An
INTRODUCTION
TO MODERN
FAROESE
BY

W. B. LOCKWOOD

4. Printing

FØROYA SKÚLABÓKAGRUNNUR

W. B. Lockwood:
An Introduction to Modern Faroese.
Skanning: Repro-Z.
Prent: Bookpartner.
4. útgáva, óbroytt.
Føroya Skúlabókagrunnur, Tórshavn 2002.
ISBN 99918-0-295-9

.................................................................. Declension of Nouns ............................................................... PRONUNCIATION................................................................. Comparison of Adjectives §§ 33-35 ................................................................. 46 50 50 51 Adverbs... Miscellaneous.................................................... 23 Changes in Connected Speech § 8 ....................... k ete..........................CONTENTS PREFACE.................................................................................................. » „ „ „ „ from§§53-55............................................................................................ Indeclinable Adjectives § 32-32a................................................ Degree & Manner............................................................................................................ 14 Alternative Pronunciation of p........................................................... 25 INFLEXIONS.. ................................................. Nouns.... Nouns with the Suffix Definite Article § 26-26a .................... „ Neuter Nouns §§ 20-22 .............................................................................. 6 Description of Faroese Sounds..... 53 54 57 60 61 62 ........................................................ 5 Alphabet § 1 ..................................... 6 Short and Long VoweI Quantities § 3.................................................................... Adverbs of Time................ „ „ Nouns.......................... GRAMMAR Page Introductory........................................... Derivation of Adverbs from Adjectives § 36 ................................................... 8 Vowels and Diphthongs in Detail § 4.... Affirmation & Negation §§ 37-39 „ Place denoting Rest at §§ 40-49 ................................................................................................ § 25.............. „ Masculine Nouns §§ 11-14....................... 9 Consonants in Detail § 5 ............... Place Names § 23..... § 6.. „ Feminine Nouns §§ 15-19 ... 22 Omission of Consonants and Assimilation § 7............................................................................................................................. Stress § 2 ................ 28 28 33 36 38 39 41 42 Adjectives.......................................... Weak „ „ „ § 31 ..................... 24 Intonation § 9 ......................Introductory § 10 .. t............................... Formation of Compound Nouns § 24....... „ „ „ „ Motiontowards§§50-52 .......................... Strong Declension of Adjectives §§ 27-30 ..... Comparison of Adverbs §§ 56-57 ........................................................................

............................................. 73 74 75 76 76 76 77 79 80 81 82 82 82 83 84 OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Conjunctions.................................... Anintroductionto-Modern-Faroese intemet............................................ Prepositions in Combination with Adverbs & the Adverbial Use of Prepositions §§ 102-106........ .......................... Main Verbs § 78 ................................................................................................................................................................................... Interrogative § 68 ..................................... Introductory § 71................................................ 70 71 71 72 72 72 Verbs...... 67 Other Numerate § 62.............. 66 Dates § 61 .... Interjections § 107 .........................................88 ....................... Co-ordinating § 91............................. „ Class 1 § 85 ............................................... „ Class 4 § 83 .............................. „ Class 1 § 80.. &Genitive§97 ................................................................................................................ „ Cla ss 2 § 8 1 ............................................................................................................................................................... Strong Verbs......................... Reflexive Forms § 90 .... General § 84 ..... Weak Verbs....................................................................................... Prepositions governing the Accusative §§ 94-96....... „ „ Accusative &Dative § 99 ...................... 67 Telling the Time § 63................................................. hava........... „ ..................................................................................................................... 69 Pronouns................................................ Prepositions before Place Names §§ 100-101 ................................. Demonstrative §§ 66-67 ....................... Relative § 69 ...........................An introduction to… 22/08/02 13:10 Page 10 X Numerals................................................................................................................................................................................ Modal Auxiliaries § 77.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 64 Ordinals § 60......................................... „ 4 § 89............................................................................................................. „ Dative § 98............................................................................ Subordinating § 92 ............................................................................................................. Possessive § 65 ......................................... Auxiliary Verbs vera................................................... Indefinite § 70 ........................................ Page Cardinals §§ 58-59.................................... verða............... General § 79.............................................................................................. Prepositions.........58................ General § 93 ............ „ 3 § 87 .......................................... Personal § 64.................................... „ Class 3 § 82.......................... §§ 72-76 .........................pdf6 - I ш 85 86 90 90 91 93 94 97 97 101 28-09-2005 08............................. „ 2 § 86...50 ........................................................................................................................

........ „ kunna § 146 .......... Impersonal Verbs § 137 ....pdf7 - I ш 28-09-2005 08...................................................................................................An introduction to… 22/08/02 13:10 Page 11 XI SYNTAX...................................................... munna § 148 ....................................................................................... Indeclinable Adjectives § 122................................................ 114 116 117 119 121 121 123 Verbs.......... Indefinite Article § 117................ „ ................................................... _ Collective Use of Nouns § 108 ....... ............................................................................................................................. Imperative Mood § 139......................................................... „ „ ................................................................. „ vilja §150 .................................................................................................................... Personal §§ 125-126 ................ „ mega §147 .. ..... 152 Anintroductionto-Modern-Faroese interet..................................................... Use of Tenses § 132 .. Definite Article §§ 114-116 ............................................................................ Strong Adjectives §§ 118-120 ..... Verbs compounded with Adverbs § 144 ...................... Passive Voice § 134 ............................................................................... .................................. Use of the Cases §§ 109-113.............................................................................................................................................................. How to render English "can" § 153............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ „ skula § 149........................... „ „ .................................................................................................................................................................. Infinitive Mood § 140 .............................................................. 130 133 134 135 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 141 143 144 145 146 147 148 150 151 151 152 Concord § 154............................................................... Optative Mood § 138 .............. Reflexive Use § 127a .......................................... Numerals in a Partitive Sense § 124a................... Verbs with the Reflexive Pronoun § 136 ................................................................................ Relative § 130 ......................................................... Possessive § 127 .. Comparative & Superlative §§ 123-124 .................................................................. Present Participle § 141 ........................................................................................................................... Interrogative § 129...58................................................................... Indefinite § 131.....................51 ........................................................................ Use of Verbs with the Termination -st § 135 ........................................................................................................................................................................ Weak Adjectives § 121 ............................. Page 102 102 106 109 110 111 112 113 114 Pronouns......................................................... Verbs expressing Inchoative Action § 152.......................... lata §151 .................................................................................................... The Auxiliary Verb eiga § 145 ................................................................................................... Supine § 143 .. Demonstrative § 128........................................................................................................................... Past Participle § 142............................................................................... Use of vera as an Auxiliary Verb § 133..............................................

......... Conversation Piece............................... FAROESE GLOSSARY.................................................................................................................pdf8 - I ш 158 168 188 201 28-09-2005 08............................51 ............................................................... Verse Selections ..58.................................................. Faroese and English ............ Prose Selections .......................................................................................................... 156 Incapsulation § 158....................................................... 157 READER.......................................................... Page Normal and Inverted Word Order § 155......................................An introduction to… 22/08/02 13:10 Page 12 хп Word Order......................... 153 Word Order in Relative Clauses § 156 .................................. 155 Position of Adverbs § 157 ......... Anintroductionto-Modern-Faroesemtemet..........................................................

Harvey was. In presenting his material he followed the arrangement of Wimmer's Oldnordisk Formlære til Skolebrug (Accidence of Old Norse for Schools). Like many of his contemporaries Dahl was an archaiser. Faroe Islands. All students of Faroese should possess Føroysk-Donsk Orðabók2 by M. Harvey was stationed at Sørvágur. Jacobsen and Chr. so making the learner's task more difficult. It then became increasingly evident that Dahl's book was not a suitable basis for a description of modern Faroese. intend-ing this to be the nucleus of a larger grammar suitable for English students and in this he was grateful for help from Jákup av Skarði. but I felt that the grammatical forms occurring in the ballads and occasionally taken up by some modern writers . These are still widely known. and An introduction to-Modern-Faroese intemet pdf9 28-09-2005 08 58 51 . however. For his own use. but decided to concentrate on the modern language only. but modern. Føroysk Mállæra.could not be treated in this work without obscuring the general picture of the living language. Matras. published byJákup Dahl in 1909. He discouraged some features which are an indispensable part of Faroese to-day and his book does not always distinguish between obsolete and current forms. This book therefore describes the contemporary language only and without reference to its historic evolution. he translated into English a primer of accidence. In these circumstances Harvey agreed that it would be best if I prepared an entirely new work in the form of a practical handbook based on average acceptable usage to-day. At Harvey's kind suggestion the present writer undertook to continue the work.unless there are to be more exceptions than rules. during the British occupation and acquired a knowledge of the Faroese language. 1961. A. The Faroes possess an extensive literature of traditional ballads composed in somewhat archaic language. unable to carry his plans further at the time and later other commitments prevented him from proceeding with Faroese studies.living Faroese cannot be thus treated .An introduction to… 22/08/02 13:10 Page 13 PREFACE Paul W.

the Intonation Specimens are based on electrical recordings * I have discussed some aspects of the present condition of Faroese in an article "Notes on the Faroese Language To-day" printed in Transactions of the Philological Society. A work like the present could not have been written without guidance from native speakers of Faroese. Many differing forms may be heard. especially in Tórs-havn itself. often made the choice difficult and perhaps occasionally arbitrary. under such headings as Adverbs. followed by representative selections of prose and verse. all the examples are strictly original Faroese. It seemed convenient and practical. but in this book alternatives have been sparingly quoted. to say nothing of the Danish influence. Numerals. Owing to long neglect .g. covers all the words occurring in the Reader and also those words in the examples in the Grammar where their meanings or inflexions are not automatically apparent. Faroese place-names have generally been translated.An introduction to… 22/08/02 13:10 Page 14 in this dictionary will find ample information regarding old forms found in the ballads. The various points of syntax have often been illustrated with more examples than are strictly necessary.Faroese is not yet so regular as English.the language has only come into general use in writing during the present century . Generally speaking. In this connection I owe a debt of gratitude to many.* The lay-out of the book is as follows: First. The Faroese Glossary. Josefina and Jóan Christian Poulsen in Hestur and Johanna and Christian Jensen and family in Tórshavn. Conjunctions to introduce matter which technically belongs to syntax. whose conversation and explanations have furnished a large portion of the material here presented . Needless to say. because I think that such additional specimens of natural Faroese will be of more use to the type of student Likely to use this book than a series of graduated exercises would be. the Grammar deals with pronunciation. There is a tendency to write in a style somewhat removed from spoken usage. The Reader begins with a conversation in Faroese and English on facing pages. only those forms are given which seem most likely to survive and become the undisputed standard. Volume for 1950. a knowledge of grammatical terms and customary abbreviations being assumed. finally. inflexions and syntax. especially to my hosts during two long summers. some of which also appear in print. An introduction to-Modern-Faroese intemet pdf 10 28-09-2005 08 58 51 . though uniformity is this respect has not been aimed at. It may be added that the present uncertain state of the language. e.

An introduction to… 22/08/02 13:10 Page 15 made from Ása Jensen's reading. the Rask-Ørsted Fund and the University of Birmingham. for it is the first to attempt an allround description of Faroese. B. W. Napoleon Djurhuus read my work in manuscript and made valuable suggestions. I wish to thank Professors Jón Helgason and Christian Matras for their detailed and painstaking criticism of the whole work. An introduction to-Modern-Faroese_internet. but certainly not least. Betty Rasmussen and Rikard Long. Thanks are likewise due to Valdemar Dalsgaard for his great assistance with the Conversation Piece and to the helpful staff of the National Library in Tórshavn. but enabled me greatly to improve the presentation of the material generally.pdf 11 28-09-2005 08. Poul Andersen and especially to Erik Petersen. This book is a pioneer work in many ways. and I sincerely hope that the book will prove useful to all who wish to study the interesting speech of the smallest of the Northern nations. Lockwood. Finally I acknowledge with gratitude the financial assistance given me by the University of Birmingham to enable me to pursue my Faroese studies.51 . Publication of the present work was made possible thanks to subventions generously provided by the Faroese Løgting. Last. My aim has been to make the language more accessible to Scandinavian specialist and general learner alike. I also received particular assistance from two experienced teachers of Faroese.58. which not only saved me from many a slip. For advice on phonetic problems I am indebted to John Hathaway and Dr.

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