Proc. of Int. Conf.

on Control, Communication and Power Engineering 2010

Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Minimization of Transmission Line Losses Using Unified Power Flow Controller
Sona College of Technology/ EEE Department, Salem-5, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Thiagarajar College of Engineering/ EEE Department, Madurai-15,Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract—Loss minimization in power system is an important research issue. Transmission line losses in a power system can be minimized by means of reactive power compensation. After the establishment of power markets with transmission open access, the significance and use of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices for manipulating line power flows to relieve congestion and optimize the overall grid operation have been increased. This paper presents a technique to provide simultaneous or individual controls of basic system parameters like transmission voltage, impedance and phase angle, there by controlling the transmitted power using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used to compute the power flow. The performance of this technique is tested using IEEE 5 bus and IEEE 14 bus systems. The test result showed that the location of UPFC improves the voltage profile of the system and also minimize the transmission line losses. Index Terms— Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), Real and Reactive Power, Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

M. Senthil Kumar1, Dr. P. Renuga2



Most large power system blackouts, which occurred worldwide over the last twenty years, are caused by heavily stressed system with large amount of real and reactive power demand and low voltage condition. When the voltages at the system buses are low, the losses will also be increased. This study is devoted to develop a technique for improving the voltage and minimizing the losses and hence eliminate voltage instability in a power system [4]. State estimation is the process of estimating the values of an unknown system variable based on the measurement system according to some criterion. The basic idea is to "fine-tune" state variables by minimizing the sum of the residual squares and it is the well-known least squares (LS) method. State estimation is a widely used tool in power system energy management systems. The essence of state estimation is that the measurements taken are of active and reactive power, and system voltage magnitudes and phase angles (i.e, the ‘states’) are estimated [1]-[2]. Application of FACTS devices are currently pursued very intensively to achieve better control over the transmission lines for manipulating power flows.

State estimation in power system can be formulated as a nonlinear weighted least squared error (WLSE) problem representing the zero injections of buses and the zero active power exchange between the power system and FACTS devices. There are several kinds of FACTS devices. Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC), Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer (TCPST) and Static Var Compensator (SVC) can exert a voltage in series with the line and, therefore, can control the active power through a transmission line[3][18]. On the other hand UPFC has a series voltage source and a shunt voltage source, allowing independent control of the voltage magnitude, and the real and reactive power flows along a given transmission line. The UPFC was proposed for real-time control and dynamic compensation of ac transmission systems, providing the necessary functional flexibility required to solve many of the problems which are being facet by the industry. The UPFC consists of two switching converters are operated from a common dc link provided by a dc storage capacitor [5][19]. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a computational intelligence based technique that is not largely affected by the size and nonlinearity of the problem, and can converge to the optimal solution in many problems where most analytical methods fail to converge. PSO is easier to implement and there are fewer parameters to adjust [11]. In this paper Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is introduced to optimize the location of UPFC. The proposed technique was tested on the IEEE 5 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system and UPFC was installed at any of the weakest voltage at load buses. For practical and economic considerations, the number of UPFC units is limited to one. Here UPFC is connected in between buses 3 and 4 in IEEE 5 bus system and buses 4 and 9 in IEEE 14 bus system to perform the test. II. UPFC MATHEMATICAL MODEL

The Fig.1 shows the power circuit of a UPFC which has an Excitation Transformer (ET), a Boosting transformer (BT), two three phase GTO based voltage source converters (VSCs), and a dc link capacitor. This arrangement functions as an ideal ac to ac power converter in which the real power can freely flow in

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gbest : gbest of the group. i=1. at the terminal of the insertion transformer) is converted by the inverter into dc power which appears at the dc link as positive or negative real power demand. III. and thereby it can provide independent shunt reactive compensation for the line.e. Basic circuit arrangement of the Unified Power Flow Controller either direction between the ac terminals of the two inverters and each inverter can independently generate (or absorb) reactive power at its own ac output terminal . PSO procedures based on the above concept can be described as follows. one in series and one in parallel with the associated line. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE PSO is basically developed through simulation of bird flocking in two dimension space. The transmission line current flows through this voltage source resulting in real and reactive power exchange between it and the ac system. bird flocking optimizes a certain objective function. uniformly distributed in [0. 2. For example. Figure. Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Reactive Power and Voltage Control (Volt/Var Control: VVC) determines an on-line control strategy for keeping constant voltages profile of target power systems under normal and up normal situations. The active power loss equation of the kth line. A. IV. Neglecting UPFC losses. of Int. Moreover. The modification can be represented by the concept of velocity. …. Vidn+1 = wvidn + c1r1n ( pidn-Xidn) + c2r2n ( pidn-Xidn) Xidn+1 = Xidn + Vidn+1 (2) (3) where w is inertia weight. N is the maximum allowable iteration number. pbesti : pbest of agent i. r2 are random numbers.Proc. regulating the velocity and location of each particle toward its pbest and gbest locations according to the following two equations respectively.[11]-[13] Vi=Vi + rand x (pbest i – Si) + rand x (gbest – Si) where. rand : uniformly distributed random number between 0 and 1. Active and reactive power losses occur in the transmission lines depending upon the power to be transmitted. VVC can be formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem with continuous state equipment. Modification of the agent position is realized by the position and velocity information. between buses i and j (Fig 2) can be written as. 2. c2 are two positive constants. The position of each agent is represented by XY-axis position and the velocity is expressed by vx (the velocity of X-axis) and vy (the velocity of Y-axis). during steadystate operation it neither absorbs nor injects real power into the system. D. N. Communication and Power Engineering 2010 the best value in the group (gbest) among pbests. m. The real and reactive power going through line can be formulated by the equations [3]. r1. called cognitive and social parameter respectively . and m is the size of the swarm. if it is desired. Si : current position of agent i. and n=1.1]. Each agent knows its best value so far (pbest) and its XY position. No real-power is exchanged between the UPFC and the system.d=1. The real power exchanged at the ac terminal (i. 1. denotes the iteration number. c1. This injected voltage can be considered essentially as a synchronous ac voltage source [6]. each agent knows 246 © 2009 ACEEE . the function can be loss minimization of the target power system for the normal operating condition [4][17]. …. on Control. Inverter 2 provides the main function of the UPFC by injecting an ac voltage Vw with controllable magnitude Vm and phase angle (ө ) at the power frequency. 2. The current position (searching point in the solution space) can be modified by the following equation. Each agent tries to modify its position using the current velocity and the distance from pbest and gbest. Conf. The objective function can be varied according to the power system condition. Namely. at each time step. The steady state model of UPFC consists of two ideal voltage sources. STEADY STATE MODEL OF UPFC Using the above equation. The reactive power exchanged at the ac terminal is generated internally by the inverter [7]-[10]. s i− = s i + v i (1) The particle swarm optimization concept consists of. …. Vi : velocity of agent i. The two sources are mutually dependent.. Velocity of each agent can be modified by the following equation. a certain velocity that gradually gets close to pbest and gbest can be calculated. Inverter 1 can also generate or absorb controllable reactive power.

penalty is added to the loss (evaluation value of agent). For best pbest. the value is set to pbest. Step 6. then exit otherwise. Calculate Ploss and new evaluated value If new evaluated value is better than pbest. All of gbests are stored as candidates for the final control strategy.New searching points are calculated using (3). Ploss to the searching point for each agent is calculated using load flow. Conf. Step 2.Ploss to the new searching point and the evaluation value is calculated. velocities The series reactive power loss equation of the kth line. on Control. VVC Algorithm using PSO The proposed VVC algorithm using PSO is expressed as follows: Step 1. the total active power loss of all the lines of the system is PL=∑P L-k k=1…………nl (6) (5) Calculate Ploss If constraint is violated. VVC Flowchart using PSO Start Figure 2.Velocities is calculated using (2). For best evaluated value. B. evaluate value= Ploss+Penalty Set pbest for agent.Initial searching points (agents) and velocities are generated using the above-mentioned state variables randomly.pbest is set to each initial searching point. Step 4. If the constraints are violated. If the iteration number reaches to the maximum iteration number. of Int. Step 7.Proc. If the best pbest is better than gbest. Step 5.Transmission Line PL-k=Gk(Vi2+Vj2-2ViVjcos(δi-δj)) (4) Read agents. QL-k=Bk(Vi2+Vj2-2ViVjcos(δi-δj)) Where. gbest=evaluated value and the total series reactive power loss of all the lines of the is QL=∑Q L-k k=1…………nl (7) Calculate velocities and agents Where. go to Step 4. Step 3. Step 8. nl is the total number of lines. agent=pbest. the value is set to gbest.phase angle of ith bus In power system. is kth line conductance Bk.voltage magnitude of ith bus δi.If the evaluation value of each agent is better thanthe previous pbest. Gk. Communication and Power Engineering 2010 C.gbest=pbest and store gbest yes If i<n no Stop 247 © 2009 ACEEE . is kth line susceptance Vi. between buses i and j can be written as. The initial best evaluated value (loss with penalty) among pbests is set to gbest.

707 With UPFC Voltage (pu) 1.0600 1.882 V.334 -15.Proc.997 Angle (deg) 0.185 Figure. 5.0 -5. Communication and Power Engineering 2010 D.901 -5.004 0.0195 Angle (deg) 0.362 -16.490 -13.032 1.9 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 248 © 2009 ACEEE .050 1.220 -15.996 Angle (deg) 0. 6.335 -15.00 -1.468 -15.979 1.612 -11.0297 1.023 0.268 -10.882 -14.944 -14.054 -15.0256 1.0236 1. IEEE 5 Bus System Table II State Variables of IEEE 5 bus system Sl.944 -4. Parameter Number of Particles Dimension of Particles Range of Particles Maximum Velocity Learning Factors C1 & C2 Inertia Weight Wmin & Wmax Value 50-100 6 0.973 0.616 With UPFC Voltage (pu) 1.0600 1.5 20 1.010 0. From the tables it is concluded that the system voltages has improved and the losses are reduced when UPFC is installed.1-0.313 -16.273 -14.970 0.973 0.843 -9. No 1 2 3 4 5 Voltage (pu) 1.901 -15.020 1.762 -12.893 -15. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig.986 1.981 0.612 -11. PSO Parameter Control The following parameters are subjected to vary and their values are given in Table I.0326 1.449 -13. 3 and 4 shows the standard IEEE 5 bus and IEEE 14-bus systems.716 -13.582 -4.003 1.004 0.4& 0.0475 1. on Control.00 -5.032 1. Conf.013 1.010 1.022 1.0180 Angle (deg) 0.050 1. 4. Table IV shows the comparative results of proposed system.006 1. Figure.843 -9.4 IEEE 14 bus system TABLE III STATE VARIABLES OF IEEE 14-BUS Bus No Without UPFC Voltage (pu) 1 2 3 1.848 -8.3.016 1.0242 1. of Int.660 -15.769 -13.066 1.006 1. 3.279 -8. 2.848 -8.0 -5.003 -15.018 1.06 1.4 0.No 1.06 1. Based on PSO algorithm the UPFC is included in between the weakest load buses 3 and 4 in IEEE 5 bus system and between the load buses 4 and 9 in IEEE 14 bus system. Table II and III shows the state variables of proposed system (with and without UPFC). TABLE I VARIOUS PARAMETERS AND THEIR VALUES Without UPFC Bus.

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