By Shri V.L.N. Avadhani

Basic Theory of Electrical Imaging
Fullbore Formation Micro Imager (FMI*) Measurement and Interpretation Theory
The FMI* is the latest generation electrical imaging device and belongs to the family of imaging services provided by the MAXIS 500* system with its digital telemetry capability. It is an extension of dipmeter technology in which scanning electrodes arranged in 24 electrode per pad/flap arrays (of four pads and four flaps) are used to provide a high spatial sampling of formation microresistivity in both the vertical and azimuthal directions on the borehole surface.A GPIT (General Purpose Inclinometry tool) is also run along with this service to calculate hole azimuth and relative bearing in order to orient the measurements with respect to north and the borehole. These twodimensional microresistivity data are then mapped to gray scale or color to produce “core-like” borehole wall image that allows fine scale geological features to be described with a very good vertical resolution of about 0.2inch (5mm).

Tool Specifications (FMI) : This tool was developed by Schlumberger in 1991 as an improvement on the FMS4 (4 Pad-tool) developed earlier in 1987. The advantage was better borehole coverage - about 80 % in 8 1/2” holes. It is a semi-active focusing device (no direct focusing electrodes as in a laterolog) , so the response cannot be output directly as resistivity but is relatively proportional to the conductivity of the formation. A 16 Khz voltage is applied across each button with a return to the cartridge and an EMEX current at the button is measured at the same frequency. The voltage is increased automatically against resistive formations and lowered against conductive formation to ensure activity on the individual microconductivity curves. Electrodes: There are in total 192 electrodes distributed on four pads and four flaps. Resolution: The high resolution component of response gives button resolution ~ button size (5mm). The low resolution component of response is similar to LLS or SFL i.e., in front of thick homogeneous or thick thinly laminated formations, the response is close to LLS and SFL. Depth of investigation varies according to the resistivity of the formation. Against resistive beds the tool reads deeper than against conductive beds. The tool has a very large dynamic range - from less than 0.1ohm-m to more than 10,000ohm-m. The maximum logging speed is 1600 ft/hr (500m/hr), but outside zones of interest, it can be run at 3200 ft/hr (1000 m/hr) to acquire SHDT* dipmeter data only. Image Processing : The field log prints show the individual microresistivity curves , the variable EMEX voltage, cable tension, hole size calipers,borehole azimuth,borehole deviation, relative bearing (Pad1 to top of hole angle) ,pad 1 azimuth and a preliminary equalized image. A moving window averaging algorithm is applied to the accelerometer and magnetometer data as they are recorded and the tool responses are compared to the Earth’s gravitational and magnetic field. The objective of data processing chain (at Wellsite or GeoFrame*) is to represent the conductivity changes as a variable density gray or color scale image.The major steps are: Speed Correction: This is necessary as the downhole tool motion does not correspond exactly to the surface cable movement due to the cable being elastic.When tool speed is higher than cable speed at wellhead, an interval of formation will be ‘compressed’ i.e., a shorter log for a longer formation interval. If tool speed is lower than the cable speed at wellhead ,a ‘stretching’ occurs.This will cause an error on the dip computation as well as bed thickness. On the image a “saw-tooth” pattern may occur.There are two methods available for speed correction a) Z-axis accelerometer (GPIT) based and b) image based. These two corrections remove most of the acceleration effects on the images prior to further processing.

A good way to check automatic dips (MSD & CSB) from SHDT data is to generate a SHDT Pseudo Image and do hand picking of sinusoids on that. Also upward coarsening or fining sequences can be identified on the images with juxtaposition of conventional logs. B)Dynamic normalisation: Sets of classes are determined using a sliding window placed along the image. Image Display: The lighter the shade the more resistive the formation.B. A green line marks the pad1 image on the plots. In a static image the colour will relate to the resistivity of the formation opposite the electrode.obtained fromthe entire data set is applied to the image. Dip information in conductive and resistive intervals may be obtained . due to different responses on individual buttons. This is a type of calibration. For horizontal or inclined wells the top of hole (TOH) presentation is used as a reference. A)Static normalisation : A fixed set of color classes. The response is equalised by gain-and-offset operation over a sufficiently long interval so as not to remove significant formation features.0 m window is generally sufficient. Interpretation Techniques: There are various workstation based FMI/FMS image and SHDT interpretation software modules. unconformities and clay drapes can be done. Resistivity Scaling: This is done by using an LLS or SFL log to scale button response and finds use in obtaining sand counts .) . A typical BorView* presentation can be seen in Fig. Dip sinusoids are used to fit planar features on the images.Without this step stripes may appear on the resulting images. Also fractures can be picked and mapped with apertures calculated using conductivity mapping techniques on scaled images. Cross-bed analysis and fault identification can be done. BorDip* : This is used to do automatic Mean Squared dip (MSD) and Continuous Side by Side (CSB) computations. Normalisation: This is done to optimise the colour spectrum of the images. These dips are more accurate for bed boundaries picked in a sequence. A default of 1. Under GeoFrame* on Sun Workstations (UNIX based) the following programs are used for interactive dip picking and interpretation. The answer products show structural and stratigraphic dip trends which can be further interpreted. (N. fracture aperture estimation and high resolution resistivity studies.Equalisation: This is done to correct the effects of electronics. Stereonet* : This provides a Wulf or Schmidt net based polar plot of dip data and can be very useful in paleogeologic reconstuction.The left-hand edge of the azimuthal image track is usually North in vertical wells. non perfect pad contact and slightly different measurement sensitivities of electrodes. and interpolated to give a continuously varying set of data classes. Stratigraphic interpretation on images of features like slumps. The resulting image has a more or less uniform intensity. Normalisation can be either Static or Dynamic. This is a technique of image enhancement . It does not enhance all details but different parts of the image can be compared on a consistent basis. 1. BorView* : This is used for interactive (hand-pick) dip and fracture analysis on images.

Well X . The following two pages show some typical examples of image display and dip interpretation using interactive (hand-picked) dips using BorView* and Steronet* analysis. . The boundaries (green tadpoles and sinusoids are hand-picked and are found dipping at low angles eastwards . India.dips and conventional logs.Fig-1: A typical BorView* presentation with headers.

5m dipping at 40deg southeasterly. The fault is picked on the high angled conductive sinusoidal event showing bedding displacement.5-2192. Well Y Hole size: 12 1/4”. Interpretation results: This interval shows a probable minor fault (subparallel to a main growth fault below -.Fig-2: FMI* Static and 1m-Dynamic normalised and scaled images . . Interval 2190.not covered in this picture) at 2191.5 .

Well Y Interpretation results: The interval 2197 to 2291m was analysed in BorView* Stereonet .(from SE to NW). The faults (pink dips) are trending NNW-SSE as well indicating probable growth faulting and antithetic faulting as a result of slumping during delta front progradation. marginal marine environment of deposition. The pole of the great circle passing through the beds has a N232deg azimuth . .Fig-3: Stereonet (Wulf) projection structural interpretation . The bed boundaries (green dips) are seen to have a predominantly NNW-SSE trend with low dip scatter. Interval 2197m to 2291m . The low dip scatter may be indicative of a low energy.

Generally . Then correlograms are obtained by calculating correlation coefficients between the windowed intervals as a function of their relative displacements. As the apparent dip increases . in 10-15 deg dip regions a correlation length of 1. MSD is generally used for structural dip computation. In areas where high dips or high apparent dips (due to borehole deviation) are expected . step of 0. less and less points enter into correlation. This method keeps a fixed window on one curve and a moving window on the other. an initial displacement can be entered by use of a focusing plane .5m and search angle of 60 deg is found to be suitable for MSD dip computations. In case of low apparent dips .Theory : Automatic Dip Computation There are currently two computation algorithms available on GeoFrame BorDip* (MSD and CSB) MSD : This is a Mean Square Dip computation method .. step distance and search angle have to be defined in this method. The button to button displacements are computed and a minimum mean squared criteria is used to best fit a plane through them. normal to tool axis or a plane defined from a previous dip calculation.. This focusing plane may be fixed. Fig-4: Four pad SHDT* showing Mean Squared (MSD) dip configuration of buttons. For SHDT* data at any depth level there are 28 possible cross correlograms obtained from 8 button response curves. nearly all data points within the correlation interval are considered for computation of correlation. A correlation interval length .0m . .

Increasing the search angle beyond 60deg often results in finding fewer dips.For a four arm tool 4 side-by-side dips are obtained from the four pairs of adjacent pads. This is because the search interval increases as the tangent of the search angle. making it particularly effective for defining stratigraphic features (like cross-beds). step and angle may result in mirror image dips when the search approaches the true bed dips or if dip magnitude is equal to borehole deviation and their azimuth is 180 deg from borehole drift.2 to 0.dimensional vector result of two adjacent pad dip vectors. The CSB computation makes use of correlations between the two dip buttons on each pad . A large search angle will result in a very long search interval which will in turn increase the likelihood of finding false correlations.Side (CSB) configuration of dip buttons. step of 0.CSB: This is a vector correlation program which correlates only two curves of each pad (in SHDT*) and does not correlate between pads.A default of 60 deg is a good compromise.5m or less ) to produce a vector parallel to the dip plane .by . .25m and search angle of 45 to 50deg.5m .. This employs a Continuous Side by Side button correlation and is a variant of the MSD to pick high and variable dip. Each pair of curves is cross correlated using short correlation intervals (0. Very small correlation length .CSB dip is a three. one at each pad position. A similar vector from an adjacent pad combines to define a dip plane. This yields 4 dip vectors . Fig-5: Four pad SHDT* showing Side . Generally in high angled cross-bedded sandstones it is suitable to use a Correlation length of 0. There will be a great similarity between the microresistivity curves recorded in each pad due to the small horizontal spacing. The CSB program is responsive to fine bedding structure of the formation.4 to 0.

Theory : To make a resistivity measurement .LLS and SFL) are examples of such measurements which by virtue of their different electrode configurations focus the current path to give the formation resistivity at different depths of investigations. This is mandatory if we want to take up Fracture aperture or sand count studies in the future or running BorTex. In contrast . The laterologs (LLD. the process of calibration or scaling (using FMSCAL or BorScale*on GeoFrame* ) involves : Calculating an average current from the uncalibrated FMS button response and cross-plotting it against an LLS derived theoretical current. This example is from the FMS at Well # Charada-1. microresistivity buttons on the various imaging tools (FMS/FMI) and the SHDT provide: a) A button current which is not focussed. ./SPOT porosity analysis. Provided the current path is controlled (usually with focusing electrodes in laterologs) . Baroda.SCA (green curve on the right) which matches well with the LLS (blue). Fig-6: Procedure of Scaling an Average Current from FMS/FMI* with an LLS/HLLS or SFL derived theoretical current. b) Button current which is not calibrated. a logging tool creates a voltage between a pair of electrodes and measures a current flowing between them . Then we best fit the cluster with a piecewise linear equation to get a synthetic resistivity response (SRES) for the FMS measrement. The Output is a Synthetic Resistivity curve SRES. Essentially. as measured by a true resistivity tool.Scaling of Electrical Images: Scaling is a process whereby the microresistivity button current from FMS* or FMI* is transformed to give a measurement ‘resembling’ the formation conductivity. the conductance measured (current/applied voltage) can be converted to a measure of the average conductivity or resistivity of the formation through which the current flows.

The scaled image gives a consistent presentation .Fig-7: A comparison of FMS* raw image (left) and equalised and scaled image(right). Blue and cyan sinusoids and tadpoles are hand-picked dips of fractures and unconformable surfaces. Baroda. Also on the fourth track is a playback of the LLS resistivity curve and the BorScale* output synthetic resistivity curve (SRES). The good agreement was achieved after scaling . They are clearly visible from scaled images. This example is from Well # Charada-1 . .

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