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# Amplitude Modulation – Part 1

**Instructor: Prof. Farshad Lahouti
**

January 20, 2003

Winter 2003

UW, ECE 318 Lecture Notes

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Analog Communication System

Information Source

Signal Modulator

Propagation Channel

Signal Demodulator

Information Destination

• Analog signals may be transmitted directly via carrier modulation over the propagation channel and to be carrier-demodulated at the receiver. Transmitter à Modulator Receiver à Demodulator

Winter 2003

UW, ECE 318 Lecture Notes

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ECE 318 Lecture Notes 3 Why is Modulation Required? • To achieve easy radiation: If the communication channel consists of free space. Example: Voice signal bandwidth f=3kHz c 3 ⋅ 10 8 = = 10 5 m f 3 ⋅ 10 3 λ 4 = 25000 m λ= If we modulate a carrier wave @ fc = 100MHz with the voice signal λ= c 3 ⋅ 10 8 = = 3m f 100 ⋅ 10 6 λ 4 = 75 cm Winter 2003 UW. in the neighborhood of the center frequency fc. Winter 2003 UW.e. antennas are required to radiate and receive the signal. modulated signal) is varied in accordance with message signal (i. In effect. Dimension of the antennas is limited by the corresponding wavelength. ECE 318 Lecture Notes 4 2 . frequency or phase. ω c = 2πf c (radian frequency) fc : Carrier phase θc f(t) modulates c(t) in either amplitude. independent of f(t) c(t ) = Ac cos(ωc t + θc ) : Carrier amplitude Ac : Carrier frequency. modulation converts f(t) to a bandpass form. modulating signal) • f(t): message signal A bandlimited signal whose frequency content is in the neighbourhood of f=0 (DC) baseband signal • c(t): the carrier signal.Modulation: The process by which some characteristics of a carrier signal (i.e.

corresponding signal power) decreases UW.Why is Modulation Required? (Cont’d) • To accommodate for simultaneous transmission of several signals s1 f s2 fc 1 f fc s3 2 f fc Example: Radio/TV broadcasting Winter 2003 UW. ECE 318 Lecture Notes 3 5 Why is Modulation Required? (Cont’d) • To expand the bandwidth of the transmitted signal for better transmission quality (to reduce noise and interference) C = B ⋅ log 2 (1 + SNR ) Channel capacity Bandwidth Signal-to-noise ratio Channel capacity: Maximum achievable information rate that can be transmitted over the channel C SNR = 2 B − 1 B Winter 2003 The required SNR (for fixed noise level. ECE 318 Lecture Notes 6 3 .

ECE 318 Lecture Notes 7 Double Side Band Supressed Carrier (DSB-SC) (5. • Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation • Vestigial Sideband (VSB) Modulation Winter 2003 UW.1 in Textbook) f(t) × φ(t ) = Ac f (t ) cos(ωc t) c(t ) = Ac cos(ω t ) c F (ω) = F{ f (t )} Φ(ω) = F{φ(t )} Φ(ω) = F[ Ac f (t) cos(ωc t)] A A = F c f (t )e jω t + c f (t )e− jω t 2 2 Ac Ac = F (ω − ω ) + F (ω + ωc ) c 2 2 c c cos ω t = c 1 jω t e + e − jω t 2 c c ( ) Winter 2003 UW. ECE 318 Lecture Notes 8 4 .Amplitude Modulation (AM) (Ch. 5 in Textbook) Objectives: • To study different amplitude modulation scheme • To study generation and detection of AM signals • To study application of AM We will study • Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSB -SC) Modulation • Double Sideband Large Carrier (DSB -LC) Modulation: Commercial broadcast stations use this type and it is commonly known as just amplitude modulation (AM).

ECE 318 Lecture Notes 9 Demodulation of DSB-SC signals Given φ(t).f(t) F (ω ) = F{ f (t)} F(0) baseband 2πB t Ac f (t ) cos(ωc t ) -2πB ω F [Ac f (t ) cos (ω c t )] Ac F(0)/2 passband ω ωc +2πB t -ωc ωc -2πB ωc Observations: • φ(t) undergoes a phase reversal whenever f(t) crosses zero. Winter 2003 UW. The envelope of φ(t) is different from f(t). ECE 318 Lecture Notes 10 5 . Both amplitude and phase of φ(t) carry information of f(t). • The transmission bandwidth required by DSB-SC is β T=2B. how will be the message signal f(t) be recovered? φ(t) × x(t) Lowpass filter z(t) Ac' cos(ωct ): Locally generated carrier signal x(t ) = φ(t) Ac' cos(ωct ) = Ac' Ac f (t ) cos2 (ωc t) 1 ' 1 = Ac Ac f (t ) + Ac' Ac f (t ) cos(2ω t ) c 2 2 Let X (ω) = F{x(t)} 1 1 X (ω) = Ac Ac' F (ω) + Ac Ac' [F (ω − 2ωc ) + F (ω + 2ω )] c 2 4 Winter 2003 UW.

F (ω ) = F { f (t)} F(0) -2πB 2πB ω X (ω ) = F{x (t)} LPF only allows this component. others are rejected (1 4 )A c Ac' F (0 ) -2ωc -2πB (1 2 )A c Ac' F (0 ) 2πB (1 4 )A c Ac' F (0 ) 2ωc ω Z (ω ) = F{z (t )} (1 2 )A c Ac' F (0 ) -2πB Winter 2003 2πB Just a scaled version of f(t) ω 11 UW. ECE 318 Lecture Notes 12 6 . x(t) Lowpass filter φ(t) × z(t) Ac' cos[(ωc + ∆ω)t + θ0 ] x(t ) = φ(t )Ac' cos[(ω + ∆ω)t + θ0 ] c = Ac Ac' f (t ) cos(ω t ) cos[(ω + ∆ω)t + θ0 ] c c 1 1 = Ac Ac' f (t ) cos(∆ω + θ0 ) + Ac Ac' f (t ) cos[(2ω + ∆ω)t + θ0 ] t c 2 2 Only this term goes through LPF Winter 2003 UW. ECE 318 Lecture Notes Effect of error in phase and frequency at the receiver Now assume a frequency error and a phase error in the locally generated signal at the receiver.

Winter 2003 UW. we need to use a synchronized oscillator Coherent detection (synchronous detection) is required.z(t) = 1 Ac Ac' f (t ) cos(∆ω + θ0 ) t 2 no distortion • If ∆ω=0 and θ0 = 0. If θ0 = ±90º. For small fixed phase errors. the output is z(t ) = 1 Ac Ac' f (t ) cos(θ0 ) 2 The phase error introduces a variable attenuation factor. ECE 318 Lecture Notes 13 Generation of DSB-SC signals: A practical implementation Circuitry aspects of this topic will not be in any examination. mathematical aspects may be tested. the output is z(t) = 1 Ac Ac' f (t ) cos(∆ω ) t 2 To recover f(t) accurately from φ(t). ECE 318 Lecture Notes T=2π/ω c t 14 7 . the output is z(t) = 1 Ac Ac' f (t ) 2 • If ∆ω =0. • If θ0 = 0. the received signal is wiped out. this is quite tolerable. Ring Modulator a b f(t) c transformer d s(t) Bandpass Filter @ ωc z(t) c(t) c(t) Winter 2003 UW.

The diodes are controlled by a square-wave carrier c(t) of frequency ωc. Product modulator in-phase cos(ωc t+θ0 ) φ (t ) = A c f (t ) cos (ω c t ) Low pass filter (1/2) Accos(θ0 ) f(t) -90º phase shifter Voltage controlled Oscillator (VCO) Phase discriminator f(t) quadrature sin(ωc t+θ0 ) -phase Product modulator Winter 2003 Low pass filter UW. ECE 318 Lecture Notes (1/2) Acsin(θ0 ) f(t) 16 8 . assuming |c(t)|>>|f(t)| c(t ) > 0 Diodes a and d conduct c(t ) < 0 Diodes b and c conduct c(t) t s (t ) = f (t ) s(t ) = − f (t ) Expressing in terms of Fourier Series c(t ) = 4 π ∑ n =1 ∞ (− 1)n −1 2n − 1 cos[ω t(2 n − 1)] c s (t ) = c(t) f (t) 4 ∞ (− 1)n −1 cos[ω t (2n − 1)] ∑ c π n =1 2 n − 1 4 Output of BPF z(t ) = f (t ) cos(ωct ) π s (t ) = f (t ) Winter 2003 UW. ECE 318 Lecture Notes 15 Demodulation of DSB-SC Signals: A Practical Implementation Costas Receiver The content of this page will not be asked in any examination.