Routing Algorithm

2004. 11. 3 Ahn Kook Jin

Contents
     

Routing Protocol and Algorithm Classifications Link State Routing Algorithm Distance Vector Routing Algorithm LS Algorithm vs. DV Algorithm Hierarchical Routing

Routing Protocol and Algorithm

Determining the path(route)
first-hop router default router 5 destination router destination host

source host
2 B 2 1 1 3 D 5 1 2 F

A C

3

E

source router

least-cost path

decentralized  global(link state algorithm) : complete information about connectivity and link costs    Static vs.Classifications  Global vs. dynamic  static : routes change very slowly load-sensitive : link costs reflect congestion Dynamic link state routing algorithm Dynamic distance vector routing algorithm Load-sensitive vs. load-insensitive  Typical used   .

Link State Routing Algorithm   Each node broadcasts the identities and costs to its directly attached neighbors Dijkstra’s algorithm .

Link State Routing Algorithm  Oscillation(page 307) 2+e 0 1 0 0 1 D 0 1+e 1 0 0 C e 1 0 0 1+e e A 2+e 1+e 0 B 1 0 .

asynchronous.Z) : cost of the direct link from X to Z + Z’s currently known minmum-cost path to Y DX(Y.Z)+minw{Dz(Y.Z)=c(X. distributed Distance table   DX(Y.w)} .Distance Vector Routing Algorithm   Iterative.

v) = inifinite.Distance Vector Routing Algorithm   Initialization:  DX(*.v)=c(x.w) to each neighbor when they changes   C(X.V) changes Neighbor node send its update .v) Send minwDX(y. DX(v.

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm DY X Z X 2 ∞ Y 2 1 Z ∞ 1 X DX Y Z Y 2 ∞ Z ∞ 7 7 Z Dz X Y X 7 ∞ Y ∞ 1 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm DY X Z X 2 9 Y 2 1 Z 8 1 X DX Y Z Y 2 3 Z 8 7 7 Z Dz X Y X 7 9 Y 3 1 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm DY X Z X 2 5 Y 2 1 Z 4 1 X DX Y Z Y 2 3 Z 8 7 7 Z Dz X Y X 7 9 Y 3 1 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Decrease DY X X 4 Z 6 Y 1 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Decrease DY X X 1 Z 6 Y 1 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Decrease DY X X 1 Z 6 Y 1 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 2 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Decrease DY X X 1 Z 6 Y 1 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 2 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 4 Z 6 Y 60 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 60 Z 6 Y 60 4 1 Routing loop X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 60 Z 6 Y 60 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 7 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 60 Z 8 Y 60 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 7 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 60 Z 8 Y 60 4 1 Too many iterations! (count-to-infinity problem) X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 9 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 4 Z ∞ Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 60 Z ∞ Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 60 Z ∞ Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 61 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 60 Z 51 Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 61 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 60 Z 51 Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y ∞  Cannot solve general count-to-infinity problem .

DV Algorithm LS Message complexity O(nE) DV Maybe small Slow(count-toinfinity problem) Bad Speed of O(n2) algorithm convergence Robustness Good .LS Algorithm vs.

Hierarchical Routing  View network as interconnected routers   Scale Administrative autonomy  Organize routers into autonomy systems(AS) .

b Autonomy system(AS) Gateway router Intra-AS Inter-AS .a C.a C.b A.a B.c B.Hierarchical Routing C.a Host H1 A.d A.c Host H2 A.

a C.a A.a A.c Topological view for inter-AS routing protocol .Hierarchical Routing B.

END .

  .

' '           '  '     .

.

*6.67*.  ' '     ...5.725!2870 02571 .%..

 .

'    ' '    .

725!2870 02571 .67*..5..%..*6.  ' ' .

   .

 .

'    ' '    .

5.67*.*6.  ' ' ....%.725!2870 02571 .

   .

 .

'    ' '   .

 ' ' ..67*.*6.5..%.725!2870 02571 ..

   .

 .

'    ' '   .

5...725!2870 02571 .67*.*6.  ' '       .%.

'    ' '    .

.67*.725!2870 02571 .  ' '       ..*6.5.%.

#4:93445 '    ' '    .

5.*6.  ' '       ..725!2870 02571 .%..67*.

'    ' '    .

725!2870 02571 .67*.*6..5..  ' '       .%.

'    ' '    .

5..67*.%.*6.725!2870 02571 ..  ' '       .

3907.4:39 94 3139574-02 '    ' '    . %442.9438 .

.56.725!2870 02571 262.- 5.67*.%.    ' '     ..9.

'    ' '    .

%..9.67*.- 5.725!2870 02571 262..56.    ' '     .

'    ' '    .

9.- 5.67*.725!2870 02571 262.    ' '     ..56..%.

'    ' '   .

.

9..%.725!2870 02571 262..- 5.56.67*.    ' '   .

 .

'    ' '   .

.

9.    ' '   .%..56.- 5.725!2870 02571 262.67*..

 .

'    ' '    *27629. .287 72 /7 352+..0.5*.

"0257196 %02571 " .29...7 "3.23. *- .6* "2: .-2/ ..66     *02571 22% *+.66*0. .50.287 72 /7 352+.. !2+867.

5287.*!2870 %.1.*.2.5.-5287.7:25*67. -675*79.*8722 50*.5672*8722667.56 "..6 " .7.:.5*5..

. * * * + * 267.5*5.1.*!2870 .

267 + :9434288902 $ . $ 3907 $ .74:907 397.90. .

*!2870 * * * .5*5.:/257.5 "5287035272. #23220..1.2 .*9.

 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful