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The Trainers Handbook

The Trainers Handbook

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Published by Monica


2nd Edition

About This Book
Why is this topic important?
The rapidly changing workplace continues to impact workplace learning and performance. This changing and evolving climate “raises the bar” for those who have responsibility for developing workers to contribute to the organization’s success. Whether charged with the responsibility of training as part of their jobs or hired for full-time positions, people are often thrown into these positions to sink


2nd Edition

About This Book
Why is this topic important?
The rapidly changing workplace continues to impact workplace learning and performance. This changing and evolving climate “raises the bar” for those who have responsibility for developing workers to contribute to the organization’s success. Whether charged with the responsibility of training as part of their jobs or hired for full-time positions, people are often thrown into these positions to sink

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Published by: Monica on Sep 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • Introduction
  • Understanding the Needs-Assessment Process
  • Needs-Assessment Process
  • Table 1.1.In-Depth Versus Mini Needs Assessment
  • How to Conduct a Needs Assessment
  • EXHIBIT 1.1.Needs Assessment Process
  • EXHIBIT 1.2.Method Selection Criteria
  • Table 1.2.Advantages and Disadvantages of Data-Collection Methods
  • Developing an Action Plan
  • Assessing Participants’ Knowledge, Attitudes,Skills
  • EXHIBIT 1.3.Confidential Pre-Session Questionnaire
  • Andragogical Versus Pedagogical Model
  • Understanding Adult Learners
  • Understanding How and Why PeopleLearn
  • Learning Styles
  • Application of Learning Principles
  • Trainer Characteristics and Competencies
  • Training Styles
  • Training Style
  • EXHIBIT 3.1.Characteristics of Effective Trainers
  • Increasing Effectiveness
  • EXHIBIT 3.2.Instructional Styles Diagnosis Inventory
  • Learner-Centered Versus Information-Centered
  • Table3.1.Learner-Centered Versus Information-Centered Training
  • Learner-Centered Information-Centered
  • Key Elements of a Trainer’s Style
  • Table 3.2.Advantages and Disadvantages
  • EXHIBIT 3.3.Learner-Centered or Information-Centered Behavior
  • The Changing Training Environment
  • Understanding Today’s Learner
  • Self-Awareness
  • EXHIBIT 4.1.Diversity-Awareness Inventory
  • Diversity Issues
  • What Are Learning Objectives?
  • Table 5.1.Reference Chart for Objectives
  • Writing Learning Objectives
  • EXHIBIT 5.1.Editing Learning Objectives
  • EXHIBIT 5.2.Sample Objectives Worksheet
  • EXHIBIT 5.3.Objectives Worksheet
  • Design Philosophy
  • Time Needed to Develop a Training Program
  • Cost Considerations
  • Major Components of Design
  • Creating a Design Matrix
  • Purpose of an Instructional Plan
  • Components of an Instructional Plan
  • EXHIBIT 6.2.Instructional Plan,Part I
  • Instructional Methods
  • Table 6.3.Matching Methods to Desired Outcomes
  • Developing Materials
  • EXHIBIT 6.3.Checklist for a Quality Participant Workbook
  • The Case for Active Training
  • Selecting,Designing, and Developing Active-Training Methods
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Creating an Active-Learning Environment
  • Designing Active-Training Activities
  • Common Methods and Materials
  • EXHIBIT 7.1.Film Preview Form
  • Experiential Learning Activities
  • Action Learning
  • Creating a Positive Learning Environment
  • •To create a positive learning environment
  • EXHIBIT 8.1.Sample Participant Cover Letter
  • EXHIBIT 8.2.Sample Tips for Participants
  • EXHIBIT 8.3.Sample Memo to Manager
  • EXHIBIT 8.4.How to Prepare Your Employees for Training
  • EXHIBIT 8.5.Delegation Assignment
  • Figure 8.4.Cluster
  • Figure 8.6.Semicircle and Full Circle
  • Experiential and Active-Training Techniques
  • Figure 8.8.The Experiential Learning Cycle
  • Tips for Using Specific Methods
  • EXHIBIT 8.6.Creating an Activity
  • Improving Platform Presence
  • Retention Rate in Visual Learning
  • Why Use Visual Aids?
  • Guidelines for Using Visual Aids
  • Other Commonly Used Visual Aids
  • Workplace Trends
  • Advantages/Benefits of Distance Learning
  • Disadvantages/Drawbacks to Distance Learning
  • Types of Distance Learning
  • Guidelines for Designing Distance Learning
  • Designing and Developing Activities
  • Delivering Content and Activities
  • Blended Learning
  • The Trainer as Facilitator
  • Ways to Encourage Participation
  • The Art of Questioning
  • Responding to Questions
  • Scaling the Wall of Resistance
  • Problem Situations
  • EXHIBIT 11.1.Preventing Dysfunctional Behavior
  • Creativity with Small Groups
  • Using Creativity
  • Props and Other Theatrical Techniques
  • Games
  • Creative Closings
  • EXHIBIT 12.1.Sample Action Plan
  • Why Evaluate?
  • When to Evaluate
  • Whom to Involve
  • How to Evaluate
  • What to Evaluate
  • Four-Level Model for Evaluation
  • Participant Evaluation and Accountability for e-Learning
  • Accountability for Training
  • Significance of the Evaluation Process
  • The Changing Role of the Trainer
  • Understanding the Client-Consultant Relationship
  • Selecting an External Consultant
  • Follow-Up Reports
  • References
  • Index
  • About the Author
  • How to Use the CD-ROM

The use of props is becoming increasingly more popular. Although props are visual
aids and are used for a purpose similar to those discussed in Chapter 9, they are in-
cluded in this chapter because of their unique relationship to the theater and show
business. Props can include hats, objects, magic tricks—any object that enhances
the message.

Using props is an easy and economical theatrical technique that will capture the
audience’s attention and help you communicate your message. Props appeal espe-
cially to the visual modality. They help reinforce a message by relating the visual
image to the spoken word. The image will last long after the words are forgotten.


When I do a session on professional image,I begin by holding up two boxes of the

same shape and size.One box is professionally wrapped with attractive paper and

coordinating ribbon and bow;the other is wrapped in haphazard fashion in alu-

minum foil and tied with white curling ribbon.I ask the audience to indicate with a

show of hands which package they would like to receive.Almost everyone chooses

the attractive package.(Of course,there are always a few who choose the other.) I

then ask one or two people to explain their preference for the professionally

wrapped box to the others.They mention,of course,that it is more aesthetically ap-

pealing.This provides the segue into my points about professional image:

•Image is a matter of perception.

•Successful people first decide how they want to be perceived.

•Then they determine what to do to create that perception.


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Props and Points

Coming up with ideas for props is not difficult. The key is to sit down and think
about your learning points and brainstorm what objects might relate to or represent
that particular message.


For my session on coaching to improve workplace performance,I use a teddy bear

dressed as an athletic coach in baseball cap and polo shirt with a whistle around his

neck.I use my “coach” bear to introduce the concept of coaching and how coaches

in the work environment are similar to coaches in the world of sports.

During management development programs,I speak about employee motiva-

tion.To make my point about the different approaches to motivating employees,I

bring in three props:a whip,a carrot dangling at the end of a stick,and a flowering

plant.I show the whip to illustrate threats managers often make;the carrot repre-

sents incentive programs or promises of rewards as a motivational tool;the flow-

ering plant is a metaphor for an environment in which people are motivated.A plant

needs the right amount of water,light,heat,and fertilizer,and each plant requires

different kind of care.The same is true for people.Successful managers will under-

stand the different “care” required by each of employee and create an appropriate

environment accordingly.My “motivation” props are always a big hit.The participants

frequently refer to the props throughout the session.

I also use a Slinky®

magic spring to illustrate the importance of remaining flex-

ible and adapting to change and a kaleidoscope to represent the changing environ-

ment.I use puzzle pieces for team building,giving each team member a puzzle piece

that they hold until the end of the session,when I ask all of the team members to

get up and put their pieces together to complete the puzzle.I remind them that they

are individuals,but they must all come together to form the whole.

I often use a magic wand,“magic dust” [glitter],or a crystal ball.In a management

development session,I might mention that people are promoted to management po-

sitions and someone sprinkles “magic dust” or waves a magic wand and “abra-

cadabra!,” they now know how to manage.

The crystal ball can be used in a career development program to make the

point that many people expect to look into a crystal ball and see their future rather

than taking control of their careers by developing plans and managing those plans.


Using Creativity

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Display posters of quotations related to the topic around the room to create a mood
and generate interest in the topic. Quotations work well at the beginning of a ses-
sion. Ask participants to choose one of the quotations and explain how it relates to
them. The following quotes are appropriate for a time-management session:

•“Money lost can be replaced, but time lost is gone forever.”

•“People who have half an hour to spend usually spend it with someone
who hasn’t.”

•“Everybody has the problem of time; of all resources, it is the scarcest, the
most perishable, and the most elusive.”


Aprop becomes even more effective and memorable if you use “giveaways” that co-
ordinate with your theme. For example, you might give participants whistles in a
coaching session; miniature Slinkies to remind people to be flexible, or kaleidoscopes
to help them look at things differently.
Use cube puzzles to represent problem solving. Give out small compasses in a
session on goal setting to emphasize the importance of staying on course.
Give away buttons and stickers with words or slogans as a reminder of your
theme or key learning points. Steve Sugar distributes 2-inch by 2-inch “Koala T Idea”
cartoon stickers to recognize unique ideas contributed by individuals or groups.


For a session for managers on motivating employees,I had buttons made that read,

“I’m the greatest.My boss told me so!” as an example of inexpensive ways to rec-

ognize and reward your employees.The managers were so excited about the but-

ton idea that they not only ordered those particular buttons to give to their

employees,but came up with other button ideas and used them periodically to let

their employees know how important they were to the success of the organization.

Using Themes

Another way to add creativity to a workshop is to use a theme as a metaphor for
the topic. Decorate the room and choose props and giveaways to support the
theme. For example, the metaphor of a sailboat cruise to represent team building,


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with the meeting room decorated in a nautical theme. When participants arrive,
place leis around their necks and give out compasses to help them “stay on course.”
Give each person an eraser shaped like a sea creature and a roll of LifeSavers®


Use an outer space theme and have the room darkened and decorated with
glow-in-the-dark stars and other celestial objects. If your session is about group
problem solving or decision making, you might choose the NASAtask simulation
from Teleometrics.

Using Imagination

Do not be afraid to take risks. Do something different. For example, use music.
Have it playing as people come in the room and during breaks. Trainers often use
recordings of currently popular songs used to set the mood for a training session
and/or activity. Although the use of recordings for this type of usage requires no
special agreements with the copyright owners for its use, you must pay a perfor-
manceroyaltyto the publisher for these uses. For permission to play recorded music,
contact the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) or
Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI). Even better, use royalty-free music produced
especially for training venues. An excellent source is “Powerful Presentation
Music” from the Bob Pike group.
Use balloons to show how managers can “celebrate” their employees’ achieve-
ments. One word of caution: do not get carried away. Your creativity must not get
in the way of your main purpose: a meaningful learning experience. Whatever you
do should be an enhancement, not a distraction.

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