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Programming PIC16F877A

Using CCS C Compiler and US-
Burn
Why Use C for Embedded Programming?

1. Portable – code can be retargeted to
different processors
2. Clarity – C is easier to understand than
assembly
3. Compilers produce code that is close to
manually-tweaked assembly language in
both code size and performance
From .c to .hex
C Compilers for Embedded Systems 

CCS C Compiler 
HI TECH Compiler
CCS vs. HI TECH 

The CCS Compiler has an extensive range of
inbuilt functions
→ Save time and speed up the learning process 
The HI TECH Compiler is based towards
those who are following a company policy
specifying the ANSI standard with hardware
functions sometimes resembling Assembler
more than C
Installing CCS C Compiler IDE 
Copy CCS C directory to your hard drive 
Run pcwhupd.exe (in this directory) 
Copy the following files to installed directory
 : PCM.CRG for 16-bit PIC
 , PCH.CRG,
 PCB.CRG 
Run Patch.exe file 
Run Pcw.exe file
Installing US-Burn
1. Copy USB burn driver directory to your
harddrive
2. Plug USB cable (connected to the USB port
of SaigonTech PIC Board) to computer USB
port
3. Turn on the power switch on the PIC board
(see the next slides) 
Click the Browse button to select the driver folder

…\USB burn driver
Succefull installation
announce 

Do the steps 2 and 3 for other USB ports.
A Sample C Program:
Blinking 8 LEDs
Program Description 

Make LED’s on PORTB blink every second
Cable Wiring 
Use a 8 pin ribbon cable to connect PIC’s
jumpers B0 – B7 to LEDs’ jumpers L0 – L7
Electronic Circuit
Writing Program in PCW C
Compiler IDE
Creating a .c File
Creating a .c File 

File name: Blink8LEDs 
Choose the path 
Click Save
Editing Blink8LEDs.c
Compiling a C Program
Using US-Burn to Load a .hex
File to the PIC 
Put 16F877A in the USB Programmer socket
(pay attention to the PIC direction on the
socket, otherwise you will damage the PIC) 
Plug the USB cable to the PC and to the PIC
board 
Turn on the power switch of PIC Board 
Run Usburn14.exe
Microcontroller Setting
Run program on the board 
Turn off the power switch on the PIC board 
Put the programmed PIC in the Run socket
on the board (pay attention to the PIC
direction on the socket, otherwise you will
damage the PIC) 
Turn on the power switch on the PIC board to
see the LEDs blink.
PIC C

PIC C

Summary of the
Development
Process
PIC C
Discussion
Look at an Alternative of BlinkLEDs.c 

Is this listing better than the previous one? Why?
One of the Most Important Skills in
Programming 
Reuse
PIC16F877A

5/6 Programming pins
8 10-bit A/D channels
2 Oscillator Inputs
2 RS-232 inputs
33 I/O ports
2 PWM channels
The PIC16F877A 

PIC: Peripheral Interface Controller
Pin Functions 

MCLR – to reset the PIC 
VDD – power supply 
VSS – ground 
OSC1, OSC2 – connect to oscillator 
The pins having the notation R can all be
used as digital inputs or outputs 
The pins that are labeled as AN can be used
as analog inputs 
The pins CCP1 and CCP2 are used for PWM
Exercise

1. Delete NOLVP from #fuses and rerun the
program. What is the effect of this action?
2. Instead of using the PORTB, use PORTC to
rewrite the example
 Try to use NOLVP and without it
Why is NOLVP Needed?
 In Single Supply Programming or Low – Voltage
Programming mode (using single voltage VDD 5V
to programming):
 The LVP bit will be set
 Pin B3 will have PGM function → B3 is cleared
 To make RB3 become a normal I/O pin, LVP has
to be disabled
 #fuses NOLVP
Exercise 

Instead of using the PORTB, use PORTA to
rewrite the example
More Details on PORTA 
In the PIC16 series Port A is the analog port
connected to the analog to digital converters
By default this port is configured as analog
⇒ You will not be able to output or input data reliably
on Port A until you configure it as a digital port
Can’t work
Pin RA4
VDD

R

PIC 16F877A
How to Make RA4 Work Properly 
RA4 is made to be an open-drain output
⇒ A pull-up resistor is needed to make it work
properly VDD

Pull-up Resistor
R
Can’t work
Pin RA4 Pin RA4 Open-drain output

PIC 16F877A PIC 16F877A
References 

Microcontroller.
http://www.electronics.netmyne.com/microcontroller.
html 
Programming PIC Microcontrollers in BASIC.
mikroElektronika © 1998 – 2004.
http://www.mikroelektronika.co.yu/english/product/b
ooks/picbasicbook/00.htm#preface 
http://www.picvietnam.com/forum//showthread.php?t
=357 
PICC. An introduction to programming the Microchip
PIC in C. Nigel Gardner. Bluebird Electronics 1998