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(Frequency Modulation and
Phase Modulation)
Prepared by: Armando V. Barretto
Angle Modulation
• Angle modulation results whenever the phase angle of a sinusoidal wave is
varied with respect to time.
• The two forms of angle modulation are Frequency Modulation and Phase
Modulation.
• Direct Frequency Modulation (FM) is varying the frequency of a constant
amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating
signal, at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal.
• Direct Phase Modulation (PM) is varying the phase of a constant amplitude
carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal, at a
rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal.
• When frequency of a signal is varied, its phase is also varied. When phase of
a signal is varied, its frequency is also varied.
• The difference between frequency and phase modulation lies in which property
of the carrier is directly varied by the modulating signal.
• If the modulating signal varies the frequency directly, frequency modulation
results.
• If the modulating signal varies the phase directly, phase modulation results.
• FM is indirect PM, and PM is indirect FM.
Advantages of Angle Modulation Compared With Amplitude
Modulation
• FM has the ability to suppress noise, which is probably the biggest advantage of
FM compared to AM.
– FM receivers can be fitted with amplitude limiters to remove amplitude
variations caused by noise, making FM more immune to noise. This is
called FM Thresholding.
– In AM, once the signal has been contaminated by noise, noise could not be
removed.
– Signal to noise ratio can be improved further by increasing the frequency
deviation of FM signals.
– Reduced noise improves system fidelity.
• Angle modulated signals are more power efficient.
– Amplitude of FM or PM wave remains constant.
– Amplitude is independent of modulation depth.
– Low level modulation may be used, but all subsequent amplifiers can be
class C and therefore more power efficient.
– All transmitted power in FM are useful, making it more power efficient.
• Standard frequency allocations provide guard band between FM broadcast
stations, so there is less adjacent channel interference.
Advantages of Angle Modulation Compared With Amplitude
Modulation
• FM broadcasts operate in the upper VHF and UHF frequency ranges, at which
there happens to be less noise than in the MF and HF ranges occupied by AM
broadcasts.
• For FM broadcast, space wave is used, so the radius of operation is limited to
slightly more than line of sight. Several independent transmitters separated by
space can use the same frequency with less possible interference.
• With FM and PM, a phenomenon known as capture effect allows a receiver to
differentiate between two signals with the same frequency.
– Providing one signal is at least twice as high in amplitude as the other, the
receiver will capture the stronger signal and eliminate the weaker signal.
This is not possible for AM.
Disadvantages of Angle Modulation Compared With
Amplitude Modulation
• Higher bandwidth is needed, up to 10 times as large as that needed for AM.
• More complex circuits in transmitter and receiver.
• Since reception is limited to line of sight, the area of reception (service
area) is much smaller than AM (in broadcasting). This may be an
advantage for cochannel allocations, but it is a disadvantage for FM mobile
communications over a wide area. This is not due to the intrinsic properties
of FM, but rather to the frequencies employed for its transmission (in
broadcasting).
Angle Modulation
• The modulating signal can be expressed as:
v
m
(t)=V
m
sin(ω
m
t)
where:
ω
m
= 2πf
m
= modulating signal radian frequency (angular velocity in radians per
second)
V
m
= modulating signal peak amplitude (volts)
f
m
= modulating signal frequency (hertz)
• The instantaneous phase deviation of an angle modulated wave (θ(t)) can be
expressed as:
θ(t) = F(v
m
(t))
(the instantaneous phase deviation of an angle modulated wave is a function of the
modulating signal)
Angle Modulation
• An angle modulated wave can be expressed as:
m(t)=V
c
cos(ω
c
t + θ(t))
=V
c
cos(2πf
c
t + θ(t))
where:
m(t) = angle modulated wave
V
c
= peak carrier amplitude (volts)
f
c
= carrier frequency (hertz)
θ(t) = instantaneous phase deviation (radians)
2πf
c
= ω
c
= carrier radian frequency (angular velocity in radians per second)
Frequency Modulated Wave
Frequency of modulated signal
when amplitude of modulating
signal is 0 volt (carrier rest frequency)
Lowest frequency of
modulated signal (fmin)
Highest frequency of
Modulated signal (fmax)
Δθ Δθ
Tmin
(max. frequency.)
Tmax
(min. frequency)
Tmin = minimum period of frequency modulated signal
Tmax = maximum period of frequency modulated signal
ΔT = peak to peak change in period of carrier
Δf = frequency deviation (relative displacement of the carrier frequency, in hertz)
Δf pp = peak to peak frequency deviation = (1/Tmin) – (1/Tmax)
Δθ = phase deviation (relative angular displacement of carrier with respect to a
reference phase, in radians)
fc = carrier rest frequency = carrier frequency when there is no modulating signal
ΔT
fc fc + Af fc  Af
Δf Δf
Δfpp
Phase Modulation
• When the carrier signal is not modulated, its frequency is constant and is
equal to the carrier rest frequency (fc).
• When the carrier signal is modulated by a modulating signal, its
instantaneous phase will change depending on the instantaneous value of the
modulating signal voltage.
• The higher is the modulating signal voltage, the higher is the phase
deviation.
• The higher is the peak amplitude of the modulating signal (Vm), the higher is
the maximum or peak phase deviation (Au p ).
• The peak phase deviation (Au p ) occurs when the voltage of the modulating
signal is at its peak (Vm or peak amplitude).
• While the phase of the carrier is changing, its frequency will also be
changing. Indirect FMwill result.
Frequency Modulation
• When the carrier signal is not modulated, its frequency is constant and is
equal to the carrier rest frequency (fc).
• When the carrier signal is modulated by a modulating signal, its
instantaneous frequency will change depending on the instantaneous voltage
of the modulating signal.
• The frequency of the modulated signal will decrease and /or increase from the
rest frequency value, depending on the polarity of the modulating signal.
• The higher is the modulating signal voltage, the higher is the frequency
deviation.
• The higher is the peak amplitude of the modulating signal (Vm), the higher is
the maximum or peak frequency deviation (Af ).
• The peak frequency deviation (Af) occurs when the voltage of the modulating
signal is at its peak (Vm or peak amplitude).
• While the frequency of the carrier is changing, its phase will also be
changing. Indirect PMwill result.
Angle Modulation
• Instantaneous phase deviation (θ(t)) – the instantaneous change in the phase
of the carrier at a given instant of time, and indicates how much the phase of
the carrier is changing with respect to its reference phase. It is measured in
radians.
• Instantaneous phase (ω
c
t + θ(t)) – is the precise phase of the carrier at a
given instant of time. It can be expressed as:
Instantaneous phase = ω
c
t + θ(t) (radians)
= 2πf
c
t + θ(t) (radians)
where: ω
c
t = carrier reference phase (radians)
f
c
= carrier frequency (hertz)
θ(t) = instantaneous phase deviation (radians)
Angle Modulation
• Instantaneous frequency deviation (θ’(t)) – is the instantaneous change in
frequency of the carrier and is defined as the first time derivative of the
instantaneous phase deviation. It is measured in radians per second.
Instantaneous frequency deviation = θ’(t) (radians per second)
• Instantaneous frequency (f
i
t) or (ω
i
t) – is the precise frequency of the
carrier at a given instant of time and is defined as the first time derivative of
the instantaneous phase.
ω
i
t = f
i
= Instantaneous frequency =
dt
ω
c
+ θ’(t) =
(ω
c
t + θ(t))
2πf
c
+ θ’(t) =
d
(rad / sec)
(rad / sec)
(rad / sec)
Angle Modulation
• To convert instantaneous frequency deviation or instantaneous frequency
in rad/sec to hertz or cycles per sec, divide them by 2π radian per cycle.
Example: To convert 2π rad/sec to hertz
(2π rad/sec )
(2π radian/cycle)
• Phase modulation can be defined as angle modulation in which the
instantaneous phase deviation, θ(t), is proportional to the modulating signal
voltage.
• Frequency modulation can be defined as angle modulation in which the
instantaneous frequency deviation, θ’(t), is proportional to the modulating
signal voltage.
= 1 cycle /sec = 1 hertz
Angle Modulation
For a modulating signal v
m
(t) ) = V
m
sin(ω
m
t), the phase and frequency
modulation are:
Phase modulation = instantaneous phase deviation
Phase modulation = θ(t) = K v
m
(t) (rad)
Frequency modulation = instantaneous frequency deviation
Frequency modulation = θ’(t) = K
1
v
m
(t) (rad/sec)
Where:
K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (constant in radians per volt)
= phase deviation per volt of modulating signal (It is a measure of how much
sensitive is a phase modulator in deviating the phase in proportion to the
modulating signal voltage)
K
1
=deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator (constant in radians per volt
second or hertz per volt)
= frequency deviation per volt of modulating signal (It is a measure of how
much sensitive is a frequency modulator in deviating the frequency in
proportion to the modulating signal voltage)
v
m
(t) = modulating signal
Angle Modulation
Since phase modulation is the first integral of frequency modulation,
phase modulation can also be written as,
Phase modulation = θ(t) = K v
m
(t) rad
Where:
K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (constant in radians per volt)
K
1
=deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator (constant in radians per
voltsecond)
v
m
(t) = modulating signal
}
dt (t) v K
dt (t) v K
dt (t) ' θ
m
m
1
1
}
}
}
=
=
=
Angle Modulation
Substituting modulating signal v
m
(t)=V
m
cos(ω
m
t) into the preceding
equations, the following equations can be written:
The phase modulated wave can be written as:
v(t) = V
c
cos (ω
c
t + θ(t))
= V
c
cos(ω
c
t + K V
m
cos (ω
m
t)) = V
c
cos(ω
c
t + m
P
cos (ω
m
t))
The frequency modulated wave can be written as :
v(t)
t)] sin( ω m t [ω cos Vc t)] sin( ω
ω
V K
t [ω cos Vc
t)dt) cos( ω V K t (ω cos Vc
(t)dt) v K t (ω cos Vc
(t)) θ' t (ω cos Vc
m F c m
m
m 1
c
m m 1 c
m 1 c
c
+ = + =
+ =
+ =
+ =
}
}
}
Angle Modulation
Where:
V
m
= peak amplitude of modulating signal (volts)
ω
m
= angular velocity of modulating signal (rad / sec)
V
c
= peak amplitude of carrier signal
ω
c
= angular velocity of unmodulated carrier signal (rad / sec)
θ(t) = instantaneous phase deviation = Phase modulation (rad)
θ’(t) = instantaneous frequency deviation = frequency modulation (rad / sec)
K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (in radians per volt)
m
P
= KVm = modulation index for PM = Aup = peak phase deviation
K
1
=deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator (in radians per voltsecond)
m
F
= K
1
Vm / fm = modulation index for FM
Note: For phase modulation, the instantaneous phase, ω
c
t + θ(t), is directly
proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.
For frequency modulation, the instantaneous frequency, ω
c
+ θ’(t), is directly
proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.
Summary of Equations for FM And PM
Type of Modulation Modulating Signal Anglemodulated Wave, m(t)
Phase
Phase
Phase
Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
v
m
(t)
V
m
cos(ω
m
t)
V
m
cos(ω
m
t)
v
m
(t)
V
m
sin(ω
m
t)
V
m
cos(ω
m
t)
V
m
cos(ω
m
t)
V
c
cos [ω
c
t + K v
m
(t)]
] (t)dt v K t [ω cos Vc m 1 c
}
+
V
c
cos(ω
c
t + K V
m
cos (ω
m
t))
t)] cos(ω
ω
V K
t [ω cos Vc m
m
m 1
c +
t)] sin(ω
ω
V K
t [ω cos Vc m
m
m 1
c +
t)] sin(ω m t [ω cos Vc m F c +
V
c
cos(ω
c
t + m
P
cos (ω
m
t))
Phase and Frequency Modulation
Modulating signal
(fm)
Unmodulated
Carrier
(fc)
0 volt
0 volt
Frequency
Modulated
Wave
0 volt
Phase
Modulated
Wave
0 volt
Maximum frequency
Minimum frequency
Rest frequency
Maximum frequency
Minimum frequency
Phase and Frequency Modulation
• For frequency modulation, the maximum frequency deviation (Af ) occurs
during the maximum positive and negative peak amplitudes of the
modulating signal. Frequency deviation is directly proportional to the
amplitude of modulating signal.
• For phase modulation, the maximum frequency deviation occurs during
the zero crossings of the modulating signal. Frequency deviation is directly
proportional to the slope or first derivative of the modulating signal.
• For both frequency and phase modulation, the rate at which the frequency
changes is equal to the modulating signal frequency.
• The frequency of the modulating signal does not affect the peak frequency
deviation and it only affects the rate of change of the frequency deviation.
• Under identical conditions, FM and PM are indistinguishable for a single
modulating frequency, unless the FM and PM waves are plotted against the
modulating signal.
Modulation Index for Phase Modulation
• Modulation Index (for phase modulation) – is the peak phase deviation for a
phase modulated wave (radians)
– Modulation index is directly proportional to the amplitude of the
modulating signal, independent of its frequency, and it is expressed as:
Where: V
m
= peak amplitude of modulating signal (volts)
K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (radians per volt)
• The relationship of the modulation index for phase modulation to the
modulated signal can be expressed as:
Where:
m(t) = phase modulated wave
Vc = peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier and of the modulated signal
m
P
= modulation index for phase modulation = peak phase deviation (radians)
m
P
cos (ω
m
t) = instantaneous phase deviation = θ(t) (radians)
ω
c
= angular velocity of unmodulated carrier signal (rad / sec)
m(t) = V
c
cos[ω
c
t + m
P
cos (ω
m
t)] = Vc cos[ωct + Aup cos (ωmt)]
m
P
= KV
m
= modulation index for PM
= Aup = peak phase deviation (radians)
Modulation Index for Frequency Modulation
• Modulation Index (for frequency modulation) – is used to describe the depth of
modulation achieved for a given amplitude and frequency of modulating
signal.
– Modulation index is directly proportional to the amplitude of the
modulating signal, and inversely proportional to its frequency.
Where: m
F
= modulation index for frequency modulation
V
m
= peak amplitude of modulating signal (volts)
K
1
=deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator (rad. per voltsec.)
K
1
V
m
= peak frequency deviation (radians per second)
ω
m
= 2πf
m
=angular velocity of modulating signal (rad / sec)
Af = peak frequency deviation (Hertz)
fm = ω
m
/ 2t = modulating signal frequency (Hertz)
m
m 1
ω
V K
m
F
= = modulation index for frequency modulation (unitless)
fm
f
A
=
= modulation index for frequency modulation (unitless)
Modulation Index for Frequency Modulation
• Frequency deviation (K
1
V
m
in radians per second) is typically given in peak
frequency shift (Δf in hertz).
• To convert radians per second to hertz (cycles per second), simply divide
radians per second with 2π radians per cycle.
• ω
m
= 2πf
m
(radians per second) can also be expressed in hertz by dividing it
with 2π radians per cycle.
• The modulation index for frequency modulation can then be expressed as:
• Δf = peak frequency deviation
• The peak to peak frequency deviation (2Δf ) is sometimes called carrier
swing (2Δf ) .
• In many cases, deviation sensitivity for FM (K
1
) is given in hertz per volt. To
convert deviation sensitivity in radians per voltsecond to hertz per volt,
simply divide it with 2π radians per cycle.
• The maximum peak frequency deviation allowed for FM radio transmission
is 75 khz and the maximum peak to peak frequency deviation allowed is 150
Khz.
m f
f
A
m
F
=
=
/2π ) (ω
2π / ) V (K
m
m 1
= modulation index for FM (Unitless)
Modulation Index for FM and PM
Example:
a. Determine the peak frequency deviation (Δf) and modulation index
(m) for an FM modulator with a deviation sensitivity (K
1
) = 5 khz /
volt and a modulating signal v
m
(t)=2 cos(2π2000t).
b. Determine the peak phase deviation (m) for a PM modulator with a
deviation sensitivity (K) = 2.5 radian per volt and a modulating
signal of v
m
(t)=2 cos(2π2000t).
Solution:
a. Peak frequency deviation (Δf) = K
1
V
m
= (5 khz / v)(2 v) = 10 Khz
Modulation index for FM =
b. Peak phase deviation = m = K V
m
= (2.5 rad / v)(2 v) = 5 radians
m f
f
A
m =
=
10,000 / 2000 = 5
Modulation Index for FM and PM
Example: In an FM system, when the audio frequency (AF) is 500 hz and the
AF voltage is 2.4 volts, the deviation is 4.8 khz. If the AF voltage is now
increased to 7.2 volts, what is the new deviation? If the AF voltage is
raised to 10 volts while the AF is dropped to 200 hz, what is the
deviation? Find the modulation index in each case.
Solution:
K
1
= Δf / Vm = 4,800 / 2.4 = 2,000 hz / volt = FM deviation sensitivity in v/sec
When Vm = 7.2 volts 500 hz, Δf = K
1
Vm = (2,000)(7.2) = 14,400 hz
When Vm = 10 volts and AF is dropped to 200 hz,
Δf = K1Vm = (2,000)(10) = 20,000 hz (Δf is not affected by modulating
signal frequency)
When AF voltage is 2.4 volts 500 hz, m
F
= Δf / fm = 4800 / 500 = 9.6
When AF voltage is 7.2 volts 500 hz, m
F
= Δf / fm = 14,400 / 500 = 28.8
When AF voltage is 10 volts 200 hz , m
F
= Δf / fm = 20,000 /200 = 100
(FMModulation index is affected by modulating signal frequency.)
Modulation Index for FM and PM
Example: Find the carrier and modulating frequencies, the modulation index,
and the maximum deviation of the FM wave represented by the voltage
equation v = 12 sin (6x10
8
t + 5 sin 1250t). What power will this FM
dissipate in a 10 ohm resistor?
Solution:
fc = 6x10
8
/ (2t) = 95.5 Mhz = carrier frequency
fm = 1250 / (2t) = 199 hz = modulating signal frequency
m
F
= 5 = modulation index
Δf = (m
F
)(fm) = (5)(199) = 995 hz
Ec = peak amplitude of carrier = 12 volts (modulated or not)
P = Ec
2
/ (2R) = 12
2
/ [(2)(10)] = 7.2 watts = power which will be dissipated by
the FM wave in a 10 watt resistor.
Modulation Index for FM and PM
Example: A 25 Mhz carrier is modulated by a 400 hz sine wave. If the carrier
voltage is 4 volts and the maximum deviation is 10 khz, write the equation
of this modulated wave for (a) FM and (b) PM. If the modulating signal is
now changed to 2 khz, all else remaining constant, write a new equation
for (c) FM and (d) PM.
Solution:
Calculating the frequencies in radians, we have:
e
c
= (2t)(25,000,000) = 1.57 x 10
8
rad/s
e
m
= (2t)(400) = 2,513 rad/s
m
F
= Δf / fm = 10,000 / 400 = 25 = modulation index for FM
Since the peak frequency deviation for PM and FM are the same, modulation
index for FM = modulation index for PM. (m
F
= m
P
= 5)
The equations for FM and PM are:
a) For FM: v=4 sin [1.57 x 10
8
t + 25 sin(2513 t)]
b) For PM: v=4 sin [1.57 x 108 t + 25 sin(2513 t)]
Modulation Index for FM and PM
If modulating frequency (fm) is changed to 2 khz, and deviation sensitivities
for FM (K
1
) and PM (K) remain the same, the new modulation indices are:
For FM: m
F
= Δf / fm = 10,000 / 2,000 = 5 = modulation index for FM
For PM: m
P
= 25 = peak phase deviation = modulation index for PM
The modulation index for FM is affected by the modulating signal frequency
whereas the modulation index for PM is unaffected by the modulating
signal frequency.
The frequency of the modulating signal in radians will be:
e
m
= (2t)(2000) = 12,566 rad/s
The equations for FM and PM are:
c) For FM: v=4 sin [1.57 x 10
8
t + 5 sin(12,566 t)]
d) For PM: v=4 sin [1.57 x 10
8
t + 25 sin(12,566 t)] (unchanged)
Percent Modulation for Angle Modulated Wave
• Percent modulation for an angle modulated wave is expressed as:
% modulation =
where:
Δf (actual) = Actual peak frequency deviation of angle modulated signal
Δf (allowed) = Maximum peak frequency deviation allowed by law in the
area where the angle modulated wave is present.
For example: If Δf (actual) is 50 Khz, and Δf (allowed) is + or 100 khz, then
(allowed) f
(actual) f
A
A
X 100 (in percent)
% modulation = (50,000 / 100,000) 100 = 50 %
Actual peak to peak frequency deviation (actual carrier swing) = 100 khz
Allowed peak to peak frequency deviation (allowed carrier swing) = 200 khz
The maximum peak frequency deviation allowed in the US is + or  75 Khz.
Phase and Frequency Modulators
• Phase modulators – is a circuit in which the carrier is varied in such a
way that its instantaneous phase is proportional to the modulating
signal.
– Unmodulated carrier is a single frequency which is commonly
called rest frequency.
– Phase modulation is not used in practical analog transmission
systems.
• Frequency modulator (also called frequency deviator)– is a circuit in
which the carrier is varied in such a way that the instantaneous phase is
proportional to the integral of the modulating signal.
– Unmodulated carrier is a single frequency which is commonly
called rest frequency.
– If modulating signal, v(t), is differentiated prior to being applied to
a frequency modulator, the resulting wave is a PM wave.
Phase and Frequency Modulators
• The following equivalences can be applied for phase and frequency
modulators and demodulators:
– PM modulator = differentiator followed by FM modulator
– PM demodulator = FM demodulator followed by an integrator
– FM modulator = integrator followed by a PM modulator
– FM demodulator = PM demodulator followed by a differentiator
• A low pass filter (1/f filter or predistorter or frequency correction network)
could be an integrator.
• If an FM signal is received by a PM receiver, bass (low) frequencies would
considerably have more phase deviations and would be boosted more than if a
PM was was received. (mf = Af / fm)
• If a PM signal is received by an FM receiver, high frequencies would
considerably have more frequency deviations and would be boosted more
than if a FM was received.
Frequency Analysis of Angle Modulated Wave
• With angle modulation, the frequency components of the modulated wave
are much more complexly related to the frequency components of the
modulating signal, than those in amplitude modulation.
• The modulated signal produced from a single modulating signal is composed
of:
– the original carrier frequency
– an infinite number of pairs of side frequencies displaced on either side
of the carrier by an integral multiple of the modulating signal frequency
– A sideband set includes an upper and a lower side frequency (f
c
+f
m’
f
c
+2f
m
, f
c
+3f
m
, …..)
– The bandwidth for all the side frequencies is infinite.
• Generally, most of the side frequencies are negligible and can be ignored.
• The angle modulated wave can be expressed as:
m(t) = V
c
cos[ω
c
t + mcos (ω
m
t)]
• The above equation can be expanded using Bessel function identities
shown below:
Frequency Analysis of Angle Modulated Wave
)
2
nπ
nβ (m)cos(α J
 n
n + +
¿
·
· =
m(t) = Vc
cos(o+mcos) =
• The angle modulated wave can then be expressed as:
    .... )t ω 2  (ω (m)cos J )t ω 2 (ω (m)cos J
2
π
 )t ω (ω (m)cos J
2
π
)t ω (ω (m)cos J t (m)cosω [J
m c 2 m c 2
m  c 1 m c 1 c 0
+ + + ÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
(
¸
(
¸
+ + +
Where:
Vc = peak amplitude of unmodulated carrier (volts)
Jn = relative amplitude of frequencies relative to amplitude of unmodulated carrier (Vc)
(can be found on Bessel function table, its value eventually decreases as n increases)
m = modulation index; used as argument for the Bessel function
ω
c
=2πf
c
=angular velocity of unmodulated carrier (rad / sec)
ω
m
= 2πf
m
=angular velocity of modulating signal (rad / sec)
Frequency Analysis of Angle Modulated Wave
• The modulation index (m) determines the number of side frequencies.
• If modulation index = 0, there are no side frequencies.
• The higher the modulation index (m), the more are the side frequencies
that have significant amplitudes.
• A side frequency is not considered significant unless it has an amplitude
equal to or greater than 1 % of unmodulated carrier amplitude (J
n
>= 0.01)
• The bandwidth of an angle modulated wave is a function of the modulation
index.
– The higher the modulation index, the higher is the bandwidth.
• The theoretical bandwidth required to pass all frequencies in an angle
modulated wave is infinite. However, this is impractical and the bandwidth
used in practice are approximates of the theoretical (infinite) bandwidth.
• The value of J eventually decreases, but not in a simple manner. It
fluctuates as the value of n increases.
• When m (modulation index) = 2.4 or 5.4 (or some other values in Bessel
table), J
0
= 0, and there is no component of the modulated wave whose
frequency = f
c.
– This is called carrier null.
– The values of m where the carrier component disappears is called
eigenvalues.
Frequency Analysis of Angle Modulated Wave
Example:
Given: An FM modulator with a modulation index m= 1 has a modulating signal
of v
m
(t)=V
m
cos(2π1000t), and an unmodulated carrier of v
c
(t)=10
sin(2π500000t).
Determine: a. Number of sets and amplitude of significant side frequencies
b. Draw the frequency spectrum showing their relative amplitudes
Solution:
From Bessel table, m = 1 yields a reduced carrier component and three sets of
side frequencies with the following amplitudes:
J
0
= .77(10) = 7.7 volts
J
1
= .44(10) = 4.4 volts
J
2
= .11(10) = 1.1 volts
J
3
= .02(10) = 0.2 volt
Note: PM modulator with m = 1 radian will yield the same results.
500K 501K 502K 503K 499K 498K 497K
7.7 v
4.4 v 4.4 v
1.1 v 1.1 v
0.2 v
0.2 v
Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves
Angle modulated waves can be classified into:
• LowIndex (narrowband)
– Peak phase deviation (modulation index) is less than 1 radian.
• MediumIndex
– Peak phase deviation (modulation index is 1 radian to 10 radians.
• HighIndex
– Peak phase deviation (modulation index) is greater than 10 radians.
The bandwidth of angle modulated waves can be approximated using the following:
• For lowindex angle modulation, most of the signal information is on the first set
of sidebands, and the bandwidth required is approximated by:
• For highindex signal, quasistationary approach may be used. Modulating
signal is assumed to be very low, thus bandwidth is approximated by:
B = 2f
mmax
= (2)(highest modulating frequency)
B = (2Δf) = peak to peak frequency deviation
Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves
• The actual bandwidth required to pass all the significant sidebands for an angle
modulated wave can be computed by:
• Using Carson’s rule, the bandwidth required can be approximated by:
Where:
Δf = peak frequency deviation
f
m(max)
= highest modulating frequency
This formula gives a narrower bandwidth compared to those obtained using the
Bessel table.
Note: For FM broadcast, standard frequency range occupied is 200 Khz, 180 khz for
the signal and 20 khz for the guard band.
B = 2(nf
m(max)
) = (2)(number of significant set of sidebands)(modulating frequency)
B = 2(Δf + f
m(max)
) (hertz)
Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves
Example: What is the bandwidth required for an FM signal in which the modulating
frequency is 2 khz and the maximum deviation is 10 khz ? Use all the formulas
for FM bandwidth.
Solution: m
F
= Af / fm = 10,000 / 2,000 = 5 = modulation index
From the Bessel table, the number of significant sets of sidebands (J) = 8
B = 2 (number significant set of sidebands) (fm) = (2)(8)(2,000) = 32,000 hz
Using Carson’s rule: B = 2(Δf + f
m(max
)) = 2(10,000 + 2,000) = 24,000 hz
Using quasistationary approach: B = (2Δf) = 2(10,000) = 20,000 hz
The higher is the allotted bandwidth, the better is the quality of the FM system.
Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves
• Bandwidth used for FM is dependent on its application.
• Wideband FMhas been defined as that in which the modulation index
normally exceeds unity (1), which produces more significant side
frequencies.
• Wideband FMis usually used for entertainment such as FM radio broadcast.
• The modulation index for narrowband FM is near unity, since the maximum
modulating frequency is usually 3 khz, and the maximum frequency deviation
is 5 khz.
• Narrowband FMis usually used for communications by police, military, and
other similar services.
Deviation ratio (DR)
• Deviation ratio – is the worst case modulation index (m), and is equal
to the maximum peak frequency deviation divided by the maximum
modulating signal frequency.
– The worstcase modulation index produces the widest output
frequency spectrum.
DR = Deviation ratio = Δ f
(max)
/ f
m(max)
(unitless)
where:
Δ f
(max)
=maximum peak frequency deviation (hertz)
f
m(max)
= maximum modulating signal frequency (hertz)
Example: If Δ f
(max)
= 50 khz, and f
m(max)
= 15 khz, then
DR = 50,000 / 15,000 = 3.33
Commercial FM broadcast
• A 20 Mhz band of frequencies has been assigned by FCC for FM radio
broadcast.
• The frequency range is from 88 Mhz to 108 Mhz.
• The frequency range is divided into 100 channels, each is 200 Khz wide.
• The first channel has a center frequency is 88.1 Mhz, and its range is from
88 Mhz to 88.2 Mhz.
• The maximum frequency deviation allowed is + or – 75 Khz with a
maximum modulating signal frequency of 15 Khz.
• The deviation ratio for commercial FM is 5 (75 Khz / 15 Khz) which
produces 8 significant side frequencies based on the Bessel table.
Average Power of Angle Modulated wave
• The total power in an angle modulated wave is equal to the power of
unmodulated carrier.
• The power in an unmodulated carrier is redistributed among the carrier and
the sidebands in the modulated wave.
• The average power in an angle modulated wave is independent of the
modulating signal, the modulation index, and the frequency deviation.
• The average power in an angle modulated wave is equal to the average power
of the unmodulated carrier, and it is expressed as:
Where:
P
c
= unmodulated carrier power (watts) = average power in modulated wave
V
c
= peak voltage of unmodulated carrier (volts)
R = load resistance (ohms)
• The instantaneous power in an angle modulated wave is:
P
c
= V
c
2
/ (2R) = (.707V
c
)
2
/ R
P
t
= [V
c
2
cos
2
(ω
c
t + θ(t))] / R
=
V
c
2
R
cos
2
(ω
c
t + θ(t))
Average Power of Angle Modulated wave
• The power of the modulated wave is the sum of the power of the modulated
carrier and the sidebands and can be expressed as:
Where:
P
c
= power of modulated wave = power of unmodulated carrier (watts)
V
c
= peak voltage of unmodulated carrier (volts)
R = load resistance (ohms)
Jn = relative amplitude of frequencies relative to amplitude of unmodulated
carrier (Vc) from Bessel table
Example: An FM modulator with a modulation index m= 1 has a modulating
signal of v
m
(t)=V
m
cos(2π1000t), and an unmodulated carrier of
v
c
(t)=10 sin(2π500000t). Determine the unmodulated carrier power and total
power in modulated wave assuming a load resistance of 50 ohms.
P
c
= V
c
2
/ (2R) = (10)
2
/ (2)(50) = 1 watt = power of unmodulated carrier
P
c
= [(10)(.77)]
2
/ (2)(50) + 2[(10)(.44)]
2
/ (2)(50) + 2[(10)(.11)]
2
/ (2)(50) +
2[(10)(.02)]
2
/ (2)(50) = 1.0051 w = total power in modulated wave
P
c
= (J
0
V
c
)
2
/ (2R) + 2 (J
1
V
c
)
2
/ (2R) + 2 (J
2
V
c
)
2
/ (2R)+…
Noise in Phase Modulation
PM
Demodulator
Carrier
with noise
Carrier = v
c
(t) = Vc sin ( e
c
t)
Noise = v
n
(t) = Vn sin (e
n
t)
Noise at demodulator output:
v
nd
(t) = V
nd
sin (e
nd
t)
Where : Vc = peak voltage of carrier at input of demodulator (volts)
Vn = peak voltage of noise at input of demodulator (volts)
= maximum deviation in amplitude of signal affected by noise at
input of demodulator
Vnd = peak amplitude of noise at output of demodulator
e
c
= 2t fc = angular velocity of carrier at demodulator input
e
n
= 2t fn = angular velocity of noise at demodulator input
e
nd
= 2t fnd = e
n
 e
c
= relative angular velocity of noise at input of
demodulator relative to the carrier
= angular velocity of noise at demodulator output
fnd = fn – fc = frequency of noise at output of demodulator
fn = frequency of noise at input of demodulator
fc = frequency of carrier at input of demodulator
Noise in Phase Modulation
• If there is noise in a phase modulated wave, the noise will add vectorially with the
phase modulated signal.
• As the noise alters the amplitude of the phase modulated wave, it also causes phase
changes on the PM wave, and the phase changes at the input of the demodulator
will generate noise voltage at the output of the PM demodulator.
• The vector relationship of noise and the carrier signal voltage in phase modulation
is shown below:
Where : Vc = peak voltage of unmodulated carrier (volts)
Vn = peak voltage of noise at input of demodulator (volts)
= maximum deviation in amplitude of signal affected by noise
θ = instantaneous phase deviation due to noise
Vc
Vn
Locus of resultant
θ
Amplitude change
Phase change
e
c
e
n
e
nd
Noise in Phase Modulation
• Since the noise vector rotates about the carrier voltage with a relative angular
velocity of e
nd
=e
n
 e
c
, the noise angular velocity at the output of the
demodulator can be computed as:
e
nd
= e
n
 e
c
= 2t f
nd
= relative angular velocity of noise at input of demodulator
relative to the carrier
= angular velocity of noise at output of demodulator
f
nd
= fn – fc = frequency of noise at output of demodulator (Hz)
fn = frequency of noise or interfering signal at input of demodulator (Hz)
fc = frequency of carrier at input of demodulator (Hz)
• The maximum phase change (peak phase deviation) at the input of the
demodulator due to noise occurs when the noise is perpendicular to the resultant
voltage and it can be computed as:
Peak phase deviation = Au peak =Sin
1
(Vn / Vc) (radians)
Vc
Vn
Locus of resultant
Au peak
Amplitude change
Maximum Phase change
Noise in Phase Modulation
• Assuming that Vc >> Vn, the peak phase deviation (Δθ (peak) ) due to the
noise at the input of the demodulator can be approximated as:
• When the carrier component is much larger than the interfering noise
voltage, the instantaneous phase deviation due to the noise is approximately:
Vn) Vc (When (radians) Vc Vn /
(radians) Vc) (Vn / Sin peak change phase Maximum
1
>> ~
= A = u
θ (t) = (V
n
/ V
c
)[sin(ω
nd
t + θ
n
)] radians
Where : Vc = peak voltage of carrier at input of demodulator (volts)
Vn = peak voltage of noise at input of demodulator (volts)
e
c
= 2t fc = angular velocity of carrier at demodulator input
e
n
= 2t fn = angular velocity of noise at demodulator input
e
nd
= 2t fnd = e
n
– e
c
= angular velocity of noise at demodulator output
fnd = fn – fc = frequency of noise at output of demodulator
fn = frequency of noise at input of demodulator
fc = frequency of carrier at input of demodulator
Noise in Phase Modulation
• Note that in the book by Tomasi, when Vc > Vn, the peak phase deviation
due to an interfering singlefrequency sinusoid occurs when signal and noise
voltages are in quadrature.
– If such is the case, the peak phase deviation can be computed as:
– For small peak phase deviation (Vc>> Vn), the peak phase deviation can
be approximated by:
– For small peak phase deviation (Vc>>Vn), the difference of the
resultant voltage and the signal voltage is small, and
(radians) Vc) (Vn / Tan peak deviation phase Peak
1
= A = u
Vn) Vc (When (radians) Vc Vn /
(radians) Vc) (Vn / Tan peak deviation Phase Peak
1
>> ~
= A = u
(radians) Vc) (Vn / Tan Vc) (Vn / Sin
1 1
~
Noise in Phase Modulation
• For FM receivers, a process called amplitude limiting, which is limiting the
amplitude of the received signal, is usually done to reduce noise.
• For PM, the effect of amplitude limiting is shown by the diagram below:
• Due to limiting, the noise signal has been transposed into noise sideband pair
with amplitude V
n
/ 2.
• The peak phase deviation is still V
n
/ V
c
radians.
• The interference in the demodulated signal is not reduced.
• For a given range of noise frequencies with the same amplitudes, the output
of a PM demodulator is the same for all the noise frequencies.
Vc
Vn /2
Locus of resultant
θ
Vn /2
Noise in Frequency Modulation
• FM is much more immune to noise than AM.
• FM is significantly more immune to noise than PM.
• Unlike noise at the output of a phase modulation (PM) demodulator, noise
voltage at the output of an FM demodulator increases linearly with frequency
of noise at the output of the demodulator.
– This is called the FM noise triangle, which is shown below.
– The demodulated noise voltage is inherently higher for higher noise
frequencies at the output of demodulator.
• Noise frequencies that produce components at the high end of the modulating
signal frequency spectrum produces more frequency deviation for the same
phase deviation than frequencies that fall at the low end of the modulating
signal.
fc
fc + fm
fc  fm
FM noise triangle
Assuming that noise is
equally distributed
throughout the modulating
signal frequency range,
noise will create side
frequencies just like the
side frequencies created by
the modulating signals.
Noise
distribution at
output of
demodulator of
AM and PM
Noise in Frequency Modulation
• For frequency modulation (FM), the instantaneous frequency deviation,
Δf (t), is the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation Δθ (t).
• When the carrier component is much larger than the interfering noise voltage,
the instantaneous phase deviation due to the noise is approximately:
• The instantaneous frequency deviation at the input of the demodulator is
equal to the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation and it
can be computed as:
θ (t) = (V
n
/ V
c
)[sin(ω
nd
t + θ
n
)] radians
Δ ω(t) = (V
n
/ V
c
) ω
nd
[cos(ω
nd
t + θ
n
)] radians / sec
Where : Vc = peak voltage of carrier at input of demodulator (volts)
Vn = peak voltage of noise at input of demodulator (volts)
e
c
= 2t fc = angular velocity of carrier at demodulator input
e
n
= 2t fn = angular velocity of noise at demodulator input
e
nd
= 2t fnd = e
n
– e
c
= angular velocity of noise at demodulator output
fnd = fn – fc = frequency of noise at output of demodulator
fn = frequency of noise at input of demodulator
fc = frequency of carrier at input of demodulator
mn = FM modulation index due to noise (mn << 1)
Noise in Frequency Modulation
• The peak frequency deviation (Δ ω
peak
) due to noise is:
Δ ω
peak
= (V
n
/ V
c
) ω
nd
= peak frequency deviation (radians / sec)
Δ f
peak
= (V
n
/ V
c
) f
nd
= m
n
f
nd
= peak frequency deviation (Hz)
And the modulation index is
m
n
= Δ f
peak
/ fnd = modulation index
• From the preceding equations, it can be seen that the peak frequency deviation
due to noise is directly proportional to the frequency of the noise at the output
of the demodulator.
(Δ fpeak = (Vn / Vc) fnd fnd = fn  fc
• The output voltage of an FM demodulator is directly proportional to the
frequency deviation (Af) at its input.
• Therefore, for a given range of noise frequencies with equal amplitudes, noise
with higher frequencies at the output of the demodulator will produce higher
voltage at the output of the FM demodulator. (This is not the case for PM,
because all noise frequencies with the same amplitudes will produce the same
voltages at the output of a PM demodulator.)
• Higher modulating frequencies are also more affected by noise because their
signal to noise ratio will be lower.
e
c
e
n
e
nd
e
c
+ e
m
e
c
 e
m
Noise in Frequency Modulation
• The signal to noise ratio at the output of an FM demodulator due to unwanted
frequency deviation from an interfering sinusoid is:
Example: For an angle modulated carrier v
c
=6 cos (2π110 Mhz t) with 75 khz
frequency deviation due to the information signal and a single frequency interfering
signal v
n
= 0.3 cos (2π109.985 Mhz t), determine:
a. Frequency of the demodulated interference signal
b. Peak phase and frequency deviations due to the interfering signal
c. Voltage signal to noise ratio at the output of the demodulator
a. Frequency of demodulated noise interference = fnd = f
c
– f
n
= 110 Mhz – 109.985 Mhz = 15 khz
b. Δθ (peak) = Vn / Vc = 0.3 / 6 = 0.05 radian
Δ f
peak
= (V
n
/ V
c
) f
nd
= (0.3 / 6)(15 khz) = 750 hz
c. The voltage signal to noise ratio before demodulation is:
S / N = 6 / 0.3 = 20
The voltage signal to noise ratio after demodulation is:
S / N = 75 khz / 750 hz = 100
The signal to noise ratio improvement = 100 / 20 = 5 = 20 log 5 = 14 db
S / N = Δ f
(due to signal)
/ Δ f
(due to noise)
Comparison of Effects of Noise in AM, FM, and PM
For AM:
• Effects of noise with different frequencies on an AM wave are the same.
Only the amplitude of the noise affects the quality of the demodulated AM
wave.
• Changes in noise and modulating signal frequency do not affect the signal to
noise ratio.
• Under conditions of very low signal to noise ratio, AM is superior than PM
and FM.
For PM
• PM has all the noise immunity properties of FM except the noise triangle.
• Effects of noise with different frequencies on a PM wave are the same. Only
the amplitude of the noise affects the quality of the demodulated PM wave.
For FM:
• Under identical conditions, FM will be 4.75 db better than PM for noise.
• FM can be made more noise resistant through higher frequency deviation,
use of limiters , and preemphasis / deemphasis.
• Having a maximum frequency deviation of 75 khz and 75 µs preemphasis,
FM gives a noise rejection of at least 24 db better than AM.
Preemphasis and Deemphasis
• With FM, noise at higher modulating signal frequencies (including thermal noise)
is inherently greater in amplitude than noise at the lower frequencies at the output
of an FM demodulator.
– Higher frequency noise have greater effects in an FM system.
– Higher modulating frequencies have lower Signal to Noise ratio than lower
ones.
• To compensate for the nonuniform distribution of noise in FM, preemphasis,
which is emphasizing or boosting of amplitude of high frequency modulating
signals, is done at the FM transmitter. This is done to improve S/N ratio.
• To compensate for the preemphasis done at the transmitter, deemphasis, which is
attenuating or deemphasizing high frequency signals after demodulation, is done
at the FM receiver.
• A preemphasis network is a high pass filter while a deemphasis network is a low
pass filter.
• The figure below shows the effects of preemphasis and deemphasis:
3 db
÷3 db
0 db
+ 17 db
÷ 17 db
Preemphasis
Deemphasis
Net effect = 0 db
Preemphasis and Deemphasis Circuits
+ Vcc
Q1
Input
L = 750 mh
R= 10 k
C1
Output
Time constant =
L / R = 75 micro sec.
f
b
= 2.12 khz
(used in FM broadcast
band)
P = 75 K
= 1nf Time constant =
RC = 75 micro sec.
f
b
= 2.12 khz
(used in FM broadcast
band)
Preemphasis Deemphasis
The break frequency (frequency where preemphasis and deemphasis begins) is
determined by the L/R and RC time constant of the network. In the US, standard
preemphasis/deemphasis is 75 µs corresponding to 2.12 Khz.
The break frequency occurs at the frequency when X
c
or X
L
= R (3 db pt.) or:
πRC 2
1
fb =
πL/R 2
1
fb =
(hertz)
(hertz)
Input Output
Generation of Frequency Modulation
The prime requirements of an FM system are:
• Variable output frequency which is proportional to the instantaneous
amplitude of modulating signal
• Modulated signal must have constant peak amplitude.
• Frequency deviation must be independent of frequency of modulating
signal.
The methods used in generating FM are:
• Direct Method – The frequency of oscillation is directly varied, either
through:
– varying the capacitance or inductance of a tank circuit
– varying the voltage across a varactor diode in an oscillator, to change
the capacitance of the diode. (Varactor diode capacitance changes as
the voltage across it changes.)
– Varying the reactance of a semiconductor device such as FET which
is used as a load of a tank circuit.
• Indirect Method – FM is generated without varying the frequency of an
oscillator, such as varying the phase of a signal. This is sometimes called
Armstrong system. Advantage of this is more stable frequency.
• Integrated circuits designed for FM and possibly other types of
modulation.
Varactor Diode FM Modulator (Direct Method)
R3
Q1
RFC
Cc
Cc
Vcc
Cc
FM Output
Modulating
Signal
Input
R1
R2 R4
RFC
crystal
RFC
Cc
VD1
•The crystal is used to generate the carrier signal.
•The varactor diode is used to deviate the frequency of the crystal oscillator.
•R1 and R2 develop a DC voltage that reverse biases the varactor diode (VD1).
•The modulating signal voltage adds to or subtracts from the DC bias, which changes
the capacitance of VD1, and thus the frequency of oscillation.
•Positive alterations of the modulating signal increase the reverse bias on VD1 which
decreases the capacitance of VD1, and increases the frequency of oscillation.
•A varactor diode is a
semiconductor diode whose
junction capacitance varies
linearly with the reverse
biased voltage.
Because a crystal is used,
the peak frequency
deviation is limited to
relatively small values.
Thus, crystals cannot be
used for medium and high
index FM systems.
Voltage Controlled Oscillator for FM (Direct Method)
Using Varactor Diode
R1
Cbp
T1
Modulating
Signal
Input
Q1
Cc
L
Vcc
C
FM Output
• The varactor diode is used to
transform changes in the modulating
signal amplitude to changes in
oscillator frequency.
• Circuit is also direct FM modulator
LC π 2
1
fc =
(Hz)
Where:
fc = Oscillator center frequency
f = frequency when modulating signal
is applied
L = inductance of primary winding (hz)
C = varactor diode capacitance
when there is no modulating signal
(farad)
ΔC = change in varactor diode
capacitance due to modulating
signal
Δf = change in frequency
C) L(C π 2
1
f
A +
=
(Hz)
Δf = fcf
FM Reactance Modulator (Direct Method)
V
DD
Rc R1
Re
C
Cc
R3
Q1 JFET
Modulating
Signal
Input
Oscillator
Tank
Circuit
Ct
Lt
R4
R
• Ct and Lt forms a tank
circuit.
• The JFET acts like a
variable reactance load to
the LC tank circuit.
• The reactance of the FET is
dependent on its
transconductance (gm),
which is dependent on the
gate bias.
• The modulating signal
varies the gate bias, and
thus the reactance of the
JFET. This causes a change
in the resonant frequency of
the tank circuit.
• Circuit is also direct FM
modulator
Output
Indirect FM Modulator (Direct Phase Modulator)
R2
R4
C2
C3
Modulating
Signal
input
Crystal
Oscillator
Carrier
Input
C1
L1
R1
To amplifiers
and
multipliers
VD1
• Indirect frequency modulators change the phase of the carrier. (Instantaneous
phase of the modulated signal is directly proportional to the modulating signal.)
• L1 and R4, together with VD1 acts as a series resonant circuit to the output
frequency of the crystal oscillator.
• The modulating signal changes the capacitance of VD1, which shifts the phase of
the carrier signal from the crystal oscillator.
• The frequencies of indirect FM modulators are more stable than those of direct
FM modulators.
• Phase deviation is limited to small values because of nonlinear characteristics of
VD1.
Generation of Frequency Modulation
The following are considerations regarding FM generation:
For Direct FM modulators:
• Direct FM modulators based on LC oscillators have the disadvantage of
being not stable enough for communications or broadcast purposes.
• Direct FM modulators based on LC oscillators use automatic frequency
control (AFC) to stabilize its frequency.
• The advantage of direct FM modulators using LC oscillators is that
relatively high frequency deviations and modulation indices can be achieved
because the oscillators are inherently unstable.
For Indirect FM modulators (Direct PM modulators):
• Actual oscillator is isolated from modulator and can therefore be extremely
stable source such as a crystal.
• Indirect FM modulators (direct PM modulators) using crystals have better
frequency stability than direct FM modulators.
• FM modulators using crystals cannot have medium or high modulation index
as is. Frequency multipliers are usually used to achieve high modulation
indices.
• There are two ways to perform frequency up conversion: heterodyning and
frequency multiplication..
Generation of Frequency Modulation
With the heterodyne method:
• A relatively low frequency, angle modulated carrier along with its side
frequencies are applied to one input of a balanced modulator. The second input
is a relatively high frequency, unmodulated carrier.
• The two inputs mix nonlinearly and sums and differences of the two inputs
are created.
• A bandpass filter is used to eliminate the unwanted frequencies at the output.
• The bandpass filter is tuned to the sum frequencies.
• Since the side frequencies of the modulated wave are unaffected by the
heterodyning process, frequency deviation is also unaffected and remains as is.
• The following are unaffected by the heterodyne process:
– modulating signal frequency
– frequency deviation
– modulation index
– phase deviation
– bandwidth
Generation of Frequency Modulation
With frequency multiplication method:
• Modulation properties of a modulated signal are increased at the same time
that the carrier frequency is upconverted.
• The frequency of the modulated carrier is multiplied by a factor of N.
• In addition, the frequency deviation, modulation index, and phase deviation
are also multiplied by the same factor N.
• Bandwidth increases as the modulation index is increased.
• The modulating signal frequency remains as is.
• The separation between side frequencies remains as is (+ or – fm)
• Example: Given a balanced modulator with the following inputs:
a. Frequency modulated signal with the following properties
Af = 4 Khz fm = 8 Khz m = 1 fc = 500 Khz
b. Carrier frequency with fc = 100 Mhz
Generation of Frequency Modulation
Determine the following at the output of the balanced modulator:
a. Carrier frequency
b. Peak frequency deviation
c. Modulating signal frequency
d. Modulation index
fc(out) = 100 x 10
6
+500 x 10
3
= 100.5 x 10
6
Af (out) = 4 Khz fm (out) = 8 Khz m (out) = 1 (not changed)
Example: Repeat the preceding problem but use a frequency multiplier with a
multiplication factor of 15 instead of a balanced modulator.
fc(out) = (10) 500 x 10
3
= 500 x 10
4
Af (out) = (10) 4 Khz = 40 Khz (changed)
fm (out) = (10) 8 Khz = 80 Khz (changed)
m (out) = (10) 1 = 10 (changed)
fm(out) = 8 Khz (not changed)
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter
Frequency
modulator and
master oscillator
fc = 5.1 Mhz
Ko
N1
X3
N2
X2
N3
X3
LPF
BPF Mixer
Discriminator
Tuned to
2 Mhz Kd
Crystal
Reference
Oscillator
14.3 Mhz
Buffer and X2
Multiplier
N4
Power
Amplifier /
coupling
network
fin = 2 Mhz
DC correction
voltage
f = 28.6 Mhz
Automatic
frequency
control
(AFC) loop
Modulating
Signal
input
fc
f1
F2=30.6 Mhz
Ft=91.8 Mhz
VCO
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter
• Modulator could be variable reactance modulator, IC modulator or VCO
modulator, which have less stable frequencies compared to FM modulators
using crystals.
• For medium and high index FM systems, carrier (master) oscillator cannot
use crystals because crystal oscillating frequency could not be significantly
varied.
• Automatic frequency control (AFC) is used to stabilize the frequency of the
carrier (master) oscillator.
– AFC circuit compares frequency of carrier (master) oscillator with that of
a crystal oscillator, and then produces a correction voltage proportional to
the difference of the two frequencies.
• The frequency multipliers multiply the following:
– center frequency
– phase deviations
– frequency deviations
– modulation index
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter
• To achieve maximum frequency deviation at the antenna allowed in US FM
broadcast (75 Khz), the maximum frequency deviation at the modulator must
be (assuming the Crosby transmitter in the preceding slides is used):
Δf = (75 khz) / [(N1)(N2)(N3)] = (75 khz) / [(3)(2)(3)] = 4166.7 Hz
The modulation index at the modulator for a maximum modulating signal
frequency allowed (15 Khz) is:
m = Δf / fm = 4166.7 Hz / 15 khz = 0.2778
The modulation index at the antenna is:
m=(0.2778) (N1)(N2)(N3) = 0.2778 (3)(2)(3) = 5 (deviation ratio for
commercial FM broadcast with 15 Khz modulating signal)
Note that above figures could be different depending on the frequency
multipliers used in the transmitter.
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter
Example: Total frequency multiplication = 20, transmit carrier frequency
f
t
= 88.8 Mhz (transmit frequency at antenna). Determine:
a. Master (carrier) oscillator center frequency
b. Frequency deviation at the output of the modulator for a frequency
deviation of 75 khz at the antenna.
c. Deviation ratio at the output of the modulator for a maximum modulating
signal frequency of f
m
= 15 khz
d. Deviation ratio at the antenna
Solution:
a. f
c
= f
t
/ (N1N2N3) = 88.8 Mhz / 20 = 4.44 Mhz
b. Δf = Δf
t
/ (N1N2N3) = 75 khz / 20 = 3750 Hz
c. Deviation ratio (DR) at modulator = Δf
maximum
/ f
m(maximum)
= 3750 / 15,000
= 0.25
d. Deviation ratio (DR) at antenna = (0.25)(20) = 5
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter
• The Crosby transmitter uses an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC).
• Assuming a rockstable crystal reference oscillator and a perfectly tuned
discriminator, the frequency drift at the output of the second multiplier (N2)
without feedback (i.e. open loop) can be computed as:
closed. is loop AFC when the ko] k (N1)(N2) [1 of factor a
by reduced is multiplier second the of output at the drift frequency the Therefore,
per volt) (hertz function transfer oscillator master ko
hz) per (volts function er tor transf discrimina k
oscillator master of output at drift frequency d : where
multiplier second of output at the drift frequency loop closed
ko k (N1)(N2) 1
d
d
) ko(d k (N1)(N2)  d d
: as computed be can drift frequency loop closed The
multiplier second of output at the drift frequency ) (d (N1)(N2) d
d
d
fc
d
fo1
fc1
fc1 d fo1 fc1
fc fo1
+
=
=
=
=
+
=
=
= =
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter
• Example: Using the preceding diagram for a Crosby transmitter with the following
parameters: VCO stability = + 200 ppm ko= 10 khz/v kd = 2 v/khz
Determine the reduction in frequency drift at the antenna of the transmitter.
18,360 )(3)(2)(3) (5.1x10  91,818,360
is antenna at the frequency in the drift The
Hz 91,818,360 )(3) 30,606,120 ( )(N3) 30,606,120 ( ft
becomes drift with the frequency transmit antenna The
6,120Hz (3)(2) (5.1)(200) (N2) 00ppm)(N1) (5.1Mhz)(2 df2 : as computed be also can df2
6,120Hz )(3)(2) (5.1x10  30,606,120 )(N1)(N2) (5.1x10  30,606,120 dfo1 df2
is multiplier second the of output at the drift frequency The
30,606,120 01,020) (3)(2)(5,1 (fc) (N1)(N2) f2
is multiplier second the of output at the frequency The
Hz 5,101,020 Mhz) 5.1 x 200ppm ( Mhz 5.1 fc
is drift with the frequency output oscillator master the open, loop feedback With the
6
6 6
=
= = =
= = =
= = = =
= = =
= + =
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter
Hz 208 , 18 152  18,360
is drift frequency in reduction The
152Hz )(3)(2)(3) 5.1x10 ( N3) )(N1)(N2)( 5.1x10 (  91,800,152
is closed loop feedback with the antenna at the drift frequency The
Hz 91,800,152 )(3) 57 . 050 , 600 , 30 ( )(N3) 57 . 050 , 600 , 30 ( ft
becomes then frequency transmit antenna The
Hz 57 . 050 , 600 , 30 50.57 )(3)(2) 5.1x10 ( 50.57 )(N1)(N2) 5.1x10 ( f2
is multiplier second the of output at the frequency The
Hz 57 . 50
/v) Khz Khz)(10 / v (2 (3)(2) 1
6120
ko k (N1)(N2) 1
d
d
ko k (N1)(N2) 1 of factor a by reduced is multiplier second the
of output at the drift frequency the closed, loop feedback With the
6 6
6 6
d
fo1
fc1
d
=
= =
= = =
= + = + =
=
+
=
+
=
+
Phase Lock Loop Direct FM Transmitter
Crystal
reference
oscillator
fo
Phase
comparator
VCO
Divide by
N
Low
pass
filter
Summer
Modulating signal
FM output to amplifiers
DC correction voltage
Phase lock loop
• The modulating signal varies the output frequency of the VCO based on the
voltage of the modulating signal. Thus, FM is achieved.
• Transmitter can be used for wideband (high index) applications.
• DC correction voltage is used to achieve crystal frequency stability by adjusting
the VCO center frequency to its proper value.
Phase Lock Loop Direct FM Transmitter
• The VCO output is divided by N and then compared to the output of the crystal
oscillator.
• Phase comparator generates a correction voltage proportional to the difference of
the two frequencies.
• Correction voltage is added to the modulating signal voltage and applied to the
input of the VCO.
• The correction voltage adjusts the VCO center frequency to its proper value.
• Low pass filter prevents changes in the VCO output frequency due to modulating
signal from being converted to voltage fed back to the VCO, because it will wipe
out the modulation.
Armstrong Indirect FM Transmitter
Crystal
carrier
oscillator
200 khz
Buffer
amplifier
90
0
Phase
shifter
Combining
network
X 72
multiplier
Modulating signal input
Power
amplifier
Balanced
modulator
X 72
multiplier
Mixer
Buffer
amplifier
Crystal
oscillator
13.15 khz
Vc
V’c
Vusf + Vlsb = Vm
(DSBSC)
fm
f
1
fo
fo
f2
ft
ft
Phase modulated wave
Armstrong Indirect FM Transmitter
• Through the Armstrong transmitter, frequency modulation can be obtained
from phase modulation.
• Carrier source is a crystal, which has good frequency stability.
• Carrier oscillator frequency is not deviated directly.
• Relatively low frequency carrier (200 khz) is phase shifted by 90
0
and fed to
a balanced modulator.
• Output of balanced modulator is AM double sideband suppressed carrier,
which is combined with the original carrier to produce a low index phase
modulated wave.
• If an amplitude modulated wave is added to an unmodulated voltage of the
same frequency and the two are kept 90
0
apart, phase modulation will be
achieved.
• The effect of mixing (heterodyning) on an FM signal is to change the center
frequency only, whereas the effect of frequency multiplication is to multiply
the center frequency and frequency deviation by the same amount.
• To achieve sufficient deviation for broadcast purpose, both mixing and
multiplication are necessary.
• Original carrier is always 90
0
out of phase with the sidebands.
Angle Modulation Receivers
• Majority of terrestrial FM radio communications systems use conventional
noncoherent demodulation because most of the demodulators use envelope
detection.
• Angle modulation receivers are very similar to conventional amplitude
modulation (AM) receivers, except for the following basic differences:
– Generally much higher operating frequencies for FM
– Need for limiting and deemphasis in FM
– Totally different methods of demodulation
– Different methods of obtaining AGC
• FM receivers are also superhetrodyne receivers.
• RF amplifiers are almost always used in an FM receiver to reduce the noise
figure, and to match the impedance of the receiver to the antenna.
– However, RF amplifiers often are not required because of the noise
suppression characteristics of FM.
• Local oscillators and mixers take any usual forms such as Colpitts. Tracking is
not normally much of a problem in FM broadcast receivers because tuning
frequency range is only 1.25:1, much less than in AM broadcasting.
Angle Modulation Receivers
• IF amplifiers do not differ much from those of AM.
– FM receivers generally have much more IF gain than AM receivers.
– With FM receivers, it is desirable that the last IF amplifier be saturated so
it could act as a limiter or a passband limiter if the output is filtered.
Passband filters are used to preserve the information signals.
– FM receivers using the standard 88 to 108 Mhz broadcast frequency range
have an IF which is almost always 10.7 Mhz, with 200 khz bandwidth.
– For broadcast band receivers, two IF sections are typically used.
– First IF is at relatively high frequency (such as 10.7 Mhz) to have good
image frequency rejection.
– Second IF is at relatively low frequency (such as 455 khz) to achieve high
gain while not being susceptible to oscillations.
Angle Modulation Receivers
• An Amplitude limiter must precede the FM demodulator to reduce noise, except
when the FM demodulator itself has limiter capability.
– Amplitude Limiter is a circuit that produces constant amplitude output for all
signals above a prescribed minimum input level, which is sometimes called:
threshold, quieting, or capture level.
– Amplitude Limiter works on the principle of passing the stronger signal and
eliminating the weaker.
– Amplitude variations caused by noise on FM or PM waves can be removed
by limiting (clipping) the peaks of the envelope prior to detection
(demodulation).
• FM detector’s (demodulator) output voltage is directly proportional to the
frequency deviation, while PM detector’s output voltage is directly
proportional to the phase deviation.
– FM demodulator is a frequency to amplitude changer.
– FM signals can be demodulated by PM receivers, and vice versa but some
signals will be boosted more than it is supposed to be boosted.
– AM detector is usually replaced with a limiter, frequency discriminator
(demodulator) , and a deemphasis network in an FM receiver.
• Signal to noise ratio could be improved in FM or PM receivers.
Double Conversion Superheterodyne FM Receiver
Preselector
(Bandpass
Filter)
RF
amplifier
1
st
mixer
Buffer
1
st
local
oscillator
2
nd
mixer
Buffer
2
nd
local
oscillator
IF
amplifier
Limiter
Discriminator Deemphasis
network
Audio
amplifiers
To speaker
Automatic gain control (AGC)
1
st
IF
2
nd
IF
Audio detector stage
1
st
IF is at relatively high frequency (such as 10.7 Mhz) to
have good image frequency rejection.
2
nd
IF is at relatively low frequency (such as 455 khz) to
achieve high gain while not being susceptible to oscillations.
Double Conversion Superheterodyne FM Receiver
• Preselector, RF amplifier, mixer, local oscillators, IF amplifiers, and audio
amplifier are almost identical to those used in AM receivers.
• FM receivers generally have more IF amplification.
• RF amplifiers are sometimes not required, due to the noise suppression
characteristics of FM systems.
• Limiter, frequency discriminator, and deemphasis network replaces the
detector of AM receiver.
• Limiter limits the amplitude of the IF signal prior to demodulating the IF
signal to remove the noise in the envelope of the signal.
• Discriminator demodulates the IF signal and extracts the information signal
from the IF signal.
• Deemphasis network is a low pass filter which attenuates high frequency
signals to compensate for the emphasis done at the transmitter.
FM Demodulators
• FM demodulators produce an output voltage that is directly proportional to the
instantaneous frequency at its input.
Where:
Vout = output voltage of demodulator (volts)
Δf = difference between the input frequency and the center frequency (hz)
K = transfer function of demodulator ( volts per hz)
• Example: An FM demodulator has a transfer function of kd = 0.4 v/khz and an
input signal with peak frequency deviation of 75 Khz. Determine the peak output
voltage of the discriminator.
• The most common FM demodulators are:
– Slope detector (form of tunedcircuit frequency discriminator)
– Foster Seeley discriminator (form of tunedcircuit frequency discriminator)
– Ratio detector (form of tunedcircuit frequency discriminator)
– PLL demodulator
– Quadrature demodulator
Vout = Δf K
Vout peak = Δf K = (75 khz)(0.4 v/khz) = 30 volts
FM Demodulators
• Slope detector, Balanced slope detector, Foster Seeley discriminator, and Ratio
detector are forms of tunedcircuit frequency discriminator.
– Tuned circuit frequency discriminators convert FM to AMand then
demodulate the AM wave using conventional peak detectors.
• Most frequency discriminators require a 180 degrees phase inverter, an adder
circuit, and one or more frequency dependent components.
Single Ended Slope Detector
Ci
To audio amplifier
D1
Ri L
FM in
La
Ca
• Similar to AM detector except that IF transformer is offtuned. (fo is not equal to
IF center frequency (fc).
• Uses a tuned circuit (La and Ca) which produces an output voltage proportional to the
input frequency.
• Maximum output voltage occurs at the resonant frequency (fo) of tank circuit.
• Output voltage increases or decreases proportionately as frequency deviates towards
or away from the resonant frequency (fo).
• IF center frequency (fc) is made to fall in the center of the most linear portion of
the voltageversusfrequency curve. (not equal to fo)
• When IF deviates above the IF center frequency (fc) , the output voltage increases.
• When IF deviates below the IF center frequency (fc) , the output voltage decreases.
• Changes in output voltage results to an AM wave at anode of D1.
• D1, Ri, and Ci make up a simple peak detector which demodulates the AM wave.
• Detector has poor linearity, difficult to adjust, inefficient, and lacks limiting.
AM wave
frequency
fc
Δf Δf
fo
Volts
Balanced Slope Detector
• Also known as Travis detector, triple tuned discriminator, and amplitude
discriminator.
• Uses two slope detectors connected in parallel and fed 180
0
out of phase.
• La and Ca, Lb and Cb perform the FM to AM conversion.
• The balanced peak detectors demodulate the AM signal into information signal.
• La and Ca are tuned to a frequency (fa) that is above the IF center frequency (fc) by
approximately 1.33 Af.
• Lb and Cb are tuned to a frequency (fb) that is below the IF center frequency (fc).
• At the IF center frequency (fc), the output voltages from the two tuned circuits are
equal in amplitude but opposite in direction, and output voltage = 0 v.
• Detector has poor linearity, difficult to tune (through Ca and Cb), and lacks limiting.
C1
To audio
amplifier
D1
R1
L
FM in
La
Ca
C2
D2
R2
Lb
Cb
T1
+

+

AM wave
fb
fa
fc
Vout
+ Δf  Δf
0 volt
Foster Seeley Discriminator
 Also called phase discriminator, center tuned discriminator or phase shift discriminator.
 Operation is similar to balanced slope detector.
 C1, C2 and Cc act as short circuits at IF frequencies, VL3 = Vp.
 At resonant frequency (fo) of secondary (equal to IF center frequency fc), secondary current
and voltage are in phase, Voltage across D1 and C1 is equal in magnitude to voltage across
D2 and C2, C1 and C2 charge to equal magnitude with opposite polarities, and Vout= 0 v.
 When IF goes above resonance (XL > XC), secondary tank circuit impedance becomes
inductive, secondary current lags the voltage, V
D1
+V
C1
> V
D2
+ V
C2
, Vout goes positive.
 When the IF goes below resonance (XL < XC), secondary tank circuit impedance becomes
capacitive, secondary current leads the voltage, V
D1
+ V
C1
< V
D2
+V
C2
, Vout goes negative
 Has better response curve (S curve) and easier to tune than balance slope detector, but also
has no limiter.
C1
Vout
(To audio
Amplifier)
D1
R1
Lp
FM in
(Vp)
La
Co
C2
D2
R2
Lb
T1
+

+


+
+

+

Cp
Cc
L3
f1
f2
fo
Vout
+ Δf
 Δf
S curve
0 volt
+

VD1 + VC1
VD2 + VC2
VL3 = Vp
VD1 + VC1
VD2 + VC2
VL3 = Vp
VLa
VLb
VLa
VLb
Ratio Detector
 Operation is similar to that of Foster Seeley discriminator except D2 is reversed and Cs is
added. Cs charges to the peak voltage across secondary.
 Time constant of Rs and Cs is long enough that rapid changes in amplitude of input signal
due to noise are shorted to ground, and have no effect on average voltage across Cs.
 C1 and C2 charge and discharge proportional to the frequency changes in the input signal.
 At resonance, output voltage is divided equally between C1 and C2.
 When IF deviates from resonance, output voltage across C1 is different to that of C2.
 Average voltage of output (Vout) is always positive.
 Relatively immune to amplitude variations compared to slope detectors and FosterSeeley
discriminators.
 Has less linear response than discriminators.
C1
Vout
D1
Rs
Lp
FM in
La
Co
C2
D2
Lb
T1
+


+
Cc
L3
fin<fo
fin > fo
fo
Vout
+ Δf  Δf
Cs
0 volt
Average
Positive
Voltage
Phase Lock Loop FM Demodulator
• Requires no tuned circuit.
• Automatically compensates for changes in carrier frequency due to instability in
transmitter oscillator.
• VCO natural frequency is equal to IF center frequency.
• Output voltage (Vout) is proportional to the frequency deviation at the FM input,
and is thus the demodulated signal.
• IF signal amplitude is usually limited prior to feeding to PLL demodulator for
noise reduction.
Phase
Detector
Kd
Low pass
filter
Amplifier
Ka
VCO
Demodulated
Audio
Output
FM
input
fo
Vd
Vout
Vout = Af Kd Ka
Quadrature FM Demodulator
Product
detector
Cx
FM in
Demodulated signal
Ro
Lo
Co
Ci
Rx
vi
vo
• Also called coincidence Detector.
• Extracts the original information signal from the composite IF signal by
multiplying two quadrature (90
0
out of phase) signals.
• Tank circuit is tuned to the IF center frequency, and produces a phase shift
proportional to the frequency deviation.
• Ci produces the 90
0
phase shift at the IF center frequency.
• IF signal (vi) is multiplied by the quadrature signal (vo) in the product detector
which produces an output signal proportional to the frequency deviation.
Tank ciruit
Amplitude Limiters and FM Thresholding
• Amplitude Limiter is a circuit that produces constant amplitude output for all
signals above a prescribed minimum input level, which is sometimes called:
threshold, quieting, or capture level.
• Some FM demodulators have limiting capability while others don’t have it.
• An amplitude limiter can be an IF amplifier which is overdriven to cutoff and
saturation.
• One limiter stage, Two limiter stages (double limiting), three limiter stages
(triple limiting), and others, can be used.
• A class C IF amplifier can also be used as a limiter but it will require more
filtering at the output.
• Amplitude Limiter works on the principle of passing the stronger signal and
eliminating the weaker.
• Noise is more prevalent at the peaks of the FM waveform and relatively
insignificant during the zero crossings.
• With amplitude limiters, at the signal to noise ratio output of the demodulator
can be improved compared to the signal to noise ratio at the input of the
limiter.
• The improvement in the signal to noise ratio due to limiting is called FM
Thresholding, FM quieting, or FM Capture Effect.
Amplitude Limiters and FM Thresholding
• The three criteria needed before FM thresholding can occur are:
• Predetection signal to noise ratio must be 10 db or greater.
• IF signal must be sufficiently amplified to overdrive the limiter.
• Signal must have modulation index equal to or greater than unity.
• The output voltage from an FM detector is proportional to m
2
.
• Doubling m (modulation index) increases the signal to noise ratio by a
factor of 4 (6 db).
• Due to limiting, capture effect can be experienced when a mobile receiver
passes from one FM transmitter area to another.
• Capture effect is the inherent ability of FM to diminish the effects of
interfering signals.
• Weaker of two FM signals is eliminated until it is about half of the stronger
signal.
• Capture ratio of an FM receiver is the minimum db difference in signal
strength between two received signals necessary for capture effect to
suppress the weaker signal.
Amplitude Limiters and FM Thresholding
• Example: An FM receiver has a bandwidth of 200 Khz, power noise figure = 8
db, input noise temperature = 90 K. Determine the minimum receiver carrier
power necessary to achieve a postdetection signal to noise ratio of 37 db.
Stereophonic FM Systems
Left
Channel in
Right
Channel in
Sum (L+R)
Difference (LR)
19 khz
Subcarrier
generator
19 khz
Frequency
doubler
Balanced
Modulator
SCA
Generator
Audio in
Frequency
Modulator
Adder
50Hz15 khz
2353 khz (DSBSC)
19 khz
59.574.5 khz
38 khz
FM
Out
Matrix
SCASubsidiary Communications Authorization. It is an optional low quality information
signal, which may be used for background music in buildings
DSBSC – Double sideband suppressed carrier
Stereophonic FM Systems
• Stereophonic FMtransmission is a modulation system in which sufficient
information is sent to the receiver to enable it to reproduce original stereo
material.
• Stereophonic FM radio systems are compatible with nonstereophonic systems.
• In stereo FM, it is not possible to transmit a left and a right channel
independently because a monaural system will not receive acceptably all the
information.
• The sum (L+R) modulates the carrier in the same manner as in monaural FM.
• (LR) is shifted in frequency to 2353 khz through the balanced modulator, to
allow frequency division multiplexing with the (L+R) signal, which occupies
the 50 hz15 khz range.
• The 19 khz subcarrier, (L+R), and (LR) signals are used to modulate the
carrier signal at the FM modulator.
• The 19 khz subcarrier is doubled at the receiver, and the result is used as the
pilot carrier for the difference signal. It is transmitted at 19 khz to make the
extraction of the pilot carrier easier at the receiver.
• SCA can be used as a second medium quality information signal which is
optional. It uses a 67 khz subcarrier, modulated to a depth if + o  7.5 khz.
• After demodulation in a stereo receiver, (LR) will be added to (L+R) to
produce the left channel, while the difference between the two will produce the
right channel.
Angle Modulation
• • • • • • • • • Angle modulation results whenever the phase angle of a sinusoidal wave is varied with respect to time. The two forms of angle modulation are Frequency Modulation and Phase Modulation. Direct Frequency Modulation (FM) is varying the frequency of a constant amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal, at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. Direct Phase Modulation (PM) is varying the phase of a constant amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal, at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. When frequency of a signal is varied, its phase is also varied. When phase of a signal is varied, its frequency is also varied. The difference between frequency and phase modulation lies in which property of the carrier is directly varied by the modulating signal. If the modulating signal varies the frequency directly, frequency modulation results. If the modulating signal varies the phase directly, phase modulation results. FM is indirect PM, and PM is indirect FM.
Advantages of Angle Modulation Compared With Amplitude Modulation
• FM has the ability to suppress noise, which is probably the biggest advantage of FM compared to AM. – FM receivers can be fitted with amplitude limiters to remove amplitude variations caused by noise, making FM more immune to noise. This is called FM Thresholding. – In AM, once the signal has been contaminated by noise, noise could not be removed. – Signal to noise ratio can be improved further by increasing the frequency deviation of FM signals. – Reduced noise improves system fidelity. Angle modulated signals are more power efficient. – Amplitude of FM or PM wave remains constant. – Amplitude is independent of modulation depth. – Low level modulation may be used, but all subsequent amplifiers can be class C and therefore more power efficient. – All transmitted power in FM are useful, making it more power efficient. Standard frequency allocations provide guard band between FM broadcast stations, so there is less adjacent channel interference.
•
•
– Providing one signal is at least twice as high in amplitude as the other. the receiver will capture the stronger signal and eliminate the weaker signal. With FM and PM. space wave is used. at which there happens to be less noise than in the MF and HF ranges occupied by AM broadcasts. For FM broadcast. . a phenomenon known as capture effect allows a receiver to differentiate between two signals with the same frequency. This is not possible for AM. Several independent transmitters separated by space can use the same frequency with less possible interference.Advantages of Angle Modulation Compared With Amplitude Modulation • • • FM broadcasts operate in the upper VHF and UHF frequency ranges. so the radius of operation is limited to slightly more than line of sight.
. but it is a disadvantage for FM mobile communications over a wide area. up to 10 times as large as that needed for AM.Disadvantages of Angle Modulation Compared With Amplitude Modulation • • • Higher bandwidth is needed. but rather to the frequencies employed for its transmission (in broadcasting). This may be an advantage for cochannel allocations. the area of reception (service area) is much smaller than AM (in broadcasting). More complex circuits in transmitter and receiver. Since reception is limited to line of sight. This is not due to the intrinsic properties of FM.
Angle Modulation • The modulating signal can be expressed as: vm(t)=Vmsin(ωmt) where: ωm = 2πfm = modulating signal radian frequency (angular velocity in radians per second) Vm = modulating signal peak amplitude (volts) fm = modulating signal frequency (hertz) • The instantaneous phase deviation of an angle modulated wave (θ(t)) can be expressed as: θ(t) = F(vm(t)) (the instantaneous phase deviation of an angle modulated wave is a function of the modulating signal) .
Angle Modulation • An angle modulated wave can be expressed as: m(t)=Vccos(ωct + θ(t)) =Vccos(2πfct + θ(t)) where: m(t) = angle modulated wave Vc = peak carrier amplitude (volts) fc = carrier frequency (hertz) θ(t) = instantaneous phase deviation (radians) 2πfc = ωc = carrier radian frequency (angular velocity in radians per second) .
in radians) fc = carrier rest frequency = carrier frequency when there is no modulating signal .Frequency Modulated Wave Highest frequency of Modulated signal (fmax) Δθ Δθ Frequency of modulated signal when amplitude of modulating signal is 0 volt (carrier rest frequency) Lowest frequency of modulated signal (fmin) Tmin (max. in hertz) Δf pp = peak to peak frequency deviation = (1/Tmin) – (1/Tmax) Δθ = phase deviation (relative angular displacement of carrier with respect to a reference phase. frequency) Δfpp ΔT Δf Δf Tmin = minimum period of frequency modulated signal Tmax = maximum period of frequency modulated signal fc . frequency.) Tmax (min.f fc fc + f ΔT = peak to peak change in period of carrier Δf = frequency deviation (relative displacement of the carrier frequency.
The peak phase deviation ( p ) occurs when the voltage of the modulating signal is at its peak (Vm or peak amplitude). . the higher is the maximum or peak phase deviation ( p ). The higher is the peak amplitude of the modulating signal (Vm). When the carrier signal is modulated by a modulating signal. the higher is the phase deviation.Phase Modulation • • • • • • When the carrier signal is not modulated. its frequency is constant and is equal to the carrier rest frequency (fc). its frequency will also be changing. Indirect FM will result. The higher is the modulating signal voltage. While the phase of the carrier is changing. its instantaneous phase will change depending on the instantaneous value of the modulating signal voltage.
The higher is the peak amplitude of the modulating signal (Vm). The higher is the modulating signal voltage. its frequency is constant and is equal to the carrier rest frequency (fc). its instantaneous frequency will change depending on the instantaneous voltage of the modulating signal. While the frequency of the carrier is changing. When the carrier signal is modulated by a modulating signal. the higher is the maximum or peak frequency deviation (f ). The frequency of the modulated signal will decrease and /or increase from the rest frequency value. Indirect PM will result. depending on the polarity of the modulating signal. . The peak frequency deviation (f) occurs when the voltage of the modulating signal is at its peak (Vm or peak amplitude).Frequency Modulation • • • • • • • When the carrier signal is not modulated. its phase will also be changing. the higher is the frequency deviation.
Instantaneous phase (ωct + θ(t)) – is the precise phase of the carrier at a given instant of time.Angle Modulation • Instantaneous phase deviation (θ(t)) – the instantaneous change in the phase of the carrier at a given instant of time. It can be expressed as: Instantaneous phase = ωct + θ(t) (radians) = 2πfct + θ(t) (radians) where: ωct = carrier reference phase (radians) fc = carrier frequency (hertz) θ(t) = instantaneous phase deviation (radians) • . It is measured in radians. and indicates how much the phase of the carrier is changing with respect to its reference phase.
It is measured in radians per second. Instantaneous frequency deviation = θ’(t) (radians per second) • Instantaneous frequency (fit) or (ωit) – is the precise frequency of the carrier at a given instant of time and is defined as the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase.Angle Modulation • Instantaneous frequency deviation (θ’(t)) – is the instantaneous change in frequency of the carrier and is defined as the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation. ωit = fi = Instantaneous frequency = d dt (ωct + θ(t)) (rad / sec) = ωc + θ’(t) = 2πfc+ θ’(t) (rad / sec) (rad / sec) .
Example: To convert 2π rad/sec to hertz (2π rad/sec ) = 1 cycle /sec = 1 hertz (2π radian/cycle) • • Phase modulation can be defined as angle modulation in which the instantaneous phase deviation. is proportional to the modulating signal voltage. θ(t). divide them by 2π radian per cycle. θ’(t). is proportional to the modulating signal voltage.Angle Modulation • To convert instantaneous frequency deviation or instantaneous frequency in rad/sec to hertz or cycles per sec. . Frequency modulation can be defined as angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency deviation.
the phase and frequency modulation are: Phase modulation = instantaneous phase deviation Phase modulation = θ(t) = K vm(t) (rad) Frequency modulation = instantaneous frequency deviation Frequency modulation = θ’(t) = K1 vm(t) (rad/sec) Where: K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (constant in radians per volt) = phase deviation per volt of modulating signal (It is a measure of how much sensitive is a phase modulator in deviating the phase in proportion to the modulating signal voltage) K1 = deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator (constant in radians per voltsecond or hertz per volt) = frequency deviation per volt of modulating signal (It is a measure of how much sensitive is a frequency modulator in deviating the frequency in proportion to the modulating signal voltage) vm(t) = modulating signal .Angle Modulation For a modulating signal vm(t) ) = Vmsin(ωmt).
phase modulation can also be written as.Angle Modulation Since phase modulation is the first integral of frequency modulation. Phase modulation = θ(t) = K vm(t) = = = rad θ' (t) dt K v (t) dt K v (t) dt 1 m 1 m Where: K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (constant in radians per volt) K1 = deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator (constant in radians per voltsecond) vm(t) = modulating signal .
the following equations can be written: The phase modulated wave can be written as: v(t) = Vccos (ωct + θ(t)) = Vccos(ωct + K Vm cos (ωmt)) = Vccos(ωct + mP cos (ωmt)) The frequency modulated wave can be written as : v(t) Vc cos (ω ct θ' (t)) Vc cos (ω ct K 1v m (t)dt) Vc cos (ω ct K 1 V m cos( ω m t)dt) K 1V m Vc cos [ω ct sin( ω m t)] Vc cos [ω ct m F sin( ω m t)] ωm .Angle Modulation Substituting modulating signal vm(t)=Vmcos(ωmt) into the preceding equations.
Angle Modulation Where: Vm = peak amplitude of modulating signal (volts) ωm = angular velocity of modulating signal (rad / sec) Vc = peak amplitude of carrier signal ωc = angular velocity of unmodulated carrier signal (rad / sec) θ(t) = instantaneous phase deviation = Phase modulation (rad) θ’(t) = instantaneous frequency deviation = frequency modulation (rad / sec) K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (in radians per volt) mP = KVm = modulation index for PM = p = peak phase deviation K1 = deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator (in radians per voltsecond) mF = K1Vm / fm = modulation index for FM Note: For phase modulation. the instantaneous phase. For frequency modulation. ωct + θ(t). . ωc + θ’(t). is directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. is directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. the instantaneous frequency.
Summary of Equations for FM And PM Type of Modulation Modulating Signal Phase Phase Phase Frequency Frequency Frequency Frequency vm(t) Vmcos(ωmt) Vmcos(ωmt) vm(t) Vmsin(ωmt) Vmcos(ωmt) Vmcos(ωmt) Anglemodulated Wave. m(t) Vccos [ωct + K vm (t)] Vccos(ωct + K Vm cos (ωmt)) Vccos(ωct + mP cos (ωmt)) Vc cos [ω c t K 1 v m (t)dt ] K1Vm cos(ωmt)] ωm K1Vm Vc cos [ωct sin(ωmt)] ωm Vc cos [ωct mF sin(ωmt)] Vc cos [ωct .
Phase and Frequency Modulation Unmodulated Carrier (fc) 0 volt Modulating signal (fm) Frequency Modulated Wave 0 volt Minimum frequency Maximum frequency 0 volt Rest frequency Phase Modulated Wave 0 volt Maximum frequency Minimum frequency .
The frequency of the modulating signal does not affect the peak frequency deviation and it only affects the rate of change of the frequency deviation. FM and PM are indistinguishable for a single modulating frequency. unless the FM and PM waves are plotted against the modulating signal. Frequency deviation is directly proportional to the slope or first derivative of the modulating signal.Phase and Frequency Modulation • For frequency modulation. the maximum frequency deviation (f ) occurs during the maximum positive and negative peak amplitudes of the modulating signal. For both frequency and phase modulation. Under identical conditions. For phase modulation. the maximum frequency deviation occurs during the zero crossings of the modulating signal. the rate at which the frequency changes is equal to the modulating signal frequency. Frequency deviation is directly proportional to the amplitude of modulating signal. • • • • .
Modulation Index for Phase Modulation • Modulation Index (for phase modulation) – is the peak phase deviation for a phase modulated wave (radians) – Modulation index is directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. independent of its frequency. and it is expressed as: mP = KVm = modulation index for PM = p = peak phase deviation (radians) Where: Vm = peak amplitude of modulating signal (volts) K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (radians per volt) • The relationship of the modulation index for phase modulation to the modulated signal can be expressed as: Where: m(t) = phase modulated wave Vc = peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier and of the modulated signal mP = modulation index for phase modulation = peak phase deviation (radians) mP cos (ωmt) = instantaneous phase deviation = θ(t) (radians) ωc = angular velocity of unmodulated carrier signal (rad / sec) m(t) = Vccos[ωct + mP cos (ωmt)] = Vc cos[ωct + p cos (ωmt)] .
K1Vm mF = = modulation index for frequency modulation (unitless) ωm f = modulation index for frequency modulation (unitless) fm Where: mF = modulation index for frequency modulation Vm = peak amplitude of modulating signal (volts) K1 = deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator (rad.) K1Vm = peak frequency deviation (radians per second) ωm = 2πfm = angular velocity of modulating signal (rad / sec) f = peak frequency deviation (Hertz) fm = ωm / 2 = modulating signal frequency (Hertz) . and inversely proportional to its frequency. per voltsec. – Modulation index is directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.Modulation Index for Frequency Modulation • Modulation Index (for frequency modulation) – is used to describe the depth of modulation achieved for a given amplitude and frequency of modulating signal.
In many cases. ωm = 2πfm (radians per second) can also be expressed in hertz by dividing it with 2π radians per cycle. simply divide radians per second with 2π radians per cycle. simply divide it with 2π radians per cycle. . The modulation index for frequency modulation can then be expressed as: • • f mF = fm • • • • = (K1Vm) / 2π = modulation index for FM (Unitless) (ωm) /2π Δf = peak frequency deviation The peak to peak frequency deviation (2Δf ) is sometimes called carrier swing (2Δf ) . The maximum peak frequency deviation allowed for FM radio transmission is 75 khz and the maximum peak to peak frequency deviation allowed is 150 Khz. deviation sensitivity for FM (K1) is given in hertz per volt. To convert deviation sensitivity in radians per voltsecond to hertz per volt.Modulation Index for Frequency Modulation • Frequency deviation (K1Vm in radians per second) is typically given in peak frequency shift (Δf in hertz). • To convert radians per second to hertz (cycles per second).
Modulation Index for FM and PM Example: a.5 radian per volt and a modulating signal of vm(t)=2 cos(2π2000t). Determine the peak frequency deviation (Δf) and modulation index (m) for an FM modulator with a deviation sensitivity (K1) = 5 khz / volt and a modulating signal vm(t)=2 cos(2π2000t).5 rad / v)(2 v) = 5 radians .000 / 2000 = 5 Peak phase deviation = m = K Vm = (2. Peak frequency deviation (Δf) = K1 Vm = (5 khz / v)(2 v) = 10 Khz f Modulation index for FM = m = fm b. b. Solution: a. Determine the peak phase deviation (m) for a PM modulator with a deviation sensitivity (K) = 2. = 10.
Modulation Index for FM and PM Example: In an FM system. If the AF voltage is now increased to 7.800 / 2.000 hz (Δf is not affected by modulating signal frequency) When AF voltage is 2. the deviation is 4.6 When AF voltage is 7.2) = 14.8 When AF voltage is 10 volts 200 hz .400 hz When Vm = 10 volts and AF is dropped to 200 hz. mF = Δf / fm = 4800 / 500 = 9.4 volts 500 hz.000)(10) = 20.4 = 2. mF = Δf / fm = 20. Δf = K1Vm = (2.000)(7.2 volts 500 hz. what is the deviation? Find the modulation index in each case. mF = Δf / fm = 14.) .8 khz.2 volts 500 hz.4 volts.000 /200 = 100 (FM Modulation index is affected by modulating signal frequency. Solution: K1 = Δf / Vm = 4. what is the new deviation? If the AF voltage is raised to 10 volts while the AF is dropped to 200 hz.400 / 500 = 28. Δf = K1Vm = (2.000 hz / volt = FM deviation sensitivity in v/sec When Vm = 7.2 volts. when the audio frequency (AF) is 500 hz and the AF voltage is 2.
the modulation index.Modulation Index for FM and PM Example: Find the carrier and modulating frequencies.2 watts = power which will be dissipated by the FM wave in a 10 watt resistor. and the maximum deviation of the FM wave represented by the voltage equation v = 12 sin (6x108t + 5 sin 1250t). . What power will this FM dissipate in a 10 ohm resistor? Solution: fc = 6x108 / (2Mhz = carrier frequency fm = 1250 / (2) = 199 hz = modulating signal frequency mF = 5 = modulation index Δf = (mF)(fm) = (5)(199) = 995 hz Ec = peak amplitude of carrier = 12 volts (modulated or not) P = Ec2 / (2R) = 122 / [(2)(10)] = 7.
modulation index for FM = modulation index for PM.513 rad/s mF = Δf / fm = 10.Modulation Index for FM and PM Example: A 25 Mhz carrier is modulated by a 400 hz sine wave. all else remaining constant. Solution: Calculating the frequencies in radians. If the modulating signal is now changed to 2 khz.000 / 400 = 25 = modulation index for FM Since the peak frequency deviation for PM and FM are the same. write a new equation for (c) FM and (d) PM.57 x 108 t + 25 sin(2513 t)] b) For PM: v=4 sin [1. If the carrier voltage is 4 volts and the maximum deviation is 10 khz.57 x 108 t + 25 sin(2513 t)] . (mF = mP = 5) The equations for FM and PM are: a) For FM: v=4 sin [1. we have: c = (2x 108 rad/s m = (2)(400) = 2. write the equation of this modulated wave for (a) FM and (b) PM.
000 = 5 = modulation index for FM For PM: mP = 25 = peak phase deviation = modulation index for PM The modulation index for FM is affected by the modulating signal frequency whereas the modulation index for PM is unaffected by the modulating signal frequency. The frequency of the modulating signal in radians will be: m = (2)(2000) = 12.57 x 108 t + 25 sin(12. the new modulation indices are: For FM: mF = Δf / fm = 10.000 / 2.566 t)] d) For PM: v=4 sin [1.Modulation Index for FM and PM If modulating frequency (fm) is changed to 2 khz. and deviation sensitivities for FM (K1) and PM (K) remain the same.566 rad/s The equations for FM and PM are: c) For FM: v=4 sin [1.566 t)] (unchanged) .57 x 108 t + 5 sin(12.
75 Khz.Percent Modulation for Angle Modulated Wave • Percent modulation for an angle modulated wave is expressed as: f (actual) X 100 (in percent) % modulation = f (allowed) where: Δf (actual) = Actual peak frequency deviation of angle modulated signal Δf (allowed) = Maximum peak frequency deviation allowed by law in the area where the angle modulated wave is present. For example: If Δf (actual) is 50 Khz.000 / 100. . then % modulation = (50.000) 100 = 50 % Actual peak to peak frequency deviation (actual carrier swing) = 100 khz Allowed peak to peak frequency deviation (allowed carrier swing) = 200 khz The maximum peak frequency deviation allowed in the US is + or . and Δf (allowed) is + or 100 khz.
is differentiated prior to being applied to a frequency modulator. v(t). the resulting wave is a PM wave. – Phase modulation is not used in practical analog transmission systems.Phase and Frequency Modulators • Phase modulators – is a circuit in which the carrier is varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is proportional to the modulating signal. Frequency modulator (also called frequency deviator)– is a circuit in which the carrier is varied in such a way that the instantaneous phase is proportional to the integral of the modulating signal. • . – Unmodulated carrier is a single frequency which is commonly called rest frequency. – Unmodulated carrier is a single frequency which is commonly called rest frequency. – If modulating signal.
• • • . high frequencies would considerably have more frequency deviations and would be boosted more than if a FM was received.Phase and Frequency Modulators • The following equivalences can be applied for phase and frequency modulators and demodulators: – PM modulator = differentiator followed by FM modulator – PM demodulator = FM demodulator followed by an integrator – FM modulator = integrator followed by a PM modulator – FM demodulator = PM demodulator followed by a differentiator A low pass filter (1/f filter or predistorter or frequency correction network) could be an integrator. bass (low) frequencies would considerably have more phase deviations and would be boosted more than if a PM was was received. (mf = f / fm) If a PM signal is received by an FM receiver. If an FM signal is received by a PM receiver.
the frequency components of the modulated wave are much more complexly related to the frequency components of the modulating signal. The modulated signal produced from a single modulating signal is composed of: – the original carrier frequency – an infinite number of pairs of side frequencies displaced on either side of the carrier by an integral multiple of the modulating signal frequency – A sideband set includes an upper and a lower side frequency (fc+fm’ fc+2fm. …. Generally. most of the side frequencies are negligible and can be ignored. • .) – The bandwidth for all the side frequencies is infinite. than those in amplitude modulation.Frequency Analysis of Angle Modulated Wave • • With angle modulation. fc+3fm..
.Frequency Analysis of Angle Modulated Wave • • The angle modulated wave can be expressed as: m(t) = Vccos[ωct + m cos (ωmt)] The above equation can be expanded using Bessel function identities shown below: cos(mcos n  Jn (m)cos(α nβ nπ ) 2 π • The angle modulated wave can then be expressed as: m(t) = Vc [J0(m)cosωct J1(m)cos(ωc ωm)t J1(m)cos(ωc . 2 2 Where: Vc = peak amplitude of unmodulated carrier (volts) Jn = relative amplitude of frequencies relative to amplitude of unmodulated carrier (Vc) (can be found on Bessel function table. .. its value eventually decreases as n increases) m = modulation index.2ωm)t .ωm)t . used as argument for the Bessel function ωc = 2πfc =angular velocity of unmodulated carrier (rad / sec) ωm = 2πfm = angular velocity of modulating signal (rad / sec) π J2(m)cos(ωc 2ωm)t J2(m)cos(ωc ..
If modulation index = 0. However. – The values of m where the carrier component disappears is called eigenvalues. The value of J eventually decreases.01) The bandwidth of an angle modulated wave is a function of the modulation index. J0 = 0. but not in a simple manner. and there is no component of the modulated wave whose frequency = fc. – The higher the modulation index.4 or 5. this is impractical and the bandwidth used in practice are approximates of the theoretical (infinite) bandwidth. A side frequency is not considered significant unless it has an amplitude equal to or greater than 1 % of unmodulated carrier amplitude (Jn >= 0. When m (modulation index) = 2. It fluctuates as the value of n increases. The higher the modulation index (m).4 (or some other values in Bessel table).Frequency Analysis of Angle Modulated Wave • • • • • The modulation index (m) determines the number of side frequencies. • • • . – This is called carrier null. there are no side frequencies. the higher is the bandwidth. The theoretical bandwidth required to pass all frequencies in an angle modulated wave is infinite. the more are the side frequencies that have significant amplitudes.
and an unmodulated carrier of vc(t)=10 sin(2π500000t). . m = 1 yields a reduced carrier component and three sets of side frequencies with the following amplitudes: v J0 = . Determine: a.1 volts v J3 = . Number of sets and amplitude of significant side frequencies b.Frequency Analysis of Angle Modulated Wave Example: Given: An FM modulator with a modulation index m= 1 has a modulating signal of vm(t)=Vm cos(2π1000t).2 volt Note: PM modulator with m = 1 radian will yield the same results.77(10) = 7. Draw the frequency spectrum showing their relative amplitudes Solution: From Bessel table.44(10) = 4.7 volts v v J1 = .02(10) = 0.11(10) = 1.4 volts v v v J2 = .
quasistationary approach may be used. most of the signal information is on the first set of sidebands. Modulating signal is assumed to be very low. • HighIndex – Peak phase deviation (modulation index) is greater than 10 radians. • MediumIndex – Peak phase deviation (modulation index is 1 radian to 10 radians. thus bandwidth is approximated by: B = (2Δf) = peak to peak frequency deviation . The bandwidth of angle modulated waves can be approximated using the following: • For lowindex angle modulation.Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves Angle modulated waves can be classified into: • LowIndex (narrowband) – Peak phase deviation (modulation index) is less than 1 radian. and the bandwidth required is approximated by: B = 2fmmax = (2)(highest modulating frequency) • For highindex signal.
the bandwidth required can be approximated by: B = 2(Δf + fm(max)) (hertz) Where: Δf = peak frequency deviation fm(max) = highest modulating frequency This formula gives a narrower bandwidth compared to those obtained using the Bessel table. 180 khz for the signal and 20 khz for the guard band. .Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves • The actual bandwidth required to pass all the significant sidebands for an angle modulated wave can be computed by: B = 2(nfm(max)) = (2)(number of significant set of sidebands)(modulating frequency) • Using Carson’s rule. Note: For FM broadcast. standard frequency range occupied is 200 Khz.
000) = 32.000 hz Using quasistationary approach: B = (2Δf) = 2(10.000 = 5 = modulation index From the Bessel table.000) = 20. the number of significant sets of sidebands (J) = 8 B = 2 (number significant set of sidebands) (fm) = (2)(8)(2. Solution: mF = f / fm = 10.000) = 24. the better is the quality of the FM system.000 + 2.000 / 2.000 hz Using Carson’s rule: B = 2(Δf + fm(max)) = 2(10.Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves Example: What is the bandwidth required for an FM signal in which the modulating frequency is 2 khz and the maximum deviation is 10 khz ? Use all the formulas for FM bandwidth.000 hz The higher is the allotted bandwidth. .
• • • . since the maximum modulating frequency is usually 3 khz. Narrowband FM is usually used for communications by police. military. The modulation index for narrowband FM is near unity.Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves • • Bandwidth used for FM is dependent on its application. which produces more significant side frequencies. and other similar services. Wideband FM has been defined as that in which the modulation index normally exceeds unity (1). Wideband FM is usually used for entertainment such as FM radio broadcast. and the maximum frequency deviation is 5 khz.
000 = 3. DR = Deviation ratio = Δ f(max) / fm(max) (unitless) where: Δ f(max) = maximum peak frequency deviation (hertz) fm(max) = maximum modulating signal frequency (hertz) Example: If Δ f(max) = 50 khz.33 .Deviation ratio (DR) • Deviation ratio – is the worst case modulation index (m). – The worstcase modulation index produces the widest output frequency spectrum. and fm(max) = 15 khz. then DR = 50. and is equal to the maximum peak frequency deviation divided by the maximum modulating signal frequency.000 / 15.
The maximum frequency deviation allowed is + or – 75 Khz with a maximum modulating signal frequency of 15 Khz. The first channel has a center frequency is 88.Commercial FM broadcast • • • • • • A 20 Mhz band of frequencies has been assigned by FCC for FM radio broadcast. each is 200 Khz wide. . and its range is from 88 Mhz to 88. The frequency range is from 88 Mhz to 108 Mhz. The deviation ratio for commercial FM is 5 (75 Khz / 15 Khz) which produces 8 significant side frequencies based on the Bessel table. The frequency range is divided into 100 channels.1 Mhz.2 Mhz.
The average power in an angle modulated wave is equal to the average power of the unmodulated carrier.Average Power of Angle Modulated wave • • • • The total power in an angle modulated wave is equal to the power of unmodulated carrier. The average power in an angle modulated wave is independent of the modulating signal. the modulation index.707Vc)2/ R Where: Pc = unmodulated carrier power (watts) = average power in modulated wave Vc = peak voltage of unmodulated carrier (volts) R = load resistance (ohms) • The instantaneous power in an angle modulated wave is: Pt = [Vc2 cos2 (ωct + θ(t))] / R Vc2 R cos2 (ωct + θ(t)) . The power in an unmodulated carrier is redistributed among the carrier and the sidebands in the modulated wave. and the frequency deviation. and it is expressed as: Pc = Vc2 / (2R) = (.
Average Power of Angle Modulated wave • The power of the modulated wave is the sum of the power of the modulated carrier and the sidebands and can be expressed as: Pc = (J0Vc)2 / (2R) + 2 (J1Vc)2 / (2R) + 2 (J2Vc)2 / (2R)+… Where: Pc = power of modulated wave = power of unmodulated carrier (watts) Vc = peak voltage of unmodulated carrier (volts) R = load resistance (ohms) Jn = relative amplitude of frequencies relative to amplitude of unmodulated carrier (Vc) from Bessel table Example: An FM modulator with a modulation index m= 1 has a modulating signal of vm(t)=Vm cos(2π1000t). and an unmodulated carrier of vc(t)=10 sin(2π500000t).11)]2 / (2)(50) + 2[(10)(.77)]2 / (2)(50) + 2[(10)(.02)]2 / (2)(50) = 1. Determine the unmodulated carrier power and total power in modulated wave assuming a load resistance of 50 ohms.0051 w = total power in modulated wave . Pc = Vc2 / (2R) = (10)2 / (2)(50) = 1 watt = power of unmodulated carrier Pc = [(10)(.44)]2 / (2)(50) + 2[(10)(.
c = relative angular velocity of noise at input of demodulator relative to the carrier = angular velocity of noise at demodulator output fnd = fn – fc = frequency of noise at output of demodulator fn = frequency of noise at input of demodulator fc = frequency of carrier at input of demodulator .Noise in Phase Modulation Carrier with noise Carrier = vc(t) = Vc sin ( ct) Noise = vn (t) = Vn sin (nt) PM Demodulator Noise at demodulator output: vnd (t) = Vnd sin (nd t) Where : Vc = peak voltage of carrier at input of demodulator (volts) Vn = peak voltage of noise at input of demodulator (volts) = maximum deviation in amplitude of signal affected by noise at input of demodulator Vnd = peak amplitude of noise at output of demodulator c = 2fc = angular velocity of carrier at demodulator input n = 2 fn = angular velocity of noise at demodulator input nd = 2 fnd = n .
As the noise alters the amplitude of the phase modulated wave. it also causes phase changes on the PM wave. and the phase changes at the input of the demodulator will generate noise voltage at the output of the PM demodulator.Noise in Phase Modulation • • • If there is noise in a phase modulated wave. the noise will add vectorially with the phase modulated signal. The vector relationship of noise and the carrier signal voltage in phase modulation is shown below: Amplitude change Locus of resultant Vn θ Vc Phase change nd c n Where : Vc = peak voltage of unmodulated carrier (volts) Vn = peak voltage of noise at input of demodulator (volts) = maximum deviation in amplitude of signal affected by noise θ = instantaneous phase deviation due to noise .
the noise angular velocity at the output of the demodulator can be computed as: nd = n .c = 2fnd = relative angular velocity of noise at input of demodulator relative to the carrier = angular velocity of noise at output of demodulator fnd = fn – fc = frequency of noise at output of demodulator (Hz) fn = frequency of noise or interfering signal at input of demodulator (Hz) fc = frequency of carrier at input of demodulator (Hz) The maximum phase change (peak phase deviation) at the input of the demodulator due to noise occurs when the noise is perpendicular to the resultant voltage and it can be computed as: Peak phase deviation = peak =Sin1 (Vn / Vc) (radians) Amplitude change Vn Locus of resultant • peak Vc Maximum Phase change .c .Noise in Phase Modulation • Since the noise vector rotates about the carrier voltage with a relative angular velocity of nd = n .
the instantaneous phase deviation due to the noise is approximately: θ (t) = (Vn / Vc)[sin(ωndt + θn)] radians Where : Vc = peak voltage of carrier at input of demodulator (volts) Vn = peak voltage of noise at input of demodulator (volts) c = 2fc = angular velocity of carrier at demodulator input n = 2 fn = angular velocity of noise at demodulator input nd = 2 fnd = n – c = angular velocity of noise at demodulator output fnd = fn – fc = frequency of noise at output of demodulator fn = frequency of noise at input of demodulator fc = frequency of carrier at input of demodulator . the peak phase deviation (Δθ (peak) ) due to the noise at the input of the demodulator can be approximated as: Maximum phase change peak Sin 1 (Vn / Vc) (radians) Vn / Vc (radians) (When Vc Vn) • When the carrier component is much larger than the interfering noise voltage.Noise in Phase Modulation • Assuming that Vc >> Vn.
the peak phase deviation can be computed as: Peak phase deviation peak Tan 1 (Vn / Vc) (radians) – For small peak phase deviation (Vc>> Vn). when Vc > Vn. the peak phase deviation can be approximated by: Peak Phase deviation peak Tan 1 (Vn / Vc) (radians) Vn / Vc (radians) (When Vc Vn) – For small peak phase deviation (Vc>>Vn). the difference of the resultant voltage and the signal voltage is small. the peak phase deviation due to an interfering singlefrequency sinusoid occurs when signal and noise voltages are in quadrature. and Sin 1 (Vn / Vc) Tan 1 (Vn / Vc) (radians) . – If such is the case.Noise in Phase Modulation • Note that in the book by Tomasi.
which is limiting the amplitude of the received signal. the effect of amplitude limiting is shown by the diagram below: Locus of resultant Vn /2 Vn /2 θ Vc • • • • Due to limiting. The interference in the demodulated signal is not reduced. the noise signal has been transposed into noise sideband pair with amplitude Vn / 2. a process called amplitude limiting. is usually done to reduce noise.Noise in Phase Modulation • • For FM receivers. . For a given range of noise frequencies with the same amplitudes. The peak phase deviation is still Vn / Vc radians. the output of a PM demodulator is the same for all the noise frequencies. For PM.
fm fc fc + fm Assuming that noise is equally distributed throughout the modulating signal frequency range. FM noise triangle Noise distribution at output of demodulator of AM and PM fc . which is shown below. – The demodulated noise voltage is inherently higher for higher noise frequencies at the output of demodulator.• • • FM is much more immune to noise than AM. Noise in Frequency Modulation • Noise frequencies that produce components at the high end of the modulating signal frequency spectrum produces more frequency deviation for the same phase deviation than frequencies that fall at the low end of the modulating signal. . noise will create side frequencies just like the side frequencies created by the modulating signals. noise voltage at the output of an FM demodulator increases linearly with frequency of noise at the output of the demodulator. – This is called the FM noise triangle. Unlike noise at the output of a phase modulation (PM) demodulator. FM is significantly more immune to noise than PM.
Noise in Frequency Modulation For frequency modulation (FM). is the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation Δθ (t). Δf (t). the instantaneous frequency deviation. • When the carrier component is much larger than the interfering noise voltage. the instantaneous phase deviation due to the noise is approximately: θ (t) = (Vn / Vc)[sin(ωnd t + θn)] • radians • The instantaneous frequency deviation at the input of the demodulator is equal to the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation and it can be computed as: Δ ω(t) = (Vn / Vc) ωnd [cos(ωnd t + θn)] radians / sec Where : Vc = peak voltage of carrier at input of demodulator (volts) Vn = peak voltage of noise at input of demodulator (volts) c = 2fc = angular velocity of carrier at demodulator input n = 2 fn = angular velocity of noise at demodulator input nd = 2 fnd = n – c = angular velocity of noise at demodulator output fnd = fn – fc = frequency of noise at output of demodulator fn = frequency of noise at input of demodulator fc = frequency of carrier at input of demodulator mn = FM modulation index due to noise (mn << 1) .
m c + m From the preceding equations.fc The output voltage of an FM demodulator is directly proportional to the frequency deviation (f) at its input. noise with higher frequencies at the output of the demodulator will produce higher voltage at the output of the FM demodulator. (Δ fpeak = (Vn / Vc) fnd fnd = fn .Noise in Frequency Modulation • The peak frequency deviation (Δ ωpeak ) due to noise is: Δ ωpeak = (Vn / Vc) ωnd = peak frequency deviation (radians / sec) Δ fpeak = (Vn / Vc) fnd = mnfnd = peak frequency deviation (Hz) And the modulation index is mn = Δ fpeak / fnd = modulation index c nd • • • • n c . (This is not the case for PM. for a given range of noise frequencies with equal amplitudes. it can be seen that the peak frequency deviation due to noise is directly proportional to the frequency of the noise at the output of the demodulator. Therefore. . because all noise frequencies with the same amplitudes will produce the same voltages at the output of a PM demodulator.) Higher modulating frequencies are also more affected by noise because their signal to noise ratio will be lower.
985 Mhz = 15 khz b. determine: a.3 / 6 = 0. Δθ (peak) = Vn / Vc = 0. Frequency of demodulated noise interference = fnd = fc – fn = 110 Mhz – 109. Peak phase and frequency deviations due to the interfering signal c.Noise in Frequency Modulation • The signal to noise ratio at the output of an FM demodulator due to unwanted frequency deviation from an interfering sinusoid is: S/N=Δf (due to signal) /Δf (due to noise) Example: For an angle modulated carrier vc=6 cos (2π110 Mhz t) with 75 khz frequency deviation due to the information signal and a single frequency interfering signal vn= 0.3 cos (2π109. The voltage signal to noise ratio before demodulation is: S / N = 6 / 0.3 = 20 The voltage signal to noise ratio after demodulation is: S / N = 75 khz / 750 hz = 100 The signal to noise ratio improvement = 100 / 20 = 5 = 20 log 5 = 14 db .3 / 6)(15 khz) = 750 hz c.05 radian Δ fpeak = (Vn / Vc) fnd = (0. Frequency of the demodulated interference signal b. Voltage signal to noise ratio at the output of the demodulator a.985 Mhz t).
75 db better than PM for noise.Comparison of Effects of Noise in AM. FM. use of limiters . • FM can be made more noise resistant through higher frequency deviation. Only the amplitude of the noise affects the quality of the demodulated AM wave. Only the amplitude of the noise affects the quality of the demodulated PM wave. and preemphasis / deemphasis. FM gives a noise rejection of at least 24 db better than AM. • Having a maximum frequency deviation of 75 khz and 75 s preemphasis. AM is superior than PM and FM. . and PM For AM: • Effects of noise with different frequencies on an AM wave are the same. FM will be 4. • Effects of noise with different frequencies on a PM wave are the same. For PM • PM has all the noise immunity properties of FM except the noise triangle. • Changes in noise and modulating signal frequency do not affect the signal to noise ratio. • Under conditions of very low signal to noise ratio. For FM: • Under identical conditions.
preemphasis. deemphasis. noise at higher modulating signal frequencies (including thermal noise) is inherently greater in amplitude than noise at the lower frequencies at the output of an FM demodulator. This is done to improve S/N ratio. which is attenuating or deemphasizing high frequency signals after demodulation.Preemphasis and Deemphasis • With FM. is done at the FM transmitter. is done at the FM receiver. To compensate for the preemphasis done at the transmitter. which is emphasizing or boosting of amplitude of high frequency modulating signals. To compensate for the nonuniform distribution of noise in FM. A preemphasis network is a high pass filter while a deemphasis network is a low pass filter. – Higher modulating frequencies have lower Signal to Noise ratio than lower ones. – Higher frequency noise have greater effects in an FM system. The figure below shows the effects of preemphasis and deemphasis: 17 db db db db Preemphasis Deemphasis 17 db Net effect = 0 db • • • • .
12 Khz.12 khz (used in FM broadcast band) L = 750 mh Input Output R= 10 k Output Time constant = RC = 75 micro sec. The break frequency occurs at the frequency when Xc or XL = R (3 db pt.Preemphasis and Deemphasis Circuits + Vcc Time constant = L / R = 75 micro sec.12 khz (used in FM broadcast band) C1 = 1nf Input Q1 Preemphasis Deemphasis The break frequency (frequency where preemphasis and deemphasis begins) is determined by the L/R and RC time constant of the network. fb = 2. fb = 2.) or: fb 1 2 πL/R (hertz) fb 1 2 πRC (hertz) . In the US. standard preemphasis/deemphasis is 75 s corresponding to 2.
The methods used in generating FM are: • Direct Method – The frequency of oscillation is directly varied. to change the capacitance of the diode. This is sometimes called Armstrong system. • Indirect Method – FM is generated without varying the frequency of an oscillator. Advantage of this is more stable frequency.Generation of Frequency Modulation The prime requirements of an FM system are: • Variable output frequency which is proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of modulating signal • Modulated signal must have constant peak amplitude. such as varying the phase of a signal. . • Integrated circuits designed for FM and possibly other types of modulation. • Frequency deviation must be independent of frequency of modulating signal. (Varactor diode capacitance changes as the voltage across it changes. either through: – varying the capacitance or inductance of a tank circuit – varying the voltage across a varactor diode in an oscillator.) – Varying the reactance of a semiconductor device such as FET which is used as a load of a tank circuit.
Because a crystal is used.Varactor Diode FM Modulator (Direct Method) Vcc Cc crystal RFC Cc Modulating Signal Input Cc •A varactor diode is a semiconductor diode whose junction capacitance varies linearly with the reverse biased voltage. •R1 and R2 develop a DC voltage that reverse biases the varactor diode (VD1). Thus. •The modulating signal voltage adds to or subtracts from the DC bias. •The varactor diode is used to deviate the frequency of the crystal oscillator. and increases the frequency of oscillation. the peak frequency deviation is limited to relatively small values. . which changes the capacitance of VD1. and thus the frequency of oscillation. R1 RFC Cc Q1 FM Output RFC R2 VD1 R3 R4 •The crystal is used to generate the carrier signal. crystals cannot be used for medium and high index FM systems. •Positive alterations of the modulating signal increase the reverse bias on VD1 which decreases the capacitance of VD1.
Circuit is also direct FM modulator .Voltage Controlled Oscillator for FM (Direct Method) Using Varactor Diode Cc Modulating Signal Input Vcc T1 Cbp FM Output fc f 1 2 π LC (Hz) C L 1 2 π L(C C) (Hz) Q1 Δf = fcf Where: fc = Oscillator center frequency f = frequency when modulating signal is applied L = inductance of primary winding (hz) C = varactor diode capacitance when there is no modulating signal (farad) ΔC = change in varactor diode capacitance due to modulating signal Δf = change in frequency R1 • • The varactor diode is used to transform changes in the modulating signal amplitude to changes in oscillator frequency.
The reactance of the FET is dependent on its transconductance (gm). This causes a change in the resonant frequency of the tank circuit. The modulating signal varies the gate bias.FM Reactance Modulator (Direct Method) VDD • • R4 • C R1 Rc Oscillator Tank Circuit Output Lt Ct R R3 Re Cc Q1 JFET • Modulating Signal Input • Ct and Lt forms a tank circuit. which is dependent on the gate bias. The JFET acts like a variable reactance load to the LC tank circuit. and thus the reactance of the JFET. Circuit is also direct FM modulator .
) L1 and R4. together with VD1 acts as a series resonant circuit to the output frequency of the crystal oscillator.Indirect FM Modulator (Direct Phase Modulator) VD1 C1 Crystal Oscillator Carrier Input C2 R2 L1 To amplifiers and multipliers R4 R1 C3 Modulating Signal input • • • • • Indirect frequency modulators change the phase of the carrier. The frequencies of indirect FM modulators are more stable than those of direct FM modulators. which shifts the phase of the carrier signal from the crystal oscillator. Phase deviation is limited to small values because of nonlinear characteristics of VD1. (Instantaneous phase of the modulated signal is directly proportional to the modulating signal. . The modulating signal changes the capacitance of VD1.
• FM modulators using crystals cannot have medium or high modulation index as is.Generation of Frequency Modulation The following are considerations regarding FM generation: For Direct FM modulators: • Direct FM modulators based on LC oscillators have the disadvantage of being not stable enough for communications or broadcast purposes.. . • Direct FM modulators based on LC oscillators use automatic frequency control (AFC) to stabilize its frequency. • The advantage of direct FM modulators using LC oscillators is that relatively high frequency deviations and modulation indices can be achieved because the oscillators are inherently unstable. For Indirect FM modulators (Direct PM modulators): • Actual oscillator is isolated from modulator and can therefore be extremely stable source such as a crystal. • Indirect FM modulators (direct PM modulators) using crystals have better frequency stability than direct FM modulators. • There are two ways to perform frequency up conversion: heterodyning and frequency multiplication. Frequency multipliers are usually used to achieve high modulation indices.
Generation of Frequency Modulation
With the heterodyne method: • A relatively low frequency, angle modulated carrier along with its side frequencies are applied to one input of a balanced modulator. The second input is a relatively high frequency, unmodulated carrier. • The two inputs mix nonlinearly and sums and differences of the two inputs are created. • A bandpass filter is used to eliminate the unwanted frequencies at the output. • The bandpass filter is tuned to the sum frequencies. • Since the side frequencies of the modulated wave are unaffected by the heterodyning process, frequency deviation is also unaffected and remains as is. • The following are unaffected by the heterodyne process: – modulating signal frequency – frequency deviation – modulation index – phase deviation – bandwidth
Generation of Frequency Modulation
With frequency multiplication method: • Modulation properties of a modulated signal are increased at the same time that the carrier frequency is upconverted. • The frequency of the modulated carrier is multiplied by a factor of N. • In addition, the frequency deviation, modulation index, and phase deviation are also multiplied by the same factor N. • Bandwidth increases as the modulation index is increased. • The modulating signal frequency remains as is. • The separation between side frequencies remains as is (+ or – fm) • Example: Given a balanced modulator with the following inputs: a. Frequency modulated signal with the following properties f = 4 Khz fm = 8 Khz m = 1 fc = 500 Khz b. Carrier frequency with fc = 100 Mhz
Generation of Frequency Modulation
Determine the following at the output of the balanced modulator: a. b. c. d. Carrier frequency Peak frequency deviation Modulating signal frequency Modulation index fc(out) = 100 x 10 6 +500 x 103 = 100.5 x 10 6 f (out) = 4 Khz fm (out) = 8 Khz m (out) = 1 (not changed)
Example: Repeat the preceding problem but use a frequency multiplier with a multiplication factor of 15 instead of a balanced modulator. fc(out) = (10) 500 x 103 = 500 x 104 f (out) = (10) 4 Khz = 40 Khz (changed) fm (out) = (10) 8 Khz = 80 Khz (changed) m (out) = (10) 1 = 10 (changed) fm(out) = 8 Khz (not changed)
8 Mhz fc f1 N1 X3 N2 X2 F2=30.3 Mhz Buffer and X2 Multiplier N4 .1 Mhz Ko Ft=91.6 Mhz N3 X3 Power Amplifier / coupling network Automatic frequency control (AFC) loop LPF fin = 2 Mhz Discriminator Tuned to 2 Mhz Kd DC correction voltage BPF Mixer f = 28.6 Mhz Crystal Reference Oscillator 14.Crosby Direct FM Transmitter VCO Modulating Signal input Frequency modulator and master oscillator fc = 5.
IC modulator or VCO modulator. – AFC circuit compares frequency of carrier (master) oscillator with that of a crystal oscillator. Automatic frequency control (AFC) is used to stabilize the frequency of the carrier (master) oscillator. For medium and high index FM systems. carrier (master) oscillator cannot use crystals because crystal oscillating frequency could not be significantly varied. The frequency multipliers multiply the following: – center frequency – phase deviations – frequency deviations – modulation index • .Crosby Direct FM Transmitter • • • Modulator could be variable reactance modulator. which have less stable frequencies compared to FM modulators using crystals. and then produces a correction voltage proportional to the difference of the two frequencies.
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter • To achieve maximum frequency deviation at the antenna allowed in US FM broadcast (75 Khz).7 Hz / 15 khz = 0.7 Hz The modulation index at the modulator for a maximum modulating signal frequency allowed (15 Khz) is: m = Δf / fm = 4166.2778) (N1)(N2)(N3) = 0.2778 The modulation index at the antenna is: m=(0.2778 (3)(2)(3) = 5 (deviation ratio for commercial FM broadcast with 15 Khz modulating signal) Note that above figures could be different depending on the frequency multipliers used in the transmitter. the maximum frequency deviation at the modulator must be (assuming the Crosby transmitter in the preceding slides is used): Δf = (75 khz) / [(N1)(N2)(N3)] = (75 khz) / [(3)(2)(3)] = 4166. .
transmit carrier frequency ft = 88. Determine: a. c. Deviation ratio (DR) at modulator = Δf maximum / fm(maximum) = 3750 / 15.25)(20) = 5 .8 Mhz / 20 = 4.25 d. fc = ft / (N1N2N3) = 88. Δf = Δf t / (N1N2N3) = 75 khz / 20 = 3750 Hz c. d. Master (carrier) oscillator center frequency Frequency deviation at the output of the modulator for a frequency deviation of 75 khz at the antenna.000 = 0.Crosby Direct FM Transmitter Example: Total frequency multiplication = 20. Deviation ratio at the output of the modulator for a maximum modulating signal frequency of fm = 15 khz Deviation ratio at the antenna Solution: a. Deviation ratio (DR) at antenna = (0. b.44 Mhz b.8 Mhz (transmit frequency at antenna).
(N1)(N2) kd ko(dfc1) dfo1 dfc1 closed loop frequency drift at the output of second multiplier 1 (N1)(N2) kd ko where : dfc frequency drift at output of master oscillator kd discriminator transfer function (volts per hz) ko master oscillator transfer function (hertz per volt) Therefore. Assuming a rockstable crystal reference oscillator and a perfectly tuned discriminator. . the frequency drift at the output of the second multiplier (N2) without feedback (i.Crosby Direct FM Transmitter • • The Crosby transmitter uses an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC). the frequency drift at the output of the second multiplier is reduced by a factor of [1 (N1)(N2) kd ko] when the AFC loop is closed. open loop) can be computed as: dfo1 (N1)(N2) (dfc) frequency drift at the output of second multiplier The closed loop frequency drift can be computed as : dfc1 dfo1 .e.
(5.(5.020) 30.606.1)(200)(3)(2) 6.101.120 .818.1 Mhz) 5.606.818.1Mhz)(200ppm)(N1)(N2) (5.101.120Hz df2 can also be computed as : df2 (5.120 The frequency drift at the output of the second multiplier is df2 dfo1 30.120)(3) 91.1x106 )(3)(2)(3) 18.606.606.1x106 )(3)(2) 6.1 Mhz (200ppm x 5. With the feedback loop open.120 .(5.Crosby Direct FM Transmitter • Example: Using the preceding diagram for a Crosby transmitter with the following parameters: VCO stability = + 200 ppm ko= 10 khz/v kd = 2 v/khz Determine the reduction in frequency drift at the antenna of the transmitter.360 Hz The drift in the frequency at the antenna is 91.020 Hz The frequency at the output of the second multiplier is f2 (N1)(N2) (fc) (3)(2)(5.360 .120)(N3) (30.1x106 )(N1)(N2) 30.360 .606. the master oscillator output frequency with the drift is fc 5.120Hz The antenna transmit frequency with the drift becomes ft (30.
Crosby Direct FM Transmitter With the feedback loop closed.1x106 )(3)(2) 50.800.(5.050.57 )(N3) (30.360 .57Hz 1 (N1)(N2) kd ko 1 (3)(2) (2 v / Khz)(10 Khz /v) The frequency at the output of the second multiplier is f2 (5.208 Hz .57 Hz The antenna transmit frequency then becomes ft (30.600.152 Hz The frequency drift at the antenna with the feedback loop closed is 91.800.1x106 )(N1)(N2)(N3) (5.152 18.152 .57 (5.600.600.57 )(3) 91.1x106 )(N1)(N2) 50.050.050.1x106 )(3)(2)(3) 152Hz The reduction in frequency drift is 18. the frequency drift at the output of the second multiplier is reduced by a factor of 1 (N1)(N2) kd ko dfc1 dfo1 6120 50.57 30.
FM is achieved. Transmitter can be used for wideband (high index) applications. Thus. DC correction voltage is used to achieve crystal frequency stability by adjusting the VCO center frequency to its proper value. .Phase Lock Loop Direct FM Transmitter Divide by N Crystal reference oscillator fo DC correction voltage Phase lock loop Phase comparator VCO FM output to amplifiers Low pass filter Summer Modulating signal • • • The modulating signal varies the output frequency of the VCO based on the voltage of the modulating signal.
The correction voltage adjusts the VCO center frequency to its proper value. Low pass filter prevents changes in the VCO output frequency due to modulating signal from being converted to voltage fed back to the VCO.Phase Lock Loop Direct FM Transmitter • • • • • The VCO output is divided by N and then compared to the output of the crystal oscillator. . Phase comparator generates a correction voltage proportional to the difference of the two frequencies. Correction voltage is added to the modulating signal voltage and applied to the input of the VCO. because it will wipe out the modulation.
15 khz f2 ft Combining network X 72 multiplier Vusf + Vlsb = Vm (DSBSC) 900 Phase shifter V’c Balanced modulator Modulating signal input fm .Armstrong Indirect FM Transmitter Crystal carrier oscillator 200 khz Power amplifier ft Phase modulated wave Vc Buffer amplifier X 72 multiplier f1 Mixer fo Buffer amplifier fo Crystal oscillator 13.
Armstrong Indirect FM Transmitter • • • • • • • • • Through the Armstrong transmitter. which is combined with the original carrier to produce a low index phase modulated wave. Carrier oscillator frequency is not deviated directly. To achieve sufficient deviation for broadcast purpose. The effect of mixing (heterodyning) on an FM signal is to change the center frequency only. Output of balanced modulator is AM double sideband suppressed carrier. phase modulation will be achieved. If an amplitude modulated wave is added to an unmodulated voltage of the same frequency and the two are kept 900 apart. whereas the effect of frequency multiplication is to multiply the center frequency and frequency deviation by the same amount. . Original carrier is always 900 out of phase with the sidebands. both mixing and multiplication are necessary. which has good frequency stability. frequency modulation can be obtained from phase modulation. Carrier source is a crystal. Relatively low frequency carrier (200 khz) is phase shifted by 900 and fed to a balanced modulator.
RF amplifiers often are not required because of the noise suppression characteristics of FM. – However. and to match the impedance of the receiver to the antenna. Tracking is not normally much of a problem in FM broadcast receivers because tuning frequency range is only 1. except for the following basic differences: – Generally much higher operating frequencies for FM – Need for limiting and deemphasis in FM – Totally different methods of demodulation – Different methods of obtaining AGC FM receivers are also superhetrodyne receivers. RF amplifiers are almost always used in an FM receiver to reduce the noise figure.Angle Modulation Receivers • • Majority of terrestrial FM radio communications systems use conventional noncoherent demodulation because most of the demodulators use envelope detection. Local oscillators and mixers take any usual forms such as Colpitts. • • • .25:1. Angle modulation receivers are very similar to conventional amplitude modulation (AM) receivers. much less than in AM broadcasting.
two IF sections are typically used. – FM receivers using the standard 88 to 108 Mhz broadcast frequency range have an IF which is almost always 10. . – FM receivers generally have much more IF gain than AM receivers. – Second IF is at relatively low frequency (such as 455 khz) to achieve high gain while not being susceptible to oscillations. – With FM receivers. Passband filters are used to preserve the information signals. – For broadcast band receivers. – First IF is at relatively high frequency (such as 10.7 Mhz) to have good image frequency rejection.Angle Modulation Receivers • IF amplifiers do not differ much from those of AM. with 200 khz bandwidth.7 Mhz. it is desirable that the last IF amplifier be saturated so it could act as a limiter or a passband limiter if the output is filtered.
– FM demodulator is a frequency to amplitude changer. – FM signals can be demodulated by PM receivers. and vice versa but some signals will be boosted more than it is supposed to be boosted. – Amplitude Limiter works on the principle of passing the stronger signal and eliminating the weaker. while PM detector’s output voltage is directly proportional to the phase deviation. and a deemphasis network in an FM receiver. FM detector’s (demodulator) output voltage is directly proportional to the frequency deviation. • • . which is sometimes called: threshold.Angle Modulation Receivers • An Amplitude limiter must precede the FM demodulator to reduce noise. or capture level. – Amplitude variations caused by noise on FM or PM waves can be removed by limiting (clipping) the peaks of the envelope prior to detection (demodulation). except when the FM demodulator itself has limiter capability. – AM detector is usually replaced with a limiter. – Amplitude Limiter is a circuit that produces constant amplitude output for all signals above a prescribed minimum input level. quieting. Signal to noise ratio could be improved in FM or PM receivers. frequency discriminator (demodulator) .
7 Mhz) to have good image frequency rejection. 2nd IF is at relatively low frequency (such as 455 khz) to achieve high gain while not being susceptible to oscillations.Double Conversion Superheterodyne FM Receiver Preselector (Bandpass Filter) 1st IF is at relatively high frequency (such as 10. Automatic gain control (AGC) Audio detector stage 1st IF 2nd IF 2nd mixer IF amplifier Limiter Discriminator Deemphasis network Audio amplifiers RF amplifier 1st mixer Buffer Buffer 1st local oscillator 2nd local oscillator To speaker .
and deemphasis network replaces the detector of AM receiver. Limiter limits the amplitude of the IF signal prior to demodulating the IF signal to remove the noise in the envelope of the signal. Deemphasis network is a low pass filter which attenuates high frequency signals to compensate for the emphasis done at the transmitter. frequency discriminator. RF amplifiers are sometimes not required. mixer. . and audio amplifier are almost identical to those used in AM receivers.Double Conversion Superheterodyne FM Receiver • • • • • • • Preselector. IF amplifiers. Limiter. FM receivers generally have more IF amplification. due to the noise suppression characteristics of FM systems. local oscillators. Discriminator demodulates the IF signal and extracts the information signal from the IF signal. RF amplifier.
FM Demodulators • FM demodulators produce an output voltage that is directly proportional to the instantaneous frequency at its input.4 v/khz and an input signal with peak frequency deviation of 75 Khz. Vout peak = Δf K = (75 khz)(0. Vout = Δf K Where: Vout = output voltage of demodulator (volts) Δf = difference between the input frequency and the center frequency (hz) K = transfer function of demodulator ( volts per hz) • Example: An FM demodulator has a transfer function of kd = 0.4 v/khz) = 30 volts • The most common FM demodulators are: – Slope detector (form of tunedcircuit frequency discriminator) – Foster Seeley discriminator (form of tunedcircuit frequency discriminator) – Ratio detector (form of tunedcircuit frequency discriminator) – PLL demodulator – Quadrature demodulator . Determine the peak output voltage of the discriminator.
FM Demodulators • Slope detector. • . – Tuned circuit frequency discriminators convert FM to AM and then demodulate the AM wave using conventional peak detectors. Most frequency discriminators require a 180 degrees phase inverter. and one or more frequency dependent components. and Ratio detector are forms of tunedcircuit frequency discriminator. an adder circuit. Balanced slope detector. Foster Seeley discriminator.
IF center frequency (fc) is made to fall in the center of the most linear portion of the voltageversusfrequency curve. (fo is not equal to IF center frequency (fc). the output voltage decreases. Detector has poor linearity. D1. (not equal to fo) When IF deviates above the IF center frequency (fc) . Ri. . Output voltage increases or decreases proportionately as frequency deviates towards or away from the resonant frequency (fo). Maximum output voltage occurs at the resonant frequency (fo) of tank circuit. and Ci make up a simple peak detector which demodulates the AM wave. the output voltage increases. Uses a tuned circuit (La and Ca) which produces an output voltage proportional to the input frequency. inefficient. and lacks limiting.Single Ended Slope Detector AM wave FM in L La D1 To audio amplifier Ri Volts Δf Δf Ca Ci fc fo frequency • • • • • • • • • • Similar to AM detector except that IF transformer is offtuned. When IF deviates below the IF center frequency (fc) . Changes in output voltage results to an AM wave at anode of D1. difficult to adjust.
At the IF center frequency (fc). Lb and Cb are tuned to a frequency (fb) that is below the IF center frequency (fc). Uses two slope detectors connected in parallel and fed 1800 out of phase.Δf + Δf • • • • • • • • Also known as Travis detector. La and Ca are tuned to a frequency (fa) that is above the IF center frequency (fc) by approximately 1. and output voltage = 0 v.C2 + R2 . and lacks limiting. difficult to tune (through Ca and Cb). triple tuned discriminator. Detector has poor linearity. . the output voltages from the two tuned circuits are equal in amplitude but opposite in direction.33 f. Lb and Cb perform the FM to AM conversion. and amplitude discriminator.Balanced Slope Detector AM wave D1 Vout R1 To audio amplifier T1 FM in L Ca La + C1  fb fa 0 volt fc Lb Cb D2 . The balanced peak detectors demodulate the AM signal into information signal. La and Ca.
Foster Seeley Discriminator
Cc Co
D1
Vout
R1 Vout (To audio Amplifier)
VD1 + VC1 VLa VL3 = Vp VLb
La
+ C1 
FM in (Vp) Cp
Lp
+ 
+ T1 +
f1 f2
VD2 + VC2 VD1 + VC1 VLa VL3 = Vp VLb
Lb
+
L3
 C2 +
D2 R2
0 volt fo
 Δf
 Also called phase discriminator, center tuned discriminator or phase shift discriminator.  Operation is similar to balanced slope detector.  C1, C2 and Cc act as short circuits at IF frequencies, VL3 = Vp.  At resonant frequency (fo) of secondary (equal to IF center frequency fc), secondary current and voltage are in phase, Voltage across D1 and C1 is equal in magnitude to voltage across D2 and C2, C1 and C2 charge to equal magnitude with opposite polarities, and Vout= 0 v.  When IF goes above resonance (XL > XC), secondary tank circuit impedance becomes inductive, secondary current lags the voltage, VD1 + VC1 > VD2 + VC2 , Vout goes positive.  When the IF goes below resonance (XL < XC), secondary tank circuit impedance becomes capacitive, secondary current leads the voltage, VD1 + VC1 < VD2 + VC2 , Vout goes negative  Has better response curve (S curve) and easier to tune than balance slope detector, but also has no limiter.
Δf VD2 + VC2 S curve +
Ratio Detector
Cc
Co
D1
Vout
FM in
Lp
La
+ C1 Cs
Vout Rs
fin<fo fin > fo
Lb
L3
T1
+ D2
fo
C2
 Δf
Average Positive Voltage
+ Δf
0 volt
 Operation is similar to that of Foster Seeley discriminator except D2 is reversed and Cs is added. Cs charges to the peak voltage across secondary.  Time constant of Rs and Cs is long enough that rapid changes in amplitude of input signal due to noise are shorted to ground, and have no effect on average voltage across Cs.  C1 and C2 charge and discharge proportional to the frequency changes in the input signal.  At resonance, output voltage is divided equally between C1 and C2.  When IF deviates from resonance, output voltage across C1 is different to that of C2.  Average voltage of output (Vout) is always positive.  Relatively immune to amplitude variations compared to slope detectors and FosterSeeley discriminators.  Has less linear response than discriminators.
Phase Lock Loop FM Demodulator
FM input Phase Detector Kd Vd Low pass filter Amplifier Ka Vout Demodulated Audio Output
fo VCO
• • • • •
Requires no tuned circuit. Automatically compensates for changes in carrier frequency due to instability in transmitter oscillator. VCO natural frequency is equal to IF center frequency. Output voltage (Vout) is proportional to the frequency deviation at the FM input, and is thus the demodulated signal. IF signal amplitude is usually limited prior to feeding to PLL demodulator for noise reduction.
Vout = f Kd Ka
Quadrature FM Demodulator FM in Ci vi vo Product detector Rx Demodulated signal Cx Ro Lo Co Tank ciruit • • • • • Also called coincidence Detector. Ci produces the 900 phase shift at the IF center frequency. IF signal (vi) is multiplied by the quadrature signal (vo) in the product detector which produces an output signal proportional to the frequency deviation. Extracts the original information signal from the composite IF signal by multiplying two quadrature (900 out of phase) signals. . Tank circuit is tuned to the IF center frequency. and produces a phase shift proportional to the frequency deviation.
FM quieting. Noise is more prevalent at the peaks of the FM waveform and relatively insignificant during the zero crossings. Two limiter stages (double limiting). With amplitude limiters. • One limiter stage. which is sometimes called: threshold. or FM Capture Effect. can be used. Some FM demodulators have limiting capability while others don’t have it. at the signal to noise ratio output of the demodulator can be improved compared to the signal to noise ratio at the input of the limiter. An amplitude limiter can be an IF amplifier which is overdriven to cutoff and saturation.Amplitude Limiters and FM Thresholding • • • Amplitude Limiter is a circuit that produces constant amplitude output for all signals above a prescribed minimum input level. Amplitude Limiter works on the principle of passing the stronger signal and eliminating the weaker. A class C IF amplifier can also be used as a limiter but it will require more filtering at the output. three limiter stages (triple limiting). quieting. or capture level. and others. The improvement in the signal to noise ratio due to limiting is called FM Thresholding. • • • • • .
• Signal must have modulation index equal to or greater than unity. • Capture ratio of an FM receiver is the minimum db difference in signal strength between two received signals necessary for capture effect to suppress the weaker signal. • IF signal must be sufficiently amplified to overdrive the limiter. • Doubling m (modulation index) increases the signal to noise ratio by a factor of 4 (6 db).Amplitude Limiters and FM Thresholding • The three criteria needed before FM thresholding can occur are: • Predetection signal to noise ratio must be 10 db or greater. Capture effect is the inherent ability of FM to diminish the effects of interfering signals. The output voltage from an FM detector is proportional to m2. Due to limiting. capture effect can be experienced when a mobile receiver passes from one FM transmitter area to another. • • • . • Weaker of two FM signals is eliminated until it is about half of the stronger signal.
input noise temperature = 90 K.Amplitude Limiters and FM Thresholding • Example: An FM receiver has a bandwidth of 200 Khz. Determine the minimum receiver carrier power necessary to achieve a postdetection signal to noise ratio of 37 db. power noise figure = 8 db. .
5 khz Frequency Modulator FM Out Right Channel in 19 khz Frequency Subcarrier 19 khz doubler generator 38 khz Balanced Modulator SCA Generator Audio in SCASubsidiary Communications Authorization. which may be used for background music in buildings DSBSC – Double sideband suppressed carrier .574. It is an optional low quality information signal.Stereophonic FM Systems Left Channel in Matrix Sum (L+R) Difference (LR) 50Hz15 khz 2353 khz (DSBSC) Adder 19 khz 59.
It is transmitted at 19 khz to make the extraction of the pilot carrier easier at the receiver.7. . In stereo FM. (LR) will be added to (L+R) to produce the left channel. Stereophonic FM radio systems are compatible with nonstereophonic systems. After demodulation in a stereo receiver. (L+R). and (LR) signals are used to modulate the carrier signal at the FM modulator. it is not possible to transmit a left and a right channel independently because a monaural system will not receive acceptably all the information.5 khz.Stereophonic FM Systems • • • • • • • • • Stereophonic FM transmission is a modulation system in which sufficient information is sent to the receiver to enable it to reproduce original stereo material. It uses a 67 khz subcarrier. which occupies the 50 hz15 khz range. The sum (L+R) modulates the carrier in the same manner as in monaural FM. (LR) is shifted in frequency to 2353 khz through the balanced modulator. to allow frequency division multiplexing with the (L+R) signal. and the result is used as the pilot carrier for the difference signal. modulated to a depth if + o . SCA can be used as a second medium quality information signal which is optional. The 19 khz subcarrier. The 19 khz subcarrier is doubled at the receiver. while the difference between the two will produce the right channel.