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DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.1 3.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.4 4.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.5.5.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.1 Design for Flexure 4.6.6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.1 Design for Flexure 3.3-04 5.5.3 3.6.6 5 Design for CSA A23.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.6.2 4.1 Notations 5-1 ii .2 Check for Punching Shear 4.4 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.2 3.3 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.1 4.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.

5.1 6.Contents 5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.5.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.28 6.3 6.1 Design for Flexure 6.2 7.6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.3 5.5.6.1 Design for Flexure 5.2 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.6.4 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.5.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .5.1 7.6.4 5.6.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.2 6.

6.4.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.1 Design for Flexure 7.1 Design for Flexure 8.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.5.5.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.2 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.1 Effects of Torsion 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.4.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.3 9.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.5.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.2 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.5.4.5.4 7.3 8.1 8.1 9.4 9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .6.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.1 Design for Flexure 9.2 Design Load Combinations 10.5.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.5.5.6 Slab Design 9.6.6.1 Design for Flexure 10.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.1 Notations 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.5.Contents 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .5 Beam Design 10.6 Slab Design 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.6.6.

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and it designs beam flexural. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. shear. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. 1-1 . SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. and torsion reinforcement. Specifically. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes.

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2. The code is based on inch-pound-second units.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. sq-in Notations 2-1 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. sq-in Gross area of concrete.

psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Depth to neutral axis. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Width of web (flanged section). in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). psi 2-2 Notations . in Width of section.

Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. (0. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. in Height of the flange.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. lb Factored axial load at a section. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. psi Overall depth of a section. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.Chapter 2 . lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. in Factored moment at a section. lb Factored shear force at a section. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Critical torsion capacity. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete.

1) (ACI 9.2.8W 1.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.2.2D + 1. and earthquake (E) loads. degrees 2.9D ± 1.6W 1.6.2D + 1.6W 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.5S ± 1.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2D + 1.1): 1.2D + 1. For ACI 318-08.75 PL) 0.1) (ACI 9.9D ± 1.0E (ACI 9.6 (0. live load (L).6S ± 0.2.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.1) (ACI 9.6S 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).3) (ACI 9.2. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5S 1.2S ± 1.2.2D + 1.6L + 0.0E 1. wind (W).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.0L ± 1.0L + 1.1) are the same.2D + 1.0L + 0.7.2.2D + 1.2. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .2D + 1.6W 0.0L + 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2D + 1.1) (ACI 13. pattern live load (PL).6L 1.4D 1.0L ± 1.0E 1. snow (S).

however. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9.1. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength.1) (ACI 9.3. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.3. 2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The φ factors for flexure.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. 2.1). shear forces.5. shear. f' c . SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. and torsion based on the beam moments. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. fy. load combination factors. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. and other criteria described in this section.2. caution is advised.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.Chapter 2 .2).3) 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. fyt. φ.2.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. shear. or if other types of loads are present. (ACI 9. torsion.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11.

Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design . shear. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1. for a particular station. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. with the corresponding load factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. and torsion only.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. 2.1.

1.2).Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.2. shear. The design procedure used by SAFE.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. where.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10.2. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10. the width.and T-beams).1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.1) in the preceding and the following equations.5.4).3. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.2) Beam Design 2-7 . Furthermore. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. designing top or bottom reinforcement).Chapter 2 . 2.3.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. fy .003. The maximum depth of the compression zone. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.5). Mu (i.2.. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. and torsion only. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.90 (ACI 9.3. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1). which by default is 0. or the strength of the concrete.e. which is equal to 0.3. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. cmax. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10. is summarized in the text that follows.

3.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.2.7.1) β1 = 0.3.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. amax. εcmax = 0.2.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.2.85 (ACI 10.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.4).005 (ACI 10.003 εsmin = 0.7. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .3) (ACI 10.85 − 0.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.

2.3. 10.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.Chapter 2 . 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.7.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0. where ( f 's − 0.2. or at the top if Mu is negative.3.2.2.2.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10. If a > amax.

If the moment is negative. and the flange is ignored.85 f ′ c 0.e. In that case. 2.003 0. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0..1.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 .2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. the flange comes under tension. is assumed if the flange is under compression. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. if the moment is positive. and vice versa if Mu is negative.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. i. a simplified stress block. as shown in Figure 2-2.2.5. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side.10 Beam Design .

003 εsmin = 0..005 (ACI 10. The maximum depth of the compression zone.2.4): cmax = where. i.90 (ACI 9.2. designing top reinforcement).3. Mu (i. amax.85 − 0.Design for ACI 318-08 2.1.3) (ACI 10.11 . 2. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3) Beam Design 2 .05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.7.1.7.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2. which is equal to 0.e. which by default is 0.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10..2) εcmax = 0.2. no flanged beam data is used. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.85 (ACI 10.2.2.2. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.5. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5.1) β1 = 0.2) where.1) in the preceding and the following equations. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.3.2.2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.Chapter 2 . cmax. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.3.

12 Beam Design . the calculation for As has two parts. As1 = given by: (ACI 10. the value for φ is 0. Therefore. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. as shown in Figure 2-2.5).7.90 by default.3. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. Cf.2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. If a > hf. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. Cw. Mu .85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . However.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . the balance of the moment. Cf is given by: C f = 0. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again. amax ) Therefore.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . 2 . to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10.

13 . 10.3.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .Chapter 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.7. 10.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10.3.2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.2.2.2.2. where ( f 's − 0. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.

5.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d .4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. 2. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. for a particular load combination. Determine the shear force. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.14 Beam Design . Vc.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10.2. 2 .4bw d ⎧0. that can be resisted by the concrete. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. Vu.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.5.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1.3) An upper limit of 0. bw d ⎟ As .

5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11. 2.2.7. 11.2.5.3. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.5φVc Av =0 s If 0. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.5. Vc.5. is 0. and Vmax. 2.1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.15 .5.Chapter 2 .5.1.5. the strength reduction factor.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.1) Beam Design 2 . φ.1.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.1) For light-weight concrete.2.3.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.3).1.6. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. If Vu ≤ 0.2.75 (ACI 9.1. fyt.Design for ACI 318-08 2. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. with the corresponding load combination factors. Vc.3.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.9) Given Vu.

5bw. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. a failure condition is declared.1(c)).2) ⎛ 0. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.5. the concrete section should be increased in size.5.6.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. the equation given in ACI 11. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11.5. Tu.7.6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.1.3 is not enforced (ACI 11. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. (ACI 11.6.5. 2. 11. and 0. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.5.5hf.5. (ACI 11.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .5. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.5.7.3) If Vu > φVmax.5. 2 .7.7. 2.16 Beam Design .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3 does not need to be satisfied independently. Determine special section properties.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11.6.

such as Aoh. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. and ph.3. Aoh.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. are calculated.6. Ao.2). 2.2.3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. pcp.5. Ao.5.Chapter 2 .2).1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.1). These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. If redistribution is desired. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11.17 . the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. special section properties. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. 2. and ph. However.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. such as Acp. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.6. This is equivalent to 1. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.75 inches.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.

6. 2. 2.3.1. bw. h. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.6.3.6.6.1) (ACI 11.4).6(b)) (ACI 11. R11.1) (ACI 11. 2. 2.6.2. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13.1) (ACI11. However.1. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. 2.6. h.1. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11. With this assumption.1.1.1.6(b)) (ACI 11. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.3. R11. 2.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. 2. With this assumption.1) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11.6.1) (ACI 11. the section dimensions b.6.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.1(c)) 2 .1.3. 2.6.3.3. 2.1) where the section dimensions bf.18 Beam Design . Similarly.6.1.6.1.1) where.6. 2.6.3. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11. 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.3.6. Tcr. hf.5.6.3.1. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.

Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11. Beam Design 2 . φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion. fy. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.6.6. However. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.6.2. Tcr.7. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.3.3. longitudinal bars.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. At /s.5.3) In the preceding expressions.6. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.6. is limited to 60 ksi.5. even if the material property is defined with a higher value. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.19 . and compression diagonals (ACI R11. 11.3. fyt. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).5.Chapter 2 .75 by default (ACI 9.6). which is equal to 0.6) where. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.6.6. Tcr. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.3. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. θ is taken as 45 degrees.1).6. 2. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11. In that case.3.3).6).

3. a failure message is declared.1) For rectangular sections. bw is replaced with b.6.2) 2 . ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. the concrete section should be increased in size.6.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11.75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr). In that case. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw .20 Beam Design .5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.

2. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations.3 independently. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.6.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Slab Design 2 . In that case. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.6. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.Chapter 2 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.5. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. 2. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition.21 .

1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. are repeated for every load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. Where openings occur. given the bending moment. 2.1(b)) (ACI 7.min = 0.min = 0. 2.2.2): As. is obtained and reported. at a given design section in a design strip.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. In that case. This is the method used when drop panels are included. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.2. described in the text that follows.12.22 Slab Design .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.min = (ACI 7.1.2. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. for each load combination.1(c)) 0. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.12.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .6.1(a)) (ACI 7. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 2.1. In some cases.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.12.12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6. These two steps.

2.2).Chapter 2 .2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.. interior.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.23 . Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.6.e. 2.1. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . The column location (i.3).11. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1. 2. edge. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6.11.

2 Eq.3.5. C-15) (ACI 421.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13.3. C-16) 2 .2 Eq. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.2.2 Eq. C-13) (ACI 421.24 Slab Design .2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.1) For flat plates.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0. For interior columns.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0. C-11) (ACI 421. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.5. C-12) For edge columns.2 Eq.2 Eq.2 Eq.2 For corner columns.6. γvx = 0. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.

The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes.11.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11. and for corner columns. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.1) where.6. respectively.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.25 . the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.11. 2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .2.2.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.6.2. (ACI 11. for edge columns.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11.2.Chapter 2 . bo is the perimeter of the critical section. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.1. x and y.

11.11.2.2) (ACI 11.3. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. 2.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.6.5.3. the strength reduction factor.11.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.0. 2. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3). provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches. and Vmax.3).5.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu.26 Slab Design . where.1) 2.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. Vc. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.11.6.11. is 0.3.75 (ACI 9.3. φ.1) (ACI 11. If this ratio exceeds 1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11. 2 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.

3).11.1.27 .e. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.4.6.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. Slab Design 2 . Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. a failure condition is declared.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11. i. the concrete section should be increased in size.4. 2.11. 11.3.7.Chapter 2 .3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3. and corner column.7. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. (ACI 11..2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. edge.

and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. so. and 3/4-inch diameters. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.11.5. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. 2.11. 5/8-. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5.5d.3) 2 .11. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.5d (ACI 11. and interior columns respectively. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. and 8. The limits of so and the spacing.5. 1/2-.2) (ACI 11. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. for corner.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. Therefore. When specifying shear studs. the distance.2) ⎧0.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 6. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.6. g.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. Height. edge. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.28 Slab Design .7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm Notations 3-1 . 3. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. For simplicity. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein.

averaged around the critical shear perimeter. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Mean value of do. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Width of web (flanged section).min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Width of member. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Area of shear reinforcement.

MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. MPa Torsional modulus. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . (0.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. N-mm Factored axial load at section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. to the effective depth. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. max εs Notations 3-3 .max Vu. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N Shear force resisted by concrete. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement.Chapter 3 . mm Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Factored moment at section.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc.

4.0-02.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.1): 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0W 1.2. 4.0-02.2.2.0S 0.4L ± 1.2D ± 1.2. live load (L).0-02.0-02.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.0D + 0.4L ± 1.2D + 1. 4. wind (W).9D ± 1. 4. degrees 3. 4.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.0E 1. 4. pattern live load (PL).2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. and earthquake (E) loads.2D + 0.75 PL) 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used. For AS 3600-01.35D 1. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.0-02.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .0D ± 1.2(f)) Note that the 0. 4. 4.0-02. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L + 1.0W 1.2D + 1.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.5L 1.0-02.0-02. snow (S).2.2. 4.0-02.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.0W 1.5(0.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0E (AS/NZS 1170. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.3. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.

Table 2.1. shear.Chapter 3 . provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1(b)).1.1. for all framing type (AS 6. φ.1.3: φ = 0. (AS 2. caution is advised. 3.Design for AS 3600-01 3.1. shear forces.3(c)) 3. load combination factors. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1) (AS 6.3(c)) (AS 2.1).1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2.2.1.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.1.1. and torsion based on the beam moments. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1. Table 6. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . torsion.2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.3(c).1.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. 6. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. however.1). and other criteria described in the text that follows.1. 19.2. is defined as given in AS 2. respectively.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.

3.5.1.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion only.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. for a particular station. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

15N ) (AS 10.1.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.3) γ = [0.1.2. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.Chapter 3 . shear. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.2). The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8. is given by amax = γk u d where.2) Beam Design 3-7 . and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.85 ku = 0. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1. and torsion only. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. amax.1).1a).85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.007( f 'c −28)] 0. (AS 8. or the strength of the concrete. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.1.85 − 0. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. A uniform compressive stress of 0. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. (AS 8. fy .2.003.7.2.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. the width.2.2).

the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).5.3) in the preceding and following equations.003 b Cs c 0. ε = 0. designing top or bottom reinforcement).2.e.4). M (i. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .80 (AS 2.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.1.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.1.2) where. where.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. which by default is 0..

6.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.1.1..Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.Chapter 3 .1. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8. If a > amax.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .2.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. or at the top * if M is negative.1.2.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8.2.4.85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 . ku > 0.e. i. where ( f 's − 0.

ε = 0.1. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. M (i. a simplified stress block. designing top reinforcement).1.e. i.2.1.5.2. In that case. and vice versa if M is negative. no flanged beam data is used.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above.003 bf Ds * 0.3). 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . as shown in Figure 3-2.85 f ′ c 0.e. 3. If the moment is negative. and the flange is ignored. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.10 Beam Design ... if the moment is positive.5. the flange comes under tension. i.e.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. is assumed if the flange is under compression.

1. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 . the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0.5. Cf is given by: C f = 0.1.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.2. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. ku = 0.11 . As1 = given by: (AS 8. Cw. the calculation for Ast has two parts.2. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds . the width of the beam is taken as bf. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.1.3) in the preceding and the following equations. If a > Ds.3) If a ≤ Ds. However. which is 0. is given by: a max = γk u d where.Chapter 3 . the balance of the moment. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.85 f 'c φb f where.80 by default (AS 2.Design for AS 3600-01 3. amax ) Therefore.4. as shown in Figure 3-2. amax. in that case. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.4 (AS 8. Cf.

1. where ′ − 0.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.1.2.1. 6. If a1 > amax. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore.2.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.12 Beam Design .85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.

Chapter 3 .5.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2) An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.04bw d ⎧0. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.1.6 f 'c (AS 6.1) f 'cf = 0.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.1. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .min = 0.1.4.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1.13 .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 . 3.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .

5. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.14 Beam Design .1) β1 = 1.6 − β2 = 1. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.7. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Vuc.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.1⎜1.2. V .1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8. 3.2. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1. Vuc.2.7. * 3.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where. Determine the shear force. that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.5.7.1) (AS 8. for a particular load combination. 13 (AS 8. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2.

Asv = 0 .2. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.2.6) Given V .Chapter 3 . f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8.min < V * ≤ φVu.6bv d o Vu .10) Asv.max. φ. the strength reduction factor. max = 0. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu .5.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu. (AS 8.6 by default (AS 2.8) Beam Design 3 . where.3). the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. V * − φVuc Asv .2. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.35 w ⎜ s f sy.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression.2.2. ⎟ ⎠ 3.2.min. whichever is greater (AS 8.9) (AS 8. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. Asv = 0.5). is 0. Vuc.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. = s fsy.15 .5(c)(i)).2.min shall be provided. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv. If φVu.max . s otherwise Asv. min = Vuc + 0. and Vu.min .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. as described in the following sections.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Slab Design 3 . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.Chapter 3 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.21 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. 3.6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 3. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.

1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1. 3. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). are repeated for every load combination. 3. This is the method used when drop panels are included.1): As ≥ 0.22 Slab Design . the slab width is adjusted accordingly. given the bending moment. In some cases.1.1(b)) In addition.6. which are described in the following subsections. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9. for each load combination. at a given design section in a design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 3 . is obtained and reported.1. Where openings occur.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. In that case.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.6. 3. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1(a)) As ≥ 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6.

.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.23 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.e. edge.2.6.Design for AS 3600-01 3. 3.6.1. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.3).1).1.2. interior.Chapter 3 .2. The column location (i. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.

0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.5 f c' + 0. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9. is given as (AS 9.2. is given as (AS 9. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.2.2.6. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.2.2.4(a)) 3.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1.3(b)) (AS 9.3(a)) where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3σ cp ) b.24 Slab Design . Vuo .3σ cp ≤ 0. Vu .3(a)): a.6. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided. 3 .2.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.2.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.2.

max. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. where. is the strength reduction factor.25 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.Given V*. Vu. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.2. φ. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.1).10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 . and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. 3.4(a).2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu. and Vu.2.3.3 or 9.6.6. 3. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. V * − φVu Asv = . The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.Design for AS 3600-01 3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.7.3. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.2.2.Chapter 3 .min = 3*Vu (AS 92.4. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.4.

edge.4.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. i. the minimum number of 3 . the concrete section should be increased in size.7. and corner column.3) (NZS 12.3.e.7. 3.4).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.7.4) If V > φVmax. Therefore. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.26 Slab Design . a failure condition is declared.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines..6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.

7.4) (NZS 12. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.7.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. When specifying shear studs.Chapter 3 .4. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. The limits of so and the spacing.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4. 3. so.6.5d. Height. 6. the distance.4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and interior columns respectively. for corner.27 .3. s. edge.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.5d s ≤ 0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. g.4) Slab Design 3 .7.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. and 8. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.4) (NZS 12.

.

The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity. 4. For light-weight concrete and torsion. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. mm 2 Notations 4-1 .1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985].Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected.

mm 4-2 Notations . mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. assumed as 200. mm Torsional constant. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement.

mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Torsional shear stress. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Neutral axis depth. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity.Chapter 4 . mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. mm Normalized design moment. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section.

1.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4. pattern live load (PL).6L + 1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .6(0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.2L + 1.4.4.4D + 1.2D + 1.3) (BS 2. live load (L).4.2W 1.4D ± 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.3) (BS 2.3).2L ± 1. and wind (W) loads.3).2D + 1. and considering that wind forces are reversible. For BS 8110-1997.2S ± 1. snow (S). The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.6S 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. 0.6L 1.4W 1.4.4W 1.3) (BS 2.2S ± 1.2W (BS 2.2W 1. mm Lever arm. γf (BS 2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). 1.4D 1.75PL) 1.2D + 1.0D ± 1.4D + 1.4. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain.4.4D + 1.

should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3.4. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2 (BS 2.7.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.4.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. the default factor of 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table.1. γm. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.2). The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . Note that for reinforcement. Note that the automatic combination. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations. as taken from BS Table 2. 4. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. 4.50 1.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. including pattern live load.Chapter 4 . If other grades are used.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. fcu.15 1. this value should be overwritten as necessary.

5. for a particular station. In such cases. and torsion based on the beam moments.5. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. shear. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the 4-6 Beam Design . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. shear. with the corresponding load factors. shear forces.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and other criteria described below. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. torsion. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. load combination factors. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4.

4. where K' = 0. or equal to Msingle.4.4. In such cases. In addition. See Figure 4-1. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Msingle = K'fcu bd . Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. or the strength of the concrete. 4. x/d ≤ 0.e. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. is first calculated for a section. shear. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Furthermore. the width.2.156 2 (BS 3.4. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. and torsion only. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.9) (BS 3. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.4) Beam Design 4-7 . Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4). 4. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.4).4.1. Msingle.. βb ≥ 0. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3.5.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1).Chapter 4 .1.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. The design procedure used by SAFE.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4. less than.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.4.4).4.5.4.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.

If M > Msingle.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. the area of tension reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4. As.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .25 − ⎜ 0.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.4.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0. where 0.5 + 0.4.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0.87 f y z (BS 3.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4. or at the top if M is negative.4.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0. is then given by: As = M .

87 f y z + M − Msingle 0..Chapter 4 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.4.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.1.4. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. where (BS 3.87 f y d − d ' ( ) . 2.4. Beam Design 4-9 .3.3.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. M (i.4. and ' f ' s = 0.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.5. 2. Fig 2.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.e.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.25 − ⎜ 0.4.777d z = d ⎜ 0.1.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.5.4. 4.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.4. no flanged beam data is used.5. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. i.5. Fig 2.4.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.5. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.5 + 0. Based on this assumption. designing top reinforcement).2.1.4.2.2.1.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.2.4..e.1.

4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. e = 0.95d 0.4.4.0035 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.10 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4.45 (BS 3.5 + 0.9 ⎭ (BS 3.4.67 fcu/gm 0.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .4. See Figure 4-2.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.

4.5h f ) .87 f y (d − 0.87 f y (d − 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.4.Chapter 4 . the width of the beam is taken as bf. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.87 f y z Beam Design 4 . in that case.9x (BS 3.11 .4.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. Cw.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4) If a ≤ hf.4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. If a > hf. where 0.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.4.156 (BS 3. as shown in Figure 4-2. As = 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.5) β f = 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.1 f cu bd (0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. 2 As = M + 0. where (BS 3. However.4).4) If Kw ≤ 0.4.4. Cf.45d − h f ) 0. In that case. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4.4.45d then.

5. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. Fig 2.5.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3. and ' f ' s = 0.5.2. 4 . 2.1.4.1.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength. Fig 2.12.87 f f (0.95d ⎜ 0.4.1.3.4.5 + 0.4) where.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.4.4.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.4.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3. 2.4.4).5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.5.12 Beam Design .4.777d ) 0.25 (BS 3.

26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3. if it is required.24 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.18 100 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.3).24 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.20 As' bh Web in tension T.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.12.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.32 0.36 0.25 (BS 3.5.6. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.48 0.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.40 100 0.12.1): Beam Design 4 .20 An upper limit of 0. which is taken from BS Table 3.13 .Chapter 4 .

2.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.63 fcu .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. v.5. with the corresponding load combination factors.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. vc. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. that can be resisted by the concrete.5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. 4. for a particular load combination.5.8 fcu .4) 4 .5.2) For light-weight concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.4.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. Determine the shear stress.14 Beam Design .4. 5 MPa) (BS 3. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.

is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.4. vc.4.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.4.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement. Table 3.4.4.3): Beam Design 4 .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.4.4) (BS 3.5.4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.5.5.5.Chapter 4 .4.5.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.15 . BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0. and vmax.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. Table 3.5. vc.5.4.4.5.12) 0.4. Table 3.5.Design for BS 8110-97 4.1) However.5.4. Table 3.4.2. 4.2.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.8) (BS 3.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.8) (BS 2.4.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.8.

Determine the torsion reinforcement required. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. a failure condition is declared.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.4.5. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3. obtained from each load combination.4.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.5.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.2) (BS 3.16 Beam Design . Table 3.4) Asv 0. Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion stress. vt. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.4.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0.3.5.5. Table 3.7) (BS 3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. In the preceding expressions.87 f yv If v > vmax. 4.5. 4 . a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.4bw = sv 0.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. (BS 3.4.

Chapter 4 .13). specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.5) Beam Design 4 . but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.3.5.17 . for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.5.1) For flanged sections. with the corresponding load combination factors.4.4. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.4.Design for BS 8110-97 4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. vt. The torsional shear stress.8 f cu . exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. In typical framed construction.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. vt.4.

4 . x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.7) In the preceding expressions. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . However.5.min.6). vt. vt.min. Asv. In that case.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .4.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.t sv = T 0.t /sv.4. vt is less than the threshold limit.4.3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.067 fcu .4.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. For lightweight concrete.18 Beam Design .87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.4.5) 4.8 x1 y1 (0. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.0.067 fcu . vt.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.min is defined as: vt .min = min 0.min.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. is calculated as: Asv .3.6). vt.0.min = min 0.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. If vt > vt.4N/mm 2 x 0.

vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Beam Design 4 . In that case. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. a failure message is declared.5) For light-weight concrete. vt exceeds this limit. the concrete section should be increased in size. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4. v and torsional shear stress.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.19 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.4) If the combination of shear stress.Chapter 4 . 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.8 fcu .63 fcu .

Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.20 Slab Design . for each load combination.6.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 4 .1. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. To learn more about the design strips.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 4. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. is obtained and reported. 4. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.

3) In addition. given the bending moment.6.12.3.7. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.12. 4.12. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.6.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.5. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. Where openings occur.Chapter 4 .7. In that case. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1).6. 4.2.5. 4.6.1.7.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0. This is the method used when drop panels are included. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).21 . Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.6).2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6. BS Table 3.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.Design for BS 8110-97 4. at a given design section in a design strip. In some cases.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.

.7. 3. Table 3.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.7.4.5. interior. edge.e. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.6): 1 1 0.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.4.5d 1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.5.5d 1.4.4.8) 4 . and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.6.5d 1.7.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.1).7.2.7.7. The column location (i. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.5d Interior Column 1. 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.22 Slab Design .

5.23 .Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .5.7.Chapter 4 .5. 4. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.5.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.7.7.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.2. 5MPa) (BS 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. where (BS 3.6. Table 3.6.4. 3.4) For light-weight concrete.2.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4) (BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.5.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.4) v ≤ min(0.4.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4.6.7.3) 1. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.4. v. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1. the nominal design shear stress.7.8 f cu .2) However.63 fcu .4.4.8) (BS 3.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4. Table 3.6.5M ⎛ y 1.

25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.6. 4 .7. 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.5).3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.24 Slab Design . the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.3.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.2.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3. 4.25 ⎪1.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.7.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

and earthquake (E) loads.9D + 1.2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.25D + 1.5S 1. Table C.25D + 1.5(0.9D + 1.25D + 1.2.9D + 1.5S 0.5L 0.5L 1. Table C.5S ± 0.3. pattern live load (PL).5L ± 0. For CSA A23.4W 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.5S ± 0.5L ± 0.5S 0. Table C.2. live load (L).9D + 1.25D + 1.5L 0.5S + 0.1) 1. snow (S).3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.3.4W 0.5S 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).25D + 1.25D + 1.4W (CSA 8.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.3.4W 0.75 PL) 1.8.2. Table C.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations . degrees Shear strength factor 5.5S + 0.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.9D + 1. wind (W).9D + 1.5L + 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.3.5L 1.4.25D + 1.5L + 0.3) (CSA 8.3-04.4D 1.

4W 1. φ.0E 1.5L + 0.1.1).4W 0.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.0D ± 1.2) (CSA 8.5.5L ± 1.0D + 0.4W 1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.1 Case 4) (CSA 8. for all framing types (CSA 8.0E 1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.25D + 0.0D + 0.Design for CSA A23.25S ± 1.9D + 0.6.25D + 0. caution is advised.2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4W 0.3.5L ± 1.0E 1. respectively.5S ± 1.1). 5. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. Table C.4W 0.0E (CSA 8.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.25S ± 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .5S ± 1.25D ± 1.4.3.6.3-04 1. however. (CSA 8.0D + 0. (CSA 8.9D ± 1.3-04 code is used. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.1) 5. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.Chapter 5 .4W 1.1. Table C.4.65 for concrete φs = 0.5L ± 1.9D + 0.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.

5. load combination factors. and torsion based on the beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. shear. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion only.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. with the corresponding load factors. shear forces. torsion. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5.5. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. for a particular station. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5.

Design for CSA A23.1. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10. shear. Furthermore.1.e. 5. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. where. 5.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the width.5. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1).. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1) Beam Design 5-7 . designing top or bottom reinforcement).5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4).2. or the strength of the concrete.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement.1. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. The design procedure used by SAFE. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.Chapter 5 . and torsion only. In such cases. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Mf (i.7).

β1.5.0025f'c ≥ 0.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10.2) in the preceding and the following equations.97 – 0. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.1. The parameters α1.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.5.4.85 – 0.7) (CSA 10.65 (CSA 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.67 cb = (CSA 10.0015f'c ≥ 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.67. β1 = 0.1.2).1.

Chapter 5 .1.Design for CSA A23.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .1.1.5.2.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 . or at the top if Mf is negative.2).0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10. 10. If a > ab (CSA 10. where f ′ = 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.

designing top reinforcement). The parameters α1.67 β1 = 0. and vice versa if Mf is negative.7) (CSA 10.2 5.97 – 0.e.0015 f' c ≥ 0.10..2.5.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.5. no flanged beam data is used.1. 5.85 – 0.7) 5 . and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0. 5.4. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.1.2.1.0025 f' c ≥ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore.e.1.4.65 (CSA 8. the value of φc is 0.5.10 Beam Design . the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. β1.1) where.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.1. Mf (i.2) in the preceding and the following equations.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0. i..1.1.7) (CSA 10. As = As1 + As2.67 cb = (CSA 10.5. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2. the total tension reinforcement.2.

calculation for As has two parts.3-04 If a ≤ hs. If a > hs.11 .Chapter 5 . Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 .1. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab. However. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. the balance of the moment. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.0035 bf hs (CSA 10. ab ) c ε = 0. Cf.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore.Design for CSA A23.

If a1 > ab (CSA 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ . and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.5.2).2).5.1. where 5 .12 Beam Design . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore.

2.13 . 5.1.1.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.3) In addition. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.5.5.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.5. 10.Design for CSA A23.1.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .Chapter 5 .1) An upper limit of 0.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.3.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. 5.4. By default it is taken as 0. Determine the shear force. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. Vc.04bw d ⎧0. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5. Vc.65 (CSA 8. Vf.2).4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.5.14 Beam Design .1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. for a particular loading combination. 5 . The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. that can be resisted by the concrete.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.3. with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. 5.2.

3): Beam Design 5 .00. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.9d or 0.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2. and described further in the following sections. It is determined according to CSA 11.2). the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa.72h. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.6.5).1 and 0.6. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. it is the width of the beam. β is taken as 0.3.2).85. ⎪0. as follows (CSA 11.21 (CSA 11.3. if applicable.3.4. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.5): ⎧1.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement. For normal density concrete. For concrete using lower density aggregate. its value is 1 (CSA 8.3. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method.6.Design for CSA A23.75. bw is the effective web width. (CSA 8.6. it is the width of the web of the beam. the general method is used (CSA 11. which is taken by the program as the default value. Its value is normally between 0. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. d v is the effective shear depth.6.Chapter 5 .2).2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.3. It is taken as the greater of 0.3. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.6. If the overall beam depth. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.6.6. h.3). and the tensile force is negligible. For rectangular beams. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.4). and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. For flanged beams.6.15 .

18 (CSA 11.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement. for simplified cases.3.16 Beam Design . and ag ≥ 20mm. ag. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm.6.3 c) where. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.6.6. β = 0. In summary. or 5 . For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . the crack spacing parameter.18. β is taken as 0.18 (CSA 11.3. sze.3. and ag < 20mm. ⎪ 0. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.3.6. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.3a). β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement. However.3.6. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa.c) In the preceding expression.

The longitudinal strain.3. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.3. (CSA 11.6.3. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.4(a)) (CSA 2.85Sz otherwise.3.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. 11.4).3.6.3-04 tension is not negligible.4) In the preceding expression. and linearly interpolated between these values. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.Chapter 5 . the equivalent crack spacing parameter.6.6.6. 11. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.6. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.4(a)) (CSA 11.3(b)).5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11. Beam Design 5 . if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.6.6.6.6. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11. Nf is taken as positive for tension. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.3.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.4): β= 0.1.3.3.Design for CSA A23. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.3.3.17 .3. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.

Vc. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. and Vr. the program performs the design in two passes.5.3. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support.5.6.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.18 Beam Design . taken as half of the total area. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE. εx = M f d v + V f + 0.max = 0. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0.4(d)).2.6.3.003 (CSA 11.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.max. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative. To check this condition. 5. it is recalculated with the following equation.3.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11.3. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.6.3.3. In the first pass.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.4(e)).6.1) 5 .

(CSA 11.6.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .3.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11. h. If the overall beam depth. 11.3.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.2) In the preceding equations. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.8.Design for CSA A23.max . Beam Design 5 .3.6.19 . which was described previously. or by calculation. a failure condition is declared.8. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr . the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.8.3. Similar to the β factor.3.3. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11. It is determined according to CSA 11.2).3.3).4).3).25Tcr.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0. the term θ is used.6.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.2. whenever applicable. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.6.2.Chapter 5 .1.3.2. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.3.5.6.

Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Tf. Determine critical torsion capacity. f y > 400 MPa. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3. f y ≤ 400 MPa. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa.3).3) If the axial force is tensile.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa.6.6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 .20 Beam Design . θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11. 5 . Determine special section properties.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. 5.4).3. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.3.5.3.6.

the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf.9. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. However. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. If redistribution is desired. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters.5.3-04 5. such as Aoh.3.5. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. and ph.3). However. with the corresponding load combination factors. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.2).Design for CSA A23. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. such as Ac. Ao.3. and ph are calculated. With this assumption.21 . the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. special section properties. Ao. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. 5.2. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.Chapter 5 . Aoh. pc. With this assumption.

3. 5. Similarly. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.1) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11.10. 5 .2. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.3) (CSA 11.10.10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11. h.3.2.9.2.3) (CSA 11. the section dimensions b.10.22 Beam Design . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11. Tcr.9.5.3.2. hf.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.3.2.1) (CSA 11.4).4) where the section dimensions bf.9.3) (CSA 11. bw.9. which is equal to 0.3. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.9.10.65. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete. h.3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.3. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.1) (CSA 11.3.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.10.4) where.

1).5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.3. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.3) Mf Al = dv + 0.2.Design for CSA A23. However.10.3-04 5. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.3.3).4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit.9. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 .23 . At /s.5 N f + (V f − 0.5. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. Tcr. In that case. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. Tcr.Chapter 5 . if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.

8.10. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.3. If the general method is being used.9) In the preceding expressions. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. bw is replaced with b. In that case.24 Beam Design . θ is computed as previously described for shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. the concrete section should be increased in size.3.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.10.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.3.10.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.6. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0.4) For rectangular sections. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr). A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0. 5 .3.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.2. 11. a failure message is declared.

These locations correspond to the element boundaries.6. is obtained and reported. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. 5. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.Design for CSA A23. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.25 .Chapter 5 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Slab Design 5 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.3-04 5. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. To learn more about the design strips. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.

is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 5 .6.6.1): As ≥ 0. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1. 5.8. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1. In that case. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. In some cases.6.1) In addition.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. given the bending moment. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.6. at a given design section in a design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.10.26 Slab Design .002 bh (CSA 7.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 5. for each load combination. 5. Where openings occur.

3.3.1 and CSA 13.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.Chapter 5 .3.3.6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13. edge.2.6.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu. where Slab Design 5 .. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5. interior. The column location (i.2.3-04 5.e. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.3.3). corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.27 .3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2).Design for CSA A23.

⎩ The value of (CSA 13.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.1) where.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.3.6. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums. and (CSA 13.4. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section. d. (CSA 13.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13. exceeds 300 mm.4.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.4.3. and ⎪for corner columns.10.3.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .4.3.3. 5.5.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.3). and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.2) If the effective depth. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13.28 Slab Design . 5 .2.

and vf.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3.6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.max = 0. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3) 5. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3. vc. Slab Design 5 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0. where.2) Given vf. φs. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.3-04 5..3.Chapter 5 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 5.max.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.Design for CSA A23.1).3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.2.75λφ c (CSA 13. is the strength reduction factor.8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.29 .2.6. 5.8.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.

30 Slab Design . and interior columns respectively.max. a failure condition is declared. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf.4d. edge. (CSA 13. edge.3. the concrete section should be increased in size.5) If vf > vf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. 6. i. for corner.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Therefore. 5 .6.3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.8.. 5. and 8. and corner column.8. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3.max. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.e.

6) Slab Design 5 .4 d ⎧ 0.6. s.4d.3-04 5. The limits of so and the spacing.56λφc f 'c v f > 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.6) (CSA 13.3.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.3. Height.Design for CSA A23. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.31 . The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. so.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.Chapter 5 .50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.8. the distance. When specifying shear studs.8.3.

.

Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. However. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. mm 2 Notations 6-1 .” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. For simplicity. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. 6. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.

mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.

N-mm Normalized design moment. mm Lever arm. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. mm Flange thickness.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N Depth of neutral axis.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. mm Design moment at a section. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. N-mm Torsional cracking moment.Chapter 6 . mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. N Shear force at ultimate design load.max u VRdc VRd. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone.

i Qk .12b.10a) ∑ξ γ j G.i Qk . Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq.1 + ∑ γ Q .12b) For this code. j Gk .10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. 6. pattern live load (PL). 6.1 + ∑ γ Q .i Qk . MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. live load (L). j + γ P P + γ Q . j + γ P P + γ Q .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. snow (S).1Qk . 6.1Qk .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.iψ 0. 6. wind (W).iψ 0.iψ 0. j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.10b. j Gk .10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .i Qk . 6.1Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q . if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).10a and 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. ∑γ j ≥1 G. j Gk .1ψ 0. and earthquake (E) loads.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. j + γ P P + γ Q . ∑G j ≥1 k.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. 6.

1 ψ0.sup D + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs. 6.1 PL γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0.supD + (0. 6.sup D ± γQ.75)γQ.i W γGj. 6.sup D ± γQ.1 ψ0.1 ψ0. 6.supD + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.i S ± γQ.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.1 L γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.75)γQ. 6. 6.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6. 6. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.inf D ± γQ.i L γGj.3): γGj.1 W + γQ.1 S ± γQ.i W + γQ. 6.10a and 6.sup D + γQ.1 S + γQ.1 W γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.1 L ± γQ.sup D γGj.supD + (0.sup D ± γQ.0E D ± 1.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D γGj.i L D ± 1.sup D ξ γGj.0E + ψ2.10) (EC0 Eq.75)γQ.i L + ψ2.i S γGj.1 PL ξ γGj.10b.10) (EC0 Eq. 6.i L D ± 1.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6.1 S ± γQ.i S γGj. γGj.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .1 L + γQ.supD + (0.i S (EC0 Eq.1 L γGj.1 PL γGj. 6. 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1 L + γQ.1 W + γQ.i W γGj.i S γGj.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.supD + γQ.sup D + γQ. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program. 6.Chapter 6 .1 W γGj.i ψ0.supD + γQ.i L + γQ.sup D ± γQ.i W γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 L ξ γGj.i L γGj. 6. 6.1 W + γQ.4.1 W (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.0E + ψ2.

1 L + γQ. γGj. 6.1 ψ0.inf D ± γQ. 6.i ψ0.1) (EC0 Table A1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.0E + ψ2.1 W + γQ.1 ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i L γGj.i S ξ γGj.35 γGj. 6.1 S + γQ.i ψ0. 6.sup = 1.1 L ± γQ. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.i W ξ γGj.6 (wind load) = 0.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.i W ξ γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 L + γQ.1 L ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.5 = 1.10b) (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ. assumed not to be storage) = 0.0E + ψ2.1 ψ0.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .0E D ± 1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.inf = 1.10b) (EC0 Eq.5 = 0.1 W γGj.sup D ± γQ.sup D + γQ.1 S ± γQ.i W ξ γGj.sup D ± γQ.i S D ± 1. 6.sup D + γQ.1 S + γQ.1 W + γQ.sup D + γQ.i ξ = 1.7 (live load.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.i S (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.1 ψ0.i ψ0.inf D ± γQ.1 ψ0.00 γQ.i ψ0.i L γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 S ± γQ.i ψ0.inf D ± γQ.1 W ξ γGj.i ψ0.85 (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.i ψ0. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.i ψ0.i L D ± 1.i L γGj.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.i L γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.1 γQ.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.1 W γGj.sup D ± γQ.1 W + γQ.5 (snow load.i ψ0.i ψ0.i W γGj.i L + ψ2.

other appropriate load combinations should be used. respectively (EC2 3.i = 0. αcc is taken as 1.7(2)) (EC2 3. 6. fyk.1.2.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.1. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.2(2)). SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. 6. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.6(1)).3 (live.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2.6(1)) (EC2 3.1) (EC0 Table A1. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.i ψ2. fck. should be 400 and 600 MPa. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used.2(3)).1. γs and γc as shown here.2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors.Chapter 6 . If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3.

caution is advised.5. for a particular station.4). Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. For accidental and earthquake situations. γc = 1.4. shear. The user should consider those separately. however. γs = 1.4. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.4(1).5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear forces. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . and torsion based on the beam moments. torsion.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. shear. 6. Table 2. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. These values can be overwritten. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. and torsion only. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.2.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. load combination factors.2.

0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. Fig 3.7(3).Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 .5.5) (EC2 3.1.7(3)).1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.7(3). Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3.1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the width.1. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. or the strength of the concrete. In such cases.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. with the corresponding load factors. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1. In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. 6.Chapter 6 . Fig 3.1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5.1.

5(4)) (EC 5.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.44 k2 = k4 = 1. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. δ.1. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.5(4)) (EC2 5.25(0.5(4)).54 (EC 5.10 Beam Design .7(3)) λ = 0.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.7(3)) (EC2 3. is summarized in the subsections that follow. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.and T-beams).6 + 0. ( x d )lim .5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.1. the following values are used: k1 = 0.1. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.5(4)) (EC 5.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.7(3)) (EC2 3.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. 6 .

is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . m. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. or equal to mlim.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. are obtained first.2. the normalized moment.5.11 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. less than.Chapter 6 .1. m. mlim. The normalized design moment. mlim.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam.

a singly reinforced beam is designed. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement.12 Beam Design . both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. or at the top if MEd is negative. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. The area of compression and tension reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. A's and As. As. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. If m > mlim. and is given by: 6 . ωlim. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive.

2. Fig 3.1. Based on this assumption. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.1.8) 6. 6. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2.1. additional calculation is required.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω. no flanged beam data is used. The normalized design moment.2. i. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 ..13 .5. m. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.5. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange..5. designing top reinforcement). 3.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. See Figure 6-2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.e.e.1. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.1.2.2.1.7(4).5(4).2. Initially.Chapter 6 . If the stress block extends beyond the flange. MEd (i.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. 3.

considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. M1 = M − M2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. However. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.14 Beam Design . in that case. As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. the calculation for As has two parts. If a > hf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. is determined as follows: 6 . Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. the width of the beam is taken as bf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. as shown in Figure 6-2.

3. Fig 3. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim.8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim. f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.15 .2.7(4). As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.1. Beam Design 6 .Chapter 6 . ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.

12. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9. Table 3. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.2): Determine the factored shear force.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.1.1. Determine the shear reinforcement required.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.c.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.1) f ctm = 2. 6 . VRd.12.0013bd (EC2 9. Table 3.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.min = 0.16 Beam Design .1.1) (EC2 3.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.min = 0.1(1)) As . VEd.2.2. Table 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .2. Determine the shear force. that can be resisted by the concrete. for a particular load combination.1(3)). 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.12.1. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.5.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.

2.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.2(1)) (EC2 6. vmin. is calculated as: 13 VRd .c.2.c = 0.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .18 γ c ν min = 0.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.2.2.15 Beam Design 6 .2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2.c = ⎡C Rd .1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.5.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. 6.17 .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.c.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.Chapter 6 .02 bw d (EC2 6.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2. with the corresponding load combination factors. VRd.2.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6. 6. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2.

min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.2.max.2.3(3)) (EC2 6.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc.3(1)) (EC2 6.2(6)) (EC2 6.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .max.2.2. VRdc.min s = 0.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2.6⎜1 − z = 0. VRd. Asw Asw.5.2.2.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9. a failure condition is declared.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.2.18 Beam Design . obtained from each load combination.3(3)) (EC2 6.3(3)) (EC2 6. 6 .3(3)) Asw.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.

2).5. However. If redistribution is desired. special section properties.3.19 .1(2)). These properties are described in the following (EC2 6.3. Determine critical torsion capacity. such as Ak. Determine special section properties. tef.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.5. 6. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.Chapter 6 .3. Beam Design 6 .1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. uk. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. u. 6. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. and zi are calculated. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. TEd.

With this assumption.3. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. h.2(1)) (EC2 6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties. such as Ak.2(3)) where. and uk. However.2(1)) (EC2 6.3. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.3. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. the section dimensions b.3.2(1)) (EC2 6.3.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.2(1)) (EC2 6. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness.20 Beam Design .3.2(3)) 6 . it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm.3. Similarly. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.

longitudinal bars. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required.3.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9.2(1)) 6. In that case. and compression diagonals.3. calculated as: TRd .c (EC2 6.0 TRd .c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.05 / γ c (EC2 6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. is first calculated.2. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.3. if the equation is not satisfied. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.c VRd .c is the torsional cracking moment.3. followed by the required stirrup area.1. hf. However.3.3. h.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.5.5.2. 6.21 .4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.2(5)) where VRd.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. bw. Vt. the shear due to this torsion.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.Chapter 6 .

while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.2.max + VEd ≤ 1. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .2(4)) where TRd.2(4)) 6 .max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6. as previously defined for beam shear.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.3. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .0 VRd .3. The code allows any value between 21.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.3(2)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.max (EC2 6.3.22 Beam Design .max. θ is taken as 45 degrees. In the preceding expressions.

6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 6.6. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. the concrete section should be increased in size. 6. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Slab Design 6 .Chapter 6 . a failure message is declared.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.23 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. In that case. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.

6.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.6.3.24 Slab Design . In some cases.1. These two steps. given the bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. at a given design section in a design strip.0013bd (EC2 9. Where openings occur. for each load combination.min = 0. is obtained and reported. described in the subsections that follow.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. are repeated for every load combination. 6.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 .1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.2. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.2.1. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).min = 0. In that case. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 6.1.1. 6.1): As .1(1)) As .

2.4.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.e.1(3)). Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1) fctm = 2.4. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. 6.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.2(1)). edge. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2.Chapter 6 .0d from the face of the support (EC2 6. interior.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0.25 .1) (EC2 Table 3. Slab Design 6 . 6.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.6. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized. The column location (i.1) (EC2 Table 3..

0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c = ⎡C Rd .26 Slab Design .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4(1)) 6 .4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.4.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .6.2.

0 d (EC2 6.c = 0. the nominal design shear stress.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.2.4(1)) ν min = 0.Chapter 6 .4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2. C Rd .15 6.4(1)) (EC2 6.4. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .4.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.27 .4(1)) (EC2 6.02 (EC2 6.4.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.4. conservatively taken as zeros. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.4. conservatively taken as zeros. vEd.4.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.18 γ c (EC2 6.4.6.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .

the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6. a failure condition is declared. and vRd.c.6.4.28 Slab Design . Given vEd.75v Rd . 6.3.6.max. 6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.max.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. the concrete section should be increased in size.ef If vEd > vRd.c ) = u1 sr 1. vRd.3.5).4.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.5 f ywd . 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams. 6 .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd. Asw (v Ed − 0. (EC2 6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6.

Chapter 6 . Height. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.e. Therefore. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.29 .6.3(1)). and 8. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . 6. i. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column..4. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 6. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6. edge. for corner. and interior columns respectively. and corner column. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. edge.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.3.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.

g.3(1)) (EC2 9.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0.4.4. so.4.4. The limits of so and the spacing. the distance.75d g ≤ 1.3(1)) 6 . 12-.30 Slab Design .5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. When specifying shear studs. 14-. and 20-millimeter diameter. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.3(1)) (EC2 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.3(1)) (EC2 9.4. s. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. 16-.3d. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

In such cases.5. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.e.4(a)).4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.5.0035 − 0. where εc. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.2.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the width.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. with the corresponding load factors.1. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. ⎧0..5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.1.max is defined as: ε c . In such cases.9) (CP 6.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .2. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1. βb ≥ 0. 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.1. or the strength of the concrete.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4(b)).

1.1.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. where 2 (CP 6.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.1. shear.5. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. In addition.Chapter 7 .156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. Msingle = K'fcu bd .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.2.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.2. where 0.2.1. and torsion only.4(a)).1. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. or equal to Msingle.1fcuAg) (CP 6. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.4(c)) ⎧0.2. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. is obtained first for a section. Fig 6. is obtained from: As = M . hence.2. less than. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. As.4(b)). The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.87 f y z (CP 6. Msingle. 7.4(a).

If M > Msingle.5 + 0. or at the top if M is negative.1.2.1.1.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.25 − ⎜ 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .4(c)) (CP 6.2.2.95d z = d ⎜ 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.

4(c).95d 0.45 .87 f y .5 + 0.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. Fig 6.5. i.e.Chapter 7 .4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.87 f y z + 0. M (i.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. 7.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. Beam Design 7-9 .4(c)) 7. no flanged beam data is used. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.4(a).1.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. 3. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1.. Fig.1.2.2.1. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.6.5. designing top reinforcement). Based on this assumption. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.2.2.36 ..2. 3.2.e.1.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.2.

2.2.1. for ⎪ 0. the width of the beam is taken as bf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1.2.95d. 0. Fig 6.5 + 0.4(c)) (CP 6. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. the normalized moment is given by: K= M .1) If a ≤ hf.10 Beam Design .1.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.36 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4(c). for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . However. See Figure 7-2.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.1. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .45 .8x for ⎪ ⎪0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. Fig 6. If a > hf .2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. in that case.4(a).

45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0. x ≤ 0.4.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.5h f ) .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .4d then.4.4.67 fcu/gm 0. In that case.87 f y (d − 0. ⎪0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cf.5h f ) bf hf ec 0.5) β f = 0.1 f cu bd (0. where (BS 3.4.Chapter 7 . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. x ≤ 0.9 x − h f ) 0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . as shown in Figure 7-2. x ≤ 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 .36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .11 .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. Cw.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.

045 for ⎩ ⎧0.1.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.4(d)) ⎧0. 7 .32 ⎪ ⎪0.2.12 Beam Design .87 f y ( d − 0.2.1. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.4(c)).2. where (CP 6. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.5h f ) ) .24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.1.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.072 for ⎪ ⎪0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.

25 − ⎟ ≤ 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. Fig 3.87 f y (d − 0. where 0.6.2.1.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw . The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.95d ⎜ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.2.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.13 .95d ⎜ 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.4(c).Chapter 7 .5 + 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where.5 + 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. 3.

20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.48 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.2.24 0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.36 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.1).4 bf bw ≥ 0.1 (CP 9.32 0.2.20 0.5.40 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.1. if it is required.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.2.1.2.1. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.1(CP 9.14 Beam Design .4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.3): 7 .18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.1.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.13 100 0.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.3) 7.04bw d ⎧0. v. vc. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress. 7 MPa) (CP 6.15 . vc.2. 7.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.1.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.1.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2.5(a)) 7.1.2.1. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0. Determine the shear stress.2.8 fcu . at a particular station due to the beam major shear. with the corresponding load combination factors.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.Chapter 7 . that can be resisted by the concrete. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .5. for a particular load combination.5): Determine the shear stress.5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2. the following steps are involved (CP 6.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.

2. Table 6. Table 6.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v. CP 6.1.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.2.2. as: 7 . Table 6. Table 6.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.2.67 1.2. the following limitations also apply: 0. and vmax.5(g)) (CP 6.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.3) (CP 6.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5(c).5(c). and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.2.2.25 However.1.5(k)) 0. vc.1.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. vr.1.3) ≥ 0. Table 6.16 Beam Design .1.1.5(k)) 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.2.5(c).5.5(c).1.2.2.1.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6.5(c).

2.1. vt.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.87 f yv If v > vmax. Table 6.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = .2.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.5(b). sv 0. Determine special section properties. (CP 6. obtained from each load combination.5(b)) (CP 6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0. 7. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.1.2.5.1. (CP 6. Beam Design 7 .1.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0. a failure condition is declared. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.17 .2. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.Chapter 7 .5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.

If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.17 7 .3(a)) For flanged sections.8 f cu .1). vt. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6.3. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. 7. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. In typical framed construction.18 Beam Design .3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress.3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.3. with the corresponding load combination factors. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6. Table 6.3. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. The torsional shear stress.5.4. vt. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.

3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.5).min = min 0.min. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6. 7. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.3.3. Asv.5.3. In that case. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. However. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .3.5).19 . Table 6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.t /sv.min.min. vt. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .min. vt is less than the threshold limit. vt. vt.Chapter 7 .0. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.067 fcu .4. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.5.

x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.3.20 Slab Design .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.87 f yv ) (CP 6. 7 . the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 7.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. a failure message is declared. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.3. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. the concrete section should be increased in size. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. In that case.t sv = T 0.8 x1 y1 (0.8 fcu . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6) In the preceding expressions.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv .

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . In some cases. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. given the bending moment. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 7. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. at a given design section in a design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. In that case. for each load combination.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. is obtained and reported.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 7 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.21 .6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1. 7.

corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Where openings occur.6.5d from the face of the support (CP 6. The column location (i.e.22 Slab Design . 7 . 7.5.3).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.1.3.3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.7). For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2.5. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. interior.6. 7.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.2. 7.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. edge. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.6.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.7(d))..1.1.1(a)) In addition.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.1.

1.1.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.Chapter 7 .1.2.5.5d 1.5d 1.7(d).5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.2. Table 6.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. 6.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 . and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.7(d).23 .5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7. Table 6.1.7(d)) (CP 6.3): 0.5d Interior Column 1.5. Table 6.5(g).6.5d 1.5(c).1.2.

1. v ≤ min(0.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.2.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.2. 7 MPa) (CP 6. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.25 However.4.5.5 x ⎬ . Table 6.5.1. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.8 f cu . the nominal design shear stress. Table 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.6.2.1.6(b).3) ≥ 0.1.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.5 + 1.5(c).3. bd 1 4 (CP 6.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. v.2) 0. where (CP 6.1.5(c). Table 2. 7 .24 Slab Design .7(b)) (CP Table 6.2.5.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.00 As = area of tension reinforcement.67 1. 6. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .5.

6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7(e)) Slab Design 7 . 7.5. 7. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.7(e)).1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.6(b). The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.6.1.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.25 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.3.1.1.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.5.3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. 7.5. 6.25 ⎪1.1.Chapter 7 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.

Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior..1.1. edge. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.7(e)).87 f yv 0. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.87 f yv If 1.0vc (CP 6. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and vmax.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. a failure condition is declared.3.7(f)).5. and corner column.5. i. 7 . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 0.6vc ≤ v < 2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. for corner. If v ≤ 1. edge. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6.5.4ud = ≥ .3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.6vc 0.1. and 8.7(e)) (CP 6.5. 6.e.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .87 f yv s If v > vmax.7v − vc ) ud 0. (CP 6.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0.26 Slab Design . and interior columns respectively. the concrete section should be increased in size.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v. Therefore. vc.1. 7.1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.5.87 f yv 0. ≥ s 0.

and 20-millimeter diameter. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7.27 .7(f)) Slab Design 7 . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d s ≤ 0.5. 12-. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.7(f)) (CP 6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. the distance.5.2.Chapter 7 .1. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. The limits of so and the spacing.1.3. Height. g. so. When specifying shear studs.5d.5.1.75d g ≤ 1.5d (CP 6.6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. 14-. 16-. s.5d.7(f)) (CP 6.

.

Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. mm Notations 8-1 . a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. 8. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. assumed as 200. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement.

0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. mm Factored torsional moment at a section.max Notations 8. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. N-mm Normalized design moment. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis. N Depth of neutral axis. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section.Chapter 8 . N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects.3 . mm Lever arm.

1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .5L 1.5D + 1.5E 1.5L ± 1. wind (W).5D + 1.5D + 1. MPa 8. and earthquake (E) loads. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4.5W 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.75 PL) 1. snow (S).2D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.2.4.5S 1.5.5D + 1.5D + 1.0W 1.4.3) (IS 36.2D + 1.2W 1.2L ± 1.5D 1. live load (L).5D ± 1. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.4.9D ± 1.5E 0. pattern live load (PL).5W 1.4. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.2E 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.1) (IS 31.9D ± 1.1) (IS 36.1) (IS 36.5(0. Table 18): 1.2L ± 1.5D ± 1.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.0E (IS 36.5L ± 1. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. For IS 456-2000.

2S ± 1. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.4.2W 1.2E (IS 36.5L + 1.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium.2D + 1.2L + 1.2W 1. γc = 1.2S ± 1.2.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear.5S 1.2.2S ± 1.5 (IS 36.Design for IS 456-2000 1.2S ± 1. beams must be designed for torsion. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. 8.5D + 1.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. 8.2D + 1.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. other appropriate load combinations should be used. caution is advised.Chapter 8 . and torsion only. however.2D + 1.2D + 1. shear forces. These values can be overwritten. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement.1) (IS 36. γs = 1.2L + 1. 8.4. However. torsion. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. load combination factors.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. 14.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used. and torsion based on the beam moments.4.2E 1.5 .4. γm.

the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. In such cases. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. In such cases.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. 8-6 Beam Design . If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. Rather. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. If redistribution is desired. 8. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity.4. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.1.4. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. However. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear.

In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2) (IS 41. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41.4. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.4.1) 8.4. If Mt exceeds Mu.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2.4.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam.7 . the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.Chapter 8 .4. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu.1. with the corresponding load factors.1. where (IS 41.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Beam Design 8. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. Effectively. In such cases. respectively. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.Design for IS 456-2000 8. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.

the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1) 8. a. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. When a torsional moment is to be included.1. or the strength of the concrete.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.1) (IS 38.3. with the corresponding load combination factors.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The area of the stress block. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.1) 8-8 Beam Design .1). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38.2.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. the width. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber.4. c. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. 8. (IS 41.

Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0. Furthermore.53 0. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.1) (IS 38. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.9 .46 Beam Design 8.48 0.1). to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.42 (IS 38.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.0035 b f′ s 0.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.Chapter 8 .42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.max /d 0.36 β = 0.1). and α and β are taken as: α = 0.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.

1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. less than.48 − 0. m. Msingle = α xu. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.max d ⎧0. Msingle. the limiting depth of the neutral axis.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38.4. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected.53 − 0. or equal to Msingle.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.53 ⎪ ⎪0. are obtained first. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. xu.0035 (IS 38. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. is given by 8 .max.10 Beam Design .max d xu. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis. xu . 8.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0. and torsion only.max = 0.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.

max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. and vice versa if Mu is negative. is obtained from As = Mu .2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c . − If Mu > Msingle.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0. As.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu . where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . the area of compression reinforcement.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.11 .max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1. Beam Design 8.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. or at the top if Mu is negative. A's.Chapter 8 . where (IS G-1.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') . d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.

If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.12 Beam Design . the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.e. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.. i.4. no flanged beam data is used.2.3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.3.2. Mu (i. See Figure 8-2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.4. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. On the basis of this assumption.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. 8.4.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. designing top reinforcement).e. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange..

2 d ⎩ (IS G-2.Chapter 8 .1). The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.13 . Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. Cf.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. as shown in Figure 8-2. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.15 xu + 0.65D f if D f > 0. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. m.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2. Cw. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. However.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0.

5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .48 − 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.single ⎛ 0. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. the area of compression reinforcement.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0. A's.single.single. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w. and 8 . where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.max ⎡ x u. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.53 ⎪ ⎪0.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.46 (IS 38.53 − 0.1) xu .max d ⎧0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.single = αfckbwd 2 x u.14 Beam Design .max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.

1) An upper limit of 0.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.5.85 bd fy (IS 26.5.5.1) (IS 26.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.04bw d ⎧0. for a particular load combination.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.1.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.2) 8.1.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.Chapter 8 .5. at a particular station.5.1.1): As ≥ 0.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1.1.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.2.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c. the following steps are involved (IS 40.5.4. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.4.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.15 .

τc.2) 8 .4. d.8 M25 3. where bd (IS 40. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.max (IS 40.0 τc. τv ≤ τc. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete.max. as: τcd = kδτc.3.7 M40 4.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d . For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8. τc.1.16 Beam Design . is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.5 M20 2.max (MPa) (IS 40.5 M35 3.3. τc.3.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress.1 M30 3. (IS 40.2. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.2.

0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.2. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36. 0.1. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0. and if Pu > 0 . which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.87 f y If τcd + 0.87 f y (IS 40.4.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.1) (IS 40.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.Chapter 8 .2.17 .2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.1. Table 19) (IS 40.2.4 < τv ≤ τc.4 Asv 0.2. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .5.2.3.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.1).max (IS 40.1.2.4 b ≥ sv 0.1. taken as 1.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. Under Tension (IS 40. 26.4(a)) Beam Design 8. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.

4.4.3. 8 .max is determined as defined in the last section.1) (IS 40. (IS 40.3.6) If τve ≥τcd.3) τve ≤ τc.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.2. τc.max.3) (IS 41. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.4) 8.4 b ≥ sv 0. obtained from each load combination.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.5d1 (0. 26.2.87 f y (IS 41.87 f y ) 2. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5.max The maximum nominal shear stress.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.18 Beam Design . a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.4. a failure condition is declared.87 f y (IS 41.

irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. are repeated for every load combination.5. To learn more about the design strips. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. These two steps. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.19 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. described in the subsections that follow. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 8.5. 8.1. for each load combination.Design for IS 456-2000 8. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Slab Design 8.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. is obtained and reported. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.Chapter 8 .

2. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.5.2): ⎧0.5.6.1).3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 8. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Where openings occur.1.5. 8. In some cases. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.20 Slab Design .5. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.1.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26.5.1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. The column location (i.2.5..6.1). In that case. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). at a given design section in a design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31. 8.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26. interior.5.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. given the bending moment. edge. 8 .e.1) In addition.

3.2).3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.2.Chapter 8 . where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.2. 8.21 .2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2.5.5.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.6.

2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.5 + βc ≤ 1.1) (IS 31.5.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.3.6.2) 8.2) 8 .6. but limited to: vc ≤ 1. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5τ c (IS 31.5.5. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6.3.3.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. 8. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.22 Slab Design . 8.2.0 (IS 31. 8.5 τ c bod (IS 31.3.6.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3.1) τc = 0.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.1) (IS 31.

Vc.2).6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.23 .4.3.3.2.3) (IS 31. the concrete section should be increased in size.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu.3.5Vc ) 0.3. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31. 8. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.e.6. Slab Design 8. 41.Chapter 8 . and Vmax. i..2) If Vu > Vmax.87 f y (IS 31. edge. and corner column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.5.6. a failure condition is declared. Av = (Vu − 0.

and 8.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 6. g. edge.3. so.5. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.5d. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.24 Slab Design . the distance. s.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. The limits of so and the spacing. When specifying shear studs. and interior columns respectively.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. 5d s ≤ 0.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. 8. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. Height. for corner. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. Therefore. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.

The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. sq-mm Notations 9-1 .1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. 9. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected.

mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Width of member. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). assumed as 200.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement.

MPa Shear stress due to torsion. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. mm Factored design torsion at a section. mm Thickness of slab or flange. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Perimeter of area Ao.Chapter 9 . MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. MPa Overall depth of sections. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Average design shear stress at a section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. N Factored shear force at a section.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete.

0.2. 4.2.5(0.2D + 1.2D + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc.2.0D ± 1.0.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L ± 1.0E (AS/NZS 1170.0W 1. and earthquake (E) loads.0. 4.2): 1.2. (0.35D 1. 4.0.0S 1.2.2D ± 1. live load (L). 4.9D ± 1.75 PL) 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. snow (S).2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.5L 1.2D + 1. For NZS 3101-06.0.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0W 1. 4. 4. pattern live load (PL).2D + 0.2. 4. 4.2. 4.4L + 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 0. wind (W).max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.2.0.0.0.4L ± 1. 4.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0E 1.0.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .2.0D + 0.

If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5.2.3).3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. fyt.85 for flexure φs = 0.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.3. 9.3.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.3). 9. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used. The φ factors for flexure.2) (NZS 2. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. fy.2. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.Chapter 9 .2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. (NZS 2.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0.2. caution is advised. other appropriate load combinations should be used.3.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3. shear.1). however.2. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.

In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion only.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear. for a particular station. torsion.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. In such cases.5. and torsion based on the beam moments.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the 9-6 Beam Design .5. shear forces.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. with the corresponding load factors. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. shear. load combination factors.

and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.5.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.2.7): α1 = 0.3. M (i.4.4. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments..Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. shear.4. where.2.85 (NZS 2.8.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.3.1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.Chapter 9 . The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. The design procedure used by SAFE. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.e. the width. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2) in the preceding and following equations.1.1). the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1). or the strength of the concrete. The beams are designed for major direction flexure.2) where the default value of φb is 0.7). 9. Furthermore. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. 9. and torsion only. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. designing top or bottom reinforcement).2.

c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.85 − 0.1).4.4.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .2.8.008( f ′ − 30).85 for f ′ ≤ 30.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.2.85 β1 = 0.3.8.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.8) β1 = 0.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.7.7) (NZS 7.4.75β1cb (NZS 7. is given by: amax = 0.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0. amax.7) (NZS 7. c (NZS 7.85 − 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.2. 9.4.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. 0.3.

1).7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s .4.2.4. If a > amax (NZS 9.Chapter 9 . compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .4.2.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7. or at the top * if M is negative.2.3.8.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.2.2. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c. 7.

no flanged beam data is used.4.2. calculation for As has two parts.10 Beam Design .2. Cf.5. is given by: amax = 0.1.2.e.e.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore.1) If a ≤ hf.5. If a > hf. 9 . and vice versa if M is negative.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5. as shown in Figure 9-2. the total tension reinforcement.7. As = As1 + As2. amax. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.1. 9.8. designing top reinforcement). the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. i. M (i. * 9.3. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive. Cw.1..2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. 9.75β1cb (NZS 7. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. However. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9.4.

Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0. the balance of the moment.2.2 ) Beam Design 9 . M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore.Chapter 9 . for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7. As1 = given by: (NZS 7.4.11 .4.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore.

2.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .2.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.4. If a1 > amax (NZS 9.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.12 Beam Design .3.1). compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.2. 7. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .1). and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.4.3.8. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .2.8.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.7).1) where the section dimensions bf. h.18 Beam Design .75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3. h. hf. Similarly. the section dimensions b.1. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 . Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0. bw.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) (NZS 7.6. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.1) where.1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0.

6.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 9. In that case. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7. Tcr.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. However. is less than the threshold limit. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.1. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.6.6) Beam Design 9 . is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.4. Tcr.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.1). T .3.1.6.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.6. At /s.6.5.19 . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0.1.3) 9.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion.6.3.6.4.5.1). and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. defined as: T* ≤ 0. and meets the torsion stress limit.4. if T exceeds the threshold limit.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.

In that case.8. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.2) * * For rectangular sections.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 7.2.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7. To learn more about the design strips. the concrete section should be increased in size. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 9. 9 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7. bw is replaced with b.6.2 f 'c .6.3).5.1.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7. provided it is fully developed. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. a failure message is declared.6. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.20 Slab Design . At Al 1.

Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 9. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. at a given design section in a design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is obtained and reported.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. described in the subsections that follow. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. 9. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . are repeated for every load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. In that case. In some cases. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. These two steps.Chapter 9 . for each load combination.21 . is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6.6. given the bending moment.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.

7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0. 9.5.8.2.2.2.e.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.8.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.6.4.4 ): ⎧ 0 . Where openings occur. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 8.5. 9. edge.7. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6..0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12.1(b)). 8.1) In addition. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 9.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.7. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.1(b)).1. 9 . interior. 2. The column location (i. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.6.22 Slab Design . The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control.

6. 9.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .2.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.7.7.7.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.6.2.Chapter 9 .7.23 .

3. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.6.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. 9 . the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.4.1). provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.3. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section. 12.6.7.7.2) where. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.1) 70 9.1.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.24 Slab Design . 9.7. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.7.2.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.2(a)).

7. a failure condition is declared.6.3. and vmax. 9.7.Chapter 9 .4) If vn > φvmax.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.3.5) 9.3.4.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12. is the strength reduction factor.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. where.25 .4) Given vn.4.3.7. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. vc. Slab Design 9 . the concrete section should be increased in size.3) (NZS 12. φ. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.7. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.3.

edge.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 9 .4).7. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. Therefore.26 Slab Design . and 8.6. edge. 6. for corner.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. i. and corner column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.. and interior columns respectively. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.e.3. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.

Chapter 9 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4.7.4. g.27 . When specifying shear studs.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.7. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d s ≤ 0.7.5d. so.4. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4) Slab Design 9 . Height. s. The limits of so and the spacing.4) (NZS 12.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.4) (NZS 12. the distance.6.3.

.

Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.1 . is selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. For simplicity. Notations 10 . The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.

MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Flange thickness. mm 10 . mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.2 Notations . MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Torsional constant. assumed as 200. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.

mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. MPa Torsional shear stress. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Neutral axis depth.3 . MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Lever arm.Chapter 10 . mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.

4D + 1.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used.6(0. other appropriate load combinations should be used.3). It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.3).4. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. fcu.6L 1. live load (L).4. 10. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D).4.4. and wind (W) loads.4W 1. 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.4D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. and considering that wind forces are reversible.4 Design Load Combinations .4.2W (CP 2. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2D + 1. pattern live load (PL).4W 1.0D ± 1. 10 .1. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3. γf (CP 2.1.3) (CP 2.4D ± 1.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.75PL) 1. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.2L ± 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. Note that the automatic combination.4D 1.2).7. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. including pattern live load.3) (CP 2.

shear.2 (CP 2. and other criteria described below. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.5 .50 1.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. which are taken from CP Table 2. γm. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . load combination factors. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion only. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. 10.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.Chapter 10 . shear forces. shear. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. but can be overwritten.15 1.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. and torsion based on the beam moments.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. torsion.4.4.

4). with the corresponding load factors. for a particular station. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. BC 2. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4.5.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.6 Beam Design .2) 10 .1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4.3.1. the width.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1.5. 10. or the strength of the concrete. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. In such cases. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5.

the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.e. BC 2. BC 2.4) Beam Design 10 .1fcuAg) (CP 3. In addition.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. is summarized in the subsections that follow.4.4.4..2.Chapter 10 .1. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. or equal to Msingle. less than.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4. βb ≥ 0.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. shear. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. where 2 (CP 3. is first calculated for a section. ⎧0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.4. and torsion only.and T-beams).33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4.1).4.4).4.4.4.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than. See Figure 10-1.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.5. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.4.7 .9) (CP 3.4. hence. Msingle.4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. 10.4). Msingle = K'fcu bd .9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.

95d z = d ⎜ 0.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0. the area of tension reinforcement.87 f y z (CP 3.4.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.4. where 0. If M ≤ Msingle. is then given by: As = M .4. As.4) 10 .4.4.4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.25 − ⎜ 0.4) (CP 3.8 Beam Design .4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.5 + 0.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.

where (CP 3.e.4. Fig 2.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.5.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.95d z = d ⎜ 0. 2.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3. Beam Design 10 .2.5.4.1.Chapter 10 .2.3.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.5 + 0..1. or at the top if M is negative.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .4) In designing for a factored negative moment. no flanged beam data is used. i.3.4.5.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.87 f y z + 0..4.4. designing top reinforcement). If M > Msingle.4.4.2.5.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.4. 2.4.e. Fig 2.25 − ⎜ 0. and f ′ =0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.9 .1. M (i.

2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.67 fcu γ m 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.1. On the basis of this assumption. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. εc 0. See Figure 10-2. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.4.10 Beam Design . If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.2. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4.2.5.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .

Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0. BC 2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5h f ) .4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.45d − h f ) 0.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. as shown in Figure 10-2.4. for ⎪ ⎪d − z . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 . Fig 2. Cf. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3.5) β f = 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.4. where (BS 3. Cw. 2 As = M + 0. BC 2. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.9 ⎭ (CP 3.1 f cu bd (0.Chapter 10 . Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. In that case.3) If a ≤ hf.45 .4.4.11 .95d 0.36 .4.45d then.4. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.5 + 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. If a > hf .4.2.4.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. However.87 f y (d − 0.2.4.4. Fig 2.4.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.

30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) ) .32 ⎪ ⎪0.87 f y ( d − 0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.4.4.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0. BC 2.2) ⎧0.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.4. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.12 Beam Design .2) 10 .6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.4.5.4. where (CP 3.

5 + 0.3.4.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.4.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .4.4.4.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.95d ⎜ 0.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.5.4. where 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. Fig 2. As = 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. Fig 2.Chapter 10 .4.4. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5. 2.2) If Kw ≤ 0.4).13 .4. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.87 f y (d − 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.4. 2. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4).9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4.4.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.156 (CP 3. BC 2.5.3.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.

27 (CP 3. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.13 100 0.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table. which is taken from CP Table 3.26 100 0.3).3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.48 0.14 Beam Design . if it is required.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.5 + 0.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.5.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.27 (CP 3. 10 .5.32 0.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.12.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.24 0.36 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.12.18 100 0.95d ⎜ 0.

10.5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the following steps are involved (CP 3. for a particular load combination.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa. that can be resisted by the concrete.2.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3. vc.1). An upper limit of 0. BC 2.5.5): Determine the shear stress.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.12.12.6. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.15 . 10.3.40 0. Determine the shear stress.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.Chapter 10 .4. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. v.20 0.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.2).2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.

(CP 3.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.4.5. vc.9) 10 .6 (CP 3.4) 10.2.16 Beam Design . vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.5.5.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.8 fcu .4.4) (CP 2.5.4.4. with the corresponding load combination factors. Table 3.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.12) 0.5.5. Table 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.4.4.4.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.4. 7 MPa). the following limitations also apply: 0. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.5.25 1 1 3 However.63 fcu . and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.4.5. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.4.4.8) (CP 3. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .2) For light-weight concrete.

5.9) (CP 3.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.5.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.8) As vr b = .3.4. v’c. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.5.5.17 . Table 3.5. Table 3.5. and vmax.4.4. sv 0.2) In the preceding expressions.4.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4.2.5.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .4.5.8.4. (CP 3.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.87 f yv If v > vmax.Chapter 10 .3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0. a failure condition is declared.4. Table 3.4.4.8) (CP 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v. Table 3. Table 3. CP 3.5.3.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3. Table 3. (CP 3.5.3.4. vr.

3. vt. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.4.5. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. 10.15).5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. obtained from each load combination. 10. Determine critical torsion stress.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. Determine special section properties.18 Beam Design .1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. vt. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . In typical framed construction. The torsional shear stress.

6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.5) 10.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. vt. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.4.3.min = min 0.4.min = min 0.1) For flanged sections.0.Chapter 10 .5.6 N / mm 2 x 0. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.4.0. For lightweight concrete.min.4.8 f cu .8 (CP Part 2 5.4.067 f cu . vt.4. vt.19 . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.min is defined as: vt .067 f cu .5) Beam Design 10 . exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.

4. vt.6).3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.min.5. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. In that case. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. If vt > vt.4.20 Beam Design . is less than the threshold limit. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. a failure message is declared.min. In that case. 10 .min. Asv.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.t sv = T 0. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.4. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.4.3.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.t /sv.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.8 x1 y1 (0. vt. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2. However.4.8 f cu . vt.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .7) In the preceding expressions. the concrete section should be increased in size.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2.6). is calculated as: Asv .

These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.Chapter 10 . Slab Design 10 .6. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. 10.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.21 .

6. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.22 Slab Design . 10. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.3. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.12.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 . In that case.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. at a given design section in a design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1. 10.6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. In some cases. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 10.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. CP Table 3. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is obtained and reported. for each load combination.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.5. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. Where openings occur.6. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. given the bending moment.1.

Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0. In addition.12.6. The column location (i. 10. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.7.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.6. Slab Design 10 .7.2.12.4.Chapter 10 .23 .. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.5.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. 10. 3.7. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1).7.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.7.1).7. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) . interior. edge.5d from the face of the support (CP 3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3.6).e.

6.4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.4.2) However.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.5d 1.9) (CP 3. 3.5. Table 3.5d 1.4.4.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1. the following limitations also apply: 10 . Table 3.4.6): 0.5.5.5d 1.5d Interior Column 1.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.4.7.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.7.2.7.4.7.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.24 Slab Design .

3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4. (CP 3.7. Table 3. 3.7.2. v.6.5.4.9) For light-weight concrete.6.5 M y 1 .8 fcu .Chapter 10 . Table 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4. Table 3.4.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. Table 3.25 . the nominal design shear stress.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.7.4.9) (CP 3. where (CP 3.5.2.4.5.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.7.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.3) 1 .6.4) (CP 3. 10. 4 MPa) f cu .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2.63 v ≤ min (0. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.5.4.

5).1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.7.6.2. (CP 3.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.7.6.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.26 Slab Design . 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.25 ⎩ for interior columns.7.7. for edge columns. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections. and vmax.6. and for corner columns.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v.5). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 10.7. 10.7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. 3.3.6. 10 . the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.7. vc.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3.25 ⎪1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.

3. (CP 3.7v − vc ) ud = . edge.87 f yv 0. ≥ s 0. (CP 3.5) 0. and corner column.e.7. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .5) (CP 3.7. a failure condition is declared..Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7. 10.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.7.6. ≥ s 0. 0. i.87 f yv 0.6vc ≤ v < 2.87 f yv If v > vmax.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .7.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.6vc. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size.87 f yv If 1. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.0vc.27 .7.Chapter 10 .

the distance.6.7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so. 16-. When specifying shear studs. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5d s ≤ 0. edge.75d g ≤ 1.7.5d (CP 3. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.7.5d. Therefore.7. and interior columns respectively.6). the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.7. 14-. g.6) (CP 3. Height. and 8.28 Slab Design . 10. 6. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3. 12-.6) (CP 3. s.5d.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.7.7. and 20-millimeter diameter. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. The limits of so and the spacing. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. for corner.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.6) 10 . The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.7.

GPO Box 5420. London. American Concrete Institute. Building and Construction Authority. and 3. Box 9094. Sydney. NSW 2001. 2005. Michigan. Michigan. Farmington Hills. 38800 Country Club Drive. BC.1 and Amendment No. Standards Australia International Ltd. American Concrete Institute. BSI. 2008. 2. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. P. February 2008. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. 2008. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. Structural Use of Concrete. 1. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). TM R-1 . 2007. 2001. BC 2:2008. Australia.O. 1997. Farmington Hills. 2. UK. Code of Practice for Design and Construction.References ACI. AS.2R-07). Part 1. British Standards Institution. ACI. Singapore.

Singapore. 2004. New Zealand. CP 65:Part 1:1999. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. A23. Canadian Standards Association. India. Canada. and 3. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. Design of Concrete Structures. European Committee for Standardization. 2004. incorporating Amendments Nos. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Concrete Structures Standard. CSA. Buildings Department. NZS. 750 Nathan Road. 2005. HK CP.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Structural Use of Concrete. Private Bag 2439. Bureau of Indian Standards. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. Third Edition. Part 2. Brussels. Belgium. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. 2000. Manak Bhavan. European Committee for Standardization. Hong Kong. 2. EN 1992-1-1. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). Belgium. 2006. 2004. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. New Delhi 110002. 1999. Mongkok. Standards New Zealand. Wellington. 1. Ontario. March 2000. CP. September 2000. London. Twentieth Reprint. IS. EN 1990:2002. Rexdale. Kowloon. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. R-2 . Part 1-1. British Standards Institution. UK. 1985.3-04. 1. Brussels.

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