U.S.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Technical Information Servi;e

AD-A033 216

ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK
HELICOPTER ENGINEERING. DETAIL DESIGN PART TWO

ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND,

ALEXANDRIA,

VIRGINIA

JANUARY, 1976

Reproduced From Best Available Copy

351058 AMCPAMPIT AMCP 706-202'-

ENGINEERING DESIGN

HANDBOOK
HELICOPTER ENGINEERIN\

PART TWO DETAI L DESIGN

IIEADEQMRE-USP 1 AINYV MATERIEL COMMAND
NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMIE," iMNWacw, VA. 2231W

JANUAR IC76

AMCP 706-202

AN1( Parrnpbkei

No. 714S-01

ENGINEERING I)ESIGN HANI)BOOK 20Jnay17 HELCOPERENGINEERING, PART TWO DETAIL. DESIGN

TABLE (N-' CONTENTS
Paragraph LISTOF ILL.USTRATIONS................ ......................... I 1ST OF TABLES ... .... .... ................................... FOREW ORD .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . . ....... . . .. . . . . . .Xxxviii PREFACE ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EE
Xxviii

Xxxi,
XXX%

CHAPTEKR I
INTROI)1UCTION (HAPTERI 2/

2-I

I..........S. INTRODULCTION ....... M.Al.'E. A.

. . .-

)

2-2 ~METALS .................. ............. ..... .... ....... ...... 2-1 2-2.1 FERROUS METALS.............................................. 2-1 2-2. 1.1 General .................................. ......... ............. 2-1 2-2.1.2 Ca!'bOn Steels .............. -............. ...... ................ 2-1 2-2.1.3 Allov Steels.........................-2 2-2.1.4 StainessSteels....................... ............................ 2-2 2-2.1.5 Precipitation Hardening Sicels ...................................... 2-2 2-2.1.6 Maraging Steels .................................................. 2-3 NONFERROUS METALS .. ........................... .......... 2-4 2-2.2 2-2.2. 1 General.............................. ........................... 2-4 2-4 2-2.2.2 Aluminum Alloys........... I................ I.................. 2-5 Magnesium Alloys....I............................................ 2-2.2.3 2-2.2.4 Titanium Alloys......................................... ......... 2-6 2-2.2.5 Copp.,r anid Copper Alloys ......................................... 2-6 2-7 2-2.3 ELECTROLYTIC ACTION OF DISSIMILAR MFTAI.S................ 2-3 NOMETALLIC MATERIALS........................................2-4-7 2-7 ............................ GENERAL .......................... 2-3.1 22-3.2 THERMOPI ASTIC MATERIALS ................................ 2-3.3 THERMOSETTING MATERIALS......... ................ ........ 2-9 ...... 2-10 2-3.4 ELASTOMERIC MATERIALS ............................. .. ........... 2-10 2-3.5 WINDOW MATERIALS ............................ COMPOSITE STRUCTURES.........................................21-Il 2-4 .. ........... 2-Il FIBERGLAS LAMINATES .......................... 2-4.1 2-4.1.1 Design Considerations ................ ............................ 2-1l 2-4.1.2 Resin Systems ................................................... 2-12 2-12 2-.Ž;Polyesters ...................................................... 2-4.1.2.2 Epoxies ........................................................ 2-12 2-4.1.2.3 Phrnolics .......................... ............................ 2-12

AMCP 706-202 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Paragraph 2-4.1 3 2-4.1.3.1 2-4.1.3.2 2-4.1.3.3 2-4.1.4 2-4.1.4.1 2-4.1.4.2 2-4.1.4.3 '2-4.1.5 2-4.2 2-4.2.1 2-4.2.2 2-4.2.3 2-4.2.4 2-4.3 2-4.3.I 2-4.3.1.1 2-4 .3.1.2 2-4.3.1.3 2-4 .3.1.4 ,,•
, C

Pagc Types of Reinforccment .............. ........... .................... Nonwoven Continuous Filaments .................................... Woven Fabric .................................................... Chopped Fiber ..................................................... Fabrication M ethods ................... .............................. O pen Mold H and Layup .............................................. Sprayup ................ ........................... ...... Matched D ie M olding ................................................ Surface F inishes ....................................................... FABRIC LAM IN ATES .................................................. Reinforcem ent Selection ............................................... R esin Selection ........................................................ Special T ypes ......................................................... Specifications ......................................................... FILAMENT COM POSITION .......................................... Types of Reinforcem ent ............... ............................... E-glass ................................................... S -g lass ...................................................... ........ Boron Filam ents ................ ....................... ........... .............. 11G .. l rap hite .............................................
.

"" ,..
2-4.3.3
2-4.3.4

.

...................... ........................

......

2-19

2-12 2-13 2-13 2-13 2-13 2-14 2-15 2,15 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-17 2-17 2-17 2-17 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-19o
,

1t

Manufacturing Processes ..................... ....
A pplications ...................

...................
.

2-20

2.44 2-4.5 2-4.5.1

""4
2-5 2-5.1 2-5.1.1 2-5.1.2 2-5.1.3 2-5.2 2-6 2-6.1 2-6.2 2-6 .3 2-6 .4 2-7 2-7.1 2-7.2 2-7.3 2-7.4 2-7 5

HONEYCOMB AND SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION . A R MO R MATERIALS ................................................ Available Materials .......................................... Design ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS ........... ........................ BO N D ING AG EN TS ................... .............................. Structural Adhesives ............... ............................... Nonstructural Adhesives ....................................... Processing O perations ................................................. ......................................... -Dcsgi, of onded Structurc SEAL.ING CO MPO UN DS ............................................. PA IN IS A N D FIN ISH ES ................ .... .......................... PAINTS AND COATINGS (ORGANIC) ............................... SPECIAL. FINISHES ............................................... P LAT IN G ......................................................... ... T A P ES ........................... ................ ................... LUBRICANTS, GRI-ASES. AND HYDRAUI.IC FLUIDS ............... G E N ER AL ......... ............................ ..................... DESIGN OF LUBRICATION SYSTEMS ............................ G RE-A SE S ...................................... ...................... DRY FILM AND PERMANENT LUBRICANTS ..................... H YD R AU LIC FI.U IDS ....... ............... ....................... R EF ER E NC ES ...................................................... ...
(0i1A'ITR 3 PROPII. ION SIBSYSTEM I)IESIN'N

2-20 2-272-29 2-30 2-30 2-30 2-30 2-32 2-33
2-33

2-33 2-34 2-34 2-35 2-36 2-3 7 2-38 2-3K 2-38 2-38 2-38 2-40 2-40

3-0
ii

L IST Of: SY M BO LS .....................................................

3-1

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"AMCP 706-202
TABLE OF (ON1I EN'IS(( ontinud) Paragraph 3-1 3-2 3-2.1 3-2.1.1 3-2.1.2 3-2.1.3 3-2. 1.4 3-2.2 3-2.3 3-2.4 3-2.4.1 3-2.4.2 3-2.5 3-2.5.1 3-2.5.2 3-2.5.3 3-2.5.3.1 3-2.5.3.2 3-2.5.3.3 3-2.6 3-2.6. 1 3-2.6.2 3-2.6.2.1 3-2.6.2.2 3-3 3-4 3-4.1 3-4.2 3-4.2.1 3-4.2.2 3-4 .2.3 3-4.2.4 .3-4 2.5 3-4 .2 .7 3-4 2.6
INTRO D UCTIO N .....................................................

Page
3-1

ENGINE INSTALLATION .............................................. G EN E R A L ............................................................ Subm erged Installation ................................................ Sem icxposed !nstallation .............................................. Exposed Installation ................................................... D esign C hecklist .......................................... .......... ENGINE M OUNTING ................................... ............ ENGINE VIBRATION ISOLATION ................................... FIF EW A LLS .......................................................... Fire Detectors ......................................................... Fire Extinguishing ..................................................... ENGINE AIR INDUCTION SUBSYSTEM ............................ Air Induction Subsystem Design ....................................... Inlet Protection ....................................................6.. A nti-icing ............................................................. Electrical A nti-icing .................................................. Bleed Air Anti-icing ............................................... Anti-icing D em onstration ............................................ EXHAUST SUBSYSTEM .............................................. ....... ............... Exhaust Ejectors . .......................... Inftaid (IR) Radidtiui Suppr, .sior ................................... 1R Suppression Requirements . ...................................... Exhaust Suppressor ................................................. PROPULSION CONTROLS ............................................. .................. ... ....... FU EL SU BSYSTEM ................... ................................... ... GENERAl . ............. FLUEL SUBSYSTEM COMPONENTS ................................ Fuel Tanks ................................................. ........ . Fuel Tank Venis ....................... .............................. . F uel G aging ........................................................... Refueling and D efueling ............................................... F uel D um ping ........................................................ Engine Feed System .............................. ................... Fue l l)r iti ....................... ..... .... ......................... ....................... Controls and Instrumenlation ................ T EST IN G ............................................................. LUBRICATION SUBSYSTEM ......................................... COMPARTMENT COOLING .............. ACCESSORIES AND ACCESSORY DRIVES ............................ ................................ AUXILIARY POWER UNITS (AIU', G EN ERA L ......................................................... APU INSTALLATION DETAILS ..................................... Method of Mounting .................................................. Inlet D ucting ........................ ............................. ... Exhaust Ducting .................................................. ................................ APU Bleed Air Ducting ........ Cooling ..................... . .. ....................... . ............. APU SU BSYSTEM S ....... ......................................... .............................. C ontrols . ...................
..............

3-i 3-1 3-1 3-I 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-8

3-8

3-1 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-11 3-11 3-11 3-13 3-13 3-13 3.13 3-13 3-14 3-14 3-15 3-15 3-15 3-15 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18
Iiii

"3-4.2.
3-4 .3 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-8.1 3-8.2 3-8.2.1 3-8.2.2 3-8.2.3 3-8.2.4 3-8.2.5 3-8.3 . .3. I

3-

Electrical

AMC? 7W0620 T'ABI.ELF Paragraph

___

____

(ONr'' I "I %

i( onalinucd) Pdgv

3-8.31. 3-8v .1.2 3-8.3.1 3 3-8.3.1.4 3-8.3. 1.5 3-8.3.2 3-8.3 2.1 3-8.3.2.2 3-8.3.. 3-8.3.4

Sequencing Controls ................................................. Protective Controls ....... ............................ .............. O utput C ontrols ..................................................... Electrical Control Location ....................................... ... Electrical Power Requirements ...................................... Fuel System Controls .................................................. Rated Speed G overning .............................................. Filtering Requirements ............ ................................ APU Lubrication Subsystem .......................................... A PU Reduction Drive ..... ............................... ...........

3.18 3-18 3-18 3-19 3-19 3-19 3-19 3-19 3-20 3-20

3-8.3.5
3-8.4 3-8.5

AP Starting.................

.................................

3-20
3-20 3-21 3-22

R ELIA BILIT Y ........................................................ SAFETY PROVISIO NS ..................................... .......... R EFER EN C ES .......................................................... CHAPTER 4

TRANSMISSION AND DRIVE SUBSYSTEM DESIGN 4-0
4-I 4-1.1
4-1.2

4-1.2.1 4-1.2.1.1 4-1.2.1.1.1 4-1.2.1.1.2 4.1.2.1.1.3 4-1.2A. 1.4 4-1.2.1.2 4-0.21.3

"4-1.2.1.4
4-1.2.1,4.1 4-1.2.1.4.2 4-1.2.I 4.3 4-1.2.1.4.4 4-1.2.1.4.5 4-1.2.2 4-1.2.2.1 4-1.2.2.2 4-1.2.2.3 • : 4-1.3 4-1.3.1 4-1.3.2 4-1.3.3 4-1.4 4-1.4.1 4-1.4.2

liSTOF SYMBOLS .............................................. INTRO D U CTIO N ....................................................... G EN ER Al. ........................................................ ... REQUIREM ENTS ................................................... . G eneral Requirements .... ......................................... Pe-fortrance ......................................................... Subsystcni Weight ........................ ..................... Transm ission Efficiencr y ................................. ........... Si Ce Levels. ..................... ........ .......................... N oiseLevels ....... . .............................................. R eliability ..... ................................................. Maintainabifity.................................................. Survivability ............................................... R edundancy ........................................................ Dcsigu Configuration ............................................... Self-sealing Sum ps .................................................. Emergency Lubrication ......................... ............ ....... A rm or .............................................................. Drive System Configurations ......................................... Single M ain Rotor Drive System ..................................... M ultilifting-rotor Drive System s ...................................... Compound Helicopter Drive Systems ................................. TRANSMISSION DESIGN AND RATING CHARACTERISTICS ..... Power/Life Interaction ................................................ Transmission Overhaul Life Rating ..................................... Transmission Standards and Ratings ................................... QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS ................................ Component and Environment............... ........................ Dcvelopment Testing ...................... .......................... Static C asting Tests ................................................... Deflection Tests ...................................................... C ontact 1 :sts ........................................................

4-1 4 3 4-3 4.3 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-I1 4-11 4-12 4-16 4-7 4-I1 4-18 4-22 4-22 4-23 4-23 4-23 4-23 4-25 4-25 4-25 4-27 4-28 4.29 4-2'9 4-29 4-29 4-29 4-30

(
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4 :.

"4-1.4.2.1
4-1.4.2.2 4-1.4.2.3 iv

AMCP 706-202
lARIl.01- (()%'I IKNIS (Oininuvdli

Paraigraph
4-1.4.2.4

Pp Assembly and Disassembly ....................................... Lubrication System Debugging.................................... Incremental Loading and Efficiency Tests ........................... Thermal Mapping Tests.......................................... Overpower Testing............................................... Other Life and Reliabil~ty Substantiation Testing .................. .... TRANSMISSIONS ................................................ FAILURE MODES .............................................. Primary Failure Moocs ........................................... Secondary Failure Modes ......................................... Overload Failures ............................................... Debi is-caused Failure ........................................... Environmentally Induced Failures ................................. DYNAMIC 1C.CNPONENTS .................................... Gears Limi.....ations............................................ Gear Lnialyios ................................................ -Bending Fatigue Strength ............................
aiukgl;I

.L4-1.4.4

4-1.4.2.5 4-1.4.2.6 4-1.4.2.7 4-1.4.3 4-2 4.2.1. 4-2.1.1 4-2.1 .2 -4-2.1.2.1 4-2.1.2.2 .2.3 4-2.2 4-2.2..1 4-2.2.1.1 4-2.2. 1.2. 1
A

It4-2.1

4-30 4-30 4-30 4-31 4-31 4-32 4-32 4-32 4-32 4.34 4-34 4-34 4-34 43 4-34 4-35 4-36
44. r~

...........

ailuir .................................................................

4-2.2.1.2.3. 4-2.2.1.2.3.2
4-2.2.1.2.3.3

Cattie Failure................................................. Classic or Pitch Line Fatigue ....................................
Wear Initiated Failure
.........

4-44 445
446

I...........I.............

Y

4-2.2.1.3 4-2.21.2 4-2.2.2. 1. 4-2.2.2..1 4-2.2.2.1.2 4222.3 4-2.2.2.1.4 '4-2.2.2.2 4-2.2.2.2.1 4-2.2.2.2.3 4-2.2.2.3 A-2.2.3 4-2.2.3.1 4-223.2 4-2.2.3.3 4-2.2.3.4 4-2.2.3.5
-4A-2.2.4

''4-2.2.2.2.2

)
e:4-2.3

4-2.2.4.1 4-2.2.4.2. 4-2,2.4.3 4-2.2.5 4-2.2.5.1 4-2.2,5.2 4-2.3. 1

Gear Drawing and Specification................................... 4-4 Bearings ....................................................... 4-48 Lubrication Deighnq.......s.....................................4-4O AMpluctiong Driesign ......................................... .. 4-48 Mounrctiong Practices .......................................... 4-48 Internal Characteristics ......................................... 45 Skidding Control .............................................. 4-54 Life Anm lysis ................................................. 45 Assumptions and Limitations .................................... 4-55 'Modification Faiflot Approach to Lifc Prediction..............I...... 4-55 Complete Elastic and Dynamic Solutions........................... 4-56 Drawing Controls........................................ ...... 4-56 Splines.........................................................44-7 Face Splines ......................................... ......... 4-386L Concentric or Iongitudinal Splineq ................................. .5 :Propcrtics ofSplineb ............................ ................ 4-58 Spline Strength A nalysis..................... .................... 4-59 Drawing Design and Control ..................................... 4-60) 4-60 -Overrunning Clutches ............................................ Sprag Clutches .................................................. 4-61 Ramp and Roller Clutches........................................ 4-62 Self-encvgizing Spring Clutches.................................... 4-62 Rotor Brakes........................ ........................... 4-62 R,ýquirernents and Limitations.................. .................. 4-62 Design arid Analysis ........................................... 4-63 STATIC COMPONENTS.................................... ..... 4-64 Casez end Housings.............................................. 4-64 v

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0 AK 70_2o2
TABLE 0 CONTENTS Iedlnutd)
P lParagraph Pug-

QC

4-2.3.1.1
4-2.3.1.2 4-2.3.2 4-2.4 4-2.4.1 4-2.4.2 4-3 4-3.1 A-3. I. I 4-3.1.2 4-3.1.3 4-3.1.4 4.3.1.5 4-3.2 4-3.2.1 4-3.2.2 4-3.2.3 4-4 4-41 4-4.1.1. 4-4.1.2
-4 13.3 4

Desi.5n ai'd Analys-u

.................................... .............

4-64
4-66 4-67 4-W 4-0. 4- 3 4-72 4-72 4-72 4-73 4-73 4-74 4-76 4-76 4-76 4-80 4-81 4-81 4-82 4-82 4-83
4s (

M ate:ials and Pro .............................................. Quills ...................................... .......................... SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS ........................................ Vibr'ation Control ..................................................... D iagnostics ........................................................... DRIVE SHAFTING AND INTERCO iNECTION SYSTEMS ............ GENERAL. REQUIREMENTS ........................................ Engine-to-Transmission ............................................... Interconnect Shafting .................................................. Tail Rotor or Propdlcr Shafting ....................................... Subcritical Shafting ........................................ .......... Supercritical Shafting ................... .............................. COMPDONEi-NT DESIGN ............................................. C ouplings ............................................................. Bearings ................................................... Shafting .............................................................. LUBRICATION SYSTEMS ....................................... OIL MANAGEMENT ............................................ Function .............................................................. Comporent and Arrangement .........................................
CO* 3.rt..C. a.^ J
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4-4.2 4-4.2. I 4-4.2.2 4-4.3 4-5 4-5.1 4-5.2 4-5.3

COOLING REQUIREMENTS ......................................... Heat Exchanger Sizing ................ ................................ Cooling Fan Sizing ........................................... EMERGENCY LUBRICATION.................................. ACCESSORIES......................... ............................ PAD LOCATION AND DESIGN CRITERIA................ ......... ACCESSORY DRIVE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS .................... SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS F......................................... CHAPTER 5

4-86 4-36 4-87 4-87 4-88 4-88 4-89 4-89

,2,-.

ROTOR AND PROPELLER SUBSYSTEM DESIGN
5-0 5-1 5-2 5-2.1 5-2.1.1 5-2.1.2 5-7-!.3 5-2.1.4 5-2.1.5 5-2.1.6 5-2.1.2 5-2.1.8 5-2.2 5-2.3 5-2.4 5-3 5-3.1 vi LIST OF SYM BOLS .................................................... IN TRO D UCTIO N .............................................. ........ DESIG N PARAM ETERS ................................................ HOVER Disk Loading and Induced Power ...................................... Blade Loading ....................................................... Blade Tip M ach N um ber ....................... ..................... N um ber of Blades ......................... ........................... Tw ist .............................................. .................. A irfoil Sections ......................................... .............. Hovering Th vust Capability ............................................ p ........................................... Guideines ....... HIGHu SPEED LEVEL F. IGHT ...................................... HIGH-SPEED MANEUVERING FLIG:T ........................... IN E R T IA .................................. ........ .................. ROTOR SYSTEM KINEMATICS ....................................... G EN ER A L ..................................................... ... ... 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-7 5-7

K

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W4

_________AlMiýP

706-j22 SA OLL OF (CONTENTh I(vatinuLedI

PararaphPatic

5-3.
5-3.j
5-3.4

11 LICOPTER CONTROLa.......................
ARTICUL,%TID R0104.........................
GtNMBALED(TEI-TERING)HO1TOR _ ................

5.9
59
5-10

5-3.5
5-3.5.1 5-3.5.2 5-3.6 5-3.6.1
* -5-3.6.2

HIINGELESS ROY OR .........................

5-11

-.

5-3.6.3 5-4 5-4.1 5-4.1.1 54.1.2 5-4,1.2.1 5-41.2.2) 5-4.1.2.3

XH-51 Rotor System .......................... 5-12 OH-6A Rotor .. .... ... .. . . .. . . ... .... ... 5-12 ROTOR SYSTEM K;NEMA IC COU?U]N!G ......................... 5-13 Pitch-lag Instability ................................................ 5-1; Pitch -flap Instability .............................................. 5-14 Flap-1iit Instability ............................. .................. 5-14 ROTOR SYSTEM DYNAMICS ....................................... 5-!6 OSCILLATORY LOADING 01- ROTOR BLADES .................... 53-16 Hyotheicator LoadDsigcdin Cofsid oratibns..............................5-16 Osilltoypohtiad DsesaigConsidrations ratoy.Load....................51 V .. Rotor Oscitlatory Load Calculation....................... .......... 5-17 Drawing Pomid Phase ....................... .. .................. 5-17 Flight rests ..................................................... 5-18

:

5-4.1.2.4
5-4.3

Fr~tigue Tests ....................................................
GROUND RES.NONANCE
AS

5-18 5-19

rrQ

wlS.................................

1
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To-blded otorWithHinged Blades ............................... Two-bladrd Riatocs WVitbout Hinges .................................. M ultibiaded Rotors ........ .... .. ... ......... FLUTT FR ASSESSMENT .......................................... Current Criteria................................................... Design Considerations ............. ..................... .......... Helicopter.............. ........ ...................... ......... 5-4.4.2.1.1 FaAed SystEm ................................................... 5-4.4.2.1.2 Ro'ating System ... ............................................ 5-4.4.2.2 Compound ...................................................... 5 -4.4.2.2. i Fixed System ................................................... 5-4.4.2..72 Rotating System ................................................ 5-4.5 ACOUSTIC LOADING ............................................ 5-4.6 GUST LOADINGS................................................ 5 4.6.1 Discussion of the Gust Prohi -m...................................... 5-4.6.2; Guist Design Considerations......... ............................... 15-4.7 TORSIONAL STABILITY ............................. ............ 5-4.7. 1 Discussion of Problem . ...... .. . . . .. ... ........ 5-4.7.2 De!sign Considerations ....... .. . . . ... .. ........ 5-5 BLADE RETENTION .......................... 5-51I RETENTION SYSTLM DESIGN CONSIDElRATIONS................. 55 .1Articulated Rotors ... . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . Articluated Rotor Considerations ............... -51.1Typical 5-5.1.1.2 Reversed Hinge Articulation ...................... 5-5.1.2 Gimbaled and Teetering Rotors ... ................. 5-5.1.2.1 Gimbal-mounted Hubs .......... .............. 5-5.1.2.2 Teetering Hubs . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5-5.1.3 Rigid Rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-5.2 COMPONENT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ............. 5-5.2.1 Rolling Element Bearings ..... .................. 5-4..1 5.4.3.2 5-4.3.3 5-44 5-4.4.1 5-4.!.2 5-4.4.2.1

5-2 1 5-22 5-22 5-23 5-23 5-23 5-23

5-23
5-23 5-23 5-23 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-25 5-2ý 5-26 5-1) 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-29 5-29 5-29 5-30 5-30 5-30 5-30

f

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AMCP 706-22
"1kI F OF AII: l Piaragraph ()N"t I-NS t( outinu'd i Ig

"

5-5.2.1. 5-5.2.1.2 5-5.2.1 3 5-5.2.2 5-5.2.3 5-5.2.3.1 5-5.2.3.2 5-5.2.4 5-5.2.5 5-5.2.6 5-5.3 5-5.4 5-5A.1 5-5.4.1.1 5-5.4.1.2 5-5.4.2 5-5,,4,3
5-6

R OTO R BLA D ES ........................................................

C_')hndrical Roller Brarinis ........................................... Tapered Roller Bearings .............................................. Angular Contact Ball Bearings ........................................ Tcflon F-abric Bcaring. ................................................ Flexing Elk nent.' ...................................................... Tension-torsion Strap Assemblies .................................... W ire Tic-bar Assem blies ............................................. Flastom criý" Bcarings ..................... ............................ Lag D)ampcrs, Lead-lag Stops ......................................... Droop and Flap Stops and Rcsti ainers ................................. CONTROL SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS ............................ BLA D E FO LD ING .................................................... D esign Requirem ents .................................................. M anual Blade rolding ........................................... .... Pow er Blade Foiding ................................................. O perational Requirem ents .............................................. System Safet) Considerations .............. ............................
"T ist ................................................................. w Planfurni " apt~r ... ..... .............................................. A irfoil C ross Section ................... ...............................

5-31 5-31 5-31 5-31 5-32 5-32 5-32 5-32 5-34 5-34 5-35 5-35 5-35 5-35 5-3t 5-36 5-36
5-37

5-6 IF

5[ -t,.t 5-i. 1 2 5-6.1.3

N q, I

. ......

.................

... . .............................

5-37

5-38 5-38 5-39"•

(

1 : ':'

, ':

5-6.2 5-11! 1 2. 5-6.2. I .I 5-6.2.1.2 5-6.2.1.3 5-6.2.!.4
5-6.2.1.5

BLADE CONSTRUCTION ........................................ S p a r ................................... .............................. H ollow Extrusion .................................................... Solid Extrusion ..................... ................................ Formed Sheet Metal .................................................. R ound S,ecl T ube ...... ............ ................................
Form ed M etal Tube ..................................................

5-41 5-4 1 5-41 5-41 i-_ 5-42 5-42
5-42

, S,

5-6.2.1.6 5-6.2.2.1 5-6.2.2.2 5-6.2.2.3 5-6.2.3
5-6.2.4

M olded Reinforced Plastic ............................................
.2...rt le I UvI I ......................... ....................... . I ....... .

5-42 5-43 5-4 3 544

C ontinuous Skins .................................................... Segm ented Skins ............................... ................ .... W raparound Skins ................................................... ............................... Root End Retentions ................
Tip Closures and Hardware ..... ......................................

5-44 5-44

'

.-

,

5-6.2.5 5-6.2.6 5-6.2.7 5-6.2.8 5-6.3 5-6.3.1 5-6.3.2 5-6.3.3 5-6.4 5-7 5-7.1 5-7.2 5-7.2.1 5-7.2.2
vWi

T rim T abs .................... ....................................... T uning W eights .............. ........................................ D esign Requirem ents .................................................. Tooling and Quality Control P equirements ............................. BLADE BALANCE AND TRACK ..................................... Effect of D esign ............... ....................................... Com ponent Lim it W eights ............................................. 1 rack ................................................................. ROTOR BLADE MATERIALS ........................................ ROTOR SYSTEM FATiGUE LIVES .................................... G EN E R A L ........... ................................................ ENDURANCE LIMIT TESTING ...................................... G encral ............ .................................................. N onm etals ........ .................... ..........................

5-44 5-4 5 5-4 5 5-45 5-46 5-4 6 5.47 5-4 9 5-50 5-53 5-53 5-54 5-54 5-55

1

F~
AMCP
""1 IV! ABI
PIr.iagraph

706-20

(

I( %'11 iN S onfilud

5-7.2.3
5-8

Structurai M em bcr I. .............. 5-7.2.4 Dctermination of Fatigue .ifc
PROP

. ...............

...................

5-56 5-56
5-57

II. RS .......

.... ..

...............................................

5-H. I 5-8.2 5-3.2. 5-8.2 2 5-8.2.3 5-8.2.4 5-8.2.5 5-8.3 5-8.3.1 5-,.3. 5-8.3.1.2 5-8.3.1.3 5-S.3.2 5-8.3.2.1 5-8.3.2. 1.1 5-8.3.2.2
--

GI NL.RAI ............... .................................... PROPELLER SYSI ENI )YNAMICS .................................. Vibrator) L.oads ...................................................... . Critical Speeds and Resiporisc .................. ....................... ....... ............................... G usis and M aneuvers ...... Stall F luttcr ....................................... .................. Prop Iller Roughness ...... ....... ............................ .... PROPI-I.iI-IR HUBS, ACTUATORS, AND CONI ROLS ............... Propeller Barrel and hladc Rctention . ................................ B arrel L.oading ....................................................... Louding D efinition .......................... ....................... Barrel Structural Tests ........................................... Propclcr Actuators and Controls ...................................... C ontrol Configurations ................... ........................... Constant-speed G overnors .......................................... .. ........................................ BnaContr,..
Itydraulic System .......................................... . ........

5-57 5-s5 5-57 5-60 5-62 5-63 564 5-65 5 65 5-65 5-66 5-66 5-66 5-66 5-66 5-67
5-67

.,

,

5-8.3.2.3 5-8.3.2.4 -5-8.3.2.5 5-8.4 5-8.4.1 5-8.4.2 5-8.4.2.1 5-8.4.2.2 5-8.4.2.3 5-8.4.3 5-8.4.4 5-9. 4.4.1 5-8.4.4.2
5-,.4.4.3

5-8.4.4.4 5-8.5 5-8.5.1 5- .. .S 5-8.5.1.2 5-8.5.2
5-9 5-9.1 5-9.2 5-9.3 ,5-9.4

Au xiliary Functio s .................................................. ......................................... Control Performance C ontrol R eliability ................................ .................. PROPELLER BLADES ......... ................................ Blade Geom etry ...................................................... Blade C onstruction .................................................... ade Types of BM Constructior .......................................... M anufacturing Processes and Tooling ................................. Q uality C ontrol ........................................... .......... Blade and Propeller Balance ....... ....... ........................... Bvide M aterials ................................. ..................... tl low B lades ....................................................... C om posite M aterials ................................................. ................. F iller M aterial ..................................... Structural Adhesives ....................... ......................... PROPELLER BLADE FATIGUE LIVI:S ............................. Enduranct Limit and O0her Structural T',:sting .......................... ... .......................... . T i A TIst C... I. ........... F ull-scale Tests .................................... .................. tigu Life Dctcrminat on ................ Flight Loads Test D-aon
A ircraft T ests ........................ ............ . ........ . ....... ............................ AN -IITORQ U E ROTORS ................... . ........... ........... .................... G E N E R A L ............... .......... TYPICAL. ANTiIORQU)E ROTORS ........................ TAIL ROTOR DESIGN REQUIR!M ENrS ........................... .... ....... INSTAILLATION CONS!IDERATIONS .................... Tractor C onfiguration ................................................. ................... Pusher C onfiguration ...............................

5-67 5-68 5-68 5-18 5-68 5-70 5-70 5-7.2 5-73 5-73 5-7. 5-74 5-75
5-75

5-75 5-75 5-76 5.7 5-76 5-76
5-76

5-H.5.2. I

5-8.5.2.2

IO erpretation of ResutsI .............................................. p

5-77

)•

5-7"7 5-77 5-78 5-78 5-79 5-79 5-79

5-9.4.1 5-9.4.2

5-9.4.3

S5-9.4.4

O perational Considerations ............................................ D irection of R otation ..................................................

5-79 5-79

AM^P 706-202 1 AlI.t OE ( Oi11 -N'i S Iollhunitvd ( Paragraph
5-9 4 5 Engint E.xhaust ......................................................

f

Pap"
. 80

5-9.5 5-9.5.1 5.9.5.2 5-9.5.3

"5-9.5.4
5-9.5.5
5-9.6

5-9.7 5-9.7.1 5-9.7.2 5i-9.7.3 5-".7.4 5-9.7.5

.A

TAIL ROTOR DESIGN PARAMETERS .............................. Tail Rotor D isk I oading ............................................... T ail Rotor Tip Speed .................................................. ....................... .......... Bladc Nuinocr and Solidity ..... T wist ............. ................................................... 0lade Airfoil t........................................... ...... TAIL ROTOR PI RIORMANC ....... ......... STRUCTURAL CONSID'ERATIONS ............. ............. Struclural D ynam ics ............................ ..................... . Structural Loading ....................... ....................... .. .. Blade Structural Analysis ............. .. .. ......................... A .- uelasticit% ............ ............................................ Flutter and Divergence .......................................... R EFER EN C ES .. ............................... ..... ................. (IAlv IKR 6 FI.V;HT CONTROL S. 1•SVS,,iLIST O t SYM BO LS .................................................... GENRA, .L................................................... ......... ........... D ESIG N M ETIIO ). ............... I Point of Dcpartuie ............... .............................. Mission Requirements and Fligh" Envelope .......................... Basic ttclicoptc" D ata ............................. ........... ...... ANALYTICALTOOLS .......................................... SIMULATION AND TESTING .................................... STABILITY SPECIFICATIONS ........................................ C RITERIA AND METHOD OI'.\V'AI YSIS ........................... Control Power and Damping .......... .............. ............... C haracteristic R oots ................................................... R om Plot, .............................................. .......... Modes and Required Damping ..................................... Inherent Airfram e Stability . ....................... ................. Variation of Para;m eters ... ................... ...................... T ype of C ontrol ............................. . . ..................... Transient Response .. ......... ............. ................. Other Factors ................................................ AIUTOROTATION INTRY . ..................................... SYSTEM FAI URLS ............................ ............ ...... STA BILI FY AUGMENTATION S% Si'i-MS .......................... .. GENERAI ..................... .......... ............ ..... B ell Stabiliter Bar ............... ..................................... H iller Servo G-,ro .............. ................... ..... ..... ......... . ....... ......... M echanical Rotor ............. .............. Lockheed C ontrol Gyro ............................ .................. Elcctrohydraulic SA S ...................... ......................... . Fluidic and Hydrofluidie SAS ....... ................................. Flapping M oment Feedback ....... ......... ..................... . CRITERIA FOR SELECTION .................................... A ugrm entation Requirem ents ................................. .........

5-89 5-80 5-80 55-8I 5-RI 5.2 5-82 5.82 5-82 5-83 5-83 5-83 5-83

* I
6-0 6-i 6-1.1 6-1.I.I 6-1.1.2 6- .1.3 6-1.2 6-1.3 6-2 6-2.1 6-2. 1.1 6-2.1.2 6-2.1.2.! 6-2.1.2.2 6-2.1.2.3 6-2.1.2.4 6.2.1.3 6-2.1.4 6-2.1.5 6.2.2 6-2.3 6-3 6-3.1 6-3.1 .1 6-3.1.2 6-3.1.3 6-3.1.4 6-3.1.5 6-3.1.6 6-3.1.7 6-3.2 6-3.2.1

-. -_.

6.6 1 6-i 6-I 6-1 6-2 6 -6-2 6.2 6-2 6-2 6-i 6-3 6-4 6-4 6-6 6-6 6-6 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-8 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-10 6.13 6-10 6.10 6-10 6-10

(

r
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Paragraph

AMCP 706.202

Pagt

6-3.2.2
6-3.2.3 6-3.2.4 6-3.2.5 6-3.3

H elicopter Size ........................................................
Type of Rotor System ................................................. Helicopter Configuration .............................. ............... Suppression of Structural and Rotor Mode Responses, Vibrations. o; G usts ............................................................. SAS RELIABILITY .................................................... ... ..................................................... S afety ..... SA S Fa:lures .......................................................... Fail-safe Principles .................................................... Battle Damage, Vuhnerability ........................................... .......................................... C OST ....................... Developm ent Cost ... ................................................. Production C ost ....................................................... M aintenance Cost ..................................................... TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN ................................ PILO T EFFO RT ............................ ............................ CRITERIA FOR POWER CONTROLS ................................ Control Forces .............................................. Vibration lFeelback ............................................ .......................................... K in .inatic Effects ........ Control Stiffness ........... .......................................... HANDLING QUALItY SPECIFICATION ............................ HUM AN FACTORS .............. ................................... Control Force C ues ............. ......... .................... ....... Developm ental Test ................................. .................

6-10
6- 1 6-11 6-11 6-12 6-12 6-12 6-13 6-13 6-13 6-13 6-13 6-13 6-13 6-14 6-14 6-14

S6--?.r`.l
6-3.3.2 6-3.3.3 6-3.3.4 6-3.4 6-3.4.1 6-3.4.2 6-3.4.3 6-3.5 6-4 6-4.1 6-4.1.1
6_6-4.1.2

6-1A
6-14 6-15 6-15 6-17 6-17 6-17

S ,.
A
.

)
,

6-4.1.3 6-4.1.4

6-4.2
6-4.3 6-4.3. 1 6-4.3.2

6-4.4
6-4.5 6-4.6 6-5 6-5.!i 6-5.1.2 6-5.1.2.11 o-5.l.2.1.1 6-5.1.2.1.2 6-5.1.2. 1..1 6-5.1.2.1.4 6-5.1.2.2 6-5.1.2.2.1 6.5.1.2.2.2 6-5.2 6-5.2. 1 6-5.2.2 6-5.3 6-5.3.1 6-5.3.2 6.5.3.3 "• 6-6 6-6.1

AUTOMATIC CONTROL INTERFACES .............................
VU LN ERA BILITY .................................................... R ELIA BILIT Y ........................................................ M EC H A N ISM S ......................................................... ROTATING YSTEMS .............................................. a Design Factors ........................................................ T est R esults ........................................................... Bench Tests .......................................................... .................. . Test Loads .............................. Instrur"-,ntation ..................................................... Quantity and Selection of Specimens ............................. lnterpretation of D ata ............................................... Flight T ests ........................................................ Required Instrum entation ........................................... Flight Cond1 .ions ........................................... NONROTATING SYSTEM ........................................... Pilot's Controls to Power Actuator ......................... .......... Power Actuator to the Swashplate ...................................... T R IM SYST EM S ..................................... ................ D isconnectT ri ...................................................... C ontinuous rrim ................................ ..................... Parallel and Series T rim ................................................ SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT .............................................. ....................................... G E N E R A l . .................... MATHEMATICAL MODEL IMPROVEMENT ......................

6-17
6-18 6-18 6-18 6-18 6-ig 6-21 6.21 6-.21 6-21 622 6-22 6-22 6-2", 622 6-22 6-23 6-24 6-25 6-25 6-25 6-26 6-26 6-26 6-26 xi

-- m.'ll .-.

Il

~

- ...- •t&

'.1

*

0.

I~Ai ae&ih •

"

,,l.a.&

Mkh~msl,.

.-.-...-.-..

.

.

~ --

.

-. i

AMCP 7QW5V2 TABIIV OF ('ONI 1.N*1S t CoEn~inut i) Paragraph 6-6.2.1 6-6.2.2 6-6.3 6-6,4 6-6.5 ..................... Wind Tunnel Test............................ .. I......................... Hardware Bench Tests ................. GROUND-BASED PILOTED FLIGHT SIMULAT ION ................ FLIGHT TESTS................................................... DESIGN REVIEW ................................................ REFERENCES .. .................................................. Pagc .26 6-27

6-27
6-2ý, 6-28 6-28

CHAPTEFR 7 ELEC'TRICAL SUBSYSTEM DESIGN 7-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS................................................. 7-I INTRODUc-riON.................... ....... ....................... 7-1.1 GENERAL....................................................... 7-1.2 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS..................................... 7-1.3 LOAD ANALYSIS ................................................ 7-1.4 LOAD ANALYSIS PREPARATION ................................. 7-1.5 MANUAL FCRMAT .............................................. 7-1.6 AUTOMATED rORMAT ............................. ........... 7.1.7 SUMMARY...................................................... 7-2 GENERATORS AND MOTORS ...................................... 7-2.1IC GEEAI........................... .:-. ................ 7-2.2 AC GENERATORS (ALTERNATORS).............................. 7221Eiectrical Design................................................. 7-2.2.2 Mechanical Dcsign ................................................ 7-2.2.3 Cooling........................................................ 7-2.2.4 Application Checklist .............................................. 7-2.2.5 V aria ble-freqqtency AC Generators................................... 7-2.3 srA RTER/G EN ERATO RS, DC G IN ER ATORS, AND STA RTERS 7-2.3.1 Starter/Generator ...................................... ......... 1-2.3.2 DC Geuerators....................... ............................ 7-2.3.3 DC Starters ...................................................... Boost Starting System .............................................. 7-2,3.4
1-2.4 ELECTICAL MOTORS............................ ....................

7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-3 7-3 7.4 7-4 7-4 7-6 7-6 7-6 7-7 7.8 7-8 7-9 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-1l
7-13

7-2.5 7-2.5.1 7.2.5.2 7-3 7-3.1 7-3.2 7-3.3 7-3.4 7-3.5 7-4 7-4A 7-4.1.1 7-4.1 2 7-4.1.3 7-4.2 7-5 7-5.1 7-5.2

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CONVERSION............................. AC to DC Converters ............................................. DC toAC Converters .............................................. ...................................... BATI'LRIES ................. Bm rERY CHARACTERISTICS ................................... ~ GENERATOR CONTROL BATTERY CHARGING................... .......... UTILIZATION LOAD ANALYSIS........................ HEAVY CURENT STARTING REQUIREMENTS .................... MAINTENANCE ......... ..................................... VOLTAGE REGULATION AND REVERSE CURRENT RELAY ... DC VOLTAGE REGULATION ..................................... Voltage Regulator ....................... ............ ............ Reverse Current Relays........................................... Overvoltage Relays ..................................... .......... AC VOLTAGE REGULATION ..................................... OVERLOAD PROTECTION ......................................... GENERAL....................................................... OVERLOAD PROTECTION DF-VICES ............................ .

7-14 7-14 7-15 7-15t 715 7-15 716 7-17 7-18 7-1 1... 7-18 7-18 7K 7-19 7-19 7-19 7-19 7-20

l

A

F
.AMCP
1IABI 1. 01 (()N'II:NI I,( Paragraph 7-5.2. 1 7-5.2.1.1 7-5.2.1.2 7-5 2.2 7-5.2.3
nttinued)

706-202

"7-5.2.4
7-5.3 7-6 7-6.1 7-6.2 7-6.3 7-6.4 7-6.5

"7-6.5.1
7-6.5.2 7-6.5.3 7-6.5.3.1 7-6.5.3.2 -6.5.3.3 7-7 7-7. i 7-7.2 ? 7-7.3 '• 7-7.4 7-7.5 7-7.6 7-7.7 7-7.8

"7-8

7-8.1I 7-8.1. 7-8.1.1.1

7-8.1. 1.2

Circuit Breakers ................................................... 7-20 Therm al C ircuit Breakers ............................................. 7-20 7-20 ............... M ars.czic Circuit Breakers .......................... Remote Control Circuit Breakers ....................................... 7-20 C urrent Sensors ...................................................... . 7.20 F uses .............................................................. . . 7-20 OVERLOAD PROTECTION APPLICATION ......................... 7-21 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI/EMC) ................. 7-21 G E N E R AL ............................................. ............... 1-21 ACCEPTABILITY REQUIREMENTS ................................. 7-21 INTERFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS ................................ 7-21 !NTERFERENCE SOURCES ........................................ 7-21 INTERFERENCE SUPPRESSION ................................... 7-22 Interference-free Components ......................................... 7-22 Equipment Isolation and Cable F outing ................................ 7.22 Source Suppression and Susceptibility Reduction ..................... 7-23 G rounding and Bonding .............................................. 7-23 Shielding ............................................................ 7 -23 F ilters ............................................................... 7-24 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSTALLATION ............................. 7-24 -'% N h IE E R A i .. ............................................................ EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION ....................................... 7-24 ELECTRICAL WIRE BUNDLES ....................................... 7-25 TERMINAL STRIP INSTALLATION .............................. 7.25 ENGINE COMPARTMENT WIRING ................................. 7-26 DOOR HINGE WIRE BUNDLE ROUTING ........................... 7-26 WIRING TO MOVING COMPONENTS .............................. 7-26 BATTERY INSTALLATION .......................................... 727 CO M PO N EN TS .............................. ......................... 7-27 7-27 W IR E ................................................................. W ire Insulating M aterials ...... ....................................... 7-27 Polyethylene ......................................................... 7-27
Polyvinylchiorid¢ . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 7-27

.

-

-:

r• =.-''"

7-8.1.1.3 7-F8..1.4 7-8.1.1.5 7-8.1.1.6 7-8.1.1 .7 7- . Q.2 7-8.2 7-8.2.1 7-8.2.2 7-9 7-9.1

"1-9.2
7-9.3 7-9.4

Fluorinated Ethylene Propylen ................................. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene ............... ..................... Polybexamethylene-adipamide ............. .......................... Tetrafluorocthylene .................................................. Dimethyl-siloxanc Polymer M ilitary W ire Specifications ........................................... F I-f IN G . ............................................................ Term it,al Strips ........................................................ Connectors ........................................................ . . LIGHTNING AND STATIC ELECTRICITY ............................ G EN ER A L ............................................................ LIGHTNING PROTECTION FOR ELECTRONIC SUBSYSTEMS .... STATIC ELECTRICITY ............................................... LIGHTNING AND STATIC ELECTRICITY SPECIFICATIONS ...... R EFER EN C E ...........................................................

7-28 7-28 7-28 7-28 7-28 7-28 7-29 7-29 7-29 7-29 7-29 7-30 7-31 7-32 7-32

xiii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Conlinued) Paragraph Pagc CHAPTER 8 AVIONIC SUBSYSTEMS D~ESIGN INTRODUCTION ................................................. 8GENERAL.................................................... 8i ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY PaOGRAM .. ............. &I DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS..................................... 8-2 ENVIRO1NMENTAM. ASPECTS.................................... 8-2 COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT ........................ ......... 8-3 GENERAL ..................................................... 8-3 MICRt)PIONE-HEADSET ....................................... 8-4 INTERCOMMUNICATION SELECTOR BOX......................-., NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT;................................... .8-4 GENERAL ..................................................... b-4 TERMINAL MANEUVERING EQUIPMENT ....................... 8-5 EN ROUTE NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT........................ h5 Automatic Direction Finder (A.DF) ................... ...... ....... 8-5 Distance-measuring Equipment (DMW) ................ I............. 8-5 Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN).................................. 845 Lona-ranize Navistation (LORAN).................................. t-6 Compasses ..................................................... 8-6L Doppler Navigation Systems ....................................... 8-6 Inertial Navigation Systems ................................. ...... -E; 6 INTERDICTION EQUIPMENT ................................... 8_/ 8-7 1.0W-LIGHT-LEVEL NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT ............... STATION-KEEPING EQUIPMENT .............. ............... 9-7 FIRE CO1ý'TROL EQUIPMENT ......................... .......... 8GENEt. AL................................. .................... 8-7 INSTALLATION .................................. .. ........... 8-8 SIGHTING STATION ............................................ 8-8 SENSORS ...................................................... 8-8
T~rvDW
.. .. .. . . . . . . . II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8-11 I.;.. 8- L2 8-1.3 8-1.4 8-2 8-2.1 8-2.2 8-2.3 8-3 8-3.1 8-3.2 8-3.3 8-3.3.1 8-3.3.2 8-3.3.3 8-3.3.4 8-3.3.5 8-3.3.6 8-3.3.7 8-3.4 9-3.5
I.8-3.6

IX

8-4 8-4.1 8-4.2 8-4.3 8-4.4
O At C'~k

.-

k

~

8-4.6 8-4.6. 1 8-4.6.2 8-4.6.3 8-4.7 8-5 8-5.1 8-5.2 8-5.3 8-5.3.1 8-5.3.2 8-5.3.3 8-5.3.4 8-5.3.5 8-5.3.6

FIRE CONTROL ACCURACY................ I.................... Inertial Stabilization.............................................. Fire Control Datum Planc ..... ................................... Harmonization .................................................. COMPONENT LOCATION......................... .............. ANTENNAS ...................................................... GENERAL ............................. ..... .............. .. ANTENNA DEVELOPMENT..................... ................ LOCATION AND INSTALLATION OF ANI ENNAS ......... Communication Antenna Considierations ............. .... Low Frequency (-1) ........................ .............. ...... H igh Frequency (H F) ý...... .................................... Very High Fre~quency (VHF).......... .................... ... .... Ultra High Ficqucncy (UHF)........... ..... ............ ........ SpeCi3l Purpose ................................................. REFERENCES........................................... .........

8-9 8-9 8-9 8-10 8-10 8-10 U-11 912 f 3 l-l3 : 8-14 8-14 8-;4 g9.14

tA

[_,0

r

I

)Lk

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) ParRAUapC *LISTOF 9-2.1 9-2.1.1 -9-2.1.2 9-2.2 9-2.2.1 9-2.2.2 9-2.2.3 9-2.2.4 9-2.2.5 9-2.3 92.. 9-2.ý.2 9-2.3.3nu 9-2.4 9-2.5 9-2.6 9-2.6.1 9.2.6.1.1 AND:NEUATI SUBSYSTEMS DESIGN 9-1 91 9-1 .9-2 9-2 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-4 9-59-S 9-5 9-5 9-6 9-6 9-7 9-7 9-8
-- 8

SYMBOLS ............................................... FLIGHT CONTROL POWER SYSTEMS.......................... Central Hydraui2c Sysiemn......................................... Flight Control Subsystems........................................ UTILITY HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS ................................ Engine-starting Subsystems........................................ Cargo Door and Ramp System ..................................... Cargo and Pnrsoniicl Hoist ........................................ Rotor Brake ..................................... .............. Wheel Brakes................................................... H-YDRAULIC SYSTEM RELIABILITY ......................... ... Flig ht Control Redundancy........................................9Utility System Redundancy........................................ R elinhilitv Asnacte ....................... 41 YDRAULIC SYSTEM STfRENGTH- CONSIDERATIONS............ H-YDRAULIC SYSTEM TEMPERATURE CONSIDERATIONS .... HYDRAULIC SYSTEM DESIGN ......................... ........ Sun'vability. Reliability, and Safety Trade-offt........................ Reservoir Leve! Sensing ................ .........................
Systemt Switching Concepis
..........
.. ......

4

'

N

.-

I9-2.6.1.3 9-2-6.1.4
ý92.6.2 '92.. 92.6.4.
V -ZAA.1

9-2.6.1.2

1.. K 1

Return Pressure Sensing ....................................... .. Switching and Return Pressure Sensing..................... ...... Operating Pressure Considerations.................................. Selection of Fluid Medium ............... ......................... Filtration (Contamination)........................................
Fluiud

9-9 9-9 9-10 9-10
9-104

Fiiirutiun. ..............................................

.

9-!0

4\

9-Il 9-2.6.4.2Ground Operation Filtration ..................................... 9-2 6.4.3 Filtration Lcvel ................................................ 9-11 9.2.6.4.4 iex~rnal Contamination................... ...................... 9-11 9-2.6.5 Fittings ....................................................... 9-1 i 9-2.6.6 Dynamic Fluid Connections.................................. ..... 9-12 9-2.6.7 Peak Power Leve~ls............................................. 9 9-2.6.8 A1PU ant' Engine Starting ................................... ... . 9-2.6.9 Syskem I-eat Rejection Characteristics ................. ........ ... 9-13 9-2.6. 10 System Analysis........................... ...................... 9-13 9-2.7 HYDRAULIC COMPONENT DESIGN AND SEL ECTIO ... ......... ý~ 9_1I ............. Actuators ... L...................................... 9-2.7.1 9-2.7.1.1 Rip-stop Protection ............................................. 9-0 9-?.7. i.2Endurance Testing Requirements.................................. 9.4g 9-2.7.1.3 Seal Alternatives ....................... ........ ............. 9 92.7.1.4 Materials and Stres!; Corusidci tions ................ ............. .. 9-16 9-2.7.1.5 General Requirements...................................... ..... 9- 1 f 9-2.7.2 Hydraulic Pumps;.............................. .. ... ............ ~* ~ k9-2.7.3 Accumulators................................................. 92.. Reservoirs ............ L................... ....... ........ ..... 4-20 ....... .. ........ ... e-2c 9.2L-7.5 Pressure Relicf............................
Nx

V

AMCP 706-202 T".I Tm (ONvl I-"N'IS , o0 Paragraph 9-2.7.6 9-2.7.7 Pressure Regulation ................................................. Filters .................... .................................. C heck Valves ....................... .......................... ....... Pressure Switches PressureTr~nsm itters.............................................. ................ ... !92.7.10 ............................ Control Sclttor Valves ......................... ................. R estrictors ............ ............................................ S~parauc Secvos ............................. a a c e v , ............ ............. ... .. 9-20 921 9-21 922 9 .22 9-22 9-24 9-25; 9-25 9-25 9-25 9-25 9-26 9-26
qmtinued u

,-

"9-2.7.8
9-2.7.9

9-2.7.11
:9-2.7.13 9-2.7.12
9. .7. ,z

9 -25.

9-2.7.14 9-2.8 9-2.8.1 9-2.8.2

"9-2.8.3
9-2.8.4

AIlovable External Leakage ........................................... HYDRAULIC SYSTEM INSTAILLATON ........................... U se of Hoses and Sw ivels .............................................. Ma-ntrtcance Access ............................................ Hard Vetsus Soft !h.s,stllativns ......................................... Component M ou zingn Conctnts .......................................

9-2.8.5 9-2.9 9-2.9.1 9-2.9.2 9-2.9.3 ,9-2*. :
9-2.9.6

"9-2.9.4

Miscellaneous Instahiation Conside-ati 1 ... ......................... MISCELLANEOUS DESIGN CRI IERIA ............................. Actuators and Assoziated Equipment Design ...... ................... Brake Design .......................................................... Control System Design ................................................ Electrical Design ................................. ....... ............ , ..........................................................
Fittings Design . ......................................................

9-27 9.27 9.27 9-28 9-29 9-29
9-;2c).D 9-30

9-2.9.7 9-2.9.8 9-2.9. 9-2.9.10 9.2.9.11
9-2.9.12

G age and Indicator Design ............. ............................... H osP D esign .......................................................... s .......................................................... R eservoir Design ...................................................... Valve D esign ..........................................................
Lubrication ........................................................... PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS.....G ..................................... PNEUMATIC SYSTEM DESIGN...................................... System A nalysis. ... .... ...................... .....................

9-30 9-30 9 -30 9-31 9-31
9-32 9-32 9-32 9-32

"9-3
9-3.1 9-3.1.1

9-3.1.2
9-3.2

System Redundancy

.. ....................... .....................

9-33
9-33 9-33 9-333 9-34 "
.

"9-3.2.1
9-3.2.2 9-3.2.3 9-3.2.4

9-3.2.1.1 9-3.2.1.2P

COMPONENT DESIGN ......................................... A ir C om pressors ............ ........................................ Positive D isplacem ent ................................................ Dynamic Displacement ..........................................

Compressed Air Supply System Selection and Operation ................ Moisture Separators ................................................... Dehydrators ..........................................................
F ilters ................................................................ Valves ...................................................... Check Valves ................................................

9-34 9-34 9-35
9-35 9-36 9-36

9-3.2.5 9-3.2.6 9-3.2.6.1

9-3.2.6.2 9.3.2.6.3 -9-3.2.6.4 9-3.2.6.5 v -3.2.7
9-3.2.8

R elief Valves ......................................................... Pressure-reducing Valves .................................... Pressure R egulators .................................................. Directional Control Valves ................................... u ........................................................
A ir Storage Bottles ....................................................

9-37 9-38 9-38 9-38 9-41
9-42

9-3.2.9 9-3.2.9.I
,.'.., •~

Subsystem Com ponerts ............................................... Actuators ............................................................

9-43 9-43

Li
"IAB1.4 01 ()%' Paragraph 9-3.2 9.2 Brake V alves .............. ..........................................
IN' I

AM0CP706-202
SI ( ontinucd)i
Page 9-44

9-3.2.9.3 9,3.2.9.4 9-3.3 9-3.4 9-3.4 .1 9-3.4.2 9-3.4.3 9-3.4.4 9-3.4.5 9-3.4.6

Pneum atic Fu ,cs ..................................................... Q uick-disconnect. ............... ............................. ...... PNEUMATIC SYSTEM INSTALLATION AND QUALIFICATION ... PITOT-STATIC SUBSYSTEM DESIGN ............................... A ltimr et rs ................................... ........................ Rate-of-clim b Indicator ............................................... A irspccd Indicators .................................................... Total-pressure Sources ................................................. Static Pressure Sources ................................................ Pitot-static T ubes ...................................................... R EFE R EN C ES .......................................................... CIIAPTER 10 INSTR I EMiNTATION SIUBSYSTEM I)ESIGN IN T RO D U C TIO N ............................. ........................ INSTRUMENTATION LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS ................. G EN E R A L ............................................................ LIGHTING INTENSITY CONTROL .................................. LOW INTENSITY READABILITY ....................................
WARNINGC. CAUTION, AND ADVISOR Y S!ONALS ................ W arning Signals ....................................................... C aution Signals ... ................................. .................. A dvisory Lights .......................................................

9-44 9-44 9-44 945 9-4 5 9-46 9-46 9-47 9-47 9-4 8 9-48

.

-

10-1 10-2 10-2.1 10-2.2 10-2.3
!0-2.4 10-2.4.1 10-2.4.2 10-2.4.3

10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-2
1.7 10-2 10-2 10-3

10-3 10-3.1 10-3.2 10-3.3 10-3.4 10-3.5 10-3.6 10-4
i-4.i

FLIG HT INSTRUM ENTS . ............................................. ( EN ER A L ............... ............................................ AIRSPEED INDICATORS ......................... .................. A LT IM ET ER S ........................................................ TURN-AND-BANK INDICATORS ................................... ATTITUDE INDICATOR ............................................. RATE-OF-CLIMB INDICATORS ..................................... NAVIGATIONAL INSTRUMENTATION ..............................
ENEAL........................................................... ....

10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-7 10-7 10-7 10-7 10-7 10-7 10-8 10-" 10-8 10-8 10-9 10-9 10-10 10-10 10-10 10- 10 xvii

10-4.2 10-4.3 IO.5 10-5.1 10-5.2 10-6 10-6.1 10-6.2 10-6.2.1 10-6.2.2 10-6.2.3 10-6.3 10-7 10-7.1
)10-7.2

10-7.3

TYPESOF INSTRUMENTS ........................................... M A P DISPLA YS ...................................................... HELICOPTER SUBSYSTEM INSTRUMENTATION .................... G EN E R A L ................... ............................ ........... INSTRUMENTATION REQUIRED .................................. WEAPON SYSTEM INSTRUMENTATION ............................. G EN ER A L ............................................................ DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ........................................... Arming, Fuzing, and Suspension and Release Control Design ............ Human Fa -tors Considerations ......................................... Indicator Dcsign ...................................................... WEAPON SELECTION CONTROLLLR/PROGRAMMER ........... TYPES Of INSTRUMENT .............................................. IN STA LLATIO N ...................................................... V IBR A T IO N .......................................................... ACCESSIBILITY AND MAINTENANCE ............................. R EFER EN C ES ............................................ .............

TABLE OF CONTENTS (-]onitnuvdi Paragiaph CHAPTER i i AIRFRAME STRUCTURAL DESIGN LIST O F SYM BO LS ..................................................... INTRO DUCTIO N ....................................................... I)ESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ........................................... W EIG H T .............................................................. SURFACE SMOOTHNESS ............................................ STIFFNESS AND RUGGEDNESS .................................... FATIGUE SENSITIVITY ............................................. C O ST .................................................................. M A T ER IA LS .......................................................... SU RVIVA BILITY .................................................... DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ....................................... FITTINGS .................................................. SU PPO RT S ............................................................ FRA M ES ............................................................. BU LK H EA DS ......................................................... SKIN SUBSYSTEM S .................................................. CORROSION PROTECTION ........................................ FiEC. TRWiAL BLONDiNG ................................................ CARGO COMPARTMENT .............................................. STA T IC LO A D S ....................................................... C RA SH LO A D S ...................... ................................ TRANSPARENT AREAS ................................................ D EV ELO PM EN T ............ ........ .................................. M A N U FACTU R E ................. .......................... .......... SU BSTA N TIATIO N ..................................................... A N A L Y SIS .............................................................. T EST IN G ................................................................ R EF E R EN C ES .......................................................... CHAPTER 12 LANDING GEAR SUJBSYSTEM LISTO SYM BO LS ..................................................... G EA R T Y PE S .......................................................... W H EELG EA R ........................................................ G enera .......... ...... ................ ............................. Comrponent Design and Selection .................................... Tires .................. .............. .............................. W hec ls .............................................................. Shock Struts ................... ................................. B rakes ............................................................... SK ID G EA R .......................................................... G enera l ............................................................... G round-handling W he ............................ ................. Scuff P late% ....... ................................................. RETRACTABLEG EAR .................... .......................... G eneral ............................................................... A ctuatio n ............................................................. Em ergency Extension .................................................. Page

I -f0 I-oI 11-2 11-2.1 11-2.2 1a-2.3 11-2.4 11-2.5 11-2.6 11-2.7 11-3 11-3.1 11-3.2 11-3.3 11-3.4 11-3.5 11-3.6 i i-3.7 11-4 11-4.1 11-4.2 I1-5 11-6 11-7 I-8 11-8.1 I1-8.2

II-I I1-1 Il-1 11-1 I1-! l111-2 I1-2 11-2 11-2 11-4 I1-5 i-5 1l-5 11-6 11-6 11-6
.11-7

11-7 11-7 11-9 li-Il 11-12 11-12 11-12 1 1-13 1 1-13 11-13

12-0 12-1 12-1.1 12-1.1.1 12-1.1.2 12-1.1.2 .1 12-1.1.2 .2 12-1.1.2.3 12-1.1.2.4 12-12 12-1.2 ,1 12-1.2.2 12-1.2.3 12-1.3 12-1.3.. 12-1.3.2 12-1 3.3

12-I 12-1 12-1 12-1 12-3 12-3 12-4 12-5 12-8 12-8 12-8 12-8 12-9 12-9 12-9 12-9 12-9

"xViii

AMI;P 706-202
TABLE OF ('ONTFNTS (('ouilnued)

Paragraph I2- 1.4 12-1.4.1 12-1.4.2 12-2 12-3 12-4 12-4.1 124 .2 12-4.3 12-4.4 124.5 SKIS AND BEAR PAW S ............................................. G eneral ..................................................... . ... . . Installatior .................................................. LANDING LOAD ANALYSIS AVOIDANCE O!"GROUND RESONANCE ............................. WATER-LANDING CAPABILITY ...................................... G EN ER A L ............. .............................................. PRIM E CAPABILITY ................................................. ADDITIONAL CAPABILITY ........................................ EMERGENCY FLOTATION CAPABILITY ........................... M O D ELTESTS .......................................................
R EFER EN C ES .'. .................................. .....................

Page 12-9 12-9 12-10 12-11 12-11 12.12 12-12 12-12 12-12 12-13 12-14
12-14

13-0 13-1

CHAPTER 13 CREW STATIONS AND CARGO PROVISIONS LIST OF SYM BOLS .............. t ................................ INTRODUCTION ...................... .............................

13-I 13-1
.. .

13-2 13-2.1.1
.1

PERSONNEL ACCOMMODATIONS ...... ......................... General Vision Requirennents ....................................
F i Ik,•.,% •II . .. .. . .. .. -a • ¢. .. . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . .

13-1 132
3-2

13-2.1.2 13-2.1.2.1 13-2.1.2.2 13-2.1.3 13-2.1.3.1 13-2.1.3.2 13-2.1.4 13-2.2 13-2.2.1 13-2.2.2 13-2.2.3 13-2.2.4 13-2.2.5 13-2.2.6 13-2.3 13-2.3.1 13-2.3.2 13-2.3.3 13-2.3 4 13-2.3.5 13-2,3.6 13-2.3.7 13-2.4 13-2.4. I 13-2.4.2 13-2.4.3 13-2.5 13-2.5.1 13-2...2

Controls .. Pitch C ontrols .....................................

.................

13-2 13-2 I -3 13-3 13-3 13-4 13-5 13-5 13-5 13-5 13-5 13-5 13-5 13-5 13-6 13-6 13-7 13-7 13-7 13-7 13-7 13-7 13-7 13-7 13-8 13-8 13-8 13-8 13-9

)
',

Directional Control Pedals ........................................... Seats. Belts. and H arnesses ............................................. C rew Seats ........................................................... Belts and H arnesses ................... ............ ................. M ap and D ata C ases .................................................. PASSENGER COMPARTMENT ..................................... Troop and Passcngcr Seats ............................................ C o lo r ............................................... ................. U pholstering and Carpeting ........................................... Sm oking Provisions ....................................... ........... Signal Lights and A larm Bells .......................................... Acrom edical Evacuation .............................................. SURVIVAL FQUIPMENT ...................................... .. Inflight Escape and Survival Equipment ............................... Ground Escape and Ditching Provisions ............................. Em ergency L.ighting Provisions ........................................ L ife R afts ............ ................................................ Survival K its ......................................................... First Aid ................. .................................. Fire Extinguishing Svstern s and Axe .................................... ENVIRONM ENTAi CONTROL ..................................... Ventilation. Heating. and Cooling .... ................................. Windshield Defogging and Deicing Equipncnti....................... .. A coustical Environm ent ............................... ............... SIGHITS AND SIGHTING STATIONS ............................... D irect-view ing Sights ................... .............................. H elm et M ounted Sight ................................................

.TABI .01O

(11"VI'Tl'

S I (.'i1niinu.d)

Parjoraph 13-2.5.3 13-2.5.4 13-3 13-3.1 13-3.1.1 13-3.1.2 13-3.1.3 13-3.1.4 13-3.1.5 13-3.1.6 13-3.2
13-3.2.1 13-3.2.2 13-3.2.2.1 13-3.2.2.2 13-3.2.3 13-3.2.4 13-3.2.5 13-3.2.6 13-3.2.7 .3-37.8

Page Indirect Sights ..... ................................................... M is~ile Sighting Stations ............................................... LIG HTING SYSTEM S .................................................. ................................... EXTERIOR LIGHTING SYSTEM A nticollision Light System ............................................. Form ation Lights ..................................................... Landing/Taxi Light ......................................... ........ Searchlight ........................................... ................ ............................................ Floodlight System Position Lights ........................................................ INTERIOR LIGHTING SYSTEM .....................................
Cabin and Compartment Lighting ...................................... ................................ C ockpit Lighting ..................... Utility Lights ............................................... ..................................... Secondary Lighting ............ Panel Lightii• ........................................................ Interior Emergcncy ! ;oht . ....... .................................... Portable Inspection Lights ............................................. Troop Jum p Signal Light .............................................. Warning, Caution, and Advisory Lights ................................ |Inmtrm ent lanel lighting ........................................ CARGO PROVISIONS .................................................. .................... INTERNALCARGO ............................. Cargo Compartment Layout ........................................... Detail Design ......................................................... Loading A ids ......................................................... EXTERNAL CARGO ................................................. Static Loads ........................................................... ....................................... D ynam ic Loads ............... W inches and H ooks ................................................... .......... ......................... .. System Safety ............
.--.......................... .....

13-9 13-9 13-9 13-9 13-9 13-9 13-10 13-10

3-10
13-10 13-10
13-10 13-10 13.10 13-10 13.10 13-10 13-10 13-I1 13-I1 13-11

.

....

13-3.2.9
13-4 13-4.1 13-4.1.1 13-4 .i.2 134 .1.3 13-4.2 13-4.2.1 13-4.2.2

Cargo Comnartment Lighting .......................................

13--il
13-11 13-11 13-11 13-11 13-13 13-14 13-18 13-18 13-19 13-20

S13-4.2.3
13-4.2.4

t.

CHAPTER 14
14-0 14-1 14-2 14-2.1 14 -2.1.1 14-2.1.2 14-2. 1.2.1 14-2.1.2.2 ARMOR. ARMAMENT. AND PROTE('TIVE SUIBSYSTEMS l)E);l(;N .............................. LIST O F SY M BO LS ..................... IN TRO D U CTIO N ....................................................... ..................... ARM IAM ENT SYSTEM S .......................... G U N S ................................................................. T ypes ................................................................. Location ...... ....................................................... Projectile Flight Path ................................................. Blast Effecis ........................................................ Debiis Ejection Path ................................................. External G un Jettisoning ............................................. A ccessibility ......................................................... Dynam ic Forces ...................................................... 14-1 14-1 14-1 14-1 14-1 14-2 14.3 14-3 14-3 14-3 14-3 14-4

"14-2.1.2.3
14-2.1.2.4 14-2.1.2.5 14-2.1.2.6 xx

1iil.f f Paragraph 14-:.1.3 14 2.1.3.1 14-2.1.3 2 14-2.1.3.3 14-2.1.4 W14 2.1.5 14-2.1.6 14-2.2 14-2.2.1 14-2.2.2 14.2.2.3 14-2.2.4 14-2.2.5 14-2.2.6 14-2.2.7

(OF'O:NT

NT( 'ontinucd i l Page

Typcs of Installation; .................................................. Pod Installations ..................................................... Turret Installations ................................................... Pintle G uns .......................................................... A m m unition Storage .................................................. A m m unition Feed ..................................................... Boresighting and Harmonization ....................................... G UIDED M ISSILES ................................................... Location of Launcher Installations ..................................... Structural Clearance ................................................... Blast Protection ....................................................... A ccessibility ................ ......................................... Firing C ircuit Testing ............................... .................. Jettisoning ................................................. Effects of Aircraft M aneuvers ..........................................

14-4 14-4 14-4 14-5 14-5 14-6 14-6 14-6 14-6 14-7 14-7 14-7 14-7 14-7 14-7

[
"

14-2.2.8
14-2.2.9 14-2.2. iO 14-2.2.11
14-Z.2.i2

Types of Installations ..................................................
L oading .............................................................. Aerodynamic Effccts .................................................. Suspension and Retention .............................................
Launch initia.ion .........................................................

14-7
14-7 14-7 14-7
4-8

.....

14-2.2.13 14-2.2.14 14-2.3 14-2.3.1 14-2.3.2 14-2.3.3

"14-2.3.4
14-2.3.5 14-2. 3.6

Restraining Latch ..................................................... Forced Ejection ....................................................... R O C K ETS ............................................................ Rocket Launcher Installations ......................................... Launch Tube M aterials ................................................ Launcher M ounting ...................................................
N umber of Rockets ....................................................

14-8 14-8 14-8 14-8 14-9 14-9
14-9

A

Load Requirem ents ................................................... G round Safety ........................................................

14-9 14-9

14-2.3.7
14-2.3.8 14-2.3.9 14-2.3.10

Restraining Latches

...........................................

4-4
14-9 1i4-i0 14-10

Firing Contacts ....................................................... Intervalonicter ........................................................ Launcher Fairing ............................................... ......

K
t.

14-2.4
14-2.4.1 14-2.4.2 14-2.4.3 14-2.4.4 14-2.4.5 14-2.4.6 14-2.4.7 14-2.4.8 14-3 14-3.1 14-3.2 14-3.2.1 14-3.2.2 14-3.2.3 14-3.2.4

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

........................................

14-10
14-10 14-10 14-1 14-I I 14-I 1 14-I I 14-12 14-12 1412 14-1 2 14-13 14-13 14-16 14-16 14-16 14-16 xxi

'

)

"14-3.2.5

Safety C riteria ......................................................... Fire Interrupters ................... .................................. Contour Followers ............................................... Burst Lim iters ......................................................... C ockpit N oise ................................. ....................... Debris D isposal ................... ................................... Toxic Explosive Gas Prot,:ction ........................................ Turret M as,¢r Power Switch ........................................... PROTECTIVE SUBSYSTEMS ........................................... G EN ER A L ............................................................ DEVELOPMENT OF VULNERABILITY REDUCTION SYSTEMS.. Vulnerability Analysis ................................................ Vulnerability Reduction Checklist ................................... Vulnerability Data Presentation ....................................... Aircrew Armor Configuration Development ........................... Armor M aterial Selection ............. ................................

K

.

'-'.
ANCP 706-PM "TABLE
Paragraph 14-3.3 14-3.3.1 14-3.3.2 14-3.3.3 14-3.3.4 14-3.3.5 14-3.3.6 14-3.36.1 14-3.3.6.2 14-3.3.6.3

.. . . ...

OF CONTENTS (('onlinucd) Page

ARMOR INSTALLATION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ............ A irc, ew Torso A rm or ................................................. Interchangcability ..................................................... .................................. R em ovability ...................... F ,ying Qualities ....................................................... Im m obilization ........................................................ Armor Material Attachmcnt/Installation ............................... M ounting of Arm or Plate ............................................. Installation Design ............................. ..................... Bullet Splash and Spall ........... ................................... R EFER EN C ES .......................................................... ('HAPTER 15 MAINTENANCE AND GROUND SUPPORT EQIIPMENT ((;SF) INrFRFA('F IN T RO D U C T IO N ....................................................... DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS ................. SA F ET Y .............................................................. A CC FSSIBILIT Y ...................................................... STANDARD IZATION ................................................ HUM AN ENG INEERING ............................................ INSPECTION, TEST, AND DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM .................. PROPULSION SUBSYSTEM INTERFACES ............................

14-18 14-18 14-18 14-18 14-19 14-19 14-19 14-19 14-19 14-20 14-20

15-1 15-2 05.2.1 15-2.2 15-2.3 15-,.4 15 2.5 15-3

15-1 15-1 15-1 15-2 15-2 15-3 5-3 15-3

15-3.1
15-3.2 15-3.3 15-3.4 15-3.5 15-3.6 15-3,7

G E N E R A L ............................................................
INTERCHANG EA BILITY/QUICK-CHANGE ........................ CONNECTORS AND DISCONNECT POINTS ...................... INSPECTION AND TEST POINTS ....................................

15-3
15-4 15-4 15-4 15-4 15-4 15-4 15-4 154 15-5 15-5 15-5 15-5 15-5 15-5 15-5 15-6 15-6 15-6 15-6 15-6 15-7 15-7 15-7 15-7 15-7 15-7 15-7 15X

OIL, FUEL, AND LUBRICATICN ................................... G RO U N D IN G ........................................................ STARTING .......................... ................................. S A R IN 15 3 . ............................. GROUND HEATERS .................. 53.8 EN G IN E W A SH ....................................................... 15-3.9 15-4 TRANSMISSIONS AND DRIVES ....................................... 15-5 ROTORS AND PROPELLERS ........................................ 15-6 FLIG HT CONTRO LS ................................................... ......................... 15-6.1 ROTATING SYSTEM S ...................... 15-6.2 NONROTATING SYSTEMS .......................................... T R IM SY ST EM S ...... . .............................................. 15-6.3 ELECTRICAL SUBSYSTEMS ......................................... 15-7 A VIO N IC SU BSYSTEM S ................................................ 15-8 15-8.1 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS .................................... 15-8.2 NAVIG ATION SYSTEM S .. ... ...................................... 15-9 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SUBSYSTLMS ..................... 15-9.1 HYDRAULICSUBSYSTEM ...................................... PNEUMATIC SUBSYSTEM ................................... 15-9.2 15-10 INSTRUMENTATION SUBSYSI EMS .................................. ............... 15-10.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS ...................... NAVIGATION INSTRUMENTS ...................................... 15-10.2 AERIAL VEHICLE SUBSYSTI M INS1 RUMt-N]ATION ............ 15-10.3 ........... ................. A IRFRA M E STR UCTU RE ................ 15-11 LANDING GEAR SUBSYSTIM ..................................... 15-12 xxii

L)

"

.

AMCP 7CO-202 TABLEl- ('ONTENI NS C(ontinued) Paragraph
15-13 C R EW STATIO N S ................... ................................

Page
15-8

S"

"15-14

ARMAMEN
:

r, ARMOR,

AND PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS ................
('lAPTFR 1I)

15-8

16-0 16-1 16-2 16-2.1 16-2.2 16-2.2.1 16-2.2.2 16-2.2.3 16-2.2.4 16-2.3 16-2 .3.1 16-2.3.2 16-2.3.3 16-2.3.4 16-2.3.6 16-2.3.7 -. 16-3 16-3.1 16-3.2 16-3.2.1 16-3.2.2 16-3.2.3 16-3.3 16-3.3.1 16-3.3.2 16-3.3.3 16-3 3.4 16-3.4 16-3.5 16-3.6 16-3.7
16 -3.7 .1 16-3.7.2 16-4

STANDARD PARTI LIST O F SY M BO LS ..................................................... IN TRO D U CTIO N ........................................ r .............. FA ST FN E IRS .................... ....................................... GENERAL .................................................. THREADED FASTENERS ...................................... Screw s ............................................................... B o lts ............................. ............................. ...... N uts .. ...................... ......................................... W ashers ........................ ... .............. .................. NONTltREADED FASTLNERS ................................... R ivets ......................... ...................................... Pins. ...................................................... Quick-release Fasteners ............. ............................... .............. .. Turnbuckiics and Tcfinitaiil. .... Retaining Rings ........ ................................. Clam ps and G rom mets ................................................ Self-retaining Fasteners ................................................ HEARINGS............. ........................ ......I............ G E N ERA l . ................ ........................................... BA LL BEA RIN G S ..................................................... R adial Ball Bearings ................................................... A ngular Contact Bearings ............................................. Thrust Bali Bearings ... ................... ........................ ROLLER BEARINGS ................................................ C ylindrical Roller Bearings ............................................ N eedle Bearing% ............... ................ ........... ........ Spherical Roller Bearings ............................................. Tapered R oller Bearings ................ .............................. A IRFRAM E BEARIN G S .............................................. SLIDING BEARINGS ......................................... LAMINATED EL.ASTOMiRIC BI-ARINYS .......................... BEARING SEALS AND RETAINERS .............................
S eals ....... .. . . .............................. ............... Bearing R tcnrtion ..................................................... ELECTRICAL FITTINGS ...................

16-1 16-1 16-1 16-I 16-1 16-1 16-2 16-2 16-2 16-3 16 -3 K.3 16-3 16.3 b16-4 164 16-4 16-4 16-b 16-8 16-9 16-10 16-10 16-10 16-11 16-11 16-12 16-12 16-14 16-15
16 -15 16-15 16-16

.

I

16-4.1 16-4.2.
16-4.2.1

16-4.2.2
16-4.2.2.1

G E N E R A L ....................... ... ..... .......................... CONNECTORS AND CABLE ADAPTERS ............................ Connector Selection .NA ... ............................. C ircular C opnectors ................. .......... .....................
Termination Seals ............................... C able A dapters ......................................................

16-16 16-16
16-16

16-18
16-19 16-19

16-4.2.2.2 16-4.2.2.3
16-4.2.3 16-4.2.4

Connector Couplings ...............................................
Rack and Panel Connector . ...................................... Flat Conductor Cable Connector .................................... .

16-19
16-19 16-19

16-4.2.5
-•--: "x

Printed W iring Board Connector .r ................. ....................

16-19
xiii

Si.......

'•

AM CP 706-202
! Paragraphl 16-4 .3 16-4.4 16-5 16-5.1 16-5.1.1 16-5.1.2 16-5.1.3 16-6 16.6.1 16-6.2 16-6.2.1 16-6.2.2 16-6.2.3 16-6.2.4 16-6.2.5 16-6 2.6 16-6.2.7 16-7 16-7.1 I 16.L 16-7.2.1 16-7.2 2 16-7.2.3 16-7.2.4 16-7.2.5 16-7.3 16-7.4 16-8 16-8.1 16-8.2 16-8.2.1 16-8.2.2 16-8.2.3 16-8 .2 .4 16-8.2.5 16-8.3 16-8.3.1 16-8.3.2 16-8.3.3 16"9 16-9.1 16-9.2 16-9.3 16-9.4 16-9.4.1 16-9.4.2 16-9.4.3 16-9.4.4 16-9.4.5 16-9.5

\EI "l.,AHI.I. OI1 ( ()\I i '\1 SI( ,,niiguud I

(%I

T E R M IN Al S ... ........... ................................. ........ TERMINAl BOARDS ........................................... ELECTRICAL SW ITCHtES .............................................. ........... ........ ................... G EN I'R AI ................. ...... .............................................. T oggle S% itclics Pu.,h-button SAitches ...................................... ... . ..... ......... ....... R otaw S's itchc% ..... ............................... PIPE ANI) TUBE !ITTINc;S ......................................... GENERAl ..... ............................................. TYPES 1F: lTT NGS . . ....................................... . T apered Pipe I hreads ............ .................................... Stritght T hread Fittings ............................................... Flared T ube Fitlings .................................................. Flareless T ube Fitting% ............ .................................... Thin Wall Tube Connectors ........................................ Q uick-disconnect C oupin , ........................................... ..................... Perm anent F ittings .............................. C O N T ROL. PU LL EY S ........................ .......................... G E N E R A L ............................................................ ILLEY SE.LECTIO , -............................................................ P ulle%D iam eter ........................ ............................. Pulle) G roove ... ...... ....... ....................................... P ulle) S treng th .......................................... ............. Pulley Perform ance .................................................... ..... N onm etallic Pule) s .... ........................................ PU IL EY IN STAI LATIO N ......... .................................. PU LLEY G U A R D S ................................................... PUSH-PULL CONTROl S ANI) [ItiXiBII. SIAI"TS ................... G E N E R A L ............................................................ ......................... PUSH-PULL CONTROLS ................... ................. C ontrol T ravel ...................................... ................................ C ontrol L oads ....................... ........................... Core Configurations ................... C o n d ui. ............................................................... End F:itting, ................................................ FLEXIBLE SHAFTS ........................................... Torque C apacity ..................................................... .................... Flexible Power Shafts . .......................... Flexible Control Shafts .. ......................................... CABLES AND WIRES(STRUCTURAI ) ................................ G E N E R A L ............................................................ PREFORMED WRE STRAND AND CABL I . ....................... TYPES 01: CABLE CONSTRUCTION ............................... C A BLE SELECT IO N .................................................. C able Strength ........... ............................................ ............................................. Cable Deflection Operating Characteristics ....................................... . W ire M aterial ...................................................... C ablc(.onstruction ............. ....................... ...... ....... SAFETY WIRE AND COTTIER PINS .................................. R EFER EN C ES .........................................................

.

6 19 ,16-19 6-20 .I%-20 16 -20 l 20 16 -22 1622 122 16-22

16 22
16-23

..

16-23 16-24 16-25 16-25
16 25 l ,-25 1 6-25 ,I 2 16-211 16-26 16-2(1 16-26 .1 -26, 1(,-2(, 16-27 16-27 16-27 16,-27 I t,-2,,s 16 -29 16-28 16-28 16-21) 16-29 16-30 16-30 16-30 (1 31 16-3 1 16-31 16-3 1 16-31 1(-3?. 1(0-3I 16 32 1 -320 16 -32 16-32 16-3.

.

.

.

.

xxiv

_____AAMCP

706-202 TABI.E 01 (ON'I EN• S i(',.,.ue

_Paragraph (HAIA 17-I 17-2 17-2.1 17-2.2 17-2.2.1 17-2.2.2
T

Pape llR 17 17-I 17-I 17-I 17-1 17.2 17-2 17. 17-2 17-2 17-2 17-3 17-3 17-3 17-4

VROCl*:sSFS
IN T R O I)U C T IO N ..................... . .......... ... ................. M ET A LW O R K IN G .............. ............................. ........ G E N E R A I . . .......................................................... C A ST IN G ...... .............................. ....................... Sand C astings ............. ............ ............................. Investment Castings ......................................... ...... Permanent Mold Castin. ........................................ C entrifugal C astings ................................................... FO R G IN G ............................................................ E XT R U SIO N .................................... ..................... SHEET-METAL FORMING .......................................... M achine Form ing .................. ................................. Shop Fabrication ........ ............................................. M E N IN G ........ M............ .. ................... ................ MACHINING OPERATIONS ...................................... ELEMENTS OF MACHINING DESIGN .............................. JOINING .......................... GEN ER A L ..........................................................

"17-2.2.3
17-2 2 4 17-2.3 17-2.4 17-2.5 17-2.5.I 17-2.5.2 17-3

17-3.1

17-3.2 17-3.3

GENERAL................. ..................................

...

17-4

17-4

9.17-4.2

17-4.1

..

!7-6

17-5 17-5 7-6

17-4 .2.1 17-4 .2.2 17-4 .2.3 17-4.3 17-4 .3.1 17-4-3.2 17-4 .3.3 17-4.4 17.4.5 17-5 17-5.1 17-5.2 17-5.2.1 17-5.2.2 17-5.2.3 17.5.2.4 17-5.2.5 17-5.3 17-5.4 17-5.1.1 17-5.4.2 17-5.4.3 17-5.5 17-6 17-6.1 17-6.2 17-6.3 i' •

ST7.6.4

WELDING, BRAZING, AND SOLDERING .......................... W elding .............................................................. B razing ................... ........................................... So ldering .. ........................... ... . ........................ MECHANICAL FASTENING ......................................... R ivets ................................................................ Bolts, N uts, and W ashers .............................................. Screw s ................................................................ ADHESIVE BONDING - STRUCTURAL .......................... SWAGING AND CABLE SPI ICING .................................. IIEAT TREATM ENT ................... ............................. G EN ERAL ............................. .......... ................ HEATTFREATMtENT METALLURGY ....... .......... .. .. A nnealing ............................................. N orm alizing .. ........................................... ............ Stress Relief ........ Tem pering ............................................................ A ging ........................................ ........................ FERRO U S ALLOYS ......... ............................ ........... NONFERROUS ALLOYS ............................................. A lum inum A lloys ..................................................... C opper A lloys ......................... ............................... T itanium A iloys ................ 0 .. ................................... DESIGN ASPECTS OF HEAT TREATING ............................ WORK HARDENING .................................................. G E N ER A L ............................................................ FO R M IN G ...................... ..................................... ROLLER BURNISHING .............................................. SHOT-PEEN ING .....................................................

17-7 17-7 17-8 17-10 17-10 17-10 17-1I .7-11 17-12 17-15 17-16 17-16 17-17 17-17 17-17 17-17 17-17 17-17 17-17 17-18 17-18 17-18 17-18 17-19 17-19 17-19 17-19 17-19 17-20 xxv

TABLE OF C17N1 EN"IS (Continued) Piragraph 17.7 .17-7.1 17-7.2 17-7.3 17-7.4 ................................. TOOLING ........................ GENERAL ....................................................... SHOP TOOLING.................................................. ......... AIRFRAME TOOLING .................................. T EST TOOLING .................................................. REFERENCES................... .................................. Page 1720 17-20 17-22 17-22 17-23 17-23

APPENDIX A ]EXAMPLE OF A PRELIMINARY HEATING, COOLING, AND V'ENfILATION ANALY'1S A-1 ...... HEATING AND V~ENTILATION ANALYSIS................... A-1 A-1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ........................................ A-1.1 A-1 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS .......................................... A-1.2 A-I ....... H EAT LOSSES................ ............................ A-1.3 A-1 Cockpit.......................................................... A-1.3.i A-1 ......................... Convection............................ A-1.3.1.1 A-2 Infiltration ................................................... A-l.'.I.2 A-2 Total Cockpit Heat Loss..................................... I...... A-1.3.1.3 A-2 Cabin....................... .................................... A-1.3.2 A-Z A-1.3.2.l Convection ..................................................... AA-1. 3.2.2 Infiltration ........................................................... A-', Tota! Cabini Heat Loss.................................................. A-1.3.2.3 A-2 ........ VENT ILATING AIR REQUIRED ........................... A-I1.4 A-2 A-1.4.1 Based on Number of Occupants and Minimum Ventilating Rate............ A-3 Requirement Based on Maximum Allowable Temperature Difference ... A- 1.4.2 A-3 I............................. Cockpit Requirement................. A- 1.4.2.1 A-3 Cabin Requiremcnt................................................ A-1.4.2.2 A-3 A- 1.4.2.3 Total Air Requirein~eit . .......................................... A-3 I.................................. Total Heat Requirement .......... A- 1.4.3 A-3 HEATER REQUIREMENTS................. ........................ A-1.5 A-3 ........ Heat Gained.............................................. A-1.5.1
A I C~ '% V

Iia

A~AUI~ IAI

A-i.5.3 A-1.6 A. 1.6.1 A-1.6.2 A-? A-2.1 A-2.2 A,-2.1 A-2.3. i

................... Heater Size .................................... BLOWER SIZE ................................................... Volume of Air to be Delivered ....................................... Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. COOLING AND VENTILATING ANALYSIS .............. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ...................... DESIGN ASSUMNiPTIONS ....................... DETERNIINOATION OF EFFECTIVE TFMiPLR,.TURIDIFFERENCLS ASSOCIATED WITH VARIOUS SURFACES OF THlE HELICOPTER .............................................. Effective Solar Tempe~ratures ........................................

A-4 A-4 A-4 A-4 A-4 A-4 A-4 A-4 A-4

A-2.3.2
A-2.4
I

Effective A~'s..................................................
COCKPIT HEAT GAINS........................................... ionvectiori. lnfiltrat'on, and Solar Radiation........................ Convection Gains................................... ............ Infiltration Gain ...................... ............. ........... Solar Radiation Gajii ................... ........................ Total Hleat Gain Ducto Convection. Infiltrationi and Solar Radiation .. Occupants .......................................................

A-5
A-5 A. 5 A-5 A-6 A-6 A-6 A-6

A-2 4. 1-1 A-2.4.1.2 A-2.4.1.3 A-2.4.1.4 A-2.4.1 xxvi

(

TABLE OF CONTENTS I(onfinaed) Paragraph
fAtC

A-2.4.3 A-2.4.4 A-2.5 A-2.5.1
A -2.5.2

'Electrical System .............. ........... Total Cockpit liea&. Gain .................................... AIR CONDITIONER SIZE ........................................... Conditioning of Ventilation Air ........................................
Fan Size and H rit .....................................................

A-6 x6 A-6 A-6
A -7

A-2.5.3

Tons of Refrigeration Required ....................................... -REFEREN CES .......................................................... IND•EX .................................. ..............

A-7 A -7 . J-i

.9

'22

S",,,.XXV8I

ýLIST OF ILLUSThAA 9ýNS
it.,$u No,
4?i

2

Titie-ct~y

fig. 2-I Sdwc Srcue. ......... ..................... -2 Fig. 2-2 'Weight Compai ison of Matcri,0%ýor Equial 1ttii. ....... .. ......... 2-22 -Fige. 2-3 Comparative Sonic Fatigue Rnsistancý: fltZpnvcjiti~oawA bud S-4ndwichi4 '.Structures . . . . . . ... . . . . . ... . . ... .. 2-22 4Fig. 2-4 -Common Honeycomb Conf;ý urations ............................. .... 123 fig. 25 trperdecs of Balss Wood - Comprcssive Strengtl i, rbnsity.............. -24 \ t%4ig. 2-6 Properties of Balsa Wood - "L" Shear Strength vs Denwy ................ .$24 3Z tig.44 27 Typical Stabilized Comprcsaivc Strength ......... I......... 2-24 Strength ............................. ............. 2-24 Typical "1" Shear ~'r. 2-9 vig. 2-8 .Typicrsl "L" Sheur Modulus........................................ (24 IFtg. 2-lb Modes fr(ailu.- of Sandwich Componimc Under Edgcwisc Loads ........... -,-.2-7 ' Fig. 3-; Submer-ged Engine Installation (Exantplc) .............................. .3-2 'wFig. 3-2 Scmicxposcd Engine lnstclladon (Example).............. ............... 3-2 Fir. 3-3 Exposed En-im: Installation (Exiampc)................. .33 KFig. 3-4 Typical Fuel Subsytcmn.................. ... .......... .............. 3-10 fig. 3-5 Typical Fuel Subsystem Wit Pressure Rcfuel~ng.......... ............... 3-12 rig. 3-6 PFerformance Cci rrczions for Duct Lovsses................. ....... .3-17 *fig.3-7 Allowable Combined lvde;ý asnd Exhaust Duct Pressure LOSSeS................ 3-17 fig. 4.1 4Helicopter Main GeiL box Weignt vs Takeoff Power ....................... 4-4 f ig. 4-2 tower Loss to Hcfat vs lnpui Povwrc -- Typical Twin -engine-driven Gearbox 4-5 ""A"............ I .......... ........ 4-7 t.ig. 4-4 Elastic Body Contact Pressurt IlIbstribution and interface Contour ........... 4$Fig.4.5 .Fri,.Iion Coeffhieint vs EI-1I) Parameters - Regions I and 11 ............. 4-8 f'ig.- 4-6 :"Angle Of Enga.;emcnt ............................................... 4-9 _l-ig. 4-7 Coefficient of Friction vs S9iting Velocity ............................... 4-10 S4-8 of &urface 'texturt and Lay on Friction and Scuffing Behavior ..... 4-10 ~ ~ ~ N~unibci of Failures vs howurs Srice Overhaul - MTBF- 500 hr............4 4-4 't' Number of Failurc:s vs HWoes &nuriv Operation- MTBF 5000 hr........... 4-14 m.-I 4rotm~aily of Survival vs L/rF,)Ratio...................... ............ 4-15 r'Cig j i'ý ~ pli~ivs Hertz Stress...........................................41 F.i -Ii 4 14cibull Plot - Spalling Life vs Gear Population Rank 4-"I ig44 'T pica 1 aiVPRotnýr Gearbox - Vulnerable ...................... .................... ...... 4A-19 ~f% '~ 4 ~iUoto~earo-%X n zxo ....-. ...... 1........................4-% jW IC Zvý ote,; Gcarbois - 12.7 Mmn Proof.............................. 0 11-21 .0,1% Typicwil Spects 1Powe.rFuncticn ......................................... 4-25 4S !2ý feCultvc,; Li~~ee~ ............................. ....... 42 I 4j4ig419 Shaft Horspowei ~cr His-Lograms................... ......... 4c$I~4-20 Orioph c Rlationship - Fwilnte- Modes - Load v., 'eoi hy ............. 4-35 -A-f iraphic- Rel~ationship -- Failure Modes - Load vs Tjooth Siie........ 4-35 'Fiag. 4-22 . S5ingki VYoat!) Pusorf Gear Fatigue Test Results ........... I......I........ 4-41 f4. *-23 z vs SýWini: Velocity - Synchroniizd ani Ui~ytchreiiae Dics 442 -Tig 4ý--_, C4i L -,,t ýiAtV>'wabke *i Suibsurfacxý Shear........ ........... ....... 4-45 4-46 r.:b'cnt -* Unsynchror.z. ................................ s V50t
. ............. :C.Tect~ ,~ . . : -4-26;~

34

1

j

-0ý1

2
4-

Cr~~ ear--Inrc~Ring Fit vw peratinTime ................ ........ c s ater Ring -ILinc~r Fit ReC$,4tion...... ............... -.nGtigy : 4 With ittcer Ring Expansion ..................
-.-

4-49
4

Sp~t! nul on lh'Ttuhant Bearing fotccs................... Clearmnat LLv - lasic.anti -syj
4 .. 4

7zrn al lieoad-

OF vs. Dl?.....................

45

-56

~-A

LIST 01- 1 I.V3 .o 0 0- Caef~iwwd) 4TA~ll
Fig. No, Fig. 4-33 F-ig. 4-34 Fiwg 4135 Fig. 4-36~ Fig. 4-37 Fig- 4-38 Fig. 4-39 Fig. 4-40 Fig. 4-41 Fig. 4-42 Fig. 4-43 Fig, 4-44 Fig. 5-1 Fig. 5-? Fig. 5-3 Fig. 5-4 Fig. 5.5 5-6 Fig. 5-7
iý 5-8

~

Title Involute Spline Data 1, vs;N ... ....... ............ 4-60 Radial Mode Resonance 17ý_owiic vN Cear t'ooth Meshing Sipted ...... 41 Typical Spiral Damper Ring App~k~aions ............. .......... ........ 4-70A Relative Shaft Speed vs Pantive Vib~ration Amplitude......................4-74 Typical Bcaring Flangc~r As-_cmbl.V - Subci itical Shaf! Assembly .............. 4-75 Flc'-ible Diphragm Coupirr,... .................... ...........I... 4-77 Bosskcr Coupling ....................................... ............ 4-18 Elastom,:ric Coupling ................. ............................ 4-78 Hooke's Joint (Universal) ......................... ................. 4-9 Gear Coupling ................................................ ...... 4 Breakraway Sliding Foice vs Misalignment for Various Spline Devices ..... 4-79 Oil System Seheniawc.............I........... ............ ......... 49 Vectot Diagram of Swirl in 1-over ...................................... 5-1 Control Momyent for Basic tRotor Types. ..................... .......... 54 Articulated Rotor Schematic...................................... 5-9 Coincident Flap and Lag Hinge Rotor................................... 5-10 Girnb3led Rotor Schematic................ .......................... 5-if) Tcctering Rotot Schematic .............. ... .......................... 5-Il Teetet ing Rotor..................................... ................ 5-1; i-ingcicss Rotor Schcunaiti:.......................................... XH-51 Rotor System ................................................. Mechnismof Pitch-lag Instability.......... ......................... Pitch-nlap Coupling of Rotors ...................................... Mechanism of Flap-lag Instability ...................................... Typical Plots of Rotor Natural Frequency vs"OperatinF Speed ............... Single-degree-of-freedom Cole-man Plot............... ................ Two-degree-of-freedom Coleman Plot ............................... ... Two-degree-of-fteedvim Coleman Plot Showing Se~tisfaction of Minimum Frequency Criteria fur Two-blade IlingEcless Rotor...................... Gus* Load FactorComputec! for the UII-IB Helicopter Using I.ineai-Theory Gust-alleviation Factor (M IL-S-8698)................................. Rotor Limits as a Function of Advance Ratio........................... Results of a Load Gust Study Compared With Military Speciricauion Requiruments.......................................... Arliculatcd Rotor (Boeing Model 107) ............ ........ ............. CH--46 and CH-47 Tension-Torsion Strap Assemblies ...................... Torsionally Stiff and Flexible Wire-'vound Tic-bar Assemblies............... Elastomeric Bearings ................................................. Hydraulic Lag Damper............................................. CH-46 Power Blade Folding Mechanism................................. Typical Helicopter Rotor Blade Airfoils.................................. Track WiVth Varying rpm (Zero Collective Pitch) ........................... Tr-ack With Varying Collective Pitc!h (Constant Rotor rpm) ................. Alternating Stress Superimposed on Steady Stress ......................... Alternating Stress vs Cycles at Various Steady Stress Levels (Crv!ss Plotted from Fig. 3-12, MIL-HDBK- 17 for Notched Specimens of 181 Glass Fabric With MIL-R-7575 Polyester Resin) ................................. Propeller Flow Field for- Compound Helicopters........................... Comparison of P-order Excitations ...................................... 5-13 51 i 5-16 5-16
5-20

*
RP

IFig.

Fig. 5-9 Fig.5-11 Fig.5-12 Fif$. 5-13 Fig. 5-14 Fig. 5-15 Fig. 5-16 Fig. 5-17 Fig. 5-18 Fig. 5-19 Fig. 5-20 Fig. 5-21 Fig. 5-22 F;g. 5-23 Fig. 5-24 Fig. 5-25 Fig. 5-26 Fig. 5-27 Fig. 5-28 Fig. 5-29 Fig. 5-30 Fig. 5-31 Fig. 5-32 Fig. 5-33 Fig. 5-34 xxx

5-21 5-21 5-22 5-24 52 5-25

4.-

*

.

5-25
5-28 5-32 5-33 5-33 53 5-37 5-40 5-49 5-49 5-54 5-55 5-58 5-58

4.,

P 706- 20 LIST OF ILLUSTR ATIONS (Confinued)
Fig. No. Title Page

Fig. 5-35

~Fig. 5-36
;

*Fig. *Fig.

Fig. 5-37 Fig. 5-38 Fig. 5-39 Fig. 5-40 Fig. 5-41 Fig. 5-42 Fg5-43 Fig. 5-44 Fig. 5-45 5-46 5-47 Fig. 5-48 Fig. 5-49 Fig. 5-50 Fig. 5-51 Fig. 5-52 Fig. 5-53 Fig. 5-54

)Aft

Fill. 5-55

Propeller IP Loads from Nonaxial Inflow.............................. 1IP Excitation Diagram for Typical STOL Aircraft......................... 1IP Excitation Diagram for Helicopter With Pusher Propeller................ Propeller Critical Speed Diagram ...................................... Propeller Vibration Modes ........................................... Stall Flutter Design Chart ............................................ Airfoil Characteristics and Stall Flutter ................................. Propeller Control System Schemnatic.................................... ............................ Simplified Propulsion System Block Diagramn Linearized Propellev Control Block Diagrai'n............................. Typical Blade Cross Sections.......................................... Typical Spar-shell Blade.............................................. Blade Materials and Weight Reduction ............................... Fatigue Strength Diffcrence Between Specimen and Full-scale Tests...... ..... Typical Stress Summary Curves ....................................... Geometric Da3ta.................................................... Fin Separation Distance/Rotor Radius ................................. Sideward Flight Velocity ............................................. Tail Rotor Performance, Four Blades................................... Typical Variation in Tail Rotor Noise Level.............................. D,-h n- Moment With Conine Angle and Cutimpriisati-on" Ilgtie P Blade CG....................................................
Typical Control Function Scheduling for a Tilt-rotor Aircraft................. ....................... Characteristic Root Plot............ ............

5-58 5-59 5-59 5-60 5-61 5-64 5-64 5-67 5-69 5-70 5-71 5-72 57 5-76 5-77 5-78 5-79 5-80 5-80 5-81 5-002
6-3 6-5

a.

Fig. 6-I Fig. 6-2

*Fig.

- Fig. A
*

Fig. 6-3 Fig. 6-4 6-5 Fig. 6-6 Fig. 6-7 Fig. 6-8 Fig. 6-9 Fig. 6-10 Fig. 6-11I F ig. 6- 12 Fig. 6-13 Fig. 6-14 Fig. 7-1 Fig. 7-2 Fig. 7-3 Fig. 7-4 Fig. 7-5 Fig. 7-6 Fig. 7-7

Allowable Pitch Czintrol System Residual Oscillations ..................... Control Mixing Schematic ............................................ Mechanical Mixing Assembly......................................... Powered Actuators (Tandem Helicopter)............ .................... ....... Artificial Feel and Trim Schematic.............................. Rotating Controls .................................................. Typical Pitch '-ink Rod End .......................................... Centrifugal Force Deflections......................................... Pitch Link Adjustment Provisions ..................................... Relative Pitch Link Rod End Position................................... Instrumented Pitch Link ............................................. ..................................... 1Instrumentcd Drive Scissors .... Typical DC Power Distribution System ................................. Typical AC Power Distribution System ................................. Example Load Analysis AC Left 1-and Main............................. Examiple AC Load Analysis Format ................................... ........... Typical Automation Flow Chart ........................... Typical AC Generator With Oil-lubricated Bearings....................... _............ DC Starter/Generator .................................

6-8 6-IS 6-15 6-16 6-17 6-19 6-20 6-20 6-20 6-21 6-22 6-22 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-10

7-8

Clast-cooled DC Generator ...........................................
DC Starter Motor With Solenoid-operatcd Switch ......................... Prolotype Cartridge-boosted Electrical Starter Systemn..................... Sample Set of! tilization Loads ....................................... Gases Emitted from Nickel-Cadmium Sintered Plate Cell During Overcharge
at
70'-75*F.........................................................................

7-12
7-12. 7-13 7-18
.7-19

)

Fig. 7-9 Fig. 7-10 Fig. 7-1l Fig. 7-12 Fig. 7-13

PermiisihleClamp Deformation

............

.........................

7-2 5

AMCP 706-201 LIST OF ILI-LJSTRATlONS8Conlinued)

Fig. No.
Fig. 7-14 Fig. 7.15 Fig. 7-16 Fig. 8-1 Fig. 8-2 fig. 8-3 Fig. 9-I Fig. 9-2 Fig. 9-3 Fig. 9-4 Fig. 9-5 Fig. 9-6 Fig. 9-7 Fig. 9-8 Fig. 9-9 Fig. 9- 10 Fig. 9-l11 Fig. 9-12 Fig. 9-13 Fig. 9-14 Fig. 9-16 Fig. 9-17 Fig. 9- 18 Fig. 9-19 Fig. 9-20 Fig. 9-21 Fig. 9-22 Fig. 9-23 Fin. 9-24 Fig. 9-25 Fig. 9-26 Fig. 9-27 Fig. 9-28 Fig. 9-29 Fig. 9-30 Fig. 9-31 Fig- 9-32 Fig. 9-33 Fig. 9-34 Fig. 9-35 Fig. 9-36 Fig. 9-37 Fig. 9-38 Fig. 9-39 Fig. 9-40 Fig. 9-41 Fig. 9-42 Fig. 9-43 Fig. 9-44 xxxil
Fia 5 9!

Title Terminal Strip Installation............................................. Typical Connection to Grounding Pad................................... Typical Lightning Electrical Circuit Entry Points .......................... Block Diagram of Classical Communication System ................. ...... Typical Intercommunication Selector Box ................................ Typical Cnimunication Antenna Layout.................... -.... I...... Central Hydraulic System ........... .................... ............. Dual System Hydraulic-powcred Flight Control Actuators .................. Dual-powcrcd Stability Augmentation Systcm............................. Dual-po%-:rcd Stick Boost I ydraulic System.............................. Hydraulic Starting; Energy-limited System ................................ Hydrauix Starting. Power-iirnited System............. ................... APU Starting System................................................. Cargo Door and Ram~p System ......................................... Cargo and Personnel Hoist (Constant Prcssurt) System ..................... Rotor Brake System .................................................. Wheel Brake System .................................................. Combined Spool Switching Vakve ....................................... Pressuie Check Valves Plus Power Return Switching........................ Pressure Check Valves Plus Inline Return Relief Valve......................
Irinein Mehnicafy LockeC-out
-cifVie................

Page 7-26 7-27 7-31 8-4 8-4 8-13 9-I 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-4 9-4 9-5 9-8 9-8 9-9 9-9 9-10 9-1l 9-1l 9-12 9-12 9-12 9-14 9-IS 9-IS 9-15 9-17 9-17 9-18 9-18 9-18 9.19 9-19 9-21 9-21 9-22 9-22 9.23 9-23 9-23 9-24 9125 9-26 9-27
-

Cam-operated Poppet Switching Valvec....... ................... ....... Switching Valve...................................................... Hydraulic System Ground Fill Provisions ................................ Rosar, Boss Fitting ................................................... Use of an Articulating Link ................... ................ ........ Use of Protective Cover on H-oses ....................................... Typical Mission Requirement Profile .................................. Examples of Parallel and Series Control Modes............................ Schematic of Jet Pipe Electro-hydraulic Control Valve ..... ................ Schematic of Flapper Electro-hydraulic Control Valve...................... Typical Master Control Valve.......................................... Anticavitation Approaches ............................................ Feedback Techniques ....................... ......................... Hydraulic Pump Flow vs Pressure Characteristics .......................... Hydraulic Pump Soft Cutoff Characteristics .............................. Hyaraulic Pump Case Drain Flo%%Characteristics ......................... Suction Line Length - Reservoir Pressure Characteristics............ ...... Hydraulic Pulsation Suppressor ........................................ Filler Element Dirt-holding Characteristics ............................... Filter Element Performrince ........................................... Hydraulic Valve "Trail" Configurations ................................. Hydraulic Valve Configurations........................ ................ Direct-operated Valve ......................................... ....... Pilot *operated Valve ................ ................................. Valve Operating Time................................................. Solenoid-operated Valve Incorporating Rcl urn Pressure Sensing .............. Power and Spring Main Section Valve Return to Neutral.................... Typical Separate Servo Actuator ........................................ Dual Seals With Return Vent ............................ ..............

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued)
Fig. No.
Fig. 13-8 Fig. 13-9

cP
Page
13-16 13-18

*2

(

Title
Methods of Raising the Suspension Point .. Helicopter Load Dynamics Schematic .................. Study Input Variables ................................................. Equivalent Steady Load for Combination of Steady and Vibrator), Loeds (Nonreversing) .................................................... Equivalent Steady Load for Combination of Steady and Vibratory Loads (Reversing) .................................. Mounting of Duplexed Bell Bearings..................................... Spherical AicatB aig .........................

*Fig.

14I
Fig. 16-1 Fig. 16-2

014-17

16-6
16-7 16-9 16-13

C

Fig. 16-3
Fg 164

Fig. 16-5
Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 16-6 16-7 16-8 16-9 16-10 16-11 16-12 17-1 17-2 17-3

Common.....f onetos........................

Fig. Fig.
Fig. Fig. Fig. Fia.

Fig. 17-4
Fig. 17-5

~i.176
* * * Fig. Fig. Fig. F.g. Fig. Fig. Fig.
Ig
15

17-7 17-8 17-9 17-10 li-Il 17-12 17-13

Fig. 117-14
Fig. 17-16

Tapered Pipe Thread Fittings........................................... 16-22 Straight Thread Fittings ............................................... 16-23 Flared lube Fittings.................................................. 16-24 Flareless Tubc Fittings ................................................ 16-24 Cable Alignment and Pulley Guai d Location.............................. 16-27 Pus~i.pull Cablus and End Fittings..................................... 16-29 Right-handed Thread Application of Safety Wire......................... 16-33 Standard Bend Radii PrActice -Minimum Bend Radii.......I...... I........ 17-5 Weld Contour and Stress Concentration ....................... 17-7 Welding Symbols.......................................... 17-8 Reprcsentative Buit Juivinb................................................ 17-8 Representative Corner Joints........................................... 17-9 Representative Tee Joints..............................................19 Rivet Spacirg ........................................................ 17-10 Types of Loading for Bonded Joints..................................... 17-12 Lap Shear Joint Deflection Under Load .................................. 17-13 Typical Rotor Blade Design - Alternate I................................ 17-13 Typical Rotor Blade Design - Atlernate 2................................ 17-13 Hioneycomb Sandwich Structure ........................................ 17-14 Addition of Doubler-' to Honeycomb Structure............................ 17-14 Balance Bar Design ............................. ..................... 17-15
.r
-D.................... ........... ... .. .. .. ..

I...................

16-18

as........eWngRr

176

Cable Splicing..................................

.....................

17-16

-

xxxiv

". 't
Table No. TABLE T"ABLE YABLE TABLE TABLE 2-I 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5

LIST OF TABLES
Title Mechanical Propcrtii.s of 18 Ni Maraging Steels ............................ Comparative Mechanical Properties for Selected Nonferrous Alloys ......... Grouping of Metals and Alloys (MIL-Si D-889) ............................ Position of Metals in the Galvanic Series ................................... Process Comparison Guide for GRI' Laminates ............................ Page 2-4 2-4 2-7 28 2-14

TABL E 2-6
TABLE 2-7 TABLE 2-8

General Properties Obtainable in Some Glass Reinforced Plastics ............

2-15

"TABLE 2-9
TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE 'ABLE 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2.15 2-16 2-17 2-18 3-1

,'

TABLE 3-2
TABLE 4-1

TA BLE 4-2 TABLE 4-3 TABLE 4-4 TA BLE 4-5 TABLE 4-6 TAB! F 5-! TAB[E 5-2 TABLE 5-3 TABLE 5-4 TABLE 5-5 TABL -5-6 TABILE 6-1 "TABLE7-1 TABLE 7-2 TABLE 7-3 TABLE Il-I TABLE 11-2 TABLE 12-1 T A BLE 13-1 TABLE 13-2 TA BL E 14-1 TABLE 14-2 T A B LE 14-3 TABLE 16-1 TABLE 16-2 TABLE 16-3

Common Resin Rcinforcemen't Combinations of Thermoset Laminates ...... 2-16 Typical Values of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of "Reinforcement Fibers ................................................... 2-18 Nominal Composition of Glass Reinforcements ............................ 2-19 Typical Unidirectional Composite Properties Based on Commercial Prepregs 2-20 Properties of Rigid Foams ................................................. 2-25 Common Adhesives in Current Use ....................................... 2-26 Shear Bond Strengths of Adhesives ..................................... .. 2-26 Useful Temperature Range and Strength Properties of Structural Adhesives .. 2.2k Armor Material Design Data and Physical Charactetistics .................. 2-28 Fabrication Data for Lightweight Armor Materials ........................ 2-2') Typical Properties of Commonly Used Structural Adhesives ................ 2-32 Helicopter Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids ................................ 2-3) APU Types for Main Engine Starting Environmental Control, and E lectrical Supply .................. .................................... 3-16 APU Reliallity ..................................................... 3-20 U S Army Heliconters - Transnmission ,ind nrive-Sytem. On.y 4-17 Maintenance Workload .......................................... External N oise Level ......................... .......... ..... ........... 4-18 He!icopter Drive Subsystems - Single Main Rotor. ....................... 4-24 .. 4-33 Life Modification Factors - Surface Durability ......................... Shear Stress vs Depth ............... ...................... ............. 4-45 Helicopter Transmission Case Materials and Application Data .............. 4-68 The Relative Effects of Various Parameters on Gust Response ............... 5-26 Example of Nominal Weight and CG Locations ........................... . 5-48 Rotor Blade Balance (Sample) .......................................... .. 5-48 Comparison of Material Properties ................................... Aerodynamic Characteristics of Several Airfoil Sections Suitable for 5-51

2

T ll

RiB.tU d esic. ........

Summary of Tail Rotor Excitation Sources ................................ Maximum Amplitudes of Limit-Cycle Oscillations .......................... Outputs of Converters Relative to Continuous-Current G-ncrator ........... Typical Characteristics of 24V. 34 All Battery Systems ................. ... Alternative Charging Methods ....................................... Cost Impact. Airframe Detail Design ..................................... M aterial Selection - Airframe Design .................................... Load Factors for Helicopter Tire.s ......................................... C oefficients of Friction .......................................... ......... Standard Cargo T iedessn Devices .......... ....... ....................... Typical H elicopter G uns .................................................. Vulnerability Damage Criteria Data Sumnmar% ............................ Vulnerability T able ....................................................... Life I actors for Antifriction Bcaring M aterizis ............................. Cost vs Tolerance Class for Antifriction Bcari.igs .......................... Standards for Airfrname Control Annular Ball bearing. .....................

II

...................................

. .........

5-82 6-8 7-15 7-16 7.17 . -. , 11-3

12-4
13-14 13-15 4-2 14-14 14-14 16-6 lo-7 16-12
\•

__\

-9.•

'••

mm

•,.,•,

.,.:.:.••.

..

S.11

AMOP MG-202
I.T01:"1AI ABIS ("outinutcd

_

(.p

Table No. TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE 16-4 16-5 16-6 16-7 16-8 16-9 16-10 16-I 16-12 17-1 17-2 17-3 17-4

Titlc Standards for Airframe Control Rod End Bcaring.i ......................... Standards for Sphe'ical Roller Airframe Bearings .......................... Properties of Sliding Bearing Materials for Airframe Use .................... Specifications and Standards for Self-Lubricating Slide Bearings ............ Militery Specifications and Standards for Connectors for Aircraft ........... Other Military Spccificationi and Standards for Connectors ................ Military Specifications and Standards for Crimp-Style Terminals ............ Military Specifications and Standards for Switches ......................... Military Specifications for Cables .................................... Bentd Characteristics of Selected M etals .................................... Unit Horsepower Values for Represerntative Metals ....................... Representative Surface Finishes Obtained in Machining Operations ......... Values To Be Added to or Subtracted from Base Dimension for "Holesand Shafts To Calculate Tolerance ................................ Representative Heat Treat Temperatures .................................. The Effect of Shot-peening on the Fatigue Properties of Selected Samples

Pagc 16-12 16-12 16-13 16-14 16-17 !(-18 16-20( 16-21 16-31 17-4 17-6 1'7-6 17-7 17-i 17-21

,
-1

TABLE 17-5 TABLE 17-6

*

I

S

!.
-

1
~-~-

-,-.

\\~

AMCP 706,201

The IIhli,•p:er Lngineering llandbook form. ai part-of the 'ingincering Design Handbook Series shich presents engineering data for the design and construction of A -y equipment. This volume. AMCP 70M-202. Delail De.%ign. is Part Two of a three-part Enginering Design Handbook titled Helicopter Engineering Along with AMCP 706-201. Preliminary Design. and AMCP 706-203, Qualification A.tsurance, this part is intended to set forth explicit design standards for Army helicopters, to establish qualification requirements. and tu provide technical guidance to helicopter designers, both in the industry and within the Army. This volume, AMCP 706-202, deals with the evolution of th', vehicle from an approved preliminary design configuration. As a result of this phase of the developmcnt. the design is describcd in sufficient detail to permit construction and qualifica"tion of the helicopter as being in compliance with all applicable requirements, inchiding hce approved system specification. Design requirements for all vehicle subsystems are included. The volume concists of 17 chapters and the organization is discussed in Chapter 1. the iutroduction to the volume. AMCP 706-201 deals with the preliminary design of a helicopter. The characteristics of the vehicle and of the subsystems that must be considered arc described.

a

ir

and possit '- solutions at ' suggested. The documentation necessary to describe the

J

"preliminarydesign

in sufficient detail to p,-rniit evaluation and approval by the procuring activity also is described. The (hird volume of the handbook, AMCP 706-203, defines the rcquirements Ifor airworthiness qualification of the helicopter and for demonstration of contract cornpliance. The test procedures used by the Army in the performance of those additional tests required by the Airworthiness Qualification Program to bt performed by the Army also arc described.

A

xxxvii

F.
PREFA(I:

AMCP 706-202

This volume, AMCP 706-202, Detail Design. is the %econd section of a three-part -ngitieering handbook, Heficopier Engineering. in the Engineering D'%sign Hand"book series. It was prepared by Forge Aerospace. Inc.. WAshington. D.C., under subcontract to the Engineering Handbook Office, Duke University, Durham. NC. The Engineering Design Handbooks fall into two basic c-'tegorics. those approved fot release and sale, and those classified for security reasons. The US Army Materiel Commano policy is to release these Engineering Design Handbooks in accordance with current DOD Directive 7230.7. dated 18 September 1973. All unclassified Handbooks can be obtained from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Prozedures for acquiring these Handbooks follow: a. All Department of Army activities having need for the Handbooks must submit their request on an official requisition form (DA Form 17, dated Jan 70) directly to: Commander Lettcrkenny Army Depot ATTN: DRXLE-ATD Chambcrzburg. PA 17201 (Requests for classified documents must b,. submitted. mith appropriate "Need to Know" justification, to Letterkenny Army Depot.) DA activities will not requisition Handbooks for further free distribution. b. All other requestors. DOD, Navy. Air Force. Marine Corps. nonmilitary Government agencies, contractors, private industry. individuals, universities, and others must purchase these Handbooks from: National Technical Information Service Department of Commerce Springfield, VA 22151 Classified documents mey be released on a "'Need to Know" basis verified by an official Department of Army representative and processed from Defense Documentation Center (DDC), ATTN: DDC-TSR, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314. Users of the handbook are encouraged to contact USAAVSCOM, St. Louis, MO, System Development and Qualification Division, with their recommendations and comments concerning the handbook. Comments should be specific and include recommended text ¢hangcs and supporting rationale. DA Form 2028, Recommended Changes to Publications (available through normal publications supply channels) may be used for this purpose. A copy of the comments should be sent to: Commander US Arny Mateviel Development and Readin•es Command Alexandria, VA 22333 Revisions to the handbook will be made on an as-required basis and will be distrbutcd on a normal basis through the Letterkenny Army Depot. .

t

AMCP 706-202
(CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
AMCP 706-202, Engineering Design Handbook, Helicopter Enginre.-ing. Parr 7wo. Detail Design, is the second part of a th:¢¢-volume hlicopter engineering design h~ndbook. The preliminary design (covered in AMCP 706-201) is *vclopcd during the proposal phase. at which time all subsystems must be defined in sufficient detail to determine aircraft configuration, weight, and pcrformance. The detail design involves a reexamination of all subsystems iri order to define cach clement thoroughly with the aims of optimizing the aircraft with regard to mission capability as well as cost considerations. Detailed subsystem specification requirements are the basis for in-depth analysis and evaluation of subsystem charactcerstics and interfaces. Based upon complete system descriptions and layouts, performance, weight, end cost trade-offs arc finalized. Periodic reviews of the design are conducted to evaluate mairtainability, reliability, safety, producibilhty. and .oriforniancc with spc.i.fication requiremeents. Development testing may be required to permit evaluation of alternate 5olutions to design problems or to obtain adequate information for trade-off investigations. Appropriate consideration of human engineering factors often requires evaluation of informal mock-ups. SWeight control is an important element of the detail design phase. Subsystem weight budgets, prepared on the basis of the preliminary design group
wCight hreakdown, arC aasiýzsed at the initiation of

and tinstallations. Evrluation of a full-scale mock-up of the complete helicopter is a major part of the design review process. The requirements for this review are described in dctail in AMCP 706-203; but the construction and inspection of the mock-up must be completed at the earliest piactical point of the detail design phase to permit the contractor to complete the desibn and manufacture of helicopters for test and for operational deployment, with reasonable, assurance tOat the configuraion is responsive to the mission ecquircments. Also completed during the detail design ohase are a variety of analyses necessary to substantiate the comp!ianci of the physical, mechanical, and dynamic characteristics of subsystems and their key cornponents with applicable design and performance requirements, including structural integrity. The analysis required during the design, development, and qualification of a given model helicopter are those specified by the applicable Contract Data Requireicis List ('Dr L-). , This volume reviews the functions pcrformre by the major helicopter subsystems and outlines the requirements app!icaolr to the design and installation of eaich one. Principal documentation of the detail design phase is the final drawings of the helicopter in sufficient detail for procurement, fabrication. assembly, and installation. This volume, therefore, aiso iincludes discussion of materials and processes pertinent to the ),-nnufacture of bclicopter components. This volume is intended to pruvide designers.
engmnrr,
relaltvelv

rew to the

helicorptev tech-

the detail design phase. The continui-ig evaluation of compliance with the budget as an essential part of the manzgement of the project and the awsurancc of cornpliance with weight guarantees of the helicopter detail specification are described in conjunction with the discussion of the Weight Engineek'ing function in ANICP 706-201. The requirements and procedures for airworthiness qualification and proof of contract compliance for a new model helicopter for the US Army are defined and discussed in AMCP 706-203. which ikthe third volume in this handbook serits Qualification is not time-phwed. but is a continuing part of the acquisition program. A number of qualification requirements are integral parts of the detail design effort. Desipr. reviews by the procuring activity are re(quired during the definition of subsystem configuraons as well as during the final design of assemblies --.

nology, and program managers a general design guide covering all of the helicopter detail design specialties. however, it is not intended as a source of detailed design procedures for use by the experlcnced design engineer in his specially. Throughout this volume the mandatory design reouiremcnts have been identified with the contractual language which makes use of the word ".shall". To assist in the use of the handbook in the planning or conduct of a helicopter development program, the word "shall" has been italicized in the state.ment of each such requirement. Since: the mission requirements for individual helicopters result in variations between subsystem configurations and performance requirements. the procuring activity will specify in its Request for Proposal (RFP) the extent to which the design requirements of this handbook are applicable to the acquisition of a given helicopter. I-I

.. • ,

AMCP 7_06-202

CHAPTER 2

MATERIALS
2-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter addresses the properties of the various materials used in the construction of helicopters, These materials include ferrous and nonferrous metal. nonmetallic materials, composite structures, adhesives and seplants, paints and finishes, lubri., cants, greases, and hydraulic fluids. Among the ferrous me:als are carbon steel, stainless steel, and al:oy steels. The nonferrous mttals include aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys, beryllium, copper, brass, and bronze. Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics, elastomers, woods, fabric, and fluoroplastics are reviewed. Composite structures, including filament laminates, fabric laminates, and filament wound, and honeycomb and sandwich construction ake discussed aý are the adhesives used for bonding of primary structure, honeycomb and compo3ites, fahris, rbhhr, e'astomers, g1.s; and rlastics. Sealhng compounds, such as putty and pastc;, also are de.ai!ed. A discussion of paints and coatings, special finishes, plating, and tapes is included, as well as a review of th,. most commonly used lubricants and their applications. The designer will find that a good working relationship with vendors wii! help him to keep abreast of new rtiatvrials and processes with possib!t applications to helicopters. New materials are being iiitroduced continually, and new processes alter the cost and performance relationships among older
, -. . ..

factors, standard mill products, and cost data. tl,.IL-

HDBK-5 is a source of mechanical properties data
and provides additional detail design data. For technical data and information pertaining to wrought iron, carbon steels, and low-alloy steels, an exccllent source is N4IL-IIDBK-723, which covers some of the more practical aspects of -ecta! forming and joining. Finally, for design data and metallurgical details, the designer should consult the various American Society of Metals (ASM) Handbooks. Because of weight considerations, it is desirable to restrict the heavier ferrous metals to those applications where very high strength, a high modulus of rigidity, high resistance to fatigue, and high modulus of elasticity are reqaired. The more expensive high-performance steels often are more economical in terms of weight, cost, and fatrication processes than are the lower-cost ferrous products. Anplications for these materials include high-sirt-ss parts such as rotor drive shafts, masts, hubs. vertical hinges, flapping hinges, tie cables, ti'bular frames, an6 control cams, keys, gears, and hydraulic cylinde-.s. 2-2.1.2 Carbon Steels The carbon steels are a broad group of iron-base alloys having small amounts of carbon as their principal alloying element. Commonly, the carbon content falls between 0.03 and 1.2%. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) codt usually is used for designating s•ate ,. Tins ... ystm i.i..i Uup.. a Or five-digit number to designate each alloy, with the first digits referring to the alloy and the last two digits giving the carbon content in points of carbon. where one point is equal to 0.01%. Thus, 1045 steel is one of a series of nonsulphurized carbon steels and has 0.45% carbon. Other carbon steel s.ies are the II XX series, which are resulpherized; the BIIlXX series, which are acid Bessemer resulphurized, and the 12XX series, which are rephosphorizcd. Low-carbon stee's range from 0.05 to 0.30% carbon, mediumcarbon steels range from 0.30 to 0.60% carbon, and high-carbon steels range from 0.60 to 0.95% carbon. The machinability of low-carbon steels is poor. They tend to drag and smear and to build up on the cutting edges of tzols, generating considerable heat and decreasing cutting cffiricncy. Medium-carbon steels machine .better, although the cutting pressures are higher. High-.arbon steels are too hard for good machining, but they are used where fine finish and dimensional accuracy are required. Hot- and coldfuui--

)

conform to one or more Government specifications, and many manufacturers take step, to keep their products on the qualified-products lists, where such are requiret. Propei regazd for and awareness of these concerns in design callouts will simplify procurernent, fabrication, and qualification of hard•arc.

-:

-'

2-2 METALS
2-2.1 FERROUS METALS 2-2.1.1 General Thik dis•:ussion provides a brief review of ferrous metalk and their application to the construction of helicopters, as well as of some of the parametcrs go)vernling the choice of a particular ferrous metal for specifi as a AP•'','•, moreconpreheisivc discussion, as well as detail \,dcsign data, will be found in Chapter 9, AMCP 70%hich describes such items as mater'al selection
r

R"

accrac

27I

AMCP 706-202
rolied stels machinc better than do annealed steels, and the macbining properties of the low-carbon steels arc improved by 1he addition of sulphur. phosphorus. or lead. The low-carbon steels have excellent forming properties, and can be worked readily by any of the normal shapin3 processes. Their ready formability is due to the fht that there is less carbon to interfere withthe lans th sam tokn, heidr-. ofslip witulty plao increafsesp. inmereasing carbon withe df ok i a wtough ctn content. Plain carbon steel is the most readily welded of all materials. Low-carbon (0.15%) steel presents tke least rosion resis,.anc is about the same. hih I lie AISI designation system is used for alloy steels also. This is illustrated by 4130 steel, -hich Is an alloy steel coltainin.g chromium. molybdenum, and 0.30% carbcn. 2-2.1.4 Stainless Steels All stainless stees contain at least 10.5% chrochro1s at least eellent nless Ai from which excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. Apparently, a very thin, transparrnt, and film of oxide forms upon the chromium surface. This film is inert, or passive, and does not react upon exposure to corrosive Materials. There are three broad types of stainless steels. as defined by thee

.

cf. difficulty. as the carbon form as increases to 0.30%, some martcnsite may content a result of rpidmartensitic. coling. ftheyare coyfole too rapidlt a aftr ldi, Austenitic stainless steels, which have an austenicooling. If they Arc cooled too rapidly after welding. tic structure at rom temperature, arc known as the 3W series (AISI). These materials have excellent ducmedium- arid hil[.-carbon steels may harden, but pretilit, at heating to tM00 0F or post-heating to I 100'F will very low temperatures, the highest corrosion t remove britde nicrostructures. resistance of all steels, and the highest scale reThe yield strength of low-carbon steels is on the itancc and strength at elevated temperatures. that of psi, order of 46.0000,000-while psi. Thehigh-cat bon steels is m achine, but can be steels A ustcnitic hncr are difficul, toot4rt ok o dulua s eelstimo s ie tht fom. psi.while modulus oof felasti4of or. the order of 150,000 or theorder when carc is given to the r-te of workformd v miiiion for aii m city in tension remains at 3S0 ban steels. Core (Brinell) hardness ranges from 4 haideniiig. They art not harderiable by heatt rcatfrobon steels.Cove 40Brfnlhihardnessrangesom, c rb ment. Welding is 'one best in an inert atmosphere, becae f the low thermal conductivity, care must be for low-carbon to 400 fo higher carbon. 2-2.1.3 Alloy Steels Alloy steels are those that contain significant amounts of such alloying metals as manganese, molybdenum, chromium, or nickel, which are added in order to obtain higher mechanical properties with heat treatmoent, especially in thick sections. A family of extra-high-strength, quenched, and tempered alboy steels has come into wide use because these c...a. rial.s havc y..ld s;reingths. of more than IArlflW
psi.

,•

"

:% "".

The alloy steels have relatively good resistance to fracture, or tough-ess. Weldability is good, and machinability and castabihty are fair. The alloy steels generally can be hardeneC to a greater depth than can unalloyed steels with the same carbon content. Many of the alloy steels are available with added sulphur or lead for improved machinability. However, resulphurized and leaded steels are not recommended for highly stressed aircraft pa. ts because of drastic ree ductions in transverse properties. The alloy steels arc somewhat more difficult to forge than are the corresponding plain carbon steels, and the maximum recommended forging temperatures are about 50%
lower

taken to avoid cracking. Carbide precipitation is minimized during welding by selecting one of the stabilized grades, e.g., 321 or 347. Ferritic stainless steels are magnetic and have good ductility. Because of the low carbon-to-chromiumn ,atio, the effects of thermal transformation are eliminated and the steels are not hardenable by heat treatment. They also do not work-harden to any grcuit e-tent. are machined easily,. and arc formed readily. A general-purpose ferritic stainless is type istp 430. Martensitic steels have a higher carbon-to-chroimiurn ratio and are hardenable by heat treatment. They are characteriLed by good ductility, hardness, and ability to hold an edge. These steels are. magnritic in all conditions, are tough and resistant to impact, and attain tensile strengths of up to 200,000 psi when hardened. Martensitic steels machine very well. Type 410 is the most widely used steel in this group.
.,A

4-

4,4

.enerl-p

.

2-2.1.5 Precipitation Hardening Steels Precipitation hardening (PH) steels arc those that harden at relatively low temperatures due to the preLipitalion of copper, aluminum, or titanium inter-

Cold-forming. it performed, is done in the annealed con6ition because of the high strength and limited duaility of heat-treated materials. Notch toughness of alloys in the heat-treated condition is much better than that of the carbon steels. Cor2-2

metallic compounds. They may be nonstainless or stainless. The best known is 17-4 P11, which is stainlcss by composition and is used fcr parts requiring high strength and good resistance to corrosion and 0F. 17-4 PH is oxidation at temperatures of up to 6 0

AM,,i /06 12
inartensitic in nature, but other precipitation hardening steels may be austenitic. Forming properties are .nuch the same as for stainless steels: forming must he accomnplished before heat treatment, and allowance must be made for the dimensional changes that occur during the hardening process. Strcrngth properties ate lowered by exposure to temperaturrs abosc 9750: for longer than 0.5 hr. The heat-treating procedures are specified in MIL-H-6875. • 2-2.1.6 Maraglng Steels The maraging steels are not treated in the refcrences given in par. 2-2.1.1; henc¢ they arc discussed in somewhat greater detail here. The term "maraging' is derived from the capability o! the material for age hardening in the martensitic condition. The distinguishing features of the 18% nickel maraging steels are that they arc designed to be martensitic upon cooling te room temperature after hot-working or annealing, and t- be agehardenailc to ultra high strengths in that condition. The 18% nickel maragirg steels essentially are wrought alloys. The nominal yield strengths of four "well-eitablished grades are 2Q., 2M), 3M).). and 35( ksi, The ability of these steels to transform into martensite upon cooling from elevated temperatures is im'paried by their nickel content. The transformation, which begins at about 310'F and ends at about 210°F, is of the diffusionless or shearing type. The formation of martensite in these steels is noi disturbed by varying the cooling rate within practicalec limits. Hence, section size is not a factor in the process of martensite formation, and the concepts of hardenability that dominate the technology of the quenched and tempered steels are not applicable with the maraging steels. The l8Ni maraging steels may be cut with a saw in the annealed or hot-worked condition. Alternatively, oxyacetylene and plasma arc torches may be used. Hot-rolled or annealed maraging steels can be sheared in much the same manner as can the quenched and tempered structural steels that have yield strengths in the vicinity of 110 ksi. In grinding, these steels behave in a manner similar to that of stainless steels, using a heavy-duty, water-soluble grinding fluid. The maraging steels can be hot-worked to finished "or semi-finished products by all of the standard methods of forming that are used for other steels. To avoid carburizing or sulfidizing, the metal should be free of oil, grease, and shop soil before heating. Fuel "withlow sulphur content is preferred. The meta! can be press- or hammer-forged at temperatures ranging 'from 23000 down to I500°F. Forging is completed at ý,"latively low temperatures. The objective is to refine the grain struchtre, thereby enhancing ihe strenpth and toughness of the sleel. A minimum redution of 25'v. in thickness during the finil forging cycle is recommended to produce optimum mectianical propcrtices in the finished product. Ho, bending, hot drawing, and hot spinning are accomplished at 1500O- 180O F:. Cold-forrnirg operations are performed on the annealed material. Even in the annealed condition, the 18Ni maraging steels have yield strengths of up to 120 ksi, approximately four times those of deep-drawbody stock The tensile elongations of these steels in the form of annealed sheet may be as little as 3-4%. These factors impose limitations upon forming the sheet metal by tensile stresses. On the other hand, these steels work-harden very slowly, making them well suited to formirL methods dominated by shear. They can be cold-reduced by 80% or more, and shape. are formed readily by rolling or spinning. Flat-bottom cups can be deep-drawn to considerable depths. Roundtd shapes are formed mi re readily by means of the flexible die process. Cold-rolled, solution-annealed material is preferred. Rolling and welding of shwc, strip, and plate are cmm1on mithods of making cylindrical shapes. In the annealed condition, the l8Ni maraging steels are machined quite easily. In the age-hardened condition, machining is difficult because of the hardness imparted by the aging process. Although these steels have been welded by all of the common welding processes, the toughest welds are produced by the gas tungsten arc process or the electron beam kEB) process. For maximum toughness, the carbon, sulphur, silicon, phosphorus, and oxygen content must be kept at very low leveis. It is good practice to avoid prolongca times at elevated temperatures, not to preheat, to keep interpass ternperatures below about 250 *F, to use minimum weld energy input, and to avoid conditions causing slow cooling rates. Annealing is accomplished at 1500'F with air cooling. For improved combinations of stren~gth and toughness, the steel may be double-anne.aled. Thprocedure is to heat the material to !600°-l800'F, air cool to room temperature, reheat to 14000 -150O"F, and again air cool. Special furnarie atmosphe:-es art; required in order to prevent carburization, sullidation, or excessive oxidation. Age-hardening is accomplished at 9000)F, the time varying from 3 to 6 hr. Air is used commonly as the heat-treating atmosphere. It is advisable to maintain thc temperature at all part: of the load to within - 100 of the desired temperature. The nominal mechanical properties of the agehardened 18Ni tiaraging st~cts are listed in Table 2-I.

--

S~2-3

Adtona daa h~h-t~cdgt r~r~ rnaraging btecis will be round a iv .I 2-.2.2 NON~FRUOUS MFITALS

I~s~i

ca:~toas-4s thc: des~'icer in formulainig the re-

~
-

~

d

o mcchfinical properties for mreprsenta-

E~nparativc

*

lees31aonluCW1_us alloys arc giken in Tabas- 2-2 ive Im;nIAly tlicii ols&.d Abrief review of nonferieus i-' af l Aus-a ý1 wco hk:,mprlrs kiusiv applicatkio to the cosru~m cur-wniirJ a ofD~*{~ as of some of [thc paramr.ters j,o,-vcrning *lýc Jioic; i. cus.ý. r of v'.-inum a~lcys, along with design at one metal amnoneg many for a a tý~la appficatiot,. smay1stdrdization ocz.uolacrIpe alonga with di-tail ticsigni Jita, is foune io AN11 Y nicnis, ir'cludiiig militury. fcdea ad, anid iindustry specilt00 arid in MIl.-1-DBI-5. ficatiowis. ThCSe Npe'.-ification, cover most of the uses Metais siuýh as alkmnrii¾m, in-gflesium, or iiof alulnihiaum in detail and shoutld IN consulted hefore their rclativclv tanium may be sailectcd beciuse of ein poadrgwt lilht weIghts. Other factors in material seteciion inWithi fw except~or.s, ailaminum allos are decrrsin esstance. thernial and clectrica'i *eud nwogtpo o atn o o indete coraductivftty. lubricity, softness, cost and ease of, d-icts, but not for both. Althouth some genera!fabrcation. hardness. stiffness, and faoigpae resispurpose :-illoys are available. compositions rnoimally tance. UsAually, ii is the sum of a number of factors arc formulated so as to satisfy tspecific rqirements. of that in',1uences a designer to select the sequence The mnoic %&idely used And readily avaiwable copimaterials and fabrication processes that constitute a positions. are covered by G(.?vcinment specifications. design item. This discussion is inteiided to provide Most are adaptable to a variety of applications. The Aluminum Association has devised afor 2-1 TABLE digit system -for wrought alloys in which the first 110*v fABL12N, ig% no " ý. A number designazes tnhe major anulloyi ungemiciii. Ti u.N. MARAGING ST EELS I is pure alu-minum, 'A is copper, 3 is manganese, 4 is

2-2.2.

Ertc

I

silicon, 5 is magnesium, 6 is magnesium and silicon, and V is zinc. The last two digits are supposed to ULTIMATE TE14SILf 00 designate the aluminum purity, but the exceptions 365. 00 294,000 260,000 210,000 NGTH,psi ST RE destroy. the rule. hlowever, the more frequently used 4 ~ 55,001290,000 255,000 000 SRENTH, si 0.2-YIED become familiar to the designer. The 0.~YILD * TREGTHPSI355000alloys aluminum casting alloys usually are identified by ar125 13.1 11.8 100 ELONATIN,-. ELN A IN,,IU0 T 10 1 . bitrarilv selected com mercial dicsignations of twoand three-digit numbers 2.0 570 6.0 0.0I OF~RE~o * IOREIJC NOT UCHTENSIL STREA' N50 0 6!. 2. Most alumninum alloys used for wrought products contain less than 7% of alloying elements. By regula33 qu00 1 190m00 I25.000 420nn ~ ~ NOTCH STEGH TE0IL 19.0'0' -t tion of the amounts and types of elements added, the operties of the alumninum can be enhanced and its pr.0 17.019. 1. CHARFY V-NOTCHII-Is working characteristics improved. Special comLITIGU (0DUCYCLES 1000 2,00 115,000 115"U000 positions have been developed for particular fabrication processes, such as forging and extrusion. Wrought alloys are produced in both heat-treatable 1 75 60 55 ~ HRDNCKESLS' HARDNESS0 nn nonheat-Lreatable types. The mechanical properties of the nonhecat-treatable materials may be varied 220026,0 8,0 siE OPE YIELD STRENI~H, 1

FSLRIES
-

-30130
--~

-250

-2,

_

-------

!

I

-

-- -----------. -

-

'

TABLE 24by COMPR~n E MCHAICALPROERTES FOR SELECTED NONFERROUS, ALLOYS
PTY FROPE
_ _-A

strain-hardening or by a combination of strain-

COMPARr

TABLECIA 2-2ERIE A Llui

h.irdering and annealing&...

T

'Wo 2017 32
-

VANSM 'cr[oun:.

I C-i

A29.C 14
-.-ý

I4A,~~IVCR

I he aluminum alloys specified for casting purposes contain one or more alloying! elements; the maximum . .n~u of any one element must not exceed 12%. designed Sonealoy are deindfor usc in the as-cast conition; others are designed to he heat-treated in order to improve their mechanical properties ;nd dimensional stability. High strength with good ductility can be o~btained by selecting the appropriate comnpo-

--

STRENGTH. 1% LL

IENSILL STRENGTH,.~
ELONGATION,

34 6.5

17
5

___

12

66
-

MOOIQ"US. 10Il

10.4

5.5
230

-HANUNESSIB ..

~sitionanhetramn.

ndha

retet

2-4

AMCP 706-202 The hcat-trcatment and temper desinations for aluminum arc long and complex. The desinations most frequently stamped on products are: F-as fabricated; 0-annealed; H-strain-hardened (many subdivisions); T2- (cast products only). T4-solution lihat-treated and naturally aged. and T6-solution heat-treated and artificially aged. The heat trcstmcnt of aluminum alloys is detailed in MIL-H-6083. The processes commonly used are solution heat treatment. precipitation hardening, and annealing. A .small amount of cold-working aftcr solution heat "treatment produces a substantial increase in yield strength, some increase in tensile strength, and some loss in ductility. Rapid quenching will provide maximum corrosion resistance, while a slower quench-used for heavy sections and large forgings-tcnds to minimize cracking and distortion. Momt forming of aluminum is done cold. The ternperature chosen permits the completion of the fabrication without the necessity for any intermediate annealing. Hot-forming of aiuminum usually is perS formed at temperatures of 300°-400°F, and heating periods are limited to 15-30 min. When nonhcattreatable alloys are to be formed, the tempef bhuuld i be just soft enough so as to permit the required bend radius or draw depth. When heat-ireatable alloys are used, the shape should govern the alloy selected arnd its temper. To a great extent, the choice of an alloy for casting is governed by the type of mold to be employed. In turn, the type of mold is determined by factors such as intricacy of design, size, cross section, tolerance, surface finish, and the number of castings to be produced. In all casting processes, alloys with high silicon ,-onte~nt ee m~fmi in thwprndctinmi of narts with thin walls and intricate design. The most easily machined aluminum alloy is 2011T3, referred to as the frce-cutting alloy. In general. alloys containing copper, zinc, and magnesium as the principal added constituents are machined the most readily. Wrought alloys that have been heat-trcated have fair to good machining qualities. The welding of many aluminum alloys is common, practice because it is fast, easy, and relatively inexpensive. Welding is usclul especially for making ',akproof joints in thick or thin metal, and the r,. - ess c€n be employed w;th either cast or wrought. :,num or with a combination of both. The re' -:;.i. low melting point, the high thermal conductiviy , the high thermal expansion pose problems. •., heating is necessary when welding heavy secti,:. otherwise, the mass of the parent metal will cond,. the heat away too rapidly for effective welding. , rapid welding process is preferred in order to minimizt distortion due to expansion and contraction. Molten aluminum bsorbs hydrogen easily, and this may cause porosity during cooling. Because they provide a protective inert-gas shield. TIG and MIG welding are common choices. TIG is an incrt-gas shield-arc process with a tungsten electrode, and MIG is an inert-gas, shielded-metal-arc process using covered electrodes. A suitable flux, and mechanical (stainlcss steel brush) removal of the oxide film just prior to welding. are mandatory. Certain aluminum alloys - 2014, 7075, etc. - arc extremely difficult to fusion weld (excluding spot welding) and normally would not be used in structural applications when welded. Brazing is somewhat more difficult, and soldering of aluminum ir extremely difficult. The other joining processes include riveting and adhesive bending, both of which are used extensively in aircraft structures. Applications for aluminum in helicopters include the 4heet-metal exterior surface of the fuselage. framing, stringers, beams, tubing, and other usages where the density, corrosion resistance, and ease of fabrication of alum,'ium give it an advantage ovcr steel and where its high,, star-eg•,,sth, and oadulus properties give it an advantage over magnesium. 2-?.2.3 MNgneslum Alloys MlL-HDBK-693 provides a comprehensive discussion of magnesium alloys and their properties, and also describes design, fabrication, and performance data. Numerous Military and Federal Spccifications covering specific shapes, forms, and p ,,:esses also are summarized. I ,e outstanding characteristic of magnesium is its igl.i weight. This is important in helicopter design,. ,,-•. payvload ratio is a direct function of vehicle ,.,h Magnesium is two-thirds as hevy as atumi.. .1one-fourth as heavy as steel. The low densi• tI effective in relatively thick castings, where ,s :;r -sed rigidity of magnesium is an additional hcnefit or this reason magnesium is used freq••iv., . main rotor gearboxes, motor trans,,:.. sings, and many other load-bearing :ilphpii .' .mn helicopters. Most of the helicopter pm C .: . have several hundred pounds of maincsiw, . construction. The ,--.: (American Society for Testing Mcr 1 .-: '•it • nclature system is used exclusively in u',: , . ,..,sium alloys. In this sytem, the first ,t I. . .1' the principal alloy elements, while th, n -. ,ate the rcspectivi, percentages. I'. ., .... aluminum, F i -. earth, H •,, . .:.,, ;ým. 1. lithium, M manganese, Q .iye I . -,o ,.'inc. By this designation, AZ91C - Co..i .. i.ioy of magnesium containing 9% rm,;w
i\
-. ..

"'*

* . S" -

'A''

j'. "'

`

_. TN•

S,)

AMCP 706-2012 r
.luriiinum. V; zinc, and having a "C" variation.

The heat-treat and temper designations for magnesium virtually are identical to those for aluminum.
-:1 he temp~er designations used urc those in ASTM 8296. There are four groups of mugnesium casting alloys. The Mg-A and Mg-Z binary systems are tiesigned Iir use at temperatures belo%% 300'1[ and are ~~iof Ios~er cost. The Mg-F and the Mg-Fl binary s~stents are designed for good strength in the 500'0 8004:~ range. The choice of casting composition is dictated largely by certain features of the design, and by cost and irecthod of production. For magnesium alloys, the important casting proce~ses are sand, per. mnciaret miold, and die. The choice of a casting proc-ess depends upon the size, shape, and minimum seclion thickness of the part, and upon the tolerances, types of surface finish, number of pieces to be produced. and relative cost of finishing the part. Magnesium alloys, both cast and wrought. haie outstanding macmiinability. Greater depths of cut and higher cutting rates can be used with these metals than with other structurai metals. Magnesium does
slt ?a %%,U . s U 94 ns

siderahh higther tenmperatures than aluminum often gise it advantages bor partic:ular applications, as in the hot structures and exhaust ducting for helicopter power s)-steins. Indeed. increased paj loads resulting front %% eight saving~i catmr ~a fseth initial costs, and in the long run titanium may prove less costls for seii plctosta okrpie mtaterials.spih aplcto hnlserrid 1Itnmisaihlt mlc ilsivrou srought shapes and in at side range of' alloyed ane unalloyed grades including billet. bar, extrusions, plate. iheet, and tuh.*ng. The mill products can be grouped into three categories according to the predomninant phase in their inicrostruclure: Alpha, Alpha-Beta. and Beta titanium. There is no single acceptt'd system for the designation or classification of titanium and its alloys as there ure for other metals. Titanium iactual", is easier to machine than the stainless steels becauhe the effects of work -harden ing are far less pronounced. Titaniumi requires low shearing forces, and is not noi-.h-sensitise. Because of these properties, it can he machined to extremely low micro-inch finishes. On the other band, the sharp
-

.

.

.

I! 1* A

,*M4

Ionn. C;11;%-*

polish the material in order to obtain an. extremnely fine finish. The chips from machining readily clear ihe work and the tools. Because of its position in the electromiotive series, magnesium is subject to more corrosion than are the other structural metals. The many corrosion problerns associated with the use of magnesium severely limit its use in rotary aircraft. Magnesium alloys shall not be used for parts that are not readily accessible for inspection, application of protective finish, and replacement. magnc.ýiuin cannot be wcided satisiucturily to other metals, and welding of magnesiam to magnesium can be accomplishmed reliably only by a skilled operator. The metal also cannot be soldered. properly. Thus, electron beam (EB) welding is the mostsatsfator wedin prces, athogh luxdip mostsatsfator wedin prces, athogh iuxdip brazing also may be used; care must be employed in removing all of the flux because of the danger of corrosion. The best method ofjoir .ig magnesium in thin sectonsis ondng.mal ahesve y 2-2.2.4 'Titansium Alloys MIL-HDIIK-697 contains a comprehensive description of titanium alloys arnd their properties, and discusses design, fabrication, and performance. In addition, seven Military Specifications for specific forms of titanium will be found in Refs. 2 and 3. Although titanium is relatively costly, its high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion. resistance, and capability of performing at con2-6

the shearing point to heat rapidly. At elevated temperatures tItnmtedtoislvayhig within contact, and the cutting tool is dulled revdily. F~urther. the cirhides and oxides oin the forged pie.es are extremecly abrasive to tou's and miust be removed by tiltric-hydrolfluoric acid treatment prior to machining. Osciall, considerable kno%%hoA is required for the economical machining of titanium. Titanium assemblies are joined by spot, scant, flash, and pressure welding technique-.. In fusion welding, the TIG process is used-. heavy welding also requires Incrt g.. k. welding is quite saiLffactory. 2-2.2.5 Copper and Copper Alloys A 1;oniprehensivc discussion of coppeF and copper alloys and their prtop-rties. design and fabrication characteristics, and design and performance data is contained in MIL-l-ll)BK-698. h aiu om fcpe n otraly have found only limlited use in helicopters Their therand electrical conductivity properties are ad.-antageous in inserts, studs, bushings. etc., where owk load is desired. Beryllium copper is useful for sprink's and oiler applications where its good modulus, hardness, fatigue resistance, and ease of formiing are advantageous. tlo%%e~er, copper alloys are the hcaviest of the common structural metals, and, therefore, have at %%eight disadvantage in aiiborne applications. The various types of copper and its alloys are
-urct

tl A

1

*I
hetter known hy namec than by code number 1 lie' lerin copper is used when the material cxceds 99.4'4 purnty. The principal alloying agent of bra... is zinc, v.hile tin isthe principal alloying agnin in bronie. Thc beryllium coppers have sinall percentajges of herylhum,. producing

AMCP 705-202
Par. 2-2.2.2 details the use of alumninum alloys in 11clicopter construction. Aluminum alloys used in helicoýptcrs may contain copper ot zinc as an cssent ial const ituent. In sheet form, thesecalloys rcsusceptihlc ito corrosive action resulting in a loss of strength of the material, which becomes brittle withoiut evidence of surface change. Aluminum alloys containing magnecsium, magnesium and silicon. and chomniumn as the essential alloying constituents arc mnuch more stable under prolonged weathering condition% than are the aluminum alloy% containing copper or zun::.4 Cadmium behaves similarly to zinc as a coating mectal hi.-affording electrochemical piotection of ferroins%metals against corrosion. Cadmium plating thus can he: used to put ferrous metals into the same group a%5 aluminum al~oys. giving them a similarity. A dctailed ditscutsion of coating processes can he found in p~ar- 2-tv. In general, when two dissimilar metal surfaces come in contact with one anothcr, a corrosive action called galvanic action can take place. Coating iitals are used as thin layers between dissimilar mietals to prevent this type of corrosion. Table 2-4 illustrates the position of metals with lack of su ce ti.lt V I ~. i.h__r r fth red t to galvanic action.

u remarkably hard. hiph-modulus.

1

high-strength, inonsparking mat erial. The copper and copp~r alloys arc ca.st readily in all of the various castling processes. The allo.ýs are coldformed catsly, and are capahleof being rolled, drawn. spun, and flanged. In hot-%orking they arc rolled, cxtruded. pierced, and forged. The machinability ofcopper alloys is excellent. For sand castings, low speeds and coarse feed-- are used for remosing the scale in order ito increast tool life. It is better ito remove the scale by sand blasting and pickling, The copper alloys are %elded readily by all the sselding processes, although their high thermal conductivit) i%a problemi. The,, arc adaptable ito brating and are the eiasiest of ;ill metals to solder. 2-2. FL:cTOI.Y~c OFfl~;SIII(1IN 2-2.3 MEITALST AmeO O 1SM1Dissimilar metals, as defined in MIL-STD.889. should not be used together in helicopter applicathc m ating surfaces are insu lated adet\ . qtinis unless tape is used between two dissimilar quately. When S metals, such as in the mounting of a magnesium gearbox toa~n adurnintm airframe, the contractor miust insure that there will be no loss oi- mounting torque as a result of normal usage and vibrations. Metali can be grouped in four categories, as shown in Table 2-3 Metals grouped in any one of the calegorits in Table 2-3 can rye considered similar to one another, while those metals placed in different groups should be considered dissimilar to one -unoher. The categorization does not apply to fasteners - such as rivets, bolts, nuts, and washers -- that are comrponent parts of assemblies and usually are painted prior ito being used. Instead, the metels referred to arc surface mnetals. F-or example, zinc covers all zinc parts, ineluding castings and zinc-coated paits. TABLE 2-3 GROUPING OF METALS AND ALLOYS (M IL-STD-889)
GFUU' AD I 5I'M Al UM'I.1UKIAt OYS !.",2 Ei`,t, 5351, (;ROUI' 11

2-3

NONMETALLIC MATERIALS

~ ~McGraw-tfill,
6061 AND 1410

IllR At 101 t'ADMIiIM PNI . ANO All A'.~lI AND (INCIIDIND THElAIDIMItRIIK All CIYSIrl GllILIr' 1,

IlI 0i~lDUI'
GRUPI

ANU TINANDLHIR~l All (,i IRN I EAC!). lEXlCu'il AIlNI SIFELS) 1SS
C01111. I'll MILIM NICKEL Sit VIER(,OLD. P1MINUM TITANIUM. COBA, AND 1`4ODIlUM AND 1110111 AllIOYS SIAINI.LSS STE S AtOL itlAP111fI El

2-3.1 GENERAL This paragraph discusses the applications of the thermoplasstic and thermosetting plastics, elastomners, fabrics, and transparent maiteials. Other materials - such as glass in light bulbs or optical piping, ceramics and mica in electrical insulation, and cairbon and graphite in lubrication or electrical contacts - also play significant roles in helicopter construction. The nonmetallic materials used in composite structures, reinforced plastics. and other composite mnaterial% are treated in par. 2-4; plastic materials used as sealants and adhesive-; arc covered in par. 2-5. Comprehensive discussions and detu~led design data will be found iii existing documents. Among these are: MIL-H-DBK-700, MIL-HDBK-l7, the Modern Plastics Encyclopedia, published annually by and the Malerials -Selector Isjxuv, published annually by Reinhold Publishing Co. The major disadvantage of plastic's is their low moduitis. which is in the order of a few hundred thousand psi compared to 10 or mome million psi for metals. Thiey also arc more- sensitive to heat, soften0 ing markedly at 400~ F and below. On the other hand.

.

I

plastics can he as strong as steel, be lighter than magnesiurn, aind have better abrasion resistance than

______

~2-7

4X
metals. Normal corrosion is not a problem. Although they are nonconductors for electricity and poor conductors for heat. they can be exceedingly tough and wear-resistant, and can be fabricated in a variety of waya. When judiciously selected and pioperly used, they often can p.rform better at lower cost than any other material. TABLE24 POSITION OF METALS IN THE GALVAN'C SERIFS CORRODED END ANODIC.1 shapes. plate. sheet, and film and in a wide range of shapes. sizes, and thicknesses. The materials are machined, or shaped readily by thermoforming proccsscs. Many items may be purchased in thc finished form as produced by extrusion or injrction molding: included arc screws, nuts. bolts, inserts, grommets, straps. pins, knobs, handles. instrument facings. housings, boxes, conduits. electrical receptacles, covers, rails, runners, guides, snaps, and slides. Many of these items are supplied as off-the-shelf inventories in a variety of sizes. Nylons and polycarbonates are known as the enginecring plastics. Nylon, a polyimide. has high strength and high elongation, giving it a toughness that many applications depend upon. It has high
modulus in flexure, good impact strength, a low coefficient of friction, and high abrasion resistadcC, as

.

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MAGNESIUM MAGNESIUM ALLOY
ZINC ALUMINUM 1100

CADMIUM ALUMINUM 2017 STEEL OR IRON CAST IRON LEAD-TIN SOLDERS
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LEAD
TIN
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well as good fatigue resistance under vibration conditions. Its primary disadvantages, though not significant, are dimensional change with moisture absorption, and the need for incorporating carbon black in order to )rotect against ultraviolet degradation in outdoor use. Nylon is used in gears, arms and other contact applications, and in pressure tubing, belting, and we.ar pads.
The polycarbonates are aromatic esters of car-

BRONZE

COPPER-NICKEL ALLOYS TITANIUM MONEL SILVER SOLDER NICKEL INCONEL CHROMIUM-IRON 18-8 STAINLESS 18-8-3 STAINLESS *.SILVER

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SOURCE:

GRAPHITE GOLD PLATINUM PLATINUM

boric acid. They have excellent rigidity and toughness. high impact strength, and low water absorption. They are stable dimensionally under a wide range of conditions, are cieep-resistant, and are transparent and stable in sunlight. Probably their major deficiency is that their fatigue resistance is lower than is desirable. Polycarbonates are used in shields, lenses, ammunition chutes, knobs, handles, etc. The acrylic of interest here is polymethylmethacrylate, better known as Plexiglas. This plastic has crystal clarity, outstanding weatherability in optical
p, operties and appearance, dimensional stability,
good impact resistance, and a low water absorption .4.

______

PROTECTED END (CATHODIC]

OR MOST NOBLE) REFERENCE DATA FOR RADIO ENGINEERS

rate. Its major deficiency is its low resistance to

'-

*

scratching. Its major use is as window glazing and for
such applications as transparent aircraft covers;

FEDERAL TELEFHONE & RADIO Co. 3RD

2-3.2 THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS Thermoplastic materials are those that soften when heated and harden when cooled. Typical of the thermoplazic family are the polyvinyls, acrylics, nylons, polycarbon tes, aitd fluorocarbons- Often, these have linear micromolecular structures. Products of these materials usually are formed by extrusion or by inJection molding, and they are available for manufacturing in the form of rods, tubes, contoured 2-8

covers for signal lights, where its ease of coloring is advantageous; and in other optical and instrumentation applications. Its use as a window material is discussed in par. 2-3.5. For helicopters, the polyvinyls are used largely in the form of sheeting simulating leather or upholstery fabric. These are very tough and wear-resistant. In the transparent form, they are used to make pockets and holders for documents and maps. The fluorocarbon poymers have excellent thermal stability at continuous temperatures of 400°-550*F.

.-

-

AMCP 706-202 They virtually are inert to chemical attack, have exccllent damping properties, and have outstanding electrical characteristics. such as high dielectric strength, low dissipation factor and radio frequency (RF) transparency They arc used widely in microwave components and high-frequency connectors, as well as in wire coatings, gaskets, and electrical tcr•minals. 2-3.3 THERMOSETTING MATERIALS H M TT MT ASfusible. A lthou!h there is a great diversity in the chemical mak:up of thermosetting resins, they have one chaIacteristic in common: once they are cross-linked, tl-ey do not soften undoi heat and cannot be formed by thermofotming processes. With the application of heat, thermosetting resins undergo a series of changes that are irreversible. The polymeritation reaction that occurs results in such a high degree of crosslinking that the cured product essentially is one molecule. In many cases, this results in a highly rigid molecule of good thermal stability. The thermosetting rcsirts usually are used with fillers and rcinforcement. Three of the most widel. used of these materials are the epoxy. phenolic. anid polyc~tei iesius. Thcsc are employed extensively with Fiberglas fabric. %%ith chopped fiber in laminates, in sprayed forms, in filamnent-wound structures, in honeycomb sandwich structures, and in combinations with halsa wood or formed shapes. The epoxy resins arc based upon the reactivity of the epoxide ktroup and generally are produced from bisphenol-A and cpichloiohydrin. Epoxies have a broad capability for blending properties through resin systems, fillers, and additives. Formulations can ne so.i arm nex1t. or F-11,U '01c T'are.. ... able as prepolyrners for final polymeritation in the form of powNders and liquids with a % range of viside cosities, Some cure at room temperature, while others require curing at elevated temperatures. The powders may be transfcr-qilded byi machine, and the liqiids may he cast. Mure-oftcn, the liquid is used to inipregnate materials for bonding. The outstanding characteristic of epoxies is their capability to form a strong bond with almost an) surface. Fur this reason. they are used widely in adhesive formulations. The molded produtcts have high dimensional stability over a %ide range of temperatures and hunridities, excellent inmchanical and shock resistance, good retention of properties at 50091-, and excellen! electrical properties, The phenolics are the oldest and the least cxpensive of the plastics. 1 he basic resin -thermosetting is ianufactured by weans of a rc,actiorr bet ncii phenol and formaldehyde. Thi. resin is blended with dye, filler, and curing agents to make the molding powder, which is called the "A" stage powder. Pokkders such as these are molded for 2 min at '25'F at 15(X) psi pressure. As the granules are warmed by the hot mold, the resin melts; the material flows and fills the cavity, further reacting and going through a rubbery "B' stage. With further cross-linking it reaches the -'C" stage, at which it is hard and inFillers used in typical phenolic molding powders are fibrous in nature; their interlocking fibers act to reduce the brittleness of the cured resin. Wood flour is used most commonly, while asbestos and graphite fibers form the i.onventional heat-resistant plastics. Paper and fabric fillers are used for high impact or shock-resistant phenolics. When the powders are used for lamination or in making composite structurc-:. a solution of the resin in alcohol is used to impregnate the fabric and then "B" st.ged. The layers ot" impregnated fabric are laid together and then cured b) heat and pressure. The advantages of phenolics are their low material processing costs, dimensional stability. excellent hrc ktia fpris 1 lodb1rn teristics, and good weathering properties. They are used in electrical components, receptacles, conduits. housings, etc. IThe polyesters are plastics formed of chains produccd by repeating units of a polyacid and a polyglycol. They may be aliphatic or aromatic. Familiar forms - fibers such as Dacron synthetic fiber or Mylar film - are the so-called linear polye.;ters. More important to applications in helicopters are the thermosetting resins. These arc the three-dimensional or cro.-linked polyesters that are formed by bridging ,i unsaturated polyesters. In this form, the polyester is supplied as a syrupy liquid that - %hen mixed with a small amount of curing agent, ,pplied to a fabric, chopped Fiberglas, or filament tow, and laid over a form - rapidly reacts so as to establish a rigid structure. Such structures are of particular use for ra. domes because of their RF transmission and excellent weaaherability. They have high modulus and impact strength as well as excellent flexural and tensile properties. The polyesters may be cast in order to produce glazing materials. Another highly cross-linked family of polymers consists of the urethanes. 1 hese arc formed by the reaction ot isocyanates with esters and unsaturatcs. In the process, carbon dioxide is evolved and forms a highly porous structure. "[he stiffness ranges from soft, flexible foams to highly rigid foams. The flcxible foams are employed for cushioning and padding 2-9

.

-

1xvln

)

SECP 706202
.and to reduce noise and shock, as well as for thermal insulation. The rigid foams are used as light-weight stiffeners in structures. 2-3.5 WINDOW MATERIALS Gazing materials and methods of attachment are , discussed in detail in MIL-HDBK-17. That document also lists additional Military Spccification" coveting specific glazing materials, resins, cement., and proc-.sscs for the design and fabrication of widow systems. The optical properties of greatest significancefor aircraft glazing are surface reflection, index 9 'f refraction, absorption of light, and transmission of an undistorted image. The thermal properties of primary concern are the coefficient of expansion, the thermal conductivity, and the distortion temperatare. The major physical properties are density and hardness, or scratch-resistance; the major mechanical properties are tensile and compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity. The ideal glazing will be strong enough to withstand structural and operational (wind and water) loads, hard enough to remain unscratched, optically clear after a life of operatiun, unchanged by thermal loads, and unaffccted by the weather. Although no material- passess all of these desirable characteristics, there are several that perform ver) well. The three glazing materials that are employed most often arc glass, cast polyester, and cast aciylic (methylmethacrylate). Polycarbonate, an otherwise strong contender, has not yet been produced economically in large sheets with the required optical properties. Monolithic glas- is used in helicopters only when use temperatures ex,.ecd the performance t(mperatures of the laminated glasses and the poiymeric materials. The lamination of glass with plastit imt provcE. the -cs~s!_i. to- therma and rne-har.ca! stresses, and minimize; the possibility of complete failure of a panel, Splintering of the g'asi is prevented, although the load-carrying capacity of the laminated glass is less than that of plate glass. The plastic interlayer is sel,.cted so as to provide the greatest ability to absorb impact energy. Polyvinyl butyral is the most common interlayer material for both glass and plastic laminates. A new thermosetting, polyester-base, transparent sheet material has becn developed under the trade niame "Sierracin 880". It can be used for aircraft endosuren. that operate at suifitce temperatures of up to 300°F. and is characterized by its two-stage cure. After formiig and post-ctri~ag, the ultimate physical properties of this materia! are obtained. Sierracin 880 generally is used as a laminate with acrylic, and is described in MIL-P-8257. The glazing materiaS u;sed nast widely for helicopters is cast polymethylmethacrylate. In many air-

MIL-HDBK-149 presents a comprehensive discussion of the technology of the elastomeric materials and their applications. From the standpoint of durability and performance, natural rubber remains in demand, and substantial quantities arc used in blends with SBR, butyl, and other synthetic rubbers. Natural rubber is a stcrospecific polymer of isoprene. Its applications in pneumatic tires, bumpers, shock absorbers, etc., as well as in belting, gaskets, and seals, arc well known, Substantial quantities con"tinue tc. be employed in hdicopters. Carbon black constitutes about 50% of the w,:ight of il-csc corpositions. A more advanced synthetic rubber is nt-nnr%,,e, a general-purpose synthetic made by emulsion polymerization of chloroprene. A notable characteristic ":t rabte•ri e ris i,.,o gasoline. foles, monrieating oils, and othur solvents, a d its excellent resistance to weather-oxidations, ozone, and ultraviolet light. It has goon tensile strength, tear resislance, abrasion resistance, and rebound character;stics, and excellent adherence to metal and fabrics. It provides average insulation and has excellent dicirctric strength. In helicopters, it is used to coat radomes and the leading edges of the rotors for protection against abrasion by rain and dust. It also is used in boots on other leading edges and areas where wear is a factor; and in transmission belts, hoses,
liEcs sas, &-1 ecica apl-U----------

Another important family of clastonteric materials is the silicones, which are used in many diverse and seemingly unrelated applications. The silicones are organo-poly-siloxanes, having alternating silicon and oxygen atoms in the backbone of the chain. The silicone resins may be cast, extruded, or injectionmolded so as to form shaped products. They are available in sheet or bulk form; as a range of pastes and liquids for use as adhesives, sealants, and coatings; and as powders for foaming. They are stable continuously at temperatures from - 140' to +600 0 F, and initermittently to 70001. They are weather-resistant, hove high dielectric strength and a low dissipation factor, and are bonded easily to metals, ceramics, and plastics substrates. Aromatic solvents and chlorocoinpounds swell silicones, and they have higher gas permeability than do other rubbert. They are used as foaming agents, encapsulatin mesins, sealants, and in electrical applications, 2-10

I

S"
craft, it constitutes a major portion of the fuselage walls. For window applications, the stretched, modifled acrylic sheet is preferred, per MIL-P-25690. The nmodified material has slightly higher heat resistance than does heat-resistant polymethylmethacrylatc, along with better resistance to crazing and solvents. When stretched to W-I100% biaxially or multiaxially. acrylic sheets develop increased resistance to crazing, higher impact strength, and improved rcsistance to crack propagation - without detrimental effects upon their other properties except for reduced abrasion rFsistance and laminar tensile and shear strengths. The sheets may be formed thermally to diffcrent contours. Laminated plastic glazing materials are made by bonding two or more layers of acrylic or polyester plagtic sheet to a soft plastic interlayer by means of an adhesive. This process greatly improves the impact and structural strengths of the material, Laminated plastic glazing materials arc defined in MIL-1N5374. Differing thermal expansion rates of glazing materials, edge attachment mmieriais, and metal air-

A CF 706.a01

frames present one of the major probicms
-

iM I

design of window-glazing. For all types of glazing, an edge wrap is used in order to minimize the propagation of stresses originating in cracks and chips at the edges. The preferred wrap is two or more layers of polyester (Dacron) fabric, ,,oven from twisted yarns and impitgnated and bonded in ?lace with epoxy resin. Th wrap overlaps sufficiently on the glaze material and extends sufficiently beyond the edges to absorb the stresses of aitachment closure and at the same time "o distribute the load uniformly across the window. There are many closure designs, but the prefcrred enclosure will be designed so as to hold the glaze securely in a sliding grip ir. such a manner as to allow for reciprocal longitudinal motion - as the glaze expands and contracts - while always applying a comprehensive load endwise. This may be achieved by placing a compressible, neoprene-imprcgnated tube at the bottom of the closure channel. The closure will be attached rigidly to the airframe. The contacting areas between the closure and the edge wrap will be sealed with a flexible sealant, prefe-rably one made of silicone,

strength and modulus, but is considerably more cxpensive. The major advantages of glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) over isotropic structural mate•ials (primary metalsý include: I. Formability and versatility. Large complex parts and very short production runs are practical. Because there are few limitations on size, shape, and number of parts, design freedom is maximized. In addition, the reinforcement can be oriented as desired in order to increase properties ir. specific directions. 2. Chemical stability. GRP is resistant to most chemicals, and does not rust or corrode. 3. Toughness. Good impact resistance is a feature of GRF. 4. Strength-to-weight ratio. Specific strength of GRP is very high. For example. unidirectional GRP has a specific strength about five times that of the commonly used steel and aluminum alloys. 5. Insulation. GRP is a good thermal and electrical insulator, and therefore, wiil transmit radar and radio waves. Wk ......... , ..... . r .. .atchedhe n readily and effectively. On the other hand, GRP has certain disadantages compared to other construction materials, namely: I. Nonuniformity. Variations in material properties within a part and from part to part are inherent in most of the fabrication techniques. 2. Low modulus. Stiffness of GRP is relatively low. 3. Slow fabrication. Production rates are low in comparison with most metal-formirg operations. Thus, GRP coiitiUctmon is mnostudan'tgeou•s ar, parts with complex shapes that would be difficult to form from metal, foe parts with anisotropic strength requirements, or in applications where the conductivity or poor dent or corrosion resistance of metals present a probl'm. Sonic typical GRP applications in helicopter construction arc in canopies, covers, 'tad shrouds (for formability, specific strength, dent resistance); rotor blades (for formability, anisotropic strength, and stiffness)- control surfaces (for anisotropic properties, dent resistance, repairability); and antenna

.

. ,

24 COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 2-4,1 FIBERGLAS LAMINA'TES
* Of all the fibers available for the rcinforcement of plastics, glass is used by far the most widely. Of the various glass compositions, only two are important in "aircraftconstruction: "E" and "S" glass. "'E' glass is used extensivily; "S" glass provides greater tensile

housings (for radio frequency transparency, formability). It is conceivable that an entire helicopter airframc can be constructed from GRP, as has been

.

".

done o, several smal, fixed-wing aircraft. 2-4.1.1 Design Colsiderations Design rules and procedui ,. for reinforced plastics do not differ markedly from those for metals. Stress st:ain curves, however, are similar to those for wood 2-11

AreP 7062D2
(which also is a riber-reinforced composite) in that there is no yicld point. As Part I of MiL.IIDBK-17 contains conlsidcrable prapcrty data on specific materials, only generalities arc considered herce, ~ her ar tw cscntal igreiens i glss. 7~reinforced plastics: glass fibers and resin. A finish, or coupling agent. that enhances adhesion between ile glass and resin usu'lly is used as a cobting on the glass, and may be considered as a third component or as part of the reinforcement. The resin system geneall ha roe ~ detrmiingthe th limtin chemicalyhatherm lmiand e oletica pdopertiesiofg ltm catemwicl, thertyealon, elcrclpoprtientto of themi and reinforcement predominate in determiining the basic
--

(
und lainin.,tes are detailed in MIL-R-215042 and Ml L-IP-25395. 2-4.1.2.2 Epoxies Epoxies probably arc thec resins most frequently used ior atircraft GRP laininates. Although about twice as costly as polyesters or phenolics, epoxy plctos rsn tl jeiepniefrms stapiatint. hcia-rsivefrm rechansticl, 4elietrcaend Mcaiacetiaadccia-eitn prptisreeclc.Adconomstubrae odadcuehinaeadmitraisvr sorption are low. Temperature resisiance of generalpurpose types is intermediate betweca that of polyesters and phenolics. Formulation anid fabrication oy swt psiltesaexrmly vraie or prcpregs for room-temnperature or elevatedtempei ature curing, and for fire-rctardancy. The choice of curing agent plays a maijor part in determining curing characteristics, temperature resistancc. chemical resistance, flexibility. etc. In addition, a variety of modifierF and fillers is available to provioc specific qualities. There are relatively few disadsantags-s with epoxy rcsins. However, becaube an~ine curing agents that are commonly used in room tempeature curing forlmulations mady ctiuse severe dci matitis, skin contact must be avoided. MIL-R-9300 contains requirt.ments for epox) lamninating resins, wvhile requirements for epoxy laminates are covered in MI[-P-25421. 2-4.1.2.3 Phenolics Phenolic resins are used primarily in (3RP appli%xhprc

mechanical poets.esters, propeties.laytips 2-4.1.2 Resin Systems
Essentially all GRP laminates arc madc with thcrmosetting re-sins that, when mixed with suitable catalysts or curing agents, arc pormanently converted to the solid state. Reinforced thermoplastics (RTP). whicn contain snort glaass ircrb. arc a rapiduy growing element of the injctlion-molaing industry: such parts. however, are not consider.-d laminates, Probably 95% of all GRP laminates are made from polyester, epoxy, or phenolic resins. For very-high. temperature service (above 50OOT), silicone (MIL-R25506 and MIL-P.25S18) and polyimide resins are available. These, however, have no known applications in current helicopter technology. 2-4.1.2.1 Polyesters These are by far the most widely used resins when thob eniirp rGP intisictry ic -nn-ijere-d. They are !ow, in cost, easily processed, and extremely versatile. Available types range from rigid to flChible: there are also grades thait are fire-retardant. ulhrav'ioletresistant, and highly chemical-resistant. The upper temperature limit for long-term operation of generalpurpose grades is 200*F, although temperature-resisresins are available that are useful up ito 5000F. These can be formulated for rapid curing at room temperature or with long pot-life for curing at elevated temperature. rhus, they commonly arc used for wet layups but prcpregs also are used frequently. Prepregs that cure by ultraviolet light also are available. Disadv:tntages of polyesters include high shrinkage * during cui-c, inhcrently tacky surfact. ii cured in the

epoxies can be formulated for uses tuch an wet

,

(

an inrinrpnsive material

th heat. re-

rtint

sistance uri to 50001: and/or rionflanimability is required. Excellent elctirical propcrtics also arc obtaircti. Because water is produced and released in the curitig reaction, relatively high molding pressure is req4uired in order to prc~eni porosity in phenolic laminates. Preprcgs ticarls alk-ays are used. Mil.-R-9299 and NIIL-P-25515 cover the requiremncrts for Phenolic laminating resins and phenolic laminates, respectively. 2-4.1.3 Types of Reinforcement Gilass reinforceniem is av;,1lable in several basic form,,. anid in a %ide variety of specific construo'tions ssithirr these basic cztegories. Those formis coidnion1) j.scd in 6RP lamirates include skoven fabric, chropped fiber mat, and! i~onwoven continuous iapes or ro,*ing. Neaýrl) all of these art: dcris,,d fromn continuou% filamrents of 0.00023. 0.00028, or 0.0003h in nominal diamecter. Numecrous standard yarn C(:ii structio11s are available, with %ar)yrtg numbers (if

3

*

.

presence of air, odor, and fire hazard in wet layup
fabrication from styrene monomecr and peroxide catalysts. Requirements for general-purpose polyester larninating resins and lamuinates are contained in M IL-R7575 and L-P-383, respectively; fire-resistant resins 2-12

parallel Miaments per strand, strands per yard, and twists pc.- inch of the strands. Likewise. there is a multiplicity of fabrics woven from thc.ic yaifls that vary not only in type and amount of ) arns but also in thc type of weave. MIL-Y-l 140 is an excellent reference for definitions and rcquit emcnts for ti,a various yarns and woven fabrics, The type of reinforcement selctcird will depend upon the mechanical property requirements, part shape, and applicable fabrication technique as discussed in the paragraphs that follow, 2-4.1.3.1 Nonwoven. Continuous Filaments axium Thi renfoceentoffrs fom o mechnicl ha miimumfabicaion bu popeties possibilities due to the difficulty of placing and aligning the reinforcemuent in complex shapes. A big adv'antage where this type of construction is practicable is that the fibers can be oriented in proportion to the stress in anly given direction. Filament winding is the most widely used fabrication technique with nonwoven continuous filaments. This construction is covredmoe n pr.2-43.As cmpetey 2-4.1.3.2 Woven Fabric This constru-ctwn proidus good mechaniv-ul properties and formability and is. theref'ore, the niost commonly used reinforcement in aircraft fabrica-

2.4.1.3.3 hopilped F"be The third commo3n form or rcinfoiroment is chopped Fiber mat, as defined by MIL-M-15617. Because thc Fibers arc short inno their orientatIon is completely random. this material is veycm formable. For the same reasons. atid also because or its high bulk - which limits the percentage of glas obtainable in a laminate - mechanical properties are lower than with roving or fabric. Continuous (swirl) strand mat is another veriation and is particularly useful for deep contours. in both types of mai. th-glass is held in place with a small amount of resin binder. Both types are available in weights ranging 1 fromn 0.75 oz to 3 oz per ft . corresponding to laminl. atd thicnfiesseno absou0.3 in. trodue 0.00in.per naldMith rei~nfo 6icemincallso ishproduc ldin promrnadsetmoigcontewihrsitiss pound (SMC). Chopped fiber parts can be fabricated by the sprayup or Preform t-echniques described subsequiently.

F
h
1 A_4

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FaratoMeod
n'

previously discussed, each of the common forms of glass reinforcement (roving, fabric, mat) can be niorchip el either dry or preimpreitnated withth ) laminatirip resin, which is cured or dried partially to a ' solid or tacky condition. The latter, called preprep, tion. When wetted with resin, the cloth has conarc advantageous in that they contain a controlled, siderable ability to stretch and conforfm to rather uniform, and readily measurable amount of resin. complcr. contours. Although intended specifically for They arc, therefore, easier to lay up, because wet laypolyester laminates, MIll-C-9084 fabric usually is up operations often arm messy and odorous. Prespecified for larniiat"s made with all resins. IKaquirepregs can be obtained with varying degree of tack so ments for eleven basic fabrics and six subtypes arc deas to suit the spwcific operation. And, because cornfined in the specification. Approximate thickness per~ pleie quality con irol tests can be mitde before the part is fabricated, the. problems of incorrect weigtding and ply ranyes from 0.003 in. for 112 fabric to 0.027 in. mixing of the resin system arc eliminated completely. for 184 fabric. (Still heavies fabrics, woven from :he( fife-, pre-pre" er In o~z rovings rather than yarns, arc avia~hbl Ii- i'll-----ses formulated with curing agents or catalysts thatI of up to 0.045 in. pcr ply-. these are covered in MILrequire heat to cure (generally 250*-3S0*F for at least C-i19663.) Most of these fabrics are balanced %%eavcs. I fir). Under heat, the resin melts initially, and then with nonoinally equal construction in the warp and fill directions: 181 fabric at 0.009 Mi.per ply is the coiiverts chemiically to a thermoset solid. Some pressure almost always is required in prepreg lamistandard balanced fabric upon which most test laminating in order to maintain good contact betwtien nate- and published properties data are based. Repireplies of reinforcement. This pressure results in reater cm, ing the extr,:me of unbalance is 143 fabric. %hich resin flow and, consequently, in higher glass ratios has a warp strungth about 10 times as great as its fill strength. This approaches the nonwo%,en conarid better mechanical properties than are obtained with unpressurizcd wet-layup laminates. struction described previously, sacrificing sonic mechanical properties for improved drapability. Generally, epoxy resins and preprcgs of roving. Most high-strength, glIAss- fabric- based laminates Lre tape, or fabric are associated with components of made from 181 and/or 143 abrics. higher quahlt, cost, and strength, while polyester As with MIL-C-9094, MIL-Y-l 140 originally swas resins and wet-lay up (or SMC) processing of fabric or ) interldeo lor polyester laniinates. However. its renina arc used where maximum required properties do S quliremeflts also usually are specified for fabrics conri)t justif*y the increased costs. Those fabrication taining epoxy compatible finishes. mecthods applicable to construction of laminated
*.o .es-m-l

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2-13
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AMCP W16-202 TABILF 2-5 PROCESS COMPARISON ;Ii)1 F('R (;R! lANIINAl -:S*

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PROCESS

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_

_

Of

I

••POLYISI PREFORM I,• EPOXY •iEPOXY

ER CHOPPED 30 22510300
1,.?..

100 10300

FRVSAEY.QN,1 FR'..V5AEEYHELIEISI
TO 1CIt BOATI t SHULS_

p•,,1

.

CLOSED MOLD MATCHED-DIE MOLDING S~EPOXY

MAT

PHENOLIC,

MELAMINE, SI,1N1 EPOXY[

MAT

3'i

'25 10 350

100 10 3000 1 ' 6 .ANE NL S f't, I

R,

SP.

L1

_

1O

{ "1

"POLYESTER,
FABRIC PHLNOLIC, ,ELAVINE, SILICONE,
EPOXY

FAPI:,CS, PRI'REG AND
NONV"OVEN

2Vr'TO 350

IN

O

C ' ANE LS•U 1 5

_j _._

FROM OWENS CORNING FIBERGLAS CORPORATION TECHNICAL BULLETIN I-PL-1998-B

GRP helicopter components arc jiscu::scd subsequently. General guides to moldinj; processies. and resultin, laminate properties, are shown in Tablei 2-5 and 2-6. respectively. 241.4.1 Opcm Mold Hand Layup

simoothed onto the exposed surfac of the layup in order to provide a better finish. 2. Vacuum bag. A film (usually poly,,inyl alcohoIlI er nylon, is phlced over the surface of the part and

1
'

scahLd at the edges, or the entire mold is pk.ccd in a bag. A vacuum k then drawn. resuittlg in the applica.ion of atmospheric pressure to thr"lamfinate. I:ven This method consists simply of placing the rethis re~ativ,:'; low piessurc (15 psi) conside•Fabl) intquird number of plies of reinforcement and resin proves th- laminat,: quaiity bh reducing entrapped over a single mold surface, and rubbing or rolling out air and resil|-ricin areas. the air. Curing then is accomplished by one oi the 3. Pressure b:i. In this case a rubber film (o!'Ten "following processes: C t l T n i wconioured to 117c part shape) is placed ovz-i dit- l, tip 1I. -- Contact molding. The laminale is allowed to and thŽ mold is scaied snth a pressure plate. Air or cure without the application of pressure. usually at stvam pressure ol up to about 100 psu then is applied room temperature. Heat can be applied to accelerate to thl. cavitN. the cure, but the contact process usually is employed 4. Autoclase. In this variation: of the pressuwc t'tg for large parts and/or short pruduction runs. and process, the ent~re assembly (mold, layup, rubber "~'.• ,both heat and pressure 11ay be impracticabic. A stripfilm) is placed in a steam autocime 'nd cLured, norpabla film, such ab cellophane, sometimes is malhY at about 50-100 i'. 2-14

___________________________________AMCP

706-202

TABLF 2-6 (,FNI-IT.A1. PROPER} IFS OBTAINABLIA IN (&ASS RHFN1FOR( I) I'l.AS'I(*S* POLYESTER PL j(-LASS fMM. F FCR11l rROPF RiY SP~lCI l'CfRAVI] Y CLASS CON EN1,'. BY W H TENSUL STRUNCJ H, COMPRESSIVE STR LNLI 11, 1 FLEXURAL SI R[ N67. H, 6.5X0,5 il. NO1ICHED HAR? ot -!1 in .O[ NOTCH)l VWA ARSORP N ,i [ER
Z411i Lhil. HICKNESS, ' I
-

EPOXY

PHENOLIC

GLASS MATT
GLASS MAT 1.810O ?.C 460T057
i475

OH SHEET MOL iINi3 1.315 -10 2.30 251TO15 15000G 10 25,000 15.o000vO 50.000 25,000 10140,000 81 05

CLASS CLOl H 1*012.0

GLASS CLOTH 1.910O 2.0 65 TO 70

O 1.70 TO 1.95 41 TI 1

30,000T0 ?0,0C0 14,OOOTO 30,0%0 ?0,000TO 60,000 4,.000 To 60.000 ?5,OOOTO 50,000 130,000!0 38,00T130,00010 70,030 17,000 TO 40,000 146.0 00 7TO 90,000 20.0 0T1 26.000 70,30010 100,0 00 10,0 00T . 95,0001 TO030
o-n-

8 TO 15
rrnnrt

1 TO 26
.; ~U. U.UjI,

8 TO035

U1.1i10i.6 uU
-. -

.Q

.:

fU
_

iIlU.
_ _

____I___-__

COI WNUOUS IE~

3(10 T-3 15
'IS-

3-N TO 3

33010O 500
____S--*--

0 33 TO 500

BURNING RAIL
VOL AýITIiTT 50. RH AND 73" F,owm. 'cnOi

O--1EXTHIGUIS11ING
lol

I-~..'-4
.XC
_ ___l"

-F-NONE
XI 71

350 TO 500

11

10-

04

.8x 3B 01

5

1

ARC RESISTANCE,

120 TO 180

60 10 120

125 10 140

100 TO 110

20 TO 150

'CC1MP!LFD 1Y RF INFORCED PLASTICS, COM~POSITES DIV.SOCIE3Y OF THE PLASiIV. IN('USTRY INC 2-4.1.4.2 Spi'nyup Ili this nethod. continuous roving is chopped into I1- 2-In.lengths and blown, into a spraying Ntrearrn of to resin and catalyst (hat is directed ugainst the mold (A fast roorn-tcrnilirature-setting polyestef generally Is used.) 1fhe mix~ture is land rolled to reduce air and icvec the surface. The resulting part is similar i11 con%.tructioii !o a chopped fib~er mnat hand lay up. poricots. it has limited applicastion in aircraft constructiooi due to pour Uniformity o! thickness and h-o-wightratos.outdoor relaivey lw s~ 2-4.1.41.3 %latched Die Molding
Althugh(hi vey uficentforlare cmC-1s i .
0 peratures to 350* F commnonly arc used. Prepreg. fixbvics and tapes usually are spr-ciied for aircraft applications requiring maxinium strength-to-weight ratios. I owcver, fo'r cornpkA) shapes and volume production. choppeci glass preforms (held together, like mat. b) a sinalI arniunt oý resin binder) frequently -ire used. 2-4.1.5 Surface Finishes

Whenever -'4)sely controlled thicknecsses are re-

quircd. two miold halves ar±. necessary Matched dit mrolding also is practical for high- volunic production even where high-quality surfaces and close tolerances are not required. Pressures of up to 300 psi and tern-

-or man) applications, a smooth surface, free from aii pockiets and exposed glass fibers, is required. Such a surface may be specified in order to improve weathering characteristics, material-handling capabilities, human contact applications, or. 6riiplv, appearance. There are three different methods used to obtan a smooth, resin-rich laminate surface: 1. Veil mats. Thes.- consist of loose, nonwovf-n mats ot glass or synthetic fibers. THickness may range

1W

70fi

fToni 0.001 to 0.030 in. They are so loosely consiructed that resin content in the veil are.; is thbout 85 by weight. 2. Gel coati. This technique conlsists of spr'i,coating the mold surface with 0.0i0- to 0.020-in. layer of thixotropic (nonsaggiiig) resin, which is allowed to sct rio uto theglas rinfocemnt. ayig Resiiicint resins usually are used so as to provi~ie a compromise between scratch resistance ::nd impaL-t strength. Most gel coats are polyesters. bu! th,.methdaso wth poxes.mechanical. an e usd 3. Thermoplastic fiims. This method consistIs of laminating a film or sheet of weazhcr-rcsist::iit and/or decorative plastic, such as polyin)! fluoride or acrylic. to the GRP surface. This technique should be applicable to a vai jety of GRP processing methods with both polv-estci and epioxy rc:,ins. but it has not been used widely in the past. Re-cently. however, .i process involving vacuum-forniing of thermoplastic sheccis -which then are reinforced by %praying the bacck side with chopped glass and polyester resill has found wide acceptance. especially in the nianufacture of large parts (up to 300 ft-).
FABRIC -A.MiNA US..

inav be customn rnoldicd b) procedures sintilar to those dcsc:rihcd in par. 2-4.1 for low pressure, closeddie lamina.te, Industrial lamnizates are used for components of simple geomectry rcqUI.ing internmediate strength, lightweigh~t, and nonmetallic characteristics. In hell. copter construction, they frequently arc used for wear surfaces, such as oil conduits and lpuleIys for control cables anad iii electrical circuit boards. industrial laminates can be made with a number of' chemical, thermial, and electrical properties by varying the ty'pe and ratio of resins and reinforcemerits. Those combinations that presently are avsail~tblc coniinercially art; sho~ i in Table 2-7. In cach case, the laminates are manuifictured by stacking Lip. sheets of the irnpregnawed reinforcement (or by vrapping, in the cas;: of' itbes or rods) and curing tHicn undcr hecat arnd pressure. Vcry high pressure rainging from about 200) to 2500 psi used, resUlting wn high-quality, void-free parts. Fromi the biisic: moinbinations shown in Table 2-7 niore than 70 standard grajdes of laminates are derived. of these, 32 grade,, are classified by the
-are I -....
!at

-

A.cs

Industrial laminates, also cýalled high-pressure laminates, are reinforced p~astics that are maimifactuied in standard. simple shape% such as sliccts. rods, and tubes. F-abrication of prits For materials generally is accomplf~ished h) standaird

(NI NI.\). Descriptioois of ihe 1NWMA grades and thenr applicatiois are contained in Vol. 46. Moderni
'th Lcdpi.asloaetepretesf

thcse laiminaites. The designer should consider grades. app~lication. aiid producihility prior to final cornpo,- design. (icuicral characteristics lesiltinc' Iront the selection of the various reiniforcemeints and resins art: descrihed sibsequciltl).

punch~ing, and machining. In conrarst1

mtetalorking operations, sicias cutting. drilling.
tO

Molding it)

the desired shape as discussed in par. 2-4 1- Where prooneicon quantities \5arrant inold costs., pairts aulso

I ABLF 2-7
RE SIN I YFF

F

FCR%*At D[[

PH tjOIL luf

C

HAI~YPE
I L0-I K: '1
I

0,1 iii. I

S KO HEE.
týcý 4C[
%tIL

S:,K01,11
I I TL112
I:OLlI

REINFORCLE?'N1

Sh1.LI

Iý h

it-

CC)MTN FAWiC
AS[BES 10 PAIq R
ASBESTOS FAhkICI

I
I

~ ~ ~

.

1~

iIF

NYLON F ABFiC
..

1III
*

AND MAT
MATE RIALIS i-.S,'iPr., UJ.iLJL~[ ';I'. F i.....

L i zz

1
.II.'NS
NH I

'FROM1 MiODRE N PL AST H E ii'C

2-16

-

AMCP 7W202

-.. ) .2-4.2.1

Reinforc4.ment Sdelltion

kRoomn temipcature nwcchaniCAl properties are con;-

The common reinfsoricenents weda in lrigh-pFC~Surc
laminates art paper, cotton. nylon, glass, and iisbcstos. Attribute%of these materials are: 1. Paper. I hie leas~t expensive, and adequate I-or many purposes. Kraft paper has rclatively long fibers and is thc strongest type. Alpha ciellulosc offers improvtd e~ectrical properties. machinability. arid uniforminiy, while rag paper laminates have the lowest water absorptiort and intermediate strength. 2. Cotton. Better impact arnd compressive .strengths than paper, and most grades are only slighily more costly than paper. Electrical characteristics. howevcr, generally are not as good. 1 he heavier fabrics have the be:st mechanicial properties, while the fine weaves have good miachinability. 3. Nylon. Low moisture absorption anid excellent impact strength and electrical properties, as well a,. good resistance to chemicals and abrasion. l-owevei. nylon laminates have relatively poor creep resistance at elevated temperatures and are coniparatively expenisive. 4. Glass. Highest mechanical .stre~igths by lar.
Thcse materials also have superior electrical propertics~ and he-,m reskistnce. Cost is relatively hiigh. 5. Asbestosi. Used in the form of paper, gnaL, and

ParaLI'.el) low fur glass laminates, and c.ost is high.
5. NKllainiiirc Excellent arc resistance at moderate cost. NMclhanicul priopertits, and heat, nlame, and -cheminia;l resibtancc qualities, also arc good. 2-4.2.3 Speckif Types In .ddition to the materials listed previously, there arc two special typq-s of industrial laminates that deserve mention: 1. Postforming grades. Made from resins that. altltough thermoset, will soften eteough at elevated temperatures to allow the material to be molded into intricate s!ýtpes. Sptcial paper or fabric reinforcenieit also is used, permitting considerable stretchilig
:~

~~

2. Clad laminates. Clad, on one or both surfaces. with a % ariety of materials, including aluminum, coppu r. stainless steel, silver, magnesium. and various rubbeis. "lhe corticr-clad laminates (gerierally glass/epoxy) are used widely as printed circuit boards.
2-4.2.41 Speeifirstions lit addition to the NEMA Standards (Pub. No. I-I 1-19,65). thei foliossing M~ilitary and Fedcral Spccifi

I
c

~/ fabri-c. These laminates have excellent heat, flamne,
chemical, and abrasion resistance. Costs range front low% those sith a paper base foi to high for a fabric base. The designer should select the type of miaterial best suited for the application.
considering interface recIuirinlents mind felmt~bihty,. maintainmbility, pro'Jucibilitq, and surv.ivability.

-,.

cajions arc applicablc to fabric larninates.: I. ILP-S09, for sheets, rods, andi tubes of various resins arid reinforcements 2. MIL-P-79, for rods anu tubc-ý of paper/phenolie, cotton/phCF.olrC, and glass/melamiinc 3. L-P.5 13. for paper/phenoltc sheet 4. MIlt-P-I 5035. for cotton/'phenolic sheet
S. MIL.-P-W824. for cotton/phenolic sheet for

-

2-4.2.2

Rvsir Setewicin

The rcsins ase6 in the manufacture of industrial ipihrdi.,. 1 Jui: c. .1-o!lyestcf. S!!(voome, and

Aatcr- or greasc-lubricated beairings b. MIL.P-I5031. for glass/mclamnine sheetc 7. M: i -P-l15047, for nylon /phenolic sheet. 2-4.3 FILAMENT COMPOSITION
Thi., paragraph is concerned primarily with high-

meLAniinv. The characteristics of each arc: I. ieot idl~use b lr.ihe he;~li Te

-.

resins are iriexptensise and have adequate reloperties (inccharotcal, electrical, therniul, and chenical) for inanN dcsian apiiin.irmlnrced 2.hpoxý tUsed csp"ejial v% tcgh rcsistam~c to here chemnicals and moisture is rcquired. Mechanical properties andi dinicn.,.ional stability also arc superior,. 3. 'olye~tei . Less coimion. but use~d 1icrnechainjCIIA Jr1ld electrical a m.tn.espeeialls %%, e flame rcsist1tiiee is a1rcqu!(cnicirt. 4- SilcOiUC. Used p~rima1ri ld, wt glass fahm ic \Ahere iicelt resi!m-!icc ito S001~ i-- rc'jimrcd. Arc: esmmalirCc is1 v\Menlemt and 11(1i1roiv arbsiorpt ion is loss. 1 lie \c r lIs mA ivssipamt lol laciot ol the-se rc~smitv at higrh ItieqUefl~cs i, utiliWc rm radMi and r-±dio ins~ulator%.

pciforinance composites. consistinig of plastics rewith nonw-ovn filarnints of glass. boron. 11nd high-modulus graphite. Because the fibers areV itonisso-efl and, usually, kintwisted. they can be packed to high lither loatdings. The fibers (-an be Oriented .mloiig the axes of stress in p-rcrorticod to deS requirements. allowing efficient ut iti~ation of the Agri outistaniing properties of this type of rcinforcement. Whic~i the spccilic strength tiensile strengthv-to-densit) ratio) anid ialil

specific modulus (Younig' modulus-

to-dcnsity ratio) of tire metal alloys (alumninum, steel.

corumoril) used in aircraft construction are

cornilpared, it isý show ii that they are necarly equal to 7~ to 9 X 10'!n. arid 100 to 110 X 10, in., respwcively.

.1

W-Ak

Although S-glass offers a substantial improvement in botO quantities, niore important is the comparalively recent introduction of the exotic fibers. with boron and &;rapbitebeing of primary commercial interest. Unidirectional composites made from these fibers have specific moduli in the 600 to $00X 10'N in. range. Thc specific strength of boron composites is comparable to that of glass. while graphite cornposites are somewhat lower in this property.

2-4.3.1 Types of Relmorcemevit
A summary of the properties of the previously mentioned filaments that are used in reinforced cornposites ~s contained in Table 2-8. The derivations and characteristics of these fibers arc discussed subsequantly. TABLE 2-9 TYPICAL VALUES OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS O3F REINFORCEMENT FIBERS

diameter per strand) ravings also arc avuilabic. A roving package is made by winding a number of strands (or ends) under each tension onto a cylinder. The number of ends ranges from 8 to 120. with 60 being the most common quantity. Staniard packages range from 7 to 35 lb nominal wveight. E-glass rovings are available widely, both dry and preimpregnatec! with a variety of resin systems. Prepreg tapes of unidirectional filaments up to 48 in. wide, having a nominal cured thickness or -ither 0.0075 in. or 0.0 10 in., also arc available. These can also be purchased in tuo-ply bidirectionai (0 deg. 90 deg) or three-ply isotropic (-60 deg, 0 deg, +60 deg) forms. 243.1.2 S-glass This composition, sometimes called S(994), was developed under Air Forct; contract for its highstrength properties. S-glass is available in the some forms (roving, tape, and prepeg) as is E-glass. The standard roin~g decsig'iation in this case is SCG 150, due to the lower specific gravity of S-Slass- The major d0est46krrent to its wid,, use has been its cost. which is about i 5 oimtes that of E-siess. A cuumiiwiciu giadc. s.ew, lower cost, has been introduced. Another development is 970 S-glass. which has

n

N

Ius I
-GLASS S-CLASS 97--

MATERIA

Lsw

EC11

-11

MEIA DEST
0O92
50

5ID 5s
85 50) 300
--

Tj0J
5.A

10vs 0'~ 14
13 60.0 50.0 5-2, 650 820

niaigta there are 5.000 yd f strand per l

0.0oý

7.4
92 5.4 4.9

t-LS OD9

containing most of the S-glass properties at

'NTPGTN)0.093 GRAMlPTI0.6

GRPIE400
(PA~,

Ui±.
fYE

40.0..

.~.
635

MIHTS-904

*into

24.3.1.1 F-glass This glass was developed originally for its superioc electrical properties. Glass roving is manufactured by drawing the molten glass thiough resist ancc-h.-ated platinum bashings at about 2400*F. From 51 to 408 (usually 204) filaments are gathered into a single strand, coat2d with a binder, and wound onto a drum at approximatcly 10,000 fprn. The coating bonds the filarents a strand, protects them from abrading each othcr, and also serves as a coupling agent to improve the resin-glass bond. For use with epoxy resins, an 801 sizing usually is specified. Requirements for Fglass roving are. contained in M IL-R-60346 under the Typc I classification. Standard continuous roving uses ECG 135 strands - where E designates the glass composition, C indicates continuouis filamenzrts, and G dcsignatcs a filamerit diameter of 0.00037 in. - resulting in 13,500 yd of strand per lb. ECG 67.5 (408 G filaments per strsnd) and ECK 37 (408 K filardunts of 0.00)052 in. 2-18

20% greater moduius and ultimate strength than SThe chemical compositions of various glass reinforcements are presented in Table 2-9. IITS-901 and are the epoxy-compatible sizings for Sglass, while 470 sizing is used with S-12 rovings. Sglass rciving requircinecits also are contained in M ILR-60346 under the Type IlI classification.

2-4.3.1.3 boron Filaments
These products currently arc made by vapor deposition of boron on very fine tungsten wire. Work is under way to develop boron filaments on glas-1 or graphite substrates in order to reduce cost and total density substantially. In order to make handling practicable, the material usually is supplied in tollimated prepreg tapes that are one filament tihick and up to 3 in. vvidc. A Military Specification on boron filamen~t preprcg is MIL-B-83.169. 2-4-3. 4.4 Craphlte A wide v'ailety of filamentary carbon p~roducts is produced by pyrolysis of organic fiber!. These prod4ucts may be divided into two broad categories: low-niodulus and high-modulus materials. Lo%% modulus carbon and graphite are iused freqjuently in

-

AMCP 706-202

NOMINAL COMPOSITIONOYCLIASS

TYPE
E-~GLASS
S AND S-2-GLASS

SiO., A103 MgO0 2
54.3
64.3

GeD
-

CiD 7.
-

BD 3 8.0
-

15.2
24.8

4.1
10.3
-

970-S-GLASS

62.0 19.0 9.69.4 1-tape. A Mlilitarý Specification on high-modulus graphite fiber preprcg is MIL-G-83410. Among the most serious disadvantages of graphite coinposites are poor abrasion and impact resistance. 1 hiss. surface protection frequently is necessary. Allso impeding the exploitation of this material until -cr% recently has been its low interlaminar shear strozngth due to poor resin-fiber bonding. However, surface treatment% have been developed that result in %hear strengths above 10.000 psi.

woven forin, which is produced directly from rayon fabric at a fraction of the cost of high-modsulus. graphite. Hlowever, these products. used primarily for -high-tempercr-mure insulation and ablation. have no known applications in helicopter construction. *High-modulus graphite fibers are produc:ed in a three- or Foor-step heating process. During tme final step. graphitization, the fibers are held in tension, thereby imparting a high degree of orilentation to the graphite crystals. Material developed in the U S usecs ra!vyQn fibers and hasq an irre~ular trpopcorn shape) 3~=. cros sctin. Matti ial developed in Engiand i, pyrolyzed from a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor having a circular cross section. In either case, the average filament diameter is 0.0003 in. The Brilish PAN material is made in untwisted tows of 10,J00 filaments, and is available in continuctis lengths. The rayon-derived, high-modulus graphite used in the U S is made in continuous leng~ths from 2-ply yarns having 720 filaments per ply and 1.5 or 4 twists per in., depending upon th~e manufacturcr. The greatest development activity in highpromanc. flie s l fI'-,su~e uponi graphite. Dupimtn the small filaments, it can be formed around radii cts *sinall as 0.05 in., a major advantage over boron fiber. It also is expected that the greatest potential for cost reduction and product improvement lies with graphite. Evidence of both was displayed recently in the comi.:etrcial announcement of a 75 X 1IV psi modulus fiber at $400 per 1b and a 30 X 10, psi fiber at SCO per lb. Laboratory quantities of 100 x 106 psi modulus fiber have betri produced. Because new products and new manufacturers fre(luently enter the field, the data ini Table 2-8 include only those products with which a significant amount of experience exists. G(raphite fiber can be pr,-duced in the same variety of forms as can glass Fiber. Thus, in addition to yarn and to%, fabric, mat, and chapped fiber can be supplied. As with boron, however, the most practicable form for most applications is unidirectional prepreg

2-4.3.2

R hiu, While all of the resins discussed in par. 2-4.1 have been used ir filament winding, epoxies are used almost exclusively for aircraft applications at normal operating temperatures. Where nonwovcn, high-performance reinforcement is ustd, the bcst available resin system also should be chosen since the difference in resin cost represents a very small pcrcentage of the total part cost. Phenolic and polyimide resins are used only where very-high-temiperature operation is specified.

z

24.3.3

Manufacturing Processes

-

-modulus

*

Structures of nonwoven reinforced plastics ma) bc formed by filament winding, tape wrapping. automatic tape layup, or hand layup. Filament winding can he performed with glass rovings. gr;aphite yarns. and boron singlk filaments. This process is practicab-le for %cylinders tanks with high hoop stresses. and however, it is limited to hollow structures with convex surfaces. Normally, filament winding is accomplished by rotating the part on its axis as on a lathe. Parts also have been wou-id by revolving the spool of reinforcemeni around the fixed pail. (ieneral~y, prepreg is used, but wet winding also. is practiced. In the latter case, the reinforcement travels through a bath of high-viscosity (at ambient temnperature) resin system that is healed in order to lower the viscosity for efficient wetting of the reinforcement. When the impregnated reinforcement is coolet'

K-

z

2-19

AMCP 706-j22an
to ambient temperature, the high viscosity is icattained. Latent curing agents must be used in order to obtain a rcasonablc pot-life for the heated resin systcm. T41K winding is similar to filament winding, cx'...

various rcinforccnitnts in such p-roportionsan orienltations as arc required in order so obtain #Imost any intermediatte properties. The possible effects of differenit thernini expansion coefficients must be considered, howvver. construction of the spar envelope, skins. trailing edge, etc.. of rotor blades. Design studies have suggestcd the use of boron andhgmous rpien g these same areas, as well as in rotor hubs, swash-plates, drive scissors, transmission housings. drive shafts, airframe stiffeners, and entire fuselage sections. Boron hardware development presently is more advanced than .hat of graphite because the material was introduiced earlier. However, graphite coinposites are expected to be useful iii many of the same

inforcement (generally 1/8 in. wide) are wound. A recent advancice in fabrication technologyi unr ically controlled tape-laying machitie capable of applying prcpreg tape (hicated, if desired) at a controlled rate and pressure, and shearing it at the desired ls-ngth and angle. Still another machine applies reinforcement in three dimensions by weaving fibers perpendicular to the normal laminate. This, of' course, greatly increases interlaminar properties, which usually arc limited to the capabilities of the

j

resin,
Hand layup is still the miost widely used method where winding is not practicable. This process is no different from conventional layup of glass mat and fabric, except that the fibers are nonwoven and oriented, and generally are preionpregnated with resin. Filament-wound parts usually are cured under wrapping tension pressure only. allthough thicy mnay be autoclavedi or vacuum-bagged. Parts that are laid up (rather than wound) may be cured by an appropriate method as described in par. 2-4.1, such as pressure 'bag, vacuum bag, autoclave, or matched die molding. 24.3.4 Applications Nonwoven, oriented filament composites are in order wherever maximum strength and/or stiffnessto-weight ratios in specific directions are desired, Thyar otuo~! ratc~~ wl-e nroyisrquired. Typical properties of thes components are shown in Table 2-10. 1 is entirely possible to mix the

applications.
Considerable design and physical property infortonicnaneinMLH)K?.PrI ndn Re.4 HONEYCOMB AND SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION Sandwich constructio~n, ass shown in Fiog. I- is a composite structure comprising a combination of allternating. dissimilar, simple or composite materials, assembled and fixed in relation to each other so as to obtain a specific structural advantage. They are made of three or more laminations of widely dissimilar materials that can be considered homogeneous when bonded together. The layers include the facings, the bonding agent, and the core. The primary functions of'the core arc (1) to separate the outer layers so as to obtain a high bending stiffness, (2) to oupport these outer layers (the facings) in order to prevent elastic instability when they are highly stresised, and (3) to carry shear loads. 2-4.4

r4

- . .

TABL 2-1K
TYPICAL UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITE PFROPERTlE6 IJASFl) ON
COMMERCIAL PREPRE~S
FIBER IENSIL E 060511 IF1Xl :A[I0 ltSSIVI COI4EN. I PLNG-l, MODULE, STRENCOI1, MOVLIU. STRLIIGIH si 1 s to Ps ki %______ VOL k, i' V. ps i k, 10ps O 61 j 109 71. 200.0 7,0 99

CFoLEXURAL

PLY.-c

L -GLAS.i S--GLA5S BORON H .90 MG t:
:,
S2-'

0.0015 0.0015 0.0052 0.0m0 0.3011 0.0130 0.0130

4

010 SHEAR
s

82)0 9.00 7.95 1.40
821

SAV-I L SPICIF IC S0 1RENGTH. N ooiUS, OCIH IGI in106.q 6.01Z9 Z.54 I0
b In.r

63.5 50.0

220 120 104
-',

0.1 25.5 292)
-

230.0 245.0 116.0 116.0 12
___-___

1.9 20)
25.n

120 443 460 00
-

0.0 2 12 0.054F 0.0536 0.0104 0.0552

3.04 2.45-3.05 2.22 1.93
-

12o 390-420 47i 4655.

186-232 21.6-3M.9

117.020D 16

51.01
53.0 43.0
52.5~

THORNEL -50
NORGANITE-I

24.1-,

MORCANiff-Il

--

163.5

1.2.96

"'FROM3UCOMPANY'S SCOTCHPLY TECH4NICAL0DATA FOR EPOXY SHEETS PREPREG$;I1009-26 2-20

RESIN GLASS RESIN ORONQ GRAPHITE. ON ARD O 1AND0

AMP706-d20

'

-

A
2A

BONDING MATERIAL HONEYCOMB CORE

IA
Fiue21 adwc tutr

Proerl deignd sndwch onsruFigur mandwinch Stue atreat1tiehavr Rf5. has.

advantages; high strength-to-weight dnd stiffness-toweight iatios are the most predominant. Secondary advantages include fatigue resi ýiancc, impact resistance, and aerodynamic tfacizricy. A comparison of minimu-I-wvight design for

Honeycomb sandwich is the lighitcst possible material that carn be used to achieve an optimum stiffness-to-weight ratio. A com~parison of various materials (Fig. 2-2), based upon an equivalent deflection. suggests a 30% weight advantage when comn2-21

~
IA.

AMCP 706-202
mnost cases, no more than 3/16 in. Among the materials available for sandm~ich zipplication are conventional honeycomb. foamis, and balsa wood. Advantages of balsa wood and f~m are and their use usuaily is due essentially it) a limited physical characteristic requirement rather than to an overall property consideration. Balsa wood is used predominantly in flooring applications, where the need for continuous support is provided by the fibers. Employment of foam cores in a sandwicht construction is.essentially, a cost consideration. Both b -alsa wood and foami may produce adverse effects. and also may limit the environmental capahilities of' the construction.
oneycom b core const i uct ion represents by far the

3600

~limited,

______________________I _________

MATERAL j HONEYCOMB SAND~IICH 0.058 NESTD EAMS0.05 1 NESTD' EANS0.08 " STEEL ANGLES 0.058 MAGNESIUM PLATE 0.058 ALUMIUM 0058 PATE STEEL PLATE 0.058 GLASS REINFORCED 0.058 PLASTIC LAIAE

WEGT1b 7.79 10.6 1.86 25.90 26.00 420 68.60 83.40

Figure 2-2. Weight Comparison of Materials for Equal~~ Doinsuch
advantage when compared with a flat aluminum plate.Fiberglas Optimum fatigue resistance is a byproduct of sandwich application. The increase in flexural and shear rigidities of the construction, at no increase in mass. provides for an increase in the fundamental modes of
ecttotohigher octaves. In addition, the attach-

most efficient utilization of parent material. Conentional honeycomb cores, as illustrated in Fig. 2-4. are cs-witially hexagonal in shape and are manufctured from almost any material that can be made into a foil thickness. Properties of' hun~ycomb cores can he predicted accuratldy, based upon the con. figuration and the parent material properties. The erits of one type over another are related to the properties of the foil material; the relative increase in efficiency is related directly to the increase in the prpryo1 h oe i one~ycombh core material can be made from metals such as aluminum, stainless steel, and titnu rfo iega mrgae ihrsn
--

..

as nylon-phenolic and polyimfide. Other types of core material include those made from Kraft paper and Dupont's Nomex* nylon-fiber-treated materials. core material provides radar transprncadatssadilti.Ithsowiecrc cntnsadalwls agn.Katpprcr cosatanitlwostngt.KftPrroe mtra saalbei ayvreis n sue
200
uAl21
,3(*VADTI

-65

ment of the core at the facing provides visco-elastic

3mi

T20
-

It
-

F I'VD

TP%-5

damping that prevents amplification of resonance. it ca180 is quite possible to design a sandwich structure for an 3 . AT .1 ifintRe life under cycling loads, provided that the 163 (HALAC maximum loading is no more than 35% of the ultiU~ 160\zmate capability of the construction. A comparison of ~ 20 hr AT
conventional sandwich structures (Fig. 2-3) in a sonic environment indicates that the sandwich can operate

TUCUl
-

162 (1
___

460 hr AT 167 OB SRCTR SKIN-STFFENED_______R

~ %%4
C) 140.

____

*

in excess of 500 hr at approximately 160 dB, (decibel) while skin-stiffened structure of the same weight will fail at less than 200 hr under 130 dB. Aerodynamic efficiency of a sandwich structure is a consequence of the continuous, uniform support of the core materials. This characteristic is accepted widely in both aerospace and aircraft applications. Vertical support of the material in the sandwich construction is limited in span to the cell size, which is,in 2-22

120 200 300 400 -500 TIMIE, lir Fiue23CoprtvSncFage Fgr2-.CmatieSncaigeResistance of Conventional and Sandwich Structures *Registered Trademark 0 100

AMCP 706-202
when cost is u factor and/or thermal conductivity is of concern. Dupont Nornex nylon-fihbertreatcd core .matcri;.l, though recently developed, has thermal resistance and the properties required for aircraft flooring applications, Employment of a honeycomb core material in a construction is an exact technique. Physical characteristics of the construction must be investigated thoroughly, and rclatcd to available core properties, piior to the firming oi the design. In addition to the structural requiremen;s, the environmental operaring conditions must be explored, Common honeycomb types (Fig. 2-4) include the conventional hexagonal shape, a rectangular flexible core, and the reinforced and square cell shapes. The rectangular core is, essentially, an over-expanded hexagonal core. The flexible core is a configuration departure in that it inctL"Jcs a free sine wave that allows the core material to assume compound curvature at no sacrifice in the mechanical propcrties of the an additional flat sheet in the center uf the hexagonal cell so a%to favor a mechanical advantage in a specitic orthotropic direction. The square ce:ll core is a consequence of manufacturing case, and is employed primarily where resistance wclding techniques. are rcquired in order zo develop the core material. Although a predominant use of honeycomb core material is for constant thicknesses (flat, single and compound curvature applications), it also is used for such components as airfoil sections. The mechanical properties of the core material in a sandwich construction also must be considered. The core, whether isotropic or orthotropic, may be considered as a continuum spacer for the membranes (the facings). Typical properties of balsa wood cores arc presented in Figs. 2-5 and 2-6. Figs. 2-7, 2-8, and 2-9 illustrate typical properties of hexagonal aluminum core material. Several different alloys are presented, Table 2-11 is a presentation of the propcrties of typical rigid foams.

foil material. Flexible core, unlike anticlastic hexagonal core. does exhibit characteristics of a synelastic material. Reinforced hmxagonal core employs

The term sandwich construction describes the close attachment between face and core material in this
type of structure. Should this attachment be weak, or

RECTANGULAR

I

HEXAGON

r

FLEX-CORE

REINFORCED HEXAGON
Fi, 2.4. Commoa Honeycomb Configurations

SQUARE
"VP
2-23

AMCP 706-202
absent, the construction is no longer a saldwich. Attachmcnt of the core to the facings is necessary, and must bc of sufficient strength to develop the full mechanical properties of the sandwich construction. For example, if the construction is loaded to its limit, then failure is expected to appear either in the facings, or in the core, or simultaneously in both. However, it cannot appear in the attachment between core and facings. It is most importdnt for the designer to investigate the properties of the bonding agent so as to assure compliance with these requirements. Adhesives of various types and propelties currently are available to satisfy every sandwich requirement. Table 2-12 contains a partial listing of
common adhesives currently in use. Laboratory shear
II BALSA WOOD

•.2500

- 2000

-

t 1:000 ,,

I

,presented

, 0 Imaterial

-The

bond strengths at room temperature of aluminum-toaluminum bonds with varicus types of adhesives arc in Table 2-13. Useful temperature range and strength properties of structural adhesives after exposure are listed in Table 2-14. process of applying adhesive to facing or core must not be ignored. For the adhesive to be

S500
o

2

4

6

8

10

12

14 1G

efficient, it must be applied to joining surfaces that are free from oxides and contaminants, and its application must take place under controiied en-

DENSITY, lb ft3 Figure 2-5. Properties of Balsa Wood - Compresic

Strength ,s Density 600600
.ALSA WOOD

800 8

-

5056 AND 2024

I5 2

(,

400400

-1_ _

•=o• 00 0
2

20
8 10 12

• 14 16
Shear

0 .-"

/200

4

6

DENSITY, lb It'

-

0
Figure 2-6. Properties of Balsa Wood -- "1 Strength vs DensitFl

2

4

6

8

HONEYCOMB DENSITY,lb.It 3

10

Figure 2-8. Typical "L" Shear Strength 1IGO

=-2000
S150o

-0

-

''-

10., U C 500

C 80 o
,I.ib52, 40

L

505b. 2024

40

0
I,.-HONEYCOMB

2

4

6

8

10

U

2

4

6

8

10

DENS!IY, 1b It'

HONEYCOMB DENSITY, 1b f3

Figure 2-7. Typical Stabilized (omprev%.ie Strength 2-24

Figure 2-9. Typical "U,"Shear Modulu%

OFRIGID OAMS
TABLE 2-11. PROPERTIES OF RIGID FOAMS'.
DENSITY,
Ib/ft3

1cM
MAX TEMP,OF THtRMAL CONOUCTIVITY hr-ft (Ff/In.), SHORT I FULL MIN MAX TERM TIME
M MAX..

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH.
psi

SHEAR STRENGTH
psi

"
. I

-

-

DENSITY

MIN

MAX

MIN

MAX

M1N
-

MAX

CO BLOWN 2 URETHANE FREON BLOWN FR(,, t1.5 EXTRUDED
POLYSTYRENE MOLDED
SELF E".PANDED

1.0-I.1 65.0 1.5 1.3
0.5

10.20 1525 15D0 10.0
8.0 46. 4510.0

18,000 1,500 100 140
200
120

10.15 10.20 11.00 15.0
13.0

2,100 200 65 95
90

0.21 0.11 0.11 024
0.24

1.00 0.37 0.16 0.33
0.77

600 350 350

450 250 250 115,
175

152 4.0 4.5
10.0

PRE-FORMED EPOXY
__ _-___
S 'L IC ON E

38.0

5

6,000 3,000

0.65 0 -~o... 360 38.0
. ..

500 0 .80
.60

PACK-IN -PLACE
_--__ _ _

15.0 .. .0.'11 2.0 12.0 3.0
.

25.0 8.0 I10

600 13 251
-

110
325
. .

024 j 0.30

0..ii 540 .850
650
'

35.. ... 360
..

L E ACTIVATED POWDER HEAT . ROOM EMP LIQUID
.LUm3 ur.ru ,,,j U II.

.. 1 2 .0_ -5" 40 o

PHENOLIC.

LOW DENSITY MEDIUM DENSITY HIGH DENSfTY

.

.

.....

-; ,
2 14.0 10 1,100 30.0 90.0

115

'.v0

I)

I.30

022 0.20 020 030

250 250

-.

"' '

"

200

"vironmental conditions. The elapsed time betwcen "preparatory cleaning for bonding and the application of adhesive must be held to a minimum. Procss control during application and throughout the bonding of the construction is vital for the devciopmcnt o" the spcciificd properiy for the sandwich Adhesive manufacturer recommendations must be adhered to methodically. Design considerations for sandwich structural compon nts are somewhat similar to those for homogencous material. The main difference is the inclusion of the effects of the core material. The basic design concept requires the spacing of strong. thin facings far apart in order to achieve a high stiffnessto-wcight ratio. The lightweight core material having this propekty also will provide the required resistance to shear and the strength to stabilize the facings to their required configuration. Sandwich is analogous to an I-beam, the flanges carry direct compression and tension loads in a similar manner as do the facings of the sandwich, and the web carries the shear loads as does the core material. The departure fiom typical procedures for sandwich structural elcments is the inclusion of effects for shear propertie:ý "-on deflection. buckling, and stress. Because the

'"

facings arc used to carry loads in a sandwich, prevention of local failure under edgewise, direct, or fiatwisc bending loads is as nccessaiy as is prevention of local crippling of stringers in the design of sheetstringer construction Struiurai instabiiitiy of a sandwich construction can manifest itself in a number of different modes. Various possibiliti ,Iustrated in Fig. 2-10. Intcrccllular buckling (face dimpling) is a localized mode of instability that occurs when the facings are very thin and the cell size is relatively large. This effect can cause failure by propagating across adjacent cells, thus inducing face wrinkling. Face wrinkling is a localized mode of instability that exhibits itself in the form of short wave length in the facing, it is not confined to individual cells of Lcllular t)pc cores, and is associated with a transverse straining of the core material. A final failure from wrinkling usually will result either from crushing of thc core, tensile rupture of the core, or tensile rupture of the core-to-facing bond. If proper care is cxcicised in selction of the adhesive %ystem. the tensile bond strength will exceed both tfl tensile and compressive strengths of the core failure. Shear crimping often is referred to as a local mode

.

S.

2-25

TABLE X 12. COMMON ADHESIVES IN CURRENT USE
AOIISIVETYPETYPICAL AHSV YL TRADE DESIG144TION NITRILL PHENOLIC Ar 30
METLBON0D402

TABLE 2-14. USEFUL TEMPERIATURE RANGE AND STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS MANUFACItIRERO___ STRUCTUJRAL ADHESIVES'% INARMCO
3MCOMPANY AMERICAN CYANAMID 3MCOMPANY NARUCO ADHCSIVE ENGINEERING

IAGE*

ADHSIE TPE AHSVTYE PHENOICRLE VIY

USEFUL TEMP

TYPICAL VALUES
LAP__________

PLEL STRENGTH GOOO EXCELLENTr TO
________

FM47 ViNYL PIIENILIC At 31 MELOLONO 105 AEROBOND 422 EPOXY PHE NOLtC HT 424 I HYLOC 422 HP36IXE HýYLO3C B-3 901 MELBONfl 5471 ME I

30-1 7W0 6 00IO
1___0__1____

PHIENOLIC

225

FAIR TO GOME

AMERICAN CYANAkIID HYSOL
HECL

~
PHENOLIC
UNUOOIFIEO
PHENOLIC

0

13-00 130-W00
m0m

POOR MEDIUM TO POOR MtDIUW TO
_____ ____ ,-

400
-67
$00

2004~9W

UNMOO'FIED kPOXY

HYSOL

PEOI

NARMCO

MODIF EPOXY 250 IED
20C'E MOIIEOPOYD 3W0 CURE IO 306

1540-M
InIl 0W30 5020
20-_____31_

GOO

MODIFIED EPOXY 250CUR

IAF iG 3M COMPANY FM123 AMERICAN CYANAMID HYSOL HYSO 9601 L PLASTILOCK 717 BF GOODRICH IRELIAL1OND 711&393 1 RELIABLE mrc IHP 103 HEXCLL METLBOND 328 NARMCO 3MCOMPANY

IEPOXY POLYAMIEJE
-OIMD

________

GOO33 O_________
______

POO

12UREPSE
t;*otfl~:~.-.~.-. Lu i .......

MODI~iEA F 120.ALL EPx
31.0SCA.,. CURL

instability for which the buckic wave length is ver short duc to a low transverse shear modulus or the EC?216 3M COMPANY core.. The phenomenon of shear crimping o1curs EPOXY I'CLYAMIOF. HP 31( HE XCEI. quite suddenly, and usually causes the core to fail in I CO~ 81 ~shear. y5O General instabihiy for configurations having POLYAMICEFno34 AMERICAN CYANMtDfnoeninCELxcept at the boundaries ~951 involves overall bending of the composite wall HPI~.1 32AHECE 301P31 coupled with transverse shear deformations. Whereas MOOFIIUREMAESFM3 AMERICAt; CYANAMID phenomena. general instability is of a widespread COR SPIRNG AT 41320 31. CEOLPANYutrellrbcln n rnln r oai
RELIABOND 398-420 RELIABLE MFG 41 04IEXCEL
-

(

CORESPIICIG A 320
*.Ki

3MCOMANYnature.

~AnHFSIVFS
.18OSHEAR

Premature general buckling normally is
,ucjbanuTiraiuwn

REtLARONO 310B

RELIABLE MFC

mknsofyi-

TABL 90 SHER BND TABEN

A

BOD M

NT

-13. C H OF DH1I3E
FlDEIE

sufficient core zhcar riidity. The basic design p-rinciples of sandwich construetowithstand design streins under design loads.

ADHESIVE TYPED STHEART ADHEIVETYPE STRNGTH NITRIE PHEpLIC*
______350

ion can be summart'Aed as follows: I. Sandwich facingi s/mal be at least thick enough

I4

~

VINYL PIIENOLIC EPOXY PHENOLIC UNMOIFID EPXY MODIFIED0 EPOXY-250 CURE

4200 34030 4500

2. The core shell be thick enough and have sufflcient shear rigidity and strength so that overall sandwich buckling, exo~ive deflecion, and shear failure

will not occur under dsign loads.

MODIIEDEPOY 300of -30 CRE EPOXY~~~ 50o
____________of

POLYIMIDE

3300

* ITEST
*

*AVERAGE VALUES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE.

SPECIMENS ALUMINUM TO ALUMINUM, LAP JOINTS.

3. The core shal have a high enough modulus of elasticity, and the sandwich great enough flAtwine tensile and compressive strengtths, so that wrinkling either facing will not occur under design loads. 4.LAIEcellular honeycomb corms where dimpling For the facings is permissible, the cell size spacing not shWl be small enough so that dimpling of either wall irto the core spaces will not occur under design loads.

In~ addition, selection of materials, methods of sandwich assembly, and material property used for

2-26

AMCP 706-202 design shall bc compatible with the expected environment where the sandwi.h is to be used. For example. facing-to-corc attachment ihall have sufficient flatwisc tensile and shear strength to develop the required sandwich strength in the expected environment. Included as cnvironnlert arc cllct%of temperature, %ater and moisture, corrosive a!-mosphere and fluids, fatilue. creep. and any condition that may affect material properties. Additional characteristics - such as themmal conductivity, dimensional stability, and dcctrical continuity of sandwich material -- should be considered in arriving at an effective design for the intended task. 2-4.5 ARMOR MATF:RIAI•S

I herc arc available a variet) of armor matcrial, and matncrial combinations that can be used for pas,ive protection of helicopter%. Armor types, vsith appropriate Military Specification references and a relative comparison of cost, availability, machinability. weldability. formability, and multiple-hit capabilit). are summarized in Table 2-15. Table 2-15 also lists the areal densities, and provides a comparison of strength. hardness, shock and vibration, and resistance to corrosion for the various typce of armor

"

FACING
FACING CORE HONEYCOMB CORE

t t tt
(A)GENERAL BUCKLING

ttt
(B)SHEAR CRIMPING

4444

44 4

,--

-

(C) FACE DIMPLING i !
,-

D (D) SEPARATION
FROM

(E) CORE CRUSHING

CORE

ttt t

t t
2-27

Figu'e 2-10. Modes of Failure of Sandwich Composite Under Edgewie Loads

na

-

- .

.

.

II

.

-

___.

. .. .. ..

..

Q,

Q0C

I2QQ

~~~~~~~2xI2

II~g 2 2 2 4

~

Y

I

~

00 2 1

I

X I

X I

0

I

IT
___

____m__7m

'R
rI

001'1 0 0

0

-12

0"

a

Ii
42z z2 z 2 z~ Z~

00

I Z- Z

ý E

0

0

8..~ _____

.8

0 8

z
02

Iz

=1
&0 FF4

D

3~~~24
5.IE

U C.

4. .2~ .~

F-

~

jS-

w.)
0, 0D

Sh:

NOLV--Jd

SI~

VN

13X

2-28.

AMCP 706-202 TABLE 2-16. FABRICATION DATA FOR LIGHTWEiGHT ARMOR MATERIALS
qIGii-I-ARDINIES SSTEEL ETTREA"E, TE

1

TAL6,HAR, NrSS UORTS1CL

PLASTIC CMPUS'TE 1AONOITEIiC TILE 28,,. DIAG5X10l

PLASTIC COMaPOSIht

K-T SILICC.T4 CARBIDE PLAST COMPOSITE IC

0250 THICK4MAY
PLATESIZE

I1I's0 HICK 1
P01,5

335

1

fIMAX
1

9,00"H..

2fx6x%,... TO UP 0001I6

PANEL

UONOLITHIC TIEL MONWLTMIC TILE l.T~. 4XWIPANELS EA6,,,.. 7 1AiR..

HAVE BEEN MADE

PANELS TO02.-.. UP
I HICK

,!) RDUS F ra'P CAL 30 APIIIIEA1T EXTrNTO~r.OMuu4 6AUE

IATIKES

OUVATURE XT;AES8T ON THICKNESS 2TGi.n.SMALL ALED ING :.C END IN TN APO ANNE CON,I ,ION RADIUS SIVALL VERY DIREC'IONS IN 130TH INANNEALED CONO IMPROVESLIGHT GAS ORHPLATIA ARC_________ ANNEALFO CONDITIONt HARD[EX HEAT TREATABL IELECTRCTE IMC GIVESBALLISTIC JCINT HEAT -TREATED COCNEITION -STAINLESS NITH 700E PREHEAT USING MASCINARY Iy 8s yjOT NC( NOD EXPERIF AI O AVAILABLE

I

Im. DEEPDISHES HAVLBU~N ExlvPLOSIVELY POIRMI P EON-,
7TRCHCU17TING

EFE ROL OPCLSATLL
TOGI5CEUTIRED

SHAPES MAY CURVED FLAT PANELS IAMDO I DOLS~ .- D

TC~LREENRE FRCTIGTECHNIQUES STAINAUSTENITIC LES'STEEL IMIC OR SU6%ERG(C ARC) OR LOA IC PERRII HVTTROGýIE FJCTRODDES
V

PRONELDING, CEDRE REUIED

HHOSCAN'T

BE NELDEB M

.RI L:AGf'OSSILE RE'WINAIN

FDRILLING
-

WEQIR ECx 1', CARBID10E i9ITH SPECIAL CAR T IISHTORCHME INC TAIED1 IHIAI ARE OQ FR POTHEAI TIP.,O MAYLEUSENJ AID O2HHA

YES IISERTS THREADED

W SPECIAL ITH CERAMIC DRILLS

f-

VARIOUS ýYPES or BRAKETETRY A4iD THREAODE IN8tIIINS

ITO

FOI 7A~WN 3TRiCTLIAE IN BOLT71 COPESIok COWICI.-EEATIGIIIS

FOR ATACHIENTTHROUHBDLINGFIANGE
-

, IN FIBERZAO TYPE PER-i~-IPHEKAL SUPPORT IINSERTS

NOTIMPORTAILT I

-~n

TLS

Must 7F PRAMIC1 BE VED CON or RELIE PR[55IQFN5UNDER BOILTý ME WITH THROUGH CRMCI EAD 130.TING

ONE

PAWE. JOINWKý NITmOES

0ELVINS,DP I""HIIIECYANICAL JOINTS

-

.ýM

CONTINUOUS Pj ASPANELS TIC B'.1KING. IED WAY RE APPL T'1omo A PFRAME USING METAL DOUBLER

TO BACKRIG MATERIAL SIZEAND Of REOUIRED SHAPE

C CAZ OfACHIEVED WE Pv RELOIN'.WITH CAh' OE A-HIE. L, B~ EfLOIN,. U141ES3 IAR[Lh EtECTA3CE IN IIRV EtDING UNLESS t
ONii ALEtIT C1 Z

WIHVARYING DiGREES VKA CE

mawlAu~s. Tabk 2-16 su mrzsfbiaindt tht a
Aotes

o

ueadsaln.I

sdtsignatedmantc

be, cosdm

ror instalia'iion on heli.

I'

2-4.5.1 AvILk14 Meakuil Maw&t that cana N. cunsadereG for Ue dn armor design. aimi t~.cif iropertics. includc 1. Aluminum alloy. ProdlicrA ku splash from bulk.t impacts thar., other armor materials in comnn~ vv, is excx:%*vnaiy effectivc ngiainw~ yawed ard higto-obliquity impwcU. and is nonmagnelic. 2. Titanium. Nonnaagsscic arid ralaistant to sea w'a~er corrost*n. 3. Homogvcou' steel. Rotoid fromn a starl alloy with the toughnes and pucct of elongation naxsswy xo achwor a good rzintence to bodth punc-

ale" austeilk aftoi am not mwAgnt. If thes steels are coldworked, bowevu, tbcy become mnagfatic. 5. Hard faced steel armor pl,;te. Comnposed of a h'ird surface overlaying a softer IMck~ing matcrial of tougher steel. It is somewhat moire effective. on a weight basis. against solid shot than isface-harwkwA armor plate, and can be fabricated, by spoial tithniques, to a curve. It is magnei. 6. BalI6tic nylon. Providaes czoluen protectiot. from fragnaesols and tum~bled projuctika. Balistic nylon pads or quilts can be owasýJre for replaemont of insulation and soundi-attenuatirg b~les W e~ad/rtaIcn The ballisti level of nylo
2-29

AMCP 706-202
with fastcnc~s and/or attachments should be etablished and/or verified by gunfire tests for each confguraion.at 7. Ceramic. Built up of various materials, each intended to perform a particular furiclion in defeating the projectile. for example, a glass-fiber-rcinforced plastic to absorb the energy of impact, faced with a layer of ceramic tie (aluminum oxiide, A 1,0,; silicon carbide, SiC; boron carbide. B4C. titanium dliboride. TiB., etc.) to shatter the projectile. On a weight basis, some of these composite, compare favorably with standard steel armor plate for stopping solid shot. However. they have poor capabilities for stopping mnultiple hits, and produce many secondary fragments when struck. Ceramic is the bulkiest of the matcrials listed here. and usually is the most expensive. S. Ceramic-faced. The ceramic facing may be applied before or after the armor metal has been shaped or formed. 9. Transparenit. Composed of glass or clear organic polymers. either alone or in combinal ion (M IL6-5485. MIL-A-7168. MIL-A-46108). In general, ceramic armor exhibits the lowest weigpht per unit area for protection against armorpiercin~g ammunition 'cal .30 and .59)). Metallic armior exhibits substantially better multihit capability, although the probability of a small panel of aircraft armoi taking a multiple bullet hit from a high-firingrate Sun is remote. Metaflic armor for aircrew seats may become~ competitive on a weight basis when the arirror is used simultaneously as support or structure.
figUred

*

2-4.5.2 Deslga For desgiv strcnith and rigidity requirements, refer to NIIL-A-88&0 and AMCP 706-170.

2-5

ADHESIVES AND SEA LANTS

2-5.1 BONDING AGENTS There are literally hundieds of proprietary adhesivc formulations suitable for various aircraft bonding applicationps. Some of these may be used in bonding a wide variety of materials, while ot~crs are usable only for highly specialized purposes. Adhesives generally are categorized under the two broad classificaions of structural and nonstructural types. 2-5.1.1 Structural A&Wnves Thi, category of materials is used for bonding primary structures that arc subject to iarge loads.'rypical ultimate band shear streirgths are several thousand psi. Structural adhesives usually arc formulatc~d fromt thermosetting resins that, when mixed with a suitable curing agent, react to form an infusible and 2-30

insoluble solid. Depending upon the type of curing agent, the conversion may occur within a few minutes roomi temperature, or. at the othcr extreme, it may reqluire heating up to about 3500 F to effect a cure within a reasonable time. The latter type of material, due to its low reactivity at low temperatures, can be premnixed and stored (often, under refrigeration) as a one-comnponent system until used. Nearly all applications of structural adhesives requirc lixturing in order to hold the components being bonded in contact during cure. this is because at some point during the cure cycle the adhesive goes through ai fluid flow stage. Most structural bonds arc made with tape or film adhesives. These are usually from 0.005 to 0.015 in. thick, and may be unsupported or supported on thin, open-weave fabrics (carricirs) of glass. !,yon. or other fibers. Filmn adhesives have two important advantages: 1. Uniformity. Variations .n thickness and cornposition are minimal. Because both shea, and peel strengths are sensitive to bondline thickness, control of this variable is desirable. Although bondline thick-1, ness olso is affected by curing pressure variations, film adhesives. - particulzrly those having flow restricted by carriers and/or high-melt viscosities can reduce thickness variations appreciably. In addition, film adhesives eliminate the weighing errors and inadequate mixing that are possible with twopart liquid adhesives. Quality control checks can be mnade on each roll of film before production parts are bonded; this is not practicable to perform on each batch of most liquid adhosives due to limited potlives. 2. Ease of assembly. Film adhesives are available in a wide -ange of tacks. varying from dry to very sticky. Complicated parts can be assembled simply by cutting the film to the shape of the desired bondline and laying it on the first suwface. The second surface theni is placed in position, and is herld by the adhesive tack until bonding pressure can be applied. Films that are not tacky at room temperature are tacked readily by momentary contact with a hot iron at sirategic locations. Parts of many layers may be laid up in this manner and bonded at one time. Adhesive waste also is mi~nimnized when films are used because there is no exmrss material left to set up in the mixing container. Most film adhesives require curing temperature. of 250*-3509F. and. thercircr. have long shelf lives. Cold storage usually is advised, however, although some types are stable for many weeks at room tempetature. A few types are available that curm at lower itemperatuics, including room temperature; these must be stored at temperatures well below 0*F.

I~

(

CtMCP 706-202 The other common phy stal form for structural adhesives is the two-part liquid niixturn. These mnatrials consist of two componcats that icact. when mixed, to form a them mosetting solid. Us~ually. tlhey are 10017 nonvolatile. Many cure at roomn ticmpe.'ature in a few hoars or days: other-, requir' hcat to curc Frequently, they atre in the form of high-viscosity pastes containing inert fillers und/o; thixotrofir. agents. In contrast te most film adhesivi.s. however. 'iesc: uncurcd pastes usually becomie fluid whet, heated. Pot-lives, like cure ti.edepend upon the rate of chemical reactivity, which is influenced greatly by temperature. Thus, adhesives that cure rapidly at room temperature may isave only a few minutes of pot-lf.fe while those requiring hightemperature cures have pot-lives varying from hours to months. Less common structural adhesive forms i-iclude onc-component pasle:; and powders, and all icquire elevated-temperature cures. Essentially all structural adhesives of interest for hczlicopir~r applications are based upon either epoxy or phenolic thermosetting resins. Because these rn~utpritik ire bruitt,. ~inhernith thri' iav;i~ly aire-,i~dt with elastortiers or thermoplastic resins in order to improve peel strengths. Polyuretharie adhesives also show promise, as they can be forinulated with both stre-ngth and flexibility. To date, however, they have not been used widely ini structural aircraft applications, Epoxies atz- the most versatile and widely used structural adheaiives. They have excellent adhe.:ion. low creep, low shrinkage during cure, and 100%~ nonvolatility. The liquid or paste typres have either low peel properties or '.empc.-t-urc resistance, and
arc
gvb iadi*PAoto.

J

'~fiexibic

heing the most widely used typt: of ela.ýtomcrphenolic structural adhesive. Lpoxy-phcrnolics arc used primarily because )f their outstanding temperature re!.istance. Being very i gid. they have good shear strength and creep resistance but poor peel and impact properties. 11ccaus,; of the poor %wruing flow arid characterisvcs of the clastomer-phenolic film%, a cojiing of liquid primter on the substrates usually is, advised. A% with all phenolic condensation rcactions, gases arecevolvcd during cure, necessitating relativel) high bonding pressures The actual pressure required to contain these volatiles is a function of thc temperiture: rise rate, 100 psi is a typical recommendation when the bondline is heated rapidly. All of the adhesive types discussed previously may he used for mectal-to-metal bonding. The selection will depend upon the relative importance of such factors as shear strength, peel strength, temperature resistance, chemical resistance, fatigue and creep properties, fabrication method, and cost. Generally, a modified epoxy or niitrile-phenolic film adhesive is chosen for primary structural applicatior.s, while at paste-type epoxy and simple contact tooling may suffice for secondarv structures with 1c, ;-critical requirenient%. The aequirenients fut sevefal cLa.,scs of structural adhesives are covered completely in 'IMM-A132 and M MM-A- 134. Although there is some overlapping. M MM-A- 132 is conceetned mainly with film adhesives while M MM-A- 134 generally has less stringent icquircments which are met by the liquid- and paste-type epoxies. Cured, reirnforced-plastic composites can be bonded to themselves or to metals with the same adhesive's and icchniqucs used foi bonding mnetals. In addition, adhesive prepregs can be used either for an
!6 u.*p or ;.- -odn"*-wer L
ii,
.,--

ritM,ificmuasautnio

(t`01 ainnprovcmvs-z

e*-.-

)

of these particclar characteriso'Ths) than are the film types. The latter can be modified with tough thermoplastics such as rylo-, or polyvinyl aczetal resins, Primers (low-viscosity solutions of adhesive dissolved in solvents) arc availabki for use in conjunction with modified cpoxy-filrti adhe~ives. Their primary functiorn is to prote.. prepared metal eurface-s rrom contaminatiop and oxidetion since epoxy films have adequate wctti~ig and adhesive characteristics without primers, Phensolic adhesive, 'iscd in the aircraft industry always are modificd &~ an clastainer or another resin Although they can be pruduced in liuid form, they now are used predominantly as films. Vinyl (polyvinyl formal or butyrill) phenolic adbesives wcre thc armt materials usei '9- aircraft metal boiiding. Rubber-phcnol.c evtisAi'ves include those modified With neoprene or nitrile rubber, the latter presently

a conventional r: i rforred-plastic layup and th'e substrate. These im stc~ials consist of a structural grade of reinforcement impregnated at B highi resin content with a resin formuiatior. having good ;dhcsion qualities. Reinforced plastics can be bonded to metals and other substrates by employing betweeti the substrate and layup a layer of conventional film adhesive that is cured simultaneously with the laminate. 1hi-; pirocredure is adv:'ntageous in that it precludes any mismatch of mz-ýtiqsg surfaces, a problem that always exists to somei extent with preformcd parts. While this technique has been found effective with a number of adhiesi',c and laminating resin combinations, such materials must be selected carefully for compatibility with both chtmical reactions and curing temperatures and pressures. Most of the epoxy adhesives also are suitabiz. for bonding facings to honeycomb core in applications 2-311

Ir

whern good flow and wetting ability, and low curing pressure ate reluired. Some of the phenolic-bmued adhesives also may be wsed for sandwich construction, although most ar not reownmmnded for

through solvent evaporation rather than by chumicai cure, and therefore do not require temperatur or presure for curing. Because initial taCt often is adequitz to hold in position the parts being bonded,

ftj

this purpose due to poor lilleting action and the evolution of votatiles during cure. When phenolic adbesivs arn used in sandwich bo-rdini, the core either is perforated or pesu is reased just prior to reaching the fral cure tempemture. MIL-A-25463 coains requirnents for adhlesive for bonding ssndwic•. It defines two casee Cila I for facingto-core bonding only; and Chus 2, for bonding facing to core and iQWerts, edge attachments, etc. Beause mos adhlesive suitable for sandwich comntnu2on also can be used for rmtal-to-metul bondin narly all samdwich adhesives are qualified to both MIL-A25463, Class 2. and to MMM-A-132. The adhesive puepdescribed previously also mnbe used in

even clamping fixtures frequently are unnecemary. On
the other hand. because these adhesives rmain thermoplastic, they lack the temperature and chemical resistance of tlh thermosetting tactural adhcsive. Where arnewhat stronger or more temperatureand chemical-rea•itmnt bonds are required, semistructural adhesives, such as the two-part epoxia and urethanes, may be uwd with room-temperature curing. Cements based up-au a solution of the polymer being bonded are L -ad frequently for bonding noncrystalline thermoplastics such as acylis, celluloWs, polycarbonates, polystyreves (including ABS),. and vinyls to thonselvea. The dissolved polymer gives .

fabricating sandwich panel with reinforced-plaitic
facing. Out disadvantage of this procedure, how.. ever, is thkt a relatively porous laminate is obtaiad due to the lack of labminating pressure between cUl dub* Of SCVUwith Typical bond urergths obtainabie from several of the common types of adhesives ar given in Tab 217. S -5.1.2 Nemssmlra Adlhbes Thxse adhesives are used primarily to bond interior acasaor~s made cf a variety of materials, ineluding plastics, rubbers, metals, and fabrks. Because arorhic in thes apa joint failure would nor bc caw

body to the cement, while the solvent softens the adhecrnds. effcting a weld or bond when the solvent evapo-ates and the plastic rhardens. Transparnt acrylic patics also may be bonded
twnrftmwt evllhoacnn. t'nnt A

nOmi'~VI-.

mcthacrjlatc monomer ano acatalyst. whsctu have excellent strength and transparency. MIL-A4576 definft three typls of two-part ncrylic adhesives, type P contains solvent and is covered in MIL-P45425. Types 11 and lI arc withou solvent andmaybe u A for bonding plasics as covered in both MIL-P-5425 and MIL-P-184. For bonding of diimilar maerials, f•lxibk libmU Or fabrics, rubbers, or other such materials,

(

,

*

plications, consideration of the highft- possble adhesve strengths is not paramount; and other fooon-, sich as cost and csanvetiemt. cMA be givcn tquaa matention.

clasioae-tesed adhestives are preferred; they offer oot adheson to mmmy matrals ad boetpr I
69mstrag,sjt; Skae~. 4-m W
-8

"The adhesivte-. prefrred in thew applications
baud "n

diffcnsat thermal cz iuon cosrAcieps. Elastoeneric darns, pca

g'lrnelly are

solutions or dispersions of

adhmves may be dn.ohlv in a suitab organic solvent or dispersed in water; tackifying reams, aetioxi-

various elassomers and thcnnoplsuics. They set up
TYPICAL PWPRtTiES
CHEMICAL TYPE PIHYSICAL FORM

~stiia naforcia filles am uNWa and

TABLE 2-17. o COMMONLY USED STRUCTURAL ADWESI•Y•
T I-PEE LP
CURE TEMP."F SHEAR STRENGTH. psi -67' 75" 1u" 250" STRENGTH, III in. -67" 175" !80"

SANDWICH -67' 75I 5S,

PFEL

iui.-Ib "31.WIDTH

isO, 35 45 31
NA NA

MODIFIE EPOXY 14YLOX-EPOXY
EPPOXY-FHENOLIC

FILM FILM
SUPPORTED FILM

250 350
350

5100 6100
3200

5700 6500
3500

290o 3400
3300

1000
2200
2900

20 60
10
-

30 100
40

25 90
20 4

9, 35 Il17
NA NA

NITRILE-PHENOLIC

60 170 33
NA

NEOPRENE-PHENOLIC
EPOXY 'GEN PURPOSE)

SUPPORTED FILM
2-PARr PASTE

F iL

350 15-200

410

3500 I900

4200

2400

1100

1800

36 ]z

EPOXY(HIGHTEMPMAODi EPOXY'HIGH PEELMOD,

I-PART PASTE 2-PART PASTE

25C
75-200

1500 3000 2000 2000 20D0 2500

800 25W0 3000 400

2 2 2

3 2 25

NA

2 2

NA NA

NA NA

NA NA

OALUMINUM ADHERENDS TESTEC PER MUM-A-i3Z AT THE INDICATEDTEMPERATURES, 0

ALUUINUM CORE AND VACINGS TESTED PER MIL-A-25463 AT THE INDICATED TEMPERATURES.

S~2-32

"
components of the formulation. MMM-A-1617 covers requirements for adhesives based upon natural rubber., neoprene, and nitrile rubber. Adhesives based upon natural or reclaimed rubber are suitable for bonding such items as rubber and fabrics to metals in applications where oil and fuel resistance is not a problem. Neoprene- and nitrile-based adhesives generally have greater peel strengths in the same applications, as well as good resistance to oils and fuels. The neoprene type usually is best for bonding neoprene and most other rubbers and rigid plastics, and has the best heat resistance. Nitrile rubber adhesives are preferred for bonding nitrite rubber, vinyls, and other flexible plastics. Silicone rubbers should be bonded to themselves or to other substrates with silicone adhesives, such as those described in MIL-A-46106 or MIL-A-25457. No heat or pressure is required. Contact adhesives are a special type of elastomerbased adhesive having high immediate strength upon contact of the two coated adherends, but they do not permit any repositioning. They are covered by MMM-A-130. Other speciai-purpose adhesive specifications inude MMM-A-121. MMM-A-122. MMM-A-19, MIL-A-24179, and MIL-A-21366. 2-5.1.3 Pr•'silmg Operalihs Process and inspection requirements for structural adhesive bonding are contained in MIL-A-9067. Factors to be considered include type of surface preparation, control limits and methods of surface treatment. solutions. clean-room layup area requirements, prefitteng of parts, adhesive storage controls. handlin- of cleaned parts. application of primer and adhesive, tooling concepts. temperature and pressure controls, secondary bonding of subassemblies, rework, and destructive and nondestructive verification testing. Equal in importance to the selection of an optimum adhesive system is the selection of the best surface preparation for the adhesives and adhe,.ends being used. Some suggestions are given in MIL-A9067. Other recommended sources are ASTM No. D 2561 for metals. ASTM No. D 2093 for plastic surfaces, and Ref. 6. With some metals, such as aluminum. the surface treatment is practically universal: while with other metals, such as stain3css steel, it is advisable to evaluate different treatments with each combination of alloy, condition, and adhesive. Significant batch-to-batch variations in a given type of alloy may be noted. For most reinforced plastics, a wet-sanding treatment is recommended to obtain a water-break-free surface. When nonstructural ad-

AMCP 706-202

hesives are used in bonding, .i careful solvent wiping and/or sanding treatment wi:! suffice for many materials. 2-5.1.4 Desgn of Beoded Stnrctures Adhesive joints should be designed so that t~ey are stressed in the direction of maximum strength. Thus, the adhesive should be placed in shear while minimizing peel and cleavage stresses. Maximum bond area and uniform thickness should be provided for, and stress concentrations should be avoided where possible. Scarfing and bevelling are two methods that sometimes can be used to reduce the cleavage-stress concentrations at the edges of lap joints. Test methods for sandwich constructions are described in MIL-STD-401. while numerous other test methods for adhesives are contained in FTMS No. 175. SEALING COMPOUNDS There is a degree ipoverlapping between sealants and adhesives: most sealants must adhere in order to be effective, while'an adhesive generally seals the joint that it bonds. In addition, many sealants are formulated from the same basic polymers that are used in adhesive compositions. Sealants are related particularly to the elastomeric adhesives, and many of the qualitative comparisons made in the previous paragraph apply to sealants as well as adhesives. In order to form trowelable pastes, sealants are formulated with hirher viscosity and lower tack than are the elastomeric adhesives. Lower-viscosity sealants also are available and are suitable for dipping, brushing, and even spraying. These materials. n•,wever, are classified more properly as coatings. Commercial sealants are manufactured from a variety of polymers, including polysulfide, urethane. silicone, neoprene, acrylic, butyl rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and polymercaptan. In addition to the base elastomer, a typical sealant formulation may include curing agents, accelerators. plasticizens, antioxidant-, solvent thinners, and inorganic fillers or reinforcing agents. Sealants may be one- or two-ccmponent types. All of the ,tter cure into tough. thermoset elastomers. The one-component sealants are subdivided into three categories: nonhardening putties that remain permanently s.ft: solvent-release types that become s.inihard through evaporation of a volatile ingredient. and types that cure by reaction with atmospheric moisture. Pruperties of the latter, after curing. are similar to those of the cured two-part sealants. (One further form of "sealant" is the cured elastoineric tape or extrusion. Because these nm.st be 2-33

2-5

)

AMIP 706-202
held in place mechanicall~y, they moreF properly might he called gaskets.) All effective sealants inust have a high ultimate elongation and a low modulus in order to acexpansion and contraction of the joint rcommodate being scaled. Most commercial sealants have these qualities. They vary widely, however, in their degree *of recovery, ranging from near 0% recovery (or 100% plastic flow) for a permanenitly soft putty to nearly 100% recovery for a cross-linked (cured) elartoamer. Thisproprtyis important because a lowy-recovery sealant. once compressed, must accoRmmodate subsequeni joint expansion entirely by its elongation, or it will fail. A compressed, high-recovery sealant will return, as the joint expands. to its original dimension before it begins to elongate in tension. Of the various chemical types of sealants. only polysullides. urethancs, and silicones are currently of I inmportaince in the aircrikft industry. Thcsc arc all high-recovery elastorners when cured. Polysulidecs are most commonly used in helicopters. where they act as both scalants and aerodivniasnc fairnng comvoundi. They have excellent adcharacteristics and resisianic to suicnis anad fucls, weathering and Aging, and icmrpcraiures up to 250*3. MIL-S-7124 and MIL-S-8802 describe the two-part elastomeric scaling compounds with increasiregly severe requirements for adhesion and resistance to temperature and fuels. MIL-S-87t4 compounds are formulated purposely with very low adhesion for such nses as fuel tanks access doors. A *grade for scaling electrical components is desciibed in NIlL-S85 16. Osme-part. noncuring. polysullfide puttics also are available. A mater-i.dl of this type is de* fiined by M!-Q-1!3 UR .1W ,it isitntfisr w ling ofitcal instrumenits, but is aseful for various purposes. Silicone sealants have autstanding environmental * resistance because they are unaffected, relatively, by * temmeatures ranging fromn cryogenic. to more than SW5*)F.~ and by moisture, ozone. and -iltraviolet radtat ion. However, because they arc the most expensive %ealant%. they are used4 only where these ex-cellent propcrties are requirod. Some: types also have very
-htsion

-

in confined aircas or in thick sections. Primers usuaillv are recommennded to permit maximum adhesion to) m1cwKis Although of totally different chemical compost-Llion, polyurcthane sealants have many similtrities to the silicones. Both two-component and onecomponent moisture-curing types are common Primers (often silicone- based) are recommended, but. in this case, primarily fur retention of adhesion in humid or water-immersion situations. Thes e scahnt exhibit complete recovery after extended outdoor exposure. They also are useful in cryogenic applicationr, where they are surpassed only by the silicones, and in electrical appl"cations. Polyurethancs also have excellent oil resistAnce, and grcater abrasion resistance than any other sealants- Osie problem is loss of adhesion upon exposure to ultraviolet light. An area where scaling compounds frequently are used is in edge-*ealing of honeycomb sandwich pancis. because joint expansion and contraction are not major considerations in this instance, relatively rigid sealants usually are employed. These are essentially thc same materials as the epoxy (and occasionally urcthane) pasic avhiicivci discuassed prev~iously-. cxcept that microballoon (hollow microsphcres of glass ( or plastic) fillers frequently are used to produce a 4 lightweight. closed-cell structure. Sandwich panels * also may be sealed with an edge w~apping of Fibergias prCsprCg. Viscous sealants mxy be applied with a variety of equipment, ranging from a putty knife to a cornpletely automatic mixer-dispenser system. Fluid sealV ants (coatings) may be brushed or sprayed. One.compawenst sealants suapplied in czartidges can bc
apniod from miolan ornl Ofir-oterated *ums.. or these

seslants can be diwspesd directy from pails or drumis by air-powered Or hydraulic pumping equiptrient. Twvo-psar wsearlas can be. weighed and mixed by hand or by mcteing-mixing equipmient that dis.-el penses the compongnts according to prelet ratios. Frozen cartridges of pranixed sealant akso arc available4 commercially; thewe must bc stored at -40*F until just prior W~ use.

*

gotod electrical characteristics, andi arm used to seal electrical systerfs. MIL-S-23586 covers siliconc scalants for electrical applications. and MIL-A-46106

24 PAINTS AND FINISHES
NTAD O IW RG 10 AITAN CO ItSOG II MIL-F-7179 prescribes in cletail the manner in which the external and internal surfaces of at khecopter arc to be finished. Uther helpful documcni~s arc TB 746-931-2. MIL-STD-171 (MCR), and AMCP 706-100. Helicopters require a Type I protection. ime., protection Against severe deteriorative conditions, F-or

describes a general-purpose, room-temperatugecuring adhesive-sealanit for both mechanical and electrical requirements. As ordinary silicones have relalively poor fuel and oil resistance fluora-silicone sealants should be ausd where these properties arc required. Both one- and two-component maierials mein common use. The former cure by absorption of atniosphem mc humidity, and. therefore, cure very slowly 2-34

241

"IP

-

~hinr- the

)

most .;.jrfaces. this involve.; one coal of wash primer (MIL-C-85l4). one coat of primer (MIL-P-23377). and tv 3 top costs of attopcoat rot examiple, TT-E516 or M IL-C-8 1773. Preparation of the surface for painting will differ with the type of m, tal and with the surface (external or internal). For this handbook, exterior surface arc defined as all visible surfaces of an end-item that is housed within the helicopter and all visible surfaces of the helicopter. including all portions of the system that arc exposed to thc airstream. Interior surfaces are the nonvisible surfaces of an end-item that is housed within the fuselage of the craft. Prior to painting, aluminum surfaces usually are finished with Anodize MIL-A-8625 or Alodinc 1200 (N4IL-C-5541). and malnesium with Dow 17 or HAE (MIlL-M-45202). Nonstainless steels are phosphate-treated (MIL-P16232), stainless steels arc passivated (QJQ-P-35), and Fibe.'glas surfaces are sanded and cleaned with naphtha (TT-N-95). The first coat of paint applied is the wash pri mer. The term designates a specific mate-ial the( comdnmrmrwflc nr shn inhihitiwi twacreth .sr.

craft arc the nitrocellulosec and acryiL-nitroluvllulosc
lacqucrs. which contain a wide range of pigmcntatior. They art preferred becamusc of the case in iemoving thew. with solvents when it is necessary to change camouflage or color schemes or when repainting is required. They also are applied with a spray in volatile solvents (MIL-L-19537). TT-L-S 16 desceibes another suitable top coat. and one that as meets air-pollution regulations. This coating is a styrenated phthalic alkvd resin combined withi the necessary amounts of driers and volatile solvents. Thc mixture contad'ns 50* resin solids. inc~luding small peircenitagom of antioxidants, wetting agents. and stabilizers. A wide range of coloring pigments isV available, and these arc present in amounts of 24-45%. of the total solid conicrnt. There arc special paint formulations for camouflage. battery compartments, hilgh-temperature areas, walkways, and antiglare applications. Rain-crrosionresistant coatings (MIL-C.7439) are used on the Icading edges of the rotor and on radomes. There arc sixciail formulations for high visibility, and paints forC.f lettering and marking. Rubber, both natural and syn*hei, ...,,
surfwms suh as. ;!L-. n

3

metal conditioaer. w~th those of the convcntio;:J-anticorrosive primer. The essential coDmponent)s D: wash primrrs are phosphoric acid. chromate merit, and polyvinyl butyral resin. Wash primers can be formulated that are effective equally over iron. steel, aluminum. treated! magnesium, copper, zinc, and a wide variety of other metals. The advantages of wash primers include ease of application and rapid drying, useful iange of tzmperature and humidity, application to a variety of metal, effectiveness in prc-

plastic windows, arc not painted. Particular attention must be directed to assemblies in which dissimilar metals arc joined. It generally is required that each of the mating surfaces shall be finished with the minimum number of coats required for interior surfaces. Where magnesium is one of the metals to be jcined to a dissimilar metal, tei metals shali be separated by MIL-T-23 142 tape or MIL-S8802 sealant. The tape shall extend not less than 0.25 in. beyond the joint edge in order to prevent mois-

-.

'

4
p

venting underfilm corrosion, and good adhesion as a %peasmc suuuu SU"rI W&kla. 11 11U1 1eU4iUGLY
used wnsh primer is that defaned in NIIL-C-8514. a

)

smooth-finish, spray-type, pretreatment coating furr'ished in two part,~: resin component and acid comnP;ýwint. The materials must be mixcaJ prior to use. The piameir, which must cumform to MIL.P-23377. is used oam the wash pritm. It iscompatible with t usual =cYlic-aitrocelaloW Laqutu top camt. as well ass the alkyd top coats (TT-E-516) sand urethane with (MIL-C-81'.73). The two-cnsnpoximt, epoxy-polyaamide systern has high dhanaicu and solvent resintanc OWd Unusal wmhrbi.It is Wsjy-ajWIpled This specri~atic. also provides for an addkiicua dlams or materials wshitalc for usew~and ir-pollartion regulatiom. The aivailabiliy of daumas or costauiua Ai wpo~itgkg Smir rqpktimup is beomia# increasimigly iunponsat.. a=d this flactor shoul be kept in mind by the dein*=. Tb, top coatsw osm pscifind for Azmy airmofst

tur-s from bridging between the dissimilar metals. All naotes and couniersinas that attachin; pans pass through should be prinied, and all joining bolts, screw%, and inserts should be wet-primed when inserted. Preftrably. all stecl nuts, bolts, screws, washers, and pins should be cadmium-plaited. 46 PCA IW E
42SPCA FNSE

~ *'.'l .

r

I

In addition to the finishing of surfaces with organic coatings as described in the previous paragraph, Ithere are a number of special finishes for metal which serve to provide the desired protection without further applicaiion of organic coastiags, or that arc used to provide a suitable base for the application of organic finishes, Many of these processes involve the devefopment of a durable crrosion-resistant. oxide layer on the surface of the metal. Although the development of this surface o.%de film may or may not involve the use of an clecuical curient. the chemical effect is similar and the proess is called anodizngs. 2-1)

there art many different finishes. For alan some or whic ame used to provide a bws for paint amd some of which provide protiection withont furthe painting. The processes all involve chromates noan eaidiAia iesgedimat, and rnll have proprietary compositioes. The performamot of these methods of tutanamn is governed by MIL..C-5541. The reagents say ba applie by sprying. dipping. or swabbing. generally. the metal is dippe in a sequence of baths ad inuus that cwrme dean, rine-rained oxide uniformy ditrbiated ovea the surface - with no coarse grains and so untrwated areas. Class I A treat. me"muim wihsawd exposure to sult spray for 166 hr and ane unpainte or follwad by wash prime and pimin tmtmeats. Class 3 coatings are simiLar to Chmu IA coatings, except that the deectrica reseisumie is low, Formagesim. hemarctwo primary anodizin~g manesium there ar te Do7tramn Foreamns (MIL.M-4S202) and the ote meho is the HAE treatment (MIL-lW43202). both of which involve elecroltican mtalsuracein rde to iziag f te buildolyui an fairlytikae of ah cmptlesrs=i ourder to
a~

Ferrous metals that arc to be painted aregiea phosphate coating in accordance with MIL-P-16232. The~se coatings are of two types: Type M. which has a phos.phate base. and Type Z. which has a zinc phosphatc base. Type M coatings arc more resistant to alkalinc environments than arc Type Z coatings. When they arc applied properly, the reaction form?, a mixed-metal phosphate coating on the surface of the firrous metal that is dose-grained, Fine, and Wre of powder and course grains and that Ws¶the surface well. Thc treated surface is more res"5stat to corr-')3ion and provides a firm basc upon which to apply wash prime and prime coaings. In all of the foregoing treatments, the metals employed, especially the ferrous mectals, aro subject to the absorption of hydrogen from the solutions, and the hydrogen serves to embrittle: the metal. It is desirable to promote the diffusion of hydrogen from the metal by heating tt 210a_225*IF for 8 hr in order to provide hydro3gcn embnittlcment relief. Still another class of finishes frequently employed is the flame-sp.rayed type. In this technique, metals. silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, alumina, or other
,m-A=rand -mnnr

~

~d

buid

hic u

a lyerof aily

a..

coplx '~

aumium

''~

outdoor exposure without further coutin~s. The prIewhere they are vaporized and deposited on any subfetred method involves pretreating. primting, and art strate that wili condense and hold them. By this epoxy-polyamide finish. means, similar or dissimilar metals cam be applicd to metallic or nonmetallic surfaces. Ceramic materials Part made of co. rosion-raistrat sfteel arc passivated in oider to deveiop their corrosion-resistant can be applied in order to provide abrasive surfa=es qualities. This preceess serves to remove the "activewear-resistant surfaces, or flamec-resistant coatings. centers on the surface and to leave a thin, durable, M11 *674 covers the flame-spraying orf metals. L transparent layer of oxide that prevents further corWo., a metal surfaces can be built up and subseauc oroxipaivhe ioesng the mea.parssinatn byac aqeos puii~s mtc.hOned uslapicain hade thefam-stns enai be rcomlshved or oimmierstaking the mertal ainatin iqeos quetc.:l mahned usflapicain toeepai orde th ftpisons
?$AUSUu nW

is

fa,

oxyacetylenec flame

-.. -..-.

ý... -

n

either as strands or powder

~~ria- .Ai imln -a or --- -,;o. - -

nittnam nr -*. r

-

-

t

charomate. The temperaure of immersion varies from. 70' to I 55F, depeniding upon the alloy involved and the intended operatiag tempeature. Prior to treat ment, it isessential to wash parts carefully inan alkaline solution in order to remove all of the particles Owr iron that may have acewiwlataid ea the surface, as these woulod develop rua staie. durting the tieatnh.&it. The paswvation orocus maistatied in QQ-F.35. Ferrous surface that ame not to be painted usually are treated w~ith black oxide. The insulting depos*it is a hard. durable. oidin surfac. dma isattracive and is so. cwhat res"ISta to coroiomn aOW to wear. The process is applicable to both womstaolese ami simailes steels, it invoives imnaersiM the previously cleaned part in an alkaline. or alkafine-chromtate, oxidazing solution, followed by warmi and then cold rinses. a fInal chromaic aciod dip, and drying in worm air. The proý is defined in MIL-C-63924. 2-36

~

01Aumn

urnu

W

M.# inous20MUM

spraying oi toaimur

Iwater

exhaust skirts or*je enginies for oxidation pl-3tection. 2-403 PLATINGi Another method of applyi-ig attractive, durable and abrasion- and corrosion-resistant coatings tiG metals and plasticsias meta plating. The platings of most interest in lieheopter dwmii are copper, nickel, chromium, and cadmium. Extupt for electrical cornpoms whecre electrical conductivity is impcrtant. copper plating is used only to provide a bae for thc wear-resistant nickel and chramijim plating.. Chromium and itickel plating. am used to provide hard and wear-resistani suirfaws for suiad object as SWa fasteners, strap holders, handles, knobs. seat arms, instrument parts. and other itemi where painting would no be satisfactory or economical. Cadmaium and zinc plating are employed almost exclusively to

cauxvic contingi upunthe1 mflt5i

provide galvanic protection Mgainse cxonvon. Cadmiuna is fthpreferred ecoming for ferous meal iAem

"

k2

such as nuts, bolt, screws, inserts, Lod pins used in assembly. particularly where dissimilar metals arc
employed. A treatment of m( tal plating can be found in Rcf.

and tenacious coating. It is used frequently for metalizing plastics, and. becausc the danger of hydrogen
embrittlcmcnt is nqI1gi.', it also i- used for the plating of high-strength stmi: parts for high-stress ap-

7. In this pr

s. & ur methods used extensively: chemical reduction or elt-ctroless, vacuum vapor deposiluin. and molten metal dip. In electrolytic platin&, the item to be plated is cleaned so as to provide an oil- and dirt-free surfic, and then is connected as the cathode hn an ecoctrolytic coll. The anode is mtde of the plating material, and when an electrical current is passed through the

Selectrolytic.

plications. It is the preferred method of cadmiumplating high-strcngth bolts and nuts and other fasteners, Fnd MIL-C-8837 detail. the requirements for this application. Galvanized steel products arc made by dipping the cleaned, preheated steel in molten zinc. Cadmiumplated parts also are made in this manner, and earlier tin coatings were applied by the dip process. How-

.

14-V

electrolyte the netal isdeposited upon the surface of
the itn being plated. In somi c4ses, the item first is coated with a thin layer of coppep, which adhers

ever, the dip coating of steel with cadmium and tin
has been superseded by the more economical and more prccisely controlled electrolytic procesm.

readily to the base meta and forms a finn surace to which the platirg metal (either nickel or chromium)

MIL.T-l0727 covens elecroplatingt and hot dipping of tin.

1)
L
,

U

• -

can attach firmly. Ther are a great many proprieIn both the electrolytic and electroles processe, gtuy Oe•aolyuc sciutior, formulations and processes. hydrogen embrittlement is a ,agnificant hazard. DifConsiderabl, skill is required to ob.in a uniform, fusion of the hyIdrogen into the metI under the elecfine grain and brih coat, and much care must be trolytic forces is gSr-'ter than in the case of elctaoawcied to asure cleanlisms avoidac of poisom less deposition. The danger increases with the pn enUY of 41rms. biisenug ad cracking. an strengah and moduius of0t1 iatd materiai. 1-01u it avoidanc of ccarWraieed platings. Appliable is necessary to program a hjdrogen embrittle•mt t'CFedera Specificatis am (JQ-N-2l%, -Q.C32O, lief heating cycle in order to piomote the difftinn of a J QQ.-P-416. hydroge: from tie basic metal. The optimum t,:mc LkElctr s or chemical-redutin plating depends and tempcrature will depend upon the nature of the upon the gena'mtioi of activated atomws of th1; metal coating material ant of the base metal, as well as to be deposited aiacemt to the wafAvaa•a eal kurupon the scheduling requirememts for the part.

I ..

K

fSX upo whicbh tht olatiMg is V.be m4xiAwJ. Thre
are proprietary disa*
mCpo74a,• u lsie5

Generally. the platinqpecificenion wil require hydrogen embrittlemnt eli•f. Embrittleasnct from the

rodtc-

lion presses for maya sia~n

used in pktling, and

vamuum plating process and from the molten ametl
dip process is minimal. ., 244 TArt-I Tapes of varying ompoeitL'on. texture. thwknkos and width arc used in a varidey of ways in helicoptr. design. Fairic tapes may he woven or mmnwoven. ia-

also for Sot metl *&s plastc busc uateral,. Them• is less dwaola of hy•#d-,o evibnittlicnent with this prOOM. The' etolmas m9thod is unitablC for healird y;na or for us ift the field or shop wher Lhratoay or proce line facilities arm twn abailable. ft aho is ef~ctive for ==ne of the more diffcult jobs,

Such as nsickel-pltns of magnesium sdaafams whene
the nicel re.1coig •se•v to make the surface more wear-resiwua mand kwa impact-misitive. MIL-C-

prqimated or nonimpimqsate, and made from mnasy
of the advanced plastic materials. The tapes asy or maly not have adsive on out or both side

2674 covem the p4Asat of eleciroless nickel.
Va-uum de*,iton plating is conducsed in a

(peswAre-sentsitive tapes).
One application fo tapes is in the maiking of heli-

vacuum dckibmr. 'hM i•,m to be plae arc racked
at so" cput•am dAat from th sorm of the

cop(t.

Deca. confonming to the mquirments of

M IL-P-36477 may be usd isin lis of point for al rea.

Plun4 wa*l, and are related st as to o,4tni a uii. form cmiosa- Tim son of the plating "4 may be
a hot war or a mohtea pool of t1w mN.a. Th metal is healed ekricaly W a taeperamtun a& which it veporimir, foui thLblsrfac. U ,tr dzh± & ,,t of an eketrosatak held aqp"ied betweenw iwtl swurce ard

teusbal and internal mnArkings within the sim limaits spcimd. They may be prasaare4-asve. adhsivebacked, and scord and are aplied over pre•,AMly finished surfac. Antislip tale a&re umid on walknays, seps, mmd similar artea wULhiglrvn L" ate m• rapioyed iiiWn)C Wnia. Cautio. siwWbcid hausd waica

the iftsu biti plaed, the atoms. of the m"ga beCots se~amed sad sawatracted! to thme sekrfta. T'his

Pro-m jwodsii

wi ewapuicety bright, coheret.

to ilatuiv tisef antisip tNpe edga arn rnot epusmii to ai"ow thatcant eta" the a to gaol. Thm - of
3-37

d<A

Myk:i

and p,1)yw~dic

tape.. in. lctruically driven

pcrforrn as rcquired far the specified interval when.so
lubricated. 2-7.3 GREASYES A detailed disco'ssinn of the many appro-,'co grrna is includrd in MIL-HDBK-275. For pur.poses of illustration, the applications for four types of. greases arm discussed. 1. ikclicopicr oscillating bearings. A sutitable

moxois b-?, aiwak possibt: the consxrv.ction of light,
powerful motoii that cool rcadily. Tapes also are used for bindanM wiring haratýs*, sealia&accss pout3, and scaling cttities far foana-ir-pitaci filling. Teflon urfaces for tapes are used to pri&tw4t~ sins ebj. to skilin contact. low-loadl-bearing Finally, masking tkpcs arc. rvd in the finishing, repair, or repsaitina of surfaces.

2-7 LUBRICANTS, GREASES AND
HVDRAUUIC FLUIDS
2-7,1 ENERALpropriate

greae (1)1 us in bearings having oscillating motions of small amplitude - such as helicopter rotor head bearings - isdescribed in MIL-G-25337, and is apfor equipment that must operate at amWent temperatures of -6?*to l60F1. It also should be used for ball or roll"r bearings operating at higii Specn or hig~h teu'ycrstuns. 2. Ball and rolle-r bearings. These bcssingv. may be llubri~cntcd With Lga-as dcacibr.4 in MIL-G-2101 3. This grease is intcndcd toi use in the tczaperalure ravgr or -Iwo to 4509F. and is designcd pmtticulerly for those high-temperatUre bali and roller bewwri;4g applications wherc. soap thictenen mamy not

-a
4

*

Although this chartes is &'vo~ed to materials, the subject of lubricants and hydiaulica cannot be divorcoi frem; the total system. The designer ca'rnot Limpi) choose any oil or hydraulic fluid fm; a particular use. A lubrication systw. is designed for dclivcr-ing oil to the moclawnseas to be lnbr~ictct. Sclocrion of the oii to be. use is. as niucli mfunction or the filtcrnng. coofiag, and pumtping propenins of the.

1

VJ

'~ ~

Ncl;l~

ay vwzatncvd 1<30,0W. Thii gttw; is not to bt: tist a4X 4p~calv t Lic 5-. care. Sm~vconucr~cmn tcia~on oSf hrdrmulic flivi&. Lben tWith gsa.tiŽ ti &i1Jwtt-nmt lus. SUlk 114 p'nrMAI rnirOf a~c rdwaa~sa8( thtM r~Io.VtL41GI lxaiagc, epu g-rs and gcar tfivwi; 3. Ccuw an d acvators. A gencrzl-pirpcLLz gx;evsv Of *16qutk~c filtih&s's buihzsiP. sId scals; m~us be coci~ , eato otelbc~innc ~ ~ ~ ~ iSic41aee fo. v,ý&i;p.cer requiring a lubrian il.%hjijk lo;4-h ' grmses tiCW cjxccity ;isdescribed in MIL.C-9l322. Tiýis gan~sc is i1ese ar: dyrcamic raI.u than static uici kci uMs.4 in thn temaperature range of -65" ;o 3WIF, materials. The soimW range of lubricting rnateriais aud iii coinpstible with rubber. anid their QXAfltiO.S amt indicated itc labk 2-18& 4. Pzs.aiuna& systetr~s. Anothes froqicxntlv it-A Even wtvcrr th.. syý,.,imi is no dyr..mncx tand Manqumndi greavc is described by MIL-G 4343. Tb'* "shltapo4Ah- si lt &. w.o ne g1rcas is minted- for usc in pharumatic systwma a a
t1K frctiad iw.0hVC4 mwtI hx s
iZ4, as *,I

j
(

raihcs thaethik.ivuh ricatiag cudai ctnhti"- friction
iialatad cun.

Yima~e brail;nlS and

Ofw 1ar-tcwiMýu a a sj'itav.

fnceo<. in secswts;. at, j::evfgretY.,tn psi. I nzk a&W for FIst wihb W'4L-P-55l6 rut'bia, but 142Cod noio be g&4. 'With alie( typ-M o08-bb7 withomt'. f-rtAli frc0snnpztflii-t

-~

'hi

2ti D~&~% 0bL1J±~C~iGN SYTEMS 2-7.4 Wtif FILM AND PERMAiN1?T Th.; rcqueswwauu [cat dm~gn of lubrication Sys.-LBUAY tWwru for 1rttinx" ckwnagA in heheogner% arm ot wcaua h4ThFý of rAnd and duwi con. e Ie~cl dsscg&~da in lap; : e.twg for tAanstAnmimlaia'c frequicatly eac4:'Ovntered ini liclic'-~eJ opv~ratyuu;. ii u, advwnAnhasc'a to use nonw~cttimg WWbI.. ~ranw ~ rr~i~~b~a lbeiatio m~disuss4 i n ChajkA., 4. Af rjzasaittd* Cla^t 4. tjjme wfttlcittM in carill that do nujt auttvr thc duo ntotdizac. lIM{Adtd Md:ptn~ca lu~itsu~ wafo! apprQvi!a affr..1 ul irel ~piil m-a phsapic swatciialk (A lnj tcdi . al eiyt&j, hti~cl~xtK4, cpf u;lia mohv&&n. pruu-" to Ma..-,w ofi "rich l'kucA C%-vinn ca claof a C~ktcora &-zd a (Afr*,vrar$sdlba cation inizrtal for 2, girVui aPizsF&ainia ctbaritbtta as-

4

urcr.si¶

i~fkint

haP-~ -- c nsakris. nod porous-eir

nT~nadnln

~lbInudi

(uruxl~j-

aurpAsc by lar ota~acwr thatr ncAi equ.pu'an will

%L1.1 ot :ias-,6cnc. 1~ms aaea.shy arc enmptuyi4 Vinpvý ILo:4 tappf"Wkl~. icfx at it 10C nd en Auiraa~ i 1 ~n a"Uptitoij. a&-w4

isufide fcqu Molbdeum

isapplied as a

lubricant which arm intended

to reduce wear and pre-

luricntphnolc o epxybonding n dryfil agent to provide a secre boadins to the mnetal baic. MIL-L-460t0 describes such a beat-cured. solid-rdall

vent piling and seizure of metals. Dry-trnl Iubrncants may be used on steeL, titanium. aluminum. aluminum alloys. and other metals. They are useful

lubricant, and MIL-L-46147 an air-cusred solid r~t,

where conventional lubricats ame difficult to apply

NEU
SPTEUS MIL-G-43113 MIL-G-?7617 MIL-G-603 GREASE MlL-.G-?1Ifl MIL-r,4.12? IIIL-G-25013 UIL-G-Z5537 MIIL-G-8I3ZZ,

TABUL 2431. IOTrx LUSRECANTS AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
CONTACT SURFACE

PNIUMATCSYSTEMS PLUjGVALVES aor PLUG VALVES tM" LOAD STEEL SURrACES SALL ROLR MEDLE KARINGS.GEARS, ACIJATOR SCREWS BALL ATM ROLLER BEARINGS. -100' TO.850*r

RUBBER -TO- ME TAL, DYNAMIC FUEL OIL SYSTEMS GASKE TS, VALVES -GASOLINE AND OIL RESISTANT STEEL-TO- STEEL. SLIDING MTLT-EA.WD
MEA-T-.L

EPRNE 9G

O

IETEPRNE

IHLA

TANGENTIAL ME VAL, ROLLING CONTACT

I4ELCOPIER ROTOR HEAD BEARINGS. OSCILLATING METAL-TO- METAL. SLIDING- SMALL AMPLITUDE BEAR INGS WHEEL BEARINGS. GEARS. ACTUATOR SCREWNS 11IND1SHIELO WIPERS METAL-TO-METAL, ROLLING AND SLIDING METAL-TO-METAL. LOW LOAD. SLIDING

-7 )
LUSE OIL

MIL-L-357? .IL-L-3918 MIL-L-6081 MIL-L-7806 IL O5

INSTRWIE11T. JEWEL BEARINGS
TURBINE ENGINES TURBINE ENGINES AIRCRAFT INSTRUME.NTS AND ELECTRONIC EOUIPTMENT GEARBOXES. EXIREME PRESSURE HELICOPTER TRANS?.NSIONS, GEARB0XES AIRCRAFT PISTON ENGINES

STEEL AND JEWEL PIVOTS, TO-408F
METAL-TO-METAL, DYNAMIC METAL- TO -METAL. DYNAMIC MTLf-EA.FROSADNNERU METAL-TO-METAL. HARDENED METAL-TO-METAL. HARDENED. TO -40OF LIETAL-TO-METAL MAETAL-T O-METAL. LOW LOAD. HIGH SPEED MINERAL BASE OILS. 50 lit MAX OPRTO PRTO ME TAI.-RUBBER LOW-LOAD SLIDING CONTACT, SAND AND DUST ENVIRONMENT ANTISEIZE. GRAPHITE . TO 400"F ME TAL-TO-METAL. METAL -TO-JEWVEL MAETAL-TO-METAL. SILICONE. -10r" TO +5Wr FOR SYNTHETIC SEALING MATERIAL tdONOPERATING r: UIO

UMIL-L-6086 MIL-L-2?36" MIL-L-22051

MIL-L-?76941 TACHOMETER GENERATORS. GYROMOTORS, GIM~BALS CORROSION MIL-C-65?9 IAIRCRAFT ENGINES I'REVE NTIVE TIRE - TUBE. VOUNT IUG. DELO)UhTONG LUBRICANT MIL-L-836? SOLIP FILM COMPOUND V3L-L-8937 MITA CAIS.TRAflK(S.ROILLERS. SPHER~ICAL BEARINGS THRE ADS.SS 9GL TS.PIPýNG . MOUNT INGS IZAG14ETIC COTUPASS SERVO SYSTEL-S. CRANK CASES. GEARBOXES, FLUID TRANSUISSIGNF. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS AND LANDING; GEAR SMOCK SIRuTS

LIQUID __ MIL-L-5020 DAMPING MIL-S-81087 FLUID MIL-H-5606
IMIL-H-6083

HYLRUIC

1 PRESERVA V~l 011. TFTING AN[I STORAGE ~IL-H - Iil) I11H'IG T! IPFRA IURE SYS TET1. 40' 1O &55', ~.TL-H-8IIRULTRA LOV TELTPERATURESYSTEL:. AUTOPILOrS.

'.*INERAL O:L. PETROLEUM1 BASE

PC TROLEU'.* BASE FOR SYNTHETIC SEALING

AUTOPILOTS. SHOCK ABSORBERS.SRAKýS.SYSIELIS WIL-H9328?

rIRE RESISTA14T SYNTHE7IC HYDROCARBON BASE

2-39

or retain, or where other lubricants may be contawinatcd edsily with dirt and dust. They gcncrally arc suitabk for sliding motion applications, such as in flap tracks, hinges, and cant surfaces, but may not be

REFERENCES
i. Defense Metals Information Center (DMIC). High-Strength Steel - 18NI Mantrgahg. Battelle

(

used with oils and greases. 2-7.5 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
The design, installation, and data requirements for hydraulic system~s are covered by MIL-i-[-%W4 and afe discussed in detail in Chapter 9. Two types of systems are defimnd Type i, which is designed fo, the -65? to 160"F rang; and Type II, which is used in to 2751F range. Two dasse of systans are the -653 defined: 1300 psi, which has a cutout pressure of 1500 psi at the main preusure con olfing device, and 3000 psi, which has a cutout pressure of 3000 psi. As in the cas of the lubricating oilds, alectioat of the hydraulic fluid is integral with design of the system. Pumps, motols, flight control actuators, heat exchangers. flexible connectors. packings, fittings, filters, accumulators, and electrical interconnects must be deshown to be fined carefully and their characteiti compatible %ith the fluid selected.

Memorial Institute, Columbus. OH.
2. Defense Metals information Center (DMIC), Battelle Memorial

Properties of New High-Temiperature Titaniunm
230, Alloys. Memo No. OH. Institute, Columbus, 3. Defense Metals Information Center (DMIC), Joining of Titanium. Report 240, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH. 4. Structural Design Guide for Adwanced Composite Applications. Advanced Composites Div., AF Materials Laboratory. 5. L. H. Abraham and L. J. Lows, Shell Instability Problems as Related to Design, NASA Technical Note D-1510. 6. Charles V. Cagie. Adhesiw Bonding Techniques and Applications. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. NY, 196". 7. Heat Treating, Cleaning and Finikg. Vol. 2. American Society of Metals (ASM) Handbook.

I

zt.

"" F-

1

2-40

AMCP 706-202 CHAPTER 3

PROPULSION SUBSYSTEM DEvIGN
34 UIST OF SYMNOLS
A, A.. -

area of inlet, inside diameter. in.' maximum inlet frontal area. ifl.2 ambient pressure pesi maximum VlOity sA01111 Wdg Surleading

Ff

-"

NM D CI 3.1 The propulsion system es defined during time pit liminary design of thme kviicopte after the enginc OT engines hWe been selecled, and their location in thme chsen Tb.chateris oncnal airfamehasbee ~ wishxew-1 syshthe dmiratiof the 40con .- tie-.1 am sysem ofgrtos Th propulsio systm consists of the engine or engines. air ninduction sub.ystan. cahaust susstm fuel and lubrication smAbyztems Starting subs2yztc31. controls, tranaisassnn suabsystem. auxiliary power unit (if applicable) and infirared radiation supprassian subsystem. It also Ael inctud cooling an fir protecton subsystems. The air induction subelg also .u ie~ ~frame. Ino "h parsahs peowa " ine coeideaaiss.proulson ontol equresemfs. uel and lubrication subyssem reqwrsawmts. compari mecat cooling. accessores. and AWU(auxiliar power unit) design reqiremeins ame discussd. The transmission subsystemo is discussed is Chaper 4. 3-2 ENGINE INSTALLATION 3-L GENEAL. iMany diffausiat engine installation arrangavients are pouible; frost drive. nor ve. side by side for mokit~iengie licoptesr. etc. Engine locations may be ssseiad so as to cotrild the overall CG of the beltcopter to okeai the momt effecivu powe train eon&Wunctmion well inmary. AU the mhysassesa dinually and topher a am inwingrl propulsio system. Emin hismnlasions usually faog within one of three thu complasy sunhaeqrdt inistalaion, the W.msmsm semi-exposed ing11alulsom and the exposed imialla-

I.

V, - inlet velocity. fps V free stream Velocity. fps M fuel flow. lb/hr AP -inlat pressureloCw. psi 3 -?P1l4.7. dinmensio~nlas

face. 11)5

umgdluah 31. The submerged engine installation places the engine completely within the airframe. This arrangement, an example or which is shown in Fig. 34I. requires careful considration to insure adequate accessibility for miaintenance, Removable firewall Sections often arc used, but this requires attention to the detail design of seals and securing dcvicca to insure that the fire protection of adjacent components and crew stations will not diminish with repeated removal of the firewalls. Although it may be difficult to service submerged

'
4
4

engines because of limited accessibility, their location
often makes it possible ror maintevanc personnel to

work from &round level or from the cabin floor, eliminating the need for built-in service platforms. because the engine wsay be located deep within the airframe. engine air induction and exhaust ducts usually are greater in length and more complex than cyo o auiio tcrcon.titrtion. However, this inherent inefficiency may be offset by the extt real cleanliness of the aicat iib 312S~~ie Tesmepsdisalto sal mk h Thn be xpose minsteallatox usally topo the t tn tve buetwege. mountgearo ad thetop the Theenies of ar Teegieismutestrclaonhear This method. an example of which isshown in Fig. 3-Z. tequires only superficial structure to comnplete the engine enclosure. Teheh of the ern~vile ini this type of installation usually requires built-in service platforms. These pkatforms often are built into the cowling, so that the work platform automatically is available: when the cowl is opened. WIhen this isimpossible and separate platforms are proided, the engine cowling can be much lighter bmcuse it neod not be Structural The closeness of the rotor to the engine instalation requires that careful consideratioa be given to the cowlýlocking mechanisenit should be casily operabl by one man and capable of being inspecte from ground level for adequate security. The semivixposed instalation lends itself well to the use of ather front- or rear-dirive engines becAuse the engine can be located cither forward or aft of the main grorbox. The rer-drive en~ine stay result in very sbon cogine air inkdcton subsystens that can be anti-iced officientdy by wart hearing SystemsFront-drive engume may resul in snore complex induntioo subsystems. sad. because of ther comn-

4

d

VA

Figure 3-1. Subme~'d Eaglet Iuatallatioe tExample)

3-2-

pltcated shapc,.. may require more coniplexj anti-icing subsysiceim. Twin-enigine hclat.oplcrs often' employ the warnexpicdcofi~iraio. Tisenabknk a single housing unit to enclosec all engines, &Md p-rovades good - ccsai-;iihry to all cmagines provided ahey arc spaced su~ficieritly far apart. Additk~nal accc4.sibilitv can be ohtamned by making irierengirre 5ýrcwalls removable. If

side the airframec and 512 exposed on all sides. This arrangement, an example of whkt is shown in Fig. 33. commonly is used with a strc~aanlundc niacel that provides environmental protection and teduoes ftirodynamic drag. The externally mounted nvjsc atrangement provides the hest acwuaibihity. proviided adequate serv~cc platforms or other convenient work areas are available.

this is done, the designer must pay particular allenI-on to the seals on tin' reinosablc sections. Labyuinth seals are superior to otlier wealing melhtxs
Intechagcailiy intal~iin cjgin btwee

The nacelles sometimes are attached directly to
vided by removable paucls. The engine mounts may

fuselag frames. Acces. to the engines wenally ispromay eteral urf-w my cnsit o higedpanels.

conskdcrable savings in initial and maintcniancic cog.s. along ivith increased aircraft availability.

jn11

loadsharing structural members of the nacelle. The pancis also may be designedJ w serve assa work platform. Thi~. arrangemitnt requires a minimum amount 'ihity o! the eng;ine.

aiiuse btallation. engines are located out-

-3-

ANCIP 706-202
3-2.XIA

D

Checlist

The following items are applicable to each or the preceding types of engine installations and, as such, are basic design objectives: I. A properly designed engine enclosure shall be: a. Aerodymanically clean b. Sized and proportioned to the engine and its related subsystems c. Fastened to the airframe, not the engine, This eliminates problems with metal fatigue associated with engine vibrations. d. Arranged in such a fashion that the major portion may be opened quickly for inspection and minor repairs, or removed entirely for major maintenance tasks and cowling repairs e. Adequately ventilated to prevent accumulations of gases. and designed so that accumulations of dirt, waste, or fuel may be observed without removal of cowl sections f. Properly drained so that no fuel is trapped in any ground or flight attitudes. Any fuel likely to leak into the engine compartment must be drained clear of the helicopter through an appropriate drain system. 2. Appropriate firewalls must be provided to contain fires within the engine cowling or nacelle, 3. Daily maintenance aids should be incorporated if the configuration will permit them. These include work to hold cowling or access doors. and supPorts platforms, inspection nacelle panels in an open position to hase maintenance operations and protect equipment against accidental dama ne d equMaxipme a insterchacc enabliy d pag. s2. 4. Maximum interchangeability of parts shall be incorporated into the design. 5. It should be easy for an observer at ground level to determine that the cowling is secured properly. 6. The enclosure should have easily-accessible provisions for fire extinguishing, by ground personnel, during engine starts. S7.All portions of the cowling that might be subjected to exhaust gas impingement and to exhaust flames in the event of an exhaust subsystem failure, shall be corrosion-resistant steel, titanium, or other equivalent temperature-resistant alloy material. The material selected shall also be determined by the heat transfer analysis considering the engine heat r tion. 8. Cowlings shall not interfere with any parts of the engine, its operation, its accessories, or its installalion. 9. Cowlings .hall be designed to provide udequate cooling of the engines and engine accessories during flight and ground operations. 3-4

ENGINE MOUNTING The engine mounts shall be designed to withstand the loads resulting from the engine torque, thrust. and gyroscopic couple in combination with all applicable ground, flight, and inertia loads. In addition, engine mounts shall withstand transient torque and crash load conditions. The engine mounts and supporting structure shall withstand the inertia torque resulting from sudden stoppage of the turbine rotors combined with the flight loads for 3.0 g flight. Torque decay time histories shall be determined by analysis of the engine characteristics, but in no ca.e shall stoppage be considered as occurring ?n more than 3.0 sec. Engine mounting requirements are specified in MIL-E-8593 and shall be followed. Turboshaft-engine-powered helicopters may require critical alignment of high-speed shafts. Ii is good practice to design a high degree of accuracy into the mount. and supporting structure, and thus eliminate the need for adjustment on installation. rhis require,- more intricate tooling during manufacturing, but insures positive shaft alignment. For multiengine configurations, interchangeability is desirable and can be achieved by designing the engine mounts so that common detail parts can be assembled to result in opposite assemblies. The various of engine mountings may be described brieflytypesfollows: as I. A three-point-suspension type that incorporates a gimbal or ball joint A mounting that cantilevers the engine from the gearbox. Few engines can be cantilever-mounted; consequently, this method will not be discussed. The front mount of the three-point suspension may be either a single- or two-point configuration. The gimbal arrangement likewise may be a single- or twopoint support. The ball joint arrangement, on the other hand, must use the two-point support to obtain torsional restraint for the engine. When the three. point support is used with either the gimbal or ball joint, it must provide engine freedom for thermal expansion in all directions. This is accomplished by providing lateral, axial, and vertical restraint at the wo laterally disposed points, vertical restraint at the single point, and torsional restraint through the two laterally disposed points. Other rangementconfigurations gimbal theball joint support may place the using or three-point aralongside the drive shaft instead of concentrically as is commonly the case, Because the engine support and drive shaft no longer are concentric, a simple "trailer hitch" arrangement may be used advantageously for cost savings and to provide for easier drive

3-2.

shaft and coupling inspection and overall maintenance. With this configuration, it is imperative that at least one of the drive shaft couplings be capable of providing adequate axial displacement. The positive gimbal or ball joint may be replaced by an elastomeric element that supplies vibration isolation in addition to the flexibility of mechanical joints. Isolation mounting systems are discussed in the paragraph that follows, 3-2.3 ENGINE VIBRATION ISOLATION Chapter 8. AMCP 706-203. specifies that an engine vibration survey shall be conducted to determine the

dilona tst e prepared, and ground nd lanstell dition. a test plan shall be pepaedandgrond and flight tests conducted to verify that the engine vibralion environment is satisfactory. Successful the engine design will require a flow of data among helicopter manufacturer. the airframe danufacta r. ng the a engine ma ingacture The s . afre

as angles. clip%. and brackets. This allows the fire-estinguishing system to operate more efficiently. Engine installations incorporating nacelles sualy require that only the interface to the airframe be ffreproof. This area, therefore. should be kqx to a minimum to achieve minimum firewall weights. Side-by-side ertinc installations require a common center firewall, which can be made removable to enhance engine accessibility. When this is done. care must be taken to insure a tight-fitting. rugged seal. All-metal seals appear most attractive for this application. Pliable seals, either butted or lapped. eventually deteriorate, thereby reducing the firewall integrity. Thb. seal providesinherent support,section with a certain amount of the removable facilirtating removal or installation. Side-by-side engine installations are not desirable due to vulnerability and sirations. sualion survivability considerations. On each face of firewalls. and immediately adjacn hrtuesol emd fmtraso cent thereto. use should be made of materials or a that will not ignite as a result of heat transfer from flame on the opposite side of the firewall. Combustible fluid-carrying lines that traverse a firewall shail be equipped with shutoff valves. 3-2.4.1 Fire Detectors Three basic types of detection systems are used: infrared, continuous wire, and spot (thermal sensors). The infrared or surveillance fire-detection system provides extensive fire zone coverage. AContinuous wire fire-detection systems are of two types: those in which the resistance across a eutectic salt filling an annular space between two conductors is monitored continuously, and those in which increasing pressure of a gas trapped within a sealed line pneumatically actuates a switch. Each of these types is routed throughout the fire zone in the areas where temperature changes caused by fire are likely to occur. The continuous-wire elemert is subject to vibration and maintenance damage, which can result in false fire alarms. However, continuous-wire systems are not vulnerable to false alarms from sunlight. The spot type of fire detector, or thermal sensor, actuates a switch to trigger the master fire-warning circuit. This type inherently is more rugged than continuous-wire detectors, but has very limited coverage. As a result, spot detectors in reasonable numbers can be used only in fire zones oý limited volume, such as combustion heater compartments. MIL-D-27729 covers volume surveillance types of flame and smoke detection systems. MIL-F-7872 covers continuous-type fire and overheat warning systems. MIL-F-23447 covers radiation-sensing (surveillance type) fire warninp systems. 3-5

manufacturer, and the procuring activity. This flow
S and the required data are defined in Chapter 8. andthe required dtype

)

As pointed out in AFSC DH 2-3. a mounting subsystem shall be designed so that the natural frequencies of the engine(s), when installed in the helicopter, do not exceed a certain limiting frequency in those modes of motion that may be energized by the vibratory-forcing functions generated during the operation of the helicopter. The natural frequencies shall not exceed 70% of the lowest frequency of the forcing function, 3-24 IFIREWALLS To provide for isolation of fires, zones that contain both combustible material and a source of ignition must be defined and shall be separated from the rest of the aircraft by firewalls. The firewall must withstand a 2000°F flame for 15 min. Sources of ignition may be hot engine surfaces or electrical connections. High pressure ratios and increased cycle temperatures have made virtually the entire engine surface an ignition source. Consequently, the practice of defining the entire engine compartment as a fire zone has evolved. Stainless steel, at least 0.015 in. thick, is the most commonly used firewall material. However, in applications employing a structural firewall, improvements in weight and cost-effectiveness may be realized by the use of titanium or other suitable material. In such applications the structural requirements usually are predominant, and the material thickness required is easily capable of providing the necessary fire protection. Firewalls provide the most effective protection when they are kept free of sharp protuberances such

3-2.4.2 Fire Extinl g ii Almost all recent hbicopter designs use high-rate. discharge fire-extinguishing systems. Most systems use vaporous extinguishing agents propelled by a dry charge of high-presstzre nitrogen. More recently. some extinguishers have used pyrotechnics as the propellant agent. Inert agents. such as bromotrifluoromethane or dibromodifluoromethane. often are used because of their good extinguishing properties and low toxicity. Furthermore, the low boiling point of the agents facilitates vaporization and distribution within the fire zones. An effective fire-extinguishing system is one that will. by test, demonstrate 15% by volume agent concentration within the fire zone for a duration of at least 0.5 sec. i'he system must meet the requirements specified in MIL-HDBK-221. 3-2.5 ENGINE AIR INDUCTION SUBSYSTEM Two basic tools are usefui in the aerodynamic design of engine air induction subsystems. These are: I. Analog field plotter, which uses an electrically conductive paper and is based on the fact that LaPlace's partial differential equation is identical for an electrical field and an inviscid fluid. This technique yields local streamlines, velocity potential lines, and surface velocities, and is well suited to two-dimensional problems. 2. Potential flow digital computer program, which uses the technique of superposition of sources and sinks to yield the same results as the analog field plotter, but with greater accuracy. "Basiccriteria for the aerodynamic design of the air

requirements are met. the duct pressure gradient i• w made favorable for the flow by decreasing the crosssectional area of the duct along its length and by contouring the walls of the duct to polynomial equations. 3-2.5.1 Air .dmetliou SWuiswu Deuign The external lip profile is established by fitting an external cowl contour (usually a NACA Series I or an elliptical shape) from the lip tangent point to the inlet envelope boundaries. The inner lip shape usually has an elliptical contour, and the design parameters are given in Ref. I. Class A Kuchemann-Weber circular intakes described in Ref. 2 yield design parameters similar to those given in Ref. I. Ref. 2 also suggests a desired design range of inlet velocity to free stream velocity ratio. i.e..
0.4 !_cV, / V,,_< 0.65 (3-1)

where V, = inlet velocity. fps V. = free stream velocity. fps Beyond this range, the possibility of lcading-edge velocity peaks, and hence flow breakdown at the nose. increases greatly. Ref. 3 shows that a certain minimum frontal area is needed to keep the external maximum velocity within limits. This criterion is satisfied when
+4( I V V.) /

=- Ž I + A, (V,

(3-2)
1

/ Vo)

-

1

where Am = maximum inlet frontal area, in3
V,,r

induction subsystem duct, which must satisfy the
requirement of the engine model specification, are:

A, = area of inlet, inside diameter, in.'
= maximum velocity along leading edge sur-

i. The air induction subsystem shall prevent any erratic or adverse airflow distribution at all operating conditions and attitudes. 2. The air induction subsystem shall have minimal aerodynamic losses. A 0.5-1.0% pressure loss should be attainable in most air induction system designs.
When a particle separator is installed (see par. 32.5.2), the pressure loss will be higher but should not

face, fps In addition, pressure measurements should indicate that variations in inlet total pressure, evaluated in terms of a distortion index, as defined in the engine model specification, are within the required specified values.
3-2.5.2 Inlet Protection

exceed 2.0-2.5%. Each 1%of pressure loss results in
1.5-2.0% power loss.

The engine air induction subsystem should be
designed, to the maximum practicable degree, so that

3. The air iqduction system shall meet the minimum acceptable engine inlet distortion limits as prescribed by the engine specification. The local total pressure should not differ from the average by more than 5.0%. Items 1,2, and 3 are interrelated and pertain mainly to pressure gradients determined by the duct area distribution, duct wall radii of curvature, and changes of duct wall curvature. To insure that these

foreign objects from external sources will not enter induction subsystems. The level of protection required for the engine air induction subsystem is defined during preliminary design. Various engine air particle separators (EAPS) are dccribed in Chapter 8, AMCP 706-201. An engine air inlet sand and dust protection device, if installed, shall meet the criteria specified in Chapter 8, AMCP 706.201.

3-6

An intation anti-iciag suabsystem dM11 be din-

problems. howcvcr. Fins, if used. mums be braand

-

)

if an ice dekector is installed in th induction confornm to M I LD-S 18 1, Any failure of the anti-icing countrol "hIl result in the anti-icing wbaylsyttu remaining in or reverting to the anti-icing ON mode. Eugiae air induction system~ can be anti-iced either elnctrically or 6y time use of engine bleed air. The former telncricaily) can use a nonmetallic duct in which thermoelectric beating elements airc embedded. The latter type (bleed air) has used a metallic duct that is formead in%* a double-skin heat eatchanger adjacent to thec area requiting therm~al protection, These bleed air heat exchangers have been made with and without fins. The decision between electrical and hot air systems is made for echb helicopter on the basis of the renalired heiconter misi~on and results of trade-off studies in which the airframe/transnuission/cnginc match is considered to determine the system which results in the lowest aircraft pealy

system. the detector slu

3-2.53.1 Elect"~a AM~e-idg Typically, electrically anti-iced helicopter engine air induction subsystems require a variation in local power density from 4.0 to 16.0 W/in.2 to account for local vakiations in surface velocity and moisture ianpingement rate. Relatively large amounts of clcctrical power are nececssary, which results in a substanI.-3 Lg ntSp~
.r

turing and aisainbly capabilitins also becomne important design considerations. In a bleed air anti-icing subsystem. engine bleed air is ducted from the comprissor bleed port to a solenoid shutoff valve and then into the intake manifol ait the leading e*g of the inductionl iibsyitrni inlet. The flow then impinges ovu the inlet leading edge. providinS the greatest heat transfer at the emtemal flow stanation point where the thermal Wod is highest. The now then passes through heat exchangeri alont tihe inner and outer lips of the air intake. The gap height (minimum gap - 0.000 in.) along the induction systemu flow passages is tapered so that the exsternal skin temperature is maiimained cloac to 40*F. The air then is dischar~ged overboard through discharge slots located at the rear of the outer lip. A thermal switch should be cusd to monitor duct skin tgm~p=c:*rc. This swtitch astu*tecs a warnin light if the skit. temperature drops, below 401F while the system i. in operation. Actuation of tbe light indicates ci~her a subsystemi failure or icing conditions more severe than the subsystem capacity. .. 3 idIlgDiusrte eesrl W-ce 3"3 The capability of the anti-icing subsystern must be demonstrated by test. The test requirements are described in Chapter 9. AMCP 706-203. 3-2.6 EXIIAUSY SUBSYSTEM
In

Aý_g s..c

.,f h

ene n

ex-a

..

sy-.-.msalme J

weight. Electrical systems arc relatively easy to design and test. The surface temperature of the air induction duct normally is held to 40 0 17(4.40C) for the atmospheric dcsign condition the anti-icing system is required to meet. Calculation procedures arc contained in Ref. 4. 31-2.5-32 Bleed Air AtiI-Icift Hot-air-type anti-icimig subsystems use compressor bleed air, which must bk adequate in quantity and temperature to metl all rcquircmcntr. throughout the power and environmnental spectra. An advantage of t;ese systems is that the related powci penalty is ap~plicable only on a cold day. when anti-icing i% required. In most cases. the helicopter will not be m ewer-limited on a coW day and. th erefore. will surfer only a fuiel consumption penalty from the use of compressor bleed sit,

)
4

the following objectives: 1. Minimize pressure loss to reduce engine power loss. Losses usually caii be held to a pressure loss of IlkY less. A I%pressure loss grrnerally results in an or approximate i% power loss. 2. Prevent loss of tail rotor efiacicncy due to hot exhaust gas flowing through the tail rotor 3. Prevent loss of power duc to heating of the inlet air and/or reingestion 4. Prevent overheating of the adjacent strv-_.turc due to impingemenit by exhaust gases 5. Provide maximum possible thrust recovery. Exhaust system assemblies usually are welded or furnace brazed. The brazed assemnbly offers high resistancce tic tal fatigue becausc the strcngth of the material is not uffected appreciably by the brazing operation. BRazing has both advantages and disadvantages. It requires hightir initial tooling espenditure%. hia%a potentially iower unit price, and usually is

11M esiffw*u t0 rePAir. BY cMUtas, W"ld require Iba goohng and Mge rqmpAie mome easily. buit are sumw ProIw to M~etal fatiue becaus of fthaetallurgccAnge in ft WeOd area. To reduce pmressurloss and thus obtain maximusm efficency. the zexuse systems skoul &oA make abnWp cross-sectitalchanges. Duct beaids should be gradua anid an adequate diffusion aesgle must be "ma rinted. In mQicrgine helioptes, savings iRniitWa eoat and greater availability or spare parts makeh imaserckaable exhaust duct- "esrablc. 3-2*61 Ihme Ejecters Engine compartment/engine component zooling is discusse in par. 3-6. However, engift installations
requiring

positive compartmetnt Cooling Often use CX-

haust cjectoý %as air pumping devices. Although many ejector configurations are possible, two cornmonly arc used for this pupoe The frsnt confguration p'rovides ant abinulus for momentum exchangr at the downstream end of the exhaust duct. The nacelle that forms the outer surface of Owe annulus extends beyond the exhaust duct to provide an adequate mixing length for this ejector.
PICCtvcn dnasm 4#Cti 4are MUse Oe WILM LFu 114X1

pouuibility of capoure tolIL seekiaig4 usivpuxs an IftY radiation suppression subsystm awys~ be ~e The extent and type of suppeuason rmwývd will havc bee &flined by the procurngl acfivwtý. and inJoaded in tile prelimnwary design. As cdssi ad in Chi~r 8. AMCP M&.201. thUe IL suppeesioa subssystgo vatay be a part of the helicopiter or be a meprate ka. In *jw cm, thse suppresson of 1K ruia*Aak requira reducing the tm"Perature of thx tank sou te. The paragraphs that tIllow diacxts cal) passive countermeasures to ER weapons. Active cow~tcrmeasures also mny be rwquired but. as disuctexd in Chapter 8. ANICF 706-203, Ii.c quAlification of smch systems by US Army Akr~ation Systems; Command (USAAVSCONI) is Winiedi to tbS iaaa~cc bItwenn the leicopwe and the sabsyst~sn. The principal heat scurms are the vbg~ine hot part. exhaust duct, and exhatost plume. However. other heat sources also may produo" sinirscant =aunts of energy in the ER frequency band. 'fl. raiaition from other sources (ecg., heat exchaffW. r outlets and solar ref'lection from windshickti. also may have to be reduced to bring tht total IR signature of the tieli..... ... Ct-1 .... uuErit

through exhaust gas impingement. Flighitemperulure liners often arc used in this area. The exhaust duct isof conventional design, mounted directly onto the engine, The second configuration locates the momnentumnexchan~le annulus at the upstreamn end of the exhaust duct. ihe engine serving as the inner ring of the annulus and the duct as the outer ring. This method allows the annulus rings, resulting in higher operating efficicacies. Two basic dzsigns are possible. One sepathe exhaust duct from the engine, thereby reducing metal fatigue of the exhaust duct, which is supported by the nacelle or airframe structure. The other uses standoffs to mount the exhaust duct on the engine. The latter must be used when the engine installation requires a exhaust-duct-im posed load -ýo change engine natural vibration frequencies. Generally, the selection of a method for pyoviding:
the necessary cooling airflow will have been mad during preliminary design. As discussed in AMCP

3-2.6.2.1 IR Sappresela Reqsktaflutti Thc I R supprmsion requirements for a nec* Army helicopter will be provided by the Syseiem Specificrtion. Typically, the requ'rernent will be *tAited it) the example that follows.

~IR SUF'FrkSImON REQUIREMENT The maximum total ;R railiazion siulature of the helicoptei shall be suppressed to lewels nct to exceed ý (2 desired~) W/Isr in the 3-5 mici-oun bandwidth. The total I R radiztiob! signature is comprised of d*rcct (i.e, ,4iihle hot metal parts). indirect or re.1cted, and cxha!Ws Vpuma rae~ation. Radiption frumn thr engine and tailpipe and from all secon~dary soutees, such as hcat exchanitei ottelts anrd fuselage areas
washed by exhasist, aic in_;uded. Thc suppressed IR radiatknr s'gnature itqi~rement.; shall he based upon the Army Ho~t Day Atmosphcre (i.e., l25*F at tiea lriei) and shOl/apply will the engine o~eaiing at intecrn edizre pow~er and with the heiicortcf at the grsi wvegh: thmt rcsolts in the hightest %exhaust temptyature. gas The si:(natz.- sholl be rwiluated at lower hcrr:_r~'er. upper hemispht~rc, and coplansa' viewing argies, und the required level -.f supp:ession shall apply to the viewing angic thak results in th inximurnsigiiature.,

I

I.rates

706-201, par. 8-7,41, this selection requires cxaminL. lion of th%; wtight penalty iand pi,.er lessa ssociatted
with the alternative means. Design cons'derations pcrtin.:nt to the integration ofm exhcaust Cje..tCT iI'!6 the cool~ng system are reviewed in paf. ' 6. lnclude6 are refrncrrcs to design proct.4urrs and rcquircmcr.ti for desijn. documentation. and demonstration. 3-2.6.2 Inidrarod 11tiR) I&AdIaOm It the missions assigned to a hzlicoptcr tnclu':-. he

3-9

Rtequirasc for &iisfit ipociki sfnats sepleasuc so shec umainms accqpuabhe

I& uuppremaon "Wuufss so will be prov"ide ma ceoimiemi systam specification. The sipstae will be described in

ami mqsimnmua she amassm of cedin air etAp ha quie larip and she po i rrequined to prowideoh viomary uirfic' "le SO nu -w hi. S a. ductibs.satud f atwv mijm/nune strigmas It mnppawuaem reqtiresmm with maiwmam impact "Mue proulion ystem 65lo pow -n wequred for ecitle mimem pwftormnm. Wbherat eah"msslo aqausoresusama&auian-A jpat part of she engine iaasalhstioa or a removablk kit. enine oufshe huglbeopser Futhe.em s isslly m VAI mot alew ademiely sUn vibmaom eniommiw4a# se of of an *%hase It sappressor onabelicoipsor "~t arv remilt im a reduction of e-a'n or engine osapari -Ln cooli% kuhn mama. sequined L"&l sands any nomtIna operating mmnditii.. Ahso. thininstalhsbion dd! no rodues appuecaify she tweet availabW from she menie, or wceuem apre.&mbl eithe Ws pwowe requird frogs dhe ngin or the W< baedl or. power required. Typically, a pow" loss not inesamb of 3% she power fequird so howe as, the upogfis of hot-day Coo~dision (C49.g.. kC t 9?F) is a0001116ble, athkous the lam aowable in a given case wil deuporn tin. mwwais" knL ap5$ V"b. W 3M flj cas, die iaatallation of any device to suppree the IR sin-r ala rvn h coinpt~iaace of she balicopter with she performance requimwaents of the system specification.

pAsc tharW risedwo sath 1osevera ired(or ea
Wevwhaoba wiýis she lIt uP@um

A ceutpresive WUstakai of military IR snckedgy itg&a by AMOI T06-t27 and AMCPWMb 922 (Icfrsud M~AwV Span fiPan, Ow and Tva. Rboo.Adhusme&l4WWO oue pelinet so Ill. wpphwofm wi~ls uaqprmmaue.m art gave by this two-pant hand-

*
MiTson

amdauiam will be p,,ovi~sd by USAAVSCOM tapest ftqms. Ilowever Compliance With apuo lequirwinmnt. will be dmnoustraeat by a IR ugjnalsare mLszvy (am per. S-t. AMCP 706-2W). flU.Z Luum &%-qemn As nose prvissly. fth principal sos'm of It, ra4iatizu from a helicopter arc she visibl hot parts of tlit regime and Uslaggiac exhaus. Therefore she mons LmpOWPrtm pesOf shell suPPiMkO Mubsysnnoraliv as the eahamssmumujwr. Dwemndias ova It4 Mereica sumi so tWs hsam . It6 &upprcssor may be an isuwra pern of she helicopter or is Sue bed4ri4 as askit to bec installed only when she belicor. 4zu acombat role in which epipagemet by ins iR setkir., weapon(s) is probable. Further. the exhutg IR suppressor nary bc dtvcluqa by the enginc conrtctor ard provided as an engine accessory, or the hcicoptew manufacturer may be responsible fur shg devvlopmn~rt of the suppressor and of the instatlaDesir of an cxhau'st IA supprevior is a complex
nrocrrn.The .tg onntiuptrnajslihnhra re disrnwdM in

1

-=

.T

tn.rotor

ContrcJ of abhelucopter p-ropulsion system rcqwrea considerution of sht. churactristics of she hidkoptcr as wvcl! as thle Ut.Th oaxatrl system is defined during prlinainary design, and the
.... Z...a.f. .-

3-3 P ?ULSON CONTROLS

iE aAeaiI

in Chopwr R

V

Chapter 8, A MCP' 706-20 1, mnd the trade-dft amiong shc possible vvrwer lasme and weight increases aluo are discussed. The methods of cooling a suppressor arc descrbegd and she possible use of low emishii ty miatktgs a~o isdiscussed. Further explanation of tht kelt transfer prooesses imacluding pertinent eq~uations and values for the applicable material props-sties and ohrconstantls, is givutz in PSI. 4. Typkally. she first requirement of an exhaust supprcscu-or isto shield she hot engine parts from external exhaust gab. The effictiveness of the shield as an IKR radiatos then must be reduced by cooling or by con, of she cmissivily of the surface of she shield, or both. H-owcver, she temperature of she exhaust plume can be h-duced only by coolirng and this really can be accomplished only by dilution; by miting cookst air

A 7621Thdealeinegnernalin-:V serface the control, systam design with the engine manufacusflr to asbure th~t she operation and performancc defined in prolimantary dcsi~n are attutinable. Accordingly, the continuing relationship btetweea engine and airframe manufacturers is Pratmount during the detail design phase. Detailed diecussion regarding this interface relationship is pro043 vddi hpe ,AC 45 EEA 4.GE RA The fuel subsystem con~sists of tanks, refuctiug/ ds-fuehing features fuel feed and vent line-s, fuel purmps vahles fuel gaging comiponents, and Masovialed items such as fuel tank compartment struc3-9

-

viewy. The shield in turn isit*@lf heated by impinging

34

FE

USSE

4Wtwl
-

I

V

A typicali fia

subjua.

is dluatfaed digamp

%)stsms. speal~e1Iy the okns)

hJbdnMoi-

an

pmbimwy i *mum$adsCsA dk fatl AMCP 70 .DObS o i (W liyu ALT be a Isalka . xis MIL-EA-3636. seqwg as =a~d" by d miss itn waiviy. Tb. (va amberai hW e Its ds..~ with Ref. 6 mnbeny and WOL4TD-230.Dmpa i0s"uoa fasawres reuiw aauwortistA aV dwarsbed in for Chs .3 AMCP W61-A ssmprate and utwrai wsim(oý.g.a. vows maW wrt"t dry, be# areas iew chi&b air~ftd =muams may be opomnd to pmeni igaimios, sousws, sWt be adequatly wfoned haum Are or esplemiom. MIdL-F-J33W also co.th reqaaafwww for the mswrunafsb OanldtsdS sass, whic bs (tad W ausyslff AsU opemuic wA4&We*y. Uwa.. Wh osy'm spsdffatwe 3M-ovKdS Iq-

A

mis ptocuuiagI activity prewcilme otherwise. mtc raw'of ambles ass tmpeawi and fuel temperat~~~amt miimum wawe amntent of the fuel ABU at the MIL-F-M383. be a* spciidW ina For asatimumn rcAiibilaty. it is desirable that the coeuation of fue&4dw sabsystems b,, faanuionaliy independent qa the opca~ciun ot o~Ls ic Wivotiw sub-

df iatm-oth albilxt both um04s. She aon nctwary fuel no% at the pmmramn qedal ey dic cogane model Wimfiara n. Wben posmea. KMw fuel-feed subsystems uh..id bg mocd an Wow as prm monad systems for tacnaad *ta" oft. utabswy In the pararapbsi that follow the pnacqWa &meng twurequcmenas usp-,1acabkc to kq)conmpufant, ast? smmtaons of the fuel stabnystam am daubs wA4 *k,cussed. Reftrain should be ma&ti O hiL-F-fli for additional reqiarmmcnts appisaa icte Wue a maacrials, hardwar. and componcas taed inas a subs,stemn as well as to the samtaflatacte of ths uoa system in the helicoptert The sptcinacaawc. awai dcicribes the dana that must bc pruvadav, to pious the procuring activity to evaluate tbs lue ssabsysaaan design for a new, helcopteu 3U FE USSE O I-N -2FELSSV~M O40ET
341.1 FeB Tasks Natan tuel tanks normally consist of one or mort bladder-tyiw, tWl intercoauaceed to foami a twn -3 itp"i 1 .t~iy ~~gg e ~ i acz;; -

AP
I-AL

'N

N

L

1AB -ENGINE DRIVEN FUEL rUtAP 2A;3d FUEL FIL.1 E~ FiL-TER IMF ENDING RN-PASS WARNJN'$jui,-I ~(AIRFRAME MOUJNTED DUAL FILTERS' AiIRFRAME MOUNLED DUAL 'rJEL FILTEK) 4AB 0 DUAL FIrTER BY- ASS VALVE (ELEC*RICAL. 5Ab50

IIA

6
Ab 10Ab 11AB

-

APU SNL'IOFF, VALVE iMANUAL),
-

SA A

7A

it
12A

786s
1~A IU[IIt

IIAr 9

13

C01 14

15
ISA

BOOST PUMP PRESSURE SWITCH ENGINE-DRIVEN BOOS' PUMP SYSTEM PRiME VALVE kMANUJALý FIREW.ALL QUICK DISCONNE.Ci 12AB -SELECTOR VALVE (MN1NUALI SUPPLY L'NE 13 -HEAlER 14 -. WOBBLE PUMP bABC -CHF CK VAL VE WITH SCREE[N DRAIN VAL\'E (MANUAL) 16AB -SUMP -ENG!NE DRA!NS 17AB
8BA -

150j~
C-L -FUEL
------

¶54
66 r-

F," E U EN
ELECTRICAL
-----IGINE

SUIPPLY

NUlPJE SUPPLIED COMPONENT EI4VELUPL
DRAINS

NAI

)

dance with MIL-T-27422. The type. protection level, and class as defined by the specification shall be appropriate to the application (e.g.. Type I for selfsealing. Type II for nonself-sealing). The tank configuration and installation shall comply with M IL-F38363 and MIL-T-27422. These specifications contain the requirements for liquid-tight structure surrounding self-sealing tanks and the installation of backing boards to protect flexible self-sealing tanks. To prevent overflow each tank shall contain expansion space equal to no less than 3% of the total fuel volume of the tank when the helicopter is in a normal ground attitude. Gravity filler openings shall be so located that all tanks can be filled without overfilling into the expansion space. For pressure refueling systems the level shutoff valve shall prevent filling of the expansion space. Each filler opening cap shall be in accordance with MIL-C-38373. All tanks shall be provided with a low-point drain for fuel sampling and defueling purposes. External fuel can be contained in tanks complying with MIL-T-7378 or MIL-T-18847. The installed location should permit service personnel standing on the ground to inspect visually and service the tanks. Inflight jettisoning should not affect the helicopter adversely. To minimize combat turnaround time, all external tanks should be readily removable and replaceable without helicopter disassembly. 3-4.2.2 Fuel Tank Vents Each fuel tank shall be vented to'the atmosphere :hrough lines whose capabilities are compatible with the performance of the helicopter, without producing tank pressures detrimental to the helicopter structure or to the tank. If a pressure refueling system is required, the venting capacity of each tank also shall be sufficieni .o discharge the maximum rate of fuel flow, without ,xcessive tank pressure in the event that the refueling system shutoff valves fail in an open position. Traps must be avoided, and the subsystem should be operable with the helicopter afloat if amphibious operations are required. If vent valves are used to prevent spillage, they .hall, as required by MIL-STD1290. close when the helicopter is in a position of extreme attitude. The vent lines may be designed to prevent spillage without valves by traversing three directions, etc. See Ref. 6 for vent line design details. 3-4.23 Fuel Gaging In accordance with MIL-F-38363. a fuel-gaging system that meets the requirements of MIL-G-26988 shall be provided. It shall be installed in accordance with MIL-G-7940. System indication of total fuel

quantity and of the quantity in each main tank sli be continuous. Design of the gaging system and fuel cell interface must preclude gaging system puncture of the fuel cell during crash conditions. Each main tank shall contain a device independent of the fuel gaging system to provide a low-fuel warning. The quantity of fuel remaining at the moment of actuation of the low-fuel warning must be suiTicint to allow the engine to operate for 0.5 hr at maximum-range power unless otherwise specified. 342.4 Refuellg ai u The refuel/defuel features for any given fuel subsystem shall be specified by the procuring activity. However. the design criteria for such features shallbe in accordance with MIL-F-38363. All helicopters shall be capable of being refteled on the ground, using a gravity refueling system. without external power being applied. Unless the tar.Ks are too small for the rate to be practical. or the procuring activity has specified another .- te. the fuel a system shall be capable of being refeled, at a continuous rate of 200 gpm without any operations other than removing the filler cap and connecting the fueling nozzle bonding plug being required. During the tank topping portion of the refueling, the flow rate may be less than 200 gpm. If the internal fuel capacity is 600 gal or more. a pressure refueling system shall be required (MIL-F38363). In this case, it shall be possible to refuel all tanks from a single connection, the fuel lines being such as to allow the fuel level in all tanks theoretically to reach the full position simultaneously. On the other hand, the subsystem design must be such that it is possible to fill selectively any individual tank or to avoid filling any given tank. Operation of shutoff valves, plus the precheck system, must not depend upon the use of external power. To prevent excessive surge pressure within the refueling system, shutoff valve closure time may It •r.wtrolled, or appropriate pressure relief valves incorporated. Additional systern requirements are given in MIL-F-38363. Defueling of tanks shall be possible using the pressure refueling system when installed. When the defueling adapter (MIL-A-25896) is not usted also for refueling, positive means, such as a check valve, shall be installed to prevent refueling through the adapter. A typical pressure refueling system is illustrated in Fig. 3-5. A sump shall be provided in that portion of each fuel tank which is lowest when the helicopter is in the normal ground attitude. A drain valve for fuel sampling and for removal of sediment and watersh.ll he provided in each tank sump (MIL-F-38363). 3.11

WARM

czz
CA4

10
1-1 cm -J

1

I
Ijr'

I

343S te~-&Addatiouial If in t mWu,6muPing is reqited for rapid reductka of haliepm p grams m. ONe djsIeaa~lpd fuel Ag ot impiWp apwm Mimr*Vst-he hglicopw4. of be diechaqSed into eather a*ares of saaa; ekeritma discharg or Mhe efinwe shaissi plume. Uuln the dumpang. puwps &Wbelh eaved to achive the desired dumping rae Tfhe too %pgM jj capeim snug b tuieu o prevntm find cell collaps whil dumping. 34.2g~ ~ The food system. whavrby fuad is delivered to ahe O.40ims)a sAOl be desiged in acnt wit MILF-39363. to gtamirl. fW moim be available on se an uWaerrupsed barns with"u coatinuous itimatio of the caew. The Wee sytms must allow normal terrormanef of dth enginm~z) menet atl attituds normnal for the helicopter on the around, said in both steady and manuve aallaliwds p S ad Il~thd~g figh the servi ce ling. Typically. the fad food system consists of a main h Cm Mihtwf!tns=& relluiareenuts Of' the helicopter within the
-points

neqguemeats and guidelines applicable to the design and installatiwe of feed sysiamnt that will be exposed to awen, $roved rem and for whcK* self sealing tanks ame nquirod also awe given by NIL-IM8)63. indude adquah adaese with NIL-FqId 0ta l i of the syat can bet draeile. AM! madim, bladd taok cavutiu dry bays and pocketa and traps W wsrcuewhm Nt yaA n b rin i tohe u xirewhre str ofedw my colect Dain hel orrst a WbeU i.ds w *' Cwp &be tor gd 1AV(a3dUn selwfsealing 2asiks &dbe 0.50 in. d"mowe meisimium Fuel dramn Aab mot be jbsecommvecte with dramn lit carrying otkse liquA The m. Jlation *f We droais Anill be such ttat weda no operating con&tio will drainage re-~te th helicopter or cam in The fed uiihlpi
dofgi A

-

drainag piovintm in a 316.Snfcitdýn

-:o

9ca&incty
*
*

wbWe brakes. kn those Waisoed waes wben the pamoi00a Iwntho gIC aihf~r OepuwfýPXsiw ea the bioWcannot be avoide. sany joists in Ohw te occup~ied am all es shrdoudedan

mialtiengine~~lin hlotesasare. main tiank and feed systunsem p,-oided for meac be engine. These independent systems also must bie so designed that fuel from any tank can be fetto any or all eagines.ThcotosfrtefeSytmAi Twoandisolted ethos ~the ndepnden provided to move fuel out of each tank. except only one method need be provided for jtttisonable external tanks. Each method ot moving the fuel shall meet
t.t: zuw t.4UV111611taEU

,mwithin

3.2. ciintres MWd Imafmentom Thcotlsfrheflsyemsllbgopdii egupdn cockpit in a functional manner. A siraplried diagrant the the ruel system sh~ll be inscribed oi. the pancl so of functioni of each switch is indicated clearly. As a minimum, presentation of the following performance data for the fuel system shall be provided in
the cockpit:

V

; 1

all required engine and helicopter operating con ditions (altitude and attitude. including maneuvers). Fuel shall be provided to the engine at conditions spacified in the engine specification. The tuction fzed capability shall be dew.rmined for fuel temperatures specified in MIL-F-38363 or as specified by the procuring activity. When the system includes tranbfer taknk(s) aE wtll as main tank(s), the noFMrma squencing of intertank feed must maintain the CG of the fuel system w~thin acceptable limits throughout the range of fuc- loads from full to empty at all required flight conditions. To insure that tht particle 3izes of contaminants in the uel o nt imis gien n MI-Eexeedthe W. it maj be necesary for the engine feed syetem(s) to include filters oi strainers. If so, the strainersslwil be in accordance with N4IL-S-8710and the installation shall be in -accordance with M IL.-F38363.

'EEC %liut

14W

IZII UllUCt

1. Fuel quantity. c~ch main tank and total 2. Low fuel-level warning roe each main tank 3. Bypass warning for each fuel filter 4. Low fuel-inlet pressure wirning for each engine 5. Indicator lights for electrically operated fuel sltf ae. As additional auxiliary fuel systems are added, appropriate controls and instrumentation shaft! bc provided. 34. TESIING Substanst-itng the capability of the fuel system to tuilisfncon rqir''sdigalphesf aircraft operation is requirWi by MIL.F-38363. Suchl vtrification sAm? occur in three phases: 1. Compn~Ient tcs~inj 2. Fuel sysicem s~mulstor testing 3. Ground and flight testing. 3-13

.

In addition to testing the complete fuel subvstem. all components must be qualified in accordance with MIL-F-8615. and must he so qualified or have pas,.,cd %fetv of flight tests approved by the procuring activity before ground and flight tests are conducted. Fuel subsystem demonstration requirements arm described in Chapter 9. AMCP 706-203.

3-5

LUBRICATION SUBSYSTEM

Engine lubrication subsystems may he an integral part of the engine, thereby eliminating various connections to the airframe and conditions that may lead to oil contamination when changing engines. Lubrication oil may be contained in an engine-mounted oil tank and cooled by a heat exchanger. Engines lacking an integral lubrication subsystem require the addition of an oil reservoir, lines, instrumentation, and a cooler - if an engine heat cxchanger is not available - to cool the oil. Airframemounted oil reservoirs shall not be located in the engine compartment. A lubrication subsystem integral to the engine %will have been tested completely during engine qualification. Component testing of nonintegral subsystems will be necessary in accordance with MIL-O-19838 to substantiate proper rates of oil flow. pressure, temperature. and deaeration. Engine lubrication subsystem demonstration requirements are specified in Chapter 9, AMCP 706-203.

3-6

COMPARTMENT COOLING

Airflow through the engine compartment is required to prevent the engine: engine-mounted accessories; other components, equipment, or fluids within the compartment; and/or surrounding structure from exceeding max'imum allowable temperature limits, The maximum allowable temperatures normally will be given in the applicable engine or equipment speci-

parilncn! ina. he provided in the applicahle equip;in, pecfaicoitior% In the cas of tranmi%,,on, and -. ecarho.c,. developed bh the helicopter manufat.turer. the heat rejection rate must he calculated. h.icd tn design values for gcar-mesh and bearing efficiencic-. and later confirmed by test (%ec Chapter 4). When the heat rejection rates are known. surface temperature% of individual heat-producing components can he calculated on the basis of free air convection at the ,urface. Rcf. 4 contains a section which treat% each of the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms - i.e.. conduction, convection, and radiation - in considerable detail. The equations and calculation procedures for both steady-state and trinsient heat transfer problems arc given, together with tables and charts of values of the physical properties of material-, needed in the calculations. Should the information be inadequate for a given problem. an cxtcnsivc list of references also is provided. rhe quantity of cooling airflo% required for adequate cooling of the engine compartment also must he determined anal.ticallv by heat-transfer calculatioms. This flow ,,;.ally must be obtained by forccd convection during operation of the engine. with the residual heat remaining at shutdown being dissipated by free convection. The calculation of heat hdance within the compartment is complex. with consideration of all three heat-transfer mechanisms being required. In the design of the cooling subsystem, it is necessary to assure that the airflow over large surfaces such as the engine is such that the temperatures are approximately uniform. Large temperature differentials can result in differential expansion and hence warping of the engine case. Such a condition, which can cause excessive loads on engine bearings and hence premature engine failure. must be avoided. As mentioned in par. 3-2.6.1, an engine exhaust

fication but additional limits may be prescribed by the system specification. Temperatures must be kept below the allowable limits under all operating conditions, both ground 'vnd flight, prescribed for the helicopter for all ambienit air conditions between the hot and cold atmospheres (temperature as functions of attitude) given as limits by the system specification. Further. the maximum compartment or component temperature limits shall not be exceeded following engine shutdown from any operating condition with ambient air conditions anywhere within the prescribed limits. Heat rejection requirements for the engine and its components will be provided by the engine specification. The amounts of heat rejected by other accessories or eouipment installed within the engine com3-14

ejector ika convenient means for pumping compartment cooling air during operation. The design of an ejector cooling system shall be coordinated with the
design of the engine exhaust system, with care being taken that the installation does not cause excessive power loss or adversely affect engine operation by producing an unacceptably high pressure at the engine exhaust. In any case, the engine exhaust system shall meet the requirements given in par. 3-2.6 (this handbook) and Chapter 8, AMCP 706-201. Procedures for the design of an ejector, or jet pump, are given in Ref. 4. For additional ejector design information see "'Performance of Low Pressure Ratio Ejectors for Engine Nacelle Cooling", AIR 1191, Society of Automotive Engineers. November 1971. Procedures for design, including determination of the

ala. we givnws poweir reqavwnamet for aIm

Re 4 .

cog. and reobabi1y. SsW wi. of Cgeragration hased

ft Cm~w= =611111 OMW MMawlif suibsyatem must he desumstraW~ by tast. is addiitm to the 011M 1011peratuftld kmsas all VMiiM= CI4 0"411uW F ANN be WrGWWe from 110u1 Wpi&W. Thais can be awolshe by use of dip he or by cookog the sariams to a asmwalmr balow dUOF. a The req~rw~ tsefix a ;prip hiom sysuinm soveriature survey anc gveii in Chapter1, AMCP 7W]0O3. A systeM temperatture demoowStralies. 1Ipropasio descrnbed in ChaPte 9 of AMCP 1M6-203. may irsquire fmnihu ton"in oddition to the uimperature

npoi= shape will dqumd up.. helictopr *ac available. weight aNd vokiiimei afe compaable; but coo,. relability. wmlauaaitabihty. and Id cyace coos fey,
The singlesbaft combination bleed APU type. mompream can Moderi siamgie-agW ceaijialS produace 4-0tl and hbghw pressure ratios with a wide range or flow bet wee dhokc arW $,al. Akbotqh the drive compruso may produce higher preames.ra variable inlig guide: vane or diff~ei vanes may be necessary to obtain the required flow range.

3-7

ACCEMSOIES AND ACCESSORY3.2At

DRIVE

fit considering the detail design for installation of

STU1ODTIL

in Helicopter design rcquiranas rebull ~ miamiumu ~. ~ engie dvc equwmiets. uxpforthe accuoy engine starter and tachometers. mfost acmusories are driven directly from the mawi gearbox. This is to take advantage of the ability of the helicopter to autoroltae in the event of origns failure. If engine failure oc~ ~The curs accssor fai powr dos no ** in istiota of Zeicopter MICA"O" isdiscsse in Chapter 4.

the AMVV all inwefams with the Wir,4pter shell be treated. These include AMt mounting; inlet, exhiusa and bleed air ducting; compartment cooling. arw.4iispor~eAt ussas opitAPsbym.

3823Mtu

1M

l

APt) mounting subsystem xbWl be capabie of withstanding all nlight maneuver forces, providing for we eurd). se.a arranged for eas of maintenance 9Vc" and beingrwi- sOugvbat. (espetcial-

OWER AUXILARY 3-4 AXLAY O E (APUs6)

JNIT
NT

for rapid installation and removal).
Driven equipment usually is APU-mounted. thus removing the prublcm of alignment. In some cases. howe.ver. a straight-through ex~ternal drive shaft isA used to transmit shaftf power into an auxiliary or combining gearbox. In such cases, a flexible coupling must be provided. The APU often can b- supported rigidly. This is done conveniently by means of a three-point support arrangement. Two pin-type mounts on each side of the APU limit vertical. axial. and horizontal motion. !3ut provide lateral freedom for thermal expansion. A singlc gimbal then is used to suppoirt vertical loads.

34&1 GENERAL
The requirement for an APU will be established during pircliminary design. The paragraph describrs design and installation requirements for AMU's and refers to pertinent qualification requirements. Fmrnliasis is nlaced unon the sinale-shaft APU configuration beaue o t ieue u otetedi heicopter design toaard such items as pneumatic main-enigine starting. air conditioning. avionic JR radiation suppression, purging of main engine inlet-protection sys-tems. air supply for antiicing. and the availability of air-driven accessory

Al
14
,

I.cooling, Imotors

while giving thermal freedom radially and axially.

In most helicopter applications, vibration isolation has not been required because the APU is able to

(boost pumps. ctc.) additional emphasis is

withstand flight loads and vibrations without shock
mounts. Exprience has shown that frequencies up to 500 Hz are significant. but that APU susceptibility is highest from 5 to 100 Hz. The APU must be capable of withstanding the complete aircraft vibration spec,truni in both operating and nonoperating modes. When the APU is not operating, normal loads are not available to stabilize parts in piosition. Hcnce, it is possible for external vibral'on to cause unusual motion vf iniernal parts, thus resulting in excessive wear and premature failures. APU comnponents of parlicular inierest In this regard are the combostor liner assemblies, the acrodynamically located internal 3-I5

placed upon the bleed air type of APU. Ncw helicopter designs have favored this type brcause of lower overall system weight, despite the lower energy-transmission efficiency of the pneumrativ main enginestarting system. The bleed air type of APU usually incorporates an intedra! gearbox capable of driving small electrical generators and pumps and, therefore. provides emergency system power of all types. Several APU configurations can be selected to supply pneumratic powei (combined with small amotunlts of shaft power). Four configurations arc compared in Table 3-1 as to geometric shape, weight.

TABLE 3-1 ArIU TYPES FOR MAIN ENGINE STARTING ENVIRONMENTAl. CONTROL. AND ELECTRICAL SUPPLY

COMJlNATION BLEED

SN.SHF

SINOE*SAFT SINGE-SAFT

I INL-HF DRIVEN

SI NGLE-SHAFT BLEED-ITORQUE CONVERTER

COMBINATION

JCOMPRESSOR

PT DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

TWO-SHJAFT

T1

1h

--- iC--T

C

TP

LENGTH DIAMETER WEIGHT
COST

100% 100% 100%ý 1000%

10% (7 850% 970
125%0 91", 1
-

1G10%0 000% 10061
125%o 70nG

84% 00%1
16000

-

REI -IARIILITY

100%

73%1

*

ATS-AIR TURBINE STARTER C-COIMPR ESSOR PT- POWER TURBINE T-TURBINE 'Vj-ALTERNATOR ECS- ENVIRONMENTAL. CONTROL SYSTEM S-STARTER of high-temperature exhau:;t ducting, even with some seals, the gear train, and the nonpreloaded bearing sacrifice in inlet or bleed duct lengths. asemblies. Bccause some installations do not require .rborne APU operation. considerable time ma) be ai 3-.2IneDutg accumnulated in this nonoperating mode. An82. aiDullctori inlet ufgfe i eige n A ne i olco rmf fe sdsge n ~~~~in to the requirements of MlL-P-8,586. the addition
operauing and nonoperating modes. These ,.h//I be established based upon the vibration spectrum at the APU mounting points and not merely upon the freqeiisof the main rotors. The :rend in maintenance philcsopN)y is tossard minimum scheduled maintenance of the APU., but with the desigim adapted for rapid APU removal in case of malfunction. Hence. quick-removal connections shwi! be used. with airframei componenits and support structures arranged so that the unit can be removed without removal of other equipment. Minimum system weight usually will dictate that the APUJ should be located near the main cr-gincs. A multienigine aircraft, with air ducting required to %tart each engine, suggests a submerged APU position for minimum weight. Pod or surface locations can be used when fuselage space is c-itically limited. Also to be considered is the advantage cf a minimum length 3-16 ducting then runs between the fuselage surface and th,, collector connection. Ducting pressure losses will iiffect API) available power dircct!y. A typical relationship is illustrated in Fig. 3-6. For any output shaft power level. a correction factor is given showing the power loss for each unit of pressure loss in the airframe ducting. Values are given for both inlet and ex-

haust losses. The APU manufacturer may prescribe limit%, on these losses in a form suz.h as is shown in
Fig. 3-7. If the sum of inlet and txhaust losses falls btvlou~ the curve, the ;equirements have been met. The APLJ air collcctor design may be critical. especidlly %hen transsonic compressors are used. Entry conditions to the inducer will have inmportant effects tin comnpressor efficiency. Collector design can be compromised b) the location of accessories, Viut an attoimpt should be made to mnaintain at uniform total pressure distribution around the csompressor inlet.

9
FUEL FLOW PARAMETER CORRECTION:

AMCP 706-202

WbCORR.
WHERE Wf/b CORR. Wffl5
Pa

Wfi

(S8 ZPINLET) P

lb/hr

FUEL FLOW PARAMETER CORRECTED FOR INLET LOSS, lb/hr FUEL. FLO'.,V PARAMETER WITH ZERO LOSSES, lb/1hr
=INLET

AP INLET
S

AMBIENT PRESSURE, psia PRESSURE LOSS, in. H2 0
Pa14.7

~~

-J

0.8

W 0.6
0.4__

I

bEXHAUIS1 LOSS-

__

0.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 OUTPUT POWER PARAMETER WITH ZERO INLET & EXHAUST LOSSES, hp/6, lhp Figure 3-6. Fi'ufmnuace Corrczioas for Dvel Lowsa
I

110

inlet. The airframe ducting should include a straight

I
0.6

tstratification and cavitation in the ductinR..
If a device is incorpo~atcd to protect the inlet against dust or foreign object damage (FOD), this ~may affectthe velocity profile and the resultant rs sure losses must he coordinated with the APU manusothat mdlspecification performance is maintained. One technique is to use directions.1

Ill

I

0.,facturer

0.2_
a--.
.
rAFIAUST

t IAid
.
0.G 0.8 uc r PRESSURE Lu5S, P5. 1.0 1.2

~larger particles (>200 micn-oits).

changes of the total duct system for separation of intake screen shall be used for FOE) pro-

Figure 3-7. Allowable Combined Inlet and Exhaust Duct Piressre Losse
<'possibly

tectioi,. Tisi -nay be located at fuselage entry. AIPU collector entry, or compressor entity. The discussion of the cflgitte air induction subsystem in par. 3-2.5 is eial plcb- oteAUilt 3-.2.2 Exhaust Ducting Exhaust duiting design will be related t,, APUJ compartment cooling arrangements. The gaii-exii ye3-17

stabilizcd and directed by splitters or baffles. Thc APU will have channels to provide contit oiled accelecation of air from thc collector int3 the inducer

AMCP 706-202 locity can be used as the primary jet for an ejector. Stcondary air is taken from the APU compartment. Also, should the ducting is aminimize effects on compartbe located to substantial heat source and ment temperature. If compartment ventilation must be limited due to fire: hazards, high-temperature bellows can be used to seal ducting. Also IR radiation suppression may be needed for the APU exhaust. Compartment and duct cooling methods used on the main engines will apply equally hete and aro discussed in pars. 3-2.6 and 3-6. 3-8.2.4 APU Bleed Air Dwting In the case of a bleed air type of APU, a collc(tor arrangement will be integral with the unit. The APU control valve can be mounted directly on the APU bleed collector flangc. If installation ,pace limitations cxist, or valve weight will overload the APU flange. the valve may be line-mounted. A flexible bellows can be used to minimize flange loads, thus accommodating vibration, thermal 'owth. and installation tolerances. A quickdisconnec' type of connection is desirable for maintainability. Attention must be paid to duct pressure loads. APU model specification perfovmance is based on pressure, flow. and temperature a' the APU bleed collector flange. 3-8.2.5 Cooling Surface temperature limits will be specified in the model specification. During APU .)pcration, the compartment cooling system shall cool the compartmcnt adequately. Temperature transients should not exceed the limits specified in the model specification. APU firewalls are identical to the main engine requirements discussed in par. 3-2.4. The reduction drive, accessories, and lubrication y.en. reprent . onsiderable heat. sore at Pon be dissipated into compressor inlet air or into the APU compaitment. An oil (to air) cooler may be needed to maintain system oil temperatures within acceptaole limits. A typical small bleed air APU may reject about 150 Btu/m:n to the lubrication system at sea level prossurc and 130'F. An exhaust ejector could provide a cooling airflow rate of about 5 lb/ min. Compartment cooling is discussed further in par. 3-6. 3-4.3 APU SUBSYSTEMS mrnasniach as APU) .ubsystems ai similar to those previously discu•ad in this chapter for the main nigine(s), the paragraphs that follow discuss only those characteristics peculiar to the APU. 3-8.3,1 Electrical Controla APU elec•ricisi coatiols are categorized as se. quencing. protectivc, and toad, or output, controls.
3.-18

Some components arc APU-rnounted and othcrs are airframe-mounted. Electrical power to activate the system may be provided by the aircraft system or by an APU-driven generator. APU controls shall be qualified concurrently with qualification of the APU in accordance with MIL-P-8686. most d anedAg S s "ihe most advanced APU sequencing is done with solid-state electrical equipment. A speed signal is obtained from the gearbox or power section by mcanm of a frequency signal from a magnetic pickup, tachometer generator, output alternator, or mechanical spced switch. A frequency-sensitive sequencer then actuates relays for slarting and APU accclcration. The start is initiated by a switch that actuates the APU starting system, This may be electrical or hydraulic (par. 3-8.3.5). The APU will begin rotation without fuel or ignition to provide a momentary air purge of the air and gas passages. Fuel and ignition subsystems must be actuated at the lowest possible speed, perhaps 5% or below, to insure good starts at both cold and hot extremes of ambient temperature. Actuation can be accomplirhed by a fuel pressure switth, a timc dclay relay, or I speed signal. Some combustion systems require separate start and main (or run) fuel systems. At 10-20% speed, the main fuel valve will be opened. A third speed point can be used to turn off the starter. At approximately 90% speed. start fuel and ignition will be turntA off. This signal, with a time delay relay, also can arm the aircraft load circuits. A fifth sequencing point at 110% speed provides for protective shutdown. 38.3.:.2 Protective Controls Protective controls arc required to confine malfunctions to the APU and, thereby, to protr.t the helicopter. Protective devices may include overspeed, exhaust overtcmpcrature, and compartment ovcrtcmperature subsystems. A simple thermocouple sensor in the APU tailpipe, feeding to the solid-state circuit control (sequencer), provides APU overtemperature protection. Similarly. thermocouples within the compartment can signal the sequencer as fire protection. Built-in test equipment should be used only to the extent necessary to indicate an APU failure. Indicating lights shall be used for pilot advisory purposes. Audio annunciators can be adapted for the if APsu desired. 3--.3.1-3 Output Controls The elect-' -1 load-control circuit usually is armed by the 90% ed sequencing point and a time delay

I...
relay. Acceleration israpid from 90 to IOD% speed for
APU, hoeemyhv mcucteaclrto yasfe ;-cbten9 av n o 0%

AMCP 706-202 governing throughout the operating envelope dcrined
Techniques for scheduling fuel may bc mechanic i, ithe oniode Th lcrncsystemis at-

orpecidicatr

Icomponents.

contol vlvetoargulae beed ir a uncton o ex haust gas temperature. A thermocouple in the APU tailpipec can signal a solid~statc circuit componert, which, in turn, gives a modulating signal to the load.control valve. I he valve will open so that maximum continuous exhaust gas temperature is maintained. Thus, maximum bleed air available from the engine is obtained. Large shaft power requirements require careful examination of transient opt.-ation, because a rupid response may be needed to avoid overtemperature shutdown. If the compressor is marginal on stability. the load control valve may be s'heduled to bleed small amounts of air during transients to prevent compressor stall. Output load controls for electrical, hydraulic, or direct shaft power arc regulated by aircraft system

sped cotro. prtectve ircuts retc requirequrdd In most cases, however, the APU system requirements are simple an~d are handled best by a niechanical governor with aceic.ledtion fulnwshdldby compressor discharge vre' aure. The APU fuel system cnitofhefuel supply (common with the main engine(s) ), airframemrounted boost pump, and fuel lines (with shutoff and check valves) connected to the APU. An inlet filter of large capacity, but small micron rating, provides clern fuel at the APU fuel pump. 3-8.3.2.1 R~ted Speed Govevning The APU speed-regulation requirements genemitly are satisfied by droop governing, as explained for the main enginc in Chapter 8, AMCP 706-201. A speed band (droop) of' 2-4% through the load range is adequate for frequency coitrol at 400 Hz AC power. Peovided bleed airflow and pressure requirements are ment, the speed band is not critical for a bleed air .ArU. Sopccd recovery and stability %villbee specified in the APU model specification. It reqi'ired, isochronous gover ning to hold speed within a narrow bond (±0.25%) can be acccinplished by a null system. Topping speed adjustments should be provided to account for installation differences and deterioration of the efficiency of the APU or driven equipment between overhauls. 3,3.2FlrngRjrmes
3-... Fitrn eqieet

,

3-8.3.1.4 Ilectirk-al Control Location APU-mouznted control components include all driven enuinment: sensors for temperature. Dressure, ads!%ccd. valves and ignition components.-anti other control components capable of withstanding ccmpartment temperatures. Solid-state sequencing controls. p~ower suppily, load-contsol valve controls, miniaturized relays, and malfunction in~dicators shall be airframe-mi tinted so as to lai-it temperature; to 2001I or below. If required, some of these components can be mounted on 'he air inict collector oi other ducting %vheretemperatures cani be limited by heat transfer to incoming air. M3-.31.5 Elecirk-all Prower Reqsareme ts If the aircraft can provide small amiounts ofeclectrical power, the APU system is simplified. About 4 A, 24 V'is adequate to operate most APU relay s3-stemb,. Battery' systetms suffer from ambient temperature limitations in that the battery must be kept warm (00 F or above) to permit the -65OF APU starts required by MIL-P-8686. If no batteries art available, an APU-drivcn ignition and control generator can supply start and run sequencing power. Such a system requires a storedenergy APU start, such as hydraulic or pneumatic. Voltage buildup must be very rapid so that system sequencing can begin early (5%) to achieve low self-sus~\ taining speed and good cold starting. ") 3.3.2 Fue,! Sysiein Controls The APU fuel system ý;ontrol% must provide for automatic starting. acceleration, and rated speed

Filtering has been a problem on some military helicomter installations, Combat situations have resulted in .fuel contamination beyond original expectations. Servicing oi components in the field also can introduce contami nation, which must be considered. To keep required maintenance at a minimum. AI'U Filters should be of extr..-large capacity, or of self-purging configurationi. A high percentage of fuel control, valve, ance nouzie failures results from contaillination damage. Sources of con~tamination in-

vlude line or component contamination duriing servicing and wear products generated interiially in pumps and m.)ving parts. Screens or inicronic filters shall he placed a~t va ,c aod nozzle enti ances to prevent passage ot pa! ticles left during assembly, installation, or field maintenance. A PU fuel rump midi and ou- let fiPers.'Jiall he stand;ard equipnicnt and of the throwauay type. The rated micron size of filters should he as large as pussi3-:9Q

AMCP 706-202 ble, considering orifices and jet and internal tolerances, so that capacity requirements can be reduced. 3-8.3.3 APU Lubrication Subsystem The lubrication subsystem generally is selfcontained within the APU, unless an external oil cooler is required. The trend is toward a completely sealed oil system requiring no scheduled mairnenance. Filters are included internally and, with current uiits, are serviced at specified intervals. With adequate seals and filtering of buffer air (if used), external contamination virtually can be eliminated, Slightly larger filters, with bypass valves, should eliminate the need for change between over.hauls. Oil consumption rates generally are low enough so that oil level.checks may be eliminated for long periods. As with fuel subsystems, field maintenance of APU lubrication systems introduces more problems than it solves. Reliability factors for lubrication pumps, filters, relief valves, and jet or mist supply systems are high. Altitude operating requirements are def--ied in the APU model specification. Maximum temperature limits also are specified in the APU model specification. Qualification testing of the lubrication system is concurrent with APU qualification in accordance with MIL-P-8686. 3-83.4 APU Reduction Drive The APU-reduction-drive design is established primarily by the driven equipment and accessories recuired. The bleed air APU usually is designed to deliver a small percentage of its total output shaft horsepower. Drive pads will be provided for fuel controls, control generators (if needed), and all driven accessories such as electrical generators and hydraul"ic pumps. ic pumps. "The turbine nozzle and diffuser matching within the APU can be changed to trade off shaft power capability for bleed performance within the limits of stall. For: the shaft horsepower APU, output may be concerntrated at one or two larger pads. If APU power is applied directly into an aircraft combining gearbox, fewer APU pads will be needed. In this case, required helicopter accessory outputs can be obtained from the auxiliary gearbox.
3-8.3.5 APU Sts 'tilg The APU starting subsystem shall be fully automatic, using the sequencing systems previously described. The starter energy level must exceed the APU drag (resistive) torque by sufficient margin to provide the required acceleration. The starting torque requirements will be described in the APU model specification.

(. Electrical starting is satisfactory if starter and battery energy levels are chosen properly. The minimum-weight subsystem requires the smallest battery consistent with adequate breakaway torque, including consideration of initial voltage drop. This will result in a longir starting time to rated speed (15 to 20 sec), but battery is adequate to provide some torque to very high speeds (80-90%). The basic limitation is that cold-day starting (-65°F) is not practicable without warm and oversized batteries. It will be found that when APU size increases above 300 hp, battery size becomes excessive. Also, the slower start makes the APU more sensitive to the fuel acceleration schedule. Achieving successful atarts at both -65*F and +130°F without adjustments may require a compensation mechanism. The hydraulic method of APU starting is satisfactory, especa~iy when -650F starting is required. Hydraulic starter motors should be sized for high initial torque to give rapid acceleration. This will tend to result in a lower accumulator volume requirement, and to reduce sensitivity to fuel schedule variations. A typical subsystem will have an initial cranting torque of 50% more than the highest APU resistive torque. Ideally, the motor should incorporate an 'verrunning clutch so that no drag is induced onto \: the APU when accumulator fluid is expended. During -65°F starting, the APU may self-sustein at 40-50% speed. A few foot-pounds of drag from a motor can necessitate additional accumulator volume so that starting torque continues to 55 or 60% speed. As previously discussed, hydraulic starting can be arranged by using a battery for control power or by incorporation of an APU-driven ignition and control (permanent magnet) generator.
3-8A4 RELIABILITY Rlait haraciLiTe R

*

H

"

Reliability characteristics are specified in the A'PU model specification. For helicopters using thc U for inflight emergency power, starting reliability is o major importance. Typical requirements for APU starting failure rates are shown in Table 3-2. TABLE 3-2 APU RELIABILITY
_ _

i

NUMBER OF STARTS ALLOWABLE FAI LURES 0-500 501-775 776-1050 1051-1390 0 124 3-

3-20

-,

.9AMCP

706-202
maintenan;ce reqluireenirts cith.cr scheduled or unschcduled. For example, more contamination is in. troduccd into oil systcms (causing exccisive wcar and early bearing failure) through frequent oil level checks, oil addilions, and oil changes than through seals arid vents during normal running. APU design should stress minimum scheduled riainitcinacie, throwaway filters and components, scaled systems. and automatic controls requiring no adjustment. This approach not only will increase reliability, but also will decrease not life-cycle AF~U costs. M,5 SAFIETY PROVISIONS Good APU safety design must inciude provisions to prevent a failure frorn causing helicopter diemage, and. if possible, to permit mission completion in event of a failure. Thus. the APU installiption shall be designed so that fire, APU rotor failure, and crash damage arc contatined within the APU compartment. APUJ-rotor constainment is an important safely cnieain n a ehnldi eea as Strulturc can be designed to withstand and hole a tni-hub burst at overspeed trip condlition4 (a.ssurniing a fuel control failure). but this causes an une~e'irablc weight penalty. Alternatively, rotor integrity car, bc. d-mcnstrated by in.....J .p.c-.-.-lizc tests to micarure stress !evels under operating coitditions. Furtkarr. systems cani be arranged to gv'Arantee that blade failures oct.-ir first (e.g., stress groovc.9, but that smaller mass bladr fisiltirc cart be contained within the casing structure.

APU operatini life may be dcmronstratcd to :kwy given rmodcl spech ication rcquiremnent. A test plan may be chosen from~ MIL-SI 101-7811. Typically, if a mean time bctwecn Failures (NITBF) of 1500 hr ii, specified. a test with~ sevcn APU'r. each operated to 300 hr without failurc, would bc recoimndvcrced Othei combindtions of run time and number ol e ngintes may be 4:hosen. e.g.. three APU's with each iunning 750 hr without a relevant failee. High installed reliability can be obtalnt-d by spci fying a time between overhauls (TBO) close to the specified MTBF. However, this rvutts in a considcrably higher life-cycle operating cosi. Lc west Cost is obtained by u-.ing :hc rmiove for ailiure (RFF) phikctophy, whck. APU~s are repaired or rirmoved only in event of a malfuntction. A fail urr mode and el'i'ct analysis (FM EA) for the APU shall be specified to show tftc consequences ol each ;,tobat6.c Ivilurr. This will assist in reliability prediction, choice of scheduled inaintenanct interB fRFvru adtedtriito vlospis. losopies.rotor iecral problem areas have been expericirz.:d by oprnio of the APU in the heclicopter. These &amaa incaude vibration, irlcircualton 0f exlu~ta gsrz > FOD, eoý. They point up iVhe importance of careful delineation, in the quality assuranc provai~is1 of the A PU model 4ppv-ification, oý d.-Aign and tesi ronclitions that simulate the helicopier eflvironmiria. The vibration environment is primiary. The profile

*

..

of amplitude and froquencies at the APU installation must be defined. The amnplitude and ficquencies of the AlFU-gencratcd vibraiion also should be spc~ifled to anticipate airframec structural probleinis, APU air inlet iemptrature limits arc specified, and the APU installatioan ust be desigtned to prevent recirculttion of main tngiiac or A?t3 *txhau-ýt gas. Carteful aocntion must be 7.iven to thi.t prokilena because ai is impractical ii' attemrpt to limit heiicop ter operfatiori in undesirable wind directions. Ir.1ut duct locatioav. either must be rtmote fianm exhaust
outlets, or sdfety shutdowii sen~oms must be pro-

-'

vided. Similar arguments apply co~cerning FOD. stird, or dust inglestioin. Genetally, higi inlet doct locat iors are pi cferable bec-ause concen!vtion i. dust in huvem is straxified vertically. IVany APU strtic-. problems ca!. be traced to fuel aysteen components. St.mc of these re- 61t ffrom helicopter fied system contamination. Addit~onal trrphasis should be giv.-n to filir~tion, and to Pk'C. oenur main ýRnk contamination by proper fuelof handlicip methods. A major sou ce :)f reliability problems arise& fromi

Fuel and ignition sour-ces s1haý' bc: separated by m~eans of the compartment deiign. On'ý philosophy is to put the entire A PU into a fireproof ci~nip-irtmcnl. A seooaid philosophy sodi-s to prevent f1ie by confiniing 1w.) sourucs and by s.-gii.gating the hot scction %v'itha bulkhead. The APU coritrv~As arnd oil sumn should b,: housvo in fireproof contair'crs. Electrical itibsy-terr ignition sourcce., should be roijted or housed away hornm bel lines. APU inlet air sh~ovld be dlucied from outs'd. thc helicopter to prevetit rocirctrlation in case ol cornuartinent fire. [ire detectors and fire wxinguishing cquipwmemt shall be. u~vd to pr'olcc: against firc within the compartioien (see par. 32.4ý , ll APU fuel system romponents shall te crashworthy. Fuel line-s shall be made o: flexible hose with steel-'hraited outer fheath, with the mtn.'rum ni-niber of .ouplinps. At bulkheads, the hosce should bc run through unc'it, using fr*mngibic hose stabilizer fittings. Whcn lines So through w firewall, selfscaling, breakaway couplings shall be used. All line supports should be frangible. Lines shalt' be 2CLI30% lo~igce. than necessary to aicomroadate structural dispiacements.. Routing shall be aong the heavy basic 3-21

AMCP 706-202 structure. but away front electrical comp,.mnents (unless electrical systems art shrouded). D~rain 'incs for -.onbustor. fuel pump. gearbox, vents. etc.. shall be connected with frangible fasicrners. and made of low-strength matcrials. design calls for enigine-mounted fuel bogst pumps with suction fuel supply. In the event that tank-mounted boost pumps are required duc to fuel subsystem configuration, they are acceptable if meunted with frangible attachments. Electrical lead wires must be 20-30% longer than necessary. and shrouded to mirimize crash danmage. Self-scalintE, bicakaway couplings shall be used at all c )nnections. Filters and valves shall withstand 30g aoads applied iii any direction. Electrically actuated valves can-hec bulkhead-mounted, with wiring on one side and the valve and fuel lines on the opposite side. APU oil tanks and coolers also shall withstand 30g loads. and 'must be mounted away fte-icn impact areas. They shall be located within ttue compartment. but away from hot sections and inlet air ducting, to prevent ingestion of spilled oil. Oil filters shall be integial with the APU. Ratteries and clecoical accessories shall be located high enough in the fusciage to remcve thanm frt'ii possib:, fluid spill~gc areaý. They vA~yll ttt comnrtrtmntcnaliscd with lnexible fire resistarnt pancls. Extra %."rc length is needed and s~hall be supported; wilh frangible connections. The basic structure .thall %ith. stand 30)-g loads applied in isny direction. REFERENCES I . C. R. Bryan and F. F. Fleming. Some InternalFlow Characteristics ci Several Axisvnimetricol NA CA I-Series Nose Air buttis at Zero Flight Speed. NACA RML54E 19A. July 1954. 2. K~uchemtaiin and Weber. Aer-odynamnics of Propulsiion. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. NY. 1960. 3. J. Seddon,. Air Intakes Ja~r Aircraft Gas Turbines. Journal Report. Royal Acronaoticall Society. October 1952. 4. SA E Aerospace Appnlied Thzrrnodynamics Afan*a'l. Society of Automnotiv. Enginccrs. NY. October 1969. 5. T. Himka and R. D. Sekmple. Enginc/Tranx.mission/.4irframne Advanced Jn~rg ration Technique~s. TR 75-16, USAANIRDL, Fort Eustis. VA. May 1975. 6. N. 0. Johnson. Crash worthy Fuel System Design Cr-iteria and Analyvsis, TR 71-8. USAA I'Al DL. Fort Eustis, VA, March 1971.

-tPreferred

*

3-22

AMCPX70202

CHAPTER 4

TRANSMISSION AND DIIVE SUBSYSTEM
LI4T OF SYMBOLS
A baxing ccolu-iner fo

DESIGN

fa

- frequency of backward tiavelling wave, Hz race curvature, %of ball diameterr

B1)- life at which 10% of a bearing population fail, cy,.Ies or hr b Hertzian contact band semiwidth, in. b -bea~ing 013, in. Cc. CA c with 90% probability of survival..' - case convection cooling cotfricient, AP0 - load rinclnation factor (helical get), dimensionlest

G G G
(is Ii H

C -capacity of bearing far lire of ii! cycles

EHD matcrial paramecter, dimensionless - speed effects factor (bearings), dimensionIns - lengthwist tooth stiffness constant, pjs
-

h hE

misalignment, factor (bearings), dimensionloss ftoil film thickness, psin. - EHD oil film thickness. #sin.
-l

specific weight of oil, lb/gal

1
7
ý

- liner (steel)O01, in. speCuic reat of oil, iiitul ln-t F1 b geSar diameter, in. d D actor buring), dimnsionlss - macrial D~c bolt circle diameter, in.Dp)- stud pitch dianieiter, in. 0,, - anvolute base circle diameter, in. DI - inside diameter, in. D~in - spline minor diameter, in. D, - ouarsroo diameter, in. DP - oitsch diamecter. in. D, - pitchoodiameter, in. D -=Major diametfer of spline, in. D2 - outside diameter of spline tooth mnember, in. d - pinion pitch diametcr, in. d - track of breked wheels, ft d -' light alloy &Wcion OD, in. E - modulus of elasticity (Young's modilus),
e C_

of inertia, slug-ft' Imoment i geometric shamc factor, dimensioniexsstK K K,
Km, K, K,

K
KI

K, k k k L
L
LA

-Hertz stress index, ftpsiniols -strcss concentrationfatrdiesols nrifatdmesols - life factor, dimicnsionl~ss - misalignmricrt factor, dimensionless - overload factor, dimensionless - reliability factor, dimensionless - dysicze factor, dimensionless a Mtemertue factor, dimensionless -tenmperlatur factor, dinensionless - conversion constant - con~tact line in~lination factor, dimnensionless - geom~etry factor, dimensionless - gear face width, in. - design life or scheduled removal time (TBO), hr
=

i

-,-

)

processing factor (bearings), dimensionless ED energy dissipation rate, Btu/in.-min El combined modulus of elasticity, psi r -pitch plane misalignment, in./in. F - flow. rate, gpm F - face width of gear tooth. in. F - lubricztion factor (hearing%). dimensionless FA, -bicakaway blip for"e. lb F, = effective face width, in. F., - average effectivC face width, in. f - coefficient of friction, dimcniionicss
-

£

psi

Lrj L2 L10 M
Mf Inl
Mir,

Adjusted life, hr

-

gear center distance, in.

- life for 2% failure of a bearing popuiatlon.

hr life for 10% failure of a bcaring population, hr -mechanical advantage, dimensionless - moment, in.-b
-

V
Y

.

- prortle contact ratio, dimensonless
= gear rutio. dimensionless -

on,
Opt"

=Con~itc! ratio factor. dimensionless modified contact ratio (spir~l beve; g5or), dimensionless
/* 4-1

N

N
NI n n RN nap
NP

- number

number of teeth (gear or spline) or bolts or sttds

TA T,
7".

- ambient air temperature (cold condition)

OF
- critical temperaturm, F
- circular tooth thickness, in. - initial temperature, °F

-t number orteeth on gear number of discrete values number or radial nodes - rotational speed, rpm - critical speed, rpm normal operating rotational speed, rpm - pinion rotational speed, rpm - load, lb power loss, hp - power lors to oil cooler, hp -power loss to oil cooler (cold conditiwi), hp
-

- number or teeth on piniot

T s

T.
U VI V2 VT VT V, W W W Wd W, W w Y Y

PL PLC Pc P ?d P4 Pf P, P, P, P, P, P p

- average external surface temperature, "F - average external surface temperature (cold condition), OF -- EH I speed parameter, dimensionless - rolling velocity of faster of two bodies in contact, it./sec or fps - rolling velocity of slower of two bodies in contact, in./sec or fUe. - total rolling velocity (V, + V2) of two bodies in contact, ln./wec or fps (Vi + V2)/2. in./sec or fps - slig "4 vldoc;ty, in,/sec or fps - load, lb - helicopter weight carried on braked wheele, lb - EHD load parameter, dimensionless - dynamic load, lb - failure load, lb gvat touih luad, lb -- effective gear tooth load (K. W, + W).), lb - running load, lb/in. - modified Lewis form factor (spur gear), di-

base pitch, in. - diamet'al pitch, ir.' - transverse diametral pitch (measured at large end of bevel gear), in.-' - friction power loss, hp - pt ver inuut to transmission, hp - power loss, % of transmitted - mean transverse diametral pitch (bevel
-

Sgear), in.-

_11 4 .

-

oil pump los,, hp fastuner tension !oading. lb gear windage power loss, hp pump discherge pressure, psig

SPM
-

circular pitch, in.
normal circular pitch (helical gear), in.
-

mensionless
- modified Lewis form factor (helical gear), dimensionless

Qs Q
0.

torque, lb-ft or lb-in. brake torque. lb-ft skid torque, lb-ft - flange torque capacity. lb-in.
-

Y4 2
7

- modified Lewis form factor (bevel gear). dimensionless - total transverse length of line of action, in.
=

stud torque. lb-in.

.- ,,,,, a

rn fam~ ,.,,

,e,,onsn,.,

R R
R,

-

mean transverse pitch radius, in. reliability (for I-hr mission), dimensionless
distance from pitch circle to point of load

Z,'
a

-

modified scoring geometry factor kspur gear), dimensionless

- pressure viscosity coefficient, in3/lb

r r
i

application, in. - radius of curvature of g-,ar tooth, in. -radius of curvature of pinion tooth, in.
.nrcbability of survival, dimensionless

a
.

- linear coefficient of thermal expansion. in./in.-*F - contact anghe, deg
- fraction of theoreticai contact (splines), di-

S S.,
SA,
-

rms surface finish. pin. allowable endurance limit stresi., psi
bearing stress, psi 6

mensionless - incraent, as A I, deg F or A(D,,/ 2 ), in.
-

mean CLA surface roughness, pin.

S, S,.f S S4 S, • S, S,, T
TI

- compressive (Hertz) stress, psi - compressive (Hertz) stress at failure, psi - hoop stress, psi - bursting stress, psi shear stress, psi - tensile stress, psi - torsional shear stress, psi - tempcrature, °F
-

&• a 4

incremental lrowth, in./(in.-*F) - deflection, compressioo, or protrusion, in. - efficiency, dimensionless or %.subscripts c ana f, p. and i denote coarse %'id fine pitch, pump, and transmission, respectively - ratio of oil film thickness to surface roughness, dimensionless
-

C

ambient air temiperature, °F

failure rate, hr-'

4-2

FS

a) dynsric viscosity,Ib.-sc/in.1
Poino)-is ratio, dimensionless v ..heict] tooth kcad line inclination, deg EHO parpmeter, dintcnsionleus 3 -denshy. sltrg/ ftl or lb/in. a -standard deviation, dimensionless gear tooth pressure aingle, deg - ormal pressure angle (helical gear), deg 0, - ransverse operating pressure angle, deg 0 - gear tooth helix or spiral angle, deg - angular acceleration or devele.-ation cf rotor, rad/icc' W rotational speed, Hz

made lighter, more efficicnt, art d ss costly if it werc
not necesary to conrider interfaut effects. Hiowevecr. the design optimization technique-,. addresscd in this chapter are limited to the components of the powvcr transmission subsystrms without consideration of i be possible ovcrridirig effects peculirar to a given aircraft configuration. The designer must be aware of the significanice of thc to*.al Army environment. Major subsystem comnponeiits such as gearboxes, driveshafts. or hanger bearing assemblies probably will be subjected L,) rough treatment daring shipping, handling, arid removal from or installation on the helicopter. The consistent use of sophisticated or special tools and torque wrenches simply will not occur, even though specified by the designer. Extremes in temperature. humidity, sunli-ght, precipitation, and sand and dirt cotmainwllcurdinbohfgtopac :onamnaion wqill ocur urig bth nigh:topera. tion and lengthy periods of outdoor parking. Pres. tawtr sr laigcupct-crilyn helicopter and its drive subsystem; thcs:: cleaning solutions may be more than 100'F hotter or colder mal shock. Exposure to such hostile envionments will cu eetdyfrln eid ftmbtms not compromise the mission availability of the hhelecpter. Improper maintenance, tool drops, and rvreo mrprisalto hr osbeas willrs o r. Compro nernstaldesion wustre toslern ando forgiving of such treatment wherever practicable.r

`

41INTRODUCTFION
achievement of satisfactoiy transmission and drive
4-.1 GENERAL Thc proper use of this chopter as an aid in the syscmdetildesgnreqirs aclarunderstanding of coceps. stvcal asi Te cntcitsrefectthe past in generae anhe suggdested analfor tio u-nrdw..rhac sinr te~chnanurs

K'.-.

9

tebasic selections of gear, bearing, and shafting repiresent the present state-of-the-art, leve, te tehnoogyas dscused oesnot exclude the future in that areas of uncertainty and limitations of knowledge are emphasized wherever they appear applicable. The mechanical drive system
'tauratiens

desiner ustpracicehis a ovin or kil fro The use of geared transmission systems predates irecorded history. A relatively sophisticaled differential gear-drive system was employed in the Chinese
*C.Ln...&I

.

0.
4-1.2

~

%An

~ ~D.C 10

i

REUIEMNT
RQIEET

[

and geared drives still represent the most efficient mthod of power transmission. This chapter is intended to encourage rather than to subvert new and unconventional approaches to old problems. The sole limitation upon incorporation of the unconventional in helikopter drive systems is that the ba:sic rules of nature (la~ws of mechanical physics) are relatively inviolable and should be treated w'ith respect, There is no perfect or unique design solution to a given power transm~ission requiremenrt, and all known designs have been compromised by the individual requirements of the aircraft into which they must be integratid. Optimization of a design cannot e viewed within the context of the power tiansmisints alone; thorough trade-off studies must such factors as suspension, layotit. airframe ,]support structure, rctor control systems, aircraft weight[ and balanc, space limitations, and locations of eniginecs. Almost any known drive system could be

General requirements arc applicable to all drive-1 systcm configurations. There also are specific requirements that vary according to th~e aircrafl configuration and intended mission (par. 7-1.1, AMCP 70)6-201) and general rc. 1uiremcnts peculiar to particular configurations or arrangements of engines and rotOrs (par. 4-1.3). 4-1.2.1 General Re~quiremnents Ccrtain requirements are common to all Army helicopters regardless of configuration or intended usage. The desired level of attainment of th~ese requirements and their relative importance generally arc specified in the appropriate prime itern development specir-cation (PIDS). Because ne transmission and drive system represents a significant portion of the total complexity and cost of the helicopter. these common requirements must be considered during 4-3

\consideir

A
•-detail

P
design. Such require ments -- without conof their relative importance - include perreliability, maintainability, and surviva-

-.

-0t&-

Ssideration Sfoimancc, bility.

output, with smaller amiounts of torque being carried. as the distance from the output incmueses. The wecight of any gear reduction stage is proportienal to the second or third power of the torque. Therefore. itorthwhile weight savings can be made by using drives in the order ranked -- concentric drives near thc output, parallel-axis types at intermecdiate or conmbining stages, and intcrsecting-axis types nearest the engine if drive direction changes arc required. There are occasional instances where these rules may not apply: e.g., high reduction ratio may be undesirable at secondary-lcvcl power outputs, such as tail rotor or auxiliary propellers. because of the long distance from the helic:optcr CG. Althou~gh thc total drive subsystemn weight may be less with a low'cr turqie being carried by shafting, it may becoine difficufqt to obtain a satisfactory CG location due to the larger nmoment of the extra weight of the higher ratio final reduction stage. The specter- weight,%of current helicopter main gearboxes in range from 0.30 to 0.50 Ih/hp for red uctio n r a tio o f 15 :1 to 7 4 :1 ( F ig. 4 -1) . T h e n ext uc •:auc U ||uuubtic uly w il . ... this lrndlcx dr "oin.. .... the 0Z2 level. 4-IZl. TnmsonEfcey( " -

-- • 4-1.2.1.1 Perfoima|e' The contribution of the drive system to heclicoptecr performance can be defined in various ways. lHowever. the folluwing factors predominate: 1. Weight 2. Efficiency Size 4. Noise le' el. 4-1.2.1.1.1 Subsysitem Weight

S3.

Weight of the transmission and drive system is minimized by attention to compact size toge~her and

with the use of high-strenlgth materials for dynamic

components that make maximum use of the material properties available within the limits of pr-rmissibic failurc; rates and reliability requirements Superior .~ . . .= .. . - -A.. . . oLc , ~ ~ ~ .....it . . . o.l M:. ~q a low -d ensity m aterial for forged or cast housings also necessary. The latter is import-.nt because gear:'%•are l•_-• ~ ~~box comr.prise from 20 to 60% of total transhousings mission weights in current designs.4-.112TrnmsinEfcey The requirement for efficient power transmission is large gear ratios per stage generally SExcessively of such importance that gear types other than those weight. The pinion size is determined primarily •'••.•add Slisted torque. transmitted and is relatively ind¢-• in pai. 4-1.2.1.1.1 seldom are considered -- ? by the sc~iou.;y for application to the re-Ain po%%cr drive but the weight of the gear o1'the star ratio; us the square of the ratio. Spendent member increases roughly Large ratios per stage usually also are inefficient. mConsidering the sib of support structure and bearoor ings, as well as of the gears thmselves, the gear types themselvgs by increasing weight and power loss worder 1.(for approximately equal gtaonratios) in the follow-cri.t ingThConcentric drives: epicyclic or planetary devices manner: falr4a4 n ciblt eurmnsSpro reversing spur, helicalo *Ii'! 2. b. Star - ~uiiycotrlinpr~~sngad Parallcl-axis drives: rotation. and horring-f pt prlxd gabxsi ag rm03 = sg n itrct-a ducionrtoom51t 4:t

J

h-

ris

u

o05

bh

o

e

r H.4I.Ten

bone

3. flterslwing-axis drives: spiral bevel and hypoid.reurd This ordering change the effects, of additional tor-thcs in intended speed reflects per stageW addition to the .que vector translations and rotations. The con-

/,/

"

c-rules*D

S|centric

dri-'€ does not alter tht of output vector .paralll requires a translation torque axis; vhe drive dre with respect to itruto and the intprsrcting-axis driveo-ellers, introduces a new coordinate tfrough tht rotation of the output vtttor with ocspect to input.
The selection of drive types should follow the given ranking, beginning at the ouput drive. Also, the plargst reductions should bw•ith cloto to the final kn

Q,

on ""--AH'IG

b

of t

TActEOFF PO*FCR 10" lopt F jure 4-1. Helicopter Main Gearbox Weight Takeoff Power os

.:

-

,

i..

..

wc~-I 7*2
"
example, with a 1% in-. "train for many reasons. For crease in power loss the life cycle cost for an assuned
fleet of 1000 medium helicopters would be increased by $100,000 per helicopter by the extra fuel necessary to perform a constant mission. This is based upon a

6000-hr life, a specific fuel consumption (SFC) of 4 0.65 'b/hp-hr, and a fuel cost of $0.016/lb. Firthcr, the average helicopter lift capability ranges from 5 to 10 lb/hp depending upon rotor disk load.ng and 3I3 C. operational variables. Therefore, a medium helicopter of 2000 hp suffers a useful load reduction of fiom 100 to 200 lb with a 1%additional power loss. Thus, when comparing an alternative gear system of 1%lower efficiency. the basic gearbox weight would need to be reduced by more than 100 lb to compensate for the power loss. The reverse drive efficiency of a gearbox also must I 303 2o00 1000 be watched carefully, as excessive use of recess action gearing can create a problem in autorotation. For inENGINE INPUI POWLR. hP stance, Ref. 2 dcscribes high-ratio recess action Figure 4-2. Power Loss to Heat vs Input systems that operate at high efficiency as speed rePowIm - Typlcl Twin-eMgime-driven Gearbox ducers but become virtually self-locking when operated as speed increasers as in autorotation. A helicopterautootatonaldesent ftminismaking an of 15,OUU tlb200 weight •singits gross as those shown in Fig. 4-2, as possessing a given efautorotational descent at 2000 ft/mmi is using its ficien4CY apart from a specific power rating. Tise transavailable potential energy at the rate of about 900 hp. mission loacs shown result in efficiencies as. follows: Drive system windage. flat pitch tail rotor drag, and a In l ownr. Efficiency, few minimum accessory loads require appro.6imately Input ower, Efficiency.% 100 hp. A 95% reverse drive efficiency leaves about hp 7 795 hp, a reasonable level to sustain the prescribed 500 74 descent. However, sudden yaw control requirements 500 93.4 conceivably could boost the revirsc drive require1500 96.9 iment momentarily to 200 hp. In such a crse, either 2000 97.4 the rate of .descent would .. . ... 4sharply .h .. ; increase r . or some S,1.:__:. . . ... . 2500 97.8 Iw111i.t,1c crll.gy outllw 'I 'borrowed-frli.the maii .98.0 3000 rotor, with slight reduction of rotorelrcty bcng Th0 98.0 S~~compensated aby an increase in descent velocity. Howcopesaedbyaninreseindecet speed HThe windage losses are influenced strongly by oil ever, if the reverse drive efficiency were 50%, the tail rotor and accessory load would extract 400 hp from the main rotor, requiring an almost 50% increase in rthe mfadesent rqusing an almost50 r tor rtr in seeds, rate of descent to sustain safe mnain rotor specls. The power losses of a typical high-speed twinengine-drive main gearb x operating at constant speed might vary as shown in Fig. 4-2. At full speed there is 25-hp windage loss with zero power transmission, and then the power loss due to friction is added as the power transmitted is increased until a total loss of 60 hp is reached for the full twin-engine power input. The slightly downward inflected curve shape is rather typical for most modern, heavily loaded, high hardness gears and antifriction bearing systems, although in som- instances a virtually straight line may be observed. Clearly, it is improper to speak of a ScarboA having loss characteristics, such viscosity, the amount of oil supplied to the various gear meshes and bearings, and the oil scavenging characteristics of the transmission. Small gear-tohousing clearances, poor drainage paths, and excessive oiling should be avoided. Good estimations of gear windage losses F. may be obtined from Eq. 4-1 (Ref. 3)

"

.

'i

P. -

10,, 100)( 10

hp

(4-1) )

where D - gear diamater, in. L - gear face width, in. n rotational speed, rpm This equation represents an application of basic propcller theory (Ref. 4) and is based upon air density at 4-5

AMCP 706-202
standard sea level conditions which i, 0.00238 slug/ftV. However, for W.IL-L-7809 cii at normal operating temperaturci p -1.748 slug/fil. Consequently. if thi. hel~coptce designer can estimatr. or experienirtally determine the oiliness of the -. nsmission atmosphere, an average p may be employed. Ref. 4 saggests 1, )4.25:1 nir-oil ratio in which case Eq.. 4-1 can bte exprs"cd as / P,. - 2.18( DI
10"-F
,

hp

(4-2)

Methods of gcai mcsh oiling also affect windagc lossesi 1)iffcrnces of virtually 200% hmve been reported to exist between in-mesh and out-of-mesh oiling for a large. iinglc-reductiorm gear set (Ref. 5). The torquc or load-sensitive centribution of the transmisision to power loss is duc almost entirely, to the rolling/sliding lo!nd-carrying bearing and gear cdcmcnts. Good first-order approximation, for antitriction bearing tosses it mioderate speeds arc given in Refy. 6 and with a little greater precision in Re .f. 7. However. where very accurate decterminiations arc required or where high-speed applications exist, the prediction of these losses requires an understanding of the rrr complex factors involved (Ref. 8). For optimizat ion studie~s and examination of the effects of external dcflections and asymmetricAl loading, there is no substituic for a good digital computer program of the baIc equations such as is presented in Ref. 9. In general, the significant power losses in bearings uc~tut in regions of appriciable .ýontact zone slip. uýSIC most efficient for most applications. re the Radidiy loatded ball bearings are lower in efficiency. whl aular %cntact (thrust loaded) ball bearings b, C.'N64~ sivi~iti.,i..rty greater friction losses. When the 1; latar aft: used in verry high-speed operations. their r'-iwem 11-)3characteristics dcttrioicite sharply as ex* cc~silve :ctifug. 1 and g.-yroscopic forces affect ball 1 ýUICeM-tiCl. SItandurd tapcrc.1 :iollr bearings (conical tolling ticincints) ire the 1kiht zfficicent of thesc fout. typres. ia~becaosc cf the hea.'ily loaded cone rib that'.ý in id~contact whiit ;he largt cod CS the i,ccnical roPliti. A. ti,- type os' anpuhat coniact cylirt. drical rci.er (Ref. ;01 rmi), offir hdvami.ites when fuloy dcvetoped. In Nhs ty~ve, ?ý)c co*ne , b lo~'d is theorcti,_-Oy reducA;J. bjh iincreascq s-lidiril' rttsuIs V~ nCm or Wt~h of t'ic -jic-rellcr co-aaci~s- Expcticivre Is '.nsuff!.icnt f,ýr L-valuel,,i'ol &Itz. relative iicat utnrnAtioil. bitt irdicatio, -A are O~a! it wit! pyrov' it,, b::

that itA !osses will approach those of the arigular co.)tact bitll bearing. The plain journal hearintg is unsuitable for heavily loaded so liansmission uipplications (see par. 4-2.4.2), although it may have satisfactory application in lightly loaded accxs~ory uses; the power lou with this type of bearing is at least twice as great as for any of the previously mentioned types (Ref. 11). The hybrid1 boost bearirg (hydrostatic plain thru-st bearing in series combi~nation with the stationary or rotatifib ring of an angular contact ball thrust bearing) has been evaluated experimlentally (Rcf. 12), but no helicopter expecicnovv is known. The experimental work indticated a friction torque for the hybrid ocaring of roughly twice that for the simple ball thtust beaiing. The accuracy of the calculated losses for bearings is dcpendcnt upon proper installation and application dcsign, Excessive preload, due to insti-llation and/or the~rmally induced. c.:n camily result in doubling thc friction torque arid also will have detrimental effects upon fatigue We and reliability. The power los~s in gcaiing is ti~iiie an involved and cnrvr~ICiit neirte~efcwih ranking, listed earlier in tihs paragraph hold true fmn basic efficiency also. There are reawinable ranges of gear ratio for which specific types if grer drives arc bcst suited; when thi:~ upper limits are exceectce. the resultant power loss is apt to iincrease to a level where superior overall efficicm~y may be obtained by reventing to two stages of lowcr ratio. Tie suggested optimrnu ratio ranges are: 1. Conecrntric - epicyclic, 3:1 to 5:1 2. Parallel axes - straight spuir, A1to 2.5:1
-single

hclicals, 1:1 to 3;:1

.'

A-.re

effincrt, than iht. staaCurd tupcretJ zolicr znd

I:A to 10:1 3. lnterecting axes - spiral bevel. 1:1 to 3.5.1. A nuintibr of assumptionas are included in these suggested ranges. The lower limit for the epicyclic assumes a simple u(oWirevcrsing) design. The planet gears bmcco-ne excessively small so that the sun driver ten&~ to uct like a specd-incrrasing drive *ith a long. inclficicrnt a.-c of a oproach. At these low ratios the epicyclic system becomes planet-bearing-capacity limited in iltht it is difficalt to fit sufficient~y large bearings to carry the nececssary load if the gear teeth are stressed to satisfactory levels. The upper limit for the cpicyclic represents a reasonably designed, four-planet idler systemt whose weak point is tht; tcndenzy for pitting of the sun gear. Be-caust the dasigni is sun-pinion-diameiter limited (to acc--ptabic Hertziart stre~ss levels) and die planet gears art; i'~ur tiiwý.5 the diameter of the sun, the. system is rapitdy becoi-aing inefficient from a weight stand-

do

_AMCP

06M'

I(9/4

point. Th: carrier structure, ring gear, and ring Sear housing (ir used) are excessivci,, heavy. If used in a final drivc stage, the low speed of the plane bearings x rotor speed) is not conducive to the formation of adequate oil film thicknesses for good performiance even though th~eve is virt.:ally unlimited space for high-capacity planet bearing designs. 'The upper limit of th siryl helicals is based upon grcatr than 15 deg in order to minimi7e the thrust comonet o ýh tothloading. The extended upper limit given for herrirngbonce designs is based upon the use of high helix angles (4'AM deg); thus. mayxim'im 35 tion that permits atlainnient of very high face contact ratios which in turn permit some reduction in the profile contact ratio with an attendant reduction in sliding velocities. The upper limit for the spiral be-vcl gear ratio reflects the use of approximately a 90-deg intersection of axes and is based upon increased losses due to excessive sliding velocities in both the art of approach and the recess. Tbc lower limit f'or spiral bevels would be applicable for overhun-gmounat a 7UF.X mEltrIaIIUII
Ar

the subrtgimne or microclastohydrodynamics (Refs.. 13 and 14). Fig. 4-3 ieprescrits the salient cnarficteristics and interdependent variables influencing f tbroughout the rainge of specific film thicknesse. The ratioN)isintroduced to give physical meaning to thesw regimes in terms of the roughness, or surface finish of the activo tooth profiles according to
h

where
h

Iadvantaf

6

olfl hcnspn -. mean ceiflerline average (CLA) surface

r istaken of the thrust component cancella-

roughness, pin.
Region III of Fig. 4-3 chn be ntglected fMr helicopter transmission components. The entire rcgion is defined by classical hydredynamics; and the properties of lubricant viscosity, xliding velocity. and load interact to build a supporting lubricant film) that complcte!y separates the load-cart-ying mechanisms. The observed friction is primarily dieptrident upon the viscosity of the supporting film. Region 11 actually extends (on a submi~croscopic scale) into Region 1,but the true importance of th region is that it represents a transtional phase that "nly has become defined with enigineering s-* niCi "P.n.e within the past decade. The pressure distributions within the loaded gear surfaces are considered basically Hertzian, but the Irilm thickness is
deptrndent uposi the additional faýtcrs of elasticity of metals and the property of greatly increased lubricant viscosity under the H-ertzian conjunction pressures, The observed film thickness is known to increase with increasing entrainment or sum of rolling

full-straddle-mounted.,9O-deg-axis systems cannot be ,) accomplished below an approximate ratio of 1 4:1 for 9'0-cleg axes. In all cases the lubrication is limited to low-vis-

4A.

aLA3IIa%,ULIaxcs

H'

I

i.

* *loss

cosity synthetic turbine oils with ro unusual additives. The specific. efficiencies obtained in gear meshes are basically consiecred tu be represented by analogy to classic physical roncepts. The friction power of P, of sliding bodies in contact is given by Eq. 4-3. (4-3) P1 WV~f/550. hp

where
W

V,

load. lb

BOUNOAR CO3
FIAL SIALE FIRST

LENDCR

HTYDODYNAMIC

sliding vclocity, ft/see

f - coefficient of friction, dimensionless Minimization of power loss would simply seem to re-

TA5( -

-

LAN

*-8ISPFESNPU1--

-PLIN

BEARING$

quite attention to minimization of i andf. However, the apparent quantity f varies in a very complex
*

OilRO1GEARS__
BARINS.. IQ~L

comprcssive (Hertz) stress Se], the slidinr velocity,

manner with thi intensity of load [expressed as a
Lubricant regimes sit classified loosely (from thin

MAIN______ ROO

RAICSIIGV

-

5-A '--

I
CRAC

I
IfCREASING VISCOSITY.

~~~and factors descriptive of the lubrication regimc~ and the lubricant itself. ~i-lm separation to thick) as boundary,. elastol'ydrodynamic (ENID), and hydrodynamic.
lubricant
-~syst.-m

AI'PA1111T~IFANCEPA
Q AOBEATR!INC AYS

FIM5.5

IIS

C-HNS

AI

but the following approximation is uselul. In this of definition, the boundary regime includeE
-4-7

Figure 441. Lubricatlon Re~gimes

AMCP 706-2D2
velocities VT(VI. V, + V , where V,, and V. are the 2 velocities of the bodies in contact) of the loaded bodies, the lubricant viscosity at thc conjunction inlet, and the pressure viscosity coefficient of the lubricant, and to decrease slighily with increasin~g toad and V,. f he largest values of this region represent full separation of the loaded bodies, while the lower values permit some mieial-to-metal contact of the asperities of roughness peaks. The most widely accepted cxpres~ion in use today for EDH film thickness hE (Rcf. 15) is

HE tZIAN ORV)

PRILSSURi DISTRIBUTIONI

LIISRICANb; L CONTACT

V
..

/
.-

LURh1

.*--

.-

~~
V, - VELOCITY BODYTI Of

hE -

2.65

5

/..0X

31,pn

(4-5)

-

or ELO0CITY HCOY 2

Figure 4-4. Elastic Body Contact Pressure Distribution and Interface Contour
where tl'c three El-D dimensionless parameters are G =x'(materials)

u - 10F
W
=

(speed)
(load)
t

O

W~~

and in. E'-combined modu'us of clasticity, R = mean transverse pitch radius, in. )/2I, in./%"c PT= mean rolling velocity (VI - V2j W = running load, lb/in. a =pressure viscosity coefficient, in.'/lb A, =dynamic viscosity, lb-sec/in.3 A physical senise for hE is shown in Fig. 4-4. Eq. 4-5I,~ is isothermal, in that it does not treat the effects of material heating in the con~anction, but is believed to
hb rosacnngkv agpeutgt. I,*% f^ V /

3

O
*

.v.k

(d. v V, V.

Figare 4-5. Friction Parameters-

Coefficieni vs EHD
Region 1andi k

V

%,o1-,eS f ,,t1t,ast ,

-I

--

*

-

j

The observed friction in the EJ-W regime is prim'rivduc to viscous shear 4J the lubricant in the high-pressure field of the conjunction, Much experimental data exists to relate friction values to certain dimensionless parameters. Most take the form shown in Fig. 4-5 (Ref. 15). Such relationst iips hold for constant values of surface roughness and lay, and for specific lubricant types. The motimportant conclusion from these data is simply that friction is relative~ly low - on the order of O.u2 to 9).04 - for components operating in Region II. A mre detailed analysis that considers the thermal aspects of 131-I1) solutions as applied to simple involute gears may be found in Ref. 16. Region I, defined as boundary layer lubrication, represents conditions that predominate in the lowerspeed com,'oncnts of helicopter gearboxes. In this 4-8

region, f may be influenced significantly by interaction of asperities in the rubbing load-carrying elemeonts, be they gears or bearings. The thinnest of films represemited in this region may be monolayers of lubricant products that either adsorb or adhere to the extcrior molecular s~irface of the metal. The variables influencing friction include the chemical composition and the interaction of the metal and lubricant combination and the roughness, lay, and texture of the surfaces with respect to their rubbing directions. It is at the lower speeds that very noticeable differences exist in observed friction between the arc of approach and the arc of recess of involute gearing. Fig. 4-6 depicts a very low speed mcasuirement of this pl'.rnomenon involving a spur gear set of minimum atiAinable profile contact ratio (CR) (Ref. 17). The

very low CR is employed to study the extremes of these approach ard recess portion effects without introducing the data confusion that normally would ocin the zones of double tooth pair contact. Fig. 4-6 *cur also illustrates the driematic improvement in f that results when the contract ratio is increased. The torque Q and pitch diameter D., being held constanit, the higher contact Yatia was achieved by changing the diametral pitch Pd aind the number of teeth N.

Although the cxpenimcnts cized were. conducted in bcwundary lubrication ccnditicns that yielded much higher f-values for teeth of coarse pitch. it is int twresting to note thiat the f-valuc obtained for gears of finter pitch was in the range of values expoctod for El-D lubrication. Thi3 iliustiatcs th-t iinportvaice of using gewring of relatively tine Vi'tch to obtain maximum efficiency. In addition, it should be not'nd that the apparent differences in friction betwoens the awvs

F

-~

-0CR

CR 0.1d1
2.

1.03

1.74

a

Torque
_N

Q 130 lb-in.
16 40

4

10

-0.14

2I,
.) CD,

:~i9.11i
~~1-

rpm
_ _ _ _ _ _

5.55
.

5.85f

p._

~0.06
0.04_____

0.02 12

-12

4 0 -4 -8 ANGLE OF ENGAGEMENT , deg

8

NOTE: AVERAGE f 7 0.081,

10.034

Figure 4-.Angle of Engagement 4-9

*...i II

II~

of approach and recess art masked completely by the avraing effect found in the zones of double tooth pair cont&ct.
The basic tiends of friction change in approach and rcs action arc still valid i:i lubrication Region II. Fig. 4-7 (Ref. 18) represents experimental data taken at corasiderably highti values of ourface sliding velocity, load, and lubricant viscosity. Alth..ugh the use of a dig'tal compute: program to examine the many instantaneous contact conditions that occur b. a pair of gear toeth rolls through mesh is the more precise meitod of catulating efficiec:cy and studyiog detail design variations, c fexrek-i -t - -may be obtained by using average values for f. The percent power loss P, of a gear mesh is expressed (Rcf. 19) as: p, L X 100 96, Mfeatures f (4-6)

and for the fine pitch gear set (P4

10) the P, is:

/' P,

.034_ Y0100 - 0.40% 28.5

(4-8)

where M = mechanical advantage, dimensionless Values of M for various combinations of pinion and gear tooth members are listed in Ref. 19. For the 4) , o Fi . q-6, ahe •i ia: lar u, ia~h ( 4 ' , P . 4.6 X 100 1.76% (4-7)

Their corresponding efficiencies V are then simply ij 100;- P, and we find. 9 = 98.24% (4-9) - 99.60% where the subscripts c and f indicate coarse and fine pitch, rexpectively. The frictional differencer noted for approach and raxwzone of involute action are characterized, with respeci to the driving member, by the rolling and sliding contact motions being in opposite directions to one another in approach but ia the same direction during ro.ms motion. The scensitivity of friction to the lay and textural of the mating members in lubrication Region I is s.jown clearly in Fig. 4-8 (Ref. 20). These data represent the results of experiments conducted on a gearedisk test machine with 3.0 in. diameter, 14.0 in. crown radiua,, case carburized and ground, con0 93a c . s'-s mab!e e•iec ode vac . n steel disks. The circular ground data were taken with disks ha%ag a circumferential finish of 8 pin. and an axial finish of 16 gin., while the cina-ground ditks

" •

[0..
300D --

4O~

~

-ROSS

GKOUN9

0.%

3.'

''%--

±

--

--

0

500

lDO• SLIDING 1500V.. VELOCITY

2000

ZSO

Emm

SLIOINC VELrClI Y V,, -M.k,.ۥ

"

Figure 44. Effed of Surface Texture and Figui 4-10 4-7. Coefficent of Frkilton vs Sliding Velocity Lay on Friction nd ScffSag Beh• vr

V.

*limit

-~

bad a drciinforweti ftaub of 16 pin. and va axial finis of Spin. Conm'queud.ty both types had identicaO reduced finWis number &-values and benice vii tualuly identical A-valies, but the cross-ground data news was RcEO463 irn both type., and the cross-pound disks weas prepared using grinding techniiques nor-naqly used for spur gear Waoth manufacture. A constant ratio of IV/VT - 0.556 wias represented, sai the lubrication was jet auppNWe MIL-L-7806 at 190*F. Theretome a particular point on agear mesh wher V, 3S.6% of Tr is represntmd on this ftzgmat a u linearly increaed gea apecd (rpm) by moving from left to rig1bt -ýith inremasing Y1,. Unfortunately, then. data do no reflact a oonstant load, but rathar the baa6 as delrined by scuffims. The designer shuld be aware that udrfxd lubricant condition there is little he can do to control Sat low speeds asid from refining the surface finish, Additiona-i powe: lowa sources of a transmission systemn include the accessories anid the oit punip. Accesory power requirements are fixd by the individual helicopter requirements. the exact typc of accmoasy 5nvolv')d. and the demand or duty cycle memiPaAMtmnfib mmrv u

suggests that cide clearances of 0.5 in. or pester between Seats and cauing wall* reult in negligible loom due to oil churn. The required clearance[ between casing wail and Sear outside diametpr inarc of conformity, speed of &ear rotation, oil viacosity, amount of oil etted on the gear mesh. &nW the amount of run-off or drainage ouil in the locattion at question. There are no formulas for calculating satis-A far~ory diametral clearances, but some successful design applications have amployed valu&t of 4-. proximately 0.5 in. for 2000-fpm pitch line velocities and 3.0 in. for 25,0I00fpm vcocitics for 1801 of dog conformity and kinematic viscosities below 10 centistokes. Evtn at these clearances. it firequcntly becomes necessary to provide scrapers or some mean to retard vortex acneration and lo Waized recirculation of the oil. When wet sump systemns are employed, suffic.ient vei-tical sprce must bý provided to keep the operating oil level (iaucluding th4& Avr~iawd or foam lazyei) Weow the gears and beerins 4.1.2.1.1.4 Noase LereleV The fourth jxcrforrnince criteria of low nao" iceW
&--&a2--

i

j

,nwewr

vAmnnrap.

ments igdiscussed in Chapters 1 and 9. Oil pump loss P,, is estimtted adoquately by the aimple equation: Fpk '7 (41) PPhp qP where oil flow rate, gpm discharge pressure at p;Anip outlet, psig converion constant for units, 5.83 X 10-4 efficiency of pnmp (generally from 0.5 to 0.9), dimensionless For a 20.gpm system with -jregulated discharge of 60 psi, the pump outlet pressure would be 120 paig under typical cofiditions. For an assumed pump efficiency of 0.5, the loss would be: (20)(120 (5.3 X 0-')result (2)(10.) (59 1-) 2.78 hip (4-11) (0.5)through
F
-

p kr q. -

)weight.

4.1.2.1.1.3 Size Compact gearbox size is important in the achievement of low subsyst;= weight bemause Ibc housing or casinj that enclome the dynamic components contributes a significant proporticni of the total systam However, compaction should not be emphasized to the point of causing excessive oil churn and windage loome to the detriment of efficiency. Ref. 21

noise is 5Isuailj of imporAncc cidy ii, relation to crew, and passenger comfort levelt, whale rotor ttid enoine noise arm the principal contribute,-& to thc auiral dotectability of the helicopter. The funda.mental gearmeshing frequencies. which range from 40 to 22,000 Hz in present-day gearboxes, are the p'impty sources of noise. Refs. 22 and 23 identify thc magnitude of the problem for two helicopters. Tht overall helicopter configuration and the rfaulting number and location of gearboxes dictate the areas nlTfeed by noise; e.g.. a tandem-rowo: helicopter may have its forward transmission located above the crew compartment. resulting in less a'avorable noise conditions in the passenger area, while the reverse may be truer gabxa for a single-rotor configiuration. Gear noise may emanate from the gabxa of forced or resonant vibration of the housing or cases. It then reachca the.-iz-r passengers either direct airborne paths (window&, access panelk, or door seul) or through airframe structural pathways connected to the gearbox mounting system. It is far more efficient and desirable to combat suo& noise at it&source rather than to rely sdely upon the use of insulating and soundproofing coatings or blankets in the crew or passenger compartrients. The latter measures generu~ly add more weifjht than would be needed to make comparable improvement in the problem at its source. Sound insulation also in-I cref sw4 maintenancet man-hours duc to the need fot 44.1

~

--

~---

-

*

1

temoval Of the material during airrrame liaspections.

Also, soundprooflng efforts often are deleatod when
torn or ciI-soked mateirits art removed and never ri~eplcod, The uae of elastomeric isolation mounting devices at the gearbox and hanger bearing supports is highly effective in rnduc'ang structural noise. Airborne noise should be minimized by clintisating any housinp or case resonance through use of proper wall thickness, shape, or internal gear or bearing quill attachmcint methods. While it is virtually impossibl* to calculate these conditions with suffkienrt accuracy in the design stage, they are itlatively easly measured during initial component testing, and corrective redesign then can be undertaken. Modifications in the shape or involute pr ofiles so zs to change drastically the fundamental and harmonic noise content have been investigated analytizally (Ref. 23). However, the slight variation in profile requite to achieve theoretical improvements was judged boyond tLn. p~resent rltinufacturing state of the art Soni't methods for approximate analytical prediction of resonant per* formance for relatively simple structural housing * :ha~ L~ dvaniMd an RC.24 It is not certain that the elimination of all interactin& vibratory and resor..rit behavior in the various gear meshes Is entirely beneficia; i.c., some sacrifice in the efficiency of the lower speed (boundaty lubrication regime) meshes may result. The effects of axial lubrication upon the reduction of tooth-meshing friction is reported int Ref. 25. Although the engineering field of gearbox noise generation is imprecise as yet, there exists considerable general knowledge that can be of practical benefit to the designer. For example, it is known that hnigh contact ratio gearing and finer pitch sizes pro. duce. ess noise than their opposite counterparts. Similarly, helical gears ame quieter then ttraight spurs; spiral bevel gear are quieter than ctraight bevel or Zerol gpars because of their greater inherent contact raitios reduced dynamic increments or waste loads, and increased smoothness of operation. In addition, increased gear tooth backlash and clearance can help to maintain subsonic air ejection velocities fromt blgh-sprtd meshing teeth (Ref. 26). Viscous films between tAtionary bearing rings and housingsi can provide suffikient damping to roduce vibratlon and noise propagation. Coulomb or dry fric* tion devices have been successilul in damping resonat modes in Sea rims and webs, as have high hystaresis materialis clad or bonded to shafts and webs. onthe 4-12.1.2 UdhIEfy A complete general discussion of reliability con4-42

cepts is contained in Chapter 12, AMCP 706-201. Thin paragraph, therefore, deals with specifics as related to mechanical power trantsmission ccmponents of the transmission system. Concept definitions and numerical values for quantitative reliability indices generally are speciriod in procurement documents and, with increasing frm quency, in PIDS. For transmission and drive system design there are two types of indices: I. Values for such characteristics as mission reliability, flight safety reliability, and system reliability rot the entire helicopter (us.ually for a gi-een mission and operational enviroanmcnt). Typical values and methods of expression might be, respectively, 0.90 to 0.99 for ont. hour of misL,.ion time. one failure per 20.0(N) flight hours, and 0.70 to 0,80 probability per mision hour of no system failures requiring unscheduled nainteniance. Because the reliability of the helicopter is a composite of the reliabilities of the individual subsystems, individual reliability levels must be assigned %s targets for the design effort. As an example, assumei the Request for Picoposal (RFO) specified values of 6.98 and 0.9999 (one failure per 10,000 hr)
ur minkimiu and safivt criteria, respectively, The Ai-

lowable apportionment for the drive system would be dependent upon the complexity and type of helicopter, but typical values for this apportionment could well be 0.999 and 0.9999. respectively. Techniques for desigri to these requirements will be addressed in par. 4-2. 2. values for suhsy,6tems and component~s for such characteristics as reliability after storage and mean time between removals (MTBR). Typical values are a maximum of 10% degradation in mean time betweenA failures (MTBF) after storage for six months in approved environment or containers and 1IS0 hr MTBR, including both scheduled and nonscheduled removals. This type .-f index is directly applicable to individual subsystems, including the transmission and drive system. The MTBF values subject to the 10% maximum degradation limit lite those specified implicitly or explicitly in Item 1, i.e.. the 0.90 to 0.99 mission reliability carries the recirrocal meaning of a 10 to' 100 hr MTBF, the one failure in 20,000 hr for flight safety is a statement of 20,000 hr MTORE, and the 0. 70 to 0.80 probability of zero system fail urs per hr implies # 3.3 to 5.0 hr MTBF. The MTBF levels corresponding to the drive subsytcm apportionment in Item I are 1000 hr (0.999) and 10,000 hir (0.9999). respectively. It is important that the designer understand that MTBR arid MTBF criteria discussed previously ~ interrelate in a unique fashion with the subsystem design reliability when a finite timne between over-

(

'

(

.

F)

A&IcP 705-=2
cancellation effecta, leaving a not MTSIF value dofined with sufficient precision to express design reliability rc-quiremenrts. Yh "ft of a given set of gearbox failure data to teepnniiasmto eel eti hrc tcrestxcsofth asysumtemion reveals. cfteoertaingcar sufihenl loprtng, a If syrou in*q m ah teimeci of cetwerotrndwlb bevdasaodfnt erottedwl eosre sann cnsatorireigfiuert.Omoroetisensilive (wearing) compontnts eventually will begin to dominate the failure picture as the end of their tueful life is approached. Generally, those componenits operating in deep boundary layer lubrication regimes W19I be the first to influence the picture. lit such instances the wear will progress to a state wherein conditions become fa'vorable for the occurrence of a failtire mode indigenous to that new set of operating conditions established by the partict'li wear state. Fig. 4-9 gives an example of a well-developed or debugged gearbox with relatively low TRO that satisfies the rancom failure characteristics a:curately dcflned by the exponential distributi.on (Rd. 27). Fig. 4-9 represents a gearbox with a 350-hr
scheduled tria
sn..

Ision

hauls (TBO) is selected. On the astiumption that. n~l transmission and drive system failures are of sufficicnt magnitude (and detectability) tn. force a misto be aborted, and further that no TOO (scheduled removal) reqjuirement is imposed, then it follows that the MTBF owMTBR. The imposed requirement of a 1500hr MTBR would necessitate a failure rate A!• 0.0O004 or a one-hr mission reliability of 0.9933 for the tra 1smission and drive system. The relationships satisfied in the preceding statemenits are: I h and using Maclaurin's form of Taylor's formula R xp~(k
MT
.B

(4-12)

where R =reliability (for a I-hr mission), dirnensionless However, if a 2500-hr TBO level were to be assigned, the I 500-hr MTOR could be satisfied only by a higher reliability number (lower failure ratte). The rclation. . - - --

~bnp

Imuy uti

rpirbbvd ivi bi.0-ha, ivjjaffuw. _A<
AMBR-£ ABO+IM

-A

flf L.. U.. IL-. f

as.

_..--

-

ii

. Cý

a50

I

1,0l

-

I

-1

_

3MB
=

TO+Xr1 B

reliability of 0.9930. However, due to the 350-hr
(4-13) 204 hr.

scheduled removal frequency, the resulting MTDR is Fig. 4.10 from~ Ref. 28 represents the distribution evidenced by a %i~el dc-bugged gearbox with relatively high TBO. In thin caa- the upward inflectiorn or concavity of the data points reveas the strong influence of component wear-out as the TBO level is approached. ISimilarly, Fig, 4-10 represents a gearbox with an I100-hr scheduled TBO, an MTBF of SUP' hr, and a one-hr reliability of 0.9998. Ir~ this cast the scheduled removal frequency results in an MTBR of 904 hr. Obviously, design MTBR and MTBF values sart dependent upon the desiner's knowledge of repro 5entative failure modes and his ability to assign reasonably accurate failure rates. Extensive test and service experience with analogous componewts and subsystem elements is essential in arriving at realistic predictions. There is little published literature to aid the designer, but the selection of components with known lower generic failure rates always should be the objective. It should be recognized that generic failure rates (indicativz of the intrinsic reliability characteristic of any component) cannot truly exist apart from the envirvnment in which the component functions. Some insight into these environmental inlucrnces is given in par. 4-2.1.1. 4-13

AAIBR

-

___00

0.00067
--

XTaO

-

o.00040
2500

-0.00040

Therefore, A. !5 E •B~ :5 0.0027

X ý.o

•! 0.00067

)
-

lic~cthcnc-vbe~ 304hr riditecor TBFmus IT# I "A responding ireliabilty R ;± 0.99973. It is paradoxical that such factois as flight safety reliability and the increased cost of overhaul of a badly degraded gearbox (extensive secondary failures) may fix the TBO interval at a level that in turn rm quires a significant increase in the required MTBF to achieve a specified MTBPR. Relationships defined in this maniier are tacitly assumed to fit a simple exponential failure distribution. This not only simplifies the arithmetic involved, but enables the designer to think directly in terms of the inverse relationships between the number cf detail components comprising the sub-. system and their intrinsic failure rate requirements. Although many individual gefirbox componients are better represented by other distributions - e.g., Weibull, gamma, and lognormal - the averaging effect on the subsystem as a whole is such as to invite

&mill

-

--

0
-

GEAR BOXES SURVEYED -. 73 1
32 -HNUMBER

32

OF FAILURES . 34
-

26TB
-

-A

-

26 TOTAL TIME
0-0----

172,431 hr

,f71 ti--

10
0 12________

00 0 00

1 01

-ii
12E 17.67 2r

0W8

0

04 121010
44 2 6

-'7-

0

4T TOA

OPERATIONAL EXPOSURE TIME;, hr x 10-1
FjS449.

OPERATIONAL EXPOSURE TIME, hr x 10f Flgurs 4-10. Number of Failures vs Hours Slae Operatin. WINF - 9W br

Number of Failues a Hewns Simv 5001 r Overh. - MATSF ow

based upon th. profile of !he design mission; i.e., for Satisactory failure tate estimates for rolling elea mission profil, of n discrete values of bearing load nment boarings may be derived by seeral wethods. P, each occurring for a perorntue a, of the total one simple but sulficient value is: (41) operational time:
INI 5 /~h-I(414
1/3

probability of siurvivl, dimensionless AMC i(4.15) - duuign life or scbeuled renowvatime 100)l (TDo) br where The value for Sis rsd fromthe curve in Fig. 4-11~U corrseponding to doe rtio of dbo design life L to thw0 Although in ma-iy instances the life-load exponent life olo at wbicb i0% of the beauing population will more correctly can betaken as 4. thecube value is rad Tkin#10 value for a gienbern gis determined generally recommended for determinations of failure for the root from the bearing msnufacturW&' data rate A. mean cube AMC load. The applicable AMC load is
-

S L

(.

4-14

XA&P70&202

0.6

*population

I

will have failed by emrplo,41ý'a dispersion exponent, tatii'c of typical h fcopicr geat performance whome

4 Ii *1
0.4

excellent quality control generally results in lower
6ispersion. Very steep slopes frequently Lubrication Regime 1. The life value L2 for 98% reliabilty may be read from Fig. 4-13. a Weibull ~plot. The resultanit failure rate A is then:
X - 0.02/L 2

1

1typify I

(4-16)

0.1
9S.9) 99.9 go .4 98 14 9 9. 99 PROBABILITY OFSURVIVAL S. 9) 94 90

The mean value may be taken as the 50% or median rank foi such steep slopes without losb of significaid accuracy in using Fig. 4-13.
300-

2 GRADEGEAR! 411.02 AGMA
-

FSpot 4-11. Pro-babillly of Survital vs L/81 Ratio 0 Geat failure rates can be determined similarly from design stress levels. Properly designed gears in helicopter appfications will exhibit pitting as the lifelimiting failure mode (pat. 4-2.2.1). The life-stresa-to-4. lationship for gear teeth is far more complex than for arc ighe, more types of ni~ctals and heat treatar mct fare prgevaen, and the elastohydrodynamic and cemical effects of the lubricant are known with less precision Available simss-hfif curves more often than not are aacd upon the mean pitting, or spalling, endurance of an unknown statistical sample (Ref. 29). Intensive is underway by many organi7.ations (ASME R esearch Program on the Relationship of Lubric8-

2D

Th0------ T

200

I

____

IS

01I0 PLIGiecls

K g

Figre 4-12. Spalling Life vs Hertz Stress
WEIBULL SLOP", 5.5 -1
-

Kresearch

-O

ton and Fatigue in Concentrated Contact, for
N'~~~ pit-1i

70
60 4o. --4-

exml)that should result in the preparation of trdifi"ehr that consider lubrication regimes, materials and metallurgy, and sliding speeds. The AGMA data of Ref. 29 reflect usc of a stress-lifec exponent of between 9and 10, whereas values of 5 have been reported (Ref. 30) for operation in Lubrication Regime I (Fig. 4-3). However, in the A!scnce of well-documented, statistically-significant, test date, the AGMA data should be teken as represcntativc o~f most gear applications. Use, of the RMC value of the Hertzian or compressive stress in the contac! area to obtain the

*j
e
I
I

1tos-1

1

'i

~

23
10--f.--

4
-

-

mean spalling life from Fig. 4-12 is satisfactory, al-r

7)

though the quartic mean level has be'n shown to offer excellent correlationi in Lubrication Regime 1.

2-

There are many suitable techniques for reducing

10'

0
$PALLING LIFE. cyoles

0

this life to a value of failure rate A.One rather simple method uses standard Weibull paoper to reduce the mean life to the level L 2 at which 2% of population

Flpre 4-13. WelIulI Me - Spalifq Life vs Gear Popula"o Rank

AWP 7Q2
41-1,1.1.3 Maaimalahlty A gcnoral discussion of maintainability may be found in Chapter i, ,k MCP 706-201. This discussion, therefore, treats considerations relating specifically to the transmission and drive system. The basic concept of maintainability often is expressed as a requirement for a specific or maximum number of maintenance man-hours per flight hour (MMH/FH). Army helicopters of a few decades ago exhib~ted values as high as 35 MMH/FH while helicopters in the present Army inventory have values ranging from 0.5 for the OH-58 (Ref. 31) to 6.5 MMH/FH for the CH-54 (Ref. 32). Small helicopters as a rule show better maintainability values than the larger, more complex machines. However, the values for any given size of helicopter may vary by 300% depending upon design variables. Current RFP requirements arc in the range of 5 MMH/FH for medium-sized, twin-engine helicopter for organizational, direct support (DS), and general support (GS) maintenance levels combined. A value so stated must be apportioned in turn (par. 4-1.2.1.2) to the various subsystems to establish individual design goals. Achicvcmunt of sadisfactoui-y -aitai•-ability levels is dependent upon two factors: I. High component reliability (par. 4-1.2.1.2) 2. Ease of maintenance, Mainteinance is generally thought of as comprising two categories: nonscheduled (due to random failure or accident), and scheduled (due to time change of

-

or clamps. !t also should be emphasized that true leveling of •lte helicopter is seldom achieved for comnponent change at the direct support level. Therefore, when heavy components neceLitate the use of hoisting devices, extra care must be taken in the design of algnment devices and structural cicarancs, so as to reduce maintenance effort. External shaft seals always should be essembled in easily vemovable housings or holders to permit bench changing of the seal element. Squareness, alignment, and cleanliness practices all are critical to the proper performance of a seal and are difficult to achieve when the seal element must be changed in place. The shaft upon which the seal operates also must be easily removabie because good practice requires that the shaft be slipped into the previously installed seal, allowing the use of adequate shaft lead chamfers to minimize the danger of seal damage. It also is desirable to have the shaft engaged with the driving spline or some other guiding device prior to making contact with the seal to prevent excessiv sidc loading of the seal. The attachment of all external components should be such that one man can remove all fasteners and similar items. Two examples of poor design that require unnecessary manpower are: I. Bolt-and-nut fasteners through structure where one man cannot reach wrenches on both elements. Tapped holes on nut plates are proper solutions even though a larger number of cap screws may be required because their rigidity or strength may be lower

r

". •-

wear-out components, interim servicing, and inspections). However, all maintenance. concerned with componer.t change is discussed herein as a group. The generic failure rates of many external comat,,ch Donents in the drive sytem rre that !h, cnm-

than that of a bolt-out joint.
2. Components that one man must hold while another installs fasteners. Possible solutions include the use of guide pins, longer pilot flanges, slotted
,-.aran-.,, hnl,.
r-t,,nn n. ,rt -r.n.. .. h

r.;•

portents may be ranked in order of required frequcncy of removal or adjustment. Components such as hydraulic and electrical accessories, rotor brakes, shaft seals, external hanger bearings, and drive shaft couplings require relatively frequent inspection or maintenance and must be designed for ease of removal and installation. Accessibility is the key criterion Such components must not be located too close to one another, and adequate wrench clear"ances must be provided for standard tools, Subsystem components such as g-arboxes are generally not maintained at the field or direct suppori level and, therefore, they must have simple and accessible attachments with structural clearances adequate to permit easy removal and replacement. The usc of integral guide pins or tapered dowels is rccoinmended in any case where heavy components must be aligned for the installation of mounting screws, bolts, 4-16

tion devices to secure the component temporarily.1
Components that require a specific orientation to function correctly should be designed so that they can be installed only in that position, if possible. When this is not practicable, as in dhe case of some Government-furnished electrical accessories, decals may be ustd at the pad location to provide insiallation instructions. Examples of one-way components are seal housings with drain fittings, hydiaulic pumps that require line connection fitting orientation, and bearing hangers. Components that require tight-fitting pilot bores or similar devices should be provided with jacking pads for removal. One man can operate two or three jack screws (tightening each one a little at a time), whereas their omission might necessitate the use of two men to pry simultaneously on both sides of a component (and possibly a third man to catch the

_A

*AMC,
- -component
*.

706-2012
rankings given reWate primarily to other maintenance factors on the specific helicopter listed, and are not to be interpreted as relating the workload on one bali-. copter model to that of another. 4-1.1.4 Survlivabllly Survivability in transmission and drive syste. operation may be defined as the capability to susstain damage without forced landing or mission abort and to continue safe operation for a specified period of time, usually sufficient to rctunn to home base or, as a minimum, to friendly territory. The damage may occur from either internal component failure due to wear, fatigue, or use of a deficient or inferior component; or a hit by hostile forces. The current Army requirements generally define the period of time for safe operation after damage as a minimum of 30 min i at conditions within the maximum power and load envelope, except in the case of total loss of the lubrication subsystem; the acceptable maximum power level for safe operation upon loss of lubrication is generally reduced to that required for sustained flight at the maximum range speed at sea level standard condition. Survivability tollowig internal com.pOont failure can be enhanced through such detail design practices as identification of primary failure modes, and using configurations and arrangements to asure kindly failure modes and to limit f-ilure progression rates. Attention also must be given to the elimination or metardation of secondary failures causad by primary failure debris, and to providing for j.3sitive failure detsection long before a critical condition is reached. Safe operation with this type of damage normally can be achieved for durations of 30 to 100 hr. Design
techniques applicable to this goal are discussed in

when it breaks f(we). Proper performance of scheduled maintenance tasks such as inspection and servicing is dependent to some extent upon acsuibility and convenience, Inspections that are convenient and of a go-no-go nature are likely to be performed cin time aid with accuracy; those thut require considerable quantitative judgment may bc missed or interpreted incor-

t

',
,'. -- t

reedly,
For example, the presence of vital fluids in all gtarboxes, transmissions, and other reservoirs should be discernible from ground level without opening of complex cowlings. Min-max oil levels should be used to eliminate the nccd for topping off, and the minimum level should be exactly one or two quarts below the maximum whenever possible to discourage the practice of saving half a quart of oil in an open can. The minimum level should be such as to allow completion of several additional hours of operation at the maximum likely oil consumption rate so as to eliminate the need for adding oil when the level is near minimum, While accurate values of maintenance times for transmission and drive system components are not
*

*

A -

K
¾

S

5

data are helpful in identifying present troubleome areas. Table 4-1 presents maintenance workload factots relative to drive subsystems (Ref. 33). The TABLE 4-1. US ARMY HELICOPTERS TRANSMISSION AND DRIVE SYSTEM ONLY MAINTENANCE WORKLOAD (Ref. 23)
-

U.flI,,=FE,.

,v, S•.,,t'.t ,au ,

n,,ll) ,l.,,Wpf..,,

p-ua.aavu

*OR K LOAD RATING

PRO6LEMTITLE
U A TAIL ROTOR DRIVE SHAFT INPUT DORIVESHAFT OH S ROTOR DRIVE ,SHAFT TAIL TAIL GEAROTO

VERY I II
HG

I
4

I

,V
LOW[

j

LO* 4

ocoincident
IU

X
x

pars. 4-2.1, 4-2.4. and 44.3. Survivability in cases of combat hits is considered

nial

practice is to design a complete helicopter sur-

with the reduction of vulnerability. Nor-

I

vivability-vulnerability program plan in accordance X
x

INPUT DRIVE SHAFT Ail IG I,'LUT OUILL OIL SEAL ("1 4?I
SY NCHRONIZ ING OR IVE

with ADS-I l. This plan will include many elements peculiar to the transmissici and drive system. A good program plan requires the active participation of the
responsible transmission and drive system design acX

SHAF I
OIL PRESSURE

x

TRANSDUCERS CH 54
OIL COOL ER ASSE MBLY V

tivity to assure practicable approaches with miniriun penalties in &!ive system performance, weight, and
cost.

LC MAIN GEARBOX CARBON SEALS ROTOR DRAKE SEAL AL;Y

"INPUT
-

X
X

Reduction of helicopter detectability and the defeat of specified ballistic threats are important elements in vulnerability redt tion. With regard to deX
x

ROTOR BRAKE SLJPPORT

ASSEMBL V ROTOR DRAKE DISK

tectability, the primary area of concern in the cas of

ROTOR BRAKE PUCKS

the drive system is noise Wpar. 4-1.2.1.1.4). While the mower irquency noise levelsare basically associatd1

'with the rotor and/or tail rotor and propeller. the highiev frequencies are generally attributable to the transmission and drive, and propulsion systems and their accessories, Typical Army requirtments specify a maximum scund pressure level for helicopter hover and fly-by at &specific distance from the flight path. Desge Soals for appropriate frequtrncies and sound prossuore@ are given in Table 4-2. Noise level survey iriquirements are described in Chapter 8, A MCP 706203. Design techniques to secure external as well as internal gearbox noise reduction are discussed in par. 4-1.2.1.1.4. defeat of ballistic threats must be accompliahed for smaller caliber ordnance and damage minimized as much as possible for the larger calibers. Depending u~pon requirements peculiar to the mission, the drive system components must he cap&6k of withstanding a single ball or armor-piercing .,762-mm ballot at 2550 fps, aligned or fully tumbled, striking at any obliquity at any point in the system. *,TM 75-dog solid angk of the upper hemisphere (with
-Complete

the collector par in the main gearboc or combin~ing gearbox t-sually arc excluded from the survivability requirement by nature of their functional duplication, provided that: I.- No single projectile can kill all duplicated power paths 2. A single power-path kill cannot cause secon-t dary failure of the duplicated power paths due to firagmentation of the first. These two criteria can be tatisfied by: 1. Physical separation of the drive paths sufficient to reduce the impingement angle within which a single proj~iccr can produce a multiple kill 2. Sufficic. !size and strength of the killed-path component to attenuaste the projeenile velocity below the kill thre~hold for the second path component 3. Use of structure between the paths to confine a fragmented or loose component to its immcdiate locale 4. Use of armor to confine fragments or prevent projectile impact.
eguaeu

larger ordnanca for %.hich damage minimization

should be considered is 23-mm high explobive: inisbMaCh otimotn n f Ilt cen~iry(HI) sighet iechnique for reducing vulnerabilty. Manly slihtconfiguratior, changes can increese surviva. avilbleto Thaspeifi tchnque he esgne to Thespeifi tehnqueo he esinerto avilale bility greatly with jut serious compromise of efw~ee the stated requirements include: fcecwiho ot I. RdundncyFor example, case hardened gears with tough, 2. Desigi configuration fracture-resistant core structure have surjplisingly 3. Self-sealing oil sump materials 4. ubrcatin cnsidratonsgood toleranct to ballistic damage. Spiral bevtl gears Eergncy 4. Armor.ec lurctocnieain and planetary gears, used effectively throughout the drive train of rimall and medium helicopters Ure inAa 0

Y
.

vulnerable to the 7.62-mm threat. Planetary ring
gears may be penetrated so that the planet idler gearsX. cannot mesh at a particular segment, but the remaining Sears pick up the overload necessary to continuc normal power transmission. The melatively high contact re jos and coarser pitch of spiral bevel gears t a facto~s that make them particularly resistant to failure from loss of a single tooth segment. Narrowface spu.- gears (less than 0.5 in.) c;an be a problem, and, therefore, it is desiroblc to use greater face widths in all primary po-wer paths. Experience. with 12 7-ns. 'n ammunition is less extengeneral observations hold true with a slightly larger scale ol' reference. Glear rimns, webs, and integral

Redundancy is typified by multiple engine configurations. In thesm configurations all individual drive subsystemn components between the engines and TABLE 4-2. EXTERNAL NOISE LEVEL
#X rERNAL NOISE LEVEL

o

IFREOJENCY. Hz BANDi CUJTEW

SOUNDOPRESSURE LEVEL, CB PER CE VE I 0

44.7-89.2

0.-78 M&f
709 1.410
1.4110-2.9m

OVEALLsosive 63 12

oc
(1000 .. 2000

85 5 88
86portioned 851

than with the 7.62-mini projetiles, but the same

outer-race sections of planetary idlers should be pro-

2AZI5.833

4000)

L~~i 5,2111,222

oo
SNCILS

76 72

'ONvIFSSEM P psW

'NWA

CETE FREQENCY (DETERMINED EMPIRICALLY)

such that a ricochet entering the mesh will deform, fracture, or crack the gcar teeth rather than A the tooth supporting structure. Extensive observation of main rotor gooarboxes damaged by 7.62-mm /

ball -and arurnr-pimrinS (AP) anmulinition

tv

AMMP 7W~202 shown the digsctive capabilities of conventional hel;copter gec~ring to be quite adequate to discharge the "spm bullet insto the oil sump without functional failure or the power transmission systrmn. Integral gear shafts quill shafts, and external intercon~nect or tail rotor drive shafts must be of au1Tficient diameter to withstand edge hits from fully tumbled bullets without failure. In thin-wall alumiinum shafts operating with a minimum of 20% margin on first whirling critical speed, an extc.-nal diameter of 3.0 in. is sufficient to defeat the 7.62-mm threat whil- a 4.0 in. diarantecr is necessary to defeat the 12.7-mm threat. Steel shafti-i may be considerably smaller depending upon the wall thicknms employed. Of course, in event of damage the remainin& portion of th~e shaft must have sufficient strength to transmit the required maximum torquc.If the column buckling torque is 300% or more above this torque, &simple shear-stress calculation of the remaining post-impuct area is sufficient. However, when the buck inS margin islevas, it isgenerally necessary to conduct real or simulated ballistic tests to demonstrate the adequacy of the design. Note that it is undesirable to increase diameters excessively sincc vulnerability is then increased for fuzed round threats. Most ball and roller bearings are fabricated from through-hardened steels and. consoqoently, usually will fracture through the outer ring when struck by a bullet at nt.ar-ero obliquity. The outnouncling case and liner s~tucture serve to expend sorie of tha kirsetic energy of the bulict; however. cony ontional thickntsse of these structures gsterally are insufficient to prevent fracture of the bearing ring. Orientation of the rolling elements of the bearing at the instant of impact has much to do with the ring fracture mode. A zero obliquity hit between rolling elements fraquently will discharge a double-fractured "pit-slice" ring segment into the bearing, while an nligned hit often produms a single outer rikig fracturc and frequently fractures the roll~ni element so well. When the des.Sn allows, a space between the outer gearbox wall and portion of the housing supportiag the bearing liner ind ring is effective in reducing bearinb damage. P~as space provides a place for the spa?'ling debris from the initial impact to txpand and eject,

DUPLEX BALL BEARINGS

ROLLER BEARINGS

Figur 4-14. Typical Tall Rotor Gearbox

-

Vulnerable 4-19

*uRAP 706-202__ thereby reducing the impact shock on the bearing Ving, Some insight into useful design techniques may be gained front examining three configurations of a sitnpie, spiral bevel gear. 90-deg tail rotor gearbox as used on most helicopters with single main rotors. Fig. 4.14 is a schematic representation of a typical minimum-weight design featuring overhung pinion and pear mountings, designated as Configuration I The pinion and gear are both in overhung mountings supported by duplex bail and cylindrical rollcr bearings. A single 7.62-mm hit on any ont of the four bearings probably would not result in instant functional failure; the boaring would continue to orcrate for some time because the considerable driving torque would bre~k up and eject the relatively frangible rjis.~ng elements and cage of the damaged bearing, Howtver, direct hits on either the pinion cylindrical roller bearing or the duplex ball bearing supporting the geau would soon result in excessive loss Of geAr

_____

mesh position. As the ci fectivc: radial clearance of either of these bcatings increased with the resulting rapid bearing deterioration, the operating backlash of' the gear tecth similarly would increasc while the depth of tooth engagemcitt would decrease correspondingly. The probability of the gear teeth skipping mesht or breaking off upon application of sip nificant yaw control would be gkcat. Hits on thc outboard bearings would yield far lower probability of gear miesh failatrc. Configuration 2 is shown schematically in Fig. 415. The beval gear set it; identical to that of Conifiguration 1. Pairs cof the same types of bearings used in Configuration I are now used to straddle mount both pinion and geAr membtrs. In this configuration the increasing radial clearanctc in any bearing sustaining a hit wifl result in less dectrioration of the gear mesh. with a corresponding decerase in tlte probability of gear fetilurc upon sudden yaw control input. A gear-

box of this configuration designed for tail rotor

CONFIGURATION 2

7'

~ROLLLO BEARINC-

r7

DUPLEX BAL.L BEARINGS

Flgvrt 4-15. Tail lRotor Gearbox 4-20

-

7.62 mm Proof

At

AMCu±706202
steady hover power of morm than 150 hp wo-ald bc jiudged capable of the required 30 min operation subsequent to a 7.62-mm bullet impact. However, the probability or functional failure after receiving a 12.7-mm h would be quite high unless the beating U and Sear components were inordirsati'iy large. Configurption 3 is shown schematically in Fig. 416. This configuration has bee arranged to defeat 12.7-mm threats with far less weight penalty than would be incuticd by oversixing the elements of Configuration 2. The overhung mouanting of Configuration I and the straddle mounting of Configuration 2 have been couinbined in this redundant or composite system. Both pinion and gear members are supported by two conventional cylindrical roller bearings and one duplex ball bearing pair. Emergency thrust shoulders art. incorporated on the shafts adjacent to the integfal roller bearing inner raceways. Sufficient axial cekarance should be provided betweeni thec roller elements and the inner racv thrust shoulders or flanges to preclude contact under normal operation conditions (including extreme cold when the light alloy housings have contracted roeitivt to the steel shafL4. H*A#ever, upon functional failure or either duplex ball bearjug. emergency axial locaition is provided by theae thrust flanges. Wse of a w thiec-bearinS systcam p, .- its total functional losit of any one bearing without seriously compromising the operating parameters of the gear meah, however, bearing alignment becomes more critical. As a result, one bearing of thc three-boaring system must be designed with greater ikiterna! -clearance than normal. The spiral bevel gear set shown in Fig. 4-16 has been enlarged slightly relativen *o the geai set shown in thea prior two configurations to derreace vulnerability to 12.7-mrn hits directly ini the gear elements. While numerous other configurations and types of bearings can be used to accomplish the same objectives, the logic used to providte inherent survivability itrnains unchanged. Simailar principitct should goivern the design of the entire dr-'ve subsystem. Their npplication, of coursc, beco~mes more involved as tae complexity of the gtearbox design increases. All shaft couplings, joints, hanger bearings or

.

*

I
W IT)

ow'CONFIGURATION

3
-

7

D'DU:LEX BALL BEARINGS

Figure A-1,6. Tall Rotor Gear'sox

-12.7

mrm Proof
4-21

13illow block hoirsiwigs, Warotor and intermcdiatc

4-112.1.44 FAmwgsuy Lubricadorn

lyjain gearbxec, and input/output quaill asiemblies tmust be j ined, retained, or mounted wit~h a sufificiamt numaber of redundant fasteners to preclude
loss of function fiomt a single proje1cil. For well

.4prldattachment points, four fusicners ofttit suf-

`-'ic. oveve. otatins shaft joints ard ocaplings ýoften require six or morm fasteners. Frequent UKC Of -flanges, ribs and abrupt scetion changei; in castings, housings. it 1 simiiar structures providc effcti-vc 'stoppage of %.nckprapagatioia, while enhancing heat rejection to the. atmosphere. Internal ribs in Oil SUMP areas are desirable because or the ponsibility of cracking by hydraulic ram effect in the oil as well as by projectile impac. 4-1.2.11A.3 Sgif-" alig Su*4w Another design tecltirtiqw involves the use of selfsealing materiash in the gearbox oil sumlp area. The Inost efficitrnt material now available is defined as Type It ina MIL-T-5579, Thi* rubberized self-scaling compound originally was developed for fuel cells and can be fabricated to defeat either the: 7.t~2-rnm or the 12.7-mm threat. Another excellent defense material for 7.62-mmn threat is a cast urethane coating approximately 3/8 in. thick. With the latter material, the decin of the sump should be relutively silmple, as in a casting cope where the drag may 1 witharawn -t without usc of breakaway core prints The cast coating contracts after pouring aad high residual comprersive stresis rcsults. This prestressed resilient coat then shrinks to close completely the hole lei's by the piercing bullet. The coating is relatively dense (2.0 2 lb/ft for the 7.62-mm throat), and also serves as an excellent beat insulator and noisc and vibration damper. Its density is such that the rurface. area to be coated should be kept to a minium to reduce the sittendant penalty on -sizing of the oil cooling system. Flat shallow oil pans and st-mps often provide the most efricieni configurations. The verious shaft seals must be designed so that a direct bit cannot cause all the oil to leak from a gearbox. This may be accomplished by using acnribbing labyrinth or slinger seals in #eries with the conventioaial contacting face- or lip-type of seat and by limiting the o-; flow rate at the inboard seal fecc to a minimum,.i Where external olcoolers and lines are used, current specifications often require the use of emergency o, :%ut-off valves to divert the oil dircctAly back to the transmission lubrication distributien system in thecevent of a cooler or line hit, thus preventing total loss of oil. One s3uch devicc is defined it. Ref. 34. 4-22

1, ic preferred method of reducingl vulnerability is to assure fail-afe or emergency lmbrication in the event of total lows of thz normal luboicant sup*l This rANNhty must all'iw continued. Wae operatior for 30 min at minimum cruise power at mnission 9TSS
weight. Oil dams. wicks, and other itemns o e tain'n a minansum oil supply in the critical bearing areas are simple techniques to employ. Bell sind roller bearing cages may be fabricated ftom sacrificially wearing. self-lubricating composite ma~terial~s (Ref. 35) such as polyimides, Tefloni-filled Fiberglas matrices, and silver-plated, high-temnperature steel. The US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories (BRL) has clemonstrateo composit etilc gears that wear off on meshing drive gears, thus providing aform or geak. tooth lubrication (Ref. 36). Ref. 37 reports a successful applicaetion of a grease developed specilically for helicopter gear and bearing lubrication. However, the nnomal lubricants (M I .L7808 or MIL-L-23699) serve the cquc!!y important fuinctions of reducing fricticn and cooling. Ref. 38 desribes the reauiremeni that ihcrtnai cmuiiibriurn for the nrw "dtry" running condition be established to achieve 30-mmn safe operation aftet loss of the cooling oil. The equ.ilibrium can be established. only by main-K tami-ij adequate ruaning clearances and backlash in the bearings aa4d gears in the presence oC the therm. l gradients that exist in 2he "dry" condit.,on, with its alteredl frictional hWit sourcei and modified conduction, radiation, and convective hetat rejection vaths. The emergency "friction reducing" lut-ricants can be of value in austa..uing safe operation only in such a case. If a gear or bearing loses running clearance., a rapidly degenerative sequence of events results, in catastrophic failure. Loss of' operating clearance results in abnormally high he-at generation because the gear tceth and bearings operate under interferenc conditions with attendant overloads. Ti heat generation in turn produces an increase in the therinal gradients, resulting in a f'irther increase in overload and interferencc until the bearings sei;Le Or the gear teeth #, so hot the*.1 they undergo plastic failure. Specific metl..od& of preventing such occurrence arc discussed in par. 4-4.4-3. The general recomrmended design proceduic (Ref. 38? is as follows: 1. D'ouign for minimal frictional lesses commensuratc wita available manufactuiing ability. 2. Ca' culatc (frictional !osses for the "dry running" regime. An average friction coefficient 1 0,16 is suggested for the first approximation. Use ihis value with the mean values for sliding velocity, and load in the Psta meshes and bearing contact areas.

~

5

A

. ''

AL"~ 706=2O
3. Construct a thermal map with probable steadystate "dry running" tunparature gradients. 4. Redesign &I:gear Otbo bimfing elements to provide some clearance under the mopped gradients, Acdded clearance should be provided at high-rate frictional heating sources to accommodate transient conditions. For example, relieving clearance will not be provided by expansion of the gear cane until the increased heat generated by dry operation has beated ONe can. 5. Use materials with adequate hot hardness and frictiou properties for thermally vulnerable cornponents. 6. Provide self-lubrication cf bearings where possibin. Methods include the use of suitable cage materials or the use of appropriately located wick devimes 7. Re-caiculste bearing lives and Sear strc~aes for the increased clearance conditions occurring during operation in the normal lubrication regimc. AdJust design parameters accordingly; i.e., increase face widfts o:-pitch of glear memibei s, along with bearing capacities, as required. 44.2.143is In soecasesitmyb approl~riate. to employ armo lt oprotect the vunml opnn.Ti design technique is the least.preferted bemause it adlds weight. increases maintenance Ptsk times, and penalizes the full-time payload. In such applications, integratl armor is prcferred over parasitic or bolt-on armor. Not only is the weight penalty slightly less with integral armor, but the pitfalls of increasing payload at the expetise of armor rrpnvai will he eliffinated. For most anplications dual-hasrdhess steel armor will be the moat efficient type to integrato because it can be rolled, welded, bolt-fastened, or integrally cast. Design of armnor installations is discussed iki detail in Chapter 14. 4-1.2.2 Dii'. System Ccwsulgurstllm The specific requirementa for the drive system are dictated by the dctailasd configuration layout and vehicle requirements. AMCP 1,06-201 sets forth the evolution of an zpproved preliminaty design con. 11Suration, which will include detailed requirements for transmission subsystem power input and output drives; i.e., the speeds, powers, location, and relative orientation of these driives. Typical configuration requkirements for existing Army helico'flers are discusavd further in the paragraphs that follow. 4-.L MiS~ri Rotor Drive tGyseaii Ma6l The ma~jority of helicopiprs in current use are of the
__ __

single main rotor configuration and are powered by either one or two 1~n..A shaft-driven, singlelifting-roto'r heicopter always employs antitorque reaction and thrust device to counteract main rotor driving torque and to provide yaw control for helicopter maneuverabilityr. A shaft-driven tail rotor tocatod at the aft end of the talboomn and arranged as eithtr a pusher or a tractor propeller is used most com.inonly. The tail rotor shaft is driven throu3h a 90-deg bevel gear set that ir. turn is driven from the main rotor gearbox by a long drivtsliaft or series of coninected driveshaftc. Thea power takeoff froir thc main rotor gearbox for the tail rotor is gear'ed to the main rotor drive downstream of the output sido of the freewheeling or overrunning. clutch iocated between the engine(s) and the main rotor gearbox; this arrangement permits full yaw maneuver capability during auto-.rotation or engine-out operation. Accessory drive requirements vary extensively and are dependant upon the primary vehicle mistion and helicopter size. These drives muy be miounted on the main gearbox or isolated in an accessory gearbox that driven by r shaft ftom the maiL, gaorbox. Secon-

*

rotor driveshaft. Table 4-3 identifieb certain coniuaincharacteriktics for the single main rotor helicop~ters io cumr-nt Army use. iiiIt should bte viimc that accessary creasc with the sir.ý of thto helicopler. Lighti oli*4Lvation helicopters (LOH's) havo few accessory requ~reinents and 1,asibly no drive ,-dundancy. Ingr. ;nra, these helicopters may be flown safely without hydraulic booet of the flight controls, and the battery suffices for emeigency clectrical supply in the evmit of failure of th.- engine-driven gencrat.)r. Utility helicopters (UH) frequently require redundant hydraulic ptimp and electrical generator drives due to the magnitude of the rotor control loads and the increased clectrical loads attendant upon the larger amounts of inatrumeititation, electronics, and mission-essntial equil'ment. Cargo helicopters (f'H) often must havt auxiliary power unit (APU) for ground operation and checkout of electric-al and hydraulic subsystems. It is cornmon practicc to employ an indepnder~t aomssofy gearbox driven througN over-running clutches fromt both APU arnd main rotor gearbox to permit acprto rm te oe ore csr
.'qvircrrmnts

ý

4-12.2.2 M1ihftlHU-raost Dulee Systems Multilifting-rotor helicopters have beer designeJ and test" in many configurationas - suchv,4 fere and
-4-23

TABLE 4-3. HIELICOPTER DRIVE SUBSYSTEMS
MAIN ROTOR GEARBOX REDUCTION STAGES S SPEE11 rpm
____M.H. ENIN OTPT PU POWER., SPR hp

-

SINGLE MAIN ROTOR
TAIL ROTOR AND ACC'Y DRIVE DATA

1

SPIRAL BEVEL.

PLANElARY

SPEED,

T.R. SP6EO

ACC'Y

IN1 MED. G.. 11 NONE NONE 1:1

rm'DRIVES
-

'R.G .6. RATIO

SINGLE ENGINE 01+OHOH-58 UH-1IAH-1 G

6,000 6,180 6,600

312 312 1,400

NONE NONE NONE

2 1 1

NONE 1 2

456 354 324
_____

2,4 6.0130' 4,301

0.67:14 2.35:1 2.6:1

TW!N ENGINE UH-1N CH-3 6,600 18,966

CH+63
CHZ4 L

13,600

j2,500 j7.560

1,800

A
NON4E
NONE

1 1

2 1

324 203

4,302 %,030

3

1:1 1:1 1.22:1

2.59:1 2.44:1

2
2

2
2

185
185

9,000j 7,S00

J

j3

010
3,020

,j1.31:1

2.91:1
2.91:1

~

NOT ES: NE'~JRATOR. GE~ovs SONE ACE 550H Y PAL) LIN MAIN l..iARJibA, 4,20u rpm. FOR GEARBOX. 4,200 rpm, TACHOMETER GENERATOR AND HYDRAULIC ONE ACCESSORY PAD ON MAIN PUMP jN SERIES. 40OR 5 PADS ON MAIN a3EARBOX; 2 OR 3..,200 rpm FOR TACHOMETER GENERATOR AND 1 OR 2 HYDRAULIC PUMPS; 2.6.300 rpm OR 1 EACH 6,600 AND Z,000 rpm, DC GENERATOR, ALTERNATOR, COOLING FAN' DEPENDING ON CONF IGURATION. 2 AC GENERATOR. 8,000 ipm; 3 HYDRAULIC PUMPS; 3,700 rpm, 2 LUBE PUWPS. 2,50O AND 3.7G0 rpm;4. AND TACHOMIETER GENERATOR, 3,900 rpm. ACCESSORY G.B. POWER TAKEOFF, 6,020 rpm; SERVO Pump. 4,600 rpm. TACHUMETER GENERATOR. 4,200 rpyn. Ah2 ACCESSORY GENERATORS, 8,000rpm; 4 4YDRAULIC PUMPS, 2 4,300. 1 EACH 3,700 AND) 3,200 rpm; AUXI L IAR Y SE R 10 PULMP., 3,70U rpm. COMBINING GEARBOX APPROXIMATELY 5:1; 1 SPUR AND 2 HELICAL S'AGES 1 S'nUR AND 1 HELICAL STA.GE.

±ENGINE

aft dispowAu, laterally disposed, coaxial, and quadrilateral main rotor arrangements. All of these layouts

*

rotors to cancel the torque reactions and hence eliminate the requirement for nonlifting antitoi que device. All multirotor helicopters require rotor syr.chronization, which usually is accomplished by interconnect shafting between the individual main rotor &eaboxes, or by dual-oitput reversing reduction I;LtrinS in the cms of the coaxial confiaguration. In instance whert separate ewgines are located et each miain rotor 6tarbox, the crossshafting supplies power to each rotor for engine-out operation. In an~y instance, the intecmonnect drive is essntial to safety 4-24

feature counter-rotation of even numbers of main

of flight, requiring reliability comparable to that of the nizin rotor mast and thrust bearing. The interconnect drivz is located downstream from thc engne free-wheling clutches. The only multiliffin,' -rotor helicopter in current use by the US Army is the tandem-rotor CH-47. This helicopter fcatures twin engines of 2650 hp at 15.160 rpm. The engines are located in outboard nacelles high on either side of the aft third of the fuselage. They drive directly into 94)-deg reduction r,0_'TboXes that drive into a combining gearbox alko with 90-dg shaft angle spiral bevel geaA. T\,%oombining box is an integral part of the interconnect syr..hronizing drivc to the forward and aft rotor gearboxes.11ese

*,,

..

.

.

t

.

xt AMCP

-, ,7 -0

20

rotor gearboxes each feature a sih0lc spiral bevel and two planetary reduction stages with final output At 230 rpm. Thaccessori¶ arc all located at the aft main rotor gearbox and consist of oil cooler bir.wcr, two ckctrical gciucrators, and two hydraulki pumps. 4-11.23 Compomi HICellOpl Drive Systems Compound helicopters arc those that use cuxiliary propulsion devices other than the main liftng rotors in the forward flight mode. The majority of such designs have featured a single main lifting rotor, an antitorque rotor, and tither turbojet engines or shaftdriven propellers for auxiliary propulsaon. The only compound helicopter to undergo development test or Army use has been the AH-56. It was powered by a single 3450-hp engine driving directly into the main rotor gearbox. A spiral bevel gear stage, a compound planetary, and a simple planetary provide the reduction gearing for the main rotor. A spur takeoff located at the engine input to the main rotor gearbox drove a shaft running along the top of the tailboon,. This shaft drove the pusher propeller at the ead of the tailboom directly; and through a 90-deg shaft angle spiral bevel gear set also drove the antitorque rotor. Accessories were mounted at the main rotor gearbox and consise.d of two hydraulic pumps and a high-speed generator.

simply to achieve longer life of drive system corponents. Sufficient cycles will be accumulated at the 5-mirn rating during the service life of the drive subsystem to require the same bendiutp fatigue gear design, i.e., infinite life, as would be required for a continuous ratig at the same red-line limit. Although a 5-min drive system rating does not usually impair the operatianal capability of a helicopter with a typical speed-power relationship (Fig. 4-17), current Army specifications include a continuous drive sytem rating. A typical requirement would be a continuous rating of the main transmnission equal either to 120% of the power required to hover out-ofground-effect (HOGE), zero wind, at the density altitude defined by 4000-ft pressure altitude and 950F, or to 100% of the intermediate power rating of the engine(s) at sea level and 95°F. The effects of power ratings upon life, overhaul, and selection of standards are discussed in the paragraphs that follow. 4-13.1 Power/Wfe tuteatleo, The mechanical failares of interest to the drive subsystem designer usually exhibit a definite relationship between life and power. The life-limiting failure mode of primary concern for a developed and serviceable gearbox is pitting or spa,:,iig of the gears and bearinbs (par. 4-2.1). However, the life/power relationship for this mode of failure is not reckoned with easily due to the many tacters that govern the

I
L

-

i'

"4-1.3 TRANSMISSION DESIGN AND RATING
CHARACTERISTICS
All elements, components, and subassemblies of

the transmission and drive system are subject to varying degrees of wear, abuse, fatigue, and other environmental hazards. In many instances, ,tandard components will provide acceptable performance for a given drive system design at a savings in cost, ease specially designed components. However, the designer must have a thorough understanding of the likely failure modes o; standard components (pars. 42.1 and 4-2.2) and the pertinent life-load ow lifeenviromrment reldtionships.
It is customary to specify an input torque limit for

35')-

['I

-

1_
_00

k

.41!

I..__

C0- T-

2

• 0'•-" 5 . ."
I5D-

a helicopter main rotor gearbox. Indicated to the pilot by a torquemctcr red-line, this limit may be lower than the sea-level-standard rating of the engie~s.._
engine(s).

,
-

)

-

DESIGNj GROSS T W

-MAX. ALT. GR

,

Depending upon such factors as helicopter type and design mission, the red-line torque usually is specified as a continuous rating, or, in rare instances, a 5-min rating. A 5-min limit may be specified for •energency operation only. A time limit is imposed because sufficient cooling capacity is not available for extended operation, lubricants may be degraded, or

..

.

0o

6

90 120 AIRSPft.. ki

ISO

ISo

210

Figure 4-17. Typical Speed-Power Function 4-25

rdationship. The metal chemistries, heat treatnments, lubricants, loads, specific iliding ratios, velocities,
temperatures, geometric shape,, surface textures and roughnesses gearbox deflections, and lubricant chemistry (including water content, and other contaminants) all influence the life of the surfaces in contact, or more properly, in conjunction. It is not unusual to observe dramatic life differences between two supposedly identical gearboxes when but one of the given variables is changed by manufacturing scatt•r, operating variability, system wear, or en,ironmental factors. In a complex system of gears and mixed bearing types, it is generally acceptable to use Miner's rule of cumulative damage in a simplified form for life prediction. A representative root-mean-cube power ievl is calcu!ated from the assigned mission profiles using Eq. 4-15. The value of compressive, or Hertz, stress S,. corresponding to the RMC power or load is then calculated, and the life determined from an applicable S-N curve,

The Hertz-stress/life relationship varies significantly (Fig. 4-18). Each function shown results from
data representing a particular set of design and operating variables. The wide variance among these functions emphasizes the danger in the use of a Hertz-stress/life function without consideration of the assumptions and test conditions. Because calculated Hertz stress is an exponential function of load, little generality is lost by Rssuming exactness for the RMC life-load relationship and selecting an appropriate classic or modified stress-life function to predict the life of any particular con junction whose variablc3 are most nearly represented by the chosen function. As an example of the selection and application of an RMC power, consider the three-mission profile spectra shown in Fig. 4-19. The UH- IH and AH-IG power histograms were constructed from flight recorder data (Ref. 43). The third histogram was constructed using the fatigue spectrum supplied with a recent Army RFP for a helicopter with a mission role

350

--.

I -AGMA 41i.02 GRADE 2 SPUR AND HEL;CAL GEARS II - GROUND AND CARBURIZED AMS 6265 SPUR GEARS (REF. 39) III - SAME AS II BUT HONED FINISH (REF. 39) IV -ASME DISCS 30% SLIP, CYM 52100, POLISHED (REF. 40) V - GROUND AND PEENED CARBURIZED AMS 6265 SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS (REF. 41) VI - BACHA ROLLERS, LINE CONTACT (REF. 42) 1 --

.__
I%

III

IV

V

\

U.J CLi

250 21N 1V1

""16.

I
I

I.

C-2

50L

10~

103

10'

108

lip

100

0'"1'

LIFE, CYCLES( Figure 4-18. Gear Stres vs Life Curves 4-26

AMCP 706-202
30[

ratio. Thus the stresses under the power fow the UHIH and AH-IG, respectively, will be:
"RED LIft,

(S')iV
n

-"

(0.65)1(200.000)

-

161.200 psi (4-17)

S~and
2 0-

"4 ..
4 6

.
A

E]i...
10 1o2 AH-IG

14

(ScI4H.IG

(0.75)½ (200,000) - 173,200 psi (4-18) Curve I of Fig. 4-18 indicates predicted lives of ap=
_

LINE RED

I
4a 16

12

1

j.

X Itr and 6.5 X 10' cycles for the Eqs. 4-17 and 4-18, respectively. 11 indicates values of 1.5 X tO' and respectively. Thus, the life predicted for the AH-IG (Eq. 4-18) by Curve I is 7.22 times the life predicted the UH-IH Also, with Curve I the life predicted for by Curve I1.(Eq. 4-17) is 3.0 times that proximately 2.0 stress levels of However, Curve 9.0 X 10' cycles, for the AH-IG, while from Curve 11 the ratio is only 1.67. Clearly, it is essential that a stress-life (S-N) curve used represent accurately the design and conditions if a reasonably accurate life preis to be achieved....

.T

SRF

SPECTRUM
RED• LINE

S~~diction
S17 •-,
SHAFT

]operating
SHP, hp

,The apparent large increase in life at equal values ¢omparison with cn t r th. snprat k•_rl eapr
10-

the straight spur gear (Curve V vs Curve lii) can be

Fi;1par 4.19. S6ft Horsepower Spectra Histograms

similar to the AH-lG but powered with twin advanced technology ergines. The red-line and flight profile powers corresponding to this fatigue spectrum are taken from Fig. 4-17. The RMC powers for the three spectra are: UH-IH, 714 hp; AH-IG, 827 thp; and RFP, 1939 hp; representing 65%, 75%, and 69%, respectively, of the red-line powers for the three helicopters. However, because the sea level standard inermedip.te power ratings of the engines for the three hel.,,opters are 1400 hp, 1400 hp, and 3000 hp, respectively, the RMC powers represent 51%, 59%, and 65%, respectively, of installed engine power. On the assumption of no changes in lubrication state with advanci..g wear, the stress-life functions of Fig. 4-18 predict differences in the expected service lives of the same transmission system used in UH- I H and AHIG helicopters based upon their respective AMC powers. For purposes of comparison, assume that the red-line power corresponds to a maximum stress S, - 200,000 psi in a particular gear mesh. Because the Hertz strest in a spur gear is proportional tc the square root of the load, which in constant speed operation is proportional to the transmitted power, the stress under RMC and red-line power w' be related by the square root of the power

explained best by the difference in the assumptions used in the calculation of the contact stresses. The spur gear analysis is based upon a cylindrical contact assumption wherein the ratio of peak to mean compressive stress is 4/i"or 1.27324. The sprial bevel gear analysis is based upon an ellipticu, contact assumption wherein the ratio of peak to mean cornpressive stress is 1.5. Although neither assumption is really valid, the ratio of the peak stress for the bevel gear to that for the spur is 1.178 for equal bearing or conitui arias. Ti11S izin accounts ro .. h..l... the stress difference between the two curves at a selected life of 1.3 X l(Pcycles. Additional gain can be attributed to the shot peening process that was applied to the spiral bevel sets (Curve V) but not to the otherwise comparable spur gears (Curve III). Life Rating 4-1.3.2 Tfausmluo Ovetrk The various gearboxes, driveshaft assemblies, and bearing hangers that comprise the typical drive subsystem of Army helicopters in the past may have had widely differing times between overhaul (TBO). Main rotor gearbox TBO's ranged from 500 to 1200 hr, tail rotor gearbox and bearing hanger TBO's were as high as 1600 hr. and driveshaft assembly and accessory gearbox TBO's ranged from several hundred hours to unlimited intervals based upon conditional overhaul. Specifications for next-generation US Army helicopters call for much higher (3000-4500 hr) MTBR 4-27

'

without dictating TBO valuts. However, using the relationships of par. 4-1.2.1.2, application of a 2000hr TOO requires attainment of a 6002-hc MTBF to achieve the. I 00-hr MTBR (par. 4-1.2.1.2). Although this MTBF concerns only failures of sufficient importance to cause gearbox removal, it canvot be attained easily. The ultimate design goal is conditional removal without scheduled TBO levels. Achievement of this goal requires the use of reliable and thorough diagnostic techniques (par. 4-2.4.2) and failure anodes with low rates of progression so aperatioai can continue at least short-term without compromise of safety of flight. The question of a cost-eflective overhaul thne, one that balances the increased cost of overhaul due to possible extensive secondary dwtage and cornosion against the loss of residual usefuk le, is beyond the scope of this document. A coMt analysis of TOO based upon direct and indirect operating cost -A the drive subsystems of light, medium, and heavy twin-engine helicopter is reported in Ref. 44. 4-1.3.3 Trasssdo Stanxrds and Ratings The use of available standards in detail design is encouraged for many reasons, not the least of ,vhich is cost reduction. Available stindard3 can contribute to lower costs if it becomies umn.•',c ry to prepare special specifications; conduct qualification tests; procure special tooling; and othlZrwise compound procurement, storage, and supply activities. The standards available include military (AN, MS. NAS, AND, Federal Specifications, MIL Standards. and AMS) and commercial (AGMA, AFBMA. SAE. AISI, and ANSI). However, the limitations and ratings of standards must be thoroughly understood to prevent their misapplication, These following are some instances in which it -Is better to select a nonstandard part: i. Excess cost or nonavailability (many published military and commercial standards never have been manufactured) 2. Insufficient strength or inadequate properties (published standards for parts such as studs may not provide the required static and fatigue strength or corrosion rewistanoe) 3. Inadequate quality control for the criticality of the application (many published standards include an inspection sampling frequency that is inadequatt for critical applications), Sonic recommended uses of commercial standards are dissuaed in the paragraphs that follow, AGMA (American Gear Manufacturers Associa4-28

tion) design standards and specifications for gear tooth bending, scoring risk, case hardening practices, and gear precision clasifications amx excellent design starting points. However, experience accumulated through development and field tests will suggest further sophistications and modifications. Many useful standards and specifications are published by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The smaller size bWaring locknuts and washers are useful, but for larger bearings the SAE parts generally are too heavy. The thread specification series also is ideal for use with special beating or spline locknuti because the series includes sizes cornpEtible with standard bearing bores. The 30-deg pressure angle involute spline and scrraticn standards will suffice for most spline applications and lend themselves well to inspection wvith simple gages. In special instances, where greater precision is icquired to improve load sharing among the teeth or to im.. prove positioning or location accuracy for the mating members, a standard spline can be modified by reducing the involute profile, lead, and spacin" tolerances.
VVS.11GVGF Y

Qj

,

poeibc.e

cordance with the standard AFBMA (Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association) metric envelope dimensions, using the Aircraft Bearing Engineers Committtc (ABEC) and Roller bcearing" Engineers Committee (RBEC) precision grades. De-. partures from standard envelopes may be necessary for very light series, large bore bearings; but the cornmon bore size, width, and outside diamct-r increments and tolerancs should be retained to facilitate use of standard inspection equipment by the bearing manufacturer. Cylindrical roller diameters and lengths will vary among suppliers and may not follow recommended values. However, individual rollers with one of two crown kadius or drop values are usually available from all aerospace geade suppliers. All ball bearing suppliers furnish balis In 1/32in.-diameter increments and occasional'y in I/64-in. increments. Standard grade tolerances in microinches govern sphericity; e.g.. grade 5 implies 5 pin. sphericity. Many special steels, frequently called "tool-steels", using consumable electrode vacuum remelt technology, are finding increasing use in helicopter gcarbox applications. The chemistries of these steels are identified only by AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) specifications. It is frequently necessary to add special limits on trace elements and inclusions to thas specifications to make them comparable to some of the commonly used AMS (Aerospace Material Specifications) grades.

bearings sflmowi

cIin

ac-

'

-.. <'

r

f

4-1.4

r

QUALIF'ICATION REQUIREMENTS Qualfictionequrerleut ar deflbc ~ MCP 7W6203. lPowever. there nsre a number ef qulfia tion~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ reurmnatirins sdr~ nerlt the drive subeystemn design proems. The confldance level 1cr passing qualification tests with a mininium of redesign and retest is increased sigraificantly by rigorous attention to thes requirements during all phases of component detail design. This paragfaph treas te or:cost rquiemet. 1. Component and eaviror mental performance 3. Developmenttesting 3. Life streswntetiig tetngeude as4.e Lired etarion testing su as tey i~et deaildesgn.tions 4-1.4.1 Comaponent and Eavirorimci Many components of thc typical drive system must be qualified initially through individual twsing. Such lubrication system componei~ts as scaevnge and prs surc pumps, filters, pressure switches and transmitters, ternperaturc switches and transmitters. chip detectors, level transmitters, jcts, presiure regulators. and monitors are best defined by unecification control or source control drawings. Qualification tests are classifieL. as functional, structural, or environmental; and care mitst be exerciscd by the designer in designating applicable qualification and quality assurance requirements. Structural and endurance tests are destructive by nature and therefore arc lirnitec either to prototype qualification or to random sampling in production. Functional 'and environinental test areas may be specified as P quality assurance requirement, with the sampling ratc up to lO0%. In addition to obtaining certification of perappropriate to perform functional tests as a part of receiving inspection. The applicable qualification and acceptance reqL~iiemei.ts must be set forth by the designer and incorporated into the subject drawing or specification. The need for completeness and accuracy in creation of' the specification control drawing cannot be overewriptiasiz-d. If'the designer cannot identifyt or anticipate the characteristic failure mode of a component, it will be necessary to establish thorough environmental test procedures for conducting the functional or endurance qualification. Once the characteristic failure mode has been established, it is often possible to increase the effectiveness of the quality assurance t#*sting by concentrating on a particular index of perforinanc while Jirninating those test factors that reveal no useful information. For example, the critical condition for the functional test ol an oil pump may

be established by reducing iniet pressure to uimulate limit altitude opeation, allowing chcvks for cavitaticn as well as volumetric flow efficiency. Similarly, hermetically sealed pressure switch might be subjectcd to a wide range of vibratory frequecu.ies and amplitudes during functional or endurance testing in thc presnce of an environment involving elevated temperature and 100% relative humidity. Attention to detail of this nature can save time and duririg subsequecnt testing or field evaluation. 412D~~psu ed In the broad sense, development testing may inboth design support testing and the evaluation of' prototype hardware on bench test rigs. These funcarc an wxensieri of d-etail design whereby early confirmnation of design assumptions or errors is achieved, and noacessary modifications of the initial dtiigrs are identified. A thorough initial developmcnt test program may include: I. Static tests of' castings 2. Dceflection tests 3. Gear contact tests 4. Assembly and disasemnbly tests 5. Lube eyiAczi dcvbugjnS 6. lmnfemcntal load and efficiency tests 7. Thermal mapping tests. 4-1.4.2.1 S-ittl Castlag Tests The designer and/or structure analyst will predict critiva' sections of tlhe castings based upon the assumed load data. A tcst fixture capable of applying and reacting these loads in a manner analogous to the intended helicopter use will be designed and employed. Stress coating and examination techniques relative locations of the maximum fiber stresses. Strain gages With suitable temperature-correectd bridges or crack wire then should be appiied at the locations of these maxima, and the casting should be loaded in increments to failure. Recorded data will demonst~ra~e compliance with stated requirements and must be correlatW. with analytical predictions so that cccurate safety-of-flight dci&.iions can be made based upon subsequent flight loan -5urvey data or when mnaterial disch'epancy iand review report action is required with respect to production hardware. 41A.4.2 Detflecitli Twas Deflwection tests often ar~t; used to obtain data relating to hot and cold static torque and external load deflection. These data are often required in connection with gtar tooth contacts and for verification of' spiral bevel gear development. Useful information 4-29

)

ao may be aquirnereaibang pla ary pear cormlitnmt. Deflection test plianot and contact rms
data permit accurate dstrmination of planet load

External fine, how, and electrical connections should be examined for proper fit and location. 4.1.4.2.5 Lubriatioa System D• r b h gp t a ih Early in the gearbox bench testing procte , attntin should ms. Pe oilet triu verisystems. Prop-or oil jet distribution sh e be ycn fled. Usc of transparent (acrylic or Plexiglas) windows and covers wharever possible is helpful. Adechangesoil scavenging should be verified.wrapers, quate to incorporate internal baffles., oil Design and intrcompartmenta venting are not uncommon.r 4-1.4.2.6 Icreumetsi Loading and Fflkldcy TeWs Immediately following lubrication system testing it is generally desirable to proceed with incremental power step testing, with disassembly and inspection taking place between each step. Intervals of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and 125% of design power rating are recommended. Operation for 2 to 5 hr at each siep is desirable to achieve definitive wear-track markings at thermally stabilized conditions. Visual inspectic-i of the wear pattern: of al! gcar meehes shou!Id be mna,& after each rtep paying special note to the rate of tooth pattern fillout in order to verify use of proper initial tooth shapes. The use of black oxide on gears and bearing rings between each load step will assist in accurate visual inspection. It may be convenient to schedule efficiency measuraments simultaneoisly with load incremert testing. One rather involved but satisfactory method of accurate efficiency determination requires the external application of insulating material to the entire gearbox housing and subsccuent measurement of the oil temperature drop and flow rate across the oil cooler (Ref. 45). Power loss to the cooler PLC is

K
_T

sharing and analysis of cumulative tooth spacing error; adequacy of beaz.,; aleent and mounting rigidity and clamp out torque levels also may be investigated. Compatibility of inpat ma be valuted deflctiosequiemens and output shaft • wih deflectiens with sal requiremetnts may be evaluated ini additiou. Multiple dial indicator gages customarily are used
with incremental load opplications to obtain the re

.U.
I

quired deflection data. It is generally neosary to perform extensive housing modifications, usually in the form of strategically located drilled holes, to permit suitable measureicrirts. Application of red-lead paste to gear tooth members, followed by slow rotation of the drive system under the designated torquc or braking load. is used to obtain witness contact patterns. 4-1.4.2.3 Commact Tests The red-lead paste technique described *n par. 41.4.2.2 supplies information only on gear contacts. A umoie aophisucatcd coniac tmi thait al, innit* dctailed bearing study and yet does not need extensive housing rework uses copper plating and gas oxidation. For this test, contacting elements (gear pinions and inkier and outer bearing races) are flash. copper-plated (-0.0001 in. maximum thickness) and the gearbox then is assembled without oil. The assembled gearbox is mounted in a manner that simulates the helicopter installation and each shaft seal location is vented to permit air escape. The input shaft is rotated slowly to permit rolling elements to
acsu.me their proonr 1vw-_tionnu and then statir tnfhume

(

-

equivalent to design rating power is applied. A reducing gas, such as HS2, is slowly bled into the gearbox, preferably through an orifice near the upper gearbox surface. All exposed copper surfaces are oxidized to a black tarnish while the Herizian contacts remain untarnished. After the gearbox is purged completely with fresh air, the unit may be disassembled for detailed examination and evaluation. All contacts should be carefully compared with debign assumptions. 4-1.4.2A Assembly and Disasembly It is essential that the designer evaluate ease of assembly and disassembly of the gearbox, suitability of standard and special tools, absence of physical interference, and opportunities for incorrect assembly. Special attention should be given to suitability of torque values specified for nuts, safetying provisions, and absence of thread galling or neizing.
4-30

PC-FGSC,,AT

PLC where F Gs -

42.4

h hp

49 (4-19)

oil flow rate, gpm specific weight of oil. lb/ial (a function of temperature and aeration) C, M specific heat of oil, Btu/lb-*F (a function of temperature and aeration) temperature differential between oil out ofT of transmission and oil out of cooler, deg F

With the assumption that the insulation is effectivc in preventing cooling convei n, PLC is the only power

loss from the transminsuion. In this cas the transalis&ionelbicienty q~, is it 1P i 10,% (-D

total power loss PI lIfthe necessary temperawrws ama measured for each tist condition. the individually calculated values of Cc may '3c averaged and a probable error computed by stan- ard statistical methods. 4-1.4.2.7 Theraid Mapping Tests Time and instrumentation capability permitting, final design modirIC46ions or the proportioning of lubrication distribution, alonj, with necessary adustzient of bearing parameter such as clearance and In-7 ternal. preload. may be accomplishe by thermal mapping. Thermocouples embedded in contact with becaring inner and outer rings and with gca blank nms or tooth fillets, for example, whoulid be used to construct a thermol mapi of the tanumimaaon. Messurement of rotating cousponrif temperatures Me quires the use oif slip rings or similar devia. Thw use of infrared photographs of opersting gearbose. also has been very effective in thermal mapping. Hot spots or excessive thermal gradients as' cause for *orrective design measures.

/7ý
where power input to transmission, hp P, Another satis'actory method for determniinng power loss is bcsed upon convection cooling and icquires the assumption that gearbox efficicney does not change with slight changes in viscosity within the range of lubricant tcmpcrature used. The exterior surface of the gearbox is gridded into approximately equal areas with centrally located temptrature sensing points. The individual areas should not exceed 5t6 in!. An oil cooler or heat exzchanger with a controllable cooling rate is employed and rair flow conditions about the gearbox are maintained as constant as possible. The test procedure requires stabilized operation at two discrette oil cooler heat extraction levels, preferably with ternperaturt. levels of the oji oui of the tramsnnission, at '.cast 50 dcg F aptart. During each of these runs the power loss to the cooler (Eq. 4-19N is measured and the temperatures of the designated' case monitoring points art recorded, along with the ambient air temperature. The increase in oil cooler heat rejection at the lower stabilized temperature coaidition is assumed equal to the decrease in convzction heat rejection from the housings into the ambient air, allowing the solution of the following simple set of equations (the primed symbols indicate cold condition):
Hot:EPL - PLc + Ccs-(Y7s
2L Cod:Y
+Cc(7-

-

r [

~

~

~

5V

~dg-

.

T,)

(4-21) (4-22)

~)

C'L-total power loss, hp to P~c. - power los& oil cooler (Eq. 4-19), hp S- cane convection cooling coefficient, hp/*F average of external surface temperature readings, OF TA -ambient air temperature, OF Because P;C> PcO 7"S>T7,' and XZPL and C. arc constant by definition, we havc the immediate solution: 01 (4-23) .hp/*F - PLC) (i CC Ts - r; - 5T + T)2.
' A S'S

T~)veloped

Substit~ating Cc into either of the initial hot or cold lots cquations (Eq. 4-21 o;- Eq. 4.22) will y~eld the

Overpower testing, sometimes referred to as weak point testing or modified stress probe. testing, is intended to yield rapid results to enable the designer to make timely charnges. Th~e purpose of this testing is to producc failures and definec failure modes and failsafe features, not to demonstrate rmliable extenided operation. However, a 100-hr failure-free overpower test at from 100 to 125% of maximum continuous power on two samples certainly would indicate that the gearbox was ready for life substantiation or qualification testing. The maximum recommended overpowei test icvei is1201-130% of normal red-line power, although in some instances 110% is used. For valid test results, the following conditions described in the paragraphs that follow should be satisfied: 1. Lubrication states should remain unchi igcd for the main power path ecu-ponents (Fig. 4-3). EHD film thickness as predicted by thc Dowson equation (Eq. 4-5) is relatively insensitive to load (125% power should reduce h values by about 4% from their 10D% power levels for an isothermal condition); however, because the temperature of the conjunction may incrrase as the 3/4 power of load, which in turn will reduce the viscosity of the typical MIL.L-7808 oil by 28%, and of the h value by 22%, a cautious evaluation is demanded. Excessive deflection must not occur. If debevel gear patterns degenerate excessively, their reduced area, cou.pled with the inci eased it%oth load, could result in doubling unit stresses ht the 4-31

AMCP 706-202 overpower levels. The "'small-cutter" and oiher types of spiral bevel gears tend to resist pattern shift with increasing power and are good candidates for successful overpower testing. Iir well designed planetary gear reductions, it is not uncommon to find a 50% increase in uait stress for a 125% overpower test at constant spvcd. 3. The mechanical limitation of ball bearing load path constraints must not be exceeded. There should be sufficient race shoulder height and bearing mounting rigidity to retain the ball path fully at the overpower test condition. 4. Cylindrical roller bearings should have suf-ficientroller crown (or race crown) to preclude severe ent lercong ra to o prcreade ever s end lo an du eton Ssimple Hertzitan deflection. -vrpwe. increased thermal gradients preent during The Sovinrpower testing must not result in excessive bearing preloading or gear misalignment due to housing distortions. Design criteria for successful overpower testing must preclude gear toatli bending fatigue failure, case crushings, or scuffing (scoring) failure modes. Acfencatidte wear without ceromi t desin eon of s function of the gearbox for the specified test intervan is te criterion of success. 4-2 TRANSMISSIONS 4.2.1 FAILURE MODES Many competing failure modes exist simultancously in any mechanical transmission device. The modes rewognizod as dominant are often representative of the life-c' cIe phase in which the observation is made. Recognition, classification, and definition of safe operating limits are fundameptal to successful design. Failure modes may be identified as primary and secondary for ease of analysis. In one study based on component replacement at overhaul for the UH-i and CH-47 gearbox, secondary failures were shown to exceed primary failures by at least an order of magnitude (Ref. 46). Although the majority of design effort is directed toward preventing primary fai! area, the cost of drive subsystem maintenance and overhaul reflects the total of both categories. Therefore, reduction in secondary failure modes is an important objective for future design.

4-2.1.1

Prfry Faili

Modes

4-1.4.4 Other Life and RelabUilty Sibsbmatlatlon Testing A 200-hr qualification test is required by AMCP 706-203, and follows the tests in the preceding paragraphs. Also required are a 50-hr preflight assurance test (PFAT) and a 150-hr "must pass" qualification test in a ground test vehicle (GTV). Beyond these tests, it is frequently desirable to conduct extended bench or GTV tests to assist in the determination of initial TBO levels and to uncover failure modes not detected in previous tests. All testing in these categories is based upon spectrum loading conditions. The selected spectrum should have an RMC power level in excess of the anticipatcd flight spectrum. Because most lubrication system elements (including shaft seals) exhibit failure modes that are insensitive to power levcl, no meaningful accelerated test programs exist for the lubrication system, and its evaluation requires the accumulation of many test hours. Although the majority of lubricat;on system components will have undergone some degree of evaluation in early tests (par. 4-1.4.1), evaluation of their performance in the total system environment must await these extended time or endurance tests. 4-32

ae fmp odnan iderv iaiecausethosoet render a comomnnt unservicenaif because of some .self-genrated conditional occurrence other than normal wear. Cracked, broken, pitted, or spalled eluments that fail while operating at normal loads, speeds, and ,nvironmental conditions are representative of this failure category. There is a reasonable statistical level of occurrence for primary failures, perhaps on the order of 0.5%/ 1000 hr, that typifies the normal dispersion associateed with acceptable and cost-effective design practices. Failure rates in excess of this level aor considered a result of design or manufacturing deficiency. Identification and elimination of components with excessive failure rates arc the objectives of the qualification assurance testing outlined in AMCP 706-203. Properly designed and manufactured drive zystems must not exhibit catastrophic primary failure modes. It is not unreasonable to expect primary modes to be exclusively noncatastrophic. This criterion may be satisfied by inherent redundancy in load paths or load sharing, or by failure prcgression rates that arm commensurate with available built-in failure detection and die.goostic d,. vices. ,.onscientious application of classical structural analysis methods as modified by relevant test and service experience, coupled with adequate quality assurance methods, effectively will eliminate static and bending fatigue failures. However, the surface durability of loaded members such as gear teeth and

9"

,,A

706-202 quantitative effects of all permutationa of the pertincnr paramnters deoribed in current literature, the significance of relevant test experience cannot be overemphasized. The classical stress-life equations or published S-N data must be viewed only as starting points. Table 4-4 presents useful qualitative influences of qome of the variables affecting S-N chata4,teristi.. There are many combination effects among these variables, but virtually none that result in contradiction of the indicated trends. The presence of relatively high slidc/roll ratioz and thin lubricant films is necessry for the surface pitting life to be sensitive to the additional factors shown in Tablc 4-4. Pitting or spalling generally is considered to be the result of metal fatigue due to cyclic contact stress. Under idealized conditions, the initiation of pitting occurs at a considerable distance below the
-

roili-.4 element bearings is by no means thoroughly understood or easily preuicied. The interaction of the effocts of friction, lubrication, and wear (the modern discipline of Tribology) is the subjoct of intensive rcewm•h (Ref. 47). Drive dvsign is influenced by variables suct, as metals (hardness, microstructure, chemistry. cleanliness. residual stress), finish (routhness, lay, texture), surface treatments or coating, lubricants (base oil, viscosity, additive package), moi3turc and other contaminants, speed, slip, Hertzian stres., contact geometry, friction, and temperature. These variables, separately or in combination, may vary observed life at constant stress by a factor of 500 in conventional helicopter applications. Their combined effects also exhibit slope variations from -5 to - 12 of log.log SN curves. Because it is impossible to consider the

-_.', :

t

TABLE ". LIFE MODIFICATION FACTORS
VARIAUt E INCREASED LIFE

SURFACE DURABILITY
OUALIFICATIONS

REDUCLED LIFE

MLIALS

HARDNESS

RA60 -- 63
W-0

<Pic 60
<F.j 60

CAR3URIZED AMS 6260
MIQI

E2ich)

M-DUj

RETAINED AUSTLNITE

<10% < 5%

Ž.15% > 5%

CARBURIZCD AMS 6260 AISI 52100 AMS 6475 INCt UISIONS % TRACEL ELEMENTS...

WHITE.TL lAYER CLEANLINESS

REMOVED CEVM

PRESENT AIR MELT

" ',

RESIDUAL STRESS * SURFAC E IINI SI
TYPE

COMI'RLSSI VI.

TENSILE

SURFACE TO MAXIMUIM SHEAR DEPTH

HONED. POLISHEL

GROUND

VERY IMPORTANT AT LOW VISCOSITY..

LA1. YO SURFACE TREATMENT

3_;GrI; BLACK OXIDL

TO GoLiDiNG BARE

Vi 'i i......NI

G..

SumR ACC
VERY IM'ORTANT THIN

LU8. FILM
LIGHT ETCH LUBRICANT HIGH VISCOSITY AS MACHINED LOW VISCOSITY RAPID SURI ACE BRTEAKIN V,4 V2< 2X00 It /min

MINERAL BASE
ADDITIVE IN SYNTH HIGH COEFFICIENT

SYNTHETIC BASE
ADDITIVE & MINERAL LOW COEFFICIENT

TRLJE NORMAL STRLSSES AT
VERY TRUE AT I OW SPEED PRESSURE VISCOSITYv -

COEFFICIENT, a
LOW ACIDITY WATER CONILNT LOW HIGHI ACIuITY HIGH DEGRADATION -TIME AND

USE
WATCH DEGRADED SYNTHI.

SPEED
SLIP

HIGH
LOW

[OW
HIGH

EXCEPT ROUGH SURFACES LOWER REL. SPEED - NEG.
SURFACE CONJUNCTION
-

POSITIVE
FRICTION TEMPERATURE LOW LOW

NEGATIVE
HIGH HIGH

GEOMETRY OF ,

HIGH

LOW
a-

b, a FOR ELI lPSE
AXIS 11 TO ROt h V AxlS.iTO ROLL ING V 4ING

AMCP 70&,202 surface at the level of mayimum oithogonal shear stress, and classical theory has been dtvclopcd about these conditions. However, rtcent studizs establish that the shear stresses tend to bc located nearer to the surface. even in the presenc of very small magnis uadces of slip ( cf.48). The traction stresses imposed by sliding can raise the surfac shear stresses to within 40% of the maximum Hertzian stress (Ref. 49). These conditions lead to surface initiation of pitting or cracking that ultimately msull in the gross pitting or spalling failures ohserved in most failed mechanical comp5iients. For example, it has been established that the vast majoriqy of pitting (spalling) failures in UH-! and CH-47 helicopter gearboxes are surfaceinitiated (ReF. 46). 4-2.1.2 Secondary Failure Modes Secondary failure modes are all those modes that arc not classified as primary. By definition secondary failure modes do not contribute directly to cornFonent MTBR; however, they contribute greatly to the cost of overhaul, and in some instances they limit
.......
L...-

4-2.1.2.2 Debris-caused Failure Debris from a spalled tooth or bearing often enters another gcar mesh or bearing and results in suffi,:ient denting, embossing, or brinelling to initiate a secondary failure after relatively few cyclic stressings. White the da mage incurred in fears and cylindrical roller bearings is less severe than in ball bearings (due to the preferential debris entrapment of conformal contact bodies), the rate of replacement of sccondarily damaged parts at overhaul has considerable cost impact (Ref. 46). Much potential damage can be avoided by compartmentalized designs or by use of shields or baffles to protect dynamic components by deflecting and re-routing debris to catch-trap or sump areas. The objective is localization of the damage to the primary failure component. 4-2.1.2.3 Er.vironmnntally lndjccd Failures Oxidation, stress corrosion, galvanic corrosion, and aging or embrittlement fractures are examples of failures that could hecome significant to future MTBR data for helicopters with increased TBO in.tcrv,,.l Thtsp fuihire" r,&iitt from inaderitnte atten-

.. r.. ..... k

.:.i *; ....

o..----,

of f

primary failure. Secondary failure modes are grouped into three categories, each with a different design avoidance technique. 4-2.1.2.1 Overload Failures Components that are overloaded due to the failure of a parallel or series connected load carrying membet frequently result in secondary failure in a short time. Tandem thrust bearings or multiple planet or epicyclic gear trains are typical parallel lond-path configurations. Such components limit the progression rate of a primary failure by an automatic load reduction resulting from increased deflection or %ear material removal of !he failing primary cornponent. In such designs, the secondary load-carrying members should be analyzed under full power to insure adequate life for safe continued operation. Such analy,,es should show a minimum life of 100 hr. Series-connected secondary failures are typified by transfer of damage from one gear member to another in a train arrangement or by the upstream overload of a component duc to an bdvanced downstream failure such as a "jammed" rolling element bearing with advanced retainer or ball fractures. The static yield strength of the primary power path cornponents (gears, shafts, bearings, couplings, etc.) must be sufficient to withstand the maximum red.line power plus the incremental transient load required to fracture and break clear the rclati,.ely frangible primary failed component.

tion during design or production quality control to materials, protective plating, or finish coatings. Concentric Enodes always should be used during plating of tubular shaft mcmbcr.; to secure adequate protection of internal surfaces. Special attention must be given to providing drains to eliminate trappea water at gearbox stlid, boss, and mast seal locations. Additional protective practices are recommended in par. 4-2.3.1. 4-2,2 DYNAMIC COMPONENTS The dynamic components common to all drive subsystems are: I. "oothcd poN cr transmission wheels (gears) that operate over a wide range of rolling or total velocities with moderate to relatively high sliding or slip velocities, under Hertzian stresses rarely exceeding 250.000 psi 2. Rolling element support members (bearimigs) that operate at similar total velocities, lowe; slip velocities, but generally higher Hei tzian stresses 3. Interconnecting members (shafts and couplingi) that are splined, bolted, or welded together and to gears, with external forces and moments impose:d while rotating 4. Other miscellaneous elements such as shaft seals, nuts, and locking devices. 4-2.2.1. Gears Helicopter gear design will be viewed from three aspects: limitations, analysis, and the drawing or

*

S~4-34

specirictitioii. The pirinary crairtlassis ia upon power tra.-smission g anrm ratkae than tarqu4. Sesing (kI. kind/low spood, as ipi actua=o or hoist applico'tiora) -or aommory gcarivii. The latter is diicnKWd btiefly in per. 4-5. 4&2.2.1.1 Gmea l~Ankeow Sucomsful helicopter Seat 4eaigns usually hovc employed counter-forma! involute spur, heiical, andi spiul bevel configurations. Somewipl~atiosnotaly te Ws~l~d WG13. haeuerofrmal circular arc hiclical tooth forms. Although somewhat superior in pcrfermanct. with respzect to skirface durability, coaformul gearv inave. inamerous configuration~al limnitat.ions, e.g., operating cantet distance is very cri~lical, and frequ;.nt!y exhibb'

.f
* .

precision helicepter State orauing in syntthemic tutbine lubricaiiu. The rn1~tive posittons o^ each zonal dcmaacutbn wili vary a_ a function oi the diwimers1 pitch P,, priusure angk 0. contact ratio, root fillet 4 form, surfact! finish, naid tnatc~rial-procmsing cliacstoristics of each individual desi~gn. Fig. 4-20 repr seas Irtasonaibly accura': estinvmam for a standard propo'rtions, Pd - 8.5, 35 X 61 tooth seý of fula fillet foriii, ground flank, carburized AMS 6260 involute *prar gears. The variation in the three frailu'e moda rc~ationshipp when all factors ane constant except tor dra-. nsetra. pitc may tot smen in. Fig, 4-21 (Ref. 53).

:I

~

r~.Auccd tooth bending fatigue strengthi. An~Aytical
aenot well-suited for circular arc teeth, Walous'a an
rD1GA)

101

RA(G

II

'1

eacel~ont analytical finite elanent approach to blmodicdfor three-dimensional analysis it; described in

APRASE fliG

Ref. 51. ThiiR sear (frm i~i naa1tcianiriv sen&vev tatI centor distance variation unless considerail mismatch of tooth curvature is usod betwee n pit.'un and rtear. The immediate result of this practice is a con-/ with an att'ndant, reduction in the thooreti"I~ surface durability of the pinion. The deflection inhecmat in the elastic reaction of the loaded tooth introducc* a ismall dcgree of slip that further reduces tie thto-Mds Fpr retical pitting endurance (par. 4.2.1.1). Conforninai I-Ars are of contiderable' ai tcrectt frota a rcserch and developmeint. vijcpoimf, but at present, dcsian -anin~ful d%,%ign cnscus&Aon of this configLv&mit a w'.

M

/S0(N
UMFLOFTN PT~LrVLCI

CiNLIT
II

sidcrable increase in the ina~munt

Hortzart Ftress

WPZATI(WIT P11OEI NOSIGCCESSFU LUJBRICATION)1

-O

a~hcRttosp-Fim sVld:
-L~

CORLTION4

I

tion.

SED1,
HIU.1O R
I02:

p
tf

Thoe r~ataivc efliciencics of the vari'~us spur, hdli-

cal. and spiral bevel tu~oth forms wcec dincusscrl iO.)RAG par. 4-1.2. 1.1. The liig's sliding nmid ruassitant power loss and limihed load -carry iMI cap-~city of crossed cants ehminaate their usefulnesas exompa in accessory drive applications.

~.PITTING
I

LiMIT

4-2.2.1.2 Goar Usaly#6
'Succcssful detail involute Sear design analyxis rethree failure modes (par. 4-2.1.1) under the particL'l~r suptrating covod*tioass for each specific gear

SCRNGL-

17 10

9

A 71
0IANKTR11L PI
T

5
CH Fý
n.

4

3

1

appi~cation. Initial insight mnay be obtai-wd by
rcviewing the regions of domni.iant distress an shown in Fig. 4-20, based also, Ref. 42. Thir, graphic rels. tionzhip rcilecto the characteristics of caw-hartlnecd
-Load

Figure 4-31. Graphle Relat~mloap - Fefte Mod." vs Tocda SinI 4-35

4-2.lh±.i &Oftg Waden S&reat1ial' - nThc detenuination of bendintg fatigue risk invoives th~ree stzrs: load determination, stress cvalurilion techniqut, avid definition of the properties of qitrials usedJ. The basic bendinS strmi equations, gernrally in accon.; with AGMAA practice, may bce found in Refa. 54 (spur geams), 55 (helical gcvars), and 56 (bevtl Sears), together with computer solutions written in FORTRAN symbology. Because of the increased precision w~th whith the basic Lewia equation geomeitry factouj are tretod, the use of these rcferen= is highly recommendeo. However, for a tetter underst~anding of thle relative significance of the factors of. fectirig tooth bending fatiuc, the general AGMA igidani diacussed terin by ,-. equation will be ea tern. The basic equatien for tensile stress is S1 due to tooth bending has been defined (Ref. 57) as

71

also ii.given by Ref. 58. This evaluation is -based upon the tooth spring rate calculation taken from Ref. 59, which in t'ani presents an analysis of the extperimefltal data of ReL 6C. taken during tests of solid lighte~r back-up rim and web configurationis than those used in the reference test, the dynam~ic load analyses basnd upon these methods will be coraservative. Greater precision can he, obtained by conidrg factors other than tooth d~fl&~ions by the methods. advanced in Refs. 61 and 62. Although dynamic load factors aut4 increments have been studied by numerous investigators for tlvc pzst century. the results have lCA to only slight agree:ment. Therefore, well c'orrelated test experience ie of Creat importance. The interactioai of profile modifications, tooth errors, defluction modes, spring c*TýJAants, and inertias are of such conmplcxity ta generalizecd solutions are unlike~y to be satisfactory. However, certain qualitative observntions that find geneval acceptance are:

blank type gea!,. Inasmuch as helicopter Seer have

,,

111"\ /~AIK.K\ 421 )ltJ "J
A~ 'I'

psi /portanec ~~

(4-24)

1, The dynamic load W. increases r~entially
linparl'J w/ith %M Anmcl enai-4 n (oi-irorr, Il.n-nf. th,. im..

of increasiog precision with speed is unden* 2. There is r limiting vrlue for W,, that probabl) occurs when the duration of the velocity pulse is less than one quarter the period of natural vibration of the pinion-sear sprinS-mass system. 3. The value of W,, is proportional to both spring rate and gear effective mass, Hence, it is important to consider total deflection and mass of tooth aid rim for helicopter gear designs. Fxpressions for approximate values of thc dellection rst point of n-.,sh
811AtPVL %' *WI 3U1%JIIf
hIJU I.UL

where face width of gtar tooch, in. F J -geoometric shape fector, dimecnsiopless misalignment factor. dimensicnlea Km, overload factor, dimensionless K 0 K,-=size factor, dimenrionless A; = dyramic load factor, dimensionless 4 W diametia! pitch, in.-' W eatohlal Both tast and analysis havc confirmed that the dynmicloa corecly xprsse asan *~is nor iyamiclod vais mrathorrecthln W, exprbeing s cconte forhe aplyngK tothegea I~th oad , actr fo.treo, Eq. 4-24in l btote. repace bytla shhfcor W,. horeorc Pq.4-2 shold b relace bysolid
*-

46ASJ&rnUIL1LPhI UG

61U13IVE

S,

(Ký W, - WdK 0

IPK 1 ki,'psi

(4-25)

by Refs. 61 and 62. For tHin-rim helicopter gears (back-up rim thickness of approximately one tooth whole depth) with approximatcly 40 or more tneth, the defection can be as much as twice the value for a rim. The limiting deflection of a spur tooth at the momen't of mesh impact is approximately 10% that of a helical toothi, reflecting a spring rate an order of magnitude higher. As a result, the limiting

dynamnic load on the spuir gear will be about three

where
-

dyamicload lb4.

Rd'. 58 shows that the dynamic load lVd eists as an incremental load duc to tooth errors and gear drii~c dynamics at operating spted, and, thereforc, is relatively unaffected by transmitted power. An ac(4piable engineering app~roach to tl~c evaltmation of

timcs grtater than that on the hclical gear. This alaiagy also holds for comparing w.taight and spiral bce~el gears. In mist cases the torque capacity of a hardened precision helicopter Sear set will be limited by surfNoe duraaility rathar than by tooth breakagc resuiting from dynamic loads. Many failures formerly attributed to dynamic loads have been recognized recently && resulting from rcsonant or vibratory conditions that may occur at h;gh speeds (par. 4-2.4.1).

7)AMP
Determination of the goam tooth load W, is relatively strvg~htforward. For a first approximation itius NWt
,b

7, 4
3. Elatic deflecaioas of sAMUa, gear wabs and rims, and support bearings. The generally accepted rel-ationa~shi for the misaligned facto&K. for spur and hdlita gears ~rc

IC
DPN

(4-26)
K. - 2F frFor9 d'less,

(4-27)

we:torque, ltu-in. N W M number of driven gecars in mesh with the driver, dimensionless For precibe calculations the pitch radius P,,/2 should be replaced by the radius to the highest point of single tooth loading (HFSTL) an determined by the profile contact rotio' for spur gears or by other con*Aiderations for helical and bevel gcars. These considerations are discussed further in a subsequent paragraph in conjunction with discussion of the geometric shape factoi J. The overload factor K. is included in Eqs. 4-24 and 4-25 to account for the torque pulsationi waveform or

K. US~ F' di-esa (/)'

, for F
'

.,S (4-27) >F
'

whore F -~ face width of gear tooth. in. F., - average value of effective face width F., for given loading condition, in. The ave.rage face width F. in those equations is that width which con be considered 1.o remain in contact under &nef fezinive tooth load W, where, from Eq. 4-25 W,' -K,,W, +W, lb Empirical expressions for Fm are (4-.29)

for roughness of the transmitted power, and hence is
Q .S.Im..u K VMSW-=tc; toD asac..

r
[-

-1w~ 1/2
' J in

~

I&HAis ;OuK53535@

"a
-eL'J

result from the power source, the driven mecmber, or the response of the elastic drive subsystemn itself. Because the bending stress S, must be wvithin the fatigue endurance limit of the material, K. should not be used to account for occasional overloads of low cumulative cyclic duration unless the design life itself is relativey low; i.e., less than 10' cycles. SomeJ examples of measured K. values are K,, - 2.0 - first gear drive from gix-cylinder, rociprocaiti a&, four-stroke cycle,

(4-30)

for spur gears, and for helical gears F. = 2

Fe K4

1' /2'~
(4-31)

horizontally opposed aircraft en-

where e - pitch plane misalignment (net), in./in. G -lengthwise tooth stiffness constant, p:
k
= enntar-t line- incdi-istinn fskrtnr (Re~f All~

sine K,- 1.25 - gear set adjacent to high angle Hooke's joint installation K. 1.15S - gear set adjacent to typical tailin rotor drive-shaft K,, - 1.2 - third-stage gearing ixi six-cyli 'nder reciprocating engine applicat.-On K,, - 1.0 - turbine engine speed teduction Sear drive. The mibalignmcnt factor K., in the tooth bending stress equations take: into account the lengthwise or axial load distribution on the face of the loadod g", mesh. Three primmy~ sources, which generally are aaditivc, contribume to misalignment: 1. Initial misalignment due to manufacturing inaccuracy or dcflectdc axes of rotation due to gearset load, external load, or thermal gradient 2. Toeth lead slope deviations due to inaccuracy in gear manufacture

P6

Z

dimensionless = bas pitch, in. - total transverse length of lint of action.

The value of the tooth stiffness constant G in thewe equations usually is 106:! G :5 2.5 X !10'. The correct value for Km for "poikit-contacts" such as those in spiral bevel gears may be considerably less than the values for spur or helical gears due to the conformal axial curvature and curvature mismatch used to localize the contact pattern within the tooth boundaries. It is common practice to use. a value of K., - 1.1 for aircraft spiral bevel gears. This low value is particularly jusuticid for straddle mountings used in conjunction with so-called -small-cutter tooth developments". Use of cutter (and grind-wheel) diameters equal to the mean coite distance at low helix angles and equal to less than L% the cone disice tance at high helix aigles is an example that would 4-37

*

meet this criterion. In Seneral, the contact pattare

A;~cla viitrndcd AMS 6473 it is appropriate to usc ot K, - I K, -0.5 + 4.S/D, K. 2 for D ýt 9 for 9 > D > 3 for D,:5 (4-35)

shifts toward the heel of the tooth as the lead increases when too large a cutter is used, while a shift toward the toe results from use of an excessively small cutter diamvter. Thc correct diameter will result in approximately equal pattein spreading toward bothtoe nd hel.The bthe stoeres hevel.ainprino 42 of the expression (Pd/F) (AJJ). ptchdiide byfac with P8 F) Thediaetrl defines the physical size and hence the basic strength of the gear tooth. K,is a size factor to account for the phenomenon that larger components may not exhibit fatigue endurance stress levels equal to those for smaller cornpjonents. It is grouped with other term.,; in the equation foi gear tooth stress S, so that resdy compAri.aon may be made with the basic meatenial rllowable stress. For spiral bevcl gear applications Ref. 56 recoinmends for Pd !•16 the use of K, - 2Pj"' 5 ,dirnanisionli and or 16whee foor Pdor I> K. 1.0, dimensionren* (4-32)

geometric shape factor J is uscW to atxount for thet,hape, of the cantileverv-d gczr-tooth beam; and it i.A iflCa'.-s e iifluienucc of atvss concentration, load sharing, and the modified Lewis fowon factor. The reom dd uainfr.1r: for spur gear,
-irosols

dinniols V Y A>

(4Yi (434

or aco, ieninls iesols atr -fr = stress concentration factor (Ref. 01). dimens~onleas Pý= contact ratio factor, dimensionless

for helical gear;
Kh~

d'css

(4-37)

an

16ones (4-33)
C, -

form infiatnfator, dimensionless

WeIX gngle.dcg
j Y~ip les 'ls (-8 (-8

However, for spur and helical gcars for which 6 :5IPd: 11t, Ref. 54 suggests K, - I because wc'i data have produced only a slight strength difference attributable to size. It should be emphasizcd thut the values for K_ given by Eqs. 4-32 and 4-33 are based upon the assumptions that the ratio o1 case depth to tooth thickness remains essentially consiarn, for casehardened gear teet~h, and that the characteristics of casr. and core material and residua: stress fields arc unaffected by size. Although the letter condition can be achieved in the practical sense ri-ver a fairly wide range fc~r case-carburized materials, it cannot be satisficd for nitrided materials. For materials such as AISI 4340, AMS 6470, and AMS 6475 *latare to be case-hardened by nitridirig, a correction liecomes necessary as 'the diametral pitch increases. Whi~c there are few published data in this area, reascnable corectonsforniude4AIS 430 o AliS 470for various values of pitch diameter D,, are K, - I K,- 12/I),, K, - 4 f 4-38for D Ž_12 for I > > 3 D Or DPS 3P

and for bevel gear,

where
Yt =foini facicr, dinicasionlecss

(4-34)

o

-di--tuance fron; pitch circle to point of locad applic.ation, ýn. F, - efrouivt face widtn, in. inertia factor, dimensionless K, R -mean transverse pitch radius, in. Pd transvermu diametral pitch (measured at large end of bevel gear), in. -' P, - meun transverse diamietral pitch, in.-' Eq. 4-39 is taken from a Gleason standard (Ref. 64) and is pres& ted primarily for discussion of the pertinent parameters. As mentioned previously, a more thorough and accurate evaluation can be obtained with the computer program oif Ref. 56. The modified Lewis form factor appears as Y, Y,, and Y in Eqs. 4-36, 4-37, and 4-38, respctiveiy. This 5 factor is based upon bending stress calculation for a parabolic cantilever beam inscribed within the involute tooth form with the point or tangency between

R,

AMCP 70r2021
the parabola .. 'i the involute. and the: point of load from cantilever plate bendiag theory as presented in application being the significant factors governing Ref. 65. the strese. This form factor redue the extreme fiber tensile stress with a compression component of the CA d'leus(4-41) tooth normal load. The load application point for the 1 spur Sewr factor Y always should be taken at the calculated HPSTL and At the tip of the involute gear profile forth helical Seer factor Y,. Th~i where determination of the load point for the bevel Star fac v -hlcltohla ln nlnto nl br ~Crtan Uumpi~n ~ ase Upn fl~flfl~Tan-' sino~tanV,), deg the load contact pattern geomfti of the bevewl tooth.-nomlpesrage hic or)d# -Thegrcat difference between the assumptions of Ref normal totpires lrangle (ei'ga) deg. 64 and the updatod version of Ref. 56 accounts for a -g ot prlage ~ The inertia factor Ki in Eq. 4-38 accounts for a considerable change in the calculated stress. Use of reduced contact ratio. For in0 > 2.0. Ki 1.0 and for the modified Lewis form factore in conjunction with a stress concentration factor K has proven to be as m~, < 2.0, K, -s2.0/mn.. 1 Eqs. 4-36 through 4-38 are of assistance in accurate as any method known for involute Sear evaluating the stress at the location assumed to be the calculation within the range of pn~iwrc tooth stress weak point of Star teeth. Test results often indicatt. angles 14.5 deg < O< 25 dt~g. Howevcr, a significant however. that failures originate not in the fillet near degrcc of inaccracy may occL~r cutside this range as the involute flank, but rather deeper toward the root *,ell as for internal Sear tooth forms and for or higher on the tooth flank. maximum fillet re4ius configurations. In the former case, the crack propagation is freThe influence of the stress configuration due to the quently downward througi' the rim rather than in an relati'.c fillet radius and load point location is ac. .%.a-' .. insul 2; .1 tau ý J~ ~ 4'..i c.. s n of . ceptable failure mode because a large sectiont~ the photostress work of Doln and Broghamner. It should gear rather than a single tooth tends to break off. be notedA that an C c.,tv'c Kf is inctuded in the vabies for A inE~. ~ Diakage high on the flank may result from the use The effective if apportionment due to loadid Ot" 1i ot nargdbs 'hls-hn slarn~mon eet isacconte fo in optiniun blcAd between the fillet and the flank. A t~~shiag lo t'-kuently arises when the back-up rim is thc conza,:i ratio :7acti.i.. c,, F'o ýgar Sears fro wh~ich theproilec~itac raio~. ao,~ I~c..iisc ll too N J,~~' i,, case the rim bending stress (due to tooth To&.' A niv v-nunt about the rim neutral axis) cai i be 7i~r !vised upo~i the HKETL. For 2.0 5 mn calculations assumed cantilever tooth [*ending ~ta -,a~ ~iir.ct poipit of double h t P wh-i •5 3.0. stress. Decauts rim curvature and web resistance toot coti~c d~miatio ofti~ asui~c~. or enter ilflu ti'~s nnalysis, it is incorrect to considcr only geosnelric 'rh~lnast~~ai~~rm ihicknes&. However, for spur and iow-eiciix~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~th n~o.fco orfaceeonact a.~.~ accuntd fo by ~io ~ angle helical. gcs'rs of about 40 teeth, a rim thickness &ii~i4 equal te the tooth~ depth is generally accepted as aide49) quate. Slighilj lesser v.-uos may be usrd for gears ~ *9 ~ us~ ý4,ý 2''mnainlos (-3 with fe~verwe~thile greater values may he needed for gc.5r% wim~ mr4or than 40 teeth. The existence of Whbere high thb us k-wls m~ helical or bevel gears will cornýru~tiu pitch (helivalgc.ar). in, p- oit!i For ~ plicate tht: avo~.dyris. Considerable web and rim rcin. for~imýnt zi. n=&itary to dcvelop full tooth strength clb.the modified cvuasav r.tio in., Frspi&l which is a rmo-:ei anmsqiiare (ruzs) mitmmation of the po~intol . ihr~'t-mpnt prabel v..tivv profik. i&d fax.contact ratio, h; used. When beas th rcdniaaye r wo-dimen2.ý,m - 1.but for mi.> 2.0 sional, th.iv' att not suitable for definition of maxima for h tr-ei ial stress field. Computerized methods of fir.ite element analysis are expected eventually to af, d'lmq (4..40) .. rn~ ~ f-3. d accurate solutions for these conditions MI + 2 %rn' 4Y' .4 Additie'iul prevition of high-speed gearing 4nI~lyThe CA, factor used fis Eq. 4-37 liccounLw for the ses m~ay t--tbtaincd by inclusion of the hoop stress Sh in V~ic geali rim due to the centrifugal acceleration. A inclination of the load contac line and is 4.r.~ed
-a . . .

A

,

p

-

-

conservative value fow this steady stress (at a constant speed) may be taken as -. 9 10-p(nD)
2 ,

limit data and an applicable value for u, may be ohtained from an R. R. Moore rotating beam specimen test. Extreme care must be taken to dnplicate every metallurgical and manufacturing characteristic of a gear itself or the data are useless. However, the value of e from these tests invariably will be smaller than that for the more complex production gear. Refs. 66, 67, and 68 present the results of indepenjdent test programs conducted to determine an accurate mean endurance limit for carburized AMS 6265 gears. The resultant S., values vary from 160,000 to 210,000 psi. Relative strength data for many materials and process as treated in single tooth (pulsor) machiqes over a 15-yr period may be found in Ref. 69. The variability of a and S,, with material and process is shown in Fig. 4-22, extracted from Ref. 41. None of the test gears were shot peened since this proess could ;..ve masked the inherent differences in the materials and processes. The endurance limit is, of course, merely one of several factors that must be assessed by the designer in making his gear material selection. Aside from the obvious criteria of fainiliarity, confidence level in hmanulacturing and process coatrol, cost, temperature environment, and size, the crack propagation characteristics must be satisfactory. Although the safe design stress for one candidate material may be far higher than that of another, it also must be assumed that ballistic damage or secondary damage will occur in any critical gear mesh of an Army hellcopter. Such damage could result in an impact-type overload that could cause a through.-hardened, hightensile-strength material to shatter and fail instan_!y The degree of ductility provided by a core structure of lower hardness (commonly core hardness 20 points Rockwell C lowe- than the case) is often sufficient to provide a safe failure mode with a relatively low rate of crack propagation. When this technique cannot be employed, the use of lower hardness gradients together with geometric crack stoppers may suffice. Ref. 70 is a useful primer on the fracture mechanics for the gear designer. The use of properly controlled shot peening in the gear fillkt area often can reduce scatter (smaller a) and in some instances can increase the design allowable S., by 13 to 25% in carburized AMS 6265 gears. Practices vary widely with regard to peening of gear tooth faces. Some specifications require masking the faces during peening, others require removal of the effects of peening by flank grinding or honing. and still others allow peening of the running surfaces. Peening requirements are tailored to the gear application, but certain generalities may be stated: I. Peen in accordance with MIL-S-13165. w .

psi

(4-42)

. '

"7

where 7.095 X 10-6 - dimensional constant p = material density, lb/in.3 "n gear S speed, rpm D3, - gear root diameter, in. The oscillatory stress due to bending S, may be combined with the hoop stress S, by use of a modified Goodman diagram constructed on the basis of the material properties of the specific gear. The modified Goodman diagram can be used to account for the reduced allowable bending limit for an idler gear application in which the calculated stress is fully reversing. Use of the diagram is discussed in detail in Reft 54. A maximum safe working value of tooth stress S,.. due to bending can be determined as , ~,+K, (4-43) S allowable endurance limit stress, psi K, lf acodmesols K, - temperature factor, dimensionless Kr - reliability factor, dimcnsionless The life factor K, is assumed as unity for all Sapplications designed for infinite life, i.c., greater than 101 cycles. All Army helicopter power gearing designs must meet this criterion. The temperature factor K, is taken as unity provided the gear blank operating temperature is blow the hardress draw caett - . . ....' ...-. hi..s , 6-r;.,io.. must be satisfied by all Army helicopter power gearing designs. The ieliability factor K, effectively is a factor of safety that is used when the statistical confidence and reliability (test data scatter) are unknown for a given mean value of the eriduranco limit stress, In such casts, a value of 3.0 is recommended for K, When the allowabl endurance limit S,, is known for the specified reliability level, K, - 1.0 S., always should be chosen to rmect the desired reliability for the design application. A genS'rlly recognized safe design practice for helicopter geaing is to select S. as the value 3 standard daviatior4 (3o) below the mean endurance limit demonstrated by teat. The value of the standard deviation a, as well as the mean endurance limit, varies greatly with material, heat treatment practices,! manufacturing variability, and the quality control level exercised in final component acceptance inspection and nondestructive test and evaluation methods. Endurance
-

-

r

*

'

"4-40

0J MEAN ENDURANCE LIMIT C:' -3,y ENDURANCE LIMIT (SAFE DESIGN LEVEL) 2O O , -0 •

C - CARBURIZED N - NITRIDED H - THROUGH HARDENED G - GROUND FILLETS P- PROTUBERANCE HOBBED R - HIGH RETAINED AUSTENITE Z - ZIRCONIUM GRIT BLAST

-• .-.

_

C3-

=-U--

-)
C-,^

Q

.ct
LU

'.. F

__I

C) -J

MATERIAL TYPE AND PROCESS
Figure 4-22. Single Tooth Pulsor (car Fatigue Test Results

2. Use cast iron, -tci, or cut steel wire shot of diameters no larger than one-half the smallest fillet -radius. 3. Use several hundred percent coverage, • 'r'a,•, ,a 4. Dc.. [iiiv e iw. .. ri.if. i. , *L Lt,'• b',-L|IauaWs .i im i"..-r
', Wll Ao,-

thins and conditions change te the traniitional or boundary hubrication regime, the friction generally increascs. Conscqbeitly, the unstable condition may be created that eventually will result in harsh metal*. *•_-oW ii. ',t.% ilvu *
m,

o4 *

a, s,.,rLr ... en-re - ...-*,. •.

,

demnit y suf-....

positioned to simulate the exact surface location to be peened. 5. Never exceed 0.016A intensities, 6. Do not peen very hard (> R, 64) or brittle surfacs such as nitrided AMS 6470, AMS 6475, or Ssimilar materials. However, cleaning and abrasive grit or glass shot at intensities up to 0.01IN is permissible. 4-2.1.2.2 Scoriag Failure When two gear teeth slide togethci under load, there is considerable heat generation in the loca:ized conjunction even in the preusnce of a lubricant- When the rate of heat buildup exceeds the rate of heat transfer away from the conjunction, the resultant temperature rise acts to reduce the lubricant viscosity, thus reducing the thickness of the separating oil film. In the full EHD lubrication zone, the temperature rise to the friction; however, as th: film

ficient to "melt" and smear a twin lyer of the 2ear tooth surface. This smearing condition is referred to as scoring or scuffing. Although the physics of the phenomenon rcmains the source of much debate and intenive rmscarch, ceitain ficwors are Lnderstood sufficiently well to permit engineering design that will minimize scoring risk for a given set of operating oonditions. There are five fundamenta& approaches the designer must consider: 1. Selection of the proper diametral pitch, taking carc to balance bending strength against scoring (Fig. 4-21). Higher speeds call for the use of finer pitches. It always should be possible to select a pitch range in which putting enduranc is the life-limiting failur. mode. 2. Use of a contact ratio sufficient to insure load sharing by at least two pairs of muting te-th in the higher sliding velocity ranges of the tooth contact. The profile contact ratio for straight spur gears

\_*4s

rve -orl

_44

operating in the velocity ranges of scoring sensitivity never should be less than 1.65. a value that pcrmits two-tooth load sharing in the first and last thirds Of meshing contact. The profile contact ratio may be reduced for hliefcal a-id spiral bevel getass i,,ea thrc d face contact ratio is suffcient to assure a total developed contact ratio of 2.0 or greater. Reliable achievement of these contact ratios requires accurecy of tooth spacing, profile slope, and lead slope. 3. Seleiction of tooth numbers to insure hunting tooth action. In general, this requires that the number of teetl. in any two mrshing gears be relatively prime; i.e., that theme be no comimon factors. An indication of the significanrcý LA this requirement isgiven by Fig. 4-23, which illustrate* the difference in scoring load limit between Star-synchronized and separate motor driven 4.0 in. diameter test disc operating in MIL-L780 oil (Ref. 71). 4. Modification of the involute profile to compensate for deflection of the teeth under load-deflected load so that the loading ors the entering and leaving tooth pair contacts varies susoothly rafthr than in a * step-functon. This not only minimizes the transinitted I;;-- carried att the elidin velocity cU

The most satisfactory technique cur rently available for calculating gear scoring risk Is based upon the critical temperature hypothesis (Ref. 72). This hypethesia suggests that for every oil-meta combination, there exists a cr~tical constant conjunction temperature at or above which surface scoring occurs. Application of the co~icepi requires determiratior, of appropriate values of the critical temperature T, and the temperature of the conjunction T7+ A T with 7, the initial temperature of the oil-mesh interlace as it enters mesh and A T being the temperature rise during the meshing cyckc. The critical temperature hypothesis implies that the limiting or failu~re load Wf is related to certain design variables. The specific rzlationship has be=s reduced to standard geur terestinology and published by AGMA (Ref. 73). Aver4. values for thermal conductivity, specific heat, dentity, and an assumed constant coefficient of friction of f - 0.06 have been incorpoxatuid into the empirical questions for the temperature rise A T and the scoring geometry factor 2,
,\

but reduces the dynamic ioad increment as wel!.

5. Provision of adequate, uniformly distributed oil flow to the entire tooth face width. The dual function of cooling and lubrication Ii best served by use of bo'.h in-mesh and out-of-mesh oil jets. When both jets cannot be employed (either to minimize windage losses or because of marginal pumnp supply), it usually is best to retain the in-mesh jet for high-speed gearing and the out-of-mesh jet for low-speed geapryns.

ij

(4-44) 5OSJ\) /J(-4

1

where W'-ttlcfcieprtohtal F, - a effective gaer tooth,oad lb i S - effectiveface width, pin. S - rinis surfac frispin - scrn speed,- rpm r dmniols -soiggoer atr iesols

~~hINLE

ANN DISKS 626e 14O d, a,0.0175 T OILTCWP-Iq I
CI---. UIISVIHqOMIZiO 90~ SYIICHRONIZEU O

~ j i;

(4-45)
V411'

--

where

N

- number of teeth in pinion
-

N
T

P 1
--

r
Z7
J=

number of teeth in gear diameitral pitch, in. radiu~s of curvature of gear tooth, in. radius of curvature of pinion tooth, in. transverse operating pressure angle,

deg

L-4-42

I using Eqs. 4-44 and 4-45, T, is assumed as equal to V,- 11 V'. mm the oil inlet temperature. However, considerable error can be introduced through the actual values off Figur 4-23. Scuffivig Load is Sliditig Velodly and T, because the friction coefficient is often lower Sym~eakd ad UsyncroasedDimthan 0.06 and the pinion-gear surface temperatures 51200300C Usnhole ie

x

1)P70-0
often are higher than those at th. oil inlet. However, because these two errors are opposite ip offcct, sufficient cancellation occurs to rendcic the equatio~is acoeptable for estimation purposes. Ref. 73 defines the critical temperature T, with respect to scoring risk, rating T, - 5W)OF as a high risk. 300*F as a medium risk, and lesser temperatures as low risks. Theiefore, the value of the conjunction temperature T, + AT under design load conditions should be less than the, value of T, assc vaed with an acceptable level of risk, There is no accepted or inherently accurate method for calculating T's, although measurements of typical helicopter pinions have shown values lO0 greater 0F than oil inlet temperatures. Although it is well known (Refs. 74 and 75) that above a certain critical speed the scoring load of a given gear set will increase, the AGMA equation does not reflect this consideration since no speed term other than sliding velocity was used in the deve~opment of Eqs. 4-44 and 4-45. An improved calculation ma~hod uses speeddependent friction coefficients (Ref. 76) combined with the effects of tooth load sharing. The method for
dlga, ::..,. e uic foa,,...,sou

values of the friction coefficient (Fig~s. 4-6 and 4-7) Therefore, to achievc the best proffic modification for scoring risk roduction, the prccedinig caltulations should be slightly biased to increase the Miaterial removal at first ploint of contact while decreasing the removal a,. the last point of contact. A 20-30% bias shift is generally satisfactory. If practic~able reduclions in scorinig risk are to be obtained throught involute modification, profile slope tolerances must be held bttween :k 0.0001 and 1 0.0002 in. for the modified zones and tooth-to-tooth spacing accuracies of 0.0002-0.0003 in. must bu achieved. Adequacy of the ctlculated design values must be confirm-A dtiritig initial gearbox bench testing. Prop~r profilk, modifications for helicopter applicotions must reveal full visuni profile contact throughout the rfaige 50-75% of the red-line power; if less than full contact is achicved, the rtsultant loss of contact ratio at nor-mal cruise power may cause excewskvely rough and noisy cptration with an attendant reduction in p~itting life When the level of sophistication desccibed is used in the calculation. of T).+ AT, together with precision in manufa~cture. the risk evaluations of T. 0
L'M

r

a* value*of TI *

5w~~'

Feflfit

-'

1. Subdivide the active tooth profile into at least 20 equally spaced points, 2. Calculater andr at each point. 3. Calculate 4at cthpoint, 4. Calculate f at each point by method shown in Ref. 76 or using suitablt; empirical data. 5. Replace 2., in Eq. 4-44 with Z,-, a modified sv'ring geometry factor.
ZjC

high risk, but 7, = 400*F as a medium risk thus would be a suitable classificakion for carburized AMS 6265 gears operating in lAIL-L-7808 or MIL-L-23699 lubricantls. The preceding analyses do not adequately accourst for certain factors that are. known to influence the calculated temperature rise AT awtd the truc 7:. for synthetic lubricants. Among thesc factors are: 1. The diffcreaccs in friction and wedr additive efficiency between MIL-L.-7808 and MII..-L-23699 oiia texture 3. The influence o! EHI) behavior as a function os' te erteanvloiy When tests are conducted under closely controlled conditions wherein the friction coefficient f, the initial temperature T,, and the EHD parameters are known with accuracy, it has been reported that the assumption that T,. is constant actually is invalid. Ref. 20 shows a semi-log correlation between T,. and a dimensionless El-D parameter tp which depends upon the initial viscosity p, the sliding and total velocities V, and V7, respectively; pitch radius R; and compressive (hertz) stress at failure Sc,. In this correlation the value of T, for well heat treated, low retained austenite, case carburized AMS 6265 operating in MIL-L-7808 drops from &.bout 600'F to about 430*F when the value of t increases by a factor of 101 (from i - 10- to - &~.Values of T, are approximately 100 deg F less for lower quality (with
-

0!

/

~

...

V\.0/

a, les

kq"-')

-~~~-

i

*i

p.,*~

.'the

*\

6. Calculate a value of W,' adjusted to account for load sharing at multiple tooth contact points, including effects of profile modifications. 7. Calculate AT and conjunction temperature T, + AT at each point, Proper load sharing distribution in the two-tooth contact zone must be provided for by involute profile modifications. There are many techniquts in use for calculation of these modifications, most of them based upon the practices recommended by Ref. 77. Even though the calculated values are slightly low for thin-rim helicopter gearing, the tooth defiections obtained by the methods of Ref. 78 should be used for profile modification technique. The first point of contact (pinion dedcrndumn with gear tip) is the most critical with respect to the overload effects of tooth \spacinS errors, and produces the higher absolute

-

~

high retained ausmteit) mas carburizd A MS 6265 op~uieing in the saicie lubricant (Rqf. 71). Tbo reuctioi n.V T, with anl kincrea In ifis due to One 9omplex interaction of V, and Vy, For conlstanlt V7 T, faho 6harply and then levels off as V, is incr=4.d while T, increases eapnential ihV wimm V, is held constant. Because the ratio /VI1 . is constant for a given gear design, these opposite ef fecta tend to canWeleah other over common ranges of gSar operating speeds and loads, producing a relatively constant value of T,. When actual friction data for t given lubricantmetal combination are not availsble, the trends shown in Fig. 4-24 (Ref. 71) ane helpful in design mvKiew and evaluation, From a practical viewpoint, when overpower tests * show that scoring risk is marginal, the problem may be eliminated by such relatively minor remedial actionsacB 1. Improving the run-in cycle by i±. glonger runs ;A~t increased load and reduced speed to rewict tht operating surface finishes 2. Reducing the manufactured surface roughness through better grinding piracice or the use of Scar tooth honing where possible 3, Reducing the value of T, through increase lubrkicat flow or cooler lubricant s;Apply. When such measures prove inadequate, the lubricant and the metallurgical microstructure should be evaluated. If neither can be improved, it may be * possible to improve the involute modification or profile and the tooth epacing error,
_____________

4-2.2.1.2.3 Pftrimg Fallure There are several pitting failure modes that in their advancad states produce the same and result: extensivc spalling and tooth fracture. Only three of these modes are relevantto the type of gearin used In modern helicopter drive subsystems. They nay be classified as case failure, classic or pitch-line fatigue, and wear-initiated failure. 4-2.2.1.2-3.1 Case Failre This mode results simply from inadequatic depth of case to support the opeating load. It way be avoiodd by adjustment of either unit load or oas depth to obtain a ratio of subsurface shea stress to shAm yield strength in excess of a particular critical value. Ref. 79 recommends that a value of 0.55 for this ratio not be exceeded; however, for high-quality helicopter ý taring transient operationc at values between 0.55 and 1.0 should not result in failure. Extended operation above the critical ratio will cause subsurface cracks to occur near or in the case-core transition area as a result of the repetitive subsurface shear. qtre-citins. Them~ suhxurfxne cracks scion spread to the tooth profile surface and generally result in numerous brittle longitudinal fracture in the general area of the single-tooth contact zone. Total mutilation of the toth profile then results from only a few additional cycles of load application. The variation of subsurface shear stress with depth may be calculated in 4astrakightforward manner. The magnitude of thie subsurface shear for a given depth is a function of S, and the Hcrtzian contact band semiwidth b.The calculation should be made for the
lowest point of single tooth co'ntact (LPSTC) on the
_;.in invlu.,a sur.Eace then.. -la-,

.nmember

6.

AM 20DU 1considerably 40
0U'-- OIL IK)L( QAMIL- S¶RAOIGTMKL -V' - V, $250i H L

a
-' -~manner:

maximum~ value of S,. S, may be calculated in accordance with the methods shown in par. 42.2.1.2.3.2. The effective toota load W,' and the radii of curvature shouald be adjusted for the LPSTC. The ~Hertzian semiwidth b is relatod to S, in the following

weaker) becauscr this produces the

0

~

-

-b

-(2.30

x 10-1) (7t L)S, . in.- (4-47)

j

-~~ ____

wh!5re r~ and r are as defined pre'iowjly, the radius of curvature of the'pinion and tar- tooth, respective4-5 nlxt should bc use to cak & values of late shear stress S ait 12 depthis. Thate alues then may be along with the allowable st.resz as shown in Fig. 4-25. The allowable values show n are 55% of the

VI -V2.f Itabl

(

Figre 4-24. Scufling Loand vs lubricant -plotted Ussmycbtosihed Discs
'4-44

II

-J

i

-

'I

TABLE 4.5. SHEAR STRESS VS DEPTH DPTn.SHEAR STFESS -

F

DEPTH. ohardness

C, x b

C, xThe
_..

shecar yield strength, as a function of hardness at the given depth. An approximate relationship betweon to shear yield stnis is shown in Fig. 4-26. allowable values of shear stress near the sur,ace are omitted because of the large residual comprossive stress field normally in existence therem. iB.ause this residual field will reduce the effects of tl'e imposed subsurface shear stresse, this region is not critical to the analysis; the occurrence of failure in this region as limited to the high hardness gradient transitional depths. 4-4.2.1.2.3.2 Classic or Pitch Line Fatigue Classic or pitch-line pitting has been treated extensively in the literature and is related closely to classic bearing fatigue. Pitting life may be calculated as a function of Hertzian stress S,; it is a phenomenon associated with rolling contact, and the theory is not applicable if surface traction or shear stressws are of considerable magnitude. Consequent'y, valid aly arc limited to full EHD lubricant film
41

VALUE

OF C1

........

VALUE OF C, 0.090 0.160 0.216 0.314 0.293 0.278 0.252 0.211 0.179 0.154 C.107 0.082

0.05 0.10 0.25 0.33 0.50 0.60 0.75 1,00 1.25 1.50 2.25 3.00

1

AMAXIMUM VALUE OF ORTHOGONAL SHEAR

STRESS OCCURS AT DEPTH - 0.33 b FOR CYLINDRICAL HERTZIAN CONTACT

83

---

r~l /Rc '--

-....

50 TO vUAin CORE- - R, 6038TO 0.020 in., U3 in., 62D655 R, AAJS NITRIDED A&% - Rc GD 0.007 l. 64.5 TO L*s w t•S 10

2o

1

1th-41

640

50

OO

002

,5

0.20

0.20

0.040

000

0.Ot0

0.070

0.050

0.090

DEPTH BELOW SURFACE, in.

Figure 4-25. Case Depth Allowable vs Subsurface Shear
4-45

IL

-

-

15 LK
I2~
,,..-d

-I-''
-4

1

The stress factor X is delined as
mi

WF (-!
where

j').ps

(4-50)

Wf*;
-

total effective tooth load (Eq. 4-29), lb
pinion pitch diameter. in.

I
2S
39 15

) ~ j~----*formal teeth and (min 1 is used with conformal -1teeth. Ll111
--

-face width, in. gear ratio N /N,. a number m .1.0L used with counterIn mEq. 4-50 the term (M1,+ 1) is
Thec ffcctivc tooth load W,' varies from that

F

40

455

0

EQUIO'1NU tHAftQMC$$ R,

SUL'L

hearYlel Figue 4-6. vsHardessline F~gue hearV~el vsHarm...load 4-6. ftpaation as depicted in Regime 11 of Fig. 4-3. Opsrating in this region is not observed often in hedicopter drive subsystems where low-viscosity synthetic lubricants are used, except in the very high
imei vA'~rino stna~es Tntm' veladitie&'V.. - V. + V. nf

used in Eq. 4-29 in that W, is taken at the pitch line. and for miost applications Wj - 0 because thc pitch load is governing while an incremental dynamic usuAlly is limited to the initial mesh contact. The stress index modified I in Eq. 4-48 is defined as ' C~ t k (4-)

where O 'ess (4-52) 2 tases pftn rsueagc d rasersgpaig psueage and the valegfrtecnatrti atrm loi us in par. 4-2.2.1.2.1. The value of S, calculrAted using Eq. 4-48 shuuld bc used with the S-N curve shown in Fig. 4-12 to predict pitting life. C1-

the ordt.r of 15,0UU ft/nun or greater are rcquirod to achieve Regime 11 coaditions. The fundamental AGMA approach to the calculation of pitting life is given in Ref. 80. For helicoptcr use the following adaptation is suggested for calculation of the Hertz stress, S,:
-

cat.si

,

CP TLcalculated (4-48) psi

whom C. - elastic coefficient, (psi)i i - streas factor, psi I - stress index modifier, dimensionless In Eq. 4-48 the elastic coefficient C, is given by

4W
-L
where k L
-

4-212.1.2.3.3 Wear Initiated Failure This is the most frequently encountered failure mode, predominating throughout the transitional lubrication states between pure: boundary layer and 9) rective action are discussed in detail in pars. 4-1.2.11.2, 4-1.3.1, and 4-2.1.1. In the absence of relevant test data or cxtensivce xperience, the best procedure for analyzing this failure mode is to calculate S,.by Eq. 4-48 and to apply this value to the applicable S-N curve of Fig. 4-18. More suitable life equations that take into account many of the gignifierant variables other th'an ,~myso become available from the many research programs now under way. One such program, entitled Co~icen"Relationship of Lubrication and Fatigue in trated Contact", is being conducted by the Rescarch on Lubrication of the ASME.

full El-D conditions (Fig. 4-3). Causes and cor-Y

gometr ý.-Ylindrical contact k combined givent as E'

factor, dimensionles (for contact k - 2.0; for elliptical 3.0) modulus of elasticity, psi

2 /+ '"+ E- +

jl~p

/

wherep, are the Poisson's ratios.

.Committee

"6~

)
4-2.2.13 Geer Drawing ail Specification Without a drawing or specification adequate to insure control of the critical variables, little confidence can be placed in the value of gear analyses relative to expected service performance; reliability goals cannot be guaranteed and the results of any specific Airworthiness Qualification Specification (AQS) test becomi relatively meaningless. To achieve a workable logistical, maintenance, safety of flight, and otherwise cost-effective helicopter program, consistency of product must become a paramount consideration. Consistency or reduction of variability is of far greater importance at the operational level than is the achievement of any other criterion of performance such as power-weight ratio, strength, or efficiency. The gear drawing must be amplified by numerous supporting specifications. However, the decision as to what class of data falls into each category is a matte" of individual preference provided the result is a workable system for procurement, quality control, and necessary engineering review and change. The
3 ,.hrZ;no ;a th. Aru-ntmi-nt

~AMCP 7W0-2W
MIL-STD-10 with dimensioning practices to ANSI Y 14.5 b. Gear reference axis definition with location tolerance for inspection set-up c. Specified taper, waviness, roundness, concentricity, and finish requirements, assuring compatibility for journals d. Boundaries to csed areas. 5. Finishing requiremeints: a. Specified methods and limitations on use b. Specified peening techniques including setup, shot, gaging, coverage, and certification frequoncy c. Means to avoid emlrittlcment and stress corrosion in all electrolytic, acid, or caustic proccsscs. 6. Stock removal: a. Limits on stock removal (minimum and maximum if required) during grinding on all cased areas within tolerances compatible with Item 2 and with design stress analysis b. Specified methods of control. 7. Nondestructive testing:
a. Specified requirements and methods for

anvernino definition of the

component, and it must clarify any ambiguities in or between supporting documents. "Thefollowing review list is intended as a minimum guide for assuring completeness of data, but no stipulation is made whether it be provided by drawing or by specification: I. Raw material: a. Chemistry b. Certification condition c. Grain orientation d. Processing requirement
.. si.c Shape and: rn.. . duction, fro"

magnetic particle, pcnatrant, and cichant tcsia b. Specified frequency and sequence c. Specified frequency of certification of processes d. Specified equipment and precise location of identification for necessary hardness measurements on critical areas. 8. Balance require,.ents: a. Planes of measurement, limits, and speeds established and located, and permissible techniques specified when dynamic V'iiancing is required
h.

in-os

Spr-ifdA

lw ation

limitc

and

material

,

f. Finish g. Decarb limits. 2. Heat treatment requirements: a. Process controls b. Certi!,ation c. Properties, including microstructure d. Case. hardness, surface and gradient, case depth r.nd tolerance, and core hardness, r. Quenching and tempering limitations including time, temperature, and interval regulations f. Limits on reprocessing, 3. Serialization: a. Proper identification and traceability b. Location of cod" and numbers c. System for transfer during processing d. Control of marking methods, size, and point(s) during processing for application. 4. Drawing technique: a. Specifications and Standards (MIL-D-I000),

removal methods for meeting ba'anct requirements. 9. Tooth form: a. Provide clear cnlargcd detail of tooth form, graphically specifying tooth thickness, flank and root finish, over pin (or ball) dimensions, OD root diameter, and minimurn fillet radius or equivalent b. Applicable data listed; i.e., N, Pd' "0' Dp. circular pitch ,P, involute base circle diameter DI, and %/. 10. Involute data: a. Slope and modification zones specified, e.g., by use of degrees rolled off base circle b. Critical diameters such as start of true involute, ard edge break limits defined. It. Lead data: a. If applicable, slope and crown defined b. End break limits and blend specified, 12. Allowable errors: a. Specified limits of manufacturing deviation 4-47

S'

"
-.
".- ZVI

....

from the desired b. As neceasary, equipment or certifiable equipment capabilities required to measure such
errors specified c. Repeatability and standardization of proof

the primary failure rate of cylindrical roller bearings. In order to achieve the failure rate reductions required by modern MTBF goals, it is advisable that,
as a minimum, the desig:,er: I. Come to agreement with the bearing supplier

check methods and frequency for inspection
equipment check specified d. Gear mounting within location limits given

with respect to specific application neetds.
2. Clearly specity appli-.ation requirements by pertinent drawing or specification,

in Item 4 or equivalent specified for inspection
c. Tolerances on adjacent and accumulated tooth spacing, profile slope, lead slope, hollow or fuliness of profile and lead, waviness of profile and lead, and undercut o; cusp specified where appli-

3. Evaluate the effectiveness of potential gains
available with amended specifications in order to undcrstand what changes in price are justifiable. 4. Inspect bearings for compliance with specification.

cable. 13. Chart format:
a. Inspection chart for involute profile and lead required to conform to a predetermined standard for proper interpretation and consistency b. A sample chart with explanation of interpretive technique specifying magnification and paper travel speed provided, 14. Pattern limitations: a. For spiral bevel gears beating pattern checks required in lieu of profile and lekd checks Sb. Methods and ma'hine.s by which bearng or contact checks are performed on production cornponents run against "working masters", checked in turn against "grand masters" specified). c. Data defining gaging dimensions, pattern size, shape, and location; and boundary tangencics

AMCP 706-201 describes the elements of bearing type selection and gives many examples of typical
helicopter configurations. The primary function of helicopter bearings is to provide accurate positioning of gear and shaft components under wide ranges of speed while also exhibiting satisfactory life. Means of achieving this goal are described in the paragraphs that follow. 4-2.1.2.1 Application Design Four aeneral areas apocar to create :he major difficuitics in bearing applicaiion tiasign. They arc.: I. Mounting practices 2. Lubrication techniques 3. Internal characteristics 4. Skidding control.

(

through specified V and H and profile settings
specified (See Ref. 81 for further definitions). 4-2.2.2 Bearings The discussion of bearing application design, life arnaluysis, and draw•i1 ,otrois that fllows is limited to radial ba,, angular contact ball, and radial cylin d rical roller configurations. However, the basic principles introduced are sufficiently general to serve well in application design of any rolling element type bearins. Efficiency, reliability, survivability characteristics. and standards recommendations were treated prcviously in pars. 4-1.2.1 and 4-1.3.3. Army helicopter transmission bearings have exhibited a primary failure rate two times greater than that for gears and four tinme higher than that for all remaining transmission components (Ref. 46). Also, their replacement rate wt overhaul was three "times that of gears and 15 t~nies that of the remaining components. The majority of these replacements were due to secondary failure such as debris ingestion and corrosion. Also of importance to hhe designer is the finding that ball bearings (predominantly thrust applications) exhibited ten times 4-48

4-2 2.2.1.1 Mounting Practices
In most helicopter applications of the rolling clement bearing, the loads are relatively large in relation to the physical dimensions and weight of the bearing. Good design requires consideration of the elastC buhaVioF of SUe, a sys"CM; adeQUate SUPPOr for both the rotating end nonrotating rings is necessary, and the supporting !-hafts and housings must have greater rigidity than the bearing rings. This criterion may be satisfied by use of shaft wall sections that are at least as large as the bearing inner ring thickness, and or total hotising-lincr-quill cross sections equal to the total bearing cross section. Use of thinner se..ions should be avoided unless careful stress and deflection analyses prove that they are feasible. Fretting wear, creep, and spinning are undcsirabie phenomena generally associated with the bearing inncr ring-shaft interface (inner ring rotating with respect to load vector). Proper inner ring interference fit is the most important parameter for control of these conditionFretting wear is the result of localized r.'bbing of very, small amplitude at the interface, and is difficult

*the

4There
Zaused MR.described

)

to control unless the ring cross-sectional thickness is ring sections such as ure found in 200 or 300 series iargt enough for thc loading conditions involved. bmaings. TherF.ore. when dealing with appliction Of IkitAg croep is the x!aw rele~dve (lagging) motion of this formula to ligater section bearings combined ring with rtspect to the shaft and occurs in some with hollow shafts, it is nocuesacy to cnpfensate for irntances as a result of sufficieqi fretting wear to rethe reducmd radial pressure per unit interfceent* by duce the interference fit. A relative rotational speed the method of elastic i* theory as defined in Rcf. ug of as little as 10-6 X shaft speed may result in suf83. Use of interfercncc fits that produce surface tenficierl wear over several hundred hours to rediuce the silo stresstz in thc circumferenitial dirucion above 10,design interference. Often, creep o~cur-. initially 0CNQ should ibe ap-,%wched with -caution because psi bem~use of insufficient design interference, the fatigue life of the race may Ne reduced. Spinning is a term used to dencte an advanced 2. Eximssive thermal grsdicnts should be avoidc~d. statc of creen that occurs in cases w~h loose fir up or Becuse the circulated itib: ication oil acts to nodu1no interference between the shaf~t and dhe inrer ring late thesc gradicnits through forced convective of the bearing. With hardcne4, and groun~d precision cooling, an increase of oil flow to the shaft and interface surfaces, poliulhing and advanced wear rates beari-ng often can be used to alleviate thermul proboften result when the relative rotational spm 64aplems. proach 10 to 20% of siiaft speed under operating con3. Very thin ring sections es used in AFJPMA sizcs eitions not unlike thos'. in a simp'c slec'-e bearing, below series "0" for ball-type bearinas and series '"I Fig. 4-27 (from Ref. 82) shows a wear vs time funcfor cylindrical roller-type bearings should be avoidtion for a cylindrical roller bcaring application. ed for nigh-load applications. Elimminsion of the inare a number of design practices that may be ner ring by use or integral shaft raceways for cyto counteract these phenomena. They are lindrical roller applications is aii effective means of here in a descending orilew of preference, avoiding the problem) altogct~mcr. _rond. or hone' orn' tow) .- umiardened i 1. Thi exterit radhciattl~ i provide sufce rda Lc toIto pr[vent cree ma t e (roughness !5AA 10) with dimensional tolerance sufin force creepimayterng orrun fIh baigwl be calculatedI and employed in the design. Two faceurtor le hnthrngofhebrigil tors that must be considered areassure attainmntca of dcsired c~alculated pressurets and a. Crcuferntilofthebeaing~'ig sreth tili withstand frequent assembly and disassembly under applied rolling element loads which 'c~ctivcly adlogsrieitmnmllssfitreen. increases the inside diameter (ID) of the rind. 5. It is desirable to use 2/3-lip-depth shouldcrs, b. The influence of the temperature gradient spacers, and clamp nuts that are square with the jot-.rfrom shaft to the bearing ring upon relative iherwal nal surface end provide iigid axial clamping. Positive expansion. This gradient is a funct;-n of the cooling nut lock devices always should be used becAuse ring paths and of heat generation or friction loss. creep under high axial loading may rotete the nut. Ref. 6 Presents a calculation technioue suitableI for Deeiisse bearing ring creep results from a lag of the interforence fit determination. However, the ring behind tihe shaft ro, aioal speeoc, il is simple to calculations cited assume a soliJ shaft and generous dr~'erminc whether such cor~dition! will servc to tighten or loosen the nut. 6. Copper or silver plating on the shaft interfa~ce 4 ~ T as bAc used with wine beneficial results kp reC'~ 4'1I[A R~[~ ducing or virtually eliminatisig fretting corrosion and
_____ . -

SI-4-~ .~

CO ihI

thus prlnigcomponentsevcli,

~ j
I
--. -

I

4

---- -

A

4

-

-

7. Positive rwug-shaft interlocking with notched rings and keys have beer. employed to prevent creep. Howev;.r, satisfactory installations are difficult to achieve because statficient fretting corrosion may occvr between the shaft-key-bearing wing surfaces to

-~

~'~~-j
C :0 ~ 70
MI

precipi-tateebe~nding fatigue failure inone or tacre of
4

yI
01'kATNCTIM. Nand

Outer ring (nonrotating loud) diametral clearances

Figure 4-27. Creep Wear - Inner Ring Fit is Opersiliq Time

tention than dc the inner riiags of bearings. Howevei. heavil,' loaded angular contact thrust "~rings must be well clamped and their outside diameters

clamping require somewhat I=m diligent at-

mutt be well supported to prevent excessive coning wumdr the action of tire aaglod rolling element toad victor, Whvri only radial loads or light thrust loads act involi~e6, retaining rings or similar devices arc vAtisfactory for axiail retention. The diamectral fit #eaerally should be nominally line-to-line to approximstely 0.OO~i in. tight at opetating temperature to reduce ring rottation. Outer ling inter ferencc !sm oftcn are limited by rtquirements for eawt of asserubly and disatisembiy. Higher speeds call for tfshtor fits. Outr rng ottio isnomaly opostci~tdirction to shaft rotation duc to thr rcinfrcs exerted by the loadecd rolling elements H owvrcein the~ case of lightly loadtd, outer-land-guided, cagetype bearings, the viscous drag may be sufracimnt to reverse the norm. t t o citomry i ue tscr.4ly ftte an Vined stee l'ilficx in aluminum or magnesium housings to reduce wear and the rate of iruireasc in outer ring snou~nun dear ance due to rising tempeiratwec The !ncreascd clearance atoeaiStmeauesol opertingtempratue shuld be coknpoclstod for wher~ the fit is specified at roomi ardMte ri Iraa t~~npe~~~aiorgll. he hec fit n amasivestel he amecccficent lnerhavrg of thermial expapaioin as the bearing will remain unchansed at operating temperature, but the Pt in a liaht alloy housing without liner will loosen in -proportion, with the product of bWaring outside diAmeter (0i)) temperature rise, and the difference in the thermal expansion cofrficlents of the alloy and Mcel, The change in the outer ring fit in the presence or a steel liner installed in a housing with considerabic diarriczae inlwrferen~e will lie between these
tidn hnsindiarv
n,,ndiatin,,m snd

shrink fit) and 0.040-in.-v, H aluminum houiing. If the operating temperature is 220*F, the correctionr arc 000D13 in. for the 60-mm bearing and 0.0038 in. for the 140-mm bearing in this illustration. However, whe-n, as is often the case, the bearing is the principal heat soiurce and the housing provides appreciable he~et conduction, these values should be reduced to compensate for the temperature gradient. A rcascriaLle correction for most desigqn applications is 60%. Consequontly, the room temperature bearing outer .ring r'lt-rips should be tightened by approximately 0.0008 in. for the 60-mm OD bearing baig dapoiaey002 n o h 4-wO Occasionally, due to space limitations or a desire to eliminate unnecessary detai! components, integral ex' ernal flanges are used on bearing outer rings for axial retention and prevention of rotation. In this case. care must be exercised to avoid radial restraint at the flange holes so as to preclude race distortioas due to thermal oi load-induced deflectiors. Under the influence of high radial loads, a bearing of this design always will exhibit greater stiffness at the ,,---. .1-~-as~~ nla --U~1

I

Ul

0.I R..UUMMS

M&Jr !a'

toward the flange. This characteristic can be used to homiensyatppfopriabedn delcation. of the ig shift or thoseaing.b prpit oain fteiag ieo tebaig 4-2.2.2.1.2 LAbricaitoti Techniques While thioretically it is true that only a slight amount of oil is neceded to lubricate retainee rubbing surfaces and to supply fluid to rolling element-raceway conitinctions. helicoreter aninlicatiow, olýen -3; 0" 1,l quire the use of substantially greater -11iAti For example, circulating oii may be usted WOe zv retainer wear particles, water conden~aion uiid sludge, and to transport spalling failure debris to chip detectors or similar diagnostic aids. Increased oil flows also act to modulate temperature gradients by forced convective cooling and help to reduce ditlerenitial thermal expansion distortions that otherwist coald reduce component life. As speed.9 and loads increase, thermal stability can be attained only through the rapid rates of cooling provided by high oil flows. In addition, centrifugal accclerationG and windage barriers at heigh speeds make it very difficult to get oil to inncr raceway and cage lands, leading to a requirement for forced pressure lubrication, Finally, critical bearings often must be lubricated by redundant systems so as to increase operational reliability and permit safe operation should the primary system fail. rJenerally, lubricant applications may be grouped

k cmealaidseO ea'silv On

Ulz assumption that liner is fitttd to a minimum of 250 dcg F intt~rfercnce (linc-to-livie contact when ýhc temperature diftfcrenial i% 2.50 deg F) at room temperature (par. 4-2.3.2), there is an appreciable, unifo~m prcssure at the iiner-housirig interface. This pressure resulti. in an e.lastic rvductioni in the diawrster of the. installed liner bore. As the temperature is inercased, Lac pressure is red-'aced and the bore cxpands. Ttic initial pressure, and, hence, the expansion rate, is dcpendent upon relative section thicknesses aund material properties that may be evalukated by application of the elastic cylinder whooey (Ref. 83). Fig. 4-28 preseasts a graphic sol ution to the room temperature fit correctian factor. To illustrate two practicabil extrcinet, coodi'ions are represenated both for a 140-mm-OD bWaring installed in a 0.045-in.-wall liner that is in turn fitted (250 dog F shrink- fit) into a 0.05in.-wall thickness alumiinurm housing; and for a 60min-OD bearing, with 0.090-in, wall liner (250 del; F 440

-

0.607

-1

S0.0D6

3 60 mm 0Of. RG. BARE ALUMINUM HOUSING 4 60 MM OD BRG, 0.090 in. LINER, 0.40 in. AL. WALL -5 ANY 00 ORG. MASSIVE STEEL LINER1

00 140 mm BRG INBARE ALUMINUM HOUSING1 0D 2 140 mm ORG. 0.045 in. LINER, 0.50 in. AL. WALL

-Ile'
LU 0.004
--

*

TEMPERATURE

0.003

-0

-

I

TE0PEATUR

150

200

"250 Fit Redbction

K)Q
f ^ km sseh rinDho
.

Figure 4-28. Tcn~wra'ure vs Outer Ring by approxim~att Dnz-values (diameter D, mim; mul.:I:A __ _

-Liner

b. Heavily loaded bearings require pressure jet
-*ww.l

)

e~ ithei natural ot forced flow of a.Oil mist oil-laden atmosphere bWick feed to citber ring or retaniner c.Splash or dipping b) dammed oil level (ut lestt ceneer of lower folfirts Claumci) d.Gravity food &~tou~h dr310 or cust paisage from trap locatc4 to ca'sh ,iani, Saturn oil c. Su-facc tevuion aii/or conetirugal feed from rotating hollow shall with oi.l acquisition frot. pressure jtt or other me tti~c4R meann in consbination with premcdina atcýNtw f. Pressure jet stream inbpirgiur&on rcia'tir-. M~IS gap. 2. Moderate spezds (0.3 x 101 < Dr < 1.0 X l0fs): a. Lightly Ioadvr4 brai inj may rcspond well to 6z~ methocls of Item I

a. Lightly loadtd bearings with relatively open faces can be lubricated by high-velocity jet implogcment b. Heavily loaded or restricted configurations rrquire internal pressure feed as described in Item 2. 0I1 ogre"s must be considered. Outer ring counterborod bali-type bearings and lipless outer rinb cylindricala frecluently are employed. 4-2.2.2.1.3 hitteuzIt Cbeaictevhstlc Of all of the internal geometric properties of hcariing the mrest impoi tank with rospedt to operating characteristics -I& dismetral clearance. Such factors as wnrarol of initial shaft displaceml-nt to reduce gear trisalignment, load sha.-ing of the rolling elosments in 4-31

*radial *duood *

*

j

load applicatians, elimipation of thermally inradial preload, reduction of externally induoed deformation load& (such as the pinch effect ofr ~pltnet idior Sears), and d'etermsination of ball bearing contact angle are basically depedent upon diametral clearance./ A specific operating diametriu clearance must be/ maintained under all conditions. While radial load/ ~deflection contributes to needed clearances, it is generally insufficitnt to compcrisate for bearing installatioci, or fit-up, practices or thermal expansion

Li

.........

//
,
-

4

*

~~temperature differential between inner and outer

Chhdges in race diameter due to filt-up an:1 to

*

rings can be calculated directly from elastic cylinder theo'v as presented in Ref. 83. Whether or not an in.. crews in inner ring temperature will tend to reduce the raceway enlargement du. to initizl fit-up will idepend upon shaft temperature and heat flow con-/ ditions. It is nut uncommon to find highly loaded angular contact bearings operating at moderate to high speeds with the inner ring tcmi:erature 50-1004 deq F above the outer ring temnperature. Tolerances seieced for sh'tts hounig,qma -e-armigas w!il have a ani direct influ!:nce upon the success of cleat-ance compensation. Tht: range of variations of bearing de-flect'ons and lives in a given application and, therefore, the life scatter within a lot of ostensibly identical gearboxes, can be reduced greatly by use of bearings of the higher precision ABEC and RBEC classification. When high interference fit-up and clearance compensation arc required, there is a limiting practicable value for the ratio of ball diameter to radial cross-sectional thickness of the bearing. Ratios greater than 0.63 should be ap~proached with caution unless thcre isconsiderable experience from which to draw. The successful design of angular contact ball bearings for use in stacked seti of two or more requires a knowledge of their elastic behavior. DB (back-to-back; i.e., inner ring thrust faces opposed) and DF (face-to-face; i.e., inner ring thrust faces adjacent) configurations often are used to provide a combination of thrust and ratdial load capability, while DT (tandem) bearings generally are reserved for conditions where the thrust load is less than 4040%, of the radial load. Fig. 4-29 reprtsnts a single-row, angular contact bearing. Whtn operating speeds are such that the centrifugal force on the balls is noi sig;aificant and the ball-outer race loads are essentially equal to ballInner race loads, the line of contact is established by the centers of the race curvatuies. In Fig. 4-29 the radii of the races are denoted f, and I,(innmr and

I .
'~

/
--

V21

/
-

--

--------

--

Figure 4-29. Besaing Geomietry Change With lane( Ring Expansion outer, respectively). When a radial displacement of the iriner race A(D,/2) occur; due to fit-up or therm-Al growth , the radial clearanct: and contact angle .Are reduced. If the inner ring is allowed to displace -mially until ball contact exists with no load. a ring thrust face protrusion 6,. results. If a clariapedring DR ar OF mounting with a tight housing fit is employed, the resulting compression produces an internal preload and a comipansatin# inctease in contact angle. This may be eliminated by manufacturing each bearing with a thrust face intrusion equal to 6,.. The initial contact angle P. also should be reduced by approxiinazely (#,, - 0) If therr is a possibility for sizable thermal gradients and cesultant pieload, the DB mounting is preferred to the DF mounting because the load per unit of thermal expansion is considerably less with the DB mounting. Firt. 4-30 presents a graphic explanation of this condition. The thermal growth of x compensates frtaofYinBapicioswletervses true for OF miountings. The rcswaltant preloiad is an exporeaniai function of the relative Hertzian comnpression, 6N* Load-sharing equalization of DT installation may

4-52

DF MOUNTING

108 MOUNTING

Figure 4-30. Rtlative Thermal Preload

-

DF vs DS

x

)

be enhanced significantly by requiring that the faces be flush (or equally offset) under a relatively henvy oxial gaging load. This load should be at least 25% of' the operating thrust load for maximum benefit. Raceway groove shoulder heights must be adequate to support the elliptical contact area of the 4,allrace. Shaft misalignment and combination ralialthrust loads can affect a skewed ball path that crntributes to this requirement. Most heavily loaded helicopter angi.ý.r contact bearings require a shouk :r height-to-ball diameiter ratio of 0.25. Excessively skewed patiss may require higher shoulders and increased radii of curvature for at IeaSi the nonrotating race groove. Such conditions also increase the requirem ent for retainer pocket-bali clearance to prevent excessive retainer wear or Irac.lure. The balls in the loaded zone of operation will pooition themselves as the race-ball traction conditions dictate, including highi meainer loads if clearances arc insufficient, Single-row angular contact bearings may be fabricated with two-piece inner rings (J-type bearing),

and, in special instances, with two-piecie outer rings. This eliminates thg. need for counter-boring and permits the bearing to resist thrust in either direction. *Ihe inner groove generaly is ground with shims bet-aceon the split halves so that, upon removal of the shim and ausembly of the bearing, a Gothic arch shape results in the raceway groove. This configuration reduces the axial play of the bearing for a given contact angle. This fabrication technique generally enables one additional hall to be assembled into the complement, thus incremaing load-carrying capacity for the same exttunal envelope. Thrust-torudial lead ratios must be approximately 2.0 to p)revent degenerative three-point m!ritact. Misalignment and the resultant ball path skew also must be considered in avoid' ng three-point contact. The shim thickness that may be used in grinding the ring halves is limited by the need to maiintain race clearance in the absence of a thrust load. DW ause the loaded inner ring is oaly half the width of that used in a conventional counte.bored ring bearing, total radial pressure between the loaded ring and the shalt 4-53

TA

2~ Is conadarably less for the Wa. intefrfeence fit-up. Conusquently, fretting and ring crewp also arc; inore difficlt to Control. 44.21.4 ~dd~ CeruIcontact "I.M.4SWWO4 Ce"This Lightly loame hh-peed bearngs" may Operate withgrossidi th rolin elinct 06Th bewee pkcnsea and the rotating inner race. Such operation can produce snearing or race surface failures not unlike those camWe by gear tooth scuffing. The contrifusai aoaleration present at high spe crae a con sidmbe rllftelement/outer race load, with braking tr.iction forme exceeding driving traction forces at the rolling elemnent/inner rame contact. Retainer drag forcm and lubricant viscosity also play an important part in determining load-speed..lip con ditiolts. Historically. this distress mode has been a greater problemn with cylindrical roller bearings than with ball bearings. Calculation of slip-critical conditions is relatively uncertain, but some useful insight may be gained from Ref. S. One method for ;reventing gross slip is to maintam t te inerracerolingeleent ontct he oad n re ,r nlitsin surufieni ditrvine traction- 'Ms may be accompimstwaJ on DO5 or vi- angular contact b lssnags with internal p.-elosid. A preload spring may ingl-ro be rquied wth bal anularconact tc ihsigerwbalagla bereqire may require balancing to obtain satisfactory operalion. As in demernt skidding, a critical spoed exists; the centrifusal acceleration at this speed will displace an out-of balance retainer off center until all land occurs in a single local torse of the retainer. may, in turn, cause rapid retainer wear at the pockets is well as the guiding tails. Once started, the wwa rapidly accelerates until fallur occurs - often in 20 hr or tess. Hoeeadcotm fe xss ihrsett Hoceadhtmyftnxsswthrpcto clearance requirements. While controlled reduction of internal clearance to minimal values tends to redusce the skidding tendency of lightly loaded bearings, it comprises their ability to operate without lubricaEmergention, i.e., fail-safe operation (see par. "..3. cy Lubrication). Normal heat distribution within a bearing %rith inner ring iotation raiults in a negative temiperature gradient from inner ring through rolling ceincfltita and outer rnag to the housing with the inner ratzway Operating broadly from 50 -dkg to 100 deg F hotter than the outer raceway. Thc shaft and inner ring beat flow paths offer less rejection capability than the outer ring &ad housing paths. This, coupled with the customarily higher heat generation rate conefra onit' w neracts s~lidin th hi~v~her inne coteomacoatsrsusinheihrinr race operating tomperatures. Under normal operating conditions, the lubricant removes the bulk or the heat and maintains -thermal stabilization witbin this gradient. However, when the cooling effect and the friction reducing characteristics of the lubricant are absent. temperature stabilization can only occur at the higher gradients dictated by the increased friction and reduced heat rejection. If 'ntcrnal clearances are sufficient to accommodate the expansion attendant with the new gradient and increased cverall temperalure. then stable faii-safe operation is theoretically attainable. However, if inadtquate internal clearance exists, a radially tight condition results. This in turi! leads to a divergent increaise in temperature until bearing seizure or shaft failure occurs. As described previously, the mechanical means of providing positive rotation for the rolling ekLAnents in order to reduce skidding tendency can be applied in conjunction with greater iinertial clearance to affect a design without skidding and with fail-safe operating capability. Sinoe !he skidding tendency is highest in lightly loaded high speed bearings,. it is possible to install nonload-carrying hollow rollers in cylindrical roller bearings without loss of neoded capacity. This offers the dri-ing feature required to defeat siuioding "'nile providing adequate radial clearance to aacomnmodate thermal growth during fail-saft operation. Bearings with lower speed and higher loads cAlmibit

V

Thene are several methods for contfolling gross slip wihclnrlAolrbaig wit Octlifdrical router acwaysma b eplye to produce a pinch effect upon installation. Installa4*io orientaiioa is required such that the external -War loads are orthqgonal to the pinch load plane (Rai. 84). ridiallv tiahtI. A small nurnkW af Mveiia* holwrollRm may be dispersed at even intervaLs througomt the coan~ipemet. This method requires of areul uaimsi the hoflow rollers to preclude bend*a faguen faiur ("e. 63). 3. Whim the eoafiguretion permits, the roller * * bearing may be mounted vory slightly off-center with respect to the shaft a16s. If the shaft is Positioned by an addiitional pai Of INearings, sufficient radial Pre*oad may be effected to provide the aceesary traction i1oad. 4. Out-of-round lerg have been employed to prodamc the same resul as in Item 1. The primary dia* advantaga to "hi tochnique is time inavased difficulty -in aseunbly and dlsaassombly. ITo miaminia skidding tendencies in high-speed tohkthe snallest acu4Aable diaimeters; should be -tWboth for the rolliftg element and for the pitch cir"do hecompkmmeu of rollinS elements. Retainers f

X

AMCP 706-202

progressively lea skidding tendency and are designed with adequate radial clearance for fail-safe operation without need for auxiliary positive driving features. Thermal growth due to fail-safe operation in angular contact duplex ball bearins can be accommoduted by providing adequate internal clearance initially (minimv'm contact anglt of say 30 deg) or, if initially preloaded, by mounting the bearings basikto-back (DB). back---back mounting allows the innet rings to gvow ra:ially and axially without generating additional prelad, i.e., radial growth tends to increase pveload while axial growth relaxes preload. 4.2-2.2 Life Anulysis
Modern techniques for calculation of fatiguc life of bearings are based upon the pioneeri.i theoretical engineering and statistical analyses of Refs. P6 and 87. Certain empirical constants in these analyzes were determined by evaluation of experimental aata; hence, it may be argued that the effects of certain physical phenomena not specifically addressed in the

hence ignores any possible effects of gross elastic changes of shape in thew bodies. 3. Empirical coefficents used in the AFBMA formulas reflect the characteristics of air-melt AISI 52100 steel of Rc6O nominal hardness operating in medium-viscosity mineral oils at relatively low temperatures and moderate speeds and loads. 4. Any effects upon life caused by speed of rotation are omitted. S. The calculated lives are based upen the number of cyclic stressings to produce failure in 10% of the population of a statistically significant sample size. 6. Bearings manufactured by different sources arc assumed to belong to the same statistical population.
4-2.2.2.2.2 Modification Factor Approach to Life

Prediction A useful method h&s been advanced (Ref. 89) to account for many variables common in modern design applic.tions. An adjusted life LA is calculated as the product of adjustment, environmental and/or design factors, and the AFBMA calculated life Lio. LA - DEFGHLo, hr (4-53)

this is a valid argument, it follows that the bearing life in an application that dilers substantialiy from the laboratory conditions could vary significantly from the calculated value. Fortunately, the statistical model used (a modification of the function originally presented in Ref. 88) is sufficiently general to permit meaningful interpretation of faiiurc modes as diverse as human mortality. 1ght bulb filament burnout, or wear-initiated gear tooth spalling. Conscquently, valid test and field service experience can be used satirfactorilv to add life modification factors with corrected dispersions to the Weibull distribution for bearing lIfe prognosis.
".42.2,.7.1 Asutptioos and Limitations

where D - material factor (reflecting actual steel chemistry and purity), dimensio~nless E - processing factor (accounting for CEVM and other melting practices, thcrrnomechanical metal working, forging grain flow orientation, and absolute and clcment differential hardness), dimensionless A F lubrication formation and relative surface factor (considerineg lubricant EHD film roughnesses), dimensionless - speed effects (considering centrifugal acceleration and slip conditions), dimensionless H - misalignment factor (applicable to crowned and cylindrical roller bearings), di. mensionless It is not uncommon in helicopter bearing design for the value of the multiplicative group of factors to vary between 0.3 and 18 due to the range of conditions and requirements encountered. Digital cornputer programs often are used to define factors F. G. and H; while factors D and F are assigned values whether the life calculation is by simple AFBMA G equation solution or by computer analysis.

S"•g

/

The basic AFBMA life calculations commonly used in the U.S. are based upon Refs. 86 and 87 and hence contain certain key assumptions and limitations: I. The failure mode is subsurface-initiated pitting or spalling. Cracks beqin at microscopic weak points, most probably at the depth of maximum subsurface orthogonal shear beneath the Hertzian contact. The developed solution, therefore, is based upon stressed volume theory. However, it has bw.n indicated (par. 4-2.1.1) that a preponderance of the failures in the analysis of helicopter bearings at oveih,- were stirface initiated,
2. Hertzialn stre•s theory is based upon :.he local

coprcssive deformation of contacting bodies and co~n",4-55

4-2±2..3 Compklee Elhadc sod Dynaimic: Solutione Dynamic forme associated with high-speed operation not only change bearing opra~ting characteristics greatly from those assumed for the static design, but also impose limiting speeds based upon failures due to sliding or con~tact slip heat generation. Fig. 4-31 shows that centrifugal acceleration at high speds not only increases the outer ring/ball *load for an angular contact bearing, but results in different contact angles at each race. The definitive axis * for ball rotation is dependent upon fthcontact thatt has the greater "grip" on the ball. At high speeds this may be the outer race, which then forces the inner race contact into gross sliding. Also, because the ball rotation is not coincident with the bearing axis of revolution, a gyroscopic procession moment is induced. For balls of large size and high contact angle, this moment may induce complete precession slip, often with immediate overheating failure. Analyses of the governing forces are treated in Ref. 90. General computer solutions employing the equations of this reference also may consider the elastic deformation 'of shaft and housings in combination with the Hertzian deflections between the race and the rolling element as they influence the load dstribution amnong a
OUTER RACE PGERTRTCONTACT LOAD ELLIPSE SPIN COMPONENT
ZOE

number of individual bearings on a common shaft. A special case of elrztic deflection influence upon calculated life occurs in planetary idler bearings whose outer races are integral with the idler gears. As a result of the squeeze effect of the sun and ring gear radial load components, and of the moment upon the gear centroid d-ie to tangential tooth loads, considerable deformation occurs and may create additional bearing loads of sufficient magnitude to redine bearing life significantly. Rim section properties and internal clearances also have strong effects upon resultant life. Typical functions are shown in0 Fig. 4-32 (Ref. 91). 4-2.1.2.3 Drawing Contiols Confidence cannot be placed in the reliability or performance of a drive transmission bearing without a thorough evaluation of the important characteristics of the bearitig as defined for the specific application. Bearing characteristics may be controlled by drawing, secondary specification, or manufacturers' source documents - depending upon individual prefcrcnce. The following are minimal guidelines for such control:
1. !.1Mw

z.

F

mincrial:V

a. Chemistry

b. Method of melt c. Certification limits d. Size reduction from ingot
c. Grain orientation

(

P" ROACE INNE
P OUTER ,. RACE
*THRUTA LOAD 0..~(N

TOFO

CINE GSRPIN)C

A

f. Thermomnechanical processing limits if ap-

ia.
OLN

roesscnrl bfPR . DCeabrtifation.

OWT

c. Properties rncluding microstructure, hardness d.CsP. crPrprt. hr apial c. L.imits on reprocessing
-~

~--f.
--

Retained austenitc, where applicable, or
G. Ncq3.

--

Dm

Pa P1.

Serialization and identification:
. Traceability b. Location of codes and numbers c. Process step for application d. Match marks for high pcints of eccentricity

O

PURE SLIDING

IILLIPSIL CONTACT RACE OWIRN

on precision sets
__________4.

e. CID code marking for verification of proper staczking of matched sets.
Dimensioning technique:

Figure 4-31. H~gh Speed Ampler Contact Dal TIMMuI SekariNg Forme 4-36

a. Applicable ABEC and RBEC grades b. Pitch diameter; rolling eleme-.it dimensions. race curvature ';contact angle (unmounted); radial clearance; shoulder heights; flushness and gsjing

LUJ L6-

_

7j. C

.

RIGIDOUT1 R RACE

Cs

25I

0

0,001

0 .02 INTERNAL DIAMETRAL CLEARANCE, in...

0.003

UM1

••

Fipft 4-32. Cleatace vs L,0 -- lIastic mA RilSk So~utdow

-•

cluding pocket clearances, surface finishes; and apFlicable special dimenisions which differ from ABEC/RBEC standards. 5. FinishinS requittments" &.Methods and limitations on plating, peening. honing, polishing. and stock removal, when applaciable b. Protection aigainst erabrittlemrent and stress corroion., 6. Nondestructive testing: a. Requirements for maglnetic particle, pent:stint. and edchint tew~niques b. Control fivluency and sequence of test or inspection c. Fr-equency of cartirLiztion processes •) Tin as of fife modilrKation factors (Eq. 4-53) canspecifically tubstentinted unless doumnt Inot be warranted or

Basic introductory and clm~assfcton information concerning splin, his containedi in AMCP 706-201. Therefore, this discussion is limited to spocific desiln applications or power-transmittinll splints. The primary failure mods for a properly dnsinod sphn€ is wear. When trctvc motion is slight, Wmting corrosion often accelerates wear. Goo.d dkmn practice will insure at wear life in excess of the usdul comportent Mie. Galling and picku~p (weldin) occur only under excessive comprewive stress in the mecc or slight motion. Tooth breakna and betilum seldom ocin cur unieu shaft beandng momentsa•m aq-• the dtiign analysis. Nqql~ea of proper' fillet radius control or advanced frettinl corso oftenm contributes to iiuch failures, Blursting of the internally to_-:had member is rare, but molts from an exthat is insufthin tooth ba~kttp stiucture cessively tooth separating and centrifugal forces. 4-57

•:

10,

Two basic splint types are employed in drive system design: face splines and concentric splines. 4-.2,3.1 Face Splins Face splines are typically used to couple two shafts or a shaft and a Sear. Flat-faced, tapered, V, or square form teeth may be milled, shaper cut, or ground - dependin, upon material hardness and accuracy requirements. The fabrication of high-quality, interchangeable, concentric ;ou'ts with uniform tooth contact is relatively difficult & exl.p":vc; consequently, they ate seldom used in drive systems. The most common face spline is the CurvicO system (Ref. 92). Curvic* splines are easily fabricated with pressure angles between 10 deg and 30 deg, although the higher value is predominant. Most design deficiencies result from inadequate localization of tooth contact relative to the tooth ctnter or from inadequate clamping means to rcsist the tooth separating forces and the bending moments on th: joint, ORegistered Trademark - Gleason Works 4-2.2.3.2 Coaceutdlc or Longitudinal Splints This type ofjoint has its a d-beating- surtfub essentially parallel to the rotational axes of the coupled components that comprise the external and internal

Splines are clamped to prevent relative motion. Light interference fit dimensioning of major-diameter or side fit splines may be employed to assist in attaining secure clamping. When radial loads dominate the joint design, adjacent mating cylindrical bores and shoulders with light press fits frequently are used to complement the spline; successful application requires close control of concentricity between joint elements. Floating spline joints primarily are used to accommodate axial motion. Diametral looseness and backlash must be sufficient to provide clearance under operating conditions. The choiw between majordiameter and side fit control normally is predicated upon concentricity and balance requirements. Majordiameter control is preferable for precision applications where rotational speeds or alignment are critical. While side fit splints of 20 deg or greater pressure angles provide self-centering under torque loads, their looseness may permit excessive component imbalance and eccentric operation under noload, high-speed operation. Conventional involute splines may offer apA safe design value axial force A1 for oil-lubricatcd spline may be taken as:

r;

mating elements. This discussion is limited to the commonly used involute tooth form. although other
* types are occasionally used. The involute spline may be manufactured by any involute gear production method, in addition to methods not well buited to full-depth, h'Sh-strength gear tooth forms. Depepding upon the limitations imposed by production volume and precision, involute splines may be produced by millins. shaDing. shear cutting, broaching, cylindrical thread rolling. rack cutting, shaving; by rolling, bobbing, and form or profile-generating grinding. Relatively trouble-free applications are limited to misalignments of 0.001 in./in. and are either clamped or floating. Operating misalignment of the axes of the mating parts of 0.25 deg or greater under load requires the use of flexible couplings (par. 4-3.2.1). It is very difficult to obtain satisfactory wear life with floating splines operating with misalignm.nt. 4-2.3.3 Properties of Splins Involute splines are designated as major-diameter or sidefit, depending upon the controlling dimensional features. Minor-diain.Ater-fit splines should be avoided in all but special applications (such as with a weaker internal member) due to the excessive stress concentration caused by the sharp tooth-root fillet radius on the cxttraid member. 4-53 where Q
Dp

A/ - OA O/Dr lb

(4-54)

*-

- torque, lb-in. - pitch diameter, in. Reduction in slip for= may be achieved by use of special lubricants, friction-reducing tooth coatings, platings (silver, etc.) and treatments; with ball splines; Or by ,.h itroducti r .. .. (par. 4-3.2.1). Nylon (Ref. 93) and epoxy-bonded molybdenum disulfide coatings are often effective. Floating spline joints also are used to provide a slight accommodation for radial, axial, and angular misalignment. Under these operating conditiots. fretting and galling wear modes may prove troublesonic. Their occurrence is difficult to predict, and determination of secondary effects and solutions frequently must await design development testing. Depending upon the severity of the problem and the design restrictions, the following solutions have found widespread use individually or in combination: I. Increased hardness and accuracy (generally a matter of gear tooth grinding precision) 2. Shot peenring of onc or both members (relatively high intensities sind surfacc texture modification are desired) 3. Use of dissimilar materials, types of heat treatment, and hurdnesses

AMCP 70W-202 4. Crowning of the external member tooth flanks and major diameter 5. Increased oil flow or othek lubrication improvemeats. 4-2..34 Splme Streqi Analysh AMCP 706-201 gives allowable bearing pressurts St, for various classifications of involute splines. These values reflect app aximate current practice in the helicopter industry and are defined by
SA•, =

ficulty and coats. Reasonable proportions for spline fae width F and pitch diameter D, arc: 1.0 for torque-transmitting 0.4 < FID,, applications 0.8 < FID, < 2.0 for lowation and alignment applications. Lengthwise tooth load uniformity can be enhanced further by adjusting the shaft diameters and wall thicknesses to secure matching torsional deflections and by avoiding excessive radial stiffness at either end of the spline joint. Stress concentration must be avoided by specifying minimum fillet radius values, chamfeting or otherw*ise blending tooth ends into the shaft section, and achieving uniform loading. For most helicopter applications, spline fatigue endurance is not the limiting criterion because oscillatory loading due to shaft bending or torque fluctuation is avoided by proper design. If bending fatigue is a design consideration, recourse to use of the modifled Goodman diagram (par. 4-2.2.1.2) with appropriate stress concentration factors is required. Static stress analyses must demonstrate a positive margin of safety boh for limit torque compared toamaterial yield strength and for ultimate torque coarpated to material ultimate strength. Limit spline maximum drime system torque is defineda as 1.5 m continuous torque and ultimate torque as 1.5 limit l a 1 torque torque. The following spline static stresses should be calculated in addition to the bearing stress values SW.;: 1. Spline shear stress S;

2Q/ (DF). psi

(4.55)

,

-"

where D - pitch diameter, in. - face width. in, Q - torque. lb-in. for standard SAE or ANSI B5. i tooth proporti where tooth addenda are one-half those of AGMA standard 201.02 gears. However, these values do not repreaent true bxanring prssures because the accuracies, stiffneuses, and gecmetric proportions ofrtypicai spiines combine in rupe the truc cointact rea to less than the 100% tacitly assumed in Eq. 4-55. The accuracy of splines is determined by the tole'ances as specified and the method of inspc..ion employed rather than by the method of manufacture. Splines may be gaged (go-no-go systems), gaged and partially inspected analytically, or completely inpecaed analytically in the manner of gears. The following values of the fraction of theoretical contact achieved with splines of the various classifications s are realistic.
Contact Fraction

SC,,•Usifi"WAt
Gaged USASI CI15 (commercial grade) measured Gag B.19 C 1.5 ANSI Iand measu0.45 ANSI B5.15-1950C.5 Analytically measured SAE C1 .3 (about 50% tolerance of B5.15 CI.5)

-' 3Dý

'.4M•"

0.2• where -y < 0.7 0.75 < 'y •0.95 spline torque, lb-in. number of spline teeth circular tooth thickness, in. T, fraction of theoretical contact, dimensionless 2. Torsional shear stress (external toothed mernbers) S, 16QD., u(,/ - _ D,-) p (4-57)

1<.4

Q

The variation of -y within each classification is dependent upon stiffness, proportions, and, in some instances, the ductility when the design load approaches limit shear strength.
An external involute splint with face width F ,-

-

D.13 on a solid shaft will exhibit greater shear strength than the shaft if D. (outside diameter of the shaft) is only slightly smaller than the spline minor diameter D,,,. Therefore. excessive spline lengths can offer littlo 6cnefit while incrcasing manufacturing dif-

where D, - inside diameter of shaft. in. Dw - minor diameter of spline, in.

"4-59

I. Burnting stre (Intenal toW.d member) Sj:
0

~m4L79Xtan#.Dais

7.093 X 10-o1mC~ljrPat tF~~f(~*7~J 1

MIN. h4IDE* NICQSMM)IV [ASE Of SWMACWRIt
AB INOLUTE T

O
VN

4

A ADSOUFI[

K *VOLUTE~

IK

(4-58.)

_____

auk* diaineter of splmne. in 04- eotslde diameter of splkw tooth~ member D(i + 2 X(boc-u rim thickness)1 i.uI X roumlomalsped, rma p ria itely. lb/in.1 &-at
01-

i
_ _-____

imiwt and uhimale moargiis of safety must be calculatedl using appropriate torque values in these-

equations and comparing the stresses calculated with Eqs. 4-56 and 4-57 with the allowabke yield and ultimate shear stram= of the respective parts. The sitreses cailculated by EF4.4-58 are compa"e with the allowable yield and ultimate tensile reususeof the intunaz sothed Memoer. 4-1.2J.5 Drawling Desigum a C.arol Splines should be specified on the engineering *drawing or other document in a manner similar to gear teoth. An enlarged, dimetsioned sectional view and a data block should be included. An even number of teeth is preferred for over/under wire inspection purposes and manufacturing ease. To prevent .involute undercutting and permit use of the maximum number of manufacturing technique op. tions, tooth numbers must be no lower than those in Fig. 4-33. *The enlarged spline drawing (D,,/2 is aconvenient scale) should present major diameter, pitch diameter, form diameter, minor diameter, minimum M1llt radius, circular tooth thickness (external), circular space width (internal), tooth tip chamifer, dimension over (external) or under (internal) gaec wires, and surfacte finish, The data block should present number r-f teeth, diamectral pitch fraction a/bl(whcrt a repiesents P, D,/N and b is the value of P, when it isexpressed as the reciprocal of the addendum length), pzressure angle, base diameter, total or composite index error, maximum deviation of parallelism tooth-to-tooth for given length orfte3agemtnt. and parallelism limits with respect to part reference axis or surfaces. Involute proft3c !qlefianc2 should be Dreigsen!e4 data, for gage inspcvtion. or as a chart, for analytical Inipection. For sag*e inspection techniques, major diamieter and pitch diameter eccentricities must be *

o____
X ?h% is

PRESSR

NL,,4

VALUES (REC~OWENDE NUMBERED)

ilgure

4-33. luvomuse Swie

Bl. 0w aai Vi

absorbed within the limitations of the mejor diameter and effective tooth (or space) thickness tolerances. For externally gagr4 splines the maximum effective and minimum actual circular tooth thicknesses must be specified; while for internally gaged splines, the minimum effective and maximum actual circular space width must be determined. When Inspection with gages is specified. the diameters of over-and-under wires called for are referenced oata. With analytical inspection techniques, tooth thickness and space width are given as actual minimum and maximum limits. and toothto-tooth spa.ing tolerances also must be specified. In addition, allowable tooth lead error should be sub,stituted for parallelism error. The manufacturing method must be considered when detailing the spline. Shaper cut splines should have aminimum chip and cutter overrun gap equal to their total depth. The minimum relief diameter for an internal spline should be equal to the major diameter plus one quarter of the whole depth, and for an' txtornal spline. the minor diameter minus one quarter or the whole depth. These diamectral clearancc values also may be used for broached splines. Hobbed or ground splines, of course, must provide overrun c12,siace for the wheel or hob radius. 4-L.24 Overrniniing Chicte. Certain overrunning (free-wheeling) clutch requirenients were described in par. 4-1.2.2. The lowest drive

-

il

4.6

"T .V"I.

L

T.

N

a

• ••:• system weight will result from placing the clutch in the location of highest speed; i.e., between the engine and the first stage of reduction gearing. HoNever. other considerations in multiengine configurakions such as vulnerability, safety, and reliability - may require locating the clutch between the first and second stage of reduction gearing, Operational requircments for clutches vary with helicopter configuration, mission, and life cycle. However, current Army clutch requirements for twin-engine helicopters typically art.. I. The minimum ultimate torque capacity of the "dutchshaIl be 2.0 x limit torque (limit torque - 1.5 X maximum continuous drive torque). 2. 2-hr, full-speed continuous overrunning shall be posbible without operational capability impairment. 3. 30-min, full-spocd continuous safe operation shall be possible after total loss of hlbricant system. 7hse requirements apply to the entire. clutch system, including support bearings and, often, seals. In addition to these requirements, there exist other significant design considerations as evidenced by observed failure modes in existing helicopter clutch apSplihiiui,;

AW-•P 706-202 momentary or complete overspeods. Subsquwnt adjustments of input or output speeds may lead to abrupt engagement with attendant shock loads sufficient to fail adjacent drive system components. 4. False brinelling of clutch elements or support bearings. Clutch support bearings operate in a static mode whenever the dlutch is engaged because both inner and outer bearing rings rotate in unison. Extcrnal vibration thus may cause fretting or false brinelling at the roiling element/racc contacts. The entrapment of wear particles and sludge in the outer race often accelerates such wear. Therefore, it is important to maximize the static capacity of the support bearings for the available envelope and to provide good oil circulation without stagnation areas. Design considerations peculiar to particular types of clutches am given in the paragraphs that follow. 4.2.L4.1 Spaig Cts s Sprag clutches am the most widely used type for helicopter drive systems. Two variations have been used with success. Both employ a complement of equally spaced, full-phasing sprag cams operating between concentric circular races. A detailed study of their geometric and operating characteristics is presented in Ref. 95. Race cross sections must be sufficiently large to prevent elastic deflection under load from increasing the sprag space by more than about 0.002 in. Race hardness and case depth must be adequate to support operating Heriuian stresses of 450,000 to 500,0W psi at the sprag/inner race contact. Successful applications of these designs are based upon between 3 X 10' and 10' cycles of full torque application without failure. For ,noderate to high-speed operation it is preferable to use outer race power input with inner race overrunning to reduc the centrifugally induced sprag/racA contact stress. In such usage the sprag complement should remain stationary with respect to the outer race and should slip at the inner race during overrunning. This arrangement also permits centritugal-feed lubrication through the inner race and reduces the race/sprag sliding velocity for a given overrunning speed. Both clutch types usually employ a degree of centrifugal self-energimation by virtue of sprag center of gravity (CG) offset with respect to their ,.ontact engagement axes. This can cause some problems with high-speed applications because the drag torque (power loss) and wear may be excessive. The two dutch types differ in some characteristics. For example, one user two concentric cage elements to separate the sprags, while the other uses a single outer cage. The double-cage type uses an inner race 4-61

)

I. Brineiling due to the presence of oscillatory torque pulsations. Depending upon operating stresses and configuration, overrunning clutches wilt safely tolerate only 10 to 30% continuous oscillatory torque. External shaft bending and radial or moment loads must be eliminated from the clutches by use of relatively rigid support bearings that maintain concentricity at all times between the driving and overrunning members. When modeling a drive system for torsional analysis, it is important to consider the clutch as a rclatively soft torsional spring. Stiffness values typically range frog 35,000 to 350,000 in.lb/rad (Ref. 94). 2. Excessive wear at intermediate overrunning speeds. Maximum wear conditions usually are encountered when the output member is operating at full speed and the engine is at idle speed. Most spragand roller-type clutches evidence their greatest wear rates wlhen (input speed) / (output speed) - 0.5 due to the product of centrifugally induced compressive stresses and sliding velocities. 3. Failure to engage at high speeds. In many instances reported, the second engine has failed to engage after the first has accelerated the system to ground idle speed. Both sprag and roller clutches rtquire a critical friction coefficient of about 0.05-0.07 to engage. Hydrodynamic or elastohydrodynamic oil film formation and/or externally induced vibratory modes may lower friction coefficients below this level at the moment of speed synchronization, resulting in

EP-705-2D2
drag spring to react the centrifugal self-energization
during slip conditions, and may producv con-

K
4-2.2.4.3 Self-energlzing Spring Clutches
Although there have been kio applications of spring

siderably lower overall drag forces at intermediate slip conditions. The single-cage design frequently employs an integral rib on the sprag which contacts the adjacent sprag ard thus limits sprag overload rock angle. The overload failure modes of the two types also differ. The double-cage design fails by sprag turnover (with resultant pernmanent loss of drive) while the design with ribbed sprag and a single cage fails by slipping. However, both failure modes gen-rally exceed the 2 X limit torque requirement by cornfortable margins. The single-cage clutch usually has a higher torsional spring rate than the double (for equal envelopes) along with a greater tolerance for oscillatory loading conditions. Proper lubrication of either type requircs coinplete oil immersion. This often is accomplished by use of full-depth cirrular dams on both sides of the s;rag unit. E.L2.4,Z Ra-p and Roller Cl Ramp and roller clutches also have found cxtensive successful application in existing helicopters. Such designs employ a cylindrical outer race as in sprag clutches, but use cylindrical (hollow or solid) rollers in lieu of spra•s, plus a multiple-cam-surface injier race to provide a wedging action on the rollrrs upon engagement. O,,errunning usually produces roller complement roli.; contact with the outer race and sliding with the inmu... Consequently, most moderate- to high-speed applications feature inner r*e.re input with outer r~acc overrunning. This desion may require forced feed (pressure) lubrication through the inner race to obtain satisfactory fullsneed overrunning, Spring-loaded cages or individual roller springs are used to force the rollers into the wedge to secure reliable and rapid engagement upon race speed synchronization. A thorough analysis of the dtsign geometry and speed characteristics of these clutches is givea in Ref. 96. Due to the rcduced radius of curvature in the roller as compared to the spra8 cam, roller clutches have lower torque capacities than sprag clutches of comparable size. Ovcrrunning drag torque also is gteater at high speed& for the roller clutch. Failure mode of this clutch type at oveytorque is slip, if the cam/iuce components arc sufficiently strong to preclude their fracture, drive capability is not lost. In most installations, the roller clutch has shown a superior tolerance to oscillatory torquc-induced w-ar. 4-62

clutches in production helicopter systems, considerable interest has developed in them because they have the potential advantage of reduced weight and size for a Liven torque capacity. The principal detorrent to the use of spring clutches in helicopters has been their poor release characteristics in overrunning. Recent design improvements feature a tapered-width helical spring of rectangular cross section and cylindrical outside diameter (Ref. 97). The torque transmission is between a cylindrical outer race and the outside diemeter of the spring. The device may be servo-actuated with an energizing pawl that contacts the small end of the spring or selfenergized by friction forces between the spring end and the outer race. Recent development and test cxperience is reported irn Ref. 98. 4-2.2.5 Rotor Brakes AMCP 706-201 describes the basic requirements for rotor brakes, while AMCP 706-203 presents the minimum qualification test requirements. Thi discussion, therefore, is confined to typical detail requirements and limitations and to basic design and analysis procedures. While this paragraph treats only hydraulically actuated disk- and puck-type brakes, the basic analytical techniques presented are sufficiently general to aid in the development of design criteria for other types of rotor brakes. The disk brake has become virtually the standard for helicopters due to its relahve simplicity, ease of inspcction and maintenance, and
reliability.

A rotor brake differs significantly from a wheel brake both in failure modes and in functional requirements. The catastrophic failure mode for a wheel brake is failure to engage, or failure to stop the aircraft. Puck clearances are nil, contact speeds are moderate, significant cooling may occur during and after use with disk ventilation assisted by rotation, and repetitive use with short operating cycles and interva!a is common. The catastrophic failure mode for a rotor brake, on the other hand, is unintentional operation. Puck clca-ances must be very large, contact spreds may be very high, the primary cooling is provided by the disk heat sink, and iepetitive use in less than a 5-mmn time interval is virtually impossible. 4-2.2.311 Requirements and Limitations Recent performance specifications for Army heli-

'

alaA

706-202-.

reureets. 1.~~~~

-

romiessu-t

~

~

Shl

tprtrfom10 n3 v

cc-rtr(nua)

~cain

~~x

wiehlcopter ro

rks hnvt i in uclue

h

olwn

h

4. SMllsthopd rotor ftopped whil secked n3 are at 4-t. 3. Must hndotb oratedoppn agmain rvst win where lining debris oould cause FOD to etgines; or

~
W'I

tI(Jglr

eclrtordsc t lb-lcptrweg rae (4-6(1on)ah

*APU.

.,

hk-.-4.

A

wheei, lb ei'foctivc coefficient of friction, gear to ground, dimension' As 6. Activation and control shall be fail-safe. - track of braked wheels, ft d Safeguards are required to prevent inadvertent RcliFor a stop time of 15 sec, rotor inertia I - 7500 sthigvation. Engine control interlock required with 13,090 lb fit ft' and 0 -250 rpm rotor speed, Q positive raefeidon in lock and o:nlock modes. 5 (ignoring aerodynamic rotor decay). If each of the of Deveopmnt ad prforanc hisofi braked wheels is loaded to 4000 lb, the wheel-track is and~ pherformawnge guidelines:o h eeloptentls helcopersals folowng uidlins. suges th 0 in., and f 0.4 (rubber sliding cm asphalt), the 1. The best (in simplicity, reliability. and safety) skid torque Q - 10,667 lb-ft. and therefore. a 5 hydraulic system is a manual hydrostatic type. If dangerous ground loop potcrntial would exist. The operated from or boosted by pump/accumulator minimum stopping time tandet such conditions would systems, these -systems should be divorced comnbe 18.4 sec. A safe limit for tlhe pilot-activated rotor plptely Affoin 0fligh coigtroli or sur o actuator systtr~s. brake, rnudle would apply aboui 9800 lbb-ft%of torquc 2. Autorn!2ti ielf-vidjustment is undesirable beto the main rotor mast (equivalent to a 20-sec stop). cause it comprontis%~ reliability. Suficient fluid 2. Although the static brakaway ffiction for the should be provided to accommodate the uxsful wear dibk/puck brake may be somewhat higher than that life of the lin.ngs; martial hydrostatic, dual-level, for dynamic conditions, the severe coniequences of mechanical advantage systems have 4e.n developed inadvartcnit rotor rotation during engine idle operato accomplish this requittunent (Ref. 99). tion suggest the need for an additional safety mar3. The dick should be stiMy coupled. A short, oto- gin. This ean be provided by use of the lower value o' s'ionally stiff takeoff dave on the main rutor transfriction cocfficient in design calculations. Thus, a mission is often desira b~t. Soft mounted disks (such typical pair cf engines might develop the equivalent as on intermediate or tail rotor gearbox drive-shaft main rotor tvrque of 12,000 lb-ft at W0% gas hmngwers) invariably bneorne a vibration and antinode Itnerator sneeda. If thc safe vilot-activated rotor at borne speed duramg engagement with resultant osstopping move is limited to a w~ain rotor torque of 61llatory lands on disk and/or puck attachments. 9800 lb-ft in accordance with Item 1, a secnd brake Thewc loads may causf. intermittent brake chattc~r. y modc with increased pressure (intcrlock-protected for nanmic system ovvrloads, or crew annoyance, engine start soquence only) would be indicated. The pack or caliper asstmbly should have a high spaing rate lflouotiiig that it, stiff in all loading -ipitrtdretos vector comoetdietos 4-21.S Deelg s Analysis From. ii practical viewpoint, t~herrc may be iimiTwo basic determninations arc required for the caltation3 that place two or more of these requirements culation of safe brake performence; (1) limit energy into conflict. Often, specification compromise or rate per unit ares to yidd satisftictory wear Wie and multimode brake activation systems arc thi result. piu~udc disk scuffling, and (2) disk heat 6rnk capaFor example: city. Surface enery rate varies with such lining and disk 1. Short stop time, high rotor inertia, and landing properties as thermal conductvity, diffusivity, congear skid friction limits may combine to cause ground vect-vc cooling, and critical tempeirature. Solid stel S loop. disks in helicopter applications have been operated Braking torque Qp is successrully at an energy disaipation rate ED of 25 N Dtu/in.1-min. The referenced area isthe swept area M. Ilb-ft (4-19) under the I'uck. The wiergy to be dissipatedc is the f
-

4-63

AMCP 706k202 kinetic encrgy of the rotor at time of brake application less any applicable rotor aerodynamic decay increment. Wcar life for common brake puck materials is dcpendent upon surface temperature, pressure, and velocity. Existing rubber-asbestos lining materials have dcaienstrated wear rates or approximately 0.0004 in.'/sEop at pressures of' 240) lb/in?1 for mean rubbing velocities of 6000 fpm over 20-sec stop pheriosecn- eemnto nvl h etsn The deermnaton he hat ink ecod ivoles capacity of the disk. For stops on the order of 20 to 30 sec, steel disk thicknesses in excess of 0.5 in. offer little hc'p in reducin~g peak surface temperatures at the end of a stop auc to thc limited thermal conductui~y of steel. Current systems operate wel with vaiues of energy/pound- or-disk near .100,000 ft-ho/lb with peak disk rim temperatures of about 500*-(OO F. Other mnaterials such as beryllium and carbon graphite recently have been emiployed with relative success for hralze ap~plications. The greatest improv nient seems to be available with a configuration
-.

drilled locally to achieve dynamic~ balance requiremerits. However, a steel reinforcing ring may be used for this purpose. The structural graphite material costs about 5400/lb as of this writing (1975) - future costs may be significantly less with adequate production volume. 42-23 STATIC COMPONENTS Static or nonrotating components of the transmission and drive system include the gearbox hosnliequlmutstdadows servers thatins touenlos,andoupport sthes adymi owelpnns.hipagrhadessolytemt signilicanThcomporents;hiae.,ecaes and y thousins, t adhuig, d sinfctcopet;ie.ca quills. 4-2.3.1 Cases sand Housings lillicoel~r gearbox cases mid housing& are fabriczied alit~est exclusive.ly from lightweight aluminmi alloys and castings and forgings or from magnesiun aoc~ns heemtrasehbi xeln hr Ths ty v salond ~ting andteimalsehbte stexgeh-eo-tihtr ratios, are readily machinable, and in many in-. stance may be salvaged by weldingi and stress reilieving with little ttmuli~ant iouss u *sircrigib propel te.Atog h eea pra~ ocsigad forging designk is well covered in avaiiable literature, pic-n r sm~ie nte aar sta certain aspects peculiar to Army helicopter apfolw 4-23.1.1 wi-i A~st6 Hcult~ c eai~ mayi be claissified as primary sl f tct uxa] lund paths (rotor masi supiort or control sysu;nt reaction member) or s~mpiy as Swir housings cant. This distinction is fundamenital in the selection oftediganaalssmto epyd.Cicality classifications of castings arnd fortings are. defic in MIL-C-6021 and are interpreted in AMICP 706-203. In most instances specified crash load fawors and limit maneuver loads will require ultimate and yield strength levels in primary structural cases and housings of suach magnitude as to permit design deft nition by static analysis as opposed to fatigue analysis. Fatigut analysis will be used to define only the rotor control reaction portions of the cases anid, occasiory.4y the gearbox support or mounting lugs when rotor vibrartory loads or dynamic reaction loads frem ground resonance or lardinig conditions are sufficicat to cause concern for low-cycle fatigue. SLa~ic and fatigue test requiremnents are outlined in AMCP 706-203, which descibes basic design load

which uses a piwprictary low modulus structural graphitc composition for both the disc and puck 'istu I niiai A beylu ciS Ici s uteu between 4ie graphite lining and the hydraulic siave cylinders. The saddle or caliper assembly ;. fabriaa baed d ro lm ndm tSuc wihav bctikesensu ctedsfuly onstructed Such brakedihdsc thavben suto 1/5 in., puck diameters of 5 in., and disc diameters of 18 in. Considerable increase in energy storage, allowable operating temperature, and wear life has beern demnonstrated. Safe disc temperatures of 3000F (incandeicent white light) and a thermal capacity of 300,000 ft-lb/lb of graphite Eiv. the total stopping energy is dissipated in abhnivc wear. The puck material also serves as a ht at sir~k and may in he heral csig~ cpacty. e cnsiere The ildvantages, due to these characteristics seem to indicate that weight savings on the order of 50% and wear life increa-es of S00% relafive: to conventional steel/ rubber-asbestos sysiems arc obtainable. These factors are probably sufficicat to offset the initiak tuigh cost to the extent that a lift cycle cost reduction can be achieved. Disadvantages lie in initial costs and structural limitations of the graphite material. Although ballistic: impact characieristics, are satisfactory and handling damagz susceptibility is relatively low, graphite cavnot compare with steel. Through bolt or spline alttchments cannot be used for the graphitr disc - a high pressure squeez plate or friction drive attachment i,3 required. Similaly, thc disc cannot be. 4-64

_

AMcP 7n5-202
requirements or MIL-S-869g. Tine, critical design criteiton genecrally is the astisfactic-ai of the static test requirements. Because thc intckgrity of a casting or fni-ging is 8ovcrned by the type of quality control cstablished by applicable d.-awings and snecifications, it ib imperative that required static tests be performed on the [eut acceptable specimens. The radiographic acceptance stancard ASTM E-155. as well is other inspection criteria, ther may be based upon thecso static test results. Recent Army helicopttr RF1P requiremcuts have emphasized inc, ~asrd crew safety through more crashwortby de.,.,gn in accord with t1k recoinmendeiions of Ref. 100. Limit load conditions art based upon +3.5 aud -0.5 maneuver load factors at the helicopter CG and ultimate losad conditions upon normal load fartors of +20/- 10. and lateral or longitudinal load factors of *2(.. Combination loading also must be considered as the simultaneous occurrence of loadings in accordance with any of the three conditions that follow: Condition I
.~Longitudinal

between all mectals except those immediately adjacent in the activity series (MIL-STD4S9). Excesuive steady tensile stremies due to assembly clamp ing (such as use of bolted devis lugs without spacers) shou!d be avoided to reduce the susceptibility to stress corrosion. 2. Lack or attention to differential thermal expansion. Steel bearing clamp nuts and similar devices installed in magnesium or aluminum threaded bores often lose thcir entire axial clamping force at operating temperatures. Such applications eithermust have an initial deflection that isgrcater than the amount of thermal relaxation or else threaded steel liners must be inserted in the case bores. Static bearing and hoop stresses should be checked throughout the possiblt ambient temperature range (no-rmally --650 to +3i00F) when steel and light alloy cases are joined with piloted flanges. Them ~ally fit steel liners in alloy %ascsshould have a nominal 300' F interference and the bore of the light alloy ring section surrounding the liner also should show a positive margin on limit stress at -65*F. Where steel bhearingst are installed in the liner, their line-to-line fitup temperature and outer ring cross section must be sion in the housing bore fiber at -6ff F ass, ining the bearing fit is line-to-line at a temperature of 72*F may be taken as:

* 10 + 10 +20 _k 0 10 _k 10 Lateral Where a structural support casn isof relatively simple configuration, forgint.i arc pscferred to castings

because of the superior strength-to-weight ratio and
rormer.

the inherently lower variability in strength of the The four dcsign deficiencies found most frequently in current %rmy helicopter housing com-

s_

= '

)(2 (d' -e)

a,)_W_+___)_36
X

6 Of

-

IE

I

(D

ponents are:
1. Insufficient attention to corrosion protection. life kL Success in attainment of senu;--_ compFnentw
+--61

I

tihle pcdn member upper beig larg rosion ousiing H + L±e dstdigns waster Suhvoidtra (ormay swleaterfo ashy an, wh re with reastude cas byl nounnabrcrdeig wal enc-iormia baigctrrn

oe n

-

)

compounds. Sharp edges and 6%w~h sbr (aces must be eliminated by chamfering, polming. or tumble (slurry) dc-burring to avoid ipadequatc resin or ps.nt coverage due to surface tesi ieects. Cathodic particdes must be removeJ cosnplci%.y from casting Sur-

b e d
E a

bearing 01), ir. liner 01) (ateel). in. -light alley i.eetion 0M) in. - Young's modulus, psi - linear coefficient of thermal expansion,
-

faces by thaiough cleaninig prior to ru~in impmg-

in./in.-*F
it Poisson's ratio, diumesionlessi Subscript I - steel properties Subscript 2 - light alloy properties

nation. \ Galvanic corrosion protet infel omk rsn \ arlic, or zinc chromate .i.--u.*,o should bL- used

"4-5

>.

3. Improper attention to joint and fastener toq"ireinuceis. Sufficmet flange thickness must be proto evid dtribute loads uniformly among the proloaded tension fastenr (bolts or studs) susJ on case flange joints. Fastas pmload must fi sullicient to "maintain tension at -651F. preclude strs mvmsls during normal ocaillatory loading, and maintain Vflane contact under tension loading. For ,opeuly designed fangs with compatible fat.cr spacing, a conservative value for fstener tension loading P, for monact-loadod cylindrical joints is given by P
-

M

b

(4-,)

where N - moment. in.-lb Doc - bolt cirl diamneter, in. N - number of bolts or studs (equal ipacing assumed) The yied and ultimate streagths given in MILIGIDIl-5 for tandard AN studs repesnt th , r ab•m ,htead wih rn-r= iAIh.___. -. on ofte have a Sowemcharactenst, more daletios efect upon the instaled arengtsof eaidl. AN aeude than upon lgW sm. Eves with
caxius practicable pu Vpendnlaaiy for tapped

boles the combined effects of aper snd squarenew of joints may indwa benteg koad such that 3/&-im. srom studs demoasrate ueauflc filure at 90% of hd"ook minwimum values. The significance of th is probbly bete demonstrated by the fact t"at usumlly demonstrat typil 7/164is. dimeu stds double the iintu tenile strength of comparable
*

"t

weight pnatie, of 10, and 25%. rspectively. S fltid tapsled holes for s• istalatioes m'um be vented. Whe toerqu must be transferred throuh a flang in joins a ouqu capacity Q(4 the abeewe of externlr Unas loads is given by

rlrm. 1

":

.

a WIM
6

-&.-A-

WE&" mitaf.

-:4.

•,s i.'

-.

-4

,

and shr di of the studs. Although it is common to consider stud sh stren4th in determininug ulimate joint streagth, i Sctor should not be Pie upon for normal design torque asnalysus The jo*L oaiguulon dtortically neessary to mt the strength requirements having been detmined, it becomes imperative to asure cornpatible dfta desig of the machined surane for the ftenrs. Fractur resiuta•ce as well as fatigue condlatkion requise careful attemtion to semirgly les sigicant deA. Onerus- filet radii must be providMed in spotfaces. ountnborns. and keyways. All rath edge -arp curre mud be ciamf•ered, a"l b must be removed to minim= mes ctcnnratsoa. Smootb blending of inateusctions on critical machined surfaues is also w iesay to mimimize stress coacesaratio. Addit"ony the ow rbone or sotfae eim must be adequate to provide wre.b clearsa. for normal mauatmacace opavion. 4. Failure to covmmt dsllectim vd loading in coftgous structure. Many re d istancu s of gerbox mounting lug failure am attributiale to x.ternally induace So*& that wer Miored in the design anhiv. The cmst &wbox structura whi ", often ii a suTir than she a-raum summon to wic it is mounted may provide a load path for bending and fow torsin ractions p -sent in the airframe strsaure due to boding gar, roto thrust, or vibratory resposess. Examples are the aauchm•nt of a four lug amrmy earbox to a dec strocture that has vatscal beading odes, or the smilar mount* of sa iniuo0du genbos on tail boom sructure that usr r tail rotor dallos torsional ddeiodas with to obtain the safpith inputs. Beam it is doesk ty inhert with mountiag raedndancy, it is usually a m wte mom A *%r am mfa,!is sneak.e rr - r' -C---, r P -frme strucue locally or t' Wirotta aduistaol compliamnc at out or mor,. e•arbox attachment by oanof elaomeric members. Siemg up the awboa ose merely modmn the failure mode.

Oi

-uxs

4.U.13 Moalub ad

whew *
N bloc ,o iJn d Daking 4-" a toqpueL bia. - ma4k of smu -boftckk disisrnwii. - stud •"diameer, in. this valet doeis, key or othir mcheacal devses, dsMuld be se to prevm beain

MageMum b fal inAt disfavor compared to aumaaim for cam and houuap becamus shorWting of srvtice life due to corrosion has hewn. a sowfia ant miteneam and spam replcmet aepes to the Army. Be•muse asaaeiim is a. tc with susect to all other mmals. failuet to a•ploy Oade design. prmws, and pmventive mainUance mmsume has cued an ovrunplhsis of the deicin of the mata. bare magsum acsc4 is afecmted ka by exposure to msrine axmaphe &hfu il umaprONLmd mild steel (Rtf. 101). However. corrmui of smeeiua allos can be

4

-. ::•;

ii:•,-..

-r --- ''•.1•°

avoided succesefully only if the designer and fabricater follow the complete sequence of I. Design 2. Cleaning 3. Chromating or anodic film application 4. Surface saling or impregnation S. Painting 6. Asembly 7. Routine preventive maintenance. The nmot frequently occurring inadequacies in recent Army experience involve design and maintenance, Aluminum alloys should be used in areas of high susceptibility to corrosion. Ref. 46 reports the replacement rate for AZ91 magnesium main trmsma ion ca at UH-i ovrhaul as: Top case 16.0% Main cane 1.7% Support cas -2.3% Sumpcase .% Quills 1.0% In the cane of replacements of the top case, 1/3 were attributed to improper protection of bare surfaces during stipment after removal of the main rotor mat, and 2/3 to in-seice corrosion. The relative re#piafemfen rates smeat that the environment in nal the top cae operates spartzrularly conducive to corrosion. Aluminum alloys with high silicon conttet (6 to 12%) have been found to be supo to other alumiawn alloys and mngnesium alloys with respect to wear reastance. Properly dosigned spines of these materials will exhibit negliwear when operating with floating steel mating spliuwes. Magawsea and aluminum alloys commonly us-d in hldicopt bousin and ca- are listed in Tabe 4-6. ,.i..-re.ina ad he.. aeT-", can asure the .,tneai allowable,c.nat,..,t4 higest kat i stregth .preaties. Tw tuseof MIL-A-21l10 control -flcatio rmaher than t of QQ A-I generally ill insur 25% hither adiowable fatigue stenth, alwlumah l• ciee 251)6 tUow fatiguersT~h, w patenthough the cogtmay be20 to 5M greater. it tin weight uavings may be n high as 40% if s". etrength delons tk design msl provided that mini. ,mum wall Mt..it tri.ion ae nt imposed. The Semide propartue of many aluminum foging alloys may be iinproved by cold working or mechanical artr m (Ruf. 102). Procurement and proces specifications for asngand forgiu are defined in MIL.C40l21.T caslins da~nd frg aSm dn in MI eL- 1.iThe r detail doesgn drawing t require h f(lTowin t Sprocesnmd a mi(NnD)u- ts Ic

prqgnation. Vacuum processing isesntial to remove gas bubbles from casting pores and to permit good resin permeation. Leak checks may be acrostatic or hydrostatic, although the former is preferred for sensitivity and cleanliness. 2. Radiographic inspection. Radiographic inspection is required in accordance with MIL-STD452. The detail drawing must call out x-ray views and should include a stress diagram to assist in determination of techniques and interpretation. to be employed. T(he x-ray technique should be able to resolve 2% of the thickness being examined. Film interpretation is based upon discontinuity gradations as defined in ASTM E-155. 3. Surface crack inspection. This must be , comaplished by fluorescent penetrant techniques as defined in MIL-l-6866 and MIL-i-25135. Inspection must be performed after forging, final heat treating or ajing. cold working, stress relieving, grinding, wdding, and maci~ning, but before polishing. tumbling, shot peening, plating. resin impregnation. or painting. 4. Hardness inspection. All castings and forging
should he chateSl for hardens by the standard SIn]

)wbkb

kg Brineil (or equivalent) method to ascertain that full heat treating and/or solution aging has been a%comnpled. This inspection must be performed prior to shot peening, plating, or painting. 4 Quls

1

-ibg

i. lmproqnsion. Tlermo• ttuig polyester mins \pg MIL-STD-276 wre omomended fo casting im-

External and internal quills frequently arc used to bouse a gear/bearing subassembly to facilitate moduhunmaintenance techniques and reduc the compkxiof the primary gearbox housing. Problems typ-cally encountered in helicopter applications are ociated with excessive wear or high tempeaature pcre the housig bore that accepts the quill. The of primary ctaie of wear is the ase of material combinatkms that permit differential thermal expansion with lomotsem becoming excesive at operating wtp ursCobnin*ha itmativte toupetures. Combinations that at elevated this problem while retaining mperatures allkeuv em of ambly at room temperatures. Hower, the tlmDml stress effects at -6erF also ma be conidmed (par. 4-2.3.1.1) to assur, that the material yield strKenth is not exceeded. Decause steel liners frequenly are used iP li•ht alhoy quills, the solution mom be eatended to consider the efcts of four conus ceinric rit p with respect to their individual tolerans material Mrengts, fit-up, and thermal expensmo coefficients. Sealnt compnounds always hiould he is at extenal quifl-housing joints to prevent water entrapmen.

"4-67

TANLE 4= rICOPT 4

ThAN&MISSON CAS•E MATERIAlS AND APPLICA11ON DATA 11 PFOPERTIES.APPLICATION. AND RESTRICTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY USED AL CASTING. EXCELLENT CASTABILIlY. BESTCORROSION RESISTANCE, HIGHEST DUCTILITY. LOSES STRENGTH ABOVE 250" F. GOOD
WEAR PROPERTIES, BEST CASTING FATIGUE STRENGIH

MATERIAL DESIGNATION

A356 CAST A357 CAST 249 CAST 224 CAST (AMS 4226) 5083 FORGED CAST
(AMS 4229, KO-1)

SAME AS 356 BUT + 11% Stu, + 17% Sty BE-T Stu AND Sty ABOVE 3E;3 0 F. POOR WEAR. Stu 20% ABOVE 357. CORROSIONAND FATIGUE PROPERTIES
POORER THAN 357

z

GOOD BALLISTIC PROPERTIES. RELATIVE TO A 357 Stu UP 10%, SN DOWN 7%. FATIGUE STRENGTH LOWER, WEAR AND CORROSION SAME AS 249 BEST Stu AND Sty BELOW 3500 F. CASTABILITY, WEAR,
AND FATIGUE ALL POORER THAN A357

SXA201.0

2014 FORGED L

MOST FREQUENTLY USED. FATIGUE1 Stu& St AND FORGEABILITY ALL GOOD.CORROSION GOOD, WEAR
_

1

_
-

_

POCR

4UJ3 FORGED AZ91 CAST AZ92 CAST

BEST WEAR PROPERTIES, FATIGUE LESS THAN 2014 MOST FREQUENTLY USED. GOOD CASTABILI TY.
LOSES STRENGTH ABOVE 250'6 F

-JEXCELLENT

ZE41A CAST
_ _ _ _

Sty HIGHER THAN AZ91. OTHERWISE SIMILAR CASTABILITY. AVERAGE Stu AND Sty HIGHER THAN AZ92. EXCELLENT STRENGTH AT HIGH TEMPERATURES. RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION
DIFFICULT

QE22A CAST

BEST HIGH TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES RELATIVE TO AZ91. St, UP 9 %npStv UP 6i,. EXCELLENT CASTABILITY. RADIOGWAPHIC INSPECTION DIFFICULT

51t - ULTIMATE TENSILE STRESS, psi Sty - YiE.D TENSILE STRESS, psi 4-2.4 SMCIAL CONSNDUkATIONS particularly as it affects urav membefs. Remnc remnant fresunis Army

Ss

Akboqh many special displines affect dai em ru t aniemce indicates that two of

helicopter RFP specifacatiom have gated that ea
"m be a minimum of 30% Wbihi this may be impossible to adcieve with sonte Wars whem all vibration modes arc onsiere, the intout may be satilaid for the polatially davgerous modes. As an aernatimv suffacient dampin may be

pF m-Mg Mmqporia
nioka. 4-4.1 i C

an vibration conrol aW dia-

away from the design contiuou operaing speed.

5-5. AMNCP 70&-31. while addia conskderations of oin Soveraiq. owlap. smd dampig are dotaile in per. 8-7. This panqraah addresses probIsmi awmedap with componnt rucmaat vibration,

di"s amum -enkumul

dymmis awe treatW in par.

oumpka

t tod -eader -uch

loee i.e., the vibratory stressia will be sof" blow the amdiraam limaiw for the sructure. As aisag deuia saeds for drives have rcsuid is pich bee vs4otie above 10.0W) fpm. many

waomat froquencies harm-

* [

AMCP 706-202

J•

frequencies readily may be identified. In many infatigu, failures occurred that initially were attribstances, designs will exhibit very low vibration due to to dynan.ic tooth loading. However, inuted the favorable mass and stiffness configurations of the aestigation revealed that the fatigue nucleations flange, web, and hub, and therefore will not produce usually were loes ad in the bottoms of the tooth roots a detectable strain gage output. Considerable input or (n the insides of the back-up rim. The crack energy may be required for a realistic determination. propagation gemnally was radial rather than acrtss Although actual operation in the transmission is the the tooth ban, resulting in the loss of a large sgtinal arbiter the acoustical siren generally will promeat of the ger rather than a single tooth. Such duct sufficient input to get the job done. failures are typical of resonant conditions in which Audible detection ah3o is sufficiently precise, althe tooth meshing frequency or one of its harmonics though a microphone feedback coupled with orthocoincides with a particular natural vibration mode of gonal axis input from the exciter into at, oscilloscope the gear. is required to produce Lissajou patterns in order to use often Lightweight gear designs for helicopter distinguish between fundamental and overtone will exhibit various types of vibratory modes, such as responses. The observed standing waves are the with radial nodes or circular nodes, singly and in product of a forward and backward traveling (with combinations. Typical vibration modes for a thin respect to rotational velocity) wavmset. If the gear is are given in Ref. web spur gear with integral shaft rotating at a given speed w,two resonant frequencies mode ofconcern is that involving 103. Generally, the are obnerved for each static fundamental radial vibranodes that put the gear rim into axial waveradial tion mode: form vibration. The lower orders (say, up to the fifth Forward wave natural frequency diametral mode) are more likely to involve higher 4 - f. + w/2. Hz (4-M) amplitudes and, hence, higher oscillatory bending stresses. However, relative resonant response amplig* .ard wave natural lrenuencv tudes for constant forcing input intensity at various diresonant Lrq!.%eicr vary enormously with fsei Sear blank co•r•furations. One gear blank m-ty s2. W (4-5) -respond most to a third diametral mode frequency where while another o the fifth. The flange, web, and hub design, all influence this relationship as well as the static resonant frequency, Hz number of radial nodes ratio of higher order resonant frequenciea to the funfotitional speed, Hz darnensal. The resonant frequencies ma best deA graphic presentation of the phenomenon is contermined by experimental bench test techniques using tained in Fig. 4-34. The fundamental radial node only the gear in question. Excitatki can be by mitihanical shaker, acoustical siren, or electrostatic resonant frequcies are drsjgnatkd on the ordinate by the number of their radial nodes. The abnignealy by an induction coil mounted very n;ear n WM i's r.tinnal aerea a re-Inliv tfn nnr..al prra" the rim surface. Excellent visual de-trmination of tin speed a The inclined lie represents the gear mesonant responm may be accomplisbhe with a"ed pattern teichniqueseinsitanc~ebsfmodalof suitable con-orI_: freqecy for a 41-tooth pinion melhi bdlanino"da fPsraaaon.~tt oth if the gear web is a fiuratio:. ,I' otw in , nodal and antinodaf driving at a normal speed of 20,000 rpm. Note that maw r-.y tic clearly dettckJ by manual probi g of the forcing f'untior represented by the pinion tooth the forward the backward wagv the rim a•A- %-vbsurfae with a lightly hand held soft brion nes S1fl ly,. AAible detmctl 3n is also sufficiently precise meh int r ground idl spee, traveling 3 node vi-

fromts I0 node at about 3% speed, the forwardw0 i fkw mmsamt f•quemcy identification, although a , nord wave at ner normal opeating speed and to1 microphone fedbacks coupled with a radially op. The 3, andtOW wave at ovespera poed imint fromn the exciter into an oscilkoscopewsrd 1isnode 12 node vibrations a- all penmtially hazardous. pod, between pftetalu nandary to required Even if it wer de.or.rated that the cyclic stresses disuimaiah between fumdayvental and overtone wer below the material enduran.cr limit, obMasngne segnawios mqay beased.e reeponac jeetsaable acoustical enrgy radiativa would occur feedback phaug sial with equal -e. Whaen wo vibato amphiudes arm sf- a thee iatercb. teSig of the shape and mats of "ficiumt to prodm wsiificant stress levels, te most the ger is not very practicable in this example bocamu a 25% clhang in ear rim and web thickpractsi qumaiative etvaltutim can be made by ataass affus maxiamur chag of 3%in resonant ta, bam strain gag to appropriate antinode regigns frqiency for a specific deior- (Rdf. 10). f tshe rio anid web. The hige• emeI lvl rsunance

-

N

-

SPIRAL BEVEL GEAR

o to

to

9

a0

11 a

a X

go

IN

11)

DRIVE SY$TLUS.-L 1hU LOflMAT.OSftEo 'U E___

Gear Teoth Mebing Sped

duction of sufficient damping to vudmn the vbrmimo sigificantly. The spiral damper ring or snap ring a shown in Fig. 4-35 has promc to be efeti1ve in many inisaes,a producing damsping ratios of 0.04 tog 10t With a resultat reductiont of Cyclic resonant arcs to 30-40% of the undauped mugnitods.
A*16m.r

________

r

-A-

=

--

SW

I

1

-__IUI

dA-P.O

otte ty, an of damping (viscolstc ard torsional absorbers hat: baen evaluated with pautial mance in bulampte tflnitia s. Certain vnecdmiet damping tremcaat have boen shown to reduce some Var vibrefion mode amphwudss by 50% (Re. 105).
-hruhadcapeesv

p~ 43

rypsal Sis oeinp. King A"Undimsim.

"AJ Dipm~estotchnique
Many cockpit indicators warning lqlns. and gpips lit ths postal deflimic.o of daagaswi aids. Recet Army REP specifiations icmii indications for oil presein and Impsrathne low pesusaa warning, high Itw~mqaeri. warming. aid quantimty, and chip dea1e90m. Atddmitoa grouned iampulae wfchanquu rutial "hinc Rd mpending Oil-rakertypass warnin Rw oil beaings chas viswa! and am;l faduke deaL~a and lacti, and oilsm.. hag for spectrgraphic analysIts. However. the n~ thats by theisles haeve prowcn inndsuguaee to allow the wiae*rod OV saf and cast-daffve conditiontal

mnumaafah on existing Army helicopter drive subsyitwus Tou aitpa extent. the mussing ingredient ms consideration of these in the initial design and development test phase. Safe and cost-effective inapismantation of condational maintenance methods requires thorough definition mwand ate ume of early failurt detection. n digagnosisad pro~wmoa as defined in Ref. 106. Majo effort underway in Army-sponsoed programs sam aimed as reducang the time required for deei*om and as immproving sceduling. This philosophy rewts in sebmlsedaisg of unscedul~ed maintenance provided that eqAp~mnus-bae judgmients are availtli aommarig the secrity and mi of progasic of t4e deated fatilur.

4-70

-

~A"C 705-202

-

--

~

)

J

Detection methods may be classirted as related to the internal oil system or external to thc oil system. and include: I . Oil system dependent: a. Spectrographic oil analysis b. Electronic or ekLetro-optical oil monitoring c. Oil filter differential pressure d. In-line electrical resistance filter grids e. Electric chip detectors C.Magnetic chip collector plugs. 2. Independent of oil system. a. Naise analysis b. Vibration moititoring c. Temperature mma.urement. SpectRogrphic oil anslysis has pro~en expensive and relatively unreliable because poor correlation exists between faiiure severity and detection. Little is vacually known concerning failure, therefore. diagnosis and prognosis ame impossible. Oil monitoring rouains hr, the cvailaatiora stage-. some techniques havig proven totally useless while others show sowe promise. Oil filter differential pressure can be correlated quite wen wid, iaiiure progression rat;ei bAriqp of when the rate of chanae of differential pressur is examined,. Usefulness of this system iscomprcmis~d. however, by the accumulation of normal wear, dirt, mad contamination parlicbs. Visual inspection of !he filter elemnwt debris by t. perienced tochniciantn can detet mine ahe generic failu": mode buta not the location. F~ilter grids arc best cmnpoyeJ cc a Wahion similar to use of oil monitodriat. The hasic diffacrice is ttal tnefriter grid paitjaz sw~Albr con..an~inant particles. hopgfully rstainiivi, Only the laiýgcr metal fudturc flakes. The of.s~ cioggaig is detected @1ri and may be coVCtvete Cteri(Mlly to Itrae-of-chiingC display. Chip detectionis have bftc used extensively in Army helirvpiors for two dftades. The debris parlidles ame atpturod a~agaetktly to bri~c electrical cnotmc points, which, in turn, ensrtize a caution fipt. The wsduincns of this metho is dependent upon the locaition of tkm dated". 'siA ~ resulting W crew action. failure indication often rest~ts from thr sdow accumulatioa of miormaa wear debris. and oftencn in awiteraw t oftn te cew roosi reult ina itisio, aortto 110vssttpaW the wCas. Use of chip colhctor phigsu eUhaiats~ an aIItl4A at eatr ie~~es i t~ ~iway lawi.nsmbmof plstwith greater deris starlac capacity and W. teual caution panel light aft used to aid in locaiMinof a fiailjr to a specific area or module. liton is aocoapqlished at daly oi Meiodi&c inte-

vals and sufficient debris callcction isusually prc,.nt to permit an expericnced technician to identify the failure mode. Good sucmes has been claimed for such a system on commercial air carrier fleets, but uc~cesa in helicpter adaptation is comipletely dependent uponl wcll-designed installations that entrap and localize failure debris, convenient and accessible delector loca'Jons, and experienced technicisrns to correlate findings with other available diagnostics and to schedule maintenance accurately. Vibratioat monitoring and noisc analysi~differ only ini the sensing techniques. Acceleromnetu or other forms of contacting vibration sensor% measure vibration, while microphone sensors measure noise. Substantial research and developmnent effort.s are being mad.; on these systems. Ruiiimentary go-no-go Syak ins with a wamring threshold signal reqtiiring aigine shutdown have long been used in turbine engine installations. The real challeng lies in the electronic signal processing and its conversion into an identification 'and quantitative assessment of the failure mode. Signal analysis is being investigated by such techniques as auto-correlations, Fourier transkfutal Ma51711, jUWFA fiPFtiss

dmbleftj caiaaatL.~.

aross powcr spectral density. amplitude probability distribution. anJ real time dlassificatirm of wav&form by convolution of other techniques (Ref. 107). Tht operational succes of any such rystam is dependent upon its ability to isolate the faulty comprpncnt signature from the background created by otW~~ internal and external forced and resonant vibratians, siske bar~Ak and best frequencies, at an earlicr time tihan the chip detectof, and to retnain onlint to monitor the rate of progression of failure of fth particular component. Onily in this manntr can the remaining useul safe life 'DC pradmad. and maintenianc scheduld wisely. The ultimatae goal of these programs is automatic identificatiott and prognosis as well an detection. This goal requires coanpmehensive test data on all failure modes, both individually and in combination, along with impravad sensor reliability and an analysis system havisv;, minimum reliability an order of timag *d grnLter than that of the drive system being monitored. Tepraacwsrnctsvm, intAa Temtue prctorelativel wa mad ul se sytwrlmpteatur toercrtiel integrated bulk messurmncit, seldom cam detioa other than viny advex" (virtualy emominico conditic") faikies. Capbility imnprovxnent roqapinz &multitude of individual conipowats *one=r caxn~iwsd with triw.ofdu nlssnawdfrbs ln ai6ai cukhavife umiays creted (or selnevriwoni a Rapid improvemients iu & wtset"~ for bvlaaogw 4-71

I

At

3:

0A

4

am NWAutkf larEZ4s UPon: dfiiv' subsylensnt 1. Improved kiixia dcsi,;n ra.uilure-forgivitkg d4sigjn lchriqbt" as in ptr. -1.21.2I. b. Integration of nonssay Gdicstk ais& mW gsospr provisions into the oa~nx!~v *tiaWr. 2. Redireca edevelopment ttstirw effort a. iog out of failuremi~ as~d MdWscImd in par.4-14.43. b. Compalat of pwogrssicon rate data and
correatio lvel.gearbox, wi

shafting must a-ecohmotlatt. These mounting systems may be giou;-W conveniently into three

k

0v

categories

If ý-.

Engine(s) mounted dirccly to main gearbox 2. Enin mone to irfa with tubulr strut&,, usin rod-nd bearings to relieve thermal and load deflsctious, wish the pzwrbox bolted directly to the
airfrmie

3. Implemen tasiono
a.Deemntio
t0t orfie ao~an

umn for
of saI Wa y

efectuive

un operating cvrow

f

ar b. Dlriaion of. ipctosc failure modt4s from exciessivc continued operation.

43DIEvs,
INTWRCONNECiT SYMFMS
PRh,

Engine moumbx as in Item 2; gearbox mounted flexibly. The rotor pylon usually is integral with the that is. airframe mounted with elastomcric3 springs and hiSWe liks or struts. Syrteni I generally usa an internal splined quill be ~~sha;'L lubricated with leaf box oil. Thezspliuics mnný. hardened and ground, slightly cio~ned of straiZln: or indium hard and bobtstd, shaped, or roll-foamedt. yso Wa n rtn orenoyL tu* pouting and/oir sof, plating or coatings such as xiinickel, nylon, Teflon, or racolybdesun d"isf~c vhce Inva~a~sarcqpiýazsacuta for Systemn 2 can bc moc&
s3 arith citteve& Aaft1m u~nd wu[!ciiAirgi- with rralaivcly$k
Ul., tac
retc.¶vrI rur'dMg*e

-".?
k

W.psrdi

In a halicopte trnuasmncui and dc~lr
utri

~

kW i,

is erWnx1csa.'d

t% X~l

fth.

.&flaygtrI,
CflCI'i

t~

rtc"-n I 40r'r

thfa wu.4&t ac- a ge.ýrb*Ný mad f10o¶ a itiria

Id 01prupsLa. Thia ncuvia4 darv w2ita tgks, t

SjLa&Ii driveL rsqtirwaco an &.umin4 uhaft M 41 rv-*iwa~j Sp.Aizdrveof m kurn~od.by ,b.t particular heicopter- dc4A.ý. iincu&ni thet cuup.a. hagemiw vtgiu &WA.t wzseý.' slce. w dftz,. and otAýt' VoJzlh)iiftio 6cweit #i. GO~I "P,

ThOC 606010a *AraesI. W to pCci&ubCdyntamic axial defecion b vatiatiozas isctakic kugibh due to installauo-r. coj~~~.bearinsr, and benisl wukmt (hangusý 44,3CE~i~tA tL~J~a~Cmi&i;iwbeflL06)O tx4 x;tho&Si'T growth of the engine must tc
&lcdticuor V-1mSs~uatW

to a

t¶haft dzsign. Car must be taken to stir ucture provides support at wmtua te t Ota ew~~ii and gcarbx attach points adequate to ddfecion. It often is possible to comply ith ujhkzut-#ad cra'al loci I2IwtDZ Ittjuircnents.

~

'
1

¾

4Gc:%Sai
In

1.bM
to
X1C.W;

pvamasily by the poi-va scqjamnsmee.L of Otnt,~i llo~ion to b: cactaxI vu ttt.Zity. mwvtIa~~imnbiPjA~y. % ik. 4 amuaAuoL "Iat r~&1% w.4da. 4 ivw*fmnaeuta for relinbihiy. maiut tnio.64Ni y~.m swuvability we discumrJ in par. 4Wdz t Lbagt all-iacuuimc ncWjuiraerw am, tswtrA pe641C"kb vahal.duab"'W iue

)%A EVtM4Wr rctL'iVdy hilh dcfleciMý mjoA4nOrU# aitfrauW nw&I. hi. jgivcst loi tr4~-w;. v=OV sad Ag4udc&~tirww of I dtjý sa k~is nky arc org-

cow&aLUt4 byZ~il did: (Thotuam type), r"i-A 49g l a 4aq,- mxicn tentoson ck dizra--st (ILandir t ix menz Jbalaher tyipto,wcrtnwm4 tý.'kA gear ccupiw'L."ý The first 6.-&typ" SPw.a&Ny asf. preferredl tnx45iwc

ftlrewijuurtmt

O U4NAIMC w ang

t* &ru

M0ealt"o

Iubrication.

(Sol

dwcast in I~c pwarq,"dksc thi~t kuaksm aw-4

Sysan YconVW~t

ottstk%1=44 dndbcntkWC in 014f

J

Stt"ic

Vd~A,0 .fltt* W..'4r

)144&4 as

70

Idnh ia.

d aflUni k~~ix*4. liaidt i~ 4~fa.n~~aatat~tpaa~ysaa~n

ianjWkvt tl*& 0-&

balk~ou

catar

r.ti

oa

&xW twý2v'az uŽ±i~u ~,sk

'A%

Ias

'

The an junt of axial motion that must be acas functional failure of the shafting becoomes a catascommiodated usually will determine the type of tdrivc trophic Walure almost immediately, with acollison of shaft couplings used. Alt known drive shaft sysniý;s the intermeshing rotoi: blades. Achievement of the offer a resistance or damping force opposite to the dinecessary level of reliability requires detailed conrcetion of axial motion while triasmitting torque. sideration of operating xtresses and margins of safeThe maximum acceptable value for such forces usualty, critical speed margins, number and type of dyly is established by either the rotor vibratcion isonamic components (such as bearings hangers. lation system or the engine PTO desin specification dampers. couplings. and splines). rodundari'.y in limits. Damping force characteristics for various mountaiag and support itni~ctuMe and easw of incouplings and spline combinatio~ns are discussed in spection. Criticality of the interconnect system allows-f par. 4-3.2. 1. little latitude for rchal'ility trade-offs and2 comproOther input driveshaft design criteria are governed wise with weight, cost, and m~Aintainability goash. by maintainability, v~ulnerability. and reliability Optimization of design. then, must be in the direquirements and by additional engine pTO design rection of minimum number CL parts, low stress (high and specification limits, margin of safety), and Whb tolerance to ballistx Maintainability considerations require that the damage. Therefore the drive shaft tubas will be rc-laengine-so-gearbox shaft contain "quick-disconncct" tively large diameter, thin wall, and long (within a featur s. Ease of accessibility also is required to facilisafe buckling) length/diameter (LID) ratio and crititate drive shaft inspection and servicing, and enigiric cal speed limit. Intermediate bearing hangter design or gearbox repi xcement. Since these tasks must be must permit relubrication, with ready access to the performed at the direct support level. the absolute whok, hanger fot- visual inspection. The selection of minimum of special tools, fixtures, and skills should drive shaft tube material can noxuitate further conbe required. siderations of a"Ia motion due to differential expansion between the aifnframe (generally aluminum) Although vulnerability and reliability have been dtbmUsseJ nreviousiv.i is irritortant to co~nzio n the c 1104wtfvesbait (Step], aminu tivaniuamo comsequenee- of drive shaft failure. The large kinetic composite). Airframe deflections due to flipht energy of the input driv shaft categorizes it as a maneuvers; or load distribution also can contribute to potenitialfly hazardous o. lethal okiect should it the axial de~ections of the drive shaft. These deseparate at eithe.-or both oF the engines and gearbox Ahctins will necessitate couplings capable of abadapter. The ueof auitiflail devices, i.e., secondary sorbing the anticipated motion. if axial dameciotsi components -or structurt capable of capturing a failed ame small, then flexible disk couplings frequently are drive shaft. is highly desirable, the choice; for larger axial deflections, the geared In addition to limits on &xial force specification at coupling or ball-apline disk combinations are Watter the engine PTO pad. allowable moment and steady uWted. Under any specific set of requirements, the and osiLlatory radial Icads are usually slocrrned. primary 4esig empLasis must be reliability and Sinmc egine-to-geautox shaft rotation speeds are in ready-access fra sevice and inspection. Ow. rang 6W-20.GOO rpmr, compliance with the osciilawory lod limits generally require kincoatic and 4-W u u Satn dynaniic balancing of the individual elemets of the ~ satsse ~do igemi oo ThdrvsafsytmLadoasigeanrtr "trve shaft assmbly. When positioningt or locating helicopter to power the Ladl or antitorque rowo. "mai tolerano. between mating surfaces or elemcnts suc, couplings. adapters, and ahIts cannot be conbeft-een the main gearbox and the tWi rotor gparboa. This system smSt provide power to the taul rokir ay tro~d aequt~y.it ecot.- ~ccsar to masntoelominatessarym th mi rotor in the event of loss of drive from y cgitd trolle adeqaey balncethcovleeo inuateexessve mialy thme engine4s) In ormal operatio, the en~gine*s) vibration.driv thrnoug &fraewheeling dhs-* to tie main yewibox. During autorokatiom. when the fre-whselir4 "411 EUdim and Shellin unit is overrususing tW1 rotor power is extracted from An interconnec shaft syw .n for mul, Ole main (or the siam rGto adlorotAticnal, or kinetic flyweeL.iq.% liftin) rotot Wkdhpters transmits power between the artia. engine Vearbox (or the collector gearbox in multiTail rowo drive shafing win be subjacted to severe eq~sa eLi6copters) and the main rotor goarbox(es) trnasient loads and cyclic tersional ouciasioos as while also maintainin phase reiationshp between wagl as noual Moeady torqe inputs. Torque require rolors. The pitaary comuiduatioas for sisca an intermuass for moat flight conditions awe maderia is 000toc sha4 s"ste ane reliability amd survivability, nawne wit maxismum steody torqu requird during
-..

4
I

'r~

Sa - V.~

4

4-73

bover at high grow weight. The total power roquired to he ver ismain rotor power plus tail rotor power requkied to offset the main rotor torque, plus losses, r.A taW rotor also must counteract the main rotor cy,l4ic thrust vactor and an aerodynamic drag couple from the taillboomn. Conventic-sal rotor or propeller theory. including an effacieca factor applicable to A*. specific tail rotor can be used to, calculate the Mmady tai rotor torque. However, experience has shown that the transient torque requirements can be from 200-400% of the steady-state design torque. High levels of transient torque result from sideward flight in an advems quartering wind, from yaw acaelerations, and from unusual inik , conditions ivsulting from combinations of main rotor downwash, tail rotor blanking from aircraft structure, and adverse winds at hover or low flight speed. Transient torque inputs also cen be introduced to the tail rotor drive system by engine compressor stall, violent flight maneuvers rapid throttle movements (chops). or abrupt engine power loss. Under such conditions the abrupt relief of the windup of the tail r .4or drive-shaft combines with the flywheel inertia of the tail rotor and with secondarv effects of main ru~ui iwlin-at to cause aeveral cycles of extremely high amplitude torque oscillations in the drive shafting. Although occurring infrequently, this low cycle-high stress phenomenon can cause fatigue damage to thc tai rotor drive system unless the components of this system are dlesigned for torsional loads well in excess of the noirmal steady powter re~uircments. Transient design ctitcria for the tail rotor drive itipulated in MIL-T-595S and AMCP 706-203 are 300% of the power required to hover at design gross weight and denisity altitude or 150% of the maximum power rcq11irnd
in th~meet sver,. mzne-otuer .;.th;n fi flight

infinite life critria. The throttle chop transient response is often the greatest oscillatory torque felt in the T.R. drive syrteni. The system can be modeled for the computer iiiring the cnginc-main rotor decay curves, the appropriate lumped mass and spring rate analogues, and the coupling discontinuities. with reasonable accurascy. A prcproduction flight strain survey will provide sufficient infornmation on the torsional charsctcris-ýics of the tail rotor drivesystcm to enable substantiation of the integrity or revelation of the unanticipated weak points. 4-3.1.4 Suherltlesil Shaffing Analytical methods for determining critical specds of a drive shaft are covered in Chapter 7, AMCP 706201. As defined there, the critical speed is that rotational speed at which the elastic forces arc overcome by the unbalanced centrifugal forces and the "bow" of the shaft increases divergently. Theoretically, the critical speed of aperfect shaft, i.e., a shaft that is perfectly balanced, homogeneous, atid equally displaced about the rotating axis, will occur as predicted by* analysis. The behavior of such a shaft is . dashied line in Fig 4-16. WN vihrstirnn shown occurs the rotational speed 17approaches the critical speed n,, where divergence occurs almost without warning. Practically any rc I shaft has some initial unbalance that provides a centrifugal driving force which increases with increasing rotational speed np. Suich a shaft exhibits vibration /rotation characteristics such as arc shown by the solid line in Fig. 436. While vibration levels at normal operating speeds

envelope, whichever is higher.
Such requirements are rather straightforward withFISCITC[F'5)

respect to fatigue design of the gear teeth and the can., tilever rotor shaft in that the need for infinite life criteris due to the high rate of cyclic accumulation (rotation speed) is evident. However, with respect to the remainder of the drive system, where start-stop{ cycles, throttle chops (T.R. inertia overruns), airburm engine restarts. and yaw control pedal excurvious accowad for the bulk of the high stress cycles,.____ a far lower frequenicy of accumiulation exists. In such instimice, past experience iv ith the fitting of theoretical spectrum analysis to subsequent flight strain survcy results is rather essential in efficient design work. When fatigue spectra are unknown, a
,

~

R*F fVSHAI [C 5 TyrCAL SHAF1

-I

II

,

~..~.I_____
tATSAF'PE
*,,,

rewaable appiroach has been to design static yield

strengt lev&l to a minimnum of 3 times thc transient fatigue stress used for the gear teeth and rotor shaft 4-74

Figue 4-36. Relative Shaft Speed vs Relatlhe Vibration AmplItude

V P" may be acceptable. the unbalanced forces can increase rapidly as i increases above 9, with the possibility of resultant damage. This situation can effectively reduce the critical spead margin to an unacceptably low level. The inference is that simply by balancing the diive shaft an acceptable critical speed margin easily can be realized. However, the ,ast of dynamically balancing the bhat and/or shaft assembly must be included in the trade-off, together with a careful assessment of the contributions of the end conditions and/or mounting compliance to the vibration/rotation characteristic, The majority of existing drive system applications use subcritical shafting, for which the lowest value of It,, > V,. Requirements for balancing can be met with ordinary balancing techniques and equipment; relatively short shafts minimize production and logistic problems; and ballistic tolerance design paramcters arc known. On the other hand the cost of a subcritical shaft installation with seeral separate spans

706-202

may be higher than that of a comparable supercritical installation. The i:,anufacturing cost fot the short shafts may not be much different than the cost of a single long shaft, while the number, an-' hence cost, of machined parts probably will be higher for the subcritical installation. A single span of the subcritical system consists of a drive shaft tube with end fittings, drive adap'cr, hanger assembly with bearing. splined adapter, and coupling. A typical example is shown in Fig. 4-37. Design of the drive shaft requires a determination of the shaft cross section necessary to accept safely the steady and transient loads stipulated in tic pertinent design specifivation, and of a shaft length that will operate safely within the critical speed limitations. An efficient design generally consists of the least number of spans with acceptable critical speed margins and torsional buckling strength. Large diameter thin-walled tubes, generally of nonferrous metals; a greaw lubricated bearing sealed on one side

BEARING (1 SEAL)

BOLTED JOINT ADAPTER TUBULAR SHAFT

FLEXIBLE COUPLING

GES

NUT

HANGER SHAFT

//

ADAPTER 3llf TUBULAR SHAFT

_aHANGER

ASSEMBLY TAIL BOOM STRUCTURE

S......MOUNTING BOLTS

\

Filme 4-37. Typical batrilgl Haiser AMedy -- Sedicfical Shaft Ase-mmy \ 4-75

with a fitting for a periodic relubrication: and a flexible disk coupling arc typical of current design practice. The end fittings and their attachment represent a considerable portion of the cost of the manufacturing of such d'ii-a shafts. The fittings may be attached by adhesive bonding, riveting, boiling, clectron beam welding, or brazing. Tolerance of mating pairts must be closely maintained to ensure good parallelism of end fittings and low vibration characteristics. The type of ccuplings selected, their mass. Io"cation, and friction characteristics, influcnce critical whirling modes as well as torsional response modes ofthe shafting. A recent investigation of coupling nduccd whirl phenomena on turboshaft powered helicopters is given in Ref. 10S.

shafting will be partially or totally offset by the addition of a daniper or dampers. The elimination of hangers and the attendant maintenance requirements also may be offset by the addition of maintenance requirements for the dampers. Acceptable tolerance to ballistic strikes requirs hardware testing under simulated service conditions. Parameters for ballistic-tolerant designs for supercritical shafting have not been defined and dependence on individual tests is almost complete. A method for calculation of critical speeds and bending modes for high-speed shafting is well presented and explained in Ref. 110.

4-3.1.5 Supercritical Shafting Supercritical shafting usually opc. "-s at a mced between the first and second critical specu of rotation, although even high orders are possible. "The main rotor and tail rotor shafts, or masis, often pass
t hk m lo

4-3.2 COMPONENT DESIGN The basic drive shaft system components, coupa.gs, bearings, and shafts are discussed separately in the paragraphs that follow.

h

fi e t

Pr ituCjti' .

sn rp

d

h cfýn r

p r

opr h in n

4-3.2.1 Couplings The primary purpose of the shalt coupling is to
p r v d. ..

4 'f

n

g ut |

- m

i s aah gnm

en t

an

di

x'; al

operating speed. However, the critical speed is ,elatively low, the dwell tin-. is momentary, and aerodynamic damping forces are quite I.. ge. On the other hand. interc.onnect drive shafting and tail rotor drive shafting generally operate at relatively high speed with very little inherent damping. The advantafes of a super.;'itical shaft design aic the smaller number of detail parts and bearing hanger assemblies. The disadvantages are the need for dampers, which for reliability should be redundant, and the physical ~lengthother "'•.. ...... "-I:*-" of the !hafts, which may r"-" ~ . ,,t• "•- "- imIRO"•*
VBl

IRtOKOl1t%,3.

/'%13V.

9

.Q1 201

6

13#0

motion between various shafting elements and the engines and gearboxes. This relieves stresses in the shafting, bearing, gearbox, and engine components induced by bending moments and axial forces. The rcla!ive motions between these components may be due to airframe structural deflections. thermal expansion. or pylon excursions required by rotor vibration isolation schemes. There are six major types of couplings that have been used in helicoptcrs, and the selection of one among them for a given application depends . . .... p .. greatly upon the required dis.olrt ni
paccimicrts &no thle ioaos that can be tirid i

%-41J11 10.%,

tars i'ay dermine shaft diameter and wall thickhe~s. Shaft sizes larger than thosc required by the power requirements m4N be necessary to maintain a LID rptio sufficient to avoid critical torsional buckling, or to counter a ;pecific ballistic threat. Once si.e has been determined, the design requirements for shafts in the supercritical speed range center primarily on damping und dynamic balancing.As shown in Re.f. 109, the ncessity for balancing to a very clo tolerance over the entire span er the supercritical shaft is paramount for successful operatio,,

their supporting elements. The six are: I. Laminated flexible disk couplings (Thomas type). This type of coupling, shown in Fig. 4-37, is probably the simplest design for angulai misalignments I deg. It has been used oi the CH-47 synchronizing 5haft and on the OH-58 tail rotor drive system. Eachi driving sp;der may have two or three at-

It is incorrect to assume that a supercritical shafting system will automatically weigh less than a subcritical system. Dircwtly comparable designs for a given helicopter application have to be made and the total instalted weights dctc'mi.ed accurately and compared. The weight saving apparently achieved by elinminating the hangers necessary for the subcritical

taching points (four or six equally spaced holes in the oisk complement). rhe larger number is preferred from the v:ewpcints of vulnerability and survivability. The laminated disks are generally circular rings, although square and hexagonal shapes have
bcen ustd. One problem that has been encountered is disk fretting at the bolt attachment. This coupling features high torque capacity, light%eight, simplicity, and constant angular velocity. The torque capacity can be varied easily by the addition or deletion of laminates. However. increasing the

I

4-76

number of Isminatas reduces the angular misalign.
ditional rclationship exicfls between the numbenr of &t-

WELD JOINTS

ment capability or the particular dcaign. An ad-

tachmieat puiats and thc- torque capacity, and misalignment capability. A four-pax'nt attachnent (two-bolt shaft adapte;) provid.es the maximutm misalagameilt capability and Odso is the least expersive to mnufaclare. Thc flcxi~'le disk is capable of small axial drilicctions, and where predictted axiWa motions

LXEDIPRG
___

P-e low, this cotupling servu well. No lubrication is
sliding involue spline to i-Zoomicouatr
V&rlM1jO1Fl; ;,____

initial shaft aw~mb!y length due 'o accumulation of

mrnif~triig~lcrancec. b-lowcicr, &.'x.n amial dei%4fion occurs tindcr operitting torluc, the dlip rt;-

-E'ALIGNING MONOBALL

sistanct of Itbe spline~ is so great thsit apprecia~ble axial .'orcc will be rploliceJ to the disk laminates. For splines of 0.is type the brealhaway slip force Fju rarely is less
k;, -

.4 Q/D,..lb

(4-66)

-

j

Q ~-tcrque, lb-in.
=pitch

diamttei, in.
DRIVE FLANGE

In some special cases whc~re certain dry Nali lubri(.atiteris are applied to the splines (Ref. 93) break-

away forces of half this value masy be realized. 2.leibrdiap' ,ai (Scndix tyre) couplings. Thibcoulin-3~))~s boa ~e onthe (..e fg. OH-6 hel~copter. Thi, type couplir~g is gencrally capale f arnaimim mialinmci ~ ~aula ahout idey per diaphragm pair, burt very little, axial def~tao. ~apai~iy ~a~st e ~axial ad thtefre a sl~1i~ i' Recrcultin i breaawa splipe o i~ wiTC ih it ser.CIes v uis mt tc 5v~ snitv -agd ge'~ll force. F6, ar pity di~aphiag stac brekawy snip A~sj, the stoe faigue w~lueakt tocme osllthey tax ial el oftensol of the axial deflection. caai ar.d provide r.waly all ay e ncesaryto rom;;hconitin.%it Undkr type pro-i or saybeneesary onua coifaligin i vi ae e atideia imcnf- ig ex r centcbll(roftesimilar typ)baring at he n~cri1e~f~urcceterof hestak ~ tanscr %xialloids into the s-ipporting adapter and tofoc the ball spline to move. Although theoretically it i5 possible t&ý obtatin v~~'y low breakaway slip forces wiih the ball s!apractical considerations with, itspev-t to aainirr.ium length of the ball track groo',ea, vh'ntbevt of balls. and stAl p,!cvisions usually limit. 1hese rorce toa a r;aininium of
., ..

Figure 4-3b. iiictl~ Dispbragai Coauplham All too often, the vibratory forces due to imbalance and r.ý;or vibrations lead to false brinelling of the ball track grooves, which results in turn in much higher forces w'Ah increasing service time. Althourph the flexible dianhraffm elemouts need no lubrication, the splines and the monoball occasionzily require lubrication 3 Axial~y loaded straight element flexi'hle coupling (Bossier coupling). This coupling (Fig. 4-39) requirts no lubr~cation and has the abiiity to accommoda,.e combirned axial motion, m-isalignment, and torque. A series stack of warped rectangular plates with a vertraliy located reczangular cutout leaving slender sides chatacteeiz*5 the coupling. Opposed corners of these plates are b~olted to adjacent elements and to end fittings or adapters. Design characteristics o'hscoup'ing arc defined in Ref. Ill1. Apiain odt hv enkgl xai m-.,nta; with some flight time accumulated on the H; -2 h~cpc (Ref. 112) and UH-I- helicopter. Thec atngular misalgnament cipability appears to be about 0.5 deg per ,-late elemen:. However, an increrse in the nu~nber of ýesments usW~ resttll in a teductinku in first 4-77

J's.- 0. 15 Q/D. lb

(4-67)

A

7

--

.-u

i

whirling aitic• ]s apad. A satisfactory lightweight design for an engiae-to-gsasbox shaft for mod•a•ac angle (of the order 2.5 des) 0.25 in. scillatory axial motion probably would be requird to operate in t super-critical rune if tte erine ohtput speed were above 600 rpm. 4. Elastomeric couplings. Cbouideeabl developme- t work culuinatiag with eaperimatl dight
tasting on helicopuers ai s the YH-51 have been accomplished with this Vypc of coUplling (FiS. 4-40). FHowevr, all sucessful applications lhav had low angular misalignment and axA deflection requiremsnts. Efforts to develop higher capabilities (up to 2.5 dqg steady misalignment and 0.25 in. oacillatory axial displacmcmet) have met with failure. The low angle configurations LAw us•d simple rubýber ekmenut in shear or compreasiou. while for h*i _angles very thin, multiple layer, ruber-ametal-rubber combinations, such as are now co•t•ion in certain rotor system bearings Itait ben ustd. ibe principal development problens bzve boee customer fatilue d, -o r•ersed louding (alternating tension/oonpr.,Ao ) at high sagle/low torque conditcr,. The basic advantages of cbetomeric couplings amr his'" o.upiihria- (low shock an.d oie -............. IARIOeECA&ULk PLkTL•

no lubricaio required. no susacfuihuty to fretting corrosion, and polential savings of cost and mnintenance. lanei disadvatages am dereAioralion in an oiy environmint and aging and reduced ctritcl spaed dvi to high compliance. 5. Hooke's joint. The Hooke's or Cardan type of universa joint coupling (Fig. 4"4) is capable of mlativcly •Aigh angular mimaigi•ret, of the order of 30 deg at wadete spoes and I1 do a, h*ig speeds.
Howeve, unlike all other couplings discussed in this paragraph. the output is not a cons.ant angular velocity, and significant bending moments arc induced in the attaching adapters and supporting structum.ý. Consequently, this type of coupling generally is cmployed as phase-matched pairs to cancel the cvsillatory angular velocity or singularly with systems that am very soft torsionally and hence can absorb the angular velocity oscillation. The H- 13 tail rotor drive system is an elxample of the latter type of application. These couplings have no axial motion capability and normally arc used in series with either a sliding (involute or square taoth) or a rec'-culating ball spinc. The input and output yokes of the coupling

!ARD

Rfor

at..h.. to th cros with cupped nidl-c bearings. When that co..,oncnts arc sized properly oscillation. thel a givcl torque and force of velocity bsivkaway sliding• angular tlhe adj-Afrnt spline Usually is wel within the axial load capacity of the coupling. Common failurr modze, re spalling of the "cup end needle bering. and fatigue fracture of the The needlt býarings require lubrication. ti. Gear Wtouplingl. Gtar couplings (Fig. 4-42) with higu~ly crowned enternal involute gear teeth :...ting with st'aight twoiaed intcrnal gca2 te,:? have been on helicoot, r.; far more extensive!v than all oiliAoter csmpling typts combined. 1 '.Xsc coo j~iugs arc capable of providirzi moder3tely high anguLr misaligninernt and axial motion during operation at high
speed and tot'qur
Ž-tr

_-yokes.

sr'Fr DRIvE

DRIVE sHrI hEM 'CU•uAREAusWed

COUPLwG ,ADAPTE

.

Figure 4-39. Bosser Coupling

v,-ry low weight. Common

opfratin• • 'onditirci &:e i deg continuous and 6 deg
ADAPTERRETAINER CUP

k N,,

. ...B[A

SRI,4

"" I
SDrfIVE

A

SVAr T

DIV

ý,,Ai 1 R1 TAAINRCQu

CROSS

Figure 4-40. listomwek Copling 4-78
I *

ligle 4-41. $o.4e's J-•la (Umimal'il

4

-7

"ADAPTER hOUNTING
BOLT CIRCLL •'• INTERNAL STRAIGHT TOOTH COUPLING

GREASE CROWNED COUPLING

BOOT SEAL

Figure 4-42. Gear Couplng

transient 2nd 10.75 in. oscillator; axial motion at frequencies in the range of 10 Hz. Unlike straight
spliies o~r recirculating ball splines. the breakaway
blidinst

as the mi'aa~ignment angle increases. A comparison of th;, force ~o, a typical gear couplin., n.shown in Fig._____I_ ccn ~act becween loaded teeth is at r.*high sliding velocity r~. t; the angular miselignments. Conse, quenly, a stmerimposed axial motion is resisted only by tht rela, w'vely low dynamic friction coefficient rathaer than d static value. G.,-r coupling operating limits are thermal rate than 6i1.3up,- w~hich is the limiting contideration for the ri .- ,oupling typej previously discussed. Specially developMr gresse lubricants have provided the best load carrying (least friction) capability for gear2 couplings. However, the operating environment (high W
-1

force F,. cait be very low; actwtlly F, reduces

o.

-..- _-

n -. a iuiy I SAIL SPL!III M BALL SPLINE A-. *-%-fCftULMEDN

~

-

___

_

I

___

-j

____

IR_____

etrifulal field, high mechanical stroking fire-

IAIUNTAGL e

qucncy, *ý--d tlevatiA tempcrature) combine to make the -erst ma~jorit) of grrase unsuitable for this app'iitMiss.

Figre4.3 Bma'kapay SliWG Foresei NalgmC foe '/arlkm Spiae Dekvkn
4-79

A.side from the need for periodic relubricagion (60D-hr intervals ate common) the greatest difficulty with gear couplings is providing adequate sealing for the grease. Guillotine slider seals and elastomeric boots are most often found in high angle applications while modified lip-type shafts seals can be used for low angle (<I deg) operation. Shaft speeds of 20,000 rpm, which are now common, offer a distinct challenge to the designer since few seal designs can tolerate the high centrifugal field. Overheating dut, :w !s of lubricant, followed by plastic shear of the hot teeth, is the predominant failure mode for this type of coupling. Fully hardened, ground, and properly modified gear coupling teeth operate well with tooth loads in the range of 50,000-70,000 psi at sliding velocities well over 100 in./sec. Operation out-side of these boundaries, use of improper tooth materials, and use of inferior lubricants can result in contact melting, smearing, and welding of the teeth. A method of determining the tooth load distributions for varying combinations of tooth crown curvature, profile modification, misalignment angle, and torque is given in Ref. 113. These loads may then be used to calculate root fillet bending stress, Hertzian contact stress, and flash temperature indices as shown in par. 4-2.2.1.2.

After loss of the lubricating oil in the grease by evaporation or migration, the common failure mode exhibited by grease lubricated hanger bearings is overheating, failure and expulsion of the cage. and finally, expulsion of balls. Severe shaft vibration, due to loss of centering provided by the bearing, or shaft failure may follow loss of balls. Degradation of the lubricant also is caused by entry of water or debris into the bearing. The means of sealing bearings provided by bearing manufacturers are generally inadequate to preclude a significant failure rate in the Army environment unless additional protection is provided. One such means is to enclose the drive shaft with a cover to exclude the bearing areas from the contaminating environment. Another simpler, but less effective, means is to install rotating slingers on each side of the bearings with closely controlled clearances at the slinger OD. This providL shie.d against the entry of water, debris, or cleaning fluids during helicopter washdown. Although an effective seal may be designed that will reliably assure reasonable bearing life (10002000 hr), a hanger that is designed to permit relubrication can greatly reduce hanger bearing replacement. Frequent introduction of a fresh charge of lubricant can revitalize and/or purge the old charge of contaminated and thickened grease. However. relubrication adds to the maintenance burden and the risk of servicing with an incorrect and unsuitable lubricant is everpresent, but most lubricants will provide satisfactory operation of the bearing for at least a short period. The selection of nonserviceable replaceable bearings or relubricatable designs is a trade-off involving many factors such as bearing cost, maintenance man-hours, re!iability, and survivability. The design of the hanger assembly must be such as to prevent inadvertent bearing overloads. Nominal bearing loads are limited to shaft weight and rotating unbalanced loads, neither of which should be detrimental. However, misinstallation of the hanger can introduce static angular misalignment between inner and outer rings (shaft to housing) causing a moment load to be imposed on the bearing. Although system compliance (hanger, shaft, and airframe) may preclude loads of sufficient magnitude to cause spalling fatigue, the bearing balls will skid as a result of contact angle reversal due to these moment loads. Such operation will cause cage distress and overheating with abbreviated service life. Adequate relief from angular misalignment, in the form of proper internal clearances and/or self-aligning outer ring mounting, must be provided in the hanger design.

4-3.2.2 Bearings The criteria for design of hanger bearings for drive shafting differ considerably from the normal power loaded bearings used in gearboxes. The loads P to which the hanger bearings are subjected are very light (C/P < < 10 where C is the capacity of the bearing for a lire of 10' cycles with 90% probability survival) and sizes are determined by the torque requirement of the shaft through the bearing. With high tensile strength heavy wall shafts used to reduce shaft outside diameter, a relatively small bore (light) series bearing can be used in the hanger. Bcaring mounting on the shaft should be closely controlled to assure true running and that internal clearances are adequate to prevent radial preloading under operating temperature differcntials. Grease lubrication normally is used, and sealed nonrelubricatable as well as relubricatable bearings may be used. The lack of adequate internal clearance is a common design error found in many existing hanger bearing designs. Considerable effort has been expended, as described in Ref. 114, to evaluate greases for hanger bearings. The grease most commonly used is M IL-G81322. 4-80

AMCP 706-202
4-32.3 Sbmfthfg in loxv-spi:d applications where balance requirements are not stringet. Tube stock and bar stock, bored and completely machned, are used for higher speed application where straightness and true running are necessary to, meet close tolerance balancing requirements. Composite materials usually are fabricated by laminating epoxy preimpregnated carbon or filament at zero, 45 deg and 90 deg lay to the shaft axis and curing in an autoclave. The composite shaft has a very high strength to weight ratio but the cost is considerably higher than for other materials. Balancing requirements are less stringent for the composite shaft due to the lower specific weight material, but machinable material should be added at approximately one third span positions to facilitate dynamic balancing when required. Large diameter (3.0 OD) thin-watlled ahlminuce s tubes have demonstrat exce len d ballsti to leranc e toandi velocity, frod tumbled 7.62-mm bullets. Torque transmitting capability is somewhat reduced following a hit by this, type of projectile, but he vibration characteristics are not affected adversely for subcritical

Design of the drive shaft itself is concerned primarily with material, size, and end fitting selections. For high torque applications, where tube wall thickness permits, a spline or similar drive mechanism may be used to adapt the shaft to couplings or other drive components. With thin wall tubes, an adapter with a thicke ione. mboron thicker section must be attached to the tube to per couplingt Adapters may be .Idhesively bonded to thin wall tubes. The adapter joint must be proportioned properly to avoid excessive stress concentration at the bondfitting bore This can be done by machining the end interface. and shaft OD in a tapered or parabolic shape so that the angle of twist is constant. if the section modulus is constant over the length of the bonded joint, the distribution of shear stress in the bond material will be even. If the joint signed and an abrupt change in sectionwere not so deencountered at the end of the fitting, modulus were a differential
angle of twist would occur causing a severe shear

stress concentration in the bond material. The strength of such a joint would be considerably lower than intended. The fittings can be riveted effectively to the larger diameter drive shaft tubes with adequate margins of safety. The stress concentration effects normally associated with riveted joints must be taken into account in the design of this type of assembly. Bolted joint designs are similar to the riveted joints.' Welded joints can be made effectively when ferrous materials are used both for tube and adapter. Normal efficiency factors for welds must be used when sizing the joint for steady torsional load and the effects of a metallurgical "notch" or stress concentration must be included in the fatigue analysis. Brazed joints also are effective fo. some designs. Induction brazing is developed easily and is a cost-effective method. The heat affected zone in the brazed joint normally is tempered, and the torsional strength of the joint must be based on the minimum allowable strength of the tube or adapter in the tempered zones. Machining may be necessary subsequent to the attachment of the end fitting to provide parallel and concentric mounting surfaces so that the drive shafting runs true. Materials used for drive shafting include steel, aluminum, titanium, and nonmetallic composite structures. Steel shafting is used for engine-totransmission applications and other areas defined as fire-zones. Aluminum, titanium, and composite shafting are suitable for interconnect shafting and tail rotor drive shafting. Mill run tube stock can be used

shafting. Composite shafting exhibits ballistic tolerance to 7.62-mm bullets similar to that of aluminum shafting although the tolerance to lower velocity projectiles, impact of a dropped tool, or handling damage is considerably reduced. 44

LUBRICATION SYSTEMS

A helicopter gearbox can be designed to meet load and speed requirements but the useful life of the gearbox is a direct function of the lubrication and cooling system. The amount of power loss as heat is governed by the design of the heat generating elements in the gearbox. The lubrication system assures attainment and maintenance of a minimum value of heat loss as well as minimum wear. The concurrent function of the lubrication system is to carry away heat. Heat transfer occurs between bearing outer rings and housings by conduction and from housings to atmosphere by convection. This mode of heat transfer is minimal compared to the heat transferred directly to the inside walls of the housings by the cascading oil, with convection again taking place. The t6ird means of heat rejection is by direct transfer to fo:ced air in an air/oil or, in rare cases, fuel/oil heat exchangers (oil coolers). During stabilized operation a balance is maintained between heat transfer by conduction/convection/radiation from the gearbox cases and the heat exchanger, if one is provided. Some gearboxes are designed for continuous operation without an external heat exchanger. In this case the surface area (external 4-81

706-20 wMC
wetted area) provides adequate cooling margin, especially if forced air is directed across the gearbox. A somewhat different mode of heat transfer occurs in gearboxes that are grease lubricated. Gearboxes that are rease lubricated depend almost entirely upon the transfer of neat from the gears along the &haftto the bearings, through the bearings, and to the housings. A secondary flow of heat is provided by slowly migrating grease as agitation occurs but this is minimal compared to the direct conduction of heat to external gearbox walls through the shafts and bearings. Tests conducted on grease lubricated gearboxes using USAF MCG 68-83 grease (Refs. 37 and 115) indicate that grease migration is not significant, The lack of migration can be an advantage in meeting fail-rtafe operational requirements since little or no grease loss would be anticipated in the event of a ballistic strike in the housing. 4-4.1 OIL MANAGEMENT The delivery of oil from pump to filter to manifold and then to load points must be systemr-tic and deliberate to assure proper lubrication and cooling, Placement of the oil must be specific to prevent surging, foaming, and cavitation. As the used oil leaves the gear mesh and/or bearings, a natural gravitational flow path must be provided. Traps around rotating components can cause excessive churning and heat buildup, thus adding to the cooling burden. High speed gears can create vortices that will suspend large amounts of oil against thehousing around the gear. Excessive oil flow to gears and bearings can cause heat generation and buildup greater than the amount of heat coming from the loaded conjunctions. Therefore, controlled movement of the oil after egress from the rotating elements and heat generating points must be provided to allow the oil to find its way uninterrupted back to the sump. Close fitting shrouds around gears, and return lines from cavities between bearings and shaft seals provide effective means of preventing oil entrapment and excessive churning. Judicious placement of ribs and webs in the gearbox housings an4 ample provision for oil flow beneath or around the structure will help assure proper oil return. The pump inlet placement and arrangement must be considered carefully in the design of the pump, housing, and sump. Maintenance of a sufficient oil supply at altitude is directly affected by the volume and depth of oil at the oil pump inlet and the effect of flow constrictions into the inlet. If the return oil is hampered in getting to or through the oil inlet, cavitation and loss of oil pressure can ensue. 4-82 In splash lubricated gearboxes oil flow is more difficult to attain. However, because the primary function of the lubricant in this type of gearbox isto lubrithe heat generation, the amount of oil required at the friction points is minimal. Nevertheless, management of the oil is still critical to the adequacy of lubricating and cooling; provision must be made for oil to be delivered to each bearing, gear, and seal. Natural laws are employed tc acccmpiish this; centrifugal head, gravity feed, and dynamic pressure differentials can impart sufficient impetus to the oil to attain directed flows. Oil splashed to the inside of a rotating shaft can be caused to flow rontinuously through the shaft by tapering the bore from the oil "inlet" end to the outlet. The outlet can be at the end of the shaft whete return is accomplished by gravity flow through bearings or it can be through radial holes in the shaft, with centrifugal head forcing the oil into the bearings. Cooling (though minimal) also is provided by this Piow by ultimaze impingement of the warm oil onto gearbox interior walls. Agitation of this oil is primarily by gear members dipping into the oil sump and splashing the oil to the housing walls, bearings and gears, or to the inside of shafts. Auxiliary splashing can be accomplished by providing rotating dippers or slingers. Maximum cooling of the oil can be accomplished by the agitation and slinging action, but care m~ust be exercised to determine the maximum oil level that cao• be tolerated before churning losses override the cooling effect of the agitated oil. Grease lubricated gearboxes have a different set of operating characteristics. Although the high viscosity of grease provides good lubricating qualities, this high viscosity also prevents free migration inside the gearbox. As a result, thf. grease must be forced to remain in the bearing anM gear cavities, usua!ly by The grease is thereby inffges. means of shrouds and br 'aptured" around ee'h bearing, and the grease quantity must be such. as to assure an adequate supply around gears. The percent "fill" in the gearbox is critical, as it is with the oil lubricated gearbox, especially the minimum level inasmuch as successful lubrication of the gears is predicated on grease quantity as well as location. 4-4.1.1 Function The satisfactory fulfillment of the dual functions of cooling and lubricating requires that the design be approached systematically. Oil flow requirements should be determined and followed from pump outlet through the system and back to the pump outlet.
cate the gears and bearings sufficiently to riinimize

I

--

I

4

Ok

mWi 108 Psotida for IfrMn ea of 80 WU aNMAN NOW mpgdlsd hi suc* a way as to bured bum ans4*o~l~ti, ed/r in.. pc.h~ awd gu. The amount of M#t pmMM &P bei 4 oil dqmw to hk~d a ce~aueiom. i~e.. to pusV" to mat " aGu, VM.,..a. 14mwge, if is

r & yti b & r~ei. w owm mnratream sow pas. 9m piam uofIMI $MAm.md uSi Jai A sbmee of so*h sar q ios bA ami Fig. 4. d ads 1pm cam be provide by ao ao44.7m m e P QWur &.'" PrWih p"M taheoff Ifro he male *1 ust. Wd i m dfmls miap tmhragWhd v the

INhiu powibe m ala. los m al

Ow interalci is &Th. S& dry~e."W6 o j nr abob.sa poy ofa o flodm m" to k~ shep6 fric-djbwdfs4tobaopadV toapetwb tpeboar wMat &mty site pw ww and = oils.Th sapytmf. wieh epetis.The eosda buiip eq'cman cma load ino ThslightymaeWr or gebothses awl submctt j are WMa. 6"k hsak Wof sh hadd.asst c f Jthe dilin fuAcicatim eafl dr ah fight as epud. A lightly lade ge.mit of euusiida, wit w wihacpo nd elotrorcveipae WleMirop thbticasin wca ert vcn r m W, Ese fne Anothe sac. for the dry spsytem is ith asysta sholam soat w m evuel vin htol cooing and ll stabl ofgab suiiigasnl urcation systan. eer a.Tedysm yi The n rmal eoegsro equtel by aa/i casne-avne oilde Sl". hames co4tc olubiae adkv mistor y sl~h Ccnnsla hghl lodedgoa mq~aneuvest or is p pwo sump ar ujc. t

:

d~id
.tS-jt,.a

i
n-r.

ahkto osierbl hemidtrquief-a will generate
ma? br. kirc

not
i mutbesavne

nfrttdysm
gfro ll P~6iYpmp in gni

ye
eoeg

shasse
n

mesh

-Id dqutl.
USG ova W.. RUS flfR*.

yiji

~

ýW

A IW

man=c t

BUSM

win be OP tee

cofl-

0

true For b;th;ik~ loadd and beavily loaded bearaws.flow 441.2.nd Aragemrmaw Cwwsa; An1. oil 3 ")51cm id num will co a s oI aa A spoply of oil in a gei~rboA an~d it mewas of gagging oil quantity. e.g., sight glass, dip stick. The stamp must be &,a 4ocatecd that oil circulation vwill be accnipishd b a gar r rtatng lonc~t ippng nto the samnp and q.pashinu the oi! to~ the gear and &sarina ckaýients. This sari angt~men: for iplish lubrication can bz uLWc effectively, irgcr. botes with single mrshes not ins II operatir'g at light load where thc w~tted *1tr'bo arra providecs edcjuate couvrcctivc coo:IdLL. TMi sutor drive and acceswory d~ve gearboxtmL fel in this category. Although the power trainsmitted cyTb titjr cro cwioul slih th,, condition a, trwspstit and bulk hu*t buildup is jgtcui Lly negtig~bl. Gekrhox heat loss at hover powet can b.- Itasdircd cffvt1ively from the gear. box hoW-ni5wst the airflowi caused by the retor dowvnwash. Less power is requhcci during cruise car.ditiiwa, and rnoitt airflow is avail&ble. Large wetted areas at, 4; eunmjon for acccwry drivye gearboxes, and powcer requi!ei';'11s are ptedictabic a=4 exonsvhit. Thc sslari sysienr, i3 4n~ inhereotly we: sump 4ystenai. On 0vt othoer end of the spcwwni arc oil systtemsl K Consistieis of vil pump. oi0 lines and PWAwSC;. M40r av.filter. rlna.;Cold, rgUetof. oil os&Lei termal

ii

stant disptacement type, simed for the. pressure and rafte determined by cooling requirements anid system pressure loon. Pumps can be desigd to widey varying flow requirements with single tanant pumps possible with flows in the rangi of 70 Wmv and speeds up to 12,000 rpm. The pump drivc nyb eurdt a4aserscint aif h requirement that no catastrophic damage be done to the Matia drive train in UK. event of acomsory failure. rte ffitar systwn; should conornst or a pump inlet icrwn to prevent .ngretiny n larar nnrtirLpcs anej, downstream of the pump, liner filtrartk. A primary disy-miablc fjilter element of required fineness in a housing with full flow bypass capacity. and posibly with bypass indica'zor, shouldf be w'ajvided. Replacema-nt C this filter element wvill be part oi the periodic; maintenance requirements. Additional filters may be required in the system to meet filtration requirements of fuall bypass flow, if stipulatcd by tht RFP or PIDS. In this case a secondary filkte sytcni will be installed in the bypass sytmn to assure continued clean oil delivery to the gears and bearings subsequent to complete clogging of the primary filter. The seondary filrtrtion requirements generally are less stringent than primary filtration. Filter elements of the order of 40 microns suitable for secndary filtratiouý can be of porous bronze, steel mesh. (x papar elca-smt types. The, bconze and stel flmws are cleanable ATIn reusabl while the paw element xznsally is 4-43

0.

t~~

IR
REIE VI
'I

I WA

I I

TEMPERALTUREG JE~THEMA BYPASS~E

E A

FLr

THERLBALABYPASS

FIdr ". 01 ytm ceai

dispaiibl. a-e more c The papr ekintrt, ued i

boicoerstmnral)wicnitofn

two d

ovjoaanc The p3-

rascnb aedan eo-o

an eter T1

startin,

oalirg aidroefto cooerstm w i l coolist

ois mahita~xed with Ins. than 15 1%. p-cssutc drop wac ths; fi.r (Ref. 116). However, arnsolute filLuatiur of *~I5-Ir~ikian p&Aftnl with *9A, elfc.tuncy oi Fltering 5na~.con si~ze paililes or largoer h&. b%.~n shown to tw. coai~t4Cvte vtahaduquate (L.1 117). whaic finfr ftituoiv prommied filtci clomiat pwtulen,. that afkekd wevice intervahs *ud mlability.

dtuig~i requirements and pixocdurts arc prtsentcd in C..apter 8. AMCP 706-201, and are amplified in pur. 4--t.2. Forctd atr ztin be fron. shaft driven blowers or bkeec air turbiggc". 0-1 cuoole fen design~ procedui,; a~bo i. 4secribd ini Chap. -r 8. AMCP 7W2021Il. Cooke. k, :a1ion shoulf be cuiauabcnt with ap. p&mbie ballsauc thnca 1 survi 4bitiiy requirements.

x

444

C,
Coolers integral with the gearbox or, if separate, surrounded by protective components or structure are possibilities. The use of either auxiliary systems or armor plating should be considered only as a last resort. The integral oil cooler has been shown to be effective (Ref. 116). It virtually eliminates the need for external plumbing and minimizes the ballistic threat !o the gearbox oil system, and the inherent protection of the surrounding airframe structure is enhanced by proximity of cooler to gearbox. A pressure bypass has been used to divert full oil flow to the gearbox oil system to circumvent oil flow to the cooler in case of ballistic strike on the cooler. The manifold is an oil distribution mechanism that normally houses the oil pressure regulator, temperature sensor, pressure sensor, and distribution passages. 3il is carried from the manifold through gearcase internal passages to oil jets for pressure lubrication of gears and bearings with direct impinging streams of high velocity oil. Internal passages also can be provided to direct oil to bearings encapsulated in housings and liners, Externally mounted oil system components such as pumps and filter housings often present sealing problems and service problems associated with the seals. Gaskets and O-rings normally are used for sealing between the mating parts. Components requiring frequent removal can more effectively be sealed with 0rings then gaskets. The compressed gasket material adheres to both the sealed surfaces, and mechanical removal of the gasket residue often is required. This becomes more difficult around studs: Each gasket application generally is unique and hence maintenance support requires stocking of unique parts, while 0rings are stocked for multiple applications and are supplied from a common stock. Gaskets possibly have a cost advantage by virtue of the elimination of the O-ring groove. Provisions for 0-rings also can result in slightly higher weight than for gaskets. Some system protection is provided by gaskets by their inherent ability to "blow out" in case of oversurges. Where close tolerances must be held between locations within the mating parts, the use of a gasket becomes impractical. The gasket material can compress and generally is not consistent from one gasket to another. In this case an O-ring should be used. c 4-4.1.3 Special Considerations S High flow oil systems may require multiple clemen^ pumps. Constriction free inlet design, high rotational speed, and high flow rate may not be attainable with a single element pump. Multiple element pumps (or more than one pump) also may be

C 7W202
necessary in a dry sump design, when a scavenge pump is required. The scavenge pump extracts oil from the sump area and feeds it directly to the pressure pump or to an oil inlet sump for the pressure pump. Oil return requirements. sump capacity, and turn-around time must be compatible. A 20-gpm flow requirement with an 8-qt sump capacity results in complete turn-around of the oil ten times a minute. If the height of the gearbox is appreciable. with extensive baffling, there is a danger of pump cavitation and interrupted lubrication. Even without the danger of interrupted lubrication the oil has insufficient dwell time for deacration. Therefore, excessive foaming and inadequate lubrication or cooling are possible. Turnaround frequencies greater than 3.5-4 times per minute become questionable with respect !o proper deacration and attendant cooling characteristics. Adequate film thickness is difficult to achieve relative to surface finish in loaded contacts when low viscosity synthetic oils are used for gear and bearing lubrication. Boundary lubrication states, often characteristic with low viscosity oil, can still provide adequate wear life in gear teeth and bearings but the surface roughness must be low enough to prevent progressive metal-to-metal contact (see par. 41.2.1). Synthetic oil, especially MIL-L-23699, has a moisture absorption capability and its lubricating ability is diminished by moisture content. Hence, extreme care should be exercised in the design and location of gearbox vents to prevnt water ingestion. Areas where atmospheric air can impinge directly on shaft seals also should be avoided. Positioning rotating shields in front of shaft seats is a very effective ,means of preventing dust, dirt, and moisture-laden air from being ingested into the gearbox. Secondary effects of moisture absorption are internal corrosion. Synthetic lubricant that is contaminated with moisture becomes highly corrosive to the bare steel parts inside the transmission, with the lower roughness surface finishes being particularly suisceptible. It should be noted that once contaminated with water, MIL-L-23699 does not release that water when heated to normal operating temperature (>212°F). Therefore, both the poor lubricating quality and adverse corrosive tendency are present, and every effort should be made to prevent moisture absorption. The most consistent problem facing the designer of oil lubricated gearboxes is proper sealing. Leaking seals represent the single largest replacement item or cause for removal of gearboxes in the military helicopter (Ref. 33). Although it is infrequent that a seal leak rate is sufficient ior depletion of the gearbox 4-85

Spressure

lubricating oil to occur in a single mission, that appearanc is presented nevertheless. The oil residue from a leaking shaft meal accumulated on the sur!uding components is so extensive that a minor eak manifests itself - a major problem. Certainly effective mad designs are laboriously, if ever, achieved. Carbon face and circumferential seals required for high-speed an, high-temperature applications d generally require an extensive test and development prolpam. Elastomaric shaft seals for lower spe applications are deskned more easily but successful sealing often is equally0difficult to attain, Investigations are being c€-ductmd continuously by a seal manufacture•rs and versally acceptble and tm.-s tol devlop ae uusersectov des. versally acceptable and effective seal design. Based on on the premise that no seal is completely effective, one design approach that can be taken to minimize the leakage problem is multiple seals. A shaft seal of conventional design, eithi elastomeric lip seal or carbon face smal, can be used in conjunction with other type of seals to affect seal staging. One suitable method is to use an inner lip seal with an outer labyrinth seal. The oil lubricates the lip seal, which assures adequate seal life, while the labyrinth provides secondary sealing from both directions. The shielding effect of the labyrinth precludes atmospheric debris that wouldbnomall arcceluere eastmomerc s haft would normally accelerate dlastomer ades we and shaft wear from collecting on the lip seal. A rotating slinger in close proximity to the housing on the outside will
prodce urter affingand ncrasetheseaing

and windage loaes, having been determined, an estimate of the oil flow requirements can be made. 44.2. Heat ExeP gh Sizag

The maximum size renuired for a heat exchanger. or oil cooler, would be that size necessary to reject all the heat losf from the tranmnission. On the other end of the spectrum, considering forced air convection around the gearbox, no oil cooler may be required. This would occur if the surface area were sufficiently large, heat generation low, and internal oil flow distribution such that transfer of heat to the housing inside walls were adequate. Characteristic heat transfer rate3 from aluminum and magnesium heat trans s fro in an d magnesu gearbox housings are in the range of 0.001 Btu/in.'man-F (Ref. 4). Hence, when the friction and windae loss has been determined and the surface area has been established, it easily can be decided whether an oil cooler will be necessary. Tail rotor drive gearboxes and accessory gearboxes generally fall into this category. However, in the interest of compact design it is rare that no cnoler is required for a main rotor gearbox. A general design requirement for the cooler is to reject 67% of the heat generated from the gearbox rto.gn critical operating ri conditions. td sg op during rly...sd g h vr Critical operation generally occurs during hover at design gross weight in hot-day conditions (35C. 4000 ft), when maximum main is minimal. As required and forced air convection rotor power is the gearbox forer-onvectio inimalAs th gearo x in design and material technology, larger size coolers will be required to reject the increased amount of heat that will result from higher specific gear and bearing loads and decreased wetted areas of housings. The physical size and configuration of the oil cooler, together with oil cnd air flow rates and pressure drops, can be determined with the help of the cooler manufacturer. The cooler core size and density are determined by the heat rejection requirements and the available airflowq. The procedural approach to cooler size determination consists of the following: following: arbte ge ls (par. 4-2..2) bye t. Determing 4-2.2.2).
teeth. Determine and by windage losswetted area of 2. bearings, effective external (par.

effectiveness and seal life. Oil that weeps past the lip seal in normal operation can be removed through an overboard drain. veroardh d arains lp Research with various lip contact configurations for rotating shaft lip seals has shown promise during testing but no striking improvement has been observed in service. A ribbed lip was observed to produce a pumping action that prevented oil flow from the oil side of the test gearbox. Another lip design, a waved contact lip, produces a 3imilar wiping action and retains some lubricant on the seal-shaft contact that provides good sealing and coincident lubrication. A radially segmented carbon seal has been extensively tested and evaluated at NASA for high. seal consists prig-ladc to speed shaft sealing. This ogeherand of several semirited circlarsegent
circular segments fitted together and spring-loaded to

contact the shaft. In operation the seal lifts off slightly and virtually frictionless contact results. COOLING REQUIREMENTS Determination of the power loss in bearings and gears as described in pars. 4-2.2.1 and 4-2.2,2 provides the basis for determination of minimum heat rejection requirements. The gearbox frictional losses
4.4.2

exclsetoe areages ffective 2. e is exclusive of appendaiges. gearbox. Effective area 3. Apply heat transfer factor, 0.001 Btu/in.'-min4F for hot-day performance and power condition, and take algebraic difference between heat generated and heat transferred. 4. If heat generated exceeds heat transferred, then a cooler will be required to reject the excess generated heat.

"4-86

S. Determine location for cooling fati an" based
an required heat rqecton rate of the cooler, choos a fan "ht im the airflw reqnwamats of tine will ooe. C~oler specaicatkoa tw be met ame: * Rate oil fkow gpm Ib/mmi RAWU air Plow 0 Rated heat r4inction Swu/mmn * Oil iialsi teahareature OF * Oil Out- a temperature OFbe Psig * Oil inletpressure "*Oil Pressure drops Psi in. HC Air static premair. drop (Thmlew values will be establishe by the systan design and the heat rejectioni requirements.) Army number of actual ecombinations of airflow and cooler size can mies the establishe heat rejection requirements. Hlowvecr. the final chicke will be based upon the bystcm interfaces, i.e., available fan drive povwr; location of fan and ducting required, fan size hardware; and resulting limi atioas on airiflow coo!= moe y5arudn ifaeo te location, and sine limitations. The -nccessaiy calculations for a cooler and fan design are presented

without bemult of prunesm lubricatio and =oolig systems. Much wock has been accoomp~lued in a, toblijagm an evalmUang design pwwsomu associated with anwuaocy operatka. i~e., failwink dasign (Ref. 35. 37. and 38). The baskc criterion tha has. hm atablished as sift coatinuatice of flight for a minimum of 30 min subsequent to total kw. of lubricant. As a minimum. the continuing flight ,Auft at the power level required to maintain dhe sped for maximum range at sea level standard conditions. Lou. of lubricant initially is synonymous with toss of cooling and is followed iminediattly by an incrase iv the coefficient of friction with attendant inacaise in heat gencratsio. due to the chanre to dry operation. As the primary heat trmnstcr medium of oil is lost. an immediate heat buildup occurs at the heat-generating points; and the secondary beAt transfar paths becormt paramount. If unstabilized heafiing is to be averted, the heat generating element rtdt hat aac fha transferred throgigh the secondary medium atliiain utmiti maximum temperature: that is safe. Heat sources (V=a and bearings) must be designed to minimize
1%dmjt. &fMIEJfi~

J

I441.2
wl Ina MI.inIble.

*The

*

Sizing of the cooling fan can be accomplished by the method described in Chapter 8,AMCP 706-201. airflow requirements (volume, preusurc. and velocity) will be determined by the heat rejection required of the cooler, the oil flow rate, and cooler core parameters. Based on the required airflow, a ran that will interface with the available drive and space can be designed to nmeet the requiren.ents. Both axial and centrifugal flow fans arc uscd in cooler blowers. Choice of the type. of fan is dependent upon airflow volume and pressure requirements. The axial fan generally is used where: higher shaft speeds are avail, able, and pressure head at the cooler ishigh. The ce.-ntrifugal flow fan generally is used where high volumt flow at lower pressures is required. An adverse sideeffect possible with the axial flow fait is a high pitch
nloise.

Casting F

iitak

transferred away by the most efficient means availGears dasig~icd for fail-safe operation must have: sufficient clearance to prevent interference at the highei stabilized temperature. The clearancer necessary is de-termined by calculating the diffecrential expansiori bctween steel gear centers and the same distance in the housing, which is usually no-sierrous material. For instance, a gear set consisting of straight spurs operating at a center distance LCD of 6.0 in. and a normal operating temperature of 200 *F may attain a temperature of 900OF while the aluminum housing containing the gears (and bearings) only rises to 4001F. The rate of expansion of the steel St is 6.5 X 10-' in./in.-*F and the aluminum expansion rate Sf, is 12 X 10-6 in./in.-*F. The differential amounat of expansion would then be
4Ž.CD

=

(A TF~,8, - ATAI
-L(Ti .. -,6,

AA,) 1K 4(7'2 - TI)A, 6 AI 1

)

4-4~.3 EMERGENCY LUBRICATION Design of a power transmission system to meet specific emergency operation rcquircinents entails a coruprehensivt evaluation of each and every dynamic component that ca-i influence the loss of drive continuity as a result of ii~terruption or loss of lubri-

X( LCD

-1(9W0 - 200)(6.S)l0-1 -(400 - 200) (12)10-6) X6.0 - [ (700) (6.5 X 10-1) -(200) (12) (10-')) X 6.0 (4-6t') -1(45.5)10-' - (24)10-'] X 6.0

cation. Redundancy of power paths, dormant ataxiliary lubricants, secondary cooiing systems, and specific design tolerances are considerations directly pertinent to emergency lubrication or operation

=0.013 in.

The: significance of the preceding calculation is that

~te gears expand in a radial directiorn toward each
4-8?

-~-7

et16r 10 Wediia u jgwace More than the hammeg mmpeade to sepwafe the Ipars. In the eamesk to Am m1r opwabatn at fth mumed coosu itio w~bow isetwamfe the teeth would have to be cut (osmoler rocit diameters) aad/or the outside it - dKMWAd equivalimt to spraeading the gar -oiie by a toal of OA1l3 im. The amm typ ofcalcamlatios. ca... ot made for ball and roilsr bmains ca a radial clerance book and for deplex bail baimfsa. cons~hisig cootat a"Q.. on a radial aasd Wms. Raia grwt diromu in bearins eand gemr and the effects of dry rumuia~g an presustod in Ref. 38. Opeimam deuign far rani-as Ihictiom loss in Vars and bearings is covered in per. 4-21. To operat. a gma or beatin at temperatures or 9W F id above, a i aacsr that tb copnn be fabricated from material(s) that exhibit a "seMoMbl tolorance to high Wimperature. Materials N ykAa AMS 647 (Nitrali;..)and ANS 649 (M9O) arn weil suited to the purpose. AMS 6M9 exMAUexalestbo carctritic ad as brdm Proves to be one of the most fatigue resistant beawaug mawariols available. AMS 6475 is a precipitation

-Ws

COWm offa tOw risk of entrapping slag-type debriss betwasa ilhc cage and the outer land. with fracture cc soma po~ible, while inner- lmnd-riaing cages risk loss of dleautmm dues to thernal iflerviatiaks between the cage and tlw saner inag of the bearin. The most difficul cope deep issen Wn speed bearnogs. It high is desirable especially in roller bearings. to provide imaer4and-riding cages with inne ring thrughhabrication to make maximuam advantage of the traction force vectors. Also, it is desirable to minimize guui P ng-d-to- cage dlearamc from a dynamic balance stiandpoint. Therefore. if normal high wooed deigin pareameters are followed, risk of seizure; or *bun-ut*O of the beariSg Weream5 for di y opera
&M.

-

~

.~i.L~h. a.

~

~4.

*rolling

which also exhibits high hot hardness charom-e Ad%,a The more common geu mand beana& materials, AMS 426 and AMS 6444. respectively, do no have high hot hardness tLarlicte istes. but they cani withstand smoderate lod ror a short period. Fail-safe operatim for V wincabe obtained using AMS 265and ANS 6W4 parn and bearings, but the applications ama limited to moderate power levels wnd speeds. design of failBearing cages are also critical to tA~k safe brings ilrounz and plastic materials i-re not acceptable for fail-safe operation. The characteristic aildure mode for a bearnog with a bronze cage is mechanical plating of the broaze onto the rolling dclments with immediate loss of running clearanr- and tenperatu instability, followed by seizurc. Plastics such as nylon, Teflon (teirafluorotthylene) and fiberglass offer littlc resistance to failure at elevated tmutperaturcs. Carbon graphite is an excellent cage material for dry operation, but its tens~ile strength is too low for normal use. Mitnufacturing problems and scrap rates are significant; carbon cages can be armoend with steel reinforcing rings and side plate%but the cost is quite high. The Allost adaptable cage material at the present time appears to be mnild steel with silver-plated pockets. Dry friction between the elements and the silver-plated cagc is moderate, and the stoel retains adequate: strength for "ti application. Clarancez ar,-necessarily a very important part of the cage desiign. Outer-land-riding 4-38

Seveal means of augmenting lubricatioti or supplying lubricant after loss of the primary oil system, that may be developed are: I. Inclusion inside rotating shafts of high melting point lubricant tha melts mand flows into bearings and on6o gears aftes dry running commen~ces 2. Providing oil traps with metering holes 3. Wicking oil into bearings from oil absorbing maiterials Encansulatina lubricant in containers with heat acuvaelo drain pangs 5. Prokt" awuxliary (idler) gears of oil absorbing or dry lubricant material to nmes with power

j

4-

ACCLSSORIIES

4-4.1 PAD LOCATION AND DESIGN CRIrMIA On small helicopters the atccessories may consist only of an oil pump. hydraulic pump. tach generator, and Cooler fan. A simple cc-axiai ar-rangement of oil pump, tach generator, and hydraulic pump a"on the OH-58A may be tlhe most effective means of arranging an accssory drive. The accessories arm driven by a concentrated contact spiral bevel pinion powered by the input bevel gear. On medium weight helicopters, where System TCdundaitcy may be required, multiple: accessory pads usually can be provided on the main gearbox. Hydraulic pumps for primary control actuation must ac located at widely displaced locations to thwart loss of both systtms to a single small arms bullet . The size of the main gearbox normally will be adequate to allow such displacement while etill providing pads for generators, tach drive, etc. Accessibility for maintenance must still be a prime critericn for location. On. large helicopters the most effect~ve means of providing accessory drives normally is frown a gear-

j

AMCP 706-202 rsyhtems box remote from the main rotor gearbox. Multiple with redundancy become imperative, and the complexiay and power required fok- ground checkout estabiAhes theu sed for an auxiliary power unit (APU). With multiple drive pads and high continuous power requirtment tho remote accessory drive gearbox must have a recirculating oil system,. coplete with oil pump and filter. For emergency lbrication considerations, tle gearbox must be selfcontained to prevent oil depletion from the main tramnsibsa in the event of the occessory gearbox being hit by small arms. The location for the meomozy gearbox must not introduce unacceptable noie kvcls in crew compartments. 482 ACCESSORY DRIVE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ancofgrtofc-lo.Je Accussory gearbox desin adcniuainfc tors must be compatible with the main gearbox takeoff. airframe and cowling, work platform provisions& CGI. and minimization of gear-induced ni Particul~ar drive pad power requirements arc determined by the accessory (hydraulic pump, mneratort alternator; eittA and dhw nrn.er Wq4 AND, or QAD pad must be provided to ameet the continuous power rating and seizure torque level. The ocavuory driiee shaft normally isprovided with a sersection that must fail in the evv:nt of seizure of Ohe accessory rahrthan pemtdamage tothe c192 onssory gearbox. Coincidentally the accessory drive gearbox must be provided with a connecting drive buha&t system that will isolate elfectu of accessory gecarbox seizure from the main rotor gearbox. Multiple dutc arrnge a~ mreqie to poieisolation of the APU during normal helicopter operation and rotor gearbox duiing APIJ drive (ground checkout, c.). APU shaft mounted centrifugal clutches am welsuited to the former application and one-way qpfaf ltce are wdl suited to the latter. Functionally, the APRJ must power the acccusoy gearbox by driving through the APU input clutch while the main gearbox drive is disengaged by neans of the APU is sbut down and disengaged while the main rotor gearbox drives into the accessory gearbox through the one-way clutch. Additional clutches may berequired to limit the number of accessory drives tht operate during ground operation.
_.u.... =-e~rl. &m1.001N

gearbox tocation. The hydraulic pumps arc especially severe noise geenerators and close proximity to a crew compartment can cause intolerable high-pitch sound levels. Elastomeric mounts can be an cffcctivc noise isolation means. APU exhaust ducting must be adequate to pievent noxious gas and heat from invading the ptrsonncl compartments. As with other gearboxes accessibility must be provided ti., oil lcvcl indicators for preflight maintenane. One man should be able to change accessories without assistance. REFERENCES circa 1966, AGMA 990.14. 50th Annual MEeeting 9. c,f the American Gear Manstfactwrers .lssociaa.Jn 96 2. D. W. Dudley, Ed.. Gear HamdbAoo. McGrawHill Book Co., NY, 1962, Chapter 5, p. 20. 3. Mbd. Chapter 14, p. 20.
4. Insallation of Hlgrh-Adoction-Ratio Transsmu1. Darle W. Dudley. 77#e Evouioa ofthe Gear AAn.

Spower

sio.. in the UH-l Helicopter. USAAVLADS TR
-. & fe

)

S. F. A. Thoma, Written commentary on paper, Thkenwwl Bdhawlo, of High-Speed Gears by Luigi Martinaglia. ASidE Symnpomium an Trensmitsions A Gearn, San Francisco, CA., October 6. Arvid Palmgrca. B.li and Roller Bearing Enginee'ring, S. V. Burbank A Co., Inc., Philadelphia. PA.. 1954. pp. 36-41. 7. Donald F. Wilcox. and E. R. Booser. Bearing Design aid Application. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. Inc., NY, 1957. p. t3. -. Tedri..k A. Harris Rolling Bearing Analysis. John Wiley A Sons. Inc.. New York. 1966. Chapter 14 and 15. 9. A. B. Jones. "Rai Motion and Sliding in Bill Bearing&"~. ASP4E Journal of Basic Engineering. 1-12 (March 1959). 10. P. D. Waehler. The Ralway Conical Bearing. RE-0012-01. Rollway Sc~aring Co., Inc.. 12. Predlctod Characte'ristics of an Optimized SeriesHyl'rid Conical Hiydrostatic Ba11 Bearing.

NASA TN D-6607. Decmber 1971. 13. "Lubrication and Wcar". Lubrication. Texaco, Inc.. NY 31. No. 6 (1965).

ý"_ASPEIALREQUREMNTS14. R. S.Fein and K. L. Kreuz. Disnasion on BowmSPECILREUIREENTSdary Lubrication, NASA Symposium team hemutbcosdrdin thcoieof TX, November 1967. pp. 6.2.1-6.2.25.

15. D). Dowscn, EJamswyd'odynamlc Lubrication. NASA SP-237, Symposium on Inmerdis.-plinary Approach to thge Lubrictotion of Concentrated Contoas. Troy, NY, July 1969. 16. A. Ott, Elast ndrodytwam'ic Lubrication of Involute Gears. ASME Paper 72-PTG-34, Mechanisms Contference A International Sympaslum on Geafin aod Transmissions, San Francisco. CA. October 1972. 17. E. 1. Radrimovsky. A. Mvirarcti. and W. E. Broom. Instantaneous Efficiency and Citfficient of Friction of an Involute Gear Drive. ASM F Paper 72-PTCF-13, Mechanisms Conference A Interniational Symposium on Gearing and Transmissions. San Francisco, CA, October 1972.

28. C. W. Bowen, Analysis of Transmission Failure Mc~es. SAE Paper 710454. Atlanta, GA, May 10-13. 1971. 29. Designt Contact Stress Limit Rleconmmendations for Aerospace Gearing. AGMA Specification 411.02, Septenmber 1966. 30. Bowen, op. cit., p, 5. 31. 3. A. '3e~n and J. H. Tinggold, Results of the Reliability and Maintainability Dem~onstration~ of the OHl-58A Light Observation Helicopter. A HS 28th National Forum. Washington, D-C, May 1972. 32. CH-54 Reliability and Maintainability, U.A.C. Report 64276, USAAVSCOM Contract No. FDAAJOl.68C05l2(3I)P008. Novcrn~bcr 1972. 33. Identification and Analysis of Armyv Helicopter

18. L. U. Tso and R. W. Prowcll, A Study Gf Fri c19. 20. lion Loss for Spur Gear Teeth, ASM E No. 61 WA-85, October 1962. Dudley. op. cit., Chapter 14, p. 5. H. E. Staph, P. M. Ku. and H. J. Caper, Effect of Surface Roughness and Surface Texture on Scq~fflng. ASMF-AGMA-IFTMM Symposium on Gearing and Transmissions, San Fraricisco, CA.. OactoblCr 1972. Heat Generated in High Power Reduction Gearing. Report No. PWA-3718 prcpar-d under Contrart No. N00019-68-C.0422, Naval Air Systems Command, June 1969. Analysis of Noise Generated by' UH-l Helicopter Transmission. USAAVLABS TR 6841, June 1968. fnisms, Program for Helicopter Gearbox Noise Prediction and Reduction. IJSAAVLABS TR 70-12. March 1970. Thomas Chiane and R. H. Hadglev. Reduction of Vibration and Noise Generated by Planetary Ring Gears in Helicopter Aircraft Transmissions. ASME Paper 72-PTG-l I, Mechanisms Conference A International S~ymposium on Gearing and Transmission~s. San Francisco. CA, October 1972. E. 1. Radzimovsky and W. E. Broom, Efficiency of Gear Transmissions with Flexibility Connected Grars Subjected to Axial Vibrations. ASME Paper 72-PTG-I0, Mechanisms Conference & International Symposium on Gearing and Transmissionts. San Ffancisco. CA. October 1972. R. G. Schlegel, R. J. King, and H. R. Mull, GCear Noise", Machine Design. February 1964, Study of Helicopter Transmission System Developmetnt Testing. USAAVSCOM TR 69-3. June 1968.

Reliability and Maintainability Pro bi ems and
Deficiencies, USAAMRDL TR 72-1 IA. Vol. 1. April 1972. 34. "Automatic Control for Hydraulic Systems", U. S. Patent No. 3,474,819, October 1969. 35. Solid Lubricants for Helicopter Tail Rotor Gearboxes. Final Report, Contract DAA.J02. b'GW058, US Army Aviation Material Litbora-

toricSi.

21.

22.
23. 24.

25.

26. 27.

36. Vulnerability Study of_ the UH-) Helieopter Power Train System to Small Annms Fire. (U) BLR Memorandum Report No. 1821 (C) February 1967. 37. Gre~ase Development and Evaiuati..n for Helicopter Transmissions and Servo MechaUSAF Tcchnical Report AFML-TR-68338, Parts 1 and ii, November 1970. 38. Fail-Safe Bearing and Gear Lubrication System. Final Report, Contract Now-65-0592-ci. Bureau of Naval Weapons. Washington. DC. March 1969. Edac fCruie 39. C. W. Bowen, Pilting duacofCrrie Spur Gears in Synthetic Lubricants, AGMA Technical Meeting. Chicago, I1- November 1967. 40. M. A. H. Howes, Rielationship of Lubrication and Fatigue in Concentrated Contacts. ASME Report No. IITRI-B8l 35-S. NY. D~ccembcr 1971. 41, C. W. Buweit, Strength of Gears - New~ Materials Investigation. AGMA Aerospace Gearing Committee Meeting. Mil~aakcc. W1. September 197042. F. G. Rounds. "Some Effects of Additivecs on Rolling Contact Fatigue". ASUL Trans~actions 10, 243-255 (1%?7). 43. G. 1. Giaham, Combat Optriaftnal Hlight Profties an the UN-IC. AN-IG. wod (li1-Ill

~4-90

F'
____

_

____ ____

__7

____

___

AMCP 70&-202
Helicopters. AHS. 26th National Forunt. Washthe Effect onI Their Load Carrying Capacity. N. Report No. 102 (Part No. 3), Department of Scientific and Industrial Rcscurch, Sponsored Research (Germany), 1947.

ington, DC. June 1970.

I47.
I
F53.

44. Trade-off Study for Exteinded-Life Helicopter Transmijslons. USAAVLABS TR-72-40, November 1972. 63. Strength of Spur, Helical, Herringbone and Bevel Gear Teeth, AGMA Information Shoet 225.01, 45. Dudley. op. cit., Chapter 14, p. 56. D~ecember 1967. 46. Mode of Failure Investigations of Helicopter 64. "Bending Stresses in Bevel Gear Teeth". Transmissions, USAAVLABS TR 70-66, November 1972. Gleason Works Gear Engineering Standard; "iribos", Tribology Abstracts. The British Rochester, NY, 1965. h-ydromechanics Research Association, Cran65. E. J.Wellauer and A. Seirig, "Bending Strength field, Bedford England, published monthly. of Gear Teeth by Cantilever-Plate Theory" 48. J. 0. Smith and C. K. Liv, "Stresses Due to Journal of Engineering for Industry, 82, No.3 (August 1960). Tangenwial and Normal Loads on Elastic Solids With Application to Some Contact Stress 66. W.L. Mclntire. et. al., Bending Strength of Spur Problems", Journal of Applied Mechanics, £0, 2adHelical Gear Teeth, AGMA Paper 229.21 (June 1953). October 1967. Srnt 49. B. W. Kelley, "The Importance of Surface. 67. W. Coleman, A New Perspective on the Srnt Temiparature to Surface Damage", Handbook of of Bevel Geer Teeth. AGMA Paper 229.13, OcMtechanical Wear. University of Michigan tober 1969. Press, I1961. 68. Evaluation of Advanced Gear Materials for Gear-. 50. B. A. Shotter, A Newi Approach to Gear Tooth boxes and Transmissions. Firial Report. ConRoot Stresses. ASME Paper 72-PTG-42, Octract N00156-69-C-1965, Department of the tober 1972. Navy, NAPTC (AED), Philadelphia, PA, 51S. Y. Attia, Bending Moment Distribution on A. Septemiber 1961. IF Gear Tteeth 01 Llrcidnkr-arc Frojiles. ASML 0Y. J. Bi. Seabrook and Di. W. Liuficy, JAesuirs OJ a Paper 72-PTG-46, October 1972. Flftezn Year Program of Flexural Fatigue 52. Dudley, op. cit., Chapter 14, p. 43. Testing of Gear Teeth, ASME Paper 63-WAJ. R. Miller, Fillet and Root Design Con199. November 1963. siderations. AGMA Paper 109.26, February 70. E. J. Ripling and J. E. O'Donnell, How Fracture 1971. Mechanics Can Help the Designer, SAE Paper .54. Advancemeni of Spur Gear Design Technology. 710153, January 1971. USAAVLABS TR 66-85, December 1966. 71, H. J. Carper, P. M. Ku, and E. L. Anderson, 55. Advancement of Helical Gear Design TechEffect ofSome Material and Operating Variables nolagy. IUSAAVLABS TR 68-47, July 1968. on ScuffIng, ASME-AGMA-!FTMM Sym56. Advancen:ent of Straight and Spiral Bevel Gear poslum on Gearing and Transmissions, San FranTechnology, UISAAVLAES TR 69-75, October cisco, CA, October 1972. 1969. 72. H4. Block, Les tempemnuires des surface dans des 57. A. J, ~.,nianski, Gear Design. SAE 68038 1, Fifth condition de graissage so=s presslon extreme. Southern New En~glitid Seminar. April 1968. Cougr. Modial Petrole, 2mc Congr., Vol. 3. 58. A. 1. Tucker, Dynamic Loads on Gear Teeth, Paris, 1937.
Design Applications. ASME, Design Engineering Conference and Show. NY, April 1971. 59. A. Seirig and D. R. Houscr, Evaluation of Dynamic Factors for Sp,'r and Helical Gears. 73. Gear Scoring Design Guide for A erospace Spur awed Helical Power Gears, AGMA Information

ASME Paper 69-WA/DE-4. November 1969. 60. D. R. Houser and A. Seirif, An Experimental
Investiration of Dynamic Factors in Spur and

Helical Gears, ASME Paper 69-WA/DE-5, November 1969. \ 6,'. A. Y. Attia, Defection of Spur Gear Teeth Cut ] in Thin Rims, ASME Paper 63-WA-14, 6.November 1963. C. Wcber, The Deformation of J.oaded sgearqr and

Sheet 217.01, October 1965. 74. V. N. Borsofi', "On the Mechanism of Gear Lubrication", ASME -journal of Basic iinginecring, BID (1959). 75. P. N. Ku and B. B. Baber, "The Effect of Lubricants on Gear Tooth Scuffing", ASLE Transactions, 2 (1959). 76. B. W. Kelley and A. J. Lcmanaki, Lubrication of
1n;,oiurr'Gearing, Coqference on Lubrication and Wear, Institute of Afechanicat Engineering, Lorn-

don, September 1967. 4-91

AMCP 70W202
77. D. W. Dudley, "Modification of Gear Tooth", Product Engineering. September 1949. 78. H. Walker, "Gear Tooth Deflection and Profilc Modifications", The .nglneer, London, 3 Parts, October 14, 1938/'October 21, 1938/August 16, 1940. 79. R. Pedersen and S. Rice, "Case Crushing of Carburized and Hardened Gears", SAE Transactions. 370-380 (1961). 80. Surface Durability (Pitting) of Spur, Helicai, Herringbone. ard Sew/ Gear Teeth, AGMA Information Sheet 215.01, September 1966. 81. How To Test Bevel Gears, Gleason Works, Rochester, NY, 1955. 82. C. W. Bowen, Helicopter Transmission Design, presented to Texas SAE Region, 1961. 83. A. B. Jones, "Analysis of Stresses and Diflections", Ncw Departure Engineering Data, 1, 161 (1946). 84. T. Harris, An Analytical Method to Predict Skidding in High Sperd Roller Bearings, ASLE Paper 65-1-C-14, Park Ridge. IL, October 1965. 85. "Anti-Skid Bearing", U. S. Patent No. 3,410,618, November 1968. 86. G. Lu~ndbe'rg and A. Palmaren. Dynamic Capacity of Rolling Bearings, Acta Polytechnica, Stockholm, Sweden, 1947. 87. G. Lundberg and A. Palmgreri, Dynamic Capacity of Rolling Bearings. Acta Polytechnica, Stockholm, Sweden, 0952. 88. W. Weibull, "A Statistical Theory of the Strength of Materials", Proceedings of the Royal Swedish Institute for Engineering Research, 151 (1939). 89. Bamberger, c', al., "Life Adjustment Factors for Hall and Roller Bearings", Engineering Design
AC'&AV %usuaur MOML,
S'

J-

NY,

N~

Snt,.mber
-

r,, ~

197!.DfetoDanss1adPonssi

90. A. B. Jones, "A Ger'eral Theory for Elastically Constrained Ball and Radial Roller Bearings under Arbitrary Load and Speed Conditions". A SME Journal of Basic Engineering, 309-320 (June 1960). 91. A. B. Jo'ies and T. A. Harris, "Analysis of a Roll'ng Element Idler Gear Bearing Having a Dtiormnable Outer Race Structure", ASME Journal of Basic Engineering. 273-277 (June 1963). 92. Charles Wilson, Curvic Couplii g Design. Gleason Works Design Guide, Rochester, NY. February 1964, 93. John Kayser and Wilson Groves, A New Concept in Dpive-.'ine Slip Splln-'s. SAE paper 680118, January 19t8. 94. E. A Ferris, A utomotive Sprag Clutches
-

Design and Application, SAE paper 208A, January 1901. 95. Sprag Overriding A ircrafi Clutch. U SAA MR DL TR 72-49, July 1972. 96. Aircraft Clutch Assemblies, Ramp Roller. USAAMRDL TR 72-31, July 1972. 97. Spring Clutch Applications. Enginecrisig Report No. PD-462A, Curtis5-Wright Corp., Caldwell, NJ, February 1964. 98. Spring Overriding Aircraft Clutch. USAAMRDL TR 72-17, May 1973. 99. "Hydraulic Brake", US Patent No. 3,228, 195, January 1964. 100. Crash Survival Design Guide, Revised, USAAVLABS TR 71-22, October 1971101. "Surface Scaling"', This is Magnesium, 16, Heathcote and Coleman, Birmingham, England, August 1968. 102. J. H. Hull and S. J. Erwin, The Effect of Mechanical Deformation on the Tensile Properties and Residual Stresses in Aluminum Forgings. ASME Paper W72-53.1, Western Metal and Tool Exposition and Conference, Los Angeles. CA, March 1972. 103. Danle W. Dudley, Successes and Failures i.n Spac. Gearing. S:AL-AbME Paper No. 671lB. presented at the Air Transport and Space Meeting. NY, April 1964. 104. Wayne L. Mclntire, How to Reduice Gear Vibra. tion Failures, AGMA Paper, presented ai the AGMA Aerospace Gearing Technical Cornmit tee Meeting, Orlando, FL. February 1964. 101. An Investigation of Helicopter Noise Reduction by Vibration Absorbers and Dampirg. USAAMRDL TR 72-34, August 1972. 106. Rudolph H-ohenberg, Characterization of alr elcin igoiadPonssi alr Prediction, Proceedings of the Tenth Meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Croup, Ofrice of Naval Research, January 1970. 107. Donald Davis, Time Series Analysis Techniques. Proceedings of the Tenth Meeting of the Mechanical Failure Prevention Group, Office of Naval Resea.ch, January 1970. lO8, J. M. Vanct, Influence of Coupling Properties on the Dynamics of High Speed Powei- Transmission Shafts, ASME no 72-PTG-36, Mechanisms Conference and International Symposium on, Gearing and Transmissions, San Francisco. CA, October 1972. 109, Flighs Test Evaluation of a Supercritical-Speed Shaft, USAAMRDL TR 70-50, September 1970. 110. Design Criteria for High-Speed Power Transmis-

l

4-92

•.

. ...

1..

.)

-..-

-.

* -

--

,, ,

7-. .

1..
I11. 112. sion Shafts. ASD-TDR-62-128, AFAPL, Wright-Patterson A: Force Base, OH, December 1964. The Bossier Coupling, NASA CR 1241, National Asronautic, and Spary Adninistr1tion, Washington, DC, January 1969. The Bossier Coupling Experimental flight Test. Finai Report, Contract No. 0156-69-C-1316, Department of the Navy, Naval Air Propulsion Test Center, Washington, DC, March 1972. C. W. Bowen, Gear Couplings, AGMA Paper, Aerospace Gear Committee Meeting. Seattle, WA, September 1962. Comparative Lubrication Studies ojf 0.1-58A Tail Rotor Draveshaft Bearings, NASA TMX68118, NASA Technical Memorandum, Cleveland, OH, July 1972.

AMCP 706-202
115. An Extreme Pressure, Anti-wear Grease for Transmission Lubrication. AFML-TR-72-282, USAF Technical Report, December 1972. 116. R. Cooper, Development of a Three Micron Absolute Main Oil Filter For the T-53 Gas Turbine, ASME Joint Fluidi Engineering, Heat Transfer. and Lubrication Coqference, NY, September a970. 117. OH-6A Product Improvement Program Upgrade Transmission to a Longer Life Configuration, Final Report, Contract DAAJOI-68C-I 123, p. 20, US Army, AVSCOM, St. Louis, MO, May 1973. 118. Investigationof an ExperimentalAnnular-Shaped Integrated Trarsmission Oil Cooler Design. USAAVLABS TR 70"4, September 1970.

113. 114.

4-93

CCHAPTEP 5

ROTOR AND PROPELLER SUBSYSTEM DESIGN
5-0
A a a,

LIST OF SYMBOLS
- propcller inflow angle, de3 - spred of sound, fps - cofficient which is derendent upon mass and stiffness distribution and has a differect value for each mode of vibration, dimensionless = tip !oss factoi, dimensionless - blade loading, lb/ft' - number of blades - blade semichord, ft
- empirical constant, dimentionless

4 KE NCR L,
I M

f
8L

b b,
C

M Md, , M, MR m, n` 1 n
H

,

coefficient dependent upon mass distribution and the mode of vibration, dimensionless - kinetic energy, ft-lb = rotational kinetic energy, ft-lb wing lift, lb = length, in. - bending moment, in.-lb or ft-lb Mach iumber, dimcnsionl=es = advancing tip Mach number, dimension-

less

CD

- mean rotor blade profile drag coefflcient, dimensionless
=

- mass per unit length of the beam, slug/in. - mass of spanwise increment at outboard
end of blade (N), slug

CL

coefficient of lift, dimensionless sionless

- meL rotor blade lift coefficient, dimennrean CM
%P

- mass of spanwise increment at inboard end
of blade (c). slug
-

- coefficient of pitching moment, dimensionless o
.. r. Ip , diiac

,-siocm,,oed

load factor, dimtnisionless the number of vibratory stress cycles ac2nariruiard vI.rcc a e nvr f
tail rotor rotational speed, rev/sec

mil

CT
I,

c

thrust coefficirnt, dimensionless
-

distance fro:n beam neutral axis to outer

particular operating condition P P Q, Qp
Q,,r

cd

c
c,, i D

fiber, in. - airfoil section drag coefficient, dimensionless = airfoil section lift coefficient, dimensionless = maximum section lift coefficient, dimen= sionless
- propeller diameter, ft

q
R

gust load factor, dimensioniess = actual powet required, hp pressure, psi = engine torque, units as required -, propeller torque, lb-ft = main rotor torque, lb-ft 2 - dynamic pressure, lb/ft
= propeller tip radius, ft

E
.F

- modulus of elasticity; psi
excitation factor, dimensionless

R
4,%,
1R,

El e F g
HP0

1, Ie

i,,,5K

- stiffness, lb-in) - location of flappiig hinge from the center of rotation, in. - force, lb - acceleration due to gravity, ftisec2 - profile power requiid, hp 2 - mass moment of inertia, slug-ft = momcnt of inertia, in.' - polar moment of inertia (per blade for a tail rotor), slug-fV - propeller mass moment of inertia, slug-ft2 - mass moment slug-ft o helicopter yaw mass moment of inertia, slug-ft' - ratio of total tail rotor thrust to net tail rotor thrust, dimensionless -T notch factor, dimensionless - gust alleviation factor, dimensionless

RN

r r S SFP. .S/A T AT T/A
T

T,, T,, r V

rotor radius, units as required main . L.d adi.,. f, = tail rotor radius, ft - outside blade radius, in. = radius, ft radius of curvature, in. Laplace operator, see-' = stall flutter parameter, dimensionless = ratic of blocked disk area to total disk area, dimensionless - thrust, lb - change in thrus', lb = tail rotor disk or thrust loading, psf - tail rotor th, ust required to compensate for main rotor torque, lb total tail rotor thrust required. lb total tail rotor thrust minus the fin force, lb propeller axis downtilt from wiog zero-liftline, deg - true airspeed, kt
=

=

robo

5-1

AMCP 706202
V average velocity of contacting surfaces, fpm indicated airspeed, kt f = induced velocity, fps vertioal airspeed, fps S art uste weight, lb - aft adjustable weight, lb W/ forward adjustable weight. lb proprller weight, lb maximum allowable weight for abrasion strip. lb sr minimum allowable weight for abrasiob strip. lb
-

5-1

INTRODUCTION

V. W W W

w X X"

x Y

=disk loading, b/ft2 = distance bet~wen center of main rotor and tail rotor-antitorque moment arm, ft = dynamic axis, in. A = clearance between main rotor and tail rotor bladc tips, ft = chordwise distance from blade leading edge to centroid of mass increment. in. =spanwisc distance from flapping hinge to centrois of mass increment, in. = S rntroi onlf mass incrment, in.that , rotor blade o g n , dvice = propnler blade iangle, deg = Taprp (Cblade =Tt''( ICL) = pitch-flap coupling angle, positive if pitch is decreased when the blade flaps up, deg = rotor blade angle, de8 advance ratio, dimensionless coefficient of friction, dimensionless rotor mass ratio 1 = air density, slug/ft = standard deviation, defined P.s the rootof the dviations b.S....... data points and the mean tween individual = rotor solidity, dimensionless
=

In general, all rotors and propellers arc mcchanical devices used to produce thrust by accelerating 3 fluid mass. They range in sophistication from simple two-bladed, fixed-pitch configurations to coaxial counterrotation systzms with individual rotor colicctive and cyclic pitch control The analytical techniques for all types arc very similar. However, there are minor variations in the definition of rotor-propoller nondimensional parameters whi,:h prove to be unimportant once it is realized that data can be transposed readily from one format to another. The overall performance of a rotor or propeller may be described by its tip speed, airfoil characterisWics, solidity ratio, and disk loading. Rotational inertia also is important to rotor design because it affects helicopter autorotational performance. Based upon selected vialues for these parameters, the detail design of the rotor is largely a task of optimizing the configuration in terms of the number of blades, flapping and inplane freedoms, dynamic response to externally applied cyclic forces, and the assurance the hardware can be built with a fatigue or serThe paragraph addressing "esign parameters reviews those preliminary design factors which will be converted to useful hardware in the design of the convertemn rotor system. The paragraph on rotor system kinematics dis. cubses the blade motions to be accommodated in the detail design; in particular, the flapping, leading, and blade-feathering motions. Typical rotor systemi cccommodat, these mctions by means of teetering, fully articulated, or hingeless hubs. The paragraph also describes a number of methods that provide for both cyclic and collective feathering of individual blades. The paragraph on rotor system dynamics addresses
life compatible with the design requirements.

• 6,
6

S-

p Ir

$T

=

4'
4'
4,

9 S;,
R11

= rotor blade solidity, dimensionless propeller inflow angle, deg = yaw rate, rad/sec 2 - yaw acceleration, rad/sec

blade bending stress, psi

the internal stiffness and mass distributions of the
rotor blades, and the relative effects of these factors on aeroclastic stability, vibration response, flutter, ground resonance, and other phenomena related to system damping and periodic forcing functions. Also

= rotor angular velocity, rad/sec = tail rotor angular velocity, rad/sec = rotor tip speed, fps
-

covered in this paragraph are rotor responses to such transient excitations as gasts and acoustic loadings. The discussion of blade retentions include. the
various means of attaching the blades to the rotor

- propeller speed, rad/sec = natural torsional frequency, rad/sec = natural frequency of a rotating beam, rad/scc

precession velocity, rad/sec

hub. Among these are elastomeric bearings, tensiontorsion straps, and antifriction bearings. Also described are auxiFaiy devices used at the hub to alleviate blade forces associated with blade pitch, and the lag hinge dampers used to dissipate the excess energy of the inplane motion of the blades. Blade-folding provisions, both manual and powered, arc discussed
as well.

5-2

The paragraph on rotor blades discusses trade-offs in blade geometry, such as airfoi! section and root-totip taper and twist, and their relationphip to the corresponding parametric analyses discussed in AMCP 706-201. Design considerations that provide for manufacturing simplicity, inservice adjustments of blade balance and track, and the blade materials and joining techniques needed to position discussedand Sstiffnesses properly, are addressed. Also masses are
rotor system fatigue lives. Th paragraph on propellers

3. Radar cross section 4. Damage tolerance against a. Striking a solid object such as tree limb b. Being struck by weapon fire, either solid or HE 5. Repairability 6. Fatigue life 7. cost Weight 8.
Specific values orbeen performance parameters probably will have the selected during preliminary ..

deals generally with

.

the design requirements for propellers and develops design considerations in the same manner as do prior paragraphs for roturs. The paragraph on antitorque rotors reviews the knowledge gained in recent years concerning the desirable direction of rotation, the flapping freedom required, the merits of pusher versus tractor configurations, etc. The advent of "flat-rated" enginetransmission systems with high-altitude capability has placed additional demands on tail rotor control power. Additionally, the airspeeds encountered in normal operation have increased markedly, creating adverse environmental conditions for tail rotors. Th.. , rn niher problems, are discussed in light of et the lastest knowledge.

design. CornpliaricL with the operational criteria is dependent largely upon the materials and method of manufactume, which will be selected during detail design. The design problem initially is broken down into the requirements for hover, high-speed level flight, and high-speed maneuvering and each is discussed independently. The total problem then is considered and some approaches are offered. 5-2.1 HOVER Selection of the optimum hovering rotor involves all the performance related parameters listed previously. with the exception of advance ratio. Hover power is divided into "induced power" (thi chs.-geable to providing lift) and "profile power" ithat chargeable to blade profile drag). 5-2..l
The relationship between induced power and disk

5-2

DESIGN PARAMETERS

The selection of rotor parameters is quite complex, as each major variable interrelate-s with all other vari-

ablcs. The basic analytical procedure for determining

Disk Loading and Induced Power

,

-

rotor performance arc outlined in Chapter 3, AMCP 706-201. Included is a discussion of the tyne of parametric analysis required to optimize a rotor fj' * given group of perfoimance requirements. The discussion herein supplements that description of preliminary design procedures, with emphasis upon the considerations pertinent to the detail design phase. The parati etots that are considered in connection with rot,.r performance include: 1. Uisk loading 2. Blade loading 3. Blade tip Mach number and advance ratio 4. Number of blades 5. Blade twist 6. Airfoil section(s). For an Army helicopter that will be requirel to operate in the nap-of-the-earth and in combat, complianc only with specified performance requirements will not produce an acceptable design. Additional design criteria that may or may not be defined quan. titatively for a particular helicopter rotor include: I. Maneuverability 2. Noise

loading is described in Chapter 3, AMCP 706-201. And:disk more extensiv, discussion can be found in Ref. I. Disk loading frequently is determined by factors other than performance. Fo" example, a requirement , for air transportability may dictate a fuselage length ih'witation t ' . inur limit the rotor diameter. Rotor downvasi and wake effects also are involved because induced velocity is pioprotional to the .•*e'•: square root ef the disk loading. Thus, the higher the disk loading, the higher the induced - or hovering downwash - velocity, which will result in increased ground erosion and greater difficulty for personnel and cargo operations in rotor wal'e areas. Another flcect of disk loading on performance concerns vertical drag, or download. Vertical drag results from the impingemen, of the wake upon the -. fuselage, horizontal tail, and wings (if any). The effect of vertical drag appears as an increment of rotor thrust required over and above the vehicle weight. However, evaluation of vertical drag is not precise. One of the methods described in par. 3-2.1.1.9, AMCP 706-201, employs wske velocity distributions, such as those given in Ref. 2, to obtain dy.

"5-3

AMCP 706-202
namic pressure distribt.tions. Drag coefficients are estahlished consistent with the body shapes in the wake, and th-i vertical drag is calculated by a strip analysis. One weakness of this method is the relative inaccuracy of the wake geometry described in Rcf. 2. Improved accuracy of vertical drag calculations is desirable although this mnay require wxtesrsive development of more refined wakc analyses. Model tets can be perfornied with scaled rotor and airframe models. However, Reynolds number effects covninl on data from these tests can be significant, For conventional helicopter shapes (without wings) and values of disk loading, dowrnload is normally about 4-6% (f the vehicle gross weight. Hovering induced power also is affected by blade twist. Tdiij effect is due primarily to altcrptions in spanwise load distribution as a result of twist. details twist effects for the "ideal" rotor. Twist Ref. I seletion for the actual rotor is covered in pat. "-2.1.5. The "swirl", or inplane component of induced velocity is another factor that affects induced power. This inplane component frequently is omitted in the determination of the induced power of the rotor in hover or axial flight. Fig. 5-1. based on work reported in Ref. 3. shows that the swirl velocity effectively rmdu, the magnitudc of the rotational velocity s.cn by the blade element. For lightly loaded rotors, this swirl component can be considered insignificant, but it can be substantial in the more heavily loaded rotors used today. In general, swirl effects should be included in hovering-power-required computations unless disk loading w < 3.5. 5-2.1.2 Blade Loading The thrust produced by a rotor per unit of blade
INPLANE COMTO 'lENT OF INDUCEV VELOCITY

VELOCITY (SWIRL) A-VELOCITY SEEN BY OLADE ELEMENT

AXIAL COMPONENT OF INDUCED VELOC ITY (DOWNWASH)

..

V L I EFFECTIVE AL ROTAIIONA L'"VELOCITY

--.

..

"

Flprt 5-1.

Vector Diagram of Swirl In Hover

wh-re Rrns R -

mean rotor profile drag coefficient, dii us,

air density, slug/ft! - rotor angular velocity, rad/sec The mean rotor profile drag cocfficient (" is a function of the mean blade lift coIficient CL. in the "ideal" case (Ref. 1) CL = 6Ct° C1 T ( u o.rR~p(flR) (5-3) and
C-r a where
-

rotor radius, ft

ap(1tR)"

-4)

C T

=-

=

thrust coefficicnt, dimension;ss thrust, lb

area is the blade loading BL. This parameter can be
defined most sirnnlv in terms of the disk loading w

fiR = rotor tip speed, fps more accurately as 7Cr/c (see par. 3-2, AMCP 706201). Also, a single curve of airfoil seocion lift and drag coefficients cl and cd characteristic of the section is not representative of the actual rotor case, where Reynolds number and compressibility effects are significant. When there are spanwisc variations in blade planform and/or airfoil -'.... *."! actual values of these characteristic coefficients deviate even furthe; from the ideal.
The rclationship between •t and o can be developed from flight tests of rotor configurations similar to the one being designed (i.e., similar in Mach number, twist, and airfoil secticas); or it may be developed from detailed power-required calcuFor the more realistic case, where tip losses and other effects are considered, ZrL can be described

and the rotor solidity c.

BL

-

w o

lb/ft

(5-1)

where w - disk loading, lb/flt' Srotor solidity, blade area/disk arma, dimensionless More meaningful than this parameter is the niirr, blade lift coefficient eL' This coefficient can be ut-ed
to define the aerodynamic operating point for the rotor blade airfoil sections and, therefore, to det(Tmine the drag coefficient. The profile power required HPo is proportional to the mean drag coefficier,ýif, and can be expressed as HP0 5-4
-,

hp 4400

(5-2.)

lations that include the spanwise variation of all parameters.

The optimum value of mean blade lift cotfficient

I
9_.CP
cqLnerally is that value corresponding to (r/UD),.,j,(Ref.4). Further, it is preferable to obtain a blade configuration (planform, twist, and airfoil section(s) ) such that the ratio of section lift 3nd drag coefficients cl/cd is maximum simultaneously all along the blade span. 5-2.1.t Blade Tip Mach NvaSWb Performance and weight considerations generally arm in conflict when efforts are made to optimize rotor tip speed. High tip Mach numbers (greater than 0.65) can be attractive from the points of view of both transmission and blade weight, but they have dctrimental effects upon both power required and noise propagation. If higher tip Mach numbers are employed, tip airfoil selection becomes more critical • hover performance; thin airfoils (thickness less than 10% of chord length) are desirable, and the twist must be selected so as to maintain relatively low tip lift coefficients, 5-2.1.4 Number of Iades
I
....

06-202
5-2.1.6 Airfoil Sectiom Rotor blade airfoil sections preferred for %lhcir aerodynamic characteristics frequently are incompatible with structural design requirements. and a compromie nmmt be made. In general, for the hovering rotor the inboard airfoil should be of a lowdrag type (at least with extensive lower.surface laminar flow). Outboard of 70% radius, compressibility effects i..ust t a considered, and the lift-to-drag ratio L/D for the airfoil section slould occur at the local Mach number and angle of attack. These conditions suggest a spenwise variation in airfoil contour. If a constant airfoil is employed, its scleclion should be weighted toward complying with the angle of attack and Mach nun.ý,er conditions at or near the blad- tip (outboard of 80% radius). 5-2.1.7 Hovering Thrust Capability The capability of a hovering rotor to produce thrust can be expressed by a simple relationship. However, the agreement between the calculated and measured values of thrust produced for a given amount of power applied to rotors of practical cons ,prove•ne,are figuration is not good. Several " available and arc reviewed in par. 3-2.1.1, AMCP 706-201. The method most appropriate for calculatinS the capability of a new rotor possibly is dependent upon the similarity to rotors for which analytical and experimental results are available. The limitations of tOie available methods for prediction of the performance of hovering rotors also is discussed in Ref. 5. 5-2.1.8 GuIdeflin o 'rth v.
.u-*v.rn

nf

unit.s,,C'gr g:ti Inklina

mean

--

blade lift cocfficient, and blade tip Mach number, rotor solidity has been defined uniquely. With any significant variation from a rectangular planform for the rotor blades, the effective rotor solidity a, should be evaluated using the method of Ref. I. Blade area is defined by the product of rotor solldity and disk area and can be divided among an-, number of blades. Propeller design expeijenc indicates that efficiency increases with increasing numbers of blades. However, recent analytical advances, confirmed by flight and whirl test data, show
that tg -is
t 'r r..

..

Apparently, intcrblad¢ interference can reduce the hovering efficiency of muitibladed rotors (Ref. 5). The selection of the number of b!ades, therefore, is dependent morm upon considerations of overall rotor system weight than upon aerodynamic efficiency (see
par. 3-4.1, AMCP 706-201). S-2.1.5 Twig Selection of blade twist for the "'ideal" rotor is covered in Ref. I in current helicopters, twist

eters requires systematic parAmethc varip.tion involving all of the major variables given previously. This analysis is discussed in detail in par. 3-4 1, AMCP 706-201. Generalized results arce given in the paragraphs that follow.
In current helicopter designs, disk loading generally does not exceed 10 lb/ft' . Light helicopters (less than 5000 lb gross weight), tend to have disk ioadings of 3-5 lb/ft2 . The medi in,-size helicopter, 500015,000 lb tends to be in the 6-5 lb/fl' class, and for

generally is linear in order to simplify manufacturing. If stretch-formed spar3 are used, nonlinear twist isobtained quite easily. In any event, twist selection is a function of disk loading and blade tip Mach number. The higher the disk loading, the greater the optimum twist; and the higher the tip Mach number, the greater the required twist. Twist optimization is achieved by systematic variati.ns using detailed analytical methods.

larger helicopters disk loading is of the order of 10 lb/ft' . Si'e and weight effects bias the disk Ioadings higher as gross weight increases. The curremt cinphasis on high-altitude, high-temperature design conditions results in values of mean b!ude lift coefficient ?'L values of the order of 0.44 to 0.54 for sea level standard day conditions at primary mission gross weight. Current helicopters have hove:ing blade tip Mach 5-5

numbers rangting ftom 0.50 to 0.75. Weight and struc-

tural conciderationh suggcst higher minimum valuts,
and noise considerations suggtst lower maximum values - resuliOi in a conpr'nise design fange Iyetwecn Mach 0.6 and 0.7. 5-2.2 HIGH-SPEED LEVEL FLIGHT To maximize bigh-tpeed level flight performance, the same patr metta are considered as in optimizing hover performance. in addition, the ratio of flight hspeed to rotational tip speed, or advance ratio o, is intraduced. In high-seed design, the basic compoatase . between advancing blade tip Mach numberoad advbnce ratio. The advancing tip Mach number Man , can be defined ts V + RR
ad
I#,, a

cannot be divorced frori the hover and maneuver requirements. However, it is discussed as x separate
probklm here, where for a given amount of power available, airpeed is to be maximized, Initially. a source such an Ref. 6 crn be used to determine an initial set of values for twist, solidity, and tip speed. This source requireiy that values for gross weight and vehicle parasite d;,ag area first be assumed. Ref. 6 also assumes a particular airfoil section and a linear twist distribution. From this starting point, modificationt of blade tip airfoil section, planform shape, and twist can be made in order to achieve speed increases up to the limits of the power available. To increase the advancing blade tip Mach number at which drag divergence becomes critical, airfoil thickness can be reduced. For symmetrical airfoil&,

reduction of thickness to vaiues of les than 12% nor(5-5)

where W speed of sound, fps a - true airspeed, fps V At a given forward speed, decreasing tip apeed d __ecras•s the amount of bUia, that i providing us•e uI lift and propulsi've force, because more and more of 11 is in reversed flow. This effect is accomth, 4 panie&,, nocessarily, by increased lift coefficients over the to signi•ficant of the disk, which eventually can lead"working" part amounts of stall.

mally results in a reduction of maximum lift coefficient. This is detrimental for thet lifting capability of the retreating blade. This effect can be altered by introducing camber into the airfoil scction of reduced thickness in order to maintain an acceptable value for C,,,. while also attaining an increased drag diverof _nt, i-_,Ip , _.m ,_,n 1_r... -. ,-m gpnp P _=h .-camber will result in undesirable blade pitching moments at high level-flight Mach numbers. Sweep of the blauc tip can be employed to decrease the effective Mach number, thus allowing higher values of rctual advancing tip Mach number (V +I

The alternative approach is to increase rotor tip speed. This leads to increasingly higher advancing blade Mach numbers. Eventually, drag divergence is
attained over a significan. portion of the advancing blade, with increased power requirements a& a rsult. Increasing blade area with a given value of rotor

OR)/a before the drag rise due to compiassibility becomes unacceptably high. However, care must be exercised to avoid the loss of effect-ve area and,
therefore, of retreating-blade lift capability. Nonlinear twist distributions may assist in optirizing speed for a given amount of power available. i6i det£iled Ioto a iTA CzIVts IIIUhM Ve invitIed analysis by consideration of radial and azimuthal variations of angle-of-attack and Mach number. No r, Its can be offered; trkl-and-error is the only approach currently available. 5-2.3 HIGH-SPEED MANEUVERING FLIGHT Achievement of the desired maneuver capability at a given airspeed also may affect tat selection of final values for the basic rotor design parameters. Because of increasing amounts of retreating blade stall, tht higher the forward speed (for a given tip speed) the more difficult it is to achieve high maneuvering load factors. To begin with, a static analysis is not satisfactory for determination of maneuvering flight capability. As discussed in Ref. 7, rotor pitch and roll rates are involved in both symmetrical and turning maneuvcrs, and can affmt load factor capability signifi-

tip speed will lower the mean blade lift coefficient

and, therefore, allow operation at higher advance ratios. Increasing twist tends to alleviate the retreating blade stall problem up to a point, but also can result in negative lift on the advancing blade tip. The latter is disadvantegeous because higher lift coefficients must be achieved over the positive-lift portions of the disk in order to compensate for the negative lift on the advancing blade tip. Also, with large amounts of blade twist, drag divergence - with an accompanying increast in power required - may occur due to high negative angles of attack on the advancing blade It is necessary to determine the cormbination of tip speed. solidity. and twist that results in the minimum power required for a given speed, or the maximum sp-ed for a given amount of power available, Normally•, the high-speed performance problem

5-6

• J-.

AMCP 70t-2022

cantly. These maneuvei rates aler the cnglo-of-attack distribution obtained during steady-state flight at a
givtn speed and rotor thrust level. In general, to a,;hieve high maneuver capability, blade loading in trimmed steady-state flight, i e., normal load factor nZ - 1.0, must be low. Load factor, or maneuver, capability can be related to (CT/ra), ,/(CT/u)Iwz - 1.0. Thus, for a given rotor design with known (CT/c),,, the lower the trin thrust cotfficient (or blade loading), the greater the load factor capability. The other -,:rn under decgn control is (C'/),. The major variables for maneuver capsbility are advance ratio, airfoil section, and twist "or a given solidity ratio. decreases As advance ratio increases, (CT/O)W(Rcf. 8). Therefore, for a given flight speed, an increase in rotoi tip speed increases (Cr/c),,. However, as for level flight, a maximum value of Pdvancing blade tip Mach number must not be exceeded, Advancing blade shock stall can be encountered if the Mach number is too high. The magnitude of (CT/i)6 for a given advance

tational kinetic energy KER is defined as
A (S

I

I

)
,

KER where

-

fi-lb

(0-o)

mass momcent of inertia of the rotor. 2 slug-ft The symbols fl,,,i ad fl,,d represent the rotor angular velocities at the beginning and end of the flare maneuver, respectively. However, the determination of an acceptable value for (fi,1 for a new rotor is largely judgmental, with little more than the designer's experience available to assure that the rotor remains controllable throughout the flare. Computation of helicopter autorotativc performance is discussed in further detail in par. 3-5.1. AMCP 706-201. In par. 3-5.3, AMCP 706-201 an autorotativc index AI is developed. Acceptable values of this index, and henctc of the rotor inertia, also are discussed.
'R

-

ratio is a strong function of the maximum stetion lift
coefficient near the blade tip. This is not ne.essarily a dircta funct-so of the sction, or two-dir,,-enioal, maximum section lift coefficient cl., because of complicating factors such as spanwise flow and oscillating airfoil effects. However, it is a good general 5.3.1 GENERAL Rotor systems can be described as articulated, gimbaled (or teetering), hingeless (sometimes referred to as "rigid"), and flex-hinge. The blades of an articulated rotor system are at0.

rule that an increase iii c,..

of the tip section will

tached to the hub with mechanical hinges, allowing
the blade froedon, to flap up and down, and swing back and forth (lead and lag) in the disk plane. The blades of the hingeless rotor are attached to the hub

improve the rotor maneuvering theust capability, Because retreating blade stall generally occurs first, the magnitudis of cl. . at the retreating blade tip 1

Mach number also is quito important. New airfoil design developments (Ref. 4) allow a tailoring of the at a sction profile to obtain the peak value of dosirod Mach numbr. Blade twist also affects maximum thrust capability

without mechanical hinges for flapping or lead-lanotion. The flex-hinge, or strap-hinge, rotor enploys a flexible structural attachment of the blade to the
hub h -,,h!uh,,,•,,,•u

.

.,. IL,,,

IS,

high stiffness of the hingeless rotor and the low stiff-

by controlling the lift distribution at the retreating
blade tip. Optimum twist is determined only by detailed analyses of the maneuvers including major effects such as pitch and roll rates. However, opti-

ness of the articulated or gimbaled system.

Generally, the type of rotor system will have been selected during preliminary design. In par. 3-3.3. AMCP 706-201, each of the types of rotor system is

'

mization of twist for the maneuver case usually is mdetrimental to level-flight performance, of a omprotmiae o.een ig required. Computation of helicopter

dcribed, together with the methods by which each is controlled and in turn is used to provide control of
the helicopter. The discussion includes a simplified

detail in par. -. , AMCP 706-201.
•", 5-L4 INERTIA Rotoratertics Ro t

C 3 ancuvering flight erformanM is discussedin more

summary of the flapping motions of a flapping (fully

articulated) rotor, while the dynamics of rotor
systems are described in detail in Chapter 5, AMCP 106-201. The descriptions of the several types of rotors in par, 3-3.3, AMCP 7dti 201, include dis-

erain autorotative

landing characteristics. Rotor angula velocity and
inertia uniquely define the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor that "an be used in the development of a decelerating force to arreqt descent velocity in a zero-

cussions of the advantages and disadvantages of
each, together with a review of the heiicopter siLes for which each may be most appropriate. The discussion of rotor systems kinematics and

-

power or partial-power landinli. The amount of ro-

controi which follows supplements the introductory
5-7

AAMG 71*202-

TYPE
VECTOR TILT LIFT VECTOR

MOMENT SOURCE

FLAP

1. THRUST VECTOR TILT 2. HUB MOMENTS DUE TO SHEAR FORCE AT HINGE

(A) ARTICULATED ROTOR

LIFT VECTOR TILT"

L.V1

I

TU

V

I

\ROTOR
SRTILT

\ANGLE

(B) GIMBALED OR TEETERING ROTOR

LIFT VECTOR_ VECTOR TILT /

i

1. SMALL THRUST VECrOR TILT
2. HUB MOMENT DUE TO SHEAR FORCE AT EQUIVALENT HINGE 3. HUB MOMENT DUE TO BLADE

HINGE I

STRUCTURAL STIFFNESS

(C) HINGELESS OR FLEX-HINGE ROTOFR. Figur 5-2. Contlrol Mommil for Bai Rotor Ty.pes

AMCP 706 202 ,decription inoriatted presntation706-201, and the par. 3-3.3. AMCP of Chapter 5, theoretically AMCP 706-201. $-3.2 HELICOPMTR CONTROL Inflight control of the helicopter, using the rotor types cited. is provided by: 1. Momenta acting upon tho rotor hub 2. Tilting the resultant rotor lift vector 3. A combination of these. I he control moment source for each type is illustrated in Fig. S2. Fom the gimbaled rotor, a given rotor tilt produces a corresponding tilt of the lift vcctr, which, in turn, produces a control moment about the helicoptcr CG. An additional control mon~elit exists in an articulated rotor as a result of the hub shear force acting at the flap hinge to produce a moment at the hub. In the case of the hingelcss and flexhinge rotors, the structural spring at the equivalent hinge provides an additional component of control moment et the hub. The conventional metbod of achieving rotor control is through collective and cyclic pitch changes at the blade roots. These changes arc accomplished
throiugh cntril Ignkagc between the rotating blades

LAG HINGL

PITCH

LAG DAMPER N HINGE

,1l, HUB ROTATION
|;igrc 5-3. Artlculaled Rotor Schematic

freedom of the blade is necessary in this particular design so that the steady chordwise bending moment at the blade root is reduced. In the cquilibrium lag
pe.t~inn of the blade, the chordwise moment due to

and a swashplate (a structural lecmcnt thai constilutts a fixed plane that defines the blade pitch as a function of azimuth). Individual blades arc mounted on spindles that provide feathering freedom for control. Collective pitch of the blades is introduced by a scissor niechanism or by raising or lowering the swashplate; cyclic pitch, required to produce a tilt of the rotor disk plane, is accomplished by tilting the swashplate. Blade pitch changes also arc made in some rotor systems by connecting the swashplatc to a servo tab or. ... or kc. ... . .... ...... .. . ..... a o servo rotor or gyro bar that in turn acts as a swashplate (or the main rotor, 5-3.3 ARTICULATED ROTOR The kinematics of an articulated rotor with an outboard lag hinge are illustrated in Fig. 5-3. Veitical motion of the pitch link in response to swashplate tilt as the blade travels awound the azimuth produce, pitching rotation at the pitch bearings corresponding to the cyclic pitch of th-. rotor. The position of the pitch bearings with respect to the blade lag freedom varies with the rotor system design. In the example (Fig. 5-3), the pitch bearing of the rotor system is inboard of the lag axis, whereas that of the CH-46 rotor is outboard of the lag hinge. As shown in Fig. 5-3, the lag hinge allows the blade to move, leading and lagging, in the disk plane. Lag

the drag loads on the blade is balitcd at the lag hinge by an opposite moment due to the centrifugla force and the lag displacement of the blade. individual blade lag dampers are required to provide energy dissipation adequate to conrol the mechanical instability associated with the coupled rotor/airframe system as dcacribcu in par. 5-4,3 (also see Chupter 5, AMCP 706-201). The rigid-body lag natural frequency of articulated rotors usually is betwoen 0.20 and 0.40 times the rotor speed. Blade flapping freedom in the articulated rotor is ro-d-d ky. a h r rnia i me, which is located close to the rotor cntcrline in order to minimize the flap bending of the rotor hub (Fig. 5-3). The steady ioo"mentabout the flap hinge from thr centrifugal fore acting through the moment arni of the blade - vcrtically displaced by the blade coning above the dirk plane - is balanced by a moment of the same magnitude. b':t in the opposite direction, due to the steady lift on 4he blade. The natural flapping frequency of an articulated design isnear resonance with the rotor shaft speed. However, aerodynamic damping in the rigid flap mode approaches 50% of critical damping. with the ruult that the near-resonat conditioa provides an acceptable design. Coupl;ng between flap and pitch motions is &n important dcsigrn consideration for a rotor control systkm. Generally, the rotor should be designed so that, as the blade flaps upward, the mechanical pitch 5-9

J
1

,'

"AMCP 706-202
angle of the blade remains the same or decreases. The kinematic coupling that varies the feathering, or pitch. angle of the blade with flapping is defined as 63, and the standard notation is that an increase of pitch with an increase of flapping angle is positive. Flappitch coupling can be introduced mn!chanically by a skewed flap hinge, or by radial location of the attachment of the pitch link to the pitch arm inboard or outboard of the flap hinge. Negative 63 generally is required to improve stability of the rotor (see
Chapter

PITCH

N AM FLAP HINGE HUB ROTATION Figure 5-4. Coincident Flap and Lag Hinge Rotor

Pitch bearings outboard of the lag hinge produce . kinematic oupling that changes the blade mechanical pitch aihgle with blade lag motion. This conflijaration has the potential for unstable pitch-lag blade motion. Fig. 5-4 illustrates the general arrangement for a rotor with coincident flap and lag hinges. This rotor has a compact arrangement of &ap and lag hingcs exactly like P universal joint. Flap hinges located further outboaad provide greater control power, but also increase the flap bekiding moment at the hub. The location of the lag hinge closer inboard results in a lower lag natural frequency, with increased damp-

5, AMCP 706-201).

PITCH ARM

aing heing required to prevent ground resonance.

5-3.4

GIMBAi ED (TEETERING) ROTOR 0

Fig. 5-5 provides a schematic of a.gimbaled rotor

system, only two blades of a four-bladed rotor are shown, although any number cLf blades may be used. Each blade is mounted on a spindle attached to a yoke that interconnects the blades. The yoke, which "definesthe rotor disk plune, is ginbal-mountcd to the helicopter mast (the top of the rotating shaft). In a gimbaled rotor, no cyclic pitch motion of the blades occurs relative to the spindles for any steae; hovering condition, regardiss of CC, location or flapping rclative to the mast. The phase relationship of the orie-per-rev excitation of the primary inplane bending mode is such that the blade root moments are reacted internally in the yoke, leaving the rotor hub undisturbed. The yoke structure must be stiff enough that the natural frequency of the blade cantilever mode is sufficiently greater than the rotor speed to avoid excessive amplification of one-per-rev loads. For two-bladeci, or teetering, rotors (Fig. 5-6), the gimbal mounting of the blades may be replaced by a single tectcring hinge that allows only seesaw or flapping motion of the blades. Cyclic and collective blade pitch oc :,rs about the yoke spind!es. For rotor tilt relative to the' shaft, the blades are forced by the trunnion out of their ideal position in the cone of the rotor twice each revolution. This results in a bending 5-10

"

YOKE YOK)

Flgure &-5. Gimbaled Rotor Schematic moment on the mast in the direction of rotor tilt that varies at a frequency of two-per-rev. A sketch of a teetering rotor system is shown in Fig. 5-7. This rotor is connected to the shaft by a hinge, the axis of which passes approximately through the CG of the rotor in order to minimize vibratory hub and control loads. The stabilizer bar prorides stability by increasing the lag time between shaft tilt and rotor tip path plane tilt. T he stabilizer bar is connected to the blades through mixing levers bctwecn the sides of the bar. The inner ends of the mixing levers are pinned to the bar, the outer ends are

I-AMCP
TEETERING HINGE

W0

VF YOKE SPINflI E

FLAPPiNG
bF5gure 54G.

Teetrlng Rotor SEd'.cma2tic

MIXING LEVER

~
UNIVESAL OINTOne

following rate and imnproves the maneuverability, but also degrades the stability.
-

)

HINGELE~SS ROTOR blade of a bingclcss ~otor is illustrated scheniaticalty in P~ig. 5-8. In this type of system, no sme!~ ~ STABLIZE BAR chanical mcawis are provided to allow chordwisc or1 flapwise displacement of the blades. The blades are UAMPLN rf dhfror the rotorfhub. which is attached rigdlyto otaingshat.Collective and cyclic he SHAF1pitch inputs for variation of thrust and control moPITCH ARM ment are made through the pitch links in response to pilot input to the swashplate. The pitch angle is 7 f -6)changed by rotation of the blade about the feathering axis just as is an articulated rotor. Following a cyclic pitch input, the hingoless rotor responds as shown in Fig. 5-2(C), providing a control moment about the helicopter CG as a result of both tilting of the recultant lift vector and a moment acting at the hub. natural frequency of the first flapwise bending Figue 5-. RtorThe Teterng Ilgue 5-. Rtormode Teterng fixes the offset of the equivalent flap hiinge. The dynamic characteristics, control power, and pitch and roll damping for a hingcless rotor are identical to Sconnected lo the swashplate, and the middle is cont'osc of ani articulated rotor whose mechanical flap mcted to the pitch arms. The damper regulates the nlgc is located at t~he equivalent hinge point. A rate at wHich the stabilizer ha.- follows the tilt of the t.Lnrgeless rotor with a fundamental flap frequency of rotor shaft. An increase in damping quickens the between 1.10 and 1 15 times rotor speed would have 5-3.5
_

:

AMCP 70F-202

'

S~&

CYCLIC PITCH ./-

S~PRECONE/

ROTOR HUBA

Figure 5-8. Hingeless Rotor Schematic characteristics similar to those of an articulated rotor with a flap hinge located at 20% of the blade radius. Precone of the blades, typical of the gimbaled and hingeless designs, permits cancellation of the steady lift moment by the moment due to the centrifugal force of the rotating blade acting through the vertical disolacemcnt of the blade above the disk niane. Kinematic coupling in a hingeless rotor is influenced by the location of the feathering axis with respect to the precone angle and to the equivalent flapping hinge location. 5.3.5.1 XH-51 Rotor System A schematic of the Xh-51 hingelcss rotor, which has cantileverd blades with only a feathering degree of freedom, is shown in Fig. 5-9. A mechanical stabilizing gyro is connected by one set of links to the blade pitch arma and to the rotating swashplate by another set.. Blade cyclik pitch is controlled by the control gyro, which, in turn,, is controlled by the swr.shplate input. The blades of this rotor have high chordwise stiffness, but arn provided with flap flexibility by a flat spring section inboard of the feathering axis. The blades are swept ferward about I deg ahead of the featherin, axis to locate tme CG of the 2 blade ahead of the feathering axis. Thus, the inertia forces acting theough the CG produce moments about the feathering axis, producing, in turn, feedback forces at the gyro. Analysis has shown that this displacement of the CG forward of the feathering axis permits the gyro effectively and simply to provide stabilizina pitch innuts to the rotor. In this system, upward flapping of the blade puts an up force on the pitch link, causing the control gyro te precess. ThL. tilting of the gyro then puts cyclic pitch back into the blade at the proper phase to minimize blade flapping motion. The control gyro also provides the blade pitch angle changes necessary for stability of the helicopter. The AH-56A rotor also is of this type, but us= a door-hinge arrangement of thu pitch change (feathering) bearings in order to obtain the desired high chordwise stiffness of the hub without excessive drag. 5-3.5.2 OH4A Rotor The OH-6A rotor syst:m, shown in Fig. 5-10, is another type of hingelcas rotor. Multiple straps transmit the centrifugal force from one blade across the hub to the opposite blade, and are flexible enough to allow both flapping and feathering of the blade.

S5-'

*AMCP

70t=

CONTROL GYRO

NOATON-\ OTTNG. WSHLT

RESULTIOGATLIGhT DIRECTIO

Vlgre 5-9. XH-31 Rotor System Curved thous installed at the point., at which the h.4. Vu Wt"No "ov S&Arape ar W i. inS of the straps at any one point. In this otherwisic hingekas rotor, lag hinges are located at the outer ends of the tenaion-flati-torsion straps. Excessive static droop of the blades is pre~vented by stiff cuffs that are attached to the bilades and cover the straps. Co.itact between the inboard ends or the cuffs and the hub lim~ts the downward and upvarJ flapping excursions of the blades. ROTOR SYSTEM KINEMATIC COUPLING Adverse kinematic coupling can result in various types of instability in a particular rotor system. This paragraph reviews tlac subject independently of the rotor type, but considcnt the blAdv and its retcnt.on system. The niechanism of rotor instability resultivg \ from blade kinematic: is examnined we~akratcly undet 5-3A6 thec cate~gorie* of pitch-lag, pitch-flap, and flAp-lag.
n

Iut~ in " ivtientn fi-

nf th

ionatahilitiem is

outlined in Charter 5, AMCP 706-201. $ .3.6.1 Pitci-Iag Iftability Rotor blades with substan~tial chordwisc displace metiv have &potential "pitch-lag" instability. The critical degrees of fr'-cdom involved are fiap and lag. Howtver, the critical design parameter is a kinematic courpling that causes a blade pitch angle change in rzponse to lag motion, or -hordwise displacement. The mechanism of this instability is depicted in Fig. 5-11. As the b'ado lags (A). and if the pitch-lag coupling causes the blau1c pitch to decrease (b). there is a loss of lift. Downward flap of the blade occurs due to lift loss (C), and produces a Coriolis force in the lag direction (D), causing additional blade lag. Further discussion of this phenomecnon may be found in Wtf. 9 and 10. 5-13

)

.

-. ;< U. .. i.• . . .. .;'

,,

,

• .• ,

I
...-.- _ ____.-.

~k"

"LAGGING

"-.

(FLAPPING

~~~~LIMITS

STRAP BEND S.VOE BFNDING RADIUS

".••• ,(

FEATHERING
Figure 5-10. OH-6A Hingelem Rotor System

"5-3.6.2 Pitch-flap lstabllity
Rotor blades are subject to the anme sort of dynamic instabilities as are fixed wings. For example, they are susceptible to the classical bending-orsional flutter discussed in Ref. 11. For hover or vertical flight, the major difference between the rotating and the fixed wing is the velocity variation spanwise along the bWede due to rotation. The principal paramtPre

inflpnpring thie mnjie

in hnth euetpms arm. th@

initially is at distance r sinpo from the feathering axis. As the blade rotates noseup about the feathering axis, the blade section and the lift force acting upon it are displaced backward Or sini 0 , producing a noscdown pitchin$ moment. This moment, together with those caused by variations in the inplane aerodynamic force and the centuifugal force acting through the moresults in coupling between the ment arm r sin~, nitch and flan dearees of freedom and; conseuently; affects the stability characteristics. The net pitching moment about the feathering axis changes the blade pitch angle, hence the angle of attack, by an amount that is inversely proportional to the control system stiffness. Completing the cý :4: for pitch-flap motion, which may be unstable, thv blade section lift varies as a result of the tngle-of-attack change. The lift variation causes blade flapping, which, in turn, produces additional Coriolis forces. Steady inplane bending deflection or bladt sweep also can introduce pitch moments as a result of lift variations. 5-3.6.3 Flaplag Instability Ref. 12 describes flap-lag instabilitizs as a result of finite blade deflections. The conclusion from this werk is that lifting rotors that have no laS hinges iniy, under certain conditions, be subject to limit-

chordwise distapce between the CG of the airfoil sec. tion and the aerodynamic center, and the torsional stiffnes, In addition to to.sional deflections, either flapwisc or chordwise displacements of the blade deflections also may interact in such a way that a pitch-flap instability can occur. The case of a blade with flapping deflections above the feathering axis (flapping hinge outboard of the pitch bearing) is illustrEted in Fig. 512 (A). As the blade flaps with respect to its steadystate position, the resulting Coriolis force produce4 a pitching moment about the feathering axis. If there is flexibility in the pitch control system, this pitching moment caue the pitch of the blade to ;hang;. Therefore, stiffness of the control system also is a significant factor in pitch-flap stability. As shown in Fig. 5.12 (B), the same blade section 5-14

J-

(A) BL ADE LAGS

7'

(B) PITCH ANGLE DECREASES

.

(C) BLADE FLAPS DOWN DUE TO LIFT LOSS

(D) CORIOLIS FORCE CREATED INLAG DIRECTION PRODUCES MORE LAG
Figure 5-l1. Mheanism of Pitch-lag InslabIllty fugal moment, thewe two opposing incremental effects arc equal, and no coupling exists between flap and lag. However, if the coning angle is reduced because of elastic slapping restraint, the vertical comnponent of the centrifugal force vector is reduced and the incremental aerodynamic flapping moment exceeds the centrifugal restoring moment. In this cane, the flap-up moment produced by a lead velocity of the blade can result in unstable blade motion. In forward flight, an additional destabilizing turn occurs. This is an aerodynamic flap moment proportional to the product of mean lift, lead velocity, adcycle instability in both vertical and forward flight. The basic mechanism of this type of instability in. volves the steady-s' ite blade con'ing angle. For a blade with positive t 4kl of attack, the local wind yelocity is increased by the blade lead velocity, rebulting in an additional lift, as shown in Fig. 5-13 (A). The resulting incremental flap-up aerodynamic moment is counteracted by an equal flap-down centrifugal forme moment. The incremental centrifugal force also Jresults from the lead velocity or incremental rotavelocity (Fig. 3-13 (3)). If the steady coning angle is obtained by the balance of thrust and centri-

*tional

HIORIZONTAL

A0OITIONAL

FFORCE
MOETMU4 0SUTJJ LOCAL. WI40

LIFT
SECTION LIFT

rC"'LEAD,

VELOCIT INFLOW NANG CENTRIFU OF ATL

\

1

~nP

T,

I)

(A) ~ ~

B ~ COILNCRENMRO ~ LAEFLPDENTOLAL ENTREFUGALOFORC DU ~~ LEAD VELOCITY

EETLDE

neve fsiunie) d/til Sibainntespa s#OFs and31a stffes oF ORCExsas-

minif

(B) ~ ~ ~ LI FT OFSTBL.Hwvr ~FOROM ~ ~ ~ ~

~ PICEMCHA tercnieainegsAtcDE~ B MOMENTUGA
flection aotd grossg viraoryidresponse ar becmias faily wpellr debaned ond calulaion profedues arema
aevilablequnisdtiso.baigsrspa

t

F~ure5-1.

Pld~-lapCou~l~ug o Roors

haroni PITabiiH moderae adva2. pitihfo~. p Cop

vanoess ratio azimuth ane.A u the sinele th andfne ofpe OEN blade moFTi OF anE occurt

3-*

HoetrotherCU considerations eOf. s~tatc i y

ofinling0.4. ortype Thi

andbrat

Ladsmambeomn ibaor y

stability can be suppressed by an adequate amount of inplane damping. Ref. 13 suggests that, if the blades are sufficiently flexible in torsion, pitch-lag coupling can be used as an additional means of suppressinS lag motion instability.

The procedure for development of preliminary rotor design into a detail design requires continuous iterations by aerodynamnics, dynamics, stres, and fatigue specialists. The integration of computed vibratory rotor loads into the detail design is dcscribed best by a generalized mothod toward which the in-

5-4 ROTOR SYSTEM DYNAMICS
OSCILLATORY LOADING OF ROTOR BLADFS The o lsciltory loading of rotor blades is important for both vibration and fatigue. Rotors usually are deSgned by extraapolation from previously successful designs. This can be. expensive because many rotors have been designed, bui~t, and flight Stetd without significantly exteiding the useful envelope of existing rotors in relation to loads and vi5-16 5-4.1

dustry is moving.

Ideally, the following program, which hinges on the existence of a complete seroelastic flight-vechicle analysis, could be used to link the preliminary and detail designs: 1. A nmaneuver spectrum should be defined, based upon previous helicopter experience and the mission requirements of tie now helicopter. 2. The maneuter spectrum should be "flown"' analytically with the prelimninary design helicopter, and loads and vibrations should be computed at the

• 1•

AMCP 7W6202

)
-

locations where flight test inhtrumcntation will be placed. Thesc calculations should cover the complete ground-air-ground cycle, including landing, taxiing, and towing. In such a sequecnce, all of the static, transient, and oscillatory stresses and vibrations should be compasted. 3. The stresa and vibration calculations should be reviewed to determine where design optimization should start. If the performance, stresses, vibrations, handling quaaities, and other rotor characteristics meet but do not exceed the specification requiremeats, then the preliminary design may represent an optimum configuration. if the helicopter greatly exceeds requirements in one or more of these arcas, a weight penalty generally results. Design changes should be made and at least a portion of the analysis based upon the maneuver spectrm should be recomputed. If tht design fails to meet the specifications in certain arew ,, the design must be improve I 'nd a portion of the maneuver spectrum analysis should be rccomputed to demonstrate compliance, At the end of the iteration, thi detail design should start with a sat of loads for static and dynamic stress calculation, and a reasonable assessment of vibra, tion The detail design of the rotor system should be initiated by making dimensional drawings of all parts. The designer should follow the preliminary design as closely as possible. However, compromises often may be required, some of which can aiter the dynamic chepracteristics significantly. As the design progreases, section properties, weights, inertias, and stresses should be computed for the detai! parts. As soon as the first design iteration is completed, the rotor natural frequencies, loads, and stresses should be recomnuted. These stresses should be used as the .basis for a fatigue analysis, which should be guided "additionally by experien= from the test histories of it'milar parts ana idealized material samples. Depending upon the outcome of this first design iteration, the design should be accepted or another iteration started. Significant advances have been made with helicopter flight simulations. For example, Ref. 14 describes a recently developed analytical tool for computer "flight testing" of VTOL designs. Steadystawe flight, maneuvers, and gust response effects are included so that required cornfiguration changes can be made readily during the preliminary and detail design stages. This objective is achieved by detailed reprewentation of the aircraft, including rotors, wings, auxiliary propulsion, and control systems. Complete blade element analysis of the main rotor(s), tail rotor, and propeller(s), as applicable, are performed

through a maneuver, and are based upon the Instantaneous aerodynamic and dynamic environments. Time histories of rotor blade loads and bendins moments are calculated. The basic equations and programming procedures are presented and discussed in Ref. 14. The representation of airframe rnd rotor parameters, the types of maneuver inputs, and the available output formats also are discussed in detail. Typical case studies are given. This analysis is capable of evolving into a generalized procedure with the additiou of details such as elastic pylon and fuselsge, and a fully aeroelastic rotor. Complete documentation of this particular method can be found in Ref. 15. Comparable met':ods have been developed by other contractors. 5-4.1.2 Oscillatory Load Design Comiderations Oscillatory loads are a major factor in rotor design; but the calculation of oscillatory loads is not yet sufficiently accurate for life prediction and design assurance. Therefore, rotor design is guided by calculatcd natural frequencies, static loads, and factored oscillatory loads. The final demonstration of design adequacy comes from flight and fatigue testing. 5-4.1.2.1 Rotor Oscillatory Load Calculation Most current procedures for computing rotor natural frequencies and loads are based on Myklestad's development of the dynamics of a rotawing beam (Ref. 16) and on simplified, two-dimensionl aerodynamics (Ref. I). Typically, such analyses can 1 used 5 to compute natural frequencies and airloads separately; ther the two analyses are combined to compute the forced steady-state response. Many versions of this procedure have been developed. A rit!c ecito foeaattowi.hhos been used for designing two-bladed rotors for nearly a decade, is given in Ref. 17. 5-4,1,2.2 Drawing Board Phase As noted previously, the drawing board phase of the rotor detail design is an iterative procedure and typically involves several groups of engineering specialists. The procedure is best explained by briefly describing the functions of several elements: I. T'he areodynamics group sizes the rotor, de',clops the blade contours, and helps determine the static load spectrum during the preliminary design phase. Often this work carries over. with little change, into the first step of detail design. 2. The rotor design group starts the design iteration by laying out the preliminary rotor design and developing dimensional drawings for the detail parts. The designers must be cognizant or the stresses and 5-17

-

.1.

*

•,.

vibrations resulting from rotor oscillatory loading, Other considerations requiring attention indude dynamic stability, wught control, bearing applications, mechanical function, value analysis, materials, bonding, and manufacturing processes, and the designer must rely upon specialists in many of these fields. 3. The rotor stress group begins preliminary design with the development of section properties, These properties, in turn, are used for determination of the nominal stresses that result from the highest combinations of cenuifugal force (CF) and maneuver thrust )onditions. The bending .Ioments for these conditions are computed in the steady-load portion of the rotor-load analysis (par. 5-4.1.2.1). Fatigue may be considered by an empirical method that provides a simple and reliable account or load spectrum shape and severity in relation to componerat fatigto strength in the initial stages of rotor component design (Ref. 18). This method uses the flight :oads calculated for maximum level flight speed, the condition that usually produces the highest continuous (nontrans~eut) alternating loading. A factor is applied to the calculated loads to obtain design loads that will oroduce a satisfactJev fatiaue-life structure. This factor is a function of the material SN curve, the maneuver spectrum severity, the loading frequency, and the fatigue life required by the helicopter system specification. The design curves for this factor are based on an analysis of several flight load surveys. Natural frequencim also are calculated for the rotor as defined at this stage of the design. Changes in section properties and/or concentrated weights are used to produce a frequency distribution that avoids principal resonances. A - -. __L-.I~~ltn -;.• eh.• *•• A-.t;I
SIR. U%,A Z.--66,,
P,,OR%,

board phase incure that a rotor mects the static strength criteria and has an infinite life for the low. cycl, high-stress variations associated with the ground-air-ground cycle. However, because of the superimposed high-cycle, low-stress os.ilations, mcny rotor and control system parts will have finite fatigue lives. Design changes often are required to insure that the adp~luate component fatigue lives of all components are adequate. Flight and fatigue testing is required to determine these lives. Prior to the flight test phase, the strain gage instrumentation, the flight load survey tests, and the data reduction format shall be specified. The measured loads are used, along with the approved maneuver and frequency-of-ocurrence spectra, to determine the fatigue lives of all fatiguc-critical components. The required flight load survey tests are outlined in Chapter 8, AMCP 706-203. The calculations made during the drawing board phase are effective in guiding the design so as to avoid excessive loads and vibrations at the lower frequencies; however, additional tailoring of the rotor and fuselage usually is required during flight test to minimize high-freouencv loads and vibrations. Measures taken include optimizing the amount ard location of the concentrated blade weights; changing blade stiffness, such as through use of trailing edge stiffeners; optimizing the pylon suspension pa- i. meters, and detuning the fuselage by varying stiffness and the location of certain concentrated weights, e.g., the battery. 5-4.1.2.4 Faidgue Tests The determination of fatigue lives of components is discussed in Chapter 4, AMCP 706-201. The requirements for fatigue testing of critical components are given in Chapter 7, AMCP 706-203. The parts to be tested, the number of saniples, and the method of loading shall be specified. The samples arc cycled to failure, or for a prescribed number of cycles at several stress levels. The results usually are plotted as an S-N diagram. Basic information on the need, methods, and interpretation of fatigue testing in the helicopter industry is presented in Refs. 18, 19, and 20. By use of the fatigue test data and the frequencyof-ocurrence spectrum, the fatigue lives of the critical parts shall be determined by a method acceptable to the procuring activity (Chapter 4, AMCP 706201). If one or more parts have lives shorter than required, the flight envelope may be restricted or the parts may have to be redesigned and requalified.

r rotV o

natural frequency placement insures the lowest possibk oscillatory rotor loads; and rotor and fuselage frequen.y placement, isolation, and superposition in"sur the lowest possible fuselage vibration. The rotor characteristics must be such that low-frequency vibrations of the fuselage are avoided. High-frequency vibrations generally are not so critical and may be corrected during the flight test phase. The aim of this continuous iteration is a design optimized, or balanced, with regrd to performance, function, strength, life, weight, and vibration. When an acceptable balance has been achieved, the design is considered to be adequate, the drawings are compked, and rotor components are manufactured. However, further changes usually result from the

flight and fatigue tests. 54.1.2.3 FM TeMt
,• The design calculations made during the drawing . -1S

Failure to comply with the fatigue-life requirement of the helicopter system specification usually will result
in a penalty being applied to the contractor.

5-4.1AMPLIFICATION AND NATURAL
FREQUENCIES A summary of thi field of rotor vibrations is conrained in Ref. 21, Although highly mathematical, this is a valuable reference for those seeking both general and specific information on rotor loads and vibration. The paragraphs that follow discuss specific anplification and natural ftequmicy Information. Fig. 5-14 presents natura frequency Information for a t wo-bladed, teetaing rotor, but the method of presentation and the design information are general enough to warrant a detailed discussion. Two graphs are made - one labeled collective mode and the other cyclic mode. These names stem from the types of forces and motions caused by the collective and cyclic controls. For the two-baded rotor, collective modes arm excited by even harmonic airloads while cyclic modes are excited by odd harmonics. The ordinates are natural frequencies; the abscissas are rotor speeds; the vertical lines mark the normal harmonic rotor speed range, and the radial lines Mre excitation lines. Coupled and uncoupled natural&4quencies are indicated by cutves with and witiout "-Wi symbhols. The appnhc-be moi1e sha8r1 arem o~ shown schematically. Fiapwise is nomnal to tile plane of rotation; inplane is in !he plane of rotation. Uncoupled means without blade torsion and feathering; coupled modes include these degrees ef freedom. The collective plot contains even harmonic excitatron lines, while the cyclic plot contains odd harmonic lines,

tion prolAwm.• Such p'oints are uwd for test verification of 0e!'i calculated natural flreqncies. Without such verification to confirm or adjust tlhe fan plats during the first ground runs of a new rotor, several variations of tuning weights might be required to aw tablish correct trends at operating rpm, resulting in ccnsiderable cost and loss of time. V,e main objective of calculating rotor natural froquencies is to prevent coincidences (nronncem) such as Point A from occurring in or near the normal operating rotor speed band. Such steady-state rtoonances are not catastrophic, but often produce strell high enough to reduce fatigue life significantly, as well as fuselage vibrations that may require restriction of the flight envelope for comfortable operation. Generally, resonant amplification factors cannot be computed with sufficient accuracy for design purposx&. Once amplification factors have been determined for an existing rotor. fairly accurate predictions of loads can be made for vAriations of perameters; however, extrapolating these values to a new rotor involves considerable risk. The damping factors Ar rOiur-iuR1 VIompuiing prturaman n hypi'M uaH IIfLC IN empirical and the value of the predicted loads necessarily is low. Progress in evaluating damping mechanisms has had to wait for improvements in both dynamic and aerodynamic computing methods because an observed level of response at resonance may be due either to a low level of force or to a high level of damping. Some'damping concepts associated with the fan plots of Fig. 5-14 are: I. All modes contain structural damping on the order of 0.50-1.00% of critl, which is relatively inof. 0.5-100 of•a• cri,,ti.i-iI. wh~tc n_*k.tk; significant. 2. Flapwise modes such " the ones shown in the collective mode plot ame strongly damped aerodynamically, while inplane modes are not. 3. Modes with strong intermodal coupling, such as those shown in th, cyclic mode plot, have fmequcncies that vary significantly with blade pitch; thus, they benefit from an effective damping mehhanism referred to as cyclic detuning. The cyclic A.i,'

. -K

T
,

"'.

}
\

The circ!zd numbers identify three collective and four cyclic modes. All natural frequencies increase with rpm, but the flapwise frequencies increase much Ire~~~~tarde .... h._ . ...... . ..... ... £... -h -. . . . cyclic mode) because the centrifugal stiffness is a larger percentuge of the total stiffness in the flapwise direction. The collective modes show very little intermodal coupling with twist and pitch, while the cyclic modes show strong coupling, These fan plots ar' the primary de•ign guide for rotor dynamics. Myklestad's development (Ref. 16) made it possible to compute the variation of the unoupled frequences with rpm. Finally, the method of variation in pitch limits the resonance to a few Ref. 17 made it possible to compute the intermodal degrees of azimuth, preventing steady-state resonant oupling due to twist and ollective pitch. Accurate~ amplification. This damping source is at least as significant as the flapwise aerodynamic damping. computation is necessary because of the fine tuning required to avoid resonance throigh the eighth harmonic of excitation, especially for compound and 54.3 GROUND RESONANCE composite aircraft rotors having wide ranges of operating rpm. The helicopter shaft be free of mechanical instaTransient resonances such as Points A, B, and C in bility at all rotor speeds and opernting conditions the collecive mode plot (Fig. 5-14) cannot be (takeoff, flight, landing, ann taxi) regardless of the alvoided, but they cause no significant load or vibratype of landing gear; under the entire range of gross

-'

*1

0 COUPLED FLAPWISE NATURAL FREQUENCY < COUPLED INPLANE NATURAL FREQUENCY "-UNCOUPLED NATURAL FREQUENCY 3RD FLAPWISE SYMMETRIC MODE 1_600 2ND FLAPWISE
SYMMETRIC MODE -1200
S800

"-

IST FLAPWISE

,-

SYMMETRIC MODE

400"
C.,

r1UtYIAL urtKIA ~IUM1nGE 200 300 400

-u

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L"

ROTQOR SPEED, rpm 2N6FLAPWISE ASYMMETRIC MODE ) 1600,
uj1200-,.
~1200

-

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1ST FLAPWISE ASYMMETRIC MODE /J
-

1ST INPLANE k/o SYMMETRIC MODE
... •• • .- ,

,800
:•-•

"- NORMAL OPERATING RANGE

300 200 100 "0 ROTOR SPEED, rpm

400
Ovs ratiq Sped

V. m 5-14. Typ"l Pb of Rotw Nafbdl Frq•eouy

AMCP 71*302
0
A. STEADY-FOMa FMONANCIE6 i:l C SHAFT CffITILAL RWECXNCY (COULED.)
* D WHAFT CRVITICAL IFFJW4C (UNCLED)

0
0

A.B.C - STEAY-FORCE FIESENAN(,ES D. H - SHAFT CRITICAL FREOLIENCIES (COLIP.fUM E. I - %HAFT CRITICAL FREOUENCIES (UNCOUMD1E) CC. HI - SHAFT CRITCAL INSTABILITY REGIONS JIK MECHANICAL. INSTABILITY

MC NIL INSTABILITY

,

NE-P~FIVV EXCITATION OATING S"srw DIN REGIONIN

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ONE-PEAlI4v EXCITATION
ROTATING SYSTEM

ED TR

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-f-t er weight an hogotteeteetn codtos Ge5-5 z yicciuCH.AN jICnALv MEaucrncaeifc u' ~ Fi ~ ~ PYO seisoftssisseilc yCape ,AMCPI - heac tets canhc relaed, orEliIONatd 203. rvidedT itcnb eosrtdt thatýCA h aifato oftercrigatiiythtte eicpe i re f mehnia intbiiy Ocurec of' the intblt 1rbe0 sulyi of a rmr alr ~ h yTem d' in /ehl l information isRAIN cotie inKf.2,2,ad2.Te

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sytm uhgah Clma lt)peetbt L6 feu~ n tblt nomto codn oc etosdti nRf 2 Pteta iStaiies-Athog F-idiae M h rqunypo i i.5-3accasde1i h' aegre nacrac wt oeo xi ain ot I n :odir eoacs(eo

Teihe aonalyitos, ofd thermuchanica ithbilityeof two2. Poits C-6 DsafcrtCalta spes eci andere-om beaieds hingedt roos dpiffers fro thapterotor W0th of sytem. byc gro~t-aphsc fCole)a oresat bthe pltha) 20.Threse oremos bladsIn therlxd originalinalteis (rof. creupedc (Pandtblty C)formtdonuncoured(Pint suport to 22)itd a sued that emosupprate syteobeo s thcab the ytsato fdetaciledin Rf.2 eoste rotoranincaludingtailthe pylon lpndin in. frndnc F:caececplonansfidblad and i. Fig.t5-1 gecuren oulbhe restablvdintypobasnlem sal isr-f a tr maagrkein bcoundanies oft moechanexica the freedmsuurtitealr ntwo sysem.Additia(orea rmr of intabiliyron(sl-:iedmdsde ongtv andfaftaandnlateral)adirectionsfsTh22,n2cessntate. the dami. forcs. Theand8 porintsalwayrs oacur atreoto dicmutation o thatfllw suff ent eti mass andaeletivel speed greter sthady thre) f~thi ooat urcr theton-alf fr eahmdofviewgvr nCaption of the0-21 ItsTeaaysiem support. ouplednatinaludrequetwo degre of) ac mode sse support a(reoftesPpornt A)te ind ht cudirection.Th 111 dD eachMtha futhr Asu. be90.1 treated ine M edetlyl Mv 1O rVL ation sytmfrequency yot al (Poit geeatdb)ti The analysis osfe o the opt cehnclistbltanly.Pins Cie ind Fi.D: ftoupe shaft-cr .I aditicaonals(eci blntualed fhingedotosoiffesfo whichohs wlmets steady forc res-on-ani anadtioal ochraft moel th at fo, e Crthea ofbthwa asumedd rthatineupor 22)' systems eus, t the srysrtnem H-I, and two adtoa ntbiiyrne

\

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for achmodeof I wa he sppot. ibraionof

NORMAL
OPERATING rb RANGE 0 200.9

ii-NORMAL OPERATING SPEEDK -NATURAL FRLCKJJCY
FREQUENCY OF FIRST INPLANE SYMMETRIC 3ENDING MODE

20
0

SMINIMUM
1.b O IN J MINIMUM ROT04_ FREQ >: 1. 151l.0 1 T /• ", K •

ROTOR
STEADY FORCE RESONANCE

BLADE MAST7
1ST MECHANICAL INSTABILITY

8 1T SAFTLOWER
CRTCi
''

BOUNDARY
11500" 1.

II

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o

I&oI A
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I
1.0
1.5

MAST-

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0.5

2.0

HI

25

NORMALIZED ROTOR SPEED _aL flo Figure 5-17. Two-degree-of-freedom Coleman Plot Sho*ing Sati•faction of Minimum Frequency Criteria for Two-blade Hingeless Rotor
Aa i..ia..mnenr-

5-43i.
II

ran h. ahn.,=

Two-bladed Rotors Without Hing-s
thai t*wn...4aI

r-rnntu.A

the coalescence of tle two support system fren,.-n.ac
nni*

I

,.•tmni,.ultI

l

nin

tha

can be approximated by rotors with effectivc hinges; thus, the analyses discussed in par. 54.3.1 also can be applied to this case. Because of the location of the rotor natural frequencies, the ground resonance requirements can be me! by satisfying the following criteria (see Fig. 5-17): I. Sufficient damping must be provided by the landing gear and undercarriage structure of the airframe to remove the instabilities (such as D-E) associated with the rigid-body cegrees of freedom of the airframe on its landing izar, The exact amount of damping rquired to stabilize the region D-E is not knowi,, but it is probably Ins tharr 3% critical. For configurations with skid gear and pylon isolation, the inherent damping of the system always is sufficient to prevent instability, 2. The mast frequency in the rotating system (Point B) shall be no less than 1.2 per rev. This guarantees that the mechanical instability associated with 5-22

operating range. 3. The first inplane natural frequency of the rotor at high collect~ve pitch shall noi be less than 1.15 times the rotor speed. This assures that the mechanical instability associated with the coalescence of the rotor natural frequcncy and the lowest support system mode (Point C) will be above the overspeod operating range (110% rotor spceW), and prevents excassiva response to steady-state one-per-rev excitation (fl - 11 line). 54.3.3 Multibladed Rotors The analyses discussed in pars. 5-4.3.1 and 5-4.3.2 are special cases of the classical analysis given by Coleman (Ref. 25) for mul'ibladed rotora. For rotors with three or more blades, there is no preferred direction of motion associated with out of-bvlancc forces; the stability ranges given in Fig. 5-16 by D.E and H-I are reduced to s'mple resonances of the support

A•P 706-202 modes with the operating speed of the rotor. Thus,
the number of degrees of freedom is reduced, simplifying the equations of motion However, the analyses of the mechanical instability ranges J-K and L-M in Fig. 5-16 are identical to the two-bladed case and must be treated with the same considerations.

hcli.-opter and compound; and under each to discuu
fixed and rotating system divergence and flutter, or static and oscillatory aeromochanical instabilities. 5-4.4.2.1
5-4..2.11

Helicopter
Ixcd System

5-4.4 FLUTTER ASSESSMENT
The other types of potential rotor instability arc divergencc and flutter. The discussion that follows supplements the analytical review given in Chapter 5, AMCP 706-201. When the developing acrodynamic force simply overpower the elastic constraints and the motion exceeds some presdlected bounds, i.e., goes unstable, divergence has been reached. Flutter usually involves 2 change in and coalhacence of two or more system natural frequencies because of dynamic or aerodynemic effects, and the coupling of oscillatory motion of the lifting surface with the airstream in such a way as to derive energy irom the airtream to increase the motion. The first formulation of the flutter problem was published in 1934 and subsequently republished as Rcf.a. 26. Each potential fluster problem is related to modal couplings that are configuration-oricnted. and the

Historically, relatively 1i'tle attention has been given to fixed-system divergence and flutter for helicoptcrs, as other design end operational requirements such as static strength, fatigue life, and operating speed havc precluded divergence and flutter. 5-4.4.2.1.2 Rotating System A number of rotor acromechanical instability problems were encountered in the period before 1960. Solutions usually were worked out by trial and error long before they were understood mathematically. Included were problems such as weaving, pitch-flap. pitch-lag, and pitch-conc instabilities, and stall and binary flutter. Of thesc only o11c of recent occurrClece is stall flutter, which has been actively restarched (Refts. 30 &iid 31). This work has provided an understanding of the problem and the ability to predict the stall iuwitr houndary with reasonable accuracy. The basic dexign changes that sol~ed most of these problems were overbalanced blades, torsionally stiff

number of such couplings is very large. Furtier, in
each specific configuration, the stability equations involve a large numbcr of parameters whose meaning and measure are only made clear by a rather precise analytical diagram or model. Thus, a specific, rather than gen-ral, method has evolved. No method has yet bearn devised for writing mcaningful specifications and simple instructions for designers for the preventior' or avoidance of these instabilities. Notable attempts toward simpiification are given in Ref. 27 for fixed-wing aircraft and Ref. 28 for helicopters, and a recent attempt at ordering and classifying is given in Ref. 29.

H-lades, and, with the advent of hydraulic boost, increased control-system stiffness. During the design of conveuit.onal rotors, the current practice is to forego elaborate calculations. The only mandatory check for main rotors is that the chordwise location of the effective CG of the blade be forward of 25% chord, and preferably forward of 24% chore- For unconventional designs, Serious considertion should be given to detailed quantitative analysis. The list of known problems should be checked to see if an analytical solution is available, preferably a method that has been checked against experimental results.

5:-4.4.1

Carrels Crlittr
static and oscilla-

5-4,4f2.2 Compound
54-4..2.2.1 Fixtcd System

"7he most comprehensive list of tory acroclastic instabilities compiled to date for hell-

coptem is presented in Ref. 29. Several specific con•3-figuration-oriented problems are named, and' formulas are given for determining static and oscillatory stability boundaries. This list could be extended to form the basis for a usable specification dealing with the aeroelastic phenomena basic to helicopters.

In the development of compound helicopters, considcrable a:tention has been given to divergenmc and flutter due to the extension of the speed range beyonw that of conventional helicopters. Conventional prvctices, such as those outlined in Chapter 5. AMC-706-201, are adequate. In one known case, signim.!cant buffeting of the vertical fin was encountered due

54.41

Dedpa Cosu.derations

to the impingement of disturbed air from the hub and
pylon. The problem was solved by cleaning up the flow.

To discuss design considerations, it is convenient "toclassify the applicable aircraft configurations as

5-23

Rotary-win& aifrcrft expcrrince milde reactions to gusts than do most fixed-wing aircraft. One of the carliost reports of this difference presents qualitativo itutctions of two pilots on a dual flight, ont"n a helicopter with side, by-sick rotors and the ( cr hia a S-dg ArnIJT'rnr 7.nAnvmac rixed-wing rimlane A similar test wsir mincmwf Ioate by NACA with instrumenwaion to measure norConventionial rotcrs, bucause of t"er relatively low mlfraibohtypes of nircrsft flyitag through turdisk loadings, experience negigible acoustic loading. Airflow over the blad!e aurfacca; cani reach somic veun ar The relerively mild reaction of the rotary-wing airlocity loalWly and momientarily produce a shock ~ Aeodynmicloadng vriaions~ ~ craft is not substantiated by the simplo theoretical exmanly Atherodyam ic, whaich geariationthe t phriprzaaions currently in use, p cartclarly those that istic acoustical sigrature referred to as blade slap cvovcfrmixdwneprca.Fg.-8sos an example of gus. lo-d factors resulting from .AurpRotors have operated in such an environmeint for edged gusts, computed ey the pzocedure in Ref. 35. yaswith no evider. x of structural fatigue caus-d b eithr r cutclain.Baesabyoyai This procedure it conservative in that it neIects stall eihasen showni tor bedrag-eloatdng henad, slap and compressibility elfects and assumas imsantaneCsacustic

5.44.2.3. beaft Sydown A grmit deal of rowesh has 6w. accomwplihdW during the ertasion of the helicopter speed range by compounding. Ref. 32 is a Sood auniniary of the early work in this are. This work showed that increasing advance ratios and blade tip Mach numburs require prob ruive unloading of the rotor and reduction of rotational speed - e-v= down W zero. The associated dynamic phenomena arvi continuous and trackable until umro rotor speed is approached. At high advance ratios, thrust and flapping acirrol are difficult because of high sensitivity to gusts. The Principal dynamic probkv is limit-cycle flapping instability. Ths instability produces both harmonic and nonharmonic flappiri, the latter being visible as a weaving c! the tip path plane. The history of this probiemn is sketched and the picture clarifiled in Ref. 33, which shows two azimuthal regions of inaitability, one on the advawacing side due to negative spring rate, -and one on the retreating side due to negtative dahipins. Measures for stab~Iinga both are dimsausd.

GIUST LOADINGS The need for mea~ninful Sust loading speedrictions has increasd with the development of high-performance helicopter and compounds. The first dofinitive work was Ref. 33, in which the nature of the problem wus elucidated and some solutions were offered. A morm precs tmctment required more sophisticatid analytical methods. One such method (an extecnion of the rotorcraft flight simulation niethod discussed in par. 5.4.1.1) was developed and ueed for an extensive study of the problem (Rd. 34). This refernceK also reviews the state of the art. 7be problam of helicopter response to gusts and acmre of the design consideraticns air discusd in pars. 5-4.6.1 44d 3-4.6.2 that follow.
5-4 S4.6.1 Dh UUofS@ t'iot G"~ Problem

ioadiing occurs iapiane along the axas of

.-.

I. - .. .4_--.~

an..

.. ,,

... A."..

I.L~.

maxmum evveng'h of the blade skin. Proprotors itnd propellers located in closn proximity to either a fustlag or a wing can experience hkome degree of acoustic loading. However, the rotor sir presuurc impingement on W,~ ftuaselgor wing etruc* turu in an order of magnitude more si~gificmnt thant4. acoustic leading of the rotating system. 2. Tail rotors located clo, to a taIl boom e~parionot aeroclynamnic kw~ming catuWe by the pirtial blockage or airflow an" the intuf~rx.n% by the fin with Wk a)

,ping. ty, atid black which thooretica. gust load factor may be reduced. w I--) "vdsags leito atrb

-

1

___ii

blade suarfac prooswc field. As with amnvetional

main rotors. there is no evidenc of measurable rcouak~ loadling. Ductnd fans used as antitorque devicest, because of their relatively high disk loais-rgs, 01 0.2 0.3 0.4 may pitodi*c rrneter acoustc lo~adi than con-ADAC AIp DAC AI ventional tlil rotors. However, the duct am rounding the fan experiences highar loadings than do the fan Flk,'Me 5-18. Gum L*W Factor Cosapaed for- the bladck UH-t8 Heliopter Uslg Umar 7%moy

1

NO COM.iSSIBIIL ITY OR STALL
50 lps SUDDEN GUIST

II-__

_____________AMCP

7"620

*gust

-'capability

i

This Suit alleviation factor AKin given as a func~tion of rotor disk loading, and is equal to itnity for disk loadvils gieater than 6 lb/ft, as shown in Fig, 5-19. At high speeds and for disk loadings greattr than 5, load factors computed in accordance with MIL8-9698, inr'ludi In'S the gust villeviation factor, aec very high. When manicuver loads are surmrimposed on these gust loads, an uiirealistic situation results. On the other ho'nd, studies indicate that the thrust o, - rotor actually decieases with increasing advance ratio. The aerodynamic limit shown in Fig. 5-20 is calculated by a digital method based on Ref. 36 which includes the effects of stall aaid ompressibility. Also shown in Fig. 5-20 is a practical limit for thc same rotor based on flight test data. The practical limit is a result of oscilinoury rotor loads and stall flutter effects, and iý the controlling limit on rotor thrust capability at high advance ratios. This conclusion is supported by Ref. 30. Unloading the rotc'r by adding a wing would give the rotor a gr eater margin to accept gusts. The ad vantage, however, is not as great as might be expectei, because the rotor usually will assume the larger share of the lift increase resulting from gusts, as shown by The gust alleviation factor given by MIL-S8698 was found to be unrealistically low for a rotoi unloaded in this manner. An early attempt at treatncnt of gust effects on rotary-wing aircraft is reported in Ref. 33. Sinesquared &,ust shapes were considered instead c-f sharp-edged gusts, and a mass ratio comparable to that used in fixed-wing anaiysis replaced disk loading in the determination of the gust alleviation factor. Fig. 5-21 shc ws the results of that study. It suggests a gust alleviation factor considerably smaller than that * given in MiL-S-8698. AThe scope of the study, however, was insufficient to define requirements for all types of rotary-wing aircraft. Furthermore, gradual penetration~ into the gusts, nonsteady aerodynamics,
-/copter.

orne aeroelastic feedback wert not considered. Subsequent studies (Refs. 34 and 37) attem~pted to remedy these deficiencies and to include onstcady aerodynamics as well as 2dditional variables'such as gust shape daid intensity, forward zpeed, dis.'Aloading, thrust coefficient-solidity ratio, and advancing tip Mach number. The design considerations derived from these studies arc reviewed in par. 5.4.6.2. 5.4.6.2 Gust Design Considerations Fo h tde r es 4ad3 eea rn cipromnthestuiens ian befs 34and 3he gstleveraltpionfctponclusgioens can be drawn. hregust allservation. fahtorseKf giroerin M s rat-io tre too contervaine.Kb Th usrfartrms ai ,t eemn analogy with the fix~ed-wing approach, as suggested in Ref. 33, also does Aot give satisfactory results. Never theless. gust loads cannot be ignored in rotor design. Pending preparation of criteria to replace the gust load requirements of MIL-S-8608. alecinative methods for dettrimnation of gust load factors may be used, subject to thc prior approval of the procuring activity.
,b

ICAI ALV~fl(NAVI1C 114[O111
r0 k I" -7=
______

!AXMIV.v

HUOCBFjA.
-

Ify

MP.UVERING

UiAAAE ýi 0.10 -1
,-

_0
iIAýCIICA[ LIN'I1

I~T

/

0

02

04 ADVANCE RALID

It

08

RurLmissaFnconl

adsc fim52.Bi

docRai

iotono RLitsas

008

7--- 1 n I -------

*

~~~0.6I-4,
0.
=10.2

-~I
o NIL-S-89 V~ '4

~SIVj,,

HEWtLTS.KF.[

321

--

-

' -)

:'

4

15

8

1123

VISK

4 5 LOADING, pst

6 CUMSSAI,

~~Flgure 5-19. Gust-sillevlation Factor (MIL-S 48698,

Filgure 5-7 1. Results ot a Lead Gust Stu.&;, Conapaied With Military Specification Requirements 5-25

For. all the helicoptersgrid compounds investigated ina Re('. 34, the rotor gust-load ratio AT/T~w7 can be expresse by the empirical expression AT 0.57 085L ~bility + C (5-7)
.

T~,

(r~

~later

m~m

wheac\ 'ae C - empirical constant, dimensionless 11 - wing lift. lb LE/T,..M - wing lift ratio prior to gust enccunoter, dimensionless This relationship givet reasonable accuracy with appropriate conhervacism with C - 0.2 for semirigid (teetering) rotors and C ft 0.1 for rigid and articulated rotors. For a compo.und helicopter, the wing gust load should be determined by conventional fixedwing methods. However, an additional a~lleviation of the wing gust load, owing to the interaction with the -rotor, was found to be related to the rotor thrust coefricient.-solidity ratio CT/ar.'With further refinement, this approach may provide tin acceptable basis for gust design requirements. The relative affocts of various parameters on gusst response amc summarized in Table 5-1. 5-6.7 TORSIONAL STABILITY irs-deeloed or ircaftirGasurbneagies Gasturinee~gne fist eveope fr arcrft I~ eluded fixed-turbine engines for both turbojet and turboshaft configurations, and free-tutbine engines for driving rigid loads oir loads with natural frmquenc"e far above the maximum response range of the engine governor, Sophisticated hydromechanical

governors were optimized for thwc sy ns;u however, thesw governors proved unsatisfkacory for bellcopter applications. A serious drive systet instawas predicted for the XH .40, the first helicopter using the firee-turbine e~ngi (this analysis was publishvid in Ref. 38). The prddficWe instability occurred as predicted, but the consequences were not serious. Means to stabilize the syttemn had 'ace. provided and thMe test program was able to proceed, alihough with a rather sluggish governor. ExtIensivo analog oomputer studies have shown that serious penalties would be i,-curred if the helicopter drive system were., mo'.ified to solve the prob1cm, but that modificatioa of the governor reaulted in only a slight pona'ty. A. a result, Ref. 39 was formulatoz. This piubfication ansigns responsibilidics to both the engine and helicopl-ýr manufacturers in order to insure early rmog~nition and solution of the drive system stability problem in future applications. The discussion that follows suppitleents the reviews rif drive system torsional Ftmbfifty in Chapter 5, and ol the enigine/airframe integrated control system in Chapter 8, both in AMCP 706-131. Discussoo of Problem 5-.. Thc dynamic characteristics of three systems are involved: the gas producer and its govcrnor. the pwrtrieadisgvroadtehlcpe drive syslim with one or more low natural freqece.Tesse qain fmto oiei qucisThsytmeaiosfmtinovnently can be put in transfer function form and atrayed as a block diagram (Refs. 38 and 40). During throttle movements, tht. gas producer governor controls the engin. At steady-stlate throttle conditions,

VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON GUST RESPONSE
______________speed

TABLE &I1. THE RELATIVE EFFECTS OF

the

powar-turbine governor controls Dower-turbine by modulating fuel flow. When this speed

PAAEWEFFECT DIKLOADING ROTO 19-D-i SIIDIT't RATIO. C,'/ *CONSI COmPVuNOiNG LIfll.E INFLUENCE MAJOR EFFECT (SEEEQUATION 5-7 DERAkE EFFECT HIGH VALI Al JES OF C /. DUE TO LIFT SHARING %ITH A r,;Ný'The

urops bc'ow the selected value, additional fuel flow is called for to nullify the error. Accordingly, when tht power turbine overspeeds, fuel flow is decreased. This cycle of events can be stable or unstable depending
upon system parameters.

I

drive system for rotors without drag hinges
usually can be simplified to a system consisting of the main-rotor and power-turbine inertias connected by tihe effective shaft stiffness between them. This is a

ADO TYarPE
NMBIER OFBLADES NUIMMER RO~TORS OF FRADVELOCITY AND

SOMEEFCT. DEPENDoS OYNAMILS ON
LITTLE EFFECT INCREASED EFFECT TANDEM FOR CONFIGURATION-

single-degree~-of-fieedom system in which the main
tia is much larger than that of the power turbine. This
____

ADVANCING-TIP MACH

LITTLE INFLUENCE.

KM.3IS
LOCK
LOCK NUMBER ______ _____NLUs&B

rotor can be considered as nodalized because its iner-

~~~~S.IGml ~LOAD WITH INCREASED OC
LITTLE

_______

?It!C4 FLAI COULIUNG PITCm CONL COERLING
1OWISGH11 IN COLL.ECTIVE S%~ 9ETB

~FC

____

AFPRECIASLE EFFECT APPRECIABLE EFFECT
__________

Jspeed
.~ents.

modeTO usull hGUSaurlfeTec eow5Hi eow5Hi maeuull0C1atrlfeqec lightly damped, and is continuously excited at a low level by rotor control m'otions and external transiResulting oscillations in the power turbine are sensed by the flyball governor, which modulates the fuel flow accordingly. With a governor

5-26

:•L•.•L•, • "7• •-,
2

i° •:Ž•.ig:ss. .. •. :

.

.

••,g....zL*•.••,

optimized for a systcm with a high natural frequency, the oscillation of the torque at the turbine wheel that follows will be so phased that it reinforces the original, lkw-frequency, drive system oscillation, Unstable torsional motion results. It is not feaible to stabilize the system either by inc:uding mechanical dampers in the drive shaft or by stiffening the shafting sufficierntly to move the natural frequency out of the response range of the governor. Furthermore, the gains and time constants of the engine and governor can be varied only within narrow limits One effective solution is to use a small amount of valve oyerlap, which allows the iiyball governor to oscillate the fuel valve a small amount without modulating fuel flow. 54.7.1 Design Coelderations Ref. 39 establistes an effective, three-phase procedure that adequately deals with the problem. Briefly, the steps include: 1. The engine .doaigncr provides as much flxibility as possible in-the engine governor parameters. 2. Early in the preliminary design, the engine and
heliconter denioners evechangp syuem rnie.rnodrm

the respective hinges. The lag dampers (shock absorbers) prevent unstable blade oscillations about the lag hinges. Dampers usually are not required for flap hinges because of the amount of aerodynamic damping provided by flapwis Jade motion. The design considerations for a typical articulated rotor, the motions and loads for each hinge, find thtir effect on the helicopter are discussed in par. 5-5.1. 1.1. This rotor has the flap hinge inboard, then the lag hinge, and then the pitch axis hinge outboard. The effects of reversing the hinge arrangement are considered in par. 5-5.1.1.2. 5-5.111 Typical Articulated Rotor Coesideratloas rhe Boeing-Vertol Model 107 rotor is shown in Fig. 5-22. The hinge arrangement of this rotor also is dorscy S-si,the Brintoi Model 171, typical of thte the Alouette H, ano the Russian Mil 6, 8. and 10 aircraft, among others. The hap, lag, and pitch hinges on the Model 107 TrQtor have oillub icqtcd, cylindrical roller bearings. The three flap hinge have a common, centrally lIcated reservoir, while eazh of the other hinges has t own reservoir. Each reervoir sight glasses to indite oil level. has one or more Radial, positivecontact seals retain the lubricant in the bearings. The flap hinge is .Offset both radially and in the direction of rotation. The radial offset of the flap hingv axis is small, approximately 1.7% of the blade radius, and is as close to the rotor cnter as shaft and l hinge sizes permit. Boqatts of the small radiat offset of the flap hinge, the gwntrol forces generated by this rotor come primarily from thrust vecror tilt, with a small contribution from the vertical c l nt a contribution from the veca component of the flap hinge forcn isee Fig. 5-2 (B)). tion (also known as the torque offset, and shown as dimension "a" in the plan view, Fig. 5-22) is chosen
The offs t of the flap hinge in the direction of rota-

each designer conu4cts an analysis of the system. 3. The helicopter designer selects the Optimum Seveoal efhicientminputer methods of anyysis now e exist, including antlog, digital, and hybrid. The analysis can be complete, including the nonlitioar parameters for the full range of enginq ptperation, or a perturbation analysis can be informed in which an operating point is selected about which oscillatory stability S~small is detetmined. The complete analysis is much more complex, but it determincs transient rcsponse
n.Ad droop

nnl

lysis u1sually i- aequate for dletemining stability alone.

ass ... a.I as ............. ......

sa.l.end#.~j.

i -p..

tB •BatVB ""

L.

Ca"

5-5 BLADE RETENTION
5-5.1 "CONSIDERATIONS DESIGN RETENTION SYSTEM The fully articulated, gimbaled (teetering), and rigid (hingeless) rotors are Jescribed in par. 5-3. The blade retention requirements for each are different, and are discussed in the paragraphs that fclow. 5-5.1.1 Articulated Rotors The fully-articulated rotor system provides freedoa of Mlade movement about ilap and lag hinges in ") response to aerodynamic forces resulting from pitch change and/or flight conditions. This flap and lag freedom reduces the flap and IA; moments to zero at

-_

to satisfy two requirements: 5. To equalize loads on the flap-hinge bearings when the blade is in the lag position, corresponding to normal flight torque 2. To avoid reversing axis, motion of the flap hinge bearings due to blade lead-lag motion in normrtal flight. The flap hinge cylindrical roller bearings withstand blade centrifuga. force, alternating loads due to blade lag oscillation, and blade vertical shear forces, and experience one-per-rev flapping oscillations of :1:4-6 deg. Thrust loads are carried by a b;onze thrust bearing. Permanent stops prevent excessive blade droop or flap motion due to winds while the helicopter is parked or during rotor shutdown. These stops are set 5-27

AMCP !L&.202
so that no contact occurs in normal flight. The flap stops pre-vent prissible ove-tumning of the blade; droop stops prevent blade/fuseleg contact. Slade angular displacement about the lag hinge stop to stop -varies inversely with the radial position of the hinge. However, larg angular lag displacement adversly affects: 1. Blad%-,toý-blade clerance in a tandem heclicaptar 2. Pitch arm kinematic error 3. Lag damper stroke. The Model 107 lag hinge is located as far iaibomird as possible, consistent withi the lag displacement considerations listed, in order to keep the mans of the pit -hi hinge and the blade retention joint inboard and reduce the centrifugal loads. The lag damper, in addition to meeting requiremeats for stability of the lag motion, functions as the lead and lag stops of the blade. Design loads for the stops are the rotor starting condition and the rotor braking loads at shutdown. The damper is positioned so that the centrifugai load on the damper will be along the piston-rod axis and will not result in pistonrod bendialz or internal-bearing wear. Lag damper end Lem ririgi art lin bd with Teflvin fabric for ar~airiteThe rolling element beazings of the lag hinge are subject to :cntrifugal loads plus reactions from blade alternatint and steady bending moments. Vertical shear loads are carried by bronze thrust bearings. Blade lag oscillatio: is in the order of * I dtg. The cylindrical roller bearings of the pitch (feather) hinge react blade steady and alternating bending moments and shears at the root of the blade. Typical osciliation angles in forward flight are *4" deg. Tension-torsion straps, consisting of many slotted stainless steel elements, react the blade centrifugal loads. These straps twist easily, providing freedom for blade pitch change with negligible effect on the pitch control linkage force. The pitch arm connects to the upper end of the pitch link nearly in line with the flap hinge axis; the locations of this attachment and the lower attachment of the pitch link to the swashplate were chusen to obtain favorable coupling of blade pitch with flap and lag displacements. Two taper pins in a multiple cievis joint attach the blade to the outboard end of the pitch housing. The dclvis provides freedom for manual folding of the blades about or~e or the other taper pin, depending upon the required direction of fold.

3

.I

*thus

nance-froe operation.PICAR

A0ORHU

PITCH HIOUSINdG

ROTOR SLADE

I

FLAP H4INGE RESERVOIR

SIGHT GAGEPICSHF

ROTOR SHAFT

FLAP HINOF

I LAG

Figure 5-22. 5-28

Articulated Rotor (Boeing MoMe 107)

_AMCP M06202

)4
Ieirersed Hine Articulatiom 5S=.I.I and The coincident lagin Fig.flap hinge arrangement -4 is ued on all proshown shematically duction Sikorsky helicopters from the S-55 through the S-65. •hc radial location of these coincident hinges is ro~hly 5%of the blade radius. Good controi power results, permitting liberal CO travel in these single-rotor helicopters. The loads and motions resulting from this hinge arrangement and the retention methods u~ in a typical coincident-hinge rotor (Sikorsky S-61) aliscussed in the paragraphs that follow, As the S-61 lag hinge bearings are mounted in the star-shaped hub, normal blade coning and cyclic flapping result in sizable vertical thrust loads along the lag hinge axis. A pair of conical roller bcarings transfers both radial and vertical thrust loads of the lag hinge to the tApper plate of the hub, while a cylindrical roller bearing transfers radial loads to the lower plate. With this coincident-hinge arrangement, the flap hinge leads and lags with the blade. Loads on the lead and lag bearings of the flap hinge are equalized by a
:...... ica! betho Ion Inao. oLic Avinl Io,,n*;,•A

claiga clearances in that the weight of the blade in a lead or lag position results in moment about the pitch hinge, causing the controls to "drift" and the blade to droop below the normal position. 5".1.2 Glmibakd a Teeterig Rotors The gimbal-mounted rotor and the two-bladed teetering, or see-maw, rotor have blade pitch-change hinges rigidly mounted to the central hub. This hub assembly in turn is free to pivot with respect to the mounting structure in response to one-per-rev blade forces, thus minimizing loads in the blade root and the hub due to first harmonic flapping. Coriolis forces in the lag direction similarly are reduced. Alleviation of these two types of load has a significant effect on rotor-hbud strength requirements ard therefore on the weight of the components. Elimination of the lag hinge and lag damper reduces maintenance requirements but at the expense of providing strength for lead-lag moments that do nut go to zero. Also, controllability is somewhat lower with these hubs because it results from thrust voctor tilt alone.
5-.1.2.1

.

thrust along the flap hinge axis is due to blade chordwise shear forces. These forces are low and are carried by thrust faces. The pitch (feather) hinge isjust outboard of the coincident hinge, and blade moments and shears are of low magnitude, with the primary reaction for this hinge being the centrifugal force on the blade. A stack of angular contact ball bearings arranged in tandem carries the centrifugal forces in a very cornpact arrangement. A radial bearing pre-loads the angular contact sct and assists in carrying moments and shears. At least one helicopter (CH-47) has the pitch hinge inboard of the lag hinge. in this configuration the lag axis rotates with blade pitch changes and is perpendicular to the flap hinge axis at only one blade pitch. The weight of the rotor head is thus reduced, as the blade can be removed or folded at the lag hinge and an additional attachment joint is not required. Hinge loads and motions for this configuration are similar xo those of the typical rotor arrangement first discussed, with differences resulting mainly from the moments and shears at the different radial locations of the pitch and lag hinges. Control system loads do not differ significantly. This rotor configuration, with the pitch axis hinge inboard of the lag hinge, results in two major characteristics: 1. There is no kinematic coupling of pitch with lag. 2. The "parked" helicopter has reduced blade/fu-

Gimbal-mounted Hubo Two-bladed hdbs, fully gimbal-mounted on the rotor shaft, see-saw about one axis for cyclic flapping and arc tilted about an orthogonal axis for cyclic pitch control. Collective pitch is input by individual links to each blade. The OH-13 and the OH.23 are examples of lielicopters that use this hub. The gimbal pivot bearings react the rotor lift forces and also transmit the drive system torque. When the rotor plane is tilted, the Cardan joint characteristics of the gimbal cause oscillating speed. torque characteristics in the drive system that must be considered in
t i
-- -or..:..1 gf.4. thc.'Ctc,-.,: .....
.....

,

bility in the gimbal hinges is required to react the inplane rotor forces. The pivot bearings on the gimbal axis parallel to the blade span escillate with cyclic feathering of the blades while the bearings on the axic normal to the blade span oscillate with flapping of the rotor. Thus, the bearings on the pitch axis are required to accornmodate only the collective pitch motions of the blades. The pitch axes are preconed to reduce the steady blade flap bending moments on these hinges and on the hub structure. The hub structure containing the hinges is underslung below the gimbal pivot so that the vertical location of the CO of the blade assembly in the normal flight position is close to that of the gimbal pivot point. This reduces the chordwise oscillotion of the blade. CO when pitch changes are n.ade without flapping, ar discussed in Ref, 41. 5-29

Moments and &hear fort for the pitch berings amrhighe than thoe of an equivalent fully articu1taed rotor. Motions are of the same order of magnitude but, as noted previously, do not Include tie ocillations due to cyclic pitch. Retention methods are the same as those previously described for the pitch axis of the fully articulated hub. S-t1", Teetearla Huls Anothir common two-bladed rotor hub configuration, used on the OH-58A and the Fairchild-Hiller FH-l 100, is . hub free to teeter about an axis normal to both the blade span and thu rotor shaft for cyclic Capping. Control linkages to each blade change collective and cyclic pitch. This type of hub has preconed pitch axes underslung below the teetering hinge, and, in general, the loads and motions arc similar to those of the two-bladed, gimbal-mounted hub. However, larger chordwise moments are caused by the lack of full gimbal provisions, and the pitch axis bearings must accommodate the oscillatory motions of cyclic pitch as well as collecti,\ motions. &5.1.3 Ri5d Rotor The "'rigid," or hingeless, rotor blade retention confiSuration attache the rotor blades firmly to the hub, which, in turn, is attached rigidly to the rotor mast. The blade retention system must be capable of transferring forces and moments in both flapwise and lead-lag directions. The blade centrifugal force may be reacted by any of the conventional methods (a tension-torsion strap, an clastomeric bearing, or a stack of antifriction bearings). The retention must provide "apitch change capability (both cyclic and collective), and the centrifugal force must be. reacted across the
pna

for and significas of then coupling effects upon the stability of the rotor system are discussed in detail in Chapter 5, AMCP 706-201. The advantage of the hingeless rotor "am indude the high level of control provided by the trafor of moments. The system may be physcally iniple,. but the strength required to transmit the forces and moments across the blade retention system can cause the retention to be heavier than is true for other types of rotors.

K
A

S1 .:

(~NSIDflATIONS The design considerations applicable to the use of rolling element bearings in rotor blade retention systems are reviewed in this paragraph. Additional discussion of bearings, for blade retentions and for other applications, is found in par. 16-3. Other components associated with the blade retention system that also are discussed in this paragraph are: lag dampers, lead and lag stops, droop and flap stops, and drvop and flap retainers. M5.2.1 Rolling Element Bearila Rolling element bearings are widely used in rotor hinges. Experience with them has been good and the technology, which is based upon both analytical methods and empirical data, hat been verified by extensive service experience. Gene ally, these bearings are compact. Bearing friction as low and has a negligible effect on hub loads However, the effect of pitch axis bearing friction on control system loads should be evaluated; on large helicopters this friction usually is low compared with the aerodynamic and dynamic loads, but on smaller helicopters the effect r

{-

I

*

... m ,-,,eurn... •,,

.... ass

... -. aaaa

iliy tic

as n a~ifst.

SNo

hinges are provided for flapwise or lead-lag motion and the only flap or lag movement of the blades relative to the fixed support structure is due to structural deflection. The specific layout of the hub and the retention determines the manner and extent to which these daflections couple with and affect the pitch motion of the blades. As with other systems that do not incorporate a flapping hinge, a precone angle usually is built into the blade retention for a hingeless rotor. This built-in angle helps to alleviate the flapping moment that the retention must react, The geometry of the retention also may include sweep and/or droop of the spanwise axis of the blade relative to the feathering hinge "axis. The direction and amount of these alignments, together with the specific geometry of the blade pitch control input, define the feedback coupling between blade u tion and pitch control input. The necessity 5-30

The failure mode of osczllattng rolling element bearings most generally encountered is gradually progressive spalling that results in looseni-ss, heat generation, and aircraft vibration. These factors have some incipient failure warning characteristics. Both grease- and oil-lubricated bearings have been used in rotor hinges. The um of oil is favored for the majority of cunent helicopters. Some characteristics of the two systems are: 1. Oil Lubrication: a. Oil is satisfactory over a broad temperature range and is changed easily in ra*.onse to environmental changes. b. Oil sight gages provide positive indication of lubricant presence. c. Oil permits "on condition" maintenance. d. Reservoirs should be located so that centrifugal force drives oil into the bearings.

Sz_%'. . .-

JV
S-AMCP
c. Reservoirs and lubrication cavities should be refillable without the necessity for venting to avoid air pockets. f. Oil rcquires elaborate seals and the maintenance of seal integrity. Radian-positive-pressurm seals are commonly used for dynamic sealing. These seals should be installed so that contaminants do not enter them through centrifugal i'nrce. 2. Grease: a. Shields or simple seals are adeqiate when grease bearings are rclubricated at regular intervals. Grease retention is fairly gocd with a failed seal. b. Purged grease tends to exclude external contaminants from the bearing, c. Grease in oscillating bearings tends to channel, and the soap base may harden. Regreasing mL'y be ineffective bccansz the hard soap may prevent proper distribution of new grease. Premature failure may result. Yet, if channeling occu-s, debris detection will not oc an effective means of faijure detection. d. Changing greases (as for extreme low-ternperature use) can be accomplished effectively only by disassembly. ".-•-..1.1 CVlihidcal Rolleir itearlogs
" Cyiindricai roiicr . . .
&-.c

706-202

vide a capability to react moments as well as forces. The roller taper direction of paired bearings can be reversed to increase the tolerance to misalignment. 5-5,2.1,3 Angular Coatact Ball hearInp An angular contact ball bearing carries a high, onedirectional thrust load in combination with radial loads. The end faces of these bearings can be ground so that two or more beatings in tandem will share a thrust load. A common method of pitch (leather) hinge construction is to use stacked angular contact bearings to react the blade centrifugal force, with a reversed bearing to preload the set and to react thrust reversal. This configuration has the capability of reacting rn-omenms and radial loads as well as thrust. Design factors for these bearings are aiscussed in Ref. 44. 5-5.2.2 Teflon Fabric Beatings Teflon fabric bearings are used in the main hingcs of several operational helicopters. e.g., in the 0-6 lag hinge and AH-IG pitch bearing. These bearings are even more widely used in rotor control systems where they have demonstrated their ability to withst-nd hi;h I'cds in an adw vs environment. The Teflon fabric liner varies in thickness from approximately 0.01 to 0.02 in. deperdirrg upon the manufacturer. Strands of a material such as cotton, Dacron, or Fiberglas are interwoven in the back surface of the fabric. The fabric then is bonded to the outer hou.-ing, with the non-Teflon strands providing good bond adherence. Various bonckng agents, bonding procedures, and fabric weaves cre used; these can result in different characteristics of' the finished bearing. Design considerations for these bearings are: 1. Loads a&fdl inotion.s. The cfftl of loads and motions on Teflon bearing lives is based upon empirically determined factors. It is general design practice to compare bearing fives as a function of PV, where P - pressure, psi, based on the projected area of the bearing surface in the direction of load, and V average velocity of contacting surfaces, fpm. The acceptable value of PV for a given life varies with the pressure. Also, load reversals may reduce the acceptable value by half. Large-diameter bearings appear to withstand a higher PV.level than do small bearings. It is clear that PV is only a convenient index for comparison of bearings in similar appli.ations,
and real design values will depend upon endurance

i

high

,i;ol

capacity withi small space requirement. Design considesations mainly are ,mpirical, and many of the factors are discussed in detail i,1 Ref. 42. One method of computing the basic load capacity with oscillatory motion is given in Ref. 43. Other factors must be determined by endurance testing and service experitnic. Some of the factors that influerce the life of cylindrical roller bearings in rotor blade retentions arc: I. Angular deflection of the hinge pin, which can cause concentrated load on one end of the rolles 2. Crowning of the roilern, which can pfovidt a better stress distribution and tend to ,ninimime the effect of hinge pin deflections 3. Roller guidance (e.g., use of a cage), wh;ch can reduce ro;ler misalignment 4. Large angles of oscillation, which can increase the number of stress cycles on the bearing rollers and races 5. Mounting fits, which must be as specified for particular application in order to obtain rated capacity 6. Type of lubricant, 5-5.2.1.2 Tapered Roller Bearings Tapered roller bearings have very high radial and thrust capacities. Design factors are similar to those cylindrical roller bearings and are discussed in Ref. 42. These bearings can be mounted in pairs to pro-

Sof

test data for full scale bearings. 2. Friction. Measured values of the coefficient of friction of Teflon-fabric bearings under loads comparable to those of rotor hinges gcnerally are in 'he
5-31

A\

material is exposed. When loads apt not reversing, bearing wear may not always be reflected in increased clearance. Wear debris collects on th.- unloaded side of the bearing so % that the fit appears to be tight. Unless it isknown that clearance will increase with wear. means of wear other than checking clearance, or *deterniination lightness, should be planned. 5-,U.3 Flexlng Elaemens I.-.The centrifugal force on the blaide acts as a thrust
Anr

Al

reage of ju 0. 1 to 0.2. Contamination of the A bearings in service has reultod in higher values. Hig uniutwn may add significasidy to rotor system lWads and should be considered in the design. Radial bearing fo.-ces due to differential expansion also should be considered as a possible source of damaginS frictional loads, 3. Wear characteristics. Teflon fabric bearings operating at a given load level will wear at sn eswntially constant rate, up to approximately half the liner thickness. Bearings should be rep.laced at this time.

The we"r rate may increase slightly when the backing

thickness, and uas*="ie with and without spacerss sparating the straps.. suetnson-toruaon assemblies shown have straps of 0.032 in. nominal thickness stainless Nteel, with slots as shown to reduce the stresses due to torsion. Thin shims separate the straps at the ends to reduce fretting. The assemblies provide the capability Cot *43-deg blade motion wider design loads, and in nonrol4 operation arm cyclod approximately :L6 dog duaring each -otor revolution. Torsional stiffness of the stamp aaaembaes does not affect the pitch control forces sirnificantly. For example, the larger assembly of Fig. 5-23 has a torsional spring rate of 120 in.-b per deg under the 85,000-lb centrifug-l load of the blade. For the highspeed flight condition the increm ent of pitching moment contributed by the tension-torsion assembly is less than 3% the total predicted blade pitching moof ment. The strap assemblies of Fig. 5-23 have shown excellent fail-safe characteristics. Fatigue failure is
charnctc.-ized by breaking of a single element of a

used in a number of helicopters to react thia fomx while also accommodating movement In pitch. The two mtst commen types of flexing elunents are metal strap tension-torsion assemblies, shown in Fig. 5-23, and wire-wound tie bars, shown in Fig. 5-24.

nth np hinge Flexing tension elements are

5-5..31Tealeaterlo. tra Asembiescopter ".23. Tes~ataison tra Asemibitsflexibility for flarping as well as for pitch, or Many configurations of tension-torsion strap feathering. The IS stainless steel straps carey the conassemibliw~ have beeni u"A~ in addition to those shown trifugal loads from one blade lag hinge across to the in Fig. 5-23. These include different slot oppositt hinge and provide a fail-safe. retention arrangements, unslotted straps, straps of uifferent system.

strap, senerilly on an outside corner, followed by ividluas p itabsaon to otr outer eeet fe much continued cycling. (3round-air-ground cycle testing also has resulted in slow failure progression from element to element in the lug.. The tension-torsion assembly of the OH-6A heliis shown in Fig. 5-11. This assembly provides

"5-.2.3.2 Wire Th-Ar Asa mles

Q
* -.

CHAI

0

Very-high-strength. am'all-diamecter wire is wound around end fittings to form a lightweight retention system that is flexible torsionally under blade centrifugal loads. The inherent torsional flexibility can be varied over a range of approximately 10 to I if desired, by -- anging the configuration (Fig. 5-24). h Normal torsional stiffnesesM like those of the flexing strap assemblies, are such as to have insignificant effects on control loads.

"5-.2A4 Elastometic Bearings
CNA

0 Flwe 5-23. CH-46 and CH-47 Temlon-Torsion SthP Assemblies 5-32

Elastomeric blade-retention bearings are based on the principle that a thin layer of clastokner will withstand high normal (compteasive) forces and still permit high shear deformation (strain). By using alternate layers of elastomer and metal, the blade hinge( forces can be carried as compression of the elmstowmer and the hinpt oscillation carried as shear.

AMCP 706o202
Among the advartge, offered by clowtomeric bearings are: i. Elimination of lubrication requirements 2. Improved maintainability and reliability 3. Sand, rein, and dust resistance 4. Compressive loading, giving the ability to carry loads after severe dqradation (faii-safe) 5. Surface deterioration as the normal form of wear, giving visible failure warninS. Some of the morm common configurations of elutomeric bearings are shown in Fig. 5-25. The cylindrical bearings for radial load and the thrust bearings have bemn used to replace conventional rol!ing elcment bcarings as blade retention components. The spherical elastomer permits complete blade articulation - pitch, flap, and lag - in a single bearing, while reacting the blade centrifugal force.

(A) RADIAL BEARING

ELASTOME R IC AND
METAL LAYERS

ALTERNATE

-~

~N1~(B)

THRUST BEARING

FLEXIBLE TIE BAR ASSEMBLY (A)

ALTERNATE SPHERICAL ELASTOMERIC ETAL LAYERS

(C)SPHERICAL BEARING
(B)STIFF TIE BAR ASSEMBLY

)y

Figure 5-25. Elastonewic Ikarings

T

Flgure 5-24. Torsionally 'Stiff'sad 'Fiexible Wirt-wound Tie-ar Assemblies

3

!L

I/r

.

*

AMCP 70O-2O2
Stops 5-5.25 La Dampeirs, Laend-a The lag damper of an articulated rotor must meet blade stability requirement& in ground resonance (par. 5-4.3) and in flight (par. 5-3.6). Two common means of energy absorption in lag dampers are hydraulic shock absorbers (used on the majority of large hcli&. pters (Fig. 5-26)) and friction dampers (spring-load oscillating disks, used in several small helicopters). Although timpler, lighter, and less expensive, friction dampers gSnerally arc less reliable. Therefore, the use of friction dampers in new rotorai is discouraged. TUflon fabric bearings frequently arc used for mounting lag dampers. For satisfactory life with reversing loads, PV values (par. 5-5.2.2) should be approximately 1/3 those found satisfactory under nonreversing loads. The CH-53 has auxiliar, pistons in its hydraulic lag dampers. The pistons ar,. pressarized to force all blades to the lead stops so that vibration during rotor startup as minimized. Hydraulic lag dampers frequently are used as lead and lag stops. Integral hydraulic cushions can be used to reduce the impact of the blade agtinst the stop. Principal design conditions of the lead and lag stops (whether integral with the damper or not) are: I. Predictable flight conditions or maneuvers will not cause contact of the lead or lag stops. 2. Lead stops will not yield due to rotor brake application. 3. Lag stops will not yield due to engine starting

torque.
4. Lead and lag stops should fail before any dynamic component critical to safe flight yields. 5-5.2.6 Droop and Flap Stops and Restrainers Articulated rotors require stops to limit the extremes of flapping motion of individual biaaca. t• Teetering and gimbal-mounted hubs have a similar rcquirement, but the motion is that of the complete rotor assembly. The droop stop must be positioned to allow normal cyclic blade motion in all predictable flight cond~tions or maneuvers without making contact with the stop. This stop position also must be 1-"gh enough to prevent blade/fuslage contact in high winds during rotor shutdown and when parked, i.e., when blade centrifugal force does not provide a radial force. used to increase blade/fuselage clearances. These restraincrs engage at a rotor speed approximately 4060% of normal during rotor shutdown and restrict blade droop to provide clearances not possiblc with permanent droop stops. Flap stops prcvent accidental overturning of the

'

"

S..restoring ...... ....

I I

Centrifugally operated droop restrainers often are

blade~s in vcry high winds, and are positioned to allow
clearance for flight cyclic flapping motions in all flisht conditions. Centrifugal flap restrainers also can be engaged at low rotor speeds during rotor shutdcwn and, in conjunction with droop rstrain•ets greatly reduce flap hinge motion. Flap restrainers are essential for blade folding to prevent the blades from "elbowing". Elbowing occurs when a blade is folded so that its CG is inboard of the flap hinge axis; if the hinge is

Figure 5-26. 5-34

Hydraulic Lag Damper

I

¼

:I

t,

..... rIi .

I

7-0

AMCP 106-aV02 free to flap, the blade tip will droop unoer the blade weight. Flap restrainers can be ground support equipment if blade folding is accomplished only occasionally. Two common types of centrifugal droop and flap reattainer mechanisms are ovcenter linka3es and interposer blocks. Both of thes use weights to release the mechanism as the rotor speed increases, and springs to re-engage during shutdown, Another droop restrainer mechanism is a floating (gimbaled) ring below the hub, with projections on the flapping portion of each blade. Cyclic motion of individual blades displaces the ring to permit flapping
without restraint, while the ring supports all the

(feathering) acceleration. if balance weights arc used to reduce or nullify the centrifugal centering moment, the increased polar moment of inertia will result in higher loads in the control system to obtain a given change of blade .)itch. For those rotors in which cyclic pitch is obtained t y oscillation of the blade about the pitch axis, e.g., fully articulated and hingeless systems, the dynamic characteristics of the system may be important. The selection of a blade retention system should include the investigation of the response of the blade to the oscillating control force. Systems such as tension-torsion straps or wire tic-bar assemblies that have
known torsional spring characteristics may be

blades against collective droo,.

"5.3 CONTROL SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS
In the selection and design of the blade retention system, consideration must be given to tk.e characteristics of those elements which aff•ct the loads on the rotor control system. Displacement of the blade about the pitch axis is opposed by a friction torque of
essentially constant value if angular contact ball

9
\

nearinns are usewi to react tkut centrriuaai Aorc of the blade. On the other hand, both elastomeric bearings anJ flexing elements (tensit n-torsion straps and wire tie-bar assemblies) have the characteristics of torsional springs. When the elements of this type arc used to react the blade centrifugal forc, the torque opposing angular motion of the blade is proportional to the displacement.
In addition to torque resisting motion about the

required to obtain an acceptable relationship between the natural frequency of the feathering motion and the rotational apeed. Control system design considerations are discussed in detail in Chapter 6. Further discussions of both nullification of the centrifugal centering moment and optimization of the natural frequency of the feathering motion are provided by Ref. 45. Ar A Who A % fi
LD
l FY.4 r@Laf9lfN

For shipboard operation, or for compact stowage, it is desirable to bring the rotor blades within the fusolage envelope. When the blades are stowecd in this manner, there is much less possibility of blade damage when moving the helicopter, or when other helicopters or vehicles are moved in the vicinity. Blade folding is preferable to removing blades; there
is less chance of handling damage, and rctracking can

"pitchaxis that originate in the blade retention system,
there also are torques that dspend upon the inertia characteristics of the blades. The first of these, known variously as the propeller moment and the centrifugal feathering moment, is a torque that opposes displacement of the chordwise principal axis of the cross section of the blade out of the plane of rotation. This torque is directly proportional to the difference between the moments of inertia with respect to the principal axes of the cross section and also varies directly with ill. The presence of the torque also has been referred to as "the tennis racket tffoct". For tail rotors and for main rotors of small helicopters for which the rotational speed is high, it may be desirable to nullify this torque by equalizing the moments of inertia. This may be accomplished by the addition of appropriate balance weights at the root of the blade. The second torque that depends on the characteristics of the blade is the conventional inertia reaction, proportional to the polar moment of inertia with respect to the pitch axis. This inertial torque varies "with, but is opposite in direction to, the pitching

be avoided. Either manual or powered blade folding systems can be used, depending upon operational requirements. Consideration should be given to blade folding in the initial design of a rotor system, even if the basic heilcopter criteria do not include this as a requiremeat. Appropriate decisions as to the method of blade attachment, radial location, and clevis clearances of the blade attachment joint will simplily incorporation of folding at a later date. 5-5.4.1 Design Rtquireaseiut 5-5.4.1.1 Manual Blade Foldlag The following prvisions are required: I. Rotor brakes, rotor locks, or means of securing trc blades to the fuselage to retain hub azimuth position 2. Pitch locks, locking pins, or fixtures to restrict blade motion about the pitch axis, preventing load feedback into the pitch control system forn a folded blade 3. Flap rcstrainers (articulated, gimbal-mounted,

-

r',3.35

and tKt~ring hubs). Centrifugally-operated droop ad flap restrainers are deired; if not self-contained, special ground support equipment is needed to restrain blade droop. 4. lade fold hinge, with quick, simpli means of locking and unlocking blade motion ab,)ut thic hinge 5 Clamps to restict lag hinge motion (articulated rotors) 6. Quick-disconnect fittings for attaching handling lines to blade tips (optional) 7. Acocw to the rotor heLd (steps, handholds. toeholds, or rungs) and w work platform for performing rotor-head folding operations. Major stops in a typical manual blade-folding operation of a single-rotor helicopter are: 1. The rotor should be rotated to the proper azimuth position for folding, 2. Rotor brake or rotor lock should be applied, or one blade should be secured to the fuselage to retain rotor hub azimuth position. 3. With an articulated hub it may be necessary or desirable to move some or all blades to a predetermined position about the lag hinge and to lock out any further motion about this hinge. , d . .4 4. C^^iu; . positioned to the proper setting for folding. 5. Pitch locks should be installed on all blades to be folded. 6. Flap restrainers: a. For articulated hubs without automatic flap restrainers, a flap restrainer should be installed on all blades folded 90 deg or more. b. For teetering or gimbal-mounted hubs, flap hinge motion should be locked out. blades to fust.lage or other structure, if required. .
7. Racks should be installed to secure the folded
a. A blaud-suppuning polc and steadying inus as f

The following componGnt requirements are necessary for a power blade-folding system: I. Power rotor orientation mnchanism 2. Rotor lock to maintain azimuth position 3. Automatic droop and flap restrainers (articulatcd, teetering, or gimbal-mounted hub) 4. Contro! position indicating devices for pilot 5. Power pitch locking device 6. BI. le lag hinge positioning device (articulated hubs) 7. Blade fold hinge unlocking devicc
8. Blade fold actu~ators.

The power blade-folding mechanism for a typical blade of the CH-46 is shown in Fig. 5-27. An electromechanical actuator housed within each rotor blade folding hinge pin operates a linkage that sequentially inserts pitch lock pins, positions the blade about the lag hinge, releases the blade fold hinge lock, and rotates the blade to the proper fold position. 5-5.4.2 Operational Requireantats Blnde folding frequently must be accomplished in an adverse environment with poor lighting, winds, rain, and possible helicopter motion. hladP fnldina under these conditinns can mnial M result readily in crew injury and human error. In view of this, demign of folding components should consider: I. Minimizing loose components 2. Minimizing large or special tools 3. Attaching flags to all fixtures (pitch lock pins, etc.) so that it is apparent the helicopter is ursafe for
flight

I

4. Providing adequate access and working areas
on the helicopter for performing the folding operations. *•l~orut•.• b~twu• n r, A-I• Notice andi betww•n

required by blade size and accessibility, should be attached. The blade-fold joint should be unlocked, and each blade fo!ded and secured. Blades may be secured in racks, by lines to helicopter structure, or about the fold hinge, 9. If the tail assembly is to be folded, it may be necessary topoint it before the cycle.5-. termfediate fold in the fold main blades or at an in-

blades and helicopter structure should be adequate to allow for blade, hub, and drive system deflections under wind loads or due to motions of the helicopter. If the blade-to-fubelage or blade-to-blade clearances are inadequate provisions for biade i,..-ks or bladt securing lines should be matc.
S e SftCe erte In addition to the specific safety consideration dis-

"-o4.1.2 PoWi

Blde Foldif For flight safety it is mandato'ry that a power blade folding system be properly interlocked to prevent any malfunction from occurring in flight. Interlocks also are necessary to prevent damage to helicopter comnportents due to improper sequencing of the power blade-folding systen. it also must be apparcnt to the flight crew that the blade unfolding sequence is cornplete and the aircraft is safe for flight,

cussed in relation to design and operational requirements, the entire blade-folding operation should be reviewed from the system safety viewpoint. The identification of potentially hazardous conditions should be made from the viewpoint ofa material failure/malfunction, environmental conditions, personnel error, supervisory influence, or any combination of these factors. Maximum effort
should be made during the design phase to reduce the

-

5-36

i06~

AMCP 705-202 hazard of these failure modes. Guides for this safety must incorporate strength and stiffness character-

analysis include MIL-STD-882 and Ref. 46. .- 6 ROTOR BLADES 5-6.1 GENERAL
As described in par. 5-2. design of a helicopter rotor involves the dctermination of optimum values for each of a number of parameters, i:cluding those that define the blade gcometry. The blade designer

istics that will meet the applicablc structural design
criteria and also will provide acceotable acroelastic

characteristics, and will do so efficiently and econumically.
The blade geometry is defined by the parametcr of twist, planform, aud airfoil section. Selection of values for these parameters generally is accomplished during preliminary design. The type of parametric analysis required to optimize the rotor design

-

FOLD HINGE

PITCH HORN

b)!tW

2

-7-1j

aI .PITCH
FLAP HINGE

HORN
LAG P11CH

LAG H'NGE'-

POSITIONER

HUB
•,:•
Figire 5-27.

0
•.,PIN "BLADE CLAMP

FOLD HINGE

BLADE FOLD MOTOR INFOLD HINGE

CH-46 Power Blade Folding Mechanism 5-37

AMCP 706-202 is described in pEr. 3-4.1, AMCP 706-201. The considerations pertinent to the three principal flight conditions - hover, high-speed lift, and maneuvering are reviewed in par. 5-2. Ir the paragraphs that follow, the sign-ficance of the two types of design parameters - aerodynamic and structural - is reviewed, with emphasis on the detail design and :manufactuie of rotor blades that will satisfy these requirements. 5-6..1 angle as it varits around the azimuth. Commonly the inertia contribution -- i.,., ccr.trifugal twisting due to blade pitch and pitch rate - will be greatar than thc aerodyninmic twist.ing monrents, and the net tarsional deflectiou is in the nosedown direction. A further requirement is that at high forward-flight speeds, the advancing 'blade tip has zero, or near zero, lift load in order that the corrcsponding high Mach numbc- drag be minimized. For a given amount of twist and a given forward speed, this minimum drag can he met orly at one specific gross weight. For operations at gross weights above this value the increase in required collective pitch resu'ts in increased blade-tip lift and drag loadings Also, at gross weights below this minimum, a highly twisted blade tIp operates at high forward speed with negative lift on part of the advancing side of the disk. This causes aen eo e mcontrol-load pulse,ue hthe aircraft flight nosedown yb i i - b c and r ul ntv r envclope may be limit-d brcause the resultant vibration exceeds prescribed limits. amount loi etitdb h lgtpwrrqieet of twist that is optimum for forward flight power requirements also is restricted by the relatively linear increase in oscillatory flanwise hending moment with increased twist. In general, the powe," consumption and blade torsional moments duc to compressibility effects can be minimized if, at the design condition, the blade is twisted to produce zero lift on the advancing tip. 5-6 1.2 Planform Taper As with twist, the effect of planform taper is to give a more uniform inflow distribution across the'redisk during hover and thus to increase the Fs& of Merit. The local induced velocity is proportional to the square root of the blaied ie-_e.inn lift, which in turn, is directly proportional to the local blade chord. Thus, by increasing the root chord over that at the tip, the induced velocity over the inboard portion of the disk can be increased, simultaneously increasing the thrust over the inboard portion of the disk. Experiniental results have shown, however, that the oscillatuy bending nroments are increased as the planform taper is .ncreased (i.e., tip chord is much less than root chord). The higher cost of producing planform-tapered blades has ruled out their general use. In addition, a blade with planform taper requires a thickness taper in order to retain a uniform airfoil section with known characteristics. Also, significant planform taper results in a srmaller blade tip cross-sectional area available for tip balance weight placement. Also, excessive amounts of root chord - as dictated from Figure of Mer;t optimization studies - can cause a premature power limit on forward speed due to an increase in profile power.

SGenera'y, rotor blades have a linear twist on the

Twist

Sg.ad .-

.

S.Aerodynamic

order of 4 to 8 deg, and the blade tip angle of attack is less than that at the root (washout). The primary considerations leading to se:ction of the deaign value of twist occur in the trade-offs between hover efficiency delay of high-speed, retreating blade staql. and Thfor a raircraft m si SThus,thef ra particular aic at missionn profile that p oiet a combines both hover and cruise, an optimum twist must be determined that will allow both high hover d i cThe ~~~~gross weight and good cruise efficiency. The effect of twist in the hover Dode. is to .reate a more uniform intlow distribution trom the biae tip to the root. The so-called "ideal twist" (which results in unretical w lus of twist n-ar the blad, rnfo ) theorctically would result in a uniform inflow distribution across the rotor. Large an! ounts of twist, up to 12 deg, approximate this distribution over at least the outboard half of the blade. Twist has the effect of reducing both the induced gad profile drag losses of ,.he rotor so that the hover efficiency, generally refer:-ed to as Figure of Merit, is increased (-cc par. 32, AMCP 706-201). The theoretical maximum value for Figure of "Meritvadue is unity. This value can occur only if the rotor has no tip losses and also posse2.ses no profile drag. These conditions cannot occur, so an actual rotor Figure of Merit value always will be less than unity. The effect of twist in the forward flight mode of rotor blades is to lower the pitch at the tip while maintaining a larger angle near the root. This reduction of tip angle of attack gives a corresponding decrease in the rotor profile drag power, which, in turn, allovs a higher forward speed to be obtained, parametric studies used to optimize design twist for a particular aircraft also must include torsional deflection in obtaining the section angle-ofattack and the corresponding aerodynamic loading, Effects of drag loads and centiifugal twisting also should be included ;n the elastic twist angle deterruination. Th: forward flight angle-of-attA;k determinartion also should include the effect of blade pitch rrte (tennis racket effect) on the instantaneous twist

.

S~AMCP

w

.,,,,,

706-202

5-6.1.3 Airfoil

msSe..lon

In addition to the usual need for high lift-to-drag ratios, stall angles, and critical Mach numbers, rotor

may have undesirable effects on blade profile power. At the same time, cambered airfoils extend the low Mach number, retreating blade drag divergence boundary to regions correspording to greater lift co-

blade airfoils require low pitching moments. Airfoil
pitching moment coefficients that vary appreciably with angle of attack give periodic pitch link inpats that are undesirable and that, in turn, can lead to periodic forces and vibrations. Thus, although in forward flight the angle of attack varies with azi-

cfficicnts. However, this bcneficial effect disappears
as Mach number is increased. A further benefit of the delay of compressibility effects due to the use of thin, cambered airfoils is that noise levels due to these effects are, in general, decreased for a given flight condition. The noise

muth, it is desirable that the blade pitching moment coefficient not vary. Usually, it is preferred that the pitching moment coefficient be zero so the corresponding loads do not vary with the variati3ns of local airspeed.
The usual starting point in airfoil selection is the

generated by a blade intersecting a tip vortex is affected only to the extent that the vsrength of the vortex is affected. This particular form of noise is caused by a .railed tip vortex being intersected by the following blade, with a rcsukhnt rapid change of
angle of attack. The corresponding pressure change

minimization of rotor power requirements for th design cruise and hover conditions. Two-dienensional airfoil drag data at the design lift coefficient arc used in this determination. The static variation of drag coefficient with Mach number, along with the change in the drag divergence boundary, also i- used. The drag reduction potential of thin airfoils is well known, and has the greatest effect near the blade tip
due to thc higher Mach numbcr environment therc.

causes the slapping noise that is characteristic of heli. copters. At a given flight speed, a lower lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio will reduce the vortex strength and hence lower the noise. Several airfoil sections that ,:re used or could be used in helicopter blades are shown in Fig. 5-28. The main geometric properties of these air foils - such as thickness ratio, leading edge radius, and camber are identified in this ligure. e

For ease and economay of manufacturing, a thin air"foilat he blade tip usually is auhieved with a uniform
root-to-tip thickness taper.

It, addition to the characteristics shown, some blades possess a thin, teailing edge extension strip
that extends beyond tWe "true," airfoil trailing edge.

On the other hand, the ret. -ating blade stall and drag divergence characteristics of thick sections are superior to those of thin sections in several series of airfoils. In the low Mach number region of the disk, the thick sections allow a higher lift coefficient to be cbtained before the onset of drag divergence. However, the advantage of these 4 ck sections is reversed "! in the high Mach nuinbec environment. Tnus, the airfoil section characteristics for the advancing and
retreating blades are in conflict,

In the usual blade, this strip 'sosed as a base to whi..h th. upper and lowrr skins are bonded. The strip can be tailored in length and thickness, or number uf laminates, to obtain the dcsir'd edgewise stiffness and fatigue properties. Airfoil characteristics shown in Fig. 5-28 also can be used joirtly so that the d-si, ,nle properties of seve.el characteristics can be incorporated into one airioil. For example, a blade design could be based on a thin airfoil with e dtoop
nose. This would combine the benefits of reduced

The addition of airfoil camber ana increased leading edge raduis tends to improve the low-specdstall characteristics of the symmetrical airfoil sections commonly '-sWd .or rotor blades. At high MAch
numbers, the eftect of camtrcr is ;o decrease the

drag an the hi3 rhMach number advancing blade tip iýi:h increased maximum lift coeflicient on the retreating biade. This hypothetical blade could be modified further with a iarpe leading edge radius, and
could have its aft section produced with straight

-.

J

• \

maA'muni obtawable lPit coefficient. However, this effect is riot too significant because low lift coerficir -- are desired in the advancing blade, high Mach ts number region. Camber generally is applied to the forward portion of the rotor blade airfoil cross section in order to retain low pitching moment coeffi cients. This leads to the "droop snoot" terminology used by at least one contractor. In some instances, the trailing edge is reflexed slightly to counteract an otherwise unavoidable amount of pitching momenz and the corresponding cyclic control loads. This method of eliminating undesirable pitching moments

"slzb" sides. These changes would improve, respectivcly, the abruptness of the blade stall chatacteristics and the ease of manufacturing khe blade aft section honeycomb er web structur-e. Further, the machining of the main bonding molds for a slabi ded blade will be easier, hence, less expensive. The decreasz in blade flapwise, edgewise, and torsional stiffnesses ca.sed by this particular geometric shape could be restored with the proper slection and layups of advanced materials such as boron or graphite composite., but the slab-sid,:d airfoil may r.t provide as high a value of LID. By ,use of this type of 5-39

&.............

trade-off procedure it should be possible to obtain a blade airfoil that represents an optimum configuretion for the specific hWticopter mission. Blade !ip geometry has been found to ha~vc impor-. tant effects upon overall rotor performance. Early studies genr-ally used constant chord sip covers wiht flat, stmiround, or other types of curvature. These studies indicated thiat limited perfomiance benefit was obtainod with tip covers ftht had xomplicated curvature and were thus difficult to manufacture. The major performance gain of these tip covers. as indicated by the rotor lift to drag LID uhually could be ti accd to an increase in rotor radius. More recent studies have cicplered owept leading and trailing edgecs in aim, to reduce the tip vortex velocity and effort strcnjihI. These results have shown that a planforni

LOCAýAN OF

K
-

M&XiL*A~ IHICKNES$ I

. THICKNES PATIO /
ufAN CAMER'.JNE

C. HCNSS

ILEAOIIG
FADIUS

_-I-I~

taperwd bld,,tip does tad., Am tp vor%% henoe hi Iand both tlim corm~ponding naise and tho UWAI~laory loads origiatisng rsear the tip of the blade. Inadilon. the aft sweep of the leading ed*r delays the effoits of comnpressibility, as With v fixed wing. This allcowa an increase in forw'ard spood fo.- fixed values of rotor spc*- and available power. Other attempts at bLkde tip gvometry mnvdification to deecrase the tip vortex, such av~ installing slots ur holes, have not proved successful. The tipplicability el stundord,. two-dimensional airfoil data in rotor ana~ysis is q~tcitionablc whenever the shed tip vorte-x al* progiahes the following blade. EBecaus-. the bled%: tip gcomctry has such1 a stong influence on the tip vortex, the allawfible spatial relationmhip betwoeen the vortex find blade for future high-speed heqlicopters should Ix analyzed for various tip configurations. Recent flight tests have indicat~d that thc oscillatory airloads tend to be concentrated at the bladc tips. Most harmonics are characterized by higher lobding at the tip due to the ,ipulsivc ntature of tip vortex interference. In tiousteady bade tip are changing rapidly due to &he vortex effect the angle of atiack. Therefore, this radial segment of blade dies not behave as two-dimensional wind tunnel data wouald suggest, and time-dependent airsection characteristics should be used itn the anaof acerodynamic loads and roto'r perforniance. aneuivers, the local conditions

.--____ r~Y

-

~in the following
1.

2

J

-

-

7 c~c;; ~Z
. _______IO

______on

U"UIN

MA~IL4IAMUc4

CAUSERfoil
-*---------lysis -~

STANARDAIRFIL-ACA 012a
-

~
Sis

THIN AIRFOIL-MACA 0006

S-~
SHARP NOSE AIRFOIL-NACA 63AI,,
-

Two-dimensional static tests show that r4te low Mach number stall of thick airfoils of cvrtain series is leading-edgec phenomenon. This stall is characv'rized by a sudden sepafation of flow over tht entire upper airfoil surface, and resufts in ani abrupt change in the lift curve slope. Also associate-S with this effeci an instantaneous nosed&.wn pi-iching mom!.rnrt. No warning occurs that would ini-'aite stall a i.-riminent. This instantaneiu!, OTfet docs. mecnsional tests of thin airtoils. not occur a gradual Rather, ii- two-diin lift curve slopt; mkatý r~oce, alcog w~th a more gradual increase int nosedown pitching .noment due to stall. Many investigaiievs have been cunducted as to the c~ffects of noststeady acrodynt.PU*CS various airfoil sections. These tests indicate that, the dynamic enivironirint of irtcret.'ni angler of tvLtack with time, stall as indicated by a iom K- Ui~t Ui not occur in the manner pnedictcd fiem- static tests. When a sharp loss of !ift does ozcum due to Iai4
separation, the resulting impcac is highly

~

-

.chango,

Q_~z~
SL-AB SIDE AIRFOIL
-*---..on Sin

CAMBEIED AIRFOIL
__________________________edge S~coupled

DROOP NOSE AIWOIL

Flpure 3-28.
5.40

TypkMa Helkcoper BoIrM ade Airfoils

to the dynamic response of fl~t blade in toision. For instance, a fixed itupuls: due to L 3uchlw loss of lift on the :etreating blade niuy hrtv.- r.Sitter effect on a rotor sy! 'em haviing both at b4w cowmrol stiffness and a torsionally soft blade. Tot torn it!

)AMCP7W
* * stiffness of an airfoil cross ection is approedmately proportional to the square of its area for a Sivrn type "ofcell constru-taon. Thus, a thick airfoil can be manufactured with higher torsional stiffness. Therefore, for the airfoil series with which the thick section receives a sharp impulse due to sudden stall, the torsional response of the blade may be leks for a given amount of cointrol jystan stiffn%4 than when a thin section is used. Dynamic pitch te.its of various airfoils have shown clearly that the increase in the maximum lift coefficient is large for low Mach numbers and decreases as Mach number is increased. Thus, as the retreating blade increases pitch, it can ivacn a greater angle of attack before stall occurs than that predicted by twodimensional airfoil tests. The amount of this increase is dependent upon the airfo'l geometry, particularly the amount and location of camber and the leading edge radius. The lift coefficient that corresponds to the drag divergence angle of attack obtained from two-dimeasional tests, however, remains an adequate indicator for oscillating drag divergence. The more gradual increase in pitching moment due to the couid result in Itrgc losses of lift if these torsionally softer blades untwist sufficiently to precipitate a loss o! lift. Sharp increases in torsional loads then occur and can result in the same net effect as leading-edge separation of thick airfoils. It has been foomd from several experimental sources that cambered airfoils with a slightly increased leading-edge radius possess superior pitching moment delaying characteristics. A large leading .edge radius also helps keep the blade section CG iorward, which delays the onset of both pitching moment stall and classicdl bending-torsion and stall flutter. i-or airfoils with sharp leading edges and with their maximum thickness further aft, the bladc tip vortex strength and trajectory in conjunction with the objectives of obtaining a high hover Figure of Merit and a low value of cruise power reiuired. Blade twist, chord, and thickness, and the corresponding physical properties of the blade, should be chosen to minimize the responses due to vortex action and aerodynamic hysteresis effects, in addition to resonant conditions. These types of anslyses should include the effects on the blade of the entire control system, as well as possible shrft, or pylon bending. Dynamic blade stall effects at the first torsional natural frequency and at the once-per-rev rotational frequency of the blade should be included in the blade response analysis. 54.2 BLADE CONSTRUCTrION Rotor blade structures may be broken down into three major elements: the spar, the aft section (sometimes referred to as the fairing), and the root end retention. Secondary elements are tip closures and hardware. trim tabs. and tuning weights. While wooden rotor blades still are in use and probably will be used to a limited extent for many yeaus, they are tcr development and, therefore, are not addressed in this handbook. 56.2.1 Spar The major load-carrying member of any rotor blade is the main qpr, whether it be designed for structure only or also as a part of the aerodynamic shape of the blade. It may he of monolithic construction or may be assembled from two or more components. The predominant types of spars are described in subsequent paragraphs. 54.2.1.1 Hollow Ex•taloa

*•

overall blade CG can bt moved forward with a large
tip-over balance weight. This is not as desirable as obtaining a more uniform forward CG position from root to tip, since individual 31adc radial segments may still be acted upon by undesirable moments. A form of negative damnping can occur when the blade twist rate and the loading due to the acrodynAnic pitching moment are in the same direction. This may !kiadto excessive torsional response and to subsequent loss of lift on the retreating Htade, chnracterized by excesive flapwise bending amplitudes. As with torsional stiffnew, a thicker blade obviously possepss more flopwise stiffness, for a given type of €onitruction and hance will respond less to a fixed amount of flapwise lift input. Determination of blae geometry shouid consider the effocts of nonoteady aerodynamics along with

This extrusion may be a "D" spar, usually consisting of a single cell, or it may be of an essentially trapezoidal shape. The "D" shape conforms to the forward portion of the airfoil shape, with the vertical part of the "D" serving as & shear member. The hollow trapezoida spar, sometimes referred to as a box beam, may be made to conform to the upper and lower sides of the airfoil surface but requires the addition ot a shaped component on the forward side to provide the nose rdius of the airfoil. This shaped componeiit usually tervol also to provide chordwise balancing of ttc blade and therefore is made of.brass or some other relatively dense material, 54.2.1.2 Solid Extruilog This extrusion iR solid in the sens4 that its crosssectional outline may be tiared without lifting the

=

.:

".'2.•

.~ •

-- :+

"%::"-

. ::•

AMCP 76-202

"tracingstylus. It may be referred to as a "C" section,
opening tcward the trailing edge. As with the 'D" section, it conforms to the forward portion of the airfoil shape. Commonly the wall is thickened a considerable amount at the nose to provide chordwiue balance and resistance to impact damage. The "C" section may or ma) not be closed at its ai. end with a separately extruded or formed shear web. The principal advantage of extruded aluminum spars is relatively low cost in production. The "ID" and box beam configurations lend themseh'es to internal pressurization as an in-service inspection system for cracks. The advantage of the "C" section is that its internal, surface may be inspected during manufacture. A major disadvantage is that the use of extruded spars is confined to constant-section blades. An added disadvantage is the poor resistance of aluminum to erosion. In low-performance heiicopwhere changes in aik'foil nose radius are not critical, this problem car, be ignored; however, it usually is necessary to cover the aluminum with an erosionresistant shield at the leading edge of the blade. From the standpoint of efficient design, the fatigue tive. 5-6.2.1.3 Formed Sheet Metal This type of spar is fabricated from mu•.iple components, the minimum being a "C" section and a shear web. The shear web may be the web of a channel section, with the flanges providing surface area with which to bond or braze the channel into the "C" section to form a "'D" shape. /.dditional webs may be added to made a multicell structure. In most instances, a continuous or segmented balance weight
*i i

Reliability is enhanced in that the quality of the raw material can be closely controlled and inspected prior to spar fabrication. The raw material does not undergo any fundamental change during the fabrication process. 5-S.2.1.4 Round Steel Tube One of the earliest types o" spars for rotor blades was a round steel tube, and certain advantages still exist. Obviously, a touid tube cannot be used to constitute a part of the airfoil shape, but must be buried withia an enclosing structure or envelope. Inherent in the various process= for producing such spars is the ability to taper both diameter and wall thickness continuously or in smooth steps - providing considerable latitude in stiffness, mass, and -aerodynamic taper of the rotor blade. The heaviest portion of the tube protrudes from the root end of the blade enivelope, and may have integral attachment lugs or may simply be a cylinder that accepts a socket type of retention fitting. Generally, excellent material properties are obtained in tubular spars due to the nature of the coldworking process employed iii their fabrication. When

__•ters,

strenge!h-to-weiaht ratio for aluminum is not attrac-

this proce.ss is accompiished with sufficicni pi io,-, to avoid stress raisers, high fatigue strength can be . obtained. Further, with proper blade design, the material surrounding the spar tube can have sufficient independent strength to make the structure highly redundant. A disadvantage of the completely enclused spar is the difficuity of access for inspection, 5-6.2.1.5 Formed Metal Tube An alternative to the round tube is the formed metal tube. Generally, this starts with a round tube oval shape within the blade envelope. In the former case, the "D" is the forward portion of the airfoil contour. In the latter case, the oval tube is encased within the envelope of the airfoil, much as with the round tube. The oval shape permits a thin airfoil compared to the original tube diameter. In either case, taper of the airfoil is quite difficult to achieve, athough the wall thickness can taper so as to give the desired mass aad stiffness distribution. The root retent:on alternati.c4 Ft, identical to those for the round tube. Most of the advantages and disadvantaaes are the same as for iound tubes. 54-2.1.6 Molded Reinforced Plastic Molded reinforced plastic lenrls itself to alii,st any gcometric. spar configuration. High-strength fibers which may be of various types of glass, graphite, or boron - are imbedded in a matrix, usually of epuxy.
w'hich
-- bý,ýtu-ntlv 6

; In or

may contribute to the overall structure, particularly for chordwisc stillnesm. There is a wise choice of materials for fo-med sheet-metl spars, ranging from low niloy steels to any of several types of stainlesrs steels tyr noaferrous al!oys such as beryllium coppr. Among the advantages of this type of coistrucilon is the ability to taper the spar in almo:t any manner desired. Another is the ability to tailor the gages of the different components to achieve a given set of stiffness and strength requirements with greater precision, Perhaps the greatest advantage is the redundancy of the structure. The bondlines between the components are effective crackstopper6 so that, even if the "C" spar should fail, the remaining structure can be designed to carry the loads and prevent a catasti ophic failire of tht blade. Finally, depending upon the alloy and tlh-configuration, thc spar can provide adequ•te erosion protection without n extra shield, 5-42

a the nose radliiuc ,f the. 'C'` and

fnrm to

either a "D" or an

M
Orientation of the fibers along the length of the spar gives a composite construction that is very strong in axial tension and is light in w'eight. One successful configuration is much like the solid aluminum extrusion. Others may be "I" beams or variants thereof. The large number oi configurations possible include a multicell section with complete shear weba molded integrally inside an airfoil-shaped shell, One of the greatest attractions of molded plastic is the ability to achieve any desired degree of taper and virtually any desired shape. Another is the ability to wrap each fiber, or filament, around t'.e principal attachment member at the root end so that there are no discontinuities in the load-carrying material. Still another is the relatively wide selection of stiffness/ strength/weight ratios that arc available through the choice of fibi-r-reinforcing material and the orientation of the fibers. A disadvantage of molded reinforced plastic is tht difficulty of repeajing with precision the properties (density, strength, stiffness) from one unit to another. This problem is being overcome, through improveimnts in the molding process. 5.4U.2 Aft Sscfie The aft section, or fairing. of a rotor blade is the aft 70-80% of the airfoil. It consists of upper and lower skins, some type of contour-stabilizing internal member (usually a structural trailing edge strip), and a means of attachment to the spar. This section may make a significant contribution to the beam stiffnesG and strengah of the blade, or, in some cases, it may serve only as a fairing and to transmit the airloads to the spar. There are many different typ's and variations. The rtist common are described in succeeding

706-202

SP~agtisphs,

with unusually heavy skins may not require any internal members in the aft section. Very large blades may be constructed with individual sandwich skins both top and bottom, in which case no further reinforcement or stabilization may be necessary. Spanwise "I" beams or channels in the aft section generally contribute significantly to blade chordwise and torsional stiffness and thus are found more often in the blaces of semirigid rotor systems. Channels are adaptable as spanwise members in tapered blades since thay can be stretch-formed to the required shape. If they are bruke- or roll-formed in a constant shape, they can be placed in a skewed position within the aft section so that they follow a spanwise line of constant blade thickness. However, the use of such internal members often has the disadvantage of Complicated internal too'ing required for proper positioning, and to supply adequate pressure during adhesive bonding of the assembly. Honeycomb core as a filler between the top and bottom skins of the aft section is extremely effective in maintaining a stable airfoil contour. Although aluminum alloy honeycomb core is the most common. there is a growing tendency toward the use of nonmetallic honc)cuwb. Tht latter has the advantages of being less susceptible to corrosion, relatively resistant to impact, and - where nonmetallic skins also are employed - less suuxptible to lightning strikes. Whenever honeycomb is used, careful attention must be given to sealing a blade completely against tiie entry of moisture, because any water that enters the blade has a tendency to migrate and become entrapped, leading to corrosion and blade unbalance. Fosm core also has been used successfully in blade
oft
=ttc•tni
Thp

I

liahtweight fnramg

reguired in this

5-6.2.1 Coatimous Skim Continuous skins of sheet metal or fiber-reinforces plastic may extend from the root of the blade to the tip. Regardless of the internal members, continuous skins normally carry a significant amount of the centrifugal loading and a lar, -share of thc chordwise bending anc, torsional stiffness. These contributions can be controlled closely in the case of plastic skins by the sclection of the fiber orientation. In this way, a blade can be designed to be torsionally soft and yet veiy stiff in the flapwise or cbordwise direction, or vice versa. SThe internal members that tie the upper and lower skins together and maintain the blade contour may ""'_/ be metallic or nonmetallic "'I"beams or channels, honeycomb core, foam core, or a series of individual ribs. Blades with a chord of less than 8.0 in. or blades

application are somewhat more susceptible to lelamination between skin and core than arc the honeycombs, and to failures occurring within the foam itself. Generally, foam cores are pre-cured before -blade assembly. Foaming in place is !a be discouraged since it is difficult to obtain uniform quality and density. Individual ribs commonly were used with wooden rotor blades, but seldom are employed with metal or reinforced plastic blades with continuous aft sections. In the latter case, the tooling for installation of the ribs becomes quite :omplex, and contour stability is difficuilt to maintain within the weight and balance limitations.
54.2.2.2 Segnumted Skims

K4'-r, .' 4

Blades used in fully articulated rotor systems often are constructed with segmented aft sections, 5-43

.. . . ....

S*

i

Straeliog

o ti r•f d to as boxes, pockts, or fairinug Obviously, this type of construction provides for no centriflial load-carying ability, and makes little contribution to chordwise stiffemu unless each ofmeat is connected by a continuous, structural, edge strip. The skins of the aft section segments may be of metal or reinforced plastic and are stabilized much the same as are the skins in blades with continuous aft sections. Among the advantages of segmented skins is the ability to replace individual segments in the eveat of local damage. Because the skins are. in a sense, nonstructural, considerable damage can be sustained without destroying the basic structural integrity of the rotor blade. Also, with'this configuration it is easier to achieve blade bending stiffnesse of the values required for the natural frequencies desired in an articulated system. One of the greatest disadvantages in segmented aft sections is the increased difficulty in preventing water from entering the rotor blade. The number of segments may vary from 8 to 20 or more, and each joint between segments must be sealed. 5.6.2.3 Wraparoad Skins A special form of continuous aft section is that in which the skin of the rotor blade wraps completely around the nose radius, providing both the upper and lower aitrfoil surfac.s in one piece. This method of contrtL crion may be used with any of the previously described internal stabilizing or strengthening members, although generally it i used with a solid extruded spar or a formed-section tubular spar. Such a skin usually is made of iluminum, although the use of other light alloys or fiber-reinforced plastic is not preclded. I he method of manufacture normaidy is to form only the nose radius in the center of the skin material, and to depend upon the spar and/or other internal members to control the remainder of the airfoil contour. A disadvantage of wraparound skins is the difficulty of maintaining cose contour :olerances, particularly in nonsymmetrical airfoils. Also, in order to maintain :he required weight and balacce, the skin normally is too thin to afford protection against erosion of the nose and, therefore, an additional erosion shield is required, 54.23 nreo End Retmade Root end retentions vary considerably from one blade design to another, depending upon the type of rotor system and the type of blade construction. The main retention bolts or pin(s) provide the interface between the rotor blade and the hub. Because of the high bending and centrifugal loads at this interface, it 3-44

is necessary to increasethe blade thickness to achieve sufficiently high section modulus and bearing arm. Commonly, this is accomplis;'ed by bonding metal laminates external to the upper and lower surfaces of the blade, and then adding a relatively heavy remntion or grip plate external to the stack of laminates. The retention plate contains the main holo(s), which may pus through the blade envelope or through top and bottom lugs that are extensions of the retention plates. Where the bolts pass through the blade envelope, it is reinforocd with Internal, metal filler blocks that effectively create a solid airfoil section in that region. When a tubular steel spar is wed, it may be extended inboard of the blade envelope and be fitted with a socket, or cuff, which is either damped or threaded onto the heavy root end of the spar. 1he socket may contain a single retention hole or two holes, d.pending upon the location and configuration of the lead-lag hinge of the hub. Here, again, the holes are through lugs that are an integral part of the socket and mate with similar lugs on the hub. 5-6.2.4 Tip Closures and Hardware
rai1
Ai.flji
buI%4WA- hiIUvc sUaa

JiUIaUst

tyfjMof

IASflA

and adjustable weights within the envelope at the tip end. Fixed weights are employed to provide adt quate rotor inertia, to control flapwite bending fmequencies, and to place the static chordwise CG and the nominal dynamic axis in the proper location. Generally, adjustable weights are installed in pairs, displaced equally forward and aft of the deon dynamic axis of the blade. These are used to equalize the spanwis' mass moment of one blade against another or against a master, correcting for manufacturing tolerances in weight, and also to provide a forward or aft adjustment of ti - dynamic axis to achieve equal pitching moments from one blade to another. With adequate precision in the tooling and methods of manufacture, the uced for either or both of the.:e adjustments may be eliminated. Tip closures may be simple flat plates or relatively complicated hollow, airfoil-shaped, monocoque shells, usually screwed or riveted to the blade envolope. Various sOapes are in use: some simply rounded at the end, some made in the shape of a wedge, and some with very unconventional planforms. Most tip plates or caps have a small protuberance at the extreme tip to facilitate flag tracking of the rotor. 54.2.5 Trim TrOs Rotor blades generally are fitted with ground-adjustable trim tabs. The tab may be an extension of the skin or of the trailing edal fioler strip beyond the nominal trailing edge of the airfoil, and may extend

for Aw4c panof

dop of O bbmk A

cow

c mmme SMl Wok

k

of motfmt

aOW . To a

ialty of 75% span For hums trad a& trim tabs am a&*u d by beafd tm upwald or downw..d a nmmusy to oqualisa the pifteba acemt chanac t9lst• of th* adibuAl Nbae. "54.A Teif egd
Many forms of tuning weights am ued internally at various locations alog the span ofthe blade. lly are referred to a oantinodes weights because they l ar placed at the point of maximun deflection amplitude of the blade a itisvibrates in various harmonic mode*. The purpose to chang the natur-al froquency of the ilade to avoid resonance with any posbible forcing frequencies, particularly rotational speed. The weigts may be bonded. riveted, or boltad to internal structur J members of the bladr, or may be suspended at the end of a cable, strap, or rod that is retained st the root end. The latter method of retention precludes high local stresses in the basic blade structure due either t. holM, or to contrifugal force because of the concentrated mass. It also pr"": M a "MW %,%"..... :. SJ Aij 4_ .,1i""hy Ac1 bending, and permits the weight to be made of highdensity, nonstructural metal. 5-..7 Dedge ReWqiamb Regardless of the method of construction of a rotor bhlde, the detail design and the selection and distribution of matial muat satisfy a number of independent and interrelated requirements. The blade geometry Naving boen established, as discussed in par. 54.1, additional major considerations are strength, vibration, weight, mass moment of inertia, serviceabwiity, and cost. As a rule, a rotor blade that is des.ned to have a reasonable life under the applicable fatigue loading conditions will be structurally adequate for any static conditions. Therefore, major emphasis must be placed on design features that reduce the alternating strewn and make the structure as insnitive as posi ble to those rtesses. Alternating stresses are induced by response of the bledes to the periodic airloads, which, in turn, are affecte by the blade motion. The blade response it dependent almost entirely upon the mas and stiffnes distributions. It is exemnely important that thes distributions be such as to avoid any bending or t risional natural frequencits that are near resonance v Ahtany forcing functions (ace par. S4.2). Thi blade vibration frequencies may be broken ,own into flapwise, chordwiw, -and torsional frequencies, thse may couple together unfavorably to

e be to .bm dt thmu usihsm hdl ,,ain .ul m Si=h , it is duirbli that ah s # theo spiwise nume Adbam1Mes be pemihi wkho~aihebie the chonhwiss CO. For eaa Ks. pmawi, alla node weWigt f kaproperly locate Inthe bade owy correct a flapp*n natural frequecaq, but may chasg
a torsional fsqIency sao as to cause it to

strongly with a chordwlse bending frequency. Su'-

ouple I

.

coupling often reults in high-frequency streW amplifications that can senousy liit the lifo of the rotor blade; but if the vibrations are not transmitted to the irath oiinnyntbeppttttl o'cupant.. This control of natural frequencies is equally i•.portait in avoiding excessive vibration of the aircraft and high loads in the control system. Whether or not the rotor blade vibrations will be transmitted to the fixed system is dependent upon the mode of vibration relative to the nua Ser of blades .inthe rotor. Thus, it is necessary to ,onsider the entire systen, when designing a rotor blade for optimum natural In spite of all efforts to avoid amplifications of bending moments by control of natural frequencies, alternating stresses always will exist. It is of prime irportance, therefore, that the detail design mimiz,, the tolerance of a rotor blade :o these stresses. Materials selected, whether metallic or nonmetallic. must be capable of providing high fatigue strength. To this end, any form of stress raiser - e.g., notch, hole, or sudden change of section - must be avoided in areas of even relatively low alternating streUs. Techniques have been developed that now make wcldi-ag a vm~bi• mfu(hd fUo fabliitfion of rotor blades. However, care must be exercised in the placemeat of the weld, and adequate quality control over the process must be assured. Holes in areas of high stress also can be avoidc; 1hrough the use of adhesive bonding. When the joints are designed with care, stress concentrations virtually can bc eliminated. Bondcd joints albo act as a barrier to the propagation of a crack from one structural member to anothe'. In all of the blade confriuretions discussed in the earlier parts of this paragraph, adhesive bonding generally is the principal method of joining. 54.8 Toe11" NW QAltY Cer" RqdremetTwo principal catgories of tooling for the constraction of rotor blades are the tools for fabricating the main emponewtp and thow for assembling the blade. In the case of molded flber-reinforced-plastlc blades, these may be combined, and the spar, skins, "'-:-

I

J

.9-

"'.N

'

S

------

\_c.also may be ma.'. .... .. mbb eool. Dies for the manufacture of extruded aluminum spars are relatively inexpnasive; however, the machining and other operations involved are likely to offist this cost advantage if the spar is tapered in any way. Frequently, it is difficult to maintain the required tolerances in aluminum extrusions. Formed sheet-metal s~ars and shear webs, or longitudinal stiffeners, usually are made in a multistage roll forming mill if the blade is of constant seetion. T -oling is more expensive than extrusion dies, but is more durable and produces parts to very clo•e tolerances. For tapered blades, it is necessary to stretch-fonr the parts. Tools and capital equipment for this operation can be quite costly, but very close tolerances can be held. Tubular metal spars may be made by any of several nmethods, all of which are some form of swaging Tooling costs generally are quite high. Quality hazards associated with these proceed, include mandrel pickup and the enlargement of otherwisc nqgugible or easily removable metal defects. Adhesive bonding requires large, specialized tools capable of applying accuratcly cunitrolicd heat and pressure while maintaining close dimensional tolerances. There tools may bz "unitized"; i.e., they may contain built-in sources of heat ang pressure. Htat may come from the electrical resistance "calrod" type of inserts or heating blankets, or may be provided by steam or hot oil passages. Pressure sometimes is applied through pneunatic cells contained in the fixture. Unitized tools have the advantages of being semiportabic and of bcinj capable of providing differentf values of temperature and pressure in df.ee_t Mn, - ._•i._• f _r of-,tn•... _. .---different 7,nn~ na reviioi.-A~ for ths- me i nf mutriouil and the type of joint in each particular zone. A disadvanlage is that each rotor blade type or subasnernbly requires a completely new tool with heat, pressure, and cooling provisions and relatively comiplex controls. The other principal assembly method is the autoclave. Both heat and pressure are provide6 by this piece of capital eqisipment, and the tools that hold the blade components and maintain dimensions during bonding are relatively less expensive than comparable unitized tools. However, unless special provisions are made, all areas of the blade receive the same heat and pressure. This can be a distinrt disad-

Rcqardims of the typo of tooting, prcci oilnti 3ls are required to assure that proper heat and pressure have been applied. Printed chart records are desirable, end provisions should be mado for the proceasing of samples representative of each individual blade assembly that can be tested to destruction. Even after having maintained such control, it is desirable that some form of nondestructive testing (NDT) be applied to the final assembly. The most prevalent NDT method is the ultrasonic scan, which reveals unbonded or poorly bonded joints. 5-6.3 BLADE BALANCE AND TRACK Individual production rotor blades must have both dynamically and aerodynamically similar characteristics. Dynamic similarity is achieved through maintenance of a specific mass balance by the addi. )n or removal of weights on the blade. Aerodynamic similarity is achieved by maintaining close airfoil and geometric control, or by adjustments, such as with a trim tab. Determination and confirmation of dynamic and aerodynamic similarity are accomplishd by phyt'.Allwy bh.nAng anid tra-.ring ,,ah blade against a master blade or set of master blades. 5-6.3.1 Effect of Dedgn Considerations in obtaining dynamically and seaodynamically similar blades must begin with the design. The selection of materials and the construction of the blade should be made with interchangesbility as an ultimate objective. In making material selections, trade-off such as sheet stock versus extruded or forged muterial must be made. Generally, a weight advantage can be realized by tie use of sheet stocik. llhwcvcr. the flori~oig of' the shect siock ~ec.te fteacLM
'-"'

may not produce a close-tolerancc airfoil shape. This type of trade-off procedure should be followed for all major components of the blade to insure acceptable balance and track and ultimately, the interchangeability of each blade with other blades of that specific configuration. Bec:ause the control of the weight of individual parts within a close tolerance could result in extremely high costs, some adjustment of the weight of the blade must be provided. This adjustment should permit the addition or removal of weight at the blade tip and, possibly, at the blade root as well. In many blade designs, the adjustable tip weights are installed on at

vantage since more heat input is desirable in a region such as at the root end, where there is considerably mom mass, than in a light sction of the blade. A hybrid method of assembly employs a tool that contains its own pressure source, such as pneumatic cells, but that is placed in an oven for heating. 5.46

least two separate chordwise attachment points (par. 5-6.2.4). The location of thc adjustable weights at the tip takes advantage of the large balance nrm about the reference datum, which usually is the center of rotation. Spanwise balance is achieved by adjusting the total weight at both attachments, whereas the

AMCP 706-202
chordwise CO is corrected by transferring weights between the chordwise positions. The limits of adjustment are reached when either attachment is completely empty or is completely flled with weights. To establiah individual dynamic balance, !%oth the spanwise and product moments must be controlled to maintain a common dynamic axis for all blades of a particular model. The dynamic axis X!is expressed as follows: it J xydm X ,in. (5-8) NOR! where dm - increment of blade mass, slug -= location of flapping hinge from the center of rotation, in. m, " mass of spanwise increment at inboard end of blade (e). slug nmk - mass of spanwise increment at outboard end of blade (R), slug R - blade radius, in.
x = chordwise distance from blade leading

weight and that one of the weight attachments is completely empty or full. When two tip weight attachnients are used. the acceptable weight tolerance on forward components (e.g., spar and abrasion strip) is lim.ited by the forward tip weight capacity, whereas the weight tolerance on aft components (e.g., trailing edge and skins) is limited by the aft tip weight capacity. When this method of weight adjustment is used, the limit weight for each component may be obtained by the solution of simple pairs cf simultaneous equations. The equations are iet up in terms of spanwise and chordwisc (or product) moments where the sims of the moments of empty or full attachments and the two unknown weights arc equated to the sumns of the nominal ,nomente on the same compon.nts, aF shown in Table 5-2. The steps that follow (using data from Table 5-2) show the solution for the minimum and maximum weight for one part (an abrasion strip): 1. Minimum al'owablc weight (forward attachment assumed full):

edge to centroid of mass increment, in. y - spaunwise distanct f(oun flapping hinsc to centroid of mass increment, in. Eq. 5-8 implies that the weight of each element or component must be rigidly controlled. However, in practice this is not necessary because a system can be established to match rclativ'tly heavy parts with those that are on the light side of the tolerance scale. Because it would be quite cumbersome to match or select each and every part of the blade assembly, only those components that make up the bulk of the weight need be considered. This method of selective assembly divides the rotor blade intt, four main camponents or groups: the spar or spar assembly; the leading edge material, including ballast; the aft acction skins and stabilizing material; ared the trailing edge reinforcement. These four major components are selected bemuse they comprise the basic structure of a blade and extend the full length of the blade span. Variations in the weights of t'e remaining parts have little si3nificanoe in the total weight and balance of the complete blade. 54-.3.2 Comneeet Lunit Weigtts By selecting the major components on the basis of their respective weights and moments relative to the Uaveilcble adjustments, virtually all blades can weight be balanced to a master balance blade. The weight v - ariation in each part shal! be determined by the available capacity of the attachments for adjustable weight. Weight limts for each part may be calculated " by assuming that all other parts are of nominal

a. Spanwise moment is: 0.19(155.50) + 82.6. WJ.., + 155.50W, 459.30 + 15.55 + 15.55 b. Product moment is: 0.19(155.50) (0.75) + (82.61)(0.558)Wjm,, + (155.50) (2.35) W. - 256.30 + 11.66 + 36.54 c. Sol-.ing these two equations will give W,,•. the minimum allowable weight for the abrasion strip. lb, if all other componcnts remain at nominal weight 2. Maximum allwwable weight (forward attachment assumed empty): a. Spanwise momeqt is: n c '+ 82.41 w + 15.50 ul _L 459.0.+ 15.55 + 13.55 b. Product moment As: 0.0(155.50) (0.75) + (82.61) (0.558)WIR• + (155.5) (2.35W1 ) - 256.30 + 1.1.66 + 36.54 c. Solving these two equations will give W- ... 1 the maximum allowabhl weight for the abrasion strip, if all other components remain at nominal weight. In both the solutions the valwts W, and WJ, the aft and forward adjustable weight•, respectively, must be :50.19 lb. the maximum capacity of the adjustable weight attachment. A sind;ar set of simultaneous equations is solved for each of the other three critical components. Nomograms can be prepsred for convenience in the selection of the four oi more critical weight components. These nomograms combine into a single graphical format all the mininim and maxitpum c&'imponent weights deterwii~ed by the procedure stated previously. Similarly, th.se results can be com-

TABLE 5-2. EXAMPLE OF NOMINAL WEIGHT AND CG LOCATIONS
WEIGHT, lb
A

PART
____________

ABRIASION STRIP
1 AJUSTABLE

5.56

MOMENTCG LOAT ONS PRODUCT, SPAN WISE. in. CHOfIDWiSE i. -VSA-NWISE, Ib-in.'A x B :D Ib-In. 2C x D-* c B 266.30 459.30 0558 82.61

FORWARD'
AFT'

0.10
0.10

155.50
155.50

0.750
2.350

15.655
156.5

6
36.54

TIP WIHS

'MAXIMUM CAPACITY 0.19 lb

SPANWISE PART WEIGHT, MOMENT COEFFICIENT, B

SPANWISE MOMENT, lb-in.

PRODUCT MOMENT COEFFICIENI,

PRODUCT MOMENT, lb-in.

A SUB-TOTAL COMPLETED
BLADE UNBALANCED216939. ADUTBE FORWARD 00984

E

155.50

13.1 2. 216.\~*~
21963_371.

116.60 35406.

9.8
lo

TIP WEIGHTS
ADDED

.jI

IAI z
'

I r l13654

S1JB-TOTAL PRELIMINARY BLADE *BALANCE *PRELIMINARY ADJUSTABLE TIP WEIGHTS
DYNAMIC

AXIS (CHECK) FORWARD AFT
-

SUB-TOTAL COLUMN E SUJB-TOTAL COLUMN C
-Mb.0051

3671.2 2196.3 -0.8 -0.8 21473668.8

().7in
-

0.005

155.50 155.50

116.60 365.40
___

-0.6 -1.8

TOTAL FOR TEETER
BALANCED BLADE

FINAL DYNAMIC AXIS (CHECK)

TOTAL OF COLUMN E TOTAL OF COLUMN C

3668.8 2194.7

167in

NOTES: (D THIS WE.-GHT ADJUSTMENT IS MADE WHEN THE BLADE IS TEETER BALANCED. THF NEGATIVE SIGN INDICATES WEIGHT WAS REMOVED. Q~ DYNAMIC AXIS AS MEASURED FROM THE LEADING EDGE.

AMCP 706-202 bined into a system employing a digital computer to
provide rapid component selection from a number of random-wcight parts,

closely controlled weight and balance system during
manufactufe. The prerelcac tracking of all other blades will be made against mastcr tracking blades.

For final balance the spanwise and product
moments of all of the blade components, including th,. paint and adhesive, are obtained for the unbalanced blade. Again, two simultaneous equations can be written. The unbalanced spanwise moment and the forward and aft tip weight moments should be equated to the rt juired spanwise moment of the master blade. The unbalanced product moment along with the forward and aft tip weight moments should be equated to the desired product moment. Solving thesc equations simriltancously will yield the additional weight required at each location for dynamic balance. A summary of the balance procedure is shown in Table 5-3. By establishing a weight tolerance for each of the major selective components and using a consistent method of part selection, the blade assembly will, in nearly all cases, balance within the capacity of adjustable weight attachments. Upon final assembly of the blade, it shall be balanct,-checked againzt a master blade. The tolerance on the actual balance depends
-oil Woil iu iy; of' uzolt.C.g., fully itiuiulait
-

The master blade(s) are blade(s) that have been fabricated as closely as possible to design specifications and to as precise tolerances. These master tracking blades are produced so that, when they are installed, the controls arc adjusted to the nominal position. It then can be ascertained how much deviation ot toler. ance may be allowed on production blades. Consideration of allowable tolerances shall includc the crew comfort levels defined in MIL-H-8501. Interchangeability with mauter blades must be determined either on a tiedown aircraft or on a suitable towcr prior to relesou for random installation. At least one master blade must be tracked with each group of production blades. The blades should be tracked at several rotor speed settings typical of those that will be encountered during operation and at several values of collective pitch, with rotor speed held constant. Track readings shall be taken for each blade at each speed and pitch setting. Typical data are shown in Figs. 5-29 and 5-30.
1.b

UK

hingeless, and the size of the blade. Tolerances of the order of 10 in.-oz are not uncommon. This physical balance of the blade must be performed on a balance stand capable of registering the blade spanwisc moment to within the specified tolerance. Weight should be added or removed as required to balance the new blade. The balance master shall be established as that blade to which all other blades of a particular part number or series shall be balanced. This demonstration shall be accomplished by balancing each blade

-

i.03
_ S
BaADE

o
0.5

--

_

c 1 1.0
1.5

....

-T...
210
22W HUIQ4 WEED. rpm 230

.
240

either directly against the master balance blade or against a calibrated mass balance for which the master blade was the calibration, stanrakd. The spanwise teeter balance discussed previously demonstrates only that the blade will be in flywheel balance; however, the dynamic chordwise balance still may be out of tolerance. Dynamic chordwis. balance, therefore, must be checkcd by tracking the blades at various rpm and collective pitch settings. If the selection of parts was controlled during the fabri-

200

Figure 5-29. Track With Varying rpm (Zero Collective Pitch)
1.5

cation of the blades, a minor adjustment, such as
moving adjustable tip weights forward or aft, will correct any dynamic chordwise deviation.

5 0

.o0.15 " 0o..
1.5
4

B-AA

--

--

7

"J3.33 Track "To confirm interchangeability, each blade should
be tracked prior to its release for installation. However, tracking of hir4eless blades is difficult because "the deflections at the tip arc small. Interchange"ability of these blades can be confirmed by using a

COLLECTIVE PITCH

Fipure 5-3,

0 0.

Track With Varying Collectbe Pitch (Comntat Rotor rpm) 5.49

A typical plot (Fig. 5-29) cf the tracking data r- orded by any one of several tracking methods during an rpm sweep of an articulated rotor indicates
that blade (A) is aerodynamically similar to the master; however, an incidence or pitch adjustment is required to correct the blade track to zero. Blades (B) and (C) can be corrected by downward trim tab adjustment. The appropriate adjustments should be made to bring all blade tracks within the tolerance level compatible with crew comfort levels previously established. This tolerance will depend on rotor size but commonly will be equivalent to dIfferential blade coning angles of the order of 5 min. A typical plot (Fig. 5-30) of track data during a collective pitch swoep with the same articulated rotor depicts blades (A) and (C) out of track d.ic to dynamic unbalance. This condition is corrrected by moving a portion of the adjustable weight of blade (A) forward while that of blade (C) is moved aft. Blade (B) i: seen to be dynamically similar to the master blade without adjustment. Weight adjustments and/or trim tab or trailing edge adjustments rmvide hlnd that are dynamicaly and aerody-"will namically alike, permitting interchangeability with all other blades of that configuration. In both Figs. 5-29 and 5-30, the reference master blade is shown as a horizontal straight line through zero without slope, Several methods of tracking blades may be employed; the accuracy, safety, and reliability of the electronic trackers provide excellent results. In addition to tata flat and collective tracking data, the blade pitching moments should be determined with a suitable calibrated load cell. Pitch link forces should match the master blade pitching moment demonstrated that vibratory levels do not exceed the limits of MIL-H-8501 and that life-limiting oscillatory stresses are not induced. $&4 ROTOR BLADE MATERIALS

ment has much influence in the establishment of the minimum mass distribution for the rotor blade. No weight savings can be realized beyond the limit irpGed by this requirement; thus, a point exigts beyond which an increase in the strength-to-weight ratio of the material cmnnot reduce blade weight. Although a high strength-to-weight ratio is desirable, more important factors are the ratios of both the fatigue strength and density to the modulus of elasticity of the nmaterial. The tetal loads on a rotor blade cannot be predicted by a straight forward examination of rotor thrust and centrifugal force.rTe loads depend upon the response of the blades to the periodic airloads which themselves are affected by the blade motion. The blade response also depends heavily upon the mass distribution. A change in stiffness affects the bending moments, deflection, and radii of curvature of the blade to the extent that the response is changed. It is impos.ible to predict - without a reevaluation of the blade response -. whether a change in stiffness will increase, decrease, or have no effect on the radius of curvature of the blade. In other words, the radius of curvature of a rator bWade %A do, not have the simple proportional relationship to stiffness that exists in a static structure because the bending moment is a dependent variable. Nevertheless, the following equation from simple beam theoty for the radius of curvature r is applicabtle
-

.. >

..

=

-

Zt--I

.

(5-9)

O

and bending stress crt in a particular material with modulus E is or's Substituting Eq. 5-9 in Eq. 5-10, _.-,p r where c - distance from beam neutral axis to outer fiber, il. E - modulus ofclasticity. ps 4 I - moment of inertia, in. M - bending moment, in.-lb If a stiffness change is made in such a way that the distribution of mass and stiffness is unchanged, the blade response, and thus the radius of curvature, also wid be sub ntantially unchanged. Then, as in Eq. 5-11, the blad. bending stress will increase in direct proportion to the material modulus of elasticity E. It follows that the most desirable rotor blade material is psi (5-10) AE-

As discu a-d in par. 5-6.2, a relatively broad variety of materials may be used in rotor blade construction. This piiragraph considers the major factors that lead lo the selection of specific materials, based upon the inherent properties of the materials and irrespective of the details of construction. Helicopter rotor blades arm unique in that many conditions that must be met depend upon various combinations of material properties. A rotor blade must be designed as an integrated part of the complete rotor system. One specific requiremenW is that the mass moment of inertia of the rotor system must be of at least a minimum value to provide sntisfactory autorotational characteristics. This require-

.

5-s0

---

•,

__

-

--

"

_ '_

-

the one that has the highest ratio of strength to modulus of elasticity. Any material with a high modulus of elasticity that does not have a proportionately high strength is undesirable. Table 5-4 is a comparison of the ratios of material fatigue allowable (FA) to modulus of elasticity E for a sample of available rotor blade materisIs. The comparison uses fatigue strength because this factor is of primary importanoc in rotor blades. The values given are based on experience with actual structu.res and arc less than the values obtained from laboratory specimen data; however, they are presented here for illustrative purposes only. Syccific values of fatigue strength for metals, plastics, and sandwich structures are contained in MIL-HDBK-5, -17, and -23, respcetively. Care must be exercised in using aniy given values for fatigue strength since the configuration of the specific component as wull as the necessary manufacturing processes may adversely affect the material properties. Considering only ratio FA/E as the criterion, Column 3 of Table 5-4 indicates steel is suptrior to aluminum, and Fiber.glas or graphite is superior to
either mptal
Rnrnn ir not nkrtifir!i"rI
nttrtivr.

material is used in a rotor biadc, other considerations are necessary since a rotor blade operates in a rotating field. In this condition, strrin compatibility determined by the ratio of modulus of elasticity E to mass density p becomes an important factor. Ire a rotating field, the centrifugal force (CF) generated by each blade element is proportional to the mass density of the, specific material and the position of the element along the blade radius, or span. When two continuous spanwise members, each of a different material, are side-by-side in a common centrifugal field, each will tend to strain an amount that is proportional to its respective mass density p and inversely proportional to its modulus of elasticity E. In most cases, the two members are bonded together with an adhesive that can transfer load from one to the other by shear, causing them to strain equally. This bcing the case, the material with the higher value of -he ratio E/p will pick up load from the other material and bL strmsed higher than if it were rotatring bv itsclf. Theis, it is drgirable tt6at two or more materials, used in coniinetion. have fairly similar valuws of E/p. Column 5 of Table 5-4 indicates that
aL!umniwnm and at"_. a

101

)
-

Wood (spruck) i, highly fati~uc-resistar:t, but also has

disadvantages that preclude serious cohsidcration for prescri-gencration helicopters. Up to this point, the discussion of materials has dealt with bludc b(.ndirg only. When more tian one TABLE 5-4.

ih tchi respc.t, and Fibe'g!as in combinaioun with st". or
-rr.nn_.tibe

cluminum is a~ceptable. Boror and graphite ve compatible with caci other, but cithbs should be tsed

"".MATERIAL
ALLOY STEEL ALUMINUM -'E" GLASS/EPOXY tUNDIRECYIONAI. BIDIRECTIONAL "S" GL.ASS!EPOXY LI•NDIRECT!ONAL BIDIRECTIONAL BORON/EPOXY UNDIRECTIONAL BIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/CEPOXY

-"1

I4
E,
29 10 6 3.5 8 5 36 21'

with caution ir combinition with steel, aluminum, or Fib;rglas.

COMPARISON OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES FATIGUE FATLGUE ALLOWABLE
± K0.00 6,000
4

FA
FA

E
DENSI r. P. Ibin
0.28 0. 0.065 0.065 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074
Pn

-:;•

0.0010

103 92 54 ". 108 67 486 284 S65 340) 88

-_

__N0 0
0.0014 0.0012 0.0012 0.0010 0.0007 0.0006

+

8,700 4,200

t 9,700 t 4,900 t 26,000 413,000

UNODIRECTIONAL 30 ±40,000' BIL!R18±20,000' SPRUCE .TI NAL 1.4 ± 2,000 DATA EXTRAPOLATED AND.'OR ESTIMATED FROM

0.0013 0.053 0.0011 "0.053 0.0014 NUMIERJUS SOURCES.

S-

In vimw of Sr;wina prmsures to use advanced cornposit=. in aarcraft structures, it is appropriate to examine the beciefits, if any, to be dcrivei from t~teir application to rotor bladm. The outseanding attractions of such materisis arc very high stiffness, high strength, end low weight. It has been thown that ft iratios of these properties - rather that, t&;,absolute values - art of primet importance. From the standpoint of fatig-.ie resistance (Columnn 2. Table, 5-4), these matcri-is appear to be very compatible with mrore conv.-ntional materials for use in rotor blades. The que~stion, then, becomes whet",,r there arz overriding advantages to be gained from other' chai actcristics, such a3 ballazflic tolcraro=, or the high value of the ratio Elp. Tht rotor blade dynamic repcinsce is highly clcpcndent upon the rotating natural firoquencies of the blade, and it is necesary that the blade be designed to avoifrquecie tht ae inresnane wth ny orfunctions. The expression tot natural frequenc cing cy of a rotating beam wR. is
K-O

which is wi, o
W

73.6 27.1 272

Now, assuning that the stiffiles El is increased to 40 10' lb-in.', 1 ' R, =%-1390~ 47T20 -%46F1_0 78.2 rad/sec Thus. for the iirst flap-wise bending mode on a typical

hiaiged rotor blade, a 100% stiffness change iesults in a chznge in rotating frequency P_. wRi 4.6 rad/sec, or 6%. This mode of vibration is crit~ical in an articuelated rotor, and *he only effective way to centrol it is by varying the mnaws distribution, because little can be done by changing the stiffness. Further examination would show that the first F77~TYchoidwise mode of vibration, as well as the hiiher +1 A!L rdse Qt) zL in hnth planes; is affiected significantly by lei 0,+mt'jdse s-2 blade st~ihress. I-cr hingeless or semirigid rutors, all modes are aflTecled significantly by blade stiffness. In( whrethese, typcs of rotors, the higher mniodes of vibration a., co.afficient which is dependent upon m$ss are m~anifest primarily in blade: stress levels, as opanJ stiffness distribution and has a daiTcrposed to vehicle vibrations. F~or multibladed rotors, c-it value for each mode of vibration, dithe higher vibration modes also can contribute signiEl stioTn'ss. = lbi.ficantly to vibratioirs. E co=flicientss deenet po as dsiu Material selection also can be very important in t ofiien dtepmoden a t ofvbrtonmssdimestionrotor blade fabrication. it now is possible to produce ti~ hld vbraion diensonf te mde nounif'orm bladc cross sections in any of the les3 available materialb, although it genci allly is easier MI!5~~~~~.suz/n em ".rd~i Ap!1rgtha in lActh h- mnA inn.n I - lengthoa pe, rads. stanices whert noncompatible values oAfLp can cause Q -taioalsee, adse:high stresses in flight, it also is important to avoid For inge,, ad K, forthe irs vaucs beas. tc triteril cobinaionswidifferin cJidfferng thrc mod ar: cints f terma expnsin. Sch emblics ,zan a, a., -~50.0. a3 - 10-5.0 develop high rtsidual stresses as a result of adhesive K, - 6.38 fsKz = 17.65. K3 - .0bonding operations. To examine the effect of stiffness El on natural freIdeally, a rotor blade should be made of materials uiuency, an example is presented: a constant-crossthat are highly resistant to both corrosion and crosection blade of 25-ft radius with a weight of 4.0 lbý/ft sion. Corrosion resistance of the nonmetallic cornand aflapwiseElof20 x " lb-in.' A tip speed of pstsi ihyatatv n :r eifunili 680 fps is assumed, giving a rotational speed 01 of 27.2 psieishglatrcvendarbeifetaln selection. In a monolithic composite blade, encematerial rad/ec; rad/ec; ence it is necessary to protect the forward portion against erosion. The most effective materiali for thiz purpose 20 X (1,Y 4'R (25 l2) T + 6.38(27.2) are stainless steel, niickel, cr cobalt abrasion mseum~d. 4 12Of X(2 the elastomeric materials, tht urethtane arm 12 )( ) 32.' l2 ~superior and are very durable when sub~tetd to sand, but generally have been found to have short -- _7__ ,~- j-4_ %69_5 liv~es when rain is a significant part of the environ73.6 rad/sec ment.
_______ ______

-

-

It has been determined that rotor blades are vulncrable especially to lightning. To avoid damage to blades oubject to lightning strikes, provision must be made for low-resistance paths for the high currents that are characteristic of lightning. The basic lightning pro:cction requirements for all acrospac4 systems are given by MIL-B-508'. For blades constructed cf composite materials - inherently poor conductors - or even those of all-metal bon ded constructio., adequate protection against ightning damage shall be demonstrate4 by test (see par. 8-9.4, AMCP 706-203.) Valuable preventive design guidelines are given in Chapter 7, AFSC DH 1-4.

Rotor system components with long lives can be attained by implementing a combination of techniques in the initial design. Preliminary calculations of rotor system natural frequencies and loads can be made with a reasonable degree of accuracy for a prescribed number of representative vehicle flight conditions. The mission profile specified for the vehicle, coupled with load calculations for spicific flight conditions, can define a preliminary load spectrum, consisting of load magnitude and frequency, as well as frequency of occurrence. Thes data, when combined with section property and theroctical stress concentration factors foi a component design, cast be con"Yerted to steady and oscillatory S-N (stress versus number of cycles) data. Therefore, preliminary component life can be determined based upoa cumu!ative Oaniage and notched and unnotched material or similar fatigue test data. Coupon fatigue test data must be used with cure aince these data usually will not reflect accurately the effects of manufacturing processes that aic peculiar to a specific component design. S-A' test data for components of similar design and manufacturing process are more useful in the preliminary detcrmination of component life (see pa;. 4-!, AMCP 706-201). Although the previously described method can be employed in the prelimihary design phase to predict component life, a mote rigt•'ous analysis of :ompor.ent fatigue and flight test data must be performed to

5-7
5-7.1

ROTOR SYSTEM FATIGUE LIVES
GENERAL

Elumi.

)

Critical helicopter components are sub;e.t to a load spectrum characterized by a relatively high-frequency oscillating load content. Characteristically, the rotor system - particularly the main rotor produces and endures the hi3hest cyclic loading. A fundamcntal design requiremont is long life of rotor system components. Resor.ant conditions thai proV1agho dn ua11wnig Bywu.. stcss levCes within a contponrnt must be avoided. However, compliance with these requirements can be verified only through the correlation of flight test and component fatigue test data. The discussion that follows supplements the

description of fatiguL life deterinnnation given in par. 4-11, AMCP 706-201. Corrosion has a rapidly degrading effect or the fatigue strength, and related life, of a particular component and this effect is difficult to predict in an accurate quantitative manner. Corrosion-resistant ma-

determ;ne the final life of the component. In the laboratory fatigue test it is necessary to simulate the actual combined loading conditions, particularly in areas of local attachment or where actual load paths may be in question. For example, tkt r ,,•/r blade
root-to-hub attachment, a meanie.1f:
.j] .c

terials ani/or proven corrosion prot•,ction methods
thus should be used to cbviate the necessity of con-

tion of the fliaht condition ia¢hnokc

ct•n-

flap and chordwise momaents and shears pa vaixtio

sidering corrosion in the daternn.iation of rotor system component fatigue life, Fretting is the erosive failure rf the metal surface ias the result of small displacernents of heavily loaded
mating parts. All preventive methods practicable should :e employed in the dasign and development

superimposed or the centrifugal force. Because, 'I is not feasible in many caste to include all associated -Nr influencing components in the fatigue test, it often is important to simulate loca: flexibilities offered by
flexures, bearings, etc., or to simulate local force inputs to the test article such as those offered by pivot

phase to preclude the occurrence of fretting betwe.n components, particularly crifical, highly stressed blado/hub retention areas. Fretting occurs commonly in areas such as tenwon-torsion strip packs, bearings, (particularly low-angle oscillating applica-

point friction or lead-lag dampers. The failure data acquired for an assembly quite often will involve the failhre of only one component of that assembly IThis component then becomc the limiting factor in the life of the a&scrmbly. If such a
component is a replaceable item, it can be replac"d periodically during testing, as failures occur, in order to acquire failure date for the longer-life conipo-

J

tions), i•.vtntion hole bushings, and blade/hub attachment fittings. The degree of sucrxss in pre"venting the occurrence of fretting is determined

through careful inspection of various components
that have been subjected to fatigue tests thnt simulate actual installations and loads,

nents. Although the individual components o! the
assemhly can be tested separately under simulated loading conditions. 'esting of t~e complete assembly

\~

' I - '

1

radii in jowpgle or over similar fitting area, should be included in the specimens tested. Fatigue or endurance tests sAaI be conducted on a sufficient number of coupons for each cond~ition. The number of coupons nevcr shall ike ks than five. Howover, if the standard dcviation oftimt data points for any test condition exceeds 15% of-the mean stress, additional couponu shTI be tested. Coupon tests may be conducted on any suitable test fixture or stand capable or applying an alternating IDad. Thec alternadin,4 load may be superimposed on a steady, or mean, load to produce a load condition as showa in Fig. 3-31. In the normnal rotor 5-7.2 ENDURANCE LIMIT TESTING blade load sprztrufir, each load condition is a combi5-7.2.1 Getk nation of steady and alternatting, loads. Therefore, the Endurance limit testing generalily is required to obuse of this loading cirsdition for coupon testfng is to guarantee the sc~vicc life. for tas:- data adequate kocooimended. rotor blades (sec, par. 74.2.2.2, AMCP 706-203). This Coulson designi depcads upon the type of material is testing in which the material and/or part is subbeing tested. When the material is sheet metal stock jected to repeated cycle& of load, with or without a some forim of the "dog-bone" co~pon should be steady, or-constant, load maintained. 1'hcr zndurance; used. The transition from the gage sqciion to the grip limit for most haomogeneous, near. isotropic materials areii s/rai be stsch as to eliminate a stx.ma concentrahas been established, and is defincd in MIL-HDB'Ction due to section change. An acceptable radius for 5.. Fatigue data for plastics and sandwich construcsuch a tranisition is given in Ref. 47. Additionally, uon ~ II-likNIIan ~ ~ ~ arfrn5IlOa c ~~ ~ ~ ~~~Cl scsc' tak~en Wuit the S4-cdg be candiation. of sheet tively. In most instances, these data are prescnted for stock coupuns. The machin'ng of the edge should be both smooth end notchod spoci'fcits. However, with cotolds 'topenthraldaaonf siudbegpeparedo o nes coth oled so:i ton pedgen.Edgesa the introduction of many and v'arivd reirforced onoitionoye udessingtcnld bgriteaipared oihedmt~ra to plastics and advanced composites, applicable fatigue base tor by burlishidcng.aditin. maingfne; gri line drtest rcsults aire not yet available, in the lillercturc. batpermidtitc th g n lurimhit O bnc ca beeth~ishmner w ie will bk required for such advanrd Basic ters thur oc a eea-ihdta ilpri Ac ii materials. and safety faz.toi reductions from a reliable reference. It is always nemcessy to excrcisec care in u.-.ing data that are rclatcd to dic shape of matcrial under consideration. For' example, the. ume of tihetct stock in rotor bladr? design dicatetc the usc of teiision-tensioniATfN IC fatigue data, whci' avadahsb, to prodia! skin fatigue SRS life or thr life of an~y part made from sheell stock, P-owcvtr. it nmy be more app:opriaae tw use R. R../ M',ore rotating huam fatiguF, data when solid bar or plate stock is integieted into the blade. denign. Additionally, an appR.;Ople notc~i factor, either intirreat in the .*sig'i or reu!VoS frorn the manufacluring prtness is of prinary iw\portaftcc.MAIU To confirm a mateti sixetieýA. it miay be nc(..MXKU sary to coriduct cokipan tzsis to sub itanaate a perticular mnaterial condition trot covcred in the curreni STEACDY literature. In conducting thte ci.Nupoiý fatigue tests, it is &i HESS extremely impiortant that the tvit material hA& becr MIMN!MU1 subjected to the processe asico*iated with fabrice.STRESS usualy is f~al n re oidd the eSlCects of i load tr'adfer beween components. For bonded, wmlded. or odierwise permanently fastened assembhie; kndivikWua component test data must be acquired; or S-N dam~ of stich components in like material, piwocees, and configuration may be empiovad, if available. These data should be modIfied by use of the Goodman diagram or other acceptable means to reflect the presece of steady loads as appropriate. Methods of obtaining acceptable cornponent S-N datuiare discussed In par. 5-7.2.

K.

ticn of the ctitiWu compor~ent. It.addiion, tests srhaillI

I I_ be corducted vq thr peltinent rnatvi all slsapc, using stock, bar, or plate as the dtzisi' dactttes. OtherT!?E akneeta of the propv~nd compoecnt configurati.'-n Flgw-e 5-31.. Alleeoath6g Stre Superimposed on such as edge condition, fillet radii, oi th~Mr7 bend Steady Stress 5-54

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Wtien ntocs* thickness pef mits in the case of plate, bar, castings, a