and His Turbulent Times 29 Watching the World 30 For Family Review 32 His Grandfather Had Just Died



OULD there be a more important question in all of human existence than ‘Is there a God?’ ” asked geneticist Francis S. Collins. He makes a powerful point. If there is no God, then there is no life beyond the present one, no higher authority on moral issues. The reason some people doubt that God exists is because many scientists do not believe in him. However, popular views can sometimes be very wrong, as the next article will show. Regrettably, many of the world’s religions have added to the confusion by teaching things that contradict well-established scientific knowledge. A notable example is the unbiblical notion that God created the world in six 24-hour days a few thousand years ago. Faced with conflicting theories and philosophies, many give up their search for the truth about God’s existence. But what could be more worthwhile—and of greater consequence—than finding a trustworthy answer to such a fundamental question? Of course, none of us have seen God, nor were we present when the universe and life came into existence. So whether we believe in God or not, our views involve a degree of faith. But what kind of faith?
True Faith Rests on Solid Evidence

At Hebrews 11:1, the Bible says: “Faith is . . . the evident demonstration of realities though not beheld.” Another version says: “Faith . . . makes us certain of realities we do not see.” (The New English Bible) To illustrate: You are walking along a beach when, suddenly, you feel the ground quake. Then you see the water rush out to sea. You recognize the significance of these phenomena and that they warn of a tsunami. In this case, the quake and the vanishing water together form an “evident demonstration” of the yet unseen reality, the approaching waves. Your informed faith, in turn, moves you to flee to high ground and safety. Faith in God too should be an informed faith, a response to convincing evidence. Only then can God become an ‘unseen reality’ to you. Must you be a scientist to examine and weigh such evidence? Nobel laureate Vladimir Prelog acknowledged that even “winners of the Nobel Prize are not more competent about God, religion, and life after death than other people.” An honest heart and a thirst for truth should move you to examine the evidence fairly and let that evidence lead you in the right direction. What evidence is available for examination?

Faith—at least in some measure—is an important part of our lives. We accept employment, expecting that we will get paid. We plant crops with the assurance that the seeds will sprout. We trust our friends. And we have confidence in the laws that govern the universe. This is an informed faith, for it is based on evidence. Likewise, faith that God exists rests on evidence.

A farmer has faith that seeds will germinate and grow


indicating an intelligent that make up your body. Periodicals Postage Paid at Brooklyn. Larson. Scripture quotations are from the modern-language New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References. that are in a foreign language—does not occur nat. M. or program. Most important. can be combined in many ways to form “sen- CONSIDER THE EVIDENCE tences”—instructions that direct replication and other processes within the cell. F. uninhabited island. and (T) thymine. H. hand signs. radio signals. from light to radio waves to paper and ink. 5 2011 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 1000 Red Mills Road. (C) cytosine. 92. Georgetown. The basic units that make up DNA are called nucleotides. ON L7G 4Y4. Vol.and reproduction of the trillions of cells ingful information. Whatever the case. Why? For one thing. NY 11201-2483. 4 Awake! November 2011 !"#$ This publication is not for sale. units are called A.directs the formation. Awake! (ISSN 0005-237X) is published monthly by Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York. people always associate meaningful information with an intelligent mind—unless such information is contained in a living cell. depending In everyday life. It probes beneath the surface and points to the real meaning behind current events. No. maintenance. these four characters letters of the alphabet. While walking along the beach. 25 Columbia Heights. a string of molecule that looks like a twisted ladder. The information-conveying medium can be virtually anything. G. and computer programs involving the binary code.Y musical notes. Simonis. Unless otherwise indicated. It reports the news. using zeros and ones. Do you Safely stored in the nucleus of nearly every assume that because the island is isolated living cell in your body is an amazing code and uninhabited. urally. (G) guanine.. N. you see Can Complex Information Write Itself? “John 1800” engraved on a boulder. tells about people in many lands. the statement contains mean. spoken words. 11 Monthly ENGLISH . this magazine builds confidence in the Creator’s promise of a peaceful and secure new world that is about to replace the present wicked.1 Like encoded in many forms—such as Braille or letters of the alphabet. But did it? Consider the eviOU are on a remote. Some sequences of letters in your DNA are unique to 1 Each nucleotide contains one of four chemical bases: (A) adenine. double-stranded inscription. NY 12589-3299. we encounter information on which chemical base they contain. THIS JOURNAL IS PUBLISHED for the enlightenment of the entire family.Y. just happened or wrote itself somehow.. President. lawless system of things. It shows how to cope with today’s problems. growth. Second. well-defined letters and numbers—even if they Your DNA is like a recipe. That information. and at additional mailing offices. Inc. Wallkill. It is provided as part of a worldwide Bible educational work supported by voluntary donations. G. dence. as well as diagrams. These source. PO Box 4100. All rights reserved. and T. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Awake!. abbreviated You rightly conclude that someone made that DNA. examines religion and science. the marks must be the result of wind or water erosion? Of course not! called deoxyribonucleic acid. The entire package of information stored in your DNA is called your genome. It is carried by a long. and by Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Canada. But it does more. Printed in Canada. yet it always stays politically neutral and does not exalt one race above another. Secretary-Treasurer. C. say evolutionists. Brooklyn.

the shape of your nose. Sepedi. Brooklyn. Malagasy. And it stands to reason that Languages: Afrikaans. Urdu. skin color. Spanish.” or nucleotides (bases). the greater the intelligence needed to write it. Computer and information scientist Donald E.you. drawn conclusions that were later found to be wrong. Simply put. information is information no matter where it is found or what the medium may be. “the complexity of biology has seemed to grow by orders of magnitude” with every new discovery. the DNA in one cell of your body is about six feet (2 m) long. To attribute the complex library of information in DNA to blind.67 Polish. and so on.” Of course. Igbo. Trinidad and Tobago: Lower Rapsey Street & Laxmi Lane. Puerto Rico: PO Box 3980. Norwegian. at times. In their efforts to remove God from the picture. Guam: 143 Jehovah St. How unlike other ancient religious writings. and in your book all its parts were down in writing. long. Hiligaynon. For a complete list of addresses. Sinhala. Jamaica: PO Box 103.7 Tagalog.67 Greek. Shona. Italian. Hindi. and the end product is you. Myanmar.7 Dutch.687 Georgian. the book would fill 200 volumes the size of a 1. Vietnamese. United States of: 25 Columbia Heights. Hebrew. German. Kanagawa-Pref. says the journal Nature.67 Kannada. Bislama. Sesotho.000 years ago. St. Russian. Chinese (Simplified). Ukrainian. Guaynabo.7 Danish. NSW 1890. Georgetown.67 Samoan. Japan: 4-7-1 Nakashinden. which were filled with mythology and superstition! Who Assembled the “Library”? the more complex a package of information. Kirundi. according to the Human Genome Project.org/address. If you were to extract the DNA from all your body’s trillions of cells and put the strands end to end. Johnson said that the laws of chemistry and physics are unable to create complex information or systems that process that information. Amharic. NY 11201-2483. Tswana. using one of the addresses below. see www. To travel that distance at the speed of light would take about 185 hours. Slovenian.67 Portuguese. Awake! November 2011 5 . Ingleburn.67 Latvian. GU 96913. Rarotongan. Would you welcome more information or a free home Bible study? Please send your request to Jehovah’s Witnesses. Romanian. Australia: PO Box 280. Ebina City. Tok Pisin. Gujarati. Lingala. What is more.67 English. Finnish. Kirghiz. Found in the Bible at Psalm 139:16. which are briefly explained in the following article. Kinyarwanda. Korean. PR 00970. Krugersdorp. America. Croatian. your genome can be compared to a vast library of recipes for every part of your body. Iloko. Macedonian.7 French. Turkish. Slovak. unguided processes conflicts with both reason and human experience. Chinese (Traditional)7 (audio Mandarin only). Icelandic. Albanian. 1 Evolution allegedly occurs as a result of mutations.org. Czech. 8 MP3 CD-ROM also available. Chitonga. Tongan. Silozi. Lithuanian. Xhosa.7 Tamil. Maltese. These facts call to mind an amazing prayer recorded some 3. Tsonga. the writer did not have science in mind. If reason tells us that “John 1800” engraved into a rock must have an intelligent mind as its source.67 Swahili. Barrigada.000-page telephone book. but in simple language he conveyed an amazingly accurate concept to illustrate God’s awesome wisdom and power.687 Punjabi. Swedish. Ewe. Catherine. Indonesian. ON L7G 4Y4. Canada: PO Box 4100. should not also the infinitely more complex and meaningful information found in DNA? After all. the total length according to some estimates would be nearly 670 times the distance from the earth to the sun and back. Curepe. HOW LONG IS YOUR DNA? Stretched out.1 Such belief also stretches faith to the breaking point. Germany: 65617 Selters.67 Japanese.67 Estonian. Malayalam. Britain: The Ridgeway. Hungarian. Cibemba. it reads: “Your eyes saw even the embryo of me. evolutionists have. Fijian. If it were transcribed onto paper. 243-0496. for DNA contains your hereditary information—your eye color.” But only a superhuman mind could write the code of life. Bulgarian. Serbian. London NW7 1RN.jw.watchtower. Armenian. Thai. A child could write “John 1800. Cebuano. Yoruba. Chichewa. South Africa: Private Bag X2067. Zulu 6 CD also available. Arabic. Old Harbour. 1740. 7 Audio recordings also available at www. How large is this “library”? It is about three billion “letters.

explore unpopular territories. That being the case.” with the exception of a small number of scientists. it became evident that only about 2 percent of the genome consists of code for proteins.” Clearly. the junk-DNA theory is a classic example of scientific tradition “derailing objective analysis of the facts. “many of the mechanisms and principles governing inter. In his paper “So Much ‘Junk’ DNA in Our Genome. The same is true of the cell. “may well go down as one of the biggest mistakes in the history of molecular biology.” In Mattick’s opinion. professor of Molecular Biology at the University of Queensland in Brisbane. “at the risk of being ridiculed. However. or regulators.” Now. is incredibly naive. the view of junk DNA . . Much of it contains the recipe for a class of complex molecules called regulatory RNA (ribonucleic acid). Indeed. The same is true of the activities inside the cell. matures. who. in the assembly line. he adds. and even Alzheimer’s disease. Mattick. Researchers have found that malfunctions in long noncoding RNAs are associated with many diseases.” observed John S. “suggests that our understanding about the most basic things . We can liken the parts to the proteins in a cell. the view that some does recent evidence reveal about the role of 98 percent of our genome is “junk”—a library “junk” DNA? of recipes with billions of useless words. for example. and functions. is where “junk” DNA comes in. . is it a wonder that our genome too is filled with the remains of extinct genes?” How did the concept of “junk” DNA affect the study of genetics? Molecular biologist Wojciech Makalowski says that such thinking “repelled mainstream researchers from studying noncoding [junk] DNA. The earth is strewn with fossil remains of extinct species.” says mathematical biologist Joshua Plotkin in Nature magazine. truth in science needs to be determined on the basis of evidence. as a geneticist at Princeton University said. And that. began to change in the early 1990s.” Each new discovery about the cell points to ever higher levels of order and sophistication. psoriasis.” “The failure to recognize the full implications of this.” he wrote that the remaining sequences of DNA “are the remains of nature’s experiments which failed. Because of them. a cell biologist at the University of Toronto in Ontario.and intracellular behaviour are still a mystery. Australia. The factory also needs devices and systems that assemble those parts step-by-step and others that serve as controls. in time. what 6 Awake! November 2011 A factory that makes cars uses machines to manufacture the parts. explains: “The signalling information in cells is organized through networks of information rather than simple discrete pathways. The scientist who is credited with coining the term “‘junk’ DNA” was evolutionist Susumu Ohno. .” making the whole process “infinitely more complex” than previously thought.” he says.” An efficient factory additionally needs effective communication systems. What was previously labeled as “junk” may hold the key to diagnosing and treating various diseases! . which play a key role in how the cell develops. say researchers. So why do so many people still cling to the notion that life and the most sophisticated information system known to man are products of a random evolutionary process? 1 Recent research indicates that long noncoding RNAs are quite complex and that they are actually required for normal development. Tony Pawson.1 “The sheer existence of these exotic regulators. What the “Junk” Does Is It Really “Junk”? Biologists have long held that DNA is a recipe for the manufacture of proteins and nothing else. .Consider. not by popular vote. What is the purpose of the other 98 percent of DNA? This mystery DNA was “immediately assumed to be evolutionary junk. such as various cancers. biologists generally regard what was called junk “as a genomic treasure.

Lewontin.” in that new types of organisms appear suddenly. materialists embrace the only alternative they have—evolution. (See the box “How Long Is a ‘Day’?” on page 9. to materialism. 1 Although he firmly believed in evolution. for example. And we need to let the evidence speak for itself rather than force it to say what we want it to say. biologist Ernst Mayr admitted that “the fossil record is one of discontinuities. Awake! November 2011 7 .WHICH APPROACH IS MORE REASONABLE? N O HUMAN witnessed the beginning of life on earth. Many atheists. some creationists cling to the erroneous notion that God formed the world in six literal days a few thousand years ago. .1 Therefore. Key elements somehow combined to form basic molecules. view science through the lens of materialism—a philosophy that assumes purely material causes for the origin of life. Which View Fits All the Facts? With regard to the origin of the complex molecules that make up living organisms. . we must rely on the available evidence to draw conclusions about the origin of life. Nor has anyone seen one kind of life evolve into another kind—a reptile into a mammal.” wrote evolutionist Richard C.) People who have such extreme interpretations of both the Bible and science are left without satisfying answers when they try to seek evidence for their faith. Religious people too may have preconceptions that distort their attitude toward science. Having made that prior commitment. they try to force the evidence to fit their extremely literal interpretation of the Bible.” Hence. for we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door. “That materialism is absolute. as mentioned earlier. some evolutionists believe the following: 1. For instance. “We have a prior commitment . however.

For example. the book Evolution for Dummies says that evolution occurred because the earth “gets loads of energy from the sun. Put simply. The molecules somehow formed the specific sequences required to replicate themselves. and that energy is what powers the increase in complexity. In effect. just as the energy from the sun and the weather can hasten the deterioration of a building. or imperfections. 3.ARE HUMANS EVOLVING OR DETERIORATING? Some scientists are expressing serious concern that the human genome is actually deteriorating as a result of accumulating mutations. life itself. or protein with the capacity to store the information needed to carry out tasks essential to life. which can be caused by such things as radiation and certain chemicals. this fact would undermine the view that we are evolving. 2 DNA can be altered by mutations. the opposite is true: Physical laws dictate that complex things—machines.—Revelation 21: 3. energy is needed to turn disorder into order —for example.2 Those who believe in evolution cannot satisfactorily explain how energy is creatively directed. If not maintained. wood. not mindless evolution. this law states that the natural tendency is for order to degenerate into disorder. indeed. evolutionists say the opposite can happen. That energy.” says Romans 5:12. and nails into a house. If true. Yes. “Through one man [Adam] sin entered into the world and death through sin. or disobedience to God. What. RNA. or improving. But these do not lead to new species. our Creator. therefore. houses. will perfect our genome. and even living cells—in time break down. 4. there can be neither evolutionary development nor. argues against evolution but in support of the Bible.—See the article “Is Evolution a Fact?” in the September 2006 issue of Awake! 8 Awake! November 2011 . to assemble bricks. Without replication.1 Yet. those who deny the purposeful intervention of a Creator attribute godlike powers to mindless molecules and natural forces. 1 Such decay is a result of what scientists call the second law of thermodynamics.” To be sure. however. has to be carefully controlled and precisely directed because uncontrolled energy is more likely to speed up decay. How did the molecules of life form and acquire their amazing abilities without an intelligent designer? Evolutionary research fails to provide adequate explanations or satisfying answers to questions about the origin of life. A deteriorating genome. though. But if God created the human genome. Those molecules then linked together in the exact sequences required to form DNA. Does this mean that the genome will continue to deteriorate indefinitely? No! God has promised to intervene in human affairs and undo all the harm caused by our original parents. why does it have flaws? The Bible tells us what science cannot —that human imperfection stems from sin. things tend to deteriorate 2. do the facts indicate? The available evidence shows that instead of molecules developing into complex life-forms.

the entire creative period of six “days” is spoken of as “the day that Jehovah God made earth and heaven. some former atheists have come to the conclusion that the wonders of the universe are visible evidence of the “invisible qualities” and “eternal power” of our Creator.On the other hand. —Genesis 2:3. Invariably. while the Bible specifically mentions the end of each of the first six “days.” says Genesis 1:1. Why? That day is still in progress. “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. the word “day” can refer to various periods of time. 11.” we can explain not only the complexity of life’s information systems but also the finely tuned forces that govern matter itself.” in the November 2010 issue of Awake! 3 For additional information on the question of creation versus evolution. please see the brochures Was Life Created? and The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking. published by Jehovah’s Witnesses. new discoveries tend to make the philosophy of materialism increasingly hard to defend. (Romans 1:20) Would you consider giving the matter further thought? No subject could be more important or of greater consequence. 2 See the article “I Was Raised an Atheist.” Each day evidently involved a considerable length of time. a fact that has moved some atheists to revise their views.3 1 See the book Is There a Creator Who Cares About You? published by Jehovah’s Witnesses. At Genesis 2:4. for example.1—Isaiah 40:26. HOW LONG IS A “DAY”? In the Bible. Jehovah God. God’s power and his other qualities are manifest in the universe . from vast galaxies to tiny atoms.2 Yes.” it makes no mention of the end of the seventh day. Hebrews 4: 4-6. Belief in a Creator also harmonizes with the now generally accepted view that the physical universe had a beginning. when we view life and the universe as the work of a wise Creator who possesses an “abundance of dynamic energy. Interestingly.

To students of the Bible. 10 Awake! November 2011 . Sadly. Therefore. what God has yoked together let no man put apart. and natural affection. issue of our companion magazine The Watchtower.” God said.THE BIBLE’S VIEWPOINT How to Make a Marriage Succeed I N OUR world of changing standards. . although you promised before God that 1 For additional information on marriage. Regarding “the last days. as recorded at Matthew 19:4-6. As shown by the words of Jesus quoted at the left. This is underscored by God’s firm counsel to certain men of old who divorced their wives in order to marry younger women. . both he and the Creator. 2011. and you have broken your promise to her. loyalty. genuine love. just five principles that can make a world of difference in a marriage. the Bible foretold that people in general would lack the qualities that bind families together—namely. (2 Timothy 3:1-5) Does this erosion of values and its effect on family life concern you? Do you hold marriage in high esteem? If so. ‘For this reason a man will leave his father and his mother and will stick to his wife. “He who created them from the beginning made them male and female and said. marriage is no longer held in high esteem. Jehovah God. Many couples stay together until their physical attraction wanes or problems arise—sometimes not even serious problems—and then they separate or divorce. and the two will be one flesh’ . “You have broken your promise to the wife you married when you were young. see the February 1. you can take comfort from the Bible.1 Five Keys to Success in Marriage (1) Recognize marriage as a sacred union. “She was your partner. view marriage as a sacred union. for example.”—Jesus Christ. Consider. traumatized children are often left in the wake. for its tried-and-tested advice continues to help many couples. this state of affairs is no surprise.” the time in which we now live.

The husband should remember that he is “one flesh” with his wife.you would be faithful to her. respectful manner. Hence.” the Bible says. (4) Be realistic. for God will judge fornicators and adulterers. which is the only basis for divorce that is acceptable to God. 3) “Everything” includes success in marriage.” says Ephesians 5:22. 4. 3. In fact. that gives its own fruit in its season and the foliage of which does not wither. and the marriage bed be without defilement. But the results say otherwise. and he should honor her and consult her on family matters. but let the wife also do likewise to her husband. thus promoting peace within the family. (Matthew 19:9) The Bible says: “Let marriage be honorable among all.”—1 Corinthians 7:3.” —Ephesians 5:28. Today’s English Version) Clearly. financial problems. Do you have the necessary wisdom to deal with problems that may arise in your family? “If any one of you is lacking in wisdom.” (Psalm 1:2. and expect challenges. need not weaken a marriage. In fact. “Let wives be in subjection to their husbands. they are similar to the results that come to a person who looks to God for guidance in all aspects of life: “He will certainly become like a tree planted by streams of water. and everything he does will succeed. God does not take a casual view of marriage. the Bible frankly states that those who marry “will have tribulation in their flesh. someone has to make the final decision. What. Awake! November 2011 11 . when two people love each other and possess godly wisdom. she supplies important qualities to the marriage. When important family matters arise.” (1 Corinthians 7:28) But tribulations. or trials. And as his complement. just as she would like her husband to speak to her. he takes note of how husbands and wives treat each other. But headship is no license for tyranny. or the stresses of raising children. HAVE YOU WONDERED? A marriage may be put to the test by thoughtless or unkind words.” Then Jehovah made this powerful statement: “I hate it when one of you does such a cruel thing to his wife. though. ˘ How should a husband treat his wife? —Ephesians 5:23. (2) Be a responsible husband. “let him keep on asking God. she should feel free to express her opinions in a dignified. for he gives generously to all and without reproaching. Few things do more to undermine a marriage than fornication. serious illness. if she disagrees with him on a matter? In that case. The Bible assigns that role to the husband. (3) Be a supportive wife.” (Hebrews 13:4) What can couples do to help them avoid being tempted to look outside the marriage for sexual satisfaction? The Bible states: “Let the husband render to his wife her due.” (Malachi 2:14-16. ˘ Whose wisdom spells success in marriage?—Psalm 1:2. “A husband is head of his wife. The Bible describes the wife as “a complement” of her husband. (5) Be faithful to each other. (1 Peter 3:7) The Bible’s admonition is that “husbands ought to be loving their wives as their own bodies. or sex outside the marriage. Some might consider these five points quaint or old-fashioned. 28. ˘ What is God’s view of divorce? —Malachi 2:14-16. they have the means to resolve potentially divisive issues. (Genesis 2:18) As such. she does not compete with him but gives him loving support.” says Ephesians 5:23.”—James 1:5.

How did we get into this situation? Can it be reversed? Indeed. is arranged on a regular basis by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. beginning with the industrial revolution and the subsequent increase in the use of fossil fuels. however. including 119 heads of State.Climate Summits Just Talk? ment. Barack Obama: ATTILA KISBENEDEK/AFP/Getty Images The objective of the Copenhagen summit. COP 15 was faced with the following three primary challenges: 1 The Conference of the Parties.S. COP. called COP 15. It is running a fever. Forests serve as lungs for our environ12 Awake! November 2011 The 1997 Kyoto Protocol. such as coal and oil. Another factor involves rampant deforestation. planet Earth is ill. Trees absorb some of the greenhouse gases that produce global warming. the cutting away of large amounts of forest results in leaving increasing amounts of these gases in our atmosphere. larger developing countries. The Copenhagen Summit Earth: NASA/The Visible Earth (http://visibleearth.” says the British newspaper The Guardian. Denmark. the global temperature may be approaching the so-called tipping point—that delicate threshold where a slight rise in temperature may “cause a dramatic change in the environment that itself triggers a far greater increase in global temperatures. representatives from 192 nations. the countries of the European Union and 37 other industrialized countries committed themselves to reducing their emissions by an average of 5 percent against 1990 levels. However. binding goals for 2012 and beyond. Yet. such as China and India. The Kyoto Protocol.nasa. There is little scientific dispute that if we do nothing. Also.1 To confront climate change.gov/). in December 2009 to attend the event. . or agreement. and this over the five-year period from 2008 to 2012. According to them. we will face more drought. The Kyoto Protocol I N THE view of some scientists. is it even within mankind’s ability to solve the problem of global warming—not to mention the many other major challenges confronting the human race? Many scientists believe that human activity is a major factor. By signing the protocol. had some serious weaknesses. set new goals for carbon dioxide emissions. gathered in Copenhagen. the United States and China alone contribute about 40 percent of the global carbon dioxide emissions.”—U. did not commit themselves to specific limits on their emissions. was to replace the Kyoto Protocol and set new. For example. world leaders have convened climate summits. President Barack Obama. “The world must come together to confront climate change. the United States never ratified it. famine and mass displacement that will fuel more conflict for decades. In order to address these problems.

Meteorologists can measure the A greenhouse gas is a component of the atmosphere that absorbs radiation emanating from the earth’s surface. leaders from 28 countries hammered out a final document called the Copenhagen Accord. . encouraging a business-as-usual approach. This accord was formally accepted with these rather bland words: “The conference . They include carbon dioxide.” More conferences have been held or are planned. . “If you want to understand opposition to climate action. they will be torn away from it.” says Krugman.” Global warming seems to be much like a hurricane. God will not allow the earth to be rendered uninhabitable. politicians. It would also help to ensure that developing countries use donated funds properly. Financing a perpetual solution.”—Ecclesiastes 1:4. methane. He also wrote that the action on climate change in his country was essentially killed by “the usual suspects: greed and [political] cowardice.” says Reuters news service. takes note of the Copenhagen Accord. they will be cut off from the very earth. . “The planet will continue to cook.1. Would developed countries accept the necessary emission caps or limits. But all the scientists. but skepticism runs high. did not create it simply for nothing. More than 25 billion tons of carbon dioxide alone is now released into our atmosphere every year. It seems that the same may be true of global warming. chlorofluorocarbons.” Global Warming Will End—God’s Way ual countries stay within their emission limits. 3. The developing countries would need billions of dollars for many years in order to cope with the accelerating consequences of global warming and to generate environmentally clean technology. Within the final hours of the conference. In other words. and as for the treacherous. The New English Bible.” (Isaiah 45:18) The Bible also says: “The earth endures for ever. he will intervene in human affairs and bring an end to failed human rule and those who have no regard for the earth. Says Proverbs 2: 21. Such a model would help individ- force of a hurricane and chart its possible course with reasonable accuracy—much to the benefit of those in its path. Reaching legally binding agreements. Yes. . he will preserve alive all who lead morally upright lives and sincerely want to please him. and would the major developing countries limit the growth of their emissions? 2. 22: “The upright are the ones that will reside in the earth. Rather. and business leaders in the world cannot stop a hurricane. and nitrous oxide. follow the money. All too often.” said New York Times columnist Paul Krugman. Were these three challenges met? Negotiations ran into such serious problems that even a much less ambitious consensus seemed out of reach. This fact calls to mind the words found in the Bible at Jeremiah 10:23: “To earthling man his way does not belong. At the same time. atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have risen by 40 percent. short-term political and economic benefits outweigh long-term environmental factors. What Next? The Bible tells us that “the Former of the earth and the Maker of it . It does not belong to man who is walking even to direct his step. and the blameless are the ones that will be left over in it. Many of the gases emitted into the atmosphere by modern industrial processes are greenhouse gases. Reports indicate that since the start of the industrial age. it was up to the individual countries to act on it. As regards the wicked. Agreeing on a model for monitoring emissions. .

for example. Dar es Salaam. Tingatinga art was born. Funny. shiny finish on one side. As a result. manager of the Tingatinga Arts Co-operative Society. He got a government job as a 14 Awake! November 2011 ward attendant in the Muhimbili public hospital in Dar es Salaam. pigments. paints. He added no scenery or other details. and other items. especially that of Tanzania. The Tingatinga style is named after its originator. While there.Tingatinga Art That Makes You Smile “T INGATINGA shows us how to see the world with our inner child. he found time to put his vivid childhood memories and impressions into his own art form. happy and colorful. So he used materials that anyone could buy in a local hardware store. Edward Said Tingatinga. and his “canvases” were pieces of compressed fiberboard that had a smooth. When he was in his mid-20’s. he left home in search of work and a higher standard of living. Edward did not have access to art shops with their specialized brushes. the birthplace of the art form. making it ideal for painting glossy images. his artistic talent found expression in music and dance. he even made a name for himself as a performer. Later he moved to the capital city of Tanzania. was enamel bicycle paint. born in 1932. Edward allowed a handful of close associates and relatives to observe while he . the countryside and wild animals around his village in southern Tanzania evidently made a deep impression on him. Tingatinga art is about Africa—its wildlife and culture. He used one or two colors for the background and then filled the frame with only one object —a brightly colored and somewhat stylized African animal. His paint. Edward’s painting style was simple. and obtained work as a gardener.” writes Daniel Augusta. The year 1968 was a turning point in Edward’s life. As Edward grew up. In the evenings.

290. A work may portray a day at a busy market. animals. elephants. the Tingatinga artists have grown into a cooperative of painters based in Dar es Salaam. 3. and various objects.painted. Indeed. 6 matches D. lions. 6. 7. Tingatinga art has used strong colors and simplified figures with distinguished contours. a visit to a local hospital. zebras. 1 matches F.000.face. while at the same time providing a most welcome supplement to their income. the style has developed.” and his style began to grow in popularity. ANSWERS TO PAGES 30 AND 31 Awake! November 2011 15 . several of these became his “students. and other animals. trees. buffalo. 2. becoming more elaborate and featuring several figures in each work. or just daily village life. If Edward Tingatinga were alive toTingatinga art has an inexhaustible source day (he died in 1972). as well as flowers. From the very first painting. 3 matches A. however. Indeed. located in northeastern Tanzania. hippos. some artists fill their paintings with people. and fish—especially those with striking colors. Over the years. the popularity of his art of inspiration—African fauna and flora in all form would no doubt bring a big smile to his its forms: antelope. Tingatinga art has given artistically talented Africans a means to express themselves. Some even adhere to the tradition of painting with bicycle Sources of Inspiration enamel. C. 8. 4. gi. Kilimanjaro. monkeys. 1. 5. Soon. Modern Tingatinga art also tries to capture the people of Africa and their culture. 4 matches C. raffes. birds. 5 matches B. 2 matches E. A popular background is Africa’s highest mountain. Since its inception.

“The mechanism used by the urchin is the key.” says Pupa Gilbert. What do you think? Did the sea urchin’s self-sharpening tooth come about by chance? Or was it designed? Both photos: Courtesy of Pupa Gilbert/University of Wisconsin-Madison . “That’s far more than we can say about any cutting or grinding tool we know and use.” Knowing how the sea urchin’s selfsharpening tooth works has exciting implications for toolmakers. However. The weaker organic material at these locations—like perforations on a sheet of paper—make it easy for the tooth’s worn layers to shear off. sharp edge.” notes Gilbert. In theory.” says Gilbert. the sea urchin bores through rock to carve out a niche in which to hide. “there are breaking points at predetermined locations built into the teeth. the urchin’s teeth stay sharp. it never gets dull. exposing a new. What is the sea urchin’s secret? Consider: A sea urchin’s tooth is composed of crystals that are cemented together.WAS IT DESIGNED? The Sea Urchin’s Self-Sharpening Tooth Growing tooth Calcareous plate Five teeth Sea urchin Sharpened tooth ˘ Using its five teeth. Despite the grinding and scraping. professor of physics at the University of Wisconsin– Madison in the United States. Since the tooth keeps growing at one end and self-sharpens at the other end. it could lead to the development of tools that self-sharpen with use. Gilbert calls the urchin’s tooth “one of the very few structures in nature that self-sharpen.

violence. Nevertheless. God condemns any acts that are associated with spiritism. How to be selective. ‘Do the movies I watch make it easier—or harder—for me to obey God’s commands regarding sex. Tip: Look for films that are less likely to contain objectionable material. Some feature graphic sex and violence. “I thoroughly enjoy period pieces—movies based on classic literature. “If the trailer doesn’t seem appropriate. abusive speech. you’re selective about your entertainment. “To help me know more about content. violence. 1 Awake! neither endorses nor condemns any particular commercial film. I will walk out. Awake! November 2011 17 . book.”—Natasha. read. and spiritism?’ Did you know . The purpose of this article is to help you to develop and follow a Bible-trained conscience that is sensitive to God’s standards. But the Bible says: “Put them all away from you. . violence.2 “I never take someone’s recommendation unless I know for a fact that the person has the same values as I have. “If I’m watching a movie in the theater and I start to feel uncomfortable with the content. You don’t just settle for what others say you should watch. there is good entertainment out there. Why not? Because much of today’s entertainment glorifies illicit sex. or listen to. I won’t watch the movie. wrath. I use an Internet site that reports the level of sex.”—Jerrine.” (Colossians 3:8) Furthermore. put a O next to your favorite film genre.1 MOVIES BOOKS MUSIC Below. ? India often produces more than a thousand films a year—many more than any other country. .”—Caitlyn.”—Marina. 2 Some names in this article have been changed. while others include supernatural themes.” says a teen named Masami. and spiritism—things you need to avoid. Let’s see how you can find it. or song by name. and profanity in each movie. What to avoid. and obscene talk.—Psalm 119:104. anger.—Deuteronomy 18:10-13. badness.YOUNG PEOPLE ASK Where can I find good entertainment? If you’re a Christian. M Comedy M Drama M Action/Adventure M Science fiction M Other Ask yourself. Many movies promote values that are contrary to Bible standards. Romans 12:9.

M Fiction M Nonfiction M Classic literature M Other Ask yourself.”—Marie.” (Ephesians 5:3) It also says that spiritistic acts are “bad in the eyes of Jehovah. some are sexually graphic or have spiritistic themes. For example. “The wording. the character development. I don’t buy it. I realized that it didn’t harmonize with God’s thinking. the plots —they’re just fantastic!” WHY NOT ASK YOUR PARENTS? What has changed with regard to entertainment since you were my age? What changes did your parents tell you took place between their adolescence and yours? 18 Awake! November 2011 . “When looking for a good book. “I find that I can get much more engrossed in classic literature than modern fiction. I would stop reading it.”—Corinne. many books promote values that are contrary to Bible standards. 17. Similar to movies.” says Lara. ? More than a thousand books are published each week in the United States alone. I realized the importance of listening to my conscience. Tip: Broaden your taste. . put a O next to your favorite type of reading material. . “As I grew up and began thinking for myself.” —2 Kings 17:17. If I see anything objectionable. I read the back cover and browse through the chapters. What to avoid. But when I find a story that doesn’t conflict with those standards. I enjoy it that much more.“ A lot of books and movies are off-limits if judged by Bible standards. ‘Do the books that I read entertain me with conduct that God disapproves of?’ Did you know . But the Bible says: “Let fornication and uncleanness of every sort or greediness not even be mentioned among you. How to be selective. Adrian ” MOVIES BOOKS MUSIC Below. If I determined that a book was bad.

watchtower. “and the beat makes people want to dance —and not the polka. so I heard quite a bit of it as I was growing up. or listen to whatever is popular. “I ask myself.” How to be selective. More articles from the “Young People Ask” series can be found at the Web site www. (1 Corinthians 6:18) “Much of today’s music encourages behavior that is against Bible standards. Tip. “My dad enjoys classical music. “Learning about classical music—while also learning to play the piano—opened up a new world to me!” The entertainment industry has nothing to lose—and much to gain—if you ignore your Bible-trained conscience and simply watch.org/ype Did you know .” says a teen named Roberto.” says 21-year-old Leigh.000 albums a year. ? Four major music labels combined release some 30. .” —Leanne. What to avoid. would I be embarrassed by what they’d find?’ That helps to give me some perspective on the kind of music I should be listening to. Chapters 31 and 32. M Rock M Classical M Jazz M R&B M Hip-hop M Other Ask yourself. We don’t want to override our good conscience simply for the sake of liking the beat Janiece of a song. Be willing to try different genres. . put a O next to your favorite type of music. Explicit lyrics and graphic music videos can make it even more difficult for you to control your sexual urges. Awake! November 2011 19 . Similar to movies and books. ” MOVIES BOOKS MUSIC Below. much music today is morally degrading. Volume 2.“ Some music can cause us to become curious about things that we as Christians should abstain from. ‘If I were to let adult Christians scroll through my music list. ‘Does the music I listen to make it easier—or harder—for me to control my sexual desires?’ READ MORE ABOUT IT! See the book Questions Young People Ask—Answers That Work. read. published by Jehovah’s Witnesses.

vitamins.Mexico’s ˘ When the Spanish conquistadores arrived in Mexico in the early 16th century. several are used for pulque and other alcoholic beverages. made from the fermented juice of the agave plant. the Spaniards soon began to distill agave juice into something stronger. —1 Corinthians 6:9. pulque has a low alcohol content. Foreigners are more familiar with the margarita. . there are dozens of tequila distillers in Mexico. in turn. On average. carbohydrates. served with crushed ice in a goblet rimmed with salt. It also contains vegetable proteins. leaving the pineapple-shaped heart called ˜ pina. called mescal. 10. But only the blue agave is used for tequila. it weighs 110 pounds (50 kg) and contains the rich juice. Orchards of blue agave. a cocktail of tequila mixed with lime juice and an orange-flavored liqueur. are cultivated in the arid highlands of west-central Mexico. absorbing a lot of minerals in the process. Titus 2:3. Nowadays. tequila has rightly been called Mexico’s ambassador abroad. Many Mexicans enjoy tequila straight. became the precursor of today’s tequila. 40 percent of which is exported. a succulent related to the lily family. principally in the state of Jalisco near the town of Tequila. (Psalm 104:15. condemn immoderate drinking and drunkenness. 1 Of the 136 species of agave in Mexico. and they produce over 50 million gallons a year (189 million L). 2 The moderate consumption of alcohol is not condemned in the Bible. so it is used in many areas as a nutritional supplement. It. When the plant is harvested. however. 1 Timothy 5:23) The Bible does. they sampled a local drink called pulque.1 Agave plants take up to 12 years to mature.2 Marketed in some 90 countries. Accustomed to having alcoholic beverages with their meals. About 15 pounds ˜ (7 kg) of agave pinas are needed to produce one quart (1 L) of tequila. its spiky leaves are cut away. Much like beer. after LIQUID AMBASSADOR which the drink was named. accompanied by salt and a slice of lime. and minerals.

and dance. Father served in the military. From Mother. which requires the artist to express his or her feelings in the form of a dance. But youthful idealism is a hard flame to snuff out. Kathe.and my daughter. Father’s experience should have taught me that fighting inequality and injustice is much harder and more complicated than meets the eye. Mother sang in the theater. I WAS born in 1922 in the German town of Halle. I had a husband and a baby daughter. I saw throngs of hitherto normal citizens get caught up in Nazi hysteria. where I also learned the painter. When hostilities ceased in 1945. By this time. forced him into bankruptcy. Since his customers were mostly poor people.How I Found the Answer to Injustice AS TOLD BY URSULA MENNE For as long as I can remember. ¨ and she introduced Kathe and me to music. and since I had to support myself After finishing my basic education. And there. ¨ Kathe. Father purchased a store. my teen years were initially happy and filled with excitement and learning. Thus. War is a nightmare. I at. We sepA Nightmare Begins arated. Mother. Ausdruckstanz (expressive dance). song. Let me explain. I worked as a dancer and a tended ballet school. and ¨ Kathe and I had a wonderful life—that is. It was from Father that I gained a strong desire to correct injustice. however. But then came 1939 and World War II. and I were still in Halle. I thought that the world had gone mad. My sister. until the year 1939. Awake! November 2011 21 . was born in 1923. as taught by Mary Wigman. Although I was only 17 years of age when the war began. when Father died of tuberculosis. This desire even resulted in my being sent to prison in Communist East Germany. several of my family members were killed. however. I inherited artistic talent. death. When he left the army. which has a recorded history of more than 1. I have had a burning desire to see everyone treated fairly and justly. I also began painting. Our house was badly damaged in a bomb attack. Situated about 120 miles (200 km) southwest of Berlin.200 years. and destruction. Another blow occurred in 1941. but my marriage was strained. he compassionately extended them credit. Halle was one of the earliest strongholds of ¨ Protestantism. of all places. I was a lively child. Then came deprivation. This noble gesture. and in the course of the war. is where I found the answer to injustice. She was a pioneer of Expressionist dancing.

I recalled Father saying. they were never mailed. ¨ whose name was Berta Bruggemeier. informing them of my earlier pro22 Awake! November 2011 test with the leaflets. justice. . the secret police. since we often played music together.” I shouted. and the wicked one will be no more . On one occasion I even attached leaflets to the outside staircase of the local court building. “The Bible Students are right!” I wept with relief to meet this dear woman. I came into contact with student dissidents who tried to draw attention to some of the injustices being perpetrated. Meanwhile. In 1949. but just get me out of here!” Of course. I learned that the true God. much to my surprise. is a God of love. My sense of justice was further offended by some of the letters I had to type as a secretary to the Regional Peace Committee. 11. I felt so indignant at the dishonest treatment of that man that I hid the parcels in the office. two men came into my office and announced: “You are under arrest. The trial was a farce because no one took any notice of what I said in my defense.” At the time. Her eyes reflected an inner tranquillity. “What do you want?” the guard asked. one youth was denied a university education because his father had been a member of the Nazi party.” says Psalm 37:10. our part of Germany. and they will indeed find their exquisite delight in the abundance of peace. the Committee planned to send Communist propaganda material to an elderly man living in West Germany in order to arouse suspicion against him. or Red Ox.” she said. In fact. But the meek ones themselves will possess the earth. For instance. In another instance. Life Under Communism In those years. Jehovah. . I became ill and was placed in the prison hospital dormitory with about 40 other women. After seeing all those extremely unhappy people. we spent a lot of time together and often discussed the Bible. “I must get out of here. ‘should he suffer because of what his father had done?’ My involvement with the dissidents increased. Shortly thereafter. “Others think I am the worst person in the room because I am one of Jehovah’s Witnesses. I was sentenced to six years in prison. I ran to the door and struck it with my fists. and our town was in the sector governed by the Soviet Union. I took an office job with the local government. became the German Democratic Republic (GDR). and peace. “Just a little while longer. I noticed a woman who was different from the others. But what I did know about them was that two Bible Students (as the Witnesses were formerly called) had visited Father regularly when I was a child. he ignored my plea. tell me about Jehovah. “If you sit near me. “Put me in solitary if you have to. .” I said.’ I thought. I knew the student well. Then she added. I also learned that he will undo all the harm caused by wicked and tyrannical humans. you had better be careful. we all had to get accustomed to being under a Communist regime. for political reasons. ‘Why. From then on. “The Worst Person in the Room” Gave Me Hope In June 1951. I began to panic. often called East Germany. “Please.” They took me to the prison known as the Roter Ochse. A student had betrayed me to the Stasi. So I sat beside her. Mother became ill. One year later I was charged with subversion against the State. Among other things. As a result. Hence. and I decided to get involved in public protests. During that time. and I had to care for her.Post-war Germany was divided into four sectors. I did not know that Jehovah’s Witnesses were viewed as enemies of the Communist State.

the Bible says: “You loved righteousness. who always put the interests of others ahead of his own.” (The Revised English Bible) “The highest. Says Ecclesiastes 5:8: “If in some province you witness the oppression of the poor and the denial of right and justice. By then I had two daughters. I remarried. especially when I see or experience injustice. knowing that the dead will be raised to life in Paradise on earth.” says Hebrews 4:13. and his wife. Benjamin and Tabia. Only our Creator can bring about a truly just world. I realized that I had to make a number of changes in order to align my life with Jehovah’s standards. whom I took with me. And both forms of government. Jesus Christ. and I have been a widow ever since. I have learned that only Jehovah can provide true justice. is our Creator. As I studied the Bible. Tragically. Later. Concerning Jesus. Unlike humans. with my son. I looked to humans for rulership that was just. But I take much comfort in the hope of the resurrection. Life under neither was easy. (Luke 23: 43. ° I was released in 1956. There.My Release and Flight to the West Today. Sandra Looking Back Over Nearly 90 Years People sometimes ask me what it was like living under both Nazi and Communist rule. and you hated lawlessness. simply confirmed that humans cannot govern themselves. and the highest keeps watch over them all. and he will do so by getting rid of all the wicked and putting the rulership of the earth into the hands of his Son. This precious knowledge has given me peace even now. this time to one of Jehovah’s Witnesses—Klaus Menne. Benjamin. I made these changes and got baptized in 1958. “All things are naked and openly exposed to the eyes of him with whom we have an accounting.”—Ecclesiastes 8:9. as well as our background—details that are often hidden from the eyes of others. my husband and I got divorced and I met up with the Witnesses again. When I was young and naive. as with all forms of human government. Klaus and I had a wonderful marriage and had two children together. do not be surprised at what goes on. I fled the GDR to live in West Germany. Thanks to my study of the Bible. Now I know better.” (Hebrews 1:9) I am so thankful that God drew me to this wonderful and just King. for every official has a higher one set over him. having spent just over five years in prison. Klaus died about 20 years ago in an accident. Hannelore and Sabine. Acts 24:15) I am also greatly comforted by the knowledge that my four children all serve Jehovah. Five days after my release. he takes account of all of our circumstances. under whose rulership I hope to live forever! With my daughters Hannelore and Sabine after we arrived in West Germany .” of course. The Bible frankly and truthfully says: “Man has dominated man to his injury.

000 people in Mexico in 2010. plastic containers—anything that might hold stagnant water. 24 Awake! November 2011 . you should suspect dengue whenever a fever is accompanied by skin rashes. . the World Health Organization (WHO) currently estimates that there may be 50 million cases of dengue worldwide every year and that about two fifths of the world’s population are at risk of contracting the disease. These potentially deadly complications can occur after the initial fever subsides and the patient appears to be recovering. other mosquitoes. In fact. which is the reason why it is called breakbone fever.DENGUE A GROWING MENACE “The Health Services of Morelos .” A UTHORITIES in Mexico have good reason to be concerned about diseasebearing mosquitoes. This prevents the tanks from becoming breeding grounds for mosquitoes. cans. The pesky little insects can transmit a dangerous virus that causes dengue. . may also carry the dengue virus. Identifying and Coping With Dengue Source: Courtesy Marcos Teixeira de Freitas 1 In some lands. for [the Witnesses’] teamwork in achieving clean spaces free of breeding grounds for dengue-bearing mosquitoes. 2 Aedes mosquitoes usually travel no more than a few hundred yards from where they hatch. and pain in the muscles as well as severe joint pains. a potentially life-threatening disease that afflicted over 57. need to be closely monitored in case dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome develops. in coordination with the Board of Health of the Emiliano Zapata Town Council. The fever lasts from five to seven days. however. grant the present precertificate to the Kingdom Hall of Jehovah’s Witnesses . . nosebleeds and bleeding gums. This is because the female Aedes mosquito lays its eggs wherever it can find standing water. health authorities have initiated programs to eradicate the white-spotted Aedes aegypti mosquito. persistent vomiting. People also restrict the spread of these mosquitoes when they keep their yard clean of old tires. .2 Since people throughout Latin America and the Caribbean collect and store household water in con- crete tanks. Patients.1 Dengue is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical climates. such as the Aedes albopictus. Dengue is commonly misdiagnosed because of its flulike symptoms. health experts urge them to keep their tanks covered. What are some of the symptoms of these more serious conditions? Severe abdominal pain. pain behind the eyes. especially during the rainy season and after a natural disaster such as a hurricane or flooding. flowerpots. . But according to WHO. Accordingly. but in most cases it can be treated at home with rest and plenty of fluids. Mexico is just one of more than 100 countries where dengue is now endemic. Doctors do not yet have a cure for dengue. black stools. one of the insects that transmits the dengue virus.

Flowerpots 4. Use mosquito repellent b. remain under a mosquito net as much as possible to prevent mosquitoes from biting you and transmitting the disease to others. Also. including this fever. Also. long pants. Also. a patient is wise to avoid antiinflammatory medications.and reddish-purple blisters under the skin. the time will come when God “will wipe out every tear from their eyes. they are most active about two hours after sunrise and before sunset. excessive thirst. and very low blood pressure. Plastic containers 5. Rain gutters 3. or long dresses. Discarded cans and barrels 2 b 1 5 4 3 . and death will be no more.”—Revelation 21:3. Indeed. If you contract dengue. antibiotics are ineffective in treating dengue because it is a viral infection and not bacterial. Additionally. 4. neither will mourning nor outcry nor pain be anymore. long pants or long dresses. Limit Exposure to Mosquito Bites a. Sadly. get plenty of rest and drink lots of fluids. and it is possible to get dengue more than once. God’s Kingdom will eradicate all ailments. Sleep under a mosquito net a Check for Breeding Sites 1. How can you limit exposure to mosquitoes in the first place? Wear long sleeves. as they can increase the risk of bleeding. and use mosquito repellents. symptoms of dengue shock syndrome may include restlessness. There are four strains of dengue virus. Time will tell whether vaccines can provide any relief from dengue. such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Ultimately. Wear long sleeves. sleeping under a mosquito net that has been covered with insect repellent can offer you protection. Abandoned tires 2. pale and cold skin. Although mosquitoes can bite at any time of the day. The former things have passed away. though.

Foxe was in line to be ordained as a priest. Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses. John Foxe’s accounts. Under suspicion of heresy—which. she taught them in English. How had the martyrs become familiar with portions of the Bible in English? Some 150 From Foxe’s Book of Martyrs . This stand brought things to a head. 26 Awake! November 2011 After being awarded his master’s degree in 1543. about the same time that. as tradition has it. if proved. Turbulent Years John Foxe was born in Boston. where he married a woman named Agnes Randall. his Catholic beliefs suffered as a result. entitled Acts and Monuments of the Church. his colleagues began to think he might be embracing Protestantism—a suspicion that they divulged to the heads of the college. But he refused the ordination because he disagreed with enforced celibacy. Foxe enrolled at Oxford University. England. Instead of teaching her children in Latin though. in 1516 or 1517. or protests. Warwickshire. So Foxe. the local bishop spread the word that the victims were burned for the “greater crime” of eating meat on Fridays and other fast days. In fact. came on the scene as Reformers were challenging the authority and teachings of the Catholic Church. And it is said by some to be second only to the vernacular Bible as a formative influence on the English language and culture. often called the Lord’s Prayer. to a church door in Wittenberg. a Roman Catholic by birth. Germany. along with six men who were similarly charged. Foxe was closely watched. Thereafter. recorded during the Reformation. which enabled him to read the Bible in its original languages. Abandoning a promising academic career. Foxe became a tutor for a family near Stratford-upon-Avon.John Foxe AND HIS TURBULENT TIMES OES mankind learn from the past. For this “crime” she was burned at the stake. could have meant death—he resigned from the university in 1545. Agnes told Foxe about a widow named Smith (or Smythe) who had taught her children the Ten Commandments and Jesus’ model prayer. an Englishman who took to the pen in hopes that his readers would repudiate the unspeakable cruelties that plagued his time. and his studies included Greek and Hebrew. A citizen of nearby Coventry. His book. Evidently. or are history’s lessons wasted on us? Think about that question as you consider the life of John Foxe. did indeed have a powerful influence on the people of England for centuries. took more than 25 years to complete. Because this gross injustice angered the people.

one year after Mary’s Protestant sister Elizabeth was crowned queen. as a small Latin 1 See the article “The Lollards. he returned to England. Foxe survived this era because he took his family to Basel. along with other exiles. Since the English Parliament had severed all connection with Rome in 1534. Vol. it passed a statute giving bishops the power to imprison and torture heretics and burn them at the stake. John Wycliffe sent out itinerant preachers known as Lollards From the book The Church of England: A History for the People. As a result. Switzerland.” in the August 1. in 1553. women. The Deadly Fruits of Intolerance The Reformation in Europe saw thousands of men. despite church opposition. Fearing arrest. issue of The Watchtower. completing it in 1554. and children slaughtered. who also trained itinerant preachers known as Lollards. soon after Mary’s enthronement. 1905. In 1401. II . Courageous Bible Preachers.years earlier. volume of 212 leaves. Foxe began to compile a history of the Lollards in England. where he later took a stand for the Protestant cause. That same year. In 1559. Additionally. including Protestant church leaders. There he translated tracts from German Reformers into English and translated other tracts written in Latin as well. Foxe moved with his family to London. an ardent Catholic who came to be known as Bloody Mary was crowned. were burned as heretics. today a city in France. Five years later. The work was published in Strasbourg. the Bible had been translated from Latin into English by John Wycliffe. some 300 men and women. In effect. 1980. she was determined to bring England back under papal authority. Many others died in prison. he enlarged the volume to over 750 folio pages. this was the first of his Acts and Monuments of the Church.1 These carried handwritten portions of Scripture. which they read to the people. During Mary’s five-year reign. He also wrote some tracts of his own. In England. Parliament tried to stop that activity.

international conspiracies against England were uncovered. As a result.” How far the churches of Christendom —Catholic and Protestant—had strayed from the teachings of Jesus Christ! “Continue to love your enemies and to pray for those persecuting you.” he taught.Elizabeth reinstated the Act of Supremacy1. Foxe’s Acts and Monuments of the Church was dubbed Foxe’s Book of Martyrs. Foxe Completes His Work FOXE’S BOOK OF MARTYRS As the Catholic Church continued to fight the Reformation. Even the illiterate could benefit. (Matthew 5:44) Because both Catholics and Protestants disregarded this very clear directive. wrote the apostle Peter. Its two volumes had over 2. which made a deep and lasting impression. martyrologists in Europe.800 pages and a number of woodcut illustrations—appeared in 1563 and became an immediate best seller. 1 The Leading Facts of English History. The following year. which retained many Catholic customs and doctrines. the King with one stroke of his pen overturned the traditions of a thousand years. Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth in 1570. and England stood boldly forth with a National Church independent of the Pope. . such as Jean Crespin. Parish churches soon followed this example. Soon. including schemes to assassinate the Protestant queen. they brought much reproach on Christianity—a development foretold in the Bible. “which declared Henry to be without reservation the sole head of the Church. the Church of England decreed that a copy of Foxe’s book be installed alongside the Bible in all English cathedrals and in the homes of church dignitaries for the benefit of servants and visitors.1 As a result. Protestants who felt that mere separation from the church of Rome was not enough. John Foxe shaped the way people viewed religion and politics in England for centuries to come. the unofficial title superseded the one chosen by Foxe. 1 See the article “Jean Crespin’s Book of Martyrs” in the March 2011 issue of this magazine. ironically. which made her the Supreme Governor of the Church. By this time. hundreds of Catholics were charged with treason and killed on Elizabeth’s orders. details of which may have been witnessed in person by some of his readers. In response. The second edition followed seven years later. thanks to the illustrations. “The way of the truth will be spoken of abusively” on account of pretenders to Christianity. by D.—2 Peter 2:1. His first English edition—with some 1. 5 Classic Vision/age fotostock Back in England. states that in 1534. As he signed the act.300 pages and 153 illustrations. 2. Foxe had joined the Puritans. brought them into conflict with the Protestant Church in England. Later. as revised and abridged editions appeared. Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy. Foxe embarked on an enlarged edition of his account. Because his work exposed many of the religious atrocities that took place in his turbulent times. Montgomery. H. compiled details of persecution and martyrdom in their countries. making denial thereof high treason. They taught that every vestige of Catholicism had to be removed—a stance that.

S. wore symbolic ornaments. Missouri.A. one by one. In Australia two severe hailstorms caused in excess of $2 billion (U. The company produces 1 million Bibles per month—a quarter of all those currently being printed worldwide. 7 out of 10 babies already have an online presence. and Haiti. cooked food.—RIA NOVOSTI. “rose to $130 billion from last year’s $50 billion. however.S. and created glue to attach spear points to their shafts.500 feet (6. U.000 women die as a result of domestic violence. Recent discoveries indicate that Neanderthals built shelters and hearths.—BABY UND FAMILIE. ash from an Icelandic volcano caused little direct damage but nearly paralyzed air traffic.A. GERMANY. St.” In Germany.—SOIL SURVEY HORIZONS. China. as online photos can accompany a child for life. where tens of thousands died from the effects of heat and air pollution.—XINHUA. controlled fire.” Were Neanderthals Like Us? “The long-held view that Neanderthals were inferior to Homo sapiens is changing as.858 m) to 25. According to Erik Trinkaus. U. made tools.) of damage. Manmade pollution is thought to be to blame.S.”—NATIONAL CATHOLIC REPORTER. CHINA.” says The Telegraph of London. “Total economic losses.” says New Scientist. “Neanderthals were people. The five worst disasters were earthquakes in Chile. According to government statistics. including losses not covered by insurance. There is also evidence that they cared for sick individuals. The only company authorized to print Bibles in China recently produced its 80-millionth copy. U. capabilities thought unique to us have been linked to them. and they probably had the same range of mental abilities we do. RUSSIA. and a heat wave in Russia. and buried their dead. Experts advise caution. Louis.432 feet (7. every year in Russia 14.752 m) contains levels of arsenic and cadmium considered dangerous for drinking water. wore clothes.1 percent) have left the Catholic church after having been raised Catholic. Awake! November 2011 29 . professor of physical anthropology at Washington University. floods that inundated Pakistan. “Slightly more than 10 percent of American adults (10.A.. Over northern Europe. Parents create profiles and e-mail addresses for them or post their photos or ultrasound images. Snow falling on Mount Everest at altitudes of 22.S. exceeding the last decade’s average of 785 events per year.WATCHING THE WORLD Natural Disasters of 2010 A leading insurance company recorded 950 natural catastrophes worldwide in 2010.

Verse 3 2. B 1. Then each person should select one paper and.jw. Verse 6 5. What does “vanity and a striving after wind” mean? What activities will truly make you happy? CLUE: Read Luke 6: 38. Place the papers in a box. FAMILY ACTIVITY: Read Ecclesiastes 3:1-8.” go to www. without speaking.org 30 Awake! November 2011 . Acts 20:35. Verse 4 C 3. Verse 7 6. act out that activity. Have each family member write out one of the activities listed in these verses on a separate slip of paper.) Complete the pictures by coloring them.FOR FAMILY REVIEW Match the Pictures to the Text A Read Ecclesiastes 2:3-10. Verse 8 E F ˘ “FOR FAMILY REVIEW” answers on page 15 FOR DISCUSSION: Was Solomon truly happy with the things he accomplished for himself? CLUE: Read Ecclesiastes 2:11. Draw a line connecting each picture to the matching Bible verse. See if your family can identify the correct activity. Verse 5 D 4. (The pictures are not in the correct order. To print out additional copies of “For Family Review.

Why did Pharaoh make Joseph the second ruler in Egypt? BIBLE C ARD Adam created Lived circa 1700’s B. ANSWE RS A.—Genesis 39:1-23. “. he honored Jehovah and remained chaste. I am seven years old. . B. Taken from Dothan to Egypt EGYPT JOSEPH J O S E P H PROFILE The firstborn son of Jacob and Rachel. draw a dot where you live.—Genesis 37:19. A 4026 B. When pressured by Potiphar’s wife to have sex. Peoples and Lands 7. .” and sold him into slavery for silver pieces.E.Collect and Learn Last Bible book written 98 C.C. He knew that God’s spirit made Joseph wise and discreet.E. and save Dothan 1 C. . where he spent about 13 years as a slave or prisoner. 20. (Genesis 35:24) His jealous half brothers sold him into slavery in Egypt. “How could I commit this great badness and .000. My name is Anietie. or 390. and I live in Nigeria. 290. About how many of Jehovah’s Witnesses live in Nigeria? Is it 190. describe what is happening in each picture. Fill in the blanks. Which dot shows where I live? Circle it. Joseph firmly replied. B.E.E. Cut out. and see how close you are to Nigeria.000. Joseph forgave his repentant half brothers.—Genesis 41:38-41. Instead of taking vengeance. actually sin against God?”—Genesis 39:9.000? 8. Dreamer.C. fold in half. 28.” C. hardworking. Children’s Picture Search Can you find these pictures in this issue? In your own words. 11 QUE S T IONS A. and trustworthy. . (Genesis 50:15-21) Though far from home. C. B C D . Joseph’s half brothers called him “that .

You may request a copy by filling in the accompanying coupon and mailing it to an appropriate address on page 5 of this magazine. I would like eight of these brochures to distribute to my family to comfort them. It also discusses God’s promise.watchtower. When Someone You Love Dies.org g11 11-E ..” a man wrote to the Mexico branch office of Jehovah’s Witnesses.” The brochure When Someone You Love Dies contains answers to such questions as: How can I live with my grief? And what hope is there for those who have died? It presents the Bible’s explanation of both what death is and what the Bible says about the condition of the dead. One of them mentioned the brochure When Someone You Love Dies. Indicate which language.His Grandfather Had Just Died ˘ “I am not one of Jehovah’s Witnesses. “but I find your magazines very interesting. This caught my attention. through Jesus Christ. It so happens that my grandfather has just died. Q Without obligation. City Province/State Postal/ZIP Code www. I request a copy of the brochure shown here. of a resurrection to life on a cleansed paradise earth.. Name Address Q Please contact me concerning a free home Bible study.

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