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JKR Manual on Pavement Design

JKR Manual on Pavement Design

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Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85



Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 1


Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85

List of Tables & Figures Introduction 1.0 Scope 2.0 Pavement Structure 2.1 Designation of earl layer 2.2 Definition and function of each layer 3.0 Thickness Design 3.1 General 3.2 Design Period 3.3 Traffic estimation 3.4 Subgrade CBR 3.5 Design of layer thickness 4.0 Subbase Course 4.1 General 4.2 Material Requirements 5.0 Base Course 5.1 General 5.2 Requirements for materials and mixtures 6.0 Binder Course and Wearing Course 6.1 General 6.2 Material Requirements 6.3 Mixture Requirements References 3 4 5 5






Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 2

R Traffic Reduction Factor.2 5. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 1 Cross Section of a Flexible Pavement Fig.2 3.6 3. K.1 3.4 6.5 Guide for Equivalence Factor.1 5.5 3.3 6.1 4. 2 Nomograph of Thickness Design Cawangan Jalan.7 3. e Maximum Hourly Capacity under ideal conditions Carriageway Roadway Reduction Factor.L Page 3 .3 3.3 6.2 6.1 6.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 List of TABLES Table 3.4 3. T Structural Layer Coefficients Minimum Layer Thickness Standard & Construction Layer Thickness Minimum Thickness of Bituminous Layer Standard Properties of Subbase Standard Gradation Limit for Crushed Aggregates Material Properties for Base Course Gradation for Base Course Mixture Requirements for Base Course Coarse Aggregate for Bituminous Mix Mineral Filler for Bituminous Mix Bitumen Properties Gradation for Asphaltic Concrete Asphalti c Concrete Mix Design List of FIGURES Fig.2 5.8 4.

Cawangan Jalan. K. The structural design has been based on the AASHO (American Association of State Highway Officials) Road Test results but the design method is developed using the multi-layered elastic theory through the use of the Chevron N-layer computer program. The mix design and material requirements are based on the existing specifications with modifications to incorporate local experience.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 INTRODUCTION This manual consists of the thickness design method. materials specification and the mix design for asphaltic pavements.L Page 4 . Ibu Pejabat JKR. The reports pertaining to the development of this manual are as listed in references 10 & 11.

(Fig.2 In case there are two or more layers for the binder course. materials specification and the mix design requirements.1.3 2. the lowest layer is referred to as the binder course and the other courses as the intermediate course.0 SCOPE 1.2 1.1 A flexible pavement is a layered structure consisting of a subbase course.L Page 5 .0 2. where the traffic is medium or heavy 1.1 This manual is to be used for the design of flexible pavements for roads under the jurisdiction of JKR. It comprises of details for the thickness design. the designer should take into account other relevant factors such as soil properties. Cawangan Jalan. When using this manual. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1. 1) 2. base course.e. economy of design and practical considerations with regard to the suitability of materials on site. binder course and wearing course. This manual is suitable for the design of major roads i.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 1.1 PAVEMENT STRUCTURE Designation of each layer 2.

2 Definition and Function of Each Layer 2. Ibu Pejabat JKR. wearing course.2. This layer(s) forms an impermeable and flexible lining of high elastic modulus. 2. 2.6 Wearing Course The topmost layer of the surface course.2 Subbase Course The layer(s) of the specified material built up to the required designed thickness immediately overlaying the subgrade.2.2.1 Subgrade The uppermost part of the soil.5 Binder Course The bound layer(s) overlying the base course. 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 2. It is in direct contact with the traffic and consequently. (This layer may be absent in some designs. intermediate course and binder course are. it also resists shear.4 Surface Course All the bound layer(s) within the pavement i. Cawangan Jalan. It serves as an aid to disperse the load from the base course before transmitting it to the subgrade. K.2. natural or imported. embodied under this general terminology.2. Apart from supporting and dispersing the traffic load.3 Base Course The layer(s) of specified material built up to the required designed thickness normally overlying the subbase course. This layer plays a prominent role in the support and dispersion of the traffic loads. 2.L Page 6 .2. it must resist abrasion and prevent skidding.) 2.e. supporting the load transmitted from the overlying layers.

for subgrade CBR of 3%.2.35 3. The design.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 3.L Page 7 .3 3.10) has indicated that it would be economical in terms of initial. however. The input for the computer program is based on following material properties . capital outlay and also with respect to the total cost. period should not be confused with the pavement life for the pavement life can be extended try strenghtening overlays.1.2 Design Period A design period of ten years shall be used.1 The design period refers to the span of time between the initial passing of user traffic until the fatigue limit of the pavement whereby a strengthening overlay is required.2 The design chart (Fig. The thickness for other subgrade CBR is obtained through the use of Chevron.000 Base 1.45 0. a multi layer elastic theory computer program.1 The design CBR of the subgrade and the total equivalent.5. 18-kip single axle. Cawangan Jalan.800 kg/cm2 and ν of 0. a design period of twenty years is stipulated in the Road Note 29.2 Currently. 3.- Elastic Modulus E kg/cm Poisson's Ratio Surface 30. 3. with E of 80 .0 3. Also refer 3.1.000 Subbase 800 í 0. standard axle are the main factors in the structural design of the pavement. A design period of only ten years is to be specified.16 tonne: standard axle applications for a specific design period.40 Subgrade is assumed semi infinite. as an initial study (ref.2.2.40 0. K. 2) is based on the AASHO Road Test relationship between thickness index and axle load applications at terminal servicability of 2.1 THICKNESS DESIGN General The thickness design of the pavement shall be based on the design CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of the subgrade and the total number of 8.

3. and in turn treats the projected year as the base year for the calculation of traffic over the design period. In the absence of exact information on the time of opening to traffic.3. growth over the design period. the designer shall project the initial traffic to another five years.1 V c = ___________________ r where Vc = total number of commercial vehicles for x years Vo = initial yearly commercial traffic r = rate of annual traffic growth Cawangan Jalan.2 Estimate the percentage of commercial vehicles Pc.16 tonne standard axle load applications shall be obtained through the following procedure 3.3.3 The calculation for the traffic estimation for the ten year design period shall be based from the expected year of completion of construction. then the different rates of annual traffic growth are applied for the calculation of traffic volume for each period.3 Traffic Estimation The equivalent 8.4 The initial annual commercial traffic for one direction. 3.L Page 8 . 3. If there ere different rates of annual. expects the road to be opened to traffic. 3. heavy goods vehicles with unladen weight exceeding 1. 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 3.2.3. K.7.3 Estimate the rate of annual traffic growth (r). onwards.3.5 The total number of commercial vehicles for one direction (Vc ) is obtained by Vo (1 + r) x .5 tonne. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Vo is obtained by : Vo = ADT x 0.5 x 365 Pc/100 where ADT = Average Daily Traffic PC = Percentage of commercial vehicles 3. The commercial vehicles referred to are the medium and.1 Estimate the initial Average Daily Traffic ADT ( both ways).3. The projection of traffic is given in 3. The designer is to project the initial traffic for the year he.

L Page 9 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 Cawangan Jalan. K.

4) 3. x = design period (year) 3.10 3.7 The total daily one-way traffic flow of both non-commercial and commercial vehicles at the end of the design period (Vx) is calculated as follows Vx = V1 (1 + r) x where Vx = volume of daily traffic after x years in one direction.3.9 The total.3. For highways with three or more lanes per direction. the values on traffic estimation shall be based on 80% of ADT as referred in 3. equivalent Standard Axles (ESA) applications is given by : ESA = V x e c The traffic information necessary for design shall be obtained from the publication by Unit Perancang Jalan. as per 3.3.11 3.3.3 T is the traffic reduction factor (Table 3.3. Table 3. This is to accomodate the distribution of traffic over the whole carriageway.3.6 The total traffic volume at the end of the design period should be checked as per 3. Table 3. The maximum hourly traffic volume.3.6 is calculated as follows: c = I x R x T where c is the maximum one way hourly capacity I is the ideal hourly capacity as in Table 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 3.0 3.3.1 below shall be used as a guide. Ibu Pejabat JKR.12 Cawangan Jalan.4 .13 3. Kementerian Kerja Raya entitled 'Traffic VolumePeninsular Malaysia'.7 * Selected heavy goods vehicles refer to those conveying timber and quarry materials. V1 = initial daily traffic in one direction.8 Estimate the Equivalence Factor (e) In the absence of an axle load survey. 3.2 R is the roadway factor as in Table 3.3.14 to ensure that the maximum capacity has not been exceeded.L Page 10 .3.3. 3.1 Guide for Equivalence Factor Percentage of selected heavy goods vehicles* Type of road Equivalence Factor local 1.2 0-15% trunk 2.0 16-50% 51-100% 3. K.

76 0.86 0.2 3.2 Maximum Hourly Capacity Under Ideal Conditions Road Type Passenger Vehicle Units per hour Multi lane Two lanes ( bothways) Three lanes (bothways) 2000 per lane 2000 total for bothways 4000 total for bothways Table 3.88 0.72 1.3. K.25m 0.00 0.3.4 Traffic Reduction Factor Type of Terrain Flat Rolling Mountainous Factor* T = 100/(100+Pc) T = 100/(100+2Pc) T = 100/(100+5Pc) * Nota Bene: Pc is as per 3.94 0. Ibu Pejabat JKR. one way traffic capacity c is as per 3. then the one way daily capacity is as follows: C = 10 x c where C is the 24 hrs.Om 6. c as per 3.3.81 0.50m 0.12 reflects 10% of the 24 hrs.L Page 11 .79 0.5m 7.70 1.00m 0.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 Table 3.78 0.3 Carriageway Roadway Reduction Factor Shoulder Width Carriageway Width 2.64 Table 3. capacity.00m 7.67 1.12 Cawangan Jalan.Om 1.3.73 0.Om 5.97 0.13 Assuming that maximum hourly capacity.83 0.90 0.

. +h2CBR2+.4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 3. In the case of varying CBR within the 1 m depth of the subgrade .2.14 If the traffic estimate for the design period exceeds the daily capacity.2.3. required to reach the daily capacity is as ..h2...+ hn = 100 cm Cawangan Jalan. C.7 r is the rate of annual traffic growth 3..n hl. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.n in cm whence h1+ h2 +. then the number of years. CB R...+hnCBRn --------------------------------------------100 where CBR1.../3 1/3 1/3 3 h1CBR. n.13 V is as per 3.4 Subgrade California Bearing Ratio (CBR) 3...3.L Page 12 .1 The CBR o f the subgrade shall be taken as that o f the layer (s) underlying within 1 m below the subgrade surface. is CBR of soil strata 1. the mean CBR is determined as follows : 3..follows: log C / V n =____________ log (1+r) where n is the period required to reach capacity C is as per 3. especially when soil stabilisation has been undertaken.hn is thickness of soil strata 1.2 CBR = 1..4.CBR2 .3.

9.5 Design 3.55 Base Course Cement Stabilized Mechanically Stabilized crushed aggregate Unconfined Compressive strength(7 days) 30-40 kg/cm2 0..2 and ESA as per 3. laterite etc.5.2 The thickness of the various layers shall be obtained using TA = a1 D1 + a2 D2 +. Ibu Pejabat JKR. is obtained from fig.1 After determining the mean CBR as per 3.4.L Page 13 .80 0. Crushed aggregate CBR ? 20% 0.5. 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 3. the equivalent thickness TA..32 Sand.5 Structural Layer Coefficients Component Wearing and Binder Course Type of Layer Asphalt Concrete Dense Bituminous Macadam Type 1:Stability > 400 kg Type 2:Stability > 300 kg Property Coefficient 1. K.45 CBR? 80% 0.6 Table 3...28 Cawangan Jalan.25 Cement Stabilized CBR ? 60% 0..5 D1 D2 . an are the structural coefficients of each layer as shown in Table 3. 3..+ anDn where al. Dn are the thickness of each layer as shown in Table 3.00 0.23 Subbase CBR ? 30% 0.3.a2 .

3 In determining individual layer thickness.5.7 Standard & Construction Layer Thickness Type of layer Wearing course Binder course Bituminous Base Course Subbase Course Wet mix Cement treated Granular Cement treated Standardard thickness 4-5 cm 5-10 cm 5-20 cm 10-20 cm 10-20 cm 10-30 cm 15-20 cm One layer lift 4-5 cm 5-10 cm 5-15 cm 10-15 cm 10-20 cm 10-20 cm 10-20 cm Cawangan Jalan.7.6 Minimum Layer Thickness Type of Layer Wearing Course Binder Course Bituminous Base Course Wet Mix Cement treated* Subbase Course Granular Cement treated * No to Bene Minimum Thickness 4 cm 5 cm 5 cm 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm 15 cm For cement treated base course. the total bituminous layers overlaying it should not be less than 15 cm 3. the practical aspects of construction shall be taken into account as per Table 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 Table 3.L Page 14 . Table 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.

8 Minimum Thickness of Bituminous Layer TA < 17.5 . 3.600 x 0.0 cm 10.0 5% Initial annual commercial traffic for one way Vo (Ref.5 x 105 = 5.3.L Page 15 .5 cm > 30.3).9) ESA = cm 17.0 cm Total thickness of bituminous layer 5.0 cm 15.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 3.5.4) V0 = 6. 3.5 x 365 = 181.0 .8.5 cm 3.5 & 3. Vc = 18-1. 3.0 cm 17.5 Worked example The following conditions are given : Chess of road Initial daily traffic volume (ADT) Percentage of commercial vehicles Annual growth rate Equivalence factor Subgrade CBR Rolling terrain JKR 05 6.3.000 [(1 +-0.5. K.1] --------------------------------0. Ibu Pejabat JKR. shall be based on Table x 106 Cawangan Jalan.07 = 2. Table 3.07)10.600 15% 7% 2.4 The minimum thickness of bound (bituminous) layer in order not to exceed the critical tensile strain at the base of the bituminous layer.50 x 106 Total Equivalent Standard Axles (Ref.000 Accumulative sum of commercial traffic one way for 10 year design period (Ref.15 x 0.5 cm 23.0 x 2.

3. 3.600 (1 + 0.07) 10 -------------------------2 = 6490 veh/day/lane Hence capacity has not been reached after 10 years.5.77 = 770 vehicles per hour Assuming hourly capacity is ten per cent of daily capacity.L Page 16 . C = 7700 veh/day/lane The estimated daily traffic V after 10 years is given by V = 6. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Design of Layer Thickness (Ref. the chart shows that for an ESA of 5. the required TA is 26 cm.00 9cm 0.3.2) TA = aID1+ a2D2+ ..0 x 0. + anDn Layer Material Coefficient Minimum Thickness a1 Asphalt Concrete Mechanically Stabilized Crushed Aggregate Sand 1.32 10cm a2 a3 0.. K. 2. From fig.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 Maximum Hourly One Way Traffic Flow (Ref.0 x 106.23 10cm Cawangan Jalan.12) c=IxRxT c = 1000 x 1.

0 cm Taking into consideration the minimum thickness requirements .0 x 15 + 0.5 cm D2 = 18.5 cm Binder .23 x 20 = 26.0 cm 14 Then TA = 1.36 cm < TA' 2nd Trial D1 = 15.32 x 18 + 0.5 + 0.10 cm Base . Ibu Pejabat JKR.23 x 20 = 25.20 cm Subbase .32 x 20 + 0. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 1st Trial Nominate D1 = 12.L Page 17 .0 cm Then TA = 1.0 x 12.20 cm Cawangan Jalan. the pavement structure then comprise of the following layer thicknesses Wearing .0 cm D2 = 20.0 cm D3 = 20.0 cm D3 = 20.

soft particles. 4. Table 4.1 SUBBASE COURSE General Sand gravel and laterite are amongst the various types of subbase course materials. cement stabilisation of these material or crushed aggregate is to be used.1. etc. laterite etc should be utilised for subbase course materials.0 4. nominal size shall not be greater than 1/3 of the compacted layer thickness Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 4. When a suitable and economic natural material is not available crushed aggregates (crusher run) are commonly used. gravel.L Page 18 . From an economic point of view.analysis should be done according to BS 1377:75 2.I) Los Angeles Abrasion loss (%) Cement Stabilised CBR (%) BS 1377:75 Not greater than 6 ASTM C 131 Not greater than 50 Not less than 60 BS 1377:75 Note* :. When these materials do not meet the required standard. from an economic point of view. K.2. clay lumps etc. For sand. clay lumps etc. 4. Sieve . gravel. such as sand. laterite etc.1 Standard Properties of Subbase Quality Test Method Crushed Aggregate Sand Laterite etc Not less than 20 Not greater than 6 CBR (X) BS 1377:75 Not less than 30 Plasticity Index (P.2 Material Requirements The quality of materials shall conform to the following standards and shall not include a deleterious amount of organic materials. soft particles.2 The quality of materials shall conform to the following standards and not include a deleterious amount of organic materials.2. soft rocks.1 Locally available materials. 4. should be utilised for subbase course materials. When these materials do not have the required quality. stablisation with cement should be considered. laterite. locally available materials such as sand.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 4. A CBR of not less than 30% for crushed aggregates can normally be obtained from the quarries.2. Ibu Pejabat JKR. They are crushed aggregates. For construction purposes.L Page 19 . It may be stabilised with cement.4 A cement content of 2% to 4% by weight is recommended for stabilisation with cement. 4. Therefore bituminous treated base course are recommended to be used whenever suitable. Generally.0 5. Higher cement content will usually produce a stiff mix which consequently would fail due to stress concentration. cement stabilised and bitumen stabilised base courses. In the AASHO road test results.2. These materials can be stabilised with cement. or a combination of these materials. extending from edge to edge of the formation width. natural sand and laterite give a strength of CBR 20% or more. bitumen or lime. Three types of base courses are specified here.2.2. Gradation is required only for crushed aggregates to avoid seggregation and to obtain better workability for construction.5 For maximum utilisation of suitable local materials. 4. 4. no gradation is specified.1 BASE COURSE General Base course shall be selected materials such as crushed stones and sand. 5.3 Natural materials vary from place to place throughout the country. the nominal size of local material is specified.2 Requirements for materials and mixtures The quality of both materials and mixtures shall conform to the following requirements: Cawangan Jalan. K. 5. the strength of some materials may be lower in certain regions. it was found that stabilised base courses especially bituminous stabilised base gave the best performance with respect to strength and durability. However.6 A sand layer of 10 cm thick is required to be placed on top of the subbase course.

A Abrasion Loss (%) Water Absorption (%) BS 1377:75 Not greater than 4 Not greater than 8 Not greater than 40 - Not greater than 6 Not greater than 40 Not greater than 4 Not greater than 8 Not greater than 40 Not greater than 4 ASTM C131 Not greater than 40 - M. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 Table 5. K.S.L Page 20 .2 Gradation for Base Course Sieve size (mm) Crushed Cement stabilisation aggregates Type I 40 25 10 5 2.4 0. 30 Table 5.420 0.075 L00 70-100 40-65 30-55 20-45 10-25 2-10 Nominal size of material used shall not be greater than 1/3 of compacted layer thick ness 100 70-100 40-65 30-55 20-45 10-25 2-10 Type II Nominal size of material used shall not be greater than 1/3 of compacted layer thick ness Percentage by weight passing Bitumen stabilised Note: Sieve analysis shall be done according to BS 1377:75 Cawangan Jalan.1 Material Properties of Base Course Quality Test Method Crushed Aggregates Not less than 80 Cement Stabilised - Bitumen Type 1 - Stabilised Type II - CBR (%) BS 1377:75 Plasticity Index L.

24 hr s ) Not less than 400 15-45 3-10 3C to 40 - Type II - Not less than 300 15-45 3-12 - Not less than 75 Not less than 50 5.4 Since the 'base course is placed directly beneath the binder course. For the grading of test samples.8 Marshall residual stability requirement for bituminous stabilised base course has been introduced to test the durability of the mixture and the stripping action of aggregates used.L Page 21 . Type I refers to plant mix using selected material of good quality.2. 5. This is to allow more flexibility in. However. Ibu Pejabat JKR. since higher values of unconfined compressive strength may cause stress concentration.2.5 The L. The test is specified :in AASHTO T 96-97(1982).3 Mixture Requirements for Base Course Requirement Cement Stabilised Bitumen stabilised Type I Unconfined Compressive strength (7 days) kg/cm2 Stability (kg) Flow (1/100cm) Air Voids(%) Marshall residual stability Immersed (%) (60°C. 5.2. K. when suitable good quality materials are available but are of inadequate strength at natural condition. 5.A. 5.2. Cawangan Jalan.6 For bituminous stabilised base course. they should be stabilised.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 Table 5. it is therefore essential to use good quality materials.2. Cement content of between 3% to 6% is recommended. Type II refers to the utilisation of suitable local material.7 Unconfined compressive strength value greater than 40 is not recommended. the selection of base course materials. Grading A from Table 1 of AASHIO T 96-97(1982) shall be used since the nominal size of aggregate used is 40 mm. crushed aggregates (wet-mix macadam) are used. Generally. abrasion loss test is used to determine the soundness of coarse aggregates.

425mm sieve fraction shall be non plastic when tested in accordance with B. 30 Requirements Not more than 60 Not more than 2 Not more than 30 6. durability. Coarse aggregate shall conform to the following requirements. It shall be clean natural sand or screenings or a mixture thereof.1 Fine aggregate shall be clean. 1377:1975. 30 M. Table 6. The compositions of these mixtures shall be designed based on the Standard Marshall Test procedure.S.2 Material Requirements 6. Bituminous mixtures consist of a well graded mixture of coarse aggregates.4mm sieve opening and shall be crushed rock or crushed gravel and free from foreign materials.4 mm sieve opening. mud and other foreign materials.S.1 Course Aggregate for Bituminous Mix Quality Abrasion loss Los Angeles (%) Water absorption (%) Flakiness Index (%) Test Methods ASTM C131 -69 M.1 Coarse Aggregates Coarse aggregates shall be material substantially retained on 2. and sufficient skid resistance (in case of wearing course) as well as good workability.2.S. Cawangan Jalan. K. Screenings shall be produced by crushing stone and or gravel conforming to the quality requirements for coarse aggregate described in the previous section 6. fine aggregates and filler. hard. They are suitable for surfacing heavily trafficked roads in hot climate and for use where an impermeable surfacing is required.2. 6. Care must be taken in the selection of materials.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 6.2 Fine Aggregates Fine aggregates shall be material passing a 2. The minus 0.1 BINDER COURSE AND WEARING COURSE Genera1 Hot-mixed bituminous mixtures shall be used for binder course and wearing course.2.0 6. gradation and bitumen content so as to obtain a mix with the desirable stability. Their stability derives both from the interlocking of the well-graded aggregates and from the cohesion provided by the bitumen binder. durable and free from clay. bound together with bitumen.L Page 22 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.

3 Bitumen Properties ASTM Characteristics Test Method Penetration at 25 C (1/100 cm) Loss on heating (%) D5 D6 60-80 60-80 not more than 0.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 Mineral Filler Mineral Filler shall be portland cement and shall conform to the following grading requirements: Table 6.2 Mineral Filler for Bituminous Mix Sieve Openings 600 m 150 m 75 m Percentage by weight passing 100 90-100 70-100 6. K.4 Bitumen Bitumen shall be straight-run bitumen (petroleum bitumen)' and shall conform to the following requirements : Table 6.2 Drop in penetration after heating (%) Retained penetration after thin-film over test (%) Solubility in carbon disulphide or trichloroethylene (%) Flash point (Cleveland open cup) (°C) Ductility at 25°C (cm) Softening point (°C) D36 D113 D1754/D5 D6/D5 not more than 20 not less than 52 not less than 99 not less than 250 not less than 100 not less than 48 & not more than 56 80-100 80-100 not more than 0.5 not more than 20 not less than 47 not less than 99 not less than 225 not less than 100 not less than 45 & not more than 52 Penetration Grades D2024 D92 Cawangan Jalan.L Page 23 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.

10 The bitumen of penetration grade 60-80 is recommended to be used for heavy traffic roads as classified under JKR Standard of 05-06. Mixture Requirements 6. Grading B from Table 1 of AASHTO T 96-77(1982) shall be used since the nominal size of aggregates used is less than 25mm.1 Gradation Gradation of mixtures shall meet the following requirements : Cawangan Jalan. Suitable types of aggregate shall be used for the wearing course. thus reducing the stripping problem. 6.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 6.3.S. 6.L Page 24 . 6. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2.2. 6. A stripping test in accordance to ASTM D1664-80 shall be done on such aggregates. The bitumen of penetration grade 60-70 and 80-100 as described in M. For the grading of test samples. which have been proved to have a tendency to be polished under traffic wear should be avoided for the wearing course especially for high-speed roads. A harder grade bitumen of 60-80 is recommended in order to achieve higher stability of mixture and to lessen the possibility of bitumen bleeding or flushing at high temperatures.9 Limestone quarry dust which does not meet the gradation requirements of mineral filler shall not be considered as mineral filler. 6.2. K.5 One of the requirements of the wearing course mixture is sufficient skid resistance.8 Hydrated lime or portland cement may be effective to improve the adhesion between bitumen binder and aggregates. Therefore aggregates such as limestone.6 Some aggregate like granite when coated with bitumen binder produces stripping problems when in contact with water. 124 can also be used.7 The resistance of aggregates to abrasion is tested by the Los Angeles Abrasion Loss Test in accordance to AASHTO T 96-77(1982).2.

075 100 78-100 60-34 52-7 6 38-62 28-49 14-30 9-22 5-14 3-7 Wearing Course 100 78-100 68-90 52-72 38-85 20-36 12-25 7-16 4-8 6.0 12. It shall conform to the following requirements: Table 6.4 Gradation for Asphaltic Concrete Sieve Size (mm) Percentage by weight passing Binder Course 25 20.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 Table 6.5 10.2 Mix Design Requirements The mixture shall be designed in accordance to the Standard Marshall Test Method.600 0. K. Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 25 .5 Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design Quality Stability (kg) Flow (1/100 cm) Voids in the total Mix (%) Voids filled with bitumen (%) Residual Stability (immersed) (%) Binder course Not less than 500 20-40 3-7 65-75 Not less than 75 Wearing Course Not less than 500 20-40 3-5 75-82 Not less than 75 Note: Number of blows on each side of a Marshall specimen is 50 for binder course and either 50 or 7 5 for wearing course depending on traffic conditions.3.4 0.0 2.0 5.300 0.150 0.

It is recommended to use 75 blows for heavily traffic roads to JKR 05-06 Standard.3.7 The amount of filler present by weight of the mix shall be in the range of 2% .6. a less permeable layer of binder course is selected at nominal aggregate size of 25mm.0% .3. Density is determined using one of the following equations in accordance with the texture of the specimen.3. The viscosity test for bitumen shall be done in accordance with ASTM E 102 (Saybolt Furol Test for Asphalt Cement at High Temperature). or the use of an antistripping agent should be considered. a) When the surface texture of the specimen is dense and absorption is negligible d = A x W (g/cm 3) -------A-C Cawangan Jalan. 6.10 Density of' Marshall Stability test specimen shall be determined prior to the stability test conducted. K.3 A dense gradation for the wearing course is selected in order to produce a more durable and stable mix.4 As rainfall intensity is high.8 Where the mix is susceptible to the influence of water.5 The number of blows on each side of the specimen for the wearing course is either 75 or 50 depending on traffic conditions.3.01 for the wearing course. 6. The temperature to which the bitumen must be heated to produce a viscosity of 85± 10 sec Saybolt Furol and 140 -F 15 sec Saybolt Furol shall be established as the mixing temperature and compacting temperature respectively.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 6. the residual stability is to be computed by the following formula and it should not be less than 75%..0% by weight of the mix for the binder course and 6.3. 6.6 Standard bitumen contents are 5. 6.3% 6.L Page 26 .0% .9 Temperature-viscosity relationship of bitumen is necessary to determine the mixing and compacting temperatures during the preparation of Marshall stability test speciments.7 . JKR 01-04 Standard. Marshall stability after 48 hours of 60'C Water immersion (kg) X 100 Residual stability = ------------------------------Standard Marshall Stability (kg) This test helps to check the stripping problem of aggregates. 6.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 6. a change of gradation to include more filler. If stripping problems occur.3.3. 50 blows is used for medium or light traffic roads i.e.

6. and subsequently the range of bitumen contents that satisfy all the requirements is computed. Cawangan Jalan. which are density. K. However. The mid-range of this bitumen content is the optimum bitumen content for the mix. Ibu Pejabat JKR. mineral filler content should be considered. adjustments to the aggregates gradations.weight of specimen in water (g) W = Density of water (1/gm/cm 3) Standard Marshall Test method.L Page 27 . air voids. are plotted against bitumen content.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 b) When the surface texture of the specimen is smooth but absorption is not negligible.12 In case there is no bitumen content that satisfy all the requirements. In this method. The method of test shall be based on ASTM D 1075 (Test for Effect of water on Cohesion on Compacted Bituminous Mixture) d = A X W (g/cm3) -----B-C where A = weight of specimen in air (g) B = surface dry weight of specimen in air (g) C .3. it is important to note that this optimum bitumen content should be less than or equal to the bitumen content at maximum density. voids filled with bitumen. The ranges of bitumen contents that satisfy each of the properties are computed. stability and f low. the Marshall properties.

of Transport. Selangor. Pavement Research.L Page 28 . Japan Highway Public Corporation Design Manual of Asphalt Pavement for Expressway in Japan Cawangan Jalan. AASH TO AASH TO Interim Guide for Design of Pavement Structures. Cawangan Jalan (Reka). 1962 14. AASHTO MATERIALS Part II 'Tests' 1982 7. 1982 6. Report 5.1982 4. B. 1/83 YRJ 1983 12. 3690 Specification for Bitumen for road purposes 9. AASH TO Interim Guide for Design of Pavement Structures. Special Report 61E The AASHO Road Test. Ibu Pejabat JKR. AASH TO MATERIALS Part I 'Specifications' 1982 2. NRC Washington D. Kuala Lumpur Axle Load Survey at Jalan Vantooren.S.S. HMSO Specification for Road and Bridge Works. AASH TO Guide Specifications for Highway Construction 3. 1621 Specification for Bitumen Macadam with crushed rock or slag aggregate 8. Cawangan Jalan (Reka). B. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 1982 5. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Brien Asphalt Concrete. Highway Research board. G. Kuala Lumpur Background to the development of JKR Flexible Design Manual.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 REFERENCES 1. 1982 11. AASH TO Construction Manual for Highway Construction. 1962 15. Department. 2/84 YRJ. B.C.P. K.S. 812 Sampling and Testing of mineral aggregates sands and fillers 10. 1976 13. Jackson and D. Port Kelang.

L Page 29 . S.. S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85 16. Nihon Doro Kodan Standard Specifications for National Expressway. 1979 25. Wallace and Martin Asphalt Pavement Engineering. 124: 1973 Specifications for Road Pavement Airfield Runway by Marshall Test Method 19. 124: 1973 Specifications for penetrating grade of bitumen in pavement construction 18. M.S. 30: 1971 Methods for Sampling and Testing of Mineral Aggregates. K.Ltd. London Shell Pavement Design Manual 23. The Asphalt Institute thickness Design-Asphalt Pavements for Highways and Streets. Shell International Petroleum Co. 1981 24. Norio Ogawa Design of asphalt Pavement for Expressway in Japan 22. M. April.S. 1976 Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR. M. M. Japan Road Association Manual for Design and Construction of Asphalt Pavement 1980 17. The Asphalt Institute Mix Design methods for Asphalt Concrete and other hot mix types . 1964 21. Sands and fillers 20.

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