1
3
HALFWAVE
RECTIFIERS
The basics of analysis
3.1 INTRODUCTION
A rectifier converts ae to de. The purpose ofa rectifier may be to produce an output that is purely de, or the purpose may
be to produce a voltage or current waveform that has a specified de component.
In practice, the halfwave rectifier is used most often in lowpower applications because the average current in
the supply will not be zero. and nonzero average current may cause problems in transformer performance. While
practical applications of this circuit are limited, it is very worthwhile to analyze the halfwave rectifier in detail. A
thorough understanding of the halfwave rectifier circuit will enable the student to advance to the analysis of more
complicated eircuits with a minimum of effort.
The objectives of this chapter are to introduce general analysis techniques for power electronics circuits, to
apply the power computation concepts of the previous chapter, and to illustrate PSpice solutions.
3.2 RESlSTIVE LOAD
Creating It de Component Using an Electronic Switch
A basic halfwave rectifier with a resistive load is shown in Fig. 3\ a. The source is ac, and the objective is to
create a load voltage which has a nonzero de component. The diode is a basic electronic switch that allows current in
one direction only. For the positive halfcycle ofthe source in this circuit, the diode is on (forward biased). Considering
the diode to be ideal, the voltage across a forwardbiased diode is zero and the current is positive.
For the negative naif cycle of the source, the diode is reverse biased, making the current zero. The voltage
across the reversebiased diode is the source voltage, which has a negative value.
The voltage waveforms across the source, load, and diode are shown in Fig. 31 b. Note that the units on the
horizontal axis are in terms of angle (ret). This representation is useful because the values are independent offrequency.
The dc component. V
o,
oflhe output voltage is the average value of a halfwave rectified sinusoid,
V.
l.f
e
The de component ofthe current for the purely resistive load is
The lIoUwaY< Reclifi..
Resistive Loo.d
3.2
(32)
Average power absorbed by the resistor in Fig. 31a can be computed from P= J2J = y
2
"",,1R. When the
voltage and current are halfwave rectified sine waves,
v.
_IpV.,in(wt))'d(ml) =
2., 2
(33)
v_
v.
=
R 2R
In the preceding discussion, the diode was assumed to be ideal. For a real diode, the diode voltage drop will
cause the load voltage and current to be reduced, but not appreciably ifYm is large. For circuits that have voltages much
larger than the typical diode drop, the improved diode model may have only seeondorder effects on the load voltage
and current computations.
.,
;
R '0
,.,
"J
'"
')pn3.1 (II Hllfw""" wilh re,i.live k.d_ (bl wavcfor.....
EXAMPLE 31: Halfwave Rectifier with Resistive Load
For the halfwave rectifier of Fig. 31a, the source is a sinusoid of 120 volts rms at a frequency of 60 Hz. The
load resistor is 5 Q. Determine (a) the average load current, (b) the average power absorbed by the load, (c) the power
factor of the circuit.
Solution: (a) The voltage across the resistor is a halfwave rectified sine wave with peak value Ym = 120 12 = 169.7
volts. From Eq. 32, the average voltage is Ymix, and average current is
V. v'2 (120)
= 10.8 A.
R S
(b) From Eq. 33, the nTIS voltage across the resistor for a halfwave rectified sinusoid is
e
Resistive Load
3.3
y = y. : ,12(120)
: 84.9 V.
2
 2
...
The power absorbed by the resistor is
...
...
:
v.'

R
p
84.9'
4
1440 II':



...
...
Therrnscurrent inthe resistor is Vj(2R) = 17.0 amps, and thepower couldbe also be calculated fromfrm.lR =(17.ols
= 1440 watts.
(e) The power factor is
1440
(120)([7)
p p
pi: _:
S
 3.3 RESISTIVEINDUCTIVE LOAD
Industrial loads typically contain inductanee as well as resistance. As the source voltage goes through zero
becoming positive in the circuit of Fig. 32a, the diode becomes forward biased. The Kirchhoff's voltage law equation
The solution can be obtained by expressing the current as the swn of the forced resporne and the natural
that describes the current in the circuit for the forwardbiased ideal diode is

v. .in(mt)
: R i(t) + L di(t)
di
.
(34)

response:


i(t) : if.t) + i,(t) .
(35)










,
'.

,
,
'.

,.,


'"
...
o
3.4
i(t) 0 iJ.t)
The forced response for th.is circuit is the current that exists after the natural response has decayed to zero. In
this case. the forced response is the steadystate sinusoidal current that would exist in the circuit if the diode were nor
present. This steadystate current can be found from phasor analysis, resulting in
ift) = ( ";)sin(mt  &)
(36)
\\
\\_.
The natural response is the transient that occurs when the load is energized. It is the to the
homogeneous differential equation for the circuit without the source or diode:
Ri(l) L diet) = 0 .
(37)
dt
,
For this firstorder circuit, the natural response has the Conn
, .
'>_J
(38)
where r is the time constant UR and A is a constant which is determined from the initial condition. Adding the forced
and natural responses to get the complete solution, '>
(39)
The constant A is evaluated by using tile initial condition for current. TIle initial condition of current in the
inductor is zero because it was zero before tile diode started conducting and it cannot change instantaneously.
Using tile initial condition and Eq. 39 to evaluate A,
V
i(O) =  9) t Aeo := 0
Z
(3 !O)
V V
A " sin(9) = " sin(9)
Z Z
Substituting for A in Eq. 39,
V V
i(t) = ..!'. sin(mt  9) + ........!. sin(&) e
Ih
Z Z
(311 )
v
= " [sin(lllt  &) sin(9) e w I
z
It is often convenient to write the function in terms of the angle cot rather than time. This merely requires ult
to be tile variable instead oft Writing the above equation in terms of angle, t in the exponential must be written as cot,
which requires r to be multiplied by co aISD. The result is
3.5
...
....
V v
....
i(mt) = ......!!sin(CDt 9) + !! sin(9) efDlkK
Z Z
....
(312)
v
....
= "['"'lUll  0) +
Z
....
...
....
....
A typical graph of circuit current is shown in Fig. Equation 312 is valid for positive currents only
because of the diode in the circuit, so current is zero when the function in Eq. 312 is negative. Wben the source voltage
again becomes positive, the diode turns on, and the positive part of the waveform in Fig. 32b is repeated. This occurs
at every positive halfcycle of the source. The voltage waveforms for eaeh element are shown in Fig. 32b.
Note that the diode remains forward biased longer than 1t radians and that the source is negative for rbe last part
of the conduction interval. This may seem unusual, but an examination ofthe voltages reveals that Kirchhoff's voltage

law is satisfied and (here is no contradiction. Also note that the inductor voltage is negative when the current is
decreasing (v
L
==ldi/dt).
The point when the current reaches zero in Eq. 312 is when the diode I1lJTls off. The first positive value of Olt
in Eq. 312 that results in zero current is called the extinction angle, p.
Substituting tor = pin Bq. 312, the equation that must be solved is
V
i(ll) =  0)] (313)
Z

which reduces to

!lin(JJ  9) sin(9) e == 0 . (314)
1 _
There is no closedform solution for p, and some numerical method is required. To summarize, the current in the half

wave rectifier circuit with RL load (Fig. 32) is expressed as
v
Vosmr<l>l_O)
for
;(wt) '" Z
Z
{
o for
 (315)

L
= 
R

The average power absorbed by the load is 1
2
",..R, since the average power absorbed by the inductor is zero.
The rms value of the current is determined from the current function of Eq. 315.


I

= J_I"'/i'(UlI)<II:<I>I)
2_
e
1
/''<<1>1)<11:'''')
2_,
(316)
Average current is

(317)


I =
o
EXAMPLE 32: Halfwave Rectifier with RL Load
For the halfwave rectifier of Fig. 32a, R = 1000, L =O.l H, W = 377 rad/s, and Vm= 100 V. Determine (a)
an expression for the current in this circuit, (b) the average current, (c) the nns current, (d) the power absorbed by the
RL load, and (e) the po wer factor.
Solution: For the parameters given,
Z = (R
2
+ (mLll
l
= 106.90,
e= tan'\wUR) = 20.7
0
= 0.361 radian,
and W'T = wUR = 0.377 radian.
(a) Eq. 315 for current becomes
i(mt) = 0.936sin(mt  0.361) + 0.331eoM(I3?7 A..
forO:s:mtsP
Beta is found from Eq. 314,
sin(J}  0.361) + sin(0.361)e jW.3?7 = 0 .
Using a numerical rootfinding program, pis found to be 3.50 radians, or 201 ".
(b) Average current is oetermined from Eq. 317,
HO
I ; .L f[0.936sin(mt  0.361) + 0.331 e<DWmjJ(mt)
o
2. o
= 0.308 A..
(A numerical integration program is recommended.)
(c) The rms currenr is found from Bq. 316 as
s.se
f [0.936sin(mt  0.361) + 0.331 e
2. ,
(d) The power absorbed by the resistor is
P ; I:"R ; (0.474)' 100 ; 22.4 W.
The average po wer absorbed by the inductor is zero. P can also be computed from the definition of average power:
2. 2.
P ; _I!P(rot)J{rot) ; 1f><rot) i("')OOI)
2n 2:11:
c c
''''
= 1. f [lOOsin(mt)][0.936sin(mt  0.361) +
2. e
; 22.4 II':
...
...
...
...
...
...
Tho1laIf"", Roaifi<o
3.7
(e) The power factor is computed from th.e definition pf= PIS. P is power supplied by the source, which must be the
same as that absorbed by the load .
22.4
pi = 
p
= .,,';
S
(IOOIy'2)(OA74)
Note that the power factor is no/ coste) .
3.4 PSPICE SIMULATION
Using Simulation Software for Numerjeal Computations
A computer simulation of the halfwave rectifier can be performed using PSpice. PSpicc offers the advantage
of having the postprocessor program Probe which can display th.e voltage and current waveforms in the circuit and
perform numerical computations. Quantities such as the rms and average currents, average power absorbed by the load.
and th.c power factor can be determined directly with. PSpice. Harmonic content can be determined from the PSpice
output.
A transient analysis produces the desired voltages and eurrents. One complete period is a sufficient time interval
for the transient analysis.
EXAMPLE 33: PSpice Analysis
Use PSpice to analyze th.e circuit of Example 32.
Solution: The circuit of Fig. 32a is created using VSIN for the source and Dbreak fo r th.e diode. In the simulation
settings, choose Time Domain (transient) for the analysis type, and set the Run Time to 16.67 ms for one period of the
source. Set the Maximum Step Size to 1Dus to get adeqnate sampling ofrhe waveforms. A transient analysis with. a run
time of 16.67 IDS (one period for 60 Hz) and a maximum step size of 10 us is used for the simulation settings.
Ifa diode model which approximates an ideal diode is desired for the purpose ofcomparing the simulationwith
analytical results, editing the PSpice model and using n = 0.001 will make the voltage drop across the forwardbiased
diode close (0 zero. Alternatively, a model for a power diode may be used to obtain a better representation of a real
rectifier ctreuir. For many circuits, voltages and currents will not be affected significantly when different diode models
are nscd. Therefore, it may be convenient to use the Dbreak diode model for a preliminary analysis.
When the transient analysis is performed and the Probe screen appears, display th.e current waveform by entering
the expression 1(RI). A method to display angle instead of time on the x axis is to use the xvariable option within the
xaxis menu, entering TIME*60"'360. The factor of 60 converts the axis to periods (f = 60 Hz) and the factor 360
converts the axis to degrees. Entering TIME*60*2*3 .14 for the x variable converts the x axis to radians. Figure 33a
shows the result. The extinction angle P is found to be 200
0
using the cursor option. Note that nsing the default diode
model in PSpice resulted in a value ofP very close to the 201 0 in Example 32.
Probe ean be nsed to determine numerically the rms value ofa waveform. While in Probe, enter the expression
RMS(I(RI to obtain the rms value of the resistor cnrrent. Probe displays a "running" valne ofthc integration in Eq.
316, so the appropriate value is at the end ofone or more complete periods of the waveform. Figure 33b shows how
to obtain the rms eurrent. The nns current is read as approximately 468 rnA. Thiscompares very well with the 474 rnA
calculated in Example 32. Remember that th.e default diode model is used in PSpice and an ideal diode was used in
Example 32. The average current is found by entering AVG(I(RI)), resulting in 1
0
= 304 rnA.
1
I
I
,
The Half.... ve Rec'ilie<
PSpice
3.8
,",'
1000mA, ,
.
I
o
\.
\
/
,
e
,
\ BETA  200 DEG
,
) '.
0, 100",
D 1 (Rl)
10DOmA, ;
RHS CURRENT
/:'"
I(Rl)/ \
J \
I
" ,
\
(16. 570"".457. 962m)
SOOmA
READ RMS VALUE HERE
Irm'"  46fl lIlA
i
,./,/
./
10m", 25m'"
Tim'"
Figure 33. a) Determining the extinction angle in Probe. The time axis is changed to angle using th.e xvariable
option and entering Time*60*360. b) Determining th.e rrns value of current in Probe.
PSpiee is also useful in the design process. For example, the objective may be to design a halfwave reetifier
circuit to produce a specified value of average current by selecting the proper value ofL in an RL load. Since there is
no closedform solution, a trialanderror iterative meth.odmust be used. A PSpice simulation th.at includes a parametric
sweep is used to try several values ofL. The following example illustrates this meth.od.
EXAMPLE 34. Halfwavc Rectifier Design Using PSpice.
Design a circuit to produce an average current of2.0 amps in a IOil resistanee. The source is 120 volts rms at 60 Hz.
Solution: A halfwave rcetifier is one circuit which can be used for this application. Ifa simple halfwave rectifier with.
3.9
the 100 resistance were used, the average current would be (120.,12/11:)/8 = 6.75 amps. Some means must be found to
reduce the average current to the specified 2 amps. A series resistance could be added to the load, but resistances absorb
power. An added series inductance will reduced the current without adding losses, so an inductor is chosen. Equations
....
]15 and 317 describe the current function and its average for RL loads. There is no closedform solution for L A
....
trialanderror technique in PSpice uses the parameter (PARAM) part and a parametric sweep to try a series of values
.... for L. The PSpice circuit and the Simulation Settings box are shown in Fig. 34.
....
HALFWAVE RECTIFIER WITH PARAME:TRIC
.... 01 R1
 1Nl  ANv ,
[
Dbreak 10
V1
VOFF ~ 0 L1
VAIIlPL = (120'sqrl(2l}
FREQ" 60
T=_'" ILl





SWEEP
PARAMETERS;
L = 0.1





6.0A,:c=;;,
PARAHETPtC SWEEP
4.0A
0 1 l ~ )
Till'."
Figure34. a) PSpice circuit for Example 34. b)A parametric sweep lsestablished inthe Simulation Senlngs box.
c) L = 0.15 H for an average current of approximately 2 A.

TN. Holf ....v.ll.ec,ili&r
3.10
Average current in the resistor is found by entering AVG(I(Rl)) in Probe, yielding a family of curves for different
inductance values (Fig. 34c). Th.ethird inductance in the sweep (0.15 H.) results in an average current of2.0 1118 amps
in the resistor wh.ich is very close to the design objective. If further precision is necessary, subsequent simulations can
be performed narrowing the range of L.
3.5 RLSOURCE LOAD
Supplying Power 10 a de Source from an ac Source
Another variation ofthe halfwave rectifier is shown in Fig. ]5a. The load consists ofa resistance, inductance,
and a de voltage. Starting the analysis at (ill = 0 and assuming the initial current is zero, recognize that the diode will
remain offas long as the voltage of the ac source is less than the de voltage. Letting c be the value of (ill that causes the
source voltage to be equal to V
ok
'
V,.sino. '" V
tk
u"'sm  (318)
.'[
The diode starts to conduct at <Ot = c. With the diode conducting, Kirchhoff's voltage law for the circuit yields the
equation
L di(t)
= Ri(t) + V,a, .
(319)
dt
''
,
"
'
'
I,.
I,.
I,.
I,.
I,.
'
'
'
'
'
'

'
~
'
'
'
'

v

v


"

"
"

"
"
'

'
"
"

'
"
"
RLSoUJCC Load
3.11
R L

V",S<ln(wI) +
=
+
\/
lk
I'J
R L R
+
V.. sin(CllI)
,b,
(CJ
"
~ 2 ~ ..
Jo'igUh! 3.5 (al HIIlI'WII\ierecntier wilh
Rl source luad. (bl t::in::uill'ur rorcec
r c . p o n ~ ~ ('Uni lie SllI.lfCe, (l') Circuli for
forced response hom de soerce.
(d) wavefunns.
1'
Total current is determined by summing the forced and natural responses:
iC') = ij.t) + i.C') .
The eurrent iit) is determined using superposition for the two sources. The forced response from the ac source (Fig. 3
Sb) is (VjZ)sin(rot. 8). The forced response due to the de souree (Fig. 3.5c) is .YdjR. The entire forced response is
v.. V,*,
ij.t)  ,in('"  9)  (320)
Z R
The natural response is
i,,(f) = A e/h . (321)
Adding the forced and naturaJ responses to get the complete response,
c
__ 1
RLSource Lolld
3.12
(J22)
V V
...2!sin(mIO)  ~ ... Ae..lhrrl:
for a :Utlt :S: P
KmI) = Z R
{
o otherwiJe.
The extinction angle, p, is defined as the angle at which the current reaches zero, as was done earlier in Eq. 315. Using
the initial condition of i(u) = 0 and solving for A,
V.
(J2J)
A =  Z'in(a6)
(
Fig. 35d shows voltage and current waveforms for a halfwave rectifier with RLsource load.
The average power absorbed by the resistor is l"",lR, where
,
I,.. = ..!..fi'(mI)atmI) (324)
2
The average power absorbed by the de source is
(J25)
where I" is the average current, that is,
,
1 = ..!..fi(mI)d(mI) (J2.)
2
Assuming the diode and the inductor to be ideal, there is no average power absorbed by either. The power supplied by
the ac source is equal to the sum of the power absorbed by the resistor and the de source,
(J27)
or can be computed from
,. ,
p
~
= _1fv<.mI)KmI)atmI) = _1f(V 'inmt) I(mI)d(mI)
(J2')
2,.; 2.
, .
~
EXAMPLE 35. Halfwave Rectifier with RLSource Load
~
~
For the circuit of Fig. 35a, R = 2 n. L = 20 mH, and Vde = 100volts. The ac source is 120 volts rms at60 Hz.
(a) Determine an expression for the current in the circuit. (b) Determine the power absorbed by the resistor. (c)

. ~ Determine the power absorbed by the dc source. (d) Determine the power supplied by the ac source and the power factor
of the circuit.
Solution: From tile parameters given,
~

,
V
In
= 120/2 = 169.7 V.
Z = (R
1
+ (wL)'p
l
= 7.80 n,
9 = tan'(wVR) = 1.31 rad,
~
a = sin\1001169.7) = 36.1 Q = 0.6]0 red,
,
~
~
I
fIR Half ...... !'=l;!irr
RLSOIJJce Load
3.13
OJ. = 377(0.0212) = 3.77 red.
(a) Using Eq. ]22,
T1
i(Ull) = 21.8sin(mt1.3l)  50 + 75.3e
mlIJ
. A.
The extinction angle pis found from the solution of
i@) = 21.8sin(JJ t.31)  50 + 75.3 ejlI3T1 = 0
which results in p= 3.37 rad (193
0
) using rootfinding software.,1
(b) Using the preceding expression for i(wt) in Eq. 324 and using a numerical integration program, the rma current is
J_
].)1
f i'(mt)mt) = 3.98 A. I". =
2.
0."

resulting in
(e) The power absorbed by the de source is lOYd<. Using Eq. 326,
~ . 3 7
I. = _I f i(mt)mt) = 2.25 A
2.
0.6]
yielding
p.. = I.Y.. = (2.25)(100) = 225 w.
(d) The power supplied by the ac source is the stun ofthe powers absorbed by the load,
P =P
R
tP
iE
=31.2 t 225 = 256 W.
8
The power factor is
P
pl= 
P
= 
S
V,..I1fJIII
PSpicc Solution:
The power quantities in this example can be determined from a PSpiee simulation of this circuit. The cireulr
of Fig. 35a is created using VSIN, Dbreak, R, and L. In the simulation settings, choose Time Domain (transient) for the
analysis type, and set th.eRun Time to 16.67 ms for one period ofthe source. Set the Maximum Step Size to 10 us to get
adequate sampling of the waveforms. A transient analysis with a run time of 16.67 ms (one period for 60 Hz) and a
maximum step size of 10 us is used for the simulation settings.
Average power absorbed by the 2Q resistor can be computed in Probe from th.ebasic definition ofthe average
ofp(t) by entering AVG(W(Rl), resulting in 29.7 watts, or from 1",}R by entering RMS(I(R 1*RMS(I(RI))*2. The
average power absorbed by the de source is computed from the Probe expression AVG(W(Vde)), yielding 217 watts.
"Ibe PSpice values differ slightly from th.evalues obtained analytically because ofthe diode model. However,
th.e default diode is more realistic th.an the ideal diode in predicting actual circuit performance.
Inductor_Source Load
3.14
3.6 INDUCTORSOURCE LOAD
Using Inductance to Limit Current
Another variation of the halfwave rectifier circuit has a load that consists ofan inductor and a de source, as
shown in Fig. 36. Although a practical implementation ofthis circuit would contain some resistance, the resistance may
be negligible compared to other circuit parameters.
V,1l sin(Wl) +
F1gureJ.6 Halfwave rectifier wnh
inductor source: load.
Starting at rot=O and assuming zero initial current in the inductor, the diode remains reverse biased until the ac
source voltage reaches the de voltage. The value of ex at which the diode starts to conduct is a, calculated using Eq. 3
18. With the diode conducting, Kirchhoff's voltage law for the circuit is
di
V...sin(rot) '" L %)+ v'"
0'.
. ( I) _ L dt(rot)
V sm ro  
ro dJ
Rearranging,
V.si.n(rot)  V'"
mL
Solving for iuct),
1 ~
 fV 0(1)
mL
'"
Performing the integration,
j
VIII {cosa  co!KOt) + V'*(a_rot) for a ~ r o . t ~ p
i{rot)" mL roL
o otherwise .
(329)
(330)
(331)
(332)
(333)
~
. ~
A distinct feature of this circuit is that the power supplied by the source is the same as that absorbed by th.e de
source, less any losses associated with a nonideal diode and inductor. If the objective is to transfer power from the ac

\
source to the desource, losses are kept to a minimum by using this circuit.

,
,.
~
~

,
Induc1<lrSourre Load
3.15
EXAMPLE 36: Halfwave Rectifier with InductorSource Load
For the circuit of Fig. 36, the ae source is 120 volts ems at 60 Hz, L = 50 mH, and Vde = 72 volts. Determine:
(a) an expression for the current, (b) the power absorbed by the de source, and (e) the power factor.
Solution: For the parameters given,
a = sin"! [ = 25.1" = 0.438 rad.
(a) The equation for current is found from Eq. 333:
i(mt) = 9.83  9.00cos(mt)  3.82w A. for a ::s: mt ::s: p
where pis found to be 4.04 radians from the numerical solution of9.83  9.00cosp  3.82p = O.
(b) The power absorbed by the de source is Lvdo: where
fl{mt)at((JI)
J
o
' 1
2
'.0<
, _1 f [9.83  9.0000'(01')  3.82""101:"")
21: O.f31
resulting in
(e) The rrns current is found from
P", ' (2.46)(72) 177 W.
Therefore,
1
2
, 3.81 A.
P 177
(120)(3.81)
3.7 THE FREEWHEELING DIODE
Creating a de Current
A freewheeling diode, D, in Fig. 37a, can be connected across an RL load as shown. The behavior of this
cireuit is somewhat different than the halfwave rectifier of Fig. 32. The key to the analysis ofthis circuit is to determine
when each diode conducts. First, it is observed that both diodes cannot be forward biased at the same time. Kirchhoff's
voltage law around the path containing the source and the two diodes shows that one diode must be reverse biased.
Diode D , will be on when the source is positive, and diode D, will be on when the souree is negative.
101 t
+
1"' HoIC"... Roadior
wad
3.16
For a positive source voltage,
D1 is on,
D1 is off,
the equivalent circuit is the same as that of Fig. )2, shown again in Fig. )7b,
the voltage across the RL load is the same as the source.
For a negative source voltage,
0 1 is off,
O} is on,
the equivalent circuit is the same at that of Fig. )7c,
the voltage across the RL load is zero.

i nt Dr
R
L
(.j
+
'..
R
R
L L
I'" = 0
'"
h:)
Flgure J.7. (a) Halfwave Rectifier with Freewheeling Diode. (b) Equivalent Circuit for v, > 0 (b) Equivalent
Circuit for v, < O.
Since the voltage across the RL load is the same as the source voltage when the source is positive and is zero
when the source is negative, the load voltage is a halfwave rectified sine wave.
When the circuit is first energized, the load current is zero and cannot change instantaneously. The current
reaches periodic steadystate after a few periods (depending on the LIR time constant), wbich means that the current at
the end of a period is the same as the current at the beginning of the period, as shown in Fig. )8. Tbe steadystate
current is usually of more interest than the transient that occurs when the circuit is first energized. Steadystate load,
source, and diode currents are shown in Fig. 39.
 ,
The HalfWIIu 1l=nIi..
3.17
Indw:torSource Load
1,,111
Tn'lIs;"n,
i
I~
I
t
i
I


Figure 3 ~ 8 . Load Current Reaching Steady State after th.e Circuit is Energized
'.

o
,.
"
Figure 3 ~ 9 . Steadystate Load Voltage and Current Waveforms with. Freewheeling Diode
The Fourier series for tb.e halfwave rectified sine wave for th.e voltage across the load is
Y.
Y 2Y
>(t) = + !!. sin(co i)
E
,,".' cos(1KrV ) (334)
2 0
".2,4,6... ("1 _ l)x
The current in tb.e load can he expressed as a Fourier series by using superposition, taking each frequency separately.
The Fourier series method is illustrated in the following example.
Induc!.OrS"un:c Load
3.18
EXAMPLE ]7: Halfwave Rectifier with Freewheeling Diode
Determine the average load voltage and current, and determine the power absorbed by the resistor in the cireuit
of Fig. 373, where R '" 2 n and L = 25 mfl. V.. is 100 volts, lind the frequency is 60 Hz.
Solution: The Fourier series for this halfwave rectified voltage the appears across tile load is obtained from Eq. 334.
The average load voltage is the de term in the Fourier series:
[00
v == V", ==
= 31.8 V.
o
Average load current is
V
o
I = 15.9 A.
o R
Load power can be determined from I",}R, and nns current is determined from the Fourier components of current. The
amplitudes of the ae current components are determined from phasor analysis:
I
=
V.
Z.
where Z. = IR j"',I1 = 12 + jo377(.025)1
The lie voltage amplitudes are determined from Eq. 334, resulting in
v. 100
V===50 V.
, 2 2
2V.
Ji=
= 21.2 V.
(2'  1<
2V.
V,
424 V
(4'  [<
2V.
V,
1.82 V
(6'  [<
InduCllJl"_SoW"Ce Load
3.19
The nns current is obtained using Eq. 264,
, [ 5;r,[ I;r'( r
= 16.34 A.
Notice that the contribution to rms current from the harmonics decreases as n increases, and higherorder terms are not
significant. Power in the resistor is I",.?R e= (16.34)::2 = 534 watts.
Psptee Solution:
The circuit of Fig. 37a is ereared using VSJN, Dbreak, R., and L. The PSpice model for Dbreak is changed to make n
= 0.001 to approximate an ideal diode. A transient analysis is ron with a run time of 150 ms with data saved after 100
ms to eliminate the slartup transient from the data. A maximum step size of lu us gives a smooth waveform.
A portion of the output file is as follows:
FOURIER ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE 27.000 DEG C
FOURIER COMPONENTS OF RESPONSE V (OUTJ
DC COMPONENT = 3.183002+01
/
HARMONIC FREQUENCY FOTJRIER NORMALIZED PHASE NORKA.LIZED
NO (HZ) COMPONENT COMPONENT (DEG) PHASE (DEG)
1 6.000E+01 5.000E+01 1.000E+00 5.604E05 O.OOOE+OO
2 1. 200E+02 2.122E+01 9.000E+01 9.000E+01
) 1.800E+02 5.651E05 1.130E06 6.631E+01 6.631E+01
,
2.400E+02 4.244E+00 6.466E02 9. 9.000E+01
5 3.000E+02 5.699E05 1. HOE06 9.064+01 9.064E+01
6 3.600E+02 1. 819E+00 3.63802 9.000E+01 9.000E+01
,
4.200E+02 5.691E05 9.111+01 9.110+01
a 4.800+02 1.011E+00 2.02102 9.000+01 9.000+01
9 5.400+02 5.687E05 1.13706 9.0BOE+01 9.079E+01
FOURIER COMPONENTS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE I (R_R1)
DC COMPONENT = 1.591512E+01
HARMONIC FREQUNCY fOURIER NORHJ>.LIZED PHASE NORMALIZED
NO (HZ) COMPONENT COMPONENT (OEG) PHASE (DEG)
,
1 6.000E+01 5.189100 1.000E+00 7.802+01 O.OOOE+OO
2 1.200E"'02 1.120...00 2.15801 1. 739E"'02 1. 788E+01
3 1.800E+0:: 1.963E04 3.78205 3.719...01 1.969E+02
2.400E"'0:: 1.123EIH 2.164E02 1.770E+02 1. 351E"'02
5 3.000E"'02 7.524E05 1.450E05 6.226E"'01 4.524E+02
6 3.600E+02 3.21'7E02 6.20003 1. 711+02 2.900E+02
7 4.200E+0:: B.331E05 1.60505 1.693E+02 7.154E+02
8 4.800+02 1.345E02 2.5'12E03 1.783E+02 4.458+02
9 5.400+02 5.435E05 1.04705 1.074E+02 5.948E+02
Note the close agreement between the analytically obtained Fourier terms and the PSpice output. Average
current can be obtained in Probe by entering AVG(I(RI)), yielding l5.9 A. Average power in the resistor can be
obtained by entering AVG(W(RI))), yielding P = 535 watts. It is important that the simulation represents steady.
state periodic current for the results to be valid.
InduclorSOlm:e Load
3.20
Redueing Load Current Harmonics
The average current in the RL load is a function of the applied voltage and the resistance but not the
inductance. The Inductance affects only the ac terms in the Fourier series. lfthe inductance is infinitely large, the
impedance oflhe load to ac terms in the Fourier series is infmite, and the load eurrent is purely de. The load current
is then
v.
(335)
oR
A large inductor (LlR T) with a freewheeling diode provides a means of establishing a nearly constant load
eurrent. Zerotopeak fluctuation in load current ean be estimated as being equal to the amplitude of the first ac term
in the Fourier series. The peaktopeak ripple is then
(336)
i,
I
C\
\
o 2.
u.s 1,
io,
I3'J__' 
Figure 310. Waveforms for the Halfwave Rectifier with Freewheeling Diode of Example 39 with UR ""
EXAMPLE 38: Halfwave Rectifier with Freewheeling Diode: LIR ""
For the halfwave rectifier with a freewheeling diode and RL load as shown in Fig. 37a, the souree is 240
volts rms at 60 Hz and R"" 8 n. (a) Assume L is infinitely large. Determine the power absorbed by the load and the
power factor as seen by the source. Sketch i
DI
, and (b) Determine the average current in each diode. (c) For
a fmite inductance, determine L such that the peaktopeak current is no more than 10% of the average current.
Solution: (a) The voltage across the RL load is a halfwave rectified sine wave, which has an average value of
Vj7t. The load current is
,
ThoHIIIf,. .., Il.ocur...
C'plle;lor FUl'"
3.21
v VJ.
i(mt) '" J = 13.5 A. '" J.....
"
o R
R
Power in the resistor is
p " R " (13.5)' 8 "1459 W.
Source rms current is computed from
_I!(13.5)'01:0>I) "9.55 A.
....
2.,
....
The power factor is
p
1459
"0.637 .
PI" V I
(240)(9.55)
., ......,rru
Voltage and current waveforms are shown in Fig. 3[0.
(b) Each diode conducts for onehalfofthe time. Average current for each diode is 1,,/2= 13.5t2 = 6.75 A.
(c) The value of inductance required to limit the variation in load current to 10% can be approximated from the
....
fundamental frequency of the Fourier series. The voltage input to the load for n = I in Eq. has amplitude VJ2=
/2(240)t2 = 170 V. The peaktopeak current must be limited to
....
AI
O
< (O.l0X!) < (0.IOXl3.5) " 1.35 A.
which corresponds to an amplitude of 1.3512= 0.675 A. The load impedance at the fundamental frequency must
then be
= VI
Z,
= 251 n,
I, 0.675
Thc load impedance is
Z, = 251 = IR + jmLI " 18 + 1177LI .
Since the 8Cl resistance is negligible eompared to the total impedance, the inductance can be approximated as
L
IZ,I = 251 = 0.67 H.
m 377
The inductance will have to be slightly larger than 0.67 H because Fourier terms higher than 11=1 were neglected in
this estimate.
3.8 RECTIFIER WITH A CAPACITOR FILTER
Creating a de Voltage Irom an ae Source
....
A common application of rectifier circuits is to convert an ac voltage input to a de voltage output. The haJf
wave rectifier of Fig. 311a has a parallel RC load. The purpose ofthe capacitor is to reduce the variation in the
output voltage, making it more like de. The resistance may represent an extemalload, and the capacitor may be a
tilter which is part of the rectitier circuit.
C.pocilOr Filla
3.22
Assuming the capacitor is initially uncharged and the circuit is energized at cot '" 0, the diode becomes
forward biased as the source becomes positive. With the diode on, the output voltage is the same as the source
voltage, and the capacitor charges. The capacitor is charged to Vm when the input voltage reaches its positive peak
at rot = n/2.
As thesource decreases after rot = 1d2, the capacitor discharges into the load resistor. At some point, the
voltage ofthe source becomes less than the output voltage, reverse biasing the diode and isolating the load from the
source. The output voltage is a decaying exponential with time constant RC while the diode is off.
The point when the diode turns off is determined by comparing the rates of change of the source and the
capacitor voltages. The diode turns off when the downward rate of change of the source exceeds that permitted by
the time constant ofthe RC load, The angle rot = ais the point when the diode turns off in Fig. 3llb. The output
voltage is described by
r
s diode all
vo(mt)
(337)
v:e(<Ill  ff}leBr
diode off
where
V,
= V.sin8 (338)
Ii,.
+
1"
'0
II, = V'" C R v,
[a}
v.
"
r
v

\2.".+
2
r
"
tb)
Figure 311. (a) Halfwave Rectifier with RC Load (b) Input and Output Voltages
The HolT_ ....... .. CapocilOf Fil,er
3.23
The slopes of these functions are
_d_ (V sinmt) V.COsmt
(339)
d(mt)
aod
d (" ,. sm . 9 e  "4 ",. . 9 [ 1e "'oRe   sin I
(340)
d(mt) raRC
At wt = a, the slopes of the voltage functions are equal:
V sina V.,sin9
V c0s9 '" e (&  &YIIIilC =
mRC
raRC
=_1_
raRC
1 1
tan9 raRC

(341)
'" V,. . (342)
When the source voltage comes back up to the value of the output voltage in the next period, the diode
becomes forward biased, and the output again is the same as the source voltage The angle at which the diode turns
on in the second period, cot = 2n + a, is the point when the sinusoidal source reaches the same value as the decaying
exponential output:
V",sin(2s +0) '" (v.. sina)e(h"Uy.R(:"
0'.
!lin(a)  (sin9)e (b: ...  8)'<IIR(;" '" 0 .
(343)
1 _
The preceding equation must he solved numerically for a.
The current in the resistor is calculated from i
R
= vjR. The current in the capacitor is calculated from
i"t) = C <Ivit)
dt
which can also be expressed using err as the variable,
<Iv (mt)
',,mt) = mC
d(mt)
c.pacito, Fil..,
3.24
Using V
o
from Eq. 337,
V",sin9 {mJ _ flYlDRC
for 9:s: mt s 27t ... a
R
(diade off) (344)
mCV",cos(mt) for 2 .... a s rot s 2 .... 9
(diode on).
The source current, which is the same as the diode current, is
(345)
The average capacitor current is zero, so the average diode current is [he same as the average load current. Since the
diode is on for a short time in each cycle, the peak diode current is generally much larger than the average diode
current. Peak capacitor current occurs when the diode turns 011 at cor = 271: + a. From Eq.
Ie '" (Dey cos(2n: ... a) == mCV cosc
..
(346)
Resistor current at cot = 271: + 11 is obtained from Eq. ))7:
V.. sin(2mt ... a) V.. sino
= (347)
R R
Peak diode current is
R
v.. ( coCcosa + (H8)
The effectiveness of the capacitor filter is determined by the variation in output voltage. This may be
expressed as the difference between the maximum and minimum output voltage, which is the peaktopeak ripple
voltage. For the halfwave rectifier of Fig. 311 a, the maximum output voltage is Vm' The minimum output voltage
occurs at {lIt = 21[+0., which can be computed from Vmsin(a). The peaktopeak ripple for the circuit of fig. 311a is
expressed as
Ii. V :: V.  V",sino: :: V.(1  sina).
(349)
o
In circuits where the capacitor is selected to provide for a nearly constant de output voltage, the RC time
constant is large compared to the period of the sine wave and Eq. 342 applies. Moreover, the diode turns on dose
to the peak of the sine wave when n :: JrIl. The change in output voltage when the diode is off is described in Eq. 3
37. In Eq. 337, ifV
e
'" Vm and e'" JrIl, then Bq. 337 evaluated at n = n:/2 is
"0(2'1: + a) .. V.e
C2a
+ 1I!l  .n. '1a.RC '" V... e
2
"'a.RC
The ripple voltage can then be approximated as
050)
Furthermore, the exponential in the above equation can be approximated by the series expansion:
eo...,"",Fil.. ,
2_
e lrtJflJ1lC '" 1
mRC
Substituting fOT the exponential in Eq. 350, the peaktopeak ripple is approximately
v ( 2_) AV (351)
III (JJRC
o
IRC
The output voltage ripple is reduced by increasing the filter capacitor C. As C increases, the conduction
interval for the diode decreases. Therefore, increasing the capacitance to reduce the output voltage ripple results in a
larger peak diode current.
EXAMPLE 39. Halfwave Rectifier with RC Load
The halfwave rectifier of Fig. 311a has a l20volt rms source at 60 Hz., R == 500 fl, and C = 100 JlF.
Determine (a) an expression for output voltage, (b) the peaktopeak voltage variation on the output, and (c) an
expression for capacitor current. (d) Determine the peak diode current. (e) Determine C such that AV" is 1% of
v;
Solution: From the parameters given,
V. 120v'2 169.7 V. 0 0
mRC 0 18.85 'ad. 0
The angle ais determined from Eq. 341,
9 == timI (18.85) + lit == 1.62 rad. = 93"
V.. llin9 == 169.5 V.
The angle a is determined from the numerical solution ofEq. 343,
sin(a)  sin(1.62) e {:z. + ..  1.fi2')l1B.83 '" 0 ,
yielding
a = 0.843 rad. == 48"
Output voltage is expressed from Eq. 337,
169.7sin(mil
v,,(JJ/) =
{
169.5 e {01>1  1.61)118.83
9s:CIlIs:2l1t+a
Peaktopeak output voltage is described by Eq. 349,
AVo V.(I  sinal 0 169.7(1  sin(0.843 = 43 V. 0
(c) The capacitor current is determined from Eq. 344.
1lIo Half........ eap.:u.",
3.26
0.339 e (....  r.eyre.es A.
9:s:rot:s:21t+a
ic(c.ot) =
6.4 cos(Qlt) A. 21t+a,o:c.ot,o:2n:+9.
1
(d) Peak diode current is determined from Eq. 348,
SiD(8.43)]
[D_
500
'" 4.26 + 0.34 = 4.50 A.
(e) For 6. V
o
= 0.01 VIl'l' Eq. 351 can be used.
Y.. Y", I
 F. 3333 !iF.
C rR(AY,) "7:(6"'Oj::(5
cc
OO::Cj("'O."'Ol'"'Y"::J 300 _.
Note thai peak diode current can be determined from Eq. 348 using an estimate of a from Eq. 349,
I 0
u'" sin
I
( 1  '" sm ( I  = 81.9
From Eq. 348, peak diode current is 30.4 A.
PSpke Solution:
A PSpice circuit is created for Fig. 3lla using VSIN, Dbreak, R, and C. The diode Dbreak used in this analysis
causes the results to differ slightly from the analytic solution based on the ideal diode. The diode drop causes the
maximum output voltage to be slightly less than that of the source.
The Probe output is shown .in Fig. 3]2. Angles 9 and a are determined directly by first modifying the x
variable to indicate degrees (xvariable = timc*60*360), and then using the eursor option. The restrict data option is
used to compute quantities based on steadystate values (16.61 IDS to 50 ms). Steadystate is characterized by
waveforms beginning and ending a period at the same values. Note that the peak diode current is largest in the first
period because the capacitor is initially uncharged.
'
3.27
Capaoi'ar Fil,..
'

: _. _..   ..    _.   1
.....
, ,
200V :
.....
..... /" '1
.....
.....
200\1":'  _.           _. _. _.  . _.  _    . 
\1(1) '11(2)
8, OA.,.   . .     . .        ._     _.     _.       _.  
, ,
, ,
, ,
' ......
.00 i
u 00 . __
0, 10., 20115 30.,
.. 1(0)
Figure 312. Probe Output For Example 39.
Results rrom the Probe cursor
QUANTITY
RESULT
40S'
98.5
Vomax 168.9 V.
v, min 126 V.
6V. 42.9 V.
Io,peak 4.42 A. steady state; 6.36 A. first period
Ic.P<ak 4.12 A. steady state; 6.39 A. first period
Results after restricting data to steady state
QUANTITY PROBE EXPRESSION RESULT
ID,""8
AVG(I(DI) 0.295 A.
Ie,,,,,, RMS(I(Cl)) 0.905 A.
IR,a"8
AVG(W(Rl)) 43.8 W.
P, AVG(W(V,) 44.1 W.
P
D
AVG(W(Dl)) 345 mW.
The IWf'WYO II<ctifi.r C!po<j!or f ~ ' . r
3.28
In the preceding example, the ripple, or variation in output voltage is very large, and the capacitor is not an
effective filter. In many applications, it is desirable to produce an output which is closer to dc. This requires the
time constant RC to be large compared to the period of'rhe input voltage, resulting in little decay of the output
voltage. For an effective filter capacitor, the output voltage is essentially the same as the peak voltage of the input.
3.9 mE CONTROLLED HALFWAVE RECTIFIER
The halfwave rectifiers analyzed previously in this chapter are classified as uncontrolled rectifiers. Once the source
and load parameters are established, the dc level of the output and the power transferred to the load are fixed
quantities.
A way to control the output of a halfwave rectifier is to use an SCRI instead of a diode. Figure 313a
shows a basic controlled halfwave rectifier with a resistive load. Two conditions must be met before the SCR can
conduct:
1) The SCR must be forward biased (V
SCR
> 0) and
2) a current must be applied to tne gate of tne SCR.
Unlike the diode, the SCR will not begin to conduct as soon as the source becomes positive. Conduction is delayed
until a gate current is applied, whieh is the basis for using the SCR as a means of control. Once the SCR is
conducting, the gate current can be removed and the SCR remains on until the current goes to zero.
'"
",
Figure 313. (a) A Basic Controlled Rectifier (b) voltage Waveforms
'Switehing with other controlled tumon devices such as transistors can be used to control the output of a
converter.
Th.lUlf.... '. R<aifter Cop";I'" Fil!er
3.29
Resistive Load
Figure 313b shows the voltage waveforms for a controlled halfwave rectifier with a resistive load. A gate
signal is applied to the SCR at mt = a, where (l is the delay angle. The average (dc) voltage across the load resistor
in Fig. 313a is
V =  V sin(fIlt)d(mr) = [1 + cos a] . 'f' V. (352)
Q 2,.,," 211:
The power absorbed by the resistor is v;..tRwhere the rms voltage across the resistor is computed from
v = I f'" v;(co')arrot)
 2.
e
,
(353)
;. f[v. ,in(m')]' arrot)
V.. 1 _ a + sin(21l)
2 11: 211:
EXAMPLE 310. Controlled Halfwave Rectifier with Resistive Load.
Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40 volts across a 1 load resistor from a 120Y rrns 60
Hz ac source. Determine the power absorbed by the resistance and the power factor.
Solution: If an uncontrolled halfwave rectifier is used, the average voltage would be Yjrc = 120.J2/rc= 54 volts.
Some means of reducing the average resistor voltage to the design specification of 40 volts must be found. A series
resistance or inductance could be added to an uncontrolled rectifier, or a controlled rectifier could be used. The
controlled rectifier of Fig. 313a has the advantage of not altering the load or introdueing losses, so it is selected for
this application.
Eq. 352 is rearranged to determine the required delay angle:
a= co,H 1]
= co"H
= 61.ZO= 1.07 rad.
Eq. 353 gives
= ,12(120) 11 _ \.07 + ,in[2(1.07)] = 75.6 votu.
2 11: 211:
''
r
3.30
C.p..:llor FIlter
Load power is
p
r
v'
R
(75.6)'
100
'" 57.1 w.
The power factor of the circuit is
p
pl
s
p
(120)(75.6/100)
57.1
0.63 .
RL Load
A controlled halfwave rectifier with an load is shown in Fig. 314a. The analysis of this circuit is
similar to thai of tae uncontrolled rectifier. The current is the sum ofthe forced and natural responses, and Eq. 39
applies:
;(WI) = iJ..(JJJ) + i..(cot)
= [ ;J sin(cot  8) + Ae 511"",
The constant A is determined from the initial condition i(a) = 0:
(354)
A = [ [ ; Jsin(a  8)]
Substituting for A and simplifying,
sin(a  8)e(1l  mlY]
. 1[;J[sin(Oll  8)
.(Oll) (355)
for a.:s:mt.:s:p
o otherwise.
The extinction angle, Pis defined as the angle at which the current returns to zero, as in the case of the
uncontrolled rectifier. When rot =
I '(Il) 0 [ fJ[sin(P  8)  sin(a  8)e"  (356)
which must be solved numerically for Il The angle p (J. is called the conduction angle, y. Figure 314b shows the
voltage waveforms.
The average (de) output voltage is
TheJblr_w.ve!l,cclir.er
3.31
V
.... y = ....!...fP,y sin(cot)d(cot)  cosPl _
o 2" (1 '" 2,
....
.... The average current is computed from
....
I. =
....
where i(wt) is defined in Eq. 355. Power absorbed by the load is 1
2
i;
,
Cap""il,"" Fill.,
(357)
(358)
rrn,R,
where the rms current is computed from
(359) _1
2,
+
+
'.
+
(11,)

r"
n
o
ibl
Figure 314. (a) Controlled Halfwave Rectifier with RL load (b) Voltage Waveforms
c.pu:nar Fill.,
3.32
EXAMPLE 311. Controlled Halfwave Rectifier with RL Load.
For the circuit of Fig. 314a, the source is 120 volts nns at 60 Hz, R =0 20 Q, L = 0.04 H, and the delay
angle is 45, Detennine: (a) an expression for i(wt), (b) the average current, (c) the power absorbed by tbe load,
and (d) the power factor.
Solution:
(a) From the parameters given,
Vm = 120/2 = 169.7 volts
Z = (R
2
+ (roLll's = (20
2
+ (377O.04i)Ol = 25.0 Q
e ,.. laIJ'l(ll)lJR) = tan"1(377*O.04)/20) = 0.646 radian
(In: = wLlR= 377*0.04120 = 0.754
a = 45= 0.785 radian.
Substituting the preceding quantities into Eq. 355, current is expressed as
i(rot) '" 6.78 sin(rot  0.646)  2.67e ...tID75. A.
fOl'a.:s:rot:s:P
The preceding equation is valid from a to ~ , where pis found numerically by setting the equation to :zero and solving
for rot, with the result ~ = 3.79 radians (217). The conduction angle is y = p u = 3.79  0.785 = 3.0 I rad. = 172",
(b) Average current is determined from Eq. 358.
1" = _I 1.
3
.
79
[6.78 sin(mt  0.646)  2.67e .to.7S4]d(wt)
21t O.7U
= 2.19 A.
(c) The power absorbed by [he load is computed from l ~ m o , R , where
= 3.26 A.
yielding
P = I;"R = (3.26)'(20) = 213 W.
(d) The power factor is
PI=
P
S
213
(120)(3.26)
= = ~ =
0.54 .
RLSource Load
A controlled rectifier with a series resistance, inducranee, and dc source is shown ill Fig. 315. The analysis
of this circuit is very similar to that of the uncontrolled halfwave rectifier discussed earlier in this chapter. The
major difference is that for the uncontrolled rectifier, conduction begins as soon as the source voltage reaches the
level of the dc voltage. For the controlled rectifier, conduction begins when a gate signal is applied to the SCR,
provided the SCR is forward biased. Thus, the gate signal may be applied at any time that the ac source is larger
than the de source:

I
It
333
" = 'm'( .
cwren
..
Il ,
...
o omewise
...
...
where A is determined from Eq. 36]:
...
(.
A = [ ( ;1 ,mea  9) + ;] eO.
(.
(.
R L
(.
(.
i
(.
(.
c
L
L
L
Figure 315. Controlled Rectifier with RLSource Load.
L
L
L
EXAMPLE 312. Controlled Rectifier with RLSource Load.
The controlled halfwave rectifier of Fig. 315 has an ac input of 120 volts ITI1S at 60 Hz, R =
mH, and Vdo; = 100 volts. The delay angle a is (a) Determine an expression for the current. (b)
power absorbed by the resistor. (e) Determine the power absorbed by the de source in the load.
Solution: From the parameters given,
V
m
== 120/2 = 169.7 volts
Z (R
2
+ (Wl)2t
S
= (22 + (3770.02)l)Q.. \ = 7.80 n
e = tan"\wUR) =tan
'
(377 0.02)12) = 1.312 radian
W1" = wUR = 3770,0212 = 3.71
a = 45 '" 0.785 radian.
(a) First, use Eq. 360 to determine ifa '= 45
0
is allowable. The minimum delay angle is
" = ,m"l = 36'
which indicates that 45
0
is allowable. Equation 361 becomes
(360)
(361 )
2 n. L =20
Determine the
The H.olf.",ave Ream...
3.34
i(CI)t) = 21.8 sin(mt  1.312)  50 + 75.0e<ll6'371 A.
for 0.785:s: mt s 3.37 rad.
where the extinction angle pis found numerically 10 be 3.3'7 radians from the equation i(P) = O.
(b) Power absorbed by the resistor is I",}R, where I""" is computed from Eq. 359 using the preceding expression for
i(wt).
'f.";1.(mt)t(cot) = 3.90 A
,..
P = (3.90)'(2) = 30.4 W .
(c) Power absorbed by the dc souree is loY
de
, where 1
0
is computed from Eq. 358.
1 = ...!...f.lli(mt)t(mt) = 2.19 A
" 2. II
p.. =1,Y.. =(2.19)(100) = 219 W .
3.10 PSPICE SOLUTIONS FOR CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
Modeling the SCR in PSpiee
To simulate the controlled halfwave rectifier m PSpice, a model for the SCR must be selected. An SCR
model available in a device library can be utilized in the simulation of a controlled halfwave rectifier. A circuit for
Example 310 using the 2NI595 SCR in the PSpice demo version library of devices is shown in Fig. 316a.
An alternative model for the SCR is a voltagecontrolled switch and a diode as described in Chapter 1. The
switch controls when the SCR begins to eonduct, and the diode allows current in only one direction. The switch
must be closed for at least the conduction angle of the current. An advantage of using this SCR model is that the
device can be made ideal. The major disadvantage ofthe model is that the switch control must keep the switch
closed for the entire conduction period and open the switch before the source becomes positive again. A circuit for
the circuit in Example 311 is shown in Fig. 3l6b.
(""clio>; fill",
3.35
...
...
...
...
Controlled Halfwave Rectifier with SCR 2N1595
...
chllnge the BCR I1Dd.,r ... highee voltag" tating
...
RL
... Source
PARAMETERS:
...
2
alpha e 45
2N1595 !Teq :: 60
...
VOFF =0
VMlPL= 170 RG TO :: {alphal360ilreq}
...
FREQ =60 Vl = II
'Wv
V2=5
TF = In
Vcontrol TR = 1n 4:Y
I PIN=1m
PER ={llfreq}
CONTROLLED HALnmVE aD:TIPI:ER
Switch and dJod4 fox SCR
____
Dllreak A1
m"
20
11
<Om
VOFF" 0
1TO
FREQ =60
SOURCE
'"".
I
V1 = 0
'/2=5
TO = (ALPtW360ffiOj PARAMETERS.
TA = 1n ALPHA45
TF= tn
Freq:: 60
PN'" (tlFreqDLAY"1.1 J
PER" {1/Freq}
Figure 316. a) A controlled halfwave rectifier using an SCR from the library of devices. b) An SCR model
using a voltagecontrolled switeh and a diode.
EXAMPLE 313: Controlled Halfwave Rectifier Design Using PSpice.
A load consists of a seriesconnected resistance, inductance, and de voltage source with R = 2 0, L '" 20
mH, and Vde = 100 volts. Design a circuit that will deliver 150 watts (0 the de voltage source from a 120volt rrns 60
Hz ac source.
3.36
Solution: Power in the de souree of 150 watts requires an average load current of 15DW11 oov = 1.5 A. An
uncontrolled rectifier with this souree and load will have an average current of2.25 A and an average power in the
de source of 225 W, as was computed in Example 35 previously in this chapter. A means of limiting the average
current to 1.5 A must be found. Options include the addition of series resistance or inductance. Another option that
is chosen for this application is the controlled halfwave rectifier of Fig. 315. The power delivered to the load
eomponents is determined by the delay angle a. Since there is no closedform solution for a, a trialanderror
iterative method must be used. A Pspice simulation which includes a parametric sweep is used to try several values
of alpha. The parametric sweep in established in the Simulation Setting menu (see Example 34). A PSpiee circuit is
CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
parametric sweep for a1pha
,om
'"''
100 ==
a
0
...
V, : 0
VOFF: 0
VAMPL: {120""sqrt(2)]
FREO" 60
e, u
",. ,
TO : {NP1W.3601llDj PARMlETERS
TR:; In
Al..PHA 50
TF;: In
F""q 60
{llFreqDLAY"l, 1)
PER: [l1F"'ql
.."
,
"". '
pARAMETRIC SWEKP FOR ALPHA
c
200W
/
... (l6.6 70ru,147.531)
:'" deg
p
J
.,
/
" / /.,
, , , ,
O. 'm,
8m, 12m", 16ms 20m",22ms
0 AVG(ioi'tVdc} )
"
Time
Figure 317. a) PSpice circuit for Example 3l3. b) Probe Output for showing a family of eurves for different delay
angles. The parametric sweep in established in the Simulation Setting menu. c = 70 degrees gives an average power
of approximately 148 W in the de source.
3.37
When the expression AVG(W(Vde is entered, Probe produees a family of curves representing the results
for a number of values of c, as shown in Fig. 317b. An II of 70", which results in about 148 watts delivered to the
load, is the approximate solution.
The following results are obtained from Probe for II = 70";
QUANTITY EXPRESSION RESULT
de Source Power AVG(W(Vdc)) 148 W. (design objective of150 W)
IDl$ current RMS(l(RI 2.87 A.
Resistor Power AVGW(RI)) 16,5W.
Source apparent power RMS(V(1 JRMS(I(VS) 344 VA.
Source 3VtfllgC JlOwer AVG1W(Vs)) 166 W.
Power factor (PIS) 166/344 0.48
3.11 COMMUTATION
The Errett of Source Iaductaece
The preceding discussion on halfwave rectifiers assumed an ideal source. In practical circuits, the source
has an equivalent impedance which is predominantly induetive reactance. For the singlediode halfwave rectifiers
of Figures 31 and 32, the nontdeal cireuit is analyzed by including the source induetance with the load elements.
However, the source inductance causes a fundamental change in circuit behavior for eircuns like the halfwave
rectifier with a freewheeling diode.
A halfwave rectifier with a freewheeling diode and source inductance L. is shown in Fig. 318a. Assume
that the load inductance is very large making the load current constant. At t=O, the load current is It> OJ is off, and
OJ is on. As the source voltage becomes positive, 0
1
turns on, but the source current does not instantly equal the
load current because ofL. Consequently, O
2
must remain on while the current in L. and 01 increases to that of the
load. The interval when both 0
1
and OJ are on is called the eommutation time or commutation angle. Commutation
is the process ofturning offan electronic switch, which usually involves transferring the load current from one
switch 10 another. J
When both 0
1
and D, are on, the voltage across L. is
(362)
and current in L. and the source is
1 ~
j ~ = fllLJl(Olt) + i,(O) ~ f
~
V..sin(mt)d((01) + 0
(/JL, 0
"
i,
V. (1 _ '"'"") .
(363)
coL,
Current in OJ is
V
"(I  cOBmt) .
coL,
'Commutation in tnis ease is an example of naturcl commutation or line commutation, where the change in
instantaneous line voltage results in a deviee turning off. Other applications may useforced commutation, where current
in a device such as a thyristor is forced to zero by additional circuitry. Load commutation makes use ofinherenl
oscillating currents produced by the load to turn a device off.
Commumli"n
3.38
The current in 0
1
starts at ILand decreases 10 zero. Letting the angle at which the eurrent reaches zero be rot = u,
V
 cos 101) = 0 .
roL,
Solving for u,
= CO,'[ 1  1= C09'[ 1  1 (364)
1' _
where X, = wL, is the reactance of the source. Figure 3\8b shows the effeet of the source reactance on the diode
currents. The commutation from D, to D
2
is analyzed similarly, yielding an identical result for the commutation
angle u.
The commutation angle affects the voltage across the load. Since the voltage across the load. is zero when
D
z
is conducting, the load voltage remains at zero through the commutation angle, as shown in Fig. 317b. Recall
that the load voltage is a halfwave rectified sinusoid when the source is ideal.
Average load voltage is
_IIv
2K
v
;;[cos(mtlJI:
= '!!(l +co.su).
2K
Using u from Eg. 364,
(365)
1
Recall that the average of a halfwave rectified sine wave is Vrr/It. Source reactance thus reduces average load
voltage.
3.39
Iv,
"
, LlL l_'+__....l.__
, L..I.__..L__+\__..L.__
,.,
'"'
Figure 318. (a) Halfwave Rectifier with Freewheeling Diode and Source Inductance (b) Diode Currents and Load
Voltage Showing the Effects of Commutation
,. 3.12 SUMMARY
A rectifier converts ac to de. Power transfer is from the ae source to the de load.
The halfwave rectifier with a resistive load has an average load voltage of VJx and an average load
current of VJ:n:R.
The current in a halfwave rectifier with an RL load contains a natural and a forced response, resulting in
VO' DI(co/ _ a)
i(cot)" Z
{
o
..
L
andr=
, R
The diode remains on as long as the current is positive. Power in the RL load is I
nns
1R.
A halfwave rectifier with and RLSourcc load does not begin to conduct until the ae source reaches the de
voltage in the load. Power in the resistance is Im}R, and power absorbed by the de source is 10Vde where 1
0
is the average load current. The load current is expressed as
3.40
v V'"
........!!'siD(coI9) for a:s:cot:s:p
Z R
'(cot) = {
o otherwise
where
A = [  ;9in(aO) + ealor< :1
A freewheeling diode forces the voltage across an RL load to be a halfwave rectified sine wave. The load
current can be analyzed using Fourier analysis. A large load inductance results in a nearly constant load
currenl.
A large filter capacitor across a resistive load makes the load voltage nearly constant. Average diode
current must be the same as average load current, making the peak diode current large.
An SCR in place of the diode in a halfwave rectifier provides a means of controlling output current and
voltage.
PSpice simulation is an effective way of analyzing circuit performance. The parametric sweep in PSpice
allows several values of a circuit parameter to be tried and is an aid in eircult design.
PROBLEMS (From the 1997 edition)
Hallwave Rectifier with Reststtve Load
3.1) The halfwave rectifier circuit of Fig. 3la has v,(t) = 170sin(377t) V and R = 12 n. Determine (a) the average
load current, (b) the rms load current. (c) the apparent power supplied by the source, and (d) the power factor of the
circuit.
32) The halfwave rectifier circuit of Fig. 31 a has a transformer inserted between the source and the remained of
the circuit. The source is 240 volts rms at 60 Hz and the load resistor is 20 n. (a) Determine the required turns
ratio of the transformer such that the average load current is 10 A. (b) Determine the average current in the primary
winding of the transformer.
33) For a halfwave rectifier with a resistive load, (a) show that the power factor is 1/";2. (b) determine the
displacement power factor and the distortion factor as defined in Chapter 2. The Fourier series for the halfwave
rectified voltage is given in Eq. 334.
Halfwave Reenner with RL Load
34) A halfwave rectifier has a source of 120 volts rms at 60 Hzand an RL load with R = 10 n and L = 10 mH.
Determine (a) an expression for load current, (b) the average current, (c) the power absorbed by the resistor, and (d)
the power factor. Verify your answers with a PSplce simulation using an ideal diode model.
35) A halfwave rectifier has a source of 120 volts rms at 60 Hz and an RL load with R = 8 n and L = 15 mll.
Determine (a) an expression for load current, (b) the average current, (c) the p<Jwer absorbed by the resistor, and (d)
the power factor. Verify your answers with a PSpice simulation using an ideal diode model.
36) A halfwave rectifier has a source of240 volts rms at 60 Hz and an RL load with R = IS n and L = 100 mjl.
,
 I
,
...
...
...
...
3.41
Determine (a) an expression for load current, (b) the average current, (e) the power absorbed by the resistor, and (d)
the power factor. Use PSpiee 10simulate the circuit. Use the default diode model and compare your PSpice results
with analytieal results.
37) The inductor in Fig. 32a represents an electromagnet modeled as a 0.1 henry inductance. The source is 240
volts at 60 Hz. Use PSpice to determine the value ofa series resistance such that the average current is 2.0 amperes.
Halfwave Rectifier with RLSource Load
38) A halfwave rectifier of Fig. 35a has a 240volt rms, 60 Hz ac source. The load is a series inductance,
resistance, and de source, with L = 100 rnlf, R = 10 n, and Y
d
" = 100 volts. Determine (a) the power absorbed by
the de voltage source, (b) the power absorbed by the resistance, and (c) the power factor.
39) A halfwave rectifier of Fig. 35a has a 120volt rms, 60 Hz ac source. The load is a series inductance,
resistance, and de source, with L = 100 mH, R = 12 n, and V
d
< = 48 volts. Determine (a) the power absorbed by the
de voltage source, (b) the power absorbed by the resistance, and (c) the power factor.
310) A halfwave rectifier of Fig. 36 has a 120volt rms, 60 Hz ac source. The load is a series inductance and de
voltage with L = 75 mH and Vde = 48 volts. Determine the power absorbed by the de voltage source.
311) A halfwave rectifier with a series inductorsource load has an ac source of 240volts rms, 60 Hz. The dc
source is 125 volts. Use PSpicc to determine the value of inductance which results in 150 watts absorbed by the dc
source. Use the default diode model .
312) A halfwave rectifter with a series inductor and de source has an ac source of 120volls rms, 60 Hz. The dc
source is 24 volts. Use PSpice to determine the value of inductance which results in 75 watts absorbed by the de
source. Use the default diode.
FreeWheeling Diode
313) The halfwave rectifier with a freewheeling diode (Fig. 37a) has R = 12 n, L = 30 mll. The source is 120
volts rms at 60 Hz. (a) From the Fourier series of the halfwave rectified sine wave that appears across the load,
determine the dc component of the current. (b) Determine the amplitudes of the first four nonzero ac terms in the
Fourier series. Comment on the results.
314) In Example 38, the inductance required to limit the peaktopeak ripple in load current was estimated by
using the first ac term in the Fourier series. USe PSpice to determine the peaktopeak ripple with this inductance
and compare itto the estimate. Use the ideal diode model (0 = 0.001).
315) The halfwave rectifier with a freewheeling diode (Fig. 37a) has R = 3 n and a source with V", = 50 V. at 60
Hz. (a) Determine a value ofL such that the amplitude of the first ac current term in the Fourier series is Jess than
5% of the de current. (b) Verify your results with PSpice, and determine the peaktopeak current.
316) The circuit of Fig. P316 is similar to the circuit of Fig. 37a except that a de source has been added to the
load. The circuit has v,(t) = 170sin(377t) V, R = 10 n and Vdoo = 24 V. From the Fourier series, (a) determine the
value of L such that the peektopeak variation in load current is no mare than I amp. (b) Determine the power
absorbed by the de source. (c) Determine the power absorbed by the resistor.
3.42
R L
+
t'ilUl'W' Pl.l6
Hairwave Rectifier with a Filter Capacitor
317) A halfwave rectifier with a capacitor filter has V", = 100 V, R = 1 till, C = 1000 IlF, and (t) = 377. (a)
Determine the ratio ofthe RC time constant 10 the period of the input sine wave. What is the significance ofth.is
ratio? (b) Determine the peaktopeak ripple voltage using the exact equations. (c) Determine the ripple using the
approximate formula in Eq. 351.
318) Repeat Problem 317 with (a) R = 100 n and (b) R = Ion. Comment on the results.
319) A halfwave rectifier with a 1 kQ load has a parallel capaeitor. The source is 120volls rms. 60 Hz.
Determine the peaktopeak ripple of the output voltage when the capacitor is (a) 5000 IlF and (b) 10 J.1F. [5 the
approximation ofEq. 35\ reasonable in each case?
320) Repeat Problem 319 with R = 500 n.
321) A halfwave rectifier has a l20volt rms 60 Hz ac source. The load is 500 O. Determine the value of a filter
capacitor to keep the peaktopeak ripple across the load to less than 2 volts. Determine the average and peak values
of diode current.
322) A halfwave rectifier has a 120volt rms 60 Hz ac source. The load is 100 watts. Determine the value of a
filter capacitor to keep the peaktopeak ripple across the load to less than 1.5 volts. Determine the average and peak
values of diode current.
Controlled Hairwave Rectifier
323) Show that the controlled halfwave rectifier with a resistive load in Fig. 313a has a power factor of
PI = ~ . ! . _" + sffi(2a) .
2 221: 411:
324) For the controlled halfwave rectifier with resistive load, the source is 120 volts rms at 60 HL The resistance
is 100 n, and the delay angle II is 60
Q
(a) Determine the average voltage across the resistor. (b) Determine the
power absorbed by the resistor. (c) Detenninc the power factor as seen by the source.
325) A controlled halfwave rectifier has an ac source of240 volts rms at 60 Hz. The load is a 300 resistor. (a)
Determine the delay angle such that the average load current is 3.0 amps. (b) Determine the power absorbed by the
load. (c) Detennine the power factor.
326) A controlled halfwave rectifier has a l20volt rms 60 Hz. ae source. The a series RL load has R = 25 0 and









TIlt Half..... Rtotifitr
3.43
L = 50 mll. The delay angle is 25. Determine (a) an expression for load current, (b) the average load current, and
(c) the power absorbed by the load.
327) A controlled halfwave rectifier has a 120volt rms 60 Hz. ac source. The a series RL load has R = 40 n and
L = 75 mll. The delay angle is 50. Determine (a) an expression for load current, (b) the average load current, and
(c) thc power absorbed by the load.
328) A controlled naifwave rectifier has an RL load with R = 20 nand L = 40 mll. The source is 120volts rms
at 60 Hz. Use PSpice to determine the delay angle required 1O produce an average current of2.0 amps in the load.
Use the default diode in the simulation.
329) A controlled halfwave rectifier has an RL load with R = 16 n and L = 60 mll. The source is 120volts rms
at 60 Hz. Use PSpice to determine the delay angle required to produce an average current of 1.8 amps in the load.
Use the default diode in the simulation.
330) A controlled halfwave rectifier has a 120volt, 60 Hz ac source. The load is a series inductance, resistance,
and dc source, with L = 100 mH, R = 12 n, and V
de
= 48 volts. The delay angle is 45. Determine (a) the power
absorbed by the dc voltage source, (b) the power absorbed by the resistance, and (c) the power factor.
3 ~ 3 1 ) A controlled halfwave rectifier has a 240'1011 rms 60 Hz ac source. The load is a series resistance,
inductance, and de source with R = 100 n, L = 150 mH, and V
dC
= 125 volts. The delay angle is 60. Determine (a)
the power absorbed by the dc voltage source, (b) the power absorbed by the resistance, and (c) the power factor.
3 ~ 3 2 ) Use PSpice lo determine the delay angle required such that the dc source in Problem 33\ absorbs 35 watts.
3 ~ 3 3 ) A controlled halfwave rectifier has a series resistance, inductance, and de voltage source with R = 2 n, L =
75 mH, and Vde = 48 volts. The source is 120 volts rms at 60 Hz. The delay angle is 45. Determine (a) an
expression lor load current, (b) the flower absorbed by the de voltage source, and (c) the power absorbed by the
resistor.
3 ~ 3 4 ) Use PSpicc to determine the delay angle required such that the de source in Problem 333 absorbs 50 watts.
335) Develop an expression for current in a controlled halfwave rectifier circuit which has a load consisting of a
series inductance L and de voltage Vdc' The source is v, = Vmsinrot, and the delay angle is a. Determine the average
current if Vm = 100, L = 35 mH, Vdc = 24 volts, ro= 2n:60rad/s, and a = 80
0
Verify your result with PSpice.
336) A controlled halfwave rectifier has an RL load. A freewheeling diode is placed in parallel with the load.
The inductance is large enough to consider the load current to be constant. Determine the load current as a function
of the delay angle alpha. Sketch the current in the SCR and the freewheeling diode. Sketch the voltage across the
load.
Commutation
337) The halfwave rectifier with freewheeling diode of Fig. 3188 has a 120volt rms ac source which has an
inductance of 1.3 mll. The load current is a constant 5 amps. Determine the commutation angle and the average
output voltage. Use PSpicc to verify your results. Use ideal diodes in the simulation, Verify that the commutation
angle for D[ to D
2
is the same as fOT D
1
to D[.
338) The halfwave rectifier with freewheeling diode of Fig. 31& has a (20volt rms ac source which has an
3.44
inductance of 10 mHo The load is a series resistanceinductance with R = 20 n and L = 500 mli. Use PSpice to
determine (a) the steadystate average load current, (b) the average load voltage, and (e) the commutation angle.
Use the default diode in the simulation. Comment on the results.
339) Th.e halfwave rectifier with freewheeling diode of Fig. 3 18a has a 120volt rms ae source which has an
inductance of5 mll. The load is a series resistanceinductance with. R = (5 n and L = 500 rnll. Use PSpiee to
determine (a) the steadystate average load current, ((b) the average load voltage, and (e) the commutation angle.
Use the default diode in the simulation.
. ~ .
340) The commutation angle given in Eq. 364 for the halfwave rectifier with a freewheeling diode was developed
for commutation of load current from 0
1
to D
1
Show that the commutation angle is the same for commutation from
0
1
to O
2
341) Diode 0
1
in Fig. 318a is replaced with an SCR to make a eontrolled halfwave rectifier. Show that the angle
for commutation from the diode to the SCR is
u = cos
I(
cosa _ I ~ : . ) a
where a is the delay angle of the SCR
Design Problems
342) A certain situation requires that either 160 watts or 75 watts be supplied to a 48volt battery from an 120volt
rrns 60 Hz ac source. There is a twoposition switch on a control panel set at either 160 or 75. Design a single
circuit to deliver both values of power, and specify what the control switch will do. Specify the values of all ofthe
components in your circuit. The internal resistance of the battery is 0.1 n.
343) Design a cireuit to produce an average current on amps in an inductance of 100 mH. The ac source available
is 120 volts nns at 60 Hz. Verify your design with PSpiee. Give alternative circuits that could be used to satisfy the
design specifications, and give reasons for your selection.
344) Design a circuit whieh will deliver 100 watts to a 48volt dc source from a 120'1011 rms 60 Hz ac source.
Verify your design with PSpice. Give alternative circuits that could be used to satisfy the design specifications, and
give reasons for your selection.
345) Design a circuit which will deliver 150 watts to a 100volt de source from a 120volt rrns 60 Hz ac source.
Verify your design with PSpice. Give alternative circuits that could be used to satisfy the design specifications, and
give reasons for your selection.