Residence Design Cold & Sunny Climate-ladakh

COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE THE VARIOUS TECHNIQUES BY WHICH WE CAN TRAP HEAT ENERGY FOR EFFICIENT HOUSE WARMING ARE AS FOLLOWS: •Trombe Wall •Greenhouse (Solarium) •Light colour pavement •Solar Window •Sunspaces •Air-lock lobby •Double Glazed Window •Solar Air Heater •Skylights •Under Floor heating •South to North Sloping Roof .

THE DESIGN CRITERIA ARE TO RESIST HEAT LOSS BY INSULATION AND CONTROLLING INFILTRATION. HEAT GAIN NEEDS TO BE PROMOTED BY ADMITTING AND TRAPPING SOLAR RADIATION WITHIN THE LIVING SPACE.COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE THE COLD AND SUNNY TUPE OF CLIMATE IS EXPERIENCED IN LEH (LADAKH) THE REGION IS MOUNTAINOUS. THE SKY IS FAIRLY CLEAR THROUGHOUT THE YEAR WITH A CLOUD COVER OF LESS THAN 50%. WINDS ARE OCCASIONALLY INTENSE. AND IS CONSIDERED TO BE A COLD DESERT. THE RELATIVE JUMIDITY ID CONMSISTENTLYU LOW RANGING FROM ABOUT 10-50 % AND PRECIPITATION GENERALLY LESS THJATM 2000 MM PER UEAR. HAS LITTLE VEGETATION. SIMULTANEOUSLY. AS THIS REGION EXPERIENCES COLD DESERT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. . .

DURING WINTER THE TEMPERATURE FALLS AS LOW AS -40 DEGREE C IN SOME OF THE LOFTY INHABITED PLACES. WINTER EXPERIENCES EXTREME COLD AN DURING SUMMERS TEMPERATURE EXCEEDS 35 DEGREE C. THERE ARE WIDE VARIATION IN DAY AND NIGHT TEMPERATURE.COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE TEMRATURE THE CLIMATE OF LADAKH IS CHARACTERIZED BY GREAT EXTREMES OF HEAT AND CLOD. TEMPERATURE SUMMER WINTER MAXIMUM 25 DEGREE C .5 DEGREE C MINIMUM 8 DEGREE C -20 DEGREE C . AND BY EXCEESIVE DRYNESS.

THE INTERNAL HEAT SHOULD NOT BE LOST BACK TO THE AMBIENT. TRAPPING AND USING THE SUN’S HEAT WHENEVER IT IS AVAILABLE.COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE BASIC GUIDLINE THESE REGIONS EXPERIENCE VERY COLD WINTERS. . HENCE. THE MAIN OBJECTIVES WHILE DESIGNING BUILDINGS IN THESE ZONES ARE: (A) AVOID HEAT LOSS BY: (A) DECREASING THE EXPOSED SURFACE AREA (B) INCREASING THE THERMAL RESISTANCE (C) INCREASING THE THERMAL CAPACITY (D) INCREASING THE BUFFER SPACES (E) DECREASING THE AIR EXCHANGE RATE (B) PROMOTE HEAT GAIN BY: (A) AVOIDING EXCESSIVE SHADING (B) UTILISING THE HEAT FROM APPLIANCES (C) TRAPPING THE HEAT OF THE SUN. THE INSULATION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS AND CONTROL OF INFILTRATION HELP IN RETAINING THE HEAT. IS OF PRIME CONCERN IN BUILDING DESIGN. EXPOSURE TO COLD WINDS SHOULD ALSO BE MINIMIZED.

PARTS OF THE SITE WHICH OFFER NATURAL WIND BARRIER CAN BE CHOSEN FOR CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING. AT THE SAME TIME. THEY SHOULD BE TREATED WITH A HARD AND REFLECTIVE SURFACE SO THAT THEY REFLECT SOLAR RADIATION ONTO THE BUILDING (C) STREET WIDTH AND ORIENTATION: IN COLD CLIMATES. BUILDINGS SHOULD BE LOCATED ON THE SOUTH SLOPE OF A HILL OR MOUNTAIN FOR BETTER ACCESS TO SOLAR RADIATION .E. (1) SITE (a) LANDFORM: (b) IN COLD CLIMATES. THE EXPOSURE TO COLD WINDS CAN BE MINIMISED BY LOCATING THE BUILDING ON THE LEEWARD SIDE. HENCE. SOLAR ACCESS SHOULD BE ENSURED) . HEAT GAIN IS DESIRABLE. OR COLD AND SUNNY CLIMATE ARE GIVEN BELOW. (B) OPEN SPACES AND BUILT FORMS: BUILDINGS IN COLD CLIMATES SHOULD BE CLUSTERED TOGETHER TO MINIMISE EXPOSURE TO COLD WINDS OPEN SPACES MUST BE SUCH THAT THEY ALLOW MAXIMUM SOUTH SUN.COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE THE GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REGIONS WITH A COLD AND CLOUDY. THE STREET SHOULD BE WIDE ENOUGH TO ENSURE THAT THE BUILDINGS ON ONE SIDE DO NOT SHADE THOSE ON THE OTHER SIDE (I. THE STREET ORIENTATION SHOULD BE EAST-WEST TO ALLOW FOR MAXIMUM SOUTH SUN TO ENTER THE BUILDING.

WINDOWS SHOULD PREFERABLY FACE SOUTH TO ENCOURAGE DIRECT GAIN. AIR-LOCK LOBBIES AT THE ENTRANCE AND EXIT POINTS OF THE BUILDING REDUCE HEAT LOSS. A SUFFICIENTLY SLOPING ROOF ENABLES QUICK DRAINAGE OF RAIN WATER AND SNOW. WOOD WOOL.COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE IN THE COLD ZONES. THE BUILDINGS MUST BE COMPACT WITH SMALL S/V RATIOS THIS IS BECAUSE THE LESSER THE SURFACE AREA. SKYLIGHTS ON THE ROOFS ADMIT HEAT AS WELL AS LIGHT IN WINTERS). THE HEAT GENERATED BY APPLIANCES IN ROOMS SUCH AS KITCHENS MAY BE RECYCLED TO HEAT THE OTHER PARTS OF THE BUILDING. A SOLAR AIR COLLECTOR CAN BE INCORPORATED ON THE SOUTH FACING SLOPE OF THE ROOF AND HOT AIR FROM IT CAN BE USED FOR SPACE HEATING PURPOSES. THE LOWER IS THE HEAT LOSS FROM THE BUILDING. AN ALUMINIUM FOIL IS GENERALLY USED BETWEEN THE INSULATION LAYER AND THE ROOF TO REDUCE HEAT LOSS TO THE EXTERIOR. THE SKYLIGHTS CAN BE PROVIDED WITH SHUTTERS TO AVOID OVER HEATING IN SUMMERS. LIVING AREAS CAN BE LOCATED ON THE SOUTHERN SIDE WHILE UTILITY AREAS SUCH AS STORES CAN BE ON THE NORTHERN SIDE. THERMOCOL. ETC. THE NORTH SIDE OF THE BUILDING SHOULD BE WELLINSULATED. . (3) BUILDING ENVELOPE (a) ROOF: FALSE CEILINGS ARE A REGULAR ROOF FEATURE OF HOUSES IN COLD CLIMATES. . ONE CAN ALSO USE INTERNAL INSULATION SUCH AS POLYURETHANE FOAM (PUF).

HOWEVER. THE SOUTH-FACING WALLS (EXPOSED TO SOLAR RADIATION) COULD BE OF HIGH THERMAL CAPACITY (SUCH AS TROMBE WALL) TO STORE DAY TIME HEAT FOR LATER USE. (D)COLOUR AND TEXTURE: THE EXTERNAL SURFACES OF THE WALLS SHOULD BE DARK IN COLOUR FOR HIGH ABSORPTIVITY TO FACILITATE HEAT GAINS . THEY SHOULD BE SEALED AND PREFERABLY DOUBLE GLAZED. 300 TO 600 GAUGE POLYETHYLENE SHEET OR ALUMINIUM FOIL) ON THE WARM SIDE TO AVOID CONDENSATION.COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE (B) WALLS: WALLS SHOULD BE OF LOW U-VALUE TO RESIST HEAT LOSS. (C) FENESTRATION: IT IS ADVISABLE TO HAVE THE MAXIMUM WINDOW AREA ON THE SOUTHERN SIDE OF THE BUILDING TO FACILITATE DIRECT HEAT GAIN. THE INSULATION SHOULD HAVE SUFFICIENT VAPOUR BARRIER (SUCH AS TWO COATS OF BITUMEN. THE WALLS SHOULD ALSO BE INSULATED. MOVABLE SHADES SHOULD BE PROVIDED TO PREVENT OVERHEATING IN SUMMERS. HOLLOW AND LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BLOCKS ARE ALSO QUITE SUITABLE ON THE WINDWARD OR NORTH SIDE. CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO PREVENT CONDENSATION IN THE AIR SPACE BETWEEN THE PANES. DOUBLE GLAZING HELPS TO AVOID HEAT LOSSES DURING WINTER NIGHTS. A CAVITY WALL TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION MAY BE ADOPTED.

The day breeze or southerly wind always began to blow before mid–day. when it reached its greatest force & remained stead for some time. the continued rising and veering towards the west. and at low altitude in winter season. WIND DIRECTION AND SUN MOVEMENT Building direction should be East to West to gain maximum sunlight & heat from South direction. Sun is at higher altitude in summers season.COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE BUILDING ORIENTATION. frequent strong gusts until 3 or 4 O’ clock in the afternoon. .

COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE SOLAR PANEL SOLAR PANELS ARE USED TO HEAT THE WATER AS WELL AS WALL .

The glazed covering on the outside of the wall reduces heat loss.COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE SOLAR PANEL AND TROMBE WALL The solar radiation heats the outside of the solar wall. and arrives at the inside surface of the wall several hours later to provide heat in the evening. and allows more heat transfer to the inside space . The heat slowly passes through the massive wall.

COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE ORIENTATION ORIENTATION OF THE BUILDING ON SOUTH SLOPE OF HILL MOUNTAIN AND FOR BETTER ACCESS SOLAR RADIATION BUILDING IS PLACED ON THE LEEWARD SIDE .

COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE SLOPING ROOF SOLAR RADIATION ON SURFACES NORMAL (TAPER) TO SUN RAYS IS HIGHER THAN HORIZONTAL SURFACE .

COLD & SUNNY CLIMATE SKY LIGHT AND LIGHT COLOUR MATERIAL ROOF WITH THE SKY LIGHT HEATED INTERIOR LIGHT COLOUR SMOOTH PAVING REFLECTS LIGHT AND HEAT .

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