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caoe ..c Skill I

and Study Skills.

1 Education and learning
READING Good study habits p4-5 Effective reading: (1): survey; skim; scan (2): intensive reading Education in the UK p 6 Effective reading: (3): increasing your reading speed; focusing your reading READING A musical cure p 12-13 Predicting content Topic sentences A new vaccine p 14 Avoiding plagiarism (1): rephrasing READING A model of good urban planning p 20-21 Paragraph purpose: how understanding the purpose of a paragraph helps you understand a text Text cohesion: linking strategies between paragraphs A capital city p 22 LANGUAGE FOR WRITING p7 Comparing and contrasting

2 Innovations in

health and medicine

LANGUAGE fOR WRITING Rephrasing Rules: the passive voice


3 Urban planning

RESEARCH Finding information P 23 Using reference material: using synonyms or more general words to find what you need Searching the Internet efficiently (1): choosing an appropriate site (2): planning your search LANGUAGE FOR WRITING p31 Introductions and conclusions Rephrasing and giving examples

4 Water, food,

and energy

READING Water, water, everywhere p 28-29 Finding information from more than one source Food chains P 30 Identifying language for rephrasing and giving examples; using discourse markers or signals to help you understand a text READING Globalization p 36-37 Distinguishing between facts, speculation, and reported opinions: expressing generalizations, caution, certainty and uncertainty, mid reporting another person's opinion Is 'fair trade' fair? p 38 Identifying a point of view

5 Free trade and fair trade.

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING P 39 Expressing certainty and uncertainty Expressing caution


Conserving the past

READING The Terracotta Army Dealing with longer texts (I): survey; question; read (2): recall,' review

p 44--46

LANGUAGE fOR WRITING p47-48 Indicating reason or result Rules: reason or result Adding information VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Word-building (1)p55 Suffixes: how word endings change the part of speech and meaning of a word

7 Wonders of the modern world

READING feats of engineering p 52-53 How to make reading easier (1); dealing with unknown words (2): dealing with complex sentences Islands in the sun p 54 . How to make reading easier (3); understanding pronouns READING The Olympic Games p60--61 Making notes: differen t methods of recording what yOlt read Two Olympic bids p62

80lympk business

RESEARCH Crediting sources (2) p63 Avoiding plagiarism (3): acknowledging direct and indirect quotations Avoiding plagiarism (4): punctuation of direct and indirect quotations

9 Trends

READING Work P 68-69 Understanding visual information: graphics Trends in education P 70 Interpreting data; looking for general patterns and then detail READING Communication technology p 76--78 Dealing with longer texts (3): predict, skim, and select Dealing with longer texts (4); read, make notes, check, and recall

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING p71-72 \ Language for describing graphs, charts, and statistics
--:-:i:/ .

10 Communication and technology

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING Language for presentations

P 79



WRITI NG Education in Japan and England: a comparison p 8-9 Checking your writing (1): sentence length; word order and linking words; missing words' " Writing a comparing and contrasting essay

VOCABULARY DEVElOPMENT Dictionary work Using a dictionary ( I) ( I) symbols and abbreviations (2) correct usage of new words

p 10

REVIEW pli Checking your writing (2): ' punctuation, spelling, and grammar REVIEW P 19

WRITING Keeping healthy p 16-17 Developing a paragraph: topic sentences; body sentences; final sentences Writing a paragraph WRITING An international trade fair p 24-25 Selecting information: identifying the purpose and key message of " your writing Prioritizing: pu tting tne information in order Brainstorming: before writing - writing notes, then organizing, selecting, and prioritizing your ideas Writing a persuasive article WRITING Sources of energy p 32-33 Introductions Developing a thesis statement Conclusions Checking your writing (3): paragraph content Writing to describe and explain WRITING Examples offair trade p 40 Supporting a point of view: the main point in a topic sentence, giving supporting arguments, and giving examples Consumerism p 40-41 Presenting arguments (1) Consistency: organizing your argument by topic or viewpoint (2) Staging: words and phrases for staging arguments Writing an opinion essay WRITING Museums p 48-49 Checking your writing (4): looking at purpose, content, and organization of an essay Writing an evaluation essay RESEARCH Crediting sources (1) p 56 Avoiding plagiarism (2): Acknowledging sources LANGUAGE FOR WRITING P 56 Verbs for reporting another writer's ideas Rules: reporting verbs LANGUAGE FOR WRITING Expressing contrasting Rules: contrast
P 64

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Recording vocabulary p 18 Recording vocabulary (1): which words to record (2): what to record about a word (3): cllOosing a suitable method to record vocabulary VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Collocations (1) p26 Collocations (I): words that go together - adjective noun; verb + noun



VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT and adjectives p 34 Compound nouns Compound adjectives

Compound nouns


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Multiple meanings p42 Using a dictionary (3): words with more than one meaning, pronunciation, or part of speech


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Collocations (2) p 50 Collocations (2): Words that go together - verb + adverb; adverb + adjective WRITING Tunnels and buildings P 57-58 Summarizing: identifying, organizing, and rewriting ideas Writing a summary



VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Synonyms and antonyms


WRITING A permanent site for the Olympics p 65 Process writing: the stages of essay writing Writing a discursive essay WRITING Population trends p 72-73 Using present data Writing a report using visual information

Synonyms and near synonyms: choosing different synonyms for different contexts Antonyms: choosing different antonyms for different contexts VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Word-bUilding (2) p 74 Prefixes: recognizing prefixes which carry meaning REVIEW

Composite words REVIEW p83

WRITING FOR SPEAKING Interpreting and translating How to be a good presenter Preparing notes for a presentation Giving a presentation ,

p 80-81

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Formal and informal vocabulary- p 82 Formal and informal vocabulary: using formal and informal vocabulary appropriately WOR,D LIST p84 PHONETIC SYMBOLS p94

Survey the material to decide whether it is useful: • Look at the title. • Read the first sentence of a few paragraphs. l1li Move quickly through the text. Scan the text to find specific pieces of information: .READING Good study habits """''''''''"'1'''' 1 Discuss the questions with a partner. pictures.i' ' What-two reasons are given for delaying starting work! What is a more effective way of revising? '. 5 What different ways did you read the texts to' answerthe" qt\estib~~irt .. and how to read it to become an effective reader.. Use what you learnt from surveying and skimming the text to locate the information you need.' C:()mp~~tethe quiz and then answer these 1 What is your. Answer the questions. iii look at the style of the text and where it has come from. . III Stop when you come to the information you want. ".Study Skill Choose what to read. 1 What was your favourite and least 2 When do you find it best tostiidyi Why? 1 Which text is a quiz? 2 Which text looks more serious? 3 Which. 1 2 3 4 " Which is better: a planned target or a vague commitmenti What two rewards are mentioned? .text is about studying effectively? 3 Look at the texts again. or graphs. lexttdse 2? 2 exercise 3? 3 exercise 4? Read. Skim the text to see how the information is organized and to get a general idea: II Read the title and any headings..learning style? 2 Do • Education and learning" . Do not read every word. headings. Answer Text A: 1 How many questions are there? 2 How many answers are there for 3 What does the second part of the Text B:l How many parts are there? 2 Is there an'introductiofii 3 Is there a conclusion? 4 Read Text B again quickly.

by reading aloud. do you record the pronunciation? .•. do you . It is.. you are probably a more auditory learner -. plan to read one chapter of a book each evening rather than think about . approach each question separately. do not find reasons to put off getting started. Rewards Develop a system of small rewards for your work.. e. worthwhile spend ing time making notes and organizing them in a way that suits you best.r~y that suits your learning style. when it is quiet and when you are most alert. time-tabled part of your day.. (Ai RarelyB Sometimes II aecoming an effective Learning how to study effectively is an essential skill discipline. or videos. If you scoredmostly As. like most people you probably learn through a mixture of styles. or a poem. A Hardly ever B Usually 6D6y6u ever read aloud to yourself (in your own language or in English)? . If you plan to start work at a certain time.g. you are a more visual learner. i. Don't try to do too daunting... a formula. You can watch a DVD later. v.You prefer to learn by listening and speaking. /. I like to make notes during the lecture. read it again.. Break the larger task down into several smaller ones. . II Skim the text to get an overview. You will often need to understand the details. This is intensive reading. There are six areas which are crucial to habits. make a list of questions that you will have to deal with in your essay.g. and your emails are not urgent! Quantity A large task such as researching a new topic for an essay can be daunting . Most/yBs If you scored mostly ss. Results Most/yAs . Visual learners often think in pictures. . (~/reading? B listening to lectures? 2 How do you prefer to learn from lectures? cfi. tables.ti'~ . allow regular revision time. Work on these and you will become an . Timing Make sure you choose a suitable time to study. e. and whafyo~ need from the text. say 7pm. Notes and learning styles The books you are studying won't always present information in a y. immediately? Ii later? 4 If you need to memorize something. For example. therefore. that it can be difficult to sit down and make a start. in fact.jna. This kind of detailed. Auditory learners often learn best from lectures. text. Rewarding yourself for keeping to your work plan will make you feel good about yourself. ii. do you want to iee it written .words) 1. Ii look up any words you need to understand in a dictionary. . You prefer to see the written word. look for sources that will suit your learning style. II If a particular part of the text is more difficult. stop for a cup of coffee or tea. For example... at other times by listening. planned target is more effective than a vague commitment It is sometimes helpful to tell your friends about your plan.. You learn by reading and writing. This is a good incentive to keep you on target because they wiU know !fyou fail! .. asking yourself questions about it. Targets Always set a realistic work target. Itjs also a good idea to keep your notebooks neat and well organized. discussions.. ff·. If you find a particular task or text difficult... Revision Don't leave revision until the last moment. (395. and then . or listen to a favourite piece of music after one hour's study. Mixture As and Bs If you scored a mixture of As and Bs.e..: reading the whole book over the weekend. Unit 1 • Education and .' write it out several times? B repeat it aloud to yourself and/or other people? 5 When you record neW vocabulary. Try to make this a regular.B What is your learning style? Answer the questions in our quick quiz to find out how you learn best! 1 Do you think you learn better by . This makes the work more manageable. and by listening to audio material. This wHl make it much easier to retrieve information later. Sometimes you may prefer to learn by reading. This is much more effective than trying to cram before an exam. To do this effettively: III Think about why you are reading.. 1 When the teacher uses a new word.. Ask yourself which is the best style for the particular task you are doing. Forexample. When you set your study targets.. R I like to record the lecture and listen again. III Underline words and phrases which occur frequently and are important to know. charts. a quotation. sources with illustrations.

...' i schools.tct~s· from Se.' •_ .~.r.:" _"'j-. over 90%. ·.•._i (3) " " ~ ?'" \ ~'" ...boysand girlsattend together... '.. ...':-'...:'~!-'::':-~:. __ .. .·i·(.physicaleducation.. The first time you read a text intensively: II Focus on content words (usually nouns.. just under 50% leaveschool and start other trainingor work ~ho~:~dt:n!~.00 am to 3..divided into three tenus of approximately 13 weeks each/ i .. •..'. -.3 :rIle'SCh601·year......_.··~iijha.::::..:-:~i:·j:X~_L :':-:'~:-'.! .. Allschoolsfollowthe National Curriculum.': _ .and science. most students take exams (GCSEs) about ten differentsubjects.4.smGDM~'SKILL··Effec'ti~~ reading.' .• •••.' c~en of varying abilities.. Sense groups can be: subject + verb + object At the age of 76/most students take exams/in about ten different subjects.2· secondarY~drt~~ti9~~ -. whereasthe education systemin Scotlanddiffers ina numberof ways.'".... whereas the education system in Scotland differs in a number of ways.:-.::.~e into t~s of approximately 1l._. i/ parts!England/childrenlleave/primary school/agedninelgolmiddldchool> .are T English.~1. \: .~!lJ:s&i to l~h. Theseschools are largely co-educational.••. Northern Ireland.. . :::-. athematics.. and England are '! similar. InWales. ""~'.~_~J~.. '......~__ . to·.' " _. ~h:~I~~O:~es~~~!~!~:~nt~ c:~. Good results inthese are requiredto goto ../3~4tlSati9..~~ E ~ ~ c'- ~.••... .. .•..? .< .. :'::::.'~~. t' ?\liprlmaryeducation? '.over 90%.the Welsh languageisa subject inWelsh-speaking schools. C Most childrenin Englandgo to primaryschool from the age of 5 to 11.' ji'POltl"lducationahd .. Mondayto Friday._ . __ .. a partner.r~ ~.. /...: ':.::... of these children attend state . / The vast majority.'-L-'i~... _.•.•.Somestudents eat lunch inthe school cafeteria. 1 describes the school year? The UK education system A Bylawinthe UK.••• ..'" ~ .. a ·attelldtogether.~¥~}!·7 ._"" . of these children attend state schools..-' ~g_i. (315 ~~:e 12 Use the content words to answer the questionsor 1 Are the ~ducation systems in education.#1anyyo~ngpeople :?. II Think about which parts of the text are relevant. b¥andgil'ls. verbs.-' .. The education systems in Wales..'..~~~~I~.~ • "I : f learning .~.••.:--~: Bylaw in the UK / aUchildren between 5 and 16 years of age / must receive a full-time education. For further readings of the same text: II Concentrate on parts of the text which are relevant..'.!¥ and isusually~j'~Ld.Students attend e schoolfrom about 9.·.•• _ •••••• ~~. . You will have a large amount to read for your studies..ecomprehei1siveschoolswhich~ch .: "" ~'".:~~.students specializeinthree or four subjects. S The schoollear runsfrom Septemberto J u.i~wi . . '."...Education in the UK 10. phrases with a preposition At th~ age of 16/most students take exams/in about ten different subjects..'_'~_ .__ 0 ••• ' ••••• "...:. ....~.:~:~~~ schoolswhichteach childrenof varyingabilities...Theeducation systemsin Wales. ..Other subjects m includehistory.. ~ ooc.i7. .. goon to further education? . .' 11 .·'.i~~s8tl. adjectives).Inthe same way.Phs~~~:~ar~.Northern Ireland._'''~_'". . 1 :2 These sCh_QQlsre largely co-educational..or mainsubjects.30 pm.edutaHort sjlstem!Repu/JliC'ojIr?land!diiferent!Northem Ireland .. 5 describes second~ryed. . Thevast majority." . It is easy to read this by looking at the content words. '.".in Northern Ireland. Atthe age of 16. .. he core... .~_g_ks ach...~. the Rep~blic ."""""". <...". .Read Study ~kiW thetext...n. Skim the text The UK education system... ".....and Englandare similar.geography.and there are further exams at the age of 17 (ASLevels)and againat 18 (ALevel~).&!iah4 •• .. all childrenbetween Sand 16 yearsof age must receivea full-time education.-::.with a morningbreakand a breakfor lunch. Whereverthey study.l1tefuber· is:h~~~Y.the curriculumincludes the Irishlanguagein Irish-speaking schools..g<1 th..~.~\"'j. .•. ""\-.. but manybringfood from home. 2 gives an overview of education iii the UK? 3 describes secondary education from 11 to 16? .... Compareyourparagraphs. ". This description will generally refer to the Englishstate system._..- .. 4 describes primary education! . :..--':.that is. "~~m. . At this in point..i Ve~an:dsiInilal.. music.I " . •._:_-:-~. .and art.•.. tl0X". so you need to be able to read quickly.ii-.- '::':' :.~~nto two years.~'.or goto a spedal college. III Read in sense groups of two or more words. that is.. ofltela~dand Northern ltilfW&r~~tlN~!~j~~~~rr~[i~~11'~g1?UP~' -~ to . aloud .1J~a tionfr?in '16 to 1 ~?.~1~tiry6~~~~.' .Thisdescription will generallyrefer to the Englishstate system. .t~~u~e~~~~~ .."..... ".."~<:'/':_::-:.~.' ... .' =. .:.-:..Readtheparagraph . "2'\Vh~tschools4osonie 9-year-oldsgo to? " .

. 1 Look at the underlined expressionsin the sentences from thetextonpage. the citlle'rhand.: .. .' . . .. In Wales."world '. Unit 1 • .. _". i r. ".. Do they show that things are similar or different? ....•. ..•. .' i'! in Scotland differs in a number of ways...' ' .~.'. .Aiffen~n~~.on' . and Eng/~~~..~...".'. ..._... that they usrtally haveanentranceexam. ... ·····.e/~~~.~h:r:~~'~~:':~~~a'tion system the curriculum includes the Irish language in Irish-speaking schools.. .in Northern Ireland.•..••...S.••....'.. 't~ecorr~ct part of thetable. . ·i.•. . In contrast...• '.e.i~.thewordsandphra$es which youhave underlined in exercise ••...Bqth Sweden and Prance have a compulsory national crit].ste~... .. terms a year.i' ..~.. schoolyearintheYK: or. ' 2 Underline other words and phrases in the se~ten~eswhichsh()ka~i~ii<lrity a..---- ..l:.. .... are similar in thatthq.h.the Welsh languageis a subject in Welsh·speaking schools.·. ...Australian'schoolsci: ..Y:lllum>< •.•.LANGUAGE FOR WfUT~NG ComparingandcontrastiIl8" [ .. In the same wav.....ive . 4 Usea word or phrase from the table to....··. all over the..• . Make anote of thepunctuation.. ...•.... .. ". N~~~er~/. s~hqolfroll11ateJanua~ytol)ecernb~E·. .iii runsfn:~JJiSeptemOer to July:IIl4usg<ili"l.3 Japanese schools are different from schoolsinmallyothercountriesin ••.•••.•• " ..i<" . students go to. ..•... . .. ...<)have fourterms..:c~.'.. i·Th..····. complete the sentences.. . totakeexams. .1901students . ··. ."..•...' '''iSC).•• 4 MalaysianschocilShave two..~:.· .The educ~tio~ :.' . ...

about 13 weeks each 2.GgCEsill to subjects 5.1 eompulsory for 5-16 year aids 1. science + others 3 3.2 3.cafeteria. seieHce.1 elltrallGe exam to eaeh sehool 5. maths.A Levels ill 3 subj8ctgfor ulli~ersitv eiltrallC8 ' 5 5 5.2 2.1 ages 5-11 3..others 4 4.50 IUllch break . all abilities 4 High school 4.3 April to Mareh 3 terms .2 age 17~ M Levels ill 3 or 4 subjects 5.1 3.2 ~omprehellsive.July "2.2 eo-educational 3. packed IUllches 2 2. maths. 5.1ag8 16 .1 geptember .OO-3..3 MOIl-Fri Q.state schools but some private (25$) 2 2.4 lullth break .2 3 terms.3 2.4 3 3.WRITING Education in Japan~nq England:acol11parison 1 Write three things you remember.3 English. I Gelleral illformatioll 1.2 qO% + go to state sehools I 1.most eat school food EleWletlfarysehool ages 6-12 co-educatiollal Japanese. 2 Look at the notes..about 35 weeks a year M!}II-Fri t?30-3.1 ages It-16alld 17-If 4.2 sellior high ages 15-1t? ..1 eompulsory for 6-15 year aids 1.1 2.1 junior high ages 12-15 4.ab{)ut thelJKeducationsystem. elltralle8 exaWl to eaeh uiliversify .Write a for each ' of facts.30 pm 2.3 age It? -.2 majority . Are these things the same or different inyourcouilfry? Discuss with a partner.2.

articles. iii sentence length. " young people. At the end of their time school. Although there are a number of significant differences nPl.. on the other hand. e. In the same way. essay :~pl11paring~he . However. linkingwords III words left out. Japanese children have to attend school from the age of 6 to 1S.. Many English students take food to school for lunch. 3 Japanese students eat a school lunch. but very good grades are required to get into the best universities in both countries. Read the two long sentences from an. students in both countries have to exams take to enter university. By law. Divide each sen terice i~~(}tWo·. prepositions.g. The English school year starts in September. The Japanese and English education systems are similar in that it is necessary to take an exam to enter university however. English children start compulsory school at the age of 5 and continue until they are 16. whereas all English universities accept students with good A level results. Unit 1 . ·pn the systems. Are your sentences too long or short? III word order. Japan is different from England because each university sets its own entrance exam. Check your first draft for: . England.. Beingaccurate is very important in academic and professional writing. English schools do usually not have entrance exams. There are places for everyone with the right qualifications. Japan each school can set entrance exams. Japanese schools have three terms. both countries share a commitment to high quality education for . and auxiliaryverbs The Japanese school year starts in April. 2 English schools have three terms. The school systems in Japan and England are different in that students have to take exams... .

. . which : .g. by accident III verb type. e. intransitive [I] (He doesn't work) !II verb pattern.:. Remember that each entry for a word usually has: Iil the pronunciation and stress III definition(s) iii the part of speech III example sentences III any irregular forms. i i i _. . "Please don't lean bicycles against this window.. : i mm learn your lesson to understand what you ! must do/notdo in the future because you have had an unpleasant experience learned /. dictionaries) 1 a book that contains a list of the words in a language in the order of the atphabet and that tells you what they mean. __. let sb/sth do sth. 1(used about a person or animal) thin and in good health 2 (used about meat) having little or no fat 3 not producing much: a lean harvest leapt /li:p/ verb [Ij(pt.~_. . 3 ITI (~DUCATlON) to study sth so that you can .. oAfish suddenly driver".Is.j:ai.·.. strignou. .. having a lot of knowledge .~""'_".(5th) .g.'. 2 [IJ 10 be in a position that is not strai~hl or UPR1CflT: : That wardrobe leans to the right.a limited period of time.1Ian.dlkJonri/ noun [e) (pl. February has29 days instead of 28 '.:...e!hods 0. o to learn a foreign language/a musital instrument o Where did you learn how to swim? 2 [I] i .li:pfrog/noun [u) a children's game in whICh one person bends over and another person jumps over their back 'leap year noun [clone year in every four.. knowledge I." She leaned out: of the window and waved. e. 3 [I. lean2/itn/ adj.:.5 'JI"O /. : . from studying.g. "Weal/leapt into the air whim theY scored the goal. "We're learning ahQutChino atscnoot. 2 a sudden !arge change or increase in sth: The development of penicillin was a great leap forward in thejie/d af medicine.. leasehold /'li:Sh<i1._. /li:nd/) 1 [IJ to move the top partofyourbodyand : in II' ._. (frorn sb/sth): I'm not very .g. yesterday. .dictionary Choose a recent edition of an English-English dictionary. IlIIlillIleap at sth to accept a chance or offer with enthusiasm: She leapt at the chance to work in teteviston. These will help you use the words accurately..boaksforyoungwho is iioiin [el a person learning: a learner learners ·lle~rnlngi"13:rilij/ i.ojlhe water. 2to movequkkly: Ilooked ot the clock and ' leapt out of bed.. pp learnt /13:nt/ or ! learned /b:nd/) 1 [I.TJ ..:.! learner t13. learning 2 knowledgethatyo~ getfrom stUdying I lease fli:s{ noui) Ie) (LAW) a legai~greeIT)enttha( · allowsyotitoo."..Tj. transitive [T] (! (ike music).:. againslfon sth to rest against sth 50 that it gives : support.guage .ild/<lIi/ (used aboiiiproperty or land) that you can pay 10 use for. . outilixpires·nextYear...J:~:.. ~ lea.13:md/ adj. e. 11 i i I i l l . i :. in the same or a nother language: to look up a word in a dictionary "a bilingual/monolingual dictionary 2 a book that lists the words connected with a particular subject and tells you what they mean: a dictionary of idioms (> a medical dictionary lean1 woO A dictionary entry will also help you use a word by giving: any prepositions which collocate. allow sb to do sth Alwayslook at the example sentences.. goodotdrivingyet-I'm still learning. a leasehold property" leasehold noun [Uj ~ look atfreehold .j i . heart gave a leap when I heard the news.: lease.sea bLiildingorlaild fora fixed period 1 of time in r~!. askiU..urnfor rent: Theleqseon the ftatrun: !. leap2/ll:p{ noUl~[cj·1 a big jump: He took a fiy/ng .".·verb [T]=They tease the landfrom 0 local fdrmer. backwards or to the side: He leaned : across the tolJle to pick up the phone. e. plurals or past tense forms 1 2 3 4· .r/. head forwards. : learn ri /13:n/ verb (pt.eOSing "a leasing company ... pp leapt /lept/ or leaped : /H:pl/) 1to jump high or a long way: The hoise leapt! over the wall. "She leapt back when the pan caught fire.oJ'a. c» (figurative) Shore prices leapt to a record high· ." Just lean back and retox. to put 5th in this position: She had to stop and lean on the[U..... .» Debbie is learning to play the piano. leap at the wall but didn 't gel overlt: o (figurotive) My .{sth) {from sb/stil) to get I knowledge.easedouttotenan.t oflh~ buijdiifg is . etc..ou~[til (EoucAri6N) 1 the process of Ie.::.. which is usually at the beginning." It's important to learn from your mistaKes. to find out: I wassorry to learn about yourjother's I death. lor people who have a lot of /ltnl verb (pt. look at the information about how to use the dictionary._..(offaboutJ sth to get some information about sth. Make sure you understand the symbols and abbreviations. repeat it rom memory 4 [II to understand or realize: ! We should have learned by now that we can't rely on ! her. arning sth:!1ew m.pp leant /lentl or leaned .. leallfrog /.

Always check for correct: III punctuation iii spelling II grammar (verb tenses."-~. You will also meet many new people. you will certainly be give long lists of books that are required reading for your course. In your first few days at university you will need to register for your classes.~. 1 three spelling mistakes 2 three punctuation mistakes 3 three grammar mistakes 2 Use the content words to write full sentences. day years 3 Good academic writing should be accurate.._. 6 There are two basic types of education. All of this can be very daunting and stressful.~>~~._~." ~ . The Students' Advisory Group (SAG)is avaliable to answer you questions."_. Last year more students to study sciences than in any previous year. we are here to help you.] ". ...". Here to help! Are you a new student. 2 In some countries learning a foreign language is whereas in other countries students can decide to study a language or not. r--r-. either a to university to study business : organic and inorganic. 5th floor.REVIEW 1 Would you skim.. 5 Lastyear 35%of our students management. or ask any student wearing a SAGbadge. and to help with any other proplems. . 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 find a word in a dictionary? decide if you need to read an article in a journal? get information from an article for an essay? understand how a biological process such as photosynthesis works? make notes about the education system in India? difficult text several need read times school seven hours Japanese students go lasts university course three four typical Internet get information students use Read the text. And good luck with your studies I 4 Look at the words in the box.. Find and correct ...etc. show you around the university. agreement... scan. Central Building. Use a dictionary to answer the questions for each word... chemistry 1 2 3 4 ability compulsory apply tertiary choose What is the part of speech? Where is the main stress? What are the past forms of the verbs? What are the plural forms of the nouns? 5 Add a word from exercise 4 in the correct form to the sentences. and other members of the university staff._~c. and found out where and when they are held. students lecturers.__ .. But don't worry.. Come to our office in Room 501. or read intensively to ... 3 Comprehensive schools are schools which teach students of all > 4 More and more young people are going on to university or some other educational establishment. as well as a list of essays and other course asignments.

? Who . Unit 2 -Innovations in health and medicine . 1 Where could the text come from? 2 What do the pictures show? ..... and why do people listen to musici.. 5 Read the text and underline the topic sentences 'in piu'Xgraphs 3~6.' 1 Work with a partner. c medical specialists 3 Use the title of the text and the question words in the box to I Where .. and researchers to find evidence of the beneficial effects musichas on health. __ .. 4 Skimthe text and find the answers to your questions in exercise 3. health workers. Look at the text on page 13._" . '" . . DArecent study funded by the Wellcome Trust has investigated the connection between the use of music and the recovery of patients suffering from a variety of medical conditions.. - STUDY SKILL Topic sentences Many paragraphs contain a topic sentence which gives the subject of the paragraph... ... _. when. ••• 'C'. Brainstorm as many ideas as you can in two minutes. but it can also be later in the paragraph.._ •• _~_.. Predlcting the content of a text will help you understand it To predict the content.1 How. The topic sentence is often the first sentence. :. 4 DO'vve1<now h?"..> •. Answer the questions..'.. 1 Is there anyclearpn?of that music can heal? 2 Forwhich diseases is music currently used? 3 Wha.teffeCts~oesmusic have or{ people? .. 8 Highlighttheinforll1atl0rlwhich develops thetopic sentences 3":'6.textaildaIls9~rthe questions in exercise e.~~ •• .READING 1 A musical cure" ...:. survey and skim the text (see Study Skill p4). . .:. 3 Who is the text for? a rnuslclans b general readers make questions.lJse the topic sentences to locate the answers to the questi9ris..:'. -'. " ••.Lookat the exarripie in paragraph 2 first..':" . The study has brought together musicians.. 6 Read'theqtiestions. .•• _.rriusk therapyworks! 5 Whateffed~dbesfeeling gocdhave on our health? -7 Scan the.1 What .'•• ". '. __ . _ •• .~ . Where...1 Whertis mu~jeused as therapy? .

In 400 BCE.~l!ngJP!QP~IT~~~were documented by . it was found that stress levels were significantly reduced. its ae. recovery times were improved. a scientist arid musician. Accordingto Professor Robertson.being. -inessa. they are more likely to feel better and recover from disease quickly.]p~ff(·:and J~lfmn¥f changes to the 1:>OclY wh. being investigated further. in J'1Q. some effects of music are mysterious and are. and it has also been used with patients with:lj:iXig:j!·~£m. however. One day doctors may even 'prescribe' music.:and :~l~g~J..~atitlh:ave a positive approach to life. D·However.m~tl§tQl§.musk'cahcause. The study has brought together musicians.g~~ not all these benefits can be attributed to an increase in general well-being: Music has other effects which have not yet been understood. These new studies coulclpr. III 'I"heJ:~i~. demands facts and hard evidence.~§§'§'.physical IIThese very positive results are partly duetogen.ichcanimprove our health .lli~W:2rlq~ W?:f§iin the last century. and fewer drugs were needed. D.ti"~CitotlO:~I~·patients II Ci~$:~1:jJUt~¢§· suffering from 'diff~!~~t~pr6])1e. It is already accepted thatyv'hen. As a result. . but that could be a long time in the future.people used as a treatment it for many diseases. 11has been suggested that the sounds andrhythmsofIilusic help stimulate the brain and send electrical to the muscles and limbs..o_yic!e~p!()(lfto medical practitioners that musk is a suitable treatment for many conditions. Many in the medical profession have not yet recognized the healing benefits of music. health workers.Music used as a healing therapy IIA recent study funded by the Wellcome Trust has investigated the connection between the use of music and the recovery of patients suffering from a variety of medical conditions.~cience.'whichtookpl. therefore.p!~ suffering from it!~Hill~1 ~g'tf~pJly.l§gg!~e~TfC. such as ~g:Q£~'p. (383 words) .growingevideil<::~"that. Music increases this feeling of joy aI!giCidds to tlteTecovery process. More recently. medical workers used music therapy with p~'§. the Wellcome Trust studY. . since reports have been based mainly on anecdotal evidence.Iil:s.~P:S~~URhlr~~~·[. and researchers to find evidence of the beneficial effects music has on health .eral""ell. MusicJia~.tceoverthree years at the Chelsea and Westminster hospital in London. patients were asked to listen to musical performances.

In a small Texas-based study. Skim the article. even if you paraphrase their words. Promising results from cancer study. Ten of these patients were in the early stages and thirty-three in the advanced stages of the disease. facts. Deakin. B Researchers have reported encouraging findings from this small study. and attacks and destroys them. " •• 10 Use the key words in the box to predict what each paragraph is about. It offers great hope for the 'treatrnent of cancer in general. which thenrecognizes that the cancer cells are harmful. In three of the patients in the advanced stages of cancer. Plagiarism is copying someone'sWork. bur rephrase by changing: ' ". It stimulates the body's immune system. However. C This new vaccine uses the patient's own immune system. .'<Anew vaccine early stages advanced stages spread cells harmful 9 Read the title of the article from a medical journaLWhat the article about? Compare your ideas with a partner. Were your Promising results from cancer study A A new experimental vaccine has shown promising results in the fight against lung cancer. (232 words) " STUDY SKilL Avoiding plagiarism (1) . and were carefully monitored for three years. Forty-three patients suffering from lung cancer were involved in these trials. D The vaccine could be effective against other forms of cancer. Use a-dictionary if necessary. 32. and graphics. USA cured lung cancer in some patients and slowed the progress of the disease in others. it did not spread for five to twenty-four months. a vaccine developed by scientists at Baylor University Medical Centre in Dallas. They were injected with the vaccine every two weeks for three months. the disease disappeared and in the others. pretending they are your own. P. (2007). no great difference was seen in the patients in the early stages of the illness. . New Medical Journal. II the vocabu lary (using synonyms or phrases with a similar meaning) II the sentence structure and grammar NOTE You must always credit the source when you use another person's ideas. F. It is made specifically for each patient and is injected into the arm or leg. Do not copy directly from a text. opinions. although further studies are needed before such treatment can be widely used. or using someone's ideas and".

·.:. 1 Pharmaceutical companies are cpnstalltlydeveloping ne~~~ugs..i: 2 Rewrite each senten~efr6J. The patients were injected with the vaccine.3 Doctors have used alte:rnativetherapies for many years.~s..2 The gcwernmentproyide<lthefllnding forfue study.. .R. ~~. . NOTE An academic text will usually have a mixture of active and passive sentences. 4 Scientists usually test their: ..E. in thelaboratory. 5 The researchers will . ' .· · .•.Rromising•.~~~~~isetusi~gthesynon.. 3 . cOHduttedtest!lOH a HeW vaccil1e.' next month... The vaccine is injected into the arm or leg. underlined words with a s~itabl~sYnonymor near synonym from the box.·...·· .FOR. . .··.Rewrite the se~tences~nthe correct form of the passive.lll eomp~Hies.'.'<. tests scientists encouraging research recovered fJndlngs Illness conducted 1. .·.•·.Read th~r·ules. eecters. '.. ." .• ·.·.·':i..LANGUA(. 2 Although the study was limited teifew~(thanJifty' very... · .·i . 3 Some of the patients at <lnaclv<ll1c~clst<lgeof the ·..Q.WRIIIN~··. The patients were carefully monitored for three years a. . :'..' . A group of US researchefshd~cahied ~ut trials on '....••. ltls formed by the verb to be in the correct tense + the past participle.).i··· .Yfl.~phr~~ir1g li()ok at the sentencesbelo*fr6rrl~esGI1itrlaryon page 14.Replacetile '.'. RULES The passive voice The passive voice is used when it not important who or what does an action.. New drUgSarecol1gf~l1tlybej~gd~yelop~dbYplllir!t'aceutii.' .. A group of US !Itiel1tists has. . by and the agent (the subject of the active sentence) are am itted because the agent is obvious or not necessary.·. In most passive sentences.

__ _'_.Vr..kl"t! A well-developed paragraph usually has: III a topic sentence which gives the subject of the paragraph II several body sentences. older people if the weather is very hot.. ~ .. and vitamins and minerals.ea ltn II Exercise There are a few things to remember when you take exercise. ~_. Discuss the questions.". which concludes or summarizes.. people who over-exercise. Compare your sentences • :r(..\:.:. Warm up properly before starting. - ."u. __ . We should aUeat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. - . .._.._'_.'::"'f:&:£?lj~~(.. carbohydrates..:/"':. which develop that subject III a final sentence.vv''''_ topic sentence. Choose a diet which is high in fruit and vegetables and low in fats and sugar.. but maintain a sensible balance of all five. arid those suffering from diabetes._'""'~.J ~.. . headaches.. 2 Obesity is a growing problem all over the world. and stop if you don't feel welL Take some rest if you need it. or leads on to the next paragraph WO€Us on E). You should drink at least one litre of water a day.". . ._ __ .. 1 How often should you see a doctor? 2 How do you keep healthy? 3 What is meant by a balanced diet? 2 Read paragraph A.. a It has beeo proved that .irisk of developing . Dehydration is common in very young children._. .. . "..":'~. You should not omit any of these groups from your diet completely.bill some developed This is in part due to '... II Diet _____________ .~f. or in hot weather. in the box. ' J ! I 11 Dehydration _____________ . 3 Read the topic sentences sentences into a paragraph. according to nutritionists.%.-...!:. proteins.WRITING Keepinghealthy 1 Work with a partner.. . Write out . to follow fats carbohydrates fibre proteins vitamins and minerals .:l:0._. ~ __ "'.. and more if you are exercising. Read paragraphs B for each paragraph.11:..:~11r}£'1. L __~ . The body requires all of the important food groups: fats. fibre.dE~r~I&1~Y:i'. choose comfortable loose-fitting clothing.a.. and dizziness as well as feelings of confusion.. Not drinking enough water causes dryness of the mouth. and remember that exercise should be fun! i ! ! I ..

they become ineffective. . Antibiotics are drugs which ldll or stop the growth of bacteria.The healing power of electricity Scientists have discovered how the body uses electricity to heal cuts. __ The effects of the electrical charge are very slow. and have proved essential in the fight against some diseases. It is said that four out offive adults will suffer from back pain at some time in their lives. this is a rediscovery of an old medical observation. At that time it was not considered to bean important discovery. if they are overused or used wrongly. but these days many doctors recommend light exercise. This electrical signal stimulates special skin cells to move to the wound. In the mid-1880s. which is approximately one millimetre a day. The skin cells move at a speed of fifty micrometres an hour. When a person's skin is cut. and there are various treatments. However. In fact. One of the greatest scientific advances of the last century was the discovery of antibiotics. Back pain Many people suffer from back pain. an electrical signal forms at the edge of the wound and it remains there until the wound heals. previously the treatmentfor back pain was bed rest. Since its discovery. many more antibiotics have been discovered or manufactured. a German scientist measured the electrical charge across a wound in his arm. The researchers in Scotland have now confirmed his observations and explained the process behind it. The first modern antibiotic was penicillin. There are many causes and types of back pain. However. experiments have shown that the mechanism can be speeded up by fifty per cent. say what treatment or medicil1esb should have • treatment 1101..respected • suffe. e. etc.. Barbara suffered a attaek last year. to treat ve......Choose words which: iii are related to your academic studies JliI are key words in the text l1li will be useful when you write ..."".:.g.. sentence .When you read. record: III the pronunciation III! the part of speech III any irregular forms iii associated prepositions or verb patterns III an example. Vocabulary of health 8& medicil1e • to preseribe medieitle .. record: III the pronunciation !iii a definition and/or translation If there is a word which you want to use in your own work.' ! • prestigious /pre'strdgcs/ . stc.havillg a good reputatiol1.....:..rb ."oc.T] experiel1ce somethillg ullpleasallt sueh as palll.the process oftakillg dril1k. illto your body fOOd..:_:_r. you will come across many new words. • eut /kAtI 110tll1 . He had a eut on his head.._ec~~ What you record about a word depends on how you wilt use it..bu..a hole or woul1d made with somethillg sharp e. If you only need to understand the word. disease.l. Ii\! a definition and/or translation :..g. It is not possible or useful to record them aU. .to use medical care to make sb better • to suffer from a disease/ GOlld/tioll/illness II a study/research/all illvestigatioll/a proJeGt/a survey .~"..r (from still /'sAfa(r)/ verb [I. "..:ary.a. SYII: experiel1ce • illtake /'mterkl.\ .

3 Read the text again and answer the questions. Brightly-coloured vegetablescanhelp protect your sight. Older people are likely to get eye disease called Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMO). The women's consumption of coloured vegetables was monitored over 15 years. It was concluded that women under 75 who have a high intake of these vegetables are less likely to develop the eye condition.. which makes it difficult for the person to carry out everyday tasks.. 2 Dr Suzen Moeller led a research group. Record five of them for active use and five for understanding only. e Diet and health • A common illness 6 Choose ten words or phrases from Unit 2. and carrots contain substances which are important in the protection of our eyesight. diet and the increased consumption of certain vegetables appear to lower the risk of developing other forms of the disease. but it does become worse with age. III 11 Dr Suzen Moeller led a research group which studied a group of women between the ages of 50 and 79 at Wisconsin University. 4 Women under 75 who have a high intake of these vegetables are less likely to develop the eye condition.REVIEW 1 Survey the text and title and answer the questions. sharp vision. Research shows that increased consumption of these vegetables reduces the risk of developing the disease. Although there is currently only a cure for one type of AMD. . 1 Where could the text come from? 2 Who is it written for? 3 What do the pictures show? 4 What is it about? 2 Skim the text and match topic sentences 1-3 with paragraphs A-C 1 2 D D 0 3 AMD occurs when /a region at th~ back of the eye starts to deteriorate.. an This causes a loss of clear. S Write a paragraph (80-100 words) about one of the topics. 3 The women's consumption of coloured vegetables was monitored over 15 years. 1 Increased consumption of these vegetables reduces the risk of developing the disease. _____ ---"--_--'-__ "-Vegetables such as peas. which is the most common cause of blindness in the western world. It would seem that there is some truth in the saying that carrots are good for our eyes. . It is not a painful condition.. broccoli. Unit 2 • Innovations in health and medicine . 1 2 3 4 Which people are most affected by AMD? How does eating vegetables affect your chances of getting AMD? What effect does AMD have on eyes? How was the study carried out? 4 Rephrase the sentences in your own words. in the USA.

2 Is the t~xtff()ma newspaper or What-do the pictures show? •..... . • rephrasing key words or expressions III repeating key words or expressions II ending a paragraph with a question which is answered in the next . For example: 1 where is Curitiba? . or describe developments..>...... III II The body paragraphs develop arguments..... This is done by: ..... states 3 What was the population ofOuriti})ain t~eJ9$Os?i... ·... integrate/integrated. or discusses consequences...... .1~t~ct?: . The final paragraph concludes... Identifying the purpose of each paragraph helps you understand the text and decide where to find useful information.•..••... city planning/urban design 2 maintaining the subject 'good transportation' 3 a backward reference 4 a question repeating the key word 'Agache' a forward reference UI1it3 e: Urban plahnihg .. ...•. maintaining the grammatical subject of the last sentence of the paragraph in the fi rst sentence of the next II using phrases which refer backto a previous paragraph or forward to the next a c d e f rm A-B OB-C OC-D OD-E OE-F 0 F-G rephrasing key words..Will'it be useful to·research topics lc..•.ga....iPhs.Text cofuesion In well-written academic texts.'-~. e. ....•.. . the purpose of the text. II The first paragraph introduces the topic.g. • .- carefuuY. try to persuade..ndid the city employ the Fn:nchard.... •. ....> .. . the questions.·i\bout? .!J~'$irif1uence on urban planning 4 sc1riih~teJCt~#4rinswer Each paragraph in a text has a dear purpose.. ? > ' STUDY SKILL...... WhiChtity isit.. suggest solutions.che and his work 4 ·Ou...i..... ideas and arguments have continuity from one paragraph to another. 3 Skim thet~it. 2 Whe.•...•.. ..· . '..:.•..i·i a ~c·~ ..i01tci{~~Ngi. or describes a problem the writer believe Curitiba is goodmoddofurban.4? 1 urban plarihingin Brazil 2 urban planning in Japan 3 Al6::~4A. ..P1<inriirig? or situation.•..

t\J..•.·. What diq.. At the same time. .. The result.~ifferellt?i·' ... For this reason.. high-speed roads which crossed the smaller streets. Today.:-":"-_.F<lMSeof1he increaseiI1~uriW?il~~.the.p~<lJ:lning.PQP9.•. However.1¥lmt . .J. some parts of his plan were not completed.aJ.planning...ayswasA.. economic.. This team produced the Curitiba Master Plan.. as described below. in southern Brazil. It is dear that the Curitiba Master Plan was one of the first attempts to i!ltegrate all aspects of city planning. .. furitib<i Mil~terI. Answer the questions.'..· . Wl1ilt vras. but its city planners are continually searching for solutions to thepro~lerns... 1 What three.i in the introgll~tion.. :-:'> they employed a French planner and architect. the type of urban planning found in Curitiba is more important than ever.• ·.. Other city planners could benefit greatly from this experience.. did Curitipaaddresstheseproblems? By thel~4osthepopUlation of C~ritiba haigrownto about 150. 3Wha! vva~tl. ':-... "...•.:: . .·· ·.tI~h¢~1~~...·... iii IIAs stated D ... A growing population needsemployment. good transportation remained central to .....000 inhabitants..::::~.:::--:~:. Unit 3 • Urban planning 21 .i .face? . as an increasing number of people move into cities. such as a recycling programme for household waste. Its planners have been courageous and innovative..pan..'f~pq??. By the 1960sthe population of Curitiba had grown to about 430.•• ··········.in .i 'i' . . .• /< tl1~lQ$Qs?\'. the scheme included centres which helped both community life and commerce to develop.... and parks and 'green' spaces were protected from development."What happened to Aga~he'splan?.. and have always put the city's inhabitants at the centre of their designs.Syria.:i .... All these challenges will continue as the population of Curitiba increases..eal~ith? '2 "What probiemi 4o rnilllycities. ')..rnain."i~hning? -r-. This consisted of taking Agache's original plan and adding wide. the challenges for urban planners will also grow. so the city had to rethink its needs. Alfred Agache.•. and reduced traffic congestion. then.:/: -. and preserve the city's historic district.. urban populations are . and an increased demand for services.'..·. .••....'~:':':::. .. . He designed . increasing rapidly.::~ ~:••~k:~fe~!st~. Curitiba faced the same problemsas many other cities all over the world.i.~\<' . Urban planning deals with the physical. _'. Their proposals also included plans to' minimize urban growth.. Read the text again..'proilCh. .... Curitiba is a fine example of how urban planning-canwork. r . Agache studied allaspects of the problem.···....-.:-.1~tt9hRefore the 1940s( ....•.. so business parks and centres have been added to encourage new small businesses.4oespr~anplanni~gd.--:.• .gasl1ls...•. This integrated approach to urban design was maintained throughout the 1980s as Curitiba's population grew to almost one million inhabitants.iiii. Curitiba's leaders realized that it was not sensible to deal With these problems separately. Good transportation still remains a priority together with the need for jobs. as immigrantsfrom countries such as Ja.-:. Environmental facilities were added. namely overcrowding.Lessons from curttiba This review will argue that Curitiba.··iii·· :"'. At one time.... however.:. the mayor put together a team of architects and town planners led by Jaime Lerner. Consequently.!i0w.. These people needed both housmg and transportation.i..i<i ..· .. Many other cities are looking to Curitiba for answers. was that his scheme only served Curitiba for another 20 years.-.' ""'..ii>J .:'.:'i-'.. ' ·.·.e. ii.. It is apparent that.<: . is an important model of good urban planning....·..newabollt. to find an overall solution.•.-. This was the first scheme to address several problems of growing cities at the same time. In order to do this.e\appr6(l..::-Z. scheme which gave priority to public a services such as sanitation and public transport.aspects()f?evelopl11ent. Unfortunately. and growing cities are putting enormous pressure on the environment.•.•• pollution... and housing. and social development of cities...000..I!).:. ·..·i.. . reduce city-centre traffic.....•• ·.and Lebanon came to work in agriculture and industry. ~~... '\ -.•.) . transport.--.. (540 words) 1'!1 D II B III 8.'. .tlhishas riot always been the case.

recreation. a commission was established to investigate the possible locations of this new city. (339 words) order. and well-organized bazaars and shopping centres. plenty of water. However. Both locations had advantages as well as disadvantages. the site north of Rawalpindi was chosen and on the 24th" February 1960. a famous architect and city planner. the availability of water. The advisor appointed to the commission was Dr Doxiadis. and many green spaces. the new capital was given the name of 'Islamabad' and a master plan was drawn up. tree-lined streets. economicfactors. neighbouring Rawalpindi. whereas Rawalpindi would remain the regional centre with industry and commerce. these two options was made after consideration of many factors.A new capital III Dr Doxiadis and his colleagues D Each of these looked at the various locations. When the new state of Pakistan was founded in 1947. Karachi acted as the capital city. They then produced a report suggesting two possible areas: one just outside Karachi and the other to the north of Rawalpindi. This master plan divided the area into three different sections: Islamabad itself. number of drawbacks such as the climate and the state of the existing buildings. D This article describes the background to the choice and development of Islamabad as the modern capital of Pakistan. and agriculture. a pollution-free atmosphere. the national park. it was difficult for Karachi to remain in this role due to a. The new capital is a superb example of good urban planning. Find IIToday Islamabad used for the new . the government decided to create a new capital city. Islamabad would act as the nation's capita! and would serve its administrative and cultural needs. is a thriving city of about one million people. It has wide. The third piece of the plan. Finally. D The choice between m Rather than try to overcome these drawbacks. such as transportation. and factors of national interest. Which site was it to be? three sections had a different role. was planned to provide space for education. In 1959. elegant public buildings. and the national park. It offers a healthy climate.

To make your search more specific: .""'''. if you want information on urban planning but not in Europe.- 1···· •...:.g. 4 ···4 . "urban planning" -Brazil.:~~:':-:.·t.g...'····· . e.yclit1g" 2 .com you can ask direct questions.g. Y'.Choosean appropriate Internet III To check a fact.rdn.. ..al0fAustralia t 3 the l?adiest¢i~ies. such as http://ukask.ej6bs 6 0 household f. These words might not be connected.· ... IS For general information. the capit. . e. . 5 .. 4 symbolswould onl-S? What key words and you use to find information .. you will find sites with the words urban and planning.tni!!SWmi1m.:':-. Match the words to their (near) 1 [ID scheme a factories 2 0 population b business 3 0 agriculture c city planning ... scheme/plan Ii!l more general or topic words..•he design an4coristruction of Canberra. the date of the independence of India. Before doing research on the IS . For example: If you search urban planning. use a search engine such as www. . use an online encyclopaedia such as www... 5 0 ernploYfuent ···. Unit 3 • Urban planning 23 .com or www. .ac..bartleby.ukl or http://www... ·•·.. .' .••.g. !II Use + or ANDto find information together.•.eri~~}' .. . e. use asubject directory such as http://bubLac..41Asia. 4 the history of thecity ofIstanbul faniQ4~}j. you will find sites which have these words together. .-~'.. .f'····¢t~Xl"l()t:AiP. .>. For more specific information.• i. e. search "urban planning' -Europe. ....g. :. e...··.yahoo. . On some search engines. Use quotation marks for phrases.RESEARCH Finding information 1 '.. . 'g.:?:'. plan waste If you cannot find a topic in 3 ··. ...g.g.. Ask: III What is my search topic? iii What are the key words or phrases? Write synonyms of the key words.: .. iii Use . e.. e. the history of Pakistan. plan what and how you are going to search.or NOTto remove information you do not need..inhabitants 7 0 illdustry ."0 look under other related words to For example: I!I (near) synonyms. 8 Olirbandesign h rubbish 2 Put the words in the box under the correct topic in the table . e. Who designed Canberra? 1 the development of urban recycling schemes "url1at1rec. If you search "urban planning'.farming .i.. · O c()ffilllerce. urban planning in Indonesia.

wellery maklllg an excellent public transport system a world famous computer manufacturer based in the city only lOkm from two Itlternational borders a very low level of air pollUflollbecause. country several top-qualityrestaurallts doesll'tusually ralll ill tile summer only30 millute. 13 14 15 16 17 If? tq .Urbsnis 2 3 4 5 6 7 f? q an illfe.saWilyfrom capital city average summer te.rnatiollalairport 20km away a good lIe. of eoastal wltlds many private cars StlOWS eavily itl the winter h famous for its boat-building industry lots of shops on the coast a utl/ve.mperature is 24°C a 20·hectare site ready for re-development a moulltain rallge about 5km away hotel accommodatioll for 20.000 visitors the centre for gold marketing and Je.rsity 10 11 12.twdrk of roads to other parts of the.

. ·. • ·· should hold this event.'i~". Furthermore. c"'r. an extellent publictransport systeh>l a Bood network of roads to other parts ·ati international airport 20km away Visitors can get to Urbania very easily because the international airport is only 20 kilometres away.100k at the information in each of the categories in exercise 1. When they are in the city. . an internationalconference • a national marathon it a national cultural event 90rite an article (200-250 w~rds) ... Number the information for each category in order of importance. country I>eeause. visitors cat! get to other parts of the.4.Urbat!iahas a good tletwork of roads . they can travel around quickly as there is an excellent public transport system.·\illformationfrom ".your city would like to hold one of the · .an international sporting event .

. Recognizing these coUocations helps you understand a text better and improve your reading speed.g.Collocation are words which frequently appear together.g. e. it wlll sound more natural. e. If you use them in your writing. do research Always record these words together. urban planning iii verbs and nouns. Some common collocations are formed by: ill adjectives and nouns.

4 Why was Canberra chosen for the location ofAustralia'scapital city? Unit 3 • Urban planning . the various planners had many things in common. and the streets were paved and laid out in a regular grid. Read the paragraphs and put them into the correct order. 4 It is important to them. These cities also provided their inhabitants with public facilities such as market places and fresh water supplies. now in modern Pakistan. address . 'administrative. . 6 Building a road around the city will congestion. 1· Complete the sentences using a verb from the box in its correct form. · and a system of urban sanitation.REVIEW 1 Look at the jumbled paragraphs from an essay on the history of urban planning.In the city of Harappa. such as religious. culture. Please 8 Next semester I am in exercise 2.27 . exercise 3 in pairs. 7 . Alexandria and Miletus are two of the most famous examples of this urban planning. 5 Students are asked not to of the examination. IIIslamic cities too provided their citizens with public 1m Urban planning is not a recent invention. Despite differences based on geography. This is a system where different areas of a city are assigned different functions. They are further credited with developing a totally new idea of urban planning known as zoning. or commercial. People have designed their settlements from the earliest times. in the first millennium BeE. ·DThere is evldence of deliberate planning as far back as ·the third millennium BCE in the Indus Valley.. the ancient Greeks were laying out their cities in an organized and regular manner.. 3 Use a dictionary to find other words which collocate with the verbs in the box 4 Do an Internet search to answer the questions. and the needs of the population. The history of urban planning IISimilarly. Theidea of zoning spread to many parts of Europe. do hold make __ a planning meeting on Monday. there were water tanks . 1 Who designed Brasilia? 2 What is the current population of Curitiba? 3 Which are the three largest cities in the world (by population) outside China and India? . as this essay will describe. facilities. people properly in order not to offend a noise if they leave before the end a difference to traffic a course in translation. the new students in the The director will_---'-_. every four years. The Olympic Gaines are 3 The chancellor of the university is main hall at the moment.

.::'_' .. •• . ' .vh~fdd'thentimbers 70% 98% 1972 300 billion in theb6ii~f~fto? 25% 32. Read Text A and information which answers the questions. using-the underlined in both texts .. iii Make notes from the information you have underlined.·· • 'Wa.... ... .>:i ··...ii··ii . .:'- "' . f dotl'tthitlkabO'ut\Vh~. 3 sc~ri·th~t~its •. .. .. .. Make notes to answer the questions..· · 2 s~fyeyieXtsAandB()npage·. '0" . ..•.water.-:. ..: ... food. .. The information you need will depend on the task.terjU~tG()M~Sp~O(atap.·.:\.. Developinga thesis statement • Conclusions Checkingyour writing (3) • Writing to describeand explain VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Compound nouns • Compoundadjectives REAOINGWater.~9.. Identifying languagefor LANGUAGE FOR WRITING Introductions and conclusions • Rephrasingand giving examples WRITING SKILLS Introductions. -. Why is there a water shortage in some countries with adequate rainfall? How can water be managed more efficiently? How can the problems of water be solved in the future? - 7 8 9 10 5 Read Text B and underline any information which you could Text Aor which is different.. •.. for?/ -. . III Readthe second text and underline any new or different information which is relevant.·.' . Uni(4 • Water." "'U'~"".ll'.READING SKILLS Findinginformation from more than one source. . 'Which two methods are used in desalination? Name three countries which use desalination.·.. iii Read the first text and underline the information you need. Firisfing info"rmation from more than qne source '.t.. •'Watef!smor¢ Val~iibietbanoil. . • ·~ott[edwat~risgb9~f?ryou/ . .~..~lt GomesfroM.' .000 4 Look at questions 1-10. vvhen' was desalination first used in China? How have the Chinese made the process of desalination mor~ efficient?· When was desalination first used in the UAE? .. and energy ... You will often have to read two or more texts about the same subject. '.' . ·STUD¥' skiLL .···..... .Where···couldJh~Y~()me written .". . .. everywhere 1 Discussthe statements·i··." " _." . .·.•• i ·. 1 2 3 4 5 6 What is desalination? What is removedduringdesalinationj .

many are developing ways to increase and conserve their supplies of fresh water. China. people are U~. Toovercome these problems.250 litres of fresh water a day. One such solution is desalination. Another example is Saudi Arabia. The challenge. with its rapid industrial growth. nowadays. (436 words) v . Consequently.As the demand for fresh water has grown. the process by which salt water is converted into drinkable fresh water. desalination is an expensive process using large amounts of energy. The hope is that the technology currently being developed will lower the costs and help solve the problem of water shortages in many parts' of the world. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE). One place which has used desalination for many . China. yet many people take water for granted. the public are encouraged to limit their consumption. Since then. years is the United Arab Emirates. To supply water to 25% of the world's population living within 25 kilometres of the sea. one of the driest countries in the world. but research is . However. The first desalination plant was established in the UAEin 1960. water Shortages can still occur because ofleakages and the subsequent loss of billions of Iitres of water. there is growing concern that our water supplies will not prove adequate. Some of this fresh water is then sold to industry. In areas near the coast. In addition. Unfortunately. whereby salt water is purified by passing it through membranes. Governments will be obliged to ensure that water companies operate efficiently and the public will learn that water is a precious resource to be used economically.OOO-kilometre coastline and convert sea water into fresh water. salt water has been taken from the East China Sea and converted into fresh water. Since 1958. To maximize efficiency. a process which has traditionally been carried out by heating the water {the thermal method}. a cheaper and more flexible method has been developed. is to do this on a much larger scale.l:>1111Ullg realize how precious it is. has used these two methods to exploit its 32.7 pillion litres of fresh water will be required daily in the UAE. and nowadays most of the drinking water in the country is supplied by this process. Experts forecast that in 2015. As a result.. (380 words) B Providing water Global demand for water is increasing as experiencing large population growth. due to the increased use of modern technology in our homes.. However. whereby salt and contaminants are removed from the water. this alone will not be enough to solve the problem. more desalination plants are expected to be built in the future. for centuries man has experimented with different methods of converting salt water into fresh water in a process called desalination. but 98% of this is undrinkable salt water. and the remainder is sold as drinking water. 2. an obvious solution to this problem is to find ways of utilizing the abundant supply of water from the sea. Even where the water supply is adequate. the average daily consumption of water has risen to as much as 150 litres per person in recent years. This method is used most effectively in combination with the thermal method. It installed the first desalination plants in 1972. and consequently more countries will turn to desalination as the solution to their decreasing water supplies. The water crisis is not a problem unique to dry countries. so has the importance of desalination. This involves the removal of salt compounds and other chemicals from the salt water. One of the largest plants in the world has been constructed there. and the water companies are being forced to repair pipes. producing 56. The demand for water will increase throughout this century. Toovercome the shortage of both. New flltration systems have been developed to replace the traditional methods. esalination has also d helped compensate for the lack of natural fresh water. currently being carried out into the development of more efficient technology using a combination of different methods. producing 300 billion litres annually. using water from the PacificOcean to produce fresh water to generate electricity. whose desalination plants produce almost 25% of the world's desalinated water. which used a heating process.the majority of it being produced by desalination. The main disadvantage of this method has been the cost. has also experienced an increased demand for water as well as energy.A World of water Water is essential to life and we depend on it. some is used in the production of energy. and with it the demand for water. as water shortages become more widespread due to global warming. As the population of the world increases.the Chinese have successfully combined a desalination plant with a power station in Zhejiang Province. Water covers 70% of the surface of the earth. In countries with relatively high rainfall. China built a combined power and desalination plant in Zhejiang Province in the 1970s. .

In other words. F()rinstance.". They are used for: II rephrasing or explaining. and in tum acts as a food source for the next organism in the chain. and birds eating seeds. which eat animals. and are a source of energy for the. Green. Examples of'thtsare sheep eating grass. ______ . This essay will describe the three types of organism which form food chains. a food chain shows that every organism is dependent on another for its source of energy. organism in the next step in the chain. Consumers can also be divided into groups according to what they eat: ___ -' These organic compounds are found in various parts of the plant such as the leaves. Tosummarize. e.the process of turning carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds using energy from light from the sun. they are directly eating a product of photosynthesis. but eventually the chain ends. and explain how each organism acts as a food source for the next one in the chain. in the final steps in the chain. ' ' 2 What is usually a producer ® a plant b an animal 3 producer primary consumer 8 secondary consumer primary consumer \ 10 11 A well-written text will have discourse markers or signals to help you understand it.'IS (9 a group of plants and ".~"L<""'" depend on What is a food chain? A food chain shows the relationship between organisms which feed on each other. where they are used by plants. ' " The first organism in the food chain cannot feed on other organisms and is called a producer because it makes its own food. They use t!l:atis!. a consumer. in other words II giving examples. When they eat meat. fruit. 1 What three every food 2 Give an examoie 3 Explain Consumers are generally animals and humans who eat the products of photosynthesis."... 1. e. they are primary consumers. when humans eat vegetables.. and the food chain begins again. The transfer of energy from one species to another can occur several times..Food chains 1 Look at the diagramof the food answer the questions.g. These molecules returned to the soil. for example 12 Read the text more questions. l .'. '' 1 What is a-food chain? a a type of supermarket b a line of people H<W.g. . Consumers are classified depending on their place in the chain. for instance.~?ducer. which eat only plants or plant products. are~ . and roots.. and which eat both plants and animals.Lare ::~am~. When the final consumer dies. its body is broken down into simple molecules by? such as bacteria and fungi. they are secondary consumers.

. 3 A hydro-electric plant. 31 . such as bacteria and fungi.' . there-are two main solutions to this problem. page 3D. Two aspects of energy conservation will be discussed in this article. '"7C 2 Underlinethe~9rq~~!l4ph~~s~s which indicate an introduction. In conclusion. ":'I$-... 6 In this paper the problems will be examined indetail and some solutions wiHbe proposed.:·.'_._. d are the final step in the food chain.. food.afo~dchajli)howsthat every organism is dependent on another for its sourceofenergy. . explain how each orgallisnlactsas afood source for the next one in the 2 TosumITIarize.. for example cows.: j" ••... new developments in technology are essential. Asthis report has shown.i)... . the process by which plants make food... Unit 4 • Water.•... 4 Microorganisms. _'" .>.' __ 1 2 3 4 S This report will outline the problems caused by water shortages.\'.J '_.•. v. that is. "u<o 1 This esswwiHdescribethethreetypes of organisms which f~rm food .~~>-c:'.1f. a power station using water to make electricity..-..._>.LA. ).... or cOllCiJ$iClrt"irisenieffce:i+i¥$~ '.)._" lLook atthe senteJ... in other ~.~~ ' . c requires sunlight. it is'essential to reduce the pollution of the oceans... Underline one phrase which rephrasing: Primaryconsumers._.. on phrases whichj!ltroduceth~topiGbf the essayor ..~ndintuinacts~s afood source for the next organism in the chaln..esfrom. " '.NGUAGEFORWRlTlNGlntroducti . In brief. and energy ro". >.". b feed on plants. :.:pr.ay page 30. _..•..

. What are the effects of an increasing population on the energy needs? Describe the process of oil refining.' SourcesofE!llergy<' 30.... • Decide what main ideas you will include... doesll't ponute) disadvantages (expensive to install. medicine. . . food.. The consumption of energy has risen considerably due to the world's population. essay examines three renewable sources of energy and UULUU'=" the advantages and disadvantages of each one. There are too many cars and these are causing pollution cities.. eookillg. ~iCp:is~he?~stth~sii~t¥{~lii~fi(f~. the thesis statement. ta» ollly be collected ill the day time) To develop a thesis statement: iii look at the essay title and decide what kind of essay it is. Discuss renewable sources of energy. b Plants are a source of oxygen.. 1Match the thesis statements a This essay will describe the process of producing petrol crude oil. For example: IIiI to introduce the topic IIiI to state the purpose of the writing . . • • • • e»ergy froM the su» uses (heatillg..lightl advalltages (cheap to rUII. Underline Readthe title andth~ilitr(}duction to the essay.. a Pollution is a serious problem and something should be it soon. . What is a food chain? A food chain shows the relationship between organisms which feed on each other. to give an overview of the content and sequence Introductions often contain a thesis statement which expresses in one or two sentences the main idea{s) in the essay.erntatiive sources of energy.·····:1·>·· <WRITING. The introduction to a piece of writing may have several purposes. This essay will describe the three types of organisms which form food chains. This has led to the search for alt. c There are three major forms of pollution which cities have to deal with. frampage ' . and 'raw c Trees are very important because they are needed of wood and paper. s Write one or two sentences indicating what you are going to discuss. Why are plants important? a Plants are beautiful and should be respected.t·~~~hi~·~~#t~~~i~?. . and explain how each organism acts as a food source for the next one in the chain. ·1 Discuss the present problems of pollution in the world.•.

Unit 4 • Water. food.. and energy .5 .Read the conclusion from an essay on Discuss what information has been .33 .

guide fossil 3 lab a b c d e f D scraper DUnes Dease D fuels . e. Make a list of words that occur frequently. Keep good vocabulary records in your notebook. suitcase III as two words. they produce food through photosynthesis and are fed on by krill. It has been shown that patients suffering from backache recovered more quickly if they listened to music every morning. The factory was built weH. 2 The Antarctic food chain is a simple example.are several tips for succeeding in your studies. Do your homework regularly.g.g.g. e. sestbelt III with a hyphen. e. night-time Use your dictionary to find out how they are written. in turn. that is. The produce was aU grown at home. present/past participle. The whales are the secondary consumers and the next step in the chain. A fast heartbeat can also be slowed down by music. Using carbon dioxide and sunlight. A cold does not threaten your life. The population is growing fast.g. Compound nouns are two or more nouns used together to refer to one thing or person. tiny plants that live in sea water. little-known l1li an adverb . population.D coat D water Compound adjectives often consist of: iii an adjective + present/past participle. essay. Make sure that your handwriting is easy to read.g. h Acold is not a illness. e. e. The essay was written well.. e Makea list of words. b Reservoirsare c The country has a d It was a f lakes. are the producers in this chain. slow-growing. e. the primary consumers in this chain. It was all produce. They can be formed: II as one word. 3 Music has long been used to treat patients suffering from many different conditions. They. slowly-moving.g. energy-wasting Reservoirs are lakes made by man. industry. g It was a factory. Plankton. . No one complained about the Singapore is famous for its costs. well-belsnced !!I a noun + present/past participle. Krill are small animals. The costs increased rapidly but no one complained. are eaten by whales.

stomach ache rainwater ne~~'~per 1 2 3 4 5 5 Complete the sentences with compound adjectives formed from the words in brackets.•. 4 Are these compound words written as one word.REVIEW 1 Write a thesis statement for the essay titles 1-3. glucose are broken down with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. movement. . Some living things use anaerobic respiration.2 Discuss the importance of reducing pollution.••" '. 3 It was a allergies. for example in other words such as that is Respiration. '.. comprehensive school . or 'are they hyphenated? Look back through Units 1":'4 PI use a dictionary to help.1 . (managed well) 4 The research scientist encouraged active participation in the ______ process. This energy is necessary for all the functions of the body. Unit 4 • Water. 3 Explain the dangers of a bag diet. they do not use oxygen to break down the organic compound. (related to diet) measures to conserve and a successful company. 1 Many people suffer from 2 Governments are recommending supplies.'. '. " • " " a free source of energy u~eful ill willdy coulltries il!expellsive to rUII already ill use ill somecoulltries 3 Complete the paragraph on respiration. 6 7 8 9 fossil fuel . 1 . write a conclusion for an essay about the advantages of wind energy. food/and energy 35 . (save water) .. What is global warming? .•. . (make decisions) 5 Many families in the city have to live in (maintain poorly) apartment blocks.. • .. and energy is released. using phrases from the box. 2 Using the notes. . usually requires oxygen. as two words. . and reproduction. _______ growth.the process by which living things produce energy from food. note books well organized lunch time English speaking. .. Organic compounds 2.

Unit 5 • Free trade and fairtrade .. 4 Countries which produce coffee import the packaging.•• · . •Readthetiti~.Artswefth~'luestioris I·J9~ 4••• .g.. n-i~ny argtlme~tsarethereagainst ··. ·'Wh t d . unlikely • modal verbs to show uncertainty.. S 2 The world economy has increased substantially since the 19605. might When a writer wishes to make dear that an opinion is not their own.lO .'t~' '.··. possibly.. . probably.·4·••••.2 of 51UU<U. 2'" . . o.r. 3 Whatdoyou .'.!sa fact 1 International trade is responsible for the increase in world economic growth. believe.t~t:t.r. suggest.. 5 Two-waytrade results in commercial development in both countries ..·····3. . Pind. •··.wo modal verbs showing llticeitainty t 30rie adverb showirtgcerta:inty... 1 Scan the article again to complete the ..lWhatdbesy6urc()un.t .the •.. 5· .g.t... e. they use: • verbs for reporting opinions.. it would seem/appear • adverbs and adjectives to show varying degrees of certainty..<1· Iibyr 'S~Irliheteri..~E·AI)ING······Globalization ··tilscJss·thequestlofls~ithapart~er . ... What is your opinion? .· . tend to.t ·. •. '.oftheteXt m~hfp¥J:tsatet~~re?i.. 3 Average income in China has increased in the last 20 years. may.· other countries? ry.orullcertainty 4 five reporting verbs showingopinion or speculation CS) in the text? How did you decide? 6 Read the article.UUJL. e. . in general. argue.•. 1 international 2 the global 3 world 4a 5 the mcrease majority trade 6a 7a 8 manufactured 9 an inflated lOa Facts are statements which are certain Speculation is something which is not certain or true. import export globalization th~.oPinion •.. e..$ca~H .·. iti-.••. claim... Is the information in sentences 1~8 expressed . is..• What·...• ar~.~. 6 Farmers are made to sell their products at a low price. .g.··...La. •.:t.• on glOb~ization? . . ag. To speculate. e.·.·. nderstan4bytpeterm u 'globalization'? orlpage 37.g.·..•. likely.. " . wtiter's.• .. have a tendency to ' • expressions showing caution. maintain It is important in your reading to be able to distinguish between facts and opinions.. '.·~ .•..• ·a oesllmpoL'. 7 Largedebts are acquired by countries which import goods.rl~in argutnen ts generalizations 2 ". :e·.. . ~r 'lfi~~ e~}~~~i~·ns~iP~essirigcJGtionand . a writer will use: • generalizations.o.. HowiTIaniar~iiments)rethereirifavour '..

these countries do not find a world market for their goods and do n. More imports. (495words) Unit 5 • Free trade and fair trade 37 . Countries which onlyfocus. !_t~~9~. . Industrial development Finally. They are 'average' figures. These imported goods are frequently over-priced. These countries develop expertise and increase their share in the international market. these sorts offigures might not be giving a true picture. Consequently. and despite the fact thatthere has been a substantial increase in income for a small minority of people. those countries which continue to support all their industries usually do not develop expertise in any one. Similarly. Which argument is correct? Improved income? An argument in favour of globalization is that the benefits of increased international trade are shared among everyone in the country. where per capita income rose from about $1400 in 1980 to over $4000 by 2000. globalization often encourages a country to focus on industries which are already successful.Y. An example of this is China.continue some time.ti:~~pp!~r that countries which open their doors to world trade tend to become wealthier. it is the richer countries which control the price of commodities and. and these countries. that. in general. therefore. However.doubt~_d. have a tendency to accumulate huge debts. and technological exchange. However. Furthermore. farmersmaybe forced to sell their produce at a low price and to buy manufactured goods at an i'hflated price. investment. '. some people believe that this growth has only benefitted certain rmm~'M"'~ and that others have suffered asa result. Countries which produce and export coffee import the packaging for it: a two-way trade which enables commerce to develop in two countries at the same time. therefore. On the other hand. and richer-countries which produce and export manufactured goods such as packaging materials.. more exports Supportersoffree trade pointoutthat there is another direct benefit to be gained from an increase in internatloiiaii:rade: exports require imports.I. Coffee is cited as an example. It is argued that this international trade has been one of the main causes of world ecorfOmfcgt6Wtlfovef the past half century.2. Although there is little doubt-that the global economy has grown enormously in the last 50 years. Critics maiJ:!~9Jp. it is poorer countries which produce and export food such as:coffee. Anti-globalists cl~iI1lthat there is a serious flaw in this argument for the specialization of industry. One simple definition is that it is the rapid increase in international free trade. This debate wiHit1l).Globalization: is it a force for good or for bad? Globalization is defined in many ways.on one or two main industries are forced to import : other goods. per capita income rose by over 100% in India between 1980 and 1996. the vast majority have only seen a slight improvement. it would seem that a for better balance between free trade and fair trade is the answer to the problems of globalization.Uncreasetheir gross domestic product (GDP)or gross national product (GNP).

This way they can demand a higher price and benefit from higher profit margins. One of these concerns the pricing of fair trade goods.~' . Look for the number of arguments presented. which is bad for the environment. However. with reference to your recent article on fair trade. Yours Ralph lee <:siu~. impossible to judge it at present.'. I would like to point out that although fair trade seems to be a good idea. I wish to say that there can be no question that the fair trade movement has resulted in substantia! improvements for small farmers and producers in developing countries.y S~I~~:':1. there is strong evidence that farmers and trades people in poorer countries benefit as a result of their membership of this movement. .. there are problems. This leads to an increase in air transport.'-.~e'~·t·i~Y. They can buy this food knowing that no one was exploited in its production. high'quality. Previously. Yours Philippa Schofield (467 words) B c 11 Match the words definition.I I Is 'fair trade' fair? 9 Skim the letters. Yours Jan Montgomerie C Sir. As far I am concerned. who then sold it at a great profit.'. Which letter is 1 positive about fair trade? 2 more. food is available to consumers at a reasonabteprice.-:. A writer may wish to: iii support an argument III be critical of an argument III evaluate an argument critically It is important you can identify the writer's point of view.a balanced number for and against? B Sir. Equally."-. fair trade also helps producers to organize their own marketing and selling. this is a win-win situation. with regard to your article on the fair trade movement. encouraging poorer farmers to produce food for money may lead to a decrease in the production of food for their own country. and not to an international company.: " . many farmers had to sell their produce at a fixed. The results show that some retailers are charging extremely high prices for these goods.:~. Fair trade started over 20 years ago to make sure that the profit from the production of food such as coffee or bananas went to the people who produced it. ':--". "often organic. At the same time. Are there: • more for or more against? • . one could also argue that consumers' desire for fair trade food encourages them to buy foodstuffsthat are flown in from abroad.. .ing ~ view a point ~f ~~ \ '. they are not passing on the increase in profits to the producers. " 3 more objective! ' Read Stu'dy slim Sir.which they can then reo . Today. " It is my opinion that we need to wait a little longer before we truly understand the overall impact of the fair trade movement.!'Free . which is the purpose of fair trade. .negative! ":c.' . ' In my opinion.invest to improve production.'->". low price to other people or companies. Also. fair trade needs to maintain strict control on the pricing policy of goods carrying its label in order to ensure that fair trade remains fair and ethical. Moreover. The prices that supermarkets charge for fair trade goods have been analysed. Ithink most people would agree that the fair trade movement is successfully making consumers more aware of how their food is produced. therefore. with reference to the article 'Is "fair trade" fair?'. I would like to argue that we are stU! in the relatively early stages of this movement and it is..:-'.'- \" '"' ~" ~. 1 2 3 4 5 6 o substantial o profit margin o organic ' o exploited o retailers o ethical" 38 'Unit S':.

it would seem that an increasing number prefer to visit countries where English is not widely spoken. Unit 5 • Free trade and fair trade 39.~. . . could/may it is likely it would appear ______ "however..'- As globalization increases.u.v. As a result. ·. . there will be a rise in the demand for familiar food and in the expectation that local people will speak English. Although there has beena tendency for people to go to 'popular' tourist destinations.~. .erit~i/ 1 Rewrite the statements to make them less certain.lANGUAGE FOR WRITING Expressingcertainty and uncertainty 1 Underline the modal verbs which show uncertainty. one which expresses caution and generalization..a. These demands 5 result in the destruction of the very things which made the destination different from ordinary tourist destinations. .~~.. ."UlIL.your point of view. Discuss your answers with a partner._ 3 It is that the world's population is increasing. using 1 Buying more fair trade food leads to an increase in 2 Globalization has an effect on local culture and . an increasing number of people are choosing to take holidays in more remote places which are less affected by this. population will lead to an increasing demand Expressingcaution 5 Read part of an essay about the effects of globalization on two verb phrases.~'. 3 More globalization may h~v~a negative impact on the eIi1{i[()riil1. . .u. the differences between countries disappear. lIS Complete the gaps in the next part of the essay with words or phrases from ~~ ._.VU" • 3 Complete the table with adverbs which show 4 Complete the sentences with a suitable adjective or adverb to •·. that the number of people choosing to visit more remote locations is growing too rapidly. ~u..u'~~'. and social scientists ~ that this increase ______ have a negative impact on these locations.-•.-a""._..3 An increase in exports leads to an uncertainty. 1 India coU:ldbe one of the major economic powers of 2 Small companies might } also benefit from the increase . It is also of ~ water will go up.'. They say' that with a rising number of visitors. 2 greater use of desalination plants. . . W._. . _.. and where they have the opportunity to learn a few words of a new language.

' _':'-'.g.ow··paid~f~~g. For example. . It helps smell producers in the developing world. it helps small producers such as farmers and fishermen to plan their futures.·cars .and faiffrade . Re~dthe essaYHtle.e . -'.. Use expressions such as for example. e...g. III a specific example... :. Lami.::: :. .i '-:':"~'::. now has a smafl co-operative business with four other fishermen from his vii/age.' . who was given a guaranteed price for his coffee for two years." .:.: . ...:: -. ·'i:·'·'·'..:(:. .. • Uelps to redul)e ellvironmelltal damage...':1. (4) This meant he could calculate his profit margins and.atldH~fiOflalee0l1rmi8~ . Which results are positive and which ones are negative? .. : :~." ".::~::··c::.iu~~ag··tafmi~g.. p~rtner. . <..'":". "".. iWork with a partner. one example of this is . .'~::'. 1geadtheparair~p1iahout fair trade...j~:~.."~~afrist()~rd.'increase in consumerismin these areas.'.. d more pollutiotl'C .::'-·:'::·--c... invest in new equipment for future seasons.J. a fair trade fisherman from Indonesia. ii:i.. :...•::~:.·paGkagiIIg :.with.••.. ' _:..._. mrJre tr'aitspot"t tlee~etjJp'IlI1. (3) One example of this is Antonio. a more waste packagillg to dispose .. .~· ~ · •. .5'Vrork." .WRIJIN(i.•.. Which sentence(s) gives ...:<. i" . e. • Freetrade.8!1dvllriety tor.i~{» ..' . ' • Produl)ers of orgallic rice ill Thailalld use traditiollal techlliques which do Hotuse chemicals or exhaust the soil.fu~e·Il()tesollilie~bssibl~~~iriits~.• tourism ':~~l()t1'1es .: .kp(l....'. as a result.'.' .of b more c~oice .:_._._... a the main point? b the support? c an example? (1) The fair trade movement improves the lives of people in the developing world.bUt·i). . When you are presenting a written argument. .. g' more mOhey in rocaf. • Produl)ers of fair trade goods use their fillanl)iaralld techllical expertise ill their I)ommullities. e..":... maill poillts • Ellcourages developmellt of the local commullities.::. Fair trade should be supported..iri: a '. (2) In particular.:":_. . III support..g.'.. ..~ :. ".E}(arnptes'of .. .'. 2 support • MallYfair trade producers use systems which allowthe soil to recover lIaturally without I)hemicals. an illustration of this is .' Is increased consumerism a good thing? What do you understand by the term consumerism? 4 Look at the notes on the possible results of an increase in consumerism food.::":.custoltlsrs . .operative ill Mexil)ostarted a public ~us service IIIthe village. fair trade .. a farmer in South America... 3 examples • A coffee co..'. include: III the main point(s) in a topic sentence.:. /'.. /40lJ~it5 . .. ••• ~d'gal~g'···..:: '~ :.' . ..

. ~4 In the first place. transport. . e.... then a paragraph on cars (positive and negative) or III by viewpoint.. It is also important to note that . 3 The second point to be considered is {he effect of an increase in the demand for traf'fS'Port. and clothing. on to discuss how the consumer.. Use _ and phrases such as: The main argument (for/against . is / In the first place. This essay will argue that there are clear disadvantages as well as advantages to a rise in consumerism. the producer. It will examine its impact in four main areas. e. and the economy could benefit. 2 The main argument against increased consumerism is that it will almost certainly have a negative effect on the environment. and then go . to stage your arguments clearly.. it is clear that an increase in the consumption of foodstuffs will lead to an increase in the amount of packaging needed.. for example aluminium tins./ Finally.. this workforce could well be expected to work in poor conditions and for low pay. tourism. It is important in favour neutral against Unit 5 • Free trade and fair trade 41 . then paragraph(s) on the negative points Another strong argument is that increased consumption is likely to produce a need for a larger workforce. You can do this: Iil by topic. . / Secondly. It will describe the possible adverse effects on the environment and the labour force...g./ Firstly./Another point is . Unfortunately.g. paragraph(s} on the positive points.This essay will describe the possible results of an increase in consumerism. ) Another strong argument is '" / In the second place. ... In academic writing it is lmoortant present arguments in a consistent way.. namely food. . a paragraph on food (positive and negative). Lastly..

etc. 6 I think we have a fair chance of getting the contract." . 5 (used a bouttheweather) good.]3 (a/so funfair) a type of 0 a short o after the first 0 become o a written smaller legal agreement 4 Complete the sentences. III When you look up a word in the dictionary. ' .l I VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Multiplemeanings lliMlfmmW1!!' Look atthe entry for fair from the OxfordSt~dent's '.•. lB Decide what part of speech a word is.. Words in Englishcan have more than one meaning. Use your dictionary if necessary. !mil unfair 2 . I UUJ. .: get 3 Match the underlined words in exercise 2 with a definition. 2 Astronomers chart the 3 After the heavy rain the ·4 The chairmanwill _ _ the discussions . according to the law. They live near the university. . they can be a verb and an adjective.. 4 a Wait a second! I'm coming... 5 Coffee beans are roasted and then __ 6 The earthquake _ 7 The fair trade 8 The research team _ _ 42 Unit 5 • Free trade and fair trade . <> / think it's fair ta say that the number of homeless people is increasing.: They have a fair chance of success. 1 Every year there is a huge book fair in Beijing and Frankfurt. 4 (used about the skin or hair) light in colour: Chloe hasfoir hair and blue eyes. . etc. fair' 'Ji!"O [fea(r}[ adj .fair-'hairedadj. It can change when the word is used in different ways. . 2(2) 2 He paid us a fair price for the goods... without fa in !llli!iJ fair enough (spoken) used to show that you agree with what sb has suggested fair play (SPO~T) equal treatment of both/all sides according to the rules: The referee is there to ensure fair play during the match. businesses. 1 a In the past people earned less money than they do b Exports have gone past the billion dollar'mark. large.This helps you choose the correct entry in a dictionary. expand as they b They will sign the contract tomorrow.OI. S a Metals contract as they get cold and.'.(talon sb) treating each person or side equally. ~--'-'-_ . show and sell their goods: a trade jair <> the Frankjurl book fair fairground J'feagraund[ noun [c] a large outdoor area where a FAIR is held .1Ul. 2 What part of speech are the underlined words? . using each word in the box twice.• adv. At a fair you can ride on machines or try and win prizes at games. 7 Many Scandinavians have fair hair.: That's noifalr-« he got the same number of mistakes as Idid and he's got a better mark...pronunciation.ll):." 2 a The factory workers met to decide whether tohavea strike or not.< influenced by your own personalfeelings time fairZ [f#I3(r)! noun [<. 2 Ohit 3 o work stoppage 0 not 4 5 o aim . 5 When I was a child. III time before II! above now or further than a certain point.. (more than) yourfair share of sth (more than) the usual or expected amount of sth Dictionary. Fairs usually travel from town to town.. Write the number of the entry which corresponds to each use of fair in the following sentences. 4 The weather will be fair tomorrow. lead 1 ground movement entertainment in a field or park. 2 (SUSI NESS) a ta rge event where people. b Our team came second in the competition. 00 fair trial tmIiI unfair 3 quite good. 0 It wasn'tjair on her to ask her to stay so late.. 3 Fixing prices is not fair to farmers in developing countries.'" -. look for numbers which show you if there is more than one main entry or more than one meaning. For example. The programme was live from the football stadium. etc. is a heavy metal. the rules. III Lookat the pronunciation. or part of speech. 1 appropriate and acceptable in a particular situation: That's a fair price for that house. with light-coloured hair Ilfmblond . I loved going to the fair with my pare~ts. b OUf objective is to encourage fairer trading.' b In a storm lightning can strike trees and tall 3 a Your report must be completely objective.

-.---._._-._. not alwayseasy for studellts to find recent books/journals students need illformation for studies 3 Use the notes in exercise 2 to write a paragraph (75-100 words) about IT."~. .. 4 The assistant director took 5 It is not unusual today for families to have several controls. orie for the TY.----._.._--_ . Yours Alan Brown .· __ • examples? .. .~ • •__ .. one for the DVD player..._~... negative. 2 Lookat the notes about IT skills..._-_ ... your article on organic food was rather one-sided. Unit 5 • Free trade and fair trade 43 . What part of speech are the words in bold? 1 In China per capita income rose from about $1400 in 1980 to $4000 in 2006. 4 The prices that supermarkets charge for fair trade goods have been analysed..." 2 support for the argument? fL ..._. ••• . or neutral about the production of organic food? How many arguments are there in favour of organic food? How many argumentsare there against organic food? ~."._ . While I would agree that using fewer chemicals is probably better for the environment. on both sides of your papers and return them next week. In my opinion...REVIEW '··1 Read the letter about organic food and answer the 1 Is the writer positive.-----.. __ ··········.. 4 Look at the sentences.. _._-.---.•.. ..~~ . Use your dictionary to help..L._ .3 . 2 The examiner will 3 The Romania._~~~~" .. Unless the price is cut drastically. Furthermore.__.'o~·. and another for their CD player. ..~--~.-. What part of speech are the missing words? When you type your essays. 2 An increasing number of people are choosing to take holidays in remote places. 3 It was difficult to calculate the profit margin.. '" ..--. it is not proven scientifically that the food itselfis healthier for the consumer than food produced using chemical products.·c_ .. organic food is much more expensive than ordinary food and..... . Which ones show: 1 the main arguments ··.-.~---.._ . the overall benefit to the environment is likely to be insignificant as people will continue to buy ordinary food.. accountancy. retail jobs.. the Maldives._'-+_... etc.. _ . the majority of people cannot afford to buy it. therefore.'"_.._.._•.. is the national flower of Iraq.~oo~~._ Sir._._. and when the director was unwell. 5 Which argument is correct? 5 Look at the sentences.-. please leave a the page. ! _----_ _ _-_ . 6 Complete the sentences in exercise 5 with the words in bold from exercise 4.. ~...... (Tg~ I 2 B 4 5 good IT (inforMation technology) skills essential IT skills demandedby eMployers need IT skills in managerialwork.

.. ~. $: SkitTIthete~it6i()c:ate~hi6h:r)ar~~raphswill contain··the ans>vers questions in. ? Read Ell III I!I III First. Answer as many of your questions as possible.ert/find? Whel1wasthe army fOUl1dP . W~itethtparagrap41~tter ' .. ? When.~~" ~.p .2 Whete/find? . Which word in each pair would you expect to find in the text Ancient China's Terracotta Army? . Name three important historic places around and two in your country. Read the highlighted parts of the text again and make notes to answer your questions. 'Qea[j~iw(t~ rorig~rexts (1).·\Vh6/·. Isthe information you need there? Secondly. '.. . · 5 . H 6 How many/visit? .." .. Unit 6 • Conserving t~e past . scan the text.~sti6I1s. . .".. -:-' '. 1 Emperor/President 2 archer/pilot 3 plastic/terracotta 4 Brazilian/Chinese 5 chariot/helicopter 4 1v[tllze1uestions.-..' .: " '. ? Where.. Underline any key vocabulary.\Nh.' '" . : ". t ?( .. 'L . . Survey the text on pages45iliid 46 and a:hswertheqtl. 1 What is the title of the text? 2 How many parts are there? 3 What do the photographs show? :'S'lj'u D¥ $1t'ltfll: J' ~ \ "u- \ . ? ? ' <' ~ .. ·3Whenlbuild? ··4. -'.next to quoestilon. skim the text (see Study Skill p4).' .. . 3 Look at the pairs of words. < ~ -:: . from-the prompts. . make sure you have enough time for thetask and do the following: Survey .... See Study Skill p4 Question Ask yourself: What do I already know? What do I want to know? Make questions: What. ow il1anylfind?. and highlight useful information." .-. Then read the text intensively (see Study Skill p6).-. . i .build?·. To read longer texts effectively. 2 . ? Why.exercise 4..READING The Terracotta Army 1 Work with a partner.

rulers in Chinese history.hpwever. in China.p!<l:~e. All the different parts of the body such as legs. and officers. 2}. Not all ofhisachieveIllentswere military.Consequently.Discovered accidentally in 1974. the 'ancient Chinese believed that their 'afterlife' was very similar to their life. as wen as uniforms which indicate their job and rank. together with chariots and horses (ng. and heads were made separately and then assembled. D It is now. and\lri<ll. he conquered six other states over the next 25 years. 3). when local farmers were diggingfor water.000 workers and craf!:smentook 38years'to complete the huge imp~ palace. They were discovered arranged in military formation ready to protect the emperor in the afterlife. and halls. A huge production line was established to make the tens of thousands of individual human and animal statues which Emperor Qin demanded. In ancient China. over 8.onearth. figures are life-like and life-sized. as he also introduced a common form of writing throughoutthecountry Nevertheless. In addition. or oven. in Qin province. beards. Unit 6 • Conserving . the emperor ordered an army to be built so that his palace would be protected. and became the first emperor ofa united China. objects which would be useful to them in them:xtJifew~~eburied with them. ·i·. IIInQin'sti~e. 1m Elsewhere in the ancient world.000 baked clay. however.inabout 246 BCE.gOne of the greatest Qin'sarmy Ancient China's Terracotta Anny archaeological finds of all time is the Terracotta Army of ancient China. they used a completely different method.1}. all surrounded by a wall. craftsmen concentrated Building an army IIThe terracotta on one piece of work at a time. Emperor Qin was one of the most important. arms. it was baked in a kiln. offices. he started the bUilding ofhisownmaus~l~£m'. Amongst the figures there are ordinary soldiers (fig. Emperor Qin was no different. outside China he is most famous for his terracotta army.More than 700. figures have since-been found {fig. When the whole figure was completed. . or terracotta.archers. One of his greatest achievements was the building of the first Great Wall of China to protect China from its enemies. known that Emperor Qin Shi Huang ordered this clay army to be built at the beginning of the third centuryBCE. After becoming emperor of the state of Qin at the ageof13. when they died and were buried. The same process was also used for other pieces such as ears. ·Eachone has a different facial expression and hairstyle.

Only places which have outstanding importance to all people around the world are given this title. without looking at the text.. the paint on them started peeling off or turning black After extensive research to try and find ways to prevent this problem....-.~.IIExcavations Destruction and preservation and preserving these figures has become the highest priority (fig.4 how the statues 'got:dalI11<lg¢c:I 'the Emperor '.".. ~ •.~--..~. and Cultural Organization). think about what you have read.. The Terracotta Anny clearly deserves this honour.. Check your answers and your notes with the text.·Mak~ 9 Recall III Recall. $. were damaged extensively and some were destroyed completely. when the first statues were exposed to the air for the first time in over two thousand years. This helps you see how much you understand.. Many. the tomb and army of Emperor Qin were declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational... shortly after Emperor Qin's death. scientists now use a chemical solution to protect the paintwork. Have you recalled all the main points accurately? This study skill and the study skill on page 44 illustrate the SQ3R system of dealing with longer texts. 4). The Terracotta Army today III In19S7.. . 3R = read.. ..r::.. as nearly two million people from allover the world visit it each year (fig. ~". It is believed that an invading army robbed the emperor's tomb and then set fire to it The roofs of the buildings collapsed and fell onto the soldiers and horses.. not one of the statues remained complete or undamaged.. They are lucky if they find one matching piece a day. ".--- the-way the a' [ltil~l1t blill~~Se!Cra:ftsIJnen C ancient . that is.3 . Scientific. Skilled workers search methodically through hundreds of thousands of fragments to find the right piece to complete each figure. m Repairing have shown that there was a serious fire. in fact.. ". fteview.. and review . recall. Furthermore. which is thought to have lasted for three months.. Q= question.. 5). Because of this.. each statue takes several months to be repaired. . As a result.. 5 preserving highlighted.. '. ~otes··aboritthe ·• . 5=survey.

as + subject + verb because of + noun clause in order to + inf nitive As a result. . 4 Read the rules. UUI.. . 3 The fire in the museum resulted in extensive damage.I. 6 A nev/museum is being built as the collections are too large for the present museum..:u.Jl!<ti'. reason or result? 1 In Qin's time. 2 Archaeologists study ancient objects in order to learn about ancient cultures. 1 Venice is sinking because of the rising level of the sea. Add them to the table. c its beauty. the Emperor ordered an army to be built so that his would be protected. and Therefore are often used at the beginning of a second sentence. Consequentlx. and the structures which followthem."'U. when buried.. 3 The roofs of the buildings collapsed and fell onto As a result.two parts. . Then join the . it was decided to move the temple to a new site. . objects which would be usefulto them in the next life with them. e read andent manuscripts and inscriptions.':' since this can cause damage to the pictures. 2 In addition. . ."'A. . since. RULES Reason or result Look at the words and phrases used to show reason or result.. the ancient Chinese' believed that their similar to their life on earth. like Rome. . . d the dty was particularly well preserved.. not one of the statues remained complete or 2 Add the underlined words and phrases to the table. in order to ~~~"f" a it is important for them to learn about the history of their country. 2 Children are encouraged to visit museums } Historians are often required to learn languages such as latin 4 Some cities.«<. because. 3 Find more words and phrases which show reason or resultin the . 4 Visitors to the art exhibition are not permitted to.'. 5 Historie'iFonuments are expensive to maintain.'.. so it is often necessa. all over the world visit Petra. '•. so that. have been inhabited for thousands of years 5 In 79 CEPompeii was covered by a thick layer of volcanic ash from Mount Vesuvius.ry charg{~pientry fee..'. in Jordan.~ .. using a word or phrase showing reason or result.i. . 1 large numbers of people from because so As a result. . Make a note of the punctuation. Unit 6 • Conserving the past 47 . Consequently. b the ancient buildings are hidden below modern buildings.useflash.: .sentences.. 7 The construction of the Aswan dam and lake would have destroyed the ancient temple of Abu SimbeL Therefore.LANGUAGE FOR WRITING Indicating reason or 1 Look at the underlined words in the sentences from the . so... Match the beginnings and ends of the sentences.

how objeet developed exaltlple + 2.t clear exhibitioll of objects 1. many have taboratorles preserving ancient objects.Adding information 5 Look at the sentences from the text on page 45..Museums 1 Read paragraph A only of the essay on page 49. Not all of his achievements were he also introduced a common form of writing throughout the country. analyse. Furthermore. Petersburg has over three can admire. Museums need extensive funding for research. put it aside for a while. offices. (also/as well as) 3 The Hermitage Museum in st. Compare them paragraphs Band C and answer the questions. (Furthermore/Moreover) 2 Machu Picchu is Peru's most important ancient monument. Check for: . 2 Petra is of major historic significance as well as being a place 3 Studying history helps us to understand the past. Underline the words which add information.. discuss. The collection can be seen on the museum's addition) WRITING . 2. Money is properly and safely. ordered an army to be built so that his palace would be protected. explain. all surrounded by a wall. and halls.1 exhibitions ollly good if informatioll correct . 2 More than 700.000 workers and craftsmen took 38 years to complete the imperial palace.. Answer the questions... Make a 1 Museums are important centres for research. persuade. It wonders of the world.2 clear explanatioll of objects 1.2 Research lIeed to know how 1object conneets to others . 1 Are all the main points induded? 2 Are there examples for the main points? 3 Has any irrelevant information been included? After completing the first draft of your essay. compare.. . 4 Archaeological excavations often take a long time to complete . 6 Find and underline other words which add information. 1 What is the purpose of the essay? 2 Is the purpose dearly expressed? 1 Read ·the notes for an essay on the role of museums. Is the writing divided il!to paragraphs? II Are ideas linked appropriately? EduGatioH t. One of his greatest achievements was the building of the first protect China from its enemies. 1 Link the pairs of sentences twice. punctuation. Purpose Is the purpose ofthe essay to describe. be very expensive. It is easier to check the content with 'fresh' eyes. or evaluate? Content Does the essay: III introduce the topic clearly? III include all the main points? III exclude irrelevant orinappropriate information? III give examples and explanations? II conclude appropriately? Organization II Are the ideas in a logical order? . using the words and brackets. In addition.must do research 48 Unit 6 • Conserving the past .3 edueate people ill a coUlltry 1. it understanding of the present. Moreover.4 educate people from other coulltries + example 2.

and conserve.2 visitors bring Money into local + llational ecol1oMY 2.g visitors history take Matly photographs to show their friellds I. Museums provide clear descriptions ofthese objects. that. archaeologists realized that glass blowing probably started sometime towards the end of the first century BCE. when they were made. Unless itis understood how an object relates to other objects from the same period.g call learn frOM earlier teehtlologies 2. The exhibition ofTUtankhamen's tomb is a good example of this. For example..However. how they were made. which subsequently spread throughout Europe. C .1 Matly visitors watlt to visit historic sites + exaMple 2. it is not possible to understand the development of that object. What is more. can learn about the history and culture of other countries. it will argue that museums are an essential part of any society or culture.4 visitors understand More about our culture and 1. It was only thf'rfugh research. exhibitions are only useful if objects are correctly described and . Tourigm 2. They explain where they are from. e Inorderto this. however.• xplained. etc.Syrian craftsmen were probably the first to use this ne:w technology. historians and archaeologists in the museum have to do extensive research.and from earlier and later periods. Museums help us to understand our history. Furthermore. people . and what they were used for.The role of museums A This essay will describe and evaluate the purpose of museums.4 fun day out for the faMily Unit 6 • Conserving the past 49 . research. ancient glass bottles have been found all over the world. The number of gold objects found in the tomb was extremely impressive. Thisexhibition travelled the world and taught people about ancient Egypt.. do EducatioH 1.1 show clearly how people used to live/work 1. There should be a text describing each object and its origins. B The primary function o. namely to educate. and eventually to China.2 easier for children to learn alld ullderstand thatl books. + exaMple Z.f any museum is to educate the general public by exhibiting historical objects which have been found.

.~_~.·.Wthc:er~urY:.. . second century CEo .. ..· ~&!5i.•. 4 Many ancient objects are discovered by)ucklbycn. ·.. '.. 50lJnit6 -'--_ -Conserving the past .······. but archaeologists endeavour to give as accurate a picture as possible..rith w }~~~mff~I~(m1im*it~f~~~~~~~~ijf~.' ..' ' 5 The economy can benefit largely/enormpuslyfrom the revenue .VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Collocations (2) Collocations (see Study SkiUp26) can also be formed by: II verb + adverb. ' .. actively encouraged further complicated The curator is dearly illustrated fully equipped cautiously optimistic widely available .. Asa result.g.2'bI1detHneverb+adverbcoll()c~tibhiThthe sentences.....lJseOflle. EXcavationsare often carried out by highly-qualified teams of archaeologists helped by local volunteers or workers.S<:i~..resealrch 4 5 The professor's new book is 6 The contr~~erslal resear2h scientist. it can produce fascinating results.ttHd~~jitl~...\i.. Although the work is often painstakingly slow.. 2 Our knowledge of how ancient people livedhasimproVede~9rn'lOusly with' ·"·.. c1>A111n"" . Many...'·i· t~e ..•..Identify three . 5 Complete the sentences with an adverb fadjectivecollocaJionfrom .k . . .. theb~.~· fact. .. completely different 1 mmfMM1OO!1II! Read the sentences from the text on page 46. ..9~~IP..f~i.. that theexNbition~ill " beread~·~n. Skilled workers search methodically through hundreds of thousands of fragments to find the right piece to complete each flgure. 6 It is impossible .'i'i. . verb + adverb collocations.c.a~.... \..·. . 2 The museul!l guige book is ~thpqot6gr~plisand Iaboratones. .•..contrast withthe· sharply ·'·..i4~~4y#rk..T~!~od~~~~ql~the..•.. . 4 Underline two adverb i + adjective collocations in the paragraph below."h~stUd~ntslisterled attefltivelytoDtPbtfer's (ecture?ntheex<:av~tionsat Leptis Magna.. were damaged extensively and some were destroyed completely.. '. e.~~ificlT1etho. 3 Most modern museums have .s.g. .wteshngl()gysYF~<I~~I.>..ds'Usedin'arch~~9!()gYt()day. Th~.¢· hich collate~i. .. ir'~f!~~~tt~~!flif&~ti. 3 . . damage extensively II adverb + adjective. not one of the statues remained complete or undamaged.ance. .. ' ." ... .ositiohingSystems(GPS} . .' . produced by visitors to historic sites arid museums ..··. ..~e~f~h?> 3 The city of Leptis Magna expanded signijitantly/importantly .~4yerhi~lph. to describe precisely/truly howanancient people lived.()F ..time.' ..'. . e... . ..

2 Cross out one sentence containing irrelevant information. the buildings simply collapsed.REVIEW 1 Read about expanded steadily and became increasingly wealthy. _ _ . In the first century CE.__ _ 51 ~stone Unit 6 • Conserving the past . there is no archaeological or written evidence that it was an administrative centre.. they fit so perfectly that it is impossible to put a thin knife blade between the stones. Theseincludemagnificentmosaicsand statues. There are about 200 buildings at Machu Picchu. made of an extremely hard stone. the capital of Libya. Its success was based on trade north across the Mediterranean and south into Africa for animals and ivory. Since then. the. What is more.teehllology 4 Read the essay again and correct it.including houses. It was occupied by various armies until it was abandoned in the 8th century CEo It was rediscovered in the early 20th century CE by archaeologists. More likely that it had SOMereligious or cultural fUlletiol1. 3 Look at the notes and the first part of an essay about Machu Picchu. It is an incredibly beautiful location. It is unlikely that it had any military or commercial functions because it was built so high up and in a fairly inaccessible place. and other public buildings. Sabratha was a thriving city. I Machu Picchu I Ihtroduetiot! 2 Basic Itlformatioll .where atld whet! g Use 8. therefore. I Put the sentence into the correct place.2. This feat of construction has led archaeologists to speculate about the type of tools which could have been used to cut so perfectly.2 how they were l1uilt. sabratha The majestic ruins of the ancient city of Sabratha lie about 80lan west of Tripoli. However. storage structures. 2 Read the text again. However. some of the major buildings such as the theatre have been reconstructed and many pieces of artwork have been discovered. These can be seen in the nearby museum.. In the 200 years which followed.possil1le? 4 Buildings 4.. religious I Gultural . They are the high point of any visit to that country. temples. there was a violent earthquake. This time the-city never really modern day Peru. 1 2 3 4 What is the purpose of the essay? Are all the points from the notes included? Has any irrelevant information been added? Are the points in a logical order? Machu Picchu This essay will give a brief description of the Inca city of Machu Picchu.1 military I eommereial/adMillistrative .it becamean important regionalcentre. It is thought that the original settlement started in the 4th century BCE.1 types of l1uildillg 4. Underline collocations and add them to the table. The buildings are . 3 Find one sentence in the wrong position and put it in the correct position. Machu Picchuis a city located high up in the Andes mountains in Peru.manybuildingswere destroyed and the city to Thiswasbecausethey had been built of verysoft sandstone.In fact. by the second century BCE. What is more. It will argue that this ancient city is one ofthe most important archaeological sites in South America. __ . It is clear that they were planned and constructed with great care and precision.«tdikely 8. ~ . Add sentences a-d a b c d As a result. when it suffered another earthquake in 365 CE. Answer the questions. __ . yet they fit on top of one another perfectly. It is. It was built between 1460 and 1470 CEby an Incaruler.

READING SKILLS How to make reading easier (1). Designed by the British architect Norman Foster and constructed by a French company. like two thin pencils. 1 Where were the tallest buildings in 1999? 2 How tall are they? 3 When was the Millau Bridge . It consists of a series of dams across the River Parana. At the time it was built it was the world's highest bridge. Even though these constructions are spectacular. What thre~ kinds of structure is the text about? . which forms a natural border between Brazil and Paraguay. The dam is remarkable for both its electricity output and its size.. Started in 1975 and taking 16 years to complete.. the innovative technology which they incorporate will undoubtedly be improved on in the future.m~u. . As soon as the taftest building in the world is completed. The MiUau Bridge The Millau Bridge was opened in 2004 in the Tarn Valley.'. ~ . (2). in southern france. the slender twin towers. the towers are linked by a bridge. 2 Skim the web page. symbolizing a gateway to the city. The Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world when they were inaugurated in 1999. another even taller one breaks the record. In 1995 it produced 78% of Paraguay's and 25%of Brazil's energy needs. '_- ". - . . 1 What remarkable man-made structures are there in your country! 2 What about in other countries? . The American architect Cesar Pelli designed the skyscrapers with eight·point star shapes with an Islamic influence to reflect the Muslim culture of Malaysia. it was built to relieve Millau's congestion problems caused by traffic passing from Paris en route to Barcelona. Giant structures It is an impossible task to select the most amazing wonders of the modern world. breaking previous records for energy production. and (3) VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Suffixes RESEARCH Avoiding plagiarism (2) LANGUAGE FOR WRITING Verbs for reporting another writer's ideas WRITING Summarizing • Writing a summary READING Feats ofengineeiing 1 Discuss the questions with a partner. 4 How Icing isthe guarantee for the M. and glass and steel sunshades. . the construction was carried out as a joint project between the two countries. The bridge is supported by seven concrete and steel pillars which rise into seven graceful pylons. and the volume of concrete needed was equal to 210 football stadiums! Furthermore. Constructed of high-strength concrete. 3 Scan the web page and answer the questions. What is the nameof the river Itaipu Dam crosses! 6 How much material was removed to thedami 52 . Described as one of the most breathtakingly beautiful bridges in the world. With a height of 452 metres.. since every year more wonderful constructions appear.800 square metres of office space on every floor. At the 41st floor. It is a truly remarkable feat of engineering. reaching over 340m at the highest point. the course of the seventh biggest river in the world was changed and 50 million tons of earth and rock were removed. and includes a shopping centre and a concert hall at the base. in Spain. Bridge? . Other features of this impressive monument include double-decker lifts. the amount of iron and steel used was equivalent to over 300 Eiffel Towers. S . the building provides around 1. In its construction. it was built to withstand the most extreme seismic and meteorological conditions and is guaranteed for 120 years! The Itaipu Dam The Itaipu hydroelectric power plant is the largest construction of its kind in the world. dominate the city of Kuala Lumpur.

3 Constructed of high-strength concrete. more wonderful constructions appear. It is an impossible task to select the most amazing wonders of the modern world. 2 The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world when they were inaugurated in 1999. II Started in 1975 and taking 76 years to complete.4 Read the web page intensively and answer the questions. 1 As you read a text. in Spain. III Look at the words and sentences around the unknown word. since every year more wonderful constructions appear. it was built to relieve MiHau's congestion problems caused by traffic passing from Paris en route to Barcelona.. the construction was carried out as a joint project between the two countries.•. linking words. since eyery year . . words: iii you need to know to understand the text iii you can guess the meaning of To help you guess the meaning of an unknown word: iii Identify the part of speech. Identify the other clauses by looking for relative pronouns. 3 Designed by the British architect Norman Foster and constructed by a French company. III Use what you already know about the subject. the construction was carried out as a joint project between the two countries. Does it make sense? Complex sentences have more than one clause.800 square metres of office space on every floor and includes a shopping centre and a . Tohelp you understand them. and phrases beginning with a present or past participle. decide whi~h . it was built to withstand the most extreme seismic and meteorological cond itions and is guaranteed for 120 years! Unit 7 • Wonders of the modern world 53 .. . 2 The bridge issupported by seven concrete and steel pillars which rise into seven graceful pylons. 6 In 1995 it produced 78% of Paraguay's and 25% of Brazil's energy needs. . It is an impossible task to select the most amazing wonders of the modern world. 5 The bridge is supported by seven concrete and steel pillars which rise into seven graceful pylons. the building provides around 1. breaking previous records for energy production. l1li Think of a similar word and try it in the sentence. identify the main clause: II Started in 1975 and taking 16 years to complete. concert hall at the base. 4 Described as one of the most breathtakingly beautiful bridges in the world.

Jebel Ali. named Palm Jumeirah. look at the pictures. and clubs. 2 The islands are being built in the deep water of the sea. are now being 35 constructed near the Palm hmeirah They consist of 300 private islands grouped into the shape of the continents of the world and will be used for estates. This acts as a breakwater and protects the islands from the sea. and homes built on stilts in the water. They This It it These (line 3) [line 16) (line 22) (line 30) (line 33) -. with a length of 14 km and a width of 8. The sanils~s transported by road. the islands are still very exposed to the currents and tidal movements of the sea.. They are being developed as tourist. 5 After four years of planning and careful consideration of the environmental issues. they were all sold within three days. The first two islands are in the shape of date palm trees and consist of a trunk and 17fronds. shopping malls. 3 Rocks to build the breakwater were taken from the desert. 4 All the luxury homes have been sold on Palm Iumeirah. 1 Dutch engineers are sometimes experienced in reclaiming land from the sea. these artificial islands are one of the 40 wonders of the modern world. It is astonishing that when these homes went on sale in 2004. or leaves. Dutch engineers with experience of reclaiming land from the sea were employed in the building of the first two islands. sports facilities. e. community islands. 11 What do the pronouns refer to? Look at the text again. 5 Some famous people have already bought the luxury homes. private homes. The site for all three islands is an area of the sea where the 10 water is not very deep. construction started in 2001. and luxury homes in the leaves. ill Backward referencing refers to something which has been mentioned previously. Sand is taken from the seabed and sprayed into the construction site. Engineers estimate that it will 30 require a billion cubic metres of rock and sand. has three 20 five-star hotels in the trunk. For example: The sea was very deep with strong tidal movements This ade it difficult to build the bridge. was started in 2002 and is designed to be an entertainment centre. They will also maintain Dubai's status as one of the leading tourist destinations in the region. coming off the trunk The first island. 1 What do the pictures show? 2 What is the text about? 3 Where are the Palm Islands? The most wonderful islands The Palm Islands are the largest artificial islands in the world and are under construction in Dubai. It will consist of residential properties. The second palm. 6 Palm Deira will be the same size as Paris. and will increase the coastline of the country by 120 kilometres. Forward referencing refers to something which comes later in the sentence. Unquestionably. and answer the questions.g. the World Islands. More artificial islands. For example: ~he current and tidal movements are so strong in such shalfow water. and residential resorts.Islands in the sun 8 Discuss the questions with a partner. perha s in another sentence. and resorts. marinas. . or not-stated in the text (NS). Complete the table. Rocks are used to hold the sand in place resulting in a 15 large crescent structure. it. Although the shallow water facilitates this process. Six marinas are 25 planned. this are used toavoid repetition in a text Identifying these referents helps you understand a text. Pronouns. The Palm Deira is planned to be the largest of the three islands. leisure. These will be open to both residents and tourists. with a water theme park. (396 words) 10 Scan the text and decide if the statements are true (T).5 km an area larger than the city of Paris. false (F). S4 Unit 7 • Wonders of the modern world . 1 What structures can be built in the sea? 2 Why do people want to build in the sea? 9 Skim the web page the most wonderful islands. in the United Arab Emirates (VAt).

In addition. Aurland in Norway and is 24. goes from Laerdal to. -if Y people -lst.addition archaeologist artificial breathtakingly conclusion efficiently expensively experiment impressive innovative . (itlhi:igtlificatlt to The longest road tunnel in the world The world's longest road tunnel. Unit 7 • Wonders of the modern world 55 . adjectives -ent.Jemarkabl~ residential seismic successfu lly unnecessarily ecotloMize III A suffix is a letter a group of letters which you add at the end of a word. 1 (innovative) ventilation systems have been __. The tunnel is famous for its state-of-the-art technology. Suffixes change the part of speech and the meaning of the word.. -ic. which was 1 (inauguration) in November 2000. it has S (exception) sophisticated safety measures. -ive.5 kmlong. This tunnel allows the traffic to flow at aU times of the year. This' (impress) tunnel attracts thousands of tourists each year and has even been used for a wedding. -aI. -tiess. which were often dosed in the winter because of snow. fresh air is maintained throughout the' (long) of the tunnel. all traffic had to cross the high mountain passes. -or. -eble. Before the tunnel was built. -ent adverbs -ly. (installation) to make sure that clean. -er theorize . -anee. or " inventively Common endings include: " nouns -tion. -yst. -tnent .

Initials. Article title.'. the writer presents three different structures that. dominating the city of Kuala Lumpur.g. There are various styles and conventions. but. !ill Websites: Author. (1999). and is used to provide water for an enormous hydroelectric power plant. New York: Harper. Taken from the website 'wondersoftheworld. K. There are three islands being constructed in the sea from sand and rocks. from http://wonderdub. A. present.Writing an essay often involves using information from books.html Title: Buildingin ChallengingEnvironments Author:Andre Matache Publisher:Wexford UniversityPress Date of publication: 2005 2 Journal article Articletitle: The cost of construction Author:John Sinden Name of the journal:The Journal of General Structural Engineering Volumeand page numbers: Volume 4 pp 34-56. Carter. Each one will have tourist attractions as well as luxury accommodation. Retrieved March 15. Verb + noun or indirect question. describe when you summarize the ideas of the writer of a text. it has 'become a tourist attraction itself. should be considered as wonders of the modem world. 'retrieval'): 4 September 2006 In this article from the website wondersoftheworld. The most wonderful islands is an article which '__ -.g. IIIJ Journal articles: Author surname. 2004 3 Website Articletitle: Artjficiallslands Author:James Smallridge Web address: http://www. articles.g.lulid. Journal title. Developing technology in developing countries. Volume number. Modem Buildings.---_ the artificial islands in the UAE. The writer explains why the dam was constructed. Initials. but all three are amazing for their innovative design. These twin towers were the highest in the world when they were built. The writer _______ how these islands were constructed and why they were built. and size. . It is important to acknowledge these sources in a list of references (or bibliography) at the end of your essay. Check your department's preferred style and use it consistently. (2003). argue. explain. Place of publication: For example: verb + that + clause. Do not mix styles. claim: The writer explains that this bridge was buiit to reduce the traffic problems in the city. (Date of publication). describe explain argue believe claim Use reporting verbs. web address The wonder club. Date of retrieval. explain. The author • that these islands are great feats of modem engineering. Date of publkatlon. K. believe. These verbs are used in different ways. explain: . if available. because ofits beauty.2006. The author first describes the Petronas Towers in Malaysia. describe. Wookey. or websites. he argues. page numbers. Journal of International Sport. The second construction chosen is the Millau Bridge in France. beauty. This huge dam was built on the river between Paraguay and Brazil. Book title. (Date of publication). (Date of publication. it' that the Palm Islands are one of the wonders of the modem world. Date you saw this on the Internet [ 132-143. Web page title. if available). These three structures have been built in different parts of the world for very different purposes. The third construction is the ltaipu Dam in Paraguay. 6. The writer explains that this bridge was built to reduce the traffic problems in the city. ~ Books: Author surname. The author first describes the Petronas Towers in Malaysia.

Ii First. and in increasing by as much as two per cent every decade. C High-rise buildings are now common in our big cities.. 3 Man has built on the land. IllfimlHy. Thispopulation expansionresults in an increase ""inthe demand for housing and causes overcrowding.. 4 The tallest buildings in the world. 61. on the sea. more accommodation can be obtained from the same surface area. b The Petronas Towers dominate the skyline of Kuala Lumpur. . are the Petronas Towers. the tallest buildings at the time of writing. This would offer the possibility of exploiting limitless areas. b Long tunnels can make drivers go to sleep. These encourage people to leave their privately-owned vehicles at home. usingUnkingwords. b Man may build in space. and under the sea. Remember toJse your own w~rds{seeStudy Skillp14}. ~u<" 1 One serious problem of long tunnels is the somniferous effect. and drivers can fall asleep' at the wheeL . Jhen organize these ideas into al~gical order. These skyscrapers are seen as a solution to the shortage of available land because by building vertically rather than horizontally. that is. which dominate the skyline of Kuala Lumpur. "UJ. a The lighting systems in tunnels can cause problems. a .. A Many countries in the world have a growingpopulation. 'lllaYb~tequired t~\"Irite~ summary . so perhaps the next choice for construction will be in space.WRITING Tunnels and buildings Which simple sentence. under the land..rewrite these ideas in simple sentences. That is to say that the lighting systems and general nature of the tunnels encourage a feeling of sleepiness. a or b. a Man has built in many different areas. " a The Petronas Towers are the highest buildings in the world at the main ideas in the paragraph or text.. '''''som'e:counfrle'sihe''popUlafionls BOne of the most noticeable phenomena in many oftoday's large capital cities is their increasingly efficient public transport systems.

Furthermore. combined with a fall in the cost of flying. 6 Read the text about the Sydney Opera House. and the tunnel is not used as much as forecasters had predicted. The Opera House include's five theatres.. six bars.' " Unit 7' Wonders of the. because of the many problems and changes which were necessary in the design. It was expected to cost $7 million. and several shops. and millions of people attended the ceremony. However. Use " structures from Language for Writing on page 56. the journey by air takes only three and a half hours. The remarkable roof shells were also difficult to construct. 5 Organize the ideas you underlined in exercise 4 and write them in two or three sentences using linking words. When the tunnel was opened in 1988. The Seikan TUnnel in Japan is today the longest railway tunnel in the world. a rail tunnel was built to connect the islands of Honshu and Hokkaido. the final cost was $102 million. in 1973. the Danish architect Jam Utzon was chosen. with a length of almost 54 km. but in fact. the train journey from Tokyo to Sapporo still takes about ten hours. this large performing arts centre was started in 1959 and completed in 1973. Instantly recognizable both for its roof shells and its impressive location in Sydney Harbour. all the existing trains between Honshu and Hokkaido went through it. problems with the structural design.modern world . In contrast. in 1963. ' '. After a competition to choose the design. The event was televised. five rehearsal studios. Situated closeto Sydney Harbour Bridge. has meant that more people travel by plane than train. "railway tunnel in the world to an increase in traffic between the various islands which make up Japan. and changes in the contract. The construction of the Opera House was fairly controversial as the final cost of the building was much higher than predicted. and included a fireworks display and a classical music performance. two main halls. This. it has become one of the best known images of Australia. Use the prompts to four main ideas. newer Japanese bullet trains have never used the tunnel because of the cost of extending the high -speed line through it. Completion of the building was initially expected in four years. Writing a summary 7 Write a summary of the text The Sydney Opera House (100-:120 words). and predictions of a continuing growth in train travel. Consequently. This was due to difficult weather conditions. It was inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II on 20 October 1973. the building was not completed until ten years later. the construction took longer than planned. Unfortunately. Thesydlley Opera House The Sydney Opera House is one ofthe most famous architectural wonders of the modem world. four restaurants.

and to make observations of the solar system which were not possible from the Earth.REVIEW 1 . It was designed to prove that man could spend long periods oftime in space. but atmospheric changes pulled it back to Earth. and the mission continued. 2 Guess the meaning of the words in bold in the text. the crew managed 5 to repair this damage during a spacewalk.Read the article and answer the questions. during which time many scientific studies were carried out. 2 In total. In total. but during the launch it sustained severe damage. Complete the table. 1 2 3 4 5 What was Skylab and why was it built? When and how many times was Skylab in operation? What happened during the first mission? What kind of research was done? Why and when did it crash-land? Skylab Skylab was the first space station launched into orbit around the Earth. Mark the stressed syllables. • differ observatiol1 Unit 7 .during which time many scientific studies were carried out. The missions proved that man could function effectively in space for periods of up to 84 days. Wonders of the modern world 59 . It was first launched on 14 May 1973. 3 It crash-landed in Australia in 1979.spreading its debris over a large area. investigations into gravitational effects. 4 What do the pronouns refer to? Look back at the article and complete the table. In 1975 Skylab was abandoned and left to orbit the Earth. the crew managed to repair this damage during a spacewalk. Helped by ground control. spreading its debris over a large area. It was 10 expected to remain in orbit for ten years. there were three Skylab missions between 1973and 1975. These included medical experiments. and the mission continued. It crash-landed in Australia in 1979. 3 Underline the main clause in the sentences. Helped by ground control. and solar observations. It which it These its (line 2) (line 4) (line 5) (line 8) (line 12) S Write a summary of the text in one or two sentences. 6 Complete the table with the correct parts of speech for each word. there were three Skylab missions between 1973 and 1975.

drink. 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 o host o facilities o adequate o bid o sponsors o broadcasting o vigilance a b c d e rights f g h j o manpower o hospitality o last o disruption k enough for what you need people or organizations that help to pay for a special event food. to provide the space and other necessary things for an event.< . buildings.forhostiIig 0 Selection requirements 3 Find the words and phrases 1-11 in meanings a-k. and entertainment given to visitors permission to show something on TV. or pieces of equipment provided for people to use an action which stops something continuing to continue for a period of time an effort or attempt to obtain something . Match paragraphs 1 2 3 4 5 0 Conclusion 0 Arguments against heisting 0 Introduction . etc. the act of watching and looking out for danger the people that you need to do a particular job 4 2 3 5 Read the text intensively and complete . WRITING Expressing contrast WRITING SKILLS Process writing • Writing a discursive essay VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Synonyms and antonyms 1 Discuss the questions 1 What do the five rings in the symbol of 2 Do you enjoy watching the 3 If so. Unit 8 • Olympic business .d!sadvaritagesof hosting the Gal11es. which sports do you 4 Why do cities want to host the 2 Skim the text. services.READING SKILLS Making notes RESEARCH Avoiding plagiarism (3) and (4) LANGUAGE FOR. 000 Arguments. in the dia$ramJor the advantagesand ..~. etc.

and at the same Olympic Games are one of the most popular and most watched events in the four years many countries enter the fierce competition to host the Games. Later this can be turned into permanent accommodation for tourists and students. Requirements I.disa.t Sports facilities 1. but the city also becomes a significant place in its own right. every host city addresses these questions.dvantages to holding the 2006. Hosting the Olympics means having an effective wide-reaching system.1 2. the broadcasting rights can be a source of finance.1 2. and increasing the manpower necessary to guarantee the safety of all concerned provides valuable employment opportunities. Are the sports facilities adequate? Is there enough accommodation? Is the transport system efficient and sufficient? How will the event be funded? What are the security arrangements? In malting a bid for the Stevenson. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. IIAnothercol1sideratio~is employment. Marketing and promotion of the Olympic Games. as not all the funding Win come from sponsorship oradvertising. many of these . Such a transport system is a great advantage for any city and will be in place for many years to come.}. ''The Olympics make other people aware of your country and what's there. According to Stevenson (1997). and many are unskilled. and any which do not already exist will have to be built.5 1. the International Olympic Committee asks several fundamental questions. An example of this is the accommodation which will have to be built.there ll. from http://www.DHo'Wel1er. In addition. These will remain for the local population to enjoy after the Games are over. A world-class event aemands world-class facilities from the host city. But this is not all. The local inhabitants may also have to face tax increases. not only for the athletes in their Olympic village. Funding any great event is an expensive business. The transport system must also be taken into consideration. D. Retrieved September 15. Not only do the improved facilities remain after the Games have gone. but many companies fiercely compete to become . Although jobs will be created. It's a way to make a statement to the world that your community is a destination" (p. which is necessary to carry people safely and quickly to their destinations. Indeed.236).2 Accommodation ts 1. but also for the visitors. 227-238.thesportjourna!. According to Lee (2006). but also for those who events have become great entertainment. The Sport Journal.3 3.2 3 Conclusion 3. although there are disadvantages to holding the Olympic Games. 18. Olympic business 61 . •are not permanent and only last for the period of the construction or the Games themselves. . the increased number of visitors to the area can cause serious disruption to the daily livesof ordinary citizens. OlympiC arts: Sydney 2000 and the cultural Olympiad. High-tech video cameras are already common in most of our big cities today. Why do this? What are the advantages and disadvantages of hosting such an event? In order to select which city or state will host the Olympics. In addition. Hosting an event of worldwide importance requires increased vigilance. (606 words) B Hosting the Olympics n B m Ell lee. K.Sport plays a significant part in the everyday lives true not only for those who take part. the national American TV company NBCpaid $3. sponsors of such global events as it is an ideal opportunity for advertising. 32(2). and hospitality . This means that advertising revenues caIleasil~ cover a large proportion of the costs involved. (1997). In conclusion. which is expensive in terms of technology and manpower.5 billion to transmit the Olympk Games between 2000 and 2008. it is generally agreed that the host city gains overall in terms of improvements in facilities and infrastructure. catering. the organization of such an event gives rise to a largenumberofjobs in a variety of sectors including security.2 Unit 8 '.4 _ _ 2 Funding 2.

I do know about the funding. I stilt don't see how Rockley intends to fund this.. Yes. Do you have any details? Dear Bob. I've heard that the improvements to the transport system wit! cost $700 m.·:allU:'WUY!:.Dear Bob. The national government will provide $1. They estimate that the operating costs will be $1...:·. Here's the information you asked for about the city of Rockley's bid for the Winter Olympk Games. and Rockley have allowed $650 m for overheads and unexpected costs. I hope that gives you what you need! Best Wishes. The regional government has promised to give $360 m and Rockley itself will raise $140 m. The rest of the money will come from ticket sales ($150 m]. Best wishes. This includes $650 m for capital costs (upgrading existing facilities and building new ones). Keith Dear Keith. Thanks for your mail and the information about the bid.. TV broadcasting rights (this is estimated at $750 m].6 billion. 1 What are the 2 Which bid is more re<lll~lll. Keith questions.': 62 .:. Overall budget is now $3.5bUlion. and sponsorship ($500 m is the figure they give).5 billion.

RESEARCH Crediting sources (2)
acknowledged. In recent years sport has become big business with vast sums (}f-" ,,''~,.",., involved. It has been claimed that America spent $24 billion on sports marketing in 2004 (Matache, 2005}. Large sporting events such as the World Cup and the Olympics receive lucrative television contracts which enable them to fund their events. The TV networks pay for these contracts with money from companies who advertise during these televised events. The cost of advertising on TV varies, and it is difficult to calculate the true amount. However, it has been claimed that "a prime time 30-second slot on Australian TV costs $400,000." (Sinden, 2004, p. 487). Companies will also use sports personalities to advertise their products. For the sports personality, it is an easy way to increase their income. One example of this is Tiger Woods, who earned $ 75 million in ;W05 off the golf course.

III !iii Ell

naTl1e·· .•....•.. ", .••. date of publication page number .

He stated, 'The quality of the bids has never been higher' {5inden, 2004,

Sinden {2004} stated that "the quality of the bids has never been highet"
(p.487). For indirect quotations give: &i name of author EiI date of publication

,,2 Complete the text, using the informationinthe


Although many cities compete to host large sports events such as the World Cup or the Grand Prix, many of them are left with large debts after the event is over. 1 (2003) claims that "estimates for the costs are always inferior to the actual needs" (p. 67). There are various reasons for this. but according to Vince (2006). few organizers take into consideration the real rate of inflation. and this results in large debts. These debts can prove to be long lasting. Smallridge 2 argues "remaining debts can stay with a host city for many decades" ' _ Nevertheless, cities still compete to hold the Games, seeing them as advantageous for the community.
Haggeg, K. F.(2003). Host cities of the Olympics. Canberra: Highlight Press. Vince, F. T. (2006). Inflation in costing estimates. Accountancy Review, 5, 45. Smallridge, E. C. (2006). Hosting the Olympics. What remains? TheJournal of Accounts, 6, 52. Retrieved January 2, 2006, from http://www.thejourna!

He argued that the next Games should be held in Africa (Jones, 2005). jones (2005) argued that the next Games should be held in Africa.
Remember to include a complete reference in the list of references or bibliography. (See Study Skill p56)

punctuation. .

Rewritethe following direct quotations

with the correct

1 accord ing to Woodbridge 2004 p23football is thansellin~ f()()d.< Accordingto Woodbridge (2004), "football is biggerbusiHessth~H~elliri9f(1o(j';
(p.tS). . ..

2 Khalil2003 claims hosting large events usually leaves the hostc;itywith largebllkp54 3 as Li Chung wrote 1999the opportunity for development is considerable p71 . 4 . Neal 2001 said transport upgrades are inevitable p268 .

When you quote directly from a source, you must use quotation marks. For example: a city of holding the Olympics wiJ{

Carter (2006) believes, "The benefits to

always outweigh the disadvantages" {p.lO}. Brown (2004) argues that "the high cost of the Games wiJ{fat! on the taxpayer" {p. 25}.
When you quote indirectly, do not use quotation marks. For example:

Cox (2006) suggested that without adequate sponsorship, the Games could not take place.
Unit 8 • Olympic business 63

estimating the total cost of the Games to be 3.2 billion dollars, 2 0 Forty per cent of the population watched the fi nal, Despite the cold weather, 4 0 The world champion had had an injury for two months.

o In spite of the government

a the crowds were enormous. b Nevertheless, she succeeded in breaking the world record. c even though it was televised in the middle of the night. d the actual cost was considerably higher.

RULES Contrast despite, to However
Use words and phrases of contrast, for example,however, although, nevertheless, link surprising, contrasting, or unexpected information. and


introduce a second sentence which contrasts with the first,

The department announced there would be exams twice a year. However, not everyone agreed with their decision. The city put together an extremely good bid for the Games. Nevertheless, they were unsuccessful. Although
and even though introduce a clause which contrasts with the main clause. The main clause says something surprising or unexpected.

nevertheless even though


Although/Even though jobs will be created, many of these are not permanent. Despite and Inspite of are similar or -ing form of the verb.
in meaning to

although. They

are used with a noun

despite in spite of

.In spite of earning money through advertising, the athletes claimed they were underpaid. Thousands of spectators attended the match despite the bad weather.


':!;WRITING A permanent site for the Olympics
:; .il,;,)XqY~r~ • going to write .;lnt:i~$~y..,ith. thetitl(!Sh9U1d the { -:··.:p:~ft,rlanerttbqrne?{250- 300 Words)..Plan yo~r~~s;ly. .

1") ••.,Make notes, usiriga method ~

:;.~~<:erairistorri11deas (seeSt'tidySkillp25).<i

of your choice (seeStudy Skillp61), ".ii···.' · a thesisstatement (se~StudySlcillp32) './.'



.....'. '.'..'



···l·R~~dtheqt1()tati~ns. SeiectriV6br lllorewhi~hsu:pport yourargt1hleri.f.sil1 .'.'exerciseL •..•.... '. ..<i·\!}C·s<


·r... ., ~~

~~.h.~. . ·-_·~·.,; . ~· __


.•_.~_~~;.~,_.~ •.~." ..•

;~~·:;.~.::::,:.~'~'"'·_::_~:';_~._;~~_.~:·:;":.:::..2i.:::-:i/-<--;::·:~~L'l:Lii;,~~:~·:'·;LL-~~ ..uu._~._.~;

··•· ••••.••. /:l~,lj

·~dopting a permanent site would avoid any international between countries."


Kinghorn,j.E.(2006). Arguingfora permanent site,Journal of Intema tiona I Sport, 54, 341-352,
2 "The vast majority of people questioned preferred the Olympics to be held in a differellt city every four years."

jenkins, L P.(2007). Popularity issues and the Games. The New Review of International Events, 4, 63-74,
3 "The facilities atapermanent site could be reused every four years. Between Games. they would serve as international training facilities."


A perqanenthomel

Retrieved May 31,2006,from http;//
permanently to Greece would recognize the

4 ~::n:lgO:~~es

Bailey,P.(2006, August 31).A permanent home for the Olympics. The Daily Chronic/e. p, 10.
S "No city welcomes the enormous disruption every four years."

Cooper, H. S. (2005). Take the Games elsewhere. Review of Event Management, 11,85-98.
6 "Deciding on a permanent home for the Olympics would end the expensive process of selecting a host city every four years."

Macklin, S. M. (2004). The Olympic Games: a short history. Hartford: WoHings Press.
7 '1\ permanent site would provide an international
, :·:·1

centre for sport."

Dominguez, L M. Retrieved January 23,2007, from
8'~ permanent site would give unfair fmancial advantages to the host city."


Roberts, T. K.(2006). The Olympic sites. Hong Kong:Marina Press.
9 "The Games are a serial financial burden for any city."


Jolly, M. B.(2007). Hosting the Games. Journal of Sport Today, 12,13-27.
__ ~..._,._ __ ..... ,~~.",..,."..,.,..,_..._.,_..,._,__,.._ ,._~.,_............ •• ... ~,.____._~~~L"'_"._."_O'"_~"'"·~~_·~·_. . ., .... N"_~~. __ """""""'__'_"""""""~~'~ .._.~~ .."~~ ••.__ • ~....,_.,...,.,....J


.~._ .• _.__ ~..• _ ..-.-<,_~~~

Writing adiS~4~Sivees~~y
Essay writing involves the following stages: II brainstorming and making notes mdeveloping a thesis statement III selecting and organlzlng notes appropriately . . iii including quotations which support your argulTlents . _writing theessay III checking the essay Unit 8 • Olympic business 65

football player earned over one million euros last year . Use a: dictionary to help. (compulsory/paid) 5 The student spoke in a soft voice. For example: The TVprogramme was broadcast/transmitted a/l over the world.g. you cannot always use synonyms in every context. (dulllblunt) 2 Thevaccination caused a sharp pain in the patient's arm.' 6 The ground was too soft to 'camp on. (loud/hard) . . Taxes will be increased to pay for the new transport system. You cannot always use antonyms in every context. Unit ~ • Olympic business 66. . 1 The knife was very sharp. 3 "What will the city by inviting people to from holding the Olympics? by two 4 The price of travelling on public transport has per cent this year. 1 There are an odd number of players on 'each team. state promised to state promised to student borrowed student borrowed provide the necessary finance. In the sentences the word in italics is wrong.OPMENT Synonyms Look at sentences a-d for each question. 4 The organizer gave a strong argument for hosting the event next year.. provide the necessary money. Find the sentence cross it out.. 2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of a word from the box. Antonyms 3~ Cross out the incorrect antonym in brackets for the word in italics. However. Words often have synonyms or near synonyms. (compiilsory/paid) . extra money onlyfrom sponsorship. Some illnesses are bt·eaecas~/transmitted by insects. huge "# tiny. (even/normal) 2 The event was planned to start at an odd time of day. athlete gained the respect of his team. 2 The funds will be invest in the company. Taxes will be raised to pay for the new transport system. (dun/blunt) 3 Voluntary redundancy is quite common in many companies. by his coach. e. (weak/slight) An antonym is a word with the opposite meaning to another word. Use a dictionary to check whether a word is correct for a particular context. 4 The charity is looking for people to do voluntary work. S Athletes often 6 The injured player walked off the pitch. Use a dictionary to check. The winner increased his arm to salute the spectators.. The winner raised his arm to salute the spectators. Use a dictionary to help.athlete earned the respect of his team.. football player gttimd over one million euros last year. For example: The student's results were very poor this term (wealthr/ good) The committee's decision depends on how poor the city is.. sponsor raise increase gain earn support the 1 The multinational company agreed to event by providing equipment for the teams. Compare your answers with a partner.. 1a b c d 2a b c d 3a b c d The The The The The The The The . the finance to fund his studies. (even/normal) 3 There is a strong possibility that the match will be broadcast on TV: (weak/slight) . (wealthy/geed) 4 Choose the correct antonym in brackets for the word in italics. the money to fund his studies. (loud/hard) .

although until 2002. The city was not chosen. "Football and television" International Review of Media 2006. (in spite of) 5 The chairman was appointed for four c "Watching sports events" by Jeremy Mark Foster 1997.fifa. (nevertheless) 5 Choose the correct synonym in brackets for the words in italics. (host/have) b Rockley is holding the Winter Games next year. 1 The committee only met on one occasion. b The professor cannot see you tomorrow as he has a very full day. seen by 300 million people. E. 1997). but even the draws. when it took place in Korea and Japan. (although) 3 The tickets for the match were very expensive. He resigned after six months. Rewrite the sources in the correct APAstyle. (however) 4 The funds for the event were sufficient. Retrieved May 13.C..(2006) Hosting the Olympics. The World Cup was first broadcast on television in 1954 and is now the most popular televised sporting event in the world. and France and England once.65. Unit 8 • Olympic business 67 . from http://www.21-34 4 Link the sentences. (map/arrangements) b The plans for the conference were changed at the last minute. What remains? Retrieved January 2. (maps/ arrangements) 4 a Full details of the programme are available on the website. Each time there is a different host country. the international governing body of football.Journal of Televised Events 23. b Smallridge.Cup matches attract huge audiences. 1 a The cafeteria was too noisy to hold a conversation in. Broadcasting this event resulted in 41. d Nora Brown. winning five times. The audience of the 2002 World Cup held in Korea and Japan was estimated to be almost 30 billion.REVIEW . Brazil has been most successful over the Clearly. 3. (employ/rent) b When they arrived at the airport. Read the text Make notes about . Accord ing to FIFA(2006). Only seven countries have ever won the World Cup. it was always held in Europe and the Americas. (completefbusy). The athlete broke the world record. 2006. where the World Cup has been held which countries have won it 3 the television audiences The World CUp The World Cup is an international football competition which is held every four years.1 billion people watched the final match of this tournament. (hosting/having) 2 a The company is going to hire two new managers..100 hours of football on TV across the world. 2 Rewrite the underlined indirect quotations as direct quotations with the correct Brown (2006) reported. having won four times. are widely viewed. The 2006 World Cup draw \Vas.2006 from www. a 2002 FIFAWorld Cup TV Coverage. One of the most popular events in the world. 32-45. using the words in brackets. the World . All the tickets were sold within a few hours. which decide the distribution of teams into groups. the first competition took place in 1930 in Uruguay. It organized the event very well. In 2010 it is being held in Africa for the first time. (complete/busy).thejournalofaccounts. Italy is in second place. and Germany has won three times. It has been reported that more spectators watch the event than the Olympic Games (Foster. (employed/rented) 3 a The plan of the city indicated all the major sites of interest. 1. they hired a car. Argentina and Uruguay have both won twice. (despite) 2 The weather was very hot.

. 2 Between 1995 and 2005 there was a slight/substantial fI" p ne oe numoer 0 JOS In . ':'l0f¥...r~~ee~: dt~crea~e~nth1ru~~~rt~f j. ' .••.. 3 Skim the title.. 4 In which sector did the number of jobs rise between 1995 and 20Q5? :' . .. I a line graph? 2 a bar chart? 3 a pie chart? tfends . Referring to these as you read helps you understand the text.READING Work 1 Name some of the sectors of Which sectors employ the Has the number of employees in years? .~:..: . . . ..::l·-·:". Answer the questions. e.nn. 1 There were almost as many! not nearly as many as in agriculture in 2005.. .:::::_:_':.}'{·'. II line graphs show specific trends in data.. 4 Which sector would you like to.. .~ 5 How has the number of people working in IT changed? . II Pie charts compare percentages of a whole piece of data... II 8ar charts illustrate comparisons in trends.usna ... and graphics. Answer the questions."'.. Academic texts ofte~ contain statistics in the fOflll of graphs or~harts. 4 Read the text and look at the graphics. iii As you read the text.-:. 3 In 1998 there were consider~blyl111:arginallymore ..B ·'·i' 3 What two things do you [earnilbo4t~mpl()ym~lJ~~rendsinSOllth-EastAsi~r 4 What happened to employment in IT in tM1990s? .. people employed in 'agriculture andservices .· . 3 What do you notice about the number of III Look at the graphics and ask yourself some general questions.: 68 Unit9' Trends .< .·' 4 Five per cent/ A tenth of all jopswiUl:>\in IeTs 5 Economists predict there will be~6i1"!("rease/a aerrease people working in industry In the future.~·'TI... text. What is the overall picture? Are there any unexpected points? in 2005? .>. refer to the appropriate graphics.._':':::':::_:-:: .sector . 1 What do the graphics show? 2 How are they different? III Skim the titles of the graphics to get a general idea.using information from the text and figures 1-3. 2 Survey the text Work on page 69.·'.o~Si~~htt~itilj... . in? . Which graphic is . often on a time line.:.." industry.. ~ ~~~th~:st~.g.:: ·' . .> 5 How have developments in ICTsaffected th~waywork is done? 5 Underline the correct words in italics to completethesentences.•.e In .

and communication have all been transformed. and in particular in ICTs.where the figures dropped by 12%.. these figures represent only an overall picture as some countries saw industrial employment actually rise by one per cent. this rise in jobs will continue. The developments in ICTshave had a huge impact on Jobs in all sectors. tourist-related \ services such as hotels and restaurants. in only ten years major changes have been seen in the percentage of the workforce employed in various sectors. . by 2005 this number had fallen to 40%.Worl{ trends The type of work which people do is constantly changing as man develops and modifies his way of living. However. It can be seen that almost the same percentage of people worked in services as in agriculture. distribution. This was particularly noticeable in certain South-East Asian countries. The means of production.5 million in 1990 to 13 million in industry the workforce fell by two per c~nt globally. finance. In 199543% of the world's workforce was employed in agriculture. In other SUb-sectorsof industry such as textiles. the overall trend was upward As technology spreads across the world. fewer people will be employed in industry and agriculture. industry. At the same time. Although there was a slight drop in the numbers of jobs in ITin the mid-1990s due to a recession. the global workforce dropped from 14. The largest decline was in south-East Asia and the Pacific. research and development. The number of jobs in ITas a percentage of all jobs in the service sector is represented in Figure 3. and health care. a significant change took place in the agricultural sector.but health care and education will also benefit from more jobs. but by 2005 this had risen to 39%. Years Figure 3 Percentage of ITjobs in the service sector between 1990 and 2002 . It is estimated that one in twenty new jobs will be in leI's in the future. This extremely varied sector includes the retail trade. There will be a further increase in service-sector employment. as increasing automation reduced the number of employees needed. substantial changes in employment took place. As Figure 2 illustrates. where low wages and fast industrialization have enabled countries like China to become world leaders in manufacturing. communications. The service sector employed 34% of the workforce in 1995. In fact. one sector saw an increase. . Similarly. but now less than half the world's population do so. property. Figure 1 shows the overall distribution of jobs in the three major sectors in 2005: agriculture. In the ten years leading up to 2005. as well as transport. as computer technology has radically affected the way in which work is done. industry Figure 1 Percentage of the global workforce in the major sectors in 2005 Services Agriculture Industry 1995 2005 Figure 2 Sectors of global employment in 1995 and 2005 """" 15 . One hundred years ago. the vast majority of people worked in agriculture. and services. Economists predict that these overall tendencies will continue. whereas only around 20% were employed in industry. The largest developments were seen in the new Information and Communications Technologies (leTS). reflecting changes in technology and lifestyle. However. which have grown rapidly since the 1990s. Manufacturing was the largest sub-sector of industry to be affected. education.

C with words and phrases from the box. approximately. The subjects chosen by students reflect trends in the job market as weH as changes in the students' fields of interest and research..'-'-.g. with only 119 women. Are these real numbers. or other values? Identify equivalents. Universities will expand to receive these growing numbers.. the most popular subjects for both men and women were in the arts. compared with 245 men choosing these subjects. . Reid the text aboutchanging trends Coral University. nearly. The number of men studying medicine and dentistry dropped to 130. However. Then look in more detail at the actual figures or values. and in law just under· of the total number were men. with 108 male and 72 female students. . according to subjects studied. For example.look first for general patterns: • terms such as the majority. Information technology was also more popular with men.: " was the most popular subject for women and the least arts medicine & dentistry information technology engineering & technology law economics & commerce 495 154 108 245 300 461 989 186 72 119 103 466 560 130 143 264 358 467 1020 230 86 123 196 7 Looka\: Figure 4 in detail. twice as three-quarters many.. to 406. When you are interpreting figures. engineering and technology were more popular with male students. and numbers studying law rose to over 350 men and 6 _ 200 women.Complete paragraphs B and. approximations such as almost. . one in ten '" 10%. (just) over/ under D The academic 4 shows the numbers of students enrolled at Coral University for the years 2000-2001 and 2006-2007. .a quarter = 25% the majority the same as almost approximately III It is predicted year 2006-2007 saw a general increase in student numbers. and the number of women studying economics and commerce also fell by 60. the number of men studying IT rose from 108 in 2000 to s 140 in 2006. with 1 500 men and approximately ____ women studying these subjects. the same (as) lID B There has been IIFigure Changing trends an overall rise in the numbers of students enrolling in higher education in the last twenty years. percentages. There were some decreases.':-:-'--" ..' -:. e.. For the academic year 2000-2001. . In economics and commerce the numbers of men and women Were almost' . as most faculties registered a rise in enrolments.. at . and new faculties will open. just under just over that this increase in student numbers and changing trends in subject choice will continue over the coming years.

E:ubstaHfiallyIsubstantial =alar. describe a small change? .·~ LANGUAGE FOR WRITI~G Language for describing gr(iph. they dropped slaffliltieally slightly. . 3 After a slow rise.. c the number of students in New Zealand between 1990 and 2005 .. there was a steady decline...••> : D The pie chart compares rose dramatically fell substantially increased considerably dropped slightly decreased noticeably grew marginally declined steadily 4 Which adj(!ctives<lnd adVeF~si~..g~~haHg~ 5) Correct the wronginiormati()nil1thedescriptionof~achgraph.. and statistics . . changea~dwhich . 1 Match a type of graph 1-3 withad~~~ription a-c(seeSrtldy Skill p68).. .... ." 71 .ch(irts. 1 The numbers grew slowly and after levelling out.. 4 The value droppedand th~n" levelled off f9r a ivhil~ before soaring again.e#rdse 3 describe~Ia. 2 . b the number of graduates who work in ITin different countries of the world. 3 D The bar chart shows/illustrates D The line graph shows/illustrates a the percentage of graduates working in different sectors. 2 Prices fell substantially and then fluctuated..

. withthem. ?lchal1gesin .'VA . For example. .. In 2004 the workforce increased.~What#e lI"\h~l~¢:~~~e~~p~~~!~. This figure remained almost the same in 2006. and numbers studying law rose to over 350 men and just under 200 women. and social services between 2000 and 2006. . the ntimber.000 in 2005. Between 2000 and 2001.Clf men and 'w6rnehwho'worked in ·irttorIll<l. . and the number of women studying economics and commerce also fell by 60. but there was a slight drop ____ 5. to 406. in a -: .."<. health..·...000. the l?etceritag¢(){uridergradti~t~sal1d graduate 'studel{t~ iri<ip..' . . .·'h·.. iWRITING.'.. 20ci6 .. . LL''"''UV..·· •. ". The number of men studying medicine and dentistry dropped to 130.000 and then dropped slightly' 83. Circle the prepositions . D The academic year 2006-2007 saw a general increase in student numbers as most faculties registered a rise in enrolments.:". population 'tr¢rtds •'iAr{th~re U19re youngpe9pIe thepercenta~es page 68). health. .~]'. Figure 5 The number of people employed in education.000.. the number of men studying IT rose from lOS in 2000 to just over 140 in 2006.. ! There was a general increase 1 the number of people employed in education. ..' 1 Dedde which type ofgraphwould be best for sho'wingl-3( 2005' thenutUber ()fpeopleund~r20 . . .".nouns and verbs which referto changes. and social services between 2000 and 2006 .th'P~~~···.ittItt uniyer~ity". the numbers rose' 70. 5. There were some decreases.000 the following year. Numbers rose again in 2003 ' _ 78.. than people over60? of men and womell? .1tio:n i' bbt'wehi 1998atid.000 7 80...Read paragraph C from the text Changing trends on page70 ..

771 363.1 65..1 3 5.6 54.0 31 26 28 Unit 9 • Trends 73' .r-.8 65.7 12.700.··· ..448 2..045.'..387 580. "'.." '·>···· 605.352.510 623.2 28.-'.123 607.l...049 2.'.819..701 626. .854 668._..>.7 70..151 604.138 596.784 1.9 55.7 41. .7 7.1 27.: ..'~p?!tCl~the."'" il1a.912 42."" •.177 625.----.1 3.888 1..

nanogram ante.a"'J. The instrument could measure one billionth ofa ______ . havillg or usillg several differellt languages Art critics were invited to a preview of the new exhibition. public transport system was described as ineEfident . poly . e. Many professions require postgraduate qualifications. --- is a light boat with an engine and a flat can travel over the surface of the water.g. An international conference is being held in July. Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of living things. polyunsaturated Itlultie. !Multilingual nano. ..e.OPMENT Word-building (2) Prefixes area letter or a group of letters which you add at the beginning of a word.e.. Remember to reread your essay before you hand it in. biochemistry The negative or antonym of some words is formed with a prefix. Write the prefixes and the words in the the table..g.u'" 74 Unit 9 • Trends .g. "~'.U 4 5 The bus service is completely a bus. Understanding the meaning of a prefix wilt help you understand the word. (reliable) 6 Most people in the city are German.g..means connected with living things or human life. The new monorail train runs above the ground.VOCABULARY DEVEL.g. The students are learning English in a multilingual class. painting was an imperfect copy of the original. student's work was often disorganized.' candidate was unsuitable for the job. using a form prefix. antecedent 2 Underline the negative adjectives in the sentences. . (lingual) . For example: bio . The two countries were involved in bilateral trade 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 poly. Add adjectives to the table in exercise L 1 2 3 4 5 6 The The The The The The patient was suffering from an irregular heartbeat. accurately. Bacteria and fungi are microorganisms. 3A sub. Plants use the process of photosynthesis to make food.e. In a marathon the athletes run over 42 kilometres. (plane) (history) VV'eW. doctor's handwriting was illegible. For example: necessary f unnecessary relevant i irrelevsnt 1 !!I!)'t!ffillpmta'liOOII Use a dictionary to check the meaning of the Underline the prefixes. (second) 2 The scientists required a of the sea. ante- nano- ·3 Complete the sentences. Many companies have their own Intranet system. .

The computer needed to be replaced as the microprocessor was faulty. 3 Add a prefix to the word in brackets to match the definition. . (gram) 3 Against the law. a stem. stem question suffix ably Recognizingthese parts can help you understand the meaning of these words. banking& insurance retail ICT 9 15 4 10 19 3 8 14 10 4 4 5 6 7 13 24 health & socialwork education & research media public services 5 10 13 9 6 manufacturing consultancy financial& legal other 2 1 Write a description of the graphic you have drawn in exercise 1. Unquestionably. the greatest change in recent years has been the growth in the population.e. At first glance the two essays were indistinguishable. interrelated. 2 3 4 5 6 Some words are composed of identifiable parts: a prefix. The statistics were inaccurately collected. As the film was subtitled. It was discovered that the problems were. it was accessible to many more audiences. Without question The results of the study have been misinterpreted.~ 5 Write a definition for the composite word in italics. The physicists were surprised by the reappearance of the star in the sky.REVIEW 1 Draw an appropriate graphic to represent the data in table 5.g. The seats in the arena were rather uncomfortable. Research scientists are encouraged to work on interdisciplinary projects. Unit 9 • Trends 75 . 1 To program a piece of electrical equipment in advance. After the earthquake the building was reconstructed. (legal) 4 To take an exam again. and a suffix(see Study Skillp55).:STUDY' SKILL Composite word. (lingual) -. 4 I 2 3 4 5 1 Underline the stem of the words in italics. unquestionably prefix un . (set) 2 A thousand grams. (take) 5 Only speaking one language.

and yet the 'Information Age' of the early 21st century has a long and fascinating history. and an electromagnet. When a key was pressed onto the wire. he finally succeeded in transmitting speech. You do not always have to read all of a long text intensively. scientists and inventors were already considering how to transform the spoken word into electrical signals. workplaces. These forms of communication seem very modern. In 1830. scientist Joseph Henry used an electromagnet to force a steel bar to swing and ring a bell.I)the <'~"'. III By the 1870s. 'writing at a distance'. our homes. a battery. • Select the parts of the text you need. since communication and information technologies are widespread . Communication technology: a brief history Transcript of a speech given by Dr Elizabeth Wallace The 21st century is already being described as the 'Information Age'. Then. IIAlexander 76 . not surprisingly. For ease of communication.the era oflong-distance phone calls had arrived. It is equally likely that you have access to the global telecommunication network: the Internet. on March 10th 1876. However. and universities. the telephone 'bell' was attached. Once amplifiers were added in the late 1920s. Decide which information you need. To do this: II Predict what information the text will contain.''~'' predict the text will contain. a wire joining two telegraph stations. II Skim to check your predictions and to see how the information is organized. it broke the circuit. he developed the Morse code of dots and dashes. and television. . Bell's first telephone did not resemble the telephones oftoday. Samuel Morse developed this idea and invented the first 'practical telegraph in 1838. His system used an electrical circuit. a telephone system was established that allowed people to talk across continents . A microphone was added to produce a stronger signal. Discuss 1 What methods used in the past? 2 What methods are used 3 What developments future? 2 LObk at the title headingsof the Tick (. but struggled for a number of years to make a working modeL Then. This was the first electrical signalling.1 Work with a partner. a b c d e carrier pigeons computers flags (semaphore) mirrors newspapers f D Deciding II The birth of electronic communication where to begin this history is difficult.''''~'. it completed the electrical circuit. and users were given a unique 'telephone number'. It is probable that you have access to a mobile phone. but I would argue that our modern communication era started with the invention oftelegraphy. news 3 4 was travelling the world in seconds and many historic events such as the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 and the sinking of the Titanic in 1912 were announced via the telegraph. This produced a clicking sound. despite this success. and over the next 100 years it underwent many changes. B text. radio. 'Talking with electricity' 1 2 3 4 Graham Bell understood the theory of a telephone.>. and then when it was released.

These allow the phones to be used as mini-computers. the first computergam~. but added Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). (1242 words) UnitlO • Communication .with operating systems (OS)such as Microsoft and Linux. holophones which project three-dimensional moving images of the owners. Once radio was established. . A simple comparison illustrates this: the 2. The PC revolution had begun. D m It was with the second generation (2G) phones. faster. Texting was born. In addition.'Spacewar'. and remotecontrol of a car via your phone. We cannot doubt that it has a long and exciting future. in 1916. It is believed that the connection speed will rise to 100Mb per second. saw enormous technical developments in three main areas: radio. IIsut aowdtd Mobile telephony: thefirst l~years m that has allowed mobile phones to become multi-functional. computers were put into public service for the first time. allowing owners to access their emails at any time. as we have seen from this brief overview. the rules that organize how devices connect to a network. IIThe second m Computers were being developed at the same time as 1V and radio.This is a 'memory' which allows access to any partic:ular piece of infonnation at almost any time. and computers became 1l10repopular. and tune into TV programmes in real time. developed in the 90s. These are expected to be launched in 2010. and the Short Message Service (SMS) was added. and now many 3G phones are similar to Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). listen to MP3 recordings. organize. The smallest . computers have become smaller. ARPANET.the¥1tegrated circuit or 'chip' was invented and. phones could be portable for the first time. were transmitted digitalized. that the mobile truly entered the digital era. and in 1902. IIIt is the fast connection Mul1:i~functions thesetechnicaladyances in radio. The first domestic radio with tuners to listen to different stations appeared only 14 years later.These enabled mobile phones to access certain websites. There is no real way of telling what developments are yet to come. television. Much larger and heavier than today's mobile phones. scientists and inventors started investigating the possibility of transmitting pictures. and computers. IIResearch What next? is already being carried out into Fourth Generation (4G) phones. and computing affect telephoriiccomrnunication? Perhaps surprisingly. but. By 1939. for many people it is the entertainment that mobiles provide that makes them so attractive.SG phones on GPRShad an Internet access of144b (bits) per second. Since then. IIThe development ofthe mobile phone has been rapid and astonishing. Marconi sent the first transatlantic radiosignal. and developed into what many of you use for your studies and entertainment today. In19SB. Since they were so large and stored so little. and a half generation (2. the original Internet. in 2000 a whole new generation of phones was launched: the third generation (3G). when John Logie Baird sent the first experimental television signal. was launched ip1969. television. and 'smarter'. and operate financial transactions such as making payments or selling stocks and shares. m However. was sold. III From 1950 ()l1. As they did not need to be attached to electrical wires. and in 1981 the IBM PC (personal computer) was unveiled. and in 1944.thedevel(}Innent Car-sizedto pllcket':si~~~q)mputers of computers was extremely rapid. Some have MCommerce (Mobile Commerce) systems to allow the user to access. . whereas a 3G phone could be as fast as 2Mb (megabits) per second.5G phones had coloured screens and cameras. Many 3G phones also have the Global Positioning System (GPS).computersstarteddecreasing in size. The first generation of modem programmed electronic computers were built in 1947 and used Random Access Mell1(}ry(RAM). These were based on completely new protocols which enabled high-speed connections. take pictures or make short films. The phones can also act as a modem.IIThe first half of the 20th century SOyears of progress .the first microprocessor was developed in 1971.ofthese computers was the size of a family car and couldstore only about 8. regular scheduled television broadcasting had begun. it was the work on radio waves that was to have the biggest initial effecton the development of the telephone.000 words. Other developments include the production of tiny wrist phones. Users can play games.5G) phones worked on the same network protocol as 2G phones. Radio waves were the first to be explored. .which enables users to know their exact position and to get directions to places they want to go. communication technology has a long and exciting history. The first generation (lG) phones were those developed in the 1980s. these had a fai~ly limited range as the transmission networks were still being established. The leap from transmitting sound to broadcasting pictures took place in 1925. The new protocols of these phones. some 2. In 1962. The new era of phones worked by using radio waves which transmitted a radio signal to a transmission centre and then to the receiver. too. computers had to change considerably to become as widespread as televisions and radios had. However. watch films.

iv aHd__ 8.S.S.S i-listorit examplesof use f.i1 _ _ 2.2.! --'- _ .i/i teltphoHe book created 2.S.11 S.i Krakatoa l.lii accessto websites 8.S.S First IOHg-distaHce iloHecalls IQ20s p .1 Speechfirst traHsmitted Ig67 2.11 beUattached 2.2.i digifal transmissioH 8..2.iv amplifiers added 2.U IHvtHtlonof telegraphy rz IgSg _ I.2.8 -::..2 IQQOs 8.2.__ S.3.2 Developmentsover 50 years 2.3.1 Find the information on mobile phones in the 3 Mobile phones 8.4 ~ SA.2.i microphoHeadded 2.t First geHeration (lG) IQgOs 8.1 WAPadded 8.i1 3.

...... .. We have looked at . This talk will be divided Into ". Secondly...that is to say... In conclusion. ... To recap. Next/First!y/Secondly/ThenjFinally I/we will look at/discuss .. let's turn to ".To put it another way. ... ... _________ the role of English in popular culture. Summarizing Changing subject Concluding Good morning. 2 ----'into four parts. ". technology. go. Benefits to users 3 Effects on land phone Mtwork providers Effects on Mobile phone network providers 10 • Communication and technology 79 . . ... . Let's turn our attention to . The first/second/next/last part .. To conclude. science. My talk/lecture/paper is about ... I will describe the role of English today. 6 we will look at how we can ensure the continued success and development of our own language and culture at the same time as promoting the use of English as a tool of international Computer telephol1Y Description 2. we have discussed ... Tosummarize.. ' ---"-' describe the history of the English language. ' language. The subject of my talk/lecture/paper is .. So.. especially in the fields oflT. and medicine. Now.. _________ music and films. parts Clarifylng/rephrasing In other words.

t 'Hterpretit'lg Illtroduction. Let :me recap themairlpoints s~ far. A good presenter should: • introduce the subject and the structure of the talk at the beginning • speak clearly • explain.1 Simultalleous 3. 7 everyone with me so far? 8 Therefore.2. e. tnotherwords.g. 5 Let's tum our attention to why some countries do not teach a foreign language until secondary school. the main arguments in favour of early language education are as follows. 2 I would like to talk about university education in Singapore. 4 Firstly.what is interprgtillg? / structure of presentatioll 2.RealI" Study SkUC . !Ill Practise your presentation ~t home.g. II Write key phrases at the bottom of the card to either summarize that section of your presentation.. rephrase.1 COllferellces 4. e. Introduction. Consecutive 4 Situatiolls for illterpretillg 4. let's turn 'to . III Write notes using butlet points or numbers/letters (see Study Skill p61) to remind you of the main points. '9 Are there any questions? ' Let me put that another way.:. Ad hoc . English has become the main language of international trade andcomnierce. other languages are now becoming much more commonly used on the Internet. Is It is usually better to give a presentation from notes rather than reading aloud from a text. 'Let me recap the main points so far: or 'Now. Title.:. 6 As will become clear below. What qualifieatiolls are needed? 3 Types of illterpreting 3.2. III Give each card a main heading. Time yourself and make sure it is the right length. I shall describe the development ofvideoconferencing in the 1990s. to summarize. STUDY 'SKILL Hqw to be ~ good presenter An oral presentation can be more difficult to understand them a text.. and clarify new or difficult terms II recap and summarize each section of the presentation. 3 This essay will explore the differences between dialects and accents. my name/topic . II Make a card for each section of your talk and number the cards in the correct order. or to move onto the next section.

Simultaneous interpreters generally work from the foreign language into their mother tongue. Ad·hoc interpreting This is a sel"Vice hich i~proVided for people who are not fluent in a language of a country. idegree iHinterpretll1g ii degreei~lang«ageg + i.::':. such as the health. it could be anyplace where people who speak different languages gather together and need to communicate. " ':-. and practices. legal. e. Youshould have complete mastery of one foreign language.g. attitudes. You must also have total mastery in your own language of the subject you wish to work in. or a degree in languages With postgraduate training in interpreting. into Spanish.'f~t least I farelgl1 lal1guage _ ibroad Types cfmterpreting Simultaneous interpreting This is carried out from a booth. in that language. culture. . -.:. and education services. sciences. will need a high standard" of education. a Spanish person would translate from the foreign language. but who w need to comnlUnicatewithth~providers of services.a~erY . "". 10 • Communication and technology 81 . or by whispering the translation directly for one or two people. say Arabic. In fact. This could be a degree in interpreting. Usually.e.. It could be a national or international conference. Or ail informal gathering. Situations for interpreting . but more than one would be preferable.:"':. i.Minimum requirements Tobecome an interpreter. a meeting.":. Consecutive interpreting This occurs when the speaker'(of rhe foreign language) pauses after each sentence or phrase to allow the interpreter to translate into the other language. You should also have a broad general knowledge. and be prepared to keep up to date with news and events around the world (in your foreign languages). ". Youmust also have a thorough knowledge of that country's institutions. the interpreter will need to take notes in order not to forget anything the speaker has said. or small room. Conference interpreting Thisisa common situation for interpreting.

etc rather than phrasal verbs and nouns. Forexample: Lectures commence at ten o'clock instead of Lectures begin at ten. The gestures used by signers can ·stand for complete ideas in addition to words.g. .i: ·. e. sixteenth century. l. began in the .. increase instead of go up If possible.!~~:!:.ltIlss . 'So.•··.• ~.Phrase ·~ithlleiJ:lf()fI'l~aJ. languages using one's hands.t ·····.b. The I recorded history of sign languages.I.~h1~1~o~d·or. avoid using words and phrases normally used in everyday spoken English. t ······<Iar~ab~entfr6rn. Communicating without speaking How can you '~ your ideas across to people if you 2can't speak. . signed languages vary from country to country and from :l!>l~)H. . <m. perhaps because you are deaf? It would 'take ages to write down everything you needed to One solution is to use sign language.V region..··. there is a wide variety of sign languages in use around the world. 'Just like spoken languages. use more formal vocabulary: For example: III single verbs.. sor to put it another way.:~i.1.In academic and professional writing. nouns.

.. J. __.~~. A wlreless router receives the signal and decodes it. _.----.......-·-·---··-~·--··---·-·----··-·-'-·-'·-·.~_. ._~. This means that there can be multiple devices using the same wireless connection simultaneously.~. RAM PC Mb Ralldom Access Memory IG SMS PDA OS What do the abbreviations WAP GPS 3G 4 Underline the phrasal verbs in the sentences. I i j._._".1 hotspots 111 _ 4. and even restaurants now provide these 'hotspots'. ! WiFi radios can use three different frequency bands and can move between them. \.. many cities are using the technology to provide free or low-cost Internet access for their residents.._.I Local area »etwork (LAN) 1._c..._~_~. Wifi technology WiFi (wireless fidelity) refers to a local area network (LAN). ~.2 radio si911a/S 1. ~ __ . . more formal verb from the box.oc. WiFi 3 Adval1ta9M 3.---.Go through the text on pages76-77. ...'~h~·~___. ' I i I " .--..._ .---.~_~_ i . We are pleased to announce that Dr Smith has g?t oyer his recent illness and will be returning to the university next week. ": . . II L . hotels.._.-.. •• •••• __ __ ..4 receives/ deGOdessi9nal "'l 2.lter adapter translates data [lito 2.Unit 10' Cornmualcatlon and techriglogy '83 ._ . The radio waves used for WiFi communication work at much higher frequencies than those used in other radio systems.__. Use phrases from stand for? 3 .__ ".._~_ ..l1t o the t .. I J What is it? . All new students must fill in their library membership forms by the end of this week. Language for Speaking on page 79._ ••_..-. shops._ .""'__ ~.. accommodate collect complete Replace each phrasal verb with a . .> . ! Wireless networking is becoming so widespread that access to the Internet via cables and I wlres may soon be a thing of the past.c.2 GaI1 use tOl1l1eGtiol1 the same time 4 l>evelopmel1ts 4.-.. ..2 tities Ganprovide _ "-:1 • ._. In addition.1.. . ..~_.'h--'·~----·"·:-'-l r __j ".3 radio signals trallsmitted _ 2. _ .. It then sends the data to the Internet.----..~ I._.. .--.5 Sfl. The wireless adapter on a computer translates data into a radio signal and transmits it via an antenna. .REVIEW 1 Read the text about WiFi technology and complete the notes."'. Also. . which uses high frequency radio signals to send and receive data over short distances (about 60m).--. libraries. ._ .. ._~_.. ~''--.•_ 2 Prepare a two-minute presentation on WiFi technology."' 3..~~_.3 (60m)at 2 How does it work? 2. 'I i '" i • __ • - .1 uses radio waves ...•_.. .~ __ ~ __ ~. recovered from postponed The new university hall can fit in 500 people. The number o(WiFi networks is growing rapidly as they are easy and inexpensive to set up._..2 GOh1p!._._._.J Airports.... ~ -~·-·-------. Will all students pick up their essays from the secretary's office? The director's meeting has been put off until next week.. more data Gal1 sel1t be . ... .. .--._ _ .~ . The wireless network uses radio waves in a similar way to mobile phones and radios."cc. This allows considerably more data to be transmitted.

..•. . fvetg/ attend l' /. .... find out v. lo:'grenrk! organize /\i:g. • ..ll! neat adj Ini:tl ....'/ commitmentn Ik:...(r)1 module n I'modju:V national adj I'nreJn..flZI~l·· ...):8/ specialize v I'speJ.. abilitytl 1:l'bI1::lti!.. suit . <lv'spi:lfl • 11 ~:!. underline v !AndQ(r)'laml article n !'a:trkll generallyadv : l'<tJ.kelt/ intransitive adj· ·/m'trreiuatrvf require v Mkwal.laIZI spedficadj /spa'srfrk? spelling n l'spehiJl AO<l staff n Ista:f! state adj !stert! stress n Istresl style n /starl! subject nl'SAb¢ektf .. essaynl'eserl ·pb~~~~'k..·.•.•. .. . · .••••..••. skim v !skrml society n /sa'saroti/ source n IS'..auv<l'si:zj.•.put'of/ vast ad} )va:st! .·. overs~asadj /.· draft n Idra:ftl edition n 1<l'dlJnI ..·•• . content n I'kontentl· rllaj()rityn 11ll(l.. ••....·. material n !mQ'tI<ln~11 . . intensive ad} 1m 'tensrv/ . ad] '" adjective adv=adverb con] = conjunction n=noun pl= plural prep = preposition US '" American English v'" verb definite adj j'defmat/ definition n !. extremelyadv IIks'tri:mlil agree v h'gril..····..••••.•.•.. chemistry n /'kemIstril ·inceiltive n Irn'sentrvl refer to fn. register v I' re<tJl~t~(r)l. ~rani v Ikr. ~irniraradL ('s!tp.···.d/ reward n/niwi.•· ··· .•. abbreviation n l<lbri:vr'erS<ln!.f3.. /'we5':J(r)! certainlyadv j's3:tanlil· illustration n IMstrelSnl receive v /'nsi:vl worthwhile ad] I'W3:€l. Surveyi:'. . alert ad} i.•. previous adj I'pri:vr. development n /dr'velopmcnt/ differ v /'drf<l(r)1 difference n /'drfr<lnsl discuss v Idls'kAs! discussion n /dlS'kAfni divide /dr'vaid/ mention v l'rnenJnI mixture l'nilksif...rgzreml .di graph n/gra:fl .orrtil ... . remain v In'meltI! collocate j'kol. !.••• conc1usionn/k..· •..·zn:afun· v .. crucial adjl'kru:Jl! . v v ····.·.:.i< v »...taIinIJ. entrance exam n I'eritffins·...}raiz! .improve v lrrn'pru:v! .. /8a:. silV/s!t!·· . · · ·· .•.)bll severalprOn •.Qla(r)l .·•·. quotation n IkW(lU'telfnl /.)li! pronunciation n !pronAnsi:'erSnl usually tldv l'jU:3alil assignment n /o'sannnont/ grammarn I'grrema(r)/ punctuation n IPAnktju:'erjnl vagueadj .· .. textn. full-time adj i.. 'tu:/ choose v flfu:zi include v/m'klu:dl ..i Unit 1 ··~Rf~ZJedtJ:orin· f.... on the other hand !ono.. necessary v I'nesaseril note n Immt! occur v kJ'ks:1 . me11'lorize v I'rriem..famd ...fa(r)/ retrieve v !rr'tri:vl comprehensiveadj lecturer n f'lektj'ara(r)1 revise v tttveiz! revision n !niYI3n1. apply for v /c'plor fa! .Jf:it/ .•• .·.. ·.··... basic adj f'berslk! hold v I'h(luldl realisticadj fm'lrstrk! whereas con} l. result n !rr'zAlt! ..•.'i> /p~'tlkju:h!.·.)! ....WORDLIST Here is a list of most of the new words in the units of New Headway Academic Skills Level 3 Student's Book.. fmem! sedousadj· I'sr~n~s( .. private ad]..... . skillh iskIl! education n le<tJu:'kerJnI effective adj II' feltrvl . put off v I.. > . .org~nizedadj badge n /bred3i headingn I'hedriJl .. concentrate v. /korripn'hensrv( •..fu['taunJ approximatelyadv /s'proksrmstli/ further adv I'fs:o.•.·... linking word n/lll) available ad} /a'verlabl/ hardly ever adv !. I'komphkeltrdl lecture n l'!i"ik!.enr...1(r)1 process n /'pr<lusesl . complicated adj .J!ktrv/..hrend 'mf fkwolrfr'kerSitzi vo~abulaiynlil<l'krebju:l. · ·<···....· ·•.set n...waIll chart n Ilfd:t! .! n.'slsf ov/.defI'nrJn! delay v /dr'les' description n !dIsk'npJn! develop v Idr'velap/. .timhigfl:/. atoudildj /a'iaud/. adjective n. · table nl'tt!lbll·.•.lrn/meaning nl'mi:nll)/ daunting ad]·· j'd6:ntll.': ·•······•·•·· •••• academicdd}/rek:l 'denUkl expect v Irks'pektl accurate adjl'rekju:tati .. .wel'6:g~inaizdl .•.. v hsend/ organic ad] .<tJ.... ···f~~~~~~:~t~::i~tD'::}·i .!s/ topic n I'tOPlk! ../t~kstl/' ..hi~~..'aut! preposition n /prepa'zrjn/ titleiil'talttl .•. ·/'seyrl( . syllable tlJ'sdabV.. .nt/ .·. ·riianageable adj /'mremd3. expressionx IIks'preSnl plural n l'plimilV .jnll.. ..l'nlItm~ntl irregular adj Il'regjab(r)! research v fri's3:lfl compare v 11<~(ri'pea(r)1 journal n 1'<tJ3:nll research n l'rls3:lf! complete v /kam'pli:tI law n ib:/ .se¥Qudri/ consist Of v/k.. . · ••.. effectivelyadv /r'fektwlil enc()urage v Irn' kAnc51 . auditory adj /':l:drtril habit n I'hrebrt! qualifications n pl visualad} I'VI3l! auxiliary verb n !:l:g'zdi.)/· ... overview a I'~uv~vju:t.. relevant~dj /'n!IQv~nt! Jbue<tJu:ki':lf.l'Ja:V form n Ifo:m1· ..l'terJ.J:di.emi· match v Imrelf!.•... /..)/·· .• . cmupuIsoryadj /kilm'pAJsaril lis. ·...•..nalz/.) ws.kons-.i> .. .'verl .. irtlmediatelyadv Irrn''kl11:3U/· • locate /lao'keit/ sec011daryad} /... t()~11'lula.:. ......ntreltl··· ·Uteraturen· I'lrtr.··..··i~1~t:jtg~~lW· .. co-educatipfialadj· inorganic ad}. fmo:'grenrkf .•• .. .!(r)l ..:similarity !suria'll'errtil .84 Wordlist ....tnlhstl .. . I'prarvat/ transitive adj·· i'trrenzltlvl problem n /'probl~m1 tutor n i'tju:t. .we<lr'rez/ biological adj /bala'lo¢rkll however adv /hau'evQ(r)! reason n !'ri:zit/ whether coni. ~:~~[p~~e:c~p~:4~~:~ particular v v/su:tI< < ...!lf.i.!ri vsrb/ hand in v I.. ·.iJ.1t1i1 receritadj •iri:s<lntl check v Ilfek! .·. 1'.. ..ha:dli 'eVQ/ quality n I'kwolrtil wen. ·.•.scoten lsko:(r)/\ . curriculum n/kil'rlkju. .ni'fo:inM<l1.. contrast I'kimtra:stl management n l'rriietu<tJmant! ••sigl1ificii~tadj Isrg'l1if1k....•.. contlnue v/k~li'tfuju:i .... record virr' ko:d( ... ... poem n /'p~uaml ..

t::l/.starV spread V lspred! concern n /kon 'S3:n1 .•. destroy v. physical adj/'frslkll ".1dl'zi:zI .mcns' vaccine n /'vaksi:nl detail nj'di:terll . target v... Unit2 :> •... harmful adj I'hu.tu:1 essential adj fl'senJlI promising ad] I'promrslgl evidence n I'evrd..' . in fact 1m 'frektl ..}u91 anecdotal ad] !ren~k'd<lutV .autl sight n /sartl '.l'sen.. health n !heW rephrase v /ri.tont/ researcher nin's":lf<J(r)/ rest v Irestl .•..Irr'zAltl include v /rn'klu. rhythm n l'n5m/ . brain n /brem/ inject v Im'd3ektl ... disease n .weI'drYel::lptl directlyadv idar'rektlil positive adj I'pozrtlv/. antibiotics n pi lrenti:bar'ptrks! '.' '. specifically adv '/SP<J'SIflkli! speed n !spi... due to ad] I'd3u:.. .peIld 'mil unhealthy ad] IAn'heI9i/.)s!.)tI .. pretend v/pri'teridl . . weight n Iweltl . . ineffective ad]/ml'fektlVl .'. cancel v I' kenel/. lead v lli:d! . patient n/'perSntl ='.. participate v /po: 'trsrpert/ demand v Idl'ma:nd! truth n Itru:91 -'.w:J(r)/ confirm v /kan'fa.·· ··•·· ·.. '. long-term adj 1'log.• .risk n Insk!' '. sensible adj .t3:m! condition n /kon'dijn/ loss n Ilns! . ' ...f? activate v l'rektlVerti i exercise n I'eks:lsarz/ protect II /pro'tekt/ adult n l'redAltl explain v I'eksplernl provide v /prc'vard/ advanced adj /od'vumst/ fact n Ifrektl publish v /'pAblljl fewer ad] Ifju::l(r)/ affected by v /o'fektrd bar! radiation n /rerdi.v<lri! reduce v Irr'd311:s/. kill v Iklll . .)'ko.. message n I'meSlqy summarize v . disability n Idm'bilrtii '.from! consider v Ibn 'sid~(i')l ..)'pmj. portion n I'po:jnli .•. depend on v./'5Af.. cause n lko:zI signal n l'srgn~1/ laboratory n /la'borotri/: celln !sell sound n I'saundl lack of n I'lrek .wel'bi:r!)! . accelerate v /ok'selorert/ profession n /pra'fejn/ accept" v /ok'sept/ encouraging adj !m'kAnd3rgl progress n I' prauqres/ according to I.. .involved in v '..drg .s~b1I investigate v irri've5tlgeitj show v Iraul . predict v/pndrktl . common ad] l'kIJmnl level n I'lev:lll completely adv '/k:lm'pli:tlil lifestyle n 1'lalf. ... ·.milrarz/ correct adj /ka'rekt/ mixture n l'mlkslf:J1 summary n I'si\.. v IkjuM mysterious ad] Iml'sti:ll'!.dl .ms/ action n I'rekjnl proof n /pru..ststom/ balanced ad] /'brel<lnstl require v In'kwar:l/ base on v I'bels.. .'veljnl· ... ..•.kreri:'. wound n 'l'wu:ridl '.•.•• well-developed adj /.:. .•. cancer n I'krens*)I .<i . . n Itestl curriculum n Ik. n /'tti:grtl need v Ini:dI' ..... various adj I've.document n.. beneficial ad] Ibenr'flfll benefit n /'bemfrtl: . brainstorm v I'bremsto:m! scientist n /'sar<'JntIst/ innovation nlm. carry out v I.ov!· '.. divide v Idr'vald! ·•.. /drs'trov.)(I")..··. population n Ipopju. rediscovery 11 iri:dls'ki\. result n .pnl important ad] /rm'po.)n1 treat v Itri.I'medrkl constantlyadv I'konst::lntlil suggest v IS:l'd3esti . .. century n /'senlf:lril specialist n /'speJ<>lrstl.. .•.. currently adv l'kAr~ntli! test v. suffer from v .. change n.' ...)rr:lsi .effect n /r'fekt/ previously adv I'pri:vI:lslil effective adj /r'fektrv/ process n I' prooses/ electrical adj /r'lektnkll . '•. ..mfll relate to v /n'leit tu:!.••.m/ study n /stxdi' maintain v /mem'tem/ confusion n /ksn 'fjU:3n1 subject n l'sAbctekti connection n Ik:l'nekjnl manufacture v Im~nju:'freklf::l/ substance n /' ssbstsns/ medical ad] I'medrkil .... .. • heal v Ihi:lI associate with v /a'soosi.:l(r)/ ... v /tfemqy.•. v I'f:luk:l&1 recover v Irr'kAv<>(r)! general adj I'd3ertrll ancient ad] /'ernSntl recoveryn /rr'kAV::lri! growth n Igr.t/ dailyadv /derli/ overuse v /'.!frerz/ trial n /'tramll data n I'derta/ .. ../'si\.. .)'nkju:laml observation n /obzo'verjn/ theory n I'91<lril obvious ad} I'nbvl.)n.·.· .. ... v /'dokju:mant/' prescribe v Iprls'kralbl . v l'dremlqy treatment n I'tri:tmantl paraphrase v /'prer.d/ body n I'bpdil increase v !m'kri:si ..'erjn' alternative n 10:1't3:n<ltlvl finding n !'farndrlJ! recommend Y /reks'rnend/ amount n /o'maunt/ focus n.rIl~ril monitor v l'mDnrt ::l(r)! synonym n I'smanrinl credit v Ikredrtl cure n. practitioner n :Ipr~k'trJ. medical condition n ..·.'fr~rzI illness n I'rln:lsl attribute v !re'tnbju:tI replace v In' plers/ balance v !'brel:msl immune system n lun Ju:n report v Irr'po:tI ..ert WIN remember v /n'membolrj' attack v M trek! .. plagiarism n 'l'plerd3:ltrzrrij develop v Jdr'vel:lpl diet n I'dal.. well-being n.!uv:J'ju:s! damage n.:••.!sl therapy n I'ger:lpil cut v IkAtI opinion n 1.··..... guideline n I'gald.: stage n Isterdy limb n Ilrml conclude v /kan'kluid/ limit n I'llrmtl stimulate v I'stunjuleltl·· stress n I'stresl ...idr....k::lndrJnl suitable ad] I'su:t<'Jbll' consumption n lk:ln'SAmpJnI copy':' Ikopi! .· .'lerSni ./m'vrilvdJJJJ . ..••. conduct v /kcn'dakt/ structure n !'strAktf<>1 lower adj ll.../.' .lalnl approach v !<l'pr<lulf! . perfonnanceur/pa'fo.

Unit 3
/ckomo'derjn/ add v Ired! n

developments n pi /dr'velopmcnts/ diploma n /drp'loums/ disadvantages n pI discursive essay n /drsk's.rsrv .eser/ discuss 11 IdIS'kAsl district n I'dlstriktl divide v /dr'vard/ draw up v I,dro: 'Api drawbacks n pi J'dr:):breksl economic ad] /i.ka'normk/ employ v /rm'ploe' environment n /m'varronmont/ error n I'er;;.(r)/ establish v Il'strebllJI evaluate v lI'vrelju .ert/ event n II'venti example n IIg 'za:mpl! existing ad) Ilg 'ZIS!llJl experience n /rk'sprari.ons' experiment n, v /rk'spertmant/ face v ffelsl . . facilities n pI /fa'srlrti.z/ factors n pi l'fre'kt;;.(r)zI factual ad} I'frek11'u:Jll farming n l'fa:mll)l final ad} I' famll finally adv /fatnoli/ first-class ad) I'f3:8t ,1<10:s/ flow v m:lul for this reason If;J(r) ,ors 'ri:znl forward prep I'f::l:wa(r)dl found v Ifaundl frequentlyadv /fri.kwantli/ functions n pi l'fAnkJrlzl furthermore adv If3:6;;.(r)'mo:(r)/ growth n /grnu91 heavily adv I'hevtlil historic ad} /hr'storrk/ hospital n !'hOSPltll household n I'haush:Juldl . housing n I'hauzll)f : identify vial' dentrfarl • immigrants n prl'rmIgr;mtsl importance nhm'po:tans industry n I'mdasttil influence n I'mflu:~msl inhabitants n pi Im'hreblt~lltsl initial ad} h'mIll .'.' . innovative adj l'mav~tl\if instructions n pi /tn'strakjnz/ integrate v I'rntigrertl . introduction n Imtf<l.'dAkSnI investigate 11 Im'vestxgeiU' jumbled ad) f'ctA.mtild! leader n I'li:da(r}l . -. . locations n pi !l;Ju'kerjnzl logical ad] I'lo43lkll low level adj 1,lau' levll minimize v /'mrmmarzl model n I'modl!·· . modern adj I'modanl .•· · .. mountain range n /'miwritan·. . ,remdof national ad) l'nreJ;mll

address v 1'J'dresi administrative ad) Ired 'mmrstrctrv/ advantages n pI hd'va:ntlqjlzl advisor n l;}d'vaJ2.;}(r)/ agriculture n l'regrrkilltJ;;.(r)1 apparent ad) /;;"prer'Jntl appear v la'pm(r}1 appoint v /o'pomt/ architect n I'a:krtektl argue v l'a:gju:1 arguments n pE l'a:gju:manW as stated in v lrez 'sterttd ml aspects n pi /'respektsl atmosphere n l'retm;;.sf'Ial attempt v /o'tempt/ availability n /o'veilsbrlrti/ average ad) I'revTldof backward prep I'brekw~(r}dl base in v /bers ml boat n /bout' ... . •.. borders n pi l'b:J:d~(r)zI bridges n pi l'brr431zl building n l'bddllJl business park n I'blzn;,s ,pa:kI capital n l'krepltlI challenge 11 1'11'rel;;.ndof choice 11 111':Jlsl . climate 11 I'klarmatl· coast n I'hustl coastal ad) I'kaustll cohesion n /kau'hi:5nl colleagues 11 pi I'koli:gzl collocate v I'kol;;.keltl collocation 11 Ikol;)'kerJnl commence v /ka'mens/ commerce n I'koms:sI commercial ad) Ik;}'ms:JII . commission n /k<l'mIJnl committee n /ka'miti/ cornmunitya Ik;}'mju:nlti/ compete v /k;}~'pi:tI complete v Ikam'pli:t( conclude v lkiri.'klu:dl conference n. /'kbtitr~n.S! consequences n pi I'konsIkwerisizi consequently ad'; • I' konsikwentli/ consideration n /kansrdcr'erjn/ construction n Ihn'strA.kJnl continuallyadv Ikon'tmju;;.lil continuity n /kontm'ju:~ti!· courageous ad). /ko 'r~t43;Js/·. create v Ikri:'eltl··<>.···.· cross v /kros/: i.':·' cross out v I,kros 'autl ..... cultural ad) I'kllllf:lrl/ ."•. deal with v I'di:l,Vno/ .. demand v /dt'mc.nd/ . demonstrate v I'dem.anstreltl depend on v IOI'pendDn/ . describe v /drs'kraib/

natural ad) I' nre11'all network n l'net,w3:kl options n pi l'opSnzl order n 1':J:d;J(r)1 original ad] I;;.'ngmll overall adj I,;JUV ;)'1'::>:11 overcome v l~uva(r)'kA.m! overcrowding n /auvc'kraudrn/ persuade v /pa'swerd/ persuasive adj Ip;}'SWeIsrvl phrases n pI l'freIZlzl physicist fl I'frzlslstl pollution n Ip;J'lu:Jnl possible adj l'pOSlbll preserve v Ipr;)'z3:vl pressure n !'prnJa(r)1 prioritise v /prar'oratarz/ priority tJ /prar' onti/ private ad) f'pralvatl problems n pi I'problamzl produce v /pro'dju.s/ properlyadv I'prop;}lil proposal it Ipr;;.'p;;.u.ill public n /'pA.bhkl purpose n /'p3:p<lsl' . ..' quotation marks np!/k\Vau;teiJn
.mc.ks/ ..

unfortunatelyadv IAn'fo:\I';}n;}tlil urban planning n 1'3:bn .pkenuj/ various ad) /'vean;}sl waste n IweIstl well-written ad) I'wel,ntnl

rapidly adv I'rrepldli/ realize v I'mla.lzl recreation n frekri:'eIJnl. recycling n /ri:'saIklIl)/ re-development n

reference n I'refr;msl reference materialn I'refrans


regional ad) f'ri:43anl/ religious adj In'h43asl rethink viti: 'flIl)kl review v Inv'ju:1 roads n pi If;:)udzl role n Ir;}u1l rubbish n IrA. 'bIJI sanitation n Isrem'teIJnI scheme n Iski:m/· . search v 183:\1'(.. ..... section n l's~kJl1r> . select v Isa'lektl'" seminar n J';;emllla:(r) sensible ad) ../,sensIW separately czv /'sepntlil.·. services n pI I'ss:vIsis/" . site n Isaltl .. . social ad) I's;}u Jl! solution n Isa'lu:Jnl space n Ispersl split v Isplit!.: .•. superb adj /SU:'p3:l:{·· . supplies n pI ./s;J:plaxp •.... / '" :•.....•. thriving adjl'eraryrlJ( ..•..... : . throughout prep./eilr:'auy·.· ·.·........,. : togetheradv •. 'Ita.'ge!5!.·,,·.·.· .•.• · · i-. . .•....•.•...•.. top-quality (ldj ttop',kwohti/ .'. trade fair n. ··l'treId,feii(r)/·.· traffic congestioritil'trrefrk bn,43es11'nl....· . transport n /'trrerisp:l:t! '. '.. transportation nltrrerizpo:'teItfnl



..• ··~:~:~:~:d;g~~i&~!!(·i}i/i ••••i~:~!;e';J' ·•·.•.•.••.. ••

governments 11 pi /'gAv;;nm;mtsf succeed v ISAk'si:dI guideline 11 f'gald,laml successful adj ISAk'sesfll abundant ad] /a'bsndont/ heartbeat 11 I'ho:t ,bi:tI sum up v I,SAm 'Api supply n /sc'plar/ act as'; I'rekt ,rezl heating n, ad] l'hi:tIUI surface n I'S-C,:[IS( adequate adj I'redlkwatl hope 11 /hoop/ take for granted v. /tetk fo annuallyadv I'renjualil hyphenated ad) I,halfmertldl Antarctic n lrent'o:ktlkl I in brief I,m 'bri:fl .... 'gra:ntlrll apartment blocks 11 pi in conclusion I,m kcn' tap II ftrep/ I;},po:tm;;nt 'bloks! in use adj I'm 'ju:sl . technology Ij Itek'nDI~tf3i1 as a result lrez a rr'zxlt/ indicate 11 I'mdrkeltl tips 11 pi /nps' billion n I'brljanl industrial adj Irn'dMtII;Jl! traditionallyadv Itr:l'dIJ;m;;li/ both prol1 Ibaoel inexpensive adj. hmk'spensrvl transfer v/trrellsfa:tl . breakdown Y I,brerk'claunl install v Ims'tdl .. ... ', turn intov Its:nrntu:1 .. . turn tOY . Its:ntu:1 ..• , .•....•• briefcase 11 I'bd:f,kersl lab coat n I'!reb;kautli build v IbrIdl leaves 11 pi Ili:vzl . undrinkable ildjhn' clrllJ btl! unique adj /ju:'ni:~ . . .. carbon dioxide n I,ko:b;;n manage v l'mrenrtf3( ... dar'oksard/ maximize v I'makSlmalz) utilize v /'ju:tllmzl centuries 11 pi /'sen1f;;nzl medicine 11 I'medsnl. valuable adj I' vrelju~bll chain 11 l1femf medium adj l'mi:dr::Jml whales n pi /'weIlzl . characteristic 11 Ikrerakt;;'nstM micro adj I'malkrau/ . widespreadadj I'waidspredl wood n Iwud/ . classified adj I'klreslfaldl mineral water 11 l'mmaraI. collect 11 /ko'lekt/. .. . . ,wo:t;;(.)1 .: ..» combination /combm'erjn/ molecules 11 pi l'molrkju:1zJ combine v .ik;;m'balnl •.... •.. movement 11 !,mu:vm~ntl compensate v l'kompanselt! obliged adj la'blatmdl . competition 11 Ikom'p;)trJnI official adj 1:I'[rJII .......•..•..•..•.....•.........• compound n I'kompar.mdl oil refining 11 tOII,nfamlul . concern 11 /kon'ss.n/ operate 11 I'op;;reltl.<;· conditions 11 pi Ibn'dr!nZl organism 11 1':J:gahrZm! ..' consequently adv I' konsikwentli/ outline n i'outlarnl . conserve 11 /kon'ss.v/ . . . . oxygenn I'oksr<tnl· considerably adv /kon'srdrobli/ paper 11 I'pelpa(r)/ ..·.· .... construct 11· /kons'trzkt/. participation nlpu:trsr'peIJnl consumer n Ik~n'sju:lll;l(r)1 parts n pi Ipo:tsl •....•.. . contaminants n pi . petrol n I'petrll /kan'tsemmcnts/ pipen jpalpl.. . . convert 11 /ken'vs.t' predousadj l'preSas!i. costn !kostl products n pI I'prodAktsl crude oil 11 I'kru:d ;6r11 propose 11 Ipr~'p~uzl . dependent on adj /dr'pendont prove v /pru.v/.' . Onl public n l'pAblrkl desalination 11 /di.seelrn'erjn/ purify v !'pjuanfarl die vidal!· rapid adj I'rreprdl directly ndv Idar'rektllJ raw materials n pl/,ro: earth n l3:el rno'uonolz/ economicallyadv li:b'nomlklil regularly advl'regj~l;)lir efficiency n !l'fIS~nsil· relationship II fn'lelfal*p/ end v, II lend! relativelyadv l'rel::Jtlvlil .: energy n I'en;l(r)gil... release v Ir:l,Ii:sl eventually adv /r'ventjuoli". removal n In'mu:vl! everywhere adv l'evri:we'J(r)1 remove v Irr'mu:vl . examine v /rg'zremlnl . renewable adj lri:'nju:ilbl! expect v Irk'spektl repair v IfI'pe'J(r)l . expensive adj Irk'spensrvl reproduction n<!ri:pr~,dAkJn/ explain v Irk'splem/ reservoir n l'rez'Jvwo:{r)1 . exploit v Ilk'spl:J1t1 resource n Irr'zo:s!··· express v llk'spn;s/ respiration 11 irespr,rerfnl factory n ./'frektril review 11, v .Irrv'ju:/·· .. .. farm a Ifo:l11' > ..• rise v lrarzl .. ". . . . feed vlfi:dli.> roots 11 pi Iru:tS! . ..•.....••....•...... forinstance}, for 'rllst;lnsl ..•......... rules n pi Iru:lzl..., form v Ifo:ri1I··..··•··.·.·.·.ii··· .... . secondary adj I'seblldril .. fossUfuelsnpII,fO$lWll:jzl ......• sequence 11 ./'si:kw;insl. functions pi I fAnkjllY\ .. •seriousadj I'Sr:lrI;ls/ ,.

Unit 4



.i" .

St~~~skreI1~(r)1 ··giobal wa~lJ1ingn i'gi:rubl·.············ steps npl/steps/ .. . ··~W~::sIllllJr . . subsequent tidjI'sAbsik'.¥;'llW

Wordlist 87

Unit 5
abroad ad] /o'bro.d/ accountancy n I;:)'kaont;:)nsil accumulate v /a'kju.mjolert/ acquire v 1;:)'kwaI:J(r)1 adverse adj /'redvs:sI afford v I;:)'f:.l:dl against ad} I~'genstl agreement n 1<l'gri:m:Jntl analyse v I'ren<llalz! anti-globalists n pi l,rentl'gI<lub<ll!stsl appear adv 1<l'pl<l1 arguments n pi /'a:gju:m<lntsl as a result lrez ~ 'rlZhltl as far as I am concerned lre?- fa:r sz 'r-um .kcnss.nd/ astronomer n I a'stmuGm«r)1 at present I, <It 'prezont/ aware v !;:J'wea(r)/ balanced ad} I'brelanstl believe v /'bIli:vl calculate v !'krelkju:leIti caution fl I'b:fn! certainty n !'S3:tantil charge v l'1fa:dd chemicals It pI I'kemlklzi cite v Isaltl claim v /kletm/ commercial ad} Ib'm3:J1! commodities fl pi /ko'mndrnz/ concerns n pi /kcn'samz/ consumerism n /kan'su.manzm/ consumers n pi /kon'sumaz/ consumption n /kan'sxmpjn/ contract v /kon'trakr/ contract n I'kontrrektl control n; v Ibn' traull critical ad} I'kntlkl critically adv I' knukli/ damage v, n !'drenudd debate v /dr'bert/ debts n pi !dets! decide v /dr'sard/ decrease v /d;:)'krj:sI define v /dr'farn/ . degree n Id;:J'gri/ desire n IdI'zal;:)(r)l despite the fact that /drs'part 0;:) frekt ,oatl . destinationn /destr'netjn/ direct ad] /dar'rekt/ dispose of v IdlS'P ;:)(jz ,nvl distinguishing ad} Idl'StIIjWl!IQI doubt v /daut/ drastically adv I'drrestlklil earn v 13:nl earthquake n I's:e,kwelk/ economic powers n pi I'i:kanomlk ,pauaz! economy n /i: 'knnomi/ enormously adv /t'no.mesli/ environmental adj . /m'varronmentl/ equallyadv I'i:kw<llil· equipment n /r'kwrpmont/ ethical ad} I'eend!

evaluate v /r'vseljuert/ examiner n hg'zremma(r)/ exchange v Ilks'1femdd exhaust v IIg ' expectation n I;ekspek'teljnl expertise n /eksparti.z' exploit v /rk'sploit/ export v /rk'spo.t/ express v /rk'spres/ fair ad} Ifea(r)1 fair n !fe;}(r)1 fair trade n Ife;}(r) 'trerd/ familiar adj If:l'mdl;:)(r)1 feelings n pi I'fillIjSI figures tl pI I'flg;:)zi finally adv /famali/ financial adj /far'neenjl/ fixed ad} /frkst' flaw fJ Iflo:! focus on v /'fauk;}s ,on! foodstuffs n pi l'fu:dstAfs/ force v Ifo:sl free trade n !fri: 'trerd/ gain v Igern! generalizations n pi ld3enralalz'elJnzi ... .. globalization n Igl;}ub~lalZ'elfn! gross domestic product (GDP) n !graus da.mestrk 'prodxkt/ guaranteed ad} Igrer;,m'ti:dl illustrate v 1'r1:Jstreltl impact tl l'Imprekt! import v /rm'po.t/ improvement n ·hm'pru:vmantl in favour of ad} 1m 'ferva ,ovl in order to /m 'o.dotr) ,tu:! in particular 1m pa'tlkju:I;J(r)/ income n I'mkAmi inflated adj /m'flertrd/ insignificant adj /rnslg'mflkiintl investment n /rn'vestmont/ judge v 1'4)Add label n I'lerbll labour force n I'lelba ,fn:51 legal adj I'li:gll .. local adj !'I<lukll maintain v /mem'tem/ malaria n /mo'leorro/. managerial ddjimrena'd31;}fI;}1! minority n /mar'norati/.' . morally adv I'mor;:)lil moreover adv Imo:r';}uva(r)1 movement (political) n I'mu:vm;}ntl multiple adj /'mAltIpll naturally adv I'nre1frali! neutraladj I'nju:trll objective n, ad} lob'4)ektlvl one-sided ad} I'wAn ,saId;}d/ opportunity n IDp~'lfu:nltil ordinary ad}. /'o:dmril over-priced ad} !,;'lUv;:)'praIsd/ packaging n Iprebd3uJf particles n pl I'pa:ilklzl past n, adj Ipa:st! pay n Iped . peak seasons n pI !pi:k 'si:z;;,nzi per capita ad} !,P3: 'keeptta/

percentage n Ip:>'sentIdd . point of view n /,JXlrnt ov 'vju:! policy n /'pollsil popular ad} I'popju:l<ll present v /pre'sent/ price n !prats! pricing n I'prarsIlJ1 probablyadv I'prob;;,bli/ profit margin n I'profrt ,rna:d31nl proven ad] l'praQV;')!l! rapid ad} I'rrepldl. reduction n /rr'dakjn" relatively adv !'relatrvll/ remote adj /n'moot/ responsible ad} /rts'pnnsrbl/ result in v /n'zelt ,ml retail tl I'ri:telll retailer n I'ri:tella(r)/ rich ad} In1f! sales n IsedzJ. .. scientificallyadv /saran'trfrkli' seasons n pI /'si:z:mzi seem adv Isi:'mI serious adj /'sIarr;:JsI share v ISe;:)(r)/ ••.............. similarlyadv /'snnIl;;)IiI situation n ISItJu'elSril slight ad} !slaltl . soil n !sod/ speculation n /spekju'Ietjn/ state v Istertl . stoppage n I'stOPlqyt strict adj· /strrkt/" . strike v /strark/ substantial adj isab'strellW .. substantiallyadv Is::lb'stren.f;:)li!.

supporters n pi Is;)'p:l:t;}(r)zJ supporting ad} isa'po:trij/· technical ad} I'teknlkll .. technological adj/tekn;:J'lod3ildl tend to adv i'tend,tii· . tendency It /'tendan~if term n Its:m1·.··. . .. thesis statement ri).Si:sIs .. tin n ltlnJ .•.....•.......



totarflI'ta~ti/ tourism n l'tuarJZ!ni ··..i trades people~pl· l'tn';Ic!Z·,pi:pl! traditions npl . itra'difnz! true ad] ttsxrJ: ...•.•.... undoubtedly adv. IAn'dabtrdlil· . unfairlyadv hn'fe;'l(r)li! unfortunatelyadv Ihn'f:l:1fanatlil varying ad} i'veari:jIIji.. . .. village n /'vrltd31. wealthy adj I'welGii widely adv I'wardli( .... win-winad} /,wrn'wrnl . wish v !WlSI ...,i with reference to ·1wlij'refr;)ns


.•............ .. •...• ..•.......




Word list

.. deserve 11 IdI'Z3:vl display 11.kelt! •.ll)kal ..• craftsmen n I'kra..•• become v /br'kxm/ wealthy ad] l'weI9if.u:.•••..wa:kI undamagedadjihn'dremrd:. major adj I'meld:..l(r)l .lupn.-. aside adj /c'sard/ united adj Iju: 'naitrd/ last y Ila:st!' b~r/ ......precision n Ipn'SI3n! endeavour nlm'dev<l(r)1 enemies n I'en:>mlz! . . reconstruct 11. ... ••.. . infinitive (grammar) n Im'fmltrvl. . impressive adj /rm'presrv/..•..lami . .... magnificent adj 1I11reg'riifIs......)rJiI. ....hal 'Api scientific adj /saron'trfrk/ highlighted adj I'har...pi:!' off . fragment n l'frre9l11infi ... ash 11 lreSI . ..lal!{/···· violent adj I'val. museum n ·. ./mju:'zi~m/ complicated adj I'kompltkeItidl conquer y I'konk:l(r)/ . rulers 11 pi I'ru:l. .• volcanic ad) /vol'ksemk/ bake v Iberki linked adj I'lrl)ktl ....l'zISn! .l'raundJ temples n pi I'templz! .J(r)/ actively edv I'rektrvlil sink v ISIl)kI i illustrated ad] ·1'r1.... ..)(r)1 .lUZJU:! .)j..heritage 71 I' hentld:. \ burial place 11 I'ben~l ... . ruin n !''zerk/ ..ri:'bIltl explanations n pi iekspl.. .....•.... lucky ad} 1'1Aki! ...... rediscover v Iri:dIs'khv..rkll storage n I'stO:n<\JI archaeologists 11 pi la:ki'o18d:... laboratories 71 pi /Is'borotnz/ . lri:kan'st1:Akt! extensive adj Ilk'stensrvl . . n . .ln! ... Ib'rektlil optimistic adj /optl'mrstlki .••••. ./pra'dAkSn eventuallyadv Ir'ventJu:>IiI . . .' ..rpt! production linen .lartldl settlement n /' setlmont/ abandon v /o'bendn/ highpoint n I'har. recall 11 Ir.spekjulelU afterlife 11 I' a:ft:llatfl inaccessible adj /mok'sesrbl/ .non/ sharply sdv I'Sa:plil achievements n pi 1~'Ui:vmntsl honour n I'nn..l'ko:lI. pilot n I'parlatl . preserved adj Ipra'za:vdl president n !'.aut'$trendll)l death n Ideel palace 11 I'pl"el:>sl. ..ldl drawings 11pi I'dro:llJz/ .nz/· knowledge 11 Ino'hd:... day 71 /kler' miHtaryn I'mIlrtri( ... ..salzd/ .... . tomb 11 Itu:m/...l(r)ti . ... south 71 /saoth/ adverbial ad] Ired 'vs: bI./ ivory n /'arv~ril· . '.. uniforms 11 pi I'ju:nuJ:r... statues n pi l'stretfu:zI ...: funding n I'fhudn)i· ... rank n Irrel)kl rebuilt v l. ancient adj l'emJ:lnt! steadilyadv .lkll...ll..... ·./ scan v Iskrenl high up prep I....·.1 ....:J¥ Inca n /... fairly adv I'fea(r)lil relate to y /ro'lert .. /fo: 'meIJn! < resignationn lreztg'nerJ111 < revenue nI'reY~nju... .ftsm:ml outstanding ad} /.·: : north n Im:e/<.Jstrertrdl soldiers n pi /'s..plersl ••..... invade 11 Im'verdl army 11 I'a:mil.istsl indicate 11 I'mdllcert! .:J'verSnzl exhibit y IIg'Zlblt! . completely cdr 1k8m'pli:tlil ..•. : ..:J'drJn! . protect v /pro'tekt/ province n l'provmsl exhibition 11 /eksr'brjn/ expand 11 /r'kspzend/ ....•.•. y /drs'pler/ peel off y l.. correctly adv... covered by v l'kAv:ld.. surround 11 ·/S.lilt/ .•... . archer n l'a:tf8(r)l armour n l'a:m8(r)1 terracotta 71......z'stedrli/ . figures n pi I'flg.• .barl order nl' . speculate v /... educate 11 I'ed:.. adj /tera'kote/ inscription n lrn'sknpln! thriving (jdj 1'0ralYll)I ..l(r)/ facial adj /'ferj1! .••. archaeological adj la:ki:l'lod:. clearlyadv l'klr.>'pr:.•••.....f!! primaryadj l'praImarl/ equipped ad] /r'kw.. . formation 11 .lnt/ arrange v 18'remd:.....•.. ... website n I'websart/ brief adj I'bri:fl .. . workers n pi I'ws...•.. fire n Ifal.....position n/p.prezld:lntl entrance fee 71 t' entrons .luld:. ..•. nearbyprep f .. emperor 71 l'emp8r.......... period (of time) n I'pi:n. .. . logical adj ·1')Dd:. construct 11 Ibn'strhkt! objects pi I'obd:..'}ll in addition 1m .. .. artwork n l'a:t.. ..ektsi..•.lz/ add v lredl admire y /ad'maro/ imperial adj /tm'prenol/ solution n Is:>'lu:Jn!.lnt! attentivelyadv /o'tentrvli' life-sized adj I'lalf.. ..• ..•. collapse v /k:>'lrepsl monument 11 l'ni04ju:I1Pllt! mosaic n.../ ..... ..•....pomt! several ady I'sevr~l/ accideritally sdv /eeksr'dentli/ historian 11 /ht'sto. excavations n pi leksk...l'rierS!Iz! expose to 1IIrk'SP. irrelevant adj Ir're1.•.•... regionaliidj /.. ..•• extensivelyadv /rk'stensIVW .•. cautiouslyadv I'ko:J.df..•.•..lzl· bury v I'bed/. appropriately adv I~ 'proopnotli/ inappropriate adj fm:..}z/ helicopter 11 l'hellkopt:l{r)1 Unit6 ..ri:<t.)nll ..:Jz! remarkablyadj ·/rr'ma:k?plil repair yin' pea(r)/.. methodically ady Imee" pdrklil· .. various adj l've~rIasl assemble v /o'sembl/ life-like adj I'larf..... conserve V Ik:>n'sa:v/· ..k.)slil clause 11 1k1o:z! manuscript n I'ml"enju:sknpt/.tu:l ..... occupy 1I I'Dkju:parl ....

varron 'mentl/ equivalent n /r'kwrvolcnt/ estates n pi /rs'terts/ estimate v I'estlmelt/ existing adj fIg 'ZIstI!)1 expansion 11 Irk'spa.aund/ project 11 I'prodoektl pronouns 11 pI I'praunaunzl publisher 11 l'pAbhSa(r)/ pull back v f.end3t'nrarIlJl engineers 11 pi leiidol'nI<lzl entertainment 11 /enta'ternmont/ environmental ad]!k 'Api man-made adj I.WIO/ common 11' I'ko1l1anl congestion 11 /kan'does\fnl consideration 11 /kan'stdoretjn/ consist of v /kan'srst .megoz/ sample 11 I'so:mpll sand 11 Isrend! seismic adj I'SaIzmrk! severe adj Isa'vla(r)/ shape 11 IJerpl size 11 /sarz/ skyline n I'skaclarnl skyscrapers 11 pi I'skal.)ra'iodotkll mission n I'mlln/ necessary v I' nescsori/ noticeable adj I'nautrsabl/ observations 11 pi /.noz/ rneteorlogical .: forecasters 11 pI .Unit7 a series of n I.. reflect v In' flektl rehearsal n Ira'h3:SV remarkable adj /rr'mc. bar! luxury 11 l'lAkSarV make sense v I. amazing adj 1.vl' retrieve v /ra'tri. debris 11 /' debril .vl accommodation 11 /akomc'derjn/ acknowledge v Irek'nollcW addition n la'rlrjnl .mren'meld! marinas 11 pi /ma'ri..auva'kraudtlJ/ pass v Ipn:sl performance 11 Ipa'fo:m:ms/ phenomena 11 /fo'nomana' predict v /pra'drkt/ privately-owned adj /'pralVItli .'melZllJl amount 11 /o'maont/ appear v la'pera(r)f architect n 1'0: kItek\f1 architectural adj la:kl'tek\f:Jr.. decade n I'dekeldl desert n I'dezatl design n /dr'sam/ dominate v I'dommertl duringadv /'douarrlJ/ efficient adj HflIntl employ v /tm '.. 'si:ri:z ..av/ construct v /kon'strakt/ constructions 11 pI /kon'strxkjnz/ continents 11 pi I'kontmantsl continuing adj /ken'tmju.wo:ta(r)1 bridge 11 Ibnc51 " ceremony 11 I'seramanil challenging adj 1'\frelmdotlJl classical adj I'klresrkll coastline 11 I'bdstlaml combine with v I'bmbarn .. /n'zo.perert/ increase 11 I'mkri:sl influence 11 I'mflu:ans/ initiallyadv II'nrJa1i1 initials 11 pi /r'rujlz' innovative adj l'tnav:./'fo:ka:sta(r}zI function v l'fAlJ kIn! giant adj I'doarantl gravitational adj IgrrevI'terSnl! ground control t1 I'graund height n /hart/ high-rise 11 I'harrarz/ high-speed adj I.Jtrv/ instantlyadv I'mst:mtlil Islamic adj /rz'Isemrk/ islands 11 pI I' arlondz/ issues 11 pi l'r]u:zI joint adj ldo:Hntl land 11 Ilrendl launch v Ilo:ntfl leisure n 1'le3al length n I'lelJel lifts 11 pI /lrfts/ limitless adj /Trmitlas/ line (train) 11 /laml linked by adj I'hlJkt.obl/ repetition n /repr'trjn' residential adj /rezr'denjl/ resorts 11 pi ..ra' controversial adj /kontro'vs.:nSni extend v /tk'stend/ extreme adj /rk'stri.atrrekfnl tunnel n l'tAnl! undoubtedlyadv /an'daondli/ unnecessarilyadv I.merk 'sens/ make up v /.m/ facilities 11 pi Ifa'sihtIzl fireworks n pI /'fala. symbolize v I'slmbalalzl televise v I'te[~varil theorize v I'erararzl ton 11 ItAnl tourist attraction n I'tuanst .jl/ conventions n pI /ksn'venjnz/ crash-land v I'krre] lend/ credit v I'kredltl crew n Ikru:/ cubic adj I'kju:blk! culture n I'kAltfal dam n /dem/.obza'vetJnzl obtain v lob'teml on sale adj /.1I area 11 I' earra/ artificial adj 10:t('[1111 astonishing adj /os'tonrjnj/ author 11 l'o:9a(r)1 base 11 /bers/ bibliography 11 Iblbli:'ografi! blood 11 /blxd/ break (a record) v /bretk/ breakwater 11 I'brelk.frksIzl sustain v /sa'stem/...)zI sleepiness 11 I'sli:pi:nasl slender adj /'slenda(r)! solar adj I's<lub(r)! solar system 11 I'saula(r) ..An'nesasaralii unquestionably adv IA.n'kwes\fanablil vehicles 11 pi I'vi:aklzl verticallyadv I'va:trklil volume (book) 11 l'volju:rnI wheel 11 Iwi:1I withstand y IWl5'strendl wonders n pi I'wlmdazl Word list .kantracl/ adj Imi:tr.lsr/ stilts 11 pl /stiltz' structural adj l'strAk\f<lral! structures 11 pi l'strAk\fazl studios n pi l'stju:di<luzI successfullyadv lSAk'sesfali/ suffixes t1 pl l'st.skrerp. .v' roof 11 /ru:f/ safety 11 I'serftil safety measures 11 /'selfti .on 'selll orbit v I'o:btt! overcrowding 11 /.ts/ retrieval n /ro'tri.hal 'spi.srstom/ sophisticated adj /ss'frsttkertrd/ space n /spets/ spectacular adj /spek'tekju.pul 'brekl rail 11 /rerl/ railway n I'rellwer! reach v I'ri:\fl reclaim v /re'klerm/ recognizable adj Irekag 'narzrbl/ referencing 11 l'refransllJ/.w3:ksl flow v Iflaul "..d/ horizontallyadv /hnrr'zuntali/ hydroelectric ad] /hardreor'lektrrk/ impressive ad] /rm'prcsrv/ inaugurate v /m'o:gj<lreltl incorporate v /m' energy n I'en<idoil engineering 11 l.

.. empl()ymentn.· budget n l'bh<t..~:~f{Jl'f[lf~Y~ ·..)rll)/ lucrative adj J'lu:kr.pAblr'keIJnI ..i3:nf .)ri/ large adj Ila:d.· addressv /c'dres/ adequate ad] I'redlkw<ltl adopt v /a'dnpt/ advertise v I'redvgtaizi advertising n I'redv.......)'we. statement n i'steiim.')ul announce v Nriapns! antonym 11.. ···· map n Imrepl . award v 1. personalitiesa pllp3:s~'nrehtizl .• ••......)(r)/..:%.•.·· i .·...tllt....sponsorsn pII'~poilsa(r)zI hospitalityn)h6spI'trehti! sponsorshipn /'' contextnl'kontekstl··· networksnpl I'netws:ks! conversation nlkonv~..... .l'kli:rIif match n Imre\f/· committee n /'k.>! busy ad] /'blZi/ last v Ila:st/ cafeteria n lkref.. increase vlm'kri:s!. Iteiklnt<J inferioradj lm'fIJm(r)1 .. .d.•...•... n /welkom/.. ..lmlti! mention v I'menInl competevlkJm'pi:tl -.•. unexpeCtedadjl....•. sum (of money) n 1~/!. burden n I'b3. Mnsld<J're1Jii!< inflation n hn'.•. raise v Ireizi exactadjhg':..• create y /kri:'~It/..:~:!:~5/'tnfrastr:\~~I." '. world-class adj l.ri:'ju:zI funds n pi Ifhndzl revenues n pI I'rev<:lnju:zI gain v Igemf . rent v ·lreritl v ~~~:~t:rn .•. claim lkleIfuJ marketing n /'ma:klllgl clearlyadv...)'lesl cover v j'bv.•••••• i\•• >:·······•..J(r)l citizen n ·/'SitIi..·...I'W1Ud.')(r)dzl allow v la'laul already adv /o. .. look out for v 1..telklgl dangern'l'demds...i·' •••.. ... stadium n l'sterdl~i:ril ...rid<l·peI4'······· ..•....')taIZIl)f afterwards prep !'o:ft<lw..')ti/ governing body 11 l.... knife n InaIf/·...'<. ... oddadj fodl .•....'l·wo:~I.ontl IIm'pru:Vm6nts/ .•..')ubIl security n /sI'kjuar..o'seritl .d.glV 'raiz tu:1 rings n pi /rIgzi global ad] I' gl.. ... .~1nf enter l'eriw(r)/.1~~~~X~~Eti~. wide-reaching adj . transmitv /tn~pZ.mI .'.....lpk'at..t!.: ·....•.. .onti in spite of. /.....•...'l'trrektl audiences n pll'::lAI.·. normal ad} /'no:11111 .stll)/ capital adj j'krepltll .. real adj iri:lI exist 11 leg 'ZISt/ .. vigilance nl'vi<trl.. disruption n IdlS'~APJnI.· .serSnl nevertheless adv' l.)<ti! ground n l'graundl . /llll'pl?un~ntl •.o(r)l..)grreni/ overheads 1"1 pl /'..i. take intQconsideration...pau..···· manpower n I'mren.. quote everydayapj ieyrl:'pel/ . in terms of Im't3:mz ...neva5.)'ti.• voluntaryadj I'vobntri!· walk off v l. pitch fl· lPl\ff ..•..... proportion n ...•.lbIAnt!.. middle adj l'mIdl! competitionn Ikomp~'trJnI multinational ad} l.ov/ . rights n pi /raits/ . departlllentn... deCisionn/dr's13ri( ...)uY.·•• ···: •.....'"l<'yl..I'6.···•· .. note-taking n I' naut . valuable adj !'vreIM)I{ ...•..< .telk'pleIsI ·l'bro:dkd. nn· 'fp~.•.....• · v.. .. improvementsn pi .pn<tmzl destinationsn pi •.·.tl .•. .J'roiJn( '.'iklld! . irn'volydl./ '.Dv/.<··.........• i/ . upgrade nl'Apgr~Idli'> vaccination n lVreksl'nelSnf .....hedzl disagreement nldls?'gd.···· underpaid adj / fiercely ady I' fmsli! requirements n pl finance n I'famrensl /rr'kwaramonts/ flnancial adj /far'neenjl/ resign v /rt'zam/ fundamental adj Ifhnd<:l'mentIl respect n /n'spekt/ funding n I'fAndn)f reuse v l.:)vl bid n IbId/·· blunt adj. • ... aware v I..)(r)/occasionn Hkel~)ilI .... ....jSrp/ host v lh.r-.. camp ii Ikrempl long lasting adj f.. inevitable adjiI'neVIt~bll· .•....Jns! visitors n pI .. upgrade V iAp'gtddJ -..I'yizIt~ZI· .•...)'rern<tm.. redundancy n fall on v I'f::l:l. i of ~~~.l'redi/ although adv/o..on.. .fl.Jf lateradv 1'1elt. per cel}tn../bll'Sldr~bll needs n pi /ni.: eeYevenn/..stII).ralts(··./pr.Y state v /stelt/··· ...w3.....)lltl drawn/drb:! . vlkwautl·· ··Pllblicationn ).m.. earn v .itl ...gAv... -. view v Ivju:li ...ldestl'nelJI!ZI outweighvlaut'well diagram n l'dal...ri:\fll)/ win v Iwml .i symboln I'sll11bll ....•. permission n/p.')nn) slot n Islotf 'bodi! sociologyn /sausi'ol....JtIvl charityn l'\fredti/·. weak adj fwi:kI welcome v..Unit8 act of n f'rekt ...• ../dl'pCi:tni~ntf.i(r) .')ntl patient n· ·1'peIJnt/ ... sponsor v/'spims~(r)l historicaladjlhls'torIkI/ .. distribution n IdIstrr'bju:Snf permanent adj l'p3:m..•..••...:rekti . .•.. unskilled adj JAn..•. give rise to v l. support v /s~'po:tI ••.•. .. :~j~~Jut~~el~~o:~~D:· . .1~'kla.. ...:)ntsl athletes n pi i'repIi:ts/ attract v l..log 'la...mAIti:'nreSnl! considerable cjj .... involved adj.mst/· .•.....)n~IzI avoid v h'voldl .fleISnl<>'· take place v/. -.....•.)'p::l:Jnf. I'rentamml arrangements npl .> sufficient ad] ls~'[lj.An*'spektldf. •... origins f! pi /..). operatev/'op~reltl despite advldls'PaItl·< .. /p. .onl. huge ad] fo:1 catering n I'kelt../m!spa..w'J:k'ofl ...•.•. .eVnrJlt/ tandj < •.

rez! tendencies n pi /'tend'JnslzI textile n I'tekstarIl the same pron 16a 'sean/ trade n...' quarters n pl I' kwo.hrend 'ml happen v I'hrepnl higher education n'merjn/ bacteria n /bsek'ti.mtl estimate v I' estimert explore v IIk'spb:(r)1 faculties n pi /'frek.k/ stabilize v I'sterbrlarz! statistical adj /sto'trstikl/ statistics n pI /sto'trstrks/ steadilyadv /'stedrlif steady ad) I'stedil subject n l'sAbctekt/ submarine n /sxbmo' 'senti percentage n fpa'sentlqy photosynthesis n !f.rebdemlk 'jI'Jrl actuallyadv l'rekif.uv.liI means of n I'roi:nz....rlil notice v I'n..sekt'Jl substantial adj Is. 'tenSI academic year n I.nzl per cent n I.(r)! kilometres n pi /kr'Iomotoz/ lead up to v 1.Ii! slight ad) Islartl slightlyadv l'slartIlI soar v !sJ:rl social work n !'s:. upward prep I'ApW.sekt:.(r)1 showy fj'Jul 92 Wordlist . evl media n I'mi:dral.pAblrk 'ss.utau'sme.rrdl wages n pi /'weretIzi whole n Ih'Jull workforce n /wsk.1 globally adv l' gl..Ii:d 'At>tu:! legal ad] l'li:gV level out v I. million n I'mrljnl modify v I'medlfall monorail n l'monaureIlI multilingual ad] l.k/ recession n In'seJn! reduce v In'etu:sl reflect v /n'flekt/ remember v /n'membotr)' represent v /repro'zent/ reread v I.ntli! consultancy n fbn'sAlt.n/ sub-sector n l'sAb..1.I'flg. illegible adj Ir'leetrbll illustrate v 1'I!:lstrert/ impact n f'rmprektl imperfect adj /nn'pafekt/ in fact 1m 'frekt! increase v /m'kri..qonatzd/ distribution n /drstrr'bju.)(r)dJ values n pI Ivrelu:z1 varied ad) I've.mAlti:'II1]gw'Jll nanosecond n I'nren.1 decline v /dr'klam/ decrease v /do'kri.j'.usek:mdl nearlyadv /'nr..lj'a.kri:sl dentistry n !'dentistri! describe v /drs'krarb/ description n /drs'krrpjn/ disorganized ad) /drs'o.s/ decrease n I'd.levl 'aut! line graph n I'lam .ub.Unit 9 a tenth n I:.ri.rll biochemistry n l. /o.s/ increase n I'mkri:sl industrialization n /mdxstrralar'zerjn/ industry n I'rnd.rnfamerfn tek'nolaetil I ar til just over l.gau 'daun/ go up v I..)z/ services n pi /'S3:VISrz! service-sector n I'ss:vrs .tcz/ radically adv l'rredIkHI reach a peak v l.prst/ Intranet n I'mtr.srs! pie chart n I'par .m.j':l ' plants n pi /plo.vrsrz/ similarlyadv l'srmr1..g~u 'ApI graduate n I' grredj uat/ gram n Igrrem! graphics n pl /'grrefrksl grow v Igr'Jul hand in v I.balQu 'kermstri/ candidate n I'krendrdeltf clarify v f' kleenfai/ comparisons n pi /kam'perrsnz/ composite n /'komp.s.wa.utrsl noticeable adj I' naotrsrbl/ noticeably adv I'nautrs'Jblil numerical ad) Inju:'menkl! office n I'ofls! particularly adv /pa'trkjoli/ patterns n pi I'pret.1liI age n lelqy .drop 'bar! economists tl pi !i:'kDnamrstsl employees n pi /rmplor'irz/ enable v /m'erbl/ enrol v /m'raol/ enrolments n pi /m'roolmcnts/ equivalent n li:'kwIV.jn/ dramatic ad) /drc'metrk/ dramaticallyadv /dra'metrkli/ drop by v I. agriculture n I'regnkhl\f'J1 approximatelyadv /c'proksrmstll/ around prep /o'raond/ automation n .paust 'grredjuatl predict v /prr'dikt/ prefixes n pi I' pri:frkslsl prepositions n pi /prepo'zijnz/ preview v l'pri:vju:1 process tJ I'prausesl public services n pi !.)I.n/ bilateral ad) I..j'a:tI between prep /br'twi.rro/ bar chart n I'bo: ..haI'J(r) edjurkerjn/ ..)b'strenSll subtitles n l'sAbtaJtlzl such as I'SAlj' .net! IT (information technology) n I..And.z/ fluctuate v l'flAktjuertl fungi n I'fAngil future n !'! insurance tJ /m'[ocrons/ interpret v /rn'ts.gra:fl living ad] l'IIVII)/ main adj Imeml male n /merl/ marginal adj I'ma:etmV marginallyadv l'ma:gm.'ri:df rise v !ra:izl rocket v l'rokIt! sectors n pi I'sekt. v Itrerd! transform v /trens'fo.nsil contain v Ibm' tern! critics n I'kntrksl data n I'delt.nts/ plummet v l'plhmItl plunge v fplAn<ti postgraduate n I.)stril instrument n I'mstr.etAst '......lil ' go down v I.)srtf considerablyadv /ksn'srdrobli/ constantlyadv I''lret.ltIz! fall v 16:11 female n I'fi:merll figures n pI ..'grreetuatsi '.ri:1.m/ trends n pi Itrendzl twice as many /jwars oz 'meni/ undergraduates n pl I.uSI .

l'VardG(r)1 entertainment n /ento'tammont/ put (sth) off v I..mll revolution 11 !reYG'Ju:Jn! gather v f'gre5G(r)1 role nlr~ulf ... ··.):riJI!. hall 11 /ho..' accents 11 pi f'reksents! images 11 pi /'lml<Brzf access n I'reksesl in addition to /m o'drjn tu:! accommodate v /c'komadert/ informal adj /m'fo. advisable adj /cd'vaizabl/ interpreter n Im'ta:prgtg(r)1 amplifiers 11 pi f'rempl!fargzf invention n /m'venjn/ antenna 11 lren'teng/inventors n pi /rn'ventoz/ attach v !re'tre!fl keep up to date with /ki:p Ap to battery n I'bretril ·'delt wIGI .... .lndzf go down v I.f~:1 stocks and shares n f'stoks n . meeting nl' fit v Inti represent v /repra'zent/ flag n fflregl requirements n pi fluent adj f'f]u:Gnti /rr'kwarcmants/ force v /b:s/ resemble v /n'zembl/ foreign adj I'fOf(')nf residents npl I'rezldgnts! formal adj f'f::. portable adj l'po:t9bll .)lrl)1 signed adj /samd/ simultaneous adj /snnl'temtas/ sink v IsIl)k! situation 11 Isrtju.s/ practices 11 pI I'pr~ktIslzI degree n Idl'gri:1 preferableadj l'prefr. certificate 11 /sa'trfrkat/ membership 11 f'memb.. digitalized ad] l'd!<B1tjlalzdl ./sendJ .we!vzf eruption n /i'rApfnl rapid ad] l'rrepldJ estimates 11 pi I'estlmgts! recap v f'ri:krepi everywhere adv /'evrJweG(r)f recover v fn'kAY:.. communication nniothe~ tongue 11 I'mA6g .m'keIJnl movev Imu...t/ .. interpret v /m'ts. translate v /trens'lert/ . • multiplo.:..t/ speaker n I'spi:bf speech 11 I'spi:\fl ..VldiGu'kDnf... digital adj l'dl<Bltll ·presi v Ipres/· .. comparison I1fkGm'pren~nl •...JnV'd!stans! carrier pigeon 11 I'kren~ .lkDrnju:m'ketSnI telegraph 11 /'telggra:fl text v /tekst/ theory n f' Omri! three-dimensional adj 19ri:dal'menJ.. terk 'el<Btz! talk 11 It~:k1 .t<ln! .kw.. translation n /trrenZ'l~IJnI transmit v /tneriz'mrt/ .....·· code 11 Ikgud/mirrorsl1pl J'mrr...)'zrNnIl)1 decode v !. . wI5! .hok! . stand for v I'strend . I'rerdi:gu . i'prumjntf consider v /kgn'Sldg(r)1 -.'eljnl smart adj /sma.d/ Iocal adj I'laukll .brrl) 'brek! . positioningn Ip. complete v /kom'pli..litenilly adv f'lItr~liI broad adj /bro./· consecutive adj Ibm'sekju:trv!·· .l/ sign languages n pi f.)Jlpl circuit n f'sa:kltl microphone 11 I'ma!kraf..)li/ radion ··l'reldi:aul .·Qraladj .l(r)f express v /rks'pres/ region n I'ri:<B.)(r)f· widespread adj /waidspred/ wireless adj /'wa!GIgsl with prep fW16!! clarify v I'klrerrfaii .di:k. truly adv I'tru:li! tuners n pi I'\fu:naz/ type 11 !talpl typewriters n pi I'talp.lz/ take ages I.JrgnSll)f .wI5/· . centre 11 I'sent(')(r)! ./pr.. probable adj)'probgblf director n Idar'rektG(r)1 projectv IPfO'<Bekti doubt n Idautl protocols n pI f'prOlutGkolZ/ ease n li:zI provider n .lzl collect v /ko'lekt/ miss':' {nilS! . ..·.ralt:. card n Ika:dl long-distance adj 1. ../pr..lInd(')r'ggul via prep I'Valgl videoconferencing n I.>i/'lUAlti'fA1JkJGnil...minimllmadj·· /'mllllm. . seconds n. library 11 I'larbr<lril bring back v I. telecommunication 1"1 Ite!:. . ..••.3eng'reljn! schedule n f'Se<Bu:V get in touch with Iget III 'tA!f screens 11 pi lskri:nzf.lz) undergo v 1..1 guesses 11 pi I'gestzl send v. whisper v I'wrsp.)bll devices n pi /di'vaisiz/ presentations 11 pIIPfazan'telfnz/ dialects n pi I'da!.vf .• /'.J'zentG(r)/ . ..sam homes n pi fhgumz/ '1~!Jgwr<Brzf Unit 10 i signal 11 f'slgnlf signalling 11 /'slgn.l)1 training 11.. conclude v lkgn 'klu:dJ .•. pocket-sized as] i'ppk.. J institutions npl Irnstr'lfu:Jnzf adapter n /o'deptofr) .•.• i .. .fe.P1<BUll>.. generation n ld. .)lektsf presentern .)t. multi-functionsnpf ..f'kDntm(')ntsl •. . I'trernll)/ transactions n pi /trtenz'rekjnz/ .. transatlantic adj ftrrenz:')t'lrentrk!.payment n .. adjl'niAI{qj1J connectv Ib.prat/ . f'sek:..ggu 'daun/ semaphoren l'semgb.·. mastery 11 l'ma:stgri! certain adv I'ss....Jm/.. bell 11 /bel/ launch v Ib:ntfl birth 11 Ib3:0! legaladj l'li:gV booth n Ibu:51 .sarzdf continents 11 pi . · •.hotspots 11 pi !'hotspots! idea 11 /ar'dro/ abbreviations 11 pi hbri:vi:'eISnzf illness 11 /il' ad hoc Ildj I'red .tAl)I Ibmju. deal with v f'di:! .nekt/· .Jiuk! . Iooklike vl'luk.t!l)i ...Jud/ ········postponevIpaust'pgullf decrease v /dr'kri..consuming adj /'tarmhnsju:mll)i tiny adj I'tamil tongue fJ !tfo.put 'ofl equallyadv f'i... era n I'larGI radio waves n pl.

}1 hot /hnt/ morning J'mo:mfj! football /futbo.PHONETIC SYMBOLS Ipl as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in asm asm asm as in as in asm as in as In as in as in penlpen! big /btq/ tea Iti:/ do Idu:1 cat /ket/ go Ig~ul four zfo.~JRff!ft~D:~§".}I 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 :)..:.:1 lui /1.1:1 as in fAl 13:1 I.l/ you/ju:1 sun zsxn/ learn 113:nl letter l'Ietal lei lrel 10/ 10:1 as in /:.r' very I'veril son ISAnl zoo/zu:/ live /lrv/ my/mall near Im~/ happy f'hrepiJ red Ired! yes Ijes/ want IwontJ thanks /Orefjks/ the!6~/ she IIi:/ television i'tehvI3nl child /tjarld/ German J'd33:man/ English l'IIJghJ/ 2 3 4 5 Ibl It I Idl IkJ IgI If I Ivl lsi Iz/ II/ 1m! In! Ihl Irl Ij/ /wl 101 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 li:1 iII Iii as in as in asm as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in see Isi:1 his IhIZI twenty I'twentil ten Itenl stamp /stemp/ father l'fo:o.:'(~?Y~~~I~together ) /61 IJI 131 ItJI IdJl IfJ/ 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 /ell lau/ laii /aul loIl IIal leal lua/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in name/neImi no luaul my/maIl howlhau/ boylboIl hear /hra/ where zwee/ tour Itu~1 94 Phonetic symbols .