# Routing Algorithm

2004. 11. 3 Ahn Kook Jin

Contents
     

Routing Protocol and Algorithm Classifications Link State Routing Algorithm Distance Vector Routing Algorithm LS Algorithm vs. DV Algorithm Hierarchical Routing

Routing Protocol and Algorithm

Determining the path(route)
first-hop router default router 5 destination router destination host

source host
2 B 2 1 1 3 D 5 1 2 F

A C

3

E

source router

least-cost path

decentralized  global(link state algorithm) : complete information about connectivity and link costs    Static vs.Classifications  Global vs. dynamic  static : routes change very slowly load-sensitive : link costs reflect congestion Dynamic link state routing algorithm Dynamic distance vector routing algorithm Load-sensitive vs. load-insensitive  Typical used   .

Link State Routing Algorithm   Each node broadcasts the identities and costs to its directly attached neighbors Dijkstra’s algorithm .

Link State Routing Algorithm  Oscillation(page 307) 2+e 0 1 0 0 1 D 0 1+e 1 0 0 C e 1 0 0 1+e e A 2+e 1+e 0 B 1 0 .

asynchronous.Z) : cost of the direct link from X to Z + Z’s currently known minmum-cost path to Y DX(Y.Z)+minw{Dz(Y.Z)=c(X. distributed Distance table   DX(Y.w)} .Distance Vector Routing Algorithm   Iterative.

v) = inifinite.Distance Vector Routing Algorithm   Initialization:  DX(*.v)=c(x.w) to each neighbor when they changes   C(X.V) changes Neighbor node send its update .v) Send minwDX(y. DX(v.

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm DY X Z X 2 ∞ Y 2 1 Z ∞ 1 X DX Y Z Y 2 ∞ Z ∞ 7 7 Z Dz X Y X 7 ∞ Y ∞ 1 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm DY X Z X 2 9 Y 2 1 Z 8 1 X DX Y Z Y 2 3 Z 8 7 7 Z Dz X Y X 7 9 Y 3 1 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm DY X Z X 2 5 Y 2 1 Z 4 1 X DX Y Z Y 2 3 Z 8 7 7 Z Dz X Y X 7 9 Y 3 1 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Decrease DY X X 4 Z 6 Y 1 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Decrease DY X X 1 Z 6 Y 1 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Decrease DY X X 1 Z 6 Y 1 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 2 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Decrease DY X X 1 Z 6 Y 1 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 2 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 4 Z 6 Y 60 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 60 Z 6 Y 60 4 1 Routing loop X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 60 Z 6 Y 60 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 7 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 60 Z 8 Y 60 4 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 7 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Increase DY X X 60 Z 8 Y 60 4 1 Too many iterations! (count-to-infinity problem) X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 9 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 4 Z ∞ Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 60 Z ∞ Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 5 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 60 Z ∞ Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 61 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 60 Z 51 Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y 61 .

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm  Poisoned reverse 60 4 DY X X 60 Z 51 Y 1 X 50 Z Dz X X 50 Y ∞  Cannot solve general count-to-infinity problem .

DV Algorithm LS Message complexity O(nE) DV Maybe small Slow(count-toinfinity problem) Bad Speed of O(n2) algorithm convergence Robustness Good .LS Algorithm vs.

Hierarchical Routing  View network as interconnected routers   Scale Administrative autonomy  Organize routers into autonomy systems(AS) .

b Autonomy system(AS) Gateway router Intra-AS Inter-AS .a C.a C.b A.a B.c B.Hierarchical Routing C.a Host H1 A.d A.c Host H2 A.

a C.a A.a A.c Topological view for inter-AS routing protocol .Hierarchical Routing B.

END .

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