8 Sep 2009
Lohit Bakore Fourth Year (Textile Technology) SVITS, Indore
[COMPARISON OF SHUTTLE AND SHUTTLELESS LOOMS]
[In the past 50 years much advancement have taken place in weaving technology giving birth to the shuttleless weaving machines. This assignment provides a comparison between the modern and the conventional machines.]
Submitted To: Mr. Tanveer Malik
3. a weaver could operate to about four. the major developments in textile took place in England. In 1733. an English clergy man. the cloth was produced on hand-looms which were not equipped with fly shuttle. During all these years and a few hundred years after 14th century.e.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing
Comparison of Shuttle looms and Shuttleless looms
The weaving is a process of formation of fabric with interlacement of two or more sets of yarns using a stable machine called loom. an English man invented an automatic weft transfer system which replaced the weft pirn in the shuttle without slowing or stopping the loom in 1889. thus rendering it liable to frequent failure. Except few activities elsewhere. It is known that the power required for picking is proportional to the cube of the loom speed. 2.Assignment No. more productivity and efficiency were essential to overcome increasing labour costs in Western countries. the power requirement would increase by a factor of (3/2)3 i. Fortunately steam power was available by 1765. If the loom speed is increased from 200 to 300 picks per minute. 2
. greater strain is again imposed on the checking mechanism. John Kay invented the fly shuttle which enabled weft to be inserted more rapidly. Greater strain imposed on the picking mechanism. 3. Similar developments took place elsewhere also.
Limitations of Shuttle Looms
Despite the relatively high speed and efficiencies in loom with conventional picking. productivity of these machines will continue to be limited as long as their fundamental constructions involved the use of shuttle propulsion. invented a so called powerloom which could be operated from a single point by two strong man. Because of superior energy in shuttle. a major loom maker of Switzerland manufactured automatic bobbin changing Northrop loom in 1898.4 times approximately. It is still not certain when the weaving process was introduced to human society. Soon powerlooms were driven by steam and most of the wooden parts were replaced with iron. Ruti. James Northrop. This results in following disadvantages 1. In England the major shift from agriculture to woolen industry came in the 14th century. Edmund Cart Wright. These looms then were stopped every few minutes in order to replace the empty weft pirns or cop in the shuttle and this limited the number of looms. After World War II. Greater amount of noise and vibration.
Assignment No. High degree of flexibiligy to suit a wide range of fibres and counts. Wider width fabrics and multi width fabrics can be woven. * Projectile Looms * Rapier Looms * Fluid Jet Looms * Multiphase Looms
Advantages of Shuttleless Weaving Technology
The Shuttleless weaving is becoming more and more popular due to the following advantages compared to conventional looms. Easily adaptable for market trends. Pirn winding process is eliminated Less value loss of fabrics.
The various shuttleless looms that have been developed over a period of about 50 years can be classified into various groups. Easy maintenance and less work load for Jobbers. More colours in weft direction (upto 12) by Pick and Pick method. Low consumption of stores and spares. Due to less beam changes lower down-time and lesser wastages. Higher design capabilities dut to microprocessor and electronic controls. Bigger flanges can accommodate 3 times more yarn.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing 4. Reduced labour cost due to higher allocation of looms and productivity.
Advances in Weaving Technology
. Lesser accidents. Less space requirement per metre of cloth. Better environment due to low noise level. The movement of shuttle will be more difficult to control and there will be a greater possibility of its ejection from the loom. The dynamic problems created by the picking and checking mechanism and the inherent process of pirn winding for shuttle looms had encouraged the loom makers to develop alternative means of weft insertion in which heavy shuttle is not projected forwards and backwards across the width of the loom. High labour and machine productivity due to high speed and wider width of looms. It is customary to refer these looms as shuttleless looms. Defect free cloth for longer length. Less dependency on labour skill.
consumes less energy and have lower maintenance cost.400
190-540 190-540 180-330 150 150-400 230
320 430 300 550 460 330
1100-1200 1500 750 1100 1000 1200
. To reduce the down time for changing style. In addition to these. 4. Majority of the developments are taking place on the shuttleless looms in the following directions : 1.
The production rates of the various types of looms are presented for comparison in following Table
Loom Type Conventional Powerloom Projectile Sulzer Ruti P7100 P7200 STB Russia Rigid Rapier SACM Dornier GUNNE Flexible Rapier Somet Vamatex Sulzer Ruti 165-410 160-380 110-280 550 510 325 1300 1300 1200
Available width in cm 180
Weft insertion Speed in Rate(meters per rpm minute) 180 300 . To increase productivity of the loom.25 during the last 125 years. 3. the motions are more reliable.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing The emphasis on productivity and quality has developed the weaving technology very much and as a result the working hours required to weave fabric from loom have been reduced from about 20 to 0. Application of electronic control mechanisms to increase automation 5. To make the looms more flexible for different kinds of fabric. 2. and in the last 50 years there has been a reduction of 95% in operative hours per standard unit produced. Development of accessories such as dobby. etc. the newer looms are simple in design. etc.Assignment No. jacquards.
Air jet loom is having maximum speed and maximum weft insertion rate. Other looms like projectile and rapier will give an efficiency of about 90 to 95%. Because of the very high quality of yarn required. otherwise the loom stoppages due to warp breaks and weft breaks will be high.Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing
Nuovo Pignone Water Jet Metor SPA Nisson Tsudakoma Air Jet Sulzer Ruti Picanol Omni Picanol Delta Toyoda Tsudakoma Lakshmi Ruti Dornier Linear Multiphase Elitex Drum type Multiphase Sulzer M8300
220-420 230 150-210 150-210 upto 300 190-380 190 150-330 150-340 190 430
440 1000 1000 1000 750 800 1100 850 1000 500 600
1000 1600 2000 2000 1600 1800 2000 2000 2200 1200 2520
Out of these single phase looms. Efficiency in multiphase loom is in the order of 90 to 95% These are the speeds obtained by the weavers at commercial level. The main reason for targeting higher productivity is to reduce the cost of production. The cover of the fabric in air jet will not be as good as projectile and rapier looms. the yarn must be of very high standard. 5
. The efficiency achieved will be in the order of 93 to 95%. The variety of fabrics that can be woven in the shuttleless looms can be summarized in the following table. especially labour cost. The increase in speed is being achieved the improvement in all major functional parts of the modern looms.
Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing
Table-2 Variety of Fabrics Woven on Specific Looms Loom Type Projectile Sulzer Ruti P7100 P7200 STB Russia Rigid Rapier SACM Dornier GUNNE Flexible Rapier Somet Vamatex Sulzer Ruti Nuovo Pignone Water Jet Metor SPA Nisson Tsudakoma Air Jet Sulzer Ruti up to 3 Light gauge & sheeting.shirting smaller batch production
up to 8 colours up to 8 colours up to 8 colours up to 8 colours Single colour Weft mix.spun & filament fabric
Field of application
4 colours 4 colours 4 colours
Sheeting dress material filament weaving
up to 4 colours up to 16 colours up to 6 colours
Yarn dyed fancy fabric manufactured such as Suiting.2*2 Weft mix.1*1.dress materials
.twisted & texturised filament sarees.2*2
spun & filament dress material
Weaving of filament.1*1.
Table 3. The pile height is programmable within the same fabric. defining the speed of the loom is given in Table 3. Special fabric constructions with different pile heights on front and back are also possible.) The terry plus airjet terry weaving machines of Gunne not only permit greater pile height and heavier fabrics.400 Mts / Min 1000 .1400 Mts / Min 1200 .1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing
colours Picanol Omni Picanol Delta Toyoda Tsudakoma Lakshmi Ruti 6 colours 2 colours 6 colours 6 colours 2 colours
Weft Insertion Rates of Different Type of Looms
Weft insertion rate.2000 Mts / Min 5000 Mts / Min
Today the market particularly demands wide variety as much as possible at the lowest possible cost. These machines provide the feature such as : . 7
.Assignment No. it also offers greater flexibility in operation with the ability to change the fabric width and pile height. On the machine the drawing width can be changed using the same reed. simple print base fabrics and denims as efficiently as light to heavy weight industrial fabrics.1500 Mts / Min 1500 . fabrics with us many as 8 weft colours but also furnishing fabrics. Comparison of Different Types of Looms Loom Conventional Powerloom High Speed Automatic Loom Rapier Loom Projectile Loom Air Jet Loom Multiphase Loom Weft Insertion Rate 200 Mts / Min 300 . simply by shifting the weft stop motion and the weft cutter.The possibility of weaving more difficult products in terms of yarn employed and also in combinations. (Sulzer Ruti 6300 rapier loom will weave not only fashion. For Sulzer P7300 projectile looms a variety of back rest roller and cloth take up systems are available to suit the density and the type of fabric woven. .Application potential in all weaving sectors.
at the same time informing the weaver an optical automatic weft break repair and package handling system. electronically controls progressive weft break. Electronic Control Mechanism : The use of central microprocessor control system and automatic functional with bidirection communication and diagnostic features are the common features of most of these latest weaving machines. The exchange time is not more than 1. Dornier offers Fast Dobby Change (FDC) which allows a mill exchange a dobby shedding for a cam drive when a basic style is being woven and higher shedding machine speeds are possible. The saving in time with QSC in Picanol is illustrated with an example in Table-3
Table-4 Average Loom Stoppage Time (in minutes)
Stop factor Waiting time Loom unloading Loom loading Reed. Similarly. Dornier demonstrated quick style changes from a fine worsted fabric to pure cashmere fabrics in less than 30 minutes. Sulzer Ruti P7100 with central microprocessor control. automatic weft feed backup which switches over to a feeder head with intact weft intact weft thread in the event of weft break. In repair machines electronic control weft tensioner reduces the yarn tension specially during insertion.5 hours per occurrence.Assignment No. The basic idea of these developments is to prepare module outside the weave room and keep them ready for a switch over with empty module in the weaving machine.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing
Minimum down time
Many of the weaving machine manufacturers offer quick style change (QSC) system. The opening and closing time can be selected according 8
.hardness locking New style setting Loom restart Interference loss Total With QSC system 5 10 8 6 15 5 4 74 Without QSC system 5 40 40 25 60 15 25 12 203
Trolley waiting time 10
The down time is getting reduced to about one third with Quick Style Change (QSC) system. almost all major weaving machine makers offer their own version of QSC.
Somet showed its patented tucking motion on a clipper airjet machine. The shed formation is achieved by controlling each individual warp end with a stepping motor. so that the machine continues to run. The dimensions of the jacquard head and the individual control of each heddle (warp end) allow the heddles to be set vertically. The jacquard head is mounted directly on the side frame of the weaving machine. (c) Jacquard Shedding Mechanism Staubli's Unival 100 electronic jacquard shedding mechanism offers a new concept. etc. pulleys. In airjet weaving machine electronic let-off maintains consistent warp tension from full beam to empty beam. maintenance. technical. Elimination of tuck in needle by pneumatic tuck in motion enables the loom run much faster as compared to mechanical devices.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing to the material usually at yarn pick up. (b) Electronic Jacquard Head Grosse has introduced its patented UniShed positive electronic jacquard head. These settings permit the elimination of harness cords. The leaf springs which are controlled by actuators control the bottom shed as well as the top shed (positive shed type). Electronic cloth take up generates a pick density resolution of 0. hooks.1 picks/cm and holds it constant. by air. under all operating conditions. in the next shed.
(a) Tuck-in-Devices Some of the important development are new tuck in motions based on pneumatic. the gantry. In airjet weaving the automatic weft repairer which repairs the weft break and starts the machine automatically is made simple by using mechano pneumatic device. The microprocessor switches over immediately to a reduced number of packages in the circle. Electronic monitoring control system have simplified the communication with the machine and facilitate its easy handling by any one concerned with the operation of the machine e. thus allowing quick style changes. Automatic package switching device prevents the machine from being stopped in the event of a weft break between the package and the weft feeder. It is a positive factor in higher weaver allocation and increased efficiency. The harness cord / warp end selection is performed electronically 9
.g. The shed formation in the UniShed is achieved by leaf spring. Dornier exhibited their pneumatic tucker on two airjet weaving machines (LTN F8/J and LWV2/E).Assignment No. personnel. pull down springs and more significantly. In terry plus airjet terry weaving machine of Gunne Web Machinen Fabric GMBH & Co. The microprocessor monitors the entire insertion cycle and keeps all the different elements perfectly synchronized. The principle of pneumatic trucking in is the use of air to hold the filling end and then forcing the filling end to be tucked in. Electronically controlled warp let off and cloth take up units ensure high degree of fabric regularity and prevent all kinds of start and stop marks. Tsudokama demonstrated their ZNT needleless tuck-in on two airjet weaving machine. Each leaf spring is connected to a heddle that controls one warp end. weaver. magnets.
In these illustrations. and design. (d) Weft Package Handling Complete automatic weft package handling. Table 6 is for fashion fabric Shirting of 2/40s Warp. 72 PPI.5%. The economic comparisons made here are based on many factors and assumptions. for plain sheeting and Rs.70 per mtr. higher price realization per metre of cloth produced in shuttleless looms has not been considered. Table 5 is for mass production fabric. But in real practice there will be higher selling price and the profitability will be much more than shown in the illustration. for yarn dyed shirting has been considered. 63" Width. the economics of different types of looms has to be considered. 0. 1. Many people feel that fastest running machines will give better profitability. The weaving conversion costs per metre of cloth and the profit per year per loom before paying the interest on capital and after paying the interest have been worked out. So. 14 minutes stoppage per 24 hours working day reduces the efficiency by 1% and the weaving costs are increased by more than 1.50 per mtr. For arriving at the relative economics of different types of looms. the decisive factor is only efficiency. running properties of the machine independent of the different yarn structures. The entire cycle is completed in about 12 seconds. two comparisons have been illustrated. 52 PPI. 20s Weft. 60 EPI. other values have priority. The reasons are certain products have physical limitations. quality. Comparison of Plain. 40s Warp 40s Weft. These include automation equipment for detecting the broken picks with drawing it from the open shed. loading the package frame and package changing can be incorporated on Sulzer Ruti projectile weaving machines and Tsudakoma Airjet weaving machines.
Economics After understanding the need for modernization and the technical merits of new weaving technologies.Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing and hence fabric design is achieved in the same way as any electronic jacquard system. 63" Width. The design of the Unival 100 permits the elimination of hook and the gantry. Furthermore. Mass Fabric Production in Different Types of Looms
. correcting the cloth fell position and restarting the machine. in the case of fashion fabrics. Only the selling price of powerloom cloth after adding a profit of Rs. which do not allow full utilization of the maximum speed. But in many cases the fastest running machine is not the most economic and cheapest one. 136 EPI.
23122.00 7.18 2.00 72.230
4.4 0.00 4.75 0.40 0.00 180.79 1.540
1.68 3.40 0.50 0.40 1.54
10.50 2.2 2.87 1.600 -0.72 2.700 -0.48 2.S 190.300 0.00 0.4 0. 0.500 1.00 0.005
.21 0.00 0.800
5.00 72.16 190 700 72 85 256.00 0.91 0. D PROJ.39 1.4 0.19 1.00 120.620
4.36 10.00 0.40 0.22
PROD/DAY MTRS/M C 34.23 10.83 16 3.42 2.450 0.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing
Table no 5
Comparison for Fashion Fabric Production in Diffrent Types of Looms
PLAIN ITEM REED SPACE CM RPM AVG PPI EFFICIENCY (SEMI AUTO) 190.50 1.00 51383.00 72.00 85.44 0.50 0.70 PROFIT /-MTR FOR PLAIN SEMI AUTO LOOM PROFIT PER MTR PROFIT PER YARN LAKHS PRIFIT PER YEAR LAKHS PROFIT AFTER CAP INT LAKHS 0.00 250.15 7.70 0.50 2.76 190 450 72 85 165.00 85.00 AUTOLOOM INDEG H.4 0.85 5.450 0.80
7.03 0.075 0.81 190 400 72 85 220.00 0.58 1.00 62.00 70.25 1.25 8 4.50 2.040
1.00 0.08 7.Assignment No.13 9.00 72.32 9.00 0.34 9.300 0.76 0.800 3.830 1.31 3.68 3.00 80.59 0.080 1. AIR JET IMPOR RAPIER W SW
RAPIER RAPIER 190.08 17 1.22 5.50 1.29 1.060 0.36
LOOM COST RS LAKHS 0.75 32116.92 190 300 72 85 146.45 3.58
6.00 180.08 1.04 6.15 1.50 1.49 4.00 0.2 0.50 77077 0.50 1.09
11.07 190.50 21763.50 2.93 1.97 0.41 1.19
1.2 0.600 2.26 3.080
INT ON CAPIT LAKHS 0.85
10.00 2.00 89922.52 0.00 1.20 0.40 0.33 1.4 0.55
PROD/YEAR MTRS/M C 11959.00 91.51 4.49 4.10 6.00 66.18 USED NEW PROJ.18 1.490 0.00 57806.14 1.17 EXPENS/MTR(RS) WAGES POWER MAINTENANCE INT ON WORKING CAPITAL WEFT YARN WASTE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES TOTAL EXPECTED VALUES LOSS % VALUE LOSS/MTR RS40/-PER MTR TOTAL WVG COST CONSIDERING NET OF RS.69 1.30 5 2.
00 250.20 2.10 10. Analysis of the results shows that shuttleless looms are more economical than shuttle looms due to the following reasons.00 0.57 190.00 450.30 1.70 2.60 10.10 0.25 8.MTR FOR S A L PROFIT PER MTR PROFIT PER YEAR LAKHS LOOM COST RS LAKHS LOOM COST RS LAKHS PROFIT PER MTR INT ON CAPT RS LAKHS PRO AFTER CAP INT RS LAKHS 1.22 5.00 80.50 0.00 52.65 0.64 0.93 1.90 0.06 4.00 52.68 17.00 3.00 1.45 12407.00 52.10 190.89 3.16 (SEMI AUTO) 190.34 6.71 0.64 0. 6
Comparison for Fashion Fabric Production in Diffrent Types of Looms
YARN DYED FABRIC REED 56.Assignment No.52 2.PICK52.48 4.19 1.03 0.71 4.
.00 86.15 1.00 180.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing
Table no.10 2.PER MTR.14 10.65 2. NEW RAPIER
RAPIER RAPIER 190.23 0. TOTAL WVG.90 3.60 9.75 4.18 10.16 0.65 2.74 1.00 90. COST CONSIDERING NET PROFIT DUE TO WEAVING OF RS 1.00 70.00 0.60 0.14 1.00 80.00
30135.64 0.93 2.00 52.45 1.30 1.19 0.50
Net profit is one of the major considerations to keep any organisation running.00 80.00 41849.24 75334.99 1.63"WIDTH 2/40S * 20S COTTON SHIRTING DROP BOX INDEG ITEM REED SPACE CM RPM AVG PPI EFFICIENCY % PROD/DAY MTRS/MC PROD/YEAR MTRS/MC EXPENS/MTR(RS) WAGES POWER MAINTENANCE INT ON WORKING CAPITAL WEFT YARN WASTE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES TOTAL EXPECTED VALUE LOSS % VALUE LOSS / MTR RS.69 0.19 1.00 8.65 2.00 0.00 0.60 10.00 1.00 119.50 2.00 215.09 0. 60/.00 17.00 35.50 4.86 1.00 1.50 USED IMPOR.00 14.00 6.11 1.00 3.50/.51 1.
Tanveer Malik Signature ________________ Grade ________________
.Assignment No.1 Advance Fabric Manufacturing