REGULATION CONSTANTS FOR OVERHEAD LINES

Three Phases 50 Hz per 100 KVA per Km
Phase
to
Phase
Voltage

Size of conductor
in mm

EquiEquiResis
valent valent
tance
alum- spacing
at
inium
in
40 o c in
area in meter Ohms/
Sq.mm
km

Reactance
in
Ohms/
Km

Percentage Regulation
constant for lagging P.F.
0.8

0.9

Unity

415 V

Gnat 7/2.21 mm AAC

16

0.483

1.1566

0.3330

65.33000

68.90000 67.08000

415 V

Ant 7/3.31 mm AAC

30

0.483

0.5879

0.3115

38.16000

38.57000 34.14000

11 KV

Squirel 7/2.11 mm ACSR

20

0.914

1.4750

0.3900

0.11690

0.12370

0.12190

11 KV

Weasel 7/2.59 mm ACSR

30

0.914

0.9770

0.3820

0.08400

0.08710

0.08150

11 KV

Mink 7/3.66 mm ACSR

40

0.914

0.4900

0.3650

0.05049

0.04958

0.04144

22 KV

Weasel 7/2.59 mm ACSR

30

1.066

0.9770

0.3920

0.02120

0.02180

0.02040

22 KV

Mink 7/3.66 mm ACSR

40

1.066

0.4900

0.3800

0.01290

0.01260

0.01020

33 KV

Weasel 7/2.59 mm ACSR

30

1.371

0.9770

0.4085

0.00950

0.00980

0.00910

33 KV

Mink 7/3.66 mm ACSR

40

1.371

0.4900

0.3980

0.00580

0.00570

0.00450

FORMULA FOR % V.R. CALCULATION FOR 11 KV , 22 KV & 33 KV LINES
[ Es - Er ]
% Voltage regulation

=

x 100
Es

Where,
Es = Sending end voltage
Er = Receiveing end voltage
Er = Es - [ IR Cos Ø + IX Sin Ø]

S/S
500 KVA
Percentage Voltage regulation at B for
kva km between B & A =
500 x 2
kva km between A & SS = 1000 x 1
Total kva km
= 1000 + 1000

500 KVA
11
=
=
=

KV feeder of Squirrel Conductor,
1000
1000
2000

Constant from table
% Regulation = Total kva km x
100
2000 x 0.1211
=

= 2.422 % ( This should not exceed ± 6% for L.T. & ± 12% for H.T.)
100
1

FORMULA FOR CALCULATION FOR LINE LOSSES AS PER REC STANDARD
11 KV Line

33 KV Line

Average Energy Loss in feeder

Average Energy Loss in feeder in KWH

0.105 x L x R x P 2 x L.L.F.

= Peak power Loss x LLF x 8760

=
2 x LDF x (D.F.)

2

R
= Resistance of Conductor per Km
L
= Length of Line in Km
P
= Total conducted load in KVA
LLF = Loss load factor
LF
= Load factor of system
D.F. = Diversity Factor
L.D.F. = Load distribution factor
L.L.F. = 0.8 x ( L.F.) 2 + 0.2 x (L.F.)

2

3xI

R

Peak Power Loss =
1000
Where
R = Resistance of conductor per Km.
I = Max current in the line.

LINE CLEARANCES
The minimum clearances shall be in accordance with Indian Electricity Rules, 1956 and are given in
Table I.
Table - I, Minimum Clearance ( Values in Meters )
Voltage Category
(IE Rules,1956)
Nominal System Voltage Clearance

Low & Medium Voltage
Low

Extra High Voltage

Upto Upto 66 KV 132 KV 220 KV 400 KV
11 KV 33 KV
HVDC

±500 KV 800 KV

6.1
5.6
4.6
4.0

6.1
5.8
5.2
-

6.1
6.1
5.5
-

6.1
6.1
6.1
-

7.0
7.0
7.0
-

8.80
8.80
8.80
-

12.50
12.50
12.50
-

12.40
12.40
12.40
-

2.5

3.7

3.7

4.0

4.6

7.30

11.59

10.50

1.129

1.219

2.0

2.3

2.9

5.5
$
3.80

5.6

10.98

9.20

1) Clearance to Ground
(a) Across Street
5.8
(b) Along Street
5.5
(c) Other areas Bore Cond. 4.6
(d) Other areas Insu. cond. 4.0
2) Clearance to Buildings
(a) Vertical (*) - from
higher object
(b) Horizantal (+) - from
nearest point.

High Voltage

3) Clearance Between Line crossing each other.
Voltage of 1 st Line

Voltage of 2
250V to 66KV

250 V to 66 KV
100 KV
132 KV
220 KV
400 KV
+ 500 KV HVDC
800 KV

2.44
2.75
3.05
4.58
5.49
6.86
7.94

100 KV

132 KV

2.75
2.75
3.05
4.58
5.49
6.86
7.94

3.05
3.05
3.05
4.58
5.49
6.86
7.94
2

220 KV
4.58
4.58
4.58
4.58
5.49
6.86
7.94

nd

Line
400 KV
5.49
5.49
5.49
5.49
5.49
6.86
7.94

± 500KV
HVDC
6.86
6.86
6.86
6.86
6.86
6.86
7.94

800 KV
7.94
7.94
7.94
7.94
7.94
7.94
7.94