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W  = I  =   I  e  e  L  W    L  e  ⇒e = W L W   − ( − ∆ ) W  L  e  =  W  e  e      L  W  L  L  W   W    L   L        ⇒ V
= n  ln  + ∆V  W   W     L   L         
   

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:  ∆V   + I  R   

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−  ) −     (  ) 
 

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⇒ 

 (  )   +   (  )       

     
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  −    

  
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−  +   

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− α     



<  <  

 

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(  )

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           , >  ≥    (  )   +   (  )      

−   

 − +   

   (  )    

−   −  (  )            +    ≤  ≤      (  )   +   (  )      
 

 

      =  −  (  )  (  + 

−   ) −      (  )   

 

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= −α   (  )  ⇒ (  ) <    

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(  )
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&    =   
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   
=
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(  ) < (  )   
  

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( ) > ( )       

7   
 µ       
=       (
− 
)   
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  +    =   

    

   

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=  −    

'    =   #  

µ     µ   µ    =       =    =                
  

−  ∆  µ     

⇒ ∆ 
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µ     
−   µ      +   µ    

∆ 
+  

+  

⇒ ∆  ∝ ∆ #  ⇒ +    −      . ∝  #   # ∆ ≈ ±

 

∆

−  

−   

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∂∆  ∂∆

=
∆ =

µ  
µ
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∆ 


−  ∆  µ      
=

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µ   8   

= 

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2        2 ΔV 8" )   &  #2  )8  8  

9    

   

                 



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⇒ ∆  ≡  
−    =  

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∆ ≡   −   

 = 
 = 
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µ      −  −     µ =       −   −     

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 µ      

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∆ ≡  −   =   + 


 −   − µ        


µ     

=    −    + =   

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µ     

∆ 

∆ 
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+ 
    

⇒∆     ∆   ' 
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−   

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µ    

=  −   −

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⇒  
= 

µ  

   

  −   −   

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↓ 

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=3=      & φ  φ  /,2>/?-,0

6-1
CHUNG-YU WU

Chapter 6 Frequency Response of MOS Amplifiers
§6-1 Single-Stage Amplifier
§6-1.1 Source follower +VDD RS M1 Vi CX Vo Vi Zi Vo gds2 M2 VBIAS -VSS AV(s) ≡ Vo(s) = Vi(s) sC gs1 + g m1 g + Cgs1 Cgd 1 + Cgd 1C Leq )s 2 + ( m1 RsC gd1 + C Leq + C gs1 )s + g m1 / α1 + G Leq á1 Cdb2 Csb1 CL Zo Cgs1 gds1 High-frequency small-signal equivalent circuit Cgd1 Ii RS -gmb1 Vo gm1(Vi-Vo)

Rs(C gs 1 CL eq

where GLeq=gds1 +gds2 , CLeq=CL+Csb1 +Cdb2 * Left-Half-Plane (LHP) pole: fp = G Leq + g m1 / α1 2π( Cgs1 + C Leq ) gm1 2πC gs1

LHP zero: fz = In general, * If fp¡Õfz

¡îCLeq¡Ö Cgs1

C Leq G 1 = ( − 1) + Leq , we have Cgs1 α1 gm1 fp = fz and Av(s) ≅ C gs1 ≅ 1 indep. of s. Cgs1 + CLeq

¡×>Better high frequency response. How to achieve this? Adding an extra capacitor Cx such that

  1 Cx+Cgs1 =CLeq  G Leq  1  ( α − 1) + g  1 m1

     

6-2
CHUNG-YU WU

Zi(s) ≡

Cgs1 s + g m1  Vi (s )  1 = +  (C gd1 s) Ii( s)  C gs1s Cgs1 s( G Leq + g mb 1 + sC Leq )   

||

* If gmb1 +GLeq<< CLeqS and Cgd1 is neglected, 1 1 g m1 Zi(s) ≅ + + Cgs1 S C LeqS C gs1 CLeqS 2 The input impedance consists of the series connected Cgs1 , CLeq, and the negative resistance gm1 ¡Ð C gs1 C Leqω2 Thus oscillation is possible. * If gmb1 +GLeq is neglected, the equivalent input capacitances Cin=Cgd1 Cin'      1  Cin' ≅ CLeq  C g   Leq + 1 + m1  C C gs1s   gs1  For large gm1, Cin '¡Õ¡ÕCLeq The large load capacitance CL is well blocked or buffered from the preceding stage. Zo(s) ≡ Vo(s ) Io(s )

||

|Vi=0 =
1 g m1 + g mb 1

1 G Leq + g mb 1 + sC Leq + ( sC gs1 + g m1 ) R s Cgd 1s + 1 R s ( C gd1s + Cgs1 s) + 1

* If s = 0, Zo = Ro =

If s¡÷¡Û, Zo'(without CLeq) ≅ Rs for Rs¡Õ Since usually Rs¡Ö 1 , we have g m1 + g mb 1

1 and Cgs1 >>Cgd1 G Leq + g m1

6-3
CHUNG-YU WU

|Zo| Rs

α 1 /gm1

> Zo α ω ¡×> Inductive load Zo(s) ≅ R s C gs1 s + 1 g m 1 / α1 + C gs1 s α1 g m1 R2

ω
L R1 Zo

R1 =Rs¡Ð R2 =

α1 g m1 C α α L= gs1 1 (Rs¡Ð 1 ) g m1 g m1

L and CL causes output signal ringing. * Two source followers in cascade might cause oscillation because First SF ¡G L in Zo 1 Second SF ¡G and Cin Z i 2 -R §6-1.2 Enhancement¡Ðload NMOS common-source gain stage +VDD gmb2 Vo gm2Vo

M2 Vo RS M1 Vi -VSS RS + Vi _ + CL Vi _

Cgs2 RS V1 Cgd1 Cgs1 gm1V1 Cdb1

gds2 Vo gds1

Csb2

CL

V1

Cgd1 Vo Cgs1 gm1V1 GLeq CLeq

6-4
CHUNG-YU WU

GLeq=gds1 +gds2 +gm2+gmb2 CLeq=Cdb1 +Cgs2 +Csb2 +CL Applying the Miller's theorem, we have V1 RS Vin Cin (gm1-sC gd1 )V1 GLeq CLeq+Cgd1 Vo

Cin =Cgs1 +Cgd1 (1+gm1/GLeq) ¡×>Av(s) ≅ Gs (sC gd1 − g m1 ) (sC in + Gs )[s(C Leq + Cgd 1 ) + C Leq ]

* Right-Half-Plane Zero¡G = gm1/Cgd1 Sz * Left-Half-Plane Poles ¡G Sp1 =¡ÐGs/Cin (input pole) Sp2 =¡ÐGLeq/(C Leq+Cgd1 ) (output pole). If Cgd1 and CLeq are small ¡×>Sp1 is the dominant pole. * If CL is large, the dominate pole is Sp2 ≅ (gm2+gmb2 )/C L * The input impedance can be approximated by Zin ≅ 1   1 )Cgd 1 s Cgs1 + (1 + g m1 G Leq     near the upper 3dB frequency.

* The exact Zin is 1   1+ (C gd1 + C Leq )s   G Leq  Zin≅ Cgs1 s  1 1  C (1 + g + C Leqs)  m  gd1s  G Leq G Leq  

||

If

1 1 1 ( Cgd1 + CLeq )s <<1 and Cgds1 s ¡Õ¡Õ (1+gm ), G Leq G Leq G Leq

Zin can be approximated by the previous formula.

6-5
§ 6-1.3 Cascode amplifer stage +VDD RS M3 Vo VBIAS M2 CL Vin Cgs1 V1 Cgd1 gm1V1 Cdb1 rds1 -gm2V2 Cgs2 + Csb2
CHUNG-YU WU

Cdb2 + V3 _ Cgs3 gm3V3 Vo Cgd2 Csb3 CL

RS C1

V1 C2 (gm1-sCgd1)V1

V2
1/g2

Vo gm2V2 CLeq
1/gm3

RS M1 Vin -VSS

Vin

rds2 , rds3 , gmb2 , gmb3 are neglected. g2 = gm2 + C 2 = Cgs1 + (1 + 1 rds1

gm1 ) Cgd1 g m2 C 2 = C gd1 + C db1 + C gs2 + C sb 2 C Leq = C L + Cgd 2 + C db 2 + Csb 3 + C gs 3 A v ( s) = − Gs g m 2 ( sC gd 1 − g m 1 ) (sC 1 + G s )(sC 2 + g 2 )( sC Leq + g m 3 ) g m1 Cgd1

RHP Zero: Sz =

LHP Pole : Sp 1 = − Sp 1

− gm3 Gs g ; Sp 2 = − 2 ; Sp 3 = C Leq C1 C2 usually is the dominant pole. S p1 2π = Gs 2πC1

⇒ f 3 dB ≅

* Typically, g m 1 = g m 2 ,then C1 = C gs1 + 2Cgd 1

¡±6-1.4 CMOS gain stage +VDD

6-6
CHUNG-YU WU

V1

Cgd2 gm2V1 Cgs2 gds2 Cdb2

RS Vin

M2 Vo M1 CL Vin

RS V1 Cgd1 gm1V1 Cgs1 gds1 Cdb1 Vo CL

-VSS RS Vin Cgd1 + Cgd2 Vo (gm1+ gm2)V1 Cgs1 + Cgs2 GLeq CLeq

RS Vin

V1
[g m 1+ g m 2-s(C gd1+Cgd2)]V1

Vo GLeq CLeq+Cgd1 +Cgd2

Cin

G Leq = g ds1 + g ds 2 Cin = Cgs1 + C gs 2 + (1 + Av (s) ≅

C Leq = Cdb 1 + C db 2 + C L

g m1 + g m 2 )( Cgd 1 + Cgd 2 ) G Leq

G s [s( Cgd 1 + Cgd 2 ) − ( g m 2 + g m 2 )] [ s( Cgd1 + Cgd 2 + C Leq ) + G Leq ]( sC in + G s ) gm1 + gm2 Cgd 1 + Cgd 2 Gs Cin G Leq C gd1 + C gd 2 + C Leq

RHP Zero: Sz =

LHP Poleo: Sp 1 = − Sp 2 = −

If R s is large enough ( R s is the output resistance of the preceding stage), S p1 << S p 2 Sp 1 is the dominant pole.

¡±6-1.5 CMOS differential amplifier 1.Differential-mode half circuit Cgd1 + 1 V Cgs1 2 id _ CLeq ≡ CL + Cdb 4 + Cdb 1 +VDD +VDD 1 g V 2 m1 id CLeq rds4 ||rds1 + 1 Vod 2 _

6-7
CHUNG-YU WU

VBIAS M4 1 V 2 od M1 CL

M3

M4

VBIAS1

CL

1 V 2 id

M2

M1

VBIAS2 -VSS -VSS Vod g m1 = H (s ) = − Vid g ds 4 + g ds1 RHP Zero: f z = gm1 2 πCgd1 C   1 − s gd 1   gm1   C Leq + Cgd1   1 + ( g + g )s   ds 4 ds1  fz >fp |Ad| -60db/Octave

Ad =

g ds4 + g ds1 LHP Pole: f p = 2π( Cdb 4 + Cdb1 + C L + C gd1 ) f u ¡Ü A0 f p = gm1 2 π( C db 4 + C db1 + C L + C gd1 )

fu fz fp

2.Common-mode half circuit: ( g ds 4 + sC M ) Voc + g ds1 ( Voc − Vs ) + g m 1 ( Vic − Vs ) + C gd1 s( Voc − Vic ) = 0

6-8
g ds 1 ( Vs − Voc ) + Vs ( Vs [ C + Cdb 5 + Csb1 1 + gd 5 s) − g m1 ( Vic − Vs ) − Cgs1 s( Vic − Vs ) = 0 2 rds5 2
CHUNG-YU WU

1 1 + ( Cgd 5 + C db5 + C sb1 )s + C gs1s ] = −[ g ds 4 + sC M + sC gd1 ]Voc + (C gs1 s + C gd1 s) Vic 2 rds 5 2 [ g ds4 + sC M + sC gd 1 ]Voc − ( Cgs1 s + C gd1 s) Vic C gd 5 + C db5 + Csb1  1  s + C gs1s   2r + 2  ds 5  Cgd1 gm1(Vic-Vs) Cgs1 VS (C sb1 +Cgd5 +Cdb5 )/2 2/gds5 gds1 gds4 CM

Vs = −

+VDD Vic VBIAS1 M4 Voc M1 VS VBIAS2 2M5 CM=CL+Cdb4 +Cdb1 gmb1 is neglected − C gd1 ( C gd 5 + C db5 + Csb1 + Cgs1 )s 2 + [( Cgd 5 + Cdb 5 + C sb1 CL Voc

Vic

-VSS

⇒ A c ( s) =

( g ds 4

+ C gs1 ) g m1 Voc 2 2 =− Cgd 5 + Cdb 5 + Csb1 C gd 5 + Cdb 5 + Csb1 Vic ( + Cgs1 )( C M + Cgd 1 )s 2 + [( + Cgs1 ) 2 2 1 1 − Cgd 1 − ( g ds1 + g m 1 )( Cgs1 + Cgd1 )]s + g m1 2rds 5 2 rds5 C + C gd1 g + g ds1 + g ds1 ) + M + (C M + Cgd 1 )( g ds1 + g m1 )]s + ds 4 + ( g ds1 + g m1 ) g ds 4 2 rds5 2 rds 5

Solve the pole-zero position : ⇒ 1 RHP zero, 1 LHP zero,2 LHP poles fZR fZL fp1 fp2 dB Ad fZR >> fZL CM (C gd5 +Cdb5 +Csb1 )/2 Ac fp1 CMRR CMRR fZL fp2 Load pole fp1 < fp2 tail pole

degradation region

6-9
CHUNG-YU WU

¡±6-1.6 CMOS differential-input-to-single-ended output converter Vi Vo

Vi = Vid + Vic Vo = Vod + Voc ¡ÎThe hail-circuit method cannot be used in the high frequency analysis. ¡ÎTwo unequal signal paths to the output ⇒ Load path and tail path ⇒ Both Cs and C E appears in the Ad(s) expression. ¡ÎThere are two dominate poleo in Ad. g + g ds 4 Output pole Wp 1 ≅ ds1 CLeq Mirror pole Wp 2 ≅ Tail path: A1 (s ) = g m 34 CE Vin Ro M4

+VDD E M3 Vo CLeq

CE Load M1 Tail Io -VSS CS M2

A0 s 1+ Wp1 A0 (1 + s s )(1 + ) Wp 1 Wp 2 A0 ( 2 +

Load path: A2 ( s) =

s ) Wp 2 Ad ( s) = A1 (s ) As ( s) = s s (1 + )(1 + ) Wp1 Wp 2 LHP zero: Wz1 ≅ 2 g m 34 = 2Wp 2 CE g ds1 + g ds 4 (output pole) CLeq

¡ÎApproximate analysis: The dominant pole of Ad ( s) is Sp 1 = − Ad ( s) ≅ g m1 + ( g ds1 + g ds 4 )

sC Leq

The A c ( s) can be written as Ac ( s) ≅ − The dominant pole of A c ( s) is Sp 1 = − But the left-half-plane zero is SzL = − The CMRR ( ≡

g ds1 2g m 4

1 ( ) + sC s R0 sC Leq + ( g ds1 + g ds 4 )

6 - 10
CHUNG-YU WU

g ds1 + g ds 4 CLeq

1 1 ( ) R 0 Cs

Ad ) is degradated by 20dB/decade at high frequency. Ac

§6-2 Frequency Compensations

+VDD

Ml1

M l2 V1 Cd M i1 gdsl+gdsi Mi2 ~ vi2 M s1 CC

M g1

gdsgl+gdsg2 V2 M g2 CL

~

vi1

VBIAS

M s2

-VSS

Without CC SP 1 = − 1 ( g dsl + g dsi ) , Cd SP 2 = − 1 ( g dsg1 + g dsg 2 ) CL
V2 V1 CC Cd g dsl+gdsi CL g dsg1+gdsg2 gmg1+gmg2

equivalent circuit

g mi(vi1 -v i2) =gmivd

vd ≡ vi 1 − vi 2

6 - 11
CHUNG-YU WU

H(s ) =

v2 vi1 − vi 2 + g mi ( g mg1 + g mg 2 )R d Ro ( 1 − sC C ) g mg1 + g mg 2

=

1 + s [( C L + CC )RO + ( CC + C d )R d + CC ( g mg1 + g mg 2 )RO Rd ] + ( C C C L + CC C d + C d C L )RO R d s 2

where Ro ≡ − ⇒ Sp1 ≈ −
'

1 g dsg1 + gdsg 2 1

Rd ≡ −

1 g dsl + g dsi
'

( g mg1 + gmg 2 ) RO Rd CC CC
gain dB

Sp2 ≈ −

CC ( g mg1 + g mg 2 ) CO CL + Cd C L + Cd CC

Sz ≈
'

gmg 1 + g mg 2

à RHP Zero

RHP zero
f p1
'

fz

'

f p2

'

log(f)

phase 0 o

- 45 o - 135 o

180 o

⇒ Phase margin is not large enough
log(f)

¡ÎFeedforward effect on CC How to solve this problem ? If I C = ( gmg 1 + g mg 2 )Vd ,
C

IC
V1

C

V2 CC Ro

I o = 0 and V2 = 0

Io

(gmg1+gmg2)v

⇒ A zero is formed.

6 - 12
CHUNG-YU WU

§6-2.1 Using a unity-gain buffer in the feedback path

Unity Gain Buffer CC V1 V2

CC V1

~

+ V2 V2

¡ÎIsolate node 1 from node 2 to prevent feedforward. ¡ÎKeep the Miller effect unchanged. ¡ÎSource follower can act as a unity gain buffer. g miVd + V1 + Cd sV1 + ( V1 − V2 )Cc s = 0 Rd 1 V2 + CL sV2 = 0 Ro --------- (1)

(g

mg 1

+ gmg 2 )V1 +
V2 Vd

--------- (2)

H( s ) = =

g mi( g mg1 + g mg 2 ) 1 + s[RoCc + Rd ( Cd + Cc ) + Cc ( g mg1 + g mg2 )Ro Rd ] + ( Cc CL + Cd C L )Ro Rd s

S p1 ≈ −
'

(g

mg 1

+ g mg 2 )Ro Rd Cc

1

(unchanged)

Sp2 ≈ −
'

Cc ( gmg 1 + gmg 2 ) C cC L + C d C L

RHP Zero has be eliminated.

6 - 13
CHUNG-YU WU

Actual Circuits :
1

VDD

2

VDD

CC

M1

VBIAS CC

M1 V2 VBIAS or connected to the output

V1

M2 V2 -VSS

V1

M2

-VSS Cgs1 CC Rout Cout CL+Cgd1
+ -

V2

1

2

V1

αV2
-

+

¡ÎCgs1 may introduce a RHP zero. But usually this RHP zero is large. ¡î Cgs1 is very small. ¡Î Rout ≈ (
g miVd +

1 1 ) g m1 gm 2

V1 1 1 + Cd sV1 + ( V1 − αV2 )( + )− 1 = 0 1 Rd Cc s + Couts Rout

If

1 ≥ Cout s Rout
−1

    1 Cc s  1 +  ≈ ⇒  Cc s  1 C c Rout s + 1 + Cout s   Rout  

6 - 14
CHUNG-YU WU

The numerator of H ( s ) = ⇒ LHP Zero : − 1 Cc Rout

V2 ( s ) Vd ( s )

is g mi ( gmg 1 + g mg 2 )( Cc Rout s + 1 )

If Rout is large , LHP Zero may form a pole-zero doublet with Sp1’ or Sp2’ ⇒ very slow slew rate !! If Rout is small , too large gm1 or gm2 is required. ⇒ (large area ,large power) ⇒ large Cout. * * Freq. Resp. ¡õ

Somehow difficult to design. Also the power dissipation of the buffer is large. (additional power dissipation)

§6-2.2 Adding Rc in series with Cc.

CC

RC

H( s ) =

Low frequency gain : Adm = g mi (gmg 1 + g mg 2 )Ro Rd LHP Poles : SP 1 ≅

v2 can be solved. vd

V1

V2

(g

mg 1

−1 (unchanged) + g mg2 )Ro Rd Cc

SP 2 ≅ − SP 3 ≅ −

(g

mg 1

+ g mg 2 )Cc

Cd CL + Cc C L + Cd Cc Cd Cc + Cd CL + Cc CL RC Cd CL Cc

(unchanged)

g mg1 + g mg 2  LHP    Zero : SZ = −  RHP Cc [Rc (g mg1 + g mg 2 ) − 1]  

6 - 15
CHUNG-YU WU

1. If RC =

1 1 or RC = g mg1 + gmg 2 g m2

g m 2 : second-stage transconductance

S Z → ±∞

No effect on the frequency response of the OP. Adm A S = do P1 s + 1 s + SP 1 S P1

S P 1 dominant pole ⇒ Ad (s ) ≅

For ω >> S P1

Ad ( jω ) =

Adm SP 1 A S , Ad ( j ω ) = dm P1 jω ω g mi Cc

At ωu , Ad ( jω u ) = 1 ⇒ ω u = Adm S P1 = Large CL ⇒ S P 2 ≈ − gmg 1 + g mg 2 CL

For phase margin 450 ~ 600 ⇒ If

SP2 C g + g mg 2 ≅ 2 ~ 4, c mg 1 =2~4 ωu CL g mi

g mi ≅ 2 ~ 4 , C L ≅ C c stable gmg 1 + gmg 2
Gain dB -6 dB/octave 0 dB VDD CC -VSS MC

1) NMOS Realization : f p1

fu
f p2
log(f) -12 dB/octave

V1

V2

phase 0o - 45 o - 90 o - 135 o

log(f)

- 180 o

I DS

µC W 2 = n ox 2( VDD − V2 − VTH )VDS − VDS 2 L
−1

[

]

6 - 16
,
CHUNG-YU WU

 ∂I  RC =  DS   ∂V   DS 

=
V DS =0

1 µ n Cox W [2( VDD − V2 − VTH )] 2 L

V2 ↑ VTH ↑ body effect
RC
( RC )o = g mg 1 1 + g mg 2

RCmax

RCmin

Nonlinear Rc

V2min (negative)

0V

V2max

V2

Design Rc : (1) Design Rc, s.t. ( Rc )V =0V =
2

1 1 ( ) gm 2 g mg1 + gmg 2

(2) At Rc= Rcmax or Rcmin , Sz must be large enough ! Otherwise, frequency performance will be degradated. 1) CMOS Realizations : a. CC V1 V2 V1 VDD b. CC V2 V1 c. CC M cn M cp V2 -V SS

-V SS

Consider the case in c.:

I DSn =
R cn =

µnCox Wn 2 [ 2( VDD − V2 − VTHn )VDS − VDS ] 2 Ln
1

µn C ox W n [ 2 ( V DD − V 2 − V THn )] 2 Ln

µC W 2 I DSp = p ox p [ 2( V2 + VSS − VTHp )VDS − VDS ] 2 Lp Rcp = µ pCox Wp [ 2( V2 + VSS − VTHp )] 2 Lp
−1 −1

6 - 17
CHUNG-YU WU

1

Rc = ( Rcn // Rcp )−1 = Rcn + Rcp
−1

=

µ p C ox W p µn C ox Wn [ 2(V DD − V2 − VTHn )] + [ 2( V2 + VSS − VTHp )] 2 Ln 2 Lp

If

µ nCox Wn µ pCox W p = =β 2 Ln 2 Lp Rc = β [ 2VDD − 2VTHn + 2VSS − 2VTHp ] nearly indep. Of V2
−1

Rc

−1 V 2 =0 V

= g mg1 + gmg 2

Rc-1

Rcn-1

Rcp-1

V2min

0V

V2max

V2

2. If Rc =

1 + ( Cd + CL ) / CC g mg1 + gmg 2

Sz = Sp2 and pole-zero cancellation occurs. ⇒ Sp3 >> Sp1 ⇒ AdmSp1 < Sp3 ⇒ stable However, if the cancellation is not complete ⇒ pole-zero doublet occurs ! ⇒ slow slew rate.

6 - 18
CHUNG-YU WU

§6-2.2 Feedforward compensation Av3 is the gain of the source follower AV3
Vin +

+ +

Vout

-AV2 Av 3 ( 0 )( 1 + Av 3 = (1 + s ) P3 s ) z3

1 LHP zero 1 LHP pole

Av 2 ( 0 )( 1 − Av 2 =

s s )( 1 + ) z1 z2 s s ( 1 + )( 1 + ) P1 P2

2 LHP poles 1 RHP zero (C C) 1 LHP zero

z3 & z2 are generated from the Cgs of the source follower. Vout = AVTOT ( s ) = AV 2 ( s ) + AV 3 ( s ) Vin s s s ( 1+ )( 1 + )( 1 + ) z1' z2' z3' = [ AV 2 ( 0 ) + AV 3 ( 0 )] s s s ( 1 + )( 1 + )( 1 + ) p1 p2 p3
p1' : dominant pole z 1' , z 2 ' , z3 ' : LHP Zeros

Design consideration : Any zeros below the unity-gain frequency must be placed as close as possible to their matching poles. This prevents the formation of any doublet !
z 1' = p 2 by adding CB1 and CB2(3.8pF) to control Cgs 9 + Cgs11

6 - 19
CHUNG-YU WU

Ref:IEEE JSSC , col SC-14, no.6 pp.1070-1077 , DEC.1979 Feedfoward +Miller(direct) Ref:IEEE JSSC , col SC-15, no.6 pp.921-928 , DEC.1980 Feedfoward +Unity gain buffer + Miller

¡±6-3 Settling Behavior
Vo
± 0. 1%V or ± 0.01%V

V
V − Io g m1

0
Slewing Period

TS

TP
Settling Period

TSET

t

Slewing Period (Ts): Vo from 0V to V-Io/g m1 under voltage follower connection and worse case loading.(nonlinear operation) Settling Period (TSET -Ts): Vo from (V-Io/g m1) to ± 0.1% V or ± 0.01% V (quasi-linear operation) Settling Time (TSET ): Ts +( TSET -Ts) = slewing period + settling period. ¡±6-3.1 Single-pole case
CC

+ Input - Stage

Gain Stage

Io
~

Vo

differential-input to single-ended output converter

Slew rate: SR ≡ ωu = SR = dVo I |max = o dt Cc gmi ← single-pole case Cc I oω u Io = ωu uC W gmi 2 ox ( )i 2 L

6 - 20
CHUNG-YU WU

¡±6-3.1 Two-pole case Ref¡FIEEE JSSC vol.SC-17, no.1 pp.74-80, Feb. 1982 Ts = − g I 1 ln[ 1 − m 1 ( V − o ) ω1 I o ao g m1
1 S

Fig.2

approximation¡Ge− ω T ≅ 1 − ω 1TS => eq.(19) conventional expression After Ts¡G Vo= V-Io/g m1 Input voltage = V-( V-Io/g m1) = Io/g m1 => enter the linear (or quasi-linear) region Feedback Function for unity-gain voltage-follower connection => A( s ) = a( s ) 1 + a( s ) eq.(20)-(23)

two poles¡GS = −ξω n ± ξ 2 − 1ω n (double negative real poles) ξ = 1 critically damped ξ < 1 underdamped (complex conjugate poles) ξ=

eq.(24)

ξ=

ω1 + ω2 2ωn

damping ratio ξ > 1 overdamped (real and negative pole) (CC, C2 >> C1)

gm 2 / c2 ω2 ω2 ω1 + ω 2 ≅ = = 2ω n 2 aoω1 2 ω u 2 g m 1 / cc

6 - 21
CHUNG-YU WU

ξ

1

=> CC => ω2

4(

g m1 )C2 gm 2

(CC, C2 >> C1) ω 2 < 4ω u ω 2 > 4ω u underdamped overdamped

ω 4ω u ⇔ 2 = 2 ~ 4 ωu

(1) Underdamped: TS eq. (14) or (19) TP eq. (35), (33) (2) Critically Damped
V

max.overshoot: eq.(36) settling time: eq.(40),(39)

Vo(t): eq.(41) TSET : eq.(43)
0.001

TS

TSET

t

(3) Overdamped
V

TSET : eq.(47)

Simulation & Calculation : Fig.7, Fig.8

t

Further references: (1) IEEE JSSC, vol. SC-18, pp.389-394, Aug. 1983 (2) IEEE JSSC, vol. SC-21, pp.478-483, June. 1986

6 - 22
§ 6-4 Slew rate of CMOS OP AMPs § 6-4.1 Two-stage OP AMPs Two poles: S p1 , S p 2 , S p 1 << S p 2 If S p1 << ω u << S p 2 ,Vout ( s ) = g miVin ( s ) / sCc Vout ( jw ) g = m Vin ( jw ) jwCc At ω = ω u , ⇒ ωu = Vout =1 Vin
CC
-

CHUNG-YU WU

gm1Vin

+

CL

Vout

gmi or CC = g mi / ωu CC
dt
max

The slew rate SR = dVout

= I o / CC =

ICω u Io = ωu gmi 2uC ox( W / L )i

ω u ↑, I o ↑,( W / L )i ↓ ⇒ SR ↑ * I o / C L ≥ I o / CC or CL dVout dV ≤ CC out ( = I o ) dt dt

Slew rate enhancement and degradation
Vin V1

t Vo Vin V1

+

Vo

degradation

t

enhancement

6 - 23
(1) Positive step
+ VDD M3 off off M4 Io + iw Io + iw
+

CHUNG-YU WU

CC

vout CL

M1

off vw Cw iw

on M2 Io - VSS

+ + vin V1 0

~

iω ( t ) = Cω

dvω ( t ) dv ( t ) ≅ Cω in dt dt

1 I C vout ( t ) = ( I o + iω )dt = o t + ω CC 0 CC CC

t


0

t

dvin dt dt

=

Io C t + ω V1u( t ) CC CC

(2) Negative step
+ VDD M3 on M4 on Io - i w Io- iw M1 Cw iw on vw Io - VSS off M2 + + vin V1
+

Io + iw CC

vout

~

6 - 24
vout ≅ vω d I −i dv i vout = − o ω = ω = − ω dt CC dt Cω dvout Io =− dt CC + Cω ⇒ iω = I oCω ( CC + Cω )
CHUNG-YU WU

slew degradation

§ 6-4.2 Single-stage OP AMPs SR = Io CL

+

Different phase margins ⇒ different settling behavior.
I o ¡GFirst-stage bias current

Vi

CL

Vo

SR of the folded cascode OP AMPs
+ VDD Ip Io VBIAS2 M6 VX Ip-Io M3 M4 Ip VY Ip Io Ip-Io M7 VB M9 - VSS M 10 M8 CL Vout

M5

VBIAS1

M1 V

off M2 Vs

Io

SR =

Io CL

* If Ip=Io, we can keep M5, M1 and Io current source in saturation.

6 - 25
CHUNG-YU WU

The change of Vx is not significant because the gain of the common-source amplifier M1 is nearly equal to –1. When M2 is turned on, the recovery time of Vx is very short. * If Ip < Io, the current source Io is forced to linear region and Vs ↓ Vx ↓ . The decrease of Vx is large. Thus the recovery time of Vx when M2 is turned on is very long, ⇒ The settling is slow down. How to solve this problem? (1) Keep Ip = Io as the optimal design. (2) Add clamping devices between VDD and Vx(VY)
+ VDD

VBIAS1

M 11 X

M12

VBIAS1

In normal operation, M11 and M12 are turned off by setting VDD-Vx < VTH11 ,VTH12. § 6-5 Power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) § 6-5.1 Low frequency analysis for integrators
+ VDD M3 M4 CC Cgd Vin Cgs Io - VSS M1 M2
gain stage

Vout

CI

6 - 26
∂Vout Cgs  ∂I o 1 ∂V  C 1 ∂I o ≅ + GS 1  + gd  ∂VSS CI  ∂VSS 2 gm1 ∂VSS  CI 2 gm3 ∂VSS
CHUNG-YU WU

Io -VSS
-

CI Cgs
+

C ∂ Vout ≅ − gd CI ∂VDD

 ∂I o 1  C gs 1 ∂I o 1 − V 2 g  + C 2 g  ∂ DD m3  I m1 ∂V DD

CI VDD M3
-

Cgd

+

Ref. : IEEE , JSSC , vol.SC-15 , pp.929-938 , Dec. 1980. * Cgs / CI and Cgd / CI have a strong effect on PSRR+ and PSRR-. * Small CI ⇒ chip area¡õ but PSRR¡õ.

§ 6-5.2 High frequency analysis for OP AMP’s Ref. : IEEE JSSC , vol. sc-19 , pp. 919-925 , Dec. 1984.
+ VDD M3 M4 CC V1 Vi + Vi Rz Vo M6

M1

M2

VBIAS

M5

M7

- VSS

6 - 27
CHUNG-YU WU

* PSRR+ ≡

∂Vo ∂Vi ∂Vo ∂VDD

=

∂Vo ∂Vi

Vo = 0

∂Vo ∂VDD V

 ∂V =  io  ∂VDD 

Vo =0

   

−1

o

=0

How to calculate

∂Vio ϒΗ ∂ VDD

VDD ~ Vi Vio + VSS
V1 Go1 gm1Vio C1 gm2(V1-Vi ) CC Rz =1/gm2 Go2 Vio

Vio

~ PSRR+ ( s ) ≅

Vi( from VDD )

s + Go 1Go 2 /( g m2 Cc ) s + g m1 / Cc

where Go1=go4 ( go2 is connected to the drain of M5 which is open-circuited, i.e. rds5 → ∞) Go2=go6 (rds7 → ∞) Go1Go2/(g m2Cc) < gm1/Cc ⇒ Low-frequency LHP zero degrades the PSRR .

6 - 28
CHUNG-YU WU

* To improve PSRR, Cc must be decoupled from the gate of M6 to eliminate the LHP zero .  

  

     
      
   
  
   
   
      
  
     

 
 
  

    

  
   
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/

≡

/ /≅* *,  
,

/  

2 )   

   3 ε = 9    = 9    +  

, 

/

9  ⇒ ε = 9 9  + 9999   = 99 µ  ↑ ε ↓    
  

 )    

  
)   
     

ε  .%#)  
D4#$%&'( % 
%" 2 

&,  
)  
   

J   
    

  

J .%# )  
 4J  

 )) 
4 J  

 )   

   

</  
  

" %0 

2" %/

0 

B5 

%?

φ φ" φ0 φ/        $: $& 
 
       

   

=  
+ ε   @     − 
3 )   

ε  3)  ; 
)  
  

8-1
CHUNG-YU WU

Chapter 8 Advanced Design Techniques and Recent Design Examples of CMOS OP AMPs
§8-1 Advanced Design Techniques of CMOS OP AMPs §8-1.1 Improved PSRR and frequency compensation P.6-26 ∂Vout C gs  ∂I o 1 ∂VGS1  C gd 1 ∂I o ≈  ∂V 2 g + V  + C 2 g ∂V ∂V ss C I  ss m1 ss  I m3 ss ∂Vout C gd  ∂I o 1  C gs 1 ∂I o ≈ + 1− ∂V DD C I  ∂V DD 2 g m3  C I 2 g m1 ∂V DD   If I o Where I o represents the input stage bias current. is independent of V ss and V DD

and the input devices have no body effect. C gd ∂Vout ∂Vout →0 →− ==> CI ∂V ss ∂V DD Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol. SC-15, pp.929-938, Dec. 1980 BIAS GENERATOR +VDD M3 OP AMP M4 M6

M9 IREF V-

M10

V+ M1 Io M2 M8 M7 Vo

M11 M12 VBIAS -VSS * I REF is generated by using the power supply independent current source. *V BIAS is nearly independent of V DD and V ss . *It is better to use separate p-wells for M 1 and M 2 to avoid the body effect. M5

8-2
*Tracking RC compensation Conceptual circuits : +VDD gm1VIN + VIN2 CHUNG-YU WU

+ V 2 os V oltage source Mc (M10)

MB(M6)

CC MA (M8) (RC) KI -VSS

CL

I

In the quiescent case ,Vin2=VOS2

If (W / L) A ≈ [(W / L) B • (W / L)C • K ]1/ 2 => RdsA ≈ Cc + CL ≈ Rc gm 2Cc

Cc Cc + CL

The requires Rc is Rc = 1 / g m2 [1 + (C d + C L ) / Cc ] ≈ 1 / g m 2 [(Cc + C L ) / CC ] Thus LHP zero=LHP pole P2 and P3 becomes the second pole. The stability considerations, P3 ≥ Ado P1 or Cc ≥ g m1 c 1c L gm 2

allows a smaller gm2 and larger C L * RdsA ≈ Rc indep of temperature, process , and supply variations. =>Tracking design to make sure that z=P2 =>No pole-zero doublet problem!

8-3
CMOS Design +VDD M1 M3 M5 VBIAS M9 M6 M17 M2 M7 M10 M4 -VSS * M17,Cc : Tracking RC compensation. * M9,M11:Sharing the separate n-well. * VBIAS is not strictly independent of VDD and VSS. §8-1.2 Improved frequency compensation technique. Ref.: IEEE JSSC ,vol.sc-18, pp 629-633, Dec.1983 Grounded gate cascode compensation +VDD M11 M12 VBIAS1 M13 IBIAS M16 + VBIAS2 M1 MC1 M2 MC2 Cc 5pF M5 2x M9 3x MB M7 M12 M14 M16 M11 Cc M8 M13
CHUNG-YU WU

+

M15 V out

M8 3x M10 3x

V o

M14

M15

M3

M4

M6

VBIAS1

8-4
CHUNG-YU WU

MB,Cgs7:low pass filter for high frequency noises. M8,M9,M10:new compensation circuit. M11~M16:Bias generator. Conceptual circuits: +VDD 2Io CS1 I1 A Cc

_
gm1

-gm2 Vi R1 CS2 I1 R2

+

V o

-VSS Net current in CC (C c

d V ) enters the second stage. dt o

The input voltage Vi can’t reach the node A è * Better PSRR (¡î no low-freq. zero ) , especially PSRR * Allow larger capacitive loads. * Slight increase in complexity , random offset and noise. § 8-1.3 Improved cascode structure 1. To improve gain: Ref: IEEE JSSC , vol. SC-17, pp. 969-982, Dec. 1982 ¡¸¡¸ +VDD

M1 M9

M2

V o M1A Rc M2A M7 M4A M3A M4 M3 -VSS M8 M6 Cc

8-5
CHUNG-YU WU

* Substantial reduction in input-stage common-mode range. * Improved wilson current source is used as the load to improve the balance of the first stage. +VDD 2. Single-stage push-pull class AB CMOS OP AMP M5 Ref: IEEE JSSC , vol.sc-17, pp.969-982, Dec. 1982 * Inverting mode only. (+ grounded) * Capable of high current driving and M2 M4 BIAS IN high voltage gain. * Not a differential-amplifier-based OP AMP.
_ +

M6 M7 OUT

M1 M3

Cc M8

M10 3. Cascoded CMOS OP AMP with high ac PSRR Ref: (1) IEEE JSSC , vol. SC-19, pp.55-61, Feb. 1984 (2) IEEE JSSC , vol SC-19, pp. 919-925, Dec. 1984 1) Original version +VDD
200/10 200/10 25/10

M9 -VSS

Mp2
50/10

Mp3

Mp4 A Mp7
100/10 1125/10

Mp5 Cc V out CL

50/10

IBIAS 5µA
100/10

-

MN1

MN2

+

Mp5
100/10

200/10

MN5
100/10 42.5/10 MN6

42.5/10

MN8
500/10

MN9

MN3

100/10

MN4 -VSS

MN7

Chrarcteristics: VDD=VSS=2.5V Input offset voltage Supply current Output voltage range Input common mode range CMRR @ 1KHz Unity-gain frequency Slew rate

5mV 100ìA -VSS~VDD -VSS+1.47V ~ VDD 99dB 1.0MHz 1.8 V/ìsec

8-6
* Better input common-mode range. * Vic¡õè VDSN4¡õ è IDSN4¡õ è VA ¡ô è MN8 is turned on è Vout¡÷ -VSS voltage spike at Vout. * The possible spike in the settling period. 2) Improved version +VDD VBIAS1 M7 M12 M5 VBIAS2 M13 M1 M2 VBIAS3 M14 -VSS * M 12 , M 13 and M 14 : Let the drain bias currents of M 10 and M 11 follow the change of I D7 under positive input common mode voltage. ⇒ No voltage spike at Vout Also serves as CMFB * Better PSRR and input common-mode range. * C c is decoupled from the gate of the driver M 8 . 4.Simple cascoded CMOS OP AMP Ref.:IEEE JSSC , vol.SC-19 , pp.919~925 , Dec. 1984 +VDD M5 VBIAS1 M3 M6 M4 Cc M1 VBIAS2 M2 M5 -VSS + M9 M8 V out * Good PSRR * Reduced input common range. ⇒ restrict its applications to those which use a virtual ground. M10 M11 + Cc M3 M4 V out M6 M8
CHUNG-YU WU

M9

8-7
5.Single-stage cascode OTA Ref.: IEEE JSSC , vol. SC-20 , pp.657~665 , June 1985 ¡¸¡¸
CHUNG-YU WU

+ T6 T2 1 T4 A T8 T12 T10 Out CL Io T9 T14

InT1 T3

In+

T5 IBIAS T11

T7

T13

T15

T17 -

T9 ,T10 : Cascode structure * Output conductance ↓ without any noise penalty and with only a very small reduction of phase margin. ⇒ Gain↑ no any compensation is necessary. * Maximum output swing↓ § 8-2 Advanced Design Techniques on High-frequency Non-differential-type CMOS OP AMPs 1. Single-ended push-pull CMOS OP AMP *Current-gain-based design

8-8
+VDD M8 M5 M14 M15 M13 M7 OUTPUT M1 INPUT IB1 M3 M4 M10 TABLE I Parameter Measured Value DC-Open Circuit Gain 69dB Unity0Gain Bandwidth 70MHz Phase Margin 40o 200 V / µ sec Slew Rate PSRR (DC+) 68dB PSRR (DC ) 66dB Input Offset Voltage 10mV CMRR (DC) 62dB Output Voltage Swing 1.5VP Output Resistance 3 MΩ Input Referred Noise (@1KHz) 0.54 µV / Hz DC-Power Dissipation 1.1mWatt V DD = +3V ; VCC = −3V ; I B1 = 50 µA ; CL=1pF TABLE II Bias Current 25 µA 50 µA 100 µA Unity-Gain Bandwidth 50MHz 70MHz 100MHz DC-Open Circuit V oltage Gain 70dB 69dB 66dB DC-Power Dissipation 0.55mW 1.1mW 2.2mW M11 -Vcc M2 M16 M12 CL M9 M6
CHUNG-YU WU

8-9
V DD = +3V ; VCC = −3V ; CL=1pF 2.Low output resistance CMOS OP AMP * C L is a compensation capacitor *For low-resistance load *Smaller maximum output voltage swing. * I B1 = 50 µA, C L = 1 pF , f u = 60MHz +VDD M8 M5 M14 M15 M13 M18 M7 CL M16 IB1 M3 M4 M10 M11 M20 -Vcc M12 M19 M21 OUTPUT M1 INPUT M2 M9 M6 M17 M22
CHUNG-YU WU

§ 8-3 Advanced Design Techniques on High-drive MOS Power or Buffer OP AMPs § 8-3.1 Efficient Output Stages. A. CMOS output stage using a biplar emitter follower and a low-threshold PMOS source follower.

+ VDD VBIAS

Vout

Vin

- VSS

8 - 10
CHUNG-YU WU

B. Complementary class B output stage using compound devices with common-source output MOS.
+ VDD

MP A Vi A

Vout

MN

- VSS

§ 8-3.2 High-drive power or buffer CMOS OP AMPs 1. Large swing CMOS power amplifier (National Semiconductor) + V DD V IN
+ -

M16 C0 M8
-

M6 A1
+

M9

V OUT

M8A

M10

VBIASN

M17

-

A2

+

M13

VBIASN

M12 M6A

M11

-VSS

8 - 11
* Noninverting unity gain amplifier
CHUNG-YU WU

Vout
+

A - 1

M6

Vi

~

+ V DD
Vin ≅ V out M 6 provides the negative feedback A1 , M 6 and A2 , M 6 A form a class AB push-pull output stage. Full swing from + VDD to − V SS M 9 , M 10 , M 11 , and M 12 form a current feedback to stablize the bias current of M 6 and M 6 A . Offset in A1 ,e.g. VinA1 − ↑⇒ VoutA1 ↓⇒ I DM 6 ↑ and I DM 9 ↑⇒ I DM 11 ↑ and I DM12 ↑⇒ VGSM 8 A ↑ and VinA 2 + ↓ ⇒ Vout ↑, i.e.

* * *

VinA1 + ↑⇒ Vout ↓⇒ VinA1 − ↓ (virtual short between + and -) ⇒ VinA 2 − ↓ througt M 8 ⇒ All the bias voltage and current are restored to the normal values and the offset is absorbed by M 8 A . Since the current feedback is not unity gain ,some current variation in transistors M 6 and M 6 A still exists.

VCC M3 M4 MPC VIN M1 VBIASN M5 VSS VSS M2 CC VOUT M6

8 - 12
CHUNG-YU WU

Large positive common mode range allows M 6 to source large amount of current to the load. (because Vin ≅ V out ) The maximum VGS 6 which M 1 and M 2 still in the saturation region is

VGS 6 max = −( VDD − ( VIN − VGS 1 + VDSAT 1 )) = −( VCC − VIN + VTH 1 )
⇒ VTH 1 ↑⇒ VGS 6 max ↑⇒ I DM 6 ↑
(1). Threshold implant to increase

VTHO1 VTH 1

(2). Negative substrate bias − V SS to increase
+ VCC M3H M4H VIN
+ -

MP3A MP4 MP5 MP3 M1 M2 MN4 M5A M13 M12 M11 MN5A MN4A MRC CC M6 M8A CF M9 MRF MP4A M5A

V BIASP

M16 C0

M3

M4

M10 MN3A

M2A

M1A

M8

M4A M4HA

M3A M3HA

M17 V BIASN

M5

MN3

- VSS V OUT

* *

The input stage is not shown in the diagram. M 16 , M 8 , M 17 form the second stage with C D the Miller compensation capacitor. If Vout → −V SS , VDSM 5 → 0 and I DSM 5 → 0. ⇒ M 1 , M 2 , M 3 and M 4 are off ⇒ M 3 H and M 4 H are still on to keep VGS 6 ≅ 0V . Otherwise , M 6 will be turned on. Similarly, M 3HA and M 4 HA turn off M 6 A in the positive voltage swing

*

*

M P 3 , M N 3 , M N 4 , M P 4 and M P 5 are output short-circuit protection circuitry. Normally, M P 5 is off.

88- - 14 13
CHUNG-YU WU CHUNG-YU WU

When I DM 6 ≅ 60mA, I DMP3 ↑⇒ I DMN 4 ↑⇒ VGSMP5 ↑ . ⇒ I DM 6 is limited to approximately 60 mA. Table I POWER AMPLIFIER PREFORMANCE Parameter Power dissipation( ± 5V ) Avol Fu Voffset PSRR+(dc) (1KHz) PSRR-(dc) (1KHz) THD VIN=3.3Vp RL=300Ω CL=1000 pF VIN=4.0Vp RL=15 kΩ CL=200 pF Tsettling (0.1%) Slew rate 1/f noise at 1KHz Broad-band noise Die area Simulation 7.0mW 82dB 500KHz 0.4mV 85dB 81dB 104dB 98dB 0.03% 0.08% 0.05% 0.16% 3.0us 0.8V/us N/A N/A Measured Results 5.0mW 83dB 420KHz 1mV 86dB 80dB 106dB 98dB 0.13%(1KHz) 0.32%(4KHz) 0.13%(1KHz) 0.20%(4KHz) <5.0us 0.6V/us 130nV/Hz 49nV/Hz 1500mils2

TABLE II COMPONENT SIZES ( µm, pF )

MI6 MI7 M8 M1,M2 M3,M4 M3H,M4H M5 M6 MRC CC M1A,M2A M3A,M4A M3HA,M4HA M5A M6A MRF CF

184/9 66/12 184/6 36/10 194/6 16/12 145/12 2647/6 48/10 11.0 88/12 196/6 10/12 229/12 2420/6 25/12 10.0

M8A M13 M9 M10 M11 M12 MP3 MN3 MP4 MN4 MP5 MN3A MP3A MN4A MP4A MN5A

481/6 66/12 27/6 6/22 14/6 140/6 8/6 244/6 43/12 12/6 6/6 6/6 337/6 24/12 20/12 6/6

Maximum loads : 300 Ω and 1000pF to ground. Ref.:IEEE JSSC , vol.SC-18 , pp.624-629 , Dec.1983 2. High-performance CMOS power amplifier (Siemens AG) (1). New input stage : 3 gain stages.
+ VDD BIAS M5 M10 M11 M13 + M1 M2 M8 M9 CC M7

M3

M4

M6 - VSS

M12

*

Cc is connected to the source of M9 to improve PSRR

8 - 15
* Three poles and one zero : Z= P ≅ 1 − 2 g m 6 g m8 g m13 C c g m6 g m13 + C 1 g m8 g m12 − g ds10 g o g m13C c
1/ 2

CHUNG-YU WU

LHP.

2 g g  g m8 (C O + C C )   − g m8 (C c + C O ) m8 m13   P2 , P3 ≅ ± j −   2C O C c 2C O C c  C O C1     

where

g o ≡ g ds12 + g ds13 C O = C L + C db12 + C db13 C1 = C gs13 + C db11 + C db 9 + C gd 9

Design guidelines for stability : g m8 large , g m13 >> g m 6 (2). Output stage
+ VDD VBIAS

Vout

Vin

- VSS

Class AB source follower * * One pole and one zero at high frequencies. Not full swing

8 - 16 8 - 17 CHUNG-YU WU
CHUNG-YU WU + V DD

-

A + 1 Vin

M1 Vout

+

A - 2

M2

- VSS

Pseudo source follower * The quiescent current in M1 and M2 will vary widely with variations in V and V os1 os2. Suitable common-mode range of the two amplifiers A1 and A2 are required. Large phase shift at high frequencies due to A1 and A2 ⇒ stability problem.

*

*

Combined output stage: * M1 and M2 are turned off in the quiescent state by building a small offset voltage into A1 and A2 ⇒ M3-M6 control the output quiescent currents. * * M2 (M1) sinks (sources) approximately 95% of the required currents. M1 and M2 provide a high-frequency feed-forward path.
+ VDD BIAS Vos M3 M4 Vos VIN
+
AMP 2

-

AMP 1 error amp.

+

M15 M5 M6 M17

error amp.

- VSS

Still has a smaller swing limited by M5, M6 .

8 - 18
CHUNG-YU WU
+V DD M4 M6 M15 M1 M2 Vout

M13

M7

M14

M15 M8 -V SS

CC

M5

*

M13, M14 and M15 form a circuit to turn off M15 when Vout < VTP13 (negative) Cc : compensation. Three poles and one zeros.

* *

Z1 ≈ −

g m7 + g mbs 7 Cc + Cgs 7 − gL

P≈ 1

C L + CC

g m15 g ds 6
1

g m15  2  g m 7 g ds6 (C L + Cc g )  g (C + C )  2  g (C + CL ) ds 6 L   ± j −  m7 c P2 , P3 ≈ − m 7 c    2Cc C L C cC L C1 2C cC L       

where

C1 = C gs 9 + Cdb 6 + Cdb 7 + C gd 7

8 - 19
+ V DD
BIAS4

CHUNG-YU WU ML3 M L7 C C3

M5 M10 M11

M L10
BIAS3

ML11 M H4 MH5 M L6 M15

M12 M1 M2

M14 M L9 M8 M9 CC1 M H9 M16 M7 MH10
BIAS2

M L1 MH1 M H2

ML2

MH8 ML8 M 17

MH6 MH11 C C2 MH7 ML4 ML5

M3

M4

M6

M 13

BIAS1

M H3 - VSS

TABLE I Component Sizes M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16 M17 400/15 400/15 150/10 150/10 100/15 150/10 150/10 300/5 300/5 300/10 300/10 1200/10 600/10 200/5 200/5 600/6 600/6 MH1 MH2 MH3 MH4 MH5 MH6 MH7 MH8 MH9 MH10 MH11 Cc1 Cc2 Cc3 48/10 50/10 500/15 300/6 300/6 200/5 250/15 700/6 15/6 10/15 20/15 20pf 4pf 4pf ML1 ML2 ML3 ML4 ML5 ML6 ML7 ML8 ML9 ML10 ML11 48/6 50/6 300/15 150/5 100/5 300/6 100/15 400/5 5/5 5/15 15/15

8 - 20
TABLE II POWER AMPLIFIER PERFORMANCE SUMMARY (First Revision) parameter Supplies Open-Loop Gain Bandwidth Power Dissipation Measured Results ±5V 93dB 1.2MHz
CHUNG-YU WU

x
ó

12.7 mW 1.76mW ±3.1V 93dB 91dB 76dB 60dB 102dB 89dB 75dB 53dB 1.5V/ìs +3.3V -5.5V 1000 mils2

Output Swing (RL=200Ù) PSRR+ at DC 1 10 100 PSRR1 10 100 kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz

at DC

Slew Rate Input Common Mode Range Die Area (5ìm CMOS) Harmonic Distortion (3 kHz) Vin=3 Vp RL=200Ù HD2 HD3

-73dB -78dB

Maximum Loads : 1000pF and 200Ù to ground. Ref.: IEEE JSSC , vol. sc-20, pp.1200-1205, Dec. 1985.

8 - 21
CHUNG-YU WU

3. Efficient Unity-gain CMOS buffer for driving large CL. High-drive OTA buffer
VDD MX5 MA1 M A4 MX1 A V B1 Vin+ V B3 MA2 MA3 VinV B2 M A5 MX3 MR1 B MX8 M X2 Vout CL V B2 MX7 M B2 MR1 M B3 VB3 MX6 V SS MX4 MB4 - VSS

Bias stage
+ V DD MB1

VB1

TABLE I TRANSISTORS’ DIMENSIONS TRANSISTOR MX1, MX5 MX2 MX3 MX4, MX6 MR1 MA1, MA4 MA2, MA3 MA5 MX7 MX8 W (µm) 225 75 30 90 6 45 450 36 600 240 L (µm) 3 3 3 3 21 3 3 3 3 3

*

MR1 has a low W/L and is operated in the linear region ⇒ like a linear resistor.

*

MX2 and MX3 Quiescent operation: ² MX2 and MX3 are on.

⇒ Keep VGSMX7 and VGSMX8 low to reduce dc power.

8 - 22
⇒ Provide a low-impedance level at node A and B. CHUNG-YU WU The low-order poles created by the Miller cap. of MX7 and MX8 can be avoid * If Vin << 0 MX3-MX6 are turned off and MX1 and MX2 are on ⇒ Node A has a high voltage ⇒ MX7 off. VB = VA because of MR1 ⇒ MX8 on. * In the bias circuit, MR2 ↔ MR1, MB1 ↔ MX1, MB2 ↔ MX2, MB3 ↔ MX3, MB4 ↔ MX4. In the quiescent case, VGSMX1 ≈ VGSMX7 and VGSMX4 ≈ VGSMX8 ⇒ The current in MB1 and MB4 controls that in MX1 and MX4 and MX7 and MX8. * RBIAS controls the current through MB2 and MB3. ⇒ i.e. the current through MX2 and MX3. Characteristics: 3 µm CMOS area: 100mils2. CL ≥ 100pF and RL ≥ 10 kΩ CL=5000pF ⇒ f ≈ 100kHz. : stable.

TABLE II BUFFER’S PERFORMANCE PARAMETER Supply V oltage Supply Current V offset V oltage Gain F3dB (CL=100pF) Gain Peaking RoCL CMRR Input CM Range SR (CL=5nF) MEASURED VALUE ± 2.5 V 285 µA < 10 mV + 1.00 V/V 6 MHz 0.4 dB 330 Ω 80 dB ± 1.8 V ± 0.9 V/µs SPICE ± 2.5 V 270 µA 5 mV + 1.00 V/V 8 MHz 0 270 Ω 84 dB ± 1.7 V ± 1.0 V/µs

Tsettling (to 1%)

3.9 µs

4 µs

8 - 23
Input Noise Density F = 1 kHz F = 50 kHz
CHUNG-YU WU

270 V / H Z 70 V / H Z

NA NA

Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol. sc-21, pp.464-469, June 1986.

§ 8-4 Advanced Design Techniques on Fully differential type CMOS OP AMPs

1.

Low-noise chopper-stabilized OP AMP Techniques for the reduction of 1/f noise: 1) Use large device geometries. Possibly too large chip area. 2) Use buried channel devices Not a standard technology. 3) Transform the noise to a higher frequency range So that it does not contarninate the signal. a. The correlated double sampling (CDS) method b. The chopper stabilization method

a. CDS method
Vn2 + Vn 2

VIN


-

a

VOUT

S/H
f V neq12 VIN V neq12

a

VOUT

f

⇒ Noise reduction

b. Chopper stabilization method

8 - 24
CHUNG-YU WU

SIN

Vn2 +1 f Vn2 VIN
+ +

f

-1

a1

a - 2

VOUT

Signal f Noise f Vneq 2 VIN Vneq 2
+ -

f

f

a1

+

a - 2

VOUT

f

*

If the chopper frequency is much higher than the signal bandwidth, the 1/f noise in the signal band will be greatly reduced.

Example: Fully differential class AB chopper stabilized OP AMP with DCMFB circuit. Major advantage of fully differential OP AMPs: 1. Improvement of PSRR 2. Improvement of dynamic range 3. double the output swing 4. Reduction on the sensitivity to clock and supply noise.

Disadvantage:

1. Larger area, mainly due to interconnection 2. Additional design complexity 3. Increase power dissipation.
+ V DD Vcm+ M29 M13 M9 M10 M14 M30

M17 V+

M25

M21

M22

M26

M18

M43

M5

M1

M2

M6

M44

M45 V-

M46

Vo+ M33 M39 M35 M47 M49 M51 V df C3 M53

M7

M3

M4

M8 M48

VoM34 M40

M50 M52

M36

M54 M55 M19 M23 M27 M56 M28 M24 M11 M12 - VSS M16 M32 M38 M42 M20 C2 C4

C1

VcmM41 M37

M31

M15

M43-M46, M47-M54: the input chopper and the output chopper. M29-M42, C1-C4 : DCMFB circuit

Device M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

W(um) 25 25 25 25 25 25

L(um) 3 3 3 3 3 3

Device M19 M20 M21 M22 M23 M24

W(um) 7 7 17.5 17.5 7 7

L(um) 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

8 - 25
CHUNG-YU WU

M7 M8

25 25

3 3

M25 M26

3.5 3.5

3.5 3.5

8 - 26
CHUNG-YU WU

M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16 M17 M18

10 10 4 4 17.5 17.5 7 7 17.5 17.5

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

M27 M28 M29 M30 M31 M32 M33-M34 M55 M56

3 3 12 12 16 18 7 7 7

7 7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3 3 3

Ref: IEEE JSSC vol.sc-21, pp.57-64 Feb.1986

2.

Fully differential folded cascode amplifier(National Semiconductor) For internal OP AMPs, high output impedance is O.K. ⇒ simple 2-stage or single-stage OP AMP.

+VDD IO CC M2 M1 -VSS
TWO-STAGE

+VDD IO

IO V + O CL -

VBIAS CGS Vin -VSS

M2

CL

Vin

M1

CP

SINGLE-STAGE CASCODE

DOMINANT AND NONDOMINANT POLE LOCATIONS FOR THE TWO-AND SINGLE-STAGE AMPLIFIERS Dominant pole location Two-stage amplifier One-stage amplifier 1 ro C c g m ro 1 ro C L g m ro Nondominant pole location gm CL gm Cp

In general, the higher the 2nd pole frequency, the faster the settling response. ⇒ Single-stage cascode amp. has a faster settling behavior.

+VDD

+ Vin CL -V out + CL

VBIAS

CMFB

-V SS
CMFB: Common-mode feedback circuitry

3.

High-performance micropower fully differential OP AMP. Simplified schematic of the class AB amplifier:
A M12 M17 M20 BIAS3 M5 Iin(+) M1 M2 M6 I in(-) OUT(-) M7 M3 I M10 M9 A -VSS I1 I2 M4 I M8 BIAS2 BIAS1 +VDD M11 M14 M16

OUT(+)

M19 M18

BIAS4

M15 M13

8 - 27
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+V DD M17 M20 BIAS3 Iin(+) OUT(+)
4µA 3µA 2µA 1µA
-400 -200 200mV 400mV

M12 M5 M1 I2 M6 M8 BIAS2 I M9 M13 M15 Iin (-) OUT(-) I
class AB

M7 I2

M4

class A

I
− 1µA − 2µA

V in

-VSS Active portion of the amplifier for a positive input signal.

Detailed schematic of the entire amplifier without CMFB:
+V DD M11 M23 M17 M20 M22 M5 OUT(+) Iin(+) M7 M3 M 60A M18 M10 M21 M9 -VSS M13 M25 I2 I1 M4 M30 M15 M1 M2 M6 Iin(-) M8 OUT(-) M27 M26 M16 M12 M14

M19

M24

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*

NMOS dynamically biased current mirror:

I30 M30
10 10

OUT

M 15
40 10

I9 M9
40 10

M 13
40 10

- VSS
If I 9 = I 30 , VGS 9 = VGS13 = VGS15 V DS13 = VGS 30 − V GS9 Set VDG13 = −VTH ⇒ VGS 30 = 2VGS 9 − VTH Design ( W )30 , such that VGS 30 = 2VGS 9 − VTH L

⇒ M 13 is always sat. at the edge of the linear region. ⇒ Output swing↑ * Dynamic CMFB is used. AMPLIFIER DEVICE SIZES DEVICE M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 Z(£gm) 180 180 140 140 150 150 200 200 22 22 L(£gm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 10 10

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M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16 M17 M18 M19 M20 M21 M22 M23 M24 M25 M26 M27 M30

29 29 22 29 22 29 29 22 22 29 20 6 28 6 20 6 28 6

7 7 10 7 6 6 7 10 6 6 9 12 6 14 9 12 6 14

AMPLIFIER SPECIFICATIONS CORE AMPLIFIER SPECIFICATIONS (0-5 V Supply) olts 100£gW Quiescent Power Dissipation DIFFERENTIAL GAIN UNITY GAIN FREQUENCY NOISE OUTPUT SWING AREA >10.000« 2 MHz« 140 nV/ Hz 1KHz 50 nV/ Hz white 0.5 V from Supply« olts 300 mils 2

«inferred from filter measurement Ref: IEEE JSSC, vol. SC-20, pp.1122-1132, Dec. 1985

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4.

Fully differential class AB OP AMP with CMFB circuit
+ VDD M18 M20 BIAS Vin Vout+ M2 M6 M3 M14 BIAS M4 BIAS M13 MC17 M11 MC16 M1 M7 M5 M16 M15 BIAS Vin+ VoutMC15 MC14 BIAS 5µ A M9 - VSS M17 M19 MC12 MC11

100µA

100µA

MC1 MC2 MC4 BIAS MC5

M8

5µ A M10

MC6

MC7 M12

Characteristics: Technology Open loop gian CMRR Area : 5um, P-well CMOS, double-poly cap. : 1180 : 61db : 290 mils2 unity-gain freq : 10Mhez

power consumption : 2.3mw power supply : ± 5V

Ref: IEEE JSSC ,vol.sc-20 , pp.1103-1112 , Ddec,1985

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§ 8-5 Recent Design Examples of CMOS OP AMPs § 8-5.1 Fast-settling CMOS OP AMP for SC Circuit with 90-dB DC Gain
Reference : IEEE JSSC, vol.25, no.6, pp.1379-1384, Dec 1990. 1.Gain boosting 1) Cascode gain stage with gain enhancement +VDD

V o Vref

+ _
Aadd

M2

Cload

Vi

M1

-VSS Rout = [g m 2 ro2 ( Aadd + 1) + 1]ro1 + ro 2 Atot = g m1ro1 [g m 2 ro 2 ( Aadd + 1) + 1] Aorig = g m1 g m2 ro1ro 2 2) Repetitive implementation of gain enhancement +VDD

V o M2 M4 M6 M8

M1 Vi

M3

M5

M7

-VSS 2.High-frequency behavior

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gain (log) Atot gain enhancement = Aadd(0) +1 ω3 : Upper 3-dB frequency of Aorig ω5 : Unity-gain frequency of Atot ω2 : Upper 3-dB frequency of Aadd ω4 : Unity-gain frequency of Aadd ω1 : Upper 3-dB frequency of Atot ω5 : Unity-gain frequency of Aorig

Aadd Aorig

ω (log) ω6 ω1 ω2 ω3 ω4 ω5

We want ω5

Aorig

= ω5

Atot

ω 2 > ω 1 => The bandwidth is determined by ω 1, i.e. Rout and Cload. => ω 4 > ω 3 But ω 4 < ω 5 for easy design of Aadd. Aadd and M2 forms a close loop with the dominant pole of ω 2 and the second pole at the source of M2, i.e. ω 6 The stability consideration requires ω 4 < ω 6 =>The safe range of ω 4 is ω3 < ω4 < ω6
* The repetitive usage of the gain-enhancement techniques yields a decoupling of the op-amp gain and unity-gain frequency fu. That is:gain↑ without fu↓ . 3.Settling behavior 1. Total output impedance Ztot Ztot= Z load // Z out Zload: impedance of Cload Zout: output impedance of the amplifier Z load g −1 m Z tot g −1 m Zout ≅ Zorig (Add+1)
Normalized impedance (log)

Z out g −1 m

Z orig g −1 m
Pole-zero doublet

ω (log)

ω1 ω2

ω3 ω4 ω5

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CHUNG-YU WU ω2 : Upper-3dB freq. Of Aadd

èthe same for Z out

ω4 : Unity-gain freq. Of Aadd
For ω >

ω4 , Aadd < 1è Z out → Z orig ω4 for Z out ω4

èA zero is formed at

Z total = Z load || Z out èA pole-zero doublet is formed around èThe same doublet of Atotal 3. Design technique for fast settling The time constant of the doublet, constant,

1 , must be smaller than the main close-loop time ω PZ

1 . where β is the feedback factor. βω unity

The safe range for the gain (log)

ω4 .

Aaddd

1/β

Aclosed-loop

ω2

βω 5

ω4 ω5 ω6 ω (log)

Safe range for ω 4

βω5 < ω4 < ω6
doublet

4. CMOS OP AMP circuit

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+VDD

Vbp1

Vbp1

Vcm VinVin+

Ib Vout+

Vout-

Vbn1

Vbn1

-VSS MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OP AMP Gain enh. DC-gain Unity-gain freq. Load cap. Phase margin Power cons. Output-swing Supply voltage Settling time 0.1% , ∆V o = 1V on 90dB 116MHz 16pF 64deg. 52mW 4.2V 5.0V 61.5ns Off 46dB 120MHz 16pF 63deg 45mW 4.2V 5.0V -

§ 8-5.2 1V Rail-to-Rail CMOS OP AMPs
Ref.: IEEE JSSC vol.35, no.1, pp.33-44 Jan. 2000

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1. Typical input stage for rail-to-rail amplifiers * Parallel-connected complementary * Operating zones for low VDD/VSS differential pairs.
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* Operating zones for extremely low VDD/VSS

Dead region. Both pairs are off.

2. Dynamic level-shifting current generator

Vi,n,cm=Vi,cm+IR Vi,p,cm=Vi,cmi-IR

* The input resistance over the entire voltage range is infinite and no loading effect or input current over the previous stage. Usually mismatches cause negligible input current. * The symmetrical topology ensures very high CMRR 1 ∆ R ∆Gm −1 CMRR = ( + ) RG m R Gm where Gm = ∆I / ∆ Vi ,cm

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Circuit implementation

3. Rail-to-rail very LV CMOS OP AMP with input dynamic level-shifting circuit

MAIN TRANSISTOR ASPECT RATIOS (IN µm) AND ELEMENT VALUES OF THE AMPLIFIER BASED ON COMPLEMENTARY PAIRS M1A,M1B M2A,M2B M1,M2 M3,M4 M5-M8 M9-M12 400/5 200/5 400/2 200/2 400/5 500/5 M15 R1-R4 RM CM
I bn = I bp

700/2 30 KΩ 5 KΩ 10pF 10µA 40µA

Io

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4. Input CM adapter
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+

Vx = A[2Vref - (Vi,p + Vi,p )]
-

= 2A(Vref − Vi,p,cm ) I = G m Vx => Vi,p,cm ≅ Vref + Vi,p,dm = Vi,dm Vi,cm 2RGmA

*Vi ,cm is degraded by A and Vi , p ,cm ≅ V ref Circuit implementation:

5. Very LV CMOS OP AMP with a single differential pair and the input CM adapter.

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Main transistor ratios(in µm) and element values of the amplifier based on a single input pair M1A M1B 1000/6 M6 1600/2 M2A M2B MA1-MA4 MA5-MA6 M2D M1,M2 M3-M5 6.Measured results Experimental performance of amplifiers(Vsupply=1V ,technology:1.2µm CMOS, CL=15pF) Parameter Dynamic-shifting amp CM adapater amp Active die area Ido(supply current) DC gain unity-gain frequency Phase margin SR+ SRTHD(0.5Vpp@1kHz) THD(0.5Vpp@40kHz Vni(@1KHz) Vni(@10KHz) Vni(@1MHz) CMRR PSRR+ PSRR0.81mm 2 410uA 87dB 1.9Mhz 61° 0.8V/us 1V/us -54dB -32dB 267nV/ Hz 91nV/ Hz 74nV/ Hz 62dB -54.4dB -52.1dB 0.26 mm 2 208uA 70.5dB 2.1Mhz 73° 0.9V/us 1.7V/us -77dB -57dB 359nV/ Hz 171nV/ Hz 82nV/ Hz 58dB -56.7dB -51.5dB 600/4 50/2 300/4 150/2 200/2 400/2 M7-M10 M11 R1-R2 RM CM Is=Ir/2 300/4 700/2 15KΩ 5KΩ 5pF 10µA

§8-5.3 1.5V High Drive Capability CMOS OP AMP
Ref.: IEEE JSSC vol.34, no.2, pp. 248-252, Feb. 1999

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+VDD 1. Folded-mirror differential input stage
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VCM ≤ VGS 6, 7 + VTHn = 2VTHn + ∆V6, 7

VBIAS2

M3

M4 OUT

VCM ≥ VDSsat 5 + VGS 1, 2 = 2VTHn + ∆V5 + ∆V1, 2 CMR = VTHn − ∆V5 ∆V : overdrive voltage.
IN+ VBIAS1 M1 M2 IN-

M7 M5 M6 CMR is independent of supply voltage. For VDD=1.5V , CMR=0.6 ~ 0.7V -VSS CMR of the conventional NMOS-input differential pair is 0.3-0.5V 2. Output Stage +VDD
M6A M8A M4A IB2

IB1 A

OUT
B

IN

M1A M3A

M5A M7A

M2A

-VSS Input section : M1A-M4A , IB1 , IB2 Output section: M5A-M6A and M7A-M8A M5A, M8A sat M6A, M7A off. For low input levels , M6A and M7A off è Class A operation. For large positive input signals, ID1A=IB1 è M3A and M5A OFF è VA ¡÷ -VSS è M6A is turned on to supply most of the output current. But M7A remains cutoff. The current of M8A is increased. For large negative input signals, M7A supplies most of the output current. (W/L) 5A,8A << (W/L) 6A,7A for low dc power dissipation and high drive.

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3. Overall LV CMOS OP AMP.
+VDD M15 M3 M6 M7 M8 M1 M2 IN+ M4 M5 MC CC2 M9
M1A M3A

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IBIAS

M18

M6A M8A

M4A M11

M12

CC3A CC1

OUT

CC3B

INM14 M16

M5A M7A

M2A

M13

-VSS

Dominant pole : Wp1≈

1 ro5,7{(gm8 ro8,9 )2[gm5A,8A(ro5A || ro8A )]}Cc g m1, 2 C c1

Gain-bandwidth product: WGBW ≈

Hybrid nested Miller compensation: CC1, CC2, CC3A,B The inner amplifier M8,M9,M1A~M8A contributes the nondominant poles. * The two-stage OP AMP M1~M9 has a gain-bandwidth product of and the gain of g m12 , sCc 1 g m12 , sCc 2

g m1, 2 Cc 2

at high frequency. The gain of M1-M7 at high frequency is

. Thus the gain of the gain stage M8 and M9 is approximately equal to

CC1 . CC 2

* The open-loop gain of the inner amplifier is

  C  g Ain ≅ − C 1  m1 A, 2 A 2 g m 5 A, 8 A (ro 5 A ro8 A )  C  g   C 2  m3 A , 4 A 
Dominant pole : ωP1in ≅ Second pole : ωP 2in ≅ g m3 A ,4 A g m5 A,8 A (ro 5 A || ro8 A )C C 3 A, B

2 g m5 A, 8 A CL

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C g Gain-bandwidth product : ωGBWin ≅ 2 C1 m1A , 2 A C C 2 C C 3 A, B or the second pole of the whole amplifier Design consideration : To obtain a maximally flat Butterworth response without gain peaking, we have the unity-gain frequency equal to one half of the second-pole frequency. ωGBWin = ωuin = 1 ωP 2 in 2

1 1 ωGBW = ωu = ωuin = ωGBWin 2 2 Reference : IEEE JSSC, vol.27, pp.1709-1716, Dec. 1992. Setting 2C C 3 A, B = C C 2 , we have C C1 = 2 g m1, 2 g m5 A,8 A

CL CL g m5 A,8 A

C C 2 = 2C C 3 A, B = 2 g m1, 2 g m1 A, 2 A ⋅ Component values : M1,M2,M3,M9,M1A,M2A,M10 M4,M5,M11,M12,M13 M6,M7 M8 M3A M4A M5A M7A M6A M8A M14,M16 M15,MC CC1 CC2 CC3A,CC3B IBIAS VTH

60/2 20/2 15/2 90/2 5/1.2 15/1.2 30/1.2 120/1.2 360/1.2 90/1.2 10/1.2 30/2 4pF 6pF 2pF 5uA 0.8V

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Experimental results: MEASURED MAIN PERFORMANCE Open-Loop Gain GBW Phase Margin Gain Margin Settling Time(0.1%), ∆V = 200mV 68dB 1MHz 65o 16dB 400ns 1 V/£gs

Slew Rate THD@1kHz Vout = 0.5V RL=500£[ -57dB Closed-Loop Gain=20dB PSRR+@1kHz PSRR- @1kHz CMRR @1kHz Offset Power Dissipation Die Size Technology Loading 75dB 75dB

95dB < 8mv 280£gW 0.08 mm 2 1.2£gm CMOS 50pF || 500£[

9-1
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Chapter 9 Passive Components and Switches
§ 9-1 Resistors 1. Source/Drain diffused resistor
Thermal oxide Metal

n+ p

* Compatible with NMOS and CMOS. metal-gate and Si-gate techniologies. * R¡¼ 20 ~ 100Ω /¡¼ ( 100KΩ max) = * Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) = 500~1500 ppm/oC. Voltage Coefficient of Resistance (VCR)=100~500ppm/ oC Tolerance= ± 20% (Absolute) * High parasitic capacitance (n+-p junction cap.) Piezoresistance error. (Because of shallow junction) 2. P-well (N-well) diffused resistor (Well or tub resistor)
Thermal oxide Metal

p+

n+ p n

p+

* Compatible with CMOS metal-gate or Si-gate technology. * R¡¼ 1KΩ ~ 5KΩ /¡¼ = Large VCR

9-2
Tolarance= ± 40% (absolute) * Large depth and lateral spreading ⇒ narrow resistors are impossible. 3. Implanted resistor
( metal-gate technology ) CVD SiO2 n+ Implanted N+ p-sub n+
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SiO2

* Compatible with NMOS and CMOS, metal-gate and Si-gate technologies. * Need an additional masking step. * R¡¼ 500Ω ~ 1000Ω /¡¼ ; can be accurately controlled. > * Higher VCR ; smaller tolerance. * Difficult to eliminate the piezoresistance effect. * The resistor implant can be combined with the depletion implant. 4. Poly-Si resistor
Vapor-deposited oxide Metal Poly Si I or II

P

Field oxide

* Realizable by NMOS and CMOS Si-gate technologies. * R ¡¼ 30Ω ~ 200Ω / ¡¼ (doped with the source/drain = diffusion) * TCR ≅ 500~1500 ppm/oC ; Tolerance= ± 40%

9-3
* Can be trimmed by laser or poly fuse. * Fully isolated with smaller parasitic capacitance. ² Version I :Poly-I resistor ² Version II:Poly-II resistor ² ² Version III :Poly-I and Poly-II distributed RC structure (please see the structure shown in poly to poly capacitor) 5. Switched-capacitor simulated resistor * Realizable by NMOS and CMOS , metal-gate and Sigate technologies. * High frequency operation?
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φ
i V1 R
V1 − V2 R

φ
V2

V2

V1

C

i=

f C is the clock frequency of φ or φ i= C (V1 − V2 ) , T R= T 1 = C fC ⋅C

6. Thin-film resistor * Realizable by NMOS and CMOS, metal-gate and Si-gate technologies. * Need additional process steps. * Si-Chromium resistor or Mo resistor. * Laser trimming is possible. * Non-conventional material may be involved. § 9-2 Capacitors 1. PN junction capacitor * Well known and understood. * Nonlinear capacitance with a large VCR.

9-4
* Compatible with all MOS technologies. 2. MOS capacitor
metal
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thin oxide p+ P-sub

* Realizable only by NMOS and technology. * TC=25 ppm/oC Tolerance=±15% VC=25ppm/V * Voltage-dependent capacitance accumulation depletion Co (Co-1 Cd-1)-1 3. Poly (or metal ) to bulk silicon capacitor
Poly Si Metal

CMOS

metal-gate

n+ Thin thermal oxide P

n+ Heavy n+ implant

* Realizable by NMOS and CMOS poly-Si-gate (metal-gate ) technologies. + * Need an extra mask to define the heavy n implant as the bottom plate. * Can be trimmed by laser on poly-fuse. ( Poly-fuse : blown with 10-20mA ) * Bottom plate pn junction parasitic capacitance ( ≈ 15% − 30% ) * VC of the capacitor ≈ -10ppm/V

9-5
* TC ≈ 20-50 ppm/ C * Tolerance ≈ ±15% 4. Poly to field implant region capacitor
poly-Si
o

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field oxide n+ p+ substrate p-sub

* Realizable only by NMOS and CMOS Si-gate technologies with the field implant. * Smaller oxide capacitance per unit area ¡î Thick field oxide * The capacitor’s bottom plate must be always connected to the substrate. * Low quality dielectric oxide. 5. Metal to poly capacitor
metal poly oxide

poly

CThick

CB

Thick oxide

P-sub

* * * * *

Realizable by NMOS and CMOS Si-gate technologies. Interdielectric is poly-oxide. Extra mask to define the ploy-oxide pattern. Poly fuse trimming is possible. CVD oxide is not good as capacitor dielectric

9-6
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hysteresis in Q-V due to dielectric changing and relaxation. * For reliability consideration, the top metal layer must be larger than the poly oxide layer. ⇒ CThick exists ⇒ parasitic capacitance * VC=100ppm/v, TC=100ppm/oC 6. poly to poly capacitor
Vapor deposited oxides

Co CB

CThick

poly to substrate parasitic cap.

Thin thermal oxide Poly 2

Poly 1

Field oxide P

* Realizable by NMOS and CMOS double-poly technologies. * VC=100ppm/v TC=100ppm/ oC * Double-poly ⇒ EPROM or E 2 PROM are available ⇒ may be applied in trimming * The poly2 area may be smaller than the poly-oxide area ⇒ small CThick General Reference: D. J. Allstot and W. C Black, Jr., IEEE Proc. vol-71, pp967-986, 1983. § 9-3 Tolerance Considerations. Resistors : Absolute tolerance ≈ ±20% ~ ±40% Matching or ratio tolerance ≈ ±0.1% ~ ±10% Capacitors: Absolute tolerance ≈ ±15%

Co CB

9-7
Matching or ratio tolerance ≈ ±0.01% ~ ±1% Resistors : L ∆R ∆L ∆Rs ∆L ∆W , = − ≈ − W R L Rs L W ∆L ∆R ∆W If L is large ⇒ ≈0⇒ ≈ L R W R = Rs  δ ρ  2  δL  2  δ W  2  δXt  2  ρ L  +  +  R= , σ R =   +     Xt W  ρ   L   W   Xt     δW = for long resistor W * Long resistor pattern is recommended in precise resistors. Capacitors: ε ∆C ∆W ∆L ∆ε si02 ∆t ox C = sio 2 WL = + + − t ox C W L ε sio 2 t ox edge effect Oxide effect CASE I : Absolute tolerance ∆C ∆W ∆L = + (if W and L are small or ∆εsio 2 and ∆tox are C W L neglible) If £G and £G are independent with σ ∆l = σ ∆w = σ l W L σ ∆C = σ l
C 1/ 2

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1 1 + 2 (random variation) W2 L 2 l is minimum d
non − square( W ≠ L )

Assume L=W=d , σ ∆ C =
C

⇒ σ ∆C
C

square( L=W )

< σ ∆C
C

For the same WL ,minimum perimeter leads to minimum telerance. Circular shape? CASEII : Ratio or Matching tolerance under geometry random variation

9-8
α≡ C1 W1 L1 dα dC1 dC2 = , = − C2 W2 L2 α C1 C2
2 2
2 1

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σ dα = σ dc + σ dc
α c1

= σl

c2

1 1 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 L1 W1 L2 W2 L + W1 2+ 1 ( αd )2
2 2

For W2=L2=d, σ dα
α

σ = l d

⇒ σ dα
α min

=2

σl if L1 = W1 = αd d

(1)

square versus square CASE III : Ratio tolerance under the uniform undercut effect Uniform undercut is not a random variation.

L2=d W2=d
∆x

∆x

W1 L1

α≡ α actual =

C1 W1 L1 = 2 C2 d

W1 L1 − P1∆x + 4∆x 2 W1 L1 − P1∆x ≅ 2 d 2 − P2 ∆x + 4 ∆x2 d − P2 ∆x

∆α ∆x P ≅ 2 ( P2 − 1 ) α d α P 2( W1 + L1 ) IF P2 = 1 ⇒ ∆α ≅ 0 i.e. 4d = α α So W1 L1 = αd 2   2( W1 + L1 ) = 4 dα  ⇒ W1 = d( α − α 2 − α ) ¡F L1 = d ( α + α 2 − α ) σ dα =
α

(2)

σl 2 α >>1 σ l 6− ≅ 6 d α d

If α = 1 , both conditions(1) and (2) can be satisfied ⇒ Ratio tolerance ↓

9-9
CASE IV : Ratio tolerance under edge and oxide effects Take α = 1 ⇒ unit capacitor array D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
C1 C2
=4

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C2 C1

D

: Dummy capacitor pattern

* Centralized structure to avoid the oxide effect. * Dummy capacitor may be omitted to save area. * Ratio tolerance can be ±0.06 % Similarly, for resistors, we have

R1 dummy resistor

R2

R1

R2 dummy resistor

* Ratio tolerance can be ±0.25 % § 9-4 The MOS Switch 1. The NMOS switch 1) If Vφ≥V1+VTHN , MN on ⇒ V2=V1 full transimission

9 - 10

Mn 1 V1 VBS
Example: V1= 0V, Vφ= 3V ⇒ V2= 0 V1= 5V, Vφ= 8V, VTN =1.5V ⇒ V2= 5V 2) If V1 + VTHN > Vφ > VTHN , M N on V 2 = Vφ − VTHN Example: Vφ = 5V , V1 = 5V , VTHN = 1.5V (under substrate bias), VBS = 0V ⇒V2 = 3.5V 3) If Vφ < VTHN , M N off Node 1 or 2 may be floating ⇒ V1 or V2 will be gradually charged or discharged by the leakage current in MOS or PN junctions. Vφ
n+ A
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2 V2

p

If Vφ = 0V for a very long time, V A → 0V by the n + p junction leakage current ⇒ Not allowable in circuit design * When the switch is turned on or off, the charging or discharging current is nonlinear ⇒ Nonlinear resistor Capacitance feedthrough effect:

9 - 11

Cgs 1 C1
Vφ : VDD → 0 V1 f ≈ V1i −VDD V2 f ≈ V2 i − VDD Cgs Cgs + C1 C gd Cgd + C1
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C Cgd 2 C2 +

Vout

error voltage Example: C gd ≈ 0.02PF, C 2 = 2 PF, VDD = 10V , error voltage ≈ 0.1V Compensation circuit:

Vφ −
2

1 2

1
2. The PMOS switch

VDD

* Can pass high voltage without offset. Example: Vφ = 0V , VDD = 5V = V1 ⇒ V2 = 5V Q 1 = source and
VGS = 5V

9 - 12
* Can’t pass low voltage completely. Example: Vφ = 0V , V 2 i = 5V , V1 = 0V , VTP = 1.5V ⇒V2 f ≈ 1.5V ≠ 0V 3. The CMOS switch Vφ
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1

VDD

2

* Full transmission * The clock feedthrough effect can be greatly compensated, if the delay between Vφ and V is zero.
φ

* Nonlinear Cgs and Cgd and the delay between Vφ and
V make the compensation of the feedthrough effect quite
φ

complicated. * If V1 = 5V = Vφ ,V = 0V ,VDD = 5V ,VTN =| VTP |= 1.5V
φ
_

V 2 = 0V → V2 = 5V − 1.5V = 3.5V : NMOS and PMOS V2 = 3.5V → V2 = 5V : Only PMOS If V1=0V, V2i=5V
V2 = 5V → V 2 = 1 .5V : NMOS and PMOS

V 2 = 1.5V → V 2 = 0V : Only NMOS

10 - 1
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Chapter 10 CMOS Bandgap References
§10-1 Basic Principles of Bandgap References (BGR)
VBE ( on ) = mV therm ln( I1 / I S ) I S = qAn i 2 Dn / QB = Bn i 2 D = B ' ni 2T µ where B and B ' are constants, indep. of T. µ = CT − n I S : Reverse saturation current of a BJT A : Area of a BJT QB : Base minority carrier charges D : Average diffusivity of carriers

C:Constant, indep. of T. n:Temp. exponent.

ni 2 = ET 3 exp( −VGO / Vtherm )

E : Constant, indep. of T. VGO : Energy gap.

⇒ VBE ( on) = mV therm ln[ I 1T −γ F exp(VGO / Vtherm )] F : Constant , indep. of T. γ =4−n I1 = GT α where I1 is the collector current and G is a temp.-indep. constant.

⇒ V BE (on ) = VGO − Vtherm [(γ − α) ln T − ln( FG )] In general, the output voltage Vout is a sum of V BE (on ) , and KVtherm with a weighting factor K such that Vout is nearly indep. of T. V BE (on ) + KV therm = V out = VGO − mV therm (γ − α) ln T + mV therm [ K + ln( FG )] …………(1)

dVout dT

=0=
T =TO

mV thermo [K + ln( FG )] − mVthermo (γ − α) ln TO − mVthermo (γ − α) + d VGO TO TO TO dT

TO  d  ⇒ K + ln( FG ) = (γ − α) ln TO + (γ − α) −  VGO  ⋅ …..(2)  dT  mVthermo Substituting (2) into (1) , we have

Vout

T d = V GO + mVtherm (γ − α)(1 + ln O ) − T V GO T dT 7.02 × 10 −4 ⋅ T 2 T + 1108

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VGO = 1.16 −

14.04 × 10 −4 TO (TO + 1108) − 7.02 × 10 −4 ⋅ TO 2 d V =− dT GO T =T (TO + 1108) 2
O

14.04 × 10 −4 ⋅ TO 7.02 × 10 −4 ⋅ TO =− + TO + 1108 (TO + 1108) 2 ⇒ Vout = mV therm (γ − α)(1 + ln

2

7.02 × 10 −4 ⋅ T 2 TO ) + 1.16 − − T T + 1108 14.04 × 10 −4 ⋅ TOT 7.02 × 10 −4 ⋅ TO2 ⋅ T + (TO + 1108) 2 TO + 1108

If γ = 3.2, m = 1,α = 1, TO = 25 O C ⇒ Vout (T ) T =25
O

C

= 1.16 + 2.2(0.0259) − = 1.093V

21.06 × 10 −4 (298) 2 7.02 × 10 −4 (298) 2 + 298 + 1108 ( 298 + 1108) 2

§10-2 Bipolar Bandgap Reference
Widlar bandgap reference *Feedback element Q4 is used to force Q3 on. * Q4 also serves as a start-up circuit. *Vout = I 2 R2 + V BE 3 I2 = I3 if I B 2 = I B 3 I3 =  I I  V BE 1 − V BE 2 1 = mVtherm ln( 1 ) + ln( S 2 )  R3 R3 I S1   I2  I  + ln S 2  I   S1      ⋅ Vtherm     I1 +Vcc I Q4 R1 I2
R2>>R1
+

R2

+ Q3 V out

Q1 R   R  Vout = V BE 3 +  2 mln 2  R3   R1  
+ -

VBE1

VBE2
-

+

Q2 VBE3R3 -

I1 / I 2 = R2 / R1 If V BE1 = V BE 3 Adjust R2 / R3 , R2 / R1 and I S 2 / I S 1 to give a suitable K And Keep I ≅ I 2 to obtain I B 2 ≅ I B 3 and

I3

I S 3 I3 = to obtain V BE1 = V BE 3 . I S1 I 1

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V2 R1 V1 Q1 R3 The operating point 4 is the desired operating point =>Need a start-up circuit. V1 Q2 R2>> R1 R2 VBE(on) + V2 Cut-in State 2 1 3 ON State 4

§10-3

CMOS Real Bandgap Reference (BGR)
Version 2: N-well CMOS, Negative VREF

§10-3.1 CMOS BGR via BJTs and Resistors Version 1: N-well CMOS, positive VREF I2 R2 - Vos+ + CMOS
OP AMP

R1

I1

R1

I1

R2

I2 -Vos + +
CMOS OP AMP

-

_

+ R3 VREF -

_

VREF

R3

+ Q1 Q2

Q1 Q2 -Vss

-Vss

Q1,Q2:Substrage-well-source/drain parasitic vertical BJTs I V BE = mVtherm ln E IS V REF = ±{VBE 1 + R2 R I R + R2 Vtherm (ln 2 + ln s2 ) + VOS [ 3 ]} R3 R1 I s1 R3

Typical design values: I1=80£gA I2=8£gA R2 ≈ 0.6V R 60mV = 75 K£[ , R1 = 2 = 7.5K£[ , R3 = = 7.5K£[ 8 A £g 10 8£g A Large resistanceèuse well resistors R1,R2,R3: n+/p+ diffusion resistors n+ - poly resistors well resistors Both transistors are in the active region Error analysis: 1. Error due to base resistances I 1 rI VBE 1 = Vtherm ln 1 + Vtherm ln + b 1 1 IS A£]1 1+ £]1

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I1

¡µVBE + I2

rb/A

â1 Q1

rb

â2 Q2

∆ VBE = Vtherm ln A + Vtherm ln

I2 £] 1 I I + Vtherm ln + rb ( 2 − 1 ) 1 I1 £] 2 A£] 1 1+
£] 2

1+

1

-Vss

If â1, â2 are not large enough or rb is too large, è ∆V BE due to rb and £] is large. R3 + R 2 R R I £] 1 R I I ) + 2 Vtherm (ln 2 + ln s 2 + ln ) + 2 rb ( 2 − 1 )} 1 R3 R3 R1 I s1 R3 £] 2 A£] 1 1+
£] 2

1+

1

V REF = ±{VBE 1 + VOS (

2.Error due to input offset voltage Vos R Vos =10mV, VOS (1 + 2 ) ≈ 10VOS = 100mV R3 TC error due to 1 VREF d VREF = dT (1 + R2 )VOS R1 10 × 10mV = = 264 ppm / o C VREF T0 1.26V × 300 o K

VOS :

3.Error due to Bias current variation VBE 1 = Vtherm ln I1 V ln A = VThrem ln therm (R3=R1) I S1 R I S1

V ln A R (T ) = V therm ln therm + Vtherm ln 1 O R1 (TO ) I S1 R1 (T ) If R1 is indep. of T ⇒ V BE = V therm ln If R1 depends on T ⇒ V BE = V therm ln V BE = V BE  1 dR − Vtherm ⋅   R dT 

I1 = I 2

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Vtherm ln A R1 (TO ) I S1

V therm ln A R (T ) + Vtherm ln 1 O R1 (TO ) I S1 R1 (T )  (T − T )2 O   PTAT

ideal

TO

2   (T − TO ) − Vtherm  1 d R   2 R dT 2 T  

O

PTAT 2  1 dR + V therm  2  2 R dT 

PTAT

PTAT 3

TO

 (T − TO )2 − ......   PTAT

PTAT 3

If R is only linearly dependent on T, we still have PTAT 2 term The PTAT 2 term can be cancelled via curvature compensations. 4.TC Error due to Base Resistance I ∆V BE = rb 2 β2 TC error = (1 + R2 rb I 2 ) R1 Vref β2  1 drb 1 dI 2 1 dβ2   r dT + I dT − β dT  b 2 2    

Example : rb = 2 K Ω , TC of rb = 1000 ppm / O C , I 2 = 30µA , β = 150 , TC of β = 7000 ppm / O C ⇒ TC = –8.6 ppm / O C 5.Error due to base current Base current cancellation technique *To compensate for the different between the collector, emitter, or base current

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Version 1: +VDD I1 IB IB I1 IB IB IB -VSS -VSS IB Version2: +VDD IE
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Ref:1.IEEE J .Solid-State Circuits, vol.SC-18, pp634-640, DEC. 1983 2. IEEE J .Solid-State Circuits, vol.SC-19, pp1014-1021, DEC. 1984 The circuit to obtain VREF from a BGR +VDD Q1

Q2 R3

_ +
R1 R2

VBGR

+ _
R5 ¡±10-3.2 Improved structure 1. R4

VREF=VBGR(1+R4/R5)

VBIAS

ãN M1

M2

Vo=VR1 +VR2 +VBE3

*Better matching

KT VR1 = VBE1-VBE2= ln(αγ ) q KT Vo=VBE3+ [ln(αγ )] (1+R/R) =>Bandgap Reference q

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2.
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VBIAS M4 M3 M2 M1

3.

M110

4.

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M110

+VDD M105 M104 M103 M111 M109 M110 M108 M112

M101 M102

M106 M107

M3 M1 -Vss M2

M6 M4 M5

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5.Low Power Supply Circuit:

M101 M102

-Vss *Low driving capability Power supply limits: Low Possible Bandgap reference Topology 1 2 3 5
¡±

V oltage

T=25°C

PMOS Inputs VTP ≤ 1.0V 1.5v 1.95v 1.90v 2.5v

NMOS Inputs VTN ≤ 1.0V 2.2v 2.95v 1.5v

10-3.3 CMOS BGR via lateral Transistor

Ref:IEEE J .Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-20, pp.1151-1157, DEC. 1985 Structure of a lateral BJT in CMOS:

A.

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sub B. metal

sub

V oltage reference via LBJT: Conceptual circuit¡G

Symbol:

Q2 Q1

A:Current comparator VCC:V oltage-controlled current source G:A negative voltage is applied to cause accumulation.

Advantages:(1)The offset of the amplifier A has a negligible effect on VREF (2)Simple structure. Purpose of VCC : To provide a current path for IR1>>IB1,IB2

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+VDD

+VDD

+ +

Vref _ -Vss

1:A

Vref _ -Vss * Low supply voltage * Low current gain in A * R2 is trimmable

* High supply voltage. * Two source follwers+one emitter follower in(A) current amp.=>higher current gain

R4,R3,T3:VCC R3: To keep T3 from quasi-saturation R4:To sense the output voltage and transform it into the collector current of T3. * All resistor are polyresistors * Low output impedance. Measured results: VREF mean :1.2285V ; Minimal supply voltage Supply current Noise spectra PSRR(100Hz) Load regulation (ÄV out/Iout) Chip area

standard deviation :150ìV 2.2V 79ìA

316nV Hz
60dB 3.6ìV/ìA 0.42 mm2

( white) ; 560nV

1 ,1KHz ) Hz f (

High PSRR BGR: * R1,R2 may be p-well resistors and PSRR still high. Experimental results: VREF 1.2281V (mean) 350ìV (ó) Minimal Supply 1.7V Supply Current 20ìA Noise Spectra

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+VDD

500nV Hz 1µV

( white)
: :

1 ( ,1KHz) Hz f

PSRR(100Hz) 77dB -Vss Load Regulation 4.1mv/ìA (ÄVout/Iout) Chip area 0.18 mm2 Curvature-Compensated BGR: Ref: IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. sc-20, pp.1283-1285, Dec. 1985

§10-4

High-Precision Curvature-Compensated CMOS Bandgap Voltage References (BVR)

Ref: Int. J. of Analog ICs and Signal Processing, Kluwer, pp. 207-215, 1992 1. Type A structure The circuit stricture of the proposed BVR (Type A)

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Vout = VBE 3 + I 3 R2 = VBE 3 + r3
2. Type A structure

R2 kT ( ln A* + ∆Vsg ) R1 q

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Cst

3. Type B structure

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4. Type C structure The cascode structure of BVR (Type C):
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The variation of ¡µVsg versus temperature

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The simulated output voltages versus temperature in Type A and Type A BVR

The variation of ¡µVsg versus MOS channel length in Type A BVR

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The Spice simulated output voltages versus temperature in Type C BVR

The measured output voltages versus temperature in the fabricared cascaded-structure BVR(Type C)[ 3.5 ìm CMOS technology , R1=1KÙ(external),R2=25.9KÙ(external)]

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* Average temperature drift 5.5 ppm/ oC -60 oC ~ +150 oC 5V~15V * At 25 oC, average voltage drift 25ìV/V V out=1.1963V ~ 1.1965V 5V ~ 15V 2 * 2 mil , 0.8 mW at 5V

§10-5 CMOS Bandgap Reference with Sub-1-V Operation
Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol.34, pp.670~674, May 1999 Concept: * Convertional BGR V ref = 1.25V Can’t be operated below 1V supply. * The built-in voltage V f of the diode → the current I 2b The thermal voltage Vtherm → the current I 2 a ( I 2 a + I 2b ) R → V ref < 1V 1.Schematic of the proposed BGR

I1 Vf1 R3 I1a I1b R1

I2 I2a Vf2 R2 I2b R4

I3

Native NMOS VTHI = −0.2V NMOS VTHN = +0.7V PMOS VTHP = −1.0V

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*The diode is realized by the parasitic P + / n − well / P − substract BJT as

* C1 and C 2 are used to stabilized the circuit. *The control signal PONRST is used to initialize the BGR circuit when the power is turned on. * R1 = R2 V a = Vb I1 = I 2 = I 3 and I1a = I 2 a , I1b = I 2 b dV f = V f 1 − V f 2 = Vtherm ln( N ) , N = 100 I 2a = I 2b = dV f R3 Vf 1 ∝ V therm

∝Vf R2 I 3 = I 2 = I 2a + I 2b R R4 V f 1 + 4 dV f R3 R2

V ref = R 4 I 3 =

2. Simulated V ref characteristics

VDD

10 - 19
*V ref = 1.25V *V ref = 0.84V 3.Minimum V DD min V1 ≅ V s ≅ Vb − VTHI ≅ V f + VTHI ≅ V DD + VTHP = min V DD − VTHP ⇒ min V DD = V f + VTHI + VTHP ≅ 0.8 ~ 1.0V 0.54 4.Measured results: -0.2 -0.3 conventional BGR proposed BGR
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VDD

VDD
* TC ≅ 60 ppm / O C 27 O ~ 125 O C V oltage drift (average) ≅ 600µV /V 2.2V~4V

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CH 11 Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs) in CMOS Technology
§11-1 Introduction
1. Block diagram

Analog Signal ( Video, Audio, Sensor.....)

Filtering and A/D Conversion

Digital Processing Control

D/A Conversion and Filtering

Analog Output

Analog World

Digital World

Analog World

(Digital signal processing has better noise immunity than analog signal processing.)

Fig. 11.1 A block diagram of a typical signal processing system

Digital Data Input

Data Latches

D/A Converter

Output Sample and Hold

Analog Output

Control

Fig. 11.2

Functional block diagram of a D/A converte

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2. Ideal DAC: Analog output signal Vout = Vref (b12-1+b22-2+ ---- +bN2-N)

Vref: analog reference signal b1 … … . b N : N-bit digital data input The signal change when one LSB changes is VLSB VLSB ≡ V ref
2N

If in LSB unit, 1LSB= 3. DAC performance specifications

1 2N

(1) Resolution: The number of distinct analog levels corresponding to the different digital words. N-bit resolution ¡÷ 2Ndistinct analog levels. (2) Offset error: E off (DAC) ≡ (3) Gain error: E gain (DAC) ≡ [ Vout VLSB
1.... 1 −

Vout VLSB

0.... 0

( LSB)

Vout VLSB

0..... 0 ]− (2

N −1)

(LSB)

Vout VLSB (LSB) Ideal transfer response Actual transfer response Actual transfer response with Eoff(DAC)set to zero 1......1 Digital Data Input Bin Gain error

Offset error o 0......0

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(4) Accuracy absolute accuracy: The difference between the expected and actual transfer response. It includes the offset, gain, and linearity errors. relative accuracy: The accuracy after the offset and gain errors have been removed.
⇒ maximum integrated nonlinearity (INL) error

*Accuracy units:

¡E% of full-scale value. ¡E effective number of bits ¡E fraction of an LSB

*12-bit accuracy ⇒ all errors¡Õ1 LSB ( (5) Integral nonlinearity (INL) error

Vout ) 212

Definition: The deviation of actual transfer response from a straight line. INL error (best-fit) and INL error (endpoint) Usually, INL error is referred to as the maximum INL error.

Vout VLSB (LSB)

Best-fit straight line
Transfer response without gain and offset errors

(maximum) INL error (best-fit)

Endpoint straight line (maximum) INL error (endpoint)
0......0 1......1

Bin

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(6) Differential nonlinearity (DNL) error Definition: The variation in analog step sizes away from 1 LSB. ( usually, gain and offset errors have been removed) (7) Monotonicity: The output signal magnitude always increases as the input digital code increases. * Maximum DNL error ¡Õ 0.5 LSB ⇒ monotonicity * Many monotonic DAC may have a maximum DNL error¡Ö0.5 LSB * Maximum INL error ¡Õ 0.5 LSB ⇒ monotonicity (8) Settling time The time it takes for the DAC to settle to within some specified amount of the final value (usually 0.5 LSB) (9) Sampling rate The rate at which sample can be continuously converted. (Typically the sampling rate is equal to the inverse of the settling time)

4. Types of DACs (1) Decoder-based DAC (2) Binary-weighted DAC (3) Thermometer-code DAC (4) Hybrid DAC (5) Oversampling DAC

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§11-2 Decoder-Based DAC §11-2.1 Resistor-String DAC
1. Conceptual 8-bit resistor-string DAC.

REF+ S256 R R 255 RESISTORS R R S255 S254 S253 S4 R R S2 R S1 REF0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (DAC INPUTS) 8 To 256 DECODER S3

+ _
DAC OUT

256 OUTPUTS

2. Practical realization R0-R15 : To divide VREF + to VREF- into 16 voltage intervals H0-H15 L0-L15: To divide each of those intervals into 16 a-p subintervals * To insure maximum uniformity of step size, i.e. linearity, the resistance of the transmission gates should be made as large as possible ⇒ minimal loading. * For 8-bit DAC, the error due to loading can be held to less than 1 LSB. if 16RT
¡Ö

2N Ri ( Ri = 200 Ω , RT

¡Ö

3.2KΩ )

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8-bit Resistor-String DAC (Multiple Resistor-String DAC)

REF+

H15

n15 R15 n14 R14 n13 R13 n12 R12 n11 R11 n10 R10 n9 R9 n8 R8 n7 R7 n6 R6 n5 R5 n4 R4 H15 p15 o H14 p14 L0 L15 n H13 p13 L14 m

0 1 4:16 2 3

L0 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 L13 L14 L15

H14

H13

H12

H11

H12

p12

L13

H10

H11

p11

L12

l

H9

H10

p10

L11

k

H8

H9

p9

L10

j

0 1 4:16 2 3

H0 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10 H11 H12 H13 H14 H15

H7

H8

p8

L9

i DAC OUT h

H6

H7

p7

L8

H5

H6

p6

L7

g

H4

H5

p5

L6

f

H3

n3 R3 n2 R2 n1 R1 n0 R0

H4

p4

L5

e

H2

H3

p3

L4

d

H1

H2

p2

L3

c

H0

H1

p1

L2

b

H0 REF-

p0

L0+L1

a

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Subinterval Generation:
14R T's
o

Lo Transmissiongate resistor

L15 n L14 m

L13

L12

l

L11

k

L10

j

L9

i

+ _

A

RT

Hi

L8

h

L7

g

DAC OUT

Ri+1 200 £[ Ri Ri-1 Hi
L4 d

RT

L6

f

L5

e

R T=3.2K£[

L3

c

L2

b

L0+L1

a

* Transmission gate size: 24µ /12µ →3.2kΩ = R T * The raw speed of the DAC is limited by the resistance of transmission gates a-p and the capacitance of the output node, also by the operating speed of the output buffer. * VDD = +5V, -VSS = -5V, Vout : ±2.5V Maximum conversion rate 0 ¡÷ full scale : 2.5MHz.

* For 8-bit DAC, the jump in step size can be held to less than 1 LSB if 16R T R i Ri − ∆R i R i +16R T Ri = = ≤ 1 16RT ≥ 2NRi. Ri Ri R i +16 R T 2 N ⇒ 2N R i ≤16R T occurs when L1=1

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§11-2.2 Folded Multiple Resistor-String DAC

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§11-3 Binary-Weighted DAC §11-3.1 Charge-Redistribution DAC
1. Multiplying DAC * All top plates are connected to the OP AMP input
⇒ To reduce substrate noise

voltage injection. * Switched-induced errors are large. * offset cancellation

2. Multiplying DAC with bipolar input

LSB MSB

sign bit

If

bo = 0

⇒ the signal Vin is positive ⇒ the same as 1.

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If

b0 = 1

⇒ the signal Vin is negative.

φ1, φ2 positions are exchanged.
n i =1

Vout = -Vin ∑ bi 2 −i 3. General characteristics or features of charge-redistribution DAC: (1) The auto-calibration cycle can be performed to remove the effects of component ratio errors. (2) Good linearity and stability due to good linear capacitors. (3) Too large capacitance ratio is required for high-bit DAC. (4) Suitable for medium-speed DAC with 6-bit resolution or below.

§11-3.2 Weighted-Current-Source DAC (Current-Mode BinaryWeighted DAC)
Conceptual circuit:

1. Conventional structure * Simple circuit structure without decoding logic. * At the mid-code transition 011---1¡÷ 10---0, the MSB current source needs to be matched to the sum of all the other current sources to within 0.5 LSB. ⇒ difficult for large bit number. ⇒ not guaranteed monotonic. * Low-accuracy matching causes inaccurate bit transition ⇒ typical DNL plot as shown ¡÷ * The errors caused by the dynamic behavior of the switches, such as charge injection and clock feedthrough, result in glitches which is most severe at the midcode transition, as all switches are switching simultaneously. ⇒ contains highly nonlinear signal components ⇒ manifest itself as spurs in the frequency domain.
maximum

Midcode glitches

Transfer response

Reference: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.33, pp.1948-1958, Dec.1998.

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Conventional Weighted-Current-Source D/A Converter

2.
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Improved Structure

The Proposed 10-bit D/A Converter
Reference: IEEE JSSC, PP.635-639, June 1989.

1. Using Two-Stage Architecture: 32 master & 32 slave current sources
(Occupied small chip area but cause tight matching requirement among master current sources.)

2. Using Threshold-Voltage Compensated Current Sources
to satisify tight matching requirement.

Only need local match & do not need global match.
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Two-Stage Weighted Current Array D/A Converter

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I1 = K (W/L)(Va-Vth1)2

IN = K (W/L)(Va-VthN)2 (VthN-Vth1) may be as large as 80 mV due to the oxide thinning effect.

Conventional switched current source.

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I 2 = K W (Va − Vth 2 )2 L = K W ( VR1 + Vth c − Vth 2 + LcIc ) 2 L KWc 1. I2¡Ö¡Ö IC 2. M2 and MC are locally matched ⇒ I 2 ≅ K W VR1 L
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VR1

Switched current source with threshold-voltage compensation.

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Spice Monte-Carlo simulation results for (a) Conventional weighted current sources; (b) current sources with threshold-voltage compensation.

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To Coax

Y Driver D5

YB Driver D1 A Vdd

Y

YB

To Dummy Load

A Vdd

Vdd Vdd

Y

YB

Y

YB

VR2 Vb IMSB-5 D10 x16 A Vdd VB VR2 Va IMSB Gnd x16 VR1 IMSB-1 x1 VR1 c VR2 Va IMSB-4 x1 VR1 c VR2 Va Vdd VR3 ILSB x1

VR2 Vb ILSB VR3 x1

VR2 Vb

VR3

Driver

A Vdd

VB

Two-stage weighted-current-source D/A converter with threshold-voltage compensated current sources.

Driver

D6

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CKs Din VB1 DB VB1 Vdd D

out in VB1 out in VB1

Vss

(a)

(b) (a) The circuit; (b) The SPICE simulated output waveforms of the input driver with high logic-threshold.

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16I

8I

4I

2I

I I

Symmetrical layout configuration of each 5-bit current array.

Compact

Symmetry

M2 M2 M2

M2

Mc M2 Mc M2
Different layout arrangement for the devices M2 and Mc in each current source: (a) 4-cell unit; (b) 5-cell unit.

M2

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Differential linearity error of the D/A converter Integral linearity error of the D/A converter.

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Differential and Integral linearity distribution of two kinds of layout methods for each current source. Linearity Error ¡Õ1/2 LSB ¡Õ1 LSB ¡Õ2 LSB 4-Cell Unit(%) 28.6 82.1 93.9 5-Cell Unit(%) 21.4 67.9 89.3

Characteristics of the D/A converter. Resolution Differential Nonlinearity Integral Nonlinearity Conversion rate Settling Time (±1/2 LSB) Rise/Fall time (10-90%) Glitch Energy Power Dissipation Supply Voltage Process Chip Size (without pads) 10 bits 0.21 LSB 0.23 LSB 125 MS/s ¡Õ 8 ns 3 ns 40 psV 150 mWatts 5V 0.8um CMOS 1.8mm×1.0mm

SUMMARY
1. Using threshold-voltage compensated current sources. 2. Two-step weighted current array 32 master, 32 slave unit current sources. 3. 10 bits, 125MHz, INL¡Õ¡Ó0.21 LSB, DNL¡Õ¡Ó0.23 LSB, 150mW. 4. Few analog components & good performance.

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§11-4 Thermometer-Code DAC
Current-mode thermometer-coded DAC; Current-cell-matrix DAC 1. Thermometer code (3 bit) b2 b1 b0 d6 d5 d4 d3 d2 d1 d0 0 0 0 ¡÷ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ¡÷ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 ¡÷ 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 . . . . 1 1 0 ¡÷ 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ¡÷ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2. Conceptual circuit of thermometer-coded DAC
V DD

Vout,p

Vout,n

Binary input 10

1

2

3 Binary-to-thermometer decoder

1024

+50% Tolerance -50% one step 1 LSB 1 SWITCH

4X

4 LSB

4 SWITCHES

Advantages: (1) Monotonicity is guaranteed. (2) The matching requirement is much relaxed . e.g. 50% matching¡÷DNL¡Õ0.5 LSB (3) At the midcode transition the glitch is greatly reduced. ¡î only 1 LSB current source is switched.

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(4) Glitches do not contribute much to nonlinearity. Glitches ∝ switched LSB
⇒ Glitch/LSB ≅ constant ⇒ Good linearity.

Disadvantage: Area consuming ¡îEvery LSB needs a current source, a switch, a decoding circuit, and the binary to thermometer decoder. 3. 8-bit current-mode thermometer-coded DAC ¡EConceptual architecture
Vdd

R Vout

4LSB 2LSB

LSB

* The two LSB bits D0 and D1 are fed to two parallel three-stage pipelined latches directly. * The six MSB bits are fed to the decoders. (D2, -----, D7)

11-26
CHUNG-YU WU ¡E Segmented decoding structure of the DAC D2 D4 Two-stage decoding of low bits Cell Two-stage decoding of high bist D5 D3

D7

D6

¡EDecoding scheme: Column D4 D3 D2 D4+D3+D2 = C1 D4+D3 = C2 D4+D4D3+D3D2+D4D2 = C3 D4 = C4 D4D3+D4D2 = C5 D4D3 = C5 D4D3D2 = C7 ¡EDecoding of current-source matrix:
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R1+C1 R2+R1C1 R3+R2C1 R4+R3C1 R5+R4C1 R6+R5C1 R7+R6C1 R7C1 R1+C2 R2+R1C2 R3+R2C2 R4+R3C2 R5+R4C2 R6+R5C2 R7+R6C2 R7C2 R1+C3 R2+R1C3 R3+R2C3 R4+R3C3 R5+R4C4 R6+R5C4 R7+R6C4 R7C3 R1+C4 R2+R1C4 R3+R2C4 R4+R3C4 R5+R4C4 R6+R5C4 R7+R6C4 R7C4 R1+C5 R2+R1C5 R3+R2C5 R4+R3C5 R5+R4C5 R6+R5C5 R7+R6C5 R7C5 R1+C6 R2+R1C6 R3+R2C6 R4+R3C6 R5+R4C6 R6+R5C6 R7+R6C6 R7C6 R1+C7 R2+R1C7 R3+R2C7 R4+R3C7 R5+R4C7 R6+R5C7 R7+R6C7 R7C7

Row D7 D6 D5 D7+D6+D5 = R1 D7+D6 = R2 D7+D7D6+D7D5+D6D5 = R3 D7 = R4 D7D6+D7D5 = R5 D7D6 = R6 D7D6D5 = R7

11-27
CHUNG-YU WU ¡E Logic diagram of the segmented row decoder

* Clocked CMOS gates * Pipelined structure with two stages.

Φ
D5 D7

Φ

Buffers

Φ

Φ

Buffers

D5 D7

D7 D6

D7

D7 D6

master slave First stage Second stage

¡ELogic diagram of the segmented column decoder is similar to that of the row decoder. ¡ECurrent cell circuit
Ci Ri Φ Φ

Ri+1

Third stage

* The third stage of the pipelined circuit.

11-28
CHUNG-YU WU ¡E Symmetrical switching sequence to reduce the gradient effect.

1 Switching order

3

5

7

Switching order

C1 C3 C5 C7 C6 C4 C2 1 3 5 R1 R3 R5 R6 R4 R2 R7 6 6 4 2 7 4 2 Switching order

Switching order

¡ECurrent source and current switch
Vdd Vdd Ir Vcomp M1 Vcomp

Vref D A M2 M3 C

Vp

Vref

Vp

B 1 LSB current source

2 LSB current source

Vdd

Vcomp

Vref

Vp

4 LSB current source

11-29
CHUNG-YU WU ¡E General characteristics/features of current-mode thermometer-coded DAC:

(1) No resistor or capacitor are used. (2) Require special layout arrangement and complicated switching sequence to reduce the mismatches among current cells in the matrix ⇒ complicated decoder (3) Logic circuits and long delay. (4) Complicated wiring (5) Large chip area ⇒ worse matching problem. (6) Suitable for high-speed (video) and high-resolution (10-bit) CMOS DAC. ¡îCurrent switching and better matching than resistors.

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§11-5 Hybrid DAC
Combined architecture: Resistor-string + charge-redistribution DAC Weighted-current-source + current-mode thermometercoded DAC

§11-6 Case study
Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol.33, PP.1948-1958, Dec.1998 10-bit 500-MS/s CMOS DAC: ¡EChip area comparison between weighted-current-source DAC and thermometercoded DAC
TABLE I AREA R EOUIREMENT FOR BINARY-WEIGHTED AND THERMOMETER-CODED DAC Requirement Binary Weighted Thermometer Coded INL (10-bit) 16σ (0.5 1024 )σ = 16σ DNL (10-bit) σ 1024σ = 32σ Area (INL=0.5-lsb) Area (INL=1-lsb) Area (DNL=0.5-lsb) 256*Aunit 64*Aunit 1024*Aunit 256*Aunit 64*Aunit Aunit

σ : standard deviation of current sources. Aunit: minimum required area to obtain a DNL = 0.5 LSB for the thermometer-coded architecture. Chip area ∝ 12 σ ¡ENormalized required chip versus percentage of segmentation and THD versus percentage of segmentation

⇒ Optimal point Adigital = AINL = 1.0 lsb
THD¡õ

binary

segmentation [%]

thermometer

11-31
CHUNG-YU WU ¡E Block diagram: 8+2 segmentation

¡ECell circuit Digital: decoding logic + latch Analog: differential switch + cascoded current source.

¡EBiasing scheme Global biasing: common-centroid layout Local biasing: 4 quadrants without direct connection between any two quadrants ⇒ DNL ¡õ and INL ¡õ

11-32
CHUNG-YU WU ¡E Sinewave spectrum for Fs=300MS/s and Fsig=100MHz . SFDR=60dB

¡ESFDR versus Fsig/Fs SFDR 73dB 60dB 51dB Fs(MS/s) 100 300 500 Fsig(MHz) 8 100 240

11-33
CHUNG-YU WU ¡E Summary

DNL INL

0.1 LSB 0.2 LSB

2. Definition of SFDR (Spurious-Free Dynamic Range) SFDR: The signal-to-noise ratio when the power of the third-order intermodulation products equals the noise power. SFDR = ID1* - ID3* = ID1* - N0 ¡î ID1 curve has a slope=1

(dB)

SFDR=

A I D3= N0 − AN 0 ID1= N

0

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§11-7 Summary

[16]

[15]

[14] [9] [10] [7] [6] [13]

[12]

[3] [2]

[8] [5]

[11]

[14]

[4]

[1]

1. Kuang K. Chi et al, "A CMOS triple 100-Mbit/s video D/A converter with shift register and color map," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Dec. 1986, pp. 989-995. 2. T. Miki, Y. Nakamura, M. Nakaya, S. Asai, Y. Akasaka, and Y. Horiba, "An 80MHz 8-bit CMOS D/A converter," IEEE J. solid-State Circuits, pp. 983-988, Dec. 1986. 3. L. Lteham, B.K. Ahuja, K.N. Quader, R.J. Mayer, R.E. Larsen and G.R. Canepa, " A high-performance CMOS 70-MHz palette/DAC," IEEE J. Soulid-State Circuits, pp. 1041-1047, Dec. 1987. 4. A. Cremonesi, F. Maloberti, and G. Polito, " A 100-MHz CMOS DAC for videographic systems, " IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, June 1989, pp. 635-639. 5. N. Kumazawa, N. Fukushima, N. Ono, and N. Sakamoto, "An 8 bit 150 MHz CMOS D/A converter with 2 Vp-p wide range output," 1990 Symposium on

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CHUNG-YU WU

6.

7.

8.

9. 10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

VLSI Circuits, pp. 55-56. Marcel Pelgrom, " A 50MHz 10-bit CMOS digital-to-analog converter with 75Ù buffer," Proc. of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, pp. 200-201, 1990. C. A. A. Bastiaansen, D. W. J Greoeneveld, H. J. Schouwenaars, and H. A. H Termeer, " A 10-b 40-MHz 0.8-ìm CMOS current-output D/A converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, pp. 917-921, July 1991. J.M. Fourier and P. Senn, " A 130-MHz 8-b CMOS Video DAC for HDTV Applications, " IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1073-1077, July 1991. Y. Nakamura, T. Miki, A. Maeda, H. Kondoh, and N. Yazawa, " A 10-b 70-MS/s CMOS D/A converter, " IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Apr. 1991, pp. 637-642. H. Takakura, M. Yokoyam, and A. Yamaquchi, " A 10 bit 80MHz glitchless CMOS D/A converter, " 1991 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, pp. 26.5.1-26.5.4. D. Reynolds, " A 320 MHz CMOS triple 8-bit DAC with on-chip pll and hardware cursor, " IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1545-1551 DEC. 1994. Shu-Yuan Chin and Chung-Yu Wu, " A 10-b 125-MHz CMOS Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) with Threshold-Voltage Compensated Current Sources, " IEEE Journal of Solid Circuits, vol.29, no. 11, pp. 1374-1380, Nov. 1994. Chi-Hung Lin and Klass Bult, "A 10-b, 500-Msample/s CMOS DAC in 0.6 mm2," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1948-1958, Dec. 1998. Jose Bastos, Augusto M. Marques, Michel S. J. Steyaert, Willy Sansen, "A 12-Bit Intrinsic Accuracy High-Speed CMOS DAC," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1959-1969, Dec. 1998. Greet A. M. Van der Olas, Jan Vandenbussche, Willy Sansen, Michel S. J. Steyaert, and Georges G. E. Gielen, "A 14-bit Intrinsic Accuracy Q2 Random Walk CMOS DAC," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 12, pp.1708-1718, Dec. 1999. Alex R. Bugeja, Member, IEEE, Bang-Sup Song, Fellow, IEEE, Patrick L. Rakers, Member, IEEE, and Steven F. Gilling, Member, IEEE "A 14-b, 100-MS/s CMOS DAC Designed for Spectral Performance," IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 12, DECEMBER 1999.

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CH 12 CMOS Analog Comparators
§12-1 General Considerations
Purpose of Comparators: To compare two input voltages and produce a very large output voltage with an appropriate sign to indicate which of the two is large. Types of MOS Comparators: A. Differential-input OP AMP
_

A
+ or

Latch

Vout

Vout

The latch provides a large and fast output signal, whose amplitude and waveform are independent of those of the input signal. Well suited for the logic circuits usually following the latch. If no latch: -1mV ¡÷ +1mV input =¡Ö-5V¡÷+5V output Gain¡×5000, 74 dB If use latch: The output voltage of A must be larger than the combined offset and threshold voltage of the latch, which is about 0.2V ¡×¡ÖGain = 200 (1) Static configurations (2) Dynamic configurations B. Cascaded inverter stages
Vin -A1 -A2 -A3 -An Vout Latch

* Mostly dynamic

or

Vout

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CHUNG-YU WU

§12-2 Differential-Input OP AMP Comparators §12-2.1 Static Configurations without Latches
1.
+VDD M9 M8 Vbias M11 M10 M1 M2 + M12 Vout M15 M3 M4

M6 M7

M5 M13 M14

-VSS

* High Speed Comparator * Open loop gain: ~80dB * Output Swing: ±5V * Propagation Delay (±10mV Vin ): ~1.2µs~2.4µs (15PF Load) * Generally, compensation circuit is not needed since there is no feedback connection. * Power Dissipation: ~10 mW 2. General-purpose comparators * Propagation delay: * Power Dissipation: (±10mV, 15PF) ~ 4mW 1.0µs~2.8µs

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+VDD M3 M7 Vbias M8 M1 M2 + Vout M10 M4

M5 M6 M9 M11

-VSS

3. Comparator with level shift.
+VDD M3 M7 Vbias M 8 + M1 M2 M9 M10 M5 M6 M13 M15 -VSS M11 M12 Vout M4 M14

-

* Open loop gain: 60-80dB * Output Swing: +5V¡÷0V * Propagation delay (±10mV, 15 PF): 1.0µs~0.8µs

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* Power Dissipation: ~1.5mW 4. CMOS Voltage Comparator MC 14574 (Motorola)
V+

Q5 Q6 input+ I Q Q8 Q10 Q12 Vo

inputQ1 Iset Q9 Rext Q3 External resistor VQ4 Q7 Q11 Q2

* Quad comparators * Open loop gain (Iset¡×IQ¡× 50µA): 96dB * Propagation delay: ~1µs 5. Fully differential OP-AMP Comparators.

§12-2.2 Dynamic Configurations without Latches.
(1) Dynamic OP-AMP type comparator * Compensated by C2 * Vc1=Vin-Vos
+ _ £r 1=1 Vin - Vos + C1 +V in C2 _ + Vos £r 2=1 Vref +V in C1 + ¡µ Vc1 + _ Vos _ + C2 Gain Stage + _ Vout Gain Stage + _ Vout

* offset memorization

*¡µVc1¡×Vref-Vin * No compensation * offset cancellation
£r
1,

£r 2 :nonoverlapping clocks

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+VDD

φ1
Vin S1 C1

φ1
S4 + _ C2

Vout

φ2
Vbias Vref -Vss S3

φ 1a
* Practically, φ1a must go low first in advance of φ1 to avoid the clock feedthrough effect of S1 by φ1. (2) Dynamic fully differential comparator
Vin+ +V DD Vbias1 + Vout C1 S1 A Vs Vs S2 B Vin-

φ2

φ1a

φ1a
C2

φ2

φ1

φ1
Vbias2 VinVin+ -V SS

C1, C2: Autozeroing capacitors φ1 ¡× 1 Vc1¡× Vin- - Vs, VC2 ¡× Vin+ - Vs φ2 ¡× 1 ¡µVc1¡× Vin+ - Vin-, ¡µVC2¡× Vin- - Vin+ * S1 and S2 generate feedthrough voltages at A and B ¡×¡Ö common-mode voltage * CMRR can be promoted by using negative common-mode feedback circuit.

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§12-2.3 Dynamic Configuration with Latches
Preamplifier-latch combination
+VDD VBIAS1 Q3 VC Q4 D S8 Q1 VinS1 C1 Q2 B C2 S5 VB + Vout C

φ1

S7

φ1

+ Q5 Q6

φ3
Vin+

φ3

S4

Vin+ S6

φ2

φ3

S3 Vin-

φ3

φ2

Q7

VBIAS2 -Vss

* φ2 ¡÷ 1, φ2 ϒ1,

S5 short S6 short

¡×¡Ö ¡×¡Ö

Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 and Q7 are differential amplifier. Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6 and Q7 are a bistable latch.

Operating clock waveforms:

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§12-3 Cascaded Inverter Stages
(1) Basic Structure

VT ↓
VDD Q2 S3 VA VB Q1

VT ↑

-VSS

(a)
+VDD

(b)

£r 1

C Vin A
£r 2

£r 3 S3 B

Q2

VB

+ VA

Q1 CA (stray)

-Vss

(a) φ2 ¡÷ 0, CA¡Õ¡Õ C, VA1¡× Vin + VAo ¡µ VA¡× Vin (2) CMOS Cascade Comparator. * Q1 ≡ Q3, Q2 ≡ Q4

(b) ¡×¡Önegligible feedthrough

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* The speed of the cascaded inverter stages is limited by the RC times constants.

R = R 0 = rdsp rdsn
Cin¡× Cgs + Cgd(1+ A ) A ~ 10

~ 100 kΩ
~0.5 pF

VDD Q2 Q4
£r 3 £r 6 (strobe)

Q6 C2 C VC S8 D

£r 1
Vin

A

£r 3

S1 S2

S3 C1 VA
£r 2

VB B

C3 VD Q5

LATCH S5 £r 5 (balance)

Vout

Q1

Q3 VSS

(a)

(b)

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(3) Fast comparators with two amplifiers and a single latch. * Usually, the speed of a latch is faster than that of a amplifier. ¡×¡ÖTwo amplifiers share one latch.
VDD

£r
Vin

1

C

£r 3

£r A

S1
£r 1

SA LATCH VSS VDD
£r S

£r 2

£r

C

4

£r B

SB £r
2

VSS

* Operating clock waveforms

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§12-4 CMOS Dynamic Latches for Comparators
1. Direct-coupled latch with differential input signals
VDD £r Vin + C1 Vout + Vout C2 Vin 1 £r 2 £r 1

£r

2

-VSS

* For single-ended inputs, Vin+ or Vin- may be replaced by a threshold voltage or can be generated by self-biasing 2. Capacitively coupled latch with autozeroing input
V DD

Vout
£r 1

Q5
£r 2

C4 C3

Q6
£r 2

Vout +
£r 1

£r 3

C S3 C1 A VA VC Q1 Q2 S4 S5 VD

D S6 B VB C2 +

£r

3

VinS8 S7
£r 3

S1
£r 3

Q 3 Q4

+ S2 V in-

VSS Vin +

(a)

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* φ2¡÷ 1 ¡×¡Ö inverters Q2-Q5 and Q3-Q6 are biased at their optimal points C3 and C4 are also precharged such that any asymmetry between the two inverters is compensated by the slightly different bias voltages provided by C3 and C4. ¡×¡Ö loop gain of the latch¡×1. * Vin+ ¡Õ Vin- : VC Vin- ¡Õ Vin+ : VC H, L, VD VD L. H.

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§12-5 Case Studies
1. Differential-Input OP AMP Comparators with Dynamic Latches Ref. IEEE JSSC, vol. 27, pp. 208-211, Feb. 1992

input stage
VDD 1:2 M13 M3 M10 £r IB
1

flip-flops

S-R latch

M6

M7

M11 Q

c £r

d

Q

Vinp1

M1

M2

M8 Vinp2 a VSS M4

2

M9 M12 b M5

t1~t2: M12 ON (φ2 ¡× 1) M10-M11 ON, M8-M9 OFF (φ1¡× 0) Va¡×Vb, Vc=Va, Q= Q Vinp1 and Vinp2 settles t2~t3: Va ≠ Vb established with some regeneration of M4 /M5, M12 OFF t3-t4: φ1 ¡× 1, φ2¡× 0 ¡×¡Ö M12 OFF, M10, M11 OFF, M8, M9 ON strong regeneration ¡×¡ÖVc ≠ Va, Va=Vc, Vb=Vd ¡×¡ÖQ, Q established
for input sampling V
£r

2e

£r 2

£r 1

t1

t2

t3

t4

t

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Performance: Technology Die size Power supply Input dynamic range Resolution Sensitivity Sampling rate Offset voltage Input capacitance 1.5 um CMOS 140 x 100 um2 +2.5 / -2.5 V 2.5 V 8 bits, 1LSB=9.8 mV 10.6 mV ( < 7 bits) 65MHz 3.3 mV 30 fF

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CH 13 CMOS Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs)
§13-1 Introduction
1. Functional block diagram of a A/D converter

Analog Input

Sample and Hold

A/D Converter

Output Latch

Digital Output

Control Logic

2. Ideal A/D Converter (ADC) Vin ± Vx = Vref ( b12−1 + b2 2−2 +⋅⋅⋅⋅ +bN 2−N ) Vref (b12 N −1 + b2 2 N −2 + ⋅⋅⋅⋅ +b N −121 + bN 20 ) N 2 where Vin is the input analog voltage or current Vref is the reference voltage or current b1 … … .b N is the digital output Vx is the tolerable input signal range − 1 VLSB ≤ Vx ≤ 1 VLSB 2 2 2-bit ADC: Input-output transfer curve: equivalent DAC transfer response Bout 1V 1 LSB) Offset by ( 2 LSB 2 11 1 VLSB = Vref → 1 LSB 4 10 VLSB 1 = →1 LSB 01 Vref 4 The input voltage or current 0 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 should remain less than 3/4 Vref + V V V V V V 1/8 Vref =7/8 Vref and greater than V V 0 - 1/8 Vref = -1/8 Vref . =
0

1

01

10

11

Vin Vref

ref

ref

ref

ij

ref

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Overloaded ADC: When Vin > Vin ideal + Vx or Vin < Vin ideal − Vx , the quantization error is greater than 1/2 VLSB. 3. Quantization noise Quantization error → Quantization noise. V1 = Vin + VQ V in VQ = V1 - Vin

ADC

DAC

V1

+

+

Quantization noise modeling: (1) Deterministic approach  VQ(rms) =  1 T

VQ

T/ 2

−T /2

2 VQ

 dt 

1/ 2

 =1 T
1/ 2

T /2

−T/ 2

2 VLSB ( − t )2 T

 dt 

1/2

 VLSB3  t 3  = T3  3   

   − T /2   
T /2

=

VLSB 12

V
Vin V1 +

VQ
1 VLSB 2 0 V1 1 VLSB 2 T 2 T 2

t

t
( time )

(2) Stochastic approach  VQ ( rms ) =     = 1 2   VLSB  

High =
¡Û

1 V LSB

fQ (x) (probability density
function)

−∞

 2 x 2 f Q ( x ) dx  

1/ 2

¡î ¡ì f Q (x) ¡Û

dx =1

 x 2 dx   − VLSB /2  
V LSB /2

1/2

X

=

VLSB 12

1 2

V LSB

+

1 2

V LSB

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4. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) (1) Vin is a sawtooth of hight Vref (or a random signal uniformly distribut between 0 and Vref )  Vin ( rms ) ⇒ SNR = 20 log  VQ ( rms )   V / 12   N   = 20 log  ref   V / 12  = 20 log 2 = 6.02 N dB   LSB 

(2) Vin is a sinusoidal waveform between 0 and Vref . ⇒ SNR = 20 log Vin( rms ) V /2 2   = 20 log ref = 20 log 3 ×2 N  = 6.02 N +1.76dB VQ ( rms ) VLSB / 12  2 

The above SNR is the best possible SNR for an N-bit ADC Vinpp = Vref ( 0dB) → SNR = 6.02 N +1.76 dB Vinpp ⇒ − 20 dB → SNR = (6.02 N +1.76 )dB − 20 dB 5. Performance specifications (1) Missing codes (equivalent to monotonicity in DAC) Maximum DNL < 0.5 LSB or maximum INL < 0.5 LSB

⇒ The ADC is guaranted not to have any missing code.
(2) Conversion time The time taken for the ADC to complete a single measurement including acquisition time of the input signal. (3) Sampling rate The speed at which samples can be continuously converted. Typically, the sampling rate is equal to the inverse of the conversion time except in the case of pipelining structure or multiplexing structure. (4) Sampling-time uncertainty or aperture jitter Due to the effective sampling time changing from one sampling instance to the next. Sinusoidal waveform case: Vin = Vref sin (2π f in t ) 2

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dV dt in

max

=π f in t

zero-crossing point

If ∆V < 1 VLSB for some sampling-time uncertainty ∆t , ∆t < VLSB = N1 π f in Vref 2 π f in

examples: 8-bit ADC, 250 MHz 16-bit ADC, 1 MHz (5) Dynamic range Dynamic range ≡

f in ⇒ ∆t < 5 ps f in ⇒ ∆t < 5 ps

rms value of the maximum input (output) sinusoidal signal rms value of the output noise plus the distortion when the same sinusoidal is present at the output It is also called the signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR). * Can be expressed as effective number of bits using the SNR formula on p. 13-3. * Input frequency dependent. 6. Types of ADCs Low-to-medium speed: (1) Dual-slope or Integrating ADC (2) Oversampling ADC (3) Successive approximation ADC (4) Algorithmic ADC High speed: (1) Flash ADC (2) Two-step ADC (3) Pipelined ADC (4) Interpolating ADC (5) Folding ADC (6) Time-interleaved ADC

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§13-2 Successive-Approximation (SA) ADC's §13-2.1 Resistor-string SA MOS ADC
Ref. : IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. Sc-13, pp. 785-791, Dec. 1978. Conceptual 3-bit unipolar ADC

VREF 3R 2 R R R Comparator R
_ +

C

C

B B

A

A

Output

R

VIN

R

R 2

Typical performance of a 8-bit ADC: p-type resistor 100Ω / . Resolution Nonlinearity DNL Conversion time Input resistance Stability (0o - 85o C) Error Sources: 1. Resistor matching accuracy. * Dividing the string into several equal lengths and locating them in close proximity. 8 bit ± 1 LSB 2 ± 1 LSB 10 20 µs >1000 MΩ <1/4 LSB

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2. The reverse bias junction voltage of the diffused resistors causes nonlinearity. Bit capacity ↑ ⇒ Ω / ↓ .

3. The small on resistance of the switches can decrease the settling time and reduce the feedthrough effect from the gate voltages. Similary, the switch feedthrough only effects the settling time. 4. Major error source: The feedthrough in the switch transistor Q2. 1 MHz clock → 2 mV error. 5. Comparator offset error.

§13-2.2 Charge-Balancing SA MOS ADC
Ref. : IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, pp. 912-920, Dec. 1979. * Mixed resistor string and binary-weighed cap.
Vref 3rd MSB F E F F E F H G LSB T2 H H G H R/4 D R/8 R/8 1/2 LSB Shift T2 C/16 T1 R/4 R/4 D D C R R R B A B B A B D C 2 nd MSB T2 C MSB Vin 2-bits + T1 T1 T2 C Sample data Comparator

T1

C/16

8-bit ADC
Linearity Conversion Time 640 KHz clock Analog Input 0 - VDD 1/4LSB 100 µs

C=20pF

Supply Voltage Current Drain VREF Range Clock Freq. Range

4.5 - 6.3 V 1.8mA 0-5V 100 - 800 KHz

Components used: 8R's, 4C's, 32 switches.

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13-bit ADC with laser-cut programmable Si-Cr fuse PROM's. Post-process triming ¡×¡Ö Linearity Conversion Time Analog input Clock freq. range Supply voltage Current drain 1/2 LSB 50 µs ¡ÐVss ~ ¡ÏVcc 0.1 ~ 3MHz ± 4.5 ~ ±6.3V 5mA

§13-2.3 Charge-Redistribution SA MOS ADC (CRSA ADC)
1. 10-bit CRSA ADC Ref: IEEE JSSC, vol. SC-10, pp. 371-379, 379-385, Dec.1975. Operation Procedures (a) Sample Mode:

(b) Hold Mode:

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(c) Redistribution (Approximation) Mode:

S1 ¡÷ Vref , Vx = -Vin + Vref /2 If Vx < 0, logic 1 in MSB(b4), If Vx > 0, b4(MSB)=0, Final Configuration:

Vin > Vref /2 Vin < Vref /2 and S1 ¡÷ ground

Vx = − Vin + Vref ( + Vx = − Vin +

b 4 b 3 b 2 b1 b 0 + + + + ) ≈0 21 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5

Vref 4 ( 2 b 4 + 2 3 b3 + 2 2 b 2 + 21 b1 + 2 0 b 0 ), Vin > 0 5 2

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Complete ADC block diagram:

Measured Results: Resolution Linearity Input Voltage Input offset 10 bits ± 1 LSB 2 0-10 V 2mV Gain error Sample mode acquisition time Total conversion time ¡Õ 0.05 % 2.3µs 22.8 µs

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2. 12-bit modified CRSA ADC Ref.: IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. sc-14, pp. 920-926, Dec. 1979.
VREF

R1 SF Ck+1 R3 Ck C3 2C C C2 C1 C + Comparator SA R2 M-1 CLOCK B R2M SB SWITCH CONTROL SUCCESSIVE APPROX. REGISTER + SWITCH CONTROL LOGIC

R2

2 k-1C 2 k-2C

A

VIN

(M+K) BIT OUTPUT OF A/D

START

* SAMPLE * HOLD * CHOOSE Vref

VREF R1

S5

Vin Larger
1 SA 2 2 SB

Voltage A- SA B Vref 4 Vref 2 discharge set-up -

SB 2

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S4 3/4 V REF

ON ON

R2

S3 1/2 V REF

Smaller

-

1

ON ON

R3

S2 1/4 V REF

R4 0 S1

2

1 1 1

ON ON ON ON ON

1

redistribution 2

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Implement: 16 R, 8 ratioed capacitor, 37 MOS R: S/D diffusion, 18Ω/ , 16 R= 9000 Ω C: Unit capacitor, 400 µm2, 0.1 pF Measured data: Resolution Monotonicity 12 Bits 12 Bits Area 12,000 mil2

Power dissipation (15V) 40 mW DNL Total conversion time 1 LSB 2 50µs

Integral Linearity 6 Bits Input. Offset Operational Principle:
Vref S5

5 mV

SX 2k-1C C SLK 1 SA 2 SL2 C SL1 + Vx + Comparator

R1

R2

S4

S3 R3 S2 R4 S1 VIN

2 SB 1

SA Sample Hold Choose Vref
-

SB
Vin 1
(0)

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5 SLK … . SL2 SL1
B B B B B …. …. …. …. …. B B B B B B B B B B

Sx
ON OFF

Vx
0 -Vin

ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON OFF

2
(Vref/4)

1
(Vref/2)

2
(3Vref/4)

4 OFF − V + 2Vref in 4 OFF − V + 3Vref in 4

OFF − V + Vref in

Discharge

-

1
(0)

ON OFF OFF OFF OFF

B

….

B

B

OFF

-Vin

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Set up Redistribution

1

2

OFF OFF OFF ON ON

B

….

B

B

OFF

(Vref) (3Vref/4)

− Vin +

3Vref 4

1

2

-Vin+(3/4)Vref < Vx < -Vin + Vref OFF OFF OFF ON ON A … . B

B

OFF

3V − Vin + ref 4 + 1 Vref 8

* The last capacitor C is always connected to B.

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§13-3 Dual-Slope ( Integrating; Charge-Balancing ) MOS ADC's
4 1 Digit ADC (Modified structure) 2

LATCH, DECODER, DISPLAY MULTIPLEXER

UP/DOWN RESULTS COUNTER

SEQUENCE COUNTER / DECODER

CONTROL LOGIC

ANALOG SECTION

CREF REF HI DE INT1 IN HI DEDE+ COMMON INT IN LO INT1,IN2,INT REST DE+ DEZI , X10 TO DIGITAL SECTION REF LO DE + BUFFER + C2 <10> COMPARATOR 1 + C3 INTEGRATOR <100> COMPARATOR 2 + RINT CINT X10

A

-

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Waveforms observed at the node A :

¡µ V
INT1 DE1 X10 DE2

¡µ V '

RESET

INT(ZI)

INT2

NOTE: ENCLOSED AREA GREATLY EXPENDED IN TIME AND AMPLITUDE

Operational principles: 1. INT1
REF HI CREF REF LO CINT RINT IN HI COMMON IN LO + + C3 100p
+

Comparator 1 + + Comparator 2

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2. DE1

REF HI

+ -

REF LO R INT

+ + + -

CINT

+
COMMON

C3 100p

+ -

3. REST (INT2)
REF HI CREF R INT + + COMMON IN LO C3 100p ¡µ V + CINT + ¡µ V + + REF LO

¡µ V ¡GResidual Voltage

4. × 10 (INT2)
RINT 10 ¡µ V + C INT

+
COMMON IN LO

+

10 ¡µ V + C2 10p

C3 100p

+ -

+ -

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5. DE2 (The same as DE1), ∆V ' : residual voltage 6. INT(ZI)
R INT C INT

+

+

C3 100p

+ -

+ -

IN LO

The final residual voltage ∆V ' is effectively reduced to 1 of the original 10 residual voltage without amplification. ⇒ accuracy ↑

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§13-4 Algorithmic ADC
Refs: 1. IEEE ISSCC, Digest of Papers, pp. 96-97, 1977 * 2. IEEE JSSC, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1201-1207, Aug. 1996
Sample/Hold Comparator S/H V(i) multiplier x2 Comp.

Vin

+ B(i)

+ £U + Vref - Vref

The conceptual block diagram of the algorithmic A/D converter

* The speed is limited by the settling time of OP AMPs used to implement the multiplier. * For audio ADC applications, it could reach low-power low-voltage operation. * Major error sources: (1) Capacitor ratio mismatches if SC circuits are used. (2) Finite-gain error of OP amps. (3) Offset voltage of OP amps. (4) Capacitor feedthrough error by switches if SC circuits are used.

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Complete circuit of the ratio-independent and gain-insensitive algorithmic ADCs
1+2 1+2+3+4+5 2 8*1 1+2+3+4

3+4+6+7

C3 (B)

C7

S4 S6

C4
3+6

5

C2 S2
1 1+2 5

S3 3+4+6+7 (C) OP2 +
4 3+4+7 7

8

S1 (A) + OP1

Vin C1

Vref
3+4+6+7 4

S5 C5 C6

3+4+5+6+7

3+7

b8*1

3+6

b8(1+2)

6+7+1

2

C8 (D)

S7 comp. + + -

Latch Q Q bBit Bit

7+1

switch

The complete circuit of the A/D converter

Clock waveforms:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

8

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Operational principles: Step 1:
C2 8*1 C1 Vin 8 + b8*1 C5 OP1 C3 C7 OP2 + C6 Vy(1) C4

b8*1

   Vy (1) ≅  2 − 13A + 20 + 13A + 27  Vx ( 3) −  1− 7 A + 82 + 7A + 92  ( A + 2 ) 2 ( A + 3) 2   ( A + 2) ( A + 3)    Step 2:
C2

  Vref  

C1 Vin 8 + OP1 Vx(2)

C3

C7 -

C4 OP2 + Vy(2)

C5

C6

b8*2 to Comp.

Vx (2) ≅ Vin / (1+2/A) Step 3:
C2 C4

C1 OP1 + Vx(3)

C3

C7 OP2 +

C5

C6

Vx (3) ≅ Vin [1-2/(A2 +3A+2)]

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Step 4:
C2 C4

C3 C1 OP1 + C5 Vref

C7 OP2 + C6 Vy(4)

Vy ( 4 ) ≅ C5 ( Vx ( 3) − Vref )(1+ 3/ A ) C6 Step 5:
C2 C4

C1 OP1 + Vref

C3

C7 OP2 + Vy(5)

C5

C6

Vy (5) ≅ C3 ( Vx ( 3) − Vref )[1+ 6 /( A 2 + 5A )] C4 Step 6:

C2

C4

C1 OP1 +

C3

C7 OP2 +

C5

C6

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Step7:
C2 C4

C1 OP1 +

C3

C7 OP2 + Vy(7)

C5

C6

( 2 − 2 ) Vx ( 3) − (1− 2 ) Vref A +3 A+ 3 Vy ( 7 ) ≅ 1+ 3 / A

Fully differential circuits:

Vin+

Latch -+ +OP1

Vref+(-) Vref-(+)

-+ +OP2

-+ +comp.

+ - +

bBit Bit

Vin-

The complete fully-differential circuit of the A/D converter

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The folded-cascode fully-differential operational amplifier.
VDD m12 m13

m4

m5

VB1

m6 Vo+ VoVinm1 m3 Vin+ m2 m10 m14 m15 VSS m8

m7

VB2

m9

VB3

m11

VB4

Chip photograph of the A/D converter.

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A typical plot of the differential nonlinearity.

A typical plot of the integral nonlinearity.

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A typical FFT plot of the A/D converter.

Table I

The Experimental results of the proposed A/D converter. Resolution 14 bits ¡Õ ± 1/2 LSB ¡Õ ± 1 LSB 10 KHz 60 dB 50 mWatts ± 2.5 V 0.8 µm CMOS 2.1mm × 0.8mm

Differential nonlinearity Integral nonlinearity Sampling frequency Gain of op amp Power dissipation Supply voltage Process Chip active area

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Table II

Comparison of the proposed A/D converter with the previous ratio-independent A/D converters [4.4]-[4.5]. A/D converters

Performance Resolution (bits) Absolute INL (LSB) OP amp dc Gain (dB) Clock cycles for n bits Sampling rate (KHz) Power dissipation (mW)

[4.4]

[4.5]

This work

12

8

14

<= 1.5

<= 0.5

<= 1

92

84

60

6n

3n

7n

8

8

10

17

-

50

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§13-5 Full Flash (Parallel)
* Need 2N-1 comparators for N bits. * Need 2N-1 Resister (R) tapes for N bits. * S/H usually combined with comparators. (No op amp is required) ? Large no. of analog elements. ? Large chip area ¡® power consumption. Full-flash A/D converter
VIN VREF+

Clock generator
+ + 2N-2 2N-1

2N-1

Encoder

2N-1 to N binary code + 2 + 1 comparator VREF1 Latch 2

Output registor & buffer

2N-2

bN-1 bN-2 bN-3

b2 b1 b0

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§13-5.1 MOS Flash ADC's
Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol. sc-14, pp. 926-932, Dec. 1979. CMOS/SOS 6 bit 20 MHz ADC.

6-BIT BINARY OUTPUT

Block diagram of A/D converter chip.

High speed autozeroed CMOS/SOS comparator.

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Discrete and distributed reference ladder models Ccomp ≤ 0.05 pF, RTAP = 20Ω Z( w ) R TAP ≥ 50,000 (< 10,000, don't work)

Reference ladder leading as a function of input voltage (|Z|(W) /RTAP = 500)

Effect of loading ratio on reference ladder output.

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Major source of error is the loading of the reference resistor ladder by the comparator bank. Resistor ladder loading errors are of two types: (1) "Transient error" associated with instantaneous ladder loading during a single measurement; (2) Long-term "recovery error" associated with errors at a new input level after the ladder has been loaded for a long period by inputs at another level. If the capacitor bypassing is performed at the externally accessable ladder midpoint tap, ⇒ transient impedance ↓ by a factor of more than 4. ⇒ Worst-case static loading which can't be bypassed makes recovery errors the significant error source. * All the errors considered above are of this type. Typical 6-bit A/D converter Performance: Power dissipation at 15 MHz clock, 20 pF/output. 5V convert mode Tracking mode 3.2V reference Input Cap. Recom. Vref On-chip Zener Reference Input voltage source resistance Accuracy 15MHz 20MHz 25MHz 50mW 45mW 9mW 8 pF 3.2V 3.2V 75Ω 1 LSB 2 ----8V 145mW 130mW 9mW 8 pF 6.4V 6.4V 75Ω 1 LSB 2 1 LSB 1.5 LSB

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§13-5.2 7-Bit CMOS Flash ADC for Video Applications
Ref.: IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. sc-21, pp. 436-440, June, 1986 Overall schematic:
D-Type Output Latch Overflow

VREF TOP

Comparator R/2 Banks Latches 127 R

D6

D5 R 64 R/2 Mid Decouple Cext Capacitor Bypassing R/2

128 to 7 bit Encoder Logic

D4

D3

R

D2

D1 R 0 VREF Bottom Analog Input R/2 D0

Clock Buffer

R: Polysilicon resistor, 10 Ω / bit 2µm Poly-gate VLSI CMOS Overall ship area: 135×142 mil2

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Comparator and the primary latch
+VDD OUTPUT Load Bias Q10 Q16 Vbias Q3 Q4 Vbias Q11 Q12 Q 13 Q14 OUTPUT

Q5 Analog Input Q1

Q6

Reference Input Q2

Latch I2Bias IBias

Q8 Q7 -VSS

Latch Q9 I2Bias Q15

Gain: 18dB Bandwidth: 40 MHz

Q10, Q13: Operated in linear region with on-chip low-power OP AMP and reference loop. ⇒ Ro↓, fu↑.

Q5,Q6: Positive feedback to form latch.

Q11, Q12: To limit the output swing and enable the comparator to recover much faster from the latched state.

The secondary latch is of the hysteresis type, because (1) it can convert the limited logic swing of the primary latch to correct CMOS logic levels. (2) it can reduce the amount of hysteresis to ~ 100mV by setting "Latch"

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signal to High. Thus the latch always experiences an overdrive of 100 mV. ⇒ Avoid ambiguous state and increase the resolution time of the comparators. ⇒ Reduce metastability error probability Performance characteristics: 7-bit inherently monotonic Accuracy: differential and integral Analog bandwidth Maximum sample rate VDD Input range Power consumption (25MSPS) Temp. range

± 0.5 LSB. - 1 LSB 5 MHz 2 : > 22 MSPS, 30 MSPS typically : 5V ± 0.5V : 1.5V~3.5V : 350 mW : - 40 o C to + 85 o C : -3dB 42 MHz;

§13-5.3 CMOS 20 MS/S (Maga Samples /sec) 7-bit Flash ADC
Ref.: ISSCC 84, PP. 56-57, 315. Nonsampling amplifier:
φ1 φ1
S1 S5

VDD CA

VDD φA S7
LATCH

S2

φ1 φ2
S6

Sampling Clock

φ2
S3

VDD

VDD φB
S8

S4

CB

φ2

* Higher operating. frequency

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§13-5.4 Metastability error
Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol. 31, pp. 1132-1140, Aug. 1996, 7-b 80-MHz flash ADC Metastability error: occurs in ADCs when undefined comparator outputs pass through the encoder to the converter output bits.

VA < V REFi+1 0 0 0 i+1 1 i 1 VA > V REF 1

0 VA < V REFi+1 0 i+1 0 Metastable i X VA ~ V REFi state i-1 1 1 VA > V REFi-1

Thermometer code with valid comparator outputs

Thermometer code with metastable comparator

* Metastability error rate is an exponential function of the sampling frequency. * It is nearly independent of the input frequency. * At 70-MHz sampling frequeny, the metastability error rate is ~ 10-7 errors/cycle. ⇒7 errors per second * Can be improved to < 10-12 errors/cycle.

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§13-6 Two-Step Flash or Subranging ADC
Conventional two-step A/D converter:

+
VIN SAMPLE & HOLD COARSE FLASH ADC DAC

ANALOG ADDITION

FINE FLASH ADC

LATCH

DIGITAL OUTPUT

Two-step A/D converter with single resister ladder:
Vin TGS2 SAMPLE TGS VIN SAMPLE

MSB'S

COARSE COMPARATOR NO. 16 COARSE COMPARATOR NO. 15 COARSE COMPARATOR NO. 14

TGC16

VREF
15

LSB'S

TGC15

R16 15

TGC14

R15 15 R14
FC #15 FC #14

"COARSE" DECODER /ENCODER

COARSE COMPARATOR NO. 2 COARSE COMPARATOR NO. 1

TGC2

R3

15

*FINE* DECODER /ENCODER

TGC1

R2

15

R1 CLEAR

15

FC #2 FC #1

VREF "FINE" COMPARATOR

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Two-Step Flash ADCs or Subranging ADCs with: (1) Two Resistor (R) Ladders * Need 2(2N/2-1) comparators & R tapes. * Need high-performance op amp. ¡H Nonlinearity caused by the mismatch of the two resister ladder. ¡HHigh-performance op amp is not easy to be achieved (especially for 3 V Vdd). (2) Single Resistor Ladder * Need 2N-1 R tapes. * Need 2(2N/2-1) comparators. ¡H many R tapes as full flash type. As ¡H op amp is required. No

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§13-6.1 Subranging (Two-Step Flash) ADCs
8-bit 50MHz CMOS Subranging ADC with Pipelined Wide-Band S/H Ref.: IEEE JSSC, pp. 1485-1491, Dec. 1989. Conventional subranging A/D converter:

Trade-offs in Subranging and Flash 8-bit ADC Flash Total comparators Clock cycles/conversion Relative speed Relative input loading Relative power dissipation Relative die size Typ. Differential Linearity Error Typ. Integral Linearity Error 256 1 1 1 1 1 0.4 LSB 0.7 LSB Subranging 31 2 0.5 0.12 0.2 0.4 0.3 LSB 0.5 LSB

* High accuracy is required only for the S/H circuit and the D/A subconverter. (S/H is to reduce the effect of signal delay differences in the large-area chip.) * Very difficult to develop a high-speed (video) and high-accuracy MOS S/H circuit.

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* The conversion rate degrades. (Pipelined structure may be used) * The linearity of the complete converter depends on the accuracy of the gain matching among the first A/D, the D/A, and the second A/D subconverters. New structure: (4-bit conceptual structure)

Subranging A/D converter using combined DAC/subtraction technique: (a) block diagram and (b) subranging process * Combined DAC/subtraction Technique * No current flows through the switches ⇒ No degradation in linearity in DAC * Amplifiors's settling time < 2 ns

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8bit actual ADC:

Block diagram of 8-bit subranging A/D converter * The 2nd ADC has a fifth bit reserved for digital correction of nonlinearity caused by both offset voltages of the second S/H circuit and the subtractor and nonlinear errors in the first A/D subconverter. * The two S/H circuits and two A/D subconverters operate in a pipelined manner ⇒ High conversion rate (≥ 2). * The resistor string has more than 10-bit accuracy. Gain Matching

Linearity degration caused by gain mismatches in pipelined S/H

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Conventional MOS S/H: SF: * The switch opening time is influenced by input voltages ⇒ severe distortion. * Poor linearity. Integrator-type S/H: * The same switch closing time. * Close loop configuration enhances the linearity. * Difficult to obtain a fast-settling speed that ensures 8-bit accuracy. Imposed by the relatively high output resistance of the amplifier and the clock feedthrough error of the MOS switch.

Conventional MOS S/H: (a) source follower type S/H, (b) waveform of clock φ and switch opening time deviation for source follower S/H, and (c) integratortype S/H New S/H: * Bandwidth-enhanced integrator-type S/H circuit. * CMOS transmission gate with dummy transistor (clock feedthrough ↓) * Compensation R R R CC = F C H (1+ SW + SW ) pole-zero RI R1 RF cancellation. ⇒ Bandwidth↑. Tsettling = 12 ns ~ 8.5 ns for 2V step.

Bandwith-enhanced integrator-type S/H

* CH=1 pF, Cc=1.2 pF, RF = RI = 1KΩ, RSW = 100Ω ⇒ 8-bit, 50 MHz.

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Block diagram of pipelined S/H and subtractor * The output of the subtractor is set to analog ground by closing the switch for the limiter.

High-speed operational-amplifier circuit diagram

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Simulated linearity characteristics for S/H circuits

Comparator for the second A/D subconverter * Comparators for the second A/D subconverter have an inaccuracy ≤ 1 LSB. 4 (3 mV at 3V input) (FS) * ≥ 100 MHz with a 7-8 mW power dissipation.

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Timing diagram for pipelined subranging A/D converter Experimental results: 1 µm CMOS, 5V single power supply, sampling rate 50 MHz.

Effective bits and gain as a function of analog input frequency

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§13-6.2 10-bit 5-MSPS CMOS Two-Step Flash ADC
Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 241-249, Apr. 1989. 1. Classical two-step flash ADC * Limited by matching between the MSB ADC and DAC transitions * Limited by op-amp settling time (conversion rate)

2. New structure * No OP amps. * No gain block

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3. Circuit implementation

* Shared binary weighted capacitor array for the MSB ADC and DAC and the LSB ADC. ⇒ mismatches ↓

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4. ADC Performance

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§13-6.3 The Proposed A/D Converter
1. Parallel processing with two 8-bit subconverters. (Time-interleaved ADC) 2. Two-step structure with single resister ladder. 3. Using 31 dynamic coarse and 15 fine comparators for 3V Vdd design. (No op amps is required) 4. 1-bit digital error correction.

Ÿ The proposed A/D converter with parallel processing architecture.

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Ÿ The proposed 8-bit A/D subconverter.

Ÿ The timing diagram of a 8-bit A/D subconverter.

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Ÿ The circuit of the coarse comparator.

Ÿ Fine comparator and its clock sequences.

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Ÿ Intermeshed resistor reference ladder.

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Ÿ The layouts and their equivalent circuits (a) with and (b) without separated unit resistors.

(a)

(b)

Experimental Results: Ÿ Chip photograph of the fabricated A/D converter.

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Ÿ A typical plot of the differential nonlinearity.

Ÿ A typical plot of the integral nonlinearity.

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Ÿ The FFT spectrum for a 85 KHz sine-wave input signal

Ÿ The effective bits versus input frequency characteristics.

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Table 1 Major characteristics of the A/D converter. Process: Resolution: Differential nonlinearity: Integral nonlinearity: SNDR(for 85KHz input): Sampling rate: Input dynamic range: Power supply: Power dissipation: Active area: 0.8µm CMOS 8bits -0.4 to + 0.4 LSB -0.6 to + 1 LSB 46.8 dB 50 MHz 0.5V to 2.5V 3V 100 mW 4950 um × 3790 µm

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§13-7 Pipelined (Multistage) ADC
u Need m(2N/m-1) comparators ¡® R tapes. u Need m op amps for S/H ¡® subtractors. ² High-performance op amp is not easy to be achieved (especially for 3V Vdd). Block diagram of a pipelined A/D converter

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Pipelined ADCs §13-7.1 A Pipelined 5-Msps 9-bit ADC
Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 954-961, Dec. 1987. 1. General pipelined ADC

2. Two-stage pipelined ADC

3. Prototype

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Ÿ OP AMP:

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Ÿ Comparators:

4. Measurement results:

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§13-7.2 A Pipelined 9-Stage Video-Rate ADC
Ref.: IEEE 1991 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC). pp. 26.4.126.4.4

DAC + ∑ +

2

SHA ⇒ MDAC

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§13-7.3 A Single-Ended 12-bit 20 MS/s Self-Calibrating Pipeline ADC
Ref.: IEEE JSSC vol. 33, pp. 1898-1903, Dec. 1998. Advantages: concurrent processing of analog signals ⇒ optimal speed and power dissipation ⇒ high speed and low power Disadvantage: * Inherent passive component matching problem ⇒ hard to control and yield ↓ ⇒ self-calibration and correction technique * Latency ⇒ acceptable in most applications 1. The pipeline architecture * CMOS SC implementation ⇒ conversion stage speed ∝ feedback factor ∝ (interstage gain)-1 ⇒ 1-bit/stage for power and speed optimization. ⇒ simple calibration.

* Transfer characteristic: The output residue voltage Vout Vout = 2Vin + D Vref D = +1 for 0 < Vin < Vref = -1 for -Vref < Vin < 0 * Digital correction technigue: Very attractive for submicron CMOS (small chip area)

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* The "radix = 2" overrange stage To correct residues up to 1 Vref 2 outside the nominal ±Vref range for Vin.

Transfer characteristic: Vout = 2Vin + 2 ⋅ D Vref D = +1 =0 = -1 1 Vref < Vin < Vref 2 − 1 Vref < Vin < 1 Vref 2 2 − Vref < Vin < − 1 Vref 2

Lower feedback gain for the overrange stage ⇒ maximum operating frequency ↓ * Overall architecture only 3 overrange stages are used for digital correction.

2. Self-calibration and correction algorithm * Starting from the eleventh pipeline stage and working toward the MSB stage. The rest of the stages (12-15) are not calibrated. * For each calibration stage, the calibration consists of (1) forcing an analog input value of 0V (differential) (2) forcing the digital decision to the left and to the right of the transition.

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* The calibration coefficient Memi = code_l - code_h Vout = Vref Vout = -Vref Code_l=0 Code_h=0

⇒ Memi = 2 ∆ Vout ≅ ∆Vin

one coefficient for regular stage. two coefficients for overrange stage. All the correction coefficients are stored in 15 registers. * All the digital correction is performed in 16 bits, and the last 4 LSB's are truncated for the final 12-bit output code. * Global offset and full-scale error can be calibrated. 3. Implementation of Analog Blocks. * The single-ended to differential input S/H:

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* Input common-mode fb amp.

* op amp (telescopic op amp)

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4. Measurement results DNL:

INL:

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Spectrum:

SNR & THD

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§13-8 Folding and Interpolating ADC
Ref.: Johns & Martin, Analog IC Design, pp. 516-523.

§13-8.1 Interpolating ADC
* The number of input amplifiers (or comparators as in flash ADC) attached to Vin can be significantly reduced by interpolating between adjacent output of these amplifiers. A 4-bit interpolating ADC with interpolating factor of 4

* Transfer response of V1, V2a, V2b, V2c , V2 vs. Vin: Logic 1 = 5V, Logic 0 = 0V Gain of input amplifier = -10 Latch threshold = 2.5V More reference levels between V1 and V2: V2a, V2b, V2c .

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Possible transfer responses for the input-comparator output signals, V1 and V2, and their interpolated signals

* If V1 and V2 are accurately linear between their own thresholds, i.e. 0.25V < Vin < 0.5V ⇒ correct crossing points of the latch threshold. ⇒ linearity ↑. And the rest of the interpolated signal responses are of secondary importance. * For fast operation, the delays of latches must be equalized by adding series resistors. * Interpolation can be implemented by R string, current mirrors or capacitors.

Adding series resistors to equalize delay times to the latch comparators

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§13-8.2 Folding ADC
A 4-bit folding ADC with a folding rate of 4.

* The use of a folding architecture to reduce significantly the number of latch comparators (2N in interpolating ADC). * The use of analog preprocessing to determine the LSB set directly. * Folding rate ≡ the number of output transitions for a single folding block as Vin is swept over its input range.

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A folding block with a folding-rate of four. (a) A possible single-ended circuit realization; (b) input-output response.

* 4-bit folding ADC architecture: MSB 2-bit: flash LSB 2-bit: folding LSB: V1, V2, V3, and V4 produce a thermometer code for each of the four MSB regions. * Examples: Vin: 0 → 1/4 V Thermometer code: 0000, 0001, 0011, 0111, 1111 Vin: 1/4 V → 1/2 V Thermometer code: 1110, 1100, 1000, 0000 * Total number of latches: 8 as compared to 16 in flash ADC. * No S/H is required. * Folding blocks realized by BJT cross-coupled differential pairs as an example. * Large input capacitance seen by Vin. * The output signal frequency = input signal frequency × folding rate ⇒ limits the practical folding rate used in high-speed converter.

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§13-8.3 Folding and Interpolating ADC

A 4-bit folding A/D converter with a folding rate of four and an interpolate-by-two. (The MSB converter would usually be realized by combining some folding-block signals.)

* Folding rate: 4;

Interpolation: 2

* V4 is a new inverted signal from V4. * Latch number ↓ Input capacitance ↓ * Capable of > 100 MHz operation. * Can be implemented in CMOS.

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§13-8.4 A 400-Ms/s 6-bit CMOS Folding and Interpolating ADC
Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1932-1938, Dec.1998 1. The structure of a folder with differential outputs. * A practical folder has 5 amplifiers.

2. A 3-bit folding converter and its cyclic code: * Folding rate N, full-scale sinusoid ⇒ Folded signal frequency ≈ π N ⋅frequency Fin 2

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3. The block diagram of the 6-bit converter

Fig. 5 Block diagram of the 6-bit converter

4. The folder structure:

* Folding rate: 4 Interpolation: 2 * 16 comparators and 16 folders → cyclic thermometer → 5 LSBs. * 5 amplifiers are used * Two stages → higher gm. * Resistor load → better transient performance. * Output current mode → speed ↑.

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5. Practical folders:

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7 (a) The contribution of the fifth amplifier goes unused. (b) This redundancy is used to reduce the number of preamplifiers

* Vx1 and Vx2 are fixed voltages generated by a single preamplifier shared by all folders. * Power dissipation ↓. 6. Interpolation with current-mode folder signals

Fig. 8. Interpolation can be used to eliminate half or more of the folder blocks

Fig. 9. Interpolation with current-mode folder signals. A current split-infour block is shown on the right.

* The number of folders ↓. ⇒ 16 → 8 * Problems: (1) It adds an extra node to the signal path, reducing the bandwidth of the folder circuit. (2) It does not work readily at low power supply voltages.

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* Improved circuit: Merge the current division within the folder.

Fig. 10. The folder is modified to include current division. The modified amplifier is on the right. A block diagram for a modified folder is also shown.

* Fast operation and low-voltage operation. 7. Comparator design (1) First stage:

Fig. 12. The comparator core (a) tracking and (b) latching.

* Current-input voltage-output comparator. * Resistor load.

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* Advantages: (a) Currents are summed to drive the latch (i.e. Iin L + Iin R) ⇒ The input signal has very little effect after latching begins. (b) Iin L and Iin R always flow from tracking to latching ⇒ The folders are little disturbed. * Need the second-stage buffer and latch. (2) Second stage:

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(3) Third stage to reduce metastability errors:

SR latch

8. Complete ADC block diagram The sync block: To suppress the delay mismatch between the coarse ADC and the rest of the circuitry (i.e. the fine converter)

Fig. 16. (a) ADC block diagram with detail of coarse ADC. (b) Coarse ADC waveforms

* MSB-Lo and MSB-Hi are offset by 1 Fs at either side of the MSB 8 transition voltage. * If MSB-1 = 0, MSB = MSB - Lo If MSB-1 = 1, MSB = MSB - Hi * Can tolerate a relative offset of up to ± 1 Fs. 8

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9. Measurement results:

Fig. 18. SNDR versus input frequency at 400 Msample/s

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Fig. 19. Die photo

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§13-9 Summary

16 [5] 15 Resolution (Bits) 14 13 [2] 12 [6] 11 10 9 8 [1] 10 30 320 330 210 190 Conversion Rate (KHz) Resolution versus sampling frequency plot of recently reported CMOS audio A/D converters 50 600 620 [9] [4] [3] [7] [8]

CHUNG-YU WU

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13

* [30] (166mW), T3 (200mW, T2) [15] [33] (335mW), T3
[24], T3 (135mW)

CHUNG-YU WU

*: 5V
: 3.3V : 3V : 2V : 2.5v (900mW) [19], T3

12

*

* (250mW), T3 [34]
(35mW) (135mW) T3, [20] [18], T2 (85mW) T3 & T6, [21]

11 10

T1: Full Flash T2: Two-step flash or Subranging T3: Pipelining T4: Interpolating T5: Folding T6: Parallel T7: Over sampling

Resolution (bits)

9

[17] (350mW, T2)

*

* * [35] (195mW), T2 [36] [22] T2, T2, (75mW) (135mW) * [13] (250mW, T1)

*
(76mW, T6) [11] [14] (600mW, T2) T1, [28]* (307mW) T4&T5 T5 (135mW) (80mW) (1.1W, T3) [23] [25] [10] (225mW) [29], T5

8

* [16] (200mW, T2)

*

*

*
T4 (160mW) [27] T1 (110mW) [26] T1 T3&T7 (190mW) (225mW) [32] [37] [31] (200mW) T4&T5 125 175 200 300 400 500 CHUNG-YU WU

7

6

*[12]
(400mW, T1)

5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Conversion Rate (MHz) 90

Resolution versus sampling frequency plot of recently reported CMOS video A/D converters

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CHUNG-YU WU [1] H. Ondera, T. Tateishi, and K. Tamaru, "A cyclic A/D converter that does not require ratiomatched components," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 23, pp. 152-158, Feb.1988. P. W. Li, M. J. Chin, P. R. Gray, and R. Castello, " A ratio-independent algorithmic analog-todigital conversion technique," IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits, vol. SC-19, pp.828-836, Dec. 1984. H. S. Lee, " A 12-b 600Ks/s digitally self-calibrated pipelined algorithmic ADC," IEEE J. Solid-Dtate Circuits, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 509-515, Apr. 1994. Shu-Yuan Chin and Chung-Yu Wu, "A ratio-independent and gain insensitive algorithmic analog-to-digital converter," 1993 IEEE International Symp. on Circuits and Systems, Chicago, U.S.A., pp.1200-1203, May 3-6, 1993. [5] M. de Wit, K. S. Tan, R. K. Hester, " A low-power 12-b analog-to-digital converter with onchip precision trimming," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 455-461, Apr. 1993. G. Yin, F. Stubbe, and W. Sansen, " A16-b 320-KHz CMOS A/D converter using two-stage thrid-order Σ∆ noise shaping," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 640-647, June 1993. [7] B. Ginetti, P. G. A. Jespers and A. Vandemeulebroecke, " A CMOS 13-b cyclic RSD A/D converter," J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.27, no. 7, pp.957-964, July 1992. H. S. Lee, D. A. Hodeges, and P. R. Gray, " A self calibrating 15-bit CMOS A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-19, pp.813-819, Dec. 1984. T. Ritoniemi et al, " A stereo audio sigma-delta A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 29, no. 12, pp.1514-1523, Dec.1994.

[2]

[3]

[4]

[6]

[8]

[9]

[10] C. S. G. Conroy, D. W. Cline, and P. R. Gray, " An 8-b 85-Ms/s parallel pipeline A/D converter in 1-um CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.28, no. 4, pp.447-454, Apr. 1993. [11] Shu-Yuan Chin and Chung-Yu Wu, "A 3 V 8-bit 50-Msample/s A/D Converter," submitted to IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits. [12] H. Reyhani and P. quinlan, " A 5V 6-b 80Ms/s BiCMOS flash ADC," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 29, no. 8, pp.873-878, Aug. 1994. [13] M. J. M. Pelgrom, A. C. J. V Rens, M. Vertreg, and M. B. Dijkstra, " A 25-Ms/s 8-bit CMOS . A/D converter for embedded application," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.29, no. 8, pp.879886, Aug. 1994.

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CHUNG-YU WU [14] M. Ishikawa and T. Tsukahaara, "An 8-bit 50-Mhz CMOS A/D converter," IEEE J. SolidState Circuits, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1485-1491, Dec. 1989. [15] B. Razavi and B. A. Wolley, "A 12-b 5-Msample/s two-step A/D converter," IEEE J. SolidState Circuits, vol. 29, no. 12, pp.1667-1678, Dec. 1992. [16] A. G. F. Dingwall and V Zazzu, " An 8-MHz CMOS subranging 8-bit A/D converter," IEEE J. . Solid-State Circuits, vol. Sc-20, no. 6, pp. 1138-1143, Dec.1985. [17] J. Doernberg, P. R. Gray and D. A. Hodges, " A 10-bit 5-Msample/s CMOS two-step flash ADC," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 241-249, Apr.1989. [18] M. Ito et al., " A 10bit 20 Ms/s 3V supply CMOS A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 29, no. 12, pp.1531-1536, Dec. 1994. [19] M. Yotsuyanagi, T. Etoh, and K. Hirata, " A 10-b 50-MHz pipelined CMOS A/D converter with S/H," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 292-300, Mar. 1993. [20] T. B. Cho, P. R. Gray, "A 10 b, 20 Msample/s, 35 mW pipelined A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 166-172, Mar. 1995. [21] K. Nakamura, M. Hotta, L. R. Carley, and D. J. Allstos, "An 85 mW, 10b, 40 Msample/s CMOS parallel-pipelined ADC," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 173-183, Mar. 1995. [22] M. Yotsuyanagi et al., "A 2 V, 10 b, 20 Msample/s, mixed-mode subranging CMOS A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 30, no. 12, pp.1533-1537, Dec. 1995. [23] B. Nauta and A. G. W. Venes,"A 70-Ms/s 110mW 8-b CMOS folding and interpolating A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1302-1308, Dec. 1995. [24] P. C. Yu and H. S. Lee, "A 2.5-V, 12-b, 5-Msample/s pipelined CMOS ADC," IEEE J. SolidState Circuits, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1854-1861, Dec. 1996. [25] A. G. W. Venes and R. J. van de Plassche, "An 80-MHz, 80-mW, 8-b CMOS folding A/D converter with distributed track-and-hold preprocessing," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1846-1853, Dec. 1996. [26] S. Tsukamoto et al., "A CMOS 6-b, 200 Msample/s, 3 V-supply A/D converter for PRML read channel LSI," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.31, no. 11, pp. 1831-1836, Nov. 1996. [27] R. Roover and M. S. J. Steyert, "A 175 Ms/s, 6 b, 160mW, 3.3 V CMOS A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.31, no. 7, pp. 938-944, July 1996.

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CHUNG-YU WU [28] C. L. Portmann and T. H. Y. Meng, "Power-efficient metastability error reduction in CMOS flash A/D converters," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1132-1140, Aug. 1996. [29] M. P. Flynn and D. J. Allstot, "CMOS folding converter with current-mode interpolation," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1248-1257, Sep. 1996. [30] D. W. Cline and P. R. Gray, "A power optimized 13-b 5 Msamples/s pipelined analog-todigital converter in 1.2/spl mu/m CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 294-303, Mar. 1996. [31] M. P. Flynn and B. Sheahan, "A 400-Msample/s, 6-b CMOS folding and interpolating ADC," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1932-1938, Dec. 1998. [32] S. Tsukamoto, W. G. Schofield, and T. Endo, "A CMOS 6-b, 400-Msample/s ADC with error correction," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1939-1947, Dec. 1998. [33] J. M. Ingino and B. A. Wooley, "A continuously calibrated 12-b, 10-Ms/s, 3.3-V A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1920-1931, Dec. 1998. [34] I. E. Opris, L. D. Lewicki, and B. C. Wong, "A single-ended 12-bit 20 Msample/s selfcalibrating pipeline A/D converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 18981903, Dec. 1998. [35] H. van der Ploeg and R. Remmers, "A 3.3-V 10-b, 25-Msample/s two-step ADC in 0.35-um , CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1803-1811, Dec. 1999. [36] B. P. Brandt and J. Lutsky, "A 75-mW, 10-b, 20-MSPS CMOS subranging ADC with 9.5 effective bits at nyquist," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1788-1795, Dec. 1999. [37] I. Mehr and D. Dalton, "A 500-Msample/s, 6-bit nyquist-rate ADC for disk-drive readchannel applications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 912-920, Dec. 1999.

14-1 CHUNG-YU WU

CH 14. MOS Switched-Capacitor Filter Design
§14--1 Preliminary Considerations §14-1.1 Classification of systems and filters
1. Continuous-time, discrete-time, and sampled-data systems

Ampt.

Input x(t) Loss

Ampt.

T

Input x(kt) Loss

Ampt.

T

Input x(kt)

t Output y(t) τD τD Output y(kt)

t Output y(kt) τD

t

k: integer

continuous-time system e.q.: analog Filter differential equations

sampled-data system e.q.: SCF

discrete-time system e.q.: digital filter

difference equations

2. Tine-invariant systems and causal systems T.I. : x(kt)→ y(kt) => x[(k-n)T]→ y[(k-n)T] for any x(kt) and n.

Causal : x(mt) => y(kT)=0 for k<m 3. Filter types: (1) Low-Pass(LP) Kω p
2

H ( jω ) dB
-N*20dB/decade N: order

H(s)=

2 S 2 + (ω p / Q p ) S + ω p

Ideal

(biquad) Two complex poles (LHP)

ωp

ωs

ω

14-2 CHUNG-YU WU

(2) High-Pass(HP) KS 2 H(s)= 2 2 S + (ω p / Q p ) S + ω p Two complex poles(LHP) Two zeros at S=0 H ( jω ) 3) Band-Pass(BP) H(s)= K (ω p / Q p ) S dB
-3dB +N*10dB/decade N: order

ωp Qp

-N*10dB/decade N: order

2 S 2 + (ω p / Q p ) s + ω p

center freq. gain: k center freq. ωp Two complex poles (LHP) One zeros at S=0 4)Band-Reject(BR) K ( S 2 + ω z2 ) H(s)= 2 2 S + (ω z / Q p ) s + ω p ωp=ωz Two complex poles(LHP) Two imaginary zeros

ωs1

ωp1

ωp

ωp2

ωs2

ω

H ( jω ) dB

ωz

ω

ωp>ωz High-Pass Notch filter (HPN) ωp<ωz Low-Pass Notch filter (LPN) (5)Low-Pass Notch (LPN) (6)High-Pass Notch
H ( jϖ ) dB 0dB H ( jϖ ) dB 0dB

ωp ωz

ω

ωz

ωp

ω

14-3 CHUNG-YU WU

(7)ALL-Pass (Delay Equalizer) H(S)=
2 S 2 − (ω p / Q p ) S + ω p 2 S 2 + (ω p / Q p ) S + ω p

0dB

Gain -180o phase ωp ω

Two complex poles (LHP) Two complex zeros (RHP) mirror-imaged

§14-1.2 Sampling Process § ideal impulse sampling:
S(t)= S δ (t)=
k = −∞

multiplier x(t) xd(t)

∑ S (t − kτ ) ∑ δ (t − kτ )=

τ: sampling period xd(t)=x(t)S δ (t)=x(t) remember:
K = −∞ k = −∞

∑ x(t )δ (t − kτ )

S(t)=Sδ(t) for ideal impulse sampling


−∞

δ (t − kτ )dt = 1 δ (t − kτ ) =0 for t ≠ kτ

=> xd(t)= ∑ x(kτ )δ (t − kτ )
k = −∞

Fourier transformation of S δ (t): SF(t)= ∑ ck e jkω st
k = −∞

ωs ≡

τ

Where Ck ≡

τ∫

1

τ 2 τ − 2

s(t) e jkω st dt=
s

1

τ

=>xd(t)=x(t)SF(t)= ∑ Ck x(t )e jkω t
k = −∞

F[xd(t)]=F[ ∑ Ck x(t )e
k = −∞ ∞ k = −∞

jkω s t

]=

k = −∞

∑ C F [ x(t )e
k

jkω s t

]

= ∑ C k X(jω-jkωs)

where F[x(t)] ≡ X(jω), k=±integer base-band spectrum

14-4 CHUNG-YU WU
X(jω)

Aliasing: introduces an ambiguity into X(jω-jkωs) and prevents the eventual recovery of X(jω)

−ωc

0

ωc X(jω-jkωs)

ω ωs<2ωc

−ωs−ωc

0

ωc ωs X(jω-jkωs) no aliasing

2ωc

ω ωs>2ωc

−ωs −2ω c

−ωc

0

ωc

2ωc ωs

ω

Sampling Theorem: A function x(t) that has a Fourier spectrum X(jω) such that X(jω)=0 for

ω ≥ ω s 2 is uniquely described by a knowledge of its values at uniformly spaced
time instants, τ instants apart( τ = 2π / ws ) 2ωc: Nyquist rate. Anti-aliasing filter is required. Reconstruction filter is also required to recover x(t). spec H ( jω )
Transition band Pass band −ωs+ωc −ωc 0 ωc ωs-2ωc

The smaller the ωs-2ωc (TB), the higher the filter order!
Stop band

ωs-ωc

ω

14-5 CHUNG-YU WU

§ Finite -Pulse Sampling (non-ideal sampling):
Sp(t)= ∑ [u (t − kτ − ) − u (t − kτ + )] a>0
k = −∞ ∞

a 2

a 2

a 1

Ck=

τ∫

1

τ 2 τ − 2

Sp(t) e − jkω st dt e − jkω t dt =
s

=

τ∫

1

a 2 a − 2

a Sin(kω s a / 2 τ kω s a / 2

τ 2τ 3τ 4τ xd(t)

t

Now, we have sin α / α envelope onto X (jω-jkωs)

α ≡ kω s a / 2

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

τ 2τ

§14-1.3 Z-Transformation
xd(t)= ∑ x(kτ )δ (t − kτ )
k = −∞ ∞

3τ 4τ

t

Laplace Transformation=> Xd(s)=L[xd(t)]= ∑ x(kτ )e −ksτ
k = −∞

Let z=es τ S=jω z=e
jωτ

=> X(z)= ∑ X (kτ )z −k two-sided z-transform
k = −∞ ∞

X(z)= ∑ X (kτ )z −k
k =0 ∞ K =0

one-sided z-transform 1 1 − z −1
z >1 1 1− e
− aτ

example 1: x(t)=u(t)=>x(k τ ) = 1 =>X(z)= ∑ Z −k =

example 2: x(t)=e-atu(t)=>x(k τ ) = e − akτ =>X(z)= ∑ e -akzz-k=
k =0

for z >e-a τ

z −1

For single input/output, linear, time-invariant, sampled data (or discrete-time) system: y(k τ ) + ∑ bn y[(k-n) τ ] = ∑ an x[(k-n) τ ]
n =1 n =0 N M

M.N: non-negative integers

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Two cases:(1) bn = 0 for all n => nonrecursive system M+1 tap transversal filter Finite-Duration Impulse Response(FIR)Filter (2) bn ≠ 0 for n ≥ 1 => Nth-order recursive system Infinite Impulse Response(IIR) Filter z-transform: Y(z)(1+ ∑ bn Z −n ) =X(z) ∑ a n z −n
n =1 n =0 N M

Y ( z) H(z)= = X ( z)

∑a
n =0 N n =1

M

n

z −n

1 + ∑ bn z

pulse transfer function
−n

ao (1 − β 1 Z −1 )(1 − β 2 Z −1 )......(1 − β N Z −1 ) = (1 − α 1 Z −1 )(1 − α 2 Z −1 )........(1 − α N Z −1 ) Mapping between Z-plane and S-plane: z=esτ s=σ+jω => z=eστ ejωτ τ= 2π

z=αi: poles z=βi: zeros

ωs ωs ≤ ω ≤ ω s / 2 is 2

For ωs>2ω0, the base-band response X(jω) over the range- − sufficient to determine X(jω) for all ω. * −

ωs ≤ ω ≤ ω s / 2 , - ∞ <σ< ∞ => all Z-plane ∠Z = −π → π 2 ω 3ω − s ≤ ω ≤ − s , - ∞ <σ< ∞ => overlap on Z-plane ∠Z = −3π → −π 2 2 ωs 3ω ≤ ω ≤ s , - ∞ <σ< ∞ => overlap on Z-plane ∠Z = π → 3π 2 2

* ω=ω1, - ∞ <σ< ∞ => a straight line from z=0 to z= ∞ with angle ω1τ * jω axis => σ=0 => z =1 unit circle *σ>0 *σ<0
z >1 for all ω => RHP → outside the z = 1 circle z <1 for all ω => LHP → inside the z = 1 circle

14-7 CHUNG-YU WU

* S=0

z=1

; ω=0 - ∞ <σ<+ ∞ => Real Z axis (positive)

First-order transfer function: H(z)=
1 Z=a is the pole 1 − az −1

ω1

τ2

h(kτ) k=0, 1, 2, 3,……. z=a=eστejωτ (1)a>1, diverging unstable (2)a=1 sequence of 1's unstable stable (3)a ≥ 0 a<1 (4)-1<a ≤ 0 (5)a=-1 (6)a<-1 stable σ<0, ωτ=±π ωkτ=±kπ unstable unstable

τ1

0

σ
stable region

ImZ

τ2
ω 1τ

τ1
Z =1

Ro Z

G(ω)=20log[ H (Z ) z=ejωτ ] dB φ(ω)=tan-1 Re H ( Z )
Im H ( Z )

magnitude phase

z=ejωτ

rad

The magnitude and phase can be determined graphically in the same way as those determined from the s-plane poles & zeros.

§14-1.4 Sample and Hold Circuit
Zero-order hold or S/H function: Ho(s)=
1 − e − sτ sτ
sin(ωτ / 2)

Ho(jω)=e-jωτ/2 ωτ / 2

14-8 CHUNG-YU WU
X d ( jω )

h0(t) 1/τ

X r ( jω )

H 0 ( jω )

Impulse response

− 2ω S

−ωS

− ωC

+ ωC
∠H O ( jw)

ωS

2ω S

ω
τ

ho(t)= u(t)- u(t-τ)
τ τ

1

1

t

π
ωS
− 2ω S
2ω S

−ωS

ω
x(t ) τ x(k ) xr(t) xr(t)=x(t) h0(t) t

−π

* may serves as a reconstruction circuit Xr(jω)=Xd(jω)Ho(jω) * The different between Xr(jω) & Xd(jω) at ω ≅ ±ωc can be eliminated by setting ωs/ωc>>1.

§14-2 Switched-Capacitor Network System
General Switched-Capacitor Network (SCN): ideal capacitors, ideal voltage-controlled-voltage sources (VCVS's), ideal switches & sampled-data voltage inputs. VCVS: freq. indep. gain amps or infinite gain OP amps.

* Typically, the sampled-data voltage input is only single, not multiple. * The input may be a continuous one. * The effects of non-ideal switches, non-ideal OP amps, & non-ideal cap. should be considered as & second order effects.

14-9 CHUNG-YU WU

Block diagram:

(S/H)i
Continuous Anti-aliasing Filter

φ

φ

SwitchedCapacitor Network

(S/H)o

Continuous Reconstruction Filter

φ

φ

φ

φ

Switched-Capacitor Network (Two-phase clock) (can be multi-phase) General symbols:
φe φo

e

o

e
V2 ( kT )

o

V1 ( kT )

C

V1 (kT )

C

V2 (kT )

V1 (kT )

C

V2 ( kT )

φ

e

even clock
Tc
Tc

1T

2T

3T

t
odd clock

Tc<T to avoid overlapping of φe and φ°

φ

o

Tc

Tc

τ: sampling period

τ=2T

t

* Generally, SCN is time-variant since the network topology is different in the case of φe and φ°. However, if we separate the input/output sampled-data voltage into one even component and one odd component and separate the whole SCN into one even part and one odd part, then we have two time-invariant networks coupled together. Analysis thus can be performed.

14-10 CHUNG-YU WU

Sampled-Data Waveforms 1. Return-to-zero waveforms

va

e

va


0T

0T

1T

2T

3T

4T

5T

t

1T

2T e

3T

4T

5T

t

va

o

V (t )

+

o

Va (t )

0T

1T

2T

3T

4T

5T

t

e

V (t )

+

o

Vb (t )

Va(z)=Vae (z ) + Va0 ( z ) = Vae (z ) Similarly, we have Vb(z)= Vbe (z ) +Vb0 ( z ) = Vb0 ( z )

Va0 ( z ) =0 Vbe (z ) =0

2. Full-clock-period (Full-cycle) sample-and-hold waveforms

vc
vc (t)

o

vc
1 T 2T
3T

e

1T

2T

3T

4T

5T

t

4T

5T

t
1T 2T
3T

4T

5T

t

Vc(z)= Vce (z)+ Vc0 (z) V (z)=Z
0 c − 1 2

Vce (z) (Q Vc0 (kT)= Vce [(k-1)T])

Similarly, we have Vd(z)= Vde (z)+Vd0 (z)

14-11 CHUNG-YU WU

V (z)=Z Vd0 (z)
φ
or φ

e d

1 2

V (t )

+

+
C


vc , vd

Full-cycle S/H circuit

§14-3 Filter Design Process
1. Specification (1) Low-Pass Filter Specification:
H ( jω )
TransitionBand TB
S Stopband SB

Start
S : PB _ ripple
Specification

Gain dB

Passband PB

SB attenuation
No

Satisfied ?

ωO ω S
Cutoff − frequency

Actual − filter − response

ω

Yes
Approximation

Stopband − frequency

Satisfied ?

No

Yes

delay sec

Realization

Satisfied ?

No

Yes

Stop
actual − delay − function

ωC

ω

14-12 CHUNG-YU WU

(2) Band-Pass Filter

SB H

SP

TB L

PB

TB H

ω SL

ω CL

ω CHω SH

ω

2.Approximation (1) Classical approximation a. Butterworth b. Chebyshev c. Elliptic d. Bessel (2) Modern approximation 3.Realization Two methods: (1) Realization of the biquad (2nd order filter)and the first-order filter=>cascade or couple them to form a high-order filter. (2) Realize H(s) using LC network=>replace L by some integrated-circuit simulator or simulate the LC network using integrators. * Low-sensitivity, high-performance

14-13 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-4 SC Integrators via OP AMPS §14-4.1 SC Inverting Integrator
φo(φe): Vc1=0 φe(φo): Vc1=V1 -V2 ∆Q=C1(V1-V2)
φ e (φ o )

i
V1
φ o (φ e )
+

VC1

φ e (φ o )

V − V2 V − V2 ∆Q ≡ i = C1 1 = C1 f (V1 − V2 ) ≡ 1 T T R 1 f: clock frequency =>R= C1 f

C1

V2

φ o (φ e )

f=100KHz, C1=10PF => R=1MΩ

=>SC simulated positive resistor Switch realizations:

φo orφe φo orφe

φo orφe


− VSS
E/D NMOS

or

+ V DD

− VSS

φo orφe

The inverting SC integrator

vin

R

C

+

vout ⇒

vin

φe φo
C1

φe φo

C2

+

vout

Operation: (1)φo phase

14-14 CHUNG-YU WU
+ +

− − C2

vin

C1

+

vout

(2)φe phase
+ + + +

vin

+ +

C1

− −

− − − C2 −


+

vout

φe
n −1

n

n +1

t

φo

t
vin
+ 1V

t
vout
0V
vout (Tn )
vout (Tn+1 )

{
vout (Tn −1 )

t
{

{ C1 (1V ) C2

14-15 CHUNG-YU WU

"Ideal OP AMP" Vout(Tn)=Vc2(Tn)=Vout(Tn-1)=>
C1 Vin(Tn) C2

Vout (Tn ) − Vout (Tn −1 ) C 1 = − 1 Vin (Tn ) = − Vin (Tn ) T TC 2 R1C 2 d 1 1 1 Vin Vout = − Vin = − Vin = − 1 dt R1C 2 C 2 )( 1 ) C2 ( C1 f C1 f High-precision integrator time constant RC=
C2 1 C1 f

=>

Z-domain Expression: Vout (z)=Vout(z)Z-1- =>H(z) ≡
C1 Vin(z) C2

Vout ( z ) (C C ) = − 1 −21 (1 − Z ) Vin ( z )
1 − Z −1 T

Backward Euler Transformation: S→ H(S)=- 1 1 =− (C 2 / C1 )TS R1C 2 S

Parasitic-Free structure:

vin
C P1

φe φo

C1

φe
CP4

C2

+

C P 2 C P3

φo

vout
C P6

C P5

14-16 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-4.2 Non-inverting SC Integrator
φe(φo) : Vc1=+V1 φo(φe) : Vc1=-V2 ∆Q=C1(-V1-V2) V + V2 ∆Q = i = −C1 1 T T
−CV +V If V2=0 =>i= 1 1 = 1 T R 1 T => R=- = − C1 C1 f

i
φ e (φ o )

V1
φ o (φ e )

+

VC1

φ o (φ e )

C1

V2

φ e (φ o )

=> SC simulated negative resistor! The non-inverting SC integrator:
−R

C

+

vin

vout ⇒

vin

φe φo
C1

φo φe

C2

+

vout

Operations: (1)φe phase
C2
− −

(2) φo phase
− −

vin

+
+


+

C1

vout

vin

+ +

C1

− −

C2

+ +


+

vout

Vout (Tn)=Vout(Tn-1)+ d 1 Vout = Vin dt R1C 2

C1 Vin (Tn−1 ) C2

=>

=>

Vout 1 1 = (s) ≡ H (s) = Vin R1C 2 S C 2 1 S C1 f

14-17 CHUNG-YU WU

Z-domain expression: C1 ) Vout ( z ) C2 = H(z) ≡ Vin ( z ) 1 − Z −1 Z −1 ( Forward Euler Transformation: S→ H(s) ≡ + ( 1 C2 )TS C1 =+ 1 R1C 2 S
1 − Z −1 TZ −1

Simpler non-inverting integrator!

§14-5 Fully Differential-Type SC Integrators Using OP AMPs.

φe
V BIAS

φo
C

vin

+

αC
+


+

vout vout

− +

V BIAS


αC

vin

C

* Better noise rejection * Better CMRR and PSRR * Better Frequency response * Better slew rate ** More components (switches, capacitor, OP AMPs) ** Thermal noise ↑ due to the added components and switching operations. ** Need common-mode feedback or common-mode bias circuit

14-18 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-6 SC Differentiators Using OP AMPs
R
C1

+

Vin

Vout

Inverting:

φo
C

Vin

φe

C1


+

V'out

φe

Vout

' Vout(Tn)=Vout (Tn)=-

C1 [Vin (Tn ) − Vin (Tn −1 )] C

=>H(z)=-

C1 (1-Z-1) C 1 − Z −1 T 1 R= cf

Backward-Euler Transformation: S→ H(S)=-S Noninverting:
C1 C 1 T = − S 1 = − SRC1 C C f

φo
1

φo
CC − CC
+

C

Vin

φe

C1


+

Vout

14-19 CHUNG-YU WU

φo
2

C

φe

C1

− +
+

v out
v out

− +

C

H(z)=+

C1 (1 − Z −1 ) C

φo
Differential-Type SC Differentiator:

φo
vin vin
− +

φe
φe

C1 C1

C
− +
+

vout v out

− +

C

φo
Characteristics of SC differentiators: 1. Parasitic-free structure. 2. No dc instability problem as in SC integrators. 3. No high-frequency-noise problem as in continuous-time differentiators. 4. Can be used to design filters as SC integrators. Ref: IEEE JSSC vol.sc-24, pp.177-180, 1989.

14-20 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-7 The Design of SC Biquads (Second-Order Filter)
H(S)= − (K 2 S 2 + K 1 S + K o) S2 +

ωo S + ω 02 Q

=

Vout (s) Vin (s)

§14-7.1 Low-Q SC Biquads
Step 1: Flow diagram generation. S2Vout=-[K2S2+K1S+Ko] Vin-(ωo =>Vout=- [(K1+K2S)Vin+(
1 S 1 S S 2 + ω 0 ) • Vout Q

Wo ) • Vout+ ωo • V1) Q

where V1= [(Ko/ωo) • Vin+ωo • Vout]
− ω0

Vin
− K0

1 − S
V1
K1 + K 2 S

ω0

ω0 Q

1 S

Vout

ω0

Step2: Active-RC design
CA = 1

1

Vin

ω0

ω0
1

Q ω0

K0


+
1 K1

ω0

CB = 1


+

Vout

K2

14-21 CHUNG-YU WU

Step 3: SCF
C2 CA=1 φ2 Vin φ1 C1 φ2 C4 OP1 + C1' C1" C3 φ2 φ1
φ2

CB=1

φ2

φ1

-

φ1

OP2 +

-

φ2

Vout

C1 = T * Ko/ωo= Adc * ωo * T= Adc C2 = C3=ωo * T= C4 = (ωo * T/Q)=
1 x

1 x

Adc ≅

Ko

ωo

2

C 1 Q = A (not suitable for high Q) => Qx ω oT C 4 1

C1'= K1 * T =K1 C1" = K2 1 CA/C2= ω oT X= 1 ω oT

ωo x

=> fo=

fs fo: center (cutoff) frequency 2πx

Step 4: refinement Z-domain block diagram (If the accuracy is not good, change to Z-domain diagram)
-C2Z-1 C4 Vin -C1Z-1 -1/CA 1-Z-1 C1'+C1"(1-Z-1) C3 -1/CB 1-Z-1 Vout

14-22 CHUNG-YU WU

C1" = a0 C1' = a2-a0 C1 = 1/C3 * (a0+ a1+ a2)=
1 (2C1"+C1'±a1) C3

C4 = b2 -1 C2 * C3 = b1 + b2 + 1 C2=C3 In this diagram, each op-amp and its feedback capacitor (CA or CB) is replaced by its voltage-to-charge transfer function. Qout ( z ) V ( z) ⋅ C − 1 / Cf = = out −1 1− z Vin ( z ) Vin ( z ) Here Cf is the feedback capacitor. Similarly, C * (1-z-1) for an unswitched capacitor (e.g. C1") C for a non-inverting capacitor (C1', C3, C4) -1 for an inverting capacitor (C1, C2) -C * z From the block diagram, the exact transfer function is Vout ( z ) (C1 '+C1 " ) z 2 + (C1C3 − C1 '−2C1 " ) z + C1 " = − Vin ( z ) (1 + C 4 ) z 2 + (C 2 C3 − C 4 − 2) z + 1 As compared to H(z) specifications, the capacitances can be determined. a 2 * z 2 + a1 * z + a0 H(z) = b2 * z 2 + b1 * z + 1 TYPES L-P CASE B-P CASE H-P CASE NOTCH CASE COEFFICIENTS C1'=C1"=0 K1=K2=0 a0=a2=0 C1=C1"=0 K0=K2=0 a0=0,a1=-a2 C1=C1'=0 K0=K1=0 a0=a2= C1'=0 K1=0 a2=a0
a1 2

14-23 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-7.2 High-Q SC Biquads
ω0 K1 ω0 S -ω0
1 1

S Q

Vin

1

K0 ω0

-1 S

1

-1 S

1

Vout

K2S

V1

Vout =- [K2SVin-ω0V1] Where V1=- [(
1 S

1 S

K0

2. Active-RC design
1 Q

ω0

+

ω0

K1

S )Vin + (ω 0 +

S )Vou t ] Q

K1

ω0

CA = 1

1

ω0
CB = 1

Vin

ω0


K0

+

OP1

1


+

ω0

OP 2

Vout

K2

3. SCF
C2

φ1
C1
'

C4 CA = 1 CB = 1

φ2

vin

φ2

φ1

C1

φ1

φ2


+

φ2
C1
''

C3

φ1

φ2

φ1


+

vout

14-24 CHUNG-YU WU

C1=K0 T/ω0 = ( C2 ≅ C3 ≅ ω0T C4 ≅ 1
Q

K0

ω0

2

)ω oT = Adc ω 0T

(instead of

Q ) ω 0T

C1' ≅ K1/ω0 C1" ≅ K2 4. Z-domain block diagram of a high-Q biquad:
C2

+
C1 (1 − Z −1 )
''

C 4 (1 − Z −1 )

+ +
− C 3 Z −1 −1 CA 1 − Z −1 V1 C1 (1 − Z −1 )
''

Vin

C1

+

−1 CB 1 − Z −1

Vout

C1 " Z 2 + (C1C3 + C1 ' C3 − 2C1 " ) Z + (C1 "−C1 ' C3 ) H(Z)= − Z 2 + (C 2 C3 + C3C 4 − 2) Z + (1 − C3C 4 ) Choose C2=C3 Coefficient matching: C1"=
a2 b2 ao a − ao ) / C3 = 2 b2 b2 c3

C1'=(C1"-

C1=(a1/b1-C1'C3+2C1")/C3=(a0+a1+a2)/(b2c3) C4=(11 ) /C3 b2

C32=C22=(b1/b2-C3C4+2)=(b1+b2+1)/b2

14-25 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-7.3 Design Examples
Example 1: Low-Q Lowpass SCF Biquad

C2
C4

φ1 φ2
CB

CA

vin

φ2

φ1

C1

φ2

φ1


+

φ2

C3

φ1
4

φ1

φ2


+

vout

CA=CB=6.3 C1=4

H (S ) =

S 2 + 1.2 S + 1 fc: CENTER FRE. fs: SAMPLING FRE.

C2=1 C3=1 C4=1.2

f s f = c 2 •π • C

A

Example 2: Low-Q Bandpass SCF Biquad
C2 C4
CA CB

φ1 φ2

vin

φ2

φ1

φ2

φ1


+

φ2
C
' 1

C3

φ1
4

φ1

φ2


+

vout

CA=CB=6.3 C1'=2

H (S ) =

S 2 + 1 .2 S + 1
A fc: CENTER FRE. fs: SAMPLING FRE.

C2=1 C3=1 C4=1.2

f s f = c 2 •π • C

14-26 CHUNG-YU WU

Example 3: High-Q Low-pass SCF Biquad
C2

φ1 φ2

φ2
Vin

C1

CA

C4 C3 CB

φ2 φ1 φ1

+

φ2 φ1 φ2

φ1

+ Vout

CA=CB=6.3 C1=4

H (S ) =

4 S S2 + +1 5.25

C2=1 C3=1 C4=1.2

f s fc = 2 •π • C

A fc: CENTER FRE. fs: SAMPLING FRE.
φ1 φ2

Example 4: High-Q Band-pass SCF Biquad
C2 C'1 CA C4 C3 CB

Vin

φ2 φ1

+

φ2 φ1 φ2

φ1

+ Vout

CA=CB=6.3 C '1=2

H (S ) =

2S S 2 + 1.2 S + 1

C2=1 C3=1 C4=1.2

f s fc = 2 •π • C

A fc: CENTER FRE. fs: SAMPLING FRE.

14-27 CHUNG-YU WU

Frequency response of low-Q Low-pass SCF biquad

CENTER FREQUENCY: 1K Hz SAMPLING FREQUENCY: 39.6 Hz

CALCULATED

○ COMPUTED BY SWITCH CAP × EXPERIMENTAL

14-28 CHUNG-YU WU

Frequency response of low-Q Band-pass SCF biquad

CALCULATED

CENTER FREQUENCY: 1K Hz SAMPLING FREQUENCY: 39.6 Hz ○ COMPUTED BY SWITCH CAP × EXPERIMENTAL

14-29 CHUNG-YU WU

Frequency response of High-Q Low-pass SCF biquad

CALCULATD

CENTER FREQUENCY: 1K Hz SAMPLING FREQUENCY: 39.6 Hz ○ COMPUTED BY SWITCH CAP × EXPERIMENTAL

14-30 CHUNG-YU WU

Frequency response of high-Q Band-pass SCF biquad

CALCULATED

CENTER FREQUENCY: 1K Hz SAMPLING FREQUENCY: 39.6 Hz ○ COMPUTED BY SWITCH CAP × EXPERIMENTAL

14-31 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-8 First-Order SCFs
Ha(s)=- K1 S + K 0 S + ω0 H(z)=-
a1 z + ao b1 z + 1

1. Flow diagram
ω0
Vin K0

+

-1/S

Vout

K1S

2. Active-RC design
1/ω0

1/K0 Vin K1

CA=1

Vout

+

3. SCF
φ1 φ1 C2 C'1 φ2 CA φ1 φ2

C1 ≅ K1 C1' ≅ TK0 C2 ≅ ω0T fc=
fs 2πx Vin

φ2

C1 Vout

+

14-32 CHUNG-YU WU

4. Z-domain block diagram H(z)= Vout (C + C1 ' ) z − C1 =- 1 Vin (1 + C 2 ) z − 1
C'1

+ +

C2

Vin

C1(1-Z-1)

-1 / CA 1 - Z-1

Vout

§14-9 Switched-Capacitor Ladder Filters §14-9.1 Approximate Design of SC Ladder Filters
(1) Third-order low-pass filter without finite transmission zeros
RS V1
1

L2

I2

-V1=- -I2=

1 Vin − V1 ( − I2 ) SC1 RS

V3
3

Vin

−1 (V1 − V3 ) SL2 V 1 (− I 2 + 3 ) SC 3 RL

~

+ RL Vout -

C1

C3

V3= −

LCR prototype circuit

Loss

(no loss) transmission zero => ∞

Vin

1/RS

+
+1 -I2

-1 SC1 -1 -1 SL2

-V1

+
-1 +V3

ωp Loss response

ω

+1

+

-1 SC3

Flow diagram

1/RL

14-33 CHUNG-YU WU
RS

RS Vin 1 -I2

+ L2

C1 -V1 -1 +
Vin

Active-RC realization

CS φ2 φ1 φ1 φ2

CS

1 C3 + -1

C1

+
φ2 φ1 C L2

Vout
C

RL
φ1 C φ2

+

φ1

φ2

SCF

C C3 φ1 φ2

+
φ2 φ1 Vout

SCF realization equations: C=
T R T Rs

ωT<<1

CL

=> Cs ≅

C≅T CL ≅ T / RL Due to the approximation made in finding C values, error still exists which may be refined by the z-domain analysis.

14-34 CHUNG-YU WU

(2) Third-order low-pass filter with transmission zeros ωa1=-ωa2=
1 L2 C 2

-V1= -I2=

Vin − V1  −1 + sC 2V3 − I 2 , s (C1 + C 2 )  Rs  

−1 [V1 − V3 ], sL2  V3  −1  − sC 2V1 − I 2 + s (C 2 + C 3 )  RL 
IC2

+V3=

LCR Prototype circuit:
C2

RS

V1
1

L2

I2

V3
3

Vin

~

+ RL Vout -

C1

C3

1/RS

Vin

1/RS

+

-1 s(C1+C2)

-V1

Flow diagram:

SC2

-1

-I2

-1 SL2

+
-1

SC2

+

-1 S(C2+C3)

+V3

Vout

1/RL

RS

14-35 CHUNG-YU WU

Active-RC Realization:
RS Vin

CA=C1+C2

-V1

+

R

CB= L2/R2

-R

-RI2 C2 C2 R

+
CC=C2+C3 -R

+
V3 Vout

RL

CS Vin φ2 φ1 φ1 φ2

CS

SCF:

CA

+
φ2 φ1 C

C

CB

φ1 C2 C2 C φ2

φ1

φ2

+
C CC φ2 φ1

Cs ≅ T / Rs, CA=C1+C2, C≅ T, CB=L2, Cc=C2+C3, CL ≅ T / RL .
Vout

φ1

φ2

+

CL

14-36 CHUNG-YU WU

(3) Fourth-order Bandpass filter
C2 I2 I1 C1 L1 L3

RS

1

V1

L2

V3 I3 C3

3

Vin

~
1/RS

+ RL Vo -

LCR Prototype Circuit
1/RS

Vin

+
-I1-I2

-1 s(C1+C2)

-V1

-V1=
-1 -V1

 Vin − V1 −1 + sC 2V3 − I 1 − I 2 ,  s (C1 + C 2 )  RS 

+
-I2

-I1

-1 SL1

-I1= -I2=

− V1 , sL1

− V1 + V3 , sL2

SC2 VB VA VC
A B

I3=

-I2

-1 SL2

-1

+
VD
D

V3 , sL3  V3  −1 − sC 2V1 + I 3 − I 2 +  s (C 2 + C 3 )  RL 

C

V3=

-I2

SC2 I3 -1 SL3 -1 V3

+
I3-I2

+

-1 S(C2+C3)

V3

Vout

1/RL

14-37 CHUNG-YU WU

** The circuit has a stability problem at dc. Due to inductor loops!
VB VA VC VD

HAB

=
Circuits below A and B disconnected

− sL1 S L1 (C1 + C 2 ) + SL1 / Rs + 1
2

HCD

=
Circuits below C and D disconnected

− sL3 S L3 (C 2 + C 3 ) + SL3 / RL + 1
2

When S→0, HAB→0, HCD→0 => There will be no dc feedback paths around the center integrator which provides -I2. => OP AMP will be in the open-circuit status with A→∞. => Saturation occurs How to solve this problem? Don't model the inductor loop currents separately. i.e. I1, I2, I3. Only two inductive currents I and I entering nodes 1 and 3 are modeled.
1

3

=> Vin =0 and S→0, I =0 and I =0
1 2

=>No any instability at dc. i.e. Treat only two inductors as independent inductors. I =I1+I2 I =I2-I3
1

3

New flow diagram:

14-38 CHUNG-YU WU

-V1=

Vin − V1  −1 + sC 2V3 − I (11)  ,  R s (C1 + C 2 )   s
−1 sL12  L1V3  V1 − , L1 + L2  

-I(1) ∆ − ( I 1 + I 2 ) = 1

V3=

 V3  −1 3 , − sC 2V1 − I (3) + s (C 2 + C 3 )  RL  −1 sL12  L1V1  , − V3 + L1 + L2  

-I(3) ∆ I3-I2= 3

Where L12 ∆ L1 L2 = L1 L2 /( L1 + L2 )

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SCF:

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General Procedures for the approximate design of SC ladder filter : 1. A doubly terminated LC two-port is designed from the SCF specifications can be prewarped using the relation: ωT 2 Wa = sin( ) T 2 which represents the frequency transformation due to the LDI transformation implicit in the design produce. Inverting SC integrator + Noninverting SC integrator −1 (C1 / C 2 ) inv (C1 / C 2 ) noninv z H(z)=- 1 − z −1 1 − z −1 −K − Kz −1 = = 1 1 −1 2 − (1 − z ) (z 2 − z 2 )2 Ton z=ejωT => H(ejωT)= +K 4 sin 2 (ωT / 2)

LDI mapping (Lossless discrete integrator): 1 Sa= ( z − z −1 ) 2T 1 − 1 1 T 2 If is used => Sa= ( z − z 2 ) 2 T 1 T => ωa= Sin(ω ) T /2 2 2.The state equations of the LCR circuit are found. The signs of the voltage and current variables must be chosen such that inverting and noninverting integrators alternate in the implementation. If inductor loops exit, the inductive node currents can be used.

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4. The block diagram or signal flow graph (SFG) is constructed from the state equations. It is then transformed (directly or via the active-RC circuit) into the SCF. 5. If necessary, additional circuit transformations can be performed to improve the response of SCF.

§14-10 Exact Design of SC Ladder Filters
* Ladder synthesis based on the bilinear Sa-to-z transformation ☆ Sa=
2 T z −1 z +1

(1)jωa─axis=>unit circle (2)preserves the flatness of PB and SB

§14-10.1 Third-order SCF (Low-pass with finite transmission zero)
C2'=C2+CL2 -CL2= -V1=
−T 2 4L2

 V1 + Vin  −1 ′ − + s a C 2 V3 − I 2 , '  Rs S a (C1 + C 2 )  

 1  [V1 − V3 ] , -I2=  s a C L 2 − s a L2    V3=
 V3  −1 ′ . − s a C 2 V1 − I 2 + s a (C 2′ + C 3)  RL 

LCR Prototype Circuit:

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Flow diagram

The center block has the transfer function:
1 − S a L2 C L 2 1 − ( S a T / 2) 2 1 =− = H(Sa)=SaCL2S a L2 S a L2 S a L2
2

Transformation of the blocks into SC circuits: (1) Finding Q-V relations of all blocks and branches in the Sa domain. (2) Transforming the Q-V relations into the z-domain. (3) Realizing the transformed z-domain equations into SC circuits.

Five different blocks: (a) The input branch 1 Rs

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Qin (Sa)=

1 1 Vin Rs Sa

Qin (z)=

T z + 1 Vin ( z ) 2 z − 1 Rs T (1+z-1)Vin(z) 2 Rs Cs [Vin(tn)+Vin(tn-1)] 2

=> (1-z-1)Qin =

qin(tn)-qin(tn-1)= SC realizations:
CS/2 φ2 Vin CS CP φ1 φ1

Optional. To guarantee the charge flow only when φ1=1
Cs Cs : [V in (t n ) − V in (t n −1 )] 2 2 Cs : Cs Vin (tn-1)

Virtual ground

* Not stray insensitive. Cp + Cs not Cs (b) The feedback branch 1 R , 1 R s L
Vin -CS/2 φ2 φ1 CS φ2 φ2 φ1 Virtual ground

Cs C : − s [Vin (t n ) − Vin (t n −1 )] 2 2

Cs: CsVin(tn)
⇓ Cs [Vin(tn)+Vin(tn-1)] 2

* Stray insensitive. (c)The branches SaC Q 1 = CS a =C V Sa (d) The blocks 1 SaC
Q = −C V

Only a C is required.

=> OP with a feedback capacitor C.

14-45 CHUNG-YU WU

(e) The center block 1 − ( S a T 2) 2 -I2=(V1-V3) S a L2 1 − ( S a T 2) 2 − I2 =− (V1-V3) Q(Sa)= 2 Sa S a L2 4C L 2 Z Q( z ) 1 − [( z − 1) /( z + 1)]2 => =− =− 2 2 V1 ( z ) − V3 ( z ) (4 L2 / T )[( z − 1) /( z + 1)] ( z − 1) 2
∆ Q(z)=(1-z )Q(z)=
-1

4C L 2 (V3 − V1 ) z −1

− 4C L 2 / C 2 ∆Q( z ) 4C L 2 z −1 −1 )(C ) = = (−Cz )( V3 − V1 1 − z −1 1 − z −1 Realizations:
-V1 ψ1 C ψ1 C ψ1 ψ2 ΔQ Virtual ground V3 ψ2 ψ1 ψ2 ψ2 Virtual ground C2/4CL2 ψ2 ψ1

C

ψ1 C

ψ2

The final realization is shown in the next page. * This circuit is not fully stray insensitive. C * The negative capacitor − s has been merged into the feedback capacitors 2 CA and CB, respectively. C C CB=C2'+C3 − s CA=C1+C2' − s 2 2 * Why C2', -CL2 ? To create a block which is realizable by SC circuit.

+

14-46 CHUNG-YU WU

SCF:
ψ2 CS / 2 Vin ψ1 ψ2 CS CA CS

ψ1

ψ2 ψ2 ψ1 C

C'2

C'2

C CC ψ1 ψ2 ψ2

CL Vout

The complete bilinear ladder circuit equivalent to the LCR circuit

+

-

ψ1

ψ2

+ CB +

C

ψ1

ψ2

C

ψ1

14-47 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-10.2 Bandpass LCR filters
C1 LC prototype Circuit: V 2 I2 L1 C2 V2 IL2 L2 IL3 L3 C3 V3

1

-V2 can be produced as:
I2

-

+

C2 I2

-V2

I2=(SC1+

V 1 1 ) (V1-V2)+(SC3+ ) (V3-V2)- 2 SL1 SL3 SL2

Note that

1 − ( S a T 2) 2 is realizable ! Sa L

=>I2(S)=S[(C1+CL1)V1+(C1+C3+CL1+CL3)(-V2)+(C3+CL3)V3] +( −
1 S T 2s ) [Γ1V1+(Γ1+Γ2+Γ3)(-V2)+ Γ3V3] 4

1 T2 , Γi= Where CLi ≡ Li 4 Li
First Term: Q2'(S)=(C1+CL1)V1+(C1+C3+CL1+CL3)(-V2)+(C3+CL3)V3 Can be realized by unswitched capacitors. Second Term: T z +1 2 T 2 ) − ] [Γ1V1+(Γ1+Γ2+Γ3)(-V2)+ Γ3V3] Q2"(Z)=[( 2 z −1 4 T 2 z −1 = [Γ1V1+(Γ1+Γ2+Γ3)(-V2)+ Γ3V3] (1 − z −1 ) 2

14-48 CHUNG-YU WU

The same as before but now three functions are superposed together. ( ∆Q2 " / V1 , ∆Q2 " /(−V2 ), ∆Q2 " / V3 ) C 4C7 T 2 CC 1 1 1 = = 4C L1 ; 5 7 = T 2 ( + + ) = 4(C L1 + C L 2 + C L3 ) Conditions: C8 L1 L2 L3 C8 L1 C6C7 T 2 = = 4C L 3 C8 L3 Stage providing Q2”(z):
V1 -V2 V3

LC prototype circuit:
C1 V2 V1 L1 C2 L2 L3 C3 V3

C4

C5

C6

C8 C7 Q2"(z) Vitrual ground

SC realization: Design equations: CL1=T2/(4Li) c1=C1+CL1 c2=C1+C2+C3+CL1+CL2+CL3 c3=C3+CL3 c4= 4 c8 C L1 c7
c4 c1 c3

V1

c2 Vt=-V2 c5 c6 V3

c c5= 4 8 (C L1 + C L 2 + C L 3 ) c7 c6= 4 c8 CL3 c7

c7, c8 arbitrary

c7

c8 Vb

14-49 CHUNG-YU WU

LC prototype circuit with RS:
RS C2 V2

Vin

C1

L1

L2

SC realization: c1 Vin

c8

c2

c3

c4 -V1 V2

c5

c9

Design equations: C Li ∆
c7 c6

T2 4 Li

, Cs ∆

T Rs

Cs , c2=c3=C9 2 c4=C1+C2+CL1+CL2-CS/2 c1= c5=4 c6 (C L1 + C L 2 ) c7 c6 CL 2 c7

c8=C2+CL2 c9=4

c6, c7 arbitrary

14-50 CHUNG-YU WU

LC prototype circuit with RL:
VN

C1 VL

L1

C2

L2

RL

SC realization:
c1

c3

c4

-VL VN

Design equations: CL1 ∆ T2 T , CL ∆ RL 4 Li
c2 c5

c1=C1+CL1 c2=4 c6 C L1 c7

c3=CL c4=C1+C2+CL1+CL2-CL/2 c c5= 4 6 (CL1+CL2) c7 c6, c7 are arbitrary

c7

c6

14-51 CHUNG-YU WU

Z-domain verifications: Upper OP AMP: C1(1-z-1)V1+C3(1-z-1)V3+C2(1-z-1)Vt+C7Vb=0 Lower OP AMP: -C4z-1V1-C6z-1V3-C5z-1Vt+C8(1-z-1)Vb=0 => Vt=N 1V1 + N 3V3 D

z −1 (1 − z −1 )[(C 2 C 4 − C1C5 )V1 + (C 2 C6 − C3C5 )V3 ] Vb= C8 D where N1(z)=C1C8[(1-z-1)2+ C 4 C7 −1 z ] C1C8 C6 C7 −1 z ] C 3 C8

N3(z)=C3C8[(1-z-1)2+

D(z)=C2C8[(1-z-1)2+

C5C7 −1 z ] C 2 C8

* All poles and zeros of the transfer functions Vt/V1, Vt/V3, Vb/V1, and Vb/V3 are located on the unit circle. After the bilinear s-to-z transformation, Vt= −
[(C1C8 − C 4 C 7 / 4) S 2 + C 4 C 7 / T 2 ]V1 + V3 [(C 3C8 − C 6 C 7 / 4) S 2 + C 6 C 7 / T 2 ] (C 2 C8 − C 5 C 7 / 4) S 2 + C 5 C 7 / T 2

1 S S ( − )[(C 2 C 4 − C1C5 )V1 + (C 2 C6 − C3C5 )V3 ] Vb= T 2 (C 2 C8 − C5C7 / 4) S 2 + C5C7 / T 2 * The phase shift between Vt and V1, as well as between Vt and V3 are either 0° or 180° for s=jω =>The same as for the LC prototype regardless of the element values Ci. =>Can simulate a lossless LC with the same low sensitivity.

14-52 CHUNG-YU WU

* It can also simulate the behavior of any LC ladder section which has a T configuration.
V1 C1 V2 L2 C2 C3 V3

High-pass

L1

L3 L2 C2

Low-pass

Vt=-V2 => V2= (aS 2 + b)V1 + (cS 2 + d )V3 eS 2 + f

* High-Pass Case :

At Z=ejωT =-1

ω c 2π / T = 2 2 If the loss is zero (i.e. passband),
, i.e. ω= =>(1-z-1)Qin(z)= T (1+z-1)Vin(z) 2 Rs

=0 Qin(z)=0, but loss is zero =>The other part of the circuit should have an infinite gain. =>unstable. Rs input (i.e. input termination) is a problem! * Inductor loop is O.K.

14-53 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-10.3 Comparisons
LDI Realizations of Ladder Filters using SC Integrators (1) Prewarping is required (2) Inductor loop exists =>Modified design =>Component sensitivity ↑ Bilinear Realizations of Ladder Filters using SC Integrations (1) Prewarping is not required. (2) Low-pass, band-pass ladder filters are O.K. But they are not fully stray insensitive. (3) Can't realize high-pass or band-reject filters. => Instability exists. (4) Some modifications are proposed. But they are not fully stray insensitive.

§14-11 The Scaling of High-Order SCF's.
Why scaling? (1) Improve the actual performance. (2) Reduce the silicon area

V1

F1

∆Q1

F7 V2 F2 ∆Q2 ∆Q4 F4 Vj F5 ∆Q5 V3 F3 ∆Q3 Vi

OAj
F8

OAi

F6 A ∆Q6

OAk

Vk

SC filter section.

14-54 CHUNG-YU WU

Let all branches connected to the output terminal of OAi be modified such that their ∆Q / V transfer functions F4, F5, and F6 are multiplied by a positive real constant factor k. This can be achieved simply by multiplying all capacitors in these branches by ki. Since the input branches and their voltages were left unchanged, the change flowing in the feedback branch is ∆ Q4(z)=- ∆ Q1(z)- ∆ Q2(z)- ∆ Q3(z) remains at its original value. => V2.'(z)= ∆ Q4(z)/[kiF4(z)]=Vi(z)/ki The new output voltage of OAi The old output voltage of OAi

Vi→Vi/ki due to scaling.
∆ Q5'=F5'(z)Vi'(z)=kiF5(z)

Vi ( z) =F5(z)Vi(z)= ∆Q5 ( z ) ki

Voltage scaling does not change charge flowing from the scaled branch to the rest of the circuit. =>Only Vi/ki, all other voltages or changes are not affected. Optimization of the dynamic range using scaling
F1

V1

V2

F2

F4

Vj

F5

OAn
F3 F6 A Vn Vout

V3 Vin

OAi
Vn

Vmax/Ap ≥ Vin, max

Ap: passband gain.

14-55 CHUNG-YU WU

OA2 will saturate before OA5 because V2 > V5 for ω~ω2. Now, we choose Vin, max=Vmax/A2 A2= V p 2 / Vin , Ap= V p 5 / Vin A2=Ap VP 2 / VP 5 Vin, max= Vmax Vmax VP 5 Vmax = < A2 AP VP 2 AP since VP5/VP2<1

=>Maximum Vin ↓=> Dynamic range ↓ Reducing V2 by scaling. V2'(ω)=V2(ω)/k2 k2=VP2/VP5

=>V2' has a peak value of VP2' which is equal to VP5. =>Vin, max=Vmax/Ap Similarly, k3=VP3/VP5. k1=VP1/VP5<1, k4=VP4/VP5<1. It is not good to choose k2(k3)> VP2/VP5(VP3/VP5)because the noise will be increased. => dynamic range ↓. CONCLUSION: For maximum dynamic range, all op-amp outputs should be scaled such that each (at its own maximum frequency) saturates for the same input voltage level.

14-56 CHUNG-YU WU

Let the transfer functions Fj(z) ≡ ∆Q j / V j of all branches connected to the input terminal of OAi be multiplied by a positive real constant Mi => Ci→mCi

∆Qn

, n=1, 2, 3, 4 → ∆Qn ' =mi ∆Qn
F1, F2, F3, F4

Vi'=

∆Q4 ' mi ∆Q4 ∆Q4 = = = Vi F4 ' mi F4 F4

Vi unchanged!

The output charges ∆Q5 and ∆Q6 also remain the same =>The above scaling by mi leaves all op-amp output voltages in the SCF unchanged. Only the charges in the scaled branches get multiplied by mi. =>Effective in reducing the cap. spread and the total capacitance of a SCF. Ci, min among all capacitors contained in these four branches is located. =>All capacitors contained in these four branches are multiplied by mi=Cmin/Ci, min => The smallest capacitance becomes Cmin and all op-amp voltages remain unaffected. * Scaling for optimum dynamic range should be performed first, and scaling for minimum capacitance afterwards. 1. Scaling for Maximum Dynamic Range (a) Set Vin(ω) to the largest value for which the output op-amp does not saturate. Record Vin(ω) and Vi, max (b) Calculate Vpi for all internal op-amp output Vpi usually occur near the passband edges. (c) Multiply all capacitors connected or switched to the output terminal of op-amp i by ki=Vpi/Vi,max where Vi,max is the saturation voltage at the output. (d)Repeat for all internal op-amps. 2.Scaling for Minimum Capacitance (a) Divide all capacitors in SCF into nonoverlapped sets. Capacitors in the ith set Si are connected or switched to the input terminal of

14-57 CHUNG-YU WU

op-amp i. (b) Multiply all capacitors in Si by mi=Cmin/Ci, min. (c) Repeat for all sets Si. * Scaling for optimum dynamic range may also reduce the sensitivity to finite op-amp gain effects.
Y Y1 Y2 Y3 Y0 A vout

V1 V2 V3

(a)

(Y+Y0+Y1+Y2+Y3+...)/A Y Y1 Y2 Y3 vout 8

V1 V2 V3

(b)

The influence of finite op-amp gain: (a) actual circuits; (b) equivalent circuits. 3. The block diagram or signal flow graph (SFG) is constructed from the state equations. It is then transformed (directly or via the active-RC circuit) into the SCF. 4. If necessary, additional circuit transformations can be performed to improve the response of SCF.

14-58 CHUNG-YU WU

§14-10 Design Examples on Cascaded SCF and LDI Ladder SCF §14-10.1 Cascaded SCF
Filter Specification Passband: 0 to fp=1kHz passband ripple αp ≤ 0.05dB (Maximum allowable passband gain variation) fs ≤ 1.5KHz to fc/2 Minimum stopband loss αs ≥ 38dB (Maximum allowable gain value) fc= =50KHz
1 T

Stopband:

Sampling frequency: Design Procedures: 1.S-domain transfer function H(s) Frequency prewarping ωap=

ωT 2 tan p =6291.4667 rad/s T 2
s

ωas= 2 tan ω T
T 2

Selectivity parameter k≡

ω ap ≅ 0.6656 ω as

Elliptic filter is chosen to minimize the filter order. Results:
ˆ k

ˆ S 2 a + ω1 0.068 )( 2 ) Ĥ(Sa)=( ˆ S a + 0.78140011 S a + 0.96934556S a + a1 2 + b1 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ (-2 a1 ) (- a 0 )
2

(

Sa

2

ˆ Sa + ω 2 ) 2 ˆ2 ˆ ˆ − 2a 2 S a + a2 + b2
2 2

ˆ where â1=-0.48467278, b 1=0.82815049, â2=-0.128006731, ˆ b 2=1.100351473, ŵ1=1.5514948, ŵ2=2.32131474

14-59 CHUNG-YU WU

=> filter order=5 ˆ ŵap=1 rad/s, α p=0.044dB, ŵas=1.49448 rad/s, ˆ ˆ α s=39.57dB, k =0.669 => The specifications are satisfied with Ĥa(0)=1 2. frequency denormalization and z-domain transfer function H(z) Denormalization: Sa→S/ωp Ĥ(Sa) →H(S) ( S 2 + ω1 )( S 2 + ω 2 ) H(S)=K 2 2 2 2 ( S − a0 )( S 2 − 2a1 s + a1 + b1 )( S 2 − 2a 2 s + a2 + b2 )
2 2

Where K=428.247646, ω1=9.76117788×103, ω2=1.46044744×104, ao=-4.91615278×103 a1=-3.04930266×103, b1=5.21028124×103 a2=-805.350086, b2=6.92282466×103 2 z −1 z −1 Bilinear transformation: S→ = 10 5 T z +1 z +1 H(s) →H(z) z + 1 z 2 + C1 z + 1 z 2 + C 2 z + 1 )( )( ) H(z)=(C z + d o z 2 + e1 z + f1 z 2 + e2 z + f 2 Where C=3.8719271×10-3, C1= -1.962247471, C2= -1.916465445, do=-0.906284158, e1= -1.871739343, f1=0.88543246, e2=-1.949416807, f2=0.968447477. Check: H (e jωT ) satisfies specifications.

1 H(ejωT)

fc/2 fp 1 vs. f H(ejωT) 0≦f≦fc/2

14-60 CHUNG-YU WU

1 H(ejωT)

vs. f

0 ≦ f≦ f p

fp

3. SC realization (1) H0(z)= z +1 z − 0.9063
CD -1/CE 1-Z-1

H0(z)=Vout

Vin +

CS 2

+
(1+Z-1)

Cs / 2 z +1 × C D + C E z − C E /(C D + C E )

φ1 CS/2 φ1 φ2 φ2 φ2 CD CE φ2

Cs=2 arbitrarily chosen =>CE=0.9063 , CD=0.0937

Vin

CS

φ1

A1

Vout

z 2 + C1 z + 1 (2) H1(z)= (1 / f1 ) z 2 + (e1 / f1 ) z + 1 The SCF is shown on P.14-21. The component values are: C1"=a0=1, C1'=a2-a0=0,

(a + b1 ) Q1= 1 2 a1

2

2

1

2

≅ 0.99 Low-Q

C2=C3= b1 + b2 + 1 = (e1 + 1) / f1 + 1 ≅ 0.12436,

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C1=(a0+a1+a2)/C3 ≅ 0.30358, C4=b2-1=1/f1-1 ≅ 0.12939, CA=CB=1. (3) H2(z)= z 2 + C2 z + 1 ( 1 ) z 2 + ( e2 f 2 ) z + 1 f2
(a + b2 ) Q2= 2 2 a2
2 2 1 2

≅ 4.33 =>High-Q

The SCF is shown on P.14-23. The component values are:
C1 " = a 2 / b2 = f 2 ≅ 0.96845 C 2 = C 3 = (1 + b1 + b2 ) / b2 = C1 ' = (a1 − a 0 ) / b2 c3 = 0, f 2 + e2 + 1 ≅ 0.13795,

C1=(a0+a1+a2)/b2C3=(2+c2)f2/C3 ≅ 0.58645, C4=(1-1/b2)/C3=(1-f2)/C3 ≅ 0.22873. (4)Overall SCF * Ho (low-pass linear section) is placed first =>High-frequency out-of-band signals and input noise can be attenuated. The antialiasing filter preceding the SCF has a lower requirement. * H2 (high-Q section) is placed to the center=>good signal-to-noise ratio
CD CS/2 Vin φ1 CS φ2 φ1 φ2
A1

φ1 φ2 φ2 C1 φ1 φ1 φ2 CA
A2

C2 C4 φ1 C3 φ2 C1" φ1 CB φ2
A3

φ1 φ2

CE

A

SECTION 1

SECTION 2 (HIGH Q)
C2 φ1 C4 φ1
A4

φ2 A

φ2

CA C1 φ1 φ2 C3 φ2 φ2 φ1

CB
A5

φ2 φ2

φ1

Vout

C 1"

SECTION 3 (LOW Q)

14-62 CHUNG-YU WU

4. Scaling 1) Vp1=occurs at dc where H0(1)=-CS/CD=-21.345 (1)We want an overall passband gain of 1. =>Ho(1)→-1 => CD=CS=2, CE ≅ 19.345, C1"20.672, C2 ≅ 12.518 (Multiplying all capacitors connected or switched to the output node of op-amp A1 by 21.345) (2)All capacitors at the input node of A1 should be scaled so that the smallest ( Cs 2 ) equals 1. (O.K.) 2) Vp2 (peak output voltage of op-amp A2) occurs around fp2=1.10kHz (1) Vp2 ≅ 177.05 for Vin=1 Reducing Vp1/Vin to 1 =>CA and C3 are multiplied by 177.05=> CA ≅ 177.05, C3 ≅ 24.424. (2) Vp3 ≅ 180.80 at 1.07kHz =>CB,C2, and C4 are multiplied by 180.80=>CB ≅ 180.80, C2 ≅ 24.941, C4 ≅ 41.354. (3) Minimize total capacitance=>C1, C2, C4, and CA at the input node of op-amp A2 are scaled to make C1=1 =>C1=1, C2 ≅ 1.9926, C4 ≅ 3.3036, CA ≅ 14.144 (4) Similarly, C1"=1, C3 ≅ 1.1815, CB ≅ 8.7466. (The input of A3) 3) Vp4 ≅ 503.57 and Vp5 ≅ 230.14 Thought the same procedures, we have C A ≅ 17.666, C B ≅ 7.7286 C1 ≅ 1.9926, C 2 = 1 C3 ≅ 2.1116, C 4 = 2 5 Final Design Cmin is chosen as 0.5pF => C=1 op amp: gain 70dB bandwidth 3 MHz passband sensitivity to capacitance variation ≅ 0.2dB/1% C1 ≅ 6.3085
"

§14-12.2 Bilinear Ladder SCF Design
1. The same filter specification. Elliptic ladder filter is chosen(fifth-order). The result is

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L2 RS L4

Vin

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

RL

Normalized component values: Rs=RL=1 C1=0.85535 C2=0.15367 L2=1.20763 C3=1.48438 C4=0.46265 L4=0.89794 C5=0.63702 ŵap=1 rad/s 2. Frequency prewarping and denormalization ωap ≅

ωT πf 2 tan p = 2 f c tan p ≅ 6291.4667rad / s T fc 2

Multiplying each resistor by z0, each inductor by L0=z0/ωap, and each capacitor by C0= 1 ωap. z0 50Ω Usually choose z0=real source and termination resistance 100Ω 600Ω Here, C0=1 is chosen => z0= 1

ω ap

and L0=

1 2 ω ap

We have the denormalized element values as: C1=0.85535, C2=0.15367, L2=1.20763×Lo=3.05090×10-8, C3=1.48438, C4=0.46265, L4=0.89794×Lo=2.26851×10-8, C5=0.63702, Rs=RL=z0=1.58945×10-4 3. SC realization Using the exact design technique of SC ladder filter (Section 14-10), the state equations are -V1= − -I2=-( V3= 1 1 ( (Vin − V1 ) − I 2 + sC ' 2 V3 ), sC '1 RS

1 − sC L 2 ) (V1-V3), sL2

1 (− I 2 − sC ' 2 V1 − sC 4 'V5 + I 4 ), sC ' 3

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I4=(

1 − sC L 4 )(V3 − V5 ), sL4 V −1 ( I 4 + sC ' 4 V3 − 5 ), sC ' 5 RL
Vin

The signal flow diagram is:
1/RS 1/RS -1/sC'1 -V1 sC'2

-V5= where CL2=

T = 0.003278, 4 L2
2

sC'2

-I'2

1-(sT/2)2 sL2 V3

-1/sC'3 I4 sC'4

C'2=C2+CL2=0.15695, C'1=C1+C'2=1.01230,
T2 CL4= = 0.0044082, 4 L4

1-(sT/2)2 sL4 sC'4 -1/sC'5 -V5

C'4=C4+CL4=0.46706, C'3=C3+C'2+C'4=2.10839, C'5=C5+C'4=1.10408.
C1

1/RL

SCF: arbitrarily chosen C=CL2=0.003278 Cs=
T = 0.1258293, Rs

Vin

φ1 φ2

φ2 φ1 Co1 φ2 CA A1

C2

C φ2 φ1

C'=CL4=0.004408
C21 C22 φ1

Co2 φ2 Co3 CC A3 Co5 Co6 CD A4 φ1 φ2 CB A2 φ1 φ2

C CA=C1+C2+CL2- s = 0.94938, 2 CB= C C = L 2 = 0.0008195, 4C L 2 4
2

Co4 φ2 φ2 φ1

φ1

Cc=C'3=2.10839, CD=
C C '2 = L 4 = 0.001102, 4C L 4 4
C41 C42 φ1 φ1

φ2 Co7 φ2

C CE=C'5- L = 1.041165, 2 T CL= = 0.12583. RL

CE A5 φ2

Co8 φ1

CL Vout

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4.Scaling Vin=1V, we have: A1: CA,C2,C21, and C02 multiplied by Vp1 A2: C3,C01, and C03 multiplied by Vp2

Vp1 ≅ 0.92V, Vp2 ≅ 34V, Vp3 ≅ 0.764V, Vp4 ≅ 28.86V, Vp5 ≅ 0.5V,

for dynamic range scaling minimum-capacitance scaling: C A Cs 2

C1=1.00000 C2=1.83854 C3=2.00000 CA=13.87171 C01=1.77112 C02=1.20275 C03=1.00000 C04=1.00000 CB=11.11901 Cc=14.46156 =13.87171

C05=1.14172 C06=1.52861 C07=2.02212 C08=1.00000 CE=8.27441 CD=14.43078 CL=1.00000 C41=2.09575 C42=5.67396 C21=1.29480 C22=1.90667

5.Final design Cmin , OP amp: 70dB 3 MHz =>Passband ripple: 0.06dB minimum stopband loss ≅ 39.5dB Maximum sensitivity: 0.05dB %

§14-12.3 LDI Ladder SCF Design
1. LCR prototype circuit Fifth-order elliptic LC ladder filter with the same lowpass specifications. 2. Frequency prewarping and denormalization ωap ≅ ωp (for simplicity) z0=1Ω => C0= 1
(2π 10 )
3

F, L0=

1 H (2π 10 3 )

The denormalized element values: State equations: − V + Vin 1 Rs=1Ω, ( 1 + sC 2V3 − I 2 ), -V1= s (C1 + C 2 ) Rs C1=136.13318µF, C4=73.633034µF, C2=24.45734µF, L4=142.91159µH, V −V -I2= 3 1 , L2=192.20028µH, C5=101.38488µH, sL2 C3=236.24641µF, RL=1 Ω . 1 ( − I 2 − sC 2V1 − sC 4V5 + I 4 ), V3= −
s (C 2 + C 3 + C 4 )

I4=

V3 − V5 , sL4 V 1 ( I 4 + sC 4V3 − 5 ). s (C 4 + C 5 ) RL

-V5= −

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3.SCF design The flow diagram is shown on P.14-? whereas the active-RC circuit is given on P.14-?. The SCF is shown on P.14-? where T=20µs is chosen and the component values are C2+C3+C4=334.34µF, C1+C2=160.59µF, CS= T =20µF, Rs C4+C5=175.018µF, CL=
T =20µf RL

C= =20µF,

T 1

4.Scaling Dynamic range scaling with Vpi listed: followed by minimum-capacitance scaling

for A1:Vp1=0.927 V at 1.182kHz. for A2:Vp2=1.198 V at 1.121 kHz. for A3:Vp3=0.857V at 1.061 kHz. for A4:Vp4=1.105 V at 1.061 kHz. for A5:Vp5=0.501 V at 967 kHz. SCF:

Element values: C1=8.03214, C3=12.97271, C3A=1.08390, C1A=1, C1B=1.07930, C3B=1, C1C=1.29263, C3C=1.02540, C1D=1.13212, C3D=1.66885, C2=13.42236, C4=15.76379, C2A=1.08053, C4A=1.71203, C4B=1, C2B=1, C5=8.75121, C5A=2.20614, C5B=1, C5C=6.29664. 5.Final design Cmin Passband ripple: 0.095dB>0.044dB Minimum stopband loss: 40.5dB OP amp: 70dB, 3MHz

Maximum passband sensitivity: 0.08dB %

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§14-13 Nonideal Effects in Switched-Capacitor Filters
1. Switch Turn-On Resistance The turn-On resistance of a MOSFET can be written as Ron=
φ

1 2 uco w (VG S − VT ) 2 L

Vin signal voltage -Vss

C

* Nonlinear behavior

The Ron effect on the simple SC integrator:
C2 φ 1 φ 2
φ1

Vin C1 + Vout
φ2 t=nT
C2

t=(n+1)T

φ1
R1 R2 + Vin V1 C1 +

φ2
Vout

t=nT nT+T/2 (n+1)T

At t=nT , V1(t)=V1(nT)=Vin(nT)(1-e −T 2 R C )
1 1

Assume φ1 and φ2 are activated for T 2 .
T ∆Q (nT+ ) = C1V1(nT )(1-e −T / 2 R2C1 )=[Vout(nT+T)-Vout(nT)]C2 2

Let R1=R2=R − (1 − e −T 2 RC ) 2 C1 C 2 => H(z)= z −1 C C Ideal: H(z)=- 1 2 z −1
1

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Error:

ε=1-(1-e −T / 2 RC ) 2 ≅ 2e −T / 2 RC
1 1

1

Usually ε<0.1%(cap. ratio error) is acceptable. 2e −T / 2 RC ≤ 10 −4 =>
RC1 1 ≅ 0.05 =RC1fc ≤ T 2 ln 20000 20 20 fc

or RC1 ≤ T (= 1 ) fc=500KHz, C1=5pF R ≤ 20 KΩ ; fc=100MHz, C1=2pF, R ≤ 250Ω ?

2.Clock Feedthrough Noise * All switches directly connected to the integrating node generate clock feedthrough noises.
φ1 m

φ2 T

n

* All clock feedthrough noises are proportional to the sampling frequency. They may have a dc component. * As soon as the clock feedthrough error voltage does not

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saturate the OP AMP, it can be eliminated at the output by reconstruction filters(LPF). * The dc component cause offset voltage problems. 3.Junction Leakage * Worst-case (100°C or 125°C) leakage at the integrating node: 5µm×5µm junction => 400 pA leakage ~10 nA/mil2 * fs, max is about 25KHz in this case to avoid significant errors. * The leakage cause dc offset voltages. 4. DC offset Voltage of the OP AMP
+ pratical op amp + + ideal op amp Voff C2 φ2 φ2 C1 + Vout + Voff = 5~20mv

* Vout=(1+

C1 ) Voff C2

Voff

* Integrator-based design may have a dc offset problem if no other negative feedback paths exist. * Too-low-frequency operation is not good.
C2

5. Finite Gain of the OP AMP.
1 Vout(nT)=Vc2(nT)- Vout(nT) AO

φ2 C1 φ1 φ1

φ2 + A0 Vout

C2[Vc2(nT)-Vc2(nT-T)] +C1[Vin(nT)+
1 Vout(nT)]=0 AO

Vout ( z ) − (C1 C 2 )[1 + (1 + C1 C 2 ) / AO ]−1 z = =>H(z)= Vin ( z ) z − (1 + 1 ) /[1 + (1 + C1 C 2 ) / AO ] AO

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H(ejωT)=Hi(ejωT)

1 1+ ( 1 AO )(1 + C1 / 2C 2 ) − j (C1 / C 2 ) / 2 AO tan(ωT 2) F(ω) m(ω)= − C1 / C 2 C 1 (1 + 1 ) θ(ω)= AO 2C 2 2 Ao tan(ωT / 2)

− (C1 / C 2 ) z −1 1 F(ω)= 1 − m(ω ) + jθ (ω ) Hi(z)=

F (ω ) =

1 (1 − m) + θ
2 2

1 1− m

≅ 1+m

C1 / C 2 AoωT relative magnitude error ≅

−θ ∠ F(ω)=-tan 1 − m ≅ tan-1θ ≅ θ
-1

θ<<1

relative phase error θ<<1

m<<1

ωT<<1 , Ao >1000 , C1/C2 normal value. AoωT>>1 f 1 = s AoT Ao => m and θ are very small. But for ω<2/AoT , θ is large. ω>> 6. Finite Bandwidth of the OP AMP. A(s)= −1 1 / Ao + S / ω o single-pole response Ao>1000=>0.1% Ao>100=>1% <0.1%

Similarly m(ω)=-e-k1[1-KcosωT] θ(ω)=-e-k1KsinωT k=
C2 C1 + C 2

k1 ≡ K woT/2

If ωoT/2=πωo/ωc >>1 => m→0, θ→0. ** ωo ≅ 5ωc is adequate. * The unity-gain bandwidth ωo of the OP AMP should be (at least) five times as large as the clock frequency ωc.

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ωo vs ωc: (1) Given ωo, ωc should be chosen low enough so that the OP AMPs have enough time to settle. But ωc should not be too low, or the noise aliasing effect becomes serious the antialiasing and smoothing filters must be too selective and too complex. (2) Given ωc, ωo should be just high enough to assure that the stage can settle within each clock phase. Any higher value worsens unnecessarily the noise aliasing effect, and raises the dc power and chip area requirements of the op-amps. (3) Ao=1000 (60dB), fo=10MHz, fp1=10KHz choose fc=2MHz, and f<40 KHz Typically f/fc ≅ 48 i.e. ωoT≒
1 4

7. Finite Slew Rate of the OP AMP * The output voltage of the OP AMP must be settled down with the clock active duration. tslew + t settle<T2 * May cause nonlinear distortion. 8. Nonzero OP AMP Output Resistance 2Ro (
C1C 2 1 + C L ) ≅ T1 < TΦ 2=1 C1 + C 2 7

C2: feedback cap ; C1:input cap; CL: load cap. 9. Overall considerations: For an integrator settling error of 0.1% or less, we must have Ao ≥ 5000 ωo/ωc ≥ 4 T/RonC1 ≥ 40 10. Noise Generated in SC Circuits (1) Clock feedthrough noise (2) Noise coupled directly or capacitive from the power, clock, ground lines, and from the substrate.

14-72 CHUNG-YU WU

(3) Thermal and flicker ( 1 f ) noise generated in the switches and op-amps. Thermal and flicker ( 1 f ) noise: * Internal sampling and holding=>If 1 f noise has no aliasing=>It can be eliminated. * Thermal noise will be sampled and held with the OP AMP as a frequency limiting element.=> ωo>>ωc is not suitable. * The circuit noise ↓ if the circuit cap. ↑

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CH 15. Continuous-Time Filters in CMOS
§15-1 Categories of continuous-time filter ICs
Amplifier Types Voltage OP AMP AV Current OP AMP AI Finite-gain voltage amp Finite-gain current amp. Infinite-gain Operational Transconductance Amp. (OTA) Gm Finite-gain OTA or gm amplifier Infinite-gain Operational Transimpedance Amp. Rm Finite-gain Transimpedance Amp. or Rm amplifier Mixed Gm and Rm Amplifiers Mixed AV, AI, Gm, and Rm Amplifiers RF amplifier Ο ∆ • × ? : : : : : well developed less developed but with great potential much less developed not explored to be developed with potential Continuous-Time Filter Types
Ο (Voltage-mode) Active RC filters

∆ (Current-mode) Active RC filters ∆ (Voltage-mode) Active RC filters • (Current-mode) Active RC filters
× Ο (Voltage-mode) Gm-C filters ×

∆ (Current-mode) Rm-C filters
? ?

∆ Integrated LC filters

Common characteristics of continuous-time filters: 1. Not parasitic free =>Greater tolerance in performance. 2. No switches or clocks =>Lower noise (clock-induced) or simpler circuit. 3. Need tuning to accommodate the process variations on filter characteristics if high accuracy is required. =>Extra overhead and higher cost. =>Might not be needed if process-independent design is used and reasonable tolerance is allowed.

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4. Could achieve higher-frequency operation in the VHF or UHF range if finite-gain amplifiers are used. 5. Could achieve GHz operation if deep submicron CMOS is used.

§15-2 Gm-C or OTA-C (Operational-Transconductance-Amplifier-C) Filters §15-2.1 Transconductor or OTA characteristics
Ideal characteristics: gm=hIABC or h'VABC Io=gm(V+-V-) Ri→ ∞ , Ro=0 h(h') is a constant.
V+
Gm amp or OTA symbol V+ Vgm Io

IABC or VABC

Io gm(V+ - V-) Ro=0

Nonideal characteristics: gm is not linearly proportional to IABC or VABC. Ri and Ro are finite.

Ri → ∞ V-

ideal equivalent circuit
V+ Ri Vgm(V+ - V-) Ro

Io

§15-2.2 Basic OTA building blocks
Ref.: IEEE Circuits and Device Magazine, pp.20-32, March 1985. 1. Voltage amplifiers Gm or op amp + resistors.

(a) Basic inverting

(b) Basic noninverting

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(c) Feedback amplifier

(d) Noninverting feedback amplifier

(e) Buffered amplifier

(f) Buffered VCVC feedback

(g) All OTA amplifiers

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2.Controlled impedance elements
1

2

(a) Single-ended voltage variable resistor (VVR)

(b) Floating VVR

(c) Scaled VVR

(d) Voltage variable impedance inverter

(e) Voltage variable floating impedance

(f) Impedance multiplier

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(f) Super inductor

(f) FDNR (d) Variable Impedance Inverter (VIC) or Gyrator * ZL is a capacitor=> Zin is a inductor=>active inductor. * Can be used in voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) (h) FDNR (Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance) R S=jω Zin(jω)=- 2

ω * Gyrator +super inductor.

3. Integrators

Gm or OTA + R or C

(a) Simple

(b) Lossy

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gm1 C

gm2

Vo/Vi=gm1/(sC+gm2) Vo

(b) Adjustable

§15-2.3 Gm-C or OTA-C filters (first-order)
(a) First-order lowpass voltage-controlled filter, fixed dc gain, pole adjustable
Vi gm Vo

|H| 1 gm↑ gm/C

H(s)=

Vo gm = Vi sc + g m

ω

(b) Lowpass, fixed pole, adjustable dc gain
|H|

Vi gm

H(s)=

Vo
gm↑

Vo gm = Vi sc + 1 R

1/RC

ω

(c ) Highpass, fixed high-frequency gain, adjustable pole
|H| Vi gm Vo gm↑

H(s)=

Vo sc = Vi sc + g m

gm/C

ω

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(d) Shelving equalizer, fixed high-frequency gain, fixed pole, adjustable zero
|H| gmR>1

H(S)=

Vi gm

Vo R( sc + g m ) = Vi sRC + 1

Vo

gmR=1 gmR<1 1/RC ω

(e) Shelving equalizer, fixed high-frequency gain, fixed zero, adjustable pole
Vi gm |H| Vo gmR<1 gmR=1

H(s)=

Vo g m (1 + sRC ) = Vi sc + g m

gmR>1 1/RC

ω

(f) Lowpass filter, adjustable pole and zero
C2 Vi gm
|H|

H(s)=
gm ↑

Vo sc2 + g m = Vi s (c1 + c2 ) g m

Vo

C1

gm/(C1+C2)

ω

(g) Shelving equalizer, independently adjustable pole and zero
C Vi gm1 gm2 |H| Vo 1

H(s)=
gm1>gm2 gm1<gm2

Vo sC + g m1 = Vi sC + g m 2

gm1=gm2

ω

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(h) Lowpass or highpass filter, adjustable zero and pole, fixed ratio or independent adjustment
C2 Vi gm1 gm2
|H| gm1/(gm1+gm2) gm ↑

Vo C1

C2/(C1+C2) gm1/(gm1+gm2) > C2/(C1+C2) |H| C2/(C1+C2) gm ↑ ω

g m1 + sC 2 V H(s)= o = Vi s (C1 + C 2 ) + g m1 + g m 2 (i) Phase shifter, adjustable with gm
C Vi gm1 gm2 R

gm1/(gm1+gm2) gm1/(gm1+gm2) < C2/(C1+C2) ω

H(s)=
H Vo 180o 90o 0o

Vo sC − g m1 = Vi sC + g m1 g m 2 R

gm2R=1
gm↑ ω gm1/C

§15-2.4 Second-order Gm-Cor OTA-C filters
(a)

V01=

S 2 C1C 2VC + SC1 g m 2VB + g m1 g m 2V A S 2 C1C 2 + SC1 g m 2 + g m1 g m 2

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Transfer functions for the biquadratic structure (a) Circuit Type Input Conditions Transfer Function g m1 g m 2 Vi=VA ωo Adjustable 2 Lowpass VB and VC Grounded s C1C 2 + SC1 g m 2 + g m1 g m 2 sc1 g m 2 Vi=VB ωo Adjustable Bandpass VA and VC Grounded s 2 C1C 2 + SC1 g m 2 + g m1 g m 2 s 2 C1C 2 Vi=VC ωo Adjustable Highpass VA and VB Grounded s 2 C1C 2 + SC1 g m 2 + g m1 g m 2 ωo Adjustable Notch (b) Vi=VA=VC VB Grounded s 2 C1C 2 + g m1 g m 2 s 2 C1C 2 + SC1 g m 2 + g m1 g m 2

If gm1=gm2=gm ωo Q (fixed) gm C1C 2 gm C1C 2 gm C1C 2 gm C1C 2
C2 C1 C2 C1 C2 C1 C2 C1

ωo=

g m1 g m 2 C 2 g m1 1 , Q= C1C 2 g m3 R C1 g m 2

* Can implement lowpass, bandpass, highpass, and notch. * If gm3 is fixed and gm1=gm2=gm is adjusted, the poles can be moved in a constant-Q manner. * If gm3 is adjusted with gm1 and gm2 fixed, the pole movement in a constant-ω0 manner. (c) S 2 C1C 2Vc + SC1 g m 2VB + g m 2 g m1V A Vo3= S 2 C1C 2 + Sg m 3C1 + g m1 g m 2 ωo=
g m1 g m 2 g g C , Q= ( 2 ) m1 m 2 C1C 2 C1 g m3

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* ωo can be adjusted linearly with gm1=gm2=gm and gm3 constant => constant-bandwidth movement. * If gm1, gm2, and gm3 are adjusted simultaneously, constant-Q pole movement. * Interchanging "+" and "-" terminals of gm1 and gm2 and setting VA=VB=VC=Vi, and making gm1=gm2=gm3=gm => 2nd-order gm adjustable phase equalizer. (d) Vc C1C 2 S 2 + VB g m 3 sC1 + g m1 g m 2V A V04= S 2 C1C 2 + SC1 g m 3 + g m1 g m 2
C1 gm 2 C2 VC VB gm 3

gm 1 VA

Vo4

ωo=

g m1 g m 2 1 , Q= g m3 C1C 2

g m1 g m 2 C 2 C1

* The adjustment of the bandpass version with gm1=gm2=gm will result in a constant bandwidth, constant gain response. (e) Elliptic biquadratic filter

x x' VA

gm1 gm2 C1 Vo

C2

C3

Vo S 2 + g m1 / C1C 2 C2 )( ) H(s)= = ( Vi C 2 + C3 S 2 + Sg m 2 /(C 2 + C3 ) + g m1 g m 2 / C1 (C 2 + C3 ) * Can be applied to the realization of high-order voltage-controlled elliptic filters. =>Cascading these second-order blocks with interstage unity-gain buffers. All gm's are made equal and adjusted simultaneously. * The voltage-controlled amplifier of Fig. (g) on p.15-3 can be inserted between x and x'. The transconductance gain of the two OTAs in the

15-11 CHUNG-YU WU

amplifier can be used as the control variable to adjust the ratio of the zero location to pole location. (g) General biquadratic structure

S 2 C1C 2Vc + SC1 g m 4VB + g m 2 g m 5V A Vo= S 2 C1C 2 + SC1 g m 3 + g m 2 g m1 * when Vi=VA=VB=VC, the ωo and Q for the poles and zeros can be adjusted by gm's to any desired value.

§15-2.5 Fully Differential Gm-C or OTA-C Filters
1. General first-order filter

H(s)=

Vout K1 S + K o = Vin S + ωo
SCx + Gm1 = S (C A + C X ) + Gm 2 S( Gm1 Cx )+ C A + Cx C A + Cx Gm 2 S+ CA + CX

H(s)=

=>Cx=(

K1 )C A , Gm1=Ko(CA+CX), Gm2=ω0(CA+CX) 1 − K1

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2. General biquadratic filter
-ω0 -ω0/Q K0/ω0 Vin(S)

+

1/S

ω0

+

1/S Vout(S)

K1+K2S

H(s)=

Vout ( s ) K 2 S 2 + K1 S + K o = ω 2 Vin ( s ) S 2 + ( o )S + ω o Q

H(s)=

Vout ( s ) = Vin ( s )

S2(

G m 2 Gm 4 Gms GX ) + S( )+ C X + CB C X + CB C A (C X + C B ) Gm 3 Gm1Gm 2 )+ S 2 + S( C X + CB C A (C X + C B ) CX=CB(
K2 ) where 0 ≤ K 2 <1 1− K2

Design equations:

Gm1=ωoCA Gm2=ωo(CB+CX) Gm3=

ω o (C B + C X ) Q

Gm4=(KoCA)/ωo Gm5=K1(CB+CX)

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§15-3 CMOS Transconductor or OTA
1. CMOS transconductor using triode transistor

* Q9: operated in the triode region. * Gm can be adjusted by Vgs9 and scaled by the current mirrors Q3/Q7 and Q4/Q8. * Q5/Q6 are feedback devices to set the drain voltages of Q1/Q2. 2. CMOS transconductor using varying bias-triode transistors.

* Q3 and Q4 are in the triode region. * Gm=
1 1 where rds3=rds4= rs1 + rs 2 + (rds 3 || rds 4 ) 2 K 3 (VGS 1 − Vtn )

rs1=rs2=

I 1 1 = VGS1-Vtn= 1 g m1 2 K 1 (VGS1 − Vtn ) K1

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3. CMOS differential-pair transconductor with floating voltage supply. Conceptual circuit:

Real circuit:

(iD1-iD2)= 4 K eq I B (V1 − V2 ) Gm=4 K eq I B * 30~50 dB linearity.

4. CMOS bias-offset cross-coupled transconductor.

(i1-i2)=2KVB(V1-V2) Gm=2KVB *30~50dB linearity

15-15 CHUNG-YU WU

§15-4 Design Example of Gm-C or OTA-C Filters
Ref.: 1. IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems, pp. 1132-1138, Nov. 1986 2. IEEE JSSC, pp.987-996, Aug. 1988 1. CMOS linear transconductance amplifier (CMOS inverter-based complementary differential-pair transconductor)
VDD

gm=2keff (VG1+ VG 4 − ΣVT)
VG1 M1

ΣVT=VTn1+VTn3+ VTP 2 + VTP 4
M2 Vin Vout M3

keff =

kn k p ( kn + k p )2

1 W kn,p= (u eff cox × ) n , p 2 L Tunable gm amplifier symbol:

VG4

M4 VSS

2. Gm-C biquad (general)
5

VL

L

1

3

4

V2

2

VB

C1

C2 VH V3

Q

6

6
Vo

− C1 g m SN BP + C1 g m S 2 N HP + g m N LP + (C1C 2 g m S 2 + g m L g m ) N BR H(s)= 3 C1C 2 g m S 2 +C1 g m ( g mQ − g m ) S + g m
2 2

NBP: VB ≠ 0 , VL=VH=0 NHP: VH ≠ 0 , VL=VB=0 NLP: VL ≠ 0 , VH=VB=0 NBR: VL=VH=VBR, VB=0

15-16 CHUNG-YU WU

Experimental results on BP filter:

Center frequency 4MHz TABLE I EXPERIMENTAL FILTER DATA Control Passband ripple Stopband attenuation Bandwidth S/N in passband Distortion (for 0.5Vpp) Max. signal level Frequency control range Q-control range Offset (reference inverter) Automatic 1 dB >60 dB 800 KHz ≈40dB 0.5% 1.2 Vpp 1 MHz 40% 1.5 MHz unlimited 75dB Manual 0.5 dB

1mV @ Gain ≈ 50

§15-5 MOSFET-C Filters
* MOSFET-C filters are slower than Gm-C filters ∵Miller integration. * Smaller speed ∵The load of op amps is resistive * Straightforward design methodology

15-17 CHUNG-YU WU

1. Two-transistor integrators.

(a) Active-RC integrator
R1 ≡ R p 1 = Rn1 R 2 ≡ R p 2 = Rn 2 ino − i po SC1

(b) Two-transistor MOSFET-C integrator

Vdiff ≡ Vpo-Vno=

= =

(i p1 + i p 2 ) − (in1 + in 2 ) SC1 1 1 (V p1 − Vn1 ) + (V p 2 − Vn 2 ) SR1C1 SR2 C1

2.General biquadratic MOSFET-C filter Active-RC circuit:

MOSFET-C biquadratic filter:

15-18 CHUNG-YU WU

GG C1 2 G2 )S + ( )S + 1 3 V ( s) C CB C AC B = B H(S)= o GG G Vi ( s ) S 2 + ( 1 )S + 3 4 GB C AC B ( 3. Four-transistor integrators Vdiff ≡ Vpo-Vno = 1 srDS 1c1 (V pi − Vni ) + 1 srDS 2 c1 (Vni − V pi )

where rDS1=
u n cox (

1 W )1 (Vc1 − V x − Vt ) L

rDS2=

1 W u n cox ( ) 2 (Vc 2 − V x − Vt ) L

All four transistors are matched =>Vdiff= 1 srDS c1 (V pi − Vni )
1 u n cox ( W )(Vc1 − Vc 2 ) L

where rDS=

16-1 CHUNG-YU WU

CH 16. Oversampling Data Converters
§16-1 Fundamental Concept §16-1.1 Oversampling without noise shaping
1. Quantization noise modeling
e(n)

x(n)

Quantizer

y(n)

x(n)

+

y(n)

e(n) ≡ y(n) − x(n)
* e(n) can be approximated as an independent random variable uniformly distributed between ±
∆ where ∆ is the difference between two adjacent 2

quantization levels, i.e. VLSB. ∆2 * The quantization noise power = = Pe 12 * The quantization noise power is independent of the sampling frequency fs. f * The spectral density of e(n), Se(f) is white and all its power is within ± s . 2

fs 2 fs − 2

S e2 ( f )df = ∫

fs 2 fs − 2

∆2 2 2 K x df = K x f s = 12

Se(f)

Height Kx

=>Kx=(

∆ 1 ) 12 f s
− fs 2

2. Oversampling Advantage
H( f )

0

fs 2

f

1

x(n) fo

quantizer N-bit fs

y(n)

y (n)
2

H(f) filter

− fs 2

-fo

fo

fs 2

f
f 2 fo

Oversampling ratio OSR ≡

16-2 CHUNG-YU WU

Assume that the input signal is a sinusoidal wave between 0 and ∆2N. The signal power Ps is
∆2 2 2 ) = Ps=( 8 2 2 ∆2 N
2 N

With H(f), Ps remains the same since the signal's frequency content is below fo, but the quantization noise power Pe becomes Pe= ∫ S ( f ) H ( f ) df = ∫− fo K x df =
2 e 2 fs 2 fs − 2 2 fo

2 f o ∆2 ∆2 1 = ( ) f s 12 12 OSR

OSR ↑×2 => Pe ↓ SNRmax=10log(

1 or -3dB, or 0.5 bits 2

Ps 3 ) = 10 log( 2 2 N ) + 10 log(OSR) Pe 2

=6.02N+1.76+10log(OSR) =>SNR enhancement obtained from oversampling: 10log(OSR). SNR improvement of 3 dB/octave or 0.5 bits/octave 3.The advantage of 1-bit D/A converter * Oversampling improves the SNR, but it does not improve linearity. * Theoretically, 1-bit converter with fo=25 KHz can obtain a 96-dB SNR(16 bits) if the sampling frequency fs=54,000 GHz! * The advantage of a 1-bit DAC is that it is inherently linear.

Vout

always linear

0

1

Bin

§16-1.2 Oversampling with noise shaping
1. The system architecture of a ∆Σ oversampling ADC is shown in the next page

16-3 CHUNG-YU WU

Oversampling Delta-Sigma Analog-to-Digital Converters:

T Analog Signal

fs >> 2fo
Delta-Sigma Delta-Sigma A-to-D Converter A-to-D Converter (Modulator) (Modulator)

Decimation Filter
1-bit stream fs >> 2fo
DSP DSP Decimation Decimation Chip Chip 2 fo =
. . .

Multi-Bit Output

1 (OSR)T

Minimum Anti-Aliasing Filter

Analog Delta-Sigma Modulator

Nyquist Rate PCM

f0

Digital Low-Pass Filter

OSR

Down Sampler
e(n)

2. Noise-shaped ∆Σ modulator
u(n)
X(n)

+ -

H(Z)

1-bit Quantizer

y(n)

u(n)

+ -

H(Z)

X(n)

+

y(n)

DAC 1-bit

DAC 1-bit

Two independent inputs: U(z) and E(z) Signal Noise Signal transfer function STF(z) ≡ Noise transfer function NTF(z) ≡ =>Y(z)=STF(z)U(z)+NTF(z)E(z) If H (z ) → ∞ for 0<f<fo => S TF ( z ) → 1 and N TF ( z ) → 0 => Quantization noise ↓ and signal unchanged. 3.First-order noise shaping:
Y ( z) H ( z) = U ( z) 1 + H ( z) Y ( z) 1 = E( z) 1 + H ( z)

16-4 CHUNG-YU WU z −1 (Noniverting Forward-Euler SC integrator) 1 − z −1 H ( z) = z −1 =>STF(z)= 1 + H ( z)

H(z)=

NTF(z)=

1 jωT j2πf/fs = (1 − z −1 ) z=e =e 1 + H ( z)

NTF(f)=1-e-j2πf/fs=sin (

πf ) × (2 j ) × (e − jπ f / fs ) fs

N TF ( f ) = 2 sin(

πf ) fs

The quantization power noise power over 0 to fo is ∆2 1 πf Pe= ∫− fo S ( f ) N TF ( f ) df = ∫− fo ( ) [2 sin( )]2 df fs 12 f s
fo 2 e 2 fo

Since fo << fs, i.e. OSR>>1, sin(

πf πf )≅ fs fs

∆2 π 2 2 f 3 ∆2π 2 1 3 => Pe ≅ ( )( )( ) = ( ) 12 3 f s 36 OSR P 3 3 ∆2 2 2 N Ps= => SNRmax=10 log( s ) = 10 log( 2 2 N ) + 10 log[ 2 (OSR) 3 ] 8 π Pe 2 => SNRmax=6.02N+1.76-5.17+30 log(OSR) Double OSR => SNRmax ↑ by 9dB or 1.5bits/octave Without noise shaping: SNRmax ↑ by 3dB/ octave or 0.5bits/ octave.

Y=Z-1U+E(1-Z-1) Block diagram:
U

E z −1 H ( z) = 1 − z −1

+
-

+

Y = UZ −1 + E (1 − Z −1 )

16-5 CHUNG-YU WU

SC implementation:

C
2 1 1
A′

C
+ _

2 Comparator 1
+ _

U

Latch (2)

Y
1 .5 0

2

H(Z) C
1 2

phase 2 Reset Quantizer(1-bit ADC )

1-bit DAC
A 0. 5 -0 . 5 Control signal

-. 5 -1

Can be eliminated by connecting the node A Directly to the node A'.

First-order noise shaping with 2-bit ADC and 2-bit DAC
U +

-

z −1 1 − z −1

2-bit A/D

Y

2-bit D/A

0. 5

+

+ 0

Y

1

.5

+
.75 .25 -.25 -.75 -. 5

-0. 5

0

MUX

-1

Control line

16-6 CHUNG-YU WU

4. Second-order noise shaping
H1 U + + H2 +

E Y Quantizer

-

1 + −1 1− z

z −1 1 − z −1

DAC

STF(Z)=Z-1 N TF ( f ) = [2 sin(

NTF(Z)=(1-Z-1)2

Y=Z-1U+(1-Z-1)2E

πf 2 )] fs

∆2π 4 1 5 ( ) => Pe ≅ 60 OSR SNRmax=10log( Ps 3 5 ) = 10 log( 2 N ) + 10 log( 4 ) + 10 log(OSR) 5 Pe 2 π

=6.02N+1.76-12.9+50log(OSR) OSR×2 => SNRmax↑ by 15dB/Octave or 2.5 bits/Octave General formula of SNRmax with k-order noise shaping: 2k + 1 ) + (2k + 1) 10log(OSR) SNRmax=6.02N+1.76- 10log( 4

π OSR×2=> SNRmax↑by 3(2k+1)dB/Octave or 0.5(2k+1)bits/Octave

Noise-shaping transfer functions:

N

TF

(f)

Second-order First-order No noise shaping f

0

f

0

f

s 2

f

s

The SC implementation of the second-order ∆Σ modulator is shown in the next page. * Single-ended structure * Can be converted into fully differential structure for better noise rejection and

16-7 CHUNG-YU WU

linearity. * The capacitor and switches in the feedback path to OP2 can be reduced as shown on page 16-5. SC implementation: Single-Ended type circuit diagram

C 2 1 C 2 1 U C 2 1 1 2 OP +1 C 2 1 2 C 1 OP +2 1 + C 2
Preamplifier

V+ Control signal 1-bit DAC
COMP-1

V-

Latch (2)

Y

Comparator as quantizer or 1-bit ADC

16-8 CHUNG-YU WU

§16-2 System Architecture of Oversampling ∆Σ ADC
1. Architecture

x

in

(t )

x (t )
c

x
Sampleand-hold

sh

(t )

x
∆∑
Mod

dsm

(n)
Digital low-pass filter

x

lp

(n )

x (n)
s

Antialiasing filter

f

s

f

s

f

OSR
s

2

f

0

2. Signals and spectra

Analog

Digital

Decimation filter

X

c

(t )

X sh (t )
t

x (f)
c

f

0

f
sh

f
s

x

(f)

x

dsm

(n) = ±1.000000K

3 12 4...

f
n

0

f
(ω )
π

f
s

x

dsm

x

lp

(n)

2π(f0/fs) π/6

ωTs

123.....

n

x

lp

(ω )

x (n)
s

π/6 π 2π(f0/fs) = OSR OSR=6

ωTs

x (ω )
s

16-bit resolution in 16-bit ADC

3... 12

n

ωT0 π 2π 4π 6π 8π 10π 12 π π 2π ω T
6
s

* The decimation process does not result in any loss of information, since the bandwidth of the original signal was assumed to be fo. The spectral information is spread over 0~
π in Xep and 0~π in Xs. 6

16-9 CHUNG-YU WU

§16-3 System Architecture of Oversampling ∆Σ DAC
1. Architecture

x (n)
s

x
OSR

s2

(n )

x

lp

(n )

x
Mod

dsm

(n )
1-bit D/A
s

x

da

(t )

x (t )
c

2

f

0

f

s

Interpolation (low-paaa) fs filter

∆∑

f

Analog low-pass filter

OSR ≡

f 2f

s ()

Digital Analog

2. Signals and spectra

x (n)
s

x
(2)

s2

(n )

x (ω )
s

(3)

123...(1)

n

π π 2π 4π 6π 8π 10π 12

ωT0

x x
lp

s2

(ω )

(n)
(2π

f

0

)

f

s

ωTs

123.....

n

x

lp

(ω )

( 2πf )
0

f

s

ωTs

x

dsm

(n )

x

da

(t )

x
n,t

dsm

(ω )

( 2πf )
0

f
(f)

s

ωTs

x

da

X

c

(t )

f

0

f
c

f
s

t
Time

x (f)
f
0

Frequency

f

f
s

16-10 CHUNG-YU WU

§16-4 High-Order Modulators
Multi-stAge noise SHaping (MASH) architecture: To use a cascade-type structure where the overall higher-order modulator is constructed using lower-order ones. => The stability could be maintained.

U

+

-

z 1 − z

−1 −1

Q1 +
Y
1

= UZ

−1

+ Q (1 − Z
1

−1

)

z −1

+ Q1 Q1 +
z 1 − z −1
−1

Q +

(1 − z −1 )

-

Y

+

YZ −1
§16-5 Design Considerations

= Q1 Z −1 + Q (1 − Z −1 )

Y

= UZ

−1

− Q (1 − Z

−1

)2

§16-5.1 Limitations on accuracy and linearity
A. Noise Thermal noise in resistors, conducing switches, op-amps. Usually aliased by sampling 1/f op-amp noise, dc offset Supply, ground and substrate noise clock feedthrough noise clock jitter noise quantization noise leakage

16-11 CHUNG-YU WU

B. Nonlinear effects R&C nonlinearities Amplifier nonlinearities Finite op-amp slew rate Signal-dependent clock feedthrough noise Signal-dependent sampling aperture noise Internal A/D and D/A nonlinearities Linearity of 1-bit DAC: 1. The two output levels somehow become functions of the low-frequency signals=> Linearity limitation Power supply voltage are changed for different low-frequency signals to cause distortion. => must be well-regulated. The clock feedthrough of the input switches is also dependent on the gate voltage and thus the supply voltage. => low-frequency input signal dependent The clock jitter could be a function of the low-frequency input signals. 2.The memory between output levels also causes severe linearity limitation.

Typical Ideal V2 V1
Binary 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Area for A1 A0 +δ 2 A 0 A1 +δ 1 A0 +δ 2 A1 +δ 1 A1 +δ 1 symbol δ1, δ2: The area difference of the present binary state with different past states. 1→-1: δ2 -1→1: δ1
Average 0 : 1, -1,1, -1,- - 1 : 1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1--3 1 Average - : -1, -1, 1, -1, -1, 1, -1--3 Va (t ) = Vb(t ) = A1 + AO δ 1 + δ 2 + 2 2 2 A1 + AO δ 1 + δ 2 + 3 3

Average

Vc(t ) =

A1 + 2 AO δ 1 + δ 2 + 3 3

16-12 CHUNG-YU WU

Ideal case: δ1=δ2=0, practical case: δ 1 ≠ δ 2 ≠ 0 =>Three averages do not lie on a straight line=>Nonlinear. How to improve this nonlinearity? 1. δ1=-δ2 : To match falling and rising signals => Very difficult to achieve. 2. The use of memoryless coding scheme, i.e. return-to-zero (RTZ) coding scheme.

Typical Ideal V2 V1
Binary Area for symbol

1

1
1

-1
1

-1

1
A
1

-1
A
0

1

A

A

A

0

A

0

A

1

1 : -1→1 and 1→1 -1 : -1→-1 => Better linearity.

Every 1 has the same area. Every -1 has the same area.

3. Basically, SCF or SC circuits are memoryless if enough time is left for settling on each clock phase. Idle tones phenomena 1-bit DAC dc level
1 => y(n)={1, 1, -1, 1, 1, -1…..} 3

periodic pattern with the power concentrated at dc and After low-pass filter=> only dc level remains. dc level

fs . 3

1 1 3 + = => y(n)={1, 1, -1, 1, 1, -1, 1, 1, -1, 1, 1, -1, 1, 1, 1, -1, 1, 1, -1, 3 24 8

1,……}

16-13 CHUNG-YU WU periodic pattern with 16 cycles and some power at dc and f s . 16

=> lowpass filter => dc level
16
3 and f s tone 8 16

(∵fo= f s is assumed and lowpass filter will not attenuate fs/16 signal) => Low-frequency tones cannot be filtered out by the lowpass filter and can lead to annoying tones in the audible range. They exist even in high-order modulators. There tones might be a signal varying over some frequency range in a random-like fashion. Dithering technique to reduce idle tones. To add the dithering signal to the modulator just before its quantizer. The dithering signal has a white-noise type spectrum and is a random (psuedo-random) signal. The dithering signal breaks up the tones so that they never occur. Add about 3-dB extra in-band noise Require rechecking the modulator's stability.

§16-6 Advantages and Applications
Advantages of Delta-Sigma Converters: Low-Complexity Analog, High-Complexity Digital High-Resolution Conversion Low-Precision Analog (no trimming) Simple Anti-Aliasing Filters No Sample & Hold Needed Can be Built Completely In CMOS Overall Small Chip Area in Fine-Line Technology Can be Integrated on Chip With Other DSP Functions Ideally Suit for Rates up to and Including Audio Band Commercial Applications Well-Suited for Delta-Sigma ADC Standard Voice Band Telephony 13-bit dynamic range, 8-bit linearity (u/A-Law), 8KHz Sampling rate Digital Mobile Radio (same req. as above)

16-14 CHUNG-YU WU

High-Precision Voice-Band (CCITT V.32 9600-Baud Modems) 14-15 bit dynamic range, 12-bit linearity, 3-4kHz BW, 9600 Sampling rate ISDN Wideband Speech (CCITT G.722) 13-bit dynamic range, 16kHz Sampling rate ISDN U-Interface 13-bit dynamic range, 80kHz Sampling rate, 160kb/s Transmission Rate Audio-Band (CD, DAT; stereo (2)) 16-18-bit (18-20 bit) resolution, 14-16 bit)(15-16bit) linearity, 48kHz Sampling Rate 5 1/2 Instrumentation A/D Converter 20 bit resolution, 0.1-10Hz BW with Self-Calibration Circuit Integration with Digital Signal Processors Ideally Suited for Rates up to and Including Audio Band A variety of applications from voice-band through audio-band

§16-7 Examples
2nd-order ∆Σ modulator implemented by fully differential SC circuit.

16-15 CHUNG-YU WU

Testing Environment:
Digital-to-Analog Converter Precision Function Generator . . Low-noise cable

Pure test Pattern

Good Transmission Line

ADC

∆Σ

Mearurement

Chip under test

*Develop design-for-testability ADC and environment

The measured SNR versus input signal level.

17-1 CHUNG-YU WU

CH 17 Phase-Locked Loops (PLLs)
§17-1 General architecture and Operational Principle
1. Applications of PLLs: 1. Clock recovery in communication and digital systems. 2. Frequency synthesizer used in televisions or wireless communication systems to select different channels. 3. Demodulation of FM signals. 2.Basic PLL architecture:
Vin + Phase detector Vpd Low-pass filter V Hlp(s) Loop filter Vcntrl Gain
lp

Klp

Output voltage

Average voltage proportional to phase difference VOSC VCO Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

If the phase detector is of analog-multiplier type, its output voltage Vpd can be written as Vpd=KMVinVosc=KM Ein Eoscsin(ωt)cos(ωt-φd) where φd is the phase difference between the input signal Vin and the output Vosc of the VCO. Vpd=KM Ein Eosc [sin(φ d ) + sin( 2ωt − φ d )] 2 Since the lowpass filter is to remove the high-frequency (2ω) term, the signal Vcntl is given by E E Vcntl=KlpKM in osc sinφd 2 E E E E ≅ KlpKM in osc φd=KlpKpdφd where Kpd ≡ K M in osc 2 2 The frequency of VCO can be expressed as ωosc=KoscVcntl+ωfr where ωfr is the free-running frequency of the VCO with its control voltage Vcntl=0.

=> Vcntl=

ωi n − ω f r
K osc

17-2 CHUNG-YU WU

where ωin is the frequency of the input signal, which is equal to the frequency of VCO output when the PLL is in the locked state.

=> φd=

ω in − ω f r Vcntl = K l P K pd K l P K pd K osc

3.Linearized small-signal analysis When a PLL is in lock, its dynamic response to input-signal phase and frequency changes can be well approximated by a linear model, as long as these changes are slow and small about their operating point. A signal-flow graph for the linearized small-signal model of a PLL when in lock:

φin ( s )

+

Kpd

KlpHlp(s)

Vcntl

φosc ( s )

1/s
Vcntl(s)=KpdKlpHlP(s)[φin(s)-φosc(s)]
dφ (t ) dt

Kosc

φosc(s)=Kosc(Vcntl(s)/s) (∵ω(t)= =>

φ ( s) =

ω ( s)
s

)

SK pd K lP H lP ( s ) Vcntl ( s ) = φ in ( s ) S + K pd K lP K osc H lP ( s )

∗ General transfer function applicable to almost every PLL. * Different PLLs => Different Hlp(s), Kpd, Kosc. If a lead-lag lowpass filter is used in Hlp(s), we have Hlp(s)=

1 + sτ z 1 + sτ p

τz<<τp

1 S (1 + sτ z ) Vcntl ( s ) K osc = => Η(s) ≡ s 2τ p φ in ( s ) 1 1 + S( +τz) + K pd K lp K osc K pd K lp K osc * H(s)=0 as s→0 => ∆φin=0 leads to ∆Vcntl=0

17-3 CHUNG-YU WU

1 S (1 + sτ z ) Vcntl ( s ) K osc = s 2τ p ω in ( s) 1 1 + S( +τz) + K pd K lp K osc K pd K lp K osc * Vcntl ( s ) ω in ( s )
s =0

=

1 K osc
K pll

The above second-order s-domain transfer functions have ωo and Q as ωo= K pd K lp K osc

τp

=

τp
=

Q=

τP
1 + τ Z K pd K lp K osc K pd K lp K osc

τP
1 + τ Z K pll K pll

* Q= → good settling behavior Q= Q=
1 3 1 2
= 0.577 → maximally flat group delay = 0.707 → maximally flat amplitude response

1 2

* Usually Q=

1 is recommended in PLLs 2

In most cases, when ωo<<ωfr, we have τZ>>
1 2 K pll

=> Q ≅

τP

τ z K pll ω oτ Z
2 τP 2 = K pll ω o

=

1

=

1 2

=> τZ =

The transient time constant τpll of the complete loop for small phase or frequency changes can be expressed as τpll ≅ 1

ωo

17-4 CHUNG-YU WU

Design considerations:

1.Choosing Kpd and Kosc based on practical considerations 2.Choose τp to achieve the desired loop settling time 3.Choose τZ to obtain the desired Q of the loop

Ιf τZ =0, => Q= τ P Kpll, ωo=

K pll Q

2

=

K pd K osc Q

(Klp=1)

4. Capture range and acquisition time Capture range: The maximum difference between the input signals' frequency and the VCO free-running frequency where lock can eventually be attained. The capture range is on the order of the pole frequency of the lowpass filter. Acquisition time: The time required to attain lock If the initial difference between the input signal's frequency and the VCO frequency is moderately large, the acquisition time tacq is tacq ≅

Q(ω i n − ω osc ) 2

ωo

3

* If a PLL is designed to have a narrow loop bandwidth ωo, tacq can be quite large and lock is attained too slowly. Solution: 1. To add a frequency detector that detect when ωin-ωosc is large. Then drive the loop toward lock much more quickly. When ωin-ωosc is small, the frequency detector and the driver are disabled. 2. To design the lowpass filter with a programmable pole frequency ωo. Initial acquisition: ωo↑ speed up acquisition. Lock : ωo↓ increase noise rejection. 3. To sweep the VCO's frequency range during acquisition with the PLL disabled. When ωosc→ωin, sweeping is disabled and PLL is activated. 5. Lock range Lock range: Once lock is attained, the PLL remains in lock over a range as long as the input signal's frequency ωin changes only slowly. This range is the lock range, which is much larger than the capture range. Vcntl-max=Klp KM Ein Eosc =KlpKpd 2 => ωlck = ± KoscKlpKpd

17-5 CHUNG-YU WU

§17-2 Phase Detectors in PLLs
Three categories: 1. Analog phase detectors (PDs) or multipliers: Rely on the DC component when multiplying two sinusoidal waveforms of the same frequency. 2. Sequential circuits (e.g. EXOR and Flip-Flop PDs): Operate on the information contained in the zero-crossings of the input signal to aid acquisition when the loop is out of lock. Also a sequential circuit actually. 3. Phase-frequency detector: Provide a frequency sensitive signal to aid acquisition when the loop is out of lock. Also a sequential circuits actually.

§17-2.1 Multiplier PD
Vpd =KMEinsin(ω1t+θ1)Eosccos(ω2t+θ2) =KM Ein Eosc {sin[(ω1-ω2)t+θ1-θ2]+sin[(ω1+ω2)t+θ1+θ2]} 2 At phase lock, ω1=ω2 => Vpd= KM Ein Eosc [sin(θ1-θ2)+sin(2ωt+θ1+θ2)] 2 After the lowpass filter, we have Vpd=KlpKM Ein Eosc sin (θ1-θ2)=KM Ein Eosc sinθd ∝ θd if θd is small. 2 2 * The multiplier PD is especially useful in applications where the reference frequency is too high and where the loop bandwidth is sufficiently narrow so that the filtering of the undesired components can be effective. * The loop could lock to harmonics of the input signal. =>False lock * ω1=ω2 is required.

§17-2.2 EXOR PD
(a) A B
(b)

τ
A B

T

C

C=A ⊕B

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(c) Average value of C -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

τ

T

* when A(Vin) and B(Vosc) are 90° out of phase, the output Vpd(c ) has ω=2ωin and 50% duty cycle. This is a reference point. Vpd ∝ θd for 0o<θd<180°. * False lock could occur * ω1=ω2 is required.

§17-2.3 Flip-Flop PD
(a) A B S R Q C

(b) A B C
(c) Average value of C -1

τ

T

-0.5

0

0.5

1

τ

T

* The average value of Vpd or C has the shape of a saw tooth, with a linear range of a full cycle. * At the center of the linear range of Vpd average, the most important harmonic is situated at the fundamental of the reference frequency as compared to the twice of reference frequency in the EXOR PD.

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(a)

EXOR PD Phase
0.5
Center of the linear range

(b)

Flip-flop PD
0 0.5
Center of the linear range

0

1

1

Average

Fundamental

2nd Harmonic

§17-2.4 Charge-pump PD
VDD Ich Vin Vosc Sequential phase detector Pu Pd S1 S2 C1 C2 Vlp

Ich R -VSS Charge-pump phase comparator

Low-pass filter

1. Desirable features: 1. It does not exhibit false lock. 2. Vin and Vosc are exactly in phase when the loops in lock. 3. The PLL attains lock quickly even when ωin is quite different from ωfr.

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Some typical waveforms of a charge-pump PD
Vin

Vosc
∆φin

Pu


Pd Time

2.Small-signal analysis of a charge-pump PLL: The average charge flow into the lowpass filter is ∆φ Iavg= in Ich 2π Iavg=Kpd(φin-φosc)=Kpd∆φin I => Kpd= ch 2π For the lowpass filter R, C1 has a transfer function Hlp(s) as Hlp(s)=

Vin ( s ) 1 + SRC1 1 =R+ = I avg ( s ) SC1 SC1 Vlp ( s )
,

Substituting Hlp(s) and Kpd into the transfer function we have Vlp ( s ) 1 = φ in ( s ) K osc

φ in ( s )

S (1 + SRC1 ) S 2 C1 1 + SRC1 + K pd K osc C1

=> ω o = Q=

K pd K osc

1 1 1 2π = = RC1ω o R C1 K pd K osc R C1 I ch K osc

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3. Design Considerations: (1) Choose Ich based on practical consideration like power dissipation and speed. (2) ωo is chosen according to the desired transient settling-time constant τpll as
ωo=
1

τ pll

(3) C1 is chosen from the equation of ωo whereas R is chosen using the equation of Q. The chosen Q value is slightly less than what is eventually desired. R↑ => Q↓ (4) Add C2 to minimize glitches. C2 => Q↑ => chosen Q value is smaller => Exact Q. C2 ≅ 1 ~
1 of 8 10

C1

=> Ηlp(s)=

R 1 + 1 + SRC 2 SC1

4. Phase/Frequency detector (PFD) * The most common sequential phase detector is the PFD. * Asynchronous sequential logic circuit. * 4 NOR-type RS flip-flops. * Can also be realized in NAND gates.

Pu FF1

Pd FF2

Vin

set1 Pu-dsbl FF3

Reset

set2 Pd-dsbl FF4

Vosc

set3

set4

* Basic operating principle: Assume the PLL is in lock with Vin leading Vosc Initial conditions: Pu=0, Pd=0, Pu-dsbl=0, Pd-dsbl=0, Reset=0 Vin=0, Vosc=0 inputs: 1001

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Vin→1 Vosc→1

=> Pu=1 => Charge pumping starts and Vlp ↑=> ωosc↑ => Reset nor gate inputs: 0001→0000 => Reset 0→1 => Pu=0 and Pd=0 after one gate-delay ; Pd 0→1→0 Pu-dsbl=1 and Pd-dsbl=1 after two gate-delays. => Reset 1→0 after one gate-delay of Pu-dsbl→1 and Pd-dsbl→1 or after three gate-delays of Vosc→1. => Κeeping Pu=0 and Pd=0 => Νο charge pumping. => FF3 is reset and Pu-dsbl=0 It is only when Vin 1→0 Vosc 1→0 => FF4 is reset and Pd-dsbl=0

* The waveforms of a PFD when Vin is at a higher frequency than Vosc.

Vin Vosc Pu Pd Pu-dsbl Pd-dsbl
ωin>ωosc => Pu=1 => Charge pumping to increase ωosc until lock is achieved.

* Transfer characteristic of a charge-pumping PFD

(a) Ref Div

Up PFD Dn

I IC I Zlf

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(b) Ref Div IC
(c) Average value of C -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

τ

T

§17-3 Loop Filters and Loop Gains §17-3.1 First-order PLL with zero-order loop filter
Loop gain of the feedback structure with φin(s) and Vcntl(s) Loop gain=GH(s)=Kpd Klp KoscHlp(s) Zero-order loop filter: Hlp(s)=1
=> GH(S)=KpdKlpKosc
1 s 1 s

log GH ( ω )

Bode plots of GH(s):

0

ω

c

ω

PLL with zero-order loop filter => First-order type-1 PLL SK pd K lp Vcntl ( s ) = φ in ( s ) S + K pd K lp K osc close-loop transfer function
φ GH ( ω )

0 -90

ω

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§17-3.2 Second-order PLL with first-order loop-filter
First-order loop filter: Hlp(s)= K pd K lp K osc 1 1 + S /ω p
log GH ( ω )

Bode plots of GH(s):

=> GH ( s ) =

ω p K pd K lp K osc S (1 + S / ω p ) S 2 + ω pS
=

0

ωc

ωp

ω

PLL with first-order loop filter => 2nd-order type-1 PLL Sω p K pd K lp Vcntl ( s ) = 2 φ in ( s ) S + ω p S + ω p K pd K lp K osc

φ GH ( ω )
0 -90 -180

ω

§17-3.3 Third-order PLL with second-order loop filter
To improve the transient characteristics of the PLL, a low-frequency pole ωa is introduced in the loop filter. => Extra phase shift of 90°. To compensate the extra phase shift, a compensating zero ωz must be introduced in order to keep the phase margin high enough. log GH ( ω ) 2nd-order loop filter: Hlp(s)= (1 + S / ω z ) (1 + S / ω p )(1 + S / ω a )

ωa
ω z ωc

=> GH(S)=

K pd K lp K osc (1 + S / ω z ) S (1 + S / ω p )(1 + S / ω a ) Bode plots of GH(S):
0

ωp

ω

=> Third-order type-1 PLL
S (1 + S / ω z ) K pd K lp Vcntl ( s ) = φ in ( s ) S (1 + S / ω p )(1 + S / ω a ) + K pd K lp K osc (1 + S / ω z )
φ GH ( ω )

If ωa=0 => Third-order type-2 PLL.

0 -90 -180

ω

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§17-3.4 Third-order type-2 charge-pump PLL
Hlp(s)= 1 + sτ z s (C Z + C p )[1 + sτ p ] τz= RzCz τp=Rz(Cz-1+Cp-1)-1 => GH(s)= K pd K lp K osc (1 + sτ z ) S 2 (C z + C p )(1 + sτ p ) Loop filter:

Rz Cz Cp

§17-4 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators (VCOs)
Basic VCO specifications/requirements: 1. phase stability: The output spectrum of the VCO should approximate as good as possible the theoretical Dirac-impulse of a single sine wave, i.e. low phase noise. The definition of phase noise: L{∆ω}=10 log ( noise power in a 1-Hz bandwidth at freq. ω+∆ω ) units: dBc/Hz carrier power

∆ω: offset frequency
∆ω

ωo
VCO output

1Hz

ω

2. Electrical tuning range The VCO must be able to cover the complete required frequency band of the application, including initial frequency offsets due to process variations. 3. Tuning linearity To simplify the design of the PLL, the VCO gain Kosc should be

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constant. 4. Frequency pushing (MHz/V) The dependency of the center frequency on the power supply voltage. 5. Frequency pulling The dependence of the center frequency 6. Low cost

§17-4.1 Relaxation oscillator as VCO
* Multivibrator-based nonlinear oscillator. * fosc~in the order of a few 100 MHz * In CMOS, phase noise value of -90dBc/Hz at 500KHz offset. Ref.: IEEE JSSC, vol.23, pp.1386-1393, Dec. 1988.

§17-4.2 Ring oscillator as VCO
* Tosc=2n•Td n: number of inverters; Td: one inverter delay. * Tuning: varying the current of the inverters. * High phase noise: ∵switching action introduces a lot of disturbances. * Power consumption ↑ linearly => phase noise↓ * Typical phase noise: -94dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from a 2.2GHz carrier. -83dBc/Hz at 100 KHz offset from a 900MHz carrier. * Circuit structure 1. Three-stage ring oscillator inverter

2. Differential two-stage ring oscillator

+ +

- -

+ +

- -

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3. 1-stage-delay ring oscillator

Gm

Gm

Gm

* fosc MHz ~ GHz Ref.: 1. Proc. of IEEE 1995 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC), pp.331-334. 2. IEEE JSSC, vol.31, pp.331-334, March 1996.

§17-4.3

LC-oscillator as VCO

* Typically a 20dB better phase noise obtained over ring and relaxation oscillators. * High-speed operation is possible due to the simple working principle. * The realization of the inductor is the key point. Design example: 0.7µm CMOS planar-LC VCO.

M4 L1

M3 L2 Vc Ibias Vout+ M1 C1 C2 VoutM2

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* Constant current => To limit power dissipation * M1 and M2: To provide a negative resistance for oscillation * L1=L2=3.2nH planar spiral inductors * p+ − n-well junction diodes C1 and C2 as varactors for frequency tuning by Vc. C1=C2 ≅ 1pF * Different output voltage. Chip photograph of the VCO. (Die size 750×750 µm2)

L1 and L2 area consuming

Inductors used in output buffers

Measurement results: 1. Measured output spectrum for a carrier frequency of 1.81 GHz.

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2. Measured phase noise w.r.t. frequency offset

Phase noise: -116dBc/Hz at 600 KHz offset 3. Measured frequency tuning characteristics

* At Vc=0.5V, the diode varactors C1 and C2 have a larger leakage current => Phase noise ↑ 3dB.

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§17-4.4 Comparisons of Integrated VCOs
Remarks Technology Freq. Power Tuning Phase noise [dBc/Hz] [-] [GHz] [mW] [%] reported equiv.* Relaxation oscillators [Banu JSSC88] 0.75-um CMOS 0.56 50 100 -90 @500kHz -81 Tuning from 100kHz to1GHz Reference [Sneep JSSC90] 3-GHz Bip [Dobos 9-GHz Bip CICC94] Ring oscillators [Kwasn 1.2-um CMOS CICC95] [Razav JSSC96] 0.5-um CMOS 0.1 0.4 30 ? 100 100 -118 @1MHz -110 @1MHz -90 -92 Tuning from low freq. to 150MHz Tuning from 800kHz to 800MHz; Fast start-up Comparison of 3 designs Three-stage; differential gain stage Two-stage CCO; stacked with mixer

0.74 2.2

6.5 NA NA

6 NA 95

- 89 @100kHz -97 -94 @1MHz -106 @2MHz -91 -96

[vd Tan 9-GHz BiCMOS 2.0 ISSCC97] LC-tuned oscillators [Nguye JSSC92] 10-GHz Bip 1.8 [Based ESSC94] 1-um CMOS [Soyue 12-GHz JSSC96a] BiCMOS [Ali ISSCC96] 25-GHz Bip 1.0 2.4 0.9

70 16 50 10

10 0 0 N.A.

-88 @100kHz -95 @100kHz -92 @100kHz

-104 -105 -110

High-ohmic substrate; tuning with 2 tanks Wide metal turns; substrate back-etched 4-level, extra thick metal; high-ohmic substrate Complete PLL; planar inductors

-101 @100kHz -110

*at 600 kHz offset from a 1.8-GHz carrier

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Reference

Technology [-]

Freq. Power Tuning Phase noise [dBc/Hz] Remarks [GHz] [mW] [%] reported equiv. 0.9 10..40 14 12 15 40 43 NA 9 7 10 11 12 -85 @ 100kHz -95 -106 @ 1MHz -109 -100 @ 500kHz -102 -105 @ 100kHz -119 -99 @ 100kHz -116 -105 @ 200kHz -114 Front-etched inductors; quadrature signals Thick metal (2.1 µm) and field oxide (11µm) Linear tuning; quadrature signals Hollow rectangular coils standard process High-Q MIS capacitor and varactor Full PLL circuit; capacitor bank for extended tuning

LC-tuned oscillators(cont'd)

[Rofou ISSCC96] 1-um CMOS

[Soyue JSSC96b] 0.5-um BiCMOS 4.0 [Razav ISSCC97] 0.6-um CMOS 1.8

[Dauph ISSCC97] 11-GHz BiCMOS 1.5 [Janse ISSCC97] 15-GHz Bip [Parke CICC97]
Presented designs

2.2 1.6

0.6-um CMOS

[Steya EL94] [Crani JSSC95] [Crani JSSC97] [Crani CICC97]

6-GHz Bip 0.7-um CMOS 0.7-um CMOS 0.4-um CMOS

1.1 1.8 1.8 1.8

1 24 6 11

0 5 14 20

-75 @ 10kHz

-106

Bonding wire inductor Bonding wire inductor; enhanced LC-tank 2-level metal; conductive substrate; standard CMOS 2-level metal; standard CMOS

-115 @ 200kHz -124 -116 @ 600kHz -116 -113 @ 200kHz -122

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[Banu JSSC88] M. Banu, "MOS oscillators with multi-decade tuning range and gigahertz maximum speed", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1386-1393, December 1998. [Sneep JSSC90] J. G. Sneep and C. J. M. Verhoeven, "A new low-noise 100-MHz balanced relaxation oscillator", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Cir cuits, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 692-698, June 1990. [Dobos CICC94] L. Dobos and B. Jensen, "A versatile monolithic 800-kHz to

800-MHz phase-startable oscillator", in Proc. of the IEEE 1994
Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, San Diego, USA, May 1994,

pp. 8.4.1-4. [Kwasn CICC95] T. Kwasniewski, M. Abou-Seido, A. Bouchet, F. Gaussorgues,

and J. Zimmerman, "Inductorless oscillator design for personal communication devices - a 1.2-µm CMOS process case study", in Proc. of the IEEE 1995 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, San Diego, USA, May 1995, pp. 327-330. [Razav JSSC96] B. Razavi, "A study of phase noise in CMOS oscillators", IEEE
Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 331-343, March

1996. [vdTan ISSCC97] J. van der Tang and D. Kasperdovitz, "A 0.9-2.2 GHz

monolithic quadrature mixer oscillator for direct-conversion satellite receivers", in ISSCC Digest of Technical Papers, San Fransisco, USA, February 1997, pp. 88-89. [Nguye JSSC92] N. M. Nguyen and R. G. Meyer, "A 1.8-GHz monolithic LC voltage controlled oscillator", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 444-450, March 1992. [Based ESSC94] P. Basedau and Q. Huang, "A 1-GHz, 1.5-V monolithic LC oscillator in 1-µm CMOS", in Proc. of the 1994 European

17-21 CHUNG-YU WU

Solid-State Circuits Conference, Ulm, September 1994, pp. 172-175.

[Soyue JSSC96a]

M. Soyuer, K. A. Jenkins, J. N. Burghartz, H. A. Ainspan, F. J.

Canora, S. Ponnapalli, J. F. Ewen, and W. E. Pence, "A 2.4-GHz silicon bipolar oscillator with integrated resonator", IEEE Journal of
Solid-State Circuits, vol.31, no.2, pp. 268-270, February 1996.

[Ali ISSCC96] A. Ali and L. Tham, "A 900-MHz frequency synthesizer with integrated LC voltage-controlled oscillator", in ISSCC Digest of
Technical Papers, San Fransisco, USA, February 1996, pp. 390-391.

[Rofou ISSCC96]

A. Rofourgan, J. Rael, M. Rofourgan, and A. Abidi, "A

900-MHz CMOS LC-oscillator with quadrature outputs", in ISSCC
Digest of Technical Papers, San Fransisco, USA, February 1996, pp.

392-393. [Soyue JSSC96b] M. Soyuer, K. A. Jenkins, J. N. Burghartz, and M. D. Hulvey,

"A 3-V 4-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator with integrated resonator", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2042-2045, December 1996. [Razav ISSCC97] B. Razavi, "A 1.8-GHz CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator", in

ISSCC Digest of Technical Papers, San Fransisco, USA, February

1997, pp. 388-389. [Dauph ISSCC97] L. Dauphinee, M. Copeland, and P. Schvan, "A balanced voltage-controlled oscillator with an integrated

1.5-GHz

LC-resonator", in ISSCC Digest of Technical Papers, San Fransisco, USA, February 1997, pp. 390-391 [Janse ISSCC97] B. Jansen, K. Negus, and D. Lee, "Silicon bipolar VCO family

for 1.1 to 2.2 GHz with fully integrated tank and tuning circuits, in
ISSCC Digest of Technical Papers, San Fransisco, USA, February

1997, pp. 392-393.

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[Parke CICC97] J. Parker and D. Ray, "A low-noise 1.6-ghz CMOS PLL with on-chip loop filter", in Proc. of the IEEE 1997 Custom Integrated
Circuits Conference, Santa Clara, USA, May 1997, pp. 407-410.

[Steya EL94]

M. Steyaert and J. Craninckx, "1.1-GHz oscillator using bond-wire inductance", IEE Electronic Letters, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 244-245, 3rd February 1994.

[Crani JSSC95] J. Craninckx and M. Steyaert, "A 1.8-GHz low-phase-noise voltage controlled oscillator with prescaler", IEEE Journal of Solid-State
Circuits, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1474-1482, December 1995.

[Crani JSSC97] J. Craninckx and M. Steyaert, "A 1.8-GHz low-phase noise CMOS VCO using optimized hollow inductors", IEEE Journal of
Soild-State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 736-744, May 1997.

[Crani CICC97] J. Craninckx and M. Steyaert, "A fully integrated spiral-LC CMOS VCO set with prescaler for GSM and DCS-1800 systems", in Proc.
of the IEEE 1997 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, Santa

Clara, USA, May 1997, pp. 403-406.

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