JEROME J. CONNOR, Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is Professor of Civil Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has been active in teaching and research in structural analysis and mechanics

at the U.S. Army Materials and Mechanics Research
Agency and for some years at M.I.T. His primary interest is in computer based analysis methods, and his current research is concerned with the dynamic analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels and the development of finite element models for fluid flow problems. Dr. Connor is one of the original developers of ICES-STRUDL, and
has published extensively in the structural field.

ANALYSIS OF
STRUCTURAL MEMBER

SYSTEMS
JEROME J. CONNOR
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

THE RONALD

PRESS COMPANY • NEW YORK

Copyright ©

1976 by

Ttrn RONALD PRESS COMPANY

All Rights Reserved

No part of this book may be reproduced
in any form without permission in writing from the publisher.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 74—22535
PRINTED IN ThE UNITCD STATES OF AMERICA

Preface

With the development over the past decade of computer-based analysis methods, the teaching of structural analysis subjects has been revolutionized. The traditional division between structural analysis and structural mechanics became no longer necessary, and instead of teaching a preponderance of solution details it is now possible to focus on the underlying theory. What has been done here is to integrate analysis and mechanics in a systematic presentation which includes the mechanics of a member, the matrix formulation of the equations for a system of members, and solution techniques. The three fundamental steps in formulating a problem in solid mechanics—. enforcing equilibrium, relating deformations and displacements, and relating forces and deformations—form the basis of the development, and the central theme is to establish the equations for each step and then discuss how the complete set of equations is solved. In this way, a reader obtains a more unified view of a problem, sees more clearly where the various simplifying assumptions are introduced, and is better prepared to extend the theory. The chapters of Part I contain the relevant topics for an essential background in linear algebra, differential and matrix transformations. Collecting this material in the first part of the book is convenient for the continuity of the mathematics presentation as well as for the continuity in the following development. Part II treats the analysis of an ideal truss. The governing equations for

small strain but arbitrary displacement are established and then cast into matrix form. Next, we deduce the principles of virtual displacements and
virtual forces by manipulating the governing equations, introduce a criterion for evaluating the stability of an equilibrium position, and interpret the governing equations as stationary requirements for certain variational principles. These concepts are essential for an appreciation of the solution schemes described in the following two chapters. Part III is concerned with the behavior of an isolated member. For completeness, first are presented the governing equations for a deformable elastic solid allowing for arbitrary displacements, the continuous form of the principles of virtual displacements and virtual forces, and the stability criterion. Unrestrained torsion-flexure of a prismatic member is examined in detail and then an approximate engineering theory is developed. We move on to restrained torsion-flexure of a prismatic member, discussing various approaches for including warping restraint and illustrating its influence for thin-walled
iii

PREFACE

and closed sections. The concluding chapters treat the behavior of planar and arbitrary curved members. How one assembles and solves the governing equations for a member sysopen

tern is discussed in Part IV. First, the direct stiffness method is outlined; then a general formulation of the governing equations is described. Geometrically nonlinear behavior is considered in the last chapter, which discusses member force-displacement relations, including torsional-flexural
coupling, solution schemes, and linearized stability analysis. The objective has been a text suitable for the teaching of modern structural member system analysis, and what is offered is an outgrowth of lecture notes

developed in recent years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. To the many students who have provided the occasion of that development, I am deeply appreciative. Particular thanks go to Mrs. Jane Malinofsky for her patience in typing the manuscript, and to Professor Charles Miller for his
encouragement.
JEROME J. CONNOR

Cambridge, Mass. January, 1976

Contents

I—MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARiES
1

Introduction to Matrix Algebra
1—i
1—2 1—3 1—4 1—5 1—6
1—7

1—8 1—9

Definition of a Matrix Equality, Addition, and Subtraction of Matrices Matrix Multiplication Transpose of a Matrix Special Square Matrices Operations on Partitioned Matrices Definition and Properties of a Determinant Cofactor Expansion Formula

3 5 5
8
10

12 16 19
21

Cramer's Rule 1—10 Adjoint and Inverse Matrices 1—11 Elementary Operations on a Matrix 1—12 Rank of a Matrix 1—13 Solvability of Linear Algebraic Equations
2

22 24 27 30

Characteristic-Value Problems and Quadratic Forms
2—1

46
46 48 52
55 57

2—2 2—3 2—4

2—5

Introduction Second-Order Characteristic-Value Problem Similarity and Orthogonal Transformations The nth-Order Symmetrical Characteristic-Value Problem Quadratic Forms

3

Relative Extrema for a Function
3—1

66
66
71

3—2

3—3

Relative Extrema for a Function of One Variable Relative Extrema for a Function of n Independent Variables Lagrange Multipliers

75 81
81

4

Differential Geometry of a Member Element
4—1

4—2

Parametric Representation of a Space Curve Arc Length
V

82

CONTENTS
4—3 4—4 4—5
4—6

Unit Tangent Vector Principal Normal and Binormal Vectors Curvature, Torsion, and the Frenet Equations Summary of the Geometrical Relations for a Space
Curve

85 86 88
91

4—7 4—8

Local Reference Frame for a Member Element Curvilinear Coordinates for a Member Element

92 94

5

Matrix Transformations for a Member Element
5—1

100
100 103 109

5—2 5—3

Rotation Transformation Three-Dimensional Force Transformations Three-Dimensional Displacement Transformations

Il—ANALYSIS OF AN IDEAL TRUSS
6

Governing Equations for an Ideal Truss
6—1

General

6—2
6—3

6—4
6—5

6—6 6—7

6—8 6—9

Elongation—Joint Displacement Relation for a Bar General Elongation—Joint Displacement Relation Force-Elongation Relation for a Bar General Bar Force—Joint Displacement Relation Joint Force-Equilibrium Equations Introduction of Displacement Restraints; Governing Equations Arbitrary Restraint Direction Initial Instability

115 116 120 125 130 130 132 134 137

7

Variational Principles for an Ideal Truss
7—1

152
152 153 159 162
165 169

General

7—2 7—3 7—4

Principle of Virtual Displacements Principle of Virtual Forces Strain Energy; Principle of Stationary Potential
Energy

7—5

7—6

Complementary Energy; Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy Stability Criteria

8

Displacement Method—Ideal Truss
8—1

178
178 178

General

8—2

8—3

Operation on the Partitioned Equations The Direct Stiffness Method

180

CONTENTS
8—4

8—5

Incremental Formulation; Classical Stability Criterion Linearized Stability Analysis

191

200

9

Force Method—Ideal Truss
9—1

General

210
211

9—2 9—3

9—4

Governing Equations—Algebraic Approach Governing Equations—Variational Approach Comparison of the Force and Mesh Methods

216 217

Ill—ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER ELEMENT
10

Governing Equations for a Deformable Solid
10—1

229
229 230 232 240 248

General

10—2
10—3 10—4

10—5 10—6

10—7

Summation Convention; Cartesian Tensors Analysis of Deformation; Cartesian Strains Analysis of Stress Elastic Stress-Strain Relations Principle of Virtual Displacements; Principle of Stationary Potential Energy; Classical Stability Criteria Principle of Virtual Forces; Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy

253

257

11

St. Venant Theory of Torsion-Flexure of Prismatic Members
11—1

271
271

11—2 11—3 11—4

11—5 11—6
11—7

Introduction and Notation The Pure-Torsion Problem Approximate Solution of the Torsion Problem for Thin-Walled Open Cross Sections Approximate Solution of the Torsion Problem for Thin-Walled Closed Cross Sections Torsion-Flexure with Unrestrained Warping Exact Flexural Shear Stress Distribution for a Rectangular Cross Section Engineering Theory of Flexural Shear Stress Distribution in Thin-Walled Cross Sections

273
281

286 293 303

306

12

Engineering Theory of Prismatic Members
12—1

330
330
331

12—2

Introduction Force-Equilibrium Equations

CONTENTS
12—3

12—4 12—5 12—6

Force-Displacement Relations; Principle of Virtual Forces Summary of the Governing Equations Displacement Method of Solution—Prismatic Member Force Method of Solution

333 339 340 349

13

Restrained Torsion-Flexure of a Prismatic Member
13—1

371

13—2 13—3

13—4
13—5 13—6

13—7 13—8
13—9

371 Introduction Displacement Expansions; Equilibrium Equations 372 Force-Displacement Relations—Displacement Model 375 Solution for Restrained Torsion—Displacement Model 379 Force-Displacement Relations—Mixed Formulation 383 Solution for Restrained Torsion—Mixed Formulation 389 Application to Thin-Walled Open Cross. Sections -395 405 Application to Thin-Walled Closed Cross Sections Governing Equations—Geometrically Nonlinear Restrained Torsion 414

14

Planar Deformation of a Planar Member
14—1

425
425 427

14—2 14—3

14—4

14—5

14—6

14—7
14—8

Introduction; Geometrical Relations Force-Equilibrium Equations Force-Displacement Relations; Principle of Virtual Forces Force-Displacement Relations—Displacement Expansion Approach; Principle of Virtual Displacements Cartesian Formulation Displacement Method of Solution—Circular Member Force Method of Solution Numerical Integration Procedures

429

435 445 449 458 473

15

Engineering Theory of an Arbitrary Member
15—1

485
485 488
490 .493 499 507
511

15—2 15—3

15—4 15—5
15—6 15—7

15—8

Introduction; Geometrical Relations Force-Equilibrium Equations Force-Displacement Relations—Negligible Warping Restraint; Principle of Virtual Forces Displacement Method—Circular Planar Member Force Method—Examples Restrained Warping Formulation Member Force-Displacement Relations—Complete End Restraint Generation of Member Matrices

517

CONTENTS

Member Matrices—Prismatic Member 15—10 Member Matrices—Thin Planar Circular Member 15—11 Flexibility Matrix—Circular Helix 15—12 Member Force-Displacement Relations—Partial End Restraint
15—9

520 524
531

535

tV—ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER SYSTEM
16

Direct Stiffness Method—Linear System
16—1

545
545 546 547 548

16—2 16—3 16—4

Introduction Member Force-Displacement Relations System Equilibrium Equations Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints

17

General Formulation—Linear System
17—1

554
554 555 557 559
560 562 565 567 570 573

17—2
17—3

17—4 17—5

Introduction Member Equations System Force-Displacement Relations System Equilibrium Equations

Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints;

Governing Equations Network Formulation 17—7 Displacement Method 17—8 Force Method 17—9 Variational Principles 17—10 Introduction of Member Deformation Constraints
17—6

18

Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Systems
18—1

585
585 585
591

18—2 18—3 18—4

Introduction Member Equations—Planar Deformation Member Equations—Arbitrary Deformation Solution Techniques; Stability Analysis

597

Index

605

.

Part I MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES .

.

A two-dimensional array having . ami.... . * In print. .a1. we refer to the order of a matrix as simply m x n rather than of order m by n.1 Introduction to Matrix Algebra 1—1. 3 .n rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m by n if certain arithmetic operations (addition. .. ..1 a12 a22 am2 - - a1. . the first subscript defines the row location of an element and the second subscript its column location. . Note that the first term in the order pertains to the number of rows and the second term to the nuiñber of columns. such as a11. such as a two-dimensional array. = = a a. For convenience. . a12.. - a2. The array is usually enclosed in square brackets and written as* a11 a21 a. DEFINITION OF A MATRIX An ordered set of quantities may be a one-dimensional array.. subtraction. a21. a22. multiplication) associated with it are defined. a matrix is represented by a boldfaced letter. a two-dimensional array.. .

. For a review. F. {c1} =c If the number of rows and the number of columns are equal. c2.4. a vector is defined as a quantity having both magnitude and direction.* Braces instead ofbrackets are commonly used to denote a column matrix and the column subscript is eliminated. the matrix is said to be square. and is represented by 0 (boldface. In mechanics. . if all the elements are zero. to save space. the elements are arranged horizontally instead of vertically. e..g. . Similarly. a matrix having only one column is called a column matrix or column vector.) Finally. such as force or moment. as in the previous case). A knowledge of Vector algebra is assumed in this text. by means of an italic letter topped by an arrow. the matrix is called a null matrix. .4 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. .2} 2 2 Square Matrix 5 [2 7 2 x 2 Null Matrix [0 [o 0 o * This is the mathematical definition of a vector. Example 3 1—1 x 4 Matrix 4 3 2—1 —7 1 2 —8 1 2 4 —3 1 x 3 Row Matrix [3 4 2] 3 x 1 Column Matrix f3] or 4Jor{3. preceding Problems). 2 (at end of chapter. 1 A matrix having only one row is called a row matrix. We will denote a mechanics vector quantity. see Ref. The various column-matrix notations are: C11 C21 C1 C2 {c1. Also. (Special types of square matrices are discussed in a later section.

Addition and subtraction operations are defined only for matrices of the same order.SEC. 1. The sum of two m x n matrices. — = = + — bLJ] For example. a and b. (1—6) (1—7) MATRIX MULTIPLICATION The product of a scalar k and a matrix a is defined to be the matrix in which each element of a is multiplied by k. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION EQUALITY. ADDITION. . the matrix equation a=b corresponds to mn equations: = = = 1... if k=5 then and [—10 ka=[ 10 +35 5 . . 1—2. For example. 2. are equal if they are of the same order and if corresponding elements are equal: a= b when If a is of order m x n. 1—3. . 2.m . is defined to be the m x n matrix + + Similarly. AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES Two matrices. a and b.. . if [1 then 2 ii —d [1 [0 b=[3 1 1 —1 —1 i 0 —1 3 and [1 2 —1 —1 It is obvious from the example that addition is commutative and associative: a+b=b+a a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c 1—3.

1 Scalar multiplication is commutative.6 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP.. . The result is a column matrix.rn 1. . Using column matrix notation. ka = ak = {ka11] To establish the definition of a matrix multiplied by a column matrix. . . we write (1—9) as a matrix product: = {c1} i= 1. .2 (1—11) Since (1—10) and (1—Il) must be equivalent. if a is of order r x s. the row order of which is equal to that of a. it follows that the definition equation for a matrix multiplied by a column matrix is ax = ulkxk} j = 1.2.. we consider a system of m linear algebraic equations in n unknowns.. .x2 + a12x2 + a21x1 + a22x2 + l2miXi + + + C1 = C2 + am2x2 + This set can be written as alkxk C1 i= 1. and x of order s x 1.. (1—9) takes the form i= Now.. Example 1—2 1 a= 11 8 2 x={3} -4j 1(1)(2) + (—1)(3) 4 + (3)(3) 9 . the product ax is of orderr x 1.rn where k is a dummy index. . In general. x1.m This product is defined only when the column order of a is equal to the row order of x. . That is. 2. 2.

Suppose that the n original variables x1. The element at the ith row and jth column of the product is obtained by multiplying corresponding elements in the ith row of the first matrix and the jth column of the second matrix.. 2. . ab: = ab = [bkJ] = [pt. . MATRIX MULTIPLICATION We consider next the product of two matrices. in (1—9) are expressed as a linear combination of s new variables Y1. we can write (1—15) as i 1. = i 1.ys: Xk = 1= k= 1. .] k 1.2 j— in (1—14) = Noting (1—12). Substituting for x in (1—11). py = C where p is in x . . in matrix form. x2. .2. .Y2...m Interchanging the order of summation. we also express the transformation of variables. ..s and y is S x 1. . .x. In general. .n This product is defined only when the column order of a is equal to the row order of b. . Now.SEC. ... This product is associated with a linear transformation of variables.2. and letting k=i the transformed equations take the form i = 1. . the product ab is of order r x q..n (1—13) Substituting for Xk in (1—10). . results in the following definition equation for the product. . aby=c and requiring (1—16) and (1—18) to be equivalent. . . 2. and b of order n x q. . if a is of order r x n.. 1—3. x = by which defines where b is n x s.

1 Example 1—3 (1)(1) + (0)(O) (O)(1) + (2)(O) (IXI) + (O)(1) (O)(1) + (2)(l) (1)(O) + 1) (1)(— 1) + (01(3) ab = (—l)(1) + (1)(O) (—1)(l) + (1)(l) (—1)(O) + (0)(0) + (2)(—1) 0 —1 (—1)(—1) + (1)(3) (0)(—1) + (2)(3) [+1 +1 0 —l ab=J_1 +4 [ 0 +2 —2 +6 If the product ab is defined. if a and b are square matrices of order 2. one should distinguish preinultiplication. from postrnultiplication ha. One should note that a and b will be conformable in either order only when a is in x n and b is n x in. a and b are conformable but b and a are not since the product ha is not defined. We shall indicate the transpose of a by . the matrices are said to commute or to be permutable. a and b are said to be confbrmable in the order stated. In the previous example. (ab)c (1—20) a(b + c) = ab + ac (b + c)a = ha + Ca but. multiplication of matrices is associative. not commutative. the products are [a11 [a21 [b11 [b21 a121[bij a22j[b21 b121[aji b22j[a21 b121 b22j — [aitbji + a12b21 a11b12 + a12b22 a21b12 + a22b22 [a21b11 + a22b21 — aizl a22] [bjjaj1 + b12a21 [b21a11 + b22a21 b11a12 + b12a22 b21a12 + b22a22 When ab = ha. ab ba (1—22) Therefore. in general. TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX is defined as the matrix obtained from a by The transpose of a = interchanging rows and columns. in multiplying b by a. 1—4. a(bc) = and distributive.8 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. For example. When the relevant products are defined. ab.

2 s and j = 1.. p79 = k1 = 2.. 2. at the ith row and jth column of aT. a79... 1—4 TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX 9 aT = {a79]: a11 a12 a1. is m x s and the element. = m Ilukbkf —1 . (1—23) a 021 a22 = = amj am2 a.. Using (1—24) and (b). For example. Pu..1 — (b) The transpose of p will be of order s x m and the typical element is p79 = (c) .] = (1—25) We consider next the transpose matrix associated with the product of two matrices. where now i varies from 1 to n and j from 1 to m. The product. a2. Let p==ab (a) where a is m x n and b is n x s. .m. where now I = write (c) as 1. . S k1 = (ab)T — j= (d) It follows from (d) that = bTaT Equation (1—26) states that the transpose of a product is the product of the . [3 2 T 1 a =[2 r3 7 1 5 4 Since the transpose of a column matrix is a row matrix.SEC. is given by a79 = (1—24) where is the element at the jth row and ith column of a. an alternate notation for a row matrix is [a1. we can 1. p. The element. a21 = [a79] = 012 022 am2 a. a2 a.

. where n is the number of rows. This rule is also applicable to multiple products. 2. A unit matrix is usually indicated by where n is the order of the matrix. SPECIAL SQUARE MATRICES If the numbers of rows and of columns are equal. n) lie on the principal diagonal. We will use d for diagonal matrices. Example 1—5 Square Matrix. the transpose of abc is (abc)T = cT(ab)T cTbTaT (1—27) Example 1—4 ab = Alternatively. the diagonal matrix is referred to as a unit matrix. If the elements of a diagonal matrix are all unity. Order 2 0 5 0 0 3 0 12[ 0 I LO . For example.10 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. Order 3 2 [2 [o Unit Matrix. . the matrix is said to be square and of order n. the matrix is called a diagonal matrix. If all the elements except the principal-diagonal elements are zero. .. Order 2 [1 7 [3 Diagonal Matrix. aT 13 6 (ab)T = [4 13 6] = [2 = —1] —1] (ab)T = bTaT = [2 = [4 13 6] 1—5. The elements (i = 1. 1 transposed matrices in reversed order.

1—5. Any square matrix can be reduced to the sum of a symmetrical matrix and a skew-symmetrical matrix: a=b+c = = + — (1-33) . SPECIAL SQUARE MATRICES We introduce the Kronecker delta notation: oij=0 +1 i—j i. the unit matrix can be written as = (1—29) Also. the diagonal matrix. (1—30) are the principal elements. .j = 1. In this case. Premultiplication of a by a conformable diagonal matrix d multiplies the ith row of a by and postmultiplication multiplies the jth column by Example 1—6 [2 [o —i][o 5j[O 5j[O _ij[o —5 [2 01[3 'l_[ 6 2 — 01[3 01[2 01 [6 0 ij [2 7] — [—2 —7 01 [3 11[2 [2 A square matrix a for which = property that a = If 7j[0 _1j[4 = (i [6 —' —7 is called symmetrical and has the j) and the principal diagonal elements all equal zero. 2 n (1—28) With this notation. One can easily show that multiplication of a by a conformable unit matrix does not change a: a Ima = a (1—32) A unit matrix is commutative with any square matrix of the same order.. = (1—31) Let a be of order rn x n.SEC. aT = — a. are all equal to k. d2. the matrix is said to be skew-symmetrical. d. two diagonal niatrices of order n are commutative and the product is a diagonal matrix of order a. If the principal diagonal elements . takes the form d= where d1. Similarly. the matrix reduces to = and is called a scalar matrix. .

result in symmetrical matrices. A matrix can be partitioned in a number of ways.subina. Some important properties of triangular matrices are: 1. For example.trices or cells. 2.* Finally. called . The transpose of an upper triangular matrix is a lower triangular matrix and vice versa. A square matrix having zero elements to the left (right) of the principal diagonal is called an upper (lower) triangular matrix. The product of two triangular matrices of like structure is a triangular matrix of the same structure. To reduce the amount of writing. a11 012 a22 a32 0131 023 a11 a12 032 013 a33 a11 a12 a32 a13 a33 a a21 031 = a1 031 a33J = a31 Note that the partition lines are always straight and extend across the entire matrix. one can easily show that products of the type (aTa) (aaT) (aTba) where a is an arbitrary matrix and b a symmetrical matrix. Examples are: Upper Triangular Matrix 352 071 004 Lower Triangular Matrix 300 570 214 Triangular matrices are encountered in many of the computational procedures developed for linear systems. [a11 [a21 0 1[b11 I 0 1 b22j I= [aijbij [a21b11 + a22b21 0 a22b22 1-6.12 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. . 1—7. The partitioning is usually indicated by dashed lines. OPERATIONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES Operations on a matrix of high order can be simplified by considering the matrix to be divided into smaller matrices. 1 The product of two symmetrical matrices is symmetrical only when the matrices are commutative. the submatrices are represented by * See Prob.

S We can write the product as C = ab = [CIk] M 1 C when . . ... We will use upper case letters to denote the submatrices whenever possible and omit the partition lines..i as a [A11 A121 [A21 A22J Ia11 I or a = [A11 [A21 Ia13 I A12 A22 where A11 = [a21 = [a31 a121 A12 = La23 A21 a32] A22 = [a33] If two matrices of the same order are identically partitioned. Example 1-1 We represent [au a12 a22 a13 a23 a=Ia. This restriction allows us to treat the various submatrices as single elements provided that we preserve the order of multiplication... M M (1—36) k= 1.SEC.. the rules of matrix addition are applicable to the submatrices. In general.. The sum is a +b = [A11 + 8fl LA2I + B21 + B121 A22 + B22j A12 (1-35) The rules of matrix multiplication are applicable to partitioned matrices provided that the partitioned matrices are conformable for multiplication. Let [A11 [A23 A121 [B11 A22J I [823 8121 B22j (134) where BLJ and A13 are of the same order... 1—6..2 . Let a and b be two partitioned matrices: a b [A131t = [B1d = 1. — ik i i 1.. a OPERATtONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES single symbol. 2.2. two partitioned matrices are conformable for multiplication if the partitioning of the rows of the second matrix is identical to the partitioning of the columns of the first matrix. — the row partitions of b are consistent with the column partitions of a. I = 1.

we consider the product a12 a13 b11 b12 1322 ab £121 1231 1222 a23 1233 a32 b31 b32 Suppose we partition a with a horizontal partition between the second and third rows: a11 1212 C1j3 1223 a 1221 1231 a22 r A11 = a32 a33 Since the column order of A11 and A21 is equal to the row order of b. we must partition b with a horizontal partition between the second and third rows. we consider the product au ab = 1221 a12 a22 a32 a13 h1 a23 033 h2 b3 1233 Suppose we partition a with a vertical partition between the second and third columns.14 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. Taking the product has the form = [A. no partitioning of b is required. b= b21 b22 = [811B12] b31 In this case. To show this. 1211 1212 a13 a= a21 a22 a23 a33 = [A11A12] a31 a32 For the rules of matrix multiplication to be applicable to the submatrices of a. 1 As an illustration. since the row order of B11 and B12 is the same as the column .1A12] = A11B11 + A12B21 The conformability of two partitioned matrices does not depend on the horizontal partitioning of the first matrix or the vertical partitioning of the second matrix. The product is ab = [A111 LA2ijb = [A21b b12 [A11b As an alternative. we partition b with a vertical partition.

. one first interchanges the off-diagonal submatrices and then transposes each submatrix. a= then A21 Arnt AT1 AT AT AT1 AT .SEC. 0 A1B1 0 .. . 1—6. The product of two quasi-diagonal matrices of like structure (corresponding diagonal submatrices are of the same order) is a quasi-diagonal matrix of the same structure. For example. no partitioning of a is necessary and the product has the form ab = a[B11B12] = [aBj1 aBi2] To transpose a partitioned matrix. . This is a partitioned matrix whose diagonal submatrices are square of various orders.. AT AT . AT A particular type of matrix encountered frequently is the quasi-diagonal matrix.. and whose off-diagonal submatrices are null matrices. OPERATIONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES order of a. A1 0 . . An example is a11 a= 0 0 0 a22 a32 0 a33 which can be written in partitioned form as a = [Ai A2] where A1 = [a11] A2 = [a22 a32 a23] a33 and 0 denotes a null matrix.. If A11 A12 A22 Am2 A1. A and We use the term quasi to distinguish between partitioned and unpartitioned matrices having the same form.. 0 0 A 0 are of the same order.. we call (1—40) a lower quasi-triangular matrix.. . 0 B1 0 .

Each product contains only one clement from any row or column and no element occurs twice in the same product. 2.. that is. e. we see that both expansions involve products which have the following properties: 1. These properties are associated with the arrangement of the column subscripts and can be conveniently is described using the concept of a permutation. x2.16 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA Cl-lAP. we obtain (a11a22 — a12a21)x1 (a11a22 — a12a21)x2 c2a12 = —c1a21 + c2a11 The scalar quantity. +a11a22a33 and —a11a23a32. Comparing (l—41) and (1—42). The determinant of an array (or matrix) is usually indicated by enclosing the array (or matrix) with vertical lines: a11 a21 a12 a22 = al = a31a22 — a12a21 We use the terms array and matrix interchangeably. 1 1—7. Also. with square matrices. which discussed below. since they are synonymous. we consider the simple case of two equations: a11x1 + a21X1 = + a22x2 = a12x2 C2 Solving (a) for x3 and x2. For example.j 1. (1. and x3.g. x2. we refer to the determinant of an eth-order array as an nth-order determinant. 3. The products differ only in the column subscripts. The determinant of a third-order array is defined as a11 a12 a22 a13 a33 +a11a22a33 a21 a31 a23 = —a12a21a33 + a12a23a31 (1—42) a32 +a13a21a32 — a13a22a31 This number is the coefficient of x1. 2). It shou'd be noted that determinants are associated only with square arrays. a1 1a22 — a21 a2 defined as the determinant of the second- order square array (i. To illustrate how this concept evolved. A set of distinct integers is considered to be in natural order if each integer is followed only by larger integers. DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES OF A DETERMINANT The concept of a determinant was originally developed in connection with the solution of square systems of linear algebraic equations. and x3. A rearrangement of the natural order is called a permutation of the set. obtained when the third-order system ax c is solved successively for x1. The sign of a product depends on the order of the column subscripts. 5) is in natural order and .

2) Total 2 4 2 None (4. • (2)(1). One can easily show that there are possible permutations for a set of n distinct integers. (3. n) and define . we consider the set (3. The number of inversions for a set is defined as the sum of the inversions for each integer. the definition equation for an . Working with interchanges rather than inversions is practical only when the set is small. 1)(3. 1) has three inversions and requires one interchange. . 1—7. . The number of products is equal to the number of possible permutations of the column subscripts that can be formed. Factorial n = 1)(n — 2) .. . we see that each product is a permutation of the set of column subscripts and the sign is negative the permutation is odd. We let .. Instead of cbunting the inversions. According to this convention. 2.5. .. . 2. 2) is an odd permutation. Working from left to right.. 3. 1. 2... (1. . .) an even permutation (1—43) . . the pair is said to form an inversion. 1.ith-order determinant can be written as a11 a21 a12 a22 a1. 3) and (3. Referring back to (1—41) and (1—42). is a. A permutation is classified as even (odd) if the total number of inversions for the set is an even (odd) integer.2.2) None 0 1 0 3 This set has three inversions. 3. . 4. • as • + — I 1 when when .3) is a permutation of(1. . ce. a2. .) be a permutation of the set (1.5). DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES OF A DETERMINANT (1. we can determine the number of integer interchanges required to rearrange the set in its natural order since an even (odd) number of interchanges corresponds to an even (odd) number of inversions. If an integer is followed by a smaller integer. For example. 1 = (1—44) where the summation is taken over all possible permutations of (1. 2).SEC. = n(n — . . n). is an odd permutation Using (1—43). As an illustration. the integer inversions are: Integer 3 1 Inversions (3. 2) are even permutations and (1.

If each element in one row (or one column) is expressed as the sum of two terms. If all elements of any row (or column) are zero. aT! = a!. It follows from property 2 that laTl * See a!. that is. If to the elements of any row (column) are added k times the corresponding elements of any other row (column). 1—19. 7. the determinant is zero. If all elements of one row (or one column) are multiplied by a number k. 1—18. 1 Example 1—8 The permutations for n = 3 are a1=1 cxi—1 x23 1 a33 a32 =3 e123=+1 e132=—1 =2 z1=2 a3=1 a32 a3=1 e231=+1 e312=+1 e321—-—1 Using (1—44). the determinant is unchanged. The value of the determinant is unchanged if the rows and columns are interchanged. 6. The following properties of determinants can be established* from (1—44): 1. 5. 2. then the determinant is equal to the sum of two determinants. in each of which one of the two terms is deleted in each element of that row (or column). then the determinant is zero.18 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. the sign of the determinant is changed. we obtain a11 a21 a12 a22 a32 a13 a11a22a33 — a11a23a32 a23 = —a12a21a33 + a12a23a31 a33 +a13a21a32 — a13a22a31 This result coincides with (1—42). the determinant is multiplied by k. . 1—17. If two successive rows (or two successive columns) are interchanged. We Probs. 3. We demonstrate these properties for the case of a second-order matrix. If corresponding elements of two rows (or two columns) are equal or in a constant ratio. 4. Let a = [a31 [a21 a22 The determinant is a! = a11a22 — a12a21 Properties 1 and 2 are obvious.

to illustrate property 7. are deleted. Finally. ka11 a22 = ka12 a12(ka1j) a11(kaj2) = 0 let a11 + c11 al a12 = b12 + c12 According to property 6. 1—8. Then. COFACTOR EXPANSION FORMULA in the square matrix.ii and a12 in (b).SEC. COFACTOR EXPANSION FORMULA illustrate the third by interchanging the rows of a: a' = [a21 a22 a12 = a21a12 — a11a22 = —Ia! a'! Property 4 is also obvious from (b). ibi = (a11 + ka21)a22 — (a12 + ka22)a21 = a! 1-8. a. we take b12 = a12 + ka22 b21 = a21 b22 = a7. the determinant of the remaining square array is called the minor of and is denoted by The cofactor of is related to denoted by the minor of by (1—45) = (— As an illustration. If the row and column containing an element. = associated with a23 and a22 are = —1 A23 = (— 1)5M23 = + A22 = (—1)4M22 = 1 M22 = = —37 —37 . we take a21 = Then a! = Next. we take a= The values of 328 531 1 7 4 and M23. hi + ci = ci a21 where b11 ibi This a21 b12 a22 a22 result can be obtained by substituting for O. To demonstrate the fifth.

This result is quite useful. called Laplace's expansion by cofactors or simply Laplace's expansion: = a1kAIk akJAkJ (1 —46) Equation (1—46) states that the determinant is equal to the sum of the products of the elements of any single row or column by their cofactors.20 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP.1 —44) is expanded9 in terms of the elements of a row or column. 1—21. for a discussion of the general Laplace expansion method. f See Ref. * See Probs. This leads to the following expansion formula. 3 15. 1—20. we take the cofactors for the first row and the elements of the second row: = a21(a22a33 — a23a32) + a22(—a21a33 + a23a31) + a23(a21a32 — a22a31) 0 (2) Suppose the array is triangular in form. if follows that k1 k = 0 (147) 0 s I The above identities are used to establish Cramer's rule in the following section. Example (1) a11 (121 1—9 We apply (1—46) to a third-order array and expand with respect to the first row: a12 a23 a32 a13 a23 a33 a31 = 2 a22 023 a33 + + 023 a31 + 0j3(— a22 1) 035 (133 a32 a11(a22a33 — a23a32) a52(—a21a33 + a23a31) + a53(a21a32 — 022035) To illustrate (1 —47). Since the determinant is zero if two rows or columns are identical. 4. lower triangular. The expansion in terms of cofactors for a iow Or a COlUmn is a special case of the general method. sect. Expanding with respect to the first row. we have 0 0 0 033 a21 031 a22 = a11 (122 0 033 = (a51)(a22a33) = a11a22a33 a32 032 Generalizing this result. 1 Cofactors occur naturally when (. . for example. we find that the determinant of a triangular matrix is equal to the product of the diagonal elements.

1—9. Suppose a square matrix. 4. 1 —25 for an important theoretical application of Eq. (1—48) is quite efficient. particularly when the array is large. t Example 1—10 [1 31 r2 = and Ic! 3 5] a! = Alternatively. 2. . say c. is expressed as the product of two square matrices.SEC. These procedures are described in References 9—13. 1—48. It can be shown* that the determinant of the product of two square matrices is equal to the product of the determinants: ci = a! hi (1—48) Whether we use (1—48) or first multiply a and b and then determine lab! depends on the form and order of a and b. CRAMER'S RULE The evaluation of a determinant. ii (a) See Ref. CRAMER'S RULE We consider next a set of n equations in n unknowns: = * j = 1. . using the definition equation (1—44) or the cofactor expansion formula (1—46) is quite tedious. If they are diagonal or triangular. . t See Prob. A number of alternate and more efficient numerical procedures for evaluating determinants have been developed. c='ab and we want cJ. . section 3—16. c hi 4 = —20 [ [11 29J [1 31 cj = —20 a=[0 a! = 5 Determining c first. . we obtain 5] bi = 8 r2 0 b__[1 Ic! = +40 rs 121 = [5 20] and ci = +40 1—9.

(b) reduces to lalxr = The expansion on the right side of (c) differs from the expansion al = ajrAj. . [Au]T{cj} (b) takes the form Equation (e) leads naturally to the definition of adjoint and inverse matrices. The expression for Xr (r = 1. if it exists. 2. Equation (c) leads to Cramer's rule. If jaf = 0.. . Then. 1—9). Singular matrices and the question of solvability are discussed in Sec. where r is an arbitrary integer from 1 to n.. All we can conclude from Cramer's rule is that the solution. 1 Multiplying both sides of (a) by Air.. n 1. a is said to be singular. Using matrix notation. and summing with respect to j. ax = c. . 1 —13. the denominator is al and the numerator is the determinant of the matrix obtained from a by replacing the rth column by c. Whether a solution exists in this ease will depend on c.22 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. ii (note that we have taken r = I in Eq. ADJOINT AND INVERSE MATRICES We have shown in the previous section that the solution to a system of n equations in n unknowns. summation) we obtain (after interchanging the order of Xk k1 Now. has a n) is unique solution when 0. 1—10... k and equals al when r = This follows from (1—47). the inner sum vanishes when r = j=1 k. which can be stated as follows: A set of n linear algebraic equations in n unknowns. 2 the ratio of two determinants. will not be unique. i.. 2. only in that the rth column of a is replaced by c. c of Sec.j can be expressed as 1 1.

To show this. we can write the solution of (a) as x= Substituting for x in (a) and c in (d). we obtain a1a = aa' It follows that (1—Si) is valid only when 0.SEC. Applying (1—48) to (i—Si).Adj a a= 0 1/5 +2/5 + 1/25 Using the inverse-matrix notation. Example 1—11 We determine the adjoint and inverse matrices for a= 2 The matrix of cofactors is 123 412 3 1 5 —1 0 —10 —10 +7 —1 —7 +5 5 Also. we take the transpose of (1—5 1). 1—10. we see that a1 has the property that = Equation (1—51) is frequently taken as the definition of the inverse matrix instead of (1—50). ADJOINT AND INVERSE MATRICES 23 We define the adjoint and inverse matrices for the square matrix a of order n as adjoint a = Adj a = inverse a = (1—49) a1 Adj a (1—50) Note that the inverse matrix is defined only for a nonsingular square matrix. If a is symmetrical. Then —i —7 Adja —1/5 0 —10 —10 +5 +7 —1 + 1/25 + 2/5 —7/25 +7/25 — = —-. aT: 1 (a_la)T = . Multiplication by the inverse matrix is analogous to division in ordinary algebra.. al = —25. then a is also symmetrical. and use the fact that a =.

. for any nonsingular square matrix. the inverse and transpose operations can be interchanged: bT. The addition. ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON A MATRIX The elementary operations on a matrix are:' 1.. I. the inverse of a multiple matrix product is equal to the product of the inverse matrices in reverse order. Suppose that we want to interchange rowsj and k. * Interchange Interchange and 5k• and See Prob. 2. 1—11. of k times the corresponding element of another row or column. = The determination of the inverse matrix using the definition equation (1 —50) is too laborious when the order is large. 3. 9—13. in the following way: 1. We consider a matrix a of order x n.. Let c= ab where a and b are both of order n x n and nonsingular. Then. For example. A number of inversion procedures based on (1—51) have been developed. These methods are described in Ref._t = (1—52) We consider next the inverse matrix associated with the product of two square matrices. These operations can be effected by premultiplying (for row operation) or postmultiplying (for column operation) the matrix by an appropriate matrix. The multiplication of the elements of a row or a column by a number other than zero. The interchange of two rows or of two columns. we premultiply a by an rn x in matrix obtained by modifying the mth-order unit matrix. Premultiplication and then b1 results in by a'c = b (b'a'')c = It follows from the definition of the inverse matrix that (ab)1 = (1—53) In general. to the elements of a row or column. 2. 1 Premultiplication by a' results in — a"' and therefore a1 is also symmetrical.. One can also show* that.24 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA 1 CHAP. called an elementary operation matrix. 1—28.

Example We 1—12 illustrate these operations on a third matrix: 1 1/2 7 1 1/5 2 5 a= We 3 —2 first: 1. Similarly. we put in the jth row and kth column of and postmu-ltiply. ea represents the result of applying a set of elementary operations to the rows of a. Since we start with a unit matrix and since the elementary operations. we interchange columns of the conformable unit matrix and postmultiply. we obtain e by applying the same operations to the conformable unit matrix. at most. change the value of the determinant by a nonzero scalar factor. 1—11. 2. * Add (—3) times the first row to the second row. ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON A MATRIX 25 For example. premultiplication by 001 010 100 interchanges rows 1 and 3 and postmultiplication by 1000 0001 0010 0100 interchanges columns 2 and 4. postmultiplication by an nth order diagonal matrix having = 1 for i j and = will multiply thejth column by Suppose that we want to add times row jto row k.SEC. ac represents the result of applying a set of elementary operations to thc columns of a. Then. properties of determinants (page 18).* it follows that e will always be nonsingular. The elementary operation matrices for operations (2) and (3) are also obtained by operating on the corresponding conformable unit matrix. if a is 3 x 4. Similarly. We let e denote an elementary operation matrix. See . To add z times column jto column k. The matrix which multiplies row j by is an mth order diagonal matrix having d1 = 1 for i j and = Similarly. Add (2) times the first row to the third row. Then. In general. This simple example shows that to interchange rows. to interchange columns. we insert in the kth row and jth column of and premultiply. we first interchange the rows of the conformable unit matrix and premultiply.

we multiply the second row by 2/11: 1 0 0 1 1/2 1/5 1 1/2 1 1/5 0 0 2. starting with a unit matrix.26 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. 1 These operations are carried out by premultiplying by —3 100 0 201 1 and the result is 1 1/2 1/5 0 0 11/2 2 7/5 27/5 Continuing. We write the result as ea = b where e is the product of the four operation matrices listed above: 0 e 0 0 —6/11 2/11 + 1870/2959 —220/2959 55/269 We obtain e by applying successive operations. we add (—2) times the second row to the third row: 1 0 1 0 1 1/2 1 1/5 1 14/55 1 0 0 269/55 Finally. 13). The form of e after each step is listed below: 100 0 0 001 1 Initial Step 1 —3 1 100 0 201 Step 2 1 0 0 0 1 —6/11 2 2/11 0 . and is the basis for the Gauss elimination solution scheme (Refs.'Il 0 0 1 0 0 11/2 2 7/5 = 0 14/55 27/5 0 2 27/5 Next. we multiply the third row by 55/269. This is more convenient than listing and then multiplying the operation matrices for the various steps. 11. The complete set of operations is 100 010 0 0 1 0 1 0110 1 1 0 0 012/110 —310 372 0 0 100 0 1 11/21/5 1 55/269 —2 0 1/5 1 2 —2 5 1/2 1 = 0 00 14/55 =b 1 This example illustrates the reduction of a square matrix to a matrix using elementary operations on rows. 9.

Then a has r rows which are linearly independent. This operation will not change the magnitude of Ar+t (see Sec. it has n — r columns which are linear combinations of r linearly independent columns. To establish this result. r. r < q n. 1—7). This follows from the fact that the elementary operation matrices are nonsingular. Step 3 1 RANK OF A MATRIX 27 0 2/11 —4/11 0 0 0 [1 —6/11 } Step 4 0 2/11 0 —6/11 +34/11 L+187o/2959 —220/2959 0 55/269 Two matrices are said to be equivalent if one can be derived from the other by any finite number of elementary operations. RANK OF A MATRIX The rank. 2.. the matrices 1 1/2 7 1/5 2 5 1 1/2 1 3 and 0 —21 00 1/5 14/55 1 are equivalent. and column q where r < p in. of a matrix is defined as the order of the largest square array. a11 a12 a22 ar2 aIr 01q a21 an azq (1—55) arr 0rq apq We multiply the elements in rowj by (j 1. as we shall see in the next section. In particular. Tn general. Let a be of order in x n. We consider the (r + 1)th-order determinant associated with the first r rows and columns. we determine the constants such that the first r elements . . a and b are equivalent if b = paq (1—54) where p and q are nonsinqular. which contain a nonvanishing determinant of order r. The concept of rank is quite important since. and the remaining rn — r rows are linear combinations of these r rows. Suppose the rank of a is r.r) and subtract the result from the last row. Also. which has a nonvanishing deter- minant. we suppose the determinant associated with the first r rows and columns does not vanish. . If a is of rank r. 1-12. . that is. the solvability of a set of linear algebraic equations is dependent on the rank of certain matrices associated with the set. 1—12. one can always rearrange the rows and columns such that this condition is satisfied. formed by deleting certain rows and columns. row p.SEC. Referring to Example 1 —12.

One can also show* that the last n — r columns of a are linear combinations of the first r columns. Then (1 —55) reduces to a11 012 022 a1. 1—39. a2r apr Equation (1—56) has a unique solution since the coefficient matrix is nonsingular.÷1 vanishes for all combinations of p and q. 1 in the last row vanish: a11 021 - 012 022 a.2 = 0p2 (1—56) a1. we see that A. .÷1 vanishes when a is of rank r. 02p .2 0 0rr 0 0 where = apq — (1—58) Orq] Applying Laplace's expansion formula to (1—57). Example 1—13 Consider the 3 x 4 matrix a=21 32 5 1234 7 12 14 ? See Prob. (1—57) a21 Ar+i a. Apr : 0p1 m (1—59) Combining (1—56) and (1—59).. It follows that apq = [aiq. A. we have a11 a21 0r1 4p1 012 022 r r+2 m (1—60) Equation (1—60) states that the last m — r rows of a are linear combinations of the first r rows.28 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP.

. + 223 = 5 22 = 7 we obtain If a is of rank 2. b2p B12 (1—61) 0 0 0 Example 1—14 [i a=)2 [5 First. . We know that band a have the same rank. 1—40. it is more efficient to reduce it to an echelon matrix rather than try to find the largest nonvanishing determinant: a11 (121 I (pxpt b12 II. Then. .SEC. we conclude that a is of rank 2. 1—12. we eliminate 2 1 3 3 4 2 12 7 12 and a31. This requires a3q = 2 101q + 22a2q = 3ajq + a3q q = 3. This fact can be used to dctcrmine the rank of a matrix. It follows that a is of rank p. A3 must vanish. A matrix having the form of b is called an echelon matrix. 2. When a is large.4 Since a33 and (134 satisfy this requirement. The rows are related by (third row) = + 3 (first row) + (second row) One can show* that the elementary operations do not change the rank of a matrix.. the first two rows are linearly independent. using the first row: 1 2 3 4 —8 0 0 * See —3 —3 —6 —3 —3 Prob. RANK OF A MATRIX 29 We see that a is at least of rank 2 since the determinant associated with the first two rows and columns is finite. We consider the determinant of the third-order array consisting of columns 1. Suppose b defined by (1—61) is obtained by applying elementary operations to a. and q: 1 2 1 ajq a2q a3q 2 5 7 Solving the system.

using the second row: —1 0 2 3 4 —2 —3 —3 —6 0 0 0 At this point. we eliminate aW.30 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. 0 1 SOLVABILITY OF LINEAR ALGEBRAiC EQUATIONS We consider first a system of two equations in three unknowns: [:: :: Suppose a is of rank 2 and a11 (1-64) a21 * See a22 0 (1—65) Prob. the third row by — 1/2. we multiply the second row by — 1/3. 1—44. consider the product a [—1/2 — [—1/2 +1/2 +1/2 01 1] 0 I Since each matrix is of rank 2. the rank of a will be we obtain Evaluating the product. and interchange the third and fourth columns: b= 0 1243 0010 1 2 1 Suppose a is expressed as the product of two rectangular matrices: a = (rnxn) (nxs) b c (1—62) One can show* that the rank of a cannot be greater than the minimum value of r associated with b and C: r(a) ruin [r(b). r(c)] (1—63) As an illustration. we see that r = 3. [0 It follows that a is of rank 1. . To obtain b. 1 Next. 1—13.

We partition a and x. Assuming that 0. when a is of rank 1. the second row is a scalar multiple. Finally. Then. we transfer the term involving X2 to the right-hand side: A1X1 = c — A2X2 (1—67) 0. we can write the solution as = Aj'(c — A2X2) (1—68) Since X2 is arbitrary. the equations are inconsistent and no solution exists. we have a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = C1 c2/A (1—69) 2cr. x1 C1 a is of rank in. The procedure followed for the simple case of 2 equations in 3 unknowns is also applicable to the general case of in equations in n unknowns: a11 (221 a12 a1. there exists an mth order array which has a nonvanishing determinant. Multiplying the second equation in (1—64) by 1/A. If this condition is satisfied. If a is of rank 1. a [a11 [a21 X1 a12 a22 a131 a23j [A1 A2] (1—66) çx1 1x2 and write (1—64) as A1X1 + A2X2 = c. 1—13. Next. The order of X2 is generally called the defect of the system. SOLVABILITY OF LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS If a is of rank 2. of the first row. The defect for this system is 1.. we can always renumber the rows and columns such that (1—65) is satisfied. We rearrange the columns such that the first in columns are . (1—64) has a solution only if the rows of c are related in the same manner as the rows of a. the solution is Tf c2 x1 = (1/a11)(c1 — a12x2 — a13x3) (1—70) The defect of this system is 2. the system does not have a unique solution for a given c. the two equations in (1—69) are identical and one can be disregarded. say A. it follows from Cramer's rule that (1—67) has a unique solution Since jA1j for X1.SEC.

Then. the relations between the rows of c must be the same as those for a. Partitioning a and x. and add to 0= C3 — — I12C2 (d) Unless the right-hand side vanishes. the solution involves n — m arbitrary constants represented by X2. The defect of the set is n — m. For (1—71) to be consistent. have a solution. Since IA1I Example 1—15 As an illustration.. 1 linearly independent.m+1 a2m÷1 am.. (c) is identically satisfied and we see that (a) has a nontrivial 0) only when r < 3.32 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. = [ A1 (mxm) A2 ] (1—72) am2 amni a. The remaining m — r rows are linear combinations of these r rows... we obtain the second by —A2. (1—73) can be solved for X1 in terms of c and X2. Suppose a is of rank r where r < m. a11 a12 az.. that is.* solution (x See Prob. 1—45. the elements of c must satisfy the requirement.. the equations are contradictory or inconsistent and no solution exists. When e 0. The defect for this case is n — r. a has r rows which contain an rth-order array having a nonvanishing determinant. we multiply the first equation in (a) by these equations the third equation. ai. x4 = c — A2X2 { X1 (m 1) ((n—rn)x 1) X2 } we write (1—71) as A3X1 (1—73) 0. The general case is handled in the same manner. Using (b). consider the third-order system a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = a21x1 + a22x2 + a73x3 = a31x1 + a32x3 + Suppose C1 (a) = C3 that r = 2 and the rows of a are related by (third row) = (first row) + (second row) (b) For (a) to be consistent.. A1C1 + 22C2 (c) To show this.m÷1 Xm az. . {x1 X2 Xm+i •. that is.

HOUN. 4. Thus. 1958. Faddeeva.. Interscience Publishers. 13). Dover Publications. THOMAS.2 [a Cm cJ (1—74) a. Reading. 6. Prentice-Hall. JR. Waltham. ci. R. R. 7. It follows that (1—71) has a solution only if the rank of the augmented matrix is equal to the rank of the coefficient matrix: = r(a) (1—75) Note that (1—75) is always satisfied when r(a) = m for arbitrary c. New York. 2.: Computational Methods of Linear Algebra. 1969. 11.. Mass. Mass. the problem reduces to first finding r@) and then solving a set of r independent equations in n unknowns. E. Prentice-Hall. V. C1 = afl. HADLEY. Reading. (1 —71) can be solved when r < . 1964. 1961. cambridge University Press. W. F. HIL DEBRAND. F. We define the augmented matrix. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. A. . for (1—71) as a11 a12 a2. J. the rank of tz is equal to the rank of a. (1—71) contains r independent equations involving n unWhen knowns. 1959.: Methods of Applied Mathematics. A. NOBLE. 3. B.flfl When the rows of a and c are related in the same way.. DUNCAN and A. Macmillan Co. The remaining m — r equations are linear combinations of these r equations and can be disregarded. E. G.: Elementary Matrix Algebra.. S. N. New York. New York. The complete problem can be efficiently handled by using the Gauss elimmation procedure (Refs. cOLLAR: Elementary Matrices. London. New York. is of rank r(a). Blaisdell. 5.: Applied Linear Algebra.. 1953.REFERENCES 33 In general. B. If no solution exists. 8. REFERENCES 1. 1952.n if the relations between the rows of a and c are identical. 1956. 1963. r(a)..: Linear Algebra. 9. BODBWIG.: The Theory of Matrices in Numerical Analysis. HOUSEHOLDER. G. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co...: Calculus and Analytical Geometry. New York.: Matrix calculus. B. The reduction can be represented as (1-76) where > r(a) and has a nonvanishing element. We can determine r(cz) and i(a) simultaneously using elementary operations on provided that we do not interchange the elements in the last column.. Mass. 9.

B. 1965. A. G. New York. a2. Vol. and C. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. . . PROBLEMS 1—1.j (b) {ai. Reading. I. b. S. 1967. R. [b1. Prentice-Hall. A. Vol. MALER: Computer Solution of Linear Algebraic Systems. 14. Wiley. b2. (c) a2. P. I and 2. 1967. . . 2. and H. b2 [a11 [a21 [c1 01 c2j a12 [o a22 . E. New York. 1965. Mass. ZHIDKOV: Computing Methods. New York. . 1 RALSTON. Prentice-Hall. WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers.. FORSYTHE.. McGraw-Hill. Wiley.: Matrix Iterative Analysis. Vols. . 15. RALSTON. . 1. 13.: Elementary Numerical Analysis. . VARGA. {b1. D. New York. CONTE.. WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. . New York. INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. . 1960. 12. and N.3 5 6j[ 3 —1 2 (c) [1 3[3 21 [—i ii [2 4j+2[ 0 3j4[l 3 (d) [i [—i [ —2152 4J 55 [—3 (e) l][4 —3j [2 1 2 3 [4 11 3j [—i [ I [2 1—2. 11. . . 1962.34 10. S. BEREZIN. and H. Carry out the indicated operations: 1 (a) 321 +713 510 056 (b) [2 1 1 4 0 2 . 2 —3 Expand the following products: [a1. S. S. S.

Suppose the elements of a and b are functions of y. show that if = ab then dc dy 1—5. =a—+—b db dy da dy Consider the triple product. abc. (a + b)(a + b) Show that the product of two symmetrical matrices is symmetrical only when they are commutative. 1—8. Evaluate the following products: (a) F for the 41 [1 [—2 (b) ij [2 sj 21 [5 [4 1 1 1—7. Show that the following products are symmetrical: (a) aTa (b) aTba (c) where b is symmetrical where c is symmetrical bTaTcab . 1—4. When is this product defined? Let p = abc What is the order of p? Determine Determine an expression for aT. a121 0 C2 022j [0 Show that the product of Sl= a1+ a2 + 03 = S2 = + b2 + b3 3 = bk can be written as 3 S1S2 I 1 Generalize this result for the sum of n elements. Let cia — db — — [dblk] dy [dv j c dy [dy j Using (1—19). case where c 1—6. where a is a square matrix.PROBLEMS 35 (d) [Cii [021 1—3.

Illustrate for the case of one partition. Suppose we symmetrically partition c. What restrictions are placed on the partitions of a and b? Does it follow that we must also partition a and b symmetrically? Hint: See Prob. Hint: See Eq. A matrix is said to be symmetrically partitioned if the locations of the row and column partitions coincide.. using the indicated submatrices: 1 3 4 51 1 3 1—10. For example. N . a (a) Suppose we partition a square matrix with i. C= a symmetric rth-order square matrix and a is of order r x ii. (1—37). (b) If a = aT. c= (a) ab If a and b are symmetrically partitioned.. Consider the triple product. the same order. 1 1-9. deduce that 1—12. A12 A22 (b) 1—13. The order of the partitioned matrices are indicated in parentheses.g. 1 symmetrical partitions. Ars = have the same order. . 1—11.. a11 a21 a31 012 0131 a22 a32 a23 a33 is symmetrically partitioned and a11 a31 is a12 a13 033 a32 N— unsymmetrically partitioned. Consider the product of two square nth order matrices. (pxp) (pxq) (nxn) — — [C11 C12 [c21 (q><p) c22 (qxg) . Evaluate the following matrix product. Suppose we symmetrically partition c. show that CJk.j = 1. Show that the horizontal partitions of c correspond to those of a and the vertical partitions of c correspond to those of b. AJk. Let c = ab. Deduce that the diagonal submatrices are square and Ars.36 INTRODUCTION TO MATRtX ALGEBRA CHAP. 1—10. a — are of [A11 [A2. e. 2.

2. al = 1—18. We obtain (b) by rearranging (a) such that the second subscripts are in natural order. Determine the number of inversions and interchanges for the (4. 5) have? 1a1122a1h3 The first subscripts in (a) are in natural order. Using this result. 1) we obtain e312a31a12a23 fi = (3. 1—iS.2) (3. Consider the third-order determinant a! = .1. A2.PROBLEMS (a) 37 Show that the following partitioning of a is consistent with that of c. Express (j.3. 1. 4. (b) takes the form = = Show that (c) = —(a) Generalize this result and establish that the sign of a determinant is reversed when two rows are interchanged.2) in terms of A1.2) is Show that if is an even permutation. For example. 1) following sets. show that = p also an even and. Suppose that = Then. How many permutations Consider the terms does (1. Show that da = bd = when the matrices are [DJAJk] [BJkDk] conformably partitioned. (a) (b) 1—16. k = 1. 1—19. Let d = [Di] be a quasi-diagonal matrix. 1—17. permutation. Consider the terms . (r x n) (r X p1 a ={A1 (r x q) A2] (b) 1—14. rearranging e231 a12 a23 a31 = (2. and b. in general. 4. 3. 3. 2. (fl1.

We can write the expansion for the third-order determinant as \ i=1 ( \j = k / ) t. establish Laplace's cofactor expansion formula for an nth-order determinant.. 3 l2—* 132—* 123 231 —*21 3—* 123 Show that In — p1 adjacent interchanges (called transpositions) are required. .38 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. Use Laplace's expansion formula to show that 1 0 0 o b12 b22 b2P 0 9 o b11 0 (pxp) a (pxn) . — 1—20. which is located at position p. — — Using the result of the previous problem. . 1 Suppose the second row is a multiple of the first row: = Generalize this result and establish = 0. For example. (Hint: = Show that properties 5 and 7 of Sec.i a11 0n1 (un (12.7 012 a22 bFa = al (nXn) bni 1—23. We can put the set in natural order by successively interchanging adjacent integers. k12 0n2 Consider the quasi-diagonal matrix. 1—7. and (a) reduces to 3 3 — = Following this approach. 1—22.J.. Suppose all the integers of a set are in natural order except for one integer. say n. It follows that the sign of the resulting set is changed by 1) In — 1—21. (pxp) d_[D1 [o (qxp) By expressing d as 0 (qxq) D2 0 [o Iqj[0 D2 .

of various orders. deduce that this requirement leads to the . g. b. Suppose we express a as the product of a lower triangular matrix. 1—25. Verify this result for 1100 2 3 d— Generalize for d 1—24. = jG1 (pxp) (pxq) 0 G22 (qxq) Show that G221 Generalize for a quasi-triangular matrix whose diagonal submatrices are square. 2.11 G11B12 = A12 G21B11 = A21 G21B12 (b) + G22B22 = A22 1G111 Show that A111 = BijI and al = 1G111 G22j 1B111 1B221 (c) Suppose we require that By taking p = 1. 0 0 0021 0053 [A... (a) Show that = A. a11 a21 a12 g11 0 g22 0 0 b11 b12 b22 a22 '1n2 az.PROBLEMS show that dl = D11 D21. . = g21 ? 0 1n2 Yflfl 0 bflfl introduce symmetrical partitions after row (and column) p and write the product as We (pxp) (pxq) (pxp) (pxq) 0 (pxp) [A1. (qxp) 1[Bi. LA21 (qxp) A121 (qxq) [G1. . (qxp) (pxq) B12 A22J — [G2. G22J[0 (qxq) B22 (qxq) Note that the diagonal submatrices of g and b are triangular in form. Let g — [Gii [G2.n — 1. . and an upper triangular matrix.

Starting with the condition aa' 13 . Does the following set of equations have a unique solution? 1 2 3 7 3 x1 X2 2 1 5 = 3 3 ii x3 5 1—27.. where the order of BJk is the same as AJ1. 82.40 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. 1—26. 123 1 3 7 5 3 11 exist? T = Find the inverse of Show that b1' bT. (a) [1 3 [3 (b) 2 [2 4 [i (c) S [1 31[2 4 [3 (d) 2J[l s [2 O1[2 [o Let a12 3j[l s a [A11 A12 A22 = 31 = [A2. 32 — 33 and B32 [8. 1 following n conditions on the elements of a: a11 a12 2 aj1 aj2 The determinant of the array contained in the firstj rows and columns is called the jth-order discriminant. Determine the adjoint matrix for a= Does a 1—28.

Use this result to find the inverse of 124 212 121 A 1—3!. Suppose we want to rearrange the columns of a in the following way: 1 2 1 3 3 a= 2 3 4 5 col2—+coll col3—*col2 . [B11 01[1 0 1 [o ij[o a= 3 j[o B22 Consider the 3 x 4 matrix 1121 1211 1 2 2 Determine the elementary row operation matrix which results in a21 = = Oand a11 022 033 = +1. A22 0. Show that the following elementary operations 0 and on the partitioned rows of a reduce a to a triangular matrix. Let (pxp) (p'<q) a31 = a where [A11 A12 (qxq) [A2. B22 are square and nonsingular. Find the inverse of L0 lq Note that A is (p x q). Use the results of Probs. Hint: write has b 1—34. k 1. 1-32. Determine °1 [ L0 cj [A21 lqj [0 — A 01 01 [A11 Iqj [A21 Aizi — AW A22J — [o Iq AIA \1 1—36. 1—31 and 1—32 to find the inverse of b — [B11 B12 [o B22 where B11. 1—35. Find the inverse of 0 D2 1—33. 2).PROBLEMS 41 determine the four matrix equations relating BJk and Aft (j.

Let a be of order in x ii and rank r. Show that = a! 2. Generalize for the case where a is n x n.nultiplication by same way. Using properties 3. consider the first r rows and columns to be linearly independent. the nth columns are multiples of the first column. second. 1 Show that postmultiplication byIl(which is called a permutation matrix) results in the desired column rearrangement: o 0 11 H= 1 0 01 o i oj rearranges the rows of a in the Note that we just rearrange the corresponding columns of 13. third 1—38. Determine the rank of (a) 1 3 7 5 3 2 4 —4 —10 2 3 (b) 1 —1 2 —1 4 6 —2 1 —2 —3 1—39. show that when r = 1.. where n the second row is a multiple of the first row. Also.42 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA (a) CHAP. (d) (e) Show that 11TH 13. and 7 of determinants (see Sec. 1—41. a— 1122 2132 7797 4 2 1 . Let a be of order 2 x n. Verify for a= 2 1234 1 3 2 5 7 12 14 1—40. (b) (c) Show that pre. 1—7). For con- venience. Show that a is of rank 1 when 1—37. Show that a has n — r columns which are linear combinations of r linear independent columns. Find the rank of a by reducing it to an echelon matrix. 4. deduce that the elementary operations do not change the rank of a matrix.

a11 a12 r b11b12 b is of rank 1 and b11 0. row and therefore r(c) 1 —44.. When will r(c) = 0? Suppose r(a) = 1 and a11 0.. = Show that the second.. . Consider the product a11 a21 mth rows of c are multiples of the first When will r(c) = 0? a1. Then. -. A3 = p= 1 j = ra + 1. a1 a2 C : When will r(c) 1—43. In this case.2 ' b11 b12 h22 b21 a. we can write cblk) (j)2kj (b) Show that the second... - B1 {b11b21 - - Using (b). a12 a22 a. we can write (a) as A1 A2 Am Suppose r(a) = r4....3. r(b) rb. . we assume the first r0 rows of a and the first r1 columns of b are linearly independent. 43 Show that c is at most of rank 1.PROBLEMS 1—42. third.. 0? Consider the product.m 1. we can write . m . For convenience. . ra + 2. Then.1 h2 = - Let - .. .. nth columns of c are multiples of the first column and therefore r(c) 1. third j = 2.

1 . Verify for U 1—45. suppose a is of rank r and the first r rows are linearly independent. . 2. . of the first columns. What canyou conclude about A1 is orthogonal toB1.B2 Br? Utilize these results to find the rank of —1/2 1/2 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 —1/2 —1 1/2 1 1 1 1 2 (f) Suppose ra = rb = s. Tb + 2. . Then. . + 2. Let = Using (b). . Bk = q 1 XkqBq k— + 1. n of c are linear combinations From (a) and (b). A2 B2 [1 B •. Consider the m x n system a12 021 Gm i X1 C1 022 0 C2 2 0R111 X.. r + 2 m (a) Show that the system is consistent only if Ck k= p=1 i• + 1. . . in of c are linear combinations of the first rows. in Note that this requirement is independent of whether in < n or in > n. . . .. 2 (c) Now. what can you conclude about an upper bound on r(c)? (d) To determine the actual rank of e. . (a) Show that rows ra + 1. fl2 in = 1. r + 2. .44 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA rb CHAP.. we write (a) as . . . A3x = j A1 = k = r + 1. . A2Brb Suppose ra (e) Tb. Show that r(e) = s.. j 1. we must find the rank of A1 A1B1 A1B2 A2B2 AraB2 A1Br1. (c) + 2.. (b) Show that columns Tb + 1. A2B1 rb] •.. ...

(a) . Consider the following system of equations: x1 + X2 + 2x3 + 2x4 4 2x1+x2+3x3+2x4=6 3x1-l-4x2+2x3+x4=9 7x1 +7x2+9. (b) Find the solution in terms of x4. the equations are consistent for an arbibrary c. Is this also true when rn > n and r = n? Illustrate for [i [i and —1 2 11 4] 1 1 X2 fc1 C1 —1 1 2 c2 4 c3 1—46.x3+7x4=23 Determine whether the above system is consistent using elementary operations on the augmented matrix.PROBLEMS 45 (b) If m < n and r = m.

we can write (2—i) as ax or (a — 212)x 0 (2—3) Ax (2—2) The values of 2. for which nontrivial solutions of (2—i) exist are called the characteristic values of a. 2—1." 46 . Also. The term "cigenvalue" is a hybrid of the German term Elgenwerte and English "value. We illustrate for the system shown in Fig.2 Characteristic-Value Problems and Quadratic Forms 2—i. the problem of finding the characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions of (2—i) is referred to as a second-order characteristic-value problem.* problem occurs naturally in the free-vibration The analysis of a linear system. INTRODUCTION Consider the second-order homogeneous system. (ajj 2)x1 + at2xz 0 a25x1 + (a22 — A)x2 = 0 where A is a scalar. The equations of motion for the case of no applied forces (the free-vibration case) are d2y2 + k2(y2 — k2(y2 — 0 y1) m1 d2y + k1y1 — = 0 * Also called "eigenvalue" problem in some texts. Using matrix notation.

. and the amplitudes.* 2—co2 A2 = and the final equations are k2 k1+k2_ — —== 2 = A — rn1 k2 A1 + 'fl2 A2 = 2A2 characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions of (e) are related to the natural frequencies and normal mode amplitudes by (d). The as we shall see in the following sections. ] Fig. I Although the application to dynamics is quite important. 2—i. our primary reason for considering the characteristic-value problem is that results obtained for the characteristic value problem provide the basis for the treatment of quadratic * See Prob. This fact is quite significant. Note that the coefficient matrix in (e) is symmetrical.SEC. NTRODUCT$ON 47 Assuming a solution of the form — A iwt y2zize A and substituting in (a) lead to the following set of algebraic equations relating the frequency. A system with two degrees of freedom. 2—1. A2: (k1 + k2)A1 — k2A2 = in1w2A1 —k2A1 + k2A2 = m2w2A2 We can transform (c) to a form similar to that of(2—1) by defining new amplitude measures. 2—1. A1. w.

and stability criteria (Chapters 7. 0 (2-5) Expanding (2—5) results in the following equation (usually called the characteristic equation) for 1: 22 — (a11 + a22)). 2 forms which are encountered in the determination of the relative extrema of a function (Chapter 3). Example 2—i [2 a={2 2 =2÷ 5= The characteristic equation for this matrix is 22 — 7 P2 = (2)(5) — (2)(2) = 6 72 +6= 0 . a12 a22—). the solution is 21.48 PROBLEMS CHAP. SECOND-ORDER CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEM We know from Cramer's rule that nontrivial solutions of — 2)x1 + a12x2 A)x2 — 0 0 a21x1 + (a22 — when a11 — a21 A = (2—4) are possible only if the determinant of the coefficient matrix vanishes. 18). Reference 9 contains a definitive treatment of the underlying theory and computational procedures. it follows that the characteristic values for a symmetrical second-order matrix are always real. and — (2—9) = (a11 a22)2 + 4(a12)2 Since this quantity is never negative. the construction of variational principles (Chapter 7). a12 = a21.2 = (P1 ± When a is symmetrical. that is. + (a11a22 — a21a12) = 0 (2—6) We let = a11 + a22 = a11a22 — a12a21 = H and the characteristic equation reduces to 22 — (2—7) + P2 = 0 (2—8) The roots of (2—8) are the characteristic values of a. This discussion is restricted to the case where a is real. Denoting the roots by 22. 2—2.

[1 —2 —! 131=0 A. we work with the second equation.1. we suppose the characteristic values are real. and the resulting column matrix. times the first eq. In what follows. denoted by Q1. SECOND-ORDER CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEM 49 Solving (a). . 2—2.1)x1 + a12x2 = = 0 0 a21x1 + (a22 — The second equation is related to the first by second eq. We define as the solution for A = 0. is referred to as the characteristic vector for = a12 (2—10) = By definition. the solution of the first equation is that a12 xi') = 1) C1 = 012 where c1 is an arbitrary constant.1 2— ±j where i= By definition. Equation (2—4) becomes (a11 — A. we let and take c1 such that = 1. (Oii — %1)(a22 — — a12a21 = 0 Since only one equation isindcpendcnt and there are two unknowns. This follows from the fact that the coefficient matrix is singular. Continuing. nontrivial solutions of (2—4) exist only when 2 = or 22.SEC. We consider first the case where A A. This operation is called normalization. the soluAssuming* tiOn is not unique. + L —_2112 J - Q1Q1 = 1 (2—11) if a12 0.

c2} The corresponding characteristic vectors are Q1 = {+1. QIQ2 0 when a is unsymmetrical. 2 Since Qi is a solution of (2—4) for A = we see that A1Q1 A2. Using this terminology. Two nth order column vectors U. and the two independent solutions {c1. In general. (2—15) we have Q1Q2 — — —C1C2 /1 + (a11 - — A1)(a11 2 a12 — A2) Now. This result is also valid when the roots are equal. From (2—10) and (2—13).50 CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. aQ2 + L j (2—14) = It remains to discuss the case where A1 = A2. V having the property that and UTV=VTU=0 (2—16) are said to be orthogonal. +1} If a is not symmetrical. when a is symmetrical. If a is symmetrical.0} Q2 = {0. . there is only one independent nontrivial solution when the characteristic values are equal.right-hand term vanishes since a11 — A2 —(a22 — A1) = — a11 — we see that QrQ2 = 0. Q1 and Q2 are orthogonal for the symmetrical case. Equation (2—4) takes the form (a11 — A)xi + (0)xz 0 (O)x1 + (a11 A)x2 = 0 These equations are linearly independent. It is of interest to examine the product. 0} {0. the characteristic values will be equal only when a11 a22 and a12 = c121 = 0. the. QfQ2. aQ1 = (2—12) Following the same procedure for A = Q2 = c2 we obtain (2—13) ) where = Also.

c1 = Then. = and — — j = 1. Solving the first equation. SECOND-ORDER CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEM Example 2—2 [2 a=[2 2 A1=+6 The equations for A = A2=+1 +6 are —4x1 + 2x2 = 0 2x1 — =0 We see that the second equation is we obtain times the first equation. Actually. QTQ2 = [1 A1—_+i —2 —l A2=—i We have included this example to illustrate the case where the characteristic values are .2 — Ii a=[t 8 3 The characteristic values and corresponding normalized solutions for this matrix are 1 Q2 = {4.SEC. we find = Q2 One can easily verify that c2{1. and = 2} = 2c1 the normalized solution is Q1 Repeating forA = and A2 = +1. — l} We see that 0. 2—2.

12 is the complex conjugate of We determine c1 such that Then. xt2> is the complex conjugate of = I Finally. we take c2 = c1. where the characteristic vectors define the normal modes of vibration for a discrete system. the characteristic values are complex conjugate quantities when the elements of a are real. we let q=[Qj = (2—17) We call q the normalized Column j of q contains the normalized solution for modal matrix* for a. the corresponding characteristic vectors are complex conjugates.2 = Qt. the characteristic values and characteristic vectors are 21. The equations corresponding to 2 (1 — i)x1 x5 — are 2x2 0 (1 + i)x2 = 0 Note that the second equation is (1 — i) times the first equation. (b) takes the form aq = (2—18) * This terminology has developed from dynamics. SIMILARITY AND ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS The characteristic vectors for the relations: system satisfy the following (a) aQ1 = aQ2 = We can write (a) as 22Q2 Q2] = EQ1 2j Q2] (b) Now.52 PROBLEMS CHAP. The general solution is x(1t = Repeating for c1 2= 12. 2 complex. we find = c2 1-3-i} Now. When the roots are complex. Also. .2 = In general. With this notation. 2—3.

the normalized characteristic vectors are orthogonal. we see that q q = [QTJ [Qi [Qfl Q2] qT [1 0 1 [o and it follows that (2—20) A square matrix. q1 exists and we can express (2—18) as q'aq = (2—19) The matrix operation. reduces a to a diagonal matrix whose elements are the characteristic values of a. — — Using these properties.-1} —[0 0 +1] q=[Qi . provided that 0 except for the case where a is 11. 2—3. pT( )p. having the property that is called an = orthogonal matrix and the transformation. the modal matrix for a symmetrical matrix is orthogonal and we can write qTaq = (2—21) Example 2—3 p' [2 +6 2 5 Q2{2. by definition. that is. p is arbitrary.SEC.2. is called a similarity transformation. They are also independent when a is unsymmetrical. If a is symmetrical. AND ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS 53 We have shown that the characteristic vectors are always linearly indepen- dent when a is symmetrical. Equation (2—19) states that the similarity transformation. Then. q1( )q. is called an orthogonal transformation. unsymmetrical and the characteristic values are equal. say p. — — — — Also. Note that an orthogonal transformation is also a similarity transformation. If 0. Then.

-1 ( 1— [— One can easily verify that q j [5 01 [.15/6 — [\/17/6 — [1 —2 01 Lo —iJ [1 1 q involves complex elements. they are linearly independent and q -' exists. qT q Actually. 2 We verify that qT = q' and qTaq = 1 [1 21 [1 21 1 [5 01 —lj[2 1 aq — — [2 21[1 [2 [1 21 1 [6 sj[o i 2 [1 0 —ij — [12 —1 I q T aq i[i = 5L2 —ij[o 21[6 01 21 21[6 [6 01 _-1][12 —ii = [o ij = (2) [1 8 3 = +5 Qi = +1} 01 — Lo Since —ij q a is not symmetrical. using the definition equation for the inverse (Equation (1—50)): .54 PROBLEMS CHAP. Since the characteristic vectors are complex conjugates. We find q — 1.

g. . 2. The normalized characteristic vectors Q1. . . . Q. 2—4 THE nth-ORDER SYMMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 55 One can easily verify that q -1 [+i 0 01 2—4.. + (2-26) We summarize below the theoretical results for the real symmetrical case. = 2522 + 2523 + . and expressing the characteristic equation in factored form.. QTQJ = i.2 * Minors having a diagonal pivot (e.4 0 (2—24) The expansion of the determinant is + where + + = 0 = a11 + a22 ± and (2—25) - is the sum of all the jth order minors that can be formed on the diagonal. are orthogonal: .. ..j = 1. we see that . The proofs are too detailed to be included here (see References 1 and 9): 1.SEC. They are generally called principal minors.* Letting 22. we suppose a is real. . delete the kth row and column). For (2—23) to have a nontrivial solution.. . denote the roots. the coefficient matrix must be singular.. THE nth-ORDER SYMMETRICAL CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEM The nth order symmetrical characteristic-value problem involves determining the characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions for a11x1 + a12x2 + a12x1 + + + + = Ax1 — AX2 (2—22) + We can write (2—22) as + + ax = AX (2—23) (a — 0 In what follows. .. a — AI. Q2.. The characteristic values are all real. 22.

51 +0.0 .56 3.28 To determine the characteristic solutions.3 Finally.2.22 q = [Q1Q2Q3] = +0. we expand ax = 2x.10 a= 2 120 1 0 3 0 . the modal matrix (to 2-place accuracy) is +0. 2 a is diagonalized by the orthogonal transformation involving the normalized modal matrix.52 —0.30 +6. qTaq where = Example 2—4 5—2 0 —.54 —0.1 1 a= —2 0 using (2—25): 3 —1 Since a is symmetrical.50 +0.t)x3= x2 Solving the first and third equations for x1 and x3 in terms of x2. $2. CHARACTERiSTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. its characteristic values are all real.85 (2) +0. 5+ $2 /33 3 +1 +9 +11 + 5 + 2 +18 = 5(2) — (—2)(—2) = +6 The characteristic equation is 182—6=0 and the approximate roots are 22 +0. We first determine /3k. f33.42 +2.84 +0.68 —0. the general solution is j=l. (5 — 2)x1 = 2x2 —x3 = —(3 — 2)x2 (l—.

Finally. Using matrix notation.01) When 2 = 23 = —1. QUADRATIC FORMS 213J 57 The expansion of Ia — = 0 is and the roots are 22—3 Writing out ax = 2x. we can express [a11 F as F=[xix2]t[a12 ajal T . the characteristic vectors for 22 = 3 are Q2 = (0. we can obtain two linearly independent solutions for the repeated root. This follows from the fact that a — 213 is of rank I for the repeated roots. The general solution of (b) is xI=c1 x2=cl x3=cz By specializing the constants. (a) reduces to —2x3 +2x2 = 0 —2x2 = 0 (b) (0)x3=0 We see from (b) that (a — 213) is of rank 1 when 2 = 3.SEC. 2—5. we have (1—2)x1 2x1 23=—i +2x2 +(1 — 1)x2 (3 — 2)x3 =0 = = 0 0 (a) When 2 = 3. (a) reduces to 2x3 + 2x2 = 0 2x1 + 2x2 4x3 0 =0 are The general solution and characteristic vector for and = o} 0 - This example illustrates the case of a symmetrical matrix having two equal characteristic values. The characteristic vectors corresponding to the repeated roots are linearly independent. QUADRATIC FORMS The homogeneous second-degree function F a quadratic form in + 2a12x1x2 + x2. 2-5.

where q is the orthogonal normalized modal matrix for a. . we will show that an equilibrium position for a discrete system is stable when a certain quadratic form is positive definite. it is said to be in canonical form.. Therefore. to establish whether is positive definite. x. We define negative definite and negative semidefinite quadratic forms in a similar manner. Now. But y is uniquely related to x and y = 0 only when x = 0. F is also positive definite with respect to x. F is positive definite when b1 >0 It is positive semidefinite when b1 b2 >0 0 and at least one of the elements is zero. According to the definition introduced above. 2 In general. We write xTax = (xTq)(q_taq)(qlx) = Then. For example. Consider the quadratic form F= b1 LXIX2 13 b2 0 x2 (2—28) 1 When F involves only squares of the variables. x2.. x we is zero for some x x If F = a positive definite a 0. letting y= qTx x qy (2—29) (a) reduces to a canonical form in y: F = xTax = (2—30) It follows that F is positive definite with respect to y when all the characteristic values of a are positive. The problem of establishing whether xTax is positive definite consists in determining whether all the characteristic values of a are positive. is said to be a quadratic form in xj. we say that F is positive semidefinite. A quadratic form is negative definite if F 0 for all x and F = 0 only when x = 0. (2—27) . for] for k.58 CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. . we first reduce a to a diagonal matrix by applying the transformation.. the function F= where afk = = j=1 . q '()q. The question as to whether a quadratic form is positive definite is quite important.

A. . The above criteria also apply for the case. it follows from the second requirement in (d) that a22 > Therefore.t2>0 Suppose we specify that au > — 0 at —.. 2—15. Equivalent conditions can be expressed in terms of the discriminants. = aj1j = A2 = Then.. 2—5.. > 0 (2—33) where is the sum of all the jth-order principal minors. /3. 1 for a detailed proof. Also see Prob. > 0 (2—35) are sufficient for a to be positive definite.. Let represent the determinant of the array consisting of the first j rows and columns. a11 a12 aU (2—34) A= The conditions. the characteristic values are related by + .. one can show that a is positive definite when all its invariants are greater than zero. We let 0. QUADRATIC FORMS We consider first the second-order symmetric matrix [a11 cz12 Laiz a22 Using (2—26).t122 = 132 =aii -F a22 = a11a22 — = aJ We see from (a) that the conditions 132>0 are equivalent to . (d) is equivalent to (b). A1 > 0 £112 a22 a2J A2 > 0 .* * See Ref. 131 > 0 > 0 •. a is positive definite when a11a12 a11 a12a12 = at (2—31) 132>0 (2—3 2) A1>O The quantities A2>0 and are called the invariants and discriminants of a.SEC. That is. a11a22 > 0 Since a1 > 0.

Reading. 1952. 2—5. 1961. HILDSBRAND. Suppose b is obtained from a by an orthogonal transformation: b = pTap p1ap pTap (2—36) If a is symmetrical. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.60 CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. Prob. HADLEY. 2 Example 2—5 111 The discriminants are 122 123 A1 = +1 = 2 — 1 = +1 = 1(6—4)— 1(3—2) + 1(2—2) = +1 Since all the discriminants are positive. V. SMiRNOV. the positive definite character of a matrix is preserved under an orthogonal transformation.. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Dover Publications. 3. b is also positive definite. if a is positive definite. The corresponding invariants are = 1 + 2 + 3 = +6 $2(2—1)+(3—1)+(64) /13 +5 = A3 = +1 1 1 1 1 1 —2 2 3 2 Since A2 is negative = —3). 1956.: Linear Algebra. 4. and A. New York.: Methods of Applied Mathematics. Interscience Publishers. Reading. I. B. TURNBULL. AITKEN: An Introduction to the Theory of Canonical Matrices. 2. REFERENCES 1.: Linear Algebra. this matrix is nor positive definite. Mass.: Matrix Calculus. New York. Prentice-Hall. this matrix is positive definite. F. G. b is also symmetrical: bT = pTaTp (2—37) Now. 1964.. 5.. Mass. BODEWIG. New York. C. E.. H.* This follows from — = — a — (2—38) Then.. b and a have the same characteristic values. In general. W. * See .

COLLAR: Elementary Matrices. and Q2 arc linearly independent when Using (2—10) and (2—13). 1963. A. Cambridge University Press. 12. WILKINSON: "Eigenvalues of AX = A and B. 13. CRANDALL. J. 2—I. 7. 1969. 1953.: Engineering Analysis. B. Suppose B can be expressed as (see Prob. Wiley. 1967. London. PROBLEMS 2—1. W. 8. 1956.. It follows that x1 and x2 are linearly dependent when one is a scalar multiple of the other. MALER: Computer Solution of Linear Algebraic Systems. x1 and x2 are said to be linearly independent. 3. McGraw-Hill. 9. Prentice-Hall. R. Consider the system Ay = where A and B arc symmetrical nth-order matrices and is a scalar. DUNCAN and A. x2 be two nth-order column matrices or column vectors and be arbitrary scalars. Dover Publications. G. New York. FORSYTHE. Let x1. H.. determine the characteristic values and modal matrix for + 12Y2 l2Y1 + = .: Computational Methods of Linear Algebra. Prentice-Hall. 1—25) B = brb where b is nonsingular. H. E. Determine the expression for a in terms of A and b. and H. Oxford University Press. 2." Comput. 11. 398—404. Reduce (a) to the form ax = where x 2—2. 10. FADDEVA.. V. J. FRAZER. B. 1967. G. New York. NOBLE. WILKINSON. R. London. RALSTON. WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. A. with Band Synimetric PETERS.: Applied Linear Algebra..: The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem. If c1x_I + c2x2 0 only when c1 = = 0. and C. c2 by.. Vol. New York. New York. Following the procedure outlined in Prob. 12. S.PROBLEMS 6. 1965. let c1. S. and J. show that 2—3. 1969. N. H. New York. Determine the characteristic values and the modal matrix for (a) [3 [2 [2 0 2 7 3 (b) to s [3 0 0 2 2—4.

Show that value of ar and is the corresponding characteristic vector. Show that Q U') _. b = p'ap Then. . lb — t1. (a) (b) exists. Hint: Start with = 2. (a) Deduce that 2(b) — '(a) k a(b) — p(a) Yk Pk k = 1. n 1 Demonstrate for [1 —21 [1 P[2 The fact that (b) . A linear combination of nonnegative integral powers of a is called a polynomial function of a and written as P(a).Q. the third order polynomial has the form P(a) = c0a3 + c1a2 + c2a + c3L Note that P(a) is symmetrical when a is symmetrical. say a. /3. .. 2—8. are invariant under a similarity transP —1 formation is quite useful. we can write qTaq = Express in terms of q and Use this result to find the inverse of [3 a=[2 2—7. k (a) k 2—6. .62 . 2.. and premultiply by a. and it follows from the definition that = a'' Show that ar is symmetrical when a is symmetrical. arc defined as a2 = a3 = aa aa2 ar = If al # 0. is a characteristic Let 2L be a characteristic value of a. When a is symmetrical. 2 Positive integral powers of a square matrix. For example. ... CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP.4 = a — and it follows that b and a have the same characteristic equation.2—5. 2 Suppose that b is derived from a by a similarity transformation.

. What is. one can show that (see Ref: 1) F(a) = 0 where 0 is an nth-order null matrix.n) ax = 0 has a nontrivial solution.PROBLEMS Let F(1) 0 be the characteristic equation for a. . If value of xfax1? Note that 2 0 is a characteristic value of a when a is singular. (a) (b) 2—10. Consider the product. . Show that CTC is positive definite when 0 and positive sernidefinite when CI = 0. What can we say about b when r(C) < n? 2—15. — /31a + /3213) forn = 3 Establish a general expression for a —' using (2—25).. Let C be a square matrix. a27. 2—12. Consider the quadratic form a11 a12 a22 : x1 a12 : x2 x.. Consider the product CTaC. Determine whether the following quadratic forms are positive definite. IC! (hint: Start with F = xT(CTC)x and let y = Cx. F can equal zero only when x 0 in order for the form to be positive definite. say x1..) 2—13. . = Oforj 1. 2—14. a satisfies its own characteristic equation. This result is known as the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem. . By definition. . 2—11.2. (a) Verify this theorem for [2 1 2 (b) Note: F(a) = Show that a2 f31a + /3212. Let a be an mth-order positive defInite matrix and let C be of order m x n. When the characteristic values of a are distinct. Show that C1aC is positive definite when CI definite when CI = 0.a22>O (Hint: = 0. = '(a2 (c) 2—9. where a is positive definite and C is 0 and positive semisquare. b = CTaC Show that b is positive definite only when the rank of C is equal to n.. the . That is. F= F = 34 + + + 4x1x2 + — 4x1x2 + 6x1x3 — 8x2x3 Show that a necessary but not sufficient condition for a to be positive definite is a11>O. Generalize this result for the multiple product.] = 1.

h2i.. Note that it remains to show that they are also sufficient conditions. N . 2—17. Establish that a= i... (b) Discuss the case where = 0..64 CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. t—25.n and at least one of the diagonal elements of g is zero. Consider a to be symmetrical.2. (pxp) (pXl) NzTvTl [A11 AT (qxp) A121 f Xt A (qxq) MV ("2 where q= n — p.. 2. Since 1A111 is equal For to the product of the characteristic values of A11.n and positive semi-definite when j=1.2.2 —A ti. say a. we take X2 XfA11X1 -i. (i = 1. Then. n. (b) Suppose we take Show that a is positive definite when j=1.2XTA12A2 + 0 and denote the result by XTAIIX1 > 0 for arbitrary X1. ..i. ...2 Upp Show that the diagonal elements of b will always be real when a is positive definite.. Suppose we take g = hT... 1... The expansion of F = XTaX has the form F= Now. .11 — .j = . it follows that Ajj must be positive... A11 must be positive definite.2. deduce that p=1. 2 We partition a symmetrically. .n are necessary conditions for a to be positive definite. is symmetrically partitioned.. Refer to Prob. (a) Deduce that one can always express a as the product of nonsingular lower and upper triangular matrices when a is positive definite. . N) are positive definite. 2. 2-46. = and A . is positive definite only when A. (a) By taking p = 1. 2. the submatrix A11 is also a quasi-diagonal matrix... .. If a quasi-diagonal matrix..

We take B11 1P 8221q Show that the diagonal submatrices of g are nonsingular for arbitrary p when a is positive definite. 1—23. (qxp) G22j[O B22 where p + q = n. Suppose we express a as the product of two quasi-triangular matrices. for example. Verify for 1100 2300 0021 0052 (pxq) 1) 2—18.PROBLEMS 65 Hint: Use the result of Prob. (pxp) (nxn) a [G11 1 [B11 B12 = [G2. .

As an illustration. respectively. If f(x) — f(a)> 0 for all values of x except x = a in the subinterval. Using the notation introduced above. except x a. f(h). it is a minimum with respect to all other values of f(x) for the particular subinterval. we say that f(b) is a relative minimum for the interval x fib. x containing x = a. If f(x) — f(a) 0 for all values of x in the total interval x1 x x2. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE Letf(x) be a function of x which is defined for the interval x1 x x2. The relative extrema are [(a). f(c). and 0. The absolute maximum and minimum values of f occur at x = a and x = d. One should note thatf(x) may have a number of relative extreme values in the total interval x1 x x2. we say that f(a) is a relative minimum. consider the function shown in Fig. 3—1. The relative maximum and minimum values of a function are called relative extrema. C. we say the function has an absolute minimum at x a.3 Relative Extrema for a Function 3—1. that is. 3—i. Absolute and relative maxima are defined in a similar manner. 8. 66 . f(d). Stationary points at points A. f(x) x1 x a b c X2 Fig.

values of x at which the slope changes sign correspond to relative extrema. dx and solving for x. These points are called stationary points. We see from (a) that the slope is positive on both sides of x = a. = x2 = —2— J(x) = The first two derivatives are (x — a)3 +c = 3(x — a) Since both derivatives vanish at x = a. In this case. If the second derivative is positive (negative) the stationary point is a relative minimum (maximum).x = x1 = —2 + corresponds to a relative maximum. we obtain x2 + 4x + x1. we first determine the points at which the first derivative vanishes. We could have also established this result by considering the expression for the slope. The general shape of this function is shown in Fig. is neither a relative minimum nor a relative maximum since the third derivative is finite. If the second derivative also vanishes. we must consider the third derivative: d3f dx3 6 The stationary point. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE 67 In general.2 = —2 I = 0 ± The second derivative is d2f = 2x +4= 2(x + 2) Thcn. E3—l.SEC. . We then test each stationary point to see if the slope changes sign. 3—1. To find the relative extrema for a continuous function. the third derivative must also vanish for the stationary point to be a relative extremum. x = a. we must consider higher derivatives at the stationary point in order to determine whether the slope actually changes sign. Example 3—1 Setting the first derivative equal to zero.

If f(x) is an eth-degree polynomial. and the where denotes the jth derivative of f(x) evaluated at x is given by 1 remainder (3-2) where is an unknown number between a and a + Ax. Suppose we know the value of f(x) at x = a and we want f(a + Ax) where Ax is some increment in x. 1. Since depends on we can only establish bounds on The following example illustrates this point.66 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. x curve in the vicinity of the stationary point. there will be some error. . 3 Fig. In all other cases. a x a + Ax. represented by due to truncating the series at n terms. Equation (3—1) is called the Taylor series expansion* of f(x) about x = a. See Ref. E3—1 f(x) I a x The sufficient condition for a stationary value to be a relative extremum (relative minimum (maximum) when d2f/dx2 > 0 (< 0)) follows from a consideration of the geometry of the f(x) vs. Article 16—8. the (n + 1)th derivative vanishes for all x and the expansion will yield the exact value off(a + Ax) when n terms are retained. If the first n + 1 derivatives off(x) are continuous in the interval. We can also establish the criteria for a relative extremum from the Taylor series expansion of f(x). we can express f(a + Ax) as f(a + Ax) f(a) = Ax + (Ax)2 + (Ax)" + (3.1) a. Since this approach can he readily extended to functions of more than one independent variable we will describe it in detail.

We refer to df/dx Ax as significant than the third. Now. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE 69 Example 3—2 We expand sin x in a Taylor series about x = 0 taking n = and noting that a = 0. — and e are arbitrary small positive numbers. that is.and higher-order terms) (3—3) For f(a + Ax) — f(a) to be positive for both positive and negative values of Ax. and so on. > 3 5 lithe first two derivatives vanish at x = the dominant term in the expansion. The bounds on R2j are cos Ax < R21 If we use (a) to find sin (0. where a.2). Note that this is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a relative minimum. the first order increment must vanish. f(a) is a relative minimum when f(a + Ax)— f(a) > 0 for all points in the neighborhood of Ax e. Using (3—1) and (3—2). the first-order increment dominates and we can write x f(a + Ax) — f(a) = Ax + (second. fourth the first-order increment in f(x) due to the increment.0013.and higher-order terms) (3—4) It follows from (3—4) that the second-order increment must be positive for > 0 to be satisfied. If Ax is small with respect to unity. the second term is more nth terms. the second-order increment will dominate: f(a + Ax) — f(a) = (Ax)2 + (third. Ax. 3—1. This requires d2f(a)/dx2 > 0. the third-order increment is now f(a + Ax) + f(a) = (Ax)3 + (fourth. we obtain sin Ax = Ax + R2 2. Similarly. the first term on the right-hand side of (3—1) is the dominant term in the expansion.and higher-order terms) (3—6) Since the third-order increment depends on the sign of Ax. that is. df(a)/dx must vanish.SEC. for all finite values of Ax in some interval. Also. Considering Ax to be small. if the first-order increment vanishes. we call 4d2f/dx2(Ax)2 the second-order increment. Finally. the upper bound on the truncation error is 0. f(a + Ax) — the necessary and sufficient conditions for a relative minimum at x = a are df(a) dx — 0 d2f(a) dx2 a. it must vanish for .

3 f(a) to be a relative extremum. we to be the total increment in f(x) due to the increment. the second differential is given by d2f = d(df) Since Ax is independent of x. we define the differential operator. Iff(x) = x. Next. First. d. however. Z\x.RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. The sufficient conditions for this case are as follows: Relative Minimum d3f d4f dX4> (3—7) Relative Maximum d3f d4f The notation used in the Taylor series expansion off(x) becomes somewhat cumbersome for more than one variable. Ax) 0. (3—13) In forming the higher differentials. x and Ax.Ax) The first differential off(x) is a function of two independent variables. (3—12) = (Ax) = 0 and d2f reduces to d2f = (Ax)2 = d2f(x. we take d(Ax) = . Higher differentials of f(x) are defined by iteration. then df/dx = 1 and c/f = dx = Ax (3—11) One can use dx and Ax interchangeably. namely. define 41 = f(x + Ax) — f(x) (3—8) This increment depends on Ax as well as x. For example. we will use Ax rather than dx. (3—9) The result of operating onf(x) with d is called the first by df: and is denoted (3—10) df=-1Ax = df(x. we introduce new notation which can be readily extended to the case of 11 variables. In what follows.

RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES be a continuous function of n independent variables We define Af as the total increment in f due to increments in the independent variables (Ax1. .. The above criteria reduce to (3—5) when the differentials are expressed in terms of the derivatives. . (x1. the Taylor series expansion (3—1) about x can be written as (3-14) The first differential represents the first-order increment in f(x) due to the increment.f(x) is a stationary value when df = 0 for all permissible values of Ax. Ax2 Let f(x1. . x2 is a relative minimum (maximum). we just have to extend the differential notation from one to n dimensions. the stationary point is a relative minimum (maximum) when d2f> 0 (<0) for all permissible values of Ax.. . . 3—2. . The procedure is identical to that followed in the one-dimensional case. the second differential is a measure of the secondorder increment. x2. Similarly. Rules for forming the differential of the sum or product of functions are listed below for reference. that f(x1. Ax. (3—18) we say . f= u(x) + v(x) df=du+dv d2f = d(df) d2u + d2v 3 — 15 f= u(x)v(x) df df = u dv + v du 2 = ud2 v + 2dudv + vd 2u (3—16 f = fly) where y = y(x) df dy dy 3-2. We establish criteria for a relative extremum by expanding f in an n-dimensional Taylor series.. If Af> 0 (<0) for all points in the neighborhood of(x1. Actually. x2 Af = f(x1 + Ax1. + — f(x1. Also. x2 + Ax2. Then. Problems 3—4 through 3—7 illustrate their application. FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Using differential notation. and so on.SEC. x2.. . .

Ax2 where the increments are independent of (x1. (3—21) reduces to d2f k=i. has the form when expressed in Af= df + + + + (3-25) We say that f(x1. . . . x2. k = 1.n (3—23) LOXJOXkJ Ax = and the expressions for the first two differentials simplify to df = d2f = AXTf(l) AXTf(2) Ax .n (3—27) The scalar equations corresponding to the stationary requirement are usually . . . This (3—26) = 0 Equation (3—26) represents n scalar equations. (3—24) . For example. 3 We define the n-dimensional differential operator as d Ax1 + ox2 Ax2 + + = (3-19) . the second differential has the form d2f=d(df)= Since (3—21) are considered to be independent. x2 is stationary when df requirement is satisfied only when 0 for arbitrary Ax. 2. .72 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. x2. namely. = 0 j= 1. . Axk (3—22) Now. . . . The Taylor series expansion forf about (x1. terms of differentials. 2.. we let f(2) r 1 j.. The result obtained when d is applied to f is called the first df = (3—20) Higher differentials are defined by iteration.

A stationary point corresponds to a relative minimum (maximum) of f when d2f is positive (negative) definite. semidefinite. The extremum problem is also related to certain other problems of interest. indifferent) of We are interested in the extremum problem since it is closely related to the stability problem.) df= 1 1 ek k 1 j 1 Xk Now. This terminology was originally introduced for the two dimensional case where it has geometrical significance. The classification of a stationary point is determined by evaluated at the point. 3—9) has the form (duJwJkvk + dwfkvk + dv1) u= and letting w= = du [w31] v= {v1} . f df = Introducing matrix notation. the characteristic-value problem. FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 73 called the Euler equations for f. the character (definite. Note that the number of equations is equal to the number of independent variables. 3—2. Example 3—3 f= = x2 y. we illustrate various special forms of f which are encountered in member system analysis. the eigenvalues are both positive and negative. e.e. k1 It follows that >-—&Xk OXk df= Repeating leads to j=l d2f = Consider the double sum. To summarize. It is called a neutral point when d2f is either positive or negative semidefinite and a saddle point when d2f is indifferent.g. i.. In the following examples.SEC. > k=t The first differential (see Prob.. the solutions of the Euler equations correspond to points at which f is stationary.

If a is positive definite. but the order must be preserved. consider f= where — x7c dc a. Noting that da = df AxT(ax — c) AxTa Ax = 0 and dx Ax. 3—5) = —f---. (e) . where a is symmetrical from the point of view of finding the stationary — XTC. 3 and so forth. As an illustration.74 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. and obtain (see Prob.(ax — 2x) (d) 2 AXT (122 = xx Ax A AxT Ax — 2 dA AxTx) Setting dA = 0 leads to the Euler equations for (c). the stationary point is a relative minimum. we can write df as df = = d(urwv) duTwv + nTdWv + uTwdv One operates on matrix products as if they were scalars. value of a polynomial having the form f = Suppose f u/v. the first two differentials are d2f = Comparing (g) and (3—24). Using the fact that 3j7u\ \. we see that fO) ax — c = The Euler equations are obtained by setting ax a equal to 0: c The solution of (i) corresponds to a stationary value of (f). ax—Ax=0 which we recognize as the symmetrical problem. One can visualize the problem of solving the system ax = c. = —f dv) = xx where a is symmetrical.vJ — ldu V UX1 :X3 1(6u we can write uôv vax1 df = We apply (b) to 1. c are constant and a is symmetrical.

We have shown that the characteristic values of a are stationary values of Rayleigh's quotient. Since = 0.r (3—30) Using (3—30). We obtain r relations between the n differentials by operating on (3—29). x2 = 0 It = 1. For a more detailed discussion. Then. Actually. Finally. there are only n — r independent variables. . 3—3. We use instead to emphasize that some of the variables are dependent.r (3—29) One can consider these relations as constraint conditions on the variables.. This property can he used to improve an initial estimate for a characteristic value.. we must express df in terms of the differentials of the independent variables.. Now. say x1.. "a j=t k=1. Equating the coefficients to zero leads to a system of n — r equations which. . This modification is conveniently effected using Lagrange multipliers. In order to establish the Euler equations. LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS Up to this point. we discuss how one can modify the procedure to handle the case where some of the variables are not independent. 3-3.2. LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 75 The quotient xTax/xTx. we reduce (3—28) to a sum involving the n — r indepen- dent differentials. 3—11. we can express r differentials in terms of the remaining n — r differentials. of the form g5(x1. x2) = 0 The first variation is ox1 Ox2 . where x is arbitrary and a is symmetrical. we have considered only the case where the function is expressed in terms of independent variables. are sufficient to determine the stationary points. it follows that 0. we suppose there are r relations between the variables. Example We 3—4 2 illustrate the procedure for n = and r = 1: f= g(x1. The general stationary requirement is df= > of (3—28) j=1 for all arbitrary differentials of the independent variables. In what follows. . 6 and Prob. see Ref. together with the r constraint equations. Suppose f is expressed in terms of n variables.SEC. x2 some of which are not independent. 2. is called Rayleigh's quotient.

x2) subject to the constraint condition. x2) (3—31) where A.2 ox2 + \0x1 + ax2j Ox2 where u= Og Jag The character of the stationary point is determined from the sign of the bracketed term.) = f(x1. x2. d2f + ax1ax. A. we suppose ag/ax2 0. 3 Operating on g(x1. is an unknown parameter. The general form of d2f for a function of two variables (which are not necessarily independcnt) is d2f = 2 2 2 = k1 dx1 + Of —i— a quadratic form in the independent differential. and noting = 0. referred to as a Lagrange multiplier. g(x1. the equations defining the stationary points arc ax1 \ox1fOx2/ox2 g(x1.76 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP.) dx2= —t—i-----itSx1 8x2/ and substituting in (a). x2) = 0. We introduce the function H. we obtain /ag\ df = [PL ax1 — 8x1 ox2 ox2 Finally. d2x1 using (c). x2) we have ax1 Now. The problem consists in determining the stationary values of f(x1. An automatic procedure for handling constraint conditions involves the use of Lagrange multipliers. We first describe this procedure for the case of two variables and then generalize it for n variables and r restraints. We . we must investigate the behavior of the second differential. x2) + Ag(x1. x2) = 0 To determine whether a stationary point actually corresponds to a relative extremum. Solving (b) for dx2 (we replace dx1 by x1 is the independent variable. defined by H(x1.

. We see that the Euler equations for II are the stationary conditions for f including the effect of constraints. x2. . x2. Ox2 Ox2 — + Og A Ox1 — Ox2 — (3-32) 0 OH g(x1. Then. . and 2 as independent variables is 6x1 + 2 + 2 = 4x2 0 0 +7— x1 — 2 = x2 = 0 Solving this system for x1. x2 and A we obtain A 4x2 +7 = —9/10 = This procedure can be readily generalized to the case of n variables and r constraints. x2 and . solving the second equation in (3—32) for A.% to be independent variables.. The Euler equations for H are OH Ox. LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 77 consider x1. H= + + 2x1 + 7x2 + A(x1 — x2) The stationary requirement for H treating x1. x2) = 0. x2) = 0 0 (3-34) Equations (3—34) and (e) of the previous example are identical. Example 3—5 f= g + — x2 + 2x1 + 7x2 = 0 = We form H f+ 2g. and H has k = 1. = 0. . . 2. .SEC. . . we obtain We suppose Og/0x2 A= 0x2/ Ox2 (3-33) and — Ox1 = g(x1. r. 3—3. The problem consists of determining the stationary values Of subject to the constraints gk(xl. where j(x1. and substituting in the first equation. x2. and require H to be sta- tionary. . There will be r Lagrange multipliers for this case.

H. 3 the form H= f + k1 + 2k9k H(x1. 6. H. 1937. .. R. London. 3—4. and then determine the n coordinates of the stationary points from the remaining n — r equations in (3—36) and the r constraint equations (3—37). CRANDALL. JR. Expand(1 + x)112inaTaylorseriesaboutx = Otakingn = Deter- mine upper and lower bounds on R2. C'alculus and Analytical Geometry. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.. Methods of Applied Mathematics.. Mass. G. 2. 1..78 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. 3... HANCOCK.. New York. Dover Publications. 2. Reading. 2. 1960. .. M. 1936. 3—3. PROBLEMS 3—1. Mass. S. taking 3—2... COURANT.. Theory of Maxima and Minima. Reading. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Prentice-Hall. New York. THOMAS. (3—35) The Euler equations for H are 0 k=1 i = 1. Expand cos x in a Taylor series about x = the upper and lower bounds on R3.n (3—36) (3—37) 9k = 0 = 1. COURANT. B. F. Vol. New York. Vol. T. k . 1957. The use of Lagrange multipliers to introduce constraint conditions usually reduces the amount of algebra. 1953.. Engineering Analysis.. REFERENCES 1. . R. B. McGraw-Hill. Find df and d2f for (a) f=x2+2x+5 (d) (b) f=3x3+2x2+5x+6 (c) f=x2sinx f= cosywhcrey = x3 . 5.2. n= 3. 1952. x2 .. HILDEBRAND.. Mathematical Analysis. New York. . Interscience Publishers. 7. Blackie.. Differential and Integral Calculus. Determine the relative extrema for (a) (b) (c) (e) (f) (g) (d) f(x)=x3+2x2+x+10 f(x)=1x3+2x2+4x+15 f(x) = f(x) = (x — f(x) = f(x) = f(x) = 2x2 + —2x2 ax2 + 4x + 5 + 8x + 10 2bx + c + (x — a)2 4ax3 + 4bx2 + cx + d 0. Differential and Integral Calculus. r We first solve r equations in (3—36) for the r Lagrange multipliers. 4. Determine 2.. APOSTOL. 1956.

x2) or of dependent variables. 3—7. u3 be functions of x and f = f(u1. Find the first two differentials for the following functions: + + + 5x1 — 4x2 + 6x1x2 + Consider f = uv. . . Show that .v2) v = v(y1. its characteristic vectors are linearly independent and we can express x as x= where Q3 (a) (j = 1.PROBLEMS 3—5. Suppose f = u(x)w(y) where y = y(x). = j=j- . n) are the normalized characteristic vectors for a. + 6x1x2 6x1x2 + 2x1 + 6x1x2 + 34 — 3x1 = Consider Rayleigh's quotient. 79 Let f = u(x)/v(x). Determine df. u2. Classify the stationary points for the following functions: (a) — 9x1 + 12x2 — 10 3xl + (b) f f f f 3—11. x2) Show that df = d(uv) u dv + v du d2f = ud2v + 2 du dv + vd2u Note that the rule for forming the differential of a product is independent of whether the terms are functions of the independent variables (x1. Y2) y1(x1. Determine expressions for df and d2f. Show that (du — df = d2f = 3—6. f dv) fd2v) — — Let u1. where u= and Yi u(y1. x2) = y2(x1. Apply to (a) u=x3—x (b) w=cosy (c) y=x2 (a) (b) 3—8. 3—10. f= f' = 3—9. 2. xTax x is arbitrary. u3). u2. Since a is symmetrical. ..

Hint: Factor out 2k and Use (b) to obtain an improved estimate for A. for j k. Consider the problem of finding the stationary values of f = = xrarx subject to the constraint condition. —3} The exact result is 2=1 x={1. Supposef = a. ICjI Specialize (a) for this case. Show that and g = I — xTax = 0 where aT the Euler equations for H have the form xTax=1 We see that the Lagrange multipliers are the reciprocals of the characteristic values of a. How are the multipliers related to the stationary values of f? . Then. = 1. determine the stationary values for the following constrained functions: (a) g (b) + x2 0 — 1 g1 = 3—13. Using Lagrange multipliers. 3—14.—2} 3—12. a=[i x [3 {1.80 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION (b) (c) CHAP. 3 << Suppose x differs only slightly from Qk. Using (3—36) we write g2=x1—x2+2x3+2=0 H =f+ Ag = x1 + x2 + X3 = 0 — 2(XTX —1) (a) Show that the equations defining the stationary points off are ax=Ax (b) xTx=1 Relate this problem to the characteristic value problem for a symmetrical matrix.

moments of inertia. In this chapter. 4—1. We take an orthogonal cartesian reference frame having and X3 (see Fig. 1. we first discuss the. A knowledge of vectors is assumed. 4—1. 4—1). etc. For a review.) are specified. see Ref.4 Differential Geometry of a Member Element The geometry of a member element is defined once the curve corresponding to the reference axis and the properties of the normal cross section (such as area. 81 . differential geometry of a space curve in considerable detail and then extend the results to a member element. x3 i3 X3(y) x2 X2(y) x1 Fig. PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF A SPACE CURVE A curve is defined as the locus of points whose position vector* is a function of a single parameter. Our primary objective is to introduce the concept of a local reference frame for a member. Cartesian reference frame with position vector ?(y). * The vector directed from the origin of a fixed reference frame to a point is called the position vector. Let F he the position Vector to a point directions X1.

2. the chord length ds2 approaches the arc length. We take y as the polar angle and The coordinates are and x1 = x2 = F = a a cos y sin y + asiny'12 (2) Consider the curve (Fig.82 DIFFERENTiAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. ARC LENGTH Figure 4—2 shows two neighboring points. The projection on the X. b. -X2 plane is an ellipse having semiaxes a and b. E4—1A). P and Q. 3) and the As Exy —* 0.2. The position vector for this curve has the form F = a cos + b sin Y12 + CYI3 4—2. E4—1B) defined by = X3 = a cos y (4—3) x2 = bsiny CY where a. care constants. corresponding to y and and The cartesian coordinates are length of the chord from P to Q is given by y+ + (j 1. We = an alternate representation is Since F = i—i = (j = 1. 3) and let y be the parameter. Example (1) 4—i let a = Consider a circle in the X1-X2 plane (Fig. In the limit. 2. Noting that = dx1 = dy we can express ds as ds + + + dy (4-4) . 4 on the curve having coordinates can represent the curve by 3 (j = 1. 3) (4—2) Both forms are called the parametric representation of a space curve.

Fig. 4—2. E4—1A Fig. E4—1B Q(+Ay) I LISI P(y) Fig. Differentia' segment of a curve. 83 .

y) a. y) as a function of k and y are contained in Ref. if we take y = s. Also. One can always orient the axes such that this condition is satisfied. 3. S = ny . as Then. Using (4—6). integrating (4—4) leads to s(y) dx 2 dx 2 dx 21/2 dy (4—5) = + + We have defined ds such that s increases with increasing y. y). x > 0. Tables for E(k. Then. then Example 4—2 Consider the curve defined by (4—3). 4 Finally. Note that +1. we express where = (b2 + c2)"2 [1 — k2 = b2 — b2 + The arc length is given by s 2 k2 sin2 y]"2 c2 dy = (b2 + [1 — k2 sin2 yJ112 dv The integral for s is called an elliptic integral of the second kind and denoted by E(k.84 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. It is customary to call the sense of increasing s the positive sense of the curve. To simplify the expressions. the scale factor is [a2 sin2 y + We suppose that b b2 cos2 y + c2]'12 a. the previous equations reduce to dx 2 1/2 (4-6) ds = dy (4—7) One can visualize as a scale factor which converts dy into ds. we let = + Then. s (b2 + c2)'12 E(k. When b = is called a circular helix and the relations reduce to the curve = (a2 + const.

Then. • t= . in the direction of increasing s (or y). p. 4—3.SEC. and approaches the tangent to the curve at P. The corresponding position vectors are P(y + ky). 1 always points in the positive direction of the curve. that is. Unit tangent vector at P(y). 401. 1. It follows that dP/dy is also a tangent vector and — dy /df dP\"2 \dy dy Equation (4—10) reduces to (4—6) when coordinates. +s (4—10) is expressed in cartesian Q(y+6. P(y) and Q(y + shown in Figure 4—3. 4—3. we can express I as — — — dP dy — 1 dF ds — dy ds — (4—9) dy Since > 0. Jim PQ d1 --=—ds (4—8) Using the chain rule. UNIT TANGENT VECTOR 85 UNIT TANGENT VECTOR We consider again the neighboring points. 4—3. the unit tangent vector at P is given by* As L\y -+ 0. * See Ref.y) + r(y) Fig. .

we have - dy = 0 It follows from (a) that di/dy is orthogonal to f. dP dy = —a sin + h cos Y12 + and using (4—9) and (4—10). PRINCIPAL NORMAL AND BINORMAL VECTORS Differentiating = 1 with respect to y. H= ldt dy where d (1 The binormal vector. is defined by (4. (4-12) b comprise a right- handed mutually orthogonal system of unit vectors at a point on the curve. Chap. h.* 4-4. 4—4). ñ. ñ). 4 Example 4—3 We determine the tangent vector for the curve defined by (4—3). b) and are referred to as the osculating normal. Note that the vectors are uniquely defined once y) is specified. The unit vector pointing in the direction of di/dy is called the principal normal vector and is usually denoted by ii.86 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. The frame associated with b_and ii is called the moving trihedron and the planes determined by (1. A space curve having the property that the angle between the tangent and a fixed direction (X3 direction for this example) is constant is called a helix. 4. * See Ref. and the angle between the t?ngent and the X3 When a b. a [a2 + direction is constant. 1.. The position vector is F = a cos + b sin Y12 + cyi3 Differentiating P with respect to y. we obtain a = +[a2 sin2 y + b2 cos2 y + c2]"2 =1[—asinyT1 + bcosyi2 + c13] =' coast. (ii. .-lt) dF b='?xh We see that b is also a unit vector and the three vectors. and rectifying planes (see Fig.

It follows that the rectifying plane is orthogonal to the X1-X2 plane. — a — [cos ytj + Sm i dt fl dt dy dy — C05 — Sm The principal normal vector is parallel to the plane and points in the inward radial direction. Definition of local planes. 4—4. 4—4.SEC. We can determine b using the expansion for the vector product. Example 4—4 We determine fi and b for the circular helix. . PRiNCIPAL NORMAL AND BINORMAL VECTORS 87 Normal plane Rectifying plane Fig. We have already found that a — [a2 + and = sin VT1 + a cos + c13] Differentiating t with respect to y. a sin C — — cos a + a £3 a The unit vectors are shown in Fig. we obtain di Then. E4—4. a This reduces to —asiny acosy C b C.

and K = JdO/dsj where 6 is the angle between I and To show this. 4—5.88 GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. we express I in terms of 0 and then differentiate with respect to s. E4—4 4—5. p. R is the radius of the circle passing through three consecutive points* on the curve. We let R be the reciprocal of the curvature: R= K1 iS) In the case of a plane curve." . TORSION. we have cos * See + Sifl 012 Ref. we can write — ic/i c/s2 (4—13) ds — Ku (4—14) 0. for a discussion of the terminokgy 'three consecutive points. K dt c/s d2F i/s2 K Using (4—11). 14. AND THE FRENET EQUATIONS The derivative of the tangent vector with respect to arc length is called the curvature vector. From Fig. CURVATURE. The Note that K points in the same direction as Ft since we have taken K curvature has the dimension L1 and is a measure of the variation of the tangent vector with arc length. 4. K. 4 Fig.

that is. Radius of curvature for a plane curve. db/ds is orthogonal to h. TORSION. 4—S. Then. 4—5. It should be noted that the osculating plane will generally vary along the curve. AND THE FRENET EQUATIONS Then — . We express db/ds as db = —tn (4—16) where r is called the torsion and has the dimension. P. db/ds is also orthogonal to I and involves only ñ. L . with respect to s. A measure of the variation of the osculating plane is given by db/ds. x2 \ R + R t i2 it Fig. the tangents at two consecutive points. say P and Q. CURVATURE. Since his a unit vector. are in the osculating plane at F.SEC. The binormal vector is normal to both and ñ and therefore is normal to the osculating plane. We can interpret R as the radius of the osculating circle at P. To determine whether db/ds involves we differentiate the orthogonality condition I b 0. - db - dl ds ds But dl/ds Kñ and b ii = 0. K and [—sin dO 1 + cos 617] dO a— K ds dO/ds R [— sin + cos 612] In the case of a space curve. the plane determined by and ñ at.

Finally.90 DiFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. c2)112 K=-— adv and 1— a a a a +c c c 2 dñ a dy a 2—const We have developed expressions for the rate of change of the tangent and binormal vectors. Now. Since fi is a unit vector. b— ds - dñ a . we consider the rate of change of the principal normal vector with respect to arc length. we have db = di xn+t diii dñ This reduces to —=t x db ii = 0. the torsion is given by dñ ds —— —b l-dfl — dy (4—17) Note that a can be positive or negative whereas K is always positive. Example 4—5 The unit vectors for a circular helix are = [—a —cos sin vij + — a cos Yti + cT3] sin b= where yl' — ccosyi3 + at3] a = (a2 + Then. To complete the discussion. dñ/ds is orthogonal to ñ. according to our definition. The torsion is zero for a plane curve since the osculating plane coincides with the plane of the curve and b is constant. 4 It remains to develop an expression for a. h is defined by xn Differentiating with respect to s. From (4—17). using (4—16).

I n = 0.i— di principal normal vector (4—19) = I x ñ binormal vector di ds — dy dy Di:fferenriation Formulas Equations) — -— = Kn ds ady db 1db — = —— = —rn ds ctdy dñ -. This is discussed in the following sections.SEC. b) to define the local reference frame for a member element. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS FOR A SPACE CURVE 91 To determine the component of dñ/ds in the I direction. ii. we differentiate the orthogonality relation. 4—6. The Frenet . ñ. 1 dñ —Kt ds ady dl lull +tb (4—20) K= = —b 1 di — curvature a dy 1—dñ a — = torsion dy We use the orthogonal unit vectors (I. SUMMARY OF THE GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS FOR A SPACE CURVE We summarize the geometrical relations for a space curve: Orthogonal Unit Vectors t = di thu 1 = — = tangent vector exdy ldi a= —i-. and b are called the Frenet equations. ds ds (b) it follows from (a) and (b) that — = —I(t + tb us dñ - (4—18) The differentiation formulas for 1. 4—6.

in this case. 2. LOCAL REFERENCE FRAME FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 4—7. Now. x3) by expanding (4—19). 2. 12. 4-6. We refer to this frame as the natural frame at P. 4-5. The reference frame associated with ñ. 4—6. and b at a point. to take Y2. It is convenient. x2. b) are mutually or13) the direction cosines are related by thogonal unit vectors (as well as 1jm6m = j. the reference axis is called the centroidal axis for the member.92 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. Y2. Y3 as the principal inertia directions for the cross section. The components b) are actually the direction cosines for the natural of the unit vectors frame with respect to the basic cartesian frame which is defined by the orthogonal unit vectors (1k. k = 1. we consider the curve to be the reference axis for a member clement and take the positive tangent direction and two orthogonal directions in the normal plane as the directions for the local member frame. we can specify the orientation of the local frame with respect to the natural frame in terms of the angle between the principal normal direction and the I'2 direction. t See Prob. it is a property of the curve. say P. 4 equations are utilized to establish the governing differential equations for a member element. When the centroid of the normal cross-section coincides with the origin of the local frame (point P in Fig. 1'3) and the corresponding unit vectors by (t1. This notation is shown in Fig. 4—6) at every point. We denote the directions of the local frame by (Y1. 3 (4—22) Equation (4—22) leads to the important result [ljk]T = (4—23) and we see that is an orthogonal matrix. on a curve is uniquely defined once the curve is specified. The unit vectors defining the local and natural frames * See Prob. = 1) We will always take the positive tangent direction as the Y1 direction x and we work only with right handed systems t3). In general.f The results presented above arc applicable to an arbitrary continuous curve. 13). . that is. We write the relations between the unit vectors as ft n £12 133 11 = t22 £32 e33 12 (4—21) One can express* the direction cosines in terms of derivatives of the cartesian coordinates (x1. Since (1.

x3 Normat Y1 Fig. Definition of local reference frame for the normal cross section. .SEC. 4—7 LOCAL REFERENCE FRAME FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 93 are related by tl — t2 - = COS 4)11 + sin 4)b (4—24) çbn + cos 4th Combining (4—21) and (4—24) and denoting the product of the two direction cosine matrices by the relation between the unit vectors for the local and basic frames takes the concise form t= where (4—25) [ £21cos4)+€31sin4) €12 €j3 €22cos4)+ €32sin4) €23cosçb+ €33sinqS —€23 sin 41+ £33cos41 [21sin4)+€31cos4) —€22si+C32cos4) Note that the elements of fi are the direction cosines for the local frame with respect to the basic frame. We will utilize (4—25) in the next Since both frames are orthogonal. J1 chapter to establish the transformation law for the components of a vector. 4—6. fJjk = Xk) (4—26) '.

The natural frame is related to the basic frame. a a a 4—8. —slay a —--cosy a a Using (4-.by I ——slay a a. 4—7). Curvilinear coordinates for the cross section. Y2' Y3) be the position vector for Q(Yl. of Q with respect to the orthogonal directions (Y2. sin y sin — — cos y cos I. the parameter of the reference axis and the coordinates (Y2. Y2 y3 — —— Y2 Fig. 4 Example 4—6 We determine for the circular helix.25) a a a cos y a —sinycosçb ——cosysin4 a a +cosysm4 + —sinycos4 C. a —cosy — a — c a 0 a — = b — cos y sin y c 12 = {Ik} C. 4—7. They are related by = r + Y2t2 + y3t3 where COS + Sifl ( t3 = = + cos4b (4—27) We consider 4 to be a function of y1. Yz' y3) for a point. 1'3) in the normal cross section (see Fig. Let F(y1) the R(y1.94 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. . CURVILINEAR COORDINATES FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT We take as curvilinear coordinates (yi. say Q. y3) and position vector for the reference axis.

In general. One can consider the vectors to define a local reference frame at Q. Ui = 13R (4—28) aIR = The differential arc length along the aIR curve is related to by (4—29) = (or = This notation is illustrated in Fig. Vectors defining the curvilinear directions. 4—8. x3 y2t2 +y3t3 x2 Fig. By definition. there are three parametric curves through a point. CURVILft4EAR COORDiNATES FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 95 The curve through point Q corresponding to increasing Yj with Y2 and y3 held constant is called the parametric curve (or line) for yj. 4—8. Operating on (4—27). the partial derivatives of R are 0R — dy1 = = t2 t3 + dt2 Y2 dy1 + Y3 dy1 aR aR . We define as the unit tangent vector for the parametric curve through Q. 4—8.SEC.

dy1 g3=1 (4—30) = = 1db '\dv1 Also. Ky'2)!1 + / + d4)\ _)(Y2t3 y3t2) (4—31) Y2 COS 4) J73 sin 4) We see from Fig. d12 (dñ \dy1 dy1 + dy1 + —bj dçb . we can reduce it to an orthogonal . Then. (dii \dy1 + b—)+ dy1j dq5\ 1db \dy1 We use the Frenet equations to expand the derivatives of ñ and h. 4—9. cit2 dy1 dyj I and finally. 4 We see that t2 g2 1 ü3=t3 It remains to determine ü1 and g1.96 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. Now. Since 13R/ay1 (and therefore ii1) involve the reference frame defined and by iii. u2. y3 \y3 Fig. 4—9 that y'2 is the coordinate of the point with respect to the principal normal direction. However. of y. = cc(1 — d4)'\. will not be orthogonal. j — dy1 —11—— dy1 dt3 = .

Dover Publications.: Vector and Tensor Analysis. and F.. Inc. Reading.: Differential Geometry. HAY. E. 1943. hi = ds1 = a(1 — Ky2) a cc- x(l — '\ / REFERENCES 1. Mass. B.. 4. 13. New York. EMDE: Tables of Functions.: Analytical Geometry and Calculus.REFERENCES 97 system by taking dy = cer dy 150 (4—32) which requires = When (4—32) is satisfied. New York.. Example 4—7 The parameters a and t are constant for a circular helix: a= (a2 C + c2)112 Then. 1950. JA}INKE.. 1953. J. varies linearly with y (or arc length). at = — a C and integrating (4—33). One should note that this simplification is practical only when ccc can be readily integrated.. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. STRUm. we obtain — Yo) tS For this curve.. U. 2. (4—33) aR and = — Ky'2)t1 = = (4—34) cx(l — In this case. Dover Publications. G. 3. the local frame at Q coincides with the frame at the centroid. JR. 1953. THOMAS. Reading. Addision-Wesley Publishing Co. Mass. D.. The parameter g1 follows from (4—34). .

x for the following curves: x2 = 3 sin y cos y x3 = 5y x1 3 cos y x2 = 6 sin y x3 = 5y + p313 + = x1 = cos y x2 = sin y Determine 3 x1 = x3 = cy where a. If 0. The sign of b will depend on the relative orientation of ñ with respect to 1.f"etc 4a — 2 x1) Apply the results of (a) to = where (c) a and b are constants. Let 9 be the angle between and cos0 = I Deduce that Specialize (d) •11.r Oandb ±i3. (a) (b) (c) (d) Il. for the case where 02 is negligible with respect to unity. . and K in terms of 0. K. c are real constants. A curve is said to be shallow when 02 << 1. b. = sec 0. . Show that (see (4—20)) Let K = l/R and t di dh dñ — = —— 12 dy. This approximation leads to sin 0 cos 0 tan 0 1 0 4—3. /3. (a) Determine the expressions for 7. Express t. h. Suppose the equation defining the curve is expressed in the form x2=J(x1) x3=0 Equation (a) corresponds to taking x1 as the parameter for the curve. This is the equation for a parabola symmetrical about x1 = b/2. Note that Let y and + f(x1)12 + _Lf' (b) .DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. the curve lies in the plane. 4 PROBLEMS 4—1. and K corresponding to this representation. !. Then. ñ. 4—2. b.

Determine a. Note that b = €3313 where 431 = 1.. We express the differentiation formulas for 4—8.PROBLEMS 4—4. Show that dx. 4—lb. Determine JI for Prob. Does y have any geometrical significance? 4—5. Specialize for the case where the reference axis is in the X1 — X2 plane. Suppose the reference axis is a plane curve but çb 0. dt — = at ds (a) (b) Show that a is. skewsymmetric for an orthogonal system of unit vectors.. show that 4—7. Ii' iT — i—i Determine D for Prob. €1 [4k] €3 Using (4—22). 4—la.=. 99 The equations for an ellipse can be written as x1 = or a cos y 2 x1 2 x2 x2 = b sin y Determine 1. 4-9. as 4—10. c5Jk. in general. When the reference axis is a plane curve and = 0. . ° 42 Let 43] Then. Determine a. Take x1 as the parameter for (b). \ dyj J €13 dy dv2 = 42 \ dy 1€21 dy dyj j €311 €32 0 €33j 4—6. we call the member a "planar" member.. n for both parametric representations. The member is not planar in this case. 72 1k C IA A C2k [3 (d€ [. ie..

2) be the directions and corresponding unit Let vectors for reference frame n.) We will generally use a superscript to indicate the reference frame for directions. 3 and n = 1. 5—1. and scalar a Fig. (j = 1. We can visualize the determination of the second set of components from the point of view of applying a transformation to the column matrix of initial components. we call the matrix which defines the transformation a rotation matrix. (See Fig. Directions for reference frames "1" and "2. 2.5 Matrix Transformations for a Member Element 5—1. We refer to this transformation as a rotation transformation." 100 . ROTATION TRANSFORMATION Suppose we know the scalar components of a vector with respect to a reference frame and we want to determine the components of the vector corresponding to a second reference frame. 5—1. unit vectors. Also.

we must relate the two reference frames. a. the relations between the component matrices take the a2 = a1 = = R21a2 The order of the superscripts on R corresponds to the direction of the trans- formation.SEC. We write. ROTATION TRANSFORMATION components in this text. cos6 sinO . E5-1. is nonsingular when the unit vectors are linearly independent. Then. 5—1. a= = (a2)Ti2 To proceed further. Example 5—i We consider the two-dimensional case shown in Fig. For example. Substituting for and equating the coefficients of i' leads to a' = a2 Finally. The relations between the unit vectors are = cos + sin = —sin + cos We write (a) according to (5—2). The scalar components of a with respect to frame n are a a is independent of the reference frame. R'2 is the rotation transformation matrix corresponding to a change from frame 1 to frame 2. the relations between the unit vectors as i2 = Ili' where is the scalar component of with respect to The transformation matrix. We consider a vector. we let R'2 R21 = form (53) With this notation. We see that the transformation matrix for the scalar components of a vector is the inverse transpose of the transformation matrix governing the unit vectors for the reference frames.

13. q5 = 0 and ir Fig. R21 —sin4 Lsinfl 1 cos4 L—sjn 6 cos U R'2 = (fV) = + sin o sin 0 cos and Jafl — I [ cos — ?J L — sin 0 cos oJ When both frames are orthogonal. b) at the point. f3jk is the direction cosine for with respect to and the rotation transformation matrix is an orthogonal matrix: case of two 1 R'2 — LI'jki — 'X2 Pjk — COSt j. This frame. E5—1 12 The result obtained in the preceding example can be readily extended to the orthogonal reference frames. we use superscripts p and p' for the local and natural frames at p and a superscript 1 for the basic cartesian frame: = = {Z. in turn. we defined the orientation of the local frame (1k.102 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. ii. = t2. b} (5—6) . 13). the change in reference frames can be visualized as a rigid body rotation of one frame into the other. was defined with respect to a fixed cartesian frame 12. When both frames are orthogonal. 5 Then. 4—7. ñ. In order to distinguish between the three frames. at a point on the reference axis of a member element with respect to the natural frame (1. A' k (55) In Sec.

We will write (5—8) in matrix form and treat force transformations as matrix transformations. say P. that is. cos4. From(4—21). 5—2. sin 4. The relationship between the external force system at P and the statically equivalent internal force system at Q hasa simple form when vector notation is used. 5—2. 5—2. if the geometry of the element does not change appreciably when the external loads are applied. This transformation will be Fcquiv. we speak of the force and moment at a point. Q 5—2. The statically equivalent force and moment at Q are Feqrnv. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS The equilibrium analysis of a member element involves the determination of the internal force and moment vectors at a cross section due to external forces and moments acting on the member. Consider a force F and moment M acting at P shown in Fig. linear if is constant. — (5—7) 1 2. —sin4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS 103 With this notation." Also. Equivalent force system. cos4. Mequiv = M + XF -- (5-8) One can visualize (5—8) as a force transformation in which the force system at P is transformed into the force system at Q. 0 0 =0 0 3.SEC. . the relations between the unit vectors and the various rotation matrices are: t" = R141 = 1. as the "force system" at P. defined by (4—25). From (4—24). We shall refer to both forces and moments as "forces.

0 1 — Note that matrix. Let be a force vector acting at point P and MQ the moment vector at point Q corresponding to We will always indicate the point of application of a force or moment vector with a subscript..1 — 2 M1 43 I' / Xp3 / xP1 / 'i Fig. The relation between MQ and is — = QP x (5—9) We work with an orthogonal reference frame (frame 1) shown in Fig. 5 We develop first the matrix transformation associated with the moment of a force about a point. ri 1 . The force at P is transformed by F1 P3 'Ik i—-i / . product leads to = 0 — Expanding the vector cross (5—11) (1 —(42 1\ XQ2) — (1 (1. Notation for orthogonal reference frame. One can interpret it as a forceis a into translation transformation matrix._ '1 P = (jl)TM1 — (5—10) The scalar components of QP are 4.104 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. 5—3 and write the component expansions as — v' PL. 5—3. .

Also. Up to this point. = = and the general expression for takes the form (5—12) = (5—13) We consider next the total force transformation. there will be a local orthogonal reference frame associated with each point on the axis of the member. a THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS 105 moment at Q. and must be referred to the same frame. I 0 1 _ (5—16) and applying. 5—2. Using The 6 x 1 matrix this notation. scripts must be equal. that is. Note that the order of the subscripts for the translation transcorresponds to the order of the translation (from P formation matrix. say frame 1. The statically equivalent force and moment at Q associated with a force and moment at P are given by MQ = + QP x — (a) When all the vectors are referred to a common frame. the matrix transformation is 'Q) — I L"PQ L3J (b) We let = (5—14) is called the force system at Q referred to frame 1. the superto Q). To handle the general case we must introduce rotation transformations which transform the components of F and M from the local frames to the basic frame (frame 1) and vice versa.SEC. With this notation. We use a superscript p to indicate the local frame at point P and the rotation matrix corresponding to a transformation from the local frame at P to frame 1 is denoted by R'1. we mast first transform them to a common frame and then apply (5--15). = = (a) . (b) simplifies to d1 — When the force systems are referred to local frames. we have considered only one orthogonal reference frame. In general. Utilizing the general matrix. and these frames will coincide only when the member is prismatic.

Then. Note that the force transformation generally involves both translation and rotation. e. — (5—22) * If the reference axis isa plane curve and the local frame coincides with the natural frame we say the member is planar.. —÷ Q.g. We have and Rn'. R1 = 1 and — [R = (S—18) Similarly.g. where tion matrix.. This eliminates one rotation transformation. However. the geometry of a member element is defined with respect to a basic we must determine reference frame which we take as frame 1.. we must include them. 5 we obtain = (5—17) is applied Equation (5—17) states that when the matrix transformation we obtain its statical equivalent at Q. For example. To evaluate from the geometrical relations for the member.. we can take frame I parallel to one of the local frames. Actually. the transformais equal to the product of the intermediate transformation S2.106 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. In general. matrices. we could leave off the to appears subscripts and superscripts on when we write (5—17). ... already discussed how one determines R1 in Secs. . alone. — reduces I to (5-19) When both p and q arc parallel to 1. S. The order of the subscripts corresponds to the direction of the translation. S1 are intermediate points. is carried out in the order P S1. When the member is planar* and the geometry is fairly simple (such as a straight or circular member). from P to Q. Similarly the order of the superscripts defines the direction of the rotation or change in reference frames. = 0) . = 91i'PQ By transforming from P to Q and back to F. . e. from frame p to frame q. we obtain = and it follows that (5—20) (5—21) If the transformation from P to S2. if 1 and q are parallel.. 4—7 and 5—f. suppose we reduces to take frame I parallel to frame p.

107 where s1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS . s2. Then. The general . ES—2. . O} 0 —a(1—cos6) —a = = 0 a(1 — cos 0) 0 a sin 0 0 Sin 6 0 cos6 = = sin 0 0 —sinO cos 0 0 0 The transformation matrix has the form — — — — 9 I where 0 0 =0 a(1 — cos 0) 0 +a(1 —cos6) —asinO 0 Fig. SN are arbitrary reference frames. Example 5—2 We consider the plane circular member shown in Fig. we consider the problem of finding As an illustration of the case where the geometry is defined with respect to a basic for a circular helix. We take frame 1 parallel to frame p. It is convenient to take a common reference frame for the intermediate transformations.SEC. . —a(1 — 0 cos 0).. E5—2 asin0 P p 2 t7 Example 5—3 Cartesian frame. 5—2. 4 — = {a sin 0.

5 expansion for has the form [RPS The parametric representation for a circular is given in Sec. a cc C cc 0 where cc2 a2 + c2. a sin YQ. we take = 0. we obtain (a\2 I—I /c\2 I a ——sin ij cc I —i (1 — cos cc ac c cc /a\2 /c'\2 \ccJ . — sin —a(cos C05 Y0) . — cos YQ) = C(yp y0) — 0 —a(sin sin yQ) a(cos Yp 0 To simplify the algebra. Evaluating the product. a Sifl — C(yp — Cyp) = {a cos yQ. 0 a(sin y.108 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. 4—7.2. Using the results of Sec. The coordinate matrices for P and Q are 4 = {a cos Vp.3) are the cartesian coordinates with respect to the basic frame (frame 1). we suppose the local frame coincides with the natural frame at every point along the reference axis.. that is. the rotation matrices reduce to a a C a C. cy0} Then.. Let yp and y corresponding to points P and Q. 4—i: a a = = where cos y sin y = cy (j = 1.

as the translation and rotation* vectors for point P. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISPLACEMENT TRANSFORMATIONS where = yp = y0. Suppose that the body experiences a translation and a rotation. Also. . THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISPLACEMENT TRANSFORMATIONS Let P and Q be two points on a rigid body. The displaccment at Q resulting from the rigid body displacement at P is given by — [13 L"l 3J = 0 — XPQ1 i — consider next the case where the local frames at P and Q do not coincide. 5—3. We define Up and Ui. The general relation between the displacements has the form 13 - (5—27) [o One can showt that alternate forms of (5—27) are j T d14 = The units are (yqp)T radians. I — sinq) a — cosn)(a5 — c2)] a — a I a a ac2 a a — — c2) a a2 a ci2c — a a a Note that we can specialize the above general results for the case of a plane circular member (Example 5-2) by taking c = 0 and = 0. 5--7.SEC.. - t See Prob. a2c —3-(2 ac — I a (IC . 5—3. an alternate form for is (5—24) UQ = Up + QP X (5—25) = as the displacement matrix for P referred to frame 1. The corresponding vectors for point Q are given by UQ = Up + (Up X (5—23) = Wp Equation (5—23) is valid only when Since PQ — QP and x PQ We define is — PQ x negligible with respect to unity.

London. 5. Wiley.: Linear Structural Analysis. a1 = Consider the two-dimensional {50. PESTEL. Verify that (R12)T = (R12y1 o . WOODS-LEAD: Frame Analysis. 1967.110 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. 1964. W. C. find a2. 3. McGraw-Hill.. 5—i 5—2.: Matrix Methods in Elastomechanics. K. 1966. McGraw-Hill. If Prob. New York..: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. B. H. HALL. PROBLEMS 5—1.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. F.t. New York. E. This result is quite useful. REFERENCES 1. and LECKIE. 1959. A. 2. 4. S. 1/2 1/2 (a) 1/2 1/2 \/2/2 Determine R12. cartesian reference frames shown. 2d ed. 5 We see that the displacement transformation matrix is the inverse transpose of the corresponding force transformation matrix. —100}. Ronald Press. New York. MORLCE. The orientation of two orthogonal frames is specified by the direction cosine table listed below. Livasr. MARTLS. and R. R.Ey. P. New York. Pergamon Press.. 1963.

10). Determine by transforming directly from P to Q.2) and (—5. Determine Determine = ir/2. 20. 5—4 S straight segment shown in the sketch below. The direction cosine tables for the local reference frames are listed below. P and Q. +60).PROBLEMS (b) If a1 = {10. = (a) 2 cos + 2 sin + Take 13. —40. (c) If a2 {5. 1. find a2. 0. 1. 0}.. Also find Determine by transforming from P to S and then from S to Q. —1 —. 3. 5. 10.Q and Determine Suppose 5--4. find a'. 0. 100. 0. t'i Q Ic (a) (b) (c) 5—5.4) with respect to frame 1. YQ = . 10}. {l00. Calculate Consider the planar member consisting of a circular segment and a Prob. 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 — 12/2 (a) (b) (c) Determine 91'). having coordinates (6. Consider the circular helix. Consider two points. 5—3. - Suppose 4(y) = Suppose 0. (b) = —y. Point P is at the center of the circle. —50. Find corresponding to = {0.

coordinate of point Q is equal to h/4. Use the results of . 5—8 x1 (a) (b) Determine Note that the local frame at P coincides with the basic frame whereas the local frame at Q coincides with the natural frame at Q. The reference axis is defined by I niT I I —c ort x2 = f(xj). 4—2. — 1/4. Prob. Verify that Q corresponding to P = {1/2. Specialize part (a) for the case where — 4a 2 (x1b — Xj) and the x1 Prob. Verify that (5—27) and (5—28) are equivalent forms. 0}. 5 5—6.112 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. 3 3J L" 1 Consider the plane member shown. Q_ — I _T___ P 5—7. 1/3. Refer to Problem 5—3. Determine 1/10. — 1/10. Note that •1 rI IA ii r 5—8.

C XCI) Cl) z .

.

We suppose there are in bars (members) and j joints. ± See Ref. the magnitude of the axial force. some of the joint-displacement components are prescribed. the system is called a plane or two-dimensional truss. In general. 1. There is only one force unknown associated with each bar. Let r be the number of prescribed displacement components (displacement restraints) and nd the total number of unknown joint displacements. Similarly. and there are three displacement components associated with each joint.6 Governing Equations for an Ideal Truss 6—i. GENERAL A system of bars* connected at their ends by frictionless hinges to joints and subjected only to forces applied at the joint centers is called an ideal truss. it follows that each bar is in a state of direct stress. namely. the direction of the force coincides with the line connecting the joint If the bars lie in one plane. We define i as = = 2 3 for a plane truss for a space truss Using this notation. Since the bars are weightless and the hinges are frictionless. It follows that = if — r (6—2) Corresponding to each joint displacement restraint is an unknown joint force A prismatic member is conventionally referred to as a bar in truss analysis. There are two displacement components associated with each joint of a plane truss. a general system is called a space or three-dimensional truss. there are if displacement quantities associated with the] joints.t The bars arc assumed to be weightless and so assembled that the line connecting the joint centers at the ends of each bar coincides with the centroidal axis. 115 .

the total number of unknowns. Then. Since each joint is subjected to a concurrent force system. for an ideal truss is (6—3) fl—flj+flj—(j+tfl (6—4) The equilibrium equations for the bars have been used to establish the fact that the force in each bar has the direction of the line connecting the joint centers at the ends of the bar. These additional equations are referred to as the bar force—joint displacement relations and are obtained by combining the bar force—bar elongation relation and bar elongation—joint displacement relation for each of the in bars. to a member system having moment resisting connections. n1—m+r Finally. In Chapter 7. the question of initial instability is directly related to the solvability. the joint-displacement components. We then describe a procedure for introducing the joint-displacement restraints and summarize the governing equations. To adequately describe the formulation for a general system requires introducing a considerable amount of notation which tends to overpower the reader. that is. m additional independent equations are required.116 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN iDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Thisprocedure is repeated for the bar force-elongation relations and the joint force-equilibrium equations. In this case. external joint loads. Finally. 6 (reaction). n. They are also called the stWhess and flexibility methods in some texts. 2. We prefer to proceed from the truss to the general system since the basic formulation techniques for the ideal truss can be more readily described. In order to solve the problem. and the external joint load components to a common right-handed cartesian reference frame. The two general procedures for solving the governing equations are described in Chapters 8 and 9. Let (j = 1. The basic concepts employed in formulating and solving the governing equations for an ideal truss are applicable. We refer to these procedures as the displacement and force methods. 6—2. It is convenient to refer the coordinates of a joint. There remains the equilibrium equations for the joints. 3) be the axes and corresponding orthogonal unit . We let flf be the total number of force unknowns. and joint displacements. we develop variational principles for an ideal truss. to determine the bar forces. and direction cosines for the lines connecting the joint centers in the deformed state. we first derive the elongation—joint displacement relation for a single bar and then express the complete set of in relations as a single matrix equation. ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION FOR A BAR We number the joints consecutively from 1 through j. In this chapter. with slight extension. reactions. there are iJ scalar force-equilibrium equations relating the bar forces. Some authors start with the general system and then specialize the equations for the case of an ideal truss. we briefly discuss the solvability of the governing equations for the linear case.

SEC. We number the bars from 1 through m and consider bar n to be connected to joints k and s. The initial coordinates. Notation for joints. 3) and the corresponding vectors are written as rk = j= Uk = Ukl Pk 1 (6—5) The coordinates and position vector for joint k in the deformed state are 1k + 11k = (6—6) + Uk Figure 6—1 illustrates the notation associated with the joints. displacement components. The centroidal axis of bar n coincides with the line connecting joints k and s. 6—2 the initial length of bar n. 6—2. ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION vectors for the basic frame. and components of the resultant external force for joint k are denoted by (j = 1. 6—1. 14313 Deformed position of joint k // 11k2 // x2 flkl x1 Fig. 2. From Fig. denoted by = — is equal to the magnitude of the vector = (6—7) .

6 Since the basic frame is orthogonal. Note that we let be the unit vector associated with the positive direction of bar n in the undeformed state. We take the positive sense for bar n to be from joint k 13 = — xk)T(xs — xk) — xkf) (6—8) s x. the unit vector = — Pk.. 6—3. due to the orthogonality of the reference frame. .3 I / / XkI / Xg3 // 12 Xk2 Fig. =L — Xk) (6—10) 1. (6—7) reduces to = Before the orientation of the bar can be specified. Undeformed position of Bar n. a positive sense or direction must be selected. Let L12 + e12 be the deformed length. - = 1 Ar = 12 The deformed position of bar n is shown in Fig. The length and direction cosines for bar n are equal to the magnitude and direction cosines for the vector. to joint s and define as the direction cosine for the positive sense of bar n direction: in the undeformed state with respect to the = 1 (Ar = 1 — XkJ) (6—9) It is convenient to list the direction cosines in a row matrix.116 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 6—2. By definition. Finally.

Deformed position of Bar n. 6—3. ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION x3 Ap Joints x2 t?&2 x1 Fig. 1 expands to = [cx. we obtain.SEC. (6—11). associated with the positive direction in the deformed state. and the corresponding direction cosine matrix. after dividing both sides by (1 + = 1 + 2. 6—2.. — — (6—13) (6—14) We consider first (6—12). — 1 Uk) + — uk)T(US ilk) (6—15) The expression for the direction cosine.:- E UkJ) (6—16) We list the fl's in a row matrix. Substituting for = A1 + e 2 — Uk) and noting (6—7). These quantities are defined by + — eh) 1 (6—12) —. .j [ + 1 I +-.

Uk) form shows that the second-order terms arc related to the change in orientation of the bar.. << I Expanding the left-hand side of (6—15). the strain is only for steel at a stress level of 3 x ksi. is the extensional strain which is considerably less than unity for most engineering materials. e. However. Then. the geometric relations for all the bars can be expressed as a single matrix equation. The relations simplify if we introduce the assumption of small strain. we work with (6—19). which is connected to joints s and k (positive direction . we will assume small strain. we can write (6—19) as = This / + 1 — (u. If the initial geometry is such that the bar cannot experience a significant change in orientation. For example. — uk)T(u$ — Uk) (6—19) The direction cosines for the deformed orientation reduce to + — Uk) (6—20) To simplify the expression for further. GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION We have derived expressions for the.. By considering the truss as a system or network. 6 (6—17) [cm + uk)T] By definition../L7. — Uk) + (ii. is the change in length of bar n. then we can neglect the nonlinear terms. We use the term linear geometry for this case. The linearized relations are — Uk) (6—21) We discuss this reduction in greater detail in Chapter 8.. 6—3. i. (6—20). we need to interpret the quadratic terms. Since we are concerned in this chapter with the formulation of the governing equations.e. Using (6—20). we obtain e.120 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. The relations for bar n. we will retain the nonlinear rotation terms. and noting (6—18).direction cosines and elongation of a bar in terms of the initial coordinates and displacement components of the joints at the ends of the bar.

* For structural systems. and in the other two columns the corresponding numbers. positive and negative ends of member n. we must relate the bars and joints of the system. GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION 121 from k to s) are summarized below for convenience: = (x.) To proceed further. The geometric relations take the form (we replace s by bynJn(a)): = = — — x. + u. we must specify the connectivity of the truss. = = = = — — Xk) (x. 6—3. The connectivity can be defined by a table having m rows and three columns. — 11)T = ci. Now we introduce new notation which is more convenient for generalization of the geometric relations.. — uk)T Uk) Up to this point. that is. This table is referred to as the branch-node incidence table in network theory. of the joints at the positive and negative ends of the members.. Let n÷. The conneêtivity See Ref. a branch corresponds to a member and a node to a joint.. and n. — (6—22) + (u. 8. n_ denote the joint numbers for the joints at the positive and negative ends of and k member n. that is. Example 6—1 As an illustration. and we shall refer to this table as the member-joint incidence table or simply as the connectivity table. . consider the two-dimensional truss shown.. — xk) T — Uk) + + (ii. we have considered joints s and k as coinciding with the..SEC....) = = ci. It should be noted that the connectivity depends only on the numbering of the bars and joints. it is independent of the initial geometry and distortion of the system. In the first column. we list the bar numbers in ascending order. The positive directions of the bars are indicated by arrowheads and the bar numbers are encircled.

) 1 4 5 1 3 1 2 6 4 6 5 3 0 2 0 Fig. x2 To compute and a. E6—1 0 6 4 With the connectivity table.. 6 table (we list it horizontally to save space) for this numbering scheme takes the following form: Bar. For example. 2 it follows that the only nonvanj. x1. 8÷ 5. The elements in the uth row of d involve only Then. for bar 8. the elements of where k = 1.u2 6—23 and express the m elongation-displacement relations as a single matrix equation e = u (6—24) where d is of order m x ij. the evaluation of the initial length and direction cosines can be easily automated. The initial data consists of the j coordinate matrices.. ishing submatrices for row n are the two subinatrices whose column number corresponds to the joint number at the positive or negative end of member it. of order 1 x 1..n 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 2 5 7 8 9 2 6 10 4 2 11 5 3 +Joint(n÷) —Joint(n. 8. 2 in and £ = 1. e= {e1. xs• — x1 — x5 (x1 — x)T(x * x5) — = x5)T We define e and qj as the system elongation and joint-displacement matrices. we first determine n÷ and n_ from the connectivity table and then use the first two equations of(6—22). and 1. partitioning d into submatrices.. = {u1... C2. ..122 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN DEAL TRUSS CHAP..

GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION namely.: = +777 = (6—25) t' = Example 6—2 0 when n÷ orn The . The form of (6—25) suggests that we list the y's in a quasi-diagonal matrix.. It is of interest to express d in a form where these two effects are segregated. The general form of the d matrix for the truss treated in Example 6—1 is listed below.& matrix can be readily established by using the connectivity table. Uj e1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 Ii 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 e2 e3 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 14 e4 0 15 0 0 0 0 14 0 e5 0 e6 0 0 is 0 0 0 —Ys 0 0 0 e5 e9 e10 is 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 —19 0 0 1io 0 ho 0 0 0 e11 The d matrix depends on both the geometry and the topology.SEC. 6—3. We have also listed the elongations and joint displacement matrices to emphasize the significance of the rows and partitioned columns of . n÷ and n. one puts +y. 71 = 72 (6—26) . and null matrices at the other locations. For row n.&. at column at column n_.

2. - *= + =0 Then.. See also Ref.2 in e= 1.j Cr.. The unit matrices are of order 2 since the system is two-dimensional....124 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 6 and define C as C = [Ck(i k 1. This association is usually See Prob. (6—27) d = yC (6—28) The network terminology* for C is augmented branch-node incidence matrix.. Joint Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 12 2 +12 12 +12 12 Bar Numbers +12 +12 +12 +12 12 12 12 +12 12 +12 One can consider row n of C to define the two joints associated with bar n. We shall refer to it simply as the connectivity matrix. It follows that column k of C defines the bars associated with joint k. . 6—6.. Example 6—3 The connectivity matrix for Example 6—1 is listed below. 8. = — Ij n÷ or n.

A typical a-c curve is shown in Fig. positive when tension = initial elongation. 2.* Elastic behavior B 0 C 6—4. 6—4). elongation not associated with stress * A detailed discussion of the behavior of engineering materials is given in Chap. i. It follows that the only nonvanishing stress component is the axial stress. 8. We will use this property of the connectivity matrix later to generalize the joint force-equilibrium equations. If the behavior for decreasing a is different.. 6.e. The initial portion of the curve is essentially straight for engineering materials such as steel and aluminum. . 6—4. and 11 are incident on joint 5. 6—4.that a joint is positive incident on a bar when it is at the positive end of the bar. we see that joints 1 and 4 are incident on bar 5 and bars 3. will be constant when the bar is homogeneous and the force-elongation relation will be similar in form to the uniaxial stress-strain curve for the material. FORCE-ELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 125 referred to as incidence. For ductile materials. a is constant throughout the bar. a. We introduce the following notation: A = cross sectional area F axial force. Similarly. Fig. that is. For example. A material is said to be elastic when the stress-strain curve is unique. 5 of Ref. FORCE-ELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR By definition. and also.SEC. s. the unloading curve (BC) is essentially parallel to the initial curve. each bar of an ideal truss is prismatic and subjected only to axial load applied at the centroid of the end cross sections. We will consider each bar to be homogeneous but we will not require that all the bars be of the same material. 6-4. when the curves corresponding to increasing and decreasing a coincide (OAB and BAO in Fig. The strain. Stress-strain curves for elastic and inelastic behavior. 4. a bar is positive incident on a joint when its positive end is at the joint. We say. the material is said to be inelastic.

Linear elastic behavior. is the elongation due to a unit force. A superscript (j) is used to identify the modulus and limiting stress for segment j. We consider next the case where the stress-strain relation is approximated by a series of straight line segments. We consider first the case where the stress-strain relation is linear. C0 Fig. but now we have to determine what . The material is said to be piecewise linear. 6—5. The initial and transformed relations are a= F a E(r — AE = (e — e0) k(e — a0) (6—30) L F + e0 = fF + e0 We call k. which is the inverse of k. 6—5. Physically. f the stiffness and flexibility factors for the bar. 6 Since the stress and strain are constant throughout the bar.126 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Figure 6—6 shows this idealization for two segments. A material having this property is called Hookean. F= e = e0 = Lg Le0 (6—29) We convert the a-c relation for the material to the force-elongation relation for the bar by applying (6—29). k is the force required per unit elongation and f. as shown in Fig. The forceelongation relation will still be linear.

Loading or Unloading—initial Segment F = k">(e — F>1> F= 2. t See Prob. (6—3 1) Loading—Second Segment F>l) < F F . or Ref. 3. the curve is assumed to be parallel to the initial segment.f * We are neglecting the Bauschinger etlect. Sec. segment the deformation corresponds to and also whether the strain is increasing (loading) or decreasing (unloading). 5.4a12> F>2> k'2>(e (6—32) = 3. 2. For unloading. 6—6.* The relations for the various possibilities are listed below. + (f°> — Unloading—Second Segment F k>1>(e — (6—33) One can readily generalize these relations for the nth segment. See Ref. 6-4. FORCE-ELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 127 Fig.SEC. . 1. Piecewise linear approximation. Art. 6—8. 74.9.

) Taking L=lQft=l2Oin we obtain .3 kips/in. E6—4.128 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.36 in. 6—6): = = — + (f>2) — = + 0. The equivalent initial strain is (see Equation 6—33 and Fig.— = 41. Segment 1 Segment 2 F F (83. which can be interpreted as an average tangent stiffness for the segment. E6—4 40 41./kip F"> = 42> = 3okips = + ([1) — — 0. The procedure described above utilizes the segment stiffness./kip —./in.3)(e — 120 (41.4=lin.2 f"> = f"> = 120 1/k"> = 24 x = k>2> = L AE>2> = 83.06 in.7 kips/in. shown in Fig. We have to modify the stiffness and equivalent initial elongation only when the limit of the seg- . L in.7 30 (in.7)(e — Suppose a force of 35 kips is applied and the bar is unloaded. 6 Example 6—4 We consider a bilinear approximation. 12 x in. Fig.

which is too cumbersome. The notation introduced for the piecewise linear case is required in order to distinguish between the various segments and the two methods. FORCE-ELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 129 is reached. 6-4. one has to iterate on eoeq regardless of whether the segment limit has been exceeded. Fig. the actual strain. Since e in turn depends on F.eq = A = (6—35) — — The equivalent initial strain. Rather than continue with this detailed notation. ment . we outline the initial st(ffness approach. eq kU)(e — eo. An alternate procedure is based on using the initial linear stiffness for all the segments.eq) is interpreted as the equivalent linear initial strain and is given by eo.4 'I I' /1 -eo. we will drop all the additional superscripts and write the force-deformation relations for bar n in the simple linear form of = = + (6—36) . eoeq. 6—7.SEC. We write the force-elongation relation F— — segment 2 as (6—34) — A = where e0. 6—7.eq. Notation for the initial stiffness approach. Consider Fig. depends on e. This disadvantage is offset somewhat by the use for all the segments. In what follows.

F.. + — k. the sense of F. The two forms are: F... we define F. (6—38) We can express the force-displacement relations for the "m" bars as a single matrix equation by defining (6 39) k2 k1 k= km and noting (6—24). Then......_) = e. e0. The force-deformation and deformation-displacement relations for bar n are given by (6—22) and (6—36)... +F. (6—37) F0. Continuing.. From Fig.. F... = (6—43 . GENERAL BAR FORCE—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION 6—5... + fF JOINT FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS Let F.. = (6—42) When F. The generalized forms of (6—37) and (6—38) are: F= and k(e e0 — e0) = F0 + (6—40) (6—41) d°1I = 6—6. is the same as the positive sense for the bar.130 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.i F.. i. = — F. Now. is positive.u.. = — F.fi. u.. which defines the orientation of the bar in the deformed state.. be the axial force vector for bar n (see Fig. and e0 are defined by (6—31) through (6—35) for the physically nonlinear case. 6—8). = and — — e0. = —k.i.... f. as the forces exerted by bar n on the joints at the positive and negative ends of the bar.e0.. The force vector has the direction of the unit vector.. + f.. 6 where k.. = fi...y. Combining these two relations leads to an expres- sion for the bar force in terms of the displacement matrices for the joints at the ends of the bar... 6—8. = F0.

The external joint load vector is Pk. the resultant force vector must equal zero. . It will have the same form as dT with y. = = (6—48) e = 0 when orn_ The matrix can be readily developed using the connectivity table. = (if x and m) 1.j+=k — The first summation involves the bars which are positive incident on joint k (positive end at joint k) and the second the bars which are negative incident. Using (6--43). We partition into submatrices of order i x 1. Pk = Pk .SEC. 2. . = 1.. where For equilibrium. JOINT FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS Joint n_ Fig. there will be only two elements in any column of From (6—44). we see that.m (6—47) Since a bar is incident only on two joints. Then. (if x 1) (6—45) We write the complete set of joint force-equilibrium equations as: = (6—46) Note that the rows of pertain to the joints and the columns to the bars. k= 2... 6—6. replaced by n. = = and .. for column n. We consider next joint k. the matrix equilibrium equation for joint k takes the form: Pk = Let j+k P2. 6—8. . Notation for barforce. . When the geometry is linear.j . — (6—44) be the general external joint load matrix: = .

in our derivation. Also. Eq. We have developed the following equations relating F. Now. e. 0 (rn x Lm) o o (6—49) Finally. . 6—3. Using this property. we can write the generalized form of (6—44) as where 0 -. * See Sec. GOVERNING EQUATIONS and qj. e = d°l1 = e0 + IF = and are the external joint-displacement and external joint-load matrices arranged in ascending order. we where the elements of have considered the components to be referred to a basic reference frame. We could have also utilized the connectivity* matrix C to develop ft was pointed out in Example 6—3 that the elements of the kth column of C define the incidence of the bars on joint k. (6—50) INTRODUCTION OF DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS. we have = 6—7.132 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 6—27. 6 Example 6—5 The matrix for the truss of Example 6—1 has the following general form: Bar Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 +llç RT + T 2 nT OF +p7 nT —plo OT ftT I z a C -' A DT P2 oT ±1J3 oT nT oT +p4 øT •r C -I J3 P6 oT +pU I.

2 (6—56) .SEC. and (6—54) represents = AT j = 1. the number of force unknowns. This will require a rearrangement of and when Let r be the number of displacement restraints and 11d the number of displace- ment unknowns. Lastly. There will be n4 prescribed joint loads and r unknown joint loads (usually called reactions) corresponding to the na unknown joint displacenients and the r known joint displacements. Finally. U2 be the column matrices of unknown and prescribed joint displacement components and P1. and the r prescribed displacements. there will be a reduction in the number of joint displacement unknowns and a corresponding increase in d. (a) takes the form: e= P BF = AU e0 + fF We partition A. The rearranged system joint displacement and joint load matrices are written as U. Equation equations involving the in unknown bar forces and the prescribed joint loads. P: (fld x >< 1) (r x 1) — 6—51 We 1) x 1) + V = 13 point out that the components contained in U (and P) may be referred to local reference frames at the various joints rather than to the basic frames. for the r reactions in terms of the m bar forces. We let U1. A and B involve the joint displacements. Equation (6—55) represents r equations. the nd unknown displacements. INTRODUCTtON OF DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS 133 joint displacement restraints are imposed. A J3T. When the geometry is nonlinear. Then. P2 the corresponding prescribed and unknown joint load matrices. we let A and B be the transformation matrices associated with U and P. If the geometry is linear. 6—7. P: (fflxnd) (mxr) A2] (6—52) B [Bil (nd x in) LB2i(r x m) and write (b) in expanded form: e A1U1 + A2tJ2 = e0 + fF (6—53) (6—54) (6—55) = P2 B1F B2F Equation (6—53) represents equations relating the in unknown bar forces. This is necessary when the restraint direction at a joint does not coincide with one of the directions of the basic frame. B consistent with the partitioning of U.

.. We also describe how one can represent the introduction of displacement restraints as a matrix transformation. When the restraint at a joint does not coincide with one of the directions of the basic frame. we perform the same operations on the columns of d. Finally. . B replacing d. Finally. and = . . 2.134 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. direction. let R0k be the rotation transformation matrix for the local frame at joint k with respect to the basic frame (frame o). We define CU'. (6—60) R0j = = (a) . R02 . To obtain A. by operating on the columns and then transposing the resulting matrix. (6-59) R°1 = Then. 6—8. 6 We have introduced the displacement restraints into the formulation by with A. Pk— where ROk Uk — ak Pk = [cos (6—58) We have omitted the frame superscript (o) for quantities referred to the basic frame (ut. . we obtain U from by simply rearranging the rows of such that the elements in the first rows are the unknown displacements and the last r rows contain the prescribed displacements. we obtain B by operating on the rows of or alternately. to simplify the notation. The components are related by: Uk— k_ ok k. It remains to discuss how one determines A. 3) be the orthogonal directions for the local reference frame associated with the displacement restraint at joint k. Let (j = 1. since P corresponds to U. Also. ARBITRARY RESTRAINT DIRECTION When all the restraint directions are parallel to the direction of the global reference frame. In the following section. it is necessary first to transform the joint displacement and external load components from the basic frame to a local frame associated with the restraint at the joint. = as the system joint-rotation matrix.. as the system joint-displacement and -force matrices referred to the local joint reference frames. we treat the case of an arbitrary restraint from d. Suppose there is a displacement restraint at joint k. let and be the corresponding displacement and external joint load components. B.

we first determine and then U. D is a permutation matrix which rearranges the rows of We obtain D by applying the same row rearrangement to a unit matrix of order ij.* Dr D1. see the matrix for Example 6—5 on page 136. The steps are A2] -+ -* B LB2 Example 6—6 To obtain the submatrices in column k of we postmultiply the submatrices in column k of ri by R°" T We can perform the same operation on and then transpose the resulting matrix or. —* U. b (IP = leads to = (6—61) The transformation to is the same as for the case where the restraint directions are parallel to the directions of the basic frame. by y.cifi. where H is the permutation matrix corresponding to the displacement restraints. Also. that is. * See Prob.. . we obtain A by rearranging the columns of . determined by transposing One can visualize the introduction of displacement restraints as a matrix transformation. Postmulti- plication by Dr effects the same rearrangements on the columns. I —36 for a discussion of permutation matrices. For the general case of arbitrary restraint directions. The matrix can be and replacing il. As an illustration. involves only a permutation of the rows of U = (6—63). When the restraint directions are parallel to the directions of the basic frame.SEC. it will involve only a rearrangement of the rows of Similarly. alternately. Now. ARBITRARY RESTRAINT DIRECTION 135 Operating on the initial equations with (a). = (a) The step. We represent the operations U as and P (6—62) U=D°lI and call D the displacement-restraint transformation matrix. 6—8. we can premultiply the submatrices in row k of by R°"..

) m 0 — R04P1 :13 > 2 ROSDTI C m -1 C (I) Cl) .C) for Example 6—6 0 F4 F5 F6 F7 F1 F2 F8 F9 F3 F10 F11 m Pt R°'pb z z 0 C — m pt —1 — 0 z C.

B1 is independent of the loading and the initial stability criterion is also applicable for a finite loading. ax=c (b) In general. In this section. INITIAL INSTABILITY The force equilibrium equations relating the prescribed external joint forces and the (internal) bar forces has been expressed as (see Equation 6—54): P1=B1F where P1 is I) and F is (m x 1). we have U= and it follows that I) = Since both H and Using (6—62). When the geometry is nonlinear. Then. one would not generate A. HPII°' (6—64) are orthogonal matrices. 6—9. (b) can be solved only if a and [a c] have the same rank. 1—45. When the geometry is linear. B1 depends on the joint displacements as well as on the initial geometry and < restraint directions. Applying this condition * See Sec. we they will be negligible in comparison to the linear terms for this case.SEC. and D in terms of the geometrical. Consider a set of j linear algebraic equations in k unknowns. the total number of equations. . 6—9. INITIAL INSTABILITY 137 Combining (a) and (6—63). We treat stability under a finite loading in Chapter 7. If these equations are inconsistent for an arbitrary infinitesimal loading. see also Prob. local rotation matrices lead to B A= ( 6 65 ) — Equation (6—65) is of interest since the various terms are isolated.* It follows that the equations are consistent for an arbitrary right-hand side only when the rank of a is equal to]. B with it. 1—13. D is also an orthogonal matrix. This is not true for a nonlinear system. Since the nonlinear terms depend on the load intensity. P. A and dDT then substituting for d. we are concerned with the behavior under an infinitesimal loading.s. (a) represents linear equations in in unknowns. we say the system is initially unstable. However. take B1 as constant. connectivity.

The equations are consistent only if P21 = — Pu Since m < we know the system is unstable for an arbitrary loading without actually finding r(B1). 6 to (a). In order to determine whether a truss is initially stable. B1 must be That is.138 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. The following examples illustrate various cases of initial instability. we see that the truss is initially unstable when the rank of B1 is less than na. E6—7 x2 in = 4 5 na = x1 F1 Pu F F2 F3 F4 —1 P12 ) — P21 +1 B1 +1 +1 +1 P22 P31 Row 3 is (— 1) times row 1. the number of bars must be at least This requires m of rank equal to the number of unknown displacement components. Example 6—7 The force-equilibrium equations for the accompanying sketch are: Fig. one must actually find the rank of B1. For the truss to be initially stable under an arbitrary loading. . Since the rank this condition is necessary but not sufficient for initial may still be less than stability.

SEC. sinO cosO —sinO ® Psi ® P32 © P41 —1 —1 —cosO —sinO There are three relations between the rows (1) row®+row®+row®= —row® row® + row® + row = —row® (sin 8)(row ® + row ©) — cos U (row ®) = cos U (row ®) (2) (3) . 6—9. Fig. E6—8A '1 J 0 M 4 3 I F6 —cosU F F F2 F3 F4 F5 ® Pit © Piz ® Psi P22 —1 +1 sinO +1 —a--—-— ±1 +1 —1 cosO . E6—8A and then specialize it for various restraint conditions. INITIAL INSTAB1LITY 139 Example 6—8 We first develop the matrix for the truss shown in Fig.

140 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 2. 3. Since has three linear dependent rows. 8) contains only three independent rows. 4. Equation (b) reduces to —d(p11 + P21) + b(p22 Using ci + P32) = 0 =L sin 8 b = L cos 0 we can write (c) as cos 0p32 sin O(pii + P21) — cos which is relation 3. 6. Now. E6—8B 1 2 x2 m6 x1 . We see that rows 2 and 5 arc independent. 6 The first two relations correspond to the scalar force equilibrium conditions for the external joint loads: Pkl = P11 + P21 + P31 + P41 = 0 Pk2 = P12 + P22 + P32 + P42 = 0 The third relation corresponds to the scalar moment equilibrium condition: k1 Mk is the moment of the external force vector acting at joint k with respect to point 0. Case 1 Fig. 7. we obtain B1 from by first taking a linear combination of the rows (when the restraints are not parallel to the basic frame) and then deleting the rows corresponding to the joint forces associated with the prescribed joint displacements. An insufficient number of restraints are introduced (n4 > 5). it follows that we must introduce at least three restraints. the origin of the basic frame. We say the restraints are not independent in this case. These cases are illustrated below. Initial instability will occur if— 1. We obtain relation (3) by taking Oat joint 4. A sufficient number of restraints are introduced (/24 = 5) but the rows of B1 are not linearly independent. Thc remaining set (rows 1.

The number of restraints is sufficient (fld = 5) but the restraints are not independent since r(B1) < 5. we start with the equilibrium equations. we showed that there are three relations between the rows for a two-dimensional truss. E6—8C x2 rn = 6 —5 xl We delete rows 4. at least onc horizontal restraint must be introduced. we take 0 at the origin of the basic reference frame. The system is stable only when the applied joint loads satisfy the condition Pu + P21 + P31 = Case 2 P41 Fig.and moment-equilibrium conditions for the complete truss. (jxl) 3 o (2i—3)x 1 0 is the moment of with respect to an arbitrary moment center. 6. For convenience. To establish the relations for the three-dimensional case. 6—9. Parwhere titioning (6—66) where is of order (i x m) and using the matrix notation introduced in . r(81) = 4. In Example 6—8. Actually. These relations correspond to the force. 0.SEC. INITIAL INSTABILITY We obtain B1 by deleting rows 6 and 8 (corresponding to P32 and P42). To make the system stable. and 8.

K. H. 1966. Struct. ASCE.2. MCMINN.. S. pp. it is a necessary but not sufficient condition for initial stability. Eq. 89. New York. and N. H. Finally. London. H. New York. in. S. row q + row (q + I) + . 8.. TIMoSISENKO. 5—11. New York. C. S. Vol. 6. S. WILBUR: Elementary Structural Analysis. we obtain B by combining and rearranging the rows of PA.. Now. 5. Div. C. 1..: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. 1941.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. * See . FENVES. and D. YOUNG: Theory of Structures.. Also. Pergamon Press. I.142 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.. 2. we must introduce at least 3(i — 1) restraints: r no.. It follows that B will also have at least 3(i — 1) relations between its rows. Part 2. and F. McGrawHill. 7. McGraw-Hill.* the equilibrium equations take the form PA. 5—2 for the moment. Either condition may control r. We have shown that there are at least 3(i — 1) relations between the tows of PA. and J. 1945. H. New York. 6 Sec. No.: Strength of Materials. R. 4. we obtain by deleting the rows corresponding to the restraints. For the system to be initially stable. J. ST4. New York. of restraints 3(i — 1) (6—70) Note that this requirement is independent of the number of bars. S. MARTIN. Van Nostrand.: Matrices jbr Structural Analysis. 1959. H. LIVIISLEY.i (6—69) + q] and (6—68) corresponds to (2i — 3) relations. 1960. NORRIS.. B. McGraw-Hill. REFERENCES C.. + row [i(j — 2) + q] = row [i(j 1) q=l. 1962. 3.. CRANDALL. The number of restraints must also satisfy the necessary condition This requires r = ((j — — m) (6—71) Both (6—70) and (6—71) must be satisfied. BRANIN: "Network-Topological Formulation of Structural Analysis. 1963. depending on the arrangement of the bars. New York. 1964. TIMOSNENKO.." J. = 0 (6—67) (6—68) =0 Equation (6—67) represents i relations between the rows of PA. DAHL: An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids. Wiley. McGraw-Hill. 483—514.

using the connectivity table. 1. (b) (c) List the initial direction cosines. r. and for the following plane trusses: Prob. Determine in. Determine the complete form of d. and the expressions for the linear geometric case (Equation 6—21). 6—1 (a) (b) 6—2. 1/l0} = — 1/10... Find 1k and Determine and ji. Do we have to include nonlinear geometric terms for this truss? Locate the nonzero submatrices in . . Compare the results for the three cases.J.sd. —2] (ft) (a) (b) Take the positive direction of bar n from k to s. Suppose bar n is connected to joints s and k where Xk = {l. Consider the truss shown: (a) Establish the connectivity table. 6—17). using the exact expressions (Equations 6—15. Assume no support movements.PROBLEMS 143 PROBLEMS 6—1. and 6—20). 1/20. the expressions specialized for the case of small strain (Equations 6—19. 6—4. 6—3. Discuss when the linear geometric relations are valid and develop the appropriate nonlinear elongation-displacement relations for the trusses shown.0] (ft) = {5. Determine and Suppose Uk {1/10. —5. — 1/30} (inches) (inches) Note that the units of x and u must be consistent.

The Junctions are generally called nodes. 6 Prob. The encircled numbers refer to the branches and the arrowheads indicate the positive sense (of the current) for each branch. Consider the d-c network shown. Determine d for the three-dimensional truss shown.144 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Determine C. and the line connecting two nodes is called a branch. 6—6. 6—4 I' (d) (e) 6—5. 6—3 2 . Verify that d = cxC.3 (a) x2 X1 3 2 Ib) x2 Prob. .

.0. How many independent columns does ad have? In network theory. Discuss how the truss problem differs from the electrical network problem with respect to the. v2. 6—5 x3 4 (0. using the branch-node connectivity table. v5} = general node potential matrix = general branch potential difference matrix {e1. Also. 1. . 145 Let and n.. The potential Prob. . 5) denote the potential at node j.. .. . . form of ad.PROBLEMS . and write the system of branch potential difference—node potential relations as e= . .0) xI (1.. indicated by We define v and e as is given by = v.1. .cjv Determine d.0) (1. 2. 6—6 3 0 0' drop for branch n. v= e= {v1. ad is called the augmented branch node incidence matrix.. (j = 1. . let denote the nodes at the positive and negative ends of branch n. e2.0) Prob.

6 6—7. Generalize Equation 6—35 for segmcntj. Suppose the stress-strain relation for initial loading is approximated.146 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. and the a-s curve shown. Suppose a force of + 60 kips is applied and then removed. 6—10 GA Ee da Et . Develop the piecewise linear force-elongation relations. Start with e + and express eb0 in terms of quantities associated with segment (J — 1). Determine the initial elongation. Consider the material to be aluminum. Prob. Generalize Equation 6—32 for segmentj. I)etermine the force-elongation relation for the inelastic case. 6—10. Suppose the bar experiences a temperature increase of 1000 F. (a) (b) (c) Take L 20 ft. by a= E(s — be3) Prob. 6—7 6X ksi 20 ksi 6—8. as in the sketch. 6—9. A = 2 in2.

the total current flowing into a node must equal the total current flowing out of the node. The positive sense of n_ to node n÷. (u + For the accompanying sketch: Prob. Now. 6—12 for the three-dimensional truss shown. 6—li. using the stress-strain relation (b) (c) = where E. and n are constants. 6—6. Let be the current in branch n. Repeat Prob. Prob. c. This requirement leads to one equation for each node involving the branch currents incident on . (a) Consider the electrical network of Prob. Suppose the material behaves inelastically for decreasing 4 Consider the unloading curve to be parallel to the initial tangent. 6—13. node 6—14. p 6—12 (a) Locate the nonzero submatrices in (b) Assemble for the linear geometric case. 6—10. Repeat Prob.PROBLEMS (a) 147 Determine expressions for ES and E'. Determine the force-elongation relation for AB. the secant and tangent moduli. 6—12. 6—13 LX2 I 'I. Determine expressions for k5 and kt. is from.

. = — e0 . The partitioned equations are developed in Prob. Identify B1 and B2. is52 are prescribed. 6—3 with i = 1. j2. The orientation of the local Prob. 6—6. are prescribed. An i.. 6—12. The d matrix depends only on the topology (connectivity) of the system. 6—16.. . Determine B1 and B2. (a) (b) Develop the general form of Suppose is21. u42. is the branch resistance. Show that the complete system of branch curpotential relations can be written as e= = e0 — + Ri = R1(e e0) = R1dv — R1e0 Equations (a) and (c) are the governing unpartitioned equations for a linear-resistance d-c network. 6 the node.148 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. u42. When the resistance is linear. = general branch-current matrix (Sxl) 0 Show that the complete system of node equations can be written as (b) where d is given in Prob.. it does not involve geometry. 6—12. that is. 6—16 frame at joint 5 is shown in the sketch. d corresponds to the C matrix used in Sec. It should be noted that the network problem is onedimensional. Actually. x2 . . Refer to Prob. . 6—23. Suppose u11. How many independent equations does (a) represent? (Hint: d has only four independent columns). the current and potential drop for a branch are related by = e0 is the branch emf and R. Let = {i1. Refer to Prob. 6—15.) alternate form is Note the similarity between (b) and the linear elastic member forceelongation relation.

Then. 6—13 (a) (b) Develop the general form of Determine B1 and B2 corresponding to the following prescribed displacements: U11. 6—18 r (restraint direction) t (tangent) 11 = 13 I. we can proceed as follows: (1) We take the force in some bar. Rather than operate on B1. 6—19. Prob. B1 is of order tn x m. 1—45). x1 x2 1/2 1/2 x3 0 1/2 1/2 6—48. the rank of B1 is less than m and the system is initially unstable (see Prob. The restraint direction degrees counterclockwise from the tangent at each joint. U13 The local frame at joint 2 is defined by the following direction cosine table. Refer to Prob. to determine r(B1). U-33. equal to C: = C . Suppose na = 0 are in. U3j. The equilibrium (.PROBLEMS 6—17. U12. The bars are of equal length and 0 is the center of the circumscribed circle. Consider the two-dimensional truss shown. Repeat for the case of four bars. say bar k. U23.nxrn) equations for P1 (mxl) B1 F=0 Fk rnXl If (a) has a nontrivial solution. Investigate the is initial stability of this system.

3. Prob. Prob.150 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN DEAL TRUSS CHAP. 6—21 5 6—22. we express the remaining bar forces in terms of C. In this case. using only the equations of static equilibrium. 2. and then F1 using the equilibrium condition (summation of forces normal to r must equal zero) for joints 1. Take F1 = C and determine F2. Investigate the initial stability of the system shown. we can determine F. the truss is said to be statically determinate. (a) Apply this procedure to Prob. Use the zero load test. 6 (2) Using the joint force-equilibrium equations. P1 = B1F. If this reduces to an identity. The restraint directions are indicated by the slashed lines. (3) The last equilibrium equation leads to an expression for Fk in terms of C. is square. 6—21. When n4 = m and the geometry is linear. since the system. Do initial (b) elongations and support settlements introduce forces in the bars of a statically determinate truss? 6—20. F3. 6—18. r(B1) < since a nontrivial solution for F exists. 6—22 -j 4 -t I 3 c . Modify the zero load test for the case where na < in. Investigate the initial stability of the two-dimensional truss shown. This procedure is called the zero load test. Note that the general solution of B1F 0 involves m — r(B1) arbitrary constants.

(bxn) bx(n—1) bxl d2] and let d1 = A. (nxb) . and one equation must be disregarded. one of the node potentials must be specified. (a) Let = {v1 — v2 — . ..PROBLEMS 6—23. That is. j2 = node potential matrix = {v1. The operation corresponds to introducing displacement restraints in the truss problem. -. . . The reduced system of node equations has the form ATj =0 Note that AT corresponds to B1 for the truss problem. We generalize the results of Probs. Suppose we delete the last equation. This corresponds to deleting the last column of d (last row of dT). 6—6. . = branch current matrix = {i1. . The general relations are (1) node equations (n equations) &T (bxl) (nxl) = Ri and (2) branch equations (b equations) e = dv = e0 + Now. — Show that dv = AV (b) Summarize the governing equations for the network. We have deleted the last column of d which corresponds to node n. Equation (e) represents (n — 1) equations. Compare the necessary number of restraints required for the network and truss problems. we take as the reference potential. . matrix = {e1. v2. We partition d. dT rows of has only n — 1 independent rows. Since v is of order n. and 6—14 for a network having b branches and n nodes. e2. Let e v branch potential duff. Therefore. . we can only determine the potential difference for the nodes with respect to an arbitrary node. One can easily show that the row ii row k 1 are related by = It follows that (a) represents only n — independent equations. .

In this chapter. Both principles are then identified as the stationary requirements for certain functions. we discuss the principle of virtual forces and show that it is basically a geometrical compatibility relation. resulting in equations relating the external joint loads and internal bar forces. the equilibrium conditions for the joints were enforced. Next. Finally. we utilize the material presented in Chapter 3. we develop two variational principles and illustrate their application to an ideal truss. Why bother with variational principles when the derivation of the governing equations for an ideal truss is straightforward? Our objective in discussing them at this time is primarily to expose the ieader to this point of view. Later. we can illustrate these principles quite easily with the truss. we discuss the question of stability of an elastic system and develop the stability criterion for an ideal truss. The system equations were obtained by generalizing the member forcedisplacement and joint force equilibrium equations and required defining only Later. GENERAL The formulation of the governing equations for an ideal truss described in Chapter 6 involved three steps: 1. For this step. The elbngation of a bar was related to the translations of the joints at the end of the bar. 2. which treats relative extremas of a function. in Chapter 10. we shall 152 . This principle is just an alternate statement of force equilibrium.7 Variational Principles for an Ideal Truss 7-1. we shall two additional transformation matrices follow essentially the same approach to establish the governing equations for an elastic solid. Next. the bar force was expressed in terms of the elongation and then in terms of the joint translations. Finally. Also. The principle of virtual displacements is treated first. 3.

for completeness. the increment in W due to an increment Ar can be expressed in terms of the differentials of W when F is a continuous function of yr f = dW + 4d2W + dW dW —Ar = dv F Au (7—2) d2W = d(dW) refer to dW as the first-order work. We will establish its form by treating first a single particle and then extending the result to a system of particles interconnected with internal restraints. 3—I. to construct approximate formulations for a member. particularly the principle of virtual forces. The work done by F (see Fig. 7—1. Since W is a function of v. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DiSPLACEMENTS The principle of virtual displacements is basically an alternate statement of force equilibrium. use 7-2. 7—1) is defined as w w0 + JFdv = W(v) where v0 is an arbitrary reference displacement. as in inelastic behavior. we review briefly the definition of work before starting with the derivation. . PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 153 these principles. The principle utilizes the concept of incremental work and. 7—2. Work integral for the one-dimensional force-displacement relation. we call d2W the secondIf dF/dv is discontinuous. t Differential notation is introduced in Sec. we must use the value of dF/dv corresponding to the sense of Av. Similarly. This is illustrated in We order work. F w—rv0 Fig.SEC. Let v be the displacement of the point of application of a force F in the direction of F.

this statement is the definition of the principle of virtual displacements.154 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP 7 < 0. 7—2. and dF/du = F-v curve. Work integral for direction-dependent force. —k2 for of v when there is a reversal in the Note that W is not a single-valued function Fig. Let first-order work associated with the forces acting on particle q and We consider the forces to be continuous functions of Au. the particle is in equilibrium when R = 0. 7—3). The incremental displacement 74 — is called a virtual displacement. The first-order work is dW=R'Afi R= (7—3) If the initial position is an equilibrium position. We use dF/dv = +k1 for > 0. R+ Fig. Virtual displacement of a single mass particle. an alternate statement of the equilibrium requirement is: The first-order work is zero for an arbitrary displacement of a particle from an equilibrium position. We visualize the particle experiencing a displacement increment Au from the initial position. dW 0 for arbitrary Au since 0. By definition. One can readily generalize (7—4) for the case of S particles. Let R be the resultant force vector. 7—2. be the the . A vs V Fig. We consider first a single mass particle subjected to a system of forces (see Fig. 7—3. Therefore.

but opposite in sense. consider the simple system shown in Fig. 7—2. We define dW5 as the first-order work done by the external forces and dW1 as the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the particles. some of the forces acting on the particles will be due to internal restraints. In general. we have dW.SEC. We use the subscript D for this term since it involves the F1 /(Deformedl I . For this case. let the restraints. = 0 dW = = 0 for arbitrary Equation (7—5) is the definition of the principle of virtual work for a system of particles. it follows that As an illustration. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 155 corresponding virtual-displacement vector. 7—4..2 be the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on Now. Substituting for dW. 7—4. Since the points of application coincide. Work done on the mass particles and internal restraints. (7—5) becomes dW5 + dW1 = 0 for arbitrary S q=l. F1 El (Initial) (Deformed) F1 F1 II Fig. The restraint force acting on a particle is equal in magnitude. If particle q is in equilibrium. to the reaction of the particle on the restraint. for arbitrary It follows that the scalar force-equilibrium equations for the system are equivalent to the general requirement. deformation of the restraints. = —F1 Au1 + F1 Au2 F1 Au2 dW1 = F1 Au1 — .

)T] Au... (de. depends on the joint displacements. We must use the rules for forming the differentials of a compound function since e. deH dW0 = FraC Finally. . We have defined and as the column matrices of external joint loads and corresponding joint displacements.. and noting the definition of (see (6—22)).) = de.) (7—8) = 1= J. The first-order work done by the restraint forces acting on bar n due to the virtual displacements is = Generalizing (b). 7 Using (b). + F. we obtain de.2. de. To apply the principle of virtual displacements to an ideal truss. de. Operating on — ( — U — — u. d2e..S (7—6) Also.156 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.. de.). the general principle of virtual displacements can be expressed as follows: The first-order work done by the external forces is equal to the first-order work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints for any arbitrary virtual displacement of a system of particles from an equilibrium position. the work equation for an ideal truss has the form Ml = FT de for arbitrary MIt (7—7) The scalar force-equilibrium equations are obtained by substituting for de in terms of Mt.)2 = d(F.. we have F. Then. Some authors refer to (7—6) as the work equation. = Wd(e.) (Au — Au.. = + — — u... We emphasize again that (7—6) is just an alternate statement of the force equilibrium conditions for the system. = F. Using (3—17). It is convenient to first establish the expression for the differential elongation of an individual bar and then assemble de. we can write dW4 = d2 dWd de de. we con- sider the joints to be mass points and the bars to be internal restraints. F. = where &W contains the virtual joint displacements. we can write (a) as: dWE = dWD for arbitrary q=1.

= R.SEC. We just have to replace y. E7—1 b displacements shown above. ?.TMI = and requiring (a) to be satisfied for arbitrary results in the joint force force equilibrium equations. . There is no internal work since the body is rigid. e where d is constant and de = dM1 follows directly from e. Then.: de MI (7—9) Substituting for de in (7—7). in that order. R2. Au2 leads to R2 = P which are the force and moment equilibrium equations. as in the diagram. We have treated the geometrically nonlinear case here to show that the principle of virtual displacements leads to forceequilibrium equations which are consistent with the geometrical assumptions associated with the deformation-displacement relations.. and reactions R... Introducing the virtual Fig. with il. Example 7—1 We consider a rigid member subjected to a prescribed force. Au1 + R2 Au2 — P is not independent: = Au. 7—2. P. ( — d\ + Au2 7d dW = — + — Au2 {R2 — =0 Requiring (c) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au. dW = Now.. For the geometrically linear case. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 157 The assembled form follows from (6—25). and evaluating the first-order work.

4. Au1 — Au2 = 0 Multiplying the constraint relation by —2. It is possible Fig. we obtain Au1(P — F1 cos 0 — 2) + Au2(F2 cos 0 + 2) = 0 (f) Finally. and collecting terms. To obtain the force equilibrium equation relating P and the internal bar forccs F1. Au1. we require (f) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au1 and Au2. 6 are rigid to include F3 even though bar 3 is rigid by treating it as a Lagrange multiplier. we introduce a virtual displacement. cos 0)Au2 = 0 (d) (e) Now. The equilibrium equations See See. dWE = (1WD for arbitrary Au1 P= (F1 — Fjcos 0 The force in bar 3 does not appear explicitly in the equilibrium equation. equating dW5 and dW0.158 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Then. (c).f We consider Au3 as independent in the work equation: P Au1 — (F1 cos 0)Au1 + (F. 5. . F2. of the point of application of F: dWE = PAu1 dW0 F1 de1 + F2 de2 The first-order increments in the elongations are de1 = Au1 cos El de2 = —Au2 cos El —Au1 cos U where U defines the initial position. adding the result to (d). 7 Example 7—2 We consider the outside bars to be rigid (see sketch). E7—2 Bars 3. 3—3.

where U2 contains the prescribed support movements. in Chapter 10. and joint loads. for a three-dimensional solid and describe an alternate derivation. We develop it here by operating on the elongation— joint displacement relations. we visualize a set of bar forces AF. If we multiply the equation for Ck by note (c). are PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 159 P=F1cosO+A F2cos6+2=O and we recognize 2 as the force in bar 3. is called a virtual-force system. we express cW and partitioned form. The governing equations — e = = which satisfy Now. PRINCJPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES The principle of virtual forces is basically an alternate statement of geometrical compatibility. We restrict this discussion to geometric linearity. in To illustrate the application of this principle. Later. Using (a). we generalize the principle. 7—3. The statically permissible system (AF. 7—3. Equation (b) relates the actual elongations and joint dissum over the bars. The principle of virtual forces is independent of material behavior but is restricted to the geometrically linear case. and placements.SEC. (7—10) takes the form: AFTe — U2 = APr U1 . we obtain the result AFTe = = which is the definition of the principle of virtual forces: The actual elongations and joint displacements satisfy the condition AFTC — =0 (7-10) for any statically permissible system of bar forces and joint loads. the force-equilibrium equations: = A force system which satisfies the equations of static equilibrium is said to be statically permissible.

= (7—11) = The internal bar forces and reactions are obtain from an equilibrium analysis of a statically determinate structure.k1_ U2TP2IPkJ1 The principle of virtual forces is also used to establish geometric compatibility relations required in the force method which is discussed in Chapters 9 and 17.160 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. say we generate a force system consisting of a unit value of PkJ and a set of bar forces and reactions which equilibrate Pkj = 1. (b) reduces to —. By definition. P7 = P7 = B2F* 0 (7—13) = 0 (7—14) Equation (7—14) represents a restriction on the elongations and is called a geometric compatibility equation.. One works with self-equilibrating virtual-force systems. 5. To determine a particular displacement component. 6 are rigid . E7—3A) has support movements and is subjccted to a loading which results in elongations (e1. i. Since only one element of is finite. Example 7—3 The truss shown (Fig..4. a self-equilibrating force system F*. E7—3A u. e7) in the diagonal bars. We are coniidering the outside bars to be rigid. Fig. we can determine the unknown displacements by specializing AP1. f)* satisfies B1F* = For this case. We outline the approach here for completeness.e. APf U1 (l)ukj (7—12) and (b) reduces to Ukf = eTFJ. statically permissible force systems which involve only bar forces and reactions. 7 If the elongations are known.P Bars 3.

say F2. Flowever. (7—14) is more convenient since it does not involve any algebraic manipulation. . E7--3C. 7—3. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES To determine the translation. which. We discuss this topic in depth later in Chapter 9. The equation which determines F2 is 0 Fig. A convenient choice of force redundant is one of the diagonal bar forces. we note that the elongation-displacement relations for the diagonal bars are ucos6 e2 = —ucosO Specifying e1 determines u and also e2. we obtain e1 + e2 = 0 To show that (a) represents a geometrical compatibility requirement.-3B.SEC. we select a statically determinate force system consisting of a unit force in the direction of u and a set of bar forces and reactions required to equilibrate the force. Evaluating (7—12) leads to u = cos 6 + — tan — This truss is statically indeterminate to the first degree. in turn. The forces are shown in Fig. Fig. One possible choice is shown in Fig. E7. u. E7—3C — ens 6 0 Evaluating (7—14). E7—3B derived from the gcometric compatibility relation. We could have arrived at Equation (a) starting from Equation (b) rather than (7—14). is obtained by taking a self-equilibrating force system consisting ofF2 = + I and a set of bar forces and reactions required for equilibrium.

6-4. we specialize the principle of virtual displacements for elastic behavior and establish from it a variational principle for the joint displacements. If we consider all the elements of de = A'W and (a) leads to the complete set of force-equilibrium equations in unpartitioned form. PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY POTENTIAL ENERGY In this section. The form of F = F(e) depends on the material behavior. where e = e(U1). 7 7—4.e. unrestrained. . i.162 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. FT de = gpT for arbitrary to be arbitrary. We consider F to be a function of e. = can obtain the equation for P1 by rearranging (c) or by starting with the partitioned form of We and noting that FT de — U2 is prescribed. We could express F in terms of U1 but it is more convenient to consider F as a compound function of e. 6—5. and letting = we can write (7—15) as VT — = for arbitrary (7—17) = 0 (7—18) We call the total strain energy function and the total potential energy. Our objective is to interpret (7—15) as the stationary requirement for a function of U1.= VT(e). 7—2. V1. The reduced form is iW1 = 0 for arbitrary AU1 (7—15) where now In what follows. Equation (7—18) states that the joint force-equilibrium equations (P1 = B1F) expressed in terms of the unknown displacements are the Euler equations for the t See Secs. One should note that VT exists only when F is a continuous single-valued function of e. The essential step involves defining a function. according to FT dc = (7—16) With this definition.. We start with the general form developed in Sec. STRAIN ENERGY. This requirement is satisfied when the material is elastic. we will work with (7—15).

SEC. 7—4.

STRAIN ENERGY

163

total potential energy. It follows that the actual displacements, i.e., the displacements which satisfy the equilibrium equations, correspond to a stationary
value of 11,'

It remains to discuss how one generates the strain-energy function. By
definition,
dVT

and

=
where is the strain energy for bar). Since we are considering pound function of e1, Equation (b) is equivalent to

to be a com(7—19)

= That is, the strain energy function for a bar has the property that its derivative
with respect to the elongation is the bar force expressed in terms of the elongation. Finally, we can express as
(7—20) = where e0 is the initial elongation, i.e., the elongation not associated with the force. Actually, the lower limit can be taken arbitrarily. This choice corresponds to taking as the area between the F-c curve and thee axis, as shown in Fig.7—5.

Fig. 7—5. Graphical representation of strain energy and complementary energy.

We consider the linearly elastic case. Using (6—30),
F1
— e0,

Then

=
VTas
VT

— e0,

)2

(7—21)

The total strain energy is obtained by summing over the bars. We can express

=
j=1

4(e

e0)Tk(e

eo)

(7—22)

164

VARIATIONAL PRNCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

Finally, we substitute for e in terms of U1, U2, using

e=

A1U1 + A2U2

(7—23)

When the geometry is linear, A1, A2 are constant and is a quadratic function. If the geometry is nonlinear, is a fourth degree function of the displacements. Up to this point, we have shown that the displacements defining an equilibrium position correspond to a stationary value of the potential energy function. To determine the character (relative maximum, relative minimum, indifferent,

neutral) of the stationary point, we must examine the behavior of the second differential, in the neighborhood of the stationary point. and noting that AP1 = 0 leads to Operating on
d2

(7—24)

=

+

The next step involves expressing d2VT as a quadratic form in AU1. We restrict this discussion to linear behavior (both physical and geometrical). The general

nonlinear case is discussed in Sec. 17.6 When the geometry is linear, we can operate directly on (7—23) to generate the differentials of e,
de
A1AU1
0

d2e =

since A1 is constant. When the material is linear,

dF=kde
where k is a diagonal matrix containing the stiffness factors (AE/L) for the bars. Then, d2VT reduces to
d2VT = dFT dc = deTk de
AUT(ATkA1)AU1

7 25

-

If de

0 for all nontrivial AU1, d2VT is positive definite and the stationary
0 for AU1 0

point is a relative minimum. This criterion is satisfied when the system is
initially stable, since de = 0 would require that
unknowns)

A1 AU1 =

(m equations in

have a nontrivial solution. But a nontrivial solution of (a) is possible only when for the geometrically linear case and r(B1) = r(A1) < ne,. However, A1 = when the system is initially stable. Therefore, it follows that the displacements

defining the equilibrium position for a stable linear system correspond to an
absolute minimum value of the potential energy.

Example

7—4

We establish the total potential energy function for the truss considered in Example 7—2.

For convenience, we assume no initial elongation or support movement. The strain

SEC. 7—5.
energy is

COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY

165

VT

=

+

Substituting for the elongations in terms of the displacement,

e1 =u1cosO
results in

e2= —u2cosO= —u1cosO
+
cos2 0
cos2 0 — P1u1

=
and finally

=
The first differential of
is

+

= {{(k1 + k2)cos2 Ojuj
Requiring

— P1}Au1

to be stationary leads to the Euler equation,

P1 =

[(k1 + k2)cos2 0]u1

which is just the force-equilibrium equation

P1 =
F1 =
=

(F1

F2)cos 0

with the bar forces expressed in terms of the displacement using
k1e1

ku1

cos 0

F2 =

k2e2

=

—k2u1

cos 0

The second differential of

is

=
and

[(k1 + k,)cos2 0](Au1)2

we see that the solution,
Ul

P1

= k1 +
0. Thc truss is initially unstable

corresponds to an absolute minimum value of H,, when 0 when 0 0.

7—5.

COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY; PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY

The principle of virtual forces can be transformed to a variational principle for the force redundants. We describe in this section how one effects the trans-

formation and utilize the principle later in Chapter 9. This discussion is
restricted to linear geometry. We start with Equations (7—13) and (7—14), which we list below for convenience:

eTAF
where AF,

=

0

represent a self-equilibrating force- system, i.e., they satisfy the the following constraint relations:
B1 iW = 0
B2 AF

166

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

Our objective is to establish a function of F, whose Euler equations are (a) and

(b). We cannot work only with (a) since F is not arbitrary but is constrained by the force-equilibrium equations,

P1 =
We interpret

B1F

(fld

equations in m variables)

as the first differential of a function

=
and call

eT

=

dV7

(7—26)

the complementary energy function for bar j. By definition,

=

(7—27)

That is, the complementary energy function for a bar has the property that its derivative with respect to the bar force is the elongation expressed in terms of the force. We express as
dF1
(7—28)

This definition corresponds to taking Vj' as the area bounded by the F-e curve

and the F axis as shown in Fig. 7—5. Also, the strain and complementary
energy functions are related by

+
When the material is linear elastic,

=
+

(7—29)

=
11

e0,

j—

1.1r2 rj T 2Jj' 3

= Next, we define II. as:
1-Ic =

+ 4FTfF
7—31)

=
We call

the total complementary energy function. With these definitions, Equations (a), (b), and (c) can be interpreted as
0

subject to the constraint condition
d(P1 — 81F)

=

0

We can combine (e) and (f) into a single equation by introducing Lagrange multipliers. Following the procedure described in Sec. 3—3, we add to (7—31) the joint force equilibrium equations and write the result as:
+ (P1 —
where
.

(7—32)

,

contains the Lagrange multipliers. The Euler equa-

SEC. 7—5.

COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY

167

tions for

treating F and

as independent variables are
0

dfl, =

for AF,

arbitrary
(7—33)

e(F) B1F = P1

+ B102

We recognize the first equation in (7—33) as the member force-displacement relation, and it follows that = U1.

An alternate approach involves first solving the force-equilibrium equation,
(d). There arena equations in m variables. Since B1 is of rank n4 when the system is initially stable, we can solve for na bar forces in terms of P1 and the remaining

bar forces. One can also work with a combination of bar forces and reactions as force unknowns. We let
(rn —

q= m — X = {X1, X2

number of redundant forces Xq} = matrix of force redundants

(734)

and write the solution of the force-equilibrium equations as

F=
P2

+ P2,0 +
F0
is

(735)

The force system corresponding to

self-equilibrating, i.e.,

=

0

for arbitrary X
to

(7—36)

We substitute for F in (7—3 1) and transform
eT

Then,

AF —

UI AP2
UIP2,
x

=
and the Euler equations are
eTFx

(eTFx

UIP2

0

(737)

Note that (7—37) is just a reduced form of (7—33). Also, we could have obtained this result by substituting directly in (a).

Up to this point, we have shown that the force redundants which satisfy the geometric compatibility equations correspond to a stationary value of the total complementary energy. To investigate the character of the stationary point, we evaluate the second differential. Operating on (g),

=

deTFx AX

d2 is positive definite with regard to AX, the stationary point is a relative minimum. This requirement is satisfied for the linear elastic case. To show this, we note that

de

= fAF = WXAX
=

168

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

Since f contains only positive elements, AX provided that there does not exist a

is positive definite with regard to nontrivial solution of

AX =

=0

For (j) to have a nontrivial solution, there must be at least one relation between the columns of But this would correspond to taking force redundants which

are not independent, and the solution scheme would degenerate. Therefore, we can state that the actual force redundants correspond to an absolute minifor the linear elastic case. mum value of
Example
7—5

We consider the truss treated in Example 7—3. It is statically indeterminate to the first degree with respect to the bars (statically detcrminate with respect to the reactions) and we take X = F2

The force influence matrices defined by (7—35) follow from the force results listed on the sketches:
F0 =
0; 0; 0; 0; —tan 0; 0}

= {+1; +1; —cosU; —sin 0; —sin 0; —cos0} P20 = P{—l; —tanG; +(an0} =0

Assuming a bar is rigid is equivalent to setting f = mentary energy is due only to the diagonal bars:
= yr + = ± e02F2 +
We convert

0

for the bar. Then, the comple-

+ f2Fi')

to a function of X by substituting

F1 =
Finally,
has the form

cos 0

± X

F2 = +X
=
tan 0)P + + 4(f1 + f2)X2

e0,1

+

+

tan 0 —

+

(eoi + e0,2 + f1

Differentiating (e) leads to
dIlC =

{[eoi +

+

(fl

d211, = (f1 +

(g)

SEC. 7—6.

STABILITY CRITERIA

The Euler equation follows from (f):

e01 + C02 +f1

(f1

+ f2)X = 0
is the

Comparing (h) with (a) of Example 7—3, we see that the Euler equation for geometric compatibility equation expressed in terms of the force redundant.

7—6.

STABILITY CRITERIA

Section 6—9 dealt with initial stability, i.e., stability of a system under infinitesimal load. We showed there that initial stability is related to rigid body motion. A system is said to be initially unstable when the displacement restraints are insufficient to prevent rigid body motion. In this section, we develop criteria for stability of a system under finite loading. If a linear system is initially stable, it is also stable under a finite loading. However, a nonlinear (either physical or geometrical) system can become unstable under a finite load. We consider first a single mass particle subjected to a system of forces which are in equilibrium. Let Il be the displacement vector defining the equilibrium position. We introduce a differential displacement All, and let AW he the work done by the forces during the displacement All. if A W > 0, the particle energy is increased and motion would ensue. It follows that the equilibrium position (ll) is stable only when AW < 0 for arbitrary All. We consider next a system of particles interconnected by internal restraints. Let AWE be the incremental work done by the external forces and AW1 the incremental work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the particles. The total work, AW, is given by

=

AWE + AW1

The system is stable when A W < (I for all arbitrary permissible displacement increments, that is, for arbitrary increments of the variable displacements. Now, we let AW11 be the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the restraints. Since —AW1, we can express the stability requirement as (7-38)
One can interpret AW0 as the work required to deform the system to the alternate

position and as the actual work done on the system. When the behavior is continuous, we can express and AWE as Taylor series expansions in terms of the displacement increments (see (7—2)):

=

dW0

+ +
0

+ +

We have shown that the first-order work is zero at an equilibrium position:
dWD — dWE

170

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

If we retain only the first two terms in (b), the general stability condition reduces to
d2 WD — d2 W5

>0

for all arbitrary permissible displacement increments
(7—39)

Equation (7—39) is called the "classical stability criterion." Retaining only the first two differentials corresponds to considering only infinitesimal displacement increments. If (7—39) is satisfied, the equilibrium position is stable with respect to an infinitesimal disturbance. In order to determine whether it is stable with respect to a finite disturbance, one must use (7—38). If
d2WD = d2WE
(7—40)

for a particular set of displacement increments, the equilibrium position is said position infinitesimally to be neutral, and there exists an alternate displaced from the first position. One can interpret (7—40) as the necessary condition for a bifurcation of equilibrium positions. To show this, suppose U and U represent the displacement components for the two possible equilibrium positions of a system where

Also, let R and
We can express

represent the resultant forces corresponding to U and 0.
as

= R + dR +
d2W

+

Now, the second-order work for the initial equilibrium position is given by
d2W5

d2WD

=

txUT dR

If d2 W =

0

for some finite

it follows that

dR = R0AU =
The condition

0

=

0

is equivalent to (7—40). Finally, if we consider

to he infinitesimal,

R=R+dR
and (7—40) implies R =
0.

To apply the classical stability criterion to an ideal truss, we note that the
first-order work terms have the form
dW5 =
dWD =
P1

AU1

where U2, P1 are prescribed. Operating on (a) yields
d2W5
d2WD

0

>jFjd2ej +

(7-41)

SEC. 7—6.

STABILITY CRITERIA

and the stability criterion reduces to

for arbitrary nontrivial AU1 d2 WD = 0 for a particular nontrivial AU1 (7—42) d2 WD < 0 for a particular nontrivial AU1 where d2WD is a quadratic form in AU1. We postpone discussing how one transforms (7—41) to a quadratic form in AU1 until the next chapter. When the material is elastic, we can identify (7—39) as the requirement that Fir, be a relative minimum. By definition,
d2WD > 0
drIp = dVT

stable neutral unstable

dWE

For elastic behavior,
dVT = dWD

and it follows that
(7—43) d2WD — d2WE = Finally, we can state: An equilibrium position for an elastic system is stable (neutral, un-

stable) if it corresponds to a relative minimum (neutral, indifferent) stationary point of the total potential energy.
Example 7—6 The system shown in Fig. E7—6A consists of a rigid bar restrained by a linear elastic
spring which can translate freely in the .x2 direction. Points A and A' denote the initial and deformed positions. We will first employ the principle of virtual displacements to establish the equilibrium relations and then investigate the stability of the system.
Fig. E7—6A
x1

j2

The first-order work terms are
dWD = F de

=

P2 du2

(a)

172

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN iDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

where F, e are the spring force and extension. Since the bar is rigid, the system has only one

degree of freedom, i.e., only one displacement measure is required to define the configuration. It is convenient to take 0 as the displacement measure. The deformation-displacement relations follow from the sketch:

e=

u1

= L(sin

0 — sin

0)

0 — sin

and

de =

(cos 0)L

du, =

(sin 0)L

Using (a) and (d), the principle of virtual displacements takes the form
dW0 — dWa

= {F cos 0 —

P2

sin 0) (L AO) =

0

for arbitrary AG

Finally, (e) leads to the equilibrium relation,

F cos 0 =

P2

sin 0

which is just the moment equilibrium condition with respect to point 0. We transform (1) to an equation for ()by substituting for F using (c). The result is
sin 0

tan

0=

sin 00

Since the system is elastic,

dW5

and (e) is equivalent to

=

0

for arbitrary AU

The potential energy function for this system has the form

=
and (g) can be interpreted as

P2u2

= 4kL2(sin 0 —

sin

0)

=
0

of 00 are plotted in Fig. E7—6B. The result

for

0

consists of two curves, defined by

0=

0

for arbitrary P2/kL
for (P2/kL)
1

cos 0 = P2/kl

To investigate the stability of an equilibrium position, we have to evaluate the secondorder work at the position. After some algebraic manipulation, we obtain =
d2W0

= k(L

AU)2

[cossU —P2/kL]
cos 0

Let 0* represent a solution of(g). Applying (m) to 0* results in the following classification:

REFERENCES

stable

COS 0* >
cos3
3 cos 0'

P2

neutral
unstable

P2

One can show that (n) is equivalent to
stable
dP2
0

neutral unstable

dP2
dO

o

dP2

A transition from stable to unstable equilibrium occurs at point A, the peak of the deflection curve. The solution for 0 is different in that its stable segment is the linear kL) corresponds to a branch point, solution and the neutral equilibrium point (P2 Both the linear and nonlinear branches are unstable.
Fig. E7—6B

0

REFERENCES
1

2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7.

WANG, C. T.: Applied Elasticity, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953. LANGHAAR, H. L,: Energy Methods in Applied Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1962. REISSNeR, E.: "On a Variational Theorem in Elasticity," J. Math. Phys., Vol. 29, pages 90-95, 1950. ARGYRIS, i. H., and S. KIsLseY: Energy Theorems and Structural Analysis, Butterworths, London, 1960. CI.IARLTON, T. M.: Energy Principles in Applied Statics, Blackie, London, 1959. HOFF, N. J.: The Anal vsis of Structures, Wiley, & New York, 1956. K.: Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity, Pergamon Press, 1968.

174

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

PROBLEMS
7—1.

Consider the two-dimensional symmetrical truss shown. Assume = 03 = 0. (a) Determine the first two differentials of e1 and ez by operating on the
expanded expression (equation 6—19) for e.
(b)
(c)

When a b, we can neglect the nonlinear term involving u12 in the Specialize (a) for this case. expressions for e and When a b, we can neglect the nonlinear term involving u11 in the Specialize (a) for this case. expressions for e and
Prob. 7—1

x2

T
3

21

7—2. Refer to the figure of Prob. 7—1. Assume = u3 = 0 and a> b. Using the principle of virtual displacements, determine the scalar force-equilibrium equations for joint 1. 7—3. Suppose a force F is expressed in terms of e,

F=
a

C1e

+ 4C2e3

where a is related to the independent variable u by

u + 1u2

(a)

Determine the first two differentials of the work function, W = W(u),
defined by
W

=
C1(e

F de

(b)

Suppose (a) applies for increasing e and

F=
7—4.

e decreasing from e*. Determine d2 W at a = e*. Refer to Prob. 6—23. The n — 1 independent node equations relating the branch currents are represented by ATI
U
1

Now, the branch potential differences, e, are related to the n — node potentials, V, by

independent

e=

AV

PROBLEMS 175 Deduce that the requirement. using branches 1. Refer to Prob. One should always work with a statically determinate system when applying (7—12). e3. 4. 7—5. Assume u2 = = 0. One can develop a variational principle similar to the principle of virtual forces by operating on the branch potential difference—node potential relations. the first differential of the strain-energy function due to an increment in U1 has the form = n1 dV.. Show that - AiTe=0 for any permissible set of current increments. One can also . express u11. 7—5 x2 2 7—6. 7—7. 6—6. 1T de = 0 for arbitrary is equivalent to (a). u12 in terms of e1. Using (7—12). 2. de. = F.. Note that bar 2 is not needed. obtain a relation between the elongations and ü32. We work with expressed as a compound function of e = e(U) since it is more convenient than expressing V directly in terms of U1. 6—23. Illustrate for the circuit shown in Prob. Note that the currents must satisfy the node equations ATi 0 Deduce Kirchhoff's law (the sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop must equal zero) by suitably specializing Lsi in (a). Prob. Compare this principle with the principle of virtual displacements for an ideal truss. Take the virtual-force system as LxF2 and the necessary bar forces and reactions required to equilibrate AF2. and 6. By definition. (a) (b) Using (7—14). Consider the two-dimensional truss shown.

which has the property that = Determine b corresponding to (b). we can express as a function of e1. part I. dv. using (d). 6—10) a= — be3) 7—9. Determine V(e). (b) Show that an alternate form of (c) is P(k= Note that (d) is just the expansion of (c). (b) Let W where h = total number of branches. 7—2. part H. Apply it to Prob. and d2V* for the case where the stress-strain relation has the form = (a + ca3) 7—10.j + Inverting (a). Considering the branch potential drops to be functions of the node potentials. dV*. This result specialized for U2 = 0 is = called Castigliano's principle. = (a) — Suppose we define a function. part b. Assume linear elastic material and f1 = = = f. deduce that the actual node potentials V correspond to a stationary value of W. Show that (7—12) can be written as UkJ = 0Pkj is defined by (7—31). and d2V for the case where the stress-strain relation has the form (see Prob. 7—11. 7—8. Use the results of Prob. 7—4. The Euler equations for .176 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP 7 write (a) as Using (b). The current and potential drop for a linear resistance are related by where ef e0. Determine V*(F). 7—5. show that the system of if joint force-equilibrium equations expressed in terms of the joint displacements can be written as: ÔU(k k= Equation c is called Castigliano's principle. Rework P rob.

(d) Let W* = W7. in (e) or use the result of Prob. 7—6. An = 0.V) (e) are the governing equations for a d-c network. . Suppose we define a function which has the property that = Determine b (d) corresponding to (a). Take k.PROBLEMS 177 W = W(V) are the node current equilibrium equations expressed in (c) terms of the node potentials. Investigate the stability of the system shown below. 7—12. 7—12 Linear translational restraint Rigid rod ICr (Linear rotational restraint) and consider a to range from 0 to 6. = aL2k5 P Prob. Show that the Euler equations for H= (e) iTe — = 1T(AV) — = H(i. Show that the actual currents correspond to a stationary value of One can either introduce the constraint condition.

The displacement method is easier to automate than the force method and has a wider range of application. We then describe a procedure for assembling the necessary system matrices using only the connectivity table. . The latter procedure is referred to as the . reduce the governing equations to a set of equations involving certain bar forces. by eliminating the displacements.. 6—7. This procedure follows naturally if one first operates on the unpartitioned equations and then introduces the displacement restraints. i. we summarize these equations below. For convenience.e. We emphasize that these two methods are just alternate procedures for solving the same basic equations. apply the classical stability criterion. we first develop the equations for the displacement method by operating on the governing equations expressed in partitioned form.fin'ce or flexibility method. 8—2. OPERATION ON THE PARTITIONED EQUATIONS The governing partitioned equations for an ideal truss are developed in 178 Sec. GENERAL The basic equations defining the behavior of an ideal truss consist of forceequilibrium equations and force-displacement relations. However. We outline an incremental analysis procedure. In contrast.8 Displacement Method Ideal Truss 8—1. Alternatively. the force method is more suited to hand computation than to machine computation. one can. it is a computer-based method. In what follows. and finally. One can reduce the system to a set of equations involving only the unknown joint displacements by substituting the force-displacement relations into the force-equilibrium equations. The remaining portion of the chapter is devoted to the treatment of nonlinear behavior. it is not suited for hand computation. This particular method of solution is called the displacement or method. discuss linearized stability analysis.

OPERATION ON THE PARTITIONED EQUATIONS 179 = B1F P2 = B2F P1 eqs. determine F from (e). to represent the initial bar forces. k is constant and positive definite for real materials. However. We obtain a set of equations relating the flj displacement unknowns. The resulting matrix equation has the form (B1kA1)U1 = — B1F1 We solve (8—i) for U1. = k(—e0 + A2tJ2) (r eqs. the procedure outlined above for generating the system matrices is not efficient for a large structure.) The unknowns are the in bar forces (F). . When the geometry is linear. when r(B1) Conversely. Then — B1F1 represents the net unbalanced joint forces. The geometrically nonlinear case is more difficult since both A and B depend on U1. U1. Even when the behavior is completely linear. that is. the stiffness matrix for the linear case is posiLive definite when the system is initially stable. k and e0 depend on e. one has to iterate when the limiting elongation for a segment is exceeded. 8—2. 8—4. and P2 from (b). It is more efficient to transform (8—1) to a symmetrical system by transferring some nonlinear terms to the right-hand side. Then. if it is not positive definite.) F = F. the bar forces due to the initial elongations and support movements 0. k and e0 are constant. One can iterate on (8—1). If the material is nonlinear. the r reactions (P2). but this requires solving a nonsymmetrical system of equations. Also.) (in eqs. When the with U1 material is linear elastic. and the na joint displacements (U1). We have employed a piecewise linear representation for the force-elongation curve which results in linear relations.SEC. since f See Prob. K1 reduces to 1 K11 = B1kBT = AfkA1 If the material is linear. The coefficient matrix for U1 is called the system stiffness matrix and written as K11 = B1kA1 (8—2) as representing the initial joint forces due to the initial One can interpret elongations and support movements with U1 = 0. + kA1U1 F. Nonlinear analysis procedures are treated in Sec. = BT when the geometry is linear. One can consider F. the system is initially unstable. by substituting for F in (a). 2—14. that is. The term kA1U1 represents the bar forces due to U1.

+ = where n4. denote the joints at the positive and negative ends of barn. n. Now. (b) takes a more compact form. respectively. The total joint forces required are obtained by summing over the bars. and is sym= y. one obtains the system stiffness matrix by evaluating the triple matrix product.I_ = = (8—4) Substituting for (8—4) expands to = pn_ = + — One can interpret (b) as end action—joint displacement relations since the elements of ± are the components of the bar force with respect to the basic frame. When the geometry is linear. With this notation.. For example. as the bar force due to the initial elongation with the ends = 0). Equation (8—6) defines the joint forces required for bar n. what is needed is a method of generating K which does not involve multiplication of large sparse matrices. Therefore. 8 it requires the multiplication of large sparse matrices. = = + — — + (8—6) We refer to as the bar stiffness matrix. =AfkA1 One can take account of symmetry and the fact that k is diagonal. Continuing. we let required to equilibrate the action of fixed (un. but A1 is generally quite sparse. we let (8—5) Note that is of order i x i where I = 2 or 3 for a two or three-dimensional truss. we see that p. the force-displacement relation for bar ii: = F0. . One can consider F0.180 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. be the external joint force matrices Noting (6—43). 8—3. metrical. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD We start with (6—37). A method which has proven to be extremely efficient is described in the next section.

— k. expressed in terms of the displacements. we write the complete system of if joint force-equilibrium equations. E8—l are presented below: for the numbering shown in Fig. working with successive members. Now. . (Partitioned Form is j x 1) in row in row n. as = + (8—7) We refer to if. which is of order if x as the unrestrained system stiffness matrix. . E8—l 0 4 3 . The elements of are the required joint forces due to the initial elongations and represents the required joint forces due to the joint displacements. u2 X 1) (ii x 1) (U as the general external joint force and joint displacement matrices..SEC. —ku in row column in row column in row n_. column n Example 8—1 The connectivity table and general form of if and Fig. . 8—8 if (Partitioned Form is j x j) +k. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD We have defined — p2. 8—3. We assemble if and in partitioned form. The contributions for member n follow directly from (8—6). = {u1.

2P2 nT 0.. This suggests that we number the joints by section. 0. one can restrict the finite elements of X' to a zone about the diagonal.2 Po. corresponds to row j and ii. Fig. 4. E8—2 Sect. © -.212 r 0. 5P5 Example 8—2 The external force matrix. the equations for section 3 (which correspond to P6) will involve only the displacement matrices for sections 2.—-- fs (71 ft® 2: / \ 3 L6 '. For example. 3 L' L' 0.10 P0._ —-- / .. 41'4 0. to column j of ir. The unpartitioned stiffness matrix corresponding to the above numbering scheme .SPS L' 3P3 — 1I'I 1 UT t' 4P4 UT Po. 4 — uT 0. øT r0. 8 Bar 1 2 2 1 3 4 4 3 5 +joint —joint 1 2 3 2 4 4 U1 U2 U3 U4 k1+k2 P2 —k2 —k1 —k2 k2 + k3 + k5 --k3 —k5 —k3 k3 + k4 —k4 —k4 —k1 k1 + k4 + k0 Pai . 1 0 (-I -. 3. We group the vertical joints into sections.182 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. UT pT L' = — ftT 0.. %. Consider the structure shown. Now.1PI — 0.3P3 0. This is quite desirable from a computational point of view. involves and the displacement matrices for those joints connected to joint j by bars. The equilibrium equations for section k involve only the joints in section k and the adjacent sections. By suitably numbering the joints..

2. 3 p8 —k.j . The submatrices for this truss are of order 4 x 4. The steps are indicated below. k4+k51 —k8 —k6 k6+k9 —k9 —k10 +k.. —k. U' U2 U3 U4 U6 U7 U8 k. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD is listed below.2 JJ7 —k.0 —k. (8—11) = = €. Note that has the form of a quasi-tridiagonal band matrix when it is partitioned according to sections rather than individual joints. and finally partitioning the actual rows. 8—3.0 p6 —k7 —k8 I —k9 k8+k7 +k9 —k1.n= 1...SEC.3 k.2 +k..2+k... P2 I—k2 —k4 —k. permuting the actual rows..+k3 —k3 +k4 k2+k3 —k2 —k3 —k5 I —k6 —k7 +k6 —k4 —k. k. k10+k. The introduction of displacement restraints involves first transforming the partitioned elements and to local frames associated with the restraints.. —k. +k2 —k.. —k. -+ U -+ We write the system of joint force-equilibrium equations referred to the local joint frames as = + and T (8—10) The transformation la'vs for the submatrices of follow from (6—57).

(6—50): F F0 + kda/1 = F0 + kyC'W = = Then. substituting for F in (a) and equating the result to (8—7) leads to The matrix. we express (8—12) in partitioned form: = P2 = K11U1 + K1202 + P0. and (6—44). K. Example 8—3 It is of interest to express the partitioned elements of K in terms of the geometrical. by performing the same operations on both the rows and columns of The rearranged system of equations is written as P = KU + P0 (8-12) Finally.T 2p272 we can express as = CTk5c Carrying out (8—9) for n = 1.2 8 13 The first equation in (8—13) is identical to (8—1). DTkY. Then. (8—9) is more efficient than (f). (6—40). We start with the general Unconnectivity.184 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS —+ CHAP. The diagonal submatrices arc of order i. 8 The step. if we let = k5 [ki I.1 + K2202 + P0. 2 m is the same as evaluating the triple matrix product. and the submatrix at location n has the form. r.. The introduction of displacement restraints can be represented as P= 11 = = and D1dP (g) = DTU = DfU1 + (h) . is a quasi-diagonal matrix of order im. We have defined this product as k.. P. and displacement transformation partitioned equations(6—28). involves only a rearrangement of the rows of We obtain the corresponding stiffness matrix. Obviously.

we obtain K. and (8—14) We assemble and using (8—8) and (8—9). Then is unknown. It remains to modify the rows and columns corresponding to joints which are either fully or partially restrained. Also. 8—3. we add to the external force matrices for those joints which are unrestrained. it leads to rectangular submatrices. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 185 Substituting (g) and (h) in (8—7) and equating the result to (8—13). In what follows. = = DsCTDke0 t—12 — In order to obtain (8—13). Then. Set off diagonal matrix elements in row q and column q equal 1. to 0 and the diagonal matrix element equal to I. We start with the complete system of equations referred to the basic frame. We replace the equation for Pq by = Uq This involves the following operations on the submatrices of X and On X. we describe a procedure for introducing displacement restraints which avoids these difficulties.. Case A: Fit!! Restraint Suppose uq = Uq. = P0.. This operation is quite time-consuming. we must rearrange the rows and columns of then partition. On Add terms in t due to C X(qUq (8—16) j ease B: Partial Restraint—Local Frame We suppose the rth element in is prescribed.SEC. = prescribed = = unknown . I= 0 (8—15) = Ii 2.

according to the following: Eq and Gq. we read in —5 2. (a) direction r.186 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we read in Psi —5 P53 2) The four basic matrices are (for r = 1 0 0 [0 0 1 0 E5= 0 0 0 0 0 1 Gs=IO 0 [0 0 0 . When the joint is fully restrained. Suppose joint G=11 5 is partially restrained.. in (b). We start with G=O.. (b) The direction (or directions) of the displacement restraint and the value (or values) of the prescribed displacement. 1. Note that the elements corresponding to the reactions are zero.r +1 2. Then. Gq.i As an illustration. 8 We have to delete the equation corresponding to and replace it with 4= Step I —Assemblage of Basic Matrices We assemble Eq. suppose r = In (c)... defining the direction of the local frame at 5 with respect to the basic frame. (c) The values of the prescribed joint forces: j=1. us'. The data consist of: The rotation matrix. We start with an ith-order column vector having zero elements and 3. we insert the values of the prescribed joint forces (local frame) in their natural locations. R°5. We start with an ith-order column vector having zero elements and we set the element in the rth row equal to Note that this matrix involves only the prescribed displacements (local frame) in their natural locations. E=O. and we set G. ui'.

Postmultiply column q of it" by — T11* and add to PPN. '-'q 1% " N. Add Gq to irqq = it"qq + Gq 5. Add and to = P'N.. . .q + U + The operation on row q and column q are summarized below. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 187 1° In —5 Step 2—Operation on Jr and 1. .— 1 . .. q I?'N.q = 1. = 3.j (8—18) + +0 When ir is symmetrical (this will be the case when the system is geometrically linear). .q. we can work only with the submatrices on and above the diagonal.YV'eq(E9R0")T (Eq R°"). Premultiply row q of it" and by e = " N. the symmetrical case are threefold: = — it"eq(EqR°")T (8—19) €= 1. . 8—3. q — 1' 2' — .. 2. 1.. On Jr = X'qq = Oiz 2PN. — ..SEC. 2. The contracted operations for.2. Postmultiply column q of it" by (Eq irtq = 4.Y(qq(Eq + — — 1' 2 I R0q. q 2.

since H is an orthogonal matrix.1 — - + — N Equation (a) represents 1/equations. that is. This system is transformed to (8—22) when to d?tJ.. We denote the mOdified system of equations by = (8—22) will be Equation (8—22) represents if equations. we calculate F. Once ciii' is known. according to increasing joint number.. = IK11I (8—23) It is more convenient to work with (8—22) rather than (a) since the solution of (8—22) yields the joint displacement matrices listed in their natural order. we start with the first equation in (8—13) and an additional set of r dummy equations: 1 [K11 -fJ Olfuil — f—P0. The coefficient matrix nonsingular when K1 is nonsingular. To show this. It follows that = HT[K11 and. we convert the joint displacement matrices to the basic frame. = F0. Note that the modifications for joint q involve only row q and column q.. using uq = The bar forces are determined from F.. — and assemble in partitioned form by summing the .188 q DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS q— Ttlq* CHAP. we permute U. They are related by (sec (6—63)) U [1°?. J = rVp where H is a permutation matrix. + Next. 8 + + it'qq = — + Gq — (8—20) * = (8—21) The operations outlined above are carried out for each restrained joint.

In this case. E8—4 / Ii 1. Example 8—4 We illustrate these operations for the truss shown in Fig. it is generally more efficient to apply an incremental formulation rather than iterate on (8—22). . THE DiRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 189 contribution for each member. When the problem is geometrically nonlinear.. E8—4. using = required to equilibrate the bar forces. /50 Member-Joint Connectivity Table Bar(n) 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 5 6 3 7 5 3 8 9 5 10 11 5 +joint(n+) —joint(n. For member n. we convert the force matrix for each partially restrained joint to the local joint reference frame. Then.SEC.) 1 1 4 2 3 6 4 2 4 2 4 6 4 6 2. Assemblage of = and We consider the geometry to be linear.. This operation The final result is provides a static check on the solution in addition to furnishing the reactions. (8—9) results in = Applying listed below. Fig. we put (see (8—4)) + FOIIPf — in row n+ in row n_ Once is known. and depend on the joint displacements. 8—3. y..

we modify and according to (8—15) and (8—16). Finally. —k10 —k11 +k8+k10 +k11 Note that i( 3. we have to list only the submatrices on and above the diagonal. Since is symmetrical. is symmetrical and quasi-tridiagonal. It is convenient to work with successive joint numbers. Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints = The original equations are = where contains the external joint forces.6 and the initial and final forms of. we put in row q If joint q is fully restrained. if joint q is partially restrained. are listed below. with submatrices of order 4 x 4. We start with i?PN If joint q is un— restrained. 6 are partially restrained.190 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: DEAL TRUSS 2 3 CHAP. The basic matrices for joints 4. For this system.ii42j Joint 1 (t42 is prescribed) 1 [ 01 ii ii = ri E6=[0 — — oJ . Note that this procedure does not destroy the banding of the stiffness matrix. we use (8—19) through (8—21). 8 N — 2 1 4 —k3 51 0 —k7 -— k3 6 k1+k2+k3 —k1 —k1 —k2 k1+k4+k5 ---k4 —k4 —k5 3 —k2 k2+k4+k6 +k7+k8 —k6 —k6 4 —k3 —k5 k3+k5±k6 +k9+k10 —k9 —k9 —k10 5 —k7 +k7+k9 +k11 —k11 — 6 0 —k8 . joint 2 is fully restrained and joints 4.Yt'. Joint 4 (u42 is prescribed) R°4 2 E4=[ ri 01 oj 6 G4=[0 = [0 0 = {O.

INCREMENTAL FORMULATION Initial matrices (ir and ("1) (Us) (U4) = ir22 )r33 ir34 .X44 ir4. These equations are also nonlinear. (8—22) are valid for both linear and nonlinear behavior.K34E4 J35 E4ir46(E6R°6)T + G4 + — — + -- ir56(E6R°6)T — . in this case. An incremental loading procedure can also be used with (8—13) but. we develop a set of equations relating the external load and the resulting incremental displacements. it is more efficient with respect to computational effort to employ an incremental formulation when the system is nonlinear. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION. one applies the load in increments and determines the corresponding displacements.5 Sym Final matrices (ir* and (ui) (u. With an incremental formulation.K13 0 . but if one works with small load increments.0 . Our approach will be similar to that followed previously. We first establish incremental member force-displacement relations and then apply the direct stiffness method to .SEC. (E6R°6)iq66(E6R°6)T + G6 E6R°6(— 8—4. In this section. CLASSICAL STABILITY CRITERION Equations (8—13).4E4 U 1. 8—4. the equations can be linearized. However. The total displacement is obtained by summing the displacement increments. one is working with total displacement rather than with incremental displacement.) o (U3) (U4) (Us) ir.

) + — u. we delete the corresponding element in For geometrically linear behavior.. which defines the external joint forces required to equilibrate the action of the force for bar n. Since F and depend on U. (6—32). For convenience. Operating on (8—25).. g. — u. and requiring (a) to be satisfied at both positions. we obtain dv. S the incremental system equations.) (827) — It remains to evaluate AF. = + — = d2e.. — u. we write (a) as fi.._) + — — = — To allow for the possibility of retaining only certain nonlinear terms.. We allow for a piecewise linear material and employ the relationst developed in Sec. Letting AF. 6—4.. Au.)Tg. their values will change. leads to the following incremental force-equilibrium equations: = Ap. — = = = (u..192 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.) (8—25) Yh(ufl. = Afif + + D. generate Pn* = p.... D due to AU. (8—24) To proceed further. We complete the section with a discussion of the classical stability criterion._) If all the nonlinear terms are retained. we need to evaluate the increments in e and relations are given by (6—22): The exact = — ci.... We suppose an in- cremental external load AP is applied and define AU as the resulting incremental displacement for the new equilibrium position.. (8—26) and Ae. — u... = Equations (a) are satisfied at an equilibrium position. and (6—33).. = To neglect a particular displacement component.. AD be the total increments in F. = 0.÷ — u)Tg.. = — Au. We start with (8—4). we drop all the t See (6—31).... .

We write the total set of incremental joint equilibrium equations as = where + M'0 + (8-32) is assembled using (8—9) and MPO + with (8—8). Ae0 corresponding to the initial equilibrium position as the first estimate... 8—4. quadratic. Since has to iterate. Substituting for (8—28) takes the form At' _AC' — Finally. contains linear.1 — 1(1. in — (8—24) and group the terms as follows: &i. Note that is symmetrical.. + = (8—31) -i- = + + We interpret k7 as the tangent stiffness matrix. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 193 notation pertaining to a segment and write the "generalized" incremental expression in the simple form = k(Ae — (8—28) where k. t We describe here the method of successive substitutions.. Ae0. we introduce the displacement restraints by ap- plying (8—19)—(8—21).SEC. The contracted equations are K1. 12. t See Ref. is included to allow for an incremental temperature change. . The vector. L\p9. Finally. The initial elongation. We cannot solve (8—33) directly for algebraic equations. taking the values of k.) + + (8—30) where = Fag. The modified equations are = — — (8-33) It is convenient to include the prescribed incremental support displacement terms in involves only the incremental temperature and so that the variable displacement increments. one of the segment is exceeded or the bar is unloading. This is equivalent to using the tangent stiffness.12 AU2 (8-34) since contains quadratic and cubic terms in MI. — AP0.11 AU1 = where K1. are constant for a segment. and cubic terms in We have included the subscript g to indicate that it is a nonlinear geometric term. we substitute for LXPn+ = Q + I + if 72 Ct (8—29) Lw. There are a number of techniques for solving nonlinear is symmetrical. They have to be changed if the limit is unknown.1 — AP9.

we delete solution of . we let represent the nth estimate for LXa/IJ and determine the (n + 1)th estimate by solving )p* L\cW(n+ = — &?P (8—36) The iteration involves only evaluation of and back-substitution once is transformed to a triangular matrix. First. we note that and are independent of A'1/1. but its convergence rate is slower in com- parison to most of the other methods. The appropriate form for a truss is given by (7—41): ± den)> 0 for arbitrary AU1 with AU2 = 0 (a) We have already evaluated the above terms.194 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 8 which is the easiest to implement. + and (a) can be written as d2WD ALT ICE. STS (8—37) where S is an upper triangular matrix. we apply the classical stability criterion developed in Sec. — — Au. One can interpret this scheme as one cycle successive substitution. 18—7. (8—27). . The factor method is particularly convenient since X7 is symmetrical. 7—6. in (8—35) and take the (8-39) as the "actual" displacement increment. With this method. To investigate the behavior in the neighborhood of this point.. 18—8. ¶ Iterative techniques are discussed in greater detail in Secs. 18—9. We combine and and write (8—33) as X7K MI1 = — (8-35) Now.) (b) AU1 > 0 for arbitrary AU1 (8—40) It follows that must be positive definite for a stable equilibrium position. Using (8—26). The solution degenerates when the tangent stiffness matrix becomes singular. We replace (8—36) with = STQ = A9* S (8—38) — In linearized incremental analysis. They depend only on the initial equilibrium position and the incremental loading. and (8—29) with Ae0 = 0.

E8—5A x2 d d_____ The initial direction cosines for the bars are —b] —b] The deformed geometric measures are defined by (8—25). To simplify the analysis. ._____ SEC. which rearranges the elements of according to (8-42) =H Then. k1 = k2 = k. iNCREMENTAL FORMULATION But K1. 2—13 for a proof. i. They reduce to + = = cc.. + fl = 1. we can take 1 [0 0 1 t See Prob. and are related by HT[Kt. Since b cc d. E8—5A. we can neglect the nonlinear terms due to u11. iii (8—43) Example We illustrate the application of both the total (8—13) and incremental (8—34) formulations to the truss shown in Fig. See Sec. we can classify the stability of an equilibrium position in terms of the determinant of the tangent stiffness matrix: D stable neutral unstable D>O D=0 D< 0 8—5 = = 1K1. 2—5. 8—4.e. we suppose the material is linearly elastic.2 for this example. and there are no initial elongations or support movement. b <<d Fig. and K1 have the same definiteness Finally.11 (8—41) where H is a nonsingular permutation matrix.

the bar force-displacement relations are = = + = ky. Solving the first equationt in (g)..u1 n = 1. 8 Using (c). The expression for and the corresponding bar forces follow from the second equation [2k P12 — u12)(b — 1u12)j 012 1 t Equation (g) is (8—1) with F1 = 0. Note that (g) is the first equation in (8—13) with U2 and P0 set to 0. (k1 k2)u1 = k(11r71 ± 11212)U1 Equations (e) and (1) expand to Jusi 0 — u12)(b and F1 = — (h — F2 = — (b — The diagonal form of the coefficient matrix is due to the fact that we neglected u11 in the expressions for y and This approximation uncouples the equations. we obtain I (J\2 The corresponding bar forces are Pti Pi = This result is actually the solution for the linear geometric case. 2 Finally.196 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. the force-equilibrium equation for joint I follows by applying (8—6) to both bars. 1 I Pi —b + u12] 12 —b + 112 —b + Continuing. .

1 Au11 = Au1 + + d2e. The solution is plotted in Fig. Then.SEC.. = [o a. we obtain + u12) = Sym (Au12)2 + u12)2 + . E8—5B (I + 0 b B We describe next the generation of the incremental equations which follow from (8—26)— (8—32). The latter approach works only when there is one variable. Applying (8—26).2 We arc assuming no initial elongation. F1 INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 197 P12 = F2 = — — (b k L — 2u12)u12 = 1 2b—u12 L We can write (k) as L2 U12 =—— 2k (b — u12)(b 1 and solve (m) by iteration. (8—27) to (b)—(d) results in = d[i.. + The tangent stiffness matrix and incremental geometric load term are defined by (8—31). = de. one can specify u12 and evaluate from (k). E8-5B. Using (n). = = (Au1 )2 n=l. Alternatively. 5—4. P12 A 9 Fig. k = k(de.

when the material is linearly elastic: k=0 . i + Al)9.198 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP. the truss is neutral with respect to Au11. F4 = — AE( \2 AEb2 )= = (x) Then. Ap1 = + k. . 8 Finally. Now there is a discontinuity in k at F = — Feb. the pin-ended Euler load. The coefficient of Au12 is the tangent stiffness with respect to u12. du12 = L + L + u12)2) (u) Applying the classical stability criterion (8—43) to (t).t2EI3 (w) To determine whether the members buckle before point A is reached. 2)Au1 + Ap1. We restrict the analysis to only 112 loading. Setting F1 = F2 in (s) results in + + u17)2)] Au12 = Ap12 [Au12 + 3(—b + (t) where F is determined from (e). Also. we compare F4 With — Feb. If k = 0. Using (u). for system instability rather than member instability to occur. we see that > du12 0 0 < 0 stable neutral unstable (v) Points A. we assemble the incremental equilibrium equations for joint 1 using (8—30). b must satisfy b (y) where p is the radius of gyration of the section. 2 (r) o ?4(_b + u12)2 + + F2) 0 — [3(—b + u12) + Au12]} Note that (s) is (8—34). B are stability transition points and the segment A-B is unstable. the incremental equations are uncoupled.

Convergence generally degenerates as and one has to resort to an alternate method. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 199 Lastly. 8—4. For convenience. we take Ap9 = 0. E8—5C. (bb) = — The convergence is illustrated in Fig. Case (b) shows how the scheme diverges Fig. we drop the subscripts and write (t) as Ltu = — In the first step. 0 . ES—5C — (a) Lip Ib) in the vicinity of a neutral point = 0).SEC. =— The second estimate is determined from (aa) = Generalizing (bb). we outline how one applies the method of successive substitution to (t).

Now. u have the same definiteness property. we can write (8—44) as F. = k. unstable) when the tangent stiffness matrix is positive definite (positive semi-definite. say 2cr To determine we note that neutral equilibrium (see (8—43)) corresponds to K. The analysis involves first solving the nonlinear equilibrium equations for the displacements and then applying the classical stability criterion to determine the stability of a particular equilibrium position.K7 is positive definite.. we illustrated the behavior of a geometrically nonlinear system. =0 (a) . K1. = = K1..i + Kg. If the loading is defined in terms of a single load parameter. + ). The tangent stiffness matrix is generated by applying the Direct Stiffness Method to each term in (8—45).. = 0 which. If the system is initially stable. According to (8—40). we can take = in the expression for terms in This approximation is quite convenient since we have only to solve the linear problem in order to apply the stability criterion. The bar forces are determined from a linear analysis of the truss. is also symmetrical but it may not be positive definite. = + F.e. We express the actual and modified matrices as K. As 2 is increased. We generate for positive definiteness.. a transition from stable to neutral equilibrium may occur at some load level. We refer to this procedure as linearized stability analysis. an equilibrium position is stable ineutral.. can be interpreted as the existence of a 'non-trivial solution of K.. We interpret the second term as a geometric stiffness. with k. we can neglect the displacement that is. (8—44) The first term is the linear stiffness matrix.. LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS In the previous section. intransform to and test different).. = (8—45) k1. is positive definite if. Equation (8—46) shows that the tangent stiffness matrix varies linearly with the load parameter. .. avoids having to permute the rows and columns. K..g. ii + (8—46) and (8—47) where K1 is the system stiffness matrix for linear behavior. if a geometrically nonlinear system is loaded in such a way that it behaves as if it were geometrically linear. The geometrical stiffness. In linearized stability analysis. i. in turn.... Once the nonlinear equilibrium equations are solved. Working with i(7 rather than K.200 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAR 8 8—5. we approximate k.k9.. It is symmetrical and positive definite when the system is initially stable. the stability can be readily determined. K9. is positive definite for 2 = 0.. We have shown that and K..

1 = 0 Ault' = Mlii I (8—49) instead of (8—48). . However. the material is linearly elastic.. We apply (—K9. 1) is a convenient computational scheme for determining 2.11 AU1 (8—48) is the smallest eigenvaluet of (8—48). 8—5. ii AU1 (b) (c) AU2 = The solution of (c) is —2 AU2 (r eqs. To show this. and there is no support movement. Working with the undeformcd geometry. we have F1 = = F2 = — = — F Matrix iteration (Ref. itt —). LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS 201 Substituting for K1. we can work with = Mt' 1.) K1. since we have added using (8—41) and 0 1JAU51 U [o Premultiplying by H = — — AHT [Kg.. ii AU1 = '2Kg. We suppose the bars are identical. ii 01 5Au1 [o i. transforms (a) to a characteristic value problem. The geometry change is negligible under a vertical load and we can use the linearized stability criterion. Both equations lead to the same value of (8—49) has r additional characteristic values equal to — r dummy equations. Example 8—6 Consider the system shown. AU1 = and Since 1K1.j l. we substitute for note (8—42).1)AU1 = AU1 jtto which satisfies the restrictions on the method.. 11T [ICe.SEC..K5.AU2 (a) becomes (na eqs.) 1 0 0 AU2C1 o +C2 o i This solution must be disregardcd since AU2 is actually a null matrix.

202 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.ii + AKçj. (d) We neglect u12 in the general expression for approximate expressions for fi.1 + k9. The system stiffness matrices follow from (8—44) and (8—45). The L —b] (e) i[l 0 0 0 0 (d)2 = 11e. and g..ji = 2k 0 (b)2 (g) 0 0 . & A Fig. arc L —b] This is reasonable when d K< b.2 = — (g5 + g2) (c) It remains to determine g1 and g2 which are defined by = + ufg. = — 21 + k€ 2 = 0 + (b) and = k8. £8—B d <<b 12 We let k1 = k2 = k.

and the first root defines the critical load. we see that Euler buckling of the bars controls when d> irp The exact expression for g. the linear buckling load is an upper bound.. This is a consequence of our using approximate expressions for Equations (e) instead of the exact expressions.LJ Note that (g) has only one eigenvalue instead of two. there are two characteristic values and therefore two critical values of 2. . 2 C) Acri The second root corresponds to neutral equilibrium with respect to Au12. In general. For this example. + = 2k (b)2 —2 0 In this case.SEC. Kg. How close it is to the actual value will depend on the geometry and loading. 1 = 2kb 2kb (d\2 (Ii) 2cr.. the buckling mode is antisymmetric. When d << b. There we considered d b and followed the nonlinear behavior up to the point at which the slope of the P12 — u12 curve vanished (neutral with respect to Au12): d 1(1 = du12 0 mex = (0) The linearized result is significantly higher than the true buckling load. Neutral equilibrium also occurs when the bars either buckle or yield. = K. It is of interest to compare 2cr 2 with the buckling load found in Example 8—5.jj = I. At 2 = the system is neutral with respect to Au1 i. The value of 2 for Euler buckling of the bars is eb = — L 2b = 2b k2EIl 2AEb/irp'\2 LLL2J I L \L Comparing (h) and (i). 8—5.e.. LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS 203 Neutral equilibrium (K1. is semidefinite) occurs at 2kb \\L) L \. (d)2 K1. b. it is quite close. is If we work with (k). while it considerably overestimates the true load for d b.

1964.: Recent Advances in Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. and R. M. 8—6. McGraw-Hill. F.: Theory of Matrix Structural Aizah'sis. and reactions. J. Pergamon Press. Express as a quadratic form in AU1. 4. Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. M. Dynamics.. New York. K. \EaJ For the structure sketched: Develop the general form of Indicate how you would obtain K11. 1960. J. DC VEUBEKE. Hint: Obtain d2e by operating on (7—8). 1968. J. 6. J. S. McGraw-Hill. U2. 1968.204 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 1964.11 (c) 8—2. 1965.: A First Course in Numerical Analysis.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. ARGYSIS. 8—3. (a) (b) Refer to Example 8—2. RUBINSTEIN. of Example 8—2. 9. 11. Pergamon Press. 1966. H. determine . 1. (a) Express = Vr VT — PTU1 in terms of U1." Jut. Assume no support movements at joints 2. LIVESLEY. London. 3. PRZEMIENIECKI. C. Butterworths. 5. Kelsey: Energy Theorems and StruciuralAnalysis. New York. 8—4. pp. MARTIN. RALSTON. M. F. 757—768. 1960. bar forces.S'vsse. A. A. 12. Solids Structures. and A. PROBLEMS 8—1. Pergamon Press. J. Prentice-Hall. RUBINSTEIN. S. ARGYRIS. 1967. WILCUR Elementary Structural Analysis. H. For the structure sketched: Determine K11. and Stability. Develop the general form 8—5.: Structural . 4. 7. 8 REFERENCES C. 1965. Introduction to Matris Methods of StructuralAnalysis. T. Determine and F due to a temperature increase of 100°F for all the bars. Wiley. 4. WALKER: "The Nonlinear Perturbation Analysis of Discrete Structural Systems. McGraw-Hill. HALL. Suppose we number the joints as shown. H. 2.'ns—Statics. C. Vol. FL. For the structure sketched: Determine the displacements. New York. Use — = e0. B. McGraw-Hill. 10. THOMPSON. and J. For the structure sketched. PrenticeHall. and S.: Matric Computer Analvsis of Structures. W00DHEAD: Frame Analysis. Consider U2 and P1 to he prescribed and the behavior to be physically — linear. R. F. 8. 1964. 3. W.. B. 1970.1)2 = eo)Tk(e e0) (b) Show that (8-4) are the Euler equations for dVT = FTde Note that de = BfAT.

PROBLEMS 205 Prob. Horizontal displacement of joint 2 = to the left I 0 6 kips x2 Prob. 8—4 © 807 0 605 . 20' 10' 8—3 I E=3X ksi Initial elongation of = in. 8—2 E=3X Bar areas = 3 ksi Coefficient of thermal expansion = 6 X 106/°F Prob.

206 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Assume the material is linearly elastic and no support movements. Determine the lowest critical load for the truss shown. 8 20' Prob. considering d b and using the corresponding approximate expression for 8—9. 8—8.5a Prob. . Determine the load-deflection relation for the system shown. Assume no initial elongation or support movement. 8—5 E constant for all bars Bar Area 3a I Y3 I 2 3 4a 3a 4 5 4a 2. 8-6 8—7. Use the linearized stability criterion and work with the exact expression for Rework the problem. Consider the material to be linearly elastic and the bars to bc identical. Assume the material is linearly elastic and all bars have the same stiffness. Investigate the elastic stability of the system shown.

8—7 0 d <<b k1 —Ic2 — _AE —-•y- x1 H K2 2¼ Prob. 8—9 T 20' H . 8—S Prob.wp Prob.

+ F0.e. The first step involves converting the matrix expressions p. 8-40): + KIJkU.. For convenience.= — p. define p and u as l.1 + + + Po.208 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we employ the summation convention. j. defines the load distribution. (d) where F. 'y. 2 is a load parameter.÷ — p. . + where i. range over the total number of unknowns. = k.. The governing equations for geometrically nonlinear behavior of a linearly elastic discrete system such as a truss are nonlinear algebraic equations containing up to third-degree displacement terms. We have expressed them as = + = ± contain linear displacement terms. = + — u)T — = + over to indicial form. it is understood the term is summed over the range of the repeated subscript. If a subscript is repeated in a term.. This form is dictated by our choice of matrix notation.. is the linear stiffness matrix.. In order to expand (a).. . U1 is the total value of the jth displacement unknown. (j = 1. The second-order tensor.. 2 n) We write the ith equilibrium equation for tile system as (this representation is suggested in Ref.. we must shift from matrix to indicial notation. e...Pn_j (U. and fourth-order tensors. third. and the K's are constants which can be interpreted as second-... We drop the n subscript. An example is where d.. (a) We generate the system tensors by superimposing the contribution of each bar. = 2P1 k.J (f) and write (d) in the form = (k.(u. 8 8—10.

For the structure sketched: Prob. What symmetry properties do the k's exhibit? Do these properties also apply for the system tensors? (b) Develop the incremental equations relating Au. Specialize the incremental equations for linearized stability analysis. Cr. the linearized critical load.PROBLEMS 209 Show that k11 = =L = where c is defined by [1 + (Ii) {::} = cu (i) Discuss how you would locate the appropriate addresses for the bar stiffness tensors in the system tensors. (c) 8—11. 8—11 Linearly elastic material. Ic1 = =k (a) (b) Determine the nonlinear incremental equilibrium equations at the equi0. P2 P2. Pi ±ep2. AA and compare with (8—30). Take Ap1 = 0 and solve for Ap2 as a function of Au1. No support movement or initial elongation. is applied in addition to librium position corresponding to Pi = . Comment on how the system behaves when a small horizontal load.

We refer to the system defined by the na bars as the primary structure and the q unknown forces as force redundants. r(B1) = be linearly independent. 210 . In what follows. the rows of B1 must For the system to be initially stable. q additional equations relating the bar forces are required. and is called the degree of indeterminacy. we first develop the governing equations for the force method by operating on (a)—(c).9 Force Method Ideal Truss 9—i. In order to determine F. We then show how one can establish the compatibility equations using the principle of virtual forces and discuss the extremal character of the force redundants. The defect of (a) is equal to in — nd = q. This requires in In what follows. Finally. GENERAL The basic equations for the linear geometric case have the form P1 = B1F e = BfU1 + P2 = B2F e0 + fF where the elements of B1 and B2 are constants. The general procedure outlined above is called the Jbrce or flexibility method. This procedure is applicable only when the geometry is linear. These equations are called compatibility conditions and are obtained by operating on (b) which represents m relations between the na unknown displacements and the bar forces. Equation (a) represents linear equations relating the na prescribed joint forces and the in unknown bar forces. we compare the force method for a truss with the mesh method for an electrical network. that is. If in = since one can find the bar forces and reactions using only the equations of statics. we consider the system is said to be statically determinate only stable systems. One can solve (a) for na bar forces in terms of the applied forces and q bar forces.

considering P1. (nixl) e (fl4X 1) = c e1 ——— C2 j (q< 1) ii = (9—7) L 0 f2 (q x q) .SEC. F2 contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to a unit value of the kth element in F2.o = P2. and f. one can always renumber the bars such that this condition is satisfied) and partition B1. we can solve (9—2) for F1. contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to the applied joint loads. The reactions follow from (9—3): P2 = P2. P1. B2 and F as follows: B1 x nil =[B11 ii B12] I "a) (na x q) B2 (rxm) [B21 (rxn4) (na x 1) (rxq) B22] = F2 (qx 1) The bars corresponding to F1 comprise the primary structure and F2 contains the q redundant bar forces. Also.F2 = —B12 Note that the kth column of F1.0 + (9—6) B21F1. —B12 as righthand sides.F. with F2 = 0.0 = B21FI. Using (9—1). GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH We consider the first columns of B1 to be linearly independent (if the system is initially stable. F1.F2 + B22 We consider next (b).F2 where F1.0 and F1. F2 satisfy (9—4) 1111F10 = P1 B1IFI.0 + Fl. The complete set of q + 1 solutions is written as F1 = F1. 9—2.) Since Bit! 0. the force-equilibrium equations ((a) and (c)) take the form B11F1 = P1 — B12F2 (ad eqs. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH 211 9-2. e0. Partitioning e.) (9—2) (9—3) P2 = B21F1 + B22F2 (reqs.

F2 We select a stable primary structure F1 and determine the bar forces and reactions due to P1 and a unit value of each force redundant. At this point. I. and elongation terms with theit incremental values and interpret las a segmental (tangent) flexibility. + 12F2 Bf2U1 + Bf2U2 (ne.FZ(CLO + f1F1) = e2. we substitute for F1 and write the result as 122F2 d2 C (9—12) T where f 122 . follows when we express the elongations in terms of the bar forces. 9—4. f22. i. F1. One can show that f22 is positive definite when the bar flexibility factors in f2 are all positive. We obtain the equation for F2 by eliminating U1 in (9—9).. displacement. Determination of F1. This step involves q + 1 force analyses on the primary structure. (9—11). The selection of a primary structure and solution of the force equilibrium equations can be completely t See Prob. 0.) (9-8) (9—9) (q eqs. Finally. and e0. Note that we obtain the primary structure by deleting q = ni — bars.t If the material is physically nonlinear. 9 and using (9—1).43 The coefficient matrix.0 (9—11) The first form. and using (9—10) P2. o + f1F1 B11U1 + B21U2 = e2 = e2. See (1—61). depend on F1. 9—i. (9—10). and P2. is called the flexibility matrix for F2. 0. P2. it must be satisfied in order for the bars tofit in the deJbrmed structure defined by U1. First (see (9—5)) we note that BT — 12 12 1. The second form. the force-displacement relations expand to = e1. premultiplying (9—8) by Ff.F21 — — IF2 \T_ T T 11 Then. Iteration is minimized by applying the loading in increments and approximating the force-elongation relation with a piecewise linear representation. eqs. The incremental equations are similar in form to the total equations4 We just have to replace the force. F2t1' t. shows that the equations are actually restrictions on the elongations.e. (a). One can interpret (9—10) as a compatibility condition. F2U2 = ez + Ff + f2F2 + Ff.F2 r'T ( — + v + nT f'r 1O.212 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we summarize the steps involved in the force method..) Once e1 is known. to an echelon matrix. (9—8) can be solved for U1.. . f.1 t'T U2 — —e2.0 — 1. (9—6) leads to adding the result to (9—9).. § We reduce X See Prob.

pJk = F.ik I nT fl — Note that one works with the statically determinant primary structure to — mine the displacements.0 + P2.. e1 e1. Note that all force analyses are performed on the primary structure. we can evaluate e. and P2 by combining the q + basic solutions. and solve f. and F3 = + 1 can be readily obtained using the method ofjoints. Also.0 + f1F1 and then solve (9—8). P2. and adding the two scalars. 2 in 3 1 We take F3 as the redundant b.' by Of.. Once F1 is known. with F2 = 0 due to an unit value of with F2 0 as — (9—14) we can write the expression for 0. The results are shown in Fig. as U1—'t — e1 — 21 —hT 111 2 We see from (9—15) that the kth column of Br..' contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to a unit value of the kth element in P1.z of F2. Then.tr force: F1={F. = e.. F. aizdP2 We assemble d2.F2F2 3. E9—1B...F2} F2={F3} The primary structure consists of bars I and 2. one can determine these components without actually solving (9—8). P2...SEC. If only a limited number of displacement components are desired. F2. = P2 due to an unit value of PJJ. we write U. 9—2. Deterininatio. Now. = F. for F. GOVERNfNG APPROACH 213 2. F1 P2 = F10 + = P2.F. we obtain the kth element in U1 (which corresponds to the kth element in P. E9—IA. letting F. To show this.) by multiplying the kth column of Br1' by the kth column of B21Br.. Then. o. it follows from (9—6) that the kth column of B2 contains the reactions due to a unit value of the kth clement in P. we determine F. for U.. and P2 F2 q= For the truss shown in Fig. . = d. Example 9—1 Step 1: Determination of F. The forces and reactions corresponding to P. Determination of U.pj.

eo.51n. d2. 9 Fig. F1. E9—1B 3. u41 =—1/I5in..2 (2) Material is linearly elastic. we can contract U2 and P2.83 10 kips 20 kips We could have obtained the above results for F1 by solving B11F1 = P1 B12F'2 which. E = 3 )< i04 ksi for all bars.2 A2 0. = u41} = {u3. and F2 Since only u32 and u41 are finite.2 A3 =0. for this system.Oin.5 in. (3) e0.1 —1/16 in.2 (4) u32 + 1/10th.6 +61 (F1) 110) [-. = 0. Fig. has the form [—.33 1/2 2.214 FORCE METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP.50 3/8 —20.8 +. and write PT fl /D' 2 2 . E9—1A 2 3 10 kips I 20 kips (1) A1 = 1.8flFj = Step 2: + [1j{F3} [01 Determination of f22.

53kips = 0. —4./kip) 12(25) 12(25) = Then.1e1 — Now.3SF3 = —7.27kips F1 = F1. = Ff. Using (9—15). )T (c) fr'2 — (1 UO' 1 15 = e1. e0. we obtain (a) F2 = {F3} = —5.0 + f1F1 {-. 2} = { T'6. 9—2. —.S7kips Equation (a) actually represents a restriction on the elongations. Step 3: Determination of the Displacements Suppose only u11 is desired.0 F1.0 = {eo. The original form of (a) follows from (9—10). It remains to assemble The flexibility factors are (in. — 8e1 — a — —.8(2 x Evaluating the various products in (9-43). Equation (b) reduces to (a) when we substitute for the elongations in terms of the bar forces. P41) corresponding to the nonvanishing prescribed displacements 1 .17} { (kips) (kips) (kips) — = Also. The GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH 215 force matrices follow from step 1: F1. o {eo.24.0 + 1— 17. (9—12) reduces to 1. we are given that e1. 3 x 12 = 13 = 12(20) x = f2 = [f3] = 0. F2 {—2083.SEC.018} We apply a unit load at joint 1 in the X1 direction and determine the bar forces in the primary structure and the reactions (P32. p.-.31 Solving (a). 0} (inches) (inches) e2.3} = 0 f2 and evaluate f22 and d2.

Alternatively. they must be self-equilibrating. using (9—4). we apply (9—15) twice.216 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we can write F where = {Fio} + B1 and B1 = 0 Then AF2 = satisfies (b) for arbitrary AF2.e.el + C2 P2 F2U2 = 0 (i) Equation (i) is identical to (9—10). This is equivalent 9—3.F. i. — . it follows that FT. (a) expands to F2e1 + C2 — F2U2) 0 Equation (h) must be satisfied for arbitrary AF2.033 = +15 in If both displacement components are desired. 9 Substituting in (c). 7—3. The reactions due to AF2 are obtained from (9—6): A?2 = B2 AF = P2 F2 Substituting for AF and A?2. Now. (9—5). Finally. one can use the principle of virtual forces developed in Sec. AFTe — 0 for any statically permissible system of virflial bar forces and reactions which satisfy the constraint condition. It is shown there (see Equation (7—14)) that the true elongations satisfy the condition. B1 AF = AP1 = 0 Equation (b) states that the virtual bar forces cannot lead to increments in the prescribed jOint loads. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—VARIATIONAL APPROACH We obtained the elongation compatibility equations (9—10) by operating on the elongation-displacement equations.. Note that the elongation compatibility . we obtain a11 = +185 to solving (9—8).

Since only F1 is required to equilibrate P1. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS It is of interest to compare the force method for a truss with the procedure followed to find the currents in an electrical network.F.SEC. = and (7—37) coincides with (i). = P2. If the material is physically linear. One can show that the stationary point corresponds to a relative minimum value of H. (i) leads to a set of q linear equations in F2 when we substitute for the elongations in terms of the bar forces. 9—4. We have written the expanded form of (i) as f22F2 = Since (i) are the Euler equations for d2 = and it follows that d2) 2U2 H _I T 221 2 — 2 c — for the linearly elastic case. — Pf02 = This approach is discussed in sec. t 9-4. We determine the displacements by applying the general form of the principle of virtual forces (see (7—10)) AFTe — = APfU1 = where the virtual forces satisfy the force-equilibrium equations. We take X = F2 in (7—35). Then. COMPARtSON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 217 equations are independent of the material behavior. 9—8. . The latter involves the t See Prob. we can take = AF2 = 0 and (j) leads to U1 = Note that I — — 1)11 One can interpret the compatibility equations expressed in terms of F2 as the Euler cquations for the total complementary energy function. 7—5. when the tangent flexibility factors for the redundant bars are all positive.

6—14. 6—6.. — Vk+ ek e0. 6—23): An = 0 (N eqs.N Actually. Example 9—2 A network can be represented by a line drawing consisting of curves interconnected at various points. 9 application of Kirchhoff's laws and is called the mesh method. the graph is said to be . We list the notation and governing equations for convenience: b = number of branches N=n—1 M—b—N=b—n+1 k+. . k n number of nodes = potential at node j with respect to the reference potential. and the governing equations for a linear resistance d-c network are developed in Probs. Note that d has only two entries1 in any row. Each branch is terminated at two different nodes and no two branches have a point in common which is not a node.) e = {ej. . = nodes at positive and negative ends of branch k = current in branch k. .. d is just the matrix equivalent of the branch-node connectivity table. 6—14. positive when directed from node k_ to node = potential drop for branch k = Vk. Various phases of the electrical network formulation are discussed in Probs.) e0 (9—16) (9—17) e = AV = where i + Ri (b eqs.. If each branch is assigned a direction. The curves and intersection points are conventionally called branches and nodes respectively.. two nodes are connected by at least one path.V2 R1 R= R2 Rb and A is obtained by deleting the last column of the branch-node connectivity matrix d. 6—23. (9—18) v={V1.218 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.2. k = emf for branch k = resistance for branch k The governing equations expressed in matrix notation are (see Prob. For row k (Ic = jlkk = +1 dkk+ = dkj —1 1 k+ ork. Also. A collection of nodes and branches satisfying the above restrictions is called a linear connected graph. (9—19) =0 1= 1. e2.

it is possible to solve (9—16) for N branch currents in terms of b — N = M branch currents. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 219 oriented. 4) of d. We assemble d working with successive branches. Consider the oriented graph shown.SEC. 2 Fig. A has N linearly independent columns. 9—4.1 A 4 —1 —1 N Now. E9—2 3 Node Branch 1 I 2 3 —1 +1 2 3 +1 +1 —. we obtain A by deleting the last column (cot. Therefore. (N x N) (bxN) — [ A1 [A2 (MXN) (Nx 1) = JJi__ (Mx)) . i after row N. The connectivity relations for a network are topological properties of the corresponding oriented graph. We list the branch numbers vertically and the node numbers horizontally. We suppose the branches are numbered such that the first N rows of A contain a nonvanishing determinant of order N and partition A. Finally.

Also. Using the first approach. A2 by C1 = (9—23) It remains to determine a set of M equations for i2. the branches comprising A1 (and i1) correspond to the primary structure. one must solve a system of linear equations. or alternatively. substituting for in terms of leads to (R2 + CTR1C1)i2 —e2.0 — Cfe10 (9—27) The coefficient matrix for i2 is positive definite when the branch resistances are positive. This will be the case for a real system. We write the solution of the Since tAil node equations as i= = Ci2 [Cii. that is. A closed path containing only one repeated node that begins and ends at that node is called a mesh. we write (9—17) as = A1V = e2 e1 + R1i1 A2V = e20 + R212 (N eqs) (M eqs) (9—24) Once i1 is known. we describe a procedure for assembling C1 directly from the oriented graph. 9 Introducing (9—20) in (9—16) leads to ATi1 = (9—21) 0.220 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. The essential step in the solution involves solving (9—21). One can express (9—17) in partitioned form and then eliminate V. we can solve for i1 in terms of i2. I'2 I (9—22) Note that C1 is of order N by M and is related to A1. we can find V from A1V e1 = e2 + e1 + R1i1 (9—25) Eliminating V from the second equation in (9—24) and using (9—23). A tree is defined as a connected graph having no . 7—6. we obtain CTe1 = 0 (9—26) Equation (9—26) represents M equations relating the branch potential differences (voltages). 0 and for a truss. it should be noted that the network problem is one dimensional whereas the truss problem involves the geometry as well as the cpnnectivity of the system. One can represent a mesh by listing sequentially the branches traversed. In what follows. Finally. Note that C1 corresponds to for the truss problem. One can assemble C1 using only the topological properties of the oriented graph which represents the network. To find the corresponding matrices (F1. finding C1. Although the equations for the truss and electrical network are similar in form. one can use the variational principle developed in Prob.

Example 9—3 For the graph in example 9—2. The column corresponding to involves only those branches of the tree which are contained in mesh j. we take the elements of i2 as the chord (mesh) currents. Then M = b — N = 3 and we must remove 3 branches to obtain a tree. negatively. Chord j and the unique path (in the tree) connecting the terminals of chord j define a mesh. the rows of A2. One can easily show that meshes. We take the positive direction of mesh j (clockwise or counterclockwise) such that the mesh direction coincides with the positive direction for chord j. E9—3. We enter (+1. We have expressed the solution of the node equations as i1=C1 I) (NXM) (Mxl) 12 Now. Selecting a tree is equivalent to selecting N linearly independent rows in A. say mesh j. 9—4. not) included in mesh j. We take branthes 4 . We indicate the chords by dashed lines. the current is constwit in a niesh. The M chords correspond to the redundant branches. N = n — 1 = 3 and b = 6. we associate the branches comprising a tree with the rows of A1. and 6 as the chords.SEC. the current in branch r due to a unit value of is equal to + 1 (—1) if the positive directions of branch rand meshj coincide (are opposite in sense). Suppose branch r is contained in mesh j. Then i1 represents the required branch currents in the tree. The required number of chords is equal to b — = b — N = M. E9—3 1 3 . Now. that is. 5 . The branches removed are generally called chords. — 1. The resulting tree is shown in Fig. bT=n—l=N (9—28) We reduce a graph to a tree by removing a sufficient number of branches such that no meshes remain.0) in row k of this column if branch k is (positively. Now. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 221 Let hT be the number of branches in a tree connecting 11 nodes. We assemble C1 working with the columns. 2 Fig. Then. Note that one can always number the branches such that the first N branches define a tree.

i6} The meshes associated with the chords follow directly from the sketch: mesh4 mesh5 mesh6 To assemble C1 we list the branches of the tree vertically and the chord numbers horizontally. is called thc branch-mesh incidence matrix. as (SIx 1) CTe = 0 (9—30) The rows of CT define the incidence of the meshes on the branches. Using (9—23). ij = {i1. i2. 4 5 6 Branches 1 — 2 3 1 —l• 0 +1 0 —1 ofthe tree 1 +1 0 +1 —1 The matrices. i5. 13} i2 {i4. (9—26). successive chords. we see that A and C have the property (N x Ill) ATC = 0 (9—29) Also. that is. Im}. we can express the compatibility equations. The matrix . C = {C1. 9 For this selection of a tree. follow from Example 9—2: —! A1= 0 0 —1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 0 0 —l 0 —1 —1 A2= One can readily verify that 0 +1 C1 = The matrix. We work with successive columns.222 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Note that C1 is just the matrix equivalent of(a). The resulting matrix is listed below. A1 and A2. Equation (9—30) states that the sum of the potential drops around each mesh must be zero and is just Kirchhoff's voltage law expressed in matrix form.

E. M. 1968.x2} 2 2 3 1 0 0 l.. and J. Di MAGGIO. August 1963.S. F. 4. JR. Ronald Press. and F. and Stability. Vol. R. A. A. one assembles the equations individually. 5. 2. When the equations are expressed in matrix form. F. and W." Eng. S. H. MORICE. 1969. . The two approaches differ only with respect to the assemblage of the governing equations. .S. also applies to the truss problem. Dynamics. EM 3. 1966. for the system leads to q relations between the elements of c.C. S. J. H. 6. F. Wiley. 1960. D. Show that the consistency requirement. Structures Div. Mech. REFERENCES 1. C. ST4. WILBUR: Elementa.. RUBINSTEIN. M. June 1965.'v Structural Analysis. FF. No. RUBINSTEIN. W000HEAD: Frame Analysis. the steps reduce to a sequence of matrix multiplications. SNLLERS: "Network Analysis of Structures. New York. S.. 1967. 9—2.. B. New York. P. Div. W. where in> n... 9—2. Solve the following system using the procedure outlined in Sec. Let q = (a) (b) m — n. 7. TakeX1 {xi. PROBLEMS 9—1. This involves repeated application of the basic laws. Suppose r(a) = a and the first a rows of a are linearly independent. and R. Use the approach suggested in Problems 2—12 through 2—14. 91. Prentice-Hall.1. A. No. PRZEMIENIECKI. of course. Show that the coefficient matrix f22 is positive definite for arbitrary rank of F1 P2 when is positive definite. 3. In the conventional approach. McGraw-Hill.: Matrix computer Analyris of Structures. New York." J. HALL. 1970. B.: Linear Structural Analysis.S. 89. ax = c.NVE. Consider a system of in equations in n unknowns.: "Network-Topological Formulation of Struc- 8.E. PrenticeFlaIl. tural Analysis. This.: Theory of Ma/rLr Structural Analysis. Vol.C. Interpret (9—10) from this point of view. BRANIN. McGraw-Hill.: Structural Systems—Statics.PROBLEMS 223 formulation of the network problem leads to the same system of equations that one would obtain by applying Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws to the various nodes and meshes..Y25 0 0 0 0 x1 3 2 12 4 00 1 0 x2 X3 + 1 0002 x4 2 9—3.

F10. 9—7. Develop an incremental "force" formulation starting with — B1 = Ae B2 AF AF Bf AU1 + AU2 = + ft AF represent the flexibility factor and incremental initial elongation where f'. Distinguish between a redundant bar and a bar in the primary structure. determine the elongation-compatibility relations. where only the magnitude is increased. By definition (see (7—26) and (7—31)) = AFTe — . Discuss how you would organize the computational scheme. for the truss shown.e.224 FORCE METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP. F. For the truss shown: Using (9—10)./i where 2 is the load parameter and defines the loading distribution. (b) Express u52 in terms of the elongations and support movements. = {u42 } (2) Only u42 is finite. F9. 8—3 with the force method: Take F3 as the force redundant. Also discuss how you would account for either yielding or buckling of a bar. 9—6. Let P1 1. 9—6 x2 xl 15' 15' (1) Material is linear elastic and the flexibility factors are equal. Consider the case where the loading distribution is constant. Take (3) Only initial elongation for bar 4. 9—5. bars ©. One has to modify bothft and if the limit of the segment is exceeded (see sec. for the segment corresponding to the initial value of F. 9 9—4. Takt as the redundant bars.. Prob. Assemble the equations for F2 = (F8. i. Solve Prob. 6—4 for a detailed treatment). (a) 9—8.

as a quadratic form in AF2. Consider the oriented linear graph shown. . Prob. Determine C. 9—9 0 (a) (b) (c) Determine A.PROBLEMS 225 Prob. 9—9. Verify that ATC = 0. Consider the material to be nonlinear elastic and establish criteria for the stationary point to be a relative minimum. 9—i 2 x2 x1 Then — = AFT de Express d2fl.

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Part III ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER ELEMENT .

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Study of deformation. inelastic. etc. Substitution of the strain-displacement relations in the stress-strain relations leads to a set of equations relating the stress and derivatives of the displacement components. This leads to a set of differential equations (called stress equilibrium equations) which must be satisfied at each point in the interior of the body and a set of algebraic equations (called stress boundary conditions) which must be satisfied at each point on the surface of the body. nonlinear elastic. Relate forces and displacements. The form of these equations depends on the material behavior (linear elastic.). this step. we first relate the stress and strain components at a point. We refer to this system as the stress-displacement relations. we analyze the state of stress at a point. that is. The quantities required to specify the deformation (change in shape) are conventionally called strains. The forces due to the interactions of adjacent volume elements are called internal forces. is defined as the stress vector. GENERAL The formulation of the governing equations for the behavior of a deformable solid involves the following three steps: 1. 229 . We also apply the conditions of static equilibrium to the volume elements. say dAd. This step leads to a set of equations relating the strains and derivatives of the displacement components at a point.10 Governing Equations for a Delormable Solid 10—1. the internal force per unit area acting on a differential area. Note that the study of forces is purely an equilibrium problem. We visualize the body to consist of a set of differential volume elements. Note that the analysis of strain is purely a geometrical problem. 2. In this step. Also. we investigate how the stress vector varies with orientation of the area element. 3. Study of forces. We analyze the change in shape of a differential volume element due to displacement of the body.

it is understood the term is summed over the range of the index. Venarit's theory of torsion-fiexure of prismatic members and apply the theory to some simple cross sections.2 and we write the scalar product as aTb = a1b1 ii) (10—2) (10—3) The summation convention allows us to represent operations on multidimensional arrays in compact form. + = To avoid having to write the summation sign. 10 The governing equations for a deformable solid consist of the stress equilib- rium equations.. we develop the engi- neering theory for an arbitrary planar member. a. It is particularly convenient for formulation. Example 1. CARTESIAN TENSORS Let a and b. 10—i Consider the product of a rectangular matrix.represent nth-order column matrices: a= b= {Oj. and a column vector. i. in Chapter 15.b2 10—1 Their scalar (inner) product is defined as aTb = bTa = a1b1 + a2h2 + . 1O—2. SUMMATION CONVENTION.. In Chapter 14. We illustrate its application below.230 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. St. we develop the governing equations for a linearly elastic solid following the steps outlined above. In Chapter 11. we present St. Finally. The conventional engineering theory of prismatic members is developed in Chapter 12 and a more refined theory for thin walled prismatic members which includes the effect of warping of the cross section is discussed in Chapter 13. establishing the governing equations. According to this convention (i = 1. stress-displacement relations. x. 02 {h1. and the stress and displacement boundary conditions. Venant's theory provides us with considerable insight as to the nature of the behavior and also as to how we can simplify the corresponding mathematical problem by introducing certain assumptions. c=ax aisrnx n . We also extend the variational principles developed in Chapter 7 for an ideal truss to a three-dimensional solid.e. we introduce the convention that when an index is repeated in a term. In this chapter.. we present the engineering theory for an arbitrary space member.

il. = AIJk(XkXe = Then. b be square matrices. Let a.xlxfxkx( DIJk(XIXJXkX( We return to part 1 The inner product of c is a scalar. we can write (h) as d11 + d22 + d11 = trace of d AIIk(XkX( H= = 4.SEC.. II Using (b). = According to the summation convention. = xT(aTa)x H = d= and can be expressed as c-c1 = 0f50 The outer product is a second-order array. x a column vector. we must convert cki.) = = + + + + g21e21 + (m) In order to represent this product as a matrix product. Let represent a one-dimensional set of elements associated with an orthogonal reference frame having directions If the . and f. g scalars defined by frxTax g = xrbx The matrix form of the product. ccT axxraT = alkaf. SUMMATION CONVENTION. fg. is fg =(xTax)(xTbx) One could expand (d) but it is more convenient to utilize (b) and write (c) (c) as f= g = bk(xkxe fg = = 3. H. The inner product is defined as the sum of the products of corresponding elements: Inner product ç. CARTESIAN TENSORS 231 The typical term is c• => (b) 2. ejj over to one-dimensional arrays. Let represent square second-order arrays. alJbk.xkx. 10—2.

(10—10) This notation is shown in Fig. 10—1. fl.n. k. 10-3. We know that the magnitude of a vector is invariant. By definition. Then. and the determinant are invariant. 2. sum of the principal second-order minors. b will be symmetrical.232 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. 3 (10—4) say that the elements of b comprise a first-order cartesian tensor.t = fl(2) where = = b12 021 L 022 7 + b22 032 7 b23 033 7 + b11 b13 1733 In the cases we encounter. 1. and the movement from P to P' is represented by the displacement vector. the sum of the squares of the elements of a first-order tensor is invariant. . 10 corresponding set for a second reference frame is related to the first set by — — k = we cos 1. 3 . we can write (10—4) as and it follows that the set of orthogonal components of a vector are a first-order cartesian tensor. Noting = (10—5) (5—5). CARTESIAN STRAINS Let P denote an arbitrary point in the undeformed state of a body and the position vector for P with respect to 0.2. = (10—8) The transformation (10—8) is orthogonal and the trace. (10—6) A second-order cartesian tensor is defined as a set of doubly subscripted elements which transform according to = An alternate form is (10—7) j. 2—5. f See Prob. The corresponding point and position vector in the deformed state are taken as F'. the origin of an orthogonal cartesian reference frame. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION.

10—3. Geometric notation.SEC. is defined as the relative change in length with respect . (See Fig. approach. r. we work with cartesian components for ü. ii = We consider a differential line element at P represented by the vector dii. 10—1). ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. CARTESIAN STRAINS 233 Excluding rigid body motion. to simplify the derivation. Also. the displacement from the initial undeformed position will be small for a solid. Then. 10—1. We are = / = (10—12) Since we are in the deformed state is The corresponding line arid we can write following the Lagrange approach. and it is reasonable to take the initial Cartesian coordinates (xi) as the independent variables. This is known as the Lagrange Undeformed dp F' (Deformed) i3 2 112 Fig. p = = = (10—13) The extensional strain. The initial length and direction cosines are ds and using the subscript notation for partial differentiation.

(10—14) becomes (1 Finally.e. components of finite strain. we write (a) as e(1 + 4c) = ap. an alternate definition of Cjk — ds2 = 2eJkdxJdxk . It is known as Green's strain tensor. They relate the difference between the square of the initial and deformed lengths of the line element. = and the strain is defined as = (1 — are also called the See Prob. In the Eulerian approach. i. we consider 2 initially orthogonal line elements represented by (see Fig. xa I — '/12 p. 10—2.t = (1 + (10— 14) Using the dot product. 10 to the initial length. The elements. t This is the definition of Lagrangian strain. the cartesian coordinates for the deformed state are taken as the independent variables.. Notation for shearing strain.234 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP.kejk (10—15) — = One can readily establish that (eJk) is a second-order symmetrical Cartesian tensor4 direction and letting Taking the line element to be initially parallel to the represent the extensional strain.- dp'1 x2 Fig. 10—2) and having direction cosines + d r'. 10—4. we see that (no sum) = e0 (10—16) -1) = To interpret the off-diagonal terms.

is related to the (10—18) (I + + = = Equations (10—15) and (10—17) are actually transformation laws for extensional and shearing strain. and let = 15 tk. For example. take the initial frame parallel to the global frame = ti).Ji. y in the strain expressions. 10—3). e for steel. Therefore. To generalize these expressions. with respect to S OP = = + Un.. shearing strain. y) are small with respect to unity for engineering materials such as metals and concrete.n — . ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION.. = Differentiating + ii + u. With this notation: + (1 + + = ) = (10—19) The strain measures (e. follows by state. j)l. CARTESIAN STRAINS 235 We define as the angle between the lines in the deformed which is called the shearing strain.. The relations for "small" strain are: 1 (10—20) It remains to expand eJk. we consider two orthogonal frames defined by the unit vectors and (see Fig. it is quite reasonable (aside from the fact that it simplifies the expressions) to assume r.SEC. The expression for taking the dot product of the deformed vectors. COS — (it — . 10—3. The state of strain is completely defined once the strain tensor is specified for a particular set of directions. Y12 = Substituting for k)dsf = (1 + (sum on k only) and noting that the lines are initially orthogonal. = (a) takes the form (1 + + = shows that 2e13 (10—17) Specializing (10—17) for lines parallel to X. Now. ) J= .

Figure 10—4 shows the initial and deformed positions. (b) for u2. 10 and substituting into the definition of eJk = k + Uk. 03. and 03.3 X2 With this objective. and the angles which define the rotation of the line toward the X2. / + t. K3 directions. = e11 = U1. (Equation (10—15)) leads to (sum on m only) (10—21) + 4Um. we must establish the geometrical significance of the various terms. x3 t3 t2 Fig.u. Unit vectors defining transformation of orthogonal directions. The geometrical relations of interest to us are 012..236 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID Cl-lAP.. . we consider a line element initially parallel to the X1 axis..1 1 (1 + 013 — . 10—3. sin 0j3 = 033 1 + 1421 sine12 (1 + 81)cos 0j3 )2 (1 + Also. 1+ i+ i+ We solve (a). k In order to simplify (10—21). by definition. + + uj 1 i4.

10—4. Initial and deformed positions of a line element. = A= 1 (1 + {1 — A}112 — 1 sin2 013 + cos2 013 sin2 012 (10—23) Applying the binomial expansion. 1 = 0(013) U1 1= 0(012. the rotations are neglected with respect to strain. In the linear geometric case. Formally. 1— u1. (1 — x)"2 = I — + + (10—24) to (1 — we can write (10—23) as — + + — + + (10—25) In what follows. CARTESIAN STRAINS 237 and then solve (c) for u1. "13 a11 = + + (f) The various approximate theories are obtained by specializing (f). ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. 'U3 dx1 dx1 1123 dx1 X1. we assume small strain and express the derivatives and extensional strain (see Equation (d)) as u3. 10—3. one sets 012 = 613 = 0 in (f) and the result is a linear relation between strain and displacement. the deformed orientation coincides .SEC.u1 Fig. n2 t/12. according to this approximation. a11 - (g) Note that.

j k (no sum) (10—28) We utilize these expressions to develop a geometrically nonlinear formulation for a member in Chapter 18. (10—26) The next level of approximation is to consider 62 to be of the same order 02 = sin 0 cos 6 0(s) << 1 0 1 (10—27) We can neglect with respect to 1 in (f).g. The relations for finite rotation and small strain are = = = = + + + (no sum) + + u11(l + k + Uk. 2. We have to include the nonlinear rotation terms in the strain displacement relations only if the body is thin (e. Lastly. en = = (no sum) + ui. one must use (10—21).iUk. concrete. the rotations are negligible with respect to the strains for an arbitrary loading. The first condition will always be satisfied for engineering materials such as metals. If the body is massive in all three directions.. u11 + + (h) The complete set of strain-displacement relations for small strain and smallfinite rotation are listed below for reference. Whether the second restriction is satisfied depends on the configuration of the body and the applied loading. The strains are negligible with respect to unity. The general relations for the linear geometric case (small strain and infinitesimal rotation) are = = as strain. As an illustration.. and Products of the rotations are negligible with respect to the strains. but we must retain ci 1 and 1 since they are of 0(62). = = = - + + I + + Uk iUk. We have shown that linear strain-displacement relations are based on the following restrictions: 1.j 10—29 Note that the truss formulation presented in Chapter 6 allows for arbitrary magnitude of the rotations. a thin plate or slender member) and the applied loading results in a significant change in the geometry.238 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMA8LE SOLID CHAP. consider the simply supported member shown . if no restrictions are imposed on the magnitude of the rotations. etc. 10 with the initial orientation.

we must work with the deformed geometry rather than the initial geometry. We can neglect the change in geometry. we express in terms of the unit vectors for the initial frame. Example of linear and geometrically nonlinear behavior. This can be defined by tracking the movement of a triad of line elements initially parallel to the global directions. . 10—5. /3jklk I3jk — + (10—30) + for small strain We will utilize (10—30) in the next section to establish the stress equilibrium equations for the geometrically nonlinear case. The unit vector pointing in the direction of dTh is denoted by p. Case 2 (Q. = for small strain Finally. We let be the initial set and the deformed set (see Fig. = = = we can write vi (no sum) (no sum) (1 + Using (a). To treat a geometrically nonlinear problem. 10—3. However. 10—6). the change in geometry is no longer negligible and we must include the nonlinear rotation terms in the strain-displacement relations. CARTESIAN STRAINS 239 in Fig. By definition. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION.if only a transverse loading is applied (case 1). 10—5. if both axial and transverse loads are applied (case 2). Equations (10—30) reduce to (10—31) for the geometrically linear case and to + 13j1Jk + (no sum) [0—32 for the case of small strain and small-finite rotations.SEC.P) Case1 (Q) Fig.

One can include this effect by defining a vectort in addition to a stress vector. hm AA. .. gravitational attraction. We let in denote the outward normal direction for the internal face of body and refer to this face as the + in face. We do not allow for the possibility of the existence of a moment acting on a differential area element. 10 / ii f =dxji1 Fig. ANALYSIS OF STRESS The effects of the surroundings on a body such as contact pressure. we establish the equilibrium conditions for the internal forces in a body. This step is generally called the analysis of stress. 10—6. Now. The stress vector. -.. Initial and deformed geometries. etc. 10—7.240 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. is used for quantities associated with the + m face. m. In general. I) (10—33) Note that has the units of force/area. on the direction of the outward normal. Also. 6.result in internal forces. We pass a cutting plane through the deformed body and separate the two segments as shown in Fig. 68. i. f See Ref. p. 10—4. Consider a body subjected to some effect which results in internal forces. In this section. we consider a differential area element AAm.e. and let A Fm be the resultant internal is defined as force vector acting on this element. the subscript. it depends on the orientation of the area element.

10—8. The orientation of the arbitrary plane is defined by q. For example. 10—8. In order to analyze the state of stress at a point. Notation for internal force.. the force system is concurrent and therefore we have to . we need an expression for the stress vector associated with an arbitrary plane through Q. we write = = = (10—35) = etc. ANALYSIS OF STRESS face. —ö. 241 We consider next the corresponding area element in the —rn From Newton's law. 3). In the limit (as P Q). that is. say Q. we use a subscript j for quantities associated with the X face. the outward normal direction. the face whose outward normal points in the + direction. j = 1. we consider the tetrahedron shown in Fig. To simplify the notation. the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish.. 2. (1O—34) The stress vector has the same magnitude and line of action but it's sense is Body I Body 2 Note: Deformed state Fig. 10—4. The term M0 represents the change in due to translation from Q to the centroid.SEC. 10—7. With this objective. The force vectors acting at the centroids of the faces are shown in Fig. For equilibrium. = and it follows that = reversed. The outward normals for the other three faces are parallel to the reference axes (X1.

we have crq + &Tq = (a3 + — Now. 3). x2 + i2 I + x3 + 2)LXA2 Fig.3 (10—38) = aqklk . we express the stress vectors in terms of their components with respect to the coordinate axes (j = 1. in the limit. Equation (a) reduces to = (1037) Once the stress vectors for three orthogonal planes at Q are known. X1) = (10—36) Finally.242 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. and letting aqj be the direction cosine for the q direction with respect to the direction. = = cos(q. From Fig. 10—8. Noting that the projection of LxAq on a plane is equal to AAq times the scalar product of and the unit normal vector for the plane. Now.2. j = 1. AA1 is the projection of AAq on the X2-X3 plane. we can write AA. Equation (10—37) is the transformation law for the Stress vector. we can determine the stress vector for an arbitrary plane through Q with (10—37). Differential tetrahedral element. 2. 10 consider only the force equilibrium condition. 10—8. The component of 5q in a particular direction is equal to the scalar product of 6q and a unit vector pointing in thedesired direction.

10—9. a12 acts on the X1 face and points in the X2 direction.SEC. in the direction and (10—41) (c) takes the form = This result shows that the set is a second-order cartesian tensor. Letting and noting (10—38). x2 ta22 4 T FIg.. (a) expands to We generalize (c) for two orthogonal frames specified by the unit vectors (see Fig. ANALYSIS OF STRESS 243 Note that the first subscript on a stress component always refers to the flice. 10—9.. Notation for stress components.is determined from aqn.. . Substituting for the stress vectors in (10—37) results in = cxqjajk (10—39) The component of 5q with respect to an arbitrary direction. = t3 -ii cJ3k:k = (10—40) face Defining identifying as the component acting on the 1 with i. 10—3) where t. The positive sense of the components for a negative The normal (a13) and in-plane (afk) comface is reversed since ponents are generally called normal and shearing stresses. For example. m. This notation is illustrated in Fig. and the second to the direction. 10—4.

Then. 3 (10—44) Moment equilibrium = 1 23 (10—45) Moment equilibrium requires the shearing stress components to be symmetrical. 10—10. Since we have defined the stress components with respect to the global Cartesian directions. i3 + dfl3 + (— di73 dr13 ant Fig. when the element is shrunk to a point. The stress vectors are considered to be functions of the deformedt coordinates We obtain the forces acting on the faces by expanding the stress vectors about 0 and retaining only the first two terms4 Letting b denote the external force per unit volume and enforcing the equilibrium conditions leads to (10-42) and = 0 x = 0 (10—43) The scalar force equilibrium equations are obtained by expanding the vector equations using (10—38). Force equilibrium + = 0 k= k= 1. i. the stress tensor is symmetrical and there are only six independent stress measures for the three-dimensional case and three for the two-dimensional case. 10 It remains to establish the equilibrium equations for a differential volume element. Later we will shift back to the Lagrange approach Second.. it is natural to work with a rectangular parallelepiped having sides parallel to the global directions.. The equilibrium equations relate to the deformed state. This is shown in Fig.e. Point 0 is at the centroid of the element. i. we must consider a differential element on the deformed body. 10—10.and higher-order terms will vanish in the limit.244 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOUD CHAP. t We arc following the Eulerian approach here. . 2. Differential volume element in Eulerian representation.e.

10—4. Also.0 is prescribed. 10—12. We define and write as the outward normal vector at a point on the deformed surface (10—46) = The external force per unit deformed surface area is denoted by (10—47) = pnjlj Applying (10—37) leads to the stress-boundary force-equilibrium relations: Ph = (10—48) Pnj i3nk0kj f= 1.e. on the stress components. 2. i.. where the deformed coordinates are taken as the independent variables. the stress components must equilibrate the applied surface forces.. 3 When p. 10—11.SEC. Figure 10—Il shows the initial and Initia' / (I + €2)dx2 (1 +e1)dxj 4 Deformed dX2[ dx1 U12 Lagrange (I Eu'er drj1 (I x2 Fig. The analysis of stress described above is based on the Eulërian approach. f See Prob. Our derivation of strain-displacement relations employed the Lagrange approach. i. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian representations for a volume element.e. (10—48) represent boundary conditions is a reaction. ANALYSIS OF STRESS 245 Equations (10—44) must be satisfied at each point in the interior of the body. we considered the displacements (and strains) to be functions of the initial coordinates (xi). . This poses a problem since the strain and stress measures are referred to different volume elements. If is prescribed. at the boundary.

we work with stress measures referred to the deformed directions (see Fig. b* as the force per unit initial volume.246 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. we have to refer the strain measures to nonorthogonal directions in the initial state. and (10—45): + (10-5 1) using is called the Kirchhoff stress tensor. Conversely. In the linear geometric case. We define as the stress vector per unit initial area acting on the face which initially is normal to the direction. Figure . Substituting for - (10—30). to be consistent with the Eulerian stresses.3 (10-52) (10—53) 1. To be consistent with the Lagrange strains. 10—6) defined by the unit vectors.2.10—12 shows this notation for the two-dimensional case. 3 The boundary equilibrium equations are obtained by expanding = and have the form pnj (10—54) k *_ — — . and as the force per unit initial surface area. we must work with a nonorthogonal parallelepiped whose sides are parallel to the deformed line elements in the analysis of stress. we assume small strain and neglect the change in orientation due to rotation. The two approaches coalesce and we just have where is the direction cosine for the with to replace with and initial direction of the exterior normal. which correspond to (10—44) + b7 = 0 1. The linear equilibrium equations are: + hk 0 (10—49) CXj For the geometrically nonlinear case. 2. results in the following scalar equations. The stress and force vectors are considered to be functions of the initial coordinates (xe). The equilibrium equations at an interior point are + b* = x 0 (10—50) (X1 (1 + 0 We express the body force and stress vectors as — k = The set. 10 deformed area elements corresponding to the two viewpoints.

10—16. . 10—12..ds pn = ij c4 dx1 / (1 e2)dx2 dx2 dx (1 + €1)dx1 x1 Fig. This assumption is introduced by taking (10—56) Since the deformed unit vectors are orthogonal (toe 1). However. For small strain. = 4 —oj dx2 dx2 dx1 / p. the Kirchhoff stresses now comprise a second-order cartesian tensor and they transform according p2 x2 1.. 10—4. we neglect the change in dimensions and shape of the volume element. t See Prob. we will work with the Kirchhoff stress components to keep the treatment general.SEC. we will assume small strain. to (10—41). ANALYSIS OF STRESS 247 These equations apply for arbitrary strain and finite rotation. The equations simplify somewhat if we assume small-finite (linear geometry). (10—50). For infinitesimal and the equations reduce to (10—49). Definition of stress components in Lagrangian representation. In what follows.

We define V as the strain energy per unit initial volume. 10—18. we apply (b) to a differential volume clement in the deformed state (see. M. = OV(dx1 dx2 dx3) cW = where cetj (10—59) is the first-order changet in due to an incremental displacement.g. The work done during the deformation process is independent of the order in which the body is deformed. ELASTIC STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS A body is said to be elastic if it returns to its initial dimensions and shape when the applied forces are removed.) (10—57) The material is said to be hyperelastic (Green-type) when V is a continuous function. This requires = oek. cejj ciek( (10—58) By definition. 1Q—12). In general. See Prob. e. one can show that the first order work done by the force vectors acting on the element is OW = . V is a function of the deformation measures.248 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. and (a) reduces to OW Now. . We treat first an arbitrary elastic material and then specialize the results for a linearly elastic material. Also. they satisfy (10—50). . The forces are in equilibrium. + dx2 dx3 + . is. 10 10—5. + h Ltfl)dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—60) Equating OVT and OW leads to the general form of the stress-strain relation for a Green-type material. 10—11. .. When the deformation process is isothermal or adiabatic. OQ = 0. Our starting point is the first law of thermodynamics: 5W = OVT + OQ where OW = first-order work done by the forces acting on the body 0 VT = first-order change in the total strain energy (also called internal energy) = first-order change in the total heat content. = (3• (10—61) tSeeProb. V= = Y12' . Fig.

2e31} (10—63) = With this notation. is expressed as a a° ± (10—67) where a° contains the initial strains not associated with stress. e. we can obtain expressions for the stresses in terms of the strains by differentiating V. 10—13. There are 21 material constants for a linearly elastic Green-type material. which is more convenient for this phase. which requires (10—62) 43e1j In what follows.. and D is generated by inverting A. we restrict the discussion to small strain and a linearly elastic material. Equation (10—62) requires D (and A) to be symmetrical. e33.. the stress-strain relations must satisfy (10—58). . Once V is specified. The number of independent constants is reduced if the material structure t See Prob. We write the inverted relations as = D(a — a°) (10—68) where D = is the material rigidity matrix. We list the stress and strain components in column matrices and drop the superscript k on the Kirchhoff stress components: = = {e11. We also shift from indicial notation to matrix notation.e. where the stress-strain relations are linear. (10—64) The matrix transformation laws are = (10—65) Since ÔV is invariant under a transformation of reference frames. 10—6. 10—5. 2e23. The elements of A are determined from material tests. e22. A' V= — a°)TD(a — a°) (10—69) Since V > 0 for arbitrary (E — a°). strain due to a temperature increment.g. Since V is continuous. e. 2e12. i. ELASTIC STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS 249 This definition applies for arbitrary strain. and A is called the material compliance matrix. the transformation matrices are related by 1 (10—66) The total strain.SEC. we obtain the form of the strain energy density for the linear case. D and A are positive definite matrices. Substituting for in (10—64).

2. Rotation of axes for symmetry with respect to the X2-X3 plane. From Fig. 10—13. exhibits = —x1 = -x3 = x2 The stress and deformation quantities are related by (we replace 1 by — I and 3 by —3 in the shear terms) = a12 = Y12 = —a12 Y12 = 1. and substitute for using (b).3 —a23 a23 a13 = Y13 a13 Y13 = Y23 Now. . tA material whose structure has no symmetry is said to be anisotropic. we describe the transition from an anisotropic material to an isotropic material. we suppose X1. We use a prime superscript to indicate the rotated axes. 10—13. 10 In what follows.250 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. To determine the number of independent constants for this case. the stress-strain relations must be identical in form. We expand e = Acv'. The structure of an orthotropic material appears identical after a 1800 rotation about a symmetry axis. Equating the expressions for a' Fig. A material whose structure has three orthogonal axes of symmetry is called orthotropic. X3 are axes of symmetry and consider a 180° rotation about X2. X2.

= + a24a12 + a25a23 = a34a12 + a35a23 = 314(T12 — ti15a33 a25a23 —a24a12 —a34u12 — — For (c) to be satisfied. Finally. the shearing effect is uncoupled. and AT is the temperature increment.e. cr12 leads only to An alternate form of the orthotropic stress-strain relations is !(733 V32 a1 = AT + 1 — — E2 —-----a33 (10—71) a33 — = 1 /13 AT + 1 — —i—- Y12 = Y23 = 1 1 Y31 = where E4 are extensional moduli. The coupling terms are related by E2 E1 E3 E1 E3 E2 (10-72) . are shear moduli. 10—5. Vjk are coupling coefficients.. the coefficients must vanish identically. There is no interaction between extension and shear. 0 0 0 0 a12 a23 (733 (10-70) 0 Y31 0 0 a66 We see that A is quasi-diagonal and involves 9 independent constants. the stress-strain relations for an orthotropic material reduce to a11 a12 — £444 -— a12 a22 0j3 a23 0 - a1. we find = a36 = a45 0 a16 = A rotation about the X3 axis will not result in any additional conditions.SEC. when the strains are referred to the structural symmetry axes. This requires £434 = a15 = 0 a24 = £435 a34a350 = 0 The symmetry conditions require We consider next the expansions for a46 = a56 = 0. By rotating 1800 about X1. i. Also. ELASTIC STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS 251 and leads to the following relations between the elements of A.

the material is said to be transversely orthotropic or isotropic with respect to the plane. 10 It is relatively straightforward to invert these relations:t One should note that (10—71) apply only when X. By definition. i. § See Prob. The inverted form of (10—75) is written as a= a0 a0 + + + + (10—76) = = + 2G)pAT t See Prob. A is invariant when we transform from X1-X2-X3 to This c. The coupling coefficient.e. A = A' for arbitrary The relations are obtained by specializing (10—74): = p AT + (at. v). coincide with the material symmetry directions4 If the stress-strain relations are invariant for arbitrary directions in a plane. the material is called isotropic when the stress-strain relations are Invariant for arbitrary directions. Lastly.is called Poisson's ratio. 10—19 for the inverted form of (10—7 1). v. where the material is isotropic with respect to the X2-X3 plane. . '—'12'-'31'--' v32 v23 v 1 2(1 + v) F -- and the relations reduce to = AT + — (a22 + (10—74) = PAT + = pAT + 1 1 — — — va27) y23 Yi2 2(l+v) Y31 There are five independent constants (F. E1. v1. We consider the case where the X1 direction is the preferred direction. v. For this case..252 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. — + akk)) (10—75) 2(1 + v) F Note that now there are only two independent constants (F. 10—22. G1). IO--21.

we work with Lagrange finite strain components (eJ. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 253 where G are called Lamé constants and are related to E. * = = dx2dx3 dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—79) Equating (a) and (b). the external loads and the internal forces are loading consists of body (b) and surface represented by the stress vectors.. Kirchhoff stresses and external force measures per unit initial volume or area (b*. i. STATIONARY POTENTIAL ENERGY. 10—6.e. we derive here the 3-dimensional form of the principle of virtual displacements. The total internal deformation work is obtained by summing the first-order work done by the stress vectors acting on a differential volume element. 7—2. PRINCIPLE OF. and the classical stability criterion. we obtain the 3-dimensional form of the principle of See Sec. This is consistent with our derivation of the equilibrium equations. f In the continuous case.SEC. For completeness. § See (10—60). principle of stationary potential energy.j. See Fig. We follow the Lagrange approach. Chapter 7 dealt with variational principles for an ideal truss. CLASSICAL STABILITY CRITERIA 10—6. Let Au denote the virtual displacement. v is restricted to — 1 < v < 1/2. v by G= A shear modulus = yE E 2(1 + v) (10—77) — (1 + v)(1 — 2v) Since D must be positive definite. 10—12. The principle of virtual forces and stationary complementary energy are treated in the next section. . p*). PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS. The limiting case where v = + 1/2 is discussed in Problem 10—24. The principle of virtual displacements states that the Iirst-order work done is equal to the first oidcr work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints for an arbitrary virtual displacement of the body from an equilibrium position. The firstorder external work is by the external forces = = dx1 dx2 dx3 + JJj3* Au dx1 dx2 dx3 ± dfI 10—78 where fI is the initial surface area.

7—4. When the behavior is elastic. With these definitions. we work with the vector form and utilize the following integration by parts formula: t = where J — dx2dx3 (10-81) to the is the direction cosine for the initial outward normal (n) with respect direction. Their extension to a continuous body is straightforward. Operating on the left-hand term and equating coefficients in the volume and surface integrals leads directly to (10—50) and (10—54). . is admissible if it is continuous and satisfies = 0 on (10—83) We also consider the surface and body forces to be independent of the displacements. the left-hand side of (10—80) reduces to dx1 dx2 dx3 fJJ öVdx1 dx2 dx3 = We consider the surface area to consist of 2 zones as shown in Fig.254 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. + where displacements are prescribed on U1 on cd (10—82) and surface force intensities arc prescribed on pni Pni on The displacement variation. 10—14. When the behavior is elastic and the loading is independent of time. 5WD = dx1 dx2 dx3 + (10—80) dx1 dx2 dx3 = fJJh* dx1 dx2 dx3 = dx1 dx2 dx3 + Requiring (10—80) to be satisfied for arbitrary (continuous) is equivalent to enforcing the equilibrium equations. it can be interpreted as a variational principle for the displacements. The essential steps required for the truss formulation are described in Sec. = Letting VT denote the total strain energy. 10 virtual displacements. 10—25. L\u1. the principle of virtual displacements is transt See Prob. To show this. The principle of virtual displacements applies for arbitrary loading (static or dynamic) and material behavior.

and prescribed functions. . The only restrictions are elastic behavior and static loading. When the material is linearly Substituting for transforms elastic. and others are applied to fl.. to a function of the q's. 10—14. Then. + qTQ + . one expresses the displacements in terms of unknown parameters. Note that this result applies for arbitrary strain and finite rotations. U1 = + where = 0 forj = > 1. 2 The displacement boundary conditions on fd are called "essential" boundary conditions. x3). PH Fig. x2. (3N x 1) K is symmetrical . = where 0 VT for arbitrary admissible cIx1 dx2 dx3 — (1084) is the total potential energy functional.. . In the Rayleigh-Ritz method. V is a quadratic function of the strains. = q = Const. H. According to (10—84).SEC. . q. Classification of boundary zones. the displacements defining an equilibrium position correspond to a stationary value of the total potential energy functional. to determine approximate solutions for the displacements. If the behavior is completely linear. . Galerkin. . weighted residuals. V will involve up to fourth-degree reduces terms for the geometrically nonlinear case. Example 10—2 Direct methods of variational calculus such as Rayleigh-Ritz. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 255 formed to = fl. 10—6.

f See Sec. Since bifurcation corresponds to the existence of an alternate equilibrium position. 10—18. .256 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. Ad. Polynomials and trigonometric functions are generally used to construct the spatial distribution functions. The governing equations for bifurcation can be obtained by expanding This involves transforming the integrand of ö2WD = by applying (10—81). The form of the work terms for a continuous body are obtained by operating on (10—78) and = Sfl = = = Ad dx1 dx2 dx3 + j( Ad (10—85) Au1 dx1 dx2 dx3 + J$ Au. 10 Finally. say Ada. the incremental deformation work is equal to the increment in strain energy = > 0 and (10—84) can be written as = for arbitrary Ad (10—86) It follows that a stable equilibrium position corresponds to a relative minimum value of the total potential energy. The position is unstable if ö2 WD < o2 Note that öb. Bifurcation (neutral equilibrium) occurs when = 0 for some Ad. requiring to be stationary for arbitrary c5q leads (for linear behavior) to Kq = Q The strains are evaluated by operating on (a) and the stresses are determined from the stress-strain relations. are itull vectors when the forces are prescribed. See Probs. The mathematical basis for direct methods is treated in numerous texts (see Refs. If the loading is prescribed. 10—11. the equilibrium position is neutral. dx2 dx3 ie11 + dx2 dx3 If = Ô2WE for a particular Ad. 10). it is more convenient to form the incremental equations directly. and WD = ó(ö WD) is the second- order work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints during the incremental deformation resulting from Ad. 7—6 for a derivation of the classical stability criterion. For elastic behavior. and ö2VT = 0 at bifurcation. 9. The "classical" stability criterion for a stable equilibrium position ist — o2WE > 0 for arbitrary Ad is the second-order work done by the external forces where = during the incremental displacement. The equations for the case of linearly elastic material and prescribed external forces are listed below.

PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY Let u1 be the actual displacements in a body due to some loading and the geometrically linear strain measures corresponding to u1. + = 0 = 1. .2. For the continuous case.3 = 0 = = on on (10—88) If we multiply e13 by Ac13. 7—3.3 Stress-Boundary Force Equations on + 3. 10—7.. The principle of virtual forces is basically a procedure for determining displacements without having to operate on (a).SEC. We will follow the same approach here to establish the three-dimensional form. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 257 L Equilibrium Equation in the Interior + 2. It applies only for linear geometry. we can find the displacements by solving (a) and enforcing (b). The essential step involves selecting a statically permissible force system. We developed its form for an ideal truss in Sec. the force system consists of stresses. + Au1 AIIm.t Acr13 dx1 dx2 dx3 f See Prob. 2. j Am. integrate over the volume using (10—81). surface forces.. j + Urn. on Static permissibility requires and reactions. and note the static relations. we obtain the following identity. The strain and displacement measures are related by = + u1=fl Once the strains are known. i. a force system which satisfies the linear equilibrium equations. Strain-Displacement Relations = 3 + AUJ. 3 (10—87) Stress-Strain Relations = D 4. on Ac31. + Au1 0 J = 1. 10—26.e. = 0 10—7. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES. = u1 + $ Th (10—89) 0.

involving only force unknowns. Let d0 be the displacement. We start by expressing the stress field in terms of a prescribed distribution and a "corrective" field + cit. 1-lowever. 10—15. (10—91) is a particular solution of the equilibrium equations which satisfies the boundary conditions on where + 0 = and satisfies Thu on (10-92) = = 0 0 on on (10—93) Stress fields satisfying (10—93) are called seljequilibrating stress fields. the geometry must be linear. 10—15). We apply a unit force at Q in the tq direction and generate a statically permissible stress field. in the direction defined by is Suppose the translation at a point Q on desired (see Fig.258 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. where one reduces the governing equations (stress equilibrium and stress displacement) to a set of equations Fig. This result is applicable for arbitrary material behavior. (1) 1q at point Q Acr and The integral on reduces to (l)dQ. For the ideal truss. . Notation for determination of the translation at point Q. and it follows that = dx1 dx2 dx1 — (10—90) A second application is in the force method. 10 which is referred to as the principle of virtual forces (or stresses). a-° corresponds to the forces in the primary structure due to the prescribed loading and ? represents the contribution of the force redundants.

One can establish the strain compatibility equations by operating on the strain. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 259 The governing equations for the force redundants were obtained by enforcing geometric compatibility. oi.2o21 = + •z. Geometric compatibility for a continuum requires the strains to lead to continuous displacements. We consider the case where + 012 5 + = = 033 = 0. the stress state is called planar.SEC. . dx1 dx2 + a2.. follows:t 033 = = = The boundary forces corresponding to Pa as are = OS where s is the arc length on the boundary (sense is from X1 —* X2). Then. the bar elongations are constrained by the requirement that the deformed bar lengths fit in the assembled structure.e. Apc denote the virtual stress system. (10--89) reduces to dx1 dx2 dx3 = (10—94) The compatibility equations are determined by expressing in terms of stress functions and integrating the left-hand term by parts. 0 f See Prob. This approach is described in Prob. Substituting for crC. 10—7.. Example 10—3 If the stress components associated with the normal direction to a plane are zero.2a22 The stress field. integrating (e) by parts.. must satisfy (a) with h1 = h2 = 0 and also p. pC in terms of i/i. 10—14. Letting Aox.i There is no loss in generality by taking 22 = 0 on S.displacement relations... The equilibrium equations and stress-boundary force relations reduce to + b1 = 0 2 + b2 = 0 + a. — 712. (10-94) expands to + a2 11 — y52 12)dx1 if — f CS Ps 0 . i. We illustrate its application to the plane stress problem. One can also obtain these equations with the principle of virtual forces by taking a self-equilibrating force system.1 = = 0 on We can satisfy the equilibrium equations by expressing in terms of a function. 10—10.

When the material is linearly elastic. 10 and requiring (f) to be satisfied for arbitrary results in the strain compatibility equation.r) are self-equilibrating stress states. — + which is actually a continuity requirement U1 122 0 + 211 — (u1 212 + 112 112) = 0 We express (g) in terms of by substituting for the strains in terms of the stresses. 2. 2.j = d. .t The principle of virtual forces is also employed to generate approximate solutions for the stresses. we need to introduce the material properties..... They satisfy the homogenous equilibrium equations and boundary conditions on The corresponding surface forces arc p p° = p° + 0101 + 0209 + = p (i = 1. (i = 1 1.j = r$J1T(a° 1. = 0 + Taking virtual-force systems corresponding to equations for the parameters.... 10—27... i.260 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. = = + + (1 + (12(l)2 + ' + 04. and we write (10—94) as dx1 dx2 dx3 if ApC We express the stress matrix in terms of prescribed stress states and unknown parameters. where satisfies (10—92) and 1.. . = — dx1 dx2 dx3 + A6°)dx1 dx2 dx3 One should note that (10—97) are weighted compatibility conditions.. 2.e.... + Ai'= and the equations expand to + + = d1 i.. 2. dx1 dx2 dx3 = jjT9. r) results in r (10—97) 1.r (10—98) f. 2. The true stresses must satisfy both equilibrium and compatibility throughout the t See Prob. It is convenient to shift over to matrix notation for this discussion.r In order to proceed. a1.

> 0 for arbitrary and we see that the solution actually corresponds to a relative minimum where value of The approximate method described earlier can be applied to 11g. ar). dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—104) We shift over to matrix notation and express öe as (10— 105) represents the tangent compliance matrix. . & > 0 for arbitrary Sc which. . letting = = cjx1 dx2 dx3 (10—101) (10—102) we can write (10—94) as (511. TiC 0 * — for arbitrary = $$ (10—103) This form is called the principle of stationary complementary energy and shows that the true stresses correspond to a stationary value of Since is linear in the second variation of reduces to (52fl = = = A. (5211. . Substituting for given by (10—95) converts to a function of the stress parameters When the material is linearly elastic. a2. H. We call and call V* the complementary energy density. = — ci) = 0 fa=d A. to be positive definite. i. V+ Then. V* complements V. . (a1. to be stationary for arbitrary (511. 10—7. .e. must be positive definite in order for the material to be stable. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 261 the corrective stress field since it is required to correct the compatibility error due to For completeness. requires D.. it follows that A must be positive definite for a stable material. = — ard + const (10—106) The equations for the stress parameters follow by requiring H.SEC. we describe here how one establishes a variational principle for Our starting point is (10—94) restricted to elastic behavior.t Then. in turn. Since D1'. The form of V* for a linearly elastic material is = (10—100) + By definition. Now. We define = according to = c5V* = (10—99) domain. (10—107) The classical stability criterion specialized for elastic material and linear geometry requires SCTD.

What is its deformed shape and relative change with respect to its initial volume? Specialize the expression for in volume. and N. C. 1970. J. C. K. HLDEBRAND.. New York. McGraw-Hill. 1963. 8. S. 7. k) — = Let f be a continuous function of x1. PlAN: 5. BISPLINGHOFF. TIMOSHENKO.. MAR. Equations (10—19) are the strain transformation laws. Then determine for the initial (Xi) directions and small strain. Establish the transformation law for tensors. New York. B. S. F. Holden-Day. ± Urn. San Francisco. REFERENCES I. > 0. 1956. of Deformable Solids. McGraw-I-jill.262 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP.. 2. 10 Operating on c52fl = LtaTfLui (10—108) and noting that ö211. say Xi'. W. 2d ed. GooDiag: Theory of Elasticity. CRANDALL. Consider + u1. CRANDALL. 10—4. show that r.: Applied Elasticity. (a) (b) 10—2. Since is a symmetrical second-order cartesian tensor. Prentice-Hall.. J. WANG. 1965. Mass. Establish the transJbk where formation laws for and (3Xk. L. G. x3. 1959.: Engineering Analysis. 9. New York. Addison-Wesley. What are the strain components for the frame? Consider a rectangular parallelepiped having sides dXy in the undeformed state. S. Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Elastic Body. . FUNG.: Foundations of Solid Mechanics. DAHL: An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids. Hint: Expand (3/3 (If) P. 10. New York. J. Finally. x2. T. for small strain. Pergamon Press. I. 1953.. R. C. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. McGraw-Hill.. H. 10—5. SOKOLNIKOFF. LEKIINITSKU. the repeated indices to range from 1 to 2. 1965. 1956. 1965. N. and T. 4. 1968. J.. Prentice-Hall. H. for which is a diagonal array. New York. where + Urn. WAsmzu. Reading. McGraw-Hill. 3. 3d ed. S. Prove that eJk = are cartesian — ôJk) is a second-order cartesian tensor. P. • McGraw-Hill. PROBLEMS 10—1.: Mathematical Theory of Elasticity.: Methods of Applied Mathematics. 6. and J. is invariant.. Y. S.. there exists a particular set of directions. 10—3. Write out the expanded form of the following products. we conclude that f is positive definite.

Comment on the transformation law for the out-of-plane shear strains P32. = Xj(f/k) Almansi's strain tensor is defined as — (ds)2 = 2Efk thik Determine the expression for EJk in terms of the displacements. 6b. plane (83 = P13 = P23 = 0). tions defined below and let 6N = {8a. Prob. sin 0 for the rotation shown below. 6h = 60°. y31}. 10—6 x2 10—7. P13• P12. 10—8. with respect to X1. Consider the case of two-dimensional deformation in the X1-X2 be the extensions in the a. P23. X3.. Determine for = 0. 263 (a) (b) Specialize (10—19) for small strain and write out the expressions for in terms of ei. (d) Extend (a) to the three-dimensional case. b. . Consider six directions having direction cosines GJ2. Evaluate TE in terms of cos 0. c direcWe can write = BE C= (a) (b) (c) = 90c. We can express the strain trans= formation (small strain) as = Let Develop the form of (c) using the results of part a. . the cartesian coordinates Ui for the deformed state are taken to be the independent variables. X2. . 9b Determine B1 for Oa = 0. i.PROBLEMS 10—6. Compare the result with (10—21). 62. Let 6b. Can we select the six directions arbitrarily? Determine the general form of B.e. Tn the Eulerian approach. = 120°.

on the strain measures. eflk = ek. 10 Prob. = 1 — 2 \CXk + and k. is the deviator strain tensor. (CII. + (?X. This expression leads to six independent conditions.. — 8X. 10—8 xz -a 10—9. n range from I to 3. the volumetric strain is = Rather than work with + + C3 = eti + &22 + + = one can express it as the sum of two tensors. 12 the following strain state permissible? = + 82 = kx2 Y12 = 2kx1x2 k = constant ... called geometric compatibility relations. and it has the following form: 22 + 83 11 = Is Y12. in.. this called plane strain) there is only one com= 813 = patibility equation.264 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. For small strain. and and compare with the invariant (a) This question concerns strain compatibility equations. 10—10. Show that + where = CX. and (a) Write out the expanded form for (b) Determine the first invariant of of ejj. (b) Show that for two-dimensional deformation in the X1-X2 plane = 0.. cXj. = where is called the spherical strain tensor.

at a point. in terms of cos (9. write out the expressions for all. = The unit vector defining the orientation in the deformed state is = Determine the general expression for Then specialize it for small strain. using the results of part a. We refer to 5e as the first variation of e.. a22. = stress transformation as a matrix product. a33. Determine the expressions for 10—12. 265 Equation (10—21) defines the strain measures due to displacements. Let i. 10—13.t xl (d) Plane stress refers to the case where a13 = with reduced stress and strain matrices. ai2. (c) Evaluate 1'. We work {a11. We write + = where contains linear terms (Aug) and öeJk involves quadratic terms. a22. 1O—13 x. The several parts of this question concerns stress transformation. . = stress matrix. sin (9 for the axes shown. We express the (b) Let a22. in terms of (a) Starting with (i0--41). The 5-symbol denotes the first-order change in a functional and is called the variational operator (see Ref. x2 Prob. Let represent the displacement increment and Ae1k the incremental strain. = and write the transformations in the same form as the three-dimensional case: a' = a' = . 1.. 8).. To analyze geometrically nonlinear behavior.. one can employ an incremental formulation. be the unit vector defining the initial orientation of the = dsi. . = (1 + a' = T. differential line element d1.a Develop the form of T. Er a23 = a33 = 0. ..PROBLEMS 10—11.

from 13 Prob. The mean stress. and s are Pi P2 — b1 dx1 b2 = T t/"1 — dx2 10—15.22 a22 = tI'. from part c above and T. is defined as am = + — — a22 + a33) Rather than work with we can express it as the sum of two tensors. Prob. Verify that 10—14. Show that the expressions for and P2 ifl terms of derivatives with respect to x1.. a. (b) Specialize the equilibrium equations for plane stress (a13 = a23 = (c) = 0). This question develops a procedure for generating self-equilibrating stress fields. L aU . 10 Evaluate T..12 The notation for body and surface forces is defined in the following sketch. Suppose we express the two-dimensional stress components in terms of a function = as follows: a33 a11 = t1'. x2 10—14 x1 Verify that this definition satisfies the equilibrium equations in the interior. (10—49) and (10—50).266 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. ii a12 — — b1 dx1 fx7 b2 dx2 = —1//.. 10—6. (a) Expand the linear equilibrium equations. x2..

establish can Au. Starting with (10—52). Hint: = /= 10—19.. (a) Specialize for plane stress = = = 0). Consider the three-dimensional stress-strain relations defined by (10—71). + P.k Verify that the inverted form of(l0—71) is D(e — where D11 = E1/C3 D12 D13 C4D11 D22 = E2/C1 + (C2/C1)D12 D23 = v32E2/C1 + (C2/C1)D13 D31 = E3 + v31D13 + v32D23 and C1 = C2 = 1 — v21 + v31v32(E2/E3) E2C1 C4 = v31 + "32 Specialize for plane strain 10—20. = and (a) (b) óijOrn is the deviator stress tensor. Specialize these equations for the case where the initial position is geometrically linear. and = 0) = = Consider 2 sets of orthogonal directions defined by the unit vectors The stress-strain relations for the two frames are = + (a°)' + A'& Express A' in terms of A and Also determine D'. 1O--21. and the incremental equilibrium equations in terms of Group according to linear and quadratic terms. 10—18.e. . Write out the expanded forms for and Determine the first invariant of 10-46. Prove (10—60). i. Ab*. 10—17. where approximate with in the incremental equations. Establish the stress-equilibrium equations for small-finite rotation and small strain. (10—55) specialized for small strain.PROBLEMS 267 where is called the spherical stress tensor.

Verify that the directions of principal stress and strain coincide for an isotropic material.. Use the results of Prob. Y12} Verify that D has the following form: V2t I 0 1 G (1 — n = E2 Assuming X1-X2 in the sketch are material symmetry directions. determine D' for the X'1-X'2 frame. Equations (10—76) can be written as a11 = a°&1 + + 2Ge11 where (a) is the volumetric strain. 10 (b) Let a22. 10—13. cri2} C= C= 62. 10—9 and 10—15—— Show that = Ka. What relations between the properties are required in order for D' to be identical to D? Prob. + a0 . Is this also true for an orthotropic material? 10—24. Then introduce a rotation about the X1 axis and consider the Isotropy in the X2-X3 plane requires expression for Y23 =7 I. Using the notation introduced in Probs. Start by requiring equal properties for the X2 and X3 directions. Verify (10—73).268 GOVERMNG EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOUD CHAP. 10—20. 10—21 x2 xI 10—22. 023 10—23.

stress equilibrium equations 1. Verify Equation (10—89).10—25. Determine and When v = We must work with 7 stress measures ('u' Urn) = and the mean stress has to be determined from an equilibrium consideration. governing equations for an elastic solid. 10—25 10—26. expressions for the reaction surface forces on . = complementary energy density (initial volume) = prescribed force measures (initial dimensions) leads to the complete set of. Is this formula restricted to a specific direction of integration on the boundary? Does it apply for a multi-connected region. Prove (l0--81) for the two-dimensional case.. =0 where for arbitrary — = — — — — dx2 = Kirchhoff stress = Lagrange strain = + + 1u. stress boundary conditions on 4. such as shown in the figure below? .e. stress-displacement relations 3. i..PROBLEMS 269 — where K is the bulk modulus = (E/3(1 (b) 2v)). Summarize the governing equations for the incompressible case. 2. 10—28.. Express (g) in terms of material to be orthotropic. displacement boundary conditions on 5. Prob. Verify that the stationary requirement 10—27. Consider the Refer to Example 10—3. Discuss the case where Show that = (c) Verify that the strain-energy density can be written as V — = = (d) — + + for the isotropic case..

10 This variational statement is called Reissner's principle (see Ref. . (b) Transform 11R to — by restricting the geometry to be linear = and (ui. (a) 10—29. Hint: Note (10—101).270 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. + and requiring the stresses to satisfy the stress equilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions on Hint: Integrate by parts. 8). Transform HR to by requiring the stresses to satisfy the stress displacement relations. Interpret (10—90) as dQ == where PQ is a force applied at Q in the direction of the displacement measure. dQ. using (10—8 1).

If the centroidal axis is straight and the the member shape and orientation of the normal cross section are is said to be prismatic. X3 are taken as the principal inertia directions. We define the member geometry with respect to a global reference frame (X1. the centroidal coordinates and product of inertia vanish: '23 jJx2x3 dA = 0 One can work with an arbitrary orientation of the reference axes. but this will complicate the derivation.11 St. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION A body whose cross-sectional dimensions are small in comparison with its axial dimension is called a member. X3 pass through the centroid and are principal inertia directions. Venant Theory of of Prismatic Members 11—1. 11—1. We employ the following notation for the cross-sectional properties: A = if dx2 dx3 = dA 12 — Sj(x3)2 dA 13 = fl(x2)2 dA Since X2. Venant's theory of torsion-flexure is restricted to linear behavior. X3). St. as shown in Fig. 271 . The X1 axis is taken to coincide with the centroidal axis and X2. It is an exact linear formulation for a prismatic member subjected to a prescribed t The case where the cross-sectiona' shape is constant but the orientation varies along the centroidal axis is treated in Chapter 15. X2.

and their definition equations are F1 = ffcrij c/A M1 = M2 = M3 = F2 JJx3crj1 dA c/A F3 = JJcc13 c/A JJ(x2cr13 — x3c12)dA (11—3) dA The internal force and moment vectors acting on the negative face are denoted byF_. Since F_ = —F÷ M_ = (11—4) it follows that the positive sense of the stress resultants and couples for the negative face is opposite to that shown in Fig. i. The components of F. where the end forces are statically equivalent to only M1. we modify the St. 11—i.M_. We define M. The distribution of surface forces on a cross section is specified in terms of its statically equivalent force system at the centroid.. 11 —1. Notation for prismatic member.272 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Later.. We then extend the formulation to account for flexure .. Figure 11—1 shows the Stress components on a positive face. in Chapter 13. x2 F3 Fig. as the force and moment vectors acting at the centroid which are statically equivalent to the distribution of stresses over the section. We discuss next the pure-torsion case. it distribution of surface forces applied on the end cross sections. Venant theory to account for displacement restraint at the ends and for geometric nonlinearity..e. M÷ are called stress resultants and stress couples. respectively.

In what follows. 11—2. Also. = 05. 2. = 723 = 0. = Each cross section experiences a rotation w5 about the X3 axist and an out-of-plane displacement u1. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM Consider the prismatic member shown in Fig. Prismatic member in pure torsion. The boundary forces acting on the end cross sections arc statically equivalent to just a twisting moment M1. 11—2. There are no boundary forces acting on the cylindrical surface.SEC. we impose the following conditions on the behavior and then determine what problem these conditions correspond to.3 + X20)1. we describe an approximate procedure for determining the flexural shear stress distribution in thin-walled sections. The analysis of this member presents the pure-torsion problem. 1 t Problem 11—i treats the general case where the cross section rotates about an arbitrary point. . 0 Fig. Venant. 1. These conditions lead to the following expansions for the in-place displacements: 112 = —C01X3 03 +W3. 11—2. Rather than attempt to solve the three-dimensional problem directly. 012 — + U3.e. 11—2.. Finally. using the approach originally suggested by St. there is no restraint with respect to axial (out-of-plane) displacement at the ends.2 (11—5) The corresponding linear strains are 13 = a3 = Li —Ui 1 Y23 0 (11—6) 712 713 U12 + = U5. i.3. Each cross section is rigid with respect to deformation in its plane. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM 273 and treat torsional-flexural coupling. we establish the governing equations for pure torsion.

the boundary condition for 2 — x3) + 0 (11—14) — t Problem 11 —3 treats the orthotropic case. namely. Then 0. The strains and stresses corresponding to this postulated displacement behavior are = 0 = C3 Cl = 712 = = x3) 713 + x2) a33 and a11 = a22 O'23 = 0 a12 = U13 = Gy12 Go'13 = 2 — x3) = a12(x2. the strains must be independent of x1 since each cross section subjected to the same moment. The complete system of linear stress-equilibrium equations. 11 Now. The exterior normal n for the cylindrical surface is perpendicular to the X1 direction.u1aS = U. reduces to U21. (10—49). One step remains. reduce to Pfli = + is =0 + x2) = (on S) (11—13) Using (11—10).1 = k1x1 (11—8) where x3) defines the out-of-plane displacement (warping) of a cross = section. . x3) We are assuming that the material is and there are no initial strains.2 + = 0 (11—11) Substituting for the shearing stresses and noting that Gk1 is constant lead to the differential equation (11-12) which must be satisfied at all points in the cross section. This requires = const = k1 = u1(x2. x3) is We consider the left end to be fixed with respect to rotation and express co1. and the stress boundary conditions.274 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. to satisfy the stress-equilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions on the cylindrical surface. (10—49). x3) (11—10) + x2) a1 3(x2.

JJV2VJdA dA = (IS which is just a special case of (10—81). For the formulation to he consistent.e. we use the fact that = 0 and write cxi Integrating (e). Applying (11—15) to dA leads to 0X2 + 11—16 .3) (j=2.1 ôn If is a harmonic function (i. we cannot apply (11—15) directly Since to (b). We start with if Green's theorem. (c) transforms to — #(XH2x3 = 0 is specified on the boundary. is known. is a harmonic function.SEC.3) and then substituting for the normal derivative. = 0). verifies (h). Note that depends oniy on the shape of the cross section. The constant k1 is determined from the remaining boundary condition. 11—2. Green's theorem requires 0 dS = Now. we need certain integration formulas. ax2 ax2j ox3 \ ax31 (j=2. = J$(x2c13 — x3c12)dA (11—17) . /. (11—14) must satisfy (c). Usiiig (11—15). we determine the distribution of transverse shearing stresses from (11—10).. The shearing stress distribution must lead to no shearing stress resultants: F2 = This requires dA = 0 F3 = J$a13 dA 0 J J OX2 JJ ('X3 To proceed further. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM 275 The pure-torsion problem involves solving V2q5. = 0 subject to (11—14). In this case. Once çb.

One can also use a force approach for this problem. 11 We substitute for the shearing stresses and write the result as Gk1J where J is a cross-sectional property. we summarize the results for the pure-torsion problem.X2 (11—20) + X2 Governing Equations mA: on S: — It is possible to obtain the exact solution for for simple cross sections. 1. if + — X3 dA Displacements = 02 U3 = W1X2 = k1x1 k1 = (if 2. Stresses M3 J 0j3 = —H J 3. An appropriate definition is 012 013 X3 (11—21) The shearing stresses for the 2. + = At this point. 11—3. 0lv = — . The procedure outlined above is basically a displacement method. follow directly 01A from the definition equation cv (11—22) CA.276 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. v directions. We start by expressing the shearing stresses in terms of a stress function so that the stress-equilibrium equation (Equation 11—li) is identically satisfied. A'11 \(. shown in Fig.

that CX3J Applying (10—8 1) to (a) and — dS = A1 = area enclosed by the interior boundary curve. First. The S direction is always taken such that n — S has the same sense as X2 — X3. 3. lead to the boundary condition (11—23) = const on S We establish the differential equation for t/i by requiring the warping function be continuous. M1 — x3) = = + x2) Operating on (a). . Then. This is the reason for the negative sign on the boundary integral. we obtain = It is convenient to express t/. S1 (b) = C1 = const t Equations (11—26) can be interpreted as the governing equations for an initially stretched membrane subjected to normal pressure. = 0. and noting that the stress boundary condition is fort/i. 11-2. for continuity.SEC. the + S direction for an interior boundary is opposite to the + S direction for an exterior boundary since the direction for n is reversed.' as (11—24) The governing equations in terms of aret M1 dt/ (11--25) a12 = = a 13 j (mA) (on boundary S1) (11—26) and = tJi = —2 Substituting (11—25) in the definition equation forM1 leads to the following expression for J: cr7 — JJ \. This interpretation is called the "membrane See Ref. we equate the expressions for a in terms of t/i and a12 = a13 = Now. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM 277 Taking S 900 counterclockwise from the exterior normal direction.

278 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. we use the is continuous. 11 we can write where J= dA + (11—27) = 0 on the exterior boundary. x3 Fig. . 11—4. To determine the constants C. Definition of n-s and A.-vdirections. for the multiply connected case. 11—3. x x x2 0 Fig. This requires fact that Js ('IS dS 0 (11—28) for an arbitrary closed curve in the cross section. Graphical representation of sector area.

t The magnitude of p is equal to the perpendicular distance from the origin to the tangent. Using (11—22). Q. Instead of using (11—9). See Prob. counterclockwise for this case. this result is independent of the location of the origin. § This development applies for arbitrary choice of the +S direction. we obtain = where APQ — + 2APQ) (11—30) = r50 J p dS = area enclosed by the arc PQ and the radius vectors to P and Q. 11—2. Also. 11—14 for an alternate derivation. Integrating between points P..SEC. sector Finally. See Prob. taking P = 5dS = 2k1A5 (11—31) where A5 denotes the area enclosed by the curve.e. 11—4. Equation (11—29) is used to determine the warping distribution once the shearing stress distribution is known. i. The shearing strain is given by Yis = Using (11—9). we can write = M5 = (11—35) t This interpretation of p is valid only when S is directed from X2 to X3. 11 —4. .5 = x is) Us = + w1p k1x1p (11—33) Substituting for in Yss = s (11—34) and noting that Ut = lead to (11—29). 11—4:1 u. Since write 2Gk1A5 = = we can (11-32) Note that the +S direction for (11—32) is from . we can write (a) as ct52y12 + 0t53y13 Yis = 2+ k1 3 — xacls2 + (11-29) = + where p is the projection of the radius vector on the outward normal. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM 279 Consider the closed curve shown in Fig. The displacement in the + S direction follows from Fig. The sign of p is positive if a rotation about X1 produces a translation in the +S direction. we could have started with the fact that the cross section rotates about the centroid.X2 toward X3.

Instead of integrating the strain-energy density. the strain and complementary energy densities are equal. It is of interest to determine the energy functions associated with pure torsion.e. substituting for in (11—32). the cross sections are rigid in . The boundary forces acting on a face are statically equivalent to just a torsional moment.3 s (11—36) where n is the outward normal. Consider the element shown in Fig. V = We let V V dA strain energy per unit length (11—37) The strain energy density is given by V= Substituting for Y12' '/13. A5 is the area enclosed by S. Differential element for determination of the rotational work. i. we obtain = . 11 Then.. We employ (11—36) to determine the values of 17 at the interior boundaries of a multiply connected cross section. and the + S sense is from X2 to X3. When the material is linearly elastic and there are no initial strains. we could have determined the work done by the moments acting on a differential element. 11—5. we obtain V= Since (11—38) = V.280 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 11—5. Also. and M1 = GJk1. + V= X3) 2 +( + x2)j 2 and integrating (b) over the cross section. it follows that = + (11—39) WI xl dx1 Fig. This result is valid for an arbitrary closed curve in the cross section.

= = 5jJ dx2dx3 = óVdx1 for an elastic body. APPROXIMATE SOLUTION OF THE TORSION PROBLEM FOR THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS We consider first the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. Notation for rectangular section. 5—3 of Ref. .g.i = dx1 and the first-order reduces to workdone by the external forces due to an increment in wj M1 .. see Art. expanding ö V. Then. 11—S. and it follows that dk1 = M1 = GJk1 V= 11—3. 11—6.SEC.Xk1 dx1 5WE = Now. x3 I dl 2 d. The exact solution for this problem is contained in numerous texts (e. THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 281 their plane and rotate about X1. The relative rotation of the faces is / + dw1 '\— ((01 —dx1 dx1 . 2 HFigS 11—6. 1) and thcrefore we will only summarize the results obtained.

we illustrate its application to a thin rectangular . The approximate solution for a thin rectangle is J 4dt3 (113 2—-—x2 = 2Gk1x2 (11-42) x2x3 (t)2 (We take d/t = in the exact solution.873 10 0. K2 for d/t ranging from 1 to 10 are tabulated below: d/t 1 K1 K2 0.936 0. 11—7.843 2 3 4 5 .789 .000 If t d. we say the cross section is thin..930 .985 . x3 = J = K1— (11-41) = where K2t dt3 K1 = K2 = 192 (t'\ 1 I = — tanh 8 1 1 1 — (2n+1)2 cosh A. the maximum shearing stress (points 5. 6). The exact expressions are occurs at x2 = ± t/2.997 .) The shearing stress across the thickness and M1 varies linearly 3M1 A view of the warped cross section is shown in Fig. Since the stress function approach is quite convenient for the analysis of thin-walled cross sections.675 .999 1. 11 0 When t d.687 .282 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.422 . 2n+1 Id Values of K1.

The = —2 Solving (b). .1. THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 283 section. it is reasonable to assume in the cross section. Warping function for a rectangular cross section.t Since t is small and a12. must _:k. Later. 11—7. The general requirement is the n — S sense must coincide with the X2-X3 sense. The governing equations for a simply connected cross section are summarized below for convenience (see (11—26). cross (11—27)): = —2 (in A) 0 (on the boundary) = J = (1A where the S direction is 900 counterclockwise from the is direction.= 2——x2 J t This applies for X3 counterclockwise from X2. we shall extend the results obtained for this case to an arbitrary thin walled open cross section.SEC. we obtain - J = dx2 = M1 = ——---—-. 11—3. This corresponds to taking equations reduce to d2 = 0 at all points independent of x3. Fig. vanish on the boundary faces. the shearing Stress component in the thickness direction.

11 The expression for (x3 developed above must be corrected near the ends ti ± d/2) since it does not satisfy the boundary condition. = P4 /1 dt3) = The corrective stress system (a12) carries M1/2. This corresponds to using the solution for the thin rectangle and is reasonable when S is a smooth curve. the moment due to the approximate linear expansion for and is equal to only one half the applied moment: I't/2 d J x2a13 dx. We assume = 0 and take = —n2 + t2/4. even is small in comparison to amax. 11—8. its moment arm is large. We consider next the arbitrary thin-walled open cross section shown in Fig. 11 —8.284 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. but will have a negligible effect on J Actually. Notation for thin-walled open cross section. ma. The S curve defines the centerline (bisects the thickness) and the n direction is normal to S. This is reasonable since. though -f-s t(s) Fig. This will lead to a12 0 near the ends. = = Gkitrnax . The resulting expressions for I and are J= 4 t3 dS (11—43) M1 a15.

For example. Apply3 The maximum shearing stress in the center zone of an element is taken as = —7t1 = Gk1t1 M1 (11—45) In general.i Asan illustration.3. the formulat = \ + 4rf/ (1146) is the fillet radius and 0rn is given by (14—45). For the case bi + I Fig.lt.SEC. Symmetrical wide-flange section. gives good results for where rf/t < 0. Numerical procedures such as finite differences or the finite element must be resorted to in order to obtain exact solutions for irregular sections. We take J as J= ing (11—44). consider the symmetrical section shown in Fig.. See Ref. we obtain 3 1'ff + w4v . - t See Ref. 2 and Appendix of Ref. THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 285 The results for a single thin rectangle are also applied to a cross section t1 denote the length and thickness (11—44) consisting of thin rectangular elements. 11—9. 4. 11—9. Let of element i. 11—9) which depends on the ratio of fillet radius to thickness.g. for Tf = 0. The stress increase can be significant for small values of rf/t. 9.. there is a stress concentration at a reentrant corner (e. (Iw of an angle having equal flange thicknesses. . 11—3. point A in Fig.

APPROXIMATE SOLUTION OF THE TORSION PROBLEM FOR THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS The stress function method is generally used to analyze thin-walled closed cross sections. The curve defines the centerline. For convenience. we have to add a term n S. E-E Fig.286 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 11—10. This expression . 2n\ (11—47) where represents the contribution of the interior boundary. E Sect. the governing equations are summarized below (see (11—26). Single closed cell. S. Since there is an interior boundary. (11—36)): —2 (in A) — ci J — dA + (on the exterior boundary) (on the interior boundary. 11 11—4. involving C1 to the approximate expression for We take as + tz used for the open section. (11—27).) = area enclosed by S — and +S sense from X2 toward X3.) —2A5 £ j on dS = We consider first the single cell shown in Fig. 11—10.

One can readily verifyt that the distribution. THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 287 satisfies the one-dimensional compatibility equation and boundary conditions. 11—4.SEC. 1/2 q = cr15 (11—49) we find (11—50) J —1/2 and call q the shear flow. Substituting for a q The additional shearing stress due to the interior boundary (i. value is positive when pointing in the + S direction. + (11—53) . is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment. we obtain j = Jo + 4 t3 dS (11—52) = Equation (a) was established by substituting for the shearing stresses in terms in the definition equation forM1 and then transforming the integrand. 11-5. closed cell) corresponds to a constant shear flow around the cell. Differentiating (fl 0 b and substituting (b) in the expressions for the shearing stress components lead to M1 / + C1\ 7) (11—48) cr?5 + The tangential shearing stress varies linearly over the thickness and its average We let q be the shear stress resultant per unit length along S. given by = The torsional constant is determined from (11—51) J Substituting for dA + 2C1A1 M1/Gk1 (a) using (11—47).. 2 = C1 at atn— +t/2 n = — t/2 (a) and is a reasonable approximation when S is a smooth curve.e. We could have arrived at (11—52) by first expressing the total torsional moment as M1 = See Prob. q = const.

we can express JC JC = Mu/(M1/J) = q/(M1/J) (11—57) This result shows that we should work with a modified shear flow. Note that C C1 for the single cell. C (11—58) rather than with the actual shear flow. it'll = Gk1J° = Gk1J' (11—54) (11—55) J= and it follows that Jo J0 + JC Jc (11-56) as Finally.J from (11—52) and the shearing stress from M1 ( + -i—. Once C1 is known. Next. 11 where MI is the open section contribution and is due to the closure. Applying (11—32) to we have (11—59) = Substituting for q/t leads M1C1 = (1160) One should note that C1 is a property of the cross section.288 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRfSMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.) (11—61) Example 11—1 Consider the rectangular section shown. The various CdS 2(a+h) Cl = t See Prob. . using (11—5 1). we can evaluate . It remains to determine C1 by enforcing continuity of the warping function on the centerline curve. The thickness is constant and a. 11—6. b are centerline properties are dimensions. we write M1 = GkIJ Then.

we can neglect the contribution of = q/t = M1 We consider next the section shown in Fig. t2 / h'\t (t i. + J° 1 (r'Y / (t'Y \\h We consider a > b. = 01— The section is said to be thin-walled when c< b. The total shear flow distribution is obtained .SEC. Then. Rather than work with it is more convenient to work with the shear flows for the segments. 11-4.e. Jo J' Jo vs. M1C1/ t2'\ = —-———ii ± —-I = J C11 t\. (I ± —s— where. The +S sense for the open segments is arbitrary. we can take If the section is thin-walled. for this section. Eli—i b H r+tb - +s. 11—li. We define q3 as the shear flow for çellj and write (11—62) Note that is the value of on the interior boundary of cell j and the shear flow is constant along a segment. We express J as THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 289 = For this section. q I The strcss follows from (11—61). We number the closed cells consecutively and take the + S sense to coincide with the X2-X3 sense.. In this case. it is reasonable to neglect Fig.

q= — q2 = forS2 — C2) for S1 (11—63) q=q2—q1 The shearing stress is assumed to vary linearly ovcr the thickness. We have shown (see (11—55)) that M1 /Cnet (11—64) J= and Jo + Jc (a) = We determine J° from (h) (11—65) segments . we drop the subscripts on and write the limiting values as cr = ±a° + Cr" where cr=—1-t It remains to determine C1. S2 Fig. Cross section consisting of closed cells and open segments. For convenience. C2. and A. 11—11. The sign depends on the sense of S. are centerline areas. by superimposing the individual cell flows. and J.290 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Then. A. 11 x3 q2.. the shear flow in the segment common to cells i andj is the difference between qj and q1.

11—4.2 Substituting for q in terms of C and letting (11-67) = C dS JS. This can also be interpreted as requiring each cell to have the same twist deformation. We can represent the governing equations in compact form by introducing matrix notation. 2. t a22 = C dS Cads . The complementary energy per unit length along the centroidal axis is defined 11 2 We apply (11—51) to each cell. k14 I = 1. we conclude that a must be positive definite. See (11—32).SEC. then determine f with (11—66). We solve this system of equations for and finally evaluate the stresses with (11—64).J52 = = —I Jc t where a12 involves the segment common to cells 1. the continuity equations take the following form: + a12C2 = a12C1 + a22C2 = (11—69) 2A2 C2. . The form of the equations suggests that we define c = A a [a11 a121 a22j (11—70) With this notation. JC = 2ATC (11—7. positive. THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 291 Substituting for MI = in (b) leads to - 2qjA1 + 2q2A2 + C2A2) + A2C2) (11—66) The constants are obtained by enforcing continuity of on the centerline of each cell.!) aC 2A Substituting for A in the expression for JC CTaC and noting that JC is by (11—39).

the shear stress intensities in the various segments are = M1 (C1 (k— + M1 /C1 — C2 J M1 (C2 t2 +t2 / =7 = M1 t3 + t1 .292 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. + +2 — C2 = 2 dt1 c1 + — + ±2 C2 = 2bt1 J= Jo + Jo Finally. C2 and i. the open and closed stress dis= + 2G toq tributions are uncoupled. we obtain = a11 = 012 hd A2=hb 1(h + 2d) + 11 t2 = = tl 6 a22 + 2b) + t2 and the following equations for C1. Examp'e 11—2 The open-section torsional constant for the section shown is = ± 2(b +d+ + htfl (a) Applying (11 —68) to this section..e. we can write where = (11-72) aq) — i It is reasonable to neglect the open contribution when the section is thin-walled. i. 11 Since ais varies linearly over the thickness.

on the cross section at x1 = L is statically equivalent to a single force P212. The distribution of boundary forces x2 x2 —_____ if xI P2 I +S Fig. the end cross sections are not restrained against displacement.e. 11—12. . TORSION-FLEXIJRE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING Consider the prismatic member shown in Fig. TORSION-FLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 293 Fig. Also. There are no boundary forces acting on the cylindrical surface. 11—5. 11—5. in Chapter 13. we shall modify the theory to include restraint against warping. acting at the centroid.____ _____________ SEC. E11—2 t3 tl 03 Ii I 1 I 032 A2 h X3 a' M1 When d= b. 11—12. i. Cl = C2 = —s 2bt3 1 + 213 and the section functions as a single cell with respect to shear flow. Prismatic member in shear loading. In what follows. warping. Venant's torsion-flexure formulation for this problem. we describe St. Later..

We suppose the material is linearly elastic.e. il We start by postulating expansions for the stresses. F1.3 + 2a21 + P2 13 0 (mA) (on S) (11—74) =0 At this point. This is a convenient way of keeping track of the coupling between axial and in-plane . M3) identically since JJx2 c/A = jJx2x3 dA = 0 dA = 13 The last three conditions (i. The stress resultants and couples required for equilibrium at x1 are =A4. and orthotropic with respect to the axial direction. This suggests that we consider the following postulated stress behavior: cru = a1 2 ——--—x2 = 13 P2 — x1)x2 (11 —73) 13 a1 2(x2. a13 to be independent of x1. S$(x2a13 — x3cr12)dA 0 P2 — The expansion. X3) a22 0 Introducing (11—73) in the stress-equilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions for the cylindrical surface leads to a21. = M3 13 = 13 satisfies the first three conditions (i.c. We will describe the latter approach first. F2. we can either introduce a stress function or express (11—74) in terms of a warping function...r0 F2 = P2 M3 = P2(L — x1) Introducing (a) in the definition equations for the stress resultants and couples leads to the following conditions on the stresses: dA = JJx3a13 c/A = dA = P2(L — x1) Jj712 c/A = $fcrj3 c/A P2 0 0 = —. x3) a33 a13 = a13(x2.2 + a31. M1) require a12. isotropic with respect to the X2-X3 plane. The displacements can be found by integrating the stress-displacement relations. F3.294 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.

11—5. at(0. . TORSION-FLEXIJRE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 295 deformation. f2.iJ 3 = C3 — C5x1 — C4x2 + k1x1x2 The constants C1. 63 = u33 = 'Y12 v1 = = I LI3 — xj)x2 = u1. u3. x3) (b) v1P2 v1P2 (L — + ..0.2 = = V1P2 —(L El3 v1P2 —7—(L —. x3) x1)x2x3 u3 = ——. we obtain = u1 = I P2 E113 V1 E1 (L — xj)x2 x1)x2 = u2.2 0 1 = function ofx2. 2 + u2. x3 Integrating the first three equations leads to u1 = = E1 13 (Lx1 1 — + f1(x2. C6 are associated with rigid body motion and k3 is associated with the twist deformation. (11—5).0.f2(xj.O) A line element oh the centroidal axis at the origin is fixed: = fSee Eq. + —--7-(L — 2E. which involve seven constants: = f2 = C1 + C5x2 + C6x3 + — x3) (c) C2 C5x1 — + C4x3 — k1x1x3 v1P2 Xi. f3 are determined by substituting (b) in the last three equations. x3 Y13 Y23 U1 3 + U3. = function ofx2.3 + U3.SEC.t We consider the following displacement boundary conditions: 1. We omit the details and just list the resulting expressions.0) at(0. Substituting for the stresses in (10—74). The origin is fixed: u1=u2=u3==0 2..(L El3 — + x2) The functions f1..1 = 0 . C2. 1 = = U2.

and 4)2d are harmonic functions which define the warping due to flexure. to satisfy the equilibrium equation and boundary condition. we obtain the following differential equation and boundary condition for 4): P2f'2v1 l\ (mA) + v1P2 C 12) + as - 1 . TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.296 3. namely. Ii A line element on the X2 axis at the origin is fixed with respect to rotation in the X2-X3 plane: at (0.77 The form of the above equations suggests that we express 4) 4) = kjq5t + — + + (11-78) where is the warping function for pure torsion and 4)2. that cn dS = 0 . The final displacement expressions are u1 (Lxj — + 4)(x2.3 = 0 These conditions correspond to the "fixed-end" case and are sufficient to eliminate the rigid body terms. 0. The transverse shearing stresses are given by 1 41. 0) u2. by using (11—15). + k1x2 — 2L13 v1P2 —. and 2 2 2 ) = 0 + (11—79) One can show. Substituting for 4) leads to the following boundary conditions for 4)2. x3) — = Vj 2 — + — — (11—75) El3 — x1)x2x3 + k1x1x2 - One step remains. x2) (11—76) LI3 x2x3 Substituting for the stresses in (11—74).2 — k1x3 + v1P2 1 (7j3 4).

M1 = G1k1J + S2r S2d 2 + X24)2r 3)dA X34)2a. One can show thatt dA P2 J$a12. The shearing stress is obtained by substituting for in (11—76). is the pure-torsion distribution and butions corresponding to and 42d: r.e. TORSION-FLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 297 therefore the formulation is consistent. and setting v1/E = 0 corresponds to assuming the cross section is rigid. For convenience. The total torsional moment consists of a pure torsion term and two flexural terms. deformation in the plane of the cross section. it follows that and S2d are properties of the cross section. defines the flexural warping for a rigid cross section and represents the correction due to in-plane deformation. d are flexural distri- = 2 2 2 P2 x2x3) The pure torsion distribution is statically equivalent to only a torsional mo- ment.3 Since and depend only on the shape of the cross section. = G1k1J.SEC.a dA = 0 dA — 0 dA 0 (11—82) Note that the shear stress due to in-plane deformation does not contribute to P2. — is the statically equivalent torsional moment at the centroid due tSeeProb. i. and (11—83) reduces to (11—85) Now. we let X3 1 13\ = — (1184) J £. 11—5. Il—lO. We write the result as (j = 2.2)dA + X242d. .3) (11—SO) + 01j.. Terms involving vj/E are due to in-plane deformation. Then.r + 01j = and where crU.

11—13). we describe an approximate procedure for determining the flexural shear stress distribution in thin walled cross sections. This involves solving two secondorder partial differential equations. Then. e3 — find x3. one must determine S2.298 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. The form of the is an even function of x3 and boundary conditions (11—79) requires and to be even functions of x3 . is an odd function of x3. If the section is irregular. Suppose the cross section is symmetrical with respect to the X2 axis. In Sec. M1 = 0. M1 = —e3P2. Now. one must resort to such numerical procedures as finite differences to solve the equations. to Whether twist occurs depends on the relative eccentricity. 11 to the fiexural shear stress distribution. 11—7. Notation for eccentric load. 11—13. In the section following. In this case (see Fig. defines the location of the resultant of the flexural shear stress distribution with respect to the centroid. and k1 P2 — e3) For Ilexure alone to occur. we present the exact solution for a rectangular cross section. Suppose P2 has an eccentricity e3. The twist deformation is determined from k1 + (11—86) where M1 is the applied torsional moment with respect to the centroid. If P2 is applied at the centroid. e3 must equal x3 Fig. and k1 = The cross section will twist unless = 0. Exact solutions can be obtained for simple cross sections. Then. and S2d.

We consider next the case where the member is subjected to P2. Generalizing this result. 11—14. we can state: The resultant of the shear stress distribution due to fiexure in the is an axis of symmetry direction passes through the centroid when for the cross section. 11—14). TORSION-FLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 299 this case. 2 12 3 P3 r '2 ((/33r. for x3 Shear center Fig. = 0 and S2d = 0. P3 and at the right end (see Fig.- U2 —* U3 U3—> —U2 —---+-— ox2 13 Ox3 U12 '* 13 (3 —--*-----13 (3 Ox3 Ox2 U13 12 —a12 Two additional flexural warping functions must be determined.v1G1 P3 L.. 2 (11—87) x2x31! 12 = t is even in x>.b3d. Finally. Ssd involve only integrals of odd functions of . Coordinates of the shear center. The governing equations for the P3 loading can be obtained by transforming the equations for the P2 case according to > X3 . The expres- sions defining the flexural shear stress distributions due to P3 are cr12 r -r 413r. and S2r. 3 d = . Vj D i —i--- + + (. 3] is odd in x3. 11—5.SEC. it Ibilows thatt S2.

we obtain M1 = where defines G1k1J — + (11—90) the location of the resultant of the flexural shear stress distri- bution due to P3. the total normal stress is given by M3 13 (P3 P2 13 '\ J (11—89) Superimposing the shearing stresses and evaluating the torsional moment. One can interpret X2. The required twist follows from (11—90): k1 = (M1 + — Since (see Fig. not the centroid.P3( + —4 1 . aild V* reduces to = + + dA (a) follows directly by substituting (11 —89) and using The contribution from the definition equations for 13. Finally. The only finite stress components are 012. one must work with the torsional moment with respect to the shear center. t The total flexural warping function for P3 is P3 ( — I '\ + v.300 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS are CHAP. x3 as the coordinates of a point. the applied force must pass through the shear center. lithe cross section is completely symmetrical. harmonic functionst satisfying the following boundary = 2 conditions: (11—88) = (X2 + 2 Note that the distribution due to M2 12 leads to no shearing stress resultants. the shear center coincides with the centroid. For no twist. called the shear center. It is of interest to determine the complementary energy associated with Then torsion-flexure. the shear center lies on an axis of symmetry. 11—14) M1 + P2x3 — P3x2 = the applied moment with respect to the shear center = MT we can write (a) as (11—91) k1 = (11—92) To determine the twist deformation (and the resulting torsional stresses). 11 where q53r. In general.

we obtaint JJ = + + F2 + 2FF + F2 dA (1196) Jj 1 See Prob. 11—5. TORSION-FLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING = 1 M2 M2 (11-93) + Now. + C12. dId.SEC. the total shearing stress is the sum of three terms: 1. r= (11—92): F2 13 2 • F3 13 2 The complementary energy due to pure torsion follows from (11—38) and + a as C12r F2 — 3 F3_ 2 3 r+ r) and integrating over the cross section. Each of the flexural distributions can be further subdivided into— the distribution corresponding to a rigid cross section (defined by 2.. the distribution associated with in-plane deformation of the cross section (defined by 4)jd) We combine the flexural distributions and express the total stress as C33 d12.d where the various terms are defined by (11—81) and (11—87). For example.d = 013. 3. a pure torsional distribution due to MT the flexural distribution due to F2 the fiexural distribution due to F3 dr.1 + C13r + 013. 2.t + C12. 3)dA = CIA JJ . 11—il. 2+ 3413r.

r + = + 2 ± 2) dA + x2) + + — = + + (11—97) — MT ""F2 Jj 13 + F3 12 dA = 0 The remaining terms involve a. For pure torsion. the force redundants have to he determined by requiring the warping function to be continuous. We will not attempt to expand these terms since we are interested primarily in the rigid cross section case.302 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.to12.3 X3 2v1G1P2 dA (11—99) 2v1G1P3 rr ii X2 dA El2 . and operate on (11 —81) and (11 is the area enclosed by S. the shearing stress distribution due to inplane deformation of the cross section.. We consider next the coupling between or. I/A23. we There are four requirements: j (aisd)F2 dS dS = 2. 11 The coupling term. Similarly.jj 4. Summarizing. vanishes when the cross section has an axis of symmetry. the complementary energy for flexure-torsion with unrestrained warping is given by 1 M2 M2 M2 I F2 FF F2 (11-98) + terms involving v1/E — We introduce the assumption of negligible M1 + in-plane deformation by setting v1/E = 0. To establish the continuity conditions for flexure. This approach is where similar to the torsional stress analysis procedure described in the previous section. 11 —7. which is based upon integrating the stress-equilibrium equation directly. . and JJ(a12. continuity requires (see (11—32)) = 2G1k1A5 where the integration is carried out in the X2-X3 sense around S. we develop an approximate procedure. In Sec. we introduce the assumption of negligible warping due to flexure by setting 1/A1 = (&3r 1/A2 1/A23 = 0. Since the shear stress distribution is statically indeterminate when the cross section is closed.a. for determining the flexural shear stress distribution. called the engineering theory.

we first list the governing equations: x2 rd3 '2 — dt3 A = dt d r Fig. 11—15. 1. Notation for rectangular cross section.SEC. EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION 303 In the engineering theory of flex ural shear stress distribution. the distribution due to in-plane deformation is neglected. (11—100) One can take the + S direction as either clockwise or counterclockwise. For con- venience.e.. By coincides with the + S direction. i. Warping functions + = an = = 1 2 + 2 ) + . the cross section is considered to be rigid. EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DiSTRIBUTION FOR A RECTANGULAR CROSS SECTION We consider the problem of determining the exact shear stress distribution due to F2 for the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. the positive sense for 11—6. The consistent continuity condition on the flexural shearing stress 4sajsdSO definition. 11—6. 11—15.

of The boundary conditions for /2d are 2= 1(d2 + '\ at x2 = d atx3 = Now. x3) (b) .i. TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. we evaluate 1/A2 using (11—96): = (11—102) Determinatio.304 2..r = 0 0j3. d atx3 = 112 = X2 The corresponding stresses and warping function are 2r = 4)2r 13 12 X2 — 13 (11—101) 012. 11 Shearing stresses 012 = F2 + v1G1E2 + x2x3) + xi)] =T 13 Determination 3) + of are The boundary conditions for l(d'\2 =0 We can take the solution as <P2r .r One can readily show that F2 Finally. the form of (a) suggests that we express q52d as = — — f(x2.

EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS D!STRJBUTON 305 where f is an harmonic function.a 1/t\2 t I 2nirx2 cosh — 2nxx2\ 1 nnd cosh— t 1 /J [ cJl3.SEC. The shearing stresses and boundary conditions expressed in terms of f are = v1G1 P2 VLGI F2 2 —f 2) = f3=0 It remains to solve V2f = 0 subject to (d)..d = v1G1 F2 sinh n2 —-— t mid t E 13 sin ——t .Y mr1 mtd cosh —— The final expressions for the shearing stresses are = v1G1 P2 . Since the cross section is symmetricaL f must be an even function of x3 and an odd function of x2. The remaining boundary condition requires B0 + Expanding B. 11—6.... = (±. (2nn co sh nicd\ —) c os——- 2nicx3 = 2 x3 < x3 < (f) in a Fourier cosine series and equating coefficients leads to B0 t2 B. 2n7tx3 (11—103) [ This system is statically equivalent to zero. cos sinh (2nxx2) This expansion satisfies V2f = 0 and the boundary condition at x3 = ± t/2. We express f as f= B0x2 + B. cosh— j .

one must resort to a numerical procedure such as finite differences or. 1 cosh 2. When the cross section is irregular. introduce simplifying assumptions as to the stress distribution. alternatively. ENGINEEffiNG THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DISTRiBUTION IN THiN-WALLED CROSS SECTIONS The "exact" solution of the flexure problem involves solving four secondorder partial differential equations.. i. 11 To investigate the error involved in assuming the cross section is rigid. Now.e. The error decreases as the section becomes thinner. If one assumes the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. COS t where 1 2.4/512. They show that it is reasonable to neglect the corrective stress system for a rectangular cross section.. The resulting theory is generally called the engineering theory of shear stress. 4 / 1 1 I5lz. we • occurs at x2 0: note that the maximum value of F2 2.r 0. In what follows. We apply the engineering theory to typical cross sections . Even in this case..092 0. Retaining only the first term in (b) leads to the following error estimate. decreases rapidly with n.122 11—7.di 2. we describe the latter approach for a thinwalled cross section. I cosh Results for a representative range of d/t and isotropic material are listed below..306 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. (512. C.. as d/t becomes large with respect to unity: d/t 2 1 1512. d)x20 = v1G1 F2 d2 13 '1 2nnx3 C. ci 2 Specializing d for x2 0. only two equations have to be solved..024 0. solutions can be found for only simple cross sections.

Figure 11—16 shows a segment defined by cutting planes at x1 and x1 + dx1. it is reasonable to assume that the normal Also. Now. Since the cross section is thin-walled. 1/Ai (j 2. 11—7. ('S (11—104) JSA Equation (11—104) is the starting point for the engineering theory of shear over the cross section is known. — + —(a11t) 0 C2S with respect to S. we over the cross section when the member is subjected to a constant shear (F2. 3). is constant through the thickness and to neglect qA / xl Fig. F3 . stress distribution. we work stress. we obtain the following expression for q. thin-wafled segment. q. Oh. Integrating the axial force-equiwith the shear flow. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 307 and also illustrate the determination of the shear center and the energy efficients.SEC. Once the variation of have shown that the normal stress varies linearly we can evaluate q. rather than with librium equation. 11—16.

(11—106) reduces to q= Q3 f-Q2 (11-107) =J5x2tdS Q2 =$x3tdS We determine Q2. i. X3 and are generally denoted by Q2. = F2 =0 F3 Taking the origin for S at A. 11—17.e. Noting that the member is for this case is — X3 — prismatic... 11 constant) and the end sections can warp freely.' i'S 12!i'S q=qA—-—I x2tdS—-7-H x3tdS 13 j54 JSA The integrals represent the moment of the segmental area with respect to X2. for a linear variation in normal stress.308 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. We consider first the open section shown in Fig. Q3: rs Q2 =j = x3tdS = Q2(S. the derivative of dM2 x2dM3 13 dx1 '2 13 12 dx1 3 X3 + X2 12 and (11—104) expands to . SA) With this notation. q= satisfies ffai2 c/A = dA = identically. (b) simplifies to q= F2 — 13 F3 — —-Q2 (11—106) Equation (11—106) defines the shear flow distribution for the case of negligible restraint against warping.SA) (11—105) x2t c/S = Q3(S. The end faces are unstressed.e. To show this. i. Note that q is positive when pointing in the + S direction. Q3 and then combine according to (11—107). The shearing stress distribution corresponding to F2. we expand = F2 0 + .

Integrating (e) by parts and noting that X2. Flexural shear flow—open segment. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS x3 — 309 B I Shear center X2 Centroid Fig.SEC. (11—2). 11—17. To determine the location of its line of moment with respect to a convenient moment center. X3 are principal centroidal axes. . 11—12. one can show that the shear flow corresponding to F3 is statically t See Eq. 11—7. By applying the same argument. and evaluate the shear stress resultants: Jjui2dA = J Equation (b) requires rsa J0 dS = =0 Now.t we obtain = — J" dS = 13 = x2x3t dS = 0 — J The shear stress distribution predicted by (a) is statically equivalent to a we evaluate the force F212.

310 TORSJON-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. E11—3 I Example 11—4 symmetrical. equivalent to a force. Actually. Only two segments. 11—17). Since q is negative for this segment. The various terms are + q points in the +X2 direction and q/t = tx2 = j -d(2 F2 q dx2 = 2 4 — q= tF2 (d2 F2/'d2 — 2 This result coincides with the solution for obtained in Sec. the engineering theory is exact for a rigid cross section.. it actually acts in the negative S direction (from B to A).e. Then. 11 The intersection of the lines of action of the two resultants is the shear center for the cross section (see Fig. . + We determine the distribution of q corresponding to F2 for the symmetrical section of Fig. 11—6. Eli —4A. Example 11—3 Consider the thin rectangular section shown. AB and BC. for r1/E = 0. have to be considered since 1Q31 is Segment AB = q = According to our definition. + q points in the + S direction (from A to B). We take + S in the + X2 direction. i. x2 Fig.

ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 311 Pg. The distribution and sense of q are shown It is of interest to evaluate A2. The resulting expression for kis lÀ. We measure S from B to C. = + [hh1t1 + — q= — xi)] Note that the actual sense of q is from C to B. 11-7. if and substituting for q yields 1 dA dS 5 2dS = fl = 1 We let j 2b1t1 = area of the web = A1 = total flange area = A2 = kA. E1I—413.. I 3Af\ 6A1 2A F id. Then. Specializing (11-96) for a thin-walled section.____________________________ SEC. E11—4A IC tw d tf It H Segment BC in Fig. I.. l/bf\2 .

taking as typical.312 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS x2 CHAP.4 — X2) x3 4..t1 + b2t2 + We neglect the contribution of the web in '2 since it involves 12 (a) + ('2)2 = + (b) . for a wide-flange section.4f = k= 0. For example. 11 Fig. Eli —5A) is symmetrical with respect to X2. E11—48 . = 2ç (If = 3. This factor is quite close to unity. The shift in the centroid from the center of the web due to the difference in flange areas is b2t2 — b.95 The shearing stress corresponding to F3 varies parabolically in the flanges and is zero in the web. we find . 1. Each flange carries half the shear and 1 61 5 1 A3 — A1 — 5 hr1 Examp'e 11—5 Cross-Sectional Properties This section (Fig.

.SEC. we obtain = F3 Then. Integrating the shear flow over each flange. the shear center is located at the intersection of R and X2. El 1—SB. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 313 Determination of Taking S as shown in the sketch. Fig. where e = R2d R = (12)2 12 Since X2 is an axis of symmetry. 11—7. E11—5A x3 I I Centroid Distribution of q Corresponding to The shear flow corresponding to F3 is obtained by applying q= p3 Q2 and is shown in Fig. The shear stress vanishes in the web and varies parabolically in each flange. the distribution is statically equivalent to F373 acting at a distance e from the left flange."b2\2 2 —X3 (c) =0 since X2 is an axis of symmetry. we have = t[(b)2 t2 [.

the moment which must be balanced by torsion is — F3. the maximum torsional shear stress in a segment is = M ti where . Using the approximate theory developed in Sec.1 = + + We consider next the closed cross section shown in Fig.314 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 11 —18. We take the origin for S at some arbitrary point and apply (11-106) to the segment Se-S: q= = q1 — -1—Q3 — 13 F2 F3 12 (11— 108) Q3 = where q1 is the shear flow at P. Then. 1 1 —3.c3 0 = e —(1 + (I =d — L12 2 Torsional Shear Stress to The flexural shear stress distribution is statically equivalent to a torsional moment equal with respect to the centroid. We have previously shown that q q1 = con- . E11--58 R = F3 q 1'3t2frbf\2 12 X3 2 R1 The coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid are . the required torsional moment with respect to the shear center. 11 Fig. The shear flow distribution is statically indeter- minate since q1 in unknown. We have defined M1 as the required torsional moment with respect to the centroid.

we use (11—100). Notation for closed cell. which allows for a variable shear modulus. See Prob. Also. Note that q = B3 leads only to a torsional moment equal to f One can interpret (11-109) as requiring the flexural shear stress distribution to lead to no twist deformation. The constant q1 is determined by applying the continuity requirement to the centerline curve. Since the engineering theory corresponds to assuming the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. we obtain + q = = T (B2 — B Q3) (B3 — Q2) QdS QdS B (11-110) 27 — dS I Each distribution satisfies (11—109) identically. the distribution is statically equivalent to a force Fyi. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 315 stant is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment equal to The second and third terms are statically equivalent to F212 and F313. 11—18. dS F2 C dS 2 f (IS and considering separately the distributions corresponding to F2 and F3. The flexural shear stress distribution must satisfy 0 (11—109) for an arbitrary closed C Substituting for q. . 11 —14 for the more general expression. 11—7.. located Y4 units from the centroid. P Fig.SEC.

5t a .3) and noting that . Eli —6A.TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. It is Fig. convenient to take P at the midpoint since the centerline is symmetrical. E11—6A H 2z H Cross-Sectional Properties = = a2 (a3\ + — a2 = 4a3t 3 = (at)(a/2) 5a1 10 it fdS = 3. 11 The general expression for 1/Ai follows from (11— 96): == j = 2.j. k 2.1 we obtain 2dS 42j dS QkT (11—112) which applies for an arbitrary single cell. Example 11—6 We illustrate the determination of for the square section of Fig.3 (11—111) Substituting for 1 = 'k — 2BJQk + (j k.

e. Fig. Eli —6B.. The resulting distribuarc shown in Fig. B3= 1 " I dS it I rds. Ell—6C. we sum moments about the midpoint (0 in the sketch: (M)0 = I /a\ + 4F3 /a\ = 19 aF The resultant acts e units to the right of 0. To locate the line of action of the resultant. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 317 Determination of We start at P and work counterclockwise around the centerline. clockwise. we obtain dS + a3 B3 = of Flexural Shear Flov for F3 The shear flow is given by q— F3 — F3(( Q2) 4Q2 — 12 a 3at (+ sense clockwise). 11—7.SEC. and noting that the area of a parabola is equal to (2/3) (base) x (height). q. Using the above results. where e= 19 a . E11—6B Evaluation of B3 By definition. Note that + Q2 corresponds tion and actual sense of q due to to a negative i. The two distributions are plotted in Fig.

11 Fig. Eli —6C t j F3/21 I q — a 1. One just has to replace M1 with MT in . II —4. the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the ccntroid (which is A units to the right of 0) are x2 = e — LI = + 16 X3 = 0 Torsional Shear The shear flow for pure torsion is due to Mr. the torsional moment with respect to the shear center._ 318 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.21 6a i F3 30 I F3 F3f 4 Q2 Finally. Mr 5L2F3 + M1 — We apply the theory developed in Sec. For this section.

11—7. Notation for section. 11—19. 11—19: qj represents the shear flow redundant for cell j and the + S sense coincides with the X2-X3 sense to be consistent with the pure-torsion analysis. There is one redundant shear flow for each cell.3at Note that 3at is the total web area. We select a convenient point in each cell and take the shear how at the point as the redundant for the cell. +5. ENGtNEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS Equation (11—61): — Ci = 4at ± I C1 J= Determination of 1/A3 Applying (11—112). For convenience. we drop the CL (centerline) subscript on S and A.SEC.276 I) . The + S sense for the open segments is inward from the free edge. we find 1 + - 1 2 dS I- B dS'\ — 1. . We consider next the analysis of a two-cell section and include open segments for generality. q x3 x2 Fig. This is illustrated in Fig.

which allows for a variable shear modulus. . The equations developed above can he readily generalized. the equations take the following form: a11q1 + a12q2 = a12q1 + a22q2 = t 11—115 The shear flows q2. and q q0 + (11—113) We determine q0 by applying (11—107) to the various segments.1 2A1 (11--1l6) 2A2 MT Thus. Cross-Sectional Properties A1 = A2 202 a2 = (a3t\ '2 [ a21 + 2[(3at)_4_j = 4a 7 = — Ga a22 012 = a See Prob.14 for the more general expression.2 (11—114) where q is positive if it points in the + S direction. q2 to F2. The redundant shear-flow distribution is the same as for pure torsion (see Fig.1 + a22q2. t q—--= 0 j = 1. E11—7A. 11 The total shear flow is the sum of q0. the open cross-section distribution (q1 = q2 = 0). 11—11). for pure torsion are related by (we multiply (11—71) by MT/J and note (11—62)) + a12q2. Example 11—7 We determine the flexural shear stress distribution corresponding to F3 for the section shown in Fig. 1!-. the complete shear stress analysis involves solving aq = b for three different right-hand sides. Finally. F3 by applying the continuity requirement to each centerline. We locate and P2 at the midpoints to take advantage of symmetry. Using the aJk notation defined by (11—68).320 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.1 = a12q1. we obtain a system of equations relating q1.

. E1l—7B) is statically equivalent to a moment 2a2(2q1 + Distribution of q0 Due to F3 —--i02 '2 to the various segments starting at points P1._______a _______ SEC.niiuztion of q1. 11—7. Eli—lA I We apply x2 +S.322 q0—=+ t = 1 F3 dS 2F3 The equations for q1 and q2 are 6q1 — q2 7a 70 2 F3 —q1 + 4q2 = —— Solving (a). ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 321 Fig. The resulting distribution is shown in Fig. Deter. Eli —7C.q 2a a Distribution of This system (Fig. we find q1 = 2F3 — 161 q2 = + a 11 F3 The total distribution is obtained by adding qR and q0 algebraically. P2. q2 = C .

1970. S. and J. J. El 1 —7B q2 4 2q1a q2a q1a q1 Fig. 1953. Oooo!ETt: Theory of Elasticity. WANG.322 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. and letting e be the distance to the action of the resultant.. New York. McGraw-Hill. 3d ed.61a The shear center is located on the K2 axis and = c — (2a — = +O. 2.055a REFERENCES 1. N. C. T.. TIMOSHENKO. Eli —7C I P3 14 a Location of the Shear Center line Taking moments about the midpoint of the left web. McGraw-Hill. . 11 Fig. New York.: Applied Elasticity. we obtain M( + e 2a2(2q1 + q2) + (2a) + (3a) F3) = eF3 = (2 + 32\ a= 1.

1968.: Thin. Div. 5.: Advanced Strength of Materials. Rinchart. McGraw-Hill.. 1941. 323 Dmt 1952.: Strength of Materials.: Strength of Materials. 1966. I-Jolt. SOKOLNIKOFF. Berlin. Van Nostrand. New York.. 4. Z.dige Trëger ("Curved Thin-walled Girders"). CEiRNICA. Part 2. J. HERRMANN. 6. Springer-Verlag. J. it takes U2 = W1X3 = +(01x2 wj = a1 = Suppose we consider the cross-section to rotate about an arbitrary point The general form of (a) is a2 = —wj(x3 — U3 = +w1(x2 — wj = k1x1 + c1 a1 = k147 a13 and the (a) (b) Starting with Equation (h).e. New York. 11.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. Mech. New York. 1969. i." I.Walled Elastic Beams. KOLLBRUNNER.: Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 9. X3 directions.. P. 10. Basler: Torsion in Structures. Show that .C. PROBLEMS il—i. McGraw-Hill. J.S. ODEN. N. Jerusalem. V. Derive the governing differential equation and boundary condition for for the case where the material is orthotropic and the material symmetry axes coincide with the X1. A.1 can be expressed as Hint: = = I. . 1967. 1956.. New York. + )2 — 2) — 3)2]dA + 3)2]dA 0 dA = Compare this result with the solution for a circular cross section and comment on the relative efficiency of circular vs. J. 7. DABROWSKI. Berlin. TIMOSHFNKO. noncircular cross section for torsion.: "Elastic Torsional Analysis of Irregular Shapes. McGraw-Hill. R. New York. Eng. Springer-Verlag. T. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. 11—2 considers the cross section to rotate about the centroid. 11—3. R. F. 1961. The pure-torsion formulation presented in Sec. X2. C. S. December 1965. LS. 8. and K. VLASOV. L.. derive the expressions for governing equations for What form do the equations take if we write = + C2 + Do the torsional shearing stress distribution and torsional constant J depend on the center of twist? 11—2.E.PROBLEMS 3. HARTOG.: GekrUmmte diinnwan.

Verify that the distribution. tf x3 (c) along the centerline for the two thin-walled open Prob. One selects a positive sense for S. q = const. The sign of p is positive when a rotation about the center of twist results in translation in the +. The variation in the warping function along an arbitrary curve S is obtained by integrating (11—29). 11 11—4. To apply Equation (c) to the centerline of a — closed cell. satisfies F2 = ja12 = F3 = dA = x = for the closed cross section sketched. = dS = = dS 0 0 Refer to Prob. 11—4.324 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 11—4 of twist — / Center 4 Center of twist b/2 (a) b/2 (bi 11—5. we note that (see (11—50)) J a15 = Jq C (a) = k—— = — . We express lM1 (b) and (a) reduces to + a15 Determine the variation of sections shown. 11—6. = where as 1 k1 + (a) is the perpendicular distance from the center of twist to the tangent.S direction.

Verify Equation (11—82). Determine the torsional shear stress distribution and torsional constant J for the section shown.PROBLEMS 325 Prob. 11—5 = + £3 x2 Then. the torsional constant J. 11—10. Generalize for a section consisting of "n. 2. 11—8. Determine the equations for (j = 1. Determine the distribution of torsional shear stress. Discuss the case where a = b. Prob. Utilize (11—15). 3) and J for the section shown. 11—6." cells. and the distribution of the warping function for the section shown. 11—7. Specialize for t a. 11—11. 11-6 T p . = 0 at point P. I 1—9. Take = 0 on the symmetry axis and use the results presented in Prob. Ct C +- Take Integrating (b) leads to the distribution of Apply (h) to the section shown. The flexural warping function satisfy mA on S .

Starting with (11—107). 11 Prob. 212. I Prob. 0 Si t t t t 0 t - I 0 t t a a— a I Utilizing the following integration formula.11—9 if (fr. . derive the expressions for the coordinates of the shear center in terms of the cross-sectional parameters. 11—7 0 +S1 +S2 — t I H Prob. Refer to Fig. 3)dx2 dx3 dS — JJII V2f2 dx2 dx3 where 11. verify Equation (11—96). 11—17.326 TORS!ON-FLEXURE OF PRISMA1]C MEMBERS CHAP.12 are arbitrary functions. 11—42. 11—8 t I :f T t—.2 + 3f2.

I- 11—13 R T d/2 x3 + I (b) (a) 2/ 2/ 2/ + (c) I I H-a (dl -j I :L 1 = Ca (el . Determine the flexural shear flow distributions due to F2._a PROBLEMS 327 11 —13. F3 and locate the shear center for the five thin-walled sections shown. Prob.

11 11—14. We established the expression for the twist deformation (Equation (11—31) by requiring the torsional warping function to be continuous.328 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. One can also obtain this result by applying the principle of virtual forces to the segment shown as part of the accompanying figure. Arbitrary closed curve 11—14 -44 M'11 44— wi LsM1 w1 + dx1 (a) (b) 2G(2E) x3 GtE) G(E) X21 F Ic) 2G(2E) a- . Prob.

so we replace (d) with Gk1 If G is a variable. Develop the expressions for the torsional and fiexural shear flow distributions accounting for variable G and E.and we can write (J$eT dA)dx1 Next. We specialize the virtualstress system such that AG = 0 outside this domain and only is finite inside the domain. Assume a linear variation in extensional strain and evaluate the coefficients of the strain expansion from the definition equations for F1.PROBLEMS 329 The general principle states that (a) x+dx = (if AbTu dA)dx1 + if ApT for a statically permissible force system. and M3. x3)).1 1 dx1. the right-hand side of (a) reduces to AM1o. we define the torsional constant J according to G*k1J Consider a thin-walled section comprising discrete elements having different material properties. say G = fG* (where f = f(x2. Finally. we select a force system acting on the end faces which is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment M1. and consider the region defined by S and the differential thickness dn. S (part b of figure). we can write dn(&riz) and Equation (b) reduces to k1 if = = The derivations presented in the text arc based on a constant shear modulus G throughout the section. Determine the normal stress distribution from the stress-strain relation. Apply your formulation to the section shown in part c of the figure. we have to work with G*k1 = Also. we select an arbitrary closed curve. . Now. If we consider the cross section to be rigid. Al2. using (11 -51).

A term due to variable warping must be added to the linear expansion for This leads to an additional term in the expression for the flexural shear flow. which assumes that the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. Using (12—1) leads to the following expression for the flexural shear flow (see (11—106)): = — — (12—3) The warping function will depend on x1 if forces are applied to the cylindrical surface or the ends are restrained with respect to warping. 330 . Since (12—1) t A linear variation of normal stress is exact for a homogeneous beam. INTRODUCTION Venant's theory of fiexure-torsion is restricted to the case where—- 1.Engineering Theory of Prismatic Members 12—1.g. St. 1—14 and 12—1. Composite beams (e. the linear expansion pure torsion a11 =—. See Probs. a sandwich beam) are treated by assuming a linear variation in extensional strain and obtaining the distributions of from the stress-strain relation. There are no surface forces applied to the cylindrical surface. The end cross sections can warp freely.—+——X3 ——---Xz 13 '2 F1 M2 M3 is the exact solutiont for where The total shearing stress is given by = + crj (12—2) and represents the is the pure-torsion distribution (due to flexural distribution (due to We generally determine by applying the engineering theory of shear stress distribution.. The warping function consists of a term due to flexure (ç&j) and a term due to Since is independent of x1. 2.

12—2. and determine the stresses using (12—1). and investigate the error involved in the engineering theory. Venant theory.. (12—3).SEC. i. 12—1. F3 identically.EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS In the engineering theory. In the next chapter. we use the stress distribution predicted by the St. FORCE. which is based on cons tant warping and no warping restraint at the ends. the shear flow correction is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment since (12—3) satisfies the definition equations for F2. 12--i. we neglect the effect of variable warping on the normal and shearing stress. the normal stress correction is self-equilibrating. we take the stress resultants and couples referred to the centroid as force quantities. Also. M2. i. and the pure-torsional distribution due to MT. we develop the governing equations for the engineering theory and illustrate the two general solution procedures. The statically equivalent external force and moment vectors per unit F—dxi/2 . we present a more refined theory which accounts for warping restraint.. satisfies 12—2. In the engineering theory of members.e. In what follows. we consider the differential element shown in Fig. FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS 331 the definition equations for F1. it is statically equivalent to zero. length along X1 are denoted by b. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. clxl/2___H — ' dx1 + dx1 dF+ dx1 + 4L dx1 Fig. To establish the forceequilibrium equations. Summing forces and moments about 0 — leads to the following vector equilibrium equations (note that F = dx1 + — =o 0 dM÷ dx1 + m+ — x F+) = - . M3 identically.e.-I. This formulation is restricted to the linear geometric case.

and twist. and then substituting in the remaining equations. Stretching dF1 dx1 + b1 = 0 Flexure in X1-X2 Plane dF2 dx3 dx1 + b2 0 0 + m3 + F2 = (12—4) Flexure in X1 -X3 Plane --s.13 dM3 — dx1 ui3 dx1 Flexure 2 + din3 dx1 — b2 = 0 (1 25) in X1 -A'3 Plane dM2 dx1 + in2 d2M2 2 dx1 + -— + b3 = 0 dx1 din2 . The fiexure equilibrium equations can be reduced by solving for the shear force in terms of the bending moment. flexure in the X1-X3 plane. 12 We obtain the scalar equilibrium equations by introducing the component expansions and equating the coefficients of the unit vectors to zero.+ b3 = dx1 0 dM2 dx1 + ni2 — F3 = 0 Twist dM1 —— + m1 = 0 ax This uncoupling is characteristic only of prismatic members the equilibrium equations for an arbitrary curved member are generally coupled. flexure in the X1-X2 plane. as we shall show in Chapter 15. The resulting system uncouples into four sets of equations that arc associated with stretching.332 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP. We list the results below for future reference. Flexure in X1 -A'2 Plane F2 d2it.

12—2) and take the positive sense of an end x2 MA2 2 x3 —L Fig. We started by selecting the stress resultants and stress couples as force parameters. To complete the formulation. These equations are generally called force-displacement relations. the force parameters are actually the statically equivalent forces and moments acting at the centroid. We generally use a bar superscript to indicate an end action in this text. This suggests that we take as displacement . Since we have six equilibrium equations. we must select a set of displacement parameters and relate the force and displacement parameters. 12—2. The statically equivalent external force and moment components acting on the end cross sections are called end forces. Applying the equilibrium conditions to a differential element results in a set of six differential equations relating the six force parameters. we use A. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 12—3. 12—3. Also. Now. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS 333 Note that the shearing force is known once the bending moment variation is determined. Notation and positive direction for end forces. B to denote the negative and positive end points (see Fig. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS. since it is a negative face.SEC. we must introduce six displacement parameters in order for the formulation to be consistent. The end forces are related to the stress resultants and couples by force = FAJ = MAJ = A (J 1 2 3) (12—6) minus sign is required at A. to coincide with the corrcsponding coordinate axis.

The virtual-force + dx1 I dx1 dudXl dx1 2 2 Fig. that is. we mean fl +M (. In this approach. owing to shear deformation.12—8) Note that (12—7) corresponds to a linear distribution of displacements over the cross section. where . whereas the actual distribution is nonlinear. 12—3. We establish the force-displacement relations by applying the principle of virtual forces to the differential element shown in Fig. 12 parameters the equivalent rigid body translations and rotations of the cross as (12—7) section at the centroid. Statically permissible force system. we are allowing for an average shear deformation determined such that the energy is invariant.334 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. it satisfies the one-dimensional equilibrium equations system dx1 dx1 ö + x = O Specializing the principle of virtual forces for the one-dimensional elastic case. and is the external force quantity corresponding to The term dV* is the first-order change in the onedimensional complementary energy density due to increments in the stress resultants and couples. is statically permissible. we can write dV* dx1 = AP1 represents a displacement quantity. We define i? and = = = equivalent rigid body translation vector at the centroid equivalent rigid body rotation vector (force intensity) (displacement) dA = By equivalent displacements. 12—3.

we have = + A]\+ + dx1 Using the second equation in (a). but no initial shear strain. k1 is a twist deformation. X3). Once the form of V" is specified. we suppose that the material is linearly elastic. we obtain = [AF1u1. (c) takes the form + x + Finally. for unrestrained where torsion-Ilexure is given by (11—98). Equating (12—9) and (12—10) leads to the following relation between the deformation measures and the displacements: The quantities Cl = av* = u1. 4. we expand dV*: dV* = 3 \CFJ + + = 1 and k1 are one-dimensional measures. 1 (12—Il) (123 We see that— 1. 1 + (02) + zXM2a2 + j]dx1 (12—9) Continuing. k2. In what follows. 12—3. evaluating the products. we can evaluate the partial derivatives. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATfONS 335 Evaluating the right-hand side of (b). j —. e3 are average transverse shear deformations. We allow for the possibility of an initial extensional strain. The general expression for is = + + + denotes the initial extensional strain. e2.SEC. + — co3) + AF3(u3. Now. (03 aF2 = cM2 23 (02. 2. k2 = WL e2 —— = 112. k3 are average bending deformation measures (relative rotations of the cross section about X2. 3. e1 is the average extensional strain. Since we are using the engineering theory .1 + /XF2(u2.

we could have started with M1. u2. This presupposes that the cross section rotates about the shear center. v1/E. One can interpret as "weighted" or equivalent initial strain measures. it is inconsistent to retain terms involving in-plane F1/A. u3). Comparing (a) with (12—13).. This result is a consequence of neglecting the in-plane deformation terms in i. we see that the cross section twists about the shear center. F1 F2 MT + U21 (03 k2 =k2 = k3 + M2 (12—13) F3 X2 = U3 1 + (02 k3 = (03. To interpret the coupling between the shear and twist deformations. we note (see Fig. 12 of shear stress distribution. u3 (see Fig. 12—4) that U2 U3 X3W1 defines the centroidal displacements due to a rigid body rotation about the shear center. Adding terms due to the coupling between F2.e.e. we obtain the following force-displacement relations: e?. F3 leads to = Fie? + + where 2AE + + 2GA2 2GA3 LF2 (12—12) + MT e? + + + M1 + F2x3 — = $5 x2e1 cIA We take (12—12) as the definition of the one-dimensional linearly elastic com- plementary energy density for the engineering theory.. i. not the centroid. and the translations of the shear center. We replace u2. of using (12—12). and neglecting deformation. Instead of working with centroidal quantities (M1. Differentiating (12—12) with respect to the stress resultants and couples. and substituting in (12—11).336 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP. 12—4) by U2 + (01X3 t01X2 U3 = (12—14) .

We list the uncoupled sets of force-displacement relations below for future reference.SEC. it is more convenient to work and the translations of the shear center. we obtain = F2 a)1. 03 from (12—14). The terms involving F2. and w1 are x2 Fig. U53 denote the translations of the shear center. Al1 in (12—9) transform to 1+ 1 — w3) + 1 + w2) (a) Then. we can determine 02. F3. FORCE-DtSPLACEMENT 337 where um. 053. Once 052.1 (12— 15) US2. 12—3. Translations of the centroid and the shear center. taking as an independent force parameter. 1 F3 053 1 + (02 with Since the section twists about the shear center. Stretching F1 e? + Flexure in X1 -X2 Plane 01:1 F2 GA2 = = 1 — (03 + El3 . 12—4. known.

the principle of virtual forces applies for an arbitrary material. if A j=1 and determine using as defined by the engineering theory. the bracketed term is equal to dV*. the one-dimensional principle of virtual forces takes the form (12—19) The virtual-force system must satisfy the one-dimensional equilibrium equations (12—4). we could have started with its general form (see (10—94)).1 The development presented above is restricted to an elastic material.338 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 12 Flexure in X1-X3 Plane F3 U53 (12—16) + I k2 + = Twist About the Shear Center MT = Wi. For example. Using (12—18). we can evaluate (b). [ss dA] = AP1 (12—17) where represents the actual strain matrix. AF1 A taking + —— 12 AM2 AM3 — 13 leads to e1 = k2 if dA k3 if x2c1 dA if + AM1)]dxj = AP1 Once the extensional strain distribution is known. When the material is elastic. Now. AP1. and denotes a system of statically permissible stresses due to the external force system. and we can write it as dV's dx1 = >d1 AP1 (12—20) . We express the integral as . Instead of first specializing it for the elastic case. One should note that (12—19) is applicable for an arbitrary material.

or F2 prescribed at x1 = L M3 or 0)3 prescribed at .1 0. L . We list the equations according to the different modes of deformation (stretching. L 0)3 or M2 prescribed at x1 = 0. 0 F2 2 = + U2 i— (12—23) M u2 (03. 0. 12—4.). flexure. SUMMARY OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS At this point. we summarize the governing equations for the linear engineering theory of prismatic members.1 + b3 M2. U3. SUMMARY OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS 339 The expanded form for the linearly elastic case is J [(eq + AF1 + AF2 + AF3 + (12-21) + + El2) AM2 + + El) AM3] dx1 = We use (12—21) in the force method discussed in Sec. L F3. M3. F1 or u1 prescribed at x1 = L Flexure in X1-X2 Plane (F2. M2.x1 = Flexure in the X1-X3 Plane (F3. etc. 12—4. The boundary conditions reduce to either a force or the corresponding displacement is prescribed at each end. 0)3) + b2 = 0 M31 + m3 + F2 = F2. U2.SEC. u1) F1 I + b1 = F1 0 (12—22) 0. + F3 0 — F3 0)3 = 0 = u3 1+ M (12—24) u3 or F3 prescribed at x1 = 0. Stretching (F1. 12—6.

since it requires solving a differential equation rather than just successive integration..g. u3) MT. we can integrate the force-equilibrium equations directly and then find the displacements from the force-displacement relations. The following examples illustrate the application of the displacement method to a prismatic member. F2 = FA2 — b2x1 Substituting for F2 in (b). If the applied load depends on the displacements (e. Example 12—1 We consider the case where b2 = coast (Fig. and noting that b2 = coast. (c) simplifies to FAJ etc. we have F2 = — b2x1 0. we obtain = MAI — XIFA2 + .340 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. we must first express the equilibrium equations in terms of the displacement parameters. For convenience. 12 Twist About the Shear Center (MT. This. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION—PRISMATIC MEMBER The displacement method involves integrating the governing differential equations and leads to expressions for the force and displacement parameters as functions of x1. 1 + 01T 0 MT = or a1 prescribed at x1 = 0. we use subscripts A. L (12—25) m5. and integrating. (01. Flexure in X1 -A'2 Plane We start with the force-equilibrium equations. and then apply the boundary conditions. When the applied external loads are independent of the displacements. u2.1 = —F2 Integrating (a). We solve the two uncoupled problems. superimpose the results.problem is more difficult. This loading will produce flexure in the X1-X2 plane and also twist about the shear center if the shear center does not lie on the X2 axis. a beam on an elastic foundation). B for quantities associated with x1 = L: = With this notation. F21 M3. = U2 U3 m1 + b2x'3 — b3g2 X3W1 = 12-5.

(f). = (01. M3 £03. we obtain £03 = WA3 + — (x1MA3 — 4 \2E13/ GA 12Ff) 4 \ The general flexual solution (for b2 = const) is given by (e). + F2 GA2 Integrating (g) and then (h). 3 Uz. and (I). E12—1 x2 b3 13 Shear center Centroid H L Twist About the Shear Center The applied torsional moment with respect to thc shear center is mr = Substituting for mr in the governing equations.1 MT = and integrating. i —.SEC. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION We consider next the force-displacement relations. Fig. we obtain MT = MAT — b2y3x1 = + The additional centroidal displacements due to twist are U2 = X3W1 U3 = . 12—5.

3 (d = depth): As 13 613d2 5 A2 A 10 = By definition. d/L is small with respect to unity for a member element and. we consider a rectangular cross section and isotropic material with v = 0. and the right end is free.342 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. therefore. The boundary conditions are UA2 = = M53 = MBT =0 FBZ Specializing the general solution for these boundary conditions requires = An b2L A3 11. i2 2 MAT = b2. Evaluating u2 at x1 = L. we have I h2L U52 LI lh2L2 = = UB2 E 13 GL2A2 an illustration. it is . 12 Cantilever Case We suppose that the left end is fixed.L and the final expressions reduce to F2 = b2(L M3 = = U2 — x1) — Lx1 + — x1) = + b2Lx1 - + + () U3 = b2 4L 4 a)1 It is of interest to compare the deflections due to bending and shear deformation.

. The boundary conditions are 0. one sets 1/A2 = 0. 12—5. is the shear area. and subjected only to forces applied at the right end. 12—1. we obtain FAZ=---2 b2L M. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 343 reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation with respect to bending deformation for the isotropic case. it may be satisfied for a sandwich beam having a soft core.43 = MAT = b2L2 12 b2T3L The final expressions are M3 = MT = u2 U3 b2 IL2 Lx1 + b2T3 — = + L — x1 2) + b2 — 2L4 + xi) (u) = —X20)1 (03 b2IL2 = El = b2y3 Xj + xi) xi) Example 12—2 We consider a member (Fig. This is not possible for the isotropic case. Fixed-End Case We consider next the case where both ends are fixed.L2 where A.t Formally.43 = (ISA! = 0 = = =0 Specializing (h). We allow for the possibility of support movement at A. We can obtain these relations for a prismatic member by direct integration of the force-displacement t For shear deformation to be significant with respect to bending deformation. (i). G/E must be of the same order as l/A. The expressions for the translations and rotations at B in tcrms of the end actions at B and support movement at A are called member force-displacement relations. and (k) for this case. E12—2) restrained at the left end.42 = W.SEC. However. See Prob.

In the next section. we illustrate an alternative approach.2..1 = + (L — xi)F5] + + — = El2 U3 j = — 0)2 + _ — M5. .i = t See Prob. WB 1 UB 3 MA3/ x3 / = = 3 The boundary conditions at x1 = L are (a) Integrating the force-equilibrium equations and applying (a) lead to the following expressions for the stress resultants and couples: = MT (j= 1. E12—2 x2 FA3 M1.j = U3. 12—11. 12 relations. the force-displacement relations take the form C03. which utilizes the principle of virtual forces4' Fig.3) M52 — M2 = M3 (L — x1)F53 (b) MB3 + (L Using (b).- Col.344 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.

we obtain UB1 UAI + L_ (.43 + L_ + M83 L2 L2 UA2 + LWA3 + (052 + LX3_ Mjjr + /L IL + L3\.43 LOA2. we replace MET by MET = and write the equations in matrix form: + X31B2 US' L L U82 + L3 + L L3 GJ L L (082 (053 L2 L (f) + by fB.0 + L MET Finally. + M82 — L2 L2_ — U83 = UA3 — LWA2 — — + + L3\_ = co. UA2 + U.SEC. The final relations are listed below for future reference: .0.0A3} The coefficient matrix is called the member "flexibility" matrix and is generally denoted We obtain expressions for the end forces in terms of the end displacements by inverting f. 12—5.. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 345 Integrating (c) and setting x1 = L.42.053 03. (. (.

2.346 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS AE (um — UA1) CHAP.3) MA! = —!V151 MA2 MA3 + LF53 —M53 — LF52 We list only the expressions for MA2 M43: — = 0A3) + — WA!) + (4 + a2) MA3 WA2 + (2 — 02) — —T-(uB2 — UA2) + L2 a3) WA!) + (4 + a3) C0A3 + (2 — . 12 = FB2 — — + + + (co82 WA3) — (coB! WA!) (u53 — UA3) + C°A2) + — (co81 — WAI) rGJ MB1 + 12E — WA1) = — L3 (082 — UA2) + + (0A3) + COA2) + MB2 — UA3) + — = — UA3) + + (2 — a2) WA!) + (4 + a2) M83 — j_ WA2 — (053 UA2) + (1)4j) -1 (4 + + (2 12E12 a3)_L_coA3 12E13 a3 where a2 = = 1+03 introduce the assumption of negligible transverse shear deformation by setting 03 = a3 = 0 The end forces at A and B are related by We (j= 1.

SEC.1 — in3 (b) M3 (03 An alternate form of(a) is M3 + 1723. To simplify the discussion. — Finally. b2 0 Once M3 is known. find F3. we suppose the shear center is on the X2 axis and the member is loaded only in the plane.1 F. we substitute forM3 in (e) and obtain a fourth-order differential equation involving 02 and the load terms: d4u2 + d2 ( b2 — '\ + I (din3 — h2) \ = 0 The problem reduces to solving (i) and satisfying the boundary conditions: F2 or 02 prescribed or (03 prescribed) Neglecting transverse shear deformation simplifies the equations somewhat. 12—5. The member will experience only flexure in the X1-X2 plane under these conditions. using (b). The governing equations are given by (12—23): F2 = —M3. 11 — F3 = d4u3 — —in3 — E13(u2 1 — d2 (din3 + — b2) = 0 '\ .1 p2. we solve (d) for 03 and substitute in (c): F2 (03. we can. Now. The resulting equations are (we set 1/GA2 = 0) (03 j = E13(u2.11 + Then. M3 E13(u3 + b2 — and F2 = —m3 — El2 (02 + b2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 347 Example 12—3 We consider next the case where the applied loads depend on the displacements.

and transverse shear deformation is negligible.x1 + C2 cos Ax1) + sin Ax1 + C4 cos Ax1) / where u2 k represents the particular solution due to q. increases with increasing x. If the member length L is greater than 2(3/A) = 2Lb (we interpret 3.11 = 0 Since q is constant. We write = q — ku3 where q denotes the external distributed load and k is the stiffness factor for the restraint. one due to the applied external loading and the other due to the restraint force. The function e_2x decays with increasing x. Lb as the width of the boundary layer). The distributed loading consists of two terms. e. Enforcement of the boundary conditions at x 0. C3) are determined from the boundary conditions at x1 = (C3. k is constant. Application . Note that C3 and C4 must be of order and since u2isfiniteatx1 = L. the particular solution follows directly from (11). L leads to the equations relating the four integration constants. E12—3A) are 0 u2 = M3 = E13u2. We suppose rn3 = = 0. we can approximate the solution by the following: 0 x1 < Lb: = L: + + sin Ax1 + C2 cos Ax1) LB<xl<L—Lb: L — Lb < x1 u2 = sin Ax1 + C4 cos Ax1) 0 The constants (C1. F2 = d4u2 F3 —E13u2 + k q = or u2 prescribed 1 M3 or (03 prescrihedJ 0L The general solution of (n) is + sin A..348 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. = q/k The complete solution is U2 = (1 cos Ax1) . C4) from the conditions at x1 = L. 12 As an illustration. whereas For Ax > 0. we have (03 = U2 M3 = E13u2.1 The boundary conditions at x1 = 0 (Fig. a beam on a linearly elastic foundation. consider the case of linear restraint against translation of the centroid.g. Specializing (k) for this case.

12—3 (see Equation 12—19): + = d1 AP1 .111 = —P12 and the solution is U2 = PA Ax1 + sin Ax1) The four basic functions encountered are = Ax + sin Ax) sin Ax = — = = e (12—26) cos Ax = — Their values over the range from Ax = 0 to Ax = 5 are presented in Table 12—1. we apply the principle of virtual forces to determine the displacement at a point and also to establish the equations relating the force redundants for a statically indeterminate member. 12—6. Fig. E12—3B ////////////////////j/// x2 x1 12—6.SEC. E12—3B) are 0 F2 = —E13u2.1 = 0 (Fig. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION In the force method. We start with the onedimensional form of the principle of virtual forces developed in Sec. E12—3A //////////// ///////////////////////////////////////// X1 x2 Application 2 The boundary conditions at x1 = U2. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 349 q = const Fig.

2 4.2 1.008 —0.025 —0.078 —0. We use AR. The appropriate relations for the linear elastic engineering theory are given by (12—13).014 —0.8 1.8 0.322 0. are the actual one-dimensional deformation measures.004 —0.002 0.196 0.061 0..123 0.0 3. d.161 1.202 0.6 0.4 0.0 4.0 0.179 —0.8 1.037 —0.009 —0.201 —0.4 4.143 —0.002 where e3.4 2. to denote a prescribed displacement and the corresponding reaction increment.102 —0.356 0.000 0.024 —0. To determine the displacement at some point.6 3.2 0.007 —0.006 —0.390 0. the corresponding force is actually a reaction.020 —0.008 0.056 —0.011 —0.6 1.000 0.041 —0. — where d.012 2.208 —0.4 3. AP.012 —0.002 —0.057 —0.508 0.031 ' 0.0 1.090 0.004 —0.006 0. d.4 0.8 3.310 0.026 —0.QAPQ ARk==Rk.617 0.000 0.878 0.2 2..310 0.007 —0.4 4.037 —0.763 0. If a displacement is prescribed. AR.6 2.001 0.111 —0..QAPQ .4 1.005 0.453 0.2 1. We express the required virtual-force system as = AP0 (12—28) = MJ.4 3. AP. (12—27) + AM3)]dx.2 0. and generate the necessary internal forces and reactions required for equilibrium using the one-dimensional force-equilibrium equations.065 —0.2 3.6 2.. say Q.056 —0.038 1.6 4.163 0.261 0.042 —0.012 —0.0 0.802 0.0 2.4 2.6 4.007 3.012 —0.8 2. in the direction defined by the unit vector we apply a virtual force APQIq.172 —0.038 0. represents an unknown displacement quantity. and write (a) as d.8 5.281 0.155 —0.635 0.109 0.2 3.013 —0.4 1. represents a displacement quantity.6 0.0 1. 12 Numerical Values of the .000 0.024 —0.123 0.8 4.640 0.8 0.313 0 0.965 0.018 —-0.067 0.049 —0.128 —0.038 —0. is an external virtual force applied in the direction of The relations between the deformation measures and the internal forces depend on the material properties and the assumed stress expansions.042 --0.024 —0.006 —0.8 0.0 4.2 4.020 —0.350 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS Table 12—i CHAP.009 0.067 —0.009 0.001 4.199 0.041 —0.6 1.8 5.064 —0.0 3.199 1.243 0.285 0.032 —0.0 —0.6 3.016 —0.043 —0.2 2.010 —0.014 —0.008 —0.008 —0.0 2.tX iJi1 Functions AX 0.009 —0.

Since the only requirement on the virtual force system is that it be statically permissible.Q i'F3\ + + + M1. The expanded form of (12—29) for the linearly elastic case follows from (12—21): dQ = + (F2\ + where $ + [(e? + Fj. We will determine the vertical Fig. Example 12—4 We consider the channel member shown in Fig. Q)]dxj (12—29) + This expression is applicable for an arbitrary material. E12—4A x2 I) Centroid Q Shear center . we can express (12—29) for the elastic case in terms of V*: dQ k JxLt'AQ — (12—31) ORQ This form follows from (12—20) and applies for an arbitrary elastic material.Q 1 1dx1 J if L dA =7±JJx2s?dA Finally. but is restricted to the linear geometric case. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 351 Introducing (12—28) in (12—27) and canceling dQ = — Q leads to + k3M1. one can always work with a statically determinate virtual force system.SEC. 12—6.. We suppose that the material is linearly elastic and that there is no support movement. (12—30) + M3\ J.J3/ El21 -JM3. E12--4A.

in the — X. 12 displacement of the web at point Q due to— 1. •1 M3 ( F2. E12—4C I Shear center axis / S F2. E12—4C: F2. E12—4B .0 2 —1 C M3.352 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.e. The required internal forces follow from Fig.0 = Mr. E12—4B leads to .. To be consistent. 2.3) Fig.Q = /L — x1) \ 0 (b) F5. we must apply a unit downward force at Q. System I I P Shear center axis Fe We take dQ positive when downward. =o 0 (j= 1. i. given by AT = a1x1 + a2x1x2 + a3x1x3 Force System Due to P Applying the equilibrium conditions to the segment shown in Fig.0 M2.2.Q .F2 = = +Pe M3 = —P(L — x1) F1 = F3 = M2 0 Fig.0 = F3. the concentrated force P a temperature increase AT. direction.Q (p.

and take the relation between k3 and M3 as k3 = a1M3 + (a) . + a3x1x3) (d) The equivalent one-dimensional initial deformations are e? = . E12—5.4 JJ = ±. we obtain dQJ = ('Lii I P Pc2 c2L r 5 1)) P 1 IL \) (f) L cxa.ninatio. To illustrate the nonlinear case.. of (IQ Substituting for the forces and initial deformations in (12—30).SEC. We suppose that transverse shear deformation is negligible. E12—5 x2 xi P "I Centroid (and shear center) of the member shown in Fig. we must use (12—29) rather than (12—30).1 d. 12—6.L2 Example 12—5 When the material is nonlinear. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 353 hzitial Deformations The initial extensional strain due to the temperature increase is = a = + a2x1x. we determine the vertical displacement due to P at the right end Fig. (e) = Deter. Jf dA = aa3x1 dA = —aa2x.

0. These quantities may be either internal forces or reactions.Q = —(L Then.. The first step involves selecting r force quantities... = . M3. R1. Z1. Note that all the force analyses are carried out on the primary structure. M3. and letting e2 = reduces to L the general expression for d0 k3M30dx1 Now. we consider the virtual-force system consisting of AZ. AM3 = MJ.0 are finite. It remains to establish a system of r equations relating the force redundants. . represents the internal forces and reactions for the primary structure due to the prescribed external forces.kZk (12—32) = + R1. Using the force-equilibrium equations. With this objective. R1. k. AR.354 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS 0... we obtain dQ = Pa1 — — P3a3(L — x1)3 + P3a3 We describe next the application of the principle of virtual forces in the analysis of a statically indeterminate member. we express the internal forces and reactions in terms of the prescribed external forces and the force redundants.. and M3. CHAP.0 + Mf.. = F3. . we can find the total forces from (12—32). Z2. One must select the force resultants such that the resulting primary structure is stable. The set (F3. = = M3.. and are generally called force redundwns. Z.AZ. — — x1) x1) x1) k3 = —Pa1(L Substituting for k3 in (b). (F1.AZ. k. Also. kZk The member corresponding to = Z2 = ''' = Z. and the corresponding internal forces and reactions. We suppose that the member is statically indeterminate to the rth degree.. Once the force redundants are known. = 0 is conventionally called the primary structure. 12 Noting that only F2.. k) represents the forces and reactions for the primary structure due to a unit value of Zk. . M3 = —P(L M3.

To proceed further. we can write = (12—37) .. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 355 This system is statically permissible. we suppose that the material is linearly elastic.. . The compatibility conditions for the linearly elastic case are given by J [(eq + + + + + + dx1 (12—34) + + A more compact form. One can interpret these equations as compatibility conditions.. Substituting (a) in (12—27). and noting that = 0.2. we must express the deformations in terms of In what follows. is the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of we see that Z1 due to a unit value of ZIc..SEC.fIcJZJ = is. .o)F + + + + + + The various terms in (12—36) have geometrical significance. 12—6. r results in a set of r relating the actual deformations. since they represent restrictions on the deformations. 2. r) (12—36) j= where 1 = fjk rr1 =J + + 1 + + + 1 dx1 => — j [(eq + F1. .. we obtain k + kJMi. Using (12—30).k)] dx1 = k (12—33) Taking k = 1.. which is valid for an arbitrary elastic material. it is also equal to the displacement in the direction of Zk due to a unit value of Z3. . We write the = 1. (k M1 using (12—32). .r) (1235) The final step involves substituting for resulting equations as . Since fik = fkJ. is C (7R Ic Ic (k = i.. . Generalizing this result. 2.

(12—36) are not applicable. and follows directly from (12—30). initial strain. 12 corresponds to arbitrary points. They are generally called superposition equations in elementary texts. .=o t See. If we take Zk as an internal force quantity (stress resultant or stress couple). One can interpret (12—36) as a superposition of the displacements due to the various effects.. E12—6A) will produce flexure in the plane and twist about the shear center. Fig. and the prescribed external forces. However. The approach is basically the same as for the linear case. (See Fig. Art. M3 and are finite. the final equations will be nonlinear.t If the material is physically nonlinear. where i. El 2—6B. The following examples illustrate some of the details involved in applying the force method to statically indeterminate prismatic members. The reactions are related to the internal forces by = R2 — Z1 R3 R4 = = +[MT]x. We will take the reaction at B as the force redundant. i has the same direction and sense. The term Ak is the actual displacement of the point of application of Zk. 3. and one must start with (12—33). minus the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of Zk due to support movement.) We work with the twisting moment with respect to the shear center. i. Ak represents a relative displacement (translation or rotation) of adjacent cross sections. j are Example 12—6 This loading (Fig. and i. 13—2 in Ref.e. only F2.. for example. E12—6A x2 x2 X3 Shear center Primary Structure One can select the positive sense of the reactions arbitrarily.356 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Equation (12—37) is called Maxwell's law of reciprocal deflections.e. The member is indeterminate to the first degree.

0 qe(L q — x1) — = 0 = qL qL2 x1)2 0 R3.——p-*' b Shear center axis I qe F2.d3 R2.0 = F1.0 = (b) = F3. 12—6. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 357 E12—68 x2 x2 R3.1 e Shear center axis .0 -. d2 ZI = 0 Force System Due to Prescribed External Forces q R1 Fig. E12—6C —__ lB Mr.0 = R4.0 = — x1) R1. E12—60 M3.SEC.1 Bt F2.o F2.0 R2.0 MTo = M3.0 = qeL Force System Due to Z1 = + Fig.0 = M2.

12 F2. we obtain fit L Le2 L3 (e) (L — x1)dx1 — The value of Z1 for no initial strain or support movement is z1 = 8 Final Forces The total forces are obtained by superimposing the forces due to the prescribed external system and the redundants: F2=F20+Z1F2.1=+(L—x1) = F3.1 = 1 —1 M3.j = F1.1 = —q(L—x1)+Z1 MT qe(L — x1) — — eZ1 M3 = (L — (g) = qL — Z1 R3 = L2 LZ1 — = e(qL Z1) . f 11Z1 = = A1 1)2 + 1)2 + )2]dX (d) = and then substituting for the forces and evaluating the resulting integrals. —e R2.358 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. = M2. Specializing (12—36) for this problem. 1 = 0 R4•1 = —e Equation for Z1 We suppose that the member is linearly elastic.1=+1 MT.

E12—7A q V. Fig. E12—7A) will produce only flexure in the X1-X2 plane.0 = qL R3.0 = R1.2j Force System Due to Prescribed External Forces (see Example 12—6) F2. f // / / F Primary Structure = Z1 R7 = R3 = (b) Fig. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 359 Example 12—7 This loading (Fig. We suppose the material is physically nonlinear and take the expression for k3 as k3 = + a1M3 + (a) To simplify the analysis.0 = qL2 .0 = —q(L — x1) M3. we neglect transverse shear deformation. d2 z1 =0 R1.0 = 0 — R2.SEC. 12—6. E12—78 x1 R2.

— JL + Z1M3. E12—8B. = L — R1.360 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 12 Force Due to Z1 = + 1 (see Example 12—6) F2.0 = P = MT. = = Z3 = Z2 MTB The forces acting on the primary structure are shown in Fig. the compatibility condition reduces to J We substitute for k3 using (a): dx1 = J Now. Initial Force System F2. E12—8A) is fixed at both ends.1 = —L R21=—1 Compatibility Equation Since the material is nonlinear. we obtain the following cubic equation for Z1: z? (asLs) + + + = — — — x1)dx1 + For the physically linear case. + 030 and (h) reduces to = + — — — fLko(L — xi)dxi] Example 12—8 The member shown (Fig.0 P(a — x1) . we must use (12—33).3=+1 R3. (ajM3 + 1W'3 dx1 = = M3. Neglecting the transverse shear deformation term (e2). +1 M3. We consider the case where the material is linearly elastic. and there are no support movements or initial strains. We take the end actions at B referred to the shear Center as the force redundants. — = x1)2 + Z1(L — xt) Introducing (g) in (f).

SEC. 12—6. E12—8A tP x2 Shear • a b L Fig. E12—8B z3 x3 Fig. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 361 Fig. E12—8C M30 MTO ( F2.0 P A Shear center axis Px3 .

12 Z = +1 Fig. E12—8E M3. M3. E12—8F Al33 (I I. = 0 (e) .1=+1 M31=L—x1 —0 (c) Z2 = +1 Fig.1 F2. —x1 //// Shear center axis =+ 1 F3._________________ 362 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.2 = +1 F22 = MT. E12—8D Al31 '( L—x1 '-I ti Shear center axis F2.2 0 z3 = +1 Fig.2 M72 ( M3.

P = q dx1 a= b=L — x1 and integrating the resulting expressions.2. a. and b in (h).3) + + fkj = i: + + = f Substituting for the various forces and evaluating the resulting integrals lead to the following equations: I) \ /L 7 V l——+-—-—1Z1 +l—1Z2 \GA2 3E13) = [a [GA2 Pa2 I (a3 a2b 2 (L2\ Z1 + /L\ Z2 = '\GJJ El3 \ 3 (g) GJ 6E13 Finally. We can determine the force redundants by substituting for P. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 363 Goinpatibility Equations The compatibility equations for this problem have the form JkJZJ = (k = 1. E12—8G. 12—6.SEC. we obtain = —P 1± 2b1 PICA L2GAZ Z3 Pox3 Z3__ Application Suppose the member is subjected to the distributed loading shown in Fig. The general solution is CL ( 2 = z2 Z3 X3 — + 2 — x1) + 6E13 — 1) j x1q dx1 . solving (g).

W. 12 where C= 1 + 12E13 L2GA2 q As an illustration. PROBLEMS 12-1. C. 1946.: Analysis of Framed Structures. C. New York. Van Nostrand. L H 2. 8. New York. 0. The distribution of normal stress over the depth is determined by assuming a linear variation for the extensional strain: . HETENY!. The accompanying sketch shows a sandwich beam consisting of a core and symmetrical face plates. Van Nostrand. : Advanced Strength of Materials. and J. 1967. 1941. New York. McGraw-Hill. P. M.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. S. z2 = 12 Fig. University of Michigan Press. McGraw-Hill. ODEN. J. New York.: Beams on Elastic Foundation. 7. Noiuus. Ann Arbor. 1966. we consider the case where q is we obtain qL z1 = — — 2 const in (j). Geac. 5.364 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. H.. J. 6. MARTIN. S. 3. 1965. B. New York. 1966.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of StructuralAnalysis. McGraw-Hill. ASPLUND.: Advanced Strength of Materials.: Structural Mechanics: Classical and Matrix Methods. M. McGraw-Hill. and WEAVER. TIMOSHaNKO. T. E12—80 x2 q(xj) H REFERENCES 1. DEN HARTOG. H. Prentice-Hall. 1960. Elementary Structural Analysis. J. 1952. J. 4.

2 + ba12 = Then. = —(Ek3)x2 ( 3)dA = o (d) cru. we drop the subscript and write (b) as iVI where (EI)equiv is the equivalent homogeneous flexural rigidity.i + a21. x2 12—1 012 A* f M3 I The shearing stress distribution is determined by applying the engineering theory developed in Sec. (d) becomes a12 = J'J x2E dA . we obtain a31. dA M (—Ex2) (e) I)equiv and noting that F2 —M3.f)k3 To simplify the notation. JJ(aii.PROBLEMS 365 = —x2k3 We relate k3 to M3 by substituting for in the definition equation for M3: M3 = M3 x2a11 dA + Ef13. 11—7. substituting for cru. Prob. Integrating the axial force-equilibrium equation over the area A* and assuming is constant over the width.

Determine the solution for the cases sketched. determine the complete solution by the displacement method. Also. The flange thickness is small with respect to the core depth for a typical beam. Specialize part a for determine the equivalent shear rigidity (17*) and G.. .e. 12—2. small with respect to Ef. 12 (b) Apply Equations (e) and (f) to the given section.366 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS (a) CHAP. i. determine the complete solution for the problem presented in the accompanying sketch. are 0 and tf/h 1. Also which is defined as = J) (c) dA 1 2 The member force-deformation relations are F Y2 = M3 = (EI)equjv k Refer to Example 12—1. 12—4. For the problem sketched. the core material is relatively soft. Using the displacement method. Prob. Comment on the influence of transverse shear deformation. Specialize Equation (q) for this section and discuss when transverse shear deformation has to be considered. Express the solution in terms of the functions defined by (12—26). 12—2 q = const F x1 b 12—3.

e. 12—3 x2 const q Shear HeH R Prob.PROBLEMS 367 Prob. i. we wrote b2 = Note that k has units of force/(Iength)2. 12—4 (0) /////////////////////////////7/////////////////// Ib) Jr (c) 12—5. provided that restraint spacing c is small in . The formulation for the beam on an elastic foundation is based on a continuous distribution of stiffness.. —ku2 (a) We can apply it to the system of discrete restraints diagrammed in part a of the accompanying sketch.

.. Prob. determine the distribution of force applied to the cross members due to the concentrated load.11 a/2 /7/7 /7/7 (b) 7 Consider the beam of part b.368 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. which we have taken as 3 3 2 (k/4E1)'14 A reasonable upper limit on c is c< Letting k4 denote the discrete stiffness.— J J r r + C r + (a) r III C+C L.. Following the approach outlined above. we determine the equivalent distributed stiffness k from k= kd/c Evaluate Lb with (b). P. 1 .E. supported by cross members which are fixed at their ends. and then check c with (c). 12—5 ( J > J . 12 comparison to characteristic length (boundary layer) Lb.

12 dx 4 dx 2 — u—q Note that solution is u is dimensionless and A has units of 1/length. The homogeneous cos bx + C2 sin bx) + cos bx + C4 sin bx) where a= b 2(1 2(1 + — = To specialize (d) for negligible transverse shear deformation. Determine the solution for the loading shown. P /////////)///////////// ////////////)//////// a X L . Assume L large with respect to Lb. we set (a) (b) = 0. we drop the subscripts: d4u We let &112 — k d2u + k u= 1 / — d2 7 + q — and (a) takes the form d4 . The boundary conditions at x 0 are 0) = 0 P F2 Umax Investigate the variation of Mmax and with Consider to vary 12—6 from 0 to 1. For convenience. Determine the expression for the boundary layer length (e3 0).PROBLEMS 369 Evaluate this distribution for a=241t L=64ft c—lit 12—6. Prob. The governing equation for a prismatic beam on a linearly elastic foundation with transverse shear deformation included is obtained by setting b2 = q — ku2 in (i). Refer to Example 12—3.

12—9 12—10. Prob. and planar loading. . Refer to the sketch for Prob. 12—3. Employ the force method. Compare this approach with that followed in Example 12—2. bending moments at the interior supports (b) Discuss how you would employ Maxwell's law of reciprocal detlections to generate influence lines for the redundants due to a concentrated force moving from left to right. Refer to Example 12—7. discuss how you would determine the translation u2 at x1 = L/2. reactions at the interior supports 2. 12—9. Consider the four-span beam shown. Assuming Equation (h) is solved for Z1. (a) Compare the following choices for the force redundants with respect to computational effort: 1. 12 12—7. Determine the reaction R and centroidal displacements at x1 L/2 due to a concentrated force Pi2 applied to the web at x1 L/2.370 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP. Consider a linearly elastic member fixed at both ends and subjected to a temperature increase Determine the end actions and displacements (translations and rotations) at mid-span. Assume linearly elastic behavior. 12—8. Determine the expressions for the displacements at B in terms of the support movement at A and end forces at B with the force method. 12—11. Consider a linearly elastic member fixed at the left end (A) and subjected to forces acting at the right end (B) and support movement at A. the shear center coincides with the centroid.

11—7. 371 . Torsion and flexure are uncoupled when one works with the torsional moment about the shear center rather than the centroid. i. Variable warping or warping restraint at the ends of the member leads to additional normal and shearing stresses. a 13—1. M2. This leads to the result that the cross section twists about the shear center.e. Venant normal stress distribution satisfies the definition equations for F'1. a fixed point in the cross section. 12—4.e. Since the St. it must satisfy dA = dA = dA = 0 (13—1) The St. We will still assume the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. Venant flexural shear flow distribution is obtained by applying the engineering theory developed in Sec. i. It follows that the additional shear due to warping restraint must be statically equivalent stresses.. the additional normal stress. M3 identically. and to only a torsional moment: Sfri2 dA dA 0 = (13—2) 0 To account for warping restraint. We also assume the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. F3 acting at the shear center. one must modify the torsion relations. the stress distributions predicted by the St. The complete set of governing equations for the engineering theory arc summarized in Sec. Prismatic Member INTRODUCTION The engineering theory of prismatic members developed in Chapter 12 is based on the assumption that the effect of variable warping of the cross section on the normal and shearing stresses is negligible. are used.13 Restrained of. which is valid only for constant warping and no warping restraint at the ends. This distribution is statically equiva- lent to F2. must be statically equivalent to zero.. Venant theory.

We discuss next two procedures for establishing the force-displacement relations. and take the displacement expansions (see Fig. This corresponds to a mixed formulation.2. . since we are actually working with expansions for both displacements and stresses. This leads to force quantities consistent with the displacement parameters chosen. We use the same notation as in Chapters 11. we derive the governing equations for geomettrically nonlinear restrained torsion.) = SSSbT d(vol. We obtain a system of one-dimensional force-equilibrium equations by introducing expansions for the displacements over the cross section in terms of one-dimensional displacement parameters. The first method is a puredisplacement approach. EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS The principle of virtual displacementst states that JJJaT ös d(vol. The variation over the cross section is defined by Note that all seven parameters are functions only of x1. Solutions of the governing equations for the linear mixed formulation are obtained and applied to thin-walled open and closed cross sections. X3 are principal inertia axes. f is a parameter definining the warping of the cross section. 2. X3 axes. 12. X2. 3.372 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.. 13—2. u53 are the rigid body translations of the cross section. £03 are the rigid body rotations of the cross section about the shear center and the X2. 10—6. For pure torsion t See Sec. it takes the stresses as determined from the strain (displacement) expansions. DISPLACEMENT EXPANSIONS. we develop the governing equations for restrained torsion. . The X1 axis coincides with the centroid. L\u. work with the translations of the shear center. u1. i. 13 En what follows. We introduce expansions for the stresses in terms of the force parameters and apply the principle of virtual forces. We assume the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. We start by introducing displacement expansions and apply the principle of virtual displacements to establish the force parameters and force-equilibrium equations for the geometrically linear case. 13—1) as U1 = U2 U1 + — W2X3 W3X2 + — w1(x3 (13—3) U3 = + w1(x2 — x2) where 4 is a prescribed function of x2. and— 1. and x3 are the coordinates of the shear center. when the stresses (r) are in equilibrium with the applied body (b) and surface (p) forces.e.) + JJJJT d(surface area) is identically satisfied for arbitrary displacement. x3. The second method is similar to what we employed for the engineering theory. W2. Finally.

the left-hand side of (a) expands to öe d(voL) + F2(Au. us3. Notation for displacement measures.e. application of the principle of virtual displacements will result in seven equilibrium equations. EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS (i. one sets f = 0. 1 1(x3 — x3) + (02 + cot. + M3 Ac)3. x3 Shear center — —:: — —e I U52 I I x2 Centroid Fig.1 A1 + MR Af]dxi + MT Aw5.e. 13—1.1 + where the two additional force parameters are defined by = MR = quantity Mci. The strain expansioust corresponding to (13—3) are 6j Ytz u1. dA + (13—5) Note that Mç1. 13—9. is called the biinornent.2.. The t This derivation is restricted to linear geometry.SEC. i = const and For unrestrained variable torsion (i. 1 — Aw3) + F3(Au33 + Aw2) + M2 Aw2. The nonlinear strain expansions are detived in Sec. 1(x2 — Au1. has units of (force) (length)2 and MR has units of moment. 1x2 +f + + 2 = = us2. Since there are seven displacement parameters. (13—4) 3 Using (13—4). (03.. one sets f = co1. . 13—2. 373 the St. DISPLACEMENT EXPANSIONS. 1 + (02. Venant theory developed in Chapter 11). 1 — C03 — COj. the engineering theory = developed in Chapter 12).

mj'. 13 To reduce the right-hand side of (a). = 4picb = Then $5pjcb dA dS = distributed bimornent = external bimoment at an end section (x1 = 0. L) (136) SJJbT Au d(vol.374 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. This step involves first integrating (b) by parts to eliminate the derivatives and then equating the coefficients of the displacement parameters. F. or .1 + F2 + m3 = 0 M4.. — MR + 0 Boundary Conditions at x1 u1 0 (13—7) = u1 Us2 US3 or or or or F1 = F2 = F3 —F1 —F3 w1=w1 w3=co3 Mr=—MT M2 = f=J f=J or or or Boundary conditions at x1 = L These are the same as for x1 = For example: 0 with the minus sign replaced with a plus sign. we refer the transverse loading to the shear center. The additional load terms are m4. F3. The resulting equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are as follows: Equilibrium Equations F1 + b1 + b2 1 0 F2. we equate (b). Finally. M2. — F3 0 0 + b3 = MTI+m-I-=O 1 + rn2 = 0 M3.3 + MTLXWI + M2Aw2 + M3 Aw3 + mj.) + SSPT Au d(surface area) = Au1 + b2 1xu32 + b3 Au.. (c) and require the relation to be satisfied for arbitrary variations of the displacement parameters.3 ± mr + rn2 Aw2 + m3 Aw3 + m# Af]dx1 + JF1 Au1 + F2 Au. The definitions of are the same as for the engineering theory.2 + F3Au.

DISPLACEMENT MODEL 375 We recognize the first six equations as the governing equations for the engineering theory..3 + i + 4(PI — — x. a12. (+ for x1 = L). there is no surface loading on S.3. f=f O<xj<L or end cross section is restrained with respect to warping. 3 is due to warping restraint. The stress expansions are au a12 1 + — 0)3 = Gy12 = a13 = Gy13 = G[u. 3] i cot. We simply point out here that MR involves only the additional shear stresses due correspond to to warping restraint since the St. 1 0 we can write MR = + JJç'au. Also. 2] + cot.j dA We see that (h) corresponds to the axial equilibrium equations weighted with respect to $$(a12.SEC.2 + a13.3a13)çdS = 0 (i) + — MR = 0 In most cases. Venant shearing FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 1 3—3.2 + a13. we consider (13-4) to define the actual (as well as virtual) strain distribution and apply the stress-strain relations. 1(x2 — + f4. The condition f = 7' applies when the = + a11. We neglect and for unrestrained variab'e . 1 + torsion. We also consider the material to be isotropic and suppose there is no initial strain. We will discuss the determination of stresses in a later section. we see that one specifies either f or the bimoment at the ends of the member. Venant (pure) torsion. To interpret the equation relating MR and the bimoment. To establish the relation between force parameters and the displacement parameters.. 13—3. we consider the definition for MR. 3)dA Utilizing the axial stress equilibrium equation. 1(x3 (13—8) t M5 = = 0 for St. i. Pi = 0 on the cylindrical boundary. MR = + Integrating (e) by parts leads to SS4(ail. The additional equation. 2 + c713. the boundary condition is = ± M4. If the end cross section is free to warp.e. + X3) + f4.

In what follows. we will take = Young's modulus. Although our displacement expansions correspond to plane strain (&2 = = 0). This additional stress must satisfy (13—1). M3. F3. 13 denotes the effective modulus. F2 F3 1 and MR expand to 1 — (03 + i) + fS2 = A(u33. requires 4 to satisfy the following orthogonality conditions :t where dA dA = dA = 0 (13—9) Assuming (13—9) is satisfied. the in-plane stresses vanish on the boundary. and noting that X2.3 1 j cIA 13—10 We have included the subscript r on E to keep track of the normal stress due to warping restraint. Consider the expression for The term involving is due to warping of the cross section.376 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. and the reduce to: EAu1. Therefore.2)dA = t F1 = M2 = + + = 0 for c11 due to warping restraint. X3 are principal centroidal axes.1 E13a. . in turn. which.1 M2 M3 where E12w2. i + + fS3 (13—12) 11c01. M2. Inverting (13—10) and then substituting in the expression for lead to F1 'Yii + M2 — M3 13 + (13—Il) The expressions for F2. it seems more reasonable to use the extensional stressstrain relations for plane stress. F.1 — + + — = where + + Si = polar moment of inertia = — 12 + 13 x3q5. the expressions for F1.

Operating on (a) leads to =0 a12 = 2 (x3 — x3)] 7 3 + follow from the axial equilibrium The equation and boundary condition for equation and boundary condition. mA — — on S We can express as = for tile stresses become C — + x'2x3 + where C is also an arbitrary constant.must satisfy only the ortliogonality conditions (13—9). it follows that the stress distribution .of about the centroid as in Sec. to this point. 13—3. DISPLACEMENT MODEL 377 Also. 11—2. The boundary condition and expressions — a12 = M1 cr13 3 — x3) - + x2) Since depends only on the cross section. Venant theory of unrestrained torsion. To gain some insight as to a suitable form let us reexamine the St. We suppose the section twists about an arbitrary point instead . The displacement expansions are for u2 = —w1(x3 — U3 coj(x2 = where i= M1/GJ = const.SEC. the expressions for the shearing stresses canbe written as a12 — +G 1 + f 3 — The essential step is the selection of which.

The cross-sectional properties and forcedisplacement relations corresponding to this choice for 4' are listed below: Properties S2 = 14. the warping function for unrestrained torsion about the shear center is orthogonal with respect to 1. That is.1 + f4)t. '13—15 2) + 3)2]dA Shear Stresses a12 = F2 + G(—x3co1. Also. 11—2. 2) + and Suppose we take 4' = The constants (C. 13 torsional constant are independent of the center of twist. See Prob. 13—1. .378 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. and we obtain are evaluated by requiring C= = = dA Now. one can shows that the equations for are identical to the equations for the coordinates of the shear center when the cross section is considered to be rigid with respect to in-plane deformation.1 + (13—16) = t See Sec. x3. we have shown that 4) C — T3x2 + x2x3 + (13—14) is a permissible warping function. Summarizing. one can showt that = 0 SJcbt. 11—2 and Prob. + G(x2w1. 4' to satisfy (13—9). = 14.2dA = 2)dA 3)2]dA 3 — $S[(4)t. x2.

Then.1 — x21'3) —. us3. F3. SOLUTION FOR RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL To obtain an indication of the effect of warping restraint. 0. 13—4.+ (13—19) 14.T2F3 — w1. j W3 + . We will return to this point in the next section. (See Fig. RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 379 Force-Displacement Relations MT = MR = G11w1. one can show that they satisfy + =0 for arbitrary F2. i — + — — w1. Equations (13—19) are similar in form to the results obtained in Chapter 12. The left end (x1 = 0) is fixed with . F3 do not satisfy the stress boundary condition 0 on S + However. (13—18) MT = and F2(1 \J1 F3( x2x3 F3!'! + -. (13—17) F3 j + W2 + x2(f Wi. we apply the theory developed in the previous section to a cantilever member having a rectangular cross section. 13—4. Equations (13—17) show that restrained torsion results in translation of the shear center. M4. and thc seventh equilibrium equation reduces Specializing (13—17) for this case. Finally. = 0). We introduce the assumption of negligible restraint against warping by 0. us2. 13—2). = (x3F2 GJW1. which were based on shear stress expansions satisfying (a) identically on the boundary.1 = to2 + F2( G\ The shearing stress distributions due to F2. we obtain f — to1.SEC. we point out that torsion and flexure are uncoupled only when warping restraint is neglected (F. setting Er to MR = 0.

1=0 Xj We start with (b). Restrained torsion-cantilever with rectangular cross section. we list the governing equations for restrained torsion: Equilibrium Equations (See (13—7)) M1. 13—2. Integrating (b) and enforcing the boundary condition at = L leads to (13—20) M1 = M . The boundary conditions are respect x1=O x1=L M1=M (a) For convenience. to both rotation and warping while the right end (x1 = L) is free to warp. F2 = F3 = 0) (b) (c) Note that = M1 = = G11w11 + + (d) Boundary Conditions (for this example) At xj= 0.380 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. A-A Fig. 13 x3 T 2b / A Sect.1+m1=O Force-Displacement Relations (See (13—10) and (13—12). (e) Atx1 = M 1.

we shall take The results obtained show that is the key parameter. Venant solution is dw1 M (J) We see that is a measure of the length. Now. RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 381 Next. If the ratio G/ET and on terms derived from . Lh. of the interval in which warping restraint is significant. the St. The solution of(i) and (h) which satisfies the boundary conditions (e) is (we drop the subscript on x for convenience) f= = = {l — cosh + tanh [sinh sinh x ± + (1 — cosh tL]} (13—22) + '1 The rate of decay of the exponential terms depends on we can take tanh )L 1. we combine (c) and (d): Solving (f) for w1. G11co11 + i + =M = t (f) (g) G111. — As a point of interest.. and the solution reduces to I.SEC. 13—4. By definition. We refer to Lb as the characteristic length or boundary layer. depends on the assumed warping function. and then substituting in (g) lead to (h) (i) — where 2 is defined as G [i. 13 .5.21 Note that has units of(1/length)2.fr For )L > 2. 0 (13—24) (13—25) In what follows.

we restrict the discussion to a rectangular section (see Fig.165 . The influence of warping restraint is confined to a region of the order of the depth.156 .6G and K1 3. Assuming E 2. Although this result was derived for a rectangular cross section.25 3. With these definitions. Table b /<4 13—1 1 2 3 10 2.36 3. the expression for takes the form 1 /G'\112 2= --. 13 we take 4) the warping functiowt for unrestrained torsion defined by (13—14). we will show later that it is typical of solid and also thin-walled closed cross sections. (13—29) —e reduces to = 0 for a rectangular section and . 13—2) We evaluate the various integrals defined by (13—15) and write and 4) = the results as J= = K1a3b = (13—27) where the K's are dimensionless functions of b/a. We see that constant.0311 . we find 2/b and Lb 2b.66 4..99 .2.23 3.450 . the various coefficients are related by J — — (13—26) J At this point. We utilize the and large solution corresponding to 4) M1 fC = .683 .425 .16 3.K2— K is essentially The coefficients are tabulated in Table 13—1.382 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.21 4.964 3.32 We consider next the problem of locating the center of twist.283 .

The maximum difference occurs at x = 0 and the minimum at x = L. The stress-strain relations can be represented as since. E. MIXEIJ FORMULATION 383 The translations of the shear center follow from (13—17): Us31 = x3(f — = —x2(f — (13—30) By definition. by definition of the complementary energy density.) = JJjbT Au d(vol. = By av* = combining (a) and (b). 11 and Prob. Reissner's principle applies for arbitrary geometry and elastic material. 0 (13—33) considering i. Setting i12 = in (13—3) and letting lead to 0 denote the coordinates of the center of twist X2 = gx2 x ) see that the center of twist approaches the shear center as x increases. — liT11 — V*)d(vol. 10—28. and g = 1. This discussion is restricted to linear geometry. u as independent quantities. 13—9.t and b prescribed. = 13—5. we obtain a variational principle which leads to both sets of equations. The principle of virtual displacements requires 5e d(vol. The stationary requirement.SEC.) — d(surface area)] = E(u). is See Ref. 0.) + Au d(surface area) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au and leads to the stress-equilibrium equations and stress-boundary force relations. 13—5. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—MIXED FORMULATION We first review briefly the basic variational principles for the three-dimensional formulation. . Note that ôg is a function of Au and is obtained using the strain-displacement relations. The nonlinear case is treated in Sec. We 1 = =— 1— 2L!1 For unrestrained warping. g called Reissner's principle. = oc. the translations are zero at the center of twist.

. Equating the coefficients of each force variation to zero results in the force-displacement relations. 13 The essential point to recognize is that Reissner's principle allows one to work with and u as independent quantities. 13—2. The relations between the force and displacement parameters are obtained from the second stationary requirement: Tx1 [f$(CT — öV*)dA]dxj = 0 (13—34) The first step was carried out in Sec. we must express in terms of the force parameters (F1. we have $5 oiiTudA = ±SJISrsTudA = ±(ISMTWI + ISM4f) where the plus sign applies for a positive face.. 13—3).384 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRTSMATIC MEMBER CHAP.. 13—3) 5V* dx1 = op + [$$uT ISp (a) The boundary forces are the stress components acting on the end faces. The virtual-force system must be statically permissible. the stationary requirement on the stresses (Equation 13—34) expands to + + 1 — W3) + öF3(u. one can also obtain (13—35) by applying the principle of virtual forces to a differential element. the strain-energy density. 13—2 and the expanded form of 5$ dA is given by (b) of Sec. In a displacement formulation (Sec. MR). This step leads to the definition of force parameters and forceequilibrium equations. F2. Taking u according to (13—3) and considering only MR. i.[ISMR + .. The Euler equations for the displacement parameters are obtained by expanding (a).i + w1. We followed this approach in Chapter 12 and. since it is of interest. = dxi{f. In a = and = mixed formulation we start by introducing expansions for the displacements. Letting represent the complementary energy per unit length along X1. and using (13—4). we take as a function of u.. it must satisfy the one-dimensional equilibrium equations. This requires const = Then.3. Instead of applying (13—34). One starts with (see Fig. i + + + co2) + + i — =o 13—35) In order to proceed further.1 1 ISMT} (d) = dx1{f 0M4 + . We then generate expansions for the stresses in terms of the force-parameters from an equilibrium consideration. we outline the additional steps required for restrained torsion. using the stress-displacement relations — V* reduces to V.e.

a curved member. The complementary energy density is = if dA + if + (13-36) It remains to introduce expansions for the stress components in terms of the force parameters such that the definition equations for the force parameters are identically satisfied.1 dxj Fig.5 6Mg. we can F1 M2 M3 (a) where satisfies the orthogonality conditions: § dA = JJx2çb c/A = c/A = 0 (b) Note that we have imposed a restriction on q5. e. linearly elastic easy and isotropic. 1 I t The approach based on the principle of virtual forces is not applicable for the geometrically nonlinear case.1+w11dx1 f + f. 13—3. it is relatively —aM. MIXED FORMULATION 385 The first procedure (based on (13—34)) is more convenient since it avoids introducing the equilibrium equations.t In what follows.g. The complementary energy due to c11 expands to —. Virtual force system. 13—5. . we also suppose there is no initial strain. See 1). We obtain the force-displacement relations by applying the second procedure (principle of virtual forces) without having to introduce strain expansions. due to warping restraint. To simplify the treatment. In certain cases. Problem § F1 = = M3 = 0 for treats the case of a nonhomogeneous material. f to establish the force-equilibrium equations by applying the equilibrium conditions to a differential element.SEC. one has to have the straindisplacement relations. we consider the material to be homogeneous.. Considering first the normal stress. However. + WI o.

— These expansions coincide with the corresponding relations obtained with the displacement model (see (13—10)). The shear stress distribution for unrestrained torsion is treated in Sees. 11—7.386 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. Since the restrained-torsion distribution is statically equivalent to a torsional moment. We can obtain suitable expansions by adding a term due to warping restraint to the results for unrestrained torsion and fiexure. we obtain ('11. we utilize the axial equilibrium equations and stress boundary condition: ('12. MT and MR identically. we utilize the results of Sec. we obtain F1 W3. we have to distinguish between the unrestrained and restrained torsional moments: MT = + (13—38) = = It remains to determine We follow the same approach as in the engineering theory of flexural shear stress.2 + mA 0 + on S Differentiating the expression for au and noting the equilibrium equations. the fiexural distribution for a thin-walled section can he obtained by applying the engineering theory where + + ('If = the flcxural distribution due to F2. (13—37) developed in Sec. i.2 + ('13. substituting for in (13—35). Since we are assuming no in-plane deformation. 11—5.13 f. taking v = 0. For a solid section. 13 Finally.e. We write is the unrestrained is torsion distribution. The shearing stress distribution must satisfy thc definition equations for F2. 11—2 through 11—4. it follows that due to MR: y r ('12. I L. F3. and is the distribution due to restrained torsion.1 = F2 13 + F3 12 + MR Since satisfies (a) for arbitrary F2. F3.. F3 and a" corresponds to r is = 0.3 = MR 4 0 (mA) —- + (on 5) .

(13—42) MT = = = We take flow qr + When the cross section is thin-walled. 112 Vf = + + 23 3 (a) LI 2GJ — 11* V uf f See Prob. 13—5. we see that — x3)a12 + (X2 -. For convenience. 11—5. by evaluating Finally. we write (c1 as = where (13—41) is a cross-sectional property which depends on With this definition. We write the expanded form of the shear contribution as V*.hear JJ We + + + + + (134) in Sec. 13—2. these have evaluated and results are summarized below (See Equation 11—98) /z'2 I 13 I. MIXED FORMULAflON 387 The orthogonality conditions on and boundary condition on a' ensure thatt 0 = dA = dA = from 0 (13 —40) We solve (13—39) and then evaluate = J$[—(x3 Noting (13—40).- (c) Finally. we neglect 0 and (a) reduces to at a free edge d and to be constant over the thickness t and work with the shear Equation (d) becomes = qV 1çô1 0 (13—43) = at a free edge The orthogonality conditions on and boundary condition on ensure that (13—44) = = (IS — 0 0 and equating to (13—41). we determine We consider next the complementary energy density.SEC. .

in addition.1 + 0)2 = GA23 = C. in what follows. = 0).F2 + x2. We will show later that it is possible to make vanish for a closed section by specializing the homogeneous solution of (13—43). If. we have required to satisfy the orthogonality relations and also determined a' such that there is no energy coupling between au and (C. 13 The coupling term. OF3. we will take Cur 0 Finally. The resulting force-displacement I relations are U521 — 0)3 "F2 + —-. + J (13—49) Wi. and write the results as Also = if if + (13—46) where Cr is a dimensionless factor which depends on q5. if X2 is an axis of symmetry. vanishes when the section has an axis of symmetry. we take ISC If" — X3X2 -t-.j I+I = MR + 1 (x3.MR. replace Mr with + Ccj.388 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. and <5MR.1. = 0 is a consequence of our assuming the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. we write the coupling bctwcen flex ural and restrained torsion as = + (13—48) 1 = + X2rF3Mg) where Xjr have units of length. The coupling between unrestrained and restrained torsion is expressed as = + (13-47) It is obvious that = 0 for a thin-walled open section since is an odd function of n whereas a' is constant over the. thickness. Therefore.+ — A3 F3 x3. We substitute for in (13—35). and equate the coefficients of oF2. We evaluate using (13—39) ((13—43) for the thin-walled case). Up to this point. = 0 since is symmetrical and a' is antisymmetrical with respect to the X2 axis.F3) The corresponding relations for the displacement model are given by (13—12). Us3. 1/A23.— — X2X3 -r 5) — — .

For convenience.SEC.l4. w3 equal to zero and C. 13—6. RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 389 Cçt. we summarize the governing equations below.j 1 AK — = GJw1. f See Prob.1 GJ +f) will be positive. +1 in (13—49).. co2. We then discuss the application to open and closed cross section. = +1 MrT=+MR (13—50 Note that is the warping function for unrestrained torsion about the shear center. One neglects shear deformations due to flexure by setting (13-51) Similarly. The force-displacement relations are obtained by setting F2. We discuss the determination of 4> in Secs. 1 + 112T = 0 MT— Force-Displacement Relations (4> E. it is more convenient to work with tsr — — AS — AK:' In what follows. + in4.1. is known. SOLUTION FOR RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION We suppose only torsional loading is applied. Equilibrium Equations MT. 13—3. we neglect shear deformation due to restrained torsion by setting Cr = X2r = X3r 1 = 0 (13—52) This assumption leads to the center of twist coinciding with the shear center and (13—53) One now has to determine If from the equilibrium relation. 13—7 and 13—8. we outline the solution procedure for restrained torsion and list results for various loadings. We include the minus sign so that C1 . F3. 13—6.

13 Boundary Conditions MT or or prescribed at each end Translations of the Shear renter u52. 13—4. (i) of Sec.t + GJ(w1.12 is defined ast cc = 1 + Cr ErI# (1355) 22 C Equation (g) corresponds to (h). 1 = = dx1 = + (13—54) We start by integrating (a): MT C1 — C1 Substituting (c) in (b) and (13—54) leads to the governing equations for w1 and f: (1 + Cr)O)i. (f) becomes Eric.390 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. t The corresponding paramater for the We have dropped the subscript formulation is 2 (see (13—21)). . C1x1 I C f — = (C1 + where . The general solution for f and has the following form: f Wi C3 cosh 2x + C4 sinh 2x — + (13—56) = — + C2 + sinh 2x + C4 cosh 2x) — is the particular solution due to on x1 for convenience.1 + f) = 0 After some manipulation..

E13—l) are x=O x=L Starting with (13—54). we list for future reference the solution for various loading and boundary conditions. Example 13—1 Cantilever—Concentrated Moment Fig. RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 391 The significance of A has been discussed in Sec. on the basis of the results obtained there. that AL will be large with respect to unity for a closed section. We should expect.(L — x) cosh . we set cv1=f=O f. The expressions for! differ by a minus sign. (13—26).SEC. The remaining constants are deter- mined from w1—f——0 atx=0 atx=L and the final solution ist M[ GJ WI coshA(L—x) cosh AL {sinh AL — sinh A(L — x)} (13—57) [x — M r LA —c 1 sinh ). We will return to the evaluation of A in the next section.. This is due to our choice of We took in the displacement model and = in the mixed model.L. In the examples below. . 13—4. E13—1 X1 The boundary conditions (Fig. = 0 = 0 and C1 = M. cosh [ M — t The corresponding solution based on the displacement model is given by (13—22). 13—6.

13 Note that C. g —1 + x — ——f—-— [sinh ). By definition.L 0. 1 when the complementary energy term due to the restrained torsion shear stress (o') is neglected.U I u=j Let M1dx=x—co1 M (13-58) denote the coordinates and translations of the center of twist. We determine g(O) by applying L'I-IOspital's rule to (13—59). There is no twist or translation at x = 0. the center of twist coincides with the shear center throughout the length. . cosh . we obtain t X2 — — x3) = 0 —X2)=0 — — gx3.2. vanish at x = U.L — sinh A.2 — =u. = 0 if X. The boundary conditions are x=0 x=L co1=f=0 ce1=w [=0 f See (13—31).2 = We write the result as = X2. (j x3. = and requiring u. in this case. L... the left end (x = 0) is fixed and the right end rotates a specified amount w under the action of a torsional moment. Note that Xi. = = 0 if we neglect shear deformation due to the restrained shear stress and.2. = u.U X3.3 + Substituting for and w1.. The translations of the shear center are obtained by integrating u.. 0s3 to = 0... Also. Example 13—2 We consider next the case where warping is restrained at both ends._______ 392 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. x2. (13—32) for the displacement model solution. c (13—59) — x1] The limiting of g occur at x = (13—60) 1 1 + k) is an axis of symmetry for the cross section.

60 . we suppose there is no distributed load.76 2 3 . that AL C3 0. (0.924 . sinh Ax — — (1361) (01 cosh Ax) — sinh Ax]} = ci {i = Mç1.48 4 . For AL > 4. 13—6. as M = where L.98 . [2(1 — c)11 + = (0 1 C1( = + Ax /1—c'\ + (1.5 =L r 2C (c— 1'\1 (13-62) = L(1 — cC3) The following table shows the variation of with AL. C2 2/AL. Starting with the general solution. MT = C1 f = C3 cosh Ax + C4 sinh = + C2 — — {C3 sinh Ax + C4 cosh Ax} and enforcing the boundary conditions leads to the following relations: C3=— = C1L 11—c s = sinh AL GJ = cosh AL 4 C. RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 393 To simplify the analysis. Note = 1 if transverse shear deformation due to restrained torsion is neglected. and the end moment M. — [cosh Ax + sirih Ax]} — = ErI#A {sinh Ax + (L__f) cosh Ax} We write the relation between the end rotation.ff denotes the effective length: L.5 1 0.SEC.

A lower bound is obtained by allowing the section to wrap.nL1— 1 x (13—64) + AL c= AL s= . Requiring (13—63) to satisfy f= results in =0 sinh Ax} at x = L/2 (a) I= CO1 {x — mL2 fi[ U— ( /x"t21 j+ C ) (cosh . — C1 + flIX = x + C2 — m /x2 + — c (a) (C3 sirth Ax + C4 cosh Ax) We consider the boundary conditions to be identical at both ends and measure x from the midpoint (Fig.x — c) MT = —mx = .394 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13 Example 13—3 Uniform Distributed Moment-Symmetrical Supports The general solution for m for convenience) is: MT = C1 — ?flX f= —coshAx + C1 C3 C4.. i. AL The solution represents an upper bound.. Symmetry requires MT=O} and (a) reduces to atx=O (b) MT = [= sinh Ax + x (13-63) — = C2 — + cosh xx We treat first the case where the end section is fixed with respect to both rotation and warping. by taking .e. E13—3).

We select a positive sense for S and an arbitrary origin (point P). we briefly outline the procedure for an arbitrary section. APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS In what follows. Before discussing the individual sections. The unrestrained torsion warping function is obtained by applying (11—29) to the centerline curve and requiring the section to rotate about the shear center. I AL cosh Ax — c= cosh 13—7. Ic1 = We work with q" rather than and mixed sections where one generates q" in terms of to facilitate treatment of closed . we apply the mixed formulation theory to a wide flange section and also to a channel section. Consider the arbitrary segment shown in Fig.t is positive when translation in the + S direction rotates the position vector about the + X1 direction. 13—7. 13—4.SEC. We first determine the cross-sectional and then obtain general expressions for properties corresponding to = — the stresses in terms of dimensionless geometric parameters. — c) = —mx ( —x+fsinhAx C (13—65) = IC. APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 395 Fig. E13—3 —x1 H and the result is f= {x — xc sinh mL2 (1 [ — j+ C. The unrestrained torsional shear flow is zero By definition.

Also. orthogonality condition dS =0 If the section has an axis of symmetry.t2 = M3 axis. 13—5. varies linearly with S when the segment is straight. The distribution of 4) for the three branches is given by A— B 4)p+$gpscdS 4) B—C B—D b4)B+JopscdS C We are taking the origin at B for branches B — tSeeProb. 13—4. Then.396 RESTRAfNED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. As an illustration. if we take P on the symmetry ?v. t x3 Shear center IPsc x2 Fig. 13 for an open section. The remaining orthogonality conditions (a'j1 0). Notation for determination of the warping function. we apply (13—67) to each branch. = 0. consider the section shown in Fig. . When the section has branches. 13—1. and B — D. The constant is evaluated by enforcing the —* F1 = 0). $4x2tdS = 0 are identically satisfied by definition of the shear center. taking = — and integrating leads to pscclS sP (13—67) Note that one can select the sense of S arbitrarily. One has only to require continuity of 4) at the junction point.

.e. 13—7. we let = 145 (13—68) With this notation. Forconvenience. Example of a section with branches. If the section has an axis of symmetry. we need the fiexural shear stress distributions. Once and are known. Then. 13—5). APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 397 The shear flow due to is obtained by integrating (13—43) and noting qr (13—50). S. (13—46): = JJqYdA = 542tdS Cr = if + In order to evaluate XZr. a + direction. the resulting expression simplifies to + J S q5tdS = + (13—69) We start at a free edge and work inward.q Fig. and with (13—10). and write We let q(J) be the distribution due to qU) (13—71) j=2 j=3 '(=3 k= 2 . 13—5. A +q points in the +S direction corresponds to _qr. qr acting in the —S (see Fig. i. is an odd function with respect to the axis and x3 is an even function. X3r.q p S. we can evaluate 1w.SEC.

is an even function of x3. Ia. apply for an arbitrary thinThe definition equations for Cr. Applying (13—67). . Fig. we have only to modify the equaand We will discuss this further in the next section. x2r. = 0 if X3 is an axis of symmetry. x2. we obtain q5=O q5 = S forweb for flange Note that the sense of S is reversed for the bottom flange.. and walled section. qt2t is an odd function. El 3—4A) has two axes of symmetry. When the section is closed. which reduces to I j q q — X3r + X21. and X3r = 0. X3.398 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13 The coupling terms are defined by (13—-48). By analogy. tions for 4) Example 13—4 Symmetrical I Section The I section shown (Fig. it follows that the shear center coincides with the centroid and the warping function is odd with respect to K2. for a thin-walled section with 4) = — Substituting for qr and qf results in J I X3r 3dS (13-72) — = Y t If X2 is an axis of symmetry. E13—4A x3 1.

SEC. 13—7.

APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS

399

The shear flow vanishes at S = ± b/2. Applying (13—69) and starting from pt. A, we find

=
The distributions of

=
S-b/2

(25)2]

and q' are shown in Fig. E13—4B, where the arrows indicate the

sense of q' for + Ms-.
Fig. E13—48
b2ht

Plot

Plot of qr

We express the cross-sectional properties in terms of Ii, t, and a shape factor

= b/h
3 =
ht3
th5

+

=

=

(t)2

8(1 +
=
The dimensionless parameters occurring in the solution of the differential equations for the mixed formulations are and AL (see (13—55)). Using (c) and assuming a value of 1/3 for Poisson's ratio, we write

[3(1 +
=

I

AL

=

400

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PR!SMATtC MEMBER CHAP. 13

The coefficients

are tabulated below:

0.75

2.4 2.66
3.2

3

4.22

0.50

6.93

1. The warping parameter, ),L, depends Since (t/h)2 << 1 and 0(1), we see that on t//i as well as L/h. This is the essential difference between open and closed cross sections. For the solid section, we found that AL = 0(L/h) and, since L/h is generally large in com-

parison to unity, the influence of restrained warping is Iocalized.f The value of AL for an open section is O(L//,) 00/1,) and the effect of warping restraint is no longer confined to a region on the order of the depth at the end but extends further into the interior.

We consider next the determination of the stresses due to restrained warping. The
general expressions are
M4,

dTts

r

q

=

7
6

Using the distribution for çb and qr shown above, the maximum values of normal and shear

stress are
=

=

The shearing stress due to unrestrained torsion is obtained from
3

To gain some insight as to the relative magnitude of the various strcsses, we consider a member fully restrained at one end and subjected to a torsional moment M at the other end. This problem is solved in Example 13—1. The maximum values of the moments are
tanh
AL

atx = 0
J

= C5M

We substitute for the moments in (f), (g) and write the results in terms

the maximum

t We defined the boundary layer length,

(sec (13—24). (13—25)) as
0
Lh

4

L

;.L

SEC. 13—7.
shear

APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS

stress for unrestrained torsion:
,,, =

tanh

(f))
Mt

The variation of these coefficients with b/h is shown below:
b
1?

1

2

0.75 0.50

2.11 2.31

1.5 1.67 2

Since

and

are of 0(1), it follows that

=

0(d)

The additional shearing stress (at) is small in comparison to the unrestrained valu
Therefore, it is reasonable to neglect the terms in the complementary energy density due to ic., to take C, = 1 for an open section. We will show in the next section 0 and that this assumption is not valid for a closed section.

Example

13—5

Channel Section
symmetry,

We consider next the channel section shown in Fig. El3—SA. Since X2 is an axis of = x3, = 0. The expressions for the location of the centroid, shear center,
Fig. E13—5A
S

Shear
center

x2

402

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13

and 12 are

=

b

I+
I+

e=b

=be

th3
b h

The dimensionless coefficient? is essentially constant, as the following table shows:
b
h

?

1.00
0.75

0.50

0.429 0.409 0.375

We determine by applying (13—67) to the three segments. Taking S as indicated above, and noting that is odd with respect to X2, we obtain:

Segment 1—2
6
Psc

=

=
Segment 2—3

hh(

- -S

bh(

2S\

The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—5B. Since? < 1/2, the maximum value of q5 occurs

at point I (and 4). We generate next the distribution of and using (b):

starting at point 1 (since q =

0

at that point)

Segment 1—2
S

bin

152

Segment 2—3

/
=
The distribution of

'\

+

+

s2

is plotted in Fig. El3--5C.

SEC. 13—7.

APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS

403

Fig. E13—5B

—(1— e)

—e

Distribution of
Fig. E13—SC

D2®
D1

)+Mi
D2
I

D2

0

0
Distribution of qr/1242t

The expressions lbr J, example:

and AL are written in the same form as for the previous

I=

(1 ±
+

=

I —h5
c
(t'\2
=

±

+

+

+

(t\2 f=

Cs =
AL

=

(t)

=

404

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13

The following table shows the variation

and

with b/h for G/E. = 3/8. i.e., Poisson's

ratio equal to 1/3. Note that the comments made for the wide-flange section also apply
to the channel section.

c =—
h
1

b

2.33
2.65 3.4

2.55
3.39

0.75 0.50

5.24

In order to evaluate X2r, we need the flexural shear stress distribution due to F3. Applying (11—106) leads to

Segment 1—2
4(3)

Segment 2—3
4(3) =

— S)

The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—SD; the arrows indicate the sense of q for a +F3.
Fig. E13—5D

+

I

I

t÷F3

t

—1

Distribution of

/2

lb/it

SEC. 13—8.

THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS
and the cross-sectional constants in (13—72) leads to

405

Substituting for

=
=

(t\2
(1 +

+

+

The coefficient is of order unity, as the following table shows:

1

0.926
1.03

0.5

In Example 13—1, we determined expressions for the coordinates of the center of twist in terms of .'c,, and It is of interest to evaluate these expressions for this cross section.

The coordinates at x

0(sec (13—59), (13—60)) are

=

0

= X2

——i—1

+

Substituting for

and evaluating

we obtain
X2

=
=

1

0.5

0.476 0.625

0.836 0.485

13—8.

APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS

We treat first a single closed cell and then generalize the procedure for multicell sections. Consider the section shown in Fig. 13—6. The +S direction is from X2 toward X3 (corresponding to a rotation about the +X1 direction). Using the results developed in Sec. 11—4, the shear flow for unrestrained tor-

sion is

q =-1-C

2A

406

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13

where A is the area enclosed by the centerline curve. The shearing stress varies

linearly over the thickness,

=

+

C'\

—) =

+

but the open-section term has a zero resultant.
x3
q

S

x2

Fig. 13—6. Notation for single closed cell.

Substituting for qU in (13—66), taking 4 P lead to
CS

and integrating from point

=
We determine
by enforcing

+

dS — C

(13—73)

=

0

The two additional orthogonality conditions
4x2gbtdS =
0

are identically satisfied by definition of the shear center. t The shear flow due to is defined by (13—69),

q=—-7--q 14
+ Q4
t Noting that x2t =
dQs/ds, we can write

#x24.t = We merely have to identify this term as the moment of the flexural shear stress about the shear center. See Prob. 11-12.

SEC. 13—8.

THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS

407

where

is

indeterminate. Our formulation is based on no energy coupling
i.e., we require (see (13 --47))

between qU and

=

(13—74)

Noting that

is constant for a single cell, and using (e), we obtain

f
=
——

dS

(13—75)

The flexural shear flow distributions for F2, F3 are generated with (11—110). We merely point out here that there is no energy coupling between qU and
quqf
0

(f)

tion, i.e., w1

One can interpret (13—74) and (f) as requiring qr to lead to no twist deforma0. We have expressed the fiexural shear flows as (see (13—71)):
ft — qjij=q
(J) —

FJ_0)

j=3 k=2
Cr

=

2

k

Finally, the definition equations for the cross-sectional properties have the same form as for the open-section:
Eq. 13—70
Eq. 13—72
X2 is an axis of symmetry. Then, is an odd function of x3. If we take the origin for S (point p) on the X2 axis, = 0. Also, is an even function of x3 and = 0. In what follows, we illustrate the application of the procedure to a rectangular cross section.

Example

13—6

Rectangular Section—C'onsta,,t Thickness
Applying (13—73) and taking q5 = 0 at point
shown in (Fig. E13—6A) leads to

ci + b

fa — b\

The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—6B. Note that

=

0

when a =

b,

i.e., a square

section of constant thickness does not warp.

408

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
Fig. E13-.6A

T
Centroid

- x2

2a—

Fig. E13—6B

(a—b
+
b

Distribution of

We determine Q4, by integrating (a),

= at

— b'\ S2
(

+ bJ — 2
(a — b\

for segment 1—2
for segment 2—3

= (Q4 +
and evaluate
with (13—75):

/ a+b1\
dS

.11

a—b

SEC. 13—8.

THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS

409

The distribution of

follows from (b), (c),
2

j(

2a\)

2a(S

1(S\2\

j/

2a

2 \a+b
corresponds to q' acting in the clockwise and is plotted in Fig. E13—6C. Note that (— S) direction for + Ms-. Also, D is negative for b > a.
Fig. E13—6C

x3

b

T
2a
b

q'/D

qr(+

D-

2

We introduce a shape factor (,
depth width
b

a

410

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
The resulting relations are

and express the various coefficients in terms of a, t, and

J=
=

16a3t

(neglecting

the contribution oft)

4a5t [2(1
4

LATh
+
+

+
5(1

9(1
I
x2, = x3,.

(G'\ /
0

\) 1/2 L

L

=

The variation of C,,

and = -a

with b/a is shown in the table below;
C,

b

L;f for

.'

G

3 8

\

E

2
3

cc 10.43 4.41

0

0.98
1.27

0.0877 0.185

1.39

We found

(g)

=0

T)
IL

for an open section. Our results for the single cell indicate that

=0
C,>> 1
C,
1

for a closed section. We obtained a similar result for using the displacement-model formulation for a solid section. Since is due to the restrained shearing stress (q'), we see that shear deformation due to q' cannot be neglected for a closed cross section. We discuss next the determination of the normal and shearing stresses due to warping. The general expressions are

°isq
q'
t

tie

We consider the same problem as was treated in Example 13—4.46 (point 3) 0 2 3 —1. The maximum stresses are 2 i tanh 2. We nttmber the cells consecutively and take the +S sense from X2 to X3 for the closed segments and inward for the open segments.65 For large tanh I and we see that both the normal and shear stress are of the order of the unrestrained-torsion stress.04 (point 1) 0 —0. 13—7.L 0$ .e. The total shear flow is obtained by superimposing the individual ccli flows q' = qU = 0 for an exterior (open) segment constant for an interior segment — We let WIT (U — .1112 — S. We are taking Poisson's ratio equal to 1/3.nax. a member fully restrained at one end and subjected to a torsional moment M at the other end. the maximum shear stress for unrestrained torsion.35 —0.51 +0. i.I [3C. we found the restrainedtorsion shear stress to be of the order of (thickness/depth) times the unrestrained shear stress.SEC. In the open section case. 11—11). THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 411 The maximum normal stress occurs at point 2 while the maximum shear stress can occur at either points I or 3.C The variation of and 2 with height/width is shown below.. (point 2) 0 1. To illustrate the procedure for a multicell section. 13—8. We express the stresses in terms of ag. = 1 h/a c. we summarize the essential results here. 11—4 (see Fig. we consider the section shown in Fig..44 +0. M( = J which reduces to + C MC = since M = 7 = = we are considering the section to be thin-walled. For convenience. The unrestrained-torsion analysis for this section is treated in Sec.

A2} The warping function is generated by applying (13—6): 4' a = = Psc — (13—76) 7 We start at point P1 in cell 1 and integrate around the centerline. at the junction points b.412 e RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. Enforcing (11—67). c. C2 are determined by requiring each cell to have the same twist deformation. . 13—7.Jsj t — dS dS = A = {A1.S1 Fig. enforcing continuity of 4. 13 "2 + q. we require t See also (11—32). at b.t = for each cell leads to 2A = where a. The constants C1. For example. w1.S q1 . and d. A are defined as f = a21 . Notation for mixed cross section.

i. substituting for we obtain 0 j = 1. & determined terms of determined from segment cdcL. P2. + = Note that = 0 at points P1. We generate by integrating (i) around the centerline. .: Jb = 4)e + j Psc dS = + — dS Repeating for points C and d results in the distribution of 4) expressed in One can easily verify that 4) is continuous. has the same form as We just have to replace C with C'S. THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 413 which leads to a relation between and 4). Note that is taken on an axis of symmetry. 13—7). Noting (c).2 (13—79) aCr = B 1' — dS (13—80) f See footnote on page 385. 2 (13—77) + ii. For example.. we can write = Finally. We take the shear flow at points P1. Finally. at point b (see Fig.. 11—7. = and express the shear flow as J = 1.. The shear flow for restrained torsion is obtained with (13—69): a as 0 if P1 = The steps are the same as for the flexural shear determination discussed in Sec.SEC. P2 as the redundants.e. j. 13—8. we from segment ca is equal to evaluate by enforcing JJ4)dA=J4)tdS=O where the integral extends over the total centerline. e andf The redundant shear flows are evaluated by requiring no energy coupling between qU and qr which is equivalent to requiring qr to lead to no twist deformation. where Zj0 is the open section distribution and (13—78) is due to The distribution. and enforcing equilibrium at the junction points.

. the cross-sectional properties (1 . displacement relations for small strain and small finite rotations4 U1 112 = U1 + C02X3 — W3X2 + /4) cn1(x3 — x3) U3 = + w1(x2 = Yiz = Y13 + + (13—81 + U2. sin w and cos w 1. Also we can readily generalize the above approach for an n-cell section.e. prescribed. To extend the formulation into the geometrically nonlinear realm is straightforward. 10—3. Our starting point is the stationary requirement t — V*)d(vol. i — T2w1. One has only to introduce the appropriate nonlinear strain-displacement relations.1j3 + U31 + 1)2 The in-plane strain measures (62. plane Stress. X2r. Y23) are of 0(w2). i.) — d(surface area)] 0 a. See Sec. + M3[w3. i. To be consistent. 10—28.1 + U3.. We are working with Kirchhoff Stress and Lagrangian strain here. 1}dxj f See Eqs.).. 13—33 and corresponding footnote.e. the first term in (a) expands to d(vol. 1 3—9. 1)] M0f1 + MRf + 1 + i+ MQW1W1. i. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR RESTRAINED TORSION In this section. which is negligible according to the assumption of sinai! finite rotations.3U3. C and b are where e(u). 1 — co1. 13—5.e. we must use (10—28). We take the displacement expansions according to (13—3) and use the strain- = V*(o.414 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.2. 63. This approach is a mixed formulation. The linear case was treated in Sec.) = 1 1 1)] — W3 + + F2[u. Ci. Substituting for the displacements and noting the definition equations for the force parameters. are independent variables. 1(u52 i + x3w1. 13 Once 4) and zir are known. i — w1. one introduces expansions for both stresses and dis- placements. i + F3[u53 S + — t+ + M2{w2.2 l. we establish the governing equations for geometrically nonlinear restrained torsion by applying Reissner's principle. Tile displacement expansions assume small-finite rotation. Actually we assume O'22 = 1723 0.. Eq. . xar) can be evaluated.

and M4.SEC. there are 8 force M3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 415 where the two additional force parameters are = ÷ MQ = $J(x2c12 + x3a13)dA The terms involving the external forces have the same form as for the linear case.- Il equations for where 4. MQ) are present for the nonlinear case but they can be related to the previous force measures. 13—9. In the linear case. Two additional force measures (Me. but we list them again here for convenience (see (13—6)): JJcbTu d(vol. 13--5): a11 F1 A ± M2 —1—-x3 — -T—X2 M3 13 + ± = — + &ij + MT + _. for example. We use the stress expansions employed for the linear case with = They are summarized below for convenience measures.) + jJpTu d(surface area) + + F1u1 + where the end forces (the barred quantities) are defined as previously. h2 and h3 are functions of x2. MR. It remains to introduce expansions for the stresses in terms of the independent force parameters and to expand V*. x3. + + mrwi + in2w2 + m3oj3 + rn4f)dxi + F3u33 + MTO1 + M2(02 + M3co3 + (13—83) = (5Jp1 etc. f. Introducing (a) in the definition and MQ leads to = = $2 f11F1 + fl2M2 + fl3M3 + + + = if if if 4.. q. = (13-84) $3 = /34. + . F1 (see Sec. We proceed as follows.

For generality. 13—il. The complementary energy density function has the same form as for the linear case: — = —----' 1 2Ek. 1 — F3 — 0 0 + t See Prob. 3) = (13—85) + = Certain coefficients vanish if the cross section has an axis of symmetry4 One can readily verify that fi1F1 MQ (13—86) 0 when the section is doubly symmetric. See Prob.1 + F2 + m3 = M2.416 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.A + '2 + —-—— 13) + 1 + ——' + + + + ((Mw + + X2rF3) We have shown that it is quite reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation due to warping (C.. . + + + = 0 + m2 = M3.1 + b1 = 0 j+ — + — w1F3 — w1 1M2} + b2 0 0 + F3 + w1F2 — wi. 13 andt MQ — + $J(x2h2k + +xlh3k)dA + (k = 2. X2r X3r = 0) for a thin-walled open section. we will retain all the terms here. 13—12. Substituting Equations (13—82)—(13—87) in Reissner's functional and re- quiring it to be stationary with respect to the seven displacement and eight force measures leads to the following governing equations: Equilibrium Equations F1.1M3} + b3 = 1 1 (1 + + (1 + — + 1 1 + 2J32w1.

1 + (1 + + M2(—u52.1) + + j + /33(01. The following example treats one of the cases. t See Prob. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 417 where Relations = 1+ 1+ 1 + Wj.j(—US2. 1/33] 1FF2 1 MrTJ = + + (02 + 1+ G = M (13—88) = = (02. . [CrM?+ X3rF2 + Boundarp = I' + — + Conditions (+ for x1 = L. 1 i — x2uS3.SEC. 1 — Wj. 13—13.1) + F2 — wjF3 (01.1M2 = ±F2 — x2w1. w3 + — i) 1FF2 + + F3 + X3r = — + wi[u53. a member subjected to an axial force and torsional moment. 13—9. 1M3 + F3 + w1F2 — ±F3 1 + 7J1w1.j + + (02 prescribed or M2 = ±M2 (03 prescribed or M3 = ± M3 prescribed or = ± + (I + 1+ + = ±MT f These equations simplify considerably when the cross section is symmetric and transverse shear deformation is neglected. for x1 = 0) u1 prescribed or F1 = prescribed or prescribed or wi prescribed or + (0j(172F2 + + T3w1.1 + (0l.j + /32(01.1' We discuss the general solution of (13—88) in Chapter 18.1) = 1.

We are interested here in evaluating the influence of axial force on the torsional behavior. E13—7A P M F L Equilibrium Equations (symmetrical cross section and no distributed load) = F1. d dx1 0 (M1 + i) = 0 Force-Displacement Relations = GJw11 = ErI.1 = Al Integrating the last two equations in (a) and noting the boundary conditions. x2 Fig. fully restrained at one end and loaded by an axial force P and torsional moment M. E13—7A) having a doubly symmetric cross section.418 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.xi=O xj = L F1 P = 0 M1 + J3tF1w1. 13 Example 13—7 We consider a prismatic member (see Fig.ji F1 = i + Boundary conditions . const = corlst =P =M The first equilibrium equation takes the form 1. lead to F1 = M1 + /31F1w1. The linear solution (with no axial force) was derived in Example 13—i.11 2 .

The general solution is. which expands to + F + when we substitute for M1 using (b).ux + C2 smh (i + + = C3 + Mx {i + — {C1 sinh px + C2 cosh (We drop the subscript on x1 for convenience. Equation (h) shows that the limiting value of P is 1.:ij 2GJ GJA i±P I+ + F) This expression reduces to Equation (g) of Sec. represent the critical axial force and the corresponding axial stress 11 (. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 419 where P11 7.SEC. we can determine the rotation by integrating (d). 13—6 when P = 0. E13—7B.J to be less than the yield stress. As an illustration. We let F. 13—9. consider the section shown in Fig. Once f is known. (J/11) must be small with respect to unity.) Finally. The various coefficients (see Example 13—4) are In order for J= + . specializing (g) for these particular boundary conditions result in f= wi = { —1 + cosh — — — tanh sinh {sinh jtx + (1 — cosh These equations reduce to (13-57) when P = 0. M— f M f= [GJ C1 cosli . A tensile force (P > 0) increases the torsional stiffness whereas a compressive force (P < 0) decreases the stiffness.

.: Thin Walled Elastic Brains. Ii." Der Stahlbau. 1951. and K. KOLLORUNNER.: Variational Methods in and Plasticity. Franklin Inst. October 1946. Washington. 1968.. V.. . T. July 1970.: "A Theory of Torsion Bending for Multiceil Beams. Z. 503—510. 13 Fig. S. Vol. J. Cement and Concrete Association. TIMOSHENKO. Aero.: "Review of Literature Related to the Analysis and Design of ThinWalled Beams. Sci.C. Dept. 1961. Aero. pp. E13—78 x3 X2 and r. F. McGraw-Hill. G (t'\2( REFERENCES 1.: "Der Schuberverformungseinfiuss auf die Wölbkrafttorsion Von Stilben mit offenern Profil.S.." J. S. 12. 1969. New York. pp. R. 1967. BENSCOTER." J.. Pergarnon Press. 4.559—609.. BENSCOTER.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. D. C. 5. CHRISTENSEN: "Methods of Analysis of Torsion with Variable Twist. 10. MAISEL. C. 10. 6." Technical Report 440. 8." J. U. CHIEN: "Torsion with Variable Twist. IJ. K. T. No.. 7. Berlin.: "Secondary Stresses in Thin-Walled Beams with Closed Cross Sections.. London. December 1961. 110—124. B. B. pp. Vol 21. April 1944. and W. C. T. BASLER: Torsion in Structures. Office of Technical Services." NACA—TN 2529. of Commerce. Appi." J. HEILIG. israel Program for Scientific Translations. Torsion and Buckling of Thin-Walled Members of Open Cross Section.: "l3eitrag zur Theorie der Kastentrhger beliehiger Der Stahlbau. HEILIG. Springer-Verlag. 1954. No. J:: "Theory of Bending. and N. 1. I. VON VLASOV. S. R. Washington. 3. VON KARMAN. Mech. Sci. U. D.420 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.. April 1961. 2. 13. 9. 1945.

f U = — X3 + X3] — = (13—39). BURGERMEISTER. F. This problem reviews the subject of the chapter in two aspects. June 1956. 315—316.. 23.PROBLEMS 13. 13—3. (a) No coupling between the unrestrained and restrained torsional distribution requires 0 + The unrestrained torsional shear stress distribution for twist about the shear center (see Sec. H. AppI. A. Chatto and Windus. 421 14.: Buckling Strength of Metal Structures. 16. 18. T. is the St. G. STEin': Srabilitar Theorie. . Berlin. DABROWSKi." Springer-Verlag. 2. Venant torsional warping function. 17. BLEICH. REISSER. E. pp. and H. 1957.: "Gekrüinmte dUnnwandige Trager. London. The coordinate of the shear center is defined by = X3 if X3 3 where 13—2. Berlin. 1967. 11—11 Verify (13—40) and (13—44). Part 1. GALAMBOS. Hint: See Prob.: Thin." .: Structural Members and Fiames.J. Equation (b)) is given by IVIT O'12 . Mech. Prentice-Hall.. PROBLEMS 13—1. 1968. The shear stress distribution due to is given by (see (11—95)) F2 ' 3 = where F2 13 2 (733 13 are fiexural warping functions which satisfy = — x2 (in A) (onS) This result applies when the cross section is assumed to be rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. Akademie Verlag. 1952. 13—3. CHILVER. R.: "Note on Torsion with Variable Twist. V. Verify that + x2 — — x2] The restrained torsional shear stress distribution is determined from = MR when ç& = and (a) is enforced. and Equation (11—97). 1968. No. McGraw-Hill. Vol.Walled Structures. 15. New York.

We determine qf from (13—43). Determine the distribution of qr. show that - '12 = . Using the fiexural shear distributions listed in Prob. Discuss how the displacement and mixed formulations haveto be modified to account for variable material properties. and expressions for Cr. Starting with the force-deformation relations based on the mixed formulation (13—49). Consider the cross section fixed at x 0. Finally. the force parameters for the thin-walled case are defined as = MR = Verify that 1. 13—9. 11—14 and 12—1.L > at x 13—S. 13—4. derive the member force-displacement relations (see Example 12—2). Discuss how the solution has to be modified when the cross section at x = L is restrained against translation. 13—1. = MR when Open section Closed section Mixed section = Consider the following cases: I and compare vs. Also evaluate L and compare with the unrestrained value. dS Jqrc& dS 2. 3. 13—7. Note: The unrestrained torsion and flexural stress distributions are treated in Prob. Consider 1. Equation (d) follows from (11—29) and where Prob. Determine the translations of the shear center. Refer to Example 13—2. G). 13—5. Specialize for— (a) symmetrical cross section (b) no shear deformation due to restrained torsion and flexure—arbitrary cross section. for the cross sections shown in parts a and b and part e—d of the accompanying sketch (four different sets of data). 11—4. (a) and (b) take the form •fquqr_ = o is the perpendicular distance from the shear center to the tangent at the centerline. 13 (b) When the cross section is thin-walled. 13—10. Refer to Examples 12—2 and 13—2. Mu. Specialize (13—57) for .422 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. Consider no warping at the end sections and take = + 1. Determine 13—11. and—— (a) warping restrained at both ends (b) warping restrained only at x L 13—6. Discuss how you would modify the member force-displacement relations developed in Example 12—2 to account for restrained torsion. and qr for the section shown. Consider a thin-walled section comprising discrete elements of material properties (F. X3r = 0.

PROBLEMS 423 Prob. 13-10 t 0 t I a 0 ç1s2 I H . (d) /z + 'i—H Prob.75k (b) I I I 2k (c) See part c. 13—9 I Ii T F— 0.

an odd function of x3. x3)dA = 0 where He is an even function and H. Assume no initial strain but allow for geometric nonlinearity. Finally. co1 = == f 0 at x = at x 0. . =0 0. L (unrestrained warping) Neutral equilibrium (buckling) is defined as the existence of a nontrivial solution of the linearized incremental equations for the same external load. expressed in terms of displace13—15. Note that V = V* when there is no initial strain. (a) Establish "linearized" incremental equations by operating on (13—88) 13—14. Determine the critical load with respect to torsional buckling for the following boundary conditions: 1. Specialize (13—88) for a doubly symmetrical cross Section. Employ the notation introduced in Example 13—7. specialize the equations for a doubly symmetric section. i/A23=O 'li 0 and retaining only linear terms in the displacement increments.424 RESTRAINED TOIRSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. Evaluate the coefficients for the channel section of Example 13—5. 13 Hint: One can write 13 •JJ (x2 V q52r + 22 Also show that 113 — 13—12. 13—12). 13—13. Utilize x3)H0(x2. (b) Specialize for a doubly symmetric cross section (see Prob. Consider the case where the cross section is doubly symmetric and the initial state is pure compression (F1 —P). the strain energy density function (strain energy per unit length along the centroidal axis). The symmetry reductions are X2 = !72 =0 X2r X3r = 0 = Consider the two following problems involving doubly symmetric cross section. Specialize Equations (13—84) and (13—85) for the case where the cross section is symmetrical with respect to the X2 axis. ments. L (restrained warping) 2. Determine the form of V.. One sets F1 = U2 —P 0 U3 = W1 = (02 = (03 = f and determines the value of P for which a nontrivial solution which satisfies the boundary conditions is possible. Then specialize further for negligible transverse shear deformation due to flexure and warping.

14—i. The orthogonal unit vectors defining the orientation of the local frame (Y1. 14—i.14 Planar Deformation of a Planar Member 14—i. The plane containing the centroidal axis also contains one of the principal inertia axes for the cross section. the present discussion will be limited to the case where the shear center axis lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis. Item 2 requires Y2 to be a principal inertia axis for the cross section. The centroidal axis is a plane curve. However. 2. notation for planecurve. Y2) at a point are x 12 = where points in the positive tangent direction and denoted by 13. We consider the centroidal axis to he defined with respect to a global reference frame having directions X1 and K2. The shear center axis coincides with or is parallel to the axis. 3. '[his is shown in Fig. 425 . x2 Yl n r2 tl B S A n i2 x1 ii Fig. INTRODUCTION: GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS A member is said to be planar if— 1.

To complete the geometrical treatment.e. If the sense of the curvature is constant.426 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. the unit normal vector defined by 1 d11 (14-4) ciS x 12 = 13 but this choice is inconvenient when there is a reversal in curvature. we consider the general parametric representation for the curve defining the centroidal axis. one can always orient the X1-X2 frame so that coincides with ñ. for segment AB in Fig. when dt/dS = O. i. to avoid working with a negative R. One could take t2 = ii. this definition degenerates at an inflection point. rather than according to x1 = x1(y) x2 = x2(y) where y is a parameter. - + (p)] dv = dy (14—6) According to this definition. The differential arc length is related to dy by dS 2 2 (j45 1/2 + d. the +S sense coincides with the direction of t We summarize here for convenience the essential geometric relations for a plane curve which are developed in Chapter 4. R is negative when d11/dS points in the negative t2 direction. Also..g. 14 By definition. . 14—1. it follows that = + dx5 (142) The differentiation formulas for the unit vectors are dt1 1 (14-3) where 1 dt1 — d2x1 dx2 d2x2 dx1 According to this definition. e.. t = = dx1 + dx2 (14-1) Since we are taking t2 according to 11 x t2 = dx2 t2 13.

In what follows. since one must resort to numerical integration when the cross section is not constant. . FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS 427 increasing y. Finally. i. 14—2. 14—2. FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS The notation associated with a positive normal cross section. Force and moment components acting on a positive cross section. 14—2. Using (14—6).I'3 dA 012 Centroidal axis Fig.SEC. we develop the governing equations for planar deformation of an arbitrary planar member. This formulation is restricted to the linear geometric case.. namely. the displacement and force methods. ——-—-- dy dy (14_ R if.e. are described and applied to a circular member. the expressions for and 1/R in terms of y are - t1 = — ( I 7dx1 1j t2 = — ( —1 if 1 +— dy + dx1 dx2 dx2. is shown in Fig. a cross section whose outward normal points in the + S direction._ (It1 = -( t2 dy — — ( k\ d2x1 dx2 dv2 dy + d2x2 dx1 dy2 dy A planar member subjected to in-plane forces plane for our notation) will experience oniy in-plane deformation. we include a discussion of numerical integration techniques. The two basic solution procedures.. We also present a simplified formulation (Marguerre's equations) which is valid for a shallow member. except that now the vector . 14—2. We use the same notation as for the prismatic case.

F3 M1 SSY2Y3 dii = 0 (14—9) When the member is planar (X1-X2 plane) and is subjected to a planar M2 0 (14—10) in this case.iJ(Y3)2 = JJ(y2)2 dii (14—8) Since Y2. in + r1 x F+ = 0 - (14—12) . 14 components are with respect to the local frame (Y1. it follows that dA = flY3 dA = loading. x2 ) = t1 x t2 x1 Fig. Y3) rather than the basic frame (X1. X2. X3). the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish._. we consider the differential volume element shown in Fig. 14—3) and drop the subscript on M3: = M+ = M3t3 + F212' = Mt3 (14-11) Note that 13 is constant for a planar member. we work with reduced expressions for F÷ and M÷ (see Fig. 14—3. The cross-sectional properties are defined by A 13 = if dy2 dy2 = if dii '2 = .428 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. 14—4. For equilibrium. Force and moment components in planar behavior. These conditions lead to the following vector differential equilibrium equations: — dS + — = o dM÷ + . Y2. We define b and as the statically equivalent external force and moment vectors per unit arc length acting at the centroid. To establish the force-equilibrium equations. Y3 pass through the centroid and are principal directions.

dS r(S) Fig. The procedure is the same as for the . FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS. 14—4. lead to the following scalar differential equilibrium equations: dF1 — F2 + b1 = 0 (14-14) dM + +m 0 that the force-equilibrium equations are coupled due to the curvature.SEC. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 429 We expand b and in terms of the unit vectors for the local frame: b= + = mt3 b212 (14—13) Introducing the component expansions in (14—12). The moment equilibrium equation has the same form as for the prismatic case. 14—3. 14—5. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES We establish the force-displacement relations by applying the principal of virtual forces to a differential element. We work with components referred to the local frame at each end. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. and using the differentiation formulas for the unit vectors (14—3). The end forces are related to the stress resultants and stress couples by = = Mj52 = MA= —MISA (14-15) j=1.2 14—3. The positive sense of the end forces is shown in Fig.

F41 Fig. = equivalent rigid-body rotation vector For planar deformation. Definition of displacement measures. except that now we work with displacement components referred to the local frame at each point. only u1. co1. Convention for end forces. 14 prismatic case described in Sec. 12—3.430 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. 14—5. u2 and 0J3 are finite. 14—6. x2 x1 FIg. and w2 can be deleted: u1t1 + U2T2 — C03t3 Wt3 (14—17) The positive sense of the displacement components is shown in Fig. 14—6. t "Equivalence" refers to work. and the terms involving u3. We define ü and as = = = rigid-body translation vector at the (14—16) centroid. . See (12—8).

14—3. The virtual force system must satisfy the force-equilibrium equations (14—17). and integrating with respect to the cross-sectional coordinates Y2. = (F1. AP1) must be statically permis- sible. it must satisfy the one-dimensional equilibrium equations. AF2. M). = = {AF1 +AM÷ + AF2 — + (b) + — + dS . For planar deformation. and writing = cF1 e1 AF1 + 0F2 AF2 k + cM AM (14—18) = AF1 + e2 AF2 + k AM lead to the one-dimensional form Ss(ei AF1 + e2 AF2 + AM)dS AP1 (14—19) where is a displacement measure and is the force measure corresponding to d1. One determines by taking expansions for the stresses in terms of F1. i. substituting in the complementary energy density.e. F2. The virtual-force system (AF1. 14—7.SEC. ( Fig. M. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 431 We define as the complementary energy per unit arc length. We will discuss the determination of later. Specializing the three-dimensional principle of virtual forces for the onedimensional elastic case. 14—7. AM.. Virtual force system We apply (14—19) to the differential element shown in Fig. dS AF÷ = 0 (a) Evaluating AP1. y3. F2.

The only restriction on the stress expansions is that they satisfy the definition equations for the stress resultants and couples identically: dA = F2 $5c12 dA SSa13 dA = JJy3aii dA = 0 —ify2ci1 dA = M J$(y2a13 — y3a12)dA = 0 0 . 14—8. centroidal axis. 14 and then substituting in (14-49) results in the following relations between the force and displacement parameters: cj du1 U2 du2 u1 (14-20) eV* k dw dS We interpret e1 as an average extension.432 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. V* = V" (ô11. e. expand V*. The vector defining the arc QQ1 is QQ1 = ar2 dy = + — di2 + dt-\ dv Noting that dy (112 —7k-ti dv = o for a planar member.Y3 dS2 dv2 dv (14—2 1) if . In what follows.- In general. we discuss the determination of Consider the differential volume element shown in Fig. (a) can be written as dS2 — = is the complementary energy per unit length along the = = — By definition. as an average transverse shear deformation. F2. We select suitable expansions for the stress components in terms of F1. k is the relative rotation of adjacent cross sections. M. and integrate over the cross section. we obtain dS Y2. Substituting for dS2 in the general definition. Actually. and k as a bending deformation.

In what follows..SEC.. A logical choice for (when the cross section is thin-walled) is the distribution predicted by the engineering theory of flexural shear stress distribution described in Sec. we consider the material to be linearly elastic.. PRINCIPLE OF VURTUAL FORCES 433 The most convenient choice for iH is the linear expansion. x2 r +1)212 +Y33 r2 r1ty +dy) Y2 it Fig. 14—8. 11—7: a11 = 1q(F2) q= F2t/i (14—23) where t denotes the local thickness. The complementary energy density is given by 11*. — 0 2 a12 2 where c? is the initial extensional strain. and q is the flexural shear flow due to F2. Composite beams are more conveniently treated with the approach described in the next section. Substituting (a) in (14—21) and taking the stresses according to (14—22). Both expansions satisfy (a). (14—23) results in the following expression f This applies for a homogeneous beam.. Differential volume element. 14—3.t M — (14—22) where I 13. .

For example. 1 d2 AR2 = i2R2 for a rectangular cross section.434 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. — \\ — R} = are A2. 1 and If the section is symmetrical with respect to the 1'3 axis. 14 for V*: = e?Fi + k°M + where + = + + dA 2GA2* (14-24) if 55 (i - I e. due to the curvature. Inverting (14—25) leads to expressions for the forces in terms of the deformations: F1 = M— — LA — e1) — R(l k ) EI* R(1 Ô)(el — + / k° (14-26) F2 We observe that I — where p is the radius of gyration and d is the depth of the cross section. The thinness assumption is introduced . 1* The deformation-force relations correspoiiding to this choice for —ei F2 F1 M du2 U1 dr. is of the order of (d/R2) and can be neglected when (dIR)2 1. A curved member is said to be thin when O(d/R) 1. 1 and thick when O(d/R)2 We set ö = 0 for a thick member.1 u2 = = F1 + -w dw (14-25) M Note that the axial force and moment are coupled. Then.

e. The approximate form of (14—25) for a thin member is F1 dii1 Li2 (14—28) i—k° To complete the treatment of the linear elastic case. to determine the strains at a point. by taking by dS 14 27 - Assuming a curved member to be thin is equivalent to using the expression for V* developed for a prismatic member. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS In the variational procedure for establishing one-dimensional force-displacement relations.. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 435 neglecting y2/R with respect to unity in the expression for the differential arc length. 14—4. i. We express the . FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—DISPLACEMENT EXPANSION APPROACH.e. One has only to introduce suitable expansions for the stress components in terms of the one-dimensional force parameters. Note that these expressions are based on a linear variation in normal stress over the cross section.. we• can also establish force-displacement relations by starting with expansions for the displacement components in terms of one-dimensional displacement parameters and determining the corresponding strain distribution. we list the expanded forms of the principle of virtual forces for thick and thin members. Thick Member Cit0 + F1 + M'\ AF1 + + F2 /XF2 (14—29) + (ko + Thin AM} dS — J + + / M'\ + (\kO + h-i) 1 dS = (14—30) d1 AP1 14—4. it is not necessary to analyze the deformation. i.SEC. Ndw.

Y2' y3). we must first analyze the deformation at a point. . which is shown in Fig. = position vector to Q(y. and M. y3) in the deformed position (point Q'). The effect of transverse shear deformation is usually neglected in this approach. 14 stresses in terms of the displacement parameters using the stress-strain relations.436 PLANAR OEFORMA11ON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Figure 14—9 shows the initial position of two orthogonal line elements. To determine the strain distribution. This step is described in detail below. x2 Q2 Q1 Pj(y +dy) P(y) axis x1 Fig. Y2. The vectors defining these elements are QQ1 QQ2 = dy2 dy2 t2 a (14—31) a2 = I — We use a prime superscript to denote qua Iltities associated with the deformed position of the member. F2. 14—10. Initial geometry for orthogonal curvihnear line elements. tangent vector to the deformed centroidal axis. QQ1 and QQ2. at a point (y. for example: ?'= = position vector to point P(y) in the deformed position (point P'). and then substitute the stress expansions in the definition equations for F1. 14—9.

The next step involves introducing an expansion for in terms of y2. 2) and the shearing strain by Y12 The general expressions are '—12 3— Sin Y12 (1-3) Now. We denote the extensional strains by (j = 1. au2 c'y + 2 2(a2)" —. Neglecting these terms corresponds to neglecting the difference between the deformed and undeformed geometry.SEC. c. taking y = S. 14—1 1. we restrict this discussion to small strain. Substituting for the deformed vectors and neglecting strains with respect to unity. and noting (14—3 1): P'P'1 = 0)) — = / + C))J — = dy dy2 (14—32) or2 &Y2 / \. we consider only linear geometry. ô.V 1 ('U2 Y12 tj -' " a2 t2 -± cc2 The nonlinear terms arc associated with the rotation of the tangent vector. 14—10.e.u2 The analysis of strain consists of determining the extensions and change in angle between the line elements. Substituting for ü2. (14—33) expands to Istj. Equation (14—35) implies that a normal cross section remains a plane after deformation. 14—4. to assuming linear geometry. This notation is illustrated in Fig. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 437 From Fig. In what follows.. One can interpret co as the rotation of the cross section in the direction from toward t2. and evaluating the derivatives lead to the following strain expansions: . We express ü2 as a linear function of ü wv211 (14—35) where co = w(y) and U U1t1 + U2t2 = 1kv) (14—36) is the displacement vector for a point on the centroidal axis. i.

u2t2 (u1 —Wy2)tl Centroidal axis UI tl Fig. Displacement expansion. — u2 = I61IY20 0) = doi + (14—37) The vanishing of c2 is due to our choice for ü2. 14 = y2k) e2 = du. 14—11. . Deformed geometry for orthogonal curvilinear line elements.438 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER — 1 CHAP. 14—10. One could include an addiThis would give tional linear term. = $ and. additional terms in the x2 Q2 x1 Fig.

and M. we consider the material to be linearly elastic and take the stress-strain relations for c12 as: = E(c1 = Gy12 Substituting for r1. We introduce the assumption of negligible transverse deformation by setting e2 = 0. = ———--—-(e1 F 1 —y2/R — y.. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 439 expressions for and Y12• Note that the assumption that a normal cross section remains plane does not lead to a linear variation in extensional strain over the depth when the member is curved. Y12. is exact only when = (733 We generally neglect for a . and M in terms of the one-dimensional deformation parameters e1e2 and k. 14—4. The next step involves expressing F1. F2. The resulting expressions for (0 and k in terms of u1 and u2 are e2 = 0 du2 dS u1 + R dIui dS2 (14—38) — dS — When transverse shear deformation is neglected. we obtain F2 = Ge2 if = —Fe1 d (14-40) + Ekjj + The various integrals can be expressed in terms of only one integral by using the identity 1 1 — y2/R — 1-F 1 y2/R and noting that Y is a axis: $5Y2 dA = 0 11 f The relation for member. using (14—37).k) — Fe1 (14—39) and then evaluating F1. F.SEC. one must determine F2 using the moment-equilibrium equation. In what follows.

14 One can easily show that ri c/A I' dA = L JJ 1 (14—41) .440 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.14—1.y2/R For completeness. F. This difference (1' or F') is due to the nonlinear expansion used for Example 14—1 We determine I' for the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. However. the result for k differs in the coefficient for M.2 1 — y2/R =—R2bd+R3bln To obtain a more tractable form. = + F2 F1 + M k = k° + + lvi where = = A(1 + 4—42 e? = if (i — c/A k° = if - dA The expressions for e1 are identical with the result (see (14—25)) obtained with the variational approach. we list the inverted form of (14—40). using (1+x'\ I . I' = 11 1 y2/R =h J—a. we expand the log terms.

+ Co —. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 441 This series converges for xI < 1. we neglect (y2/R)2 with respect to unity. E14—1 H Y3 The relations listed above involve exactintegrals.. Fig.. Then In = d + d3 ii d I 3(d\2 + + 3(d\4 + and I' = { I + 3 2 3 d + + . when the member is thick.. Now.. 14—4.yJR JJ dA + =i{i . This assumption is introduced by taking 1 —y2/R in the expansions for = 1 + and I': + + .e2 Y2 .--.SEC.

we must also neglect 1'/AR2 with respect to unity in the expression for A'2 and I".) = dS2 dy2 dv3 (i — dS d7 dy3 Then (a) reduces to (a11 + a12 (i — dA] dS = (14—45) We take (14—45) as the form of the principle of virtual displacements for planar deformation. 10—6): SJJ(aii where + + a12 öy12 )d(vol.442 PLANAR DEFORMATiON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.) = represents an external force quantity and d1 is the displacement quantity We consider only and Viz to be finitc. . 1—y2/R — y2k — (14—44) at2 It is of interest to establish the one-dimensional form of the principle of virtual displacements corresponding to the linear displacement expansion used in this development. 14—9): d(vol. Y12 and using the definition equations for F1. and M. and express the corresponding to differential volume in terms of the cross-sectional coordinates Y2' Y3 and arc length along the ccntroidal axes (see Fig. 14 To be consistent. The general three-dimensional form for an orthogonal coordinate system is (see Sec. which are listed below for convenience: ci e2 — Y12 — y2/R U2 du1 du2 = k + u1 — U) do dS Substituting for e1. F2. The strains corresponding to a linear expansion for displacements and linear geometry are defined by (14—37). we neglect y2/R with respect to unity. When the member is thin.

14—4.and right-hand sides of (b) expand to j 54 [F1 + M (5k]dS = — / F1 / I + Rj M\ Au1 dM — dS Au2 +M d uS An2 \ F1 + I +j 1Aui Rj r J Au1 — —-. Example 14—2 The assumption of negligible transverse shear deformation is introduced by setting e2 equal to zero.. w. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 443 we obtain Ad1 (14—46) + F2 + M ök]dS = Js[Fi This result depends only on the strain expansions. provided that (cS) are taken as defining the strain distribution over the cross section. = (In2 + and the relations for negligible transverse shear deformation reduce to hEFt ôe1 + M ök]dS 1< = d (du2 u1 = + Substituting for Aw and the strain variations.e. = Au1 —id d Au2 1 Aui Au2 — I AU2 (5k = d2 + d and integrating by parts. substitutes in (14—46). One starts with one-dimensional deformation-displacement relations. We use the principle of virtual displacements to establish consistent forceequilibrium equations. Equating coefficients of the displacement parameters leads to a set of force equilibrium equations and boundary conditions that are consistent with the geometrical assumptions introduced in establishing the deformation-displacement relations.Au2 dM dS 1 +M— dS d dF1 — dM1 + Au2 [ [— F1 dS [— + . This leads to an expression for the rotation. the left. The following example illustrates this application. and integrates the left-hand side by parts.SEC. in terms of the translation components. One can apply it for the geometrically nonlinear case. i. (c).

Suppose we neglect u1/R in the expression for w: do2 CD k d2u2 This assumptiont is generally referred to as Mush tori's approximation. 5. . = (b1 + + (b2 dS + (PB! + + (p22 + ma) Au32 + MA) A A + (p41 + + (r42 014) AUA2 + M4 A The consistent equilibrium equations and boundary conditions for negligible transverse shear deformation follow by equating corresponding coefficients of the displacement variations in (e) and (f): S4<S<S3 + dF1 F1 — + 1dM d2M + b1 + — 01 0 +- + drn =0 s—sn u1 prescribed or prescribed or prescribed or F1 — u2 p42 — m do2 M= —MA S= UI U2 prescribed or prescribed or prescribed or F1 = = M F21 —F32 — in du2 One can obtain (g) by solving the last equation in (14—14) for F2 and substituting in the first two equations.444 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. The equilibrium equations for the tangential direction reduce to dF1 t See Ref. 14 and Ad.

See Ref. and it is therefore of interest to describe this approach in detail. CARTESIAN FORMULATION 445 The other equilibrium equation and the boundary conditions are not changed. They are summarized belowt for convenience and the notation is shown in Fig. We start with the determination of the force-equilibrium equations. Using (h) instead of (a) eliminates the shear term. Consider the differential clement shown in Fig. originally suggested by involves working with components referred to the basic frame rather than the local frame.SEC. The geometrical relations for this parametric representation are obtained by taking y x1 in (14—7). F2/R. CARTESIAN FORMULATION We consider the case where the equation defining the centroidal axis has the form x2 = f(x1). 14—5. 6. The resulting expressions differ. 14—5. - (14—48) ax1 + x dx1 + = 0 . we worked with displacement components and external force components referred to the local frame. The vector. equilibrium equations are dF+ dx1 See Prob. 14—13. 14—1. An alternate approach. f'df'\ + I—) - cos0 1 j t2 - [ / df \ d2f + '2 - (14—47) = t1 X t2 = 13 I ci: In the previous formulation. 14—12: dS = dx1 = i[ I r [ I 7df\21112 1 ylx1jj. in the tangential force-equilibrium equation.

14 x2 Y2 YI X2 dx1 x1 'I Fig. . 14—13.446 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. 14—12. dx1 2 pN2 12 1 F1t1 lj Fig. Notation for Cartesian formulation. Differential element for equilibrium analysis.

e. Consider the differential element shown in Fig. CARTESIAN FORMULATION 447 h are the external applied force and moment vectors per unit projected length. it satisfies the force-equilibrium equations identically: dx1 dx1 = = o + J1 x Expanding d1 x and then substituting for the displacement and rotation vectors. per unit x1. i. 14—14. dx1 = b dS = (cth)dx1 hdx1 = iñdS = (cthi)dx1 (1449) Substituting for the force and moment vectors. = F1t1 + F2t2 = N171 + N212 it—hi3 + P = N1 = F1 cos 0 — F2 sin 0 N2 = F1 sin 0 + F2 cos 0 the equilibrium equations expand to dN1 —dx1 (14—50) d = ——(F1 cosP — dx1 sin 0) = P2 dx1 = dx1 (F1 sin0 + F2 cos 0) (14-51) ——-(—-.e...i We —1(dM '\ F2 —N1 sm0 + N2cosO restrict this treatment to an elastic material and establish the forcedx1 = [e1 displacement relations. AF1 + e2 AF2 + k dx1 = d1 (a) where V* V* (F1. O= (0 v111 + 1)212 (013 = (0t3 (14—52) . The virtual-force system is statically permissible. F2 M) is the complementary energy per unit arc length.SEC. 14—4) by where fl. 14—5. They are related to b and (see Fig. using the principle of virtual forces.+ hJ=' \dx1 . i.

do2 (14—53) k= = ——— cos 0 dw dx1 The member is said to be shallow when 02 << 1. neglecting the contribution of F2 in the expression for N1. do1 do2 dx1 e2 a v* = —sin 0 COS do1 U -- +cosO——w dx1 . 14 we obtain dx1. 1)2 2 V1 Fig.448 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. N2. which relate the cartesian and local forces. substituting for N1. . One introduces this assumption by setting 4f cos U 1 Sm 0 tan 0 = (14—54) in (14—50). in addition. 14—14. Marguerre's equations are obtained by assuming the member is shallow and. in terms of F1. F2 and equating coefficients of the force increments result in dx1 dx1 = + + (d) oV cos2 0-— + sinOcosO—. Virtual force system. Finally.

The general conditions are v1 or N. dM dx1 (F1 df\ dx. prescribed at each end (14-57) or 14—6. dF2 0 dx.— co dx. If the applied loads are independent of the displacements. 14—6. to establish the boundary conditions.. dv2 df dv2 + —— dx. dw k dx. consist of three force-equilibrium equations and three force-displacement equations. it is usually quite difficult to apply when the member is . dx. for the planar case. namely.x. the boundary conditions for the Marguerre formulation are or w F2 + M F. —— + Pi = dx. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION—CIRCULAR MEMBER The displacement method involves solving the system of governing dif- ferential equations which. v2 or N2 prescribed at each end (14—56) M or w We obtain the appropriate boundary conditions for the various cases considered above by substituting for N. = e2 dv' d. F2 + d 7 dx. we can first solve the force equilibrium equations and then integrate the force-displacement relations.j J + P2 = 0 —— — in (14—55) e. This method is quite straightforward for the prismatic case since stretching and flexure are uncoupled. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 449 Marguerre starts with N. One step remains.SEC. N2 F1 F2 + and the resulting equations are dF. However. = 0F2 OM = —. N2 and ox For example.

We list the governing equations below for convenience and summarize the notation in Fig. R = const. (14—25) e2 F1 + M = 1 f'du1 — = + ui) F1 — 0) (14—59) k= k° + + M = Idw Solution of the Force-Equilibrium Equations We consider the external forces to be independent of the displacements. When the centroidal axis is a circular segment. we illustrate the application of the displacement method to a circular member having a constant cross section. starting with— 1. 14 curved (except when it is circular) or the cross section varies. we have RF1 = —M — R2 j (b1 + + where C1 is an integration constant. and the equations simplify somewhat.450 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. It is convenient to take the polar angle 8 as the independent variable in this case. Substituting for F1 in the second equation results in a second-order differential equation for M: + M C1 + R2[b2 — + The general solution of (b) is M= C1 + C2cosO + C3sinO + (14—60) . 14—15: dF1 dM / = R2b2 — m — RF1 (14—58) 1dM = ej + Eq. In what follows. 2. Integrating the first equilibrium equation. the exact equations (based on stress expansions) for a thick member Marguerre's equations for a thin member The results obtained for this simple geometry provide us with some insight as to the relative importance of transverse shear deformation and stretching deformation versus bending deformation.

DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 451 where denotes the particular solution due to the external distributed loading and C2. Notation for circular member.SEC. [M + (RF1)] transform the first two equations to = u2 + Re? + (M + RF1) (14—62) .)dU (14—61) dS RdO F F1 Fig. C3 are constants. Once M is known. 14—6. we find F1 using (a) and F2 from the moment equilibrium equation. The resulting expressions are F1 = F2 = cosO + C3 sinO + Mr)— R sine + c3 cos 9 + j(b1 — in ± . 14—15. Integration of the Force-Displacement Relations We start with (14—59) written in a slightly rearrangcd form: du1 — u2 Re? + RF2 + RF1) du2 + u1 + Rco = Rk° + To determine u1 and u2.

14 and d2u2 + = = 1/1 + Re? — + RF1) (14—63) ± R2k° + a1R2 — Re? I a1 = — We have previously shownt that is of the order of (d/R)2. F2=M=O u1 =u2=w=O atO=011 atO=O Specializing the force solution for no external distributed loading and enforcing the boundary conditions at B. 14—3. It is reasonable to neglect with respect to 1 but we will retain it in order to keep track of the influence of extensional deformation. The boundary conditions for this case are F1=Fa1. Various loading conditions are treated in the following examples. Example to 14—3 Consider a member (Fig. The six constants are determined by enforcing the three boundary conditions at each end. '\ (14-64) This leads to three additional integration constants. El4—3) fixed at the negative end (A) and subjected only at the right end (B). F2 W 1 (du. . and w from the second equation in (a). Eq. We solve (14—63) for u2. we obtain F1 = F2 = M F81 cos(08 — 0) 8) — FRI Sifl(08 RF51(l — cos(08 0)) To simplify the analysis.452 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. the form — F81 takes R' 'I' [a1 — 02 COS(08 0)1 where EI* (d\' = f See Sec. determine u1 from (14—62). (14—26). Using (b). we suppose there is no initial deformation.

Substituting for tJ' in (14—63) and integrating. U) = C6 + {O + sm(OB — O)} Finally. the constants are found by enforcing the displacement boundary conditions at 0 = 0: C4 = C5 = C6 = To determine the relative importance of stretching and shear deformation versus bending deformation. we evaluate the displacements at 0 and write the resulting expressions Fig. 14—6. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 453 Note that is associated with transverse shear deformation.SEC. E14—3 A F R3 (05 — sin FBI Constant cross section . we determine w using (14—64). we obtain c4 cos 0 + c5 sin o + [ai + 0 — 0)] The solution for u1 follows from (14—62): = + sin 0 — C5 cos 0 + C6 {o + [o — 0) + sin(66 — 0)]} Next.

14 in the following form: WE = UBI — sin + b1 Oe) = —2 sin 63 + 4sin 03 COS — COS 0B ± b2 + b3 &) 4Sin — sin — Slfl 63 b2 — (I) —4 03 + 2 sin 03 — 4 sin 03 COS 013 63 + sin 03 Co b 4(03 — sin_03 cos 03) T 4sin2 63 b— - — I + COS 63 The coefficients (b1. It follows that the displacements due to stretching and shear deformation are of order (dIR)2 times the displacement due to bending deformation for a nonshallow member. b4) are of order unity or less when is not small with respect to unity. are of order (d/R)2. sin 0 = / 02 — + — 02 cos 6 = I — sin0cos6 + — — 0(1 + — and neglect with respect to unity. 1* El" = (d'12 .e.. we replace the trigometric terms in (i) by their Taylor series expansions.454 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.. i. The resulting expressions are P8152 1 1 P31S3 fOfl 032 1* U3j [1 EI* = + Now.. Also. when the segment is not shallow... To investigate the shallow case. öe and ó.

The error due to neglecting transverse shear deformation for the shallow case is still only of the order of (d/R)2. the stretching term dominates when the member is quite shallow.3. Since (cl/S)2 << I for a member. (14—63) and (14—64) with A = A2 = cc. However. 14—6. we have shown that the percentage of error due to neglecting stretching and transverse shear deformation is of the order of (d/R)2 for a nonshallow circular member. If the member is shallow < I 5°). then u1. we must retain the stretching term in u51 since it is of the same order as the bending term. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 455 For example. The appropriate expression for is PatS3 In sum. Note that (c) corresponds to (14—62). UB2 and the stretching term in co8. E14—4 are given by F1 0) F2 = F52 cos(05 0) 0) M R sin(02 We suppose the member is not shallow and neglect stretching and shear deformation. and finally oi. we catnwt neglect stretching deformation. we obtain 12u + u2 = du1 R2k° u2 I — Re? + R2 M = + Re? (du2 We determine u2. Example 14—4 The internal force distributions due to acting on the cantilever member shown sin(011 — in Fig. The force-displacement relations reduce to (we set A = = in (14—59)) du1 — dO du2 = Re? u1 + = Rw = Rk° + EJ* RM dw dO Eliminating u1 from the first two equations. we can neglect the transverse shcar terms in UBL. Actually. 1 (d\2 AS2 EI* E (d\2 = lOG = (d'\2 0.SEC. The final expressions (for no initial deformation or support .26 for a rectangular section and v = 0.

0 — xi)2 x1) — — — x?) p2(L — ax1N51 to simplify the discussion. the governing equations (see (14—55) and (14—57)) reduce to dx1 d2M dx1 al'1 — P2 = 0 F2 F1 dM = Cl) e? + AL = -— + ax1 dx1 dv1 dx1 dv2 dx1 k= v1. Taking f = and = rn = 0.456 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. E14—5 using Marguerre's equations. Integrating the moment-curvature =M = x1)2 CINBI(L2 4) . k + M = d2v2 v2. w prescribed at x1 0 N2 = — dx1 + ax1F1 = 0 at x1 = I. we obtain M= F2 = We suppose e? = k° = relation. 14 movement) are = 02 {(O COS(OB — 0) — sin 0 cos 0 0 Sjfl(OB — 0) + COS(OB = 0) = F52R { cos 0)} COS(OB — 0) — cos Example 14—5 We analyze the shallow parabolic member shown in Fig. M =0 Integrating (a) and using the boundary conditions at x1 = L. We consider the member to be thin and neglect transverse shear deformation.

DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 457 Fig. 14—6... E14—5 —. E14—4 B l.F1 a= L2 Al (h/L)2<(1 t P2 = COflSt B NB! j .SEC.A const Fig.

between the deformation measures (e1. — — Ely2 = — + The axial displacement is determined by integrating the extensional strain displacement relation. 14 and noting that v2 dv2/dxj = 0 at x1 = 0 lead to the solution for v2. and AR1 is the corresponding reaction increment. + -= El M . we list the force-deformation relations below. 14—3.458 PLANAR DEFORMATfON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. The relations where the virtual-force system is statically permissible. 14—7. For convenience. dv1 = F1 — dv2 = NB1X1 AE + + ÷ - We express the last term in (g) as + 1 6 ) 1) [VT) a 2h. Arbitrary Linearly Elastic Menther — e1 + F1 + M e2 = F2 (14—66) k= + F1 AER. F2. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION Our starting point is the principle of virtual forces restricted to planar deformation. M) depend on the material properties and on whether one employs stress or displacement expansions. Js(ei AF1 + e2 AF2 + k AM)dS — AR1 = d1 (14—65) represents a support movement. e2. The notation for internal force quantities is shown in Fig. This discussion is limited to a linearly elastic material but one should note that (14--65) is valid for arbitrary material./L2 — Now. Then a2L4(A'\ 6 2(h'\2 and we see that this term dominatcs when h is larger with respect to the cross-sectional depth. k) and the internal forces (F1.

we illustrate tile application of (a) . 14—7.Q)dS — (14—69) Rk.QAPQ AM = M AP0 ARk = and substitute in (14—65): dQ = SS(eIFI. As shown in ExampLe 14—3. we apply an external virtual force. and] are defined by(14—24) for the stress-expansion approach and (14—42) for the displacement-expansion approach. and (14—69) expands to = + (k0 + + OA1FAIQ + UA2FA2. APQ7Q. However. To determine the displacement at Q in the direction defined by tQ.Q + WAMA. Thin Linearly Elastic Member e1 = e? + F1 (14-67) where A2. When the member is nor shallow. Formally.2) (14-68) APQ shear deformation is negligible and a1 = negligible. k° are the same as for a prismatic member. The reactions are the end forces at A for this example. this approximation introduces a percentage error of O(cl/R)2. E14—6A. a?. This expression is valid for an arbitrary material. generate a statically determinate system of internal forces and reactions corresponding to = FJ.Q (a) In what follows.Q + e2F2Q + kM. due to the geometry. it is reasonable to neglect stretching and transverse shear deformation. The basic steps involved in applying the force method to a curved member arc the same as for the prismatic case. the algebra is usually more complicated. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 459 k°. We suppose the member is not shallow and neglect stretching and franslerse shear deformation.SEC. A2. one sets A = A2 = If the member is shallow. We set e2 = 0 if transverse a? if stretching deformation is Example 14—6 We consider the thin linearly elastic circular segment shown in Fig. Q (j = 1. we can still neglect transverse shear deformation but we must include stretching deformation. We will discuss first the determination of the displacement at a point.

Mc. The internal virtual-force system corresponds 0 as tlie independent variable = To determine u81. we can evaluate the integral. in Fig. F2. M. applied at point C as shown .4 + R f3 Solution for a Concentrated Loading at an Arbitrary Interior Point We consider an arbitrary force vector. E14—6C. We list them below for future reference: " u82 = R Jo COB = j (. It is convenient to work with rather than 0. leads to expression for u82 and Taking = SF82.Q) follow directly from Fig. and moment.Q. Elj (ko + (d) W. 14 Fig. E14—6B: F10 = = R(1 COSq F20 = = cos (b) Substituting (b) in (a) results in the following general expression for um = R {e? cos + R (ko + sin (1 — cos — cos Jo3 cos + + Once the loading is specified. we take to F81 = ±1. E14—6A U2L Expressions Displacements at B = AF51. The force-influence coefficients (F10.460 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Terms involving the support displacements define the rigid body displacement at B.

t482 RI — eQS Fig.SEC. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 461 Fig. . E14—6B ill Ffi2 . 14—7. El 4—SC A.

Using the equilibrium equations. 14 = = + The expressions for the displacements at B due to an external loading are obtained by specializing (c) and (d) for no initial deformation or support movement and noting that M=O M= RPc1[1 — iic)] + sin(1i — ilc) + ivIc The solution for constant I is Pc1R3( = Sifl 0c — sin . + Sill 1k + sin . It is convenient to express these relations in matrix form: = R2[l — cos OR] — — 2 sin OR — sin OR] F81 + 4sin 08 cos 08] = Symmetrical sin °B cos OR] R[l — cos 98] F82 We call the member flexibility matrix. .(ens 1k — . Let the member be indeterminate to the rth degree and let Z1. The resulting equations relate the displacement at B due to forces applied at B in the directions of the local frame at B and can be interpreted as member force-deformation relations. represent the force redundants. we express the internal forces and reactions in . . 1k + sin Sill 0c cos + PC2R( MCR2 — cos + Or I — sin + = (Oc + Sin OR + cos Sin 1 1 PciR3I + —--h-— — Oc sin — sm Oc sin PC2R3 /1 cos 1k — cos 1 sin 9c cos + —-—. Z. . = 0 and = OR._______________ 462 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Sin Oc) + R2Pc2 cos Oc) + If we take point C to coincide with B. We describe next the application of the principle of virtual forces in the analysis of a statically indeterminate planar member. . .

J) + . the compatibility equations take the k1 where . and the prescribed external forces. From symmetry. Example 14—7 Consider the symmetrical closed ring shown in Fig..kZk (which is statically Substituting the virtual force system corresponding to permissible and in (14—65) and letting j range from 1 to r lead to the compatibility equations relating the actual deformations: + + kM. E14—7.SEC. 14—7.kM.0 + (14—70) M = M0 + k= 1 R1 = R10 + k1 R1.1)dS = 0 (a) 1= form l.r) + Fl. initial deformation.42..f) (14—71) =fkj = f + — + + + = + + ± + Fl..r (j = When the material is linearly elastic. due to support movement. Note that fik is the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of is the actual displacement of the point of Z1 due to a unit value of Zk... FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 463 terms of the applied loads and the force redundants: F1 = F10 + k-= 1 F2 = F2...and 1/AR Wesetl = I. minUs the displacement of the primary structure in the direcapplication of tion of Z.A2 = Oforathinmember.OM. at6r=0 F2 = 0 (a) j . Also.

Equation (h) states that the net relative rotation must vanish. E14—7 fm/F M F1 1' Now.464 We take PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. The compatibility equations reduces to f11Z1 = fii = &= due to a unit value of Z1 and is the relative rotation is the relative Note that rotation (X) due to the applied load. 14 the moment at 0 = 0 as the force redundant. M = R(t — cos 0) We consider I to be constant. Then. (b) reduces to (1 — 1 dS — —J cos 8)dO /PR\ JM21 cIS = PR1 TI\1 2\ ——) . To simplify the algebra. we suppose the member is thin and neglect stretching and shear deformation.

. The cartesian notation is summarized in Fig.SEC. the total moment is The axial and shear force variations are given by F1 F2 = When the equation defining the centroidal axis is expressed in the form x2 = f(x1).e. i. Notation for Cartesian formulation. 14—16. it is more convenient to work with force and displacement tities referred to the basic frame rather than to the local frame. xl N2. F2 ——--'- i2 it Ag. 14—7. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 465 Because of symmetry. The geometrical quantities and relations between the internal force components are tan 6 = dS = dx1 cos 6 F1 = F2 = N1 cos 6 + N2 sin U —N1 sin (9 + N2 cos 0 (14—72) . we need to integrate over only a quarter of the ring. 14—16. to use the cartesian formulation developed in Sec. Finally. (14—5).

and we can approximate (14—72) with cos 0 sm 0 cls 1 tan 0 = dx1 (14—76) F1 N1 +f'N2 —f'N1 + N2 F2 We cannot neglect the stretching deformation term in this case.PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. To obtain the equations for the Cartesian case.f'N2. it is reasonable to take F1 N1. we suppose the member is thin and linearly elastic. The equations for this case reduce to: We Displacement at Point Q dQ = L + (ke + (14-73) C'oinpatibility Equations = j = We can — \dx1 (14—74) 5[e?Fi. 02 1. we just have to replace dS by dx1/cos U in the general expressions ((14—69) and (14—71)).i + (ko + and N2 since the terms involving F1 in terms of N1 Plo = Then. When the member is shallow. (14—77) . cos 0 N10j + sin 0 + . We also introduced this assumption in the development of Marguerre's equations. However. we can neglect the stretching and transverse shear deformation terms. 14 first find N1. F2. N2 and then determine F1. The equations for the shallow case with negligible transverse shear deformation and F1 N1 have the forms listed below: Displacement at Point Q dQ =J [(ei° + N1. In what follows. When the member is not shallow. ( (14—75) j' One must generally resort to numerical integration in order to evaluate the integrals. due to the presence of the term 1/cos 9. + (ko + M. dx1 — R1.

SEC. one for the external forces (condition Z1 = 0) and the other for Z1 1. E14—8A P Primary We must carry out two force analyses on the primary structure (Fig. The results are displayed in Figs. Fig. Fig. x2. E14—SB). 14—7. E14—8B V2 = Z1 zI R242 . E14—8A. We work with reaction components referred to the basic frame and take the horizontal reaction at B as the force redundant. respectively. E14—8C and D. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 467 Compatibility Equation >j1k4 = fjk = = + Jx. dx1 (14—78) — f + + (k0 + Example 14—8 Consider the two-hinged arch shown in Fig.

. M.' ii (+) N2. E14—8D (+) H 'VI.1) + (ko + . E14—8C N2 KM 0 Fig.1 Compatibility Equation We suppose the member is not shallow. The compatibility equations for Z1 follow from (14—74): I J11—I El dx t cosO = Jo L + f'N2.468 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. 14 Fig.

= + Z1R. 3 To evaluate the vertical displacement at point Q. the various terms in (a) expand to f — h 0E1 = . R4 = = (d) 1.ft = L cost? ± dx1 + s: + f'N2 + k° JLIJLI(h)(h) + + + JL[( k0(f_ LIcosO !L L (+P(xi .a))dxi (c) Once the integrals are evaluated. 2. F— XQ 1/L Q (i_IL) FQ=+l . we apply a unit vertical load at Q on the prinwry structure and determine the required internal forces and reactions plotted in Fig. 14—7. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 469 Using the results listed above.SEC. we can determine Z1 from Finally. the total forces are obtained by superposition of the two loadings: M = M•0 + Z1M1 R. Fig. E14—8E.

We take the horizontal reaction at the right end as the force redundant and consider only bending deformation. It follows that (c) also apply for the fixed nonshollolv case. E14—9A is subjected to a uniform load per unit horizontal length. the effect of axial deformation cannot be neglected.470 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Example 14—9 The symmetrical nonshallow two-hinged parabolic arch shown in Fig. Figures E14—9B and C carry through an analysis parallel to that of the preceding example. When the arch is shallow. 14 Applying (14—73). The equation for the centroidal axis is 4h( where h is the elevation at mid-span = L/2). Deternzination of Z1 and Total Forces The equation for Z1 follows from (14—74): 1L Jo EJcosO ElcosO pL2 Note that this result is valid for an arbitrary variation of El. we obtain VQ2 = VA2 + (13B2 — VA2) + ('XQ — — El)cosO XQ1 M'\ dx1 ( +— jo x1(k°+-—J-—— EljcosO L f \ Jo I x1Ik°+—1—---—---—x1 I' M\ dx1 CL I \ 1L (k°+—'l—-— El) cosO / dx1 A numerical procedure for evaluating these integrals is described in the next section. The expression for Z1 follows from (14—78): — + . the total forces are N1 — N10 + Z1N1 N2 = = N20 + Z1N21 = — M=M. Finally. the deformed shape of the arch coincides with the initial shape when axial deformation is neglected. per unit x1.0+Z1M. that is.1 =0 Since M = 0.

d2 Fig. E14—9B N2 xI L N5. 14—7.00 M0 pL( Xj\ ) pL Force System Due to p . E14—9A p = Coflst B xi Pnmary structure R2. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 471 Fig.SEC.

4/1 / 2x1 For the assumption of shallowness to be valid. The total forces for the shallow case are N1 = = pL2 1 M= p1? f( ô \= PL( — . As an illustration. we consider A and I to be constant and evaluate ö for this geometry. The result is I — 8 Ah2 — 15(p'\2 8 where p is the radius of gyration for the cross section.1 = 0 M.1 = +f Force System Due to Z1 = + I One should note that (e) applies only for the shallow case. 14 If E is constant.472 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. N11 = +1 N2. (d) reduces to JL pL2 — dx1 — pL2 8h I 1 8h 1L1 + — + jL1 The parameter ö is a measure of the influence of axial deformation. in. Now. A'2 Fig. for (f')2 K< 1. 16(h/L)2 must he small with respect to unity.

the stretching terms vanish since Nj. (i) reduces to \ / .SEC. 14—8.Q = 1L we obtain M x1 P/ j When El is constant. In what follows. we describe two proceduresi which can be conveniently automated and illustrate their application in deflection computations. 14—8. E14—9D PQ +l 0). 8 for a more detailed treatment of numerical integration schemes. pL3( 2 (5 Since 0. We consider the problem of evaluating J t See Ref. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES 473 It is of interest to determine the rotation at B. and one usually must resort to a numerical integration procedure. The "Q" loading consists of a unit moment applied at B to the primary structure (see Fig. the results for the fixed end shallow case will differ slightly from (h). E14—9D). (14—79) . Applying (14—77) (note that Fig. Closed-form solutions can be obtained for only simple geometries. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES One of the steps in the force method involves evaluating certain integrals which depend on the member geometry and the cross-sectional properties.

14 where f(x) is a reasonably smooth function in the interval XA divide the total interval into n equal segments.k+2 = fdx J h + 4fk+1 + (14—83) Jk÷2= Jk + To apply (14—83). ('xk etc. and f0. This notation is shown in Figure 14—17. of length h: x We h= — XA (14—80) If f(x) is discontinuous. The simplest approach consists in approximating the actual curve by a set of straight lines connecting approximation. This leads to AJk..k = f(x)dx dx = h + + (14—81) = If only the total integral is desired. they can . . J f(x)dx = + L) (14—82) + which is called the trapezoidal rule. A more accurate formula is obtained by approximating the curve connecting three consecutive points with a second-degree polynomial. . X1 X2 Fig. that is.__________________ 474 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. we must take an even number of segments. 12 1. x1. 14—17. as shown in Fig. Coordinate discretization for numerical integration. 14—18. 14—19. as shown in Fig. . For convenience. we let x0. we use. a XO 11 B X.. represent the for each subinterval... corresponding values of the function. n must be an even integer. With this EXJk1. If the values of J at odd points are also desired. we work with subintervals and use a different spacing x. the coordinates of the equally spaced points on the x axis.

SEC. 14—8.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES

475

be

determined using
h

=
Finally, one can express
in =

Jo

12

{Sfk +

— Jk+2]

(14—84)

as

+

+ 4(11 + .13 +

+
(14—85)

+ 2(f2 +f4 +
Equation (14—85) is called Simpson's rule.

f

N
fk—1

fk
h

fk+1
S

Xk_1

Xk

x

Fig. 14—18. Linear approximation.

I

fk

fk+1

fk÷2

S
Xk

S

Xkf.1

Fig. 14—19. Parabolic approximation.

________________M
476

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER

CHAP. 14

Example 14—10
Consider the problem of determining the vertical displacement at Q for the straight member of Fig. E14—lO. We suppose shear deformation is negligible. The deflection due

Fig. E14—10

XQ

M

PQ

+1

XQ(1t)

to bending deformation (we consider the material to be linear elastic) is given by
dQ

J

MQ dx

(a)

where M is the actual moment and M0 is due to the "Q" loading. Substituting for M, expands to

=

/ 1L M

CXQ

M

'\

+
J

M

M

— J

SEC. 14—8.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES

477

To evaluate (b), we divide the total length into ii equal segments of length h, number the points from 0 to n, and let

—dx J0 El Cx M x—dx El Jo
I
I

M

With this notation, (b) takes the form
= Xk

+ "k

Xkjk

If, in determining we also evaluate the integrals the interior points, then we can readily determine the displacement distribution using cd).

Example

14—11

Consider the simply supported nonshallow arch shown. We suppose there is some distribution of It'! and we want to determine the vertical deflection at Q. Considering
Fig. E14—11

A

ill

El
L

only bending deformation, dQ is given by
dQ

=

M,

ds

1W

1W,

dx

J

478

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER

CHAP. 14

Now, the distribution of M

is the same as for the straight member, Then, the procedure followed in Example 14—10 is also applicable here. We just have to replace M/EI with
M/EI cos 0 in Equation (c) of Example 14—10.

REFERENCES
1.

TIMOSHENKO, S. 1.: Advanced Strength of Materials, Van Nostrand, New York, 1941.

2. 3.

Boan, S. F., and J. J. GENNARO: Advanced Structural Analysis, Van Nostrand,
New York, 1959.

REISSNER, E.: "Variational Considerations for Elastic Beams and Shells," J. Lag. Mech. Div., A.S.C.E, Vol. 88, No. EM 1, February 1962.
MARTIN, H. C.: introduction to Matrix lvi etliods of Structural Analysis, McGraw—Hill, New York, 1966. MUSRTARI, K, M., and K. Z. (IALIMOV: "Nonlinear Theory of Thin Elastic Shells,"

4.
5. 6. 7.

8.

Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Jerusalem, 1962 MARGUERRE, K.: "Zur Theoric der gekriimmten Platte grosser Formanderung," Proc. 5th mt. Congress App!. Mccli. pp. 93—101. 1938. Onai'i, J. 1.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967. HILDEBRAND, F. J.: introduction to Numerical Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York,
1956.

PROBLEMS

Specialize (14—7) for the case where Yi = x1. Let x2 = f(x1) and 14—1. let 9 be the angle from X1 to Y1 as shown below. Evaluate the various terms for a parabola

f=

+

Finally, specialize the relations for a shallow curve, i.e., where
Prob.14—1
32

14—2. Evaluate 1* and the sketch. 14—3. Verify (14—34).

(see Equation 14-24) for the section defined by

14—4. 14—5.

Verify (14—41) and (14—42).

Discuss the difference between the deformation-force relations based

on stress and displacement expansions (Equations (14—25) and (14—42)). Illustrate for the rectangular section treated in Example 14—i. Which set of relations would you employ?

PROBLEMS

479

I
d
14—6.

2t

Prob.

14—2

T
b=O.75d

I
Evaluate I' and 1" for the symmetrical section shown. Prob.
14—6

h=O.75d

t=d120

14—7. Consider a circular sandwich member comprised of three layers, as shown. The core layer is soft (E 0). and the face thickness is small in comparison to the depth d). Establish force-deformation relations based

on strain expansions (see (14—37)).
Prob. 14—i

I

I I I

Starting with (14—34) and (14—35), derive a set of nonlinear strain 14—8. displacement relations for a thin member. Assume small finite rotation, and

480

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER

CHAP. 14

linearize the expressions with respect to Yz' i.e., take

=
Y12

e1 —

Determine the corresponding force-equilibrium equations with the principle of virtual displacements. 14—9. Refer to Fig. 14—10 and Equation (14—31). If we neglect transverse is orthogonal to t'1 and we can write shear deformation,

(1 +

=

tj
dt'1

ldF'
-

= fl1t1 + fl2t2

= —/32t1 + f31t2 1 + e1 .-, di'2 I + e1 = =
+
= (1 +
R'

(a)

Verify that

can be expressed as
1

c

Cl

(i+e1

I

- y,k}
initial tangent vectors,

Also determine e1 and R' for small strain. Express ü in terms of th

ü=
and take y
(b) S (i.e.,
1).

U1t1

+ U2t2

Derive the force-equilibrium equations, starting with the vector equations (see (14—12) and Fig. 14—4),

dS

+

=

0

dM÷

+m +

x F÷ = 0

and expanding the force vectors in terms of components referred to the deformed frame: = F11'I + = Mi3
(c)

h=

b11'1

+

Assume small strain. Derive the force-equilibrium equations with the principle of virtual displacements. Take the strain distribution according to Equation (b).

________
PROBLEMS
481

(d)

Derive the nonlinear deformation-displacement and equilibrium equations for the cartesian formulation. Refer the translations and loading to the basic frame, i.e., take

=
P

+ V212

Pi'i + P2t2
problem.

Specialize the equations for the case of a shallow member. 14—10. The accompanying sketch applies to both phases of this

Prob. 14—10

h2 = const

(a)

(b)

Determine the complete solution for the circular member shown. Utilize symmetry at point A = co = F2 = 0) and work with (14—58), (14—59). Discuss the effect of neglecting extensional and shear deformation, i.e., setting (1/A) (1/42) = 0. Repeat (a), using Mushtari's equations for a thin member with no

transverse shear deformation, which are developed in Example 14—2. Show that Mushtari's approximation (u1 << du2/dO) is valid when the segment is shallow. 14—11. The sketch presents the information relevant to the problem:
Prob. 14—11
P2 =
cOnSt

2

L

L

'j

L2

x2

482

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER
(a)

CHAP. 14

Apply the Cartesian formulation to the symmetrical parabolic arch

shown. Consider the member to be thin and neglect transverse shear deformation. (b) Specialize (a) for negligible extensional deformation (set 1/A = 0).
(c)

Specialize (a) for the shallow case and investigate the validity of

Marquerre's approximation. 14-42. Refer to Example 14—6. Determine UB2 due to a uniform distributed constant. loading, b2 Determine the displacement measures at B (see sketch). Consider 14—13. only bending deformation. Note: It may be more convenient to integrate the governing equations rather than apply (14—69).
Prob. 14—13

A

14—14.

Solve two problems with the information sketched:
Prob. 14—14

(a)

Determine the fixed end forces and radial displacement at point B
with the force method. Consider only bending deformation and utilize symmetry at B.

(b)

Generalize for an arbitrarily located radial force.

PROBLEMS
14—15.

483

Refer to Example 14—7.

(a) (b)

Determine the radial displacement at B defined in Fig. E14—7. Determine the force solution for the loading shown.
Prob. 14—15

P

P
14—16.

The sketch defines a thin parabolic two-hinged arch.
Prob. 14—16

x2

Determine the horizontal reaction at B due to the concentrated load. Consider the arch to be nonshallow. (h) Utilize the results of(a) to obtain the solution for a distributed loading
(a)
(c)

p2(x) per unit x1. Determine the reactions resulting from a uniform temperature increase,
T.

(d)

Suppose the horizontal support at B is replaced by a prismatic member extending from A to B. Assume the connections are frictionless hinges. Repeat parts a and c.

484

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER

CHAP. 14

14—17.

Consider the arbitrary two-hinged arch shown. Discuss how you

Prob.

14—17

would generate the influence line for the horizontal reaction. Utilize the results contained in Examples 14—10 and 14—11.

15

Engineering Theory of an Arbitrary Member
15—i.

INTRODUCTION; GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS

In the first part of this chapter, we establish the governing equations for a member whose centroidal axis is an arbitrary space curve. The formulation is restricted to linear geometry and negligible warping and is referred to as the theory. Examples illustrating the application of the displacement and force methods are presented. Next, we outline a restrained warping formulation and apply it to a planar circular member. Lastly, we cast the force method for the engineering theory in matrix form and develop the member force-displacement relations which are required for the analysis of a system of member elements. The geometrical relations for a member are derived in Chapter 4. For convenience, we summarize the differentiation formulas here. Figure 15—1 shows the natural and local frames. They are related by

cos çbñ

+ sin çt'b

= —sin4iii +
where = we obtain

Differentiating (a) and using the Frenet equations (4—20),
dt

= at

0

0

t
0

(15-1)

1t3

Note that a is skew-symmetric.
485

486

ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER

CHAP. 15

n

I

b

Local reference directions

Fig. 15-i. Natural and local reference frames for a member element.

of a point, say Q, are taken as S and Y2, y3. The curvilinear Letting K be the position vector to Q (see Fig. 15—2),

R=
and differentiating, we find
13R

+ y2t2(S) +

(15—2)

= (t

y2a12

y3a23t2 + y2a23t3
(15—3)

— = t2
3K
3y3

3K

The differential volume at Q is
d(vol.)
(1

Y2a12 — y3a13)dS dy2 dy3

=
where

(i

E

dS dy2 dy3

(15—4)

is the coordinate of Q in the normal (11) direction and the radius of curvature. Also,
3R 3R
..

= 1/K

is

(1
Y3

+
(15—5)

y2a23 =

/1
Y2

+

dcb

f See Sec. 4—8.

SEC.. when << 1 (15—8) where b is a typical cross-sectional dimension.e. which requires a23 =0 d/ (15—6) It is reasonable to neglect y/R terms with respect to unity when the member is thin. and We express d4. (15—8) is satisfied. In what follows. i./dS as dq5 dS (15—7) where L is the total arc length and is the total increment in The nonorthogonality due to can be neglected when the member is only slightly twisted. i. . Curvilinear directions.e. INTRODUCTION.. we will assume the member is thin. when the cross-sectional dimensions are small in comparison to ay2 — Fig. and defines the orientation of the principal inertia directions. 15—2. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS 487 and the local vectors at Q are orthogonal when a23 0.

15—3. + rn + t1 x F÷ = — - 0 We express the force and moment vectors in terms of components referred to the local frame. a member is planar if r = 0 and the normal direction (Il) is an axis of symmetry for the cross section. 15—2. Only a12 is finite for a planar member: a13=a23=0 Example 15—3 is Consider the case where the centroidal axis is straight and The member is said to he naturally twisted. Example 15—2 By definition. = FTt = = (15—10) m't . R (H'\2 1 where R is the radius of the base circle and H is the rise in one full revolution. The vector equilibrium equations follow from the requirement that the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish: dS _. FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS To establish the force-equilibrium equations. We use the same notation as for the planar case. const IC we can assume aR/aS is orthogonal to F2. we consider the differential element shown in Fig. where b is a typical cross-sectional dimension. = a13 (Ic!) = 0 T= If bk < 1. Only 023 varies linearly with finite for this case: S. The helix is thin when b/R c< 1.488 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. We take the centroidal axis to be in the X1-X2 plane and define the sense oft2 according tot2 x 13 = Theangle is constant and equal to either 0° (12 or 180° (12 = —ii). 15 Example 15—i The curvature and torsion for a circular helix are derived in Example 4—5: 1 R.

where F= F2. b2. . _F3. a13 = a23 = 0 and the equations uncouple naturally into two systems. 15—2. rn3. one associated with in-plane loading (b1.F2}Tt (b) Substituting in (15—9). F3} etc. FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS bc/S + 489 dS2 + c/S 2 inc/S + c/S 2 Fig. 15—3. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. x = FJ3 = = {O. lead to the following equi0 aF + b = dM +F0J — a12F2 —a33F3 + b1 = — 0 + dF3 dM1 a12F1 a23F3 + b2 = 0. 0 0 (15—11) + a13F1 + a23F2 + b3 = + m1 = a12M2 — a13M3 — + a12M1 a23M3 + m2 — F3 0 When the member is planar.SEC. The vector derivatives are dF÷ tIS dS dFT = -------t + 'Tat dS (a) — dS — + Also. and noting that librium equations: —-a.

M3) and the other with out-of-plane loading (b3. m2. M2). . — 1. is a function only of F and M. Virtual force system. M1. 2. Since we are neglecting warping restraint. in1. 15—4. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES We consider the material to be elastic and define V" as the complementary energy per unit arc length. 15 F2. dF3 dM1 dM2 1 1. We let Iav* .490 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 3 (15 13) - k = {kJ and write the one-dimensional principle of virtual forces as dS = Js(eT AF + kT AM)dS (15—14) dS It (0 Fig. + — in1 = = 0 (15—12) + + m2 F3 0 15—3. The in-plane equations coincide with (14—14) when we set a12 = 1/R and the out-of-plane equations take the form F1. RELATIONS—NEGLIGIBLE WARPING RESTRAINT. F3.

of depends on the material properties. In what follows. the left-hand terms can be expanded. we apply the principle of virtual forces to the element shown in Fig. we consider the material to be linearly elastic and approximation with the complementary energy function .SEC.aw) dS and substituting in (15—14) lead to the following force-displacement relations: du — 10 an e + (15—16) k dO) = aY* du1 — — e1 = C2 = = du2 Cj2 a v* + a12u1 — + + 023u2 — e3 = k1 (113 = du3 + aV* dw1 = DV" = dw2 — 0120)2 — (1130)3 k2 = k3 = (* = + + 0120)1 — 023C03 = d0)3 + 0230)2 Once is specified. The form. and the member geometry. AFT an + + AMT . We define ü and ii5 as = = uTt = equivalent rigid body translation (15—15) vector at the centroid = = equivalent rigid body rotation vector The virtual system satisfies the equilibrium equations (15—5) identically and therefore is statically permissible. NEGLIGIBLE WARPING RESTRAINT 491 Now. the particular stress expansions selected. Evaluating APi. 15—4. 15—3.

F1 =7+ M-. we are considering the member to be thin. + = is the where is the unrestrained torsional distribution due to MT and flexural distribution due to F2. = torsional moment with respect to the shear center coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid — F3y2 = if —j-'- dA = Note that (lST-i7) is based on if dA a linear expansion for the normal stress. we are also neglecting the effect of curvature.e. 15 for the prismatic case. M3 13 and using the shear stress distribution predicted by the engineering theory. In addition to these approximations. The approximate force -displacement relations for a linearly elastic thin curve member are + F2 F1 = du1 — — = e3 + MT = = du2 du3 + a12u1 — C21U3 — - F3 + a13u1 + a21tc2 + (03 15 k1 = MT = dü1 M2 M3 UI3 18 a12co2 — a13w3 dw2 —a23co3 k3 = + dw3 U.492 ENGINEERiNG THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. i..) + a13co1 + 1223(02 . which is developed in Sec. 1 2—3: = + where + + + + + + + (15-17) MT = M1 + Y2.

we apply the displacement method to a circular planar member subjected to out-of-plane loading. by definition. 15—5. 15—4. (02) displacements. In what follows. due to the curvature. an out-of-plane loading will produce only out-of-plane displacements. U2. Note that flexure and twist are coupled. We suppose the cross section is constant and the shear center coincides with the centroid. That is. It is convenient to take the polar angle e as the independent variable. Equilibrium Equations (sec (15—12)) + — Rh3 0 M2 + R. the shear center is on the Y2 axist and there is no coupling between in-plane (u1.SEC. and out-of-plane (u3. where 15—4. is a plane of symmetry for the cross Section. its application is restricted to simple geometries. The governing equations are summarized below and the notation is defined in Fig. The approximate force-displacement relations for out-of-plane deformation for a thin planar member are e3 = F3 MT — du3 = MT dw1 I + (15-19) k2 = k2 M2 + 1 = M1 — y2F3.n1 =0 dM2 +Rrn2—RF3=O Force-Displacement Relations (see (15—19)) e3 F3 ldu3 = = M1 + k1 I /dw1 + M2 k2 = o k2 = l/dw2 + t The shear center axis lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis. which. . DiSPLACEMENT METHOD—CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER Since the displacement method involves integrating the governing differential equations. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 493 When the member is planar. even when the shear center coincides with the centroid.

. A. 15 Boundary Conditions F3 M1 M2 The or or or u3 prescribed at each end (pts. B) solution of the equilibrium equations is quite straightforward. 15—5. Notation for circular member. Fig.. We integrate the first equation directly: F3=C1—RJ0b3d0 The remaining two equations can be transformed to (15—20) (d) = dM1 + Rin1 (e) We solve (d) for M1 and determine M2 from (e). + Rm1 is the particular solution of (d). The resulting expressions are M1 = C2cosO + C3 sinG + M2 = —C2sinO + C3cosO + where M1 . x2 P3 i313 F3 B the X1 —X2 plane.494 ENGiNEERING THEORY OF AN ARBiTRARY MEMBER CHAP. are axes of symmetry.

The complete solution involves six integration constants which are determined by enforcing the boundary conditions. E15—4 b3 = const h3 = coast in (15—20). The following examples illustrate the application of the above equations. Solving the first equation for and then determining W2 and u3 from the second and third equations lead to = C4cosO + C5 sin fJ + wi. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 495 The solution of the force-displacement relations is also straightforward. = —C4 sin U + C5cosU + d RM1 C6 — +j dO + is the particular solution for wi. d2co1 First. = (15—22) which is an indicator for torsional deformation. where Example 15—4 The member shown is Sxed at A and subjected to a uniform distributed loading. Taking Fig. we transform (b) to + w1 = Rk2 R2 — in1 + R (1 + (f) RM5 = where .. 15—4.SEC. we obtain F3 = C1 — Rb30 (a) .Rw2 is a dimensionless parameter.

the equation for w3 becomes + w1 = The particular solution of (b) is (1 — (1 + — 0) (b) + [0 cos(OB 9)] Using the above results and specializing (15—23) for this support condition lead to the following expressions for the displacements: WAI COS 0 + sin 0 C05 + + sin 0 — 9 cos(08 — .—R2h3[1 — cos Example 15-5 can be determined by applying the The force system due to the end action. 15 The equation for M3 reduces to + Then. librium conditions directly to the segment shown in Fig. E15—SA. Using (a). — = M2 C2 cos 0 + C3 sin 0 + RF3 R2b3 —C2.sinO + C3cosO — The boundary conditions at B require F3=M1=M2=O = C2 = C3 R5308 —R2h3 sin at 0=08 R2b3 cos Replacing — 0 by the final solution is F3 = = M2 Rb30 R2b3[q — sin ?q] . This leads to F3 = = FB3R(l — cos F83R[l •— — 0)] (a) M2 = We — sin =— sin(Oa 9) suppose there is no initial deformation.496 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. M1 = RF3 = RC1 — R250 R2b30 = RF3 = and the solution for M3 and M2 follows from (15—21).

Also. I + cosO] .sin 2 Rw42 Sm 0)3 1—c. terms involving c1 are due to twist deformation. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 497 SlflO + . + + + Roi41(l — cos 1—c3 3 C05 sin Th — 2c1 sin + El2 + . 15—4. + + sln(OR — and define the rigid body displacements due to support movement. The rotations and Terms involving Fig.SEC. cosO + . 1] — —--—. Sm 0 — 133 1 Osln(Oa — — (d) UA3 + RthAI(l — cos RFB3 IF I £1) — Rö5A2 Sifl COS 0 SW + C1j sin P 1L 0 cos(05 — 0) + c. E15—5A F3 M2 A I? translation at B are listed below: COS + sin 0a COS + R2P83 f ± c1] sin 1 sin + —h--— 13)33 + cos 033 -.

3 and v = 0.3 GA3R2 — G [io k.16 3. 11—3. 15 To investigate the relative importance of the various deformation terms.4 Fig. The properties aret 1 61 _6 (for I A3 5A — 5d2d3 d3) J = Then.54 0. .3) 2 3 2. El 5—5)3.8 7.498 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. E15—5B T 1(3 t The torsional constant for a rectangular cross Section is developed in Sec.69 (Ibr v 1. The values of 4k and for d3/d2 = are tabulated below: = E12/GJ d3/d2 1 4k 1. (d3\2 El2 — E [1 (di'\21 2. we consider the rectangular cross section shown in Fig.75 3.i2) J 1.

FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 499 Since (d2/R)2 << 1. we find M1 = 1142 0 Rm1 The displacements follow from (15—18) U3 = (13. . From symmetry. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES In this section. (15—17)) follow. using (15—16).SEC. In general. 15—5. — 0 RM2 WI R2m1 = = x2 Fig. Then. we see that it is reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation. E15—6 b3 = m2 0 const 15—5. For the shallow case. The steps involved are the same as for the prismatic or planar case and therefore we will not reiterate them here. We restrict this discussion to the case where the material is linearly elastic. the member is thin and slightly twisted. we can neglect in the expressions for UB3. we cannot neglect twist deformation when the member is not shallow. El 5—6) subjected to a uniformly distributed twisting 0 and M1. The general form of the expression for the displacement at an arbitrary point and the compatibility equations corresponding to these restrictions (see (15—14). M2 are constant. Example 15—6 moment. F3 Consider a closed circular ring (Fig. and warping is neglected. we illustrate the application of the principle of virtual forces to curved members.

= cos + sin at çbt3 = —sin + cos x1=O . We take X1 to coincide with the ceniroidal axis and X2.0 + .Q + (a-) (15—24) + + Compatibility Equations Z1. t3.JMT. + Example 15—7 Consider the nonprisinatic member shown below.ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 2 r) (15—25) where + JMT.kldS + + + + = + + + = M1 + y3F2 — v2F3 The reduced form for out-of-plane deformation is obtained by setting F1 = F2 = 0.0 + R1 = R1. 15 Displacement at Point Q = —i + + (k20 + j [(ei° + + + Fj. X3 to coincide with the principal inertia directions at the left end (point A).k + — + ETM31M3. The principal inertia directions are defined by the unit vectors t2. The centroidal axis is straight but the orientations of the principal inertia axes vary.fkJZJ 3= 1 kA kZk (k = 1. Z2 Zr = force redundants = F30 + = M3.

i.! with respect to the local frame. We suppose that the shear Fig. the X2. It is convenient to work with translationcomponents (v52. 15—5. For P3. E15—7C: — P3(L x1)12 the components of It. we consider the problem of determining the translations of the centroid at B due to the loadingshown in Fig. M2 = P2(L M3 == — — P2(L x1)cos q5 .e.SEC. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES Now. E15—7A x2 x1 axts center coincides with the centroid and cializing (15—24). 11L(i + (b) Force Systems The moment vectors acting on a positive cross section due to P2. Spefor a transverse load applied at the centroid. X3 directions. v53) referred to the basic frame. and noting that M1 = the displacement expression reduces to dQ = 0 shear deformation is negligible. E15—7A.. P3 applied at B (Fig. we must These follow from Fig. E15—7B) are — P2(L — — = To find M2. M3.

/B P3 Fig. Introducing (d) in (b). (f) Determination of CR3 Due to P2 The virtual-force system for VB3 corresponds to P3 = + 1. E15—7B 1'2(L—x1)i3 'I —P3(L L-x. 15 Fig. Using (e) leads to . E15—7C M2r2 ——P2(L—x1)z1 M3t3 For M2 = M3 = +P3(L — — 1)cos 4) x1)sin4) (C ) Determination of Due to P2 The virtual-force system for we obtain corresponds to P2 = + 1.502 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.

E15—9 x2 42 44 12. Fig. The virtual loading for this displacement is rn1 = + 1. Only M1 and M2 arc finite for this loading. we see that M1 = = 0 Suppose the rotation w1 in the direction of in1 is desired. 15—5. Using symmetry. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 503 Example 15—8 We rework Example 15—6 with the force method. The moment distributions T . we obtain TO R2 COl = Example 15—9 Consider the closed ring shown.J are constant T We take the torsional moment at 0 = M1 0 as the force redundant. Also. Starting with and substituting for M2. the behavior is symmetrical with respect to X1 and we have to analyze only one half the ring.SEC.

15 Specializing (l5—25) for this problem. E15—1OA A P13 (Displacement restraint C iriX1 direction at B) B . El 5— bA. Using (15—24) and (a) leads to 2wAi = 2RJ r/T sin 0\sin 0 + fT cos O'\ cos 01 RTa[l COAl I Example 15-10 We analyze the planar circular mcmber shown in Fig. M1. El2 dO f11 = 2R J + and then substituting for M1. We could have arrived at this result by noting that the behavior is also symmetrical with respect to X2.504 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. A1 = = ' 12 E12) sin cos 0 0 - [sin2 and it follows that Z1 = 0.. This requires M2 to be an even function of 0. M2. The loading is out-ofplane. and M2 are finite. Fig. we consider the shear center to coincide with the centroid and neglect transverse shear deformation. f11Z1 = A1 A1 = —2R . The virtual-force system for WAI is T = + 1./2 [M1 0M1 1 + dO 0M2. It is convenient to take the reaction at B as the force redundant. To simplify the algebra. and only F3.

= PR[l M2.0 = +P M1. El 5—lOB: B1 = d1 — R4 UA3 R2 —MA2 = —MAI = Z1 = F53 d2 = d4 = = E15—1OB M1 .SEC. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 505 Primary Structure The primary structure is defined in Fig.1 = +1 = R(1 — cos M21 —Rsini1 ii) (c) . El 5— [OC are: For F: F'3.0 = COS(ii — llc)] (b) —PR sin(lJ — 'Ic) ForZ1 = +1: 'Ic F3. xl Force Analyses The force solutions for the loadings shown in Fig. 15—5.

. 15 Fig.506 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. E15—1OC C =+i B Compatibility Equation (15—25) IL. we obtain the following expressions and R3 [(1 + — — Sin — — (1 — — Sill COS UA3 + RrOA2 sin cos + R2 sin(05 — O)dG {o. [i + — cos(05 — Or)] — sin — sin Oc + sin = El2 GJ Note that we could have determined A1 and using the results of Example 15—5.j = fit !ii = R + + M2 for Substituting for the internal force and reactions.

13) rather than the global frame. we can treat the differential line elements as if they were orthogonal.) 0 We introduce expansions for fl. 15—6. 15—2. + + cr13y13)dy2dy3 . = One can show thatt Y12.) - tl dS dr2 dy3 (15—26) Therefore. 15—5. Our formulation is based on Reissner's principle (13—33): d(surface area)] = — r. S1 ti tj where au + t2 + (3 -. Yi' Y2). we consider the member to be thin and slightly twisted. these restrictions lead to dR d(vol. y3). in terms of one-dimensional displacement and force measures (functions of S) and integrate over the cross section. Thc approach followed for the prismatic case is also applicable here. b = prescribed forces = = complementary energy density bTIi V*)d(vol.SEC. One has only to work with stress and strain measures referred to the local frame 12. (3U (15—27) is the displacement vector for Q (S. We use the same displacement expansion as for the prismatic case: U1 IA2 + u212 + 113(3 U1 + W2y3 — WIY2 lAsZ — — ± f4i (15—28) y3) = Expanding + co1(y2 Y3) — Y2) = t See Prob. RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION In what follows. We start with the strain measures. The force-equilibrium equations follow from the stationary requirement with respect to displacement measures. Referring to Fig. RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION 507 15-6. ü = independent quantities = e(iI) p. in analyzing the strain at Q (S.

3)dy2dy3 Finally. Venant warping function referred to the shear center. .ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER leads CHAP. k3 (defined by (15—16)) = SSai14) dy2 dy3 + a134))]dy2dy3 MR = JJ[ci2(4). e2. (15—32) satisfies (see(13—50)) JS(a124). 4) = — We write the transverse shear stress distribution as + = are functions of ± (15—32) The corresponding complementary energy function = $SV* dy2 dy3 = + + + M32) + + (15—33) + 2F2F3 + + + + Also. we express MR as MR = (1 + A23 + b2F2 + b3F3 br = 0 (15—34) where the b's involve the curvature (a32. so we only list the essential results here. . a1 3). The normal stress is expressed as F1 = where + M2 '2 Y3 — M3 '3 + -r '1) (15—31) the St. we use the stress expansion developed for the prismatic case. Y3r = Y2r If the cross section is symmetrical. e1.. . 15 to dy2 = F1e1 + F2e2 + F3e3 + MTkI + M3k3 + MRf + Mj.. The derivation is discussed in Sec.2 + a12çb) + (i5—29) The equilibrium equations consist of(15—11) and the equation due to warping restraint.2 + cr134). direction Now. 13—5. MR (15—30) which can be interpreted as the stress equilibrium equation for the weighted with respect to 4). noting (b). .

The governing equations for this loading (See Sec. The corresponding unrestrained where e1. A3) based on the primary fiexural shear stress distributions. We neglect transverse shear deformation due to restrained torsion. RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION 509 and b2. his—il). E15—11 NM to a torsional moment at the other end. ej a av* k2 av* k3 = = aF2 = e2 + b2f = aV* e3 + b3f = i3V* (15—35) . b3 are due to self-equilibrating stress distributions. It is in this case. e2. Equilibrium Equations dM1 = = dM2 dO M1 t See Prob. R dO + M'j . warping relations arc (15—18). clampedat one end and subjected Fig. 15—4) follow. we consider a planar circular member having a doubly svrnnietricai cross section (Fig. . Example 15—11 To investigate the influence of warping restraint. 15—6. Expanding the stationary requirement with respect to force measures yields the force-displacement relations. k3 are defined by (15—16). to take b2 0 and compute the shear coefficients (A2. 15—6.t reasonable.SEC.

and then Wi. R f (10 f= = GJk1 1 (dco1 (b) Boundary ('onditions 0—U (01C02J0 1v11 =M M2 = 0 One can write the equilibrium solution directly from the sketch: M1 M — 0) M2 = Al sin(05 — 0) We substitute for the moments in the force-displacement relations.ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP..J . M1 = k1 GJk1 1 — = — — 0) I (dco2 = + Wi) '\ lvi — 0) and solve for k1.. El2 GJ = ME — 1 0) — cos — siiih tanh GJ + = {o cos(05 — 0) sin 0 cos + 0 cos(05 — 0) + — sin 0 cos — {sinh — tanh 0 cosh + cos ü tanli = Warping restraint is neglected by setting Er = and . 15 Force-Displacement Relations M2 = E12k2 = El2 + El4. The resulting expressions are 2 2 =——— G.

786 0. these equations . it/2 are tabulated below: 1 for = + for 1 = it/4 0. For a truss. The influence of warping restraint depends on 2 and Values of K vs.907 = ir/2 0. one needs the relations between the for and displacements at the ends of the member. MEMBER FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—COMPLETE END RESTRAINT - In the analysis of a member system.SEC.99 10 We showed in Chapter 13 that 2 0 (open section) (j) 2 =0 (closed section) 1 where t is the wall thickness and h is a depth measure.96 0. Since 2 = RA and R/li for a thin curved member. the prismatic solution. COMPLETE END RESTRAINT The rotation at B is (RM\ l\ El2) = — COS 0B) + K= 1 + 1 — Sin 0B [ cos2 — tanh 704 If we set On On and let (g) reduces to (13—57). 15—7. 15—7.51)0 5 0. 2 for = ir/4.179 0. the influence of warping restraint is not as significant as for the prismatic case.

. We use the complementary energy function for a thin slightly twisted member with negligible warping restraint (i. 15—3. Referring back to Sec.e. One has only to delete the rows and columns . (15—17) + where g= gfm (15-38) gf Sym 1 A2G + Y2Y3 (7 I GJ + o J'3 ojo 1 El2 0 0 Sym The force-deformation relation implied by (15—38) Is + (15—39) We will use these general expressions for planar and out-of-plane deformation as well as for the arbitrary case. With the above notation. Eq. we define reduce a v* (1536) aM1 and write the principle of virtual forces as Ss dS J dS dT (15—37) Note that we are working with M1.512 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 15 to a single relation between the bar force and the elongation. not MT. Matrix notation is particularly convenient for this derivation so we start by expressing the principle of virtual forces and the complementary energy density in terms of generalized force and deformation matrices. (15—17)).

For example. Each end is completely restrained against displacement.SEC. It is more convenient to generate and R with the equilibrium equations for a finite segment rather than attempt to solve (15—il). COMPLETE END RESTRMNT 513 of g corresponding to the zero force measures. 15—7. The principle of virtual forces expands to J5(t° + where dS — dT dT (15—41) contains prescribed displacements and R are the corresponding reactions. 15—6. B 13 Basic member frame Fig. Consider the arbitrary member shown in Fig. 15—6. The positive sense of S is from A toward B. The virtual-force system must satisfy the force-equilibrium equations. d contains unknown displacements and are forces corresponding to d. Arbitrary curved member. we substitute fort in (15 —37) and distinguish between prescribed and unknown displacements. . (15—11). {F1F2M3} = 0 (15—40) El for planar loading applied to a planar member. Finally.

represents the internal force matrix at point Q referred to the local frame at Q. we obtain + Il + + + Next. W2. substituting for . c03}Q {u} (15—43) For this system. and take the end forces at B as the force redundants. we will employ the notation for force and displacement transformations that is developed in Chapter 5. Throughout the remaining portion of the chapter. we express as + where (15—44) is the internal force matrix at Q due to the prescribed external loading applied to the member cantilevered from A. B are denoted and are related to the internal force matrices by by = — = =— 15 42 Also. U3 (Oj. (b) in (15—41). loads applied along the member. the displacement matrix at point Q is written as 0//Q = {u1. the member cantilevered from A. U2. 15 suppose the geometry of the member is defined with respect to a basic frame which we refer to as frame ii. Finally. A superscript n is used to denote a quantity referred to (lie basic frame. and are prescribed. When no frame superscript is used. = = d= d Introducing (a). Note that acts on the positive face.e. and the end forces at B and then equate it to the actual The virtual-force system is Lw = AR = = Also. temperature. We determine for the primary structure. For example. Then. the primary structure consists of the member cantilevered We from A. i. The force matrix for the negative face is — The end forces at A. due to displacement of A.514 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. it is understood the quantity is referred to the local frame.

We can obtain the total flexibility matrix by compounding the flexibility matrices for the individual elements.out . Then. contains the displacements at B due to the end forces at B with A fixed: Now. We define as the member deformation matrix: = By definition. 14—8 in order to determine f and This problem is discussed in the next section. + 0)dS = initial deformation matrix member flexibility matrix (15—47) fll and (15—45) reduces to — = + (15—48) Equation is the force-displacement relation for an arbitrary member with complete end restraint. Now suppose the actual member consists of a set of members rigidly connected to each other and the flexibility matrix for each member is known. The member flexibility matrix. For simple members such as a prismatic member or a planar circular member with constant cross section. f". COMPLETE END RESTRAINT 515 leads to = + [SB .SEC. One simply has to use the appropriate forms for the various matrices. shown in Fig. the displacement at B due to the tion of member A1B is A1B . we point out that the general definitions off. We also define JSB S-4 — to rigid body (1546) notion aI. It is analogous to the force-elongation relation for the ideal truss element that we developed in Chapter 6. AA1 and A1B. is a natural property of the member since it depends only on the geometry and material properties. one can obtain the explicit form off. The matrix. To illustrate the procedure. suppose point A1 is fixed. 15—7. are also valid for in-plane or out-of-plane deformation of a planar member. Up to this point. f". T(18 + 0)dS (15—45) [JB + The first term is due to rigid body motion of the member about A whereas the second and third terms are due to deformation of the member. we consider two members. we have considered only a simple member. When the geometry is complex. 15—7. one must generally resort to numerical integration such as described in Sec.4 is equal to the sum of the second and third terms in (15—45). Finally.

let (15—51) The second and third terms are the end forces at B due to end displacement at B. — ffl AA. The force system at A1 due to the end forces at B is given by A. = 0 + (a) Thus. . we have = + = — = ffl (15—49) The end forces at B are found by inverting (15—48): (fn)_ 1 1 member stiffness matrix •. — CF-n B and the resulting deformation of member AA1 is A. Once is known. — — ffl A.516 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.J/'fl — = — + 1550 — The first term is due to external load applied along the member and represents the initial (or fixed-end) forces at B. For convenience. 15 is the flexibility matrix for member A1B referred to frame n. mernberAA. 'Ai It remains to determine B Fig. 15—7.' (TI? It Finally. A.' displaccment at 4 — — ' BA. we can evaluate the interior force matrix at a point using (15—44). the analysis of a completely restrained member reduces to a set of matrix multiplications once the member stiffness and initial deformation matrices are established. The additional displacement at B due to movement of A1 is where • B. Segmented member.

15—8. expres- sions for the end forces in terms of the end displacements are required. This is desirable since. we let in KBB in k AB ii — — L inwn. We consider next the initial deformation matrix: = We transform 4'. = Substituting for — 0 leads to i + — BA — —— A.0 ( ) B. using (15—55) . as we shall show later. In order to express the equations where in a more compact form. the force-displacement relations simplify to = = Note that only and are + + + + and (15—54) required in order to evaluate 15-8. and + 0)dS from the local frame to the basic frame. the intermediate values can be utilized to evaluate the initial deformation matrix. In addition to (15—50). we need an expression for Now.i represents the initial end forces.SEC.T n — BA BA jn BA — BA With this notation. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES 517 When analyzing a system of members by the displacement method. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES The member flexibility matrix is defined by = Noting that = and letting g014)dS A = ffl (15—55) (15—56) we can write If numerical integration is used.g. the values of the integral at intermediate points along the centroidal axis as well as the total integral can he determined in the same operation.

Therefore. (f) simplifies to (15—62) Also.O)dS 0)dS (15—57) (15—58) Suppose there is an external force system applied at an intermediate point. we define a as the row order of F and /3 as the row order of M.. (15—63) The determination of the member flexibility matrix reduces to evaluating J defined by (15—61). frame n. The partitioning is consistent with the partitioning of into F.e.e. it is desirable to maintain this generality when expanding in partitioned form. . M. the external force quantities are referred to the basic frame for the member. denote the force and moment matrices and the total force matrix: say C. i. but it is more convenient to express the integrand in partitioned form. consistent with (15—64). (15—61) = With this notation. <C Writing or" or" CD and introducing the above relations in (15—59) result in ( = The bracketed term is an intermediate value of the integral defining we let Finally.518 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. g. (15—64) Continuing.0 — _II U — SA Sc (15—60) c <C. One can work with unpartitioned matrices.. Since the formulation is applicable for arbitrary deformation. we partition and g symmetrically. 15 and = = The contributions of temperature and external load are T. Let (15—59) = Normally. i. The initial force matrix at Q due to this loading is given by 0 07fl Q.

SEC. we partition f": r ffl = (15-70) . The local ilexihility matrix is defined by (15—55). 5—1. 15—8. we partition J consistent with'1': j— — 'I' dS — I — Jp22j x (15—69) JP = F" ffl is - Finally. Using the above notation. in addition. the expressions for the submatrices are = (15—66) g22 — g22 are diagonal matrices when the shear center Note that g12 = 0 and coincides with the centroid. axial and shear deformation are neglected. = The submatrices follow from (15—65): = (15—67) + '1112 '1122 + + XHQgZ2XBQ (15—68) = = -F- Next. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES 519 and simplify the notation somewhat: = 0 (15—65) = (fixfj) — g11 () gQ— () g12 E i g12 g22 The translation and rotation transformation matrices are developed in Secs. 5—2 and the form of g for a thin curved member is given by (15—38). If. g11 = We let 0.

we have since R$ are identity matrices.. or end forces coincides with the positive sense of the corresponding coordinate axis. Expanding (15—53) leads to the following partitioned forms: knB — —I I in KBA — rinIi I I nvn. 15—8.12 n I BC C. Its partitioned form is = 1V01 — r cli rT — C.T llJtB. Now. Starting with (15—66). Once XBQ is assembled we can determine the submatriees of . = I. For convenience.e. 12 —- 2V'BC 22J 'C — denote the initial translation and rotation matrices.!T 12 I (15—74 AA ] — [k'.520 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. We also list for future reference the various member stiffness matrices. since the basic frame coincides with the local frame. Actually. 15 The initial deformation matrix due to an arbitrary loading at point C can be determined with (15—62). we obtained the complete set of forcedisplacement relations and also the initial end forces for concentrated and uniform loading.! T ml 12 I= A rnii I I I L 1n. the stiffness matriccs and can be generated.' — k ii — 11 1n for convenience) (15—73) \1 12) 22k $ — —If çT i Once is known.12 Ii (flxfl) C lYe) where L"c. external force. in this section.1 I A 15—9. we developed the governing equations for a prismatic member and presented a number of examples which illustrate the displacement and force methods of solution. we generate the member flexibility matrix using the matrix formulation. The positive sense of a displacement. = from (15—68). We write The member stiffness matrix. i. The notation is summarized in Fig. MEMBER MATRICES—PRISMATIC MEMBER In Chapter 12. is obtained by inverting = (r)' —( =I [ku 12 22 k22j I (15—72) (11 )< /1) One can easily show that (we drop the frame superscript on k. we drop the frame reference superscript n.

WB i UB! I. V 2E13 + -— (15—75) L2 GJ 2E12 0 0 L/GJ = Sym 10 LIEu . using g defined by (15—38). 15—8.xQ1) 0 (a) Then. we obtain L/AE /1 L Sym 0 0 1) + + L \-2x3 I) + 0 + 0 0 f12= GJ LT2 0 . MEMBER MATRICES—PRISMATIC MEMBER 521 i2 MB!. Fig. 15—9. / X1 is centroiclal axis. X3 are principal inertia directions._________ ______ SEC. Summary of notation for a prismatic member. o o 0 X5Q= 0 0 o (L—xQt) —(L—. Now. X2.

15 for reference. (1 5— 74) and are listed below 03 0: a2 = 2 12E12 a3 12E11 = = —I'--- '2 1 + a2 GJ + 12E - 1+03 b1 = AE L + 0 0 k11= Sym 0 L3 0 0 0 6E1 L2 0 (15—76) k12 = L2 k22 L2 0 (4 + Sym 0 — (4 + 0 0 Fl* L L3 0 L2 10 — (change sign of(2. 2) in k12) b1 L2 L2 0 0 B= 1! L2 .522 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 3) and (3. Transverse shear deformation is neglected by setting a2 = The submatrices of k are generated with (1 5—73).

MEMBER b MEMBER 523 —6E!!Ye2 V FI* (4 L2 = + a3)_L_ (change sign of(1. (1. 3) in k22) Finally. concentrated Force a3 = 12E13 MB3 FB2 — (15—77) — MBI = MA1 + — F112 = —L MA3 = + FB2 + Force a2 12E12 — GA1L2 — ÷ FB3 + + FB3) (15—78) MAI — —MB1 _PC3 — FR3 MA2 L + — MB2) . 2). the fixed end forces due to a concentrated transverse force and a uniform transverse loading are summarized below. 15—9.SEC.

It is convenient to take the basic frame (frame n) to be parallel to the local frame at B. By definition. 15—5. and Examples 15—4. The three-dimensional forms of and are cos — sin 01 0 = = = sin = cos 17] = rRbq ° I 0 1 (15—83) . b3 F83 = 1q43 = M82 = = Uniformly Distributed Torque. The notation is summarized in Fig. 15 Concentrated Torque MA1 = = — Tc1(1 (15—79 — Uniformly Distributed Load. rn M81 — — — b3L. the reader should review Example 14—6.524 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. We include extensional and transverse shear deformation for the sake of generality.e. 15—10 for out-of-plane deformation. which treats planar deformation. In particular. 15—9. using matrix operations. we generate the flexibility and initial deformation matrices for a thin planar circular member. i. Y2 and Y3 are principal inertia axes and p3 = 0. b2 F82 = - - b2L — FA2 M83 = —MA3 = M81 h2L2 (15—80) MAI = 0 Uniformly Distributed Load. of constant cross section. Some of the relations have already been obtained as illustrative examples of the force and displacement methods. the shear center lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis. b3L2 (15—81) = =0 ——u— MAI = (15—82) 15—10. MEMBER MATRICES—THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER In this section..

Expanding (15—66).U. 15—ID. (15—68) leads to the member flexibility matrix. . x. it is just as convenient to work with subinatrices of order 3 as to consider separately the planar and out-of-plane cases.3. Centroidal axis b B2 F. Summary of notation for a planar circular member. Mw Fig. We consider the member to be thin and use the local flexibility matrix defined by (15—38). Since the complete flexibility matrix is desired.SEC. 15—9..fl for planar deformation and R0=1 — SQ [—R(1 — cos for out-of-plane deformation. THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER 0 525 = jO I 0 R sin R sin .

526 ENGINEERiNG THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER 13 CHAP.12 — sin — T— t212t) — 0 0 —cos05) + 0 + c2 sin cos f15} Ib 22 .cosO5 + a2)} 0 +r!j) a2)sin — sin2 05(1 2 cos + c41 — 2c3 0 05 — C2 Sifl COS R2 0 0 1. 15 ae as = Cs El3 El7 El2 Ct = a1 = = ae + a7 a2 = ae — c1 = + — = (15—84) ( — Y2\ —\2 Y2 \ Symmetrica' - sin ± I + az)i} R3 .

the flexibility matrix for the segment AC referred to the local frame at C. BC 3 Finally.3 WB3 {cos 'Ic — cos OB}Tc3 — sin + (1 COS + RO . we can write = 1. V0 — UB — = U j r T c c AC. Planar Loading = + / = M3 Slfl + 1 1+a1 cos + 'Ic — I' + 1+02 Cos 0c ± -—-— + -'-'--— R3 I — cog 1+a1 sin ic — o4 1:13 + I 2 + Sifl R ç 5jfl (15—86) — —s-—-L I = Sill 'Ic 1+02. C.11 v-I.4C.. the displacement at C is given by ('IC The displacement at B due to rigid body motion about C is "B — — BC TrI & T011hc. Now. T /1 Tçc.. + 2 j .121 C T Tcc C The uncoupled expressions follow. We just have to change to and superscript b to c in by When the external load is referred to the local frame at C.i21 \ c C + — 1' + Ii (15—85) ( 4C. T . which we denote is known. THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER 527 We consider next the determination of the initial deformation matrix due to an arbitrary concentrltted load at an interior point. 15-10. 1 + — + 00.SEC. — b .

528 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. We determine the axial force and moment at C from the symmetry conditions u1 = w3 = 0. CASE 1—CONCENTRATED RADIAL FORCE P . and a uniform distributed radial load b2 applied per unit arc length over the entire segment. = = R3 ( COS 'ic + c4) — C2 Sifl 0c cos 0B + c3(— sin — sin °B + sin 6c COS 0J3 + C3 Sifl ) — — + —+ 1= R21 R21 cos 'ic + C2 £12 ( R2 CZS1flGCS1flOB c3(1 j COS 'ic + c3(sin 0B — sin 'ic) + c2 sin + + RI cos Cos 'ic — 5jfl (15—87) + C2 Sifl °c o5}Tc2 — 2= = — C2 £12 Sjfl 'ic + c3(cos ) COS 'ic) SIfl Oc Sin + i-i— )[CIOC sin 'ic + c2 sin sin + E12 cos 'ic + c2 sin 0c cos When the loading is symmetrical. 15 Out-of-Plane Loading V0. Explicit expressions for the fixed end forces due to various loading conditions arc listed below. 15—10 defines the notation for the planar case.. 6 = OB/2.e. i. The basic frame is chosen to utilize symmetry. F1 and M3 are unknown for the planar case and only M2 is unknown for the out-of-plane case. one can utilize symmetry to determine the fixed end forces. The most convenient choice of unknowns is the internal forces at the midpoint. We consider two loadings: a concentrated radial force P applied at C. Planar Loading Fig.

fl B! MA R Fig.SEC./I (sin COS CASE 2—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED RADIAL LOAD b2 = 0 —Rb2(1 sin (1 + ai) 2 — sin2 cc cc + (1 + a2'\ sin cc cos cc .. Notation for planar loading. SiflO! — CL cos cc) + —--—— SIfl 2 2 1+Q2 CL (1 + a1\ CL sin2 cc — cc I I + (1 + a2\ sin cos (15—88) = ' — 131 — RP ci —-i7771 — COS + ( — Al — — 77 — Cl — 1' 'A2 — = MA PR I 1 — co. 15—10. THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER P 529 1. 15—10.s SIfl + 1.

530 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. F3 Mt 1 R Fig. a uniform distributed force h3. We consider four loadings: a concentrated force P. CD2 Tile bending moment at C is obtained using the symmetry condition = 0. 15 Mc=R2b2aecb(_1 = = — C( (15—89) a4) — cos = —Rb2 Sill = —MA = R2b2aecb Out-of-Plane Loading Figure 15—11 defines the notation for the out-of-plane case. CASE 1—CONCENTRATED FORCE P = P =0 PR 2 + c3(l — cosa) . and a couple T—both applied at C. and a uniform distributed couple in1. Notation for out-of-plane loading. 15—li.

at each point. For convenience. 15—11. FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX 531 MB1 = MA1 --i-. 15—12. Y2. The notation is shown in Fig. is considered to coincide with the normal direction.SEC.. i. rn1R(1 — cos cx) FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX In this section.e. we summarize the geometrical . cx FB = CASE 2—CONCENTRATED TORQUE T = = 0 = T c2sin2cx (15—91) 2 cxc1 + c2 sin cx cos cx = FB=FA=0 CASE 3—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED LOAD h3 - 0 — R 2 b3 c1(sincx — cx)+ c2 sin cx(i — coscx)+ — cxcoscx) + = R2b3(sin cx — cx C2 COS = = (15—92) cos cx) 1 = =FA=—PRcx — R2b3(cx sin cx — + cos cx) CASE 4—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED COUPLE m1 = = 0 m1R——--——-—-- cj(a — sin cx) + c2 sin cx(cos cx —1) cxc1 + C2 — SJfl cx cos cx (15—93) —m1R sin cx MA2 = 15—11. The principal inertia direction. We also suppose the properties are constant.sin PR. we develop the flexibility matrix for a member whose centroidal axis is a circular helix. the inward radial direction.(1 PR — cos cx) - = — = = — ----.

a —cosO a C ——-cos 0 IC R Rc. t See Examples 4—6 and 5—3. We first determine using (15—66). In what follows. a a 0) R(sin — — sin 0) — = C(OB — 0) — 0 — R(cos 0 cos 0) R(sin sin 0) R(cos The steps involve only algebraic operations and integration. = R. With these restrictions. and finally with (15—70). 15 relations: x3 = x2 R cos 0 R sin 0 a dO x3=C8 dS a= [R2 + C2)112 = constant = fl + Rcos 012 + Cl3) — t2 = -—COS t3 sin 012 — b= = Ccos 072 + R13) —---sinO R. . we assume the shear center coincides with the centroid and neglect extensional and transverse shear deformation.3 = = —sin 0 0 — C(OB — C.532 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. = = g12 = () 1 GJ g2= El3 and the expressions for reduce to = 'I'12 'V22 The flexibility matrix for a constant cross section is given below. then from (15—68).

15—12. Notation for circular helix. Y3—principal inertia directions Fig. Notation—-Din. FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX 533 j Centroidal axis Yi Xi".ensionless Para. X'.neters = C12 R2E12 R2 + C2l2 = + C2 (E12\ 13 El2 R2 [12 ij T El2 a3 RC[12 Ra3 a5 = 1+a1 a4+a6 2 a6 = 1—a1 a7= a9 a8= a10 2 a6+3a4 2 a6—3a4 2 .SEC. X31 —directions of basic frame Y2. 15—li.

15 Elements of f71 [fit = C2a( + R2a2cz 1 Sym f22 1 I f33j + (1 02 B a + 2a4 sin 08 + a10 sin — OB} El3 f a6 + Sin208) a8 2sinO8 + 0B — — COS 0B + a4(OB 05 + COS OB)} — El3 0B(08 sin 1 + cos — f31 = = RCr1 + (a1 — a4)(i cos0.534 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.1) a4 sin2 05 + a9OssinOn} cos C2x R2a2cc 1 + /1 — a10 2 sin 08 Cos — 2a4OB +El = El2 + a8 f33 = R2a + COS sin + COS sin 08) + a1005 COS 0B + a4 sin 2a1 {(ai + a5)05 — sin a6 sin cos (15—94) Elements of [114 Lf34 1161 f261 f35 f36j COS f14 = sin 08 + a705 + a8 sin 02 + a8 sin2 8 f16 = f24 — El2 — — ( 08} El3 <08 ( sin 1 + cosoB} + a8 sin2 0B <p8(08 a4(1 — cos = f Sffi 0B C05 .

To handle the case of partial restraint. For example. 15—12. if there is no restraint against rotation at B. Let Z denote the force redundants. Inverting these equations and using the equilibrium relations for the end forces results in force-displacement relations which are consistent with the displacement releases. Now. MEMBER FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—PARTIAL END RESTRAINT In Sec. we considered an arbitrary member which is completely restrained at both ends. Normally. 15—7. the member cantilevered from A: (a B Next. However. sin OB a1(1 — COS = f36 = — — 0B cos Elements of COS 013j {a508 + a6 sin Sym a {a508 — a6 = El2 sin 2 — sin 08 cos OB} aa2 cos08) aa3 112 . one would work with the primary structure corresponding to Z = 0. we first determine the compatibility equations corresponding to the reduced set of force unknowns. This led to the definition of the member flexibility matrix and a set of equations relating the end forces and the end displacements. using the primary system corresponding to Z = 0. in terms of the end forces at B. PARTIAL END RESTRAINT 535 f26= = Ca3cJ . as a primary structure. the rotation at B has no effect on the end forces. there is a reduction in the number of member force unknowns. suppose we first express the force at a point. we express in terms of the applied external load and the force redundants: = EZ + G (15-95) . and there are only a unknowns (where a is the order of F8). using.SEC. when the member is only partially restrained. 15—12. say Q. M8 = 0.

in general. there are q force redundants. Taking the system due to AZ results in the compatibility equations for Z. i.e.536 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. Also. (F = ([3 x 1) (15—97) With this notation. For convenience.Z ( — ) We refer to 1. is the flexibility matrix for Z and it is positive definite since E must be of rank q. Substituting for expression to he satisfied for arbitrary AZ. The approach that we have followed is convenient when the member flexibility matrix is known. we obtain where (ETIftE)Z + ET( + = = (15—96) are the displacements of the supports at B. as the reduced flexibility matrix since.. we let t be the row order of (and 0?t).l = ffl are the initial deformation and flexibility matrices for thefull end using (15—95). and requiring the resulting restraint case. i. It should be noted that We suppose Z is of order q x 1. E is i x q Gisi x 1 and (15—96) represents q equations. 15 The elements of G are the end forces at B (for Z loads.e. Note that one can determine directly by working with the primary system corresponding to Z = 0. the principle of virtual forces requires 0 + = + TO/fl for any self-equilibrating virtual-force system. Now. Note that G = 0) due to the applied external if Z contains only end forces at B. This is the normal approach.. A. Actually.fçfl + T(O//. q < i. the force systems corresponding to the redundants must be linearly independent. we let (q x q) = + rG — (1 1) (15—98 ) and the member force-deformation relations take the form trZ = — z) Tcjjgn ETJc) n 'A — ' O. It is convenient to work first with the virtual force system due to Equation (b) reduces to T(. .

z = 0 — = reduced flexibility matrix (q x q) — 'I/'' — p . k is singular when q < i.i I + I n' RB L BA 'A = + . '7 —.0 iLl Finally.SEC. 15—12. — 14' B G=0 member system. 0.. since E is only of rank q. we write the relations in the generalized form B. PARTIAL END RESTRAINT 537 At this point. we summarize the force-displacement relations for partial end restraint: Z = member force matrix = EZ + G f. we let = 15—101 We will use (15—100) in Chapter 17 when we develop the formulation for a kr = The force redundants are obtained by inverting (15—99): (15—102) Z= = We defined — — (15-103) Substituting for Z. for complete end restraint. Continuing. Equation (e) takes the form = = = + — +G + (I. the end forces at B are given by — — +G (e) as the effective member stiffness matrix: = EkYET LET ( 15—104) In general.) ETrE (15—100) f. — (15—105) The end forces at A are determined from (a): = — — + — ar" 'BA ( A.Z = Note that.

the support rotation at B. Then. which we have defined as does not introduce any member deformation. R. 3. GEaR. We take Z .. There is no compatibility requirement for the end rotations in this case. Mech. 1968. ii — . and R. R. 4. 6. we see that one has only to replace by in the partitioned forms for and The equation for is different. Springer-Verlag. WEAVER: Analysis of Framed Structures. Vol. 0.Fl +G — For this case. F. G = (15—102). F.: "Variational Considerations for Elastic Beams and Shells. S. 1966. A. The reduced flexibility and stiffness matrices follow from (15—98). K.. W000HEAD: Frame Analysis. EMI. February 1962. M.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. against rotation at B. Van Nostrand. the relative rotation at B. Div. M. J. Pcrgamon Press. DAEROWSKJ. A. New York. 1965.: Matrix Computer Analysis of Structures. London.S. i. 5. No. — 1 I o Finally. 2. W." J.C.e. REISSNER. 88. 0. 15 where (15—107) = k" AA — — ar" BA BA n — BA e T BA Comparing (15—107) with (15—53). due to the presence of the G term. Berlin.: Gekriimmte dünnwandige Trüger (Curved thin-walled beams). and W. the force-displacement relations are (see (15—99)): rt. Prentice-Hall.E. T it Note that premultiplication of by Er eliminates 9". HALL. G with (15—95). LIVESLEY. 1964. 1967.i it vn. Eng. Wiley. = and the effective stiffness matrix follows from (15—104): rc". New York. REFERENCES I. .538 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN MEMBER CHAP. Example 15—12 Suppose there is no restraint and generate E. the corresponding expressions for the complete restraint case. however. RUEINSTRJN.

for a typical wide-flange section and a square single cell.: 8. Determine c. Refer to Example 15—5. 15—2 x2 '2 b x3 y3 13 15—3. terms involving in Equation (e)). Neglect transverse shear deformation.S. U.: Thin Walled Elastic Beams. pp.C. Refer to Example 15—7. Comment on the relative importance of torsional deformation vs. bending deformation (i. Consider a rectangular cross section and varying linearly with x1. Evaluate VB2 /( vB3/ 3E12 I/p j3\ / \3E12J and for a range of 4 and a/b. Zurich. OfiIce of Technical Services. Determine the reaction at B and translation (in the direction of F) at C for the member sketched. Distinguish between deep and shallow members. 15—3 I— Vertical restraint at B . 17—39. / Shear center P Prob. P." International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Publications. Z. 539 V. 1965. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. of Commerce.. 15—2. Z. as shown in the sketch. Washington. Prob. BAZANT. D.. Vol. 1961. 25. PROBLEMS 15—1. "Nonuniform Torsion of Thin-walled Bars of Variable Section.e. Dept.PROBLEMS 7.

15—3. — 15—7. Verify that (g) reduces to the prismatic solution. Summarize the governing equations for restrained torsion. and note (15—26). 15—4. when 15—8. Discuss how you would apply the numerical integration schemes described in Sec. Evaluate b2 and b3 (see (15—34)) for a symmetrical wide-flange section and a symmetrical rectangular closed cell. (see Fig. 15—11 15—12. 15—10. (13—57). Specialize the solution (Equations f) for = 1L 1. 15—6. Derive (15—27). 15—13. Refer to Example 15—11. Generalize for n segments. 15 15—4. using (15—77) and (15—79). —* 0. 14—8 to evaluate defined by (15—69). Repeat Prob. Consider a member comprising of three segments. Comment on whether one can neglect these terms. Verify (15—90) and (15—91). 15—11.540 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 1 5—2). 15—9. Utilize symmetry with respect to point C. Verify (15—73) and (15—74). Apply them to Prob. . Start with the definitions for the strain measures 15—5. determine an expression for the member flexibility matrix in terms of the segmental flexibility matrices.) = Df) D15 S[fl Y12 = DS E3f) Dy2 DS Dy2 neglect second-order terms. Assuming the flexibility matrices for the segments are known. X2 Prob. Solve Prob. 15—3 using (15—84) and (15—87). Determine the fixed end forces for the member shown. DR (1 + r. considering complete fixity at B.

Specialize for b3 = constant and verify(15—92). determine E and G corresponding to Z = MB M4} Then specialize for rotation releases at A. 15—17.fl I I P —— — ir/2 c G =R/2 =E/2 x1 15—16. 15—15. (b) Evaluate for the loading and geometry shown. Y2 coincides with the normal direction) developed in Sec. Starting with (15—87). Using the geometric relations and flexibility matrix for a circular helix (constant cross section. (a) Prob.PROBLEMS 541 15—14. . B and determine kg. Determine the reduced member flexibility matrix for no restraint against rotation at an interior point P. 15—11: 1)evelop a matrix equation for the displacements at B due to a loading referred to the global frame and applied at flint: See (15—85). h3 = b3(O). 15—15 Y3. develop expressions for the initial deformations due to an aribitrary distributed loading. b Y2. For the planar member shown.

.

Part IV ANALYSiS OF A MEMBER SYSTEM .

16

Direct Stiffness Method Linear System
1 6—i.

INTRODUCTION

We

consider a system comprised of in members which are connected at j

joints. We suppose the geometry of the assembled system is defined with

respect to a global framet and use a superscript o to indicate quantities referred to the global frame. The external force and displacement matrices for joint k are denoted by
(p0)
(ax!)
(16—1)

(jOt)

(xxi)

(fbi)
where c is the number of translation (force) components, /1 is the number of rotation (moment) components, and i + fi. Note that = 2, /3 = 1 for a

planar system subjected to in-plane loading and 1, /3 = 2 for a planar /3 = 3. system subjected to out-of-plane loading. For an arbitrary system, In what follows, we assume the material is linearly elastic and the geometry is linear, i.e., we neglect the change in geometry due to deformation. The governing equations consist of joint force-equilibrium equations and member force-displacement relations. We have already developed the member forcedisplacement relations in Chapter 15, so that it remains only to establish the joint force-equilibrium equations. In this chapter, we apply the direct stiffness method, which consists in assembling the system stiffness and initial force matrices by superimposing the. contribution of each member. the next chapter, we present the general formulation for a linear member system and obtain the equations corresponding to the force and displacement solution by
t By global
frame, we mean a fixed Cartesian frame.

545

546

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM

CHAP. 16

matrix operations. Finally, in Chapter 18, we extend the direct stiffness method

to include geometrical nonlinearity.
16—2.

MEMBER FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS

In developing the relations between the end forces and end displacements for a member, we considered the member geometry and loading to be referred to a basic member frame (frame n) and used A, B to denote the negative and positive ends of the member. The general relations were written (see (15—107))
as

=

+ +

+ +

Note that (a) also applies when there is only partial end restraint or internal
releases.

Now, we define n_ as the joints at the positive and negative ends of member n. Replacing B by n, n the member frame take the form

=

+ +
\T

+ +

where

'

We transform the force and displacement quantities from the member frame to the global frame for the system by applying

= =

(16—2)

to (b). This step is necessary since we are working with joint forces and displacements referred to the global frame. The final expressions arc:

= =

+ +

+ +

(16—3)

where the global member stiffness and initial force matrices are generated with
k

TI

n

rzou
16—4

=

Once the displacements are known, we evaluate using (16—3) and then transform to the member frame. Since the initial end force and stiffness matrices are generated in partitioned form, it is natural to express (16—4) in partitioned form. Using the notation

SEC. 16—3.

SYSTEM EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

547

introduced in Section 1 5—8, we write
(o

plion

=
=

ip
t.MoJ
(flxl)

(16—5)

(Sxo)

()O,22

Expanding (16—4) leads to
on
o

12 —

on,T
fi

n

00. 12
21

on on —
on
P

k
1

21 =
0

on, Ti n
ii
11

o,T ( )( ), 12


L

(16—6)

"(')(),22

— Don,

t 0,1

= depends on is a natural property of the member whereas Note that the orientation of the member frame with respect to the global frame. The
operations defined by (16--6) can be considered as the element matrix generation phase. The member force-displacement relations satisfy the equilibrium conditions

for the member and compatibility between the restrained end displacements and the corresponding joint displacements. Actually, the equilibrium condi= tions were used to determine Compatibility is satisfied by setting = When there is only partial restraint at an end, there will and be displacement discontinuities. For example, if there is a rotation release at the positive end, will not be equal to the end rotation matrix. We have treated'r partial end restraint by defining an effective member stiffness matrix k0. In the derivation of k0, we consider °1IA to be the displacements of the supports (i.e., the joints) and enforce continuity of only the restrained end
displacements.
16—3.

SYSTEM EQIJILIBRIIJM EQUATIONS

The equilibrium equations for joint k arc obtained by summing the end

forces for the members incident on k:

t See Sec. 16—12.

548

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM

CHAP. 16

depends on and the displacements of those joints which are In general, connected to joint k. We define as the total (or system) external joint force and joint displacement matrices:

=

(if x 1) (if <

16—7

and write the complete set of if joint force-equilibrium equations as

=
where

91'o

+

(16-8)

contains the joint forces required to equilibrate the initial end forces We have dropped the reference frame superscript for convenience. The most efficient way to assemble and is to work with submatrices of order 1, the natural partition size, and superimpose the contributions of each member which follow directly from (16—3). This operation requires no matrix multiplications. The terms due to member n are listed below.
In

(Partitioned Form Is] x 1):
in row n÷ in row
(16—9)

111 X (Partitioned Form Isj x
in row column n+ column n_ in row in row n_, column

oT

1

inrown...,columnn_
Since
16—4.
is

symmetrical, only the upper or lower half has to be stored.

INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS

In this section, we extend the procedure described in Sec. 8—3 for introducing

joint translation restraints in the formulation for an ideal truss to an arbitrary member system. Actually, only the notation for the joint force and joint displacement matrices has to be changed. The governing equations are:
=

=
1

1

=

+

=

(16—11)

+

The stiffness and initial force matrices are assembled using (16—9) and (16—10). It remains to introduce the prescribed external forces and displaceis prescribed, and we just add ment restraints. If joint q is unrestrained,

SEC. 16—4.

INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS

549

is unknown. We replace q is completely restrained, to — the matrix equation for with the matrix identity,
Finally, ifjoint q is partially restrained, some of the elements in 19q are unknown.

In this case, we replace the scalar equations for the unknown reactions by
scalar identities.

We suppose joint q is partially restrained and, for generality, consider the translation and rotation restraint directions to he arbitrarily orientated with respect to the basic frame. We define X'1, .. , as the orthogonal directions
.

for the translational restraint frame and

as the orthogonal directions

for the rotational restraint frame. Quantities referred to the restraint frames are indicated with primes and a single superscript is used for the total matrix:
=
(flxj)
(16—12)

L°"i

Now,

P, = q
T" —
/3

(16—13
q

We define 9/°" as the total rotation transformation matrix:
0

1
I

=

I

(16—14)

L0

With this notation, the transformation laws take the form
9/oqçpr
(

16—15 )
in
PPO

The modification requires two operations. First, we transform (16—11) to This is accomplished by premultiplying row q of

with

and postmultiplying column q of with 9/°" In the second step, we replace the equations corresponding to the unknown elements in with identities. This operation can also be represented in matrix form. Suppose the rth element in is prescribed. We assemble four matrices, Eq, and as follows:
1.

EqandGq

We start with and set

E=I,

G=O,
+1

550

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOID—.-LtNEAR SYSTEM

CHAP. 16

2.

We start with an ith-order column matrix having zero elements and set the element in row r equal to the prescribed displacement.

We

start with an ith-order column matrix having zero elements and enter

the values of the prescribed forces and moments referred to the restraint frames. Note that element r is zero. Premultiplying transformed row q of 3r, t?P0 with Eq reduces the rth equation to 0 = 0. Then, adding Gq to Eqirqq and to — + q introduces the identity for the rth element and includes the prescribed external forces We also operate on the qth column of in to preserve syrnnwtry and include the terms due to prescribed displacements in The complete set of operations for joint q are listed below:
1.

€=1,2,...,q—l
T)a/e;

T)F

2.

9N, q

q

+
T)Eq + Gq

+

=
3.

(l616)

€=q+i,q+2,...,j
= =

The operations defined by (16—16) are carried out for each joint, working with successive joint members. We represent the modified equations as

=

(16—17)

The superscript J is placed on % to indicate that the joint displacement matrices are referred to the local joint restraint frames, which may not coincide with the global frame. Again we point out that the primary advantage of this modifica-

tion procedure is that no row or column rearrangement is required. Solving (16—17) yields the joint displacements (local restraint frame) listed in their natural order, i.e., according to increasing joint number. The modified stiffness
matrix,

will be positive definite when the system is stable.

Once QgJ is known, we transform the displacements from the restraint frames

to the global frame, using (16—15), and evaluate the member end forces from (16—3). Next, we the total external force matrix, The contribution

SEC. 16—4.

INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS
is

551

of member n

in row fl...

(16—IS)

Finally, we transform the external joint forces from the global frame to the local restraint frames. This step determines the reactions and also provides a statics check on the solution.
Example
Suppose
16—1

joint q is completely restrained. Then, "li

and

= 0.. The forms

for E, G are

EqOi
and (16—16) reduces to

Gqlj
,t,.
q

1.

€=L2,...,q—l
— —

2.

3.

j
Oi

=
Example 16—2
Suppose

matrix and external moment matrix this case are

joint q is completely restrained against translation. Then, the translation are prescribed. The appropriate matrices for

r0
=

01
Gg

r1

=

}

=
Example 16—3
We consider the case where joint q is restrained with respect to translation in one direc-

tion and there is no restraint against rotation. This corresponds to a "roller" support. We take to coincide with the restraint direction and X'2, as mutually orthogonal directions comprising a right-handed system. The translation, is prescribed. The
prescribed forces are P52, and

552

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM

CHAP. 16

We first assemble

From (16—14),

=
where

rRoa'
I

[
r,s

13

=

1,2,3

=
The forms of E, G,
and

are

0

=

=

We specialize the results for a planar system subjected to planar loading. In order for only planar deformation to occur, the translation restraint direction must lie in the plane plane. It is convenient to select the orientation of the system, which we take as the of X'2 such that X3 coincides with X",. 'Ihe specialized forms are

=
= [S,.,]
0
Eq

r,s =

1,2

1

(d)

=

Gq

= ---H
0

Finally, we consider the case of a planar system subjected to an out-of-plane loading. direction in order for only The translational restraint direction must be parallel to the and arc prescribed. The out-of-plane deformation to occur. For this case, specialized forms are
Eq Cq

=
qe;

=

=
Note that (e) is obtained by settinge =
1,

=

=

2

in (a) of Example 16—2.

REFEREt'JCES

REFERENCES
1.

R. K.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis, Pergamon Press, London,
1964.

2.
3.

MARTIN, H. C.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of StructuralAnalysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965. RUBINSTEIN, M. F.: Matrix computer Analysis of Structures, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1966.

4.

Gere, I. M. and W. Weaver: Analysis of Framed Structures, Van Nostrand, New
York, 1965.

17

General Formulation Linear System
17-1.
INTRODUCTION
We consider a system comprising m linear elastic members interconnected at j joints. We suppose there are i degrees of freedom per joint (i.e., the joint displacement and force matrices are of order i x 1) and the geometry and joint quantities are referred to a global frame. Also, we neglect geometry change due to deformation. In the previous chapter, we applied the direct stillness method, which is actually a displacement method, to this system. Now, in this chapter, we first develop the governing matrix equations and then deduce the equations corresponding to the force and displacement solution procedures.

We also establish variational principles for the force and displacement methods. Finally, we discuss how one can introduce member deformation constraints in the displacement method. Since the basic steps involved in the member system formulation are the same as for the ideal truss formulation, we recommend that

the reader review Chapters 6 through 9 before starting this chapter. Let r be the number of prescribed joint displacements. Then, the total number is of joint displacement unknowns,
na = if

r

(17—1)

The total number of force unknowns, flf, is equal to r (the reactions corresponding to the prescribed displacements) plus qT, the total number of member
force unknowns:

nf=?+qT=r+(qj +q2+ '.. +qm)
where

(17—2)

represents the number of force unknowns for member n. By definition, is equal to the number of force quantities that have to be specified in order to be able to determine the total internal force matrix at an arbitrary point. If the member is fully restrained at each end, q1, = i. For partial restraint, q,, is equal to i minus the number of independent force releases. Note that when the member is pinned at both ends, = 1 since there are only five independent moment releases.
554

SEC. 17—2.

MEMBER EQUATIONS

555

There are qT equations relating the member forces and the joint displacements.

Also, there are ij equilibrium equations relating the external joint forces and the member forces. The formulation is consistent, i.e., the number of equations
is equal to the number of unknowns. If flf if, the system is said to be statically determinate since the force unknowns can be determined using only the equi-

librium equations. The difference, flf — ii, is generally called the degree of static indeterminacy, and represents the order of the final system of equations for the force method. For the displacement method, the final system ofequations arc of order In what follows, we first establish the member force—joint displacement relations by generalizing the results of Sec. 15—12. Then, we assemble the joint force-equilibrium equations. Finally, we introduce the joint displacement restraints.
17—2.

MEMBER EQUATIONS

The reduced member equations were developed in Sec. 15—12. For convenience, we summarize the notation and equations below (see (15—100)):

Z=

member force matrix (q, x 1)

(ixi)

f"

member flexibility matrix (i x i) = ETfnE reduced member flexibility matrix (q,, x f, — = member deformation matrix (i x i) = + f"G = initial member deformation matrix (i x i) = = — )

These equations include the effect of partial end restraint, internal force releases,

and reductions due to symmetry or antisymmetry. We can also use (a) for complete end restraint by setting F = and G = 0. Now, we introduce new notation which is more convenient. First, we note that G contains the end forces at B due to the external member loads acting are the on the primary structure defined by Z = 0. Also, — —
end forces at A. Then we write

=G

(17—3)

is a compatibility Next, we note that the equation relating Z and K", requirement. The term fZ + ETeC?OZ is the relative deformation in the positive
sense of Z due to the member loads and the member redundants, Z, whereas is the relative deformation in the negative sense of Z due to support (joint) movement. The net relative deformation must be zero for continuity.

it transforms according tot q and it T T t See Sec. n (17-6) = fr. 17 Then.t n+ — ( 17— ) 8 The force translation transformation matrix. . the joint quantities are referred to the global frame. = Since Z=Z.556 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. Member Forces—End Forces = = TE)Z + + 17 7 Member Forces—Joint Displacements (q..o (175) — + frZ = We generalize the relations for member n by setting B—n÷ A=n_ E=E.e. 10—2. 2C. we define = reduced member deformation matrix (q. is a second-order tensor. "r. i. . we must transform the end forces and displacements from the member frame (frame n) to the global frame (frame o)... using = The final equations follow. the member equations take the form — B 17—4 R.. x 1) = = — reduced initial member deformation matrix x 1) = ETI/'O z = + f"G) With this notation.

. Z. 1 - (17-16) .. m} = total reduced initial member deformation matrix (q. With this force-deformation relations are given by notation. x 1) x 1) = total reduced member deformation matrix = 2 1. = since it is a natural property of the member whereas We prefer to work with depends on the selection of the global frame. + fZ (17—13) It remains to generalize the deformation-displacement relations. and positive definite. SYSTEM FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATtONS 557 Using (17—JO). . We let Z total member force matrix = {Z1. — — as. We define as the total joint displacement matrix referred to the global frame. .. (17—14) = The partitioned form is (17—15) d12 . symmetrical. TF)Z . ro. 17—3.SEC.} . mJ '17—12 f total reduced member flexibility matrix fr. . Z2... . we can express the member force-deformation relations as a single matrix complete set of equation. 2 x Note that f is quasi-diagonal. x 1) — I ro.. (ij x 1) = and express 'V as °/4.. we can express and 'r. . the -V = -V. Equation (17—8) represents the By defining general flexibility and deformation matrices. . . 17—3. SYSTEM FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS force-deformation relations for member n.

. . 411. Now.. First. in It is of interest to express si in factored form. we define the following matrices: (inz x 1) 411 = _.. The assembly of d is defined by d = sins = 0 S 17 17 fl_ 1. we see from (17—8) that there are only two non-zero elements in row n and they are at columns n_. ._ } (im x 1) (mi x un) E= E Em (im x q1) ([7—18) (zinxirn) (un x im) Using this notation..the expression for "V takes the form = = Next. ii = 2. The submatrices in row n are of order x i.. .19 .. .. 411_ to ET9II(Q71+ — T411) (a) the positive using member-joint connectivity matrices for and negative (C_) ends: 411÷ C÷% 17 .558 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. 17 Row n of d corresponds to member n. we relate 411÷.

SYSTEM EQU)L)BRIUM EQUATIONS — 559 Note that rows a of C ÷. are the joint forces due to external forces acting on the We express the complete set of equations as + Z1 . combining (a) and (17—19).equilihrium equations involves only summing at each joint the end forces incident on the joint. Finally. C correspond to member a.1 P1 = + I Z2 Zm (17-24) We assemble and working with successive members. Assembling the joint force. p1. There is only one nonzero element in a row. = = — For an ideal truss. There arc i equations for each joint. — contains the direction cosines for the bars. The expressions for the end forces in terms of the member forces are given by (17—7). The contribution of member a follows from (17—7): in row . we enter n in column n÷ of of C_. For row n. (17—21).reduces to (see Equation 6—28) = where 17—4. and a total of if equations. SYSTEM EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS We have used the member force-equilibrium equations in developing the member force-displacement relations. so it remains only to satisfy equilibrium of the joints.SEC. 17—4. we have and column = and it follows that — 17 20 d. as the total external joint force matrix referred to the global We define frame: (17—22) = 1) and as the initial (Z = 0) joint force matrix: (ijx j) = 1' 2 (17—23) The elements of members with Z 0.

GOVERNING EQUATIONS The governing equations for the unrestrained system are (17-30) Now. We rearrange and that the prescribed displacements arc last. A to represent the rearranged forms d: (qr I x r) B= [liii [ _J A2] = [An [ A2 (17—32) j fr'qr) . We also rearrange -+ so U = P cu1) (U2) (rxl) (17—31) —* = Pf (r x where U2. + C!1.GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.. We use B. we suppose r joint displacements are prescribed. Comparing (17—26) with (17—17). 17 Column n TE n_n — — — Tdyn p171sn = = TE (17—26) 0 S s= fl+.O (17—29) INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS. = Then.. and P1 are prescribed. 2. P1. we see that = We let —— (17—27) 1' 1. we can express as (17—28) = 17—5.

using A O/Iq = This step involves postmultiplying column q of d by T (17—36) row q of by and premultiplying We write the transformed equations as = J)1 + 4L + fZ = (1737) where the superscript J indicates that joint forces and displacements are referred to local restraint frames. We first transform the force and dis- d placement matrices for joint q from the global frame to the restraint frame.SEC. we write the equations for the restrai. The final equations are obtained by permuting the the rows of and then partitioning. A1U1 + A2U2 member forces (Z). the (na eqs. columns of d2 (rows of The transformation of a71 to U can be expressed as a matrix product. with the prescribed displacements last.) (17—33) (17—34) 17 35 - The unknowns are the displacements (U1)... 17—5. 2 + = fZ + 1/. If the restraints are parallel to the directions of the global frame.) (r eqs. the transformation of d to A (or to B) involve only a permutation of the columns of (rows The same permutation is applied to the rows Suppose joint q is partially restrained and the restraint directions do not coincide with the global frame directions. and the r reactions (P2). U = DQ/ = where (17—38) contains the rotation matrices for the joint restraint frames.e. (17—40) Then. Now. One can generate H by starting with I and permuting the rows according to the new listing of the joint displacements. = . (17—39) and H is the row permutation matrix. i. JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS 561 Finally.ied system as Pi = + B1Z P1 + AfZ P2 = 2 + B2Z P1. = DTU P= ... D is an orthogonal matrix.

Therefore. we can express d in terms of only one . we develop the stability criteria for a geometrically nonlinear system subjected to a finite loading. we worked with the actual joint displacements and external joint forces referred to the global frame.. which we list below for convenience: = where + — Tc) + = One assembles d. For the equations to he consistent for an arbitrary loading. we can write [D 1 LD2J (n x (j) . It is also the initial stability requirement for a geometrically nonlinear system. which represents nj equations in unknowns. 17 and it follows that P. 17—6. using(17—17). the rank of 'B1 must equal n.562 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. (17—25). By introducing new joint variables. The governing equations are given by (17—30). B1Z = P2 -. — A = B (17—41) AT = The partitioned forms are obtained by partitioning D: D= Finally. which are actually the expansions of(b). (r (17—42) A1 = A2 = P1 = 2 = 1 = BT = Bf (17-43) To determine the requirement for initial stability... wc consider (17—33). In the next chapter.(A1) = (17—44) Since B1 is of order x a necessary hut not sufficient condition for stability (17—45) Equation (17—44) is the stability requirement for a geometrically linear system. 9PI. the stability requirement for the system is r(B1) = . NETWORK FORMULATION In the formulation presented in the previous articles.

1. x 1) (17—51) s= 1..4 — displacement matrices for joint k in terms of their equivalents at point Y. k r)r° kY k (17—47) k where 0 kY = I" — 0 Xy2. = = S 0 = (q. We let 'Wy = {0/t°y.. 0 — Xy1 0 — 4i) plane (17-48) t planar We could operate on (b). — = Substituting for we obtain 'Kr. 17—6. We define = statically equivalent force at Y due to the actual force matrix at joint k. = Now. 2 j . The rule (17—17) for assembling d still applies except that now Let Y denote some arbitrary point.SEC.. NETWORK FORMULATION 563 C.. For now n. The actual and equivalent quantities are related by — Y. (1746) = displacement at Y due to rigid body motion about joint k. Suppose we express the actual force and connectivity matrix. and noting that The remaining steps are the same as followed previously. = (17—48) using (17—47). by definition. C. but it is more convenient to start with (17—11): 'Kr. 'Wy 2 (17—49) (17—50) and write 'K = The generation of follows from (17—48).

e. It is not. and write the resulting equations = = + + fZ = (17-54) To relate corresponding terms in (a) and (17—54'). r (17—56) g.ioned. a network formulation. Fenves and Branin's primary objective was to show that the governing equations for a member system can be cast in a form such that geometrical and topological effects are separated. The only way that one can separate connectivity from geometry is to redefine the joint variables.YI = The expression for reduces to (17--53) when (d) and (c) are introduced. Another serious disadvantage transform is that the equations tend to become ill-condii. The only operational advantage of not working with the actual joint quantities is in the generation øf d.m÷ and d. C_) = as (17—53) We transform the joint forces. Note . Actually their formulation is a special case of our first formulation.. to introduce the displacement restraints. The formulation developed above can be interpreted as a network formulation since the connectivity term appears seperately in the factored form of d.. 1). a true network formulation since connectivity is not completely separated from geometry (see (17—21)). i. DiMaggio and Spillars (Ref. A simplified version which does not allow for member force releases has been presented by Fenves and Branin (see Ref.. to to generate to once the solution is obtained. we generalize (17—47): (17—55) = • (if x i/) jY It follows that — . we let 1+Y = + Y (irn x irn) (17—52) Then. and finally.. strictly speaking.564 GENERAL FORMULATION—UNEAR SYSTEM CHAP.. 2) have also presented a network formulation for a rigid jointed member system.. using (17—47). This advantage is trivial compared to the additional operations required . 17 To express in factored form.

The matrix. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 565 that the ideal truss is an exception. and even this advantage is debatable. the selection of a primary structure for a rigid-jointed frame having fixed supports is quite simple. Now. Connectivity and geometry are naturally uncoupled for this system. (17—34). provided that there are no member force releases or partial joint restraints. Once the member forces are known. symmetrical. and (17—35). 17—7. we start by solving (17—35) for Z in ternis of the displacements. 17—7. 2—18. 9—5. Whether one interprets the governing equations for a member system from a network viewpoint is of academic interest only. we can find the reactions from (17—34). There one can use certain concepts of the mesh methodt to select a primary structure. However. See Prob. the equations reduce to the equations for the direct stiffness method. . We substitute for Z in (17—33) and write the result as = where P0 + + K12U2 (nd x lid) (17—59) = K12 = ATkA2 = + x r) (lid X 1) (17—60) The elements of P0 are the joint forces due to the initial end forces. and positive definite. The only possible advantage of the network interpretation is in the force method. contains the initial member forces due to external loads acting on the members and initial deformation resulting from fabrication errors or temperature changes. Z = Z1 + kA1UE + kA2U2 where 17-57) = initial member force matrix (q1 x 1) = k= (17—58) = reduced member stiffness matrix x Note that k is quasi-diagonal. DISPLACEMENT METHOD The governing equations are given by (17—33).SEC. it f See Sec. Since A1 is of rank (when the system is stable) and k is positive definite. In the displacement method. Z1.

. one can avoid any matrix multiplication.566 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. (17—8). Conversely.107) reads to ke. Operating on (17—30). we review the definitions of the member stiffness matrices. . n) TEn(_kr. substituting for d using (17—21). n'17ro. By first manipulating the unrestrained equations and then introducing the displacement restraints.1 is positive definite. and (17—il). we obtain Z = Z1 + kd°ll (17-61) (17—62) and = = + c/TZ + + Equation (17—62) is identical to (16—8)._1O fl+n+ — e. + TE)( — kr. jfK1 is not positive definite. Z1. (17—7). Operating on the restrained equations. the system is unstable. .fl Now. 17 that K1. The of (16—9).H = and L0 . (16—10) when we introduce the factored forms of d. The joint displacements are determined by solving (17—59) and the member forces are obtained by back substitution in (17—57). the expression for takes the form = where — = Finally.. n) t See Eqs. are taken into account. The initial end actions for member n = T. This procedure corresponds to the direct stiffness method.. reduces to First..n T n e. we expand (d): (17—63) = + + T)C + — One can easily show that (17—64) reduces to (16—10) when the properties of C. is not efficient since the various coefficient matrices must be generated by matrix multiplication. as we have done above. The effective member stiffness matrix (see (16—104)) has been defined as k to the global frame and applying (16.

) (r eqs. i. FORCE METHOD We start with the governing equations for the restrained system: B1Z = P1 P1. This operation can be represented in terms of the permutation matrix. We obtain (f) by starting with [0 = IrJ L U2 and permuting the rows and columns. 17—8. when It follows that the system is stable.. i.) Now. In Sec. (f) consists of (17—59) plus r relations for the prescribed displacements.e. and 4. (fld eqs.SEC. = is positive definite when K11 is positive definite. 17—8. the expression for + takes the = + The general form — (17—65) defined according to (16—9) is = + (17—66) Substituting (e) in (17—65) results in (17—66). We let B1 is of rank be the degree of static indeterminacy. 16—4.. equations in Equation (a) represents The system is statically determinate when n4.) (b) (c) unknowns where Also. the number of member force redundants: (17—67) = — . FORCE METHOD 567 Using the factored forms for form d. defined by u=[IdllJ = HTP Then.) (a) BfU1 + = = 'V0 + fZ 2 + 82Z (qr eqs. 11. we presented a procedure for introducing joint displacement restraints and represented the modified equations as = (ii eqs.e.

) (ZR) 1) (17—68) The elements of ZR are the force redundants for the system. 9—2. This is possible since (b) represents qT equations whereas U1 is only x 1. we specialize the principle of virtual forces of order for a member system and utilize it to establish the compatibility equations.( The complete solution for is xqo. = (B1pY'(P1 — ZPR = but it is not necessary to determine Actually..568 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. P2. We suppose the first 0d columns of B1 are linearly independent. If the system is initially stable. they satisfy in the expression for P2 and write the P2 = t See Sec. Continuing.) The equilibrium equations take the form = P1 — P1.) B1 =[ (r 0 BIR "d> 17 — B2 (i 69 (r °qo. we partition B1 and B2 consistent with (17—68): (fld 0 qj-) x fld) ("s 'Jo. the solution procedure can be completely automated. the member force matrix Z can always be rearranged so that this condition is satisfied.. Finally. We partition Z after row Z 1) 1z. The compatibility Since B1 is of rank equations for the member force redundants are obtained by eliminating U1 from (b).. We refer to the system obtained by setting ZR = 0 as the primary system.2 + We write the solution of (17—70) as ZP BIRZR + B2RZR (17—70) (17—71) + KZR (17—72) The force influence matrices can be expressed as ("a 1) Zr. 17 we can solve (a) for member forces in terms of the net prescribed joint forces (P1 — P1 i) and r member forces.e. In the next section.0 + P2 RZR (17—75) . we substitute for result as (17-74) are self-equilibrating. i.) z Note that the member forces due to B1Z = 0.

there are excess equations. and then determine . it follows that fzR is also positive definite.R1T f[ZP.R1 (17—81) j j Now. ft — 'RR 7T c o) — A = P2. The flexibility matrix. R'PP'—P.) (17—77) (d) The joint displacements can he determined from (17—77) once Zft is known. 9—2.e' 2 1 1 1 *ftftJ o.J( + + + fRRZR (fld eqs. We generate A. 17—8. FORCE METHOD 569 where (rXI) = (r X P1. we substitute for equations as where >< qg) using (17—72) and write the resulting (17—79) 17T — fZRZR = A —f 7T 4• 7 1-q'.SEC. fzR.ft '17—76) It remains to determine Zft. the remaining steps are straightforward. We partition (b) consistent with the partioning of Z. In a later article. + = + = 1'O. Then. f is positive definite for a deformable system. Finally.2 + J37PZP. rDT 1 1 rDT 1 I.0 B2R + B2pZp.R) L PR V R) and obtain the following two sets of equations relating to U1 and ZR: + L"2RJ — + ft BfPU1 + 'V'p BfftU. can be expressed as = — lil [Zp [ZP ft 'RRJ J [zp. ftU2 — + p + These equations are similar in form to the corresponding equations for the ideal truss developed in Sec. Once the preliminary force analyses have been carried out. Equation (b) represents qr equations in unknowns.) eqs. we consider the case where certain member deformations may be prescribed. solve for Zft. Since + = qft. Eliminating U1 from (d) leads to RU2 I/R + ZP + + fftftZft ± + + fpftZR) 17—78 Equation (17—78) represents the compatibility equations for the force redun- dants. U1.

but not as conveniently as the direct stiffness method.570 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. The extension is quite straightforward since the governing equations are almost identical in form. If we consider U. In the displacement method. the force method requires considerably more operations to generate the equations. the requirement that PTAU = + ZTd. (17—35).1 + AfZ = P1. .) Z= = (AU — form of (17—83) suggests that we define a scalar quantity. The force method can be completely automated.2 + To interpret (a) as a stationary rcquircment. Another disadvantage of the force method is that the compatibility equations tend to he ill-conditioned unless one is careful in selecting force redundants. We refer to (17—83) as the principle of virtual displacements for a member system. lid).. using — "1/'. Also. we consider the deformationdisplacement relation. they can be determined by solving (17—77). Now. (17—34). We start with the force-equilibrium equations. V = V(U). we developed variational principles for the displacement and force formulations for an ideal truss. + ATZ The partitioned form is = P. (17—83) results in only (b). having the property dV = = dV(U) (17—84) The t We work with the governing equations for the restrained system. If the displacements are also desired. The final number of equations for the force method is usually smaller than for the displacement method VS. automating the preliminary force analyses requires solving an additional set of nd equations. See (17—33). 17 Zr. to be prescribed. However. 17—9.. in this section. P2 by back substitution. we develop the corresponding variational principles for a member system. we substitute for Z in the joint force-equilibrium equations. "K = AU = A1U1+ A2U2 The first differential of "K due to an increment in U is d"K = A AU = A1 AU1 + A2 AU..t P = P. (17-82) Then.K (17-83) be satisfied for arbitrary AU is equivalent to (a). VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES In Chapter 7.

we can state that the displacements defining the equilibrium position correspond to a minimum value of defined by (17—88) or (17—87). 17—9. By definition. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES 571 One can interpret V as the strain energy function for the members. APTU = (17-92) Note that (17—92) is valid only for a statically permissible virtual-force system. We let AP. AZ be a statically permissible virtual-force system. we define the potential energy function. We consider next the force-method formulation. and the second differential has the '4 = AUrK11 AU1 (17—90) Since K11 is positive definite. The compatibility equations follow directly from the principle of virtual forces by requiring the virtual-force system to be self-equilibrating. by writing (17—86) as H.e. we introduce the joint displacement constraint condition.. = where V + 1U1 — (17—88) V= form + A202 — i2rr — /tITTIATI A \AIT — 1) + A202 — (17—89) The Euler equation for (17—88) is (17—59). are the unpartitioned joint force-equilibrium equations expressed in terms of U. we set U2 = 02 in (17—87). = V + 1U1 + — — — U2) (17-87) where U1. If AZ satisfies - then (17--92) reduces to AP1 = B1 AZ = 0 (17-93) (17-94) = . 17—7.. Finally. U2 =02. they are the governing equations for the displacement formulation presented in Sec. If only the equations for P1 are desired. V ôan be expressed as 17 85 — Continuing. The Euler equations for (17—87) are the partitioned equilibrium equations (Equations (h). For the V= = — — linear case..e. U2. i. = ATAZ = BAZ (17-91) Premultiplying both sides of (d) with AZT and introducing (17—91) leads to the principle of virtual forces. one which satisfies (17—91). and P2 are variables. as V+ — PTU (17-86) The Euler equations for H. (c)) expressed in terms of the displacements with U2 set equal to 02.SEC. i..

K0 We also define the total complementary energy function. we expressed Z. Sub- stituting for Z. we obtain = — + ZR + ZR] (17-99) 2. P2: = = — + B2Z The constraint conditions are the joint force-equilibrium equations. lead to the constraint conditions on the force variations B1 AZ = AP2 = self-equilibrating. RU2 + const The Euler equations for (17—99) are (17—79). P2 as Z = + P20 + P2RZR This representation satisfies (g) and (h) identically for arbitrary AZR. and noting that P. The formulation presented in the previous section corresponds to taking AZ [ZP.Rl = A ZR (17-95) AP2 = We define the member complementary energy function. can he interpreted as the stationary requirement for 11. and = 4ZTfZ + ZT. Operating on (g). as (17—97) = — (17—93) The deformation compatibility equations. 0 B2 AZ Note that (h) require the virtual-force system to be statically permissible and In the previous section. 17 This result is valid for an arbitrary self-equilibrating virtual-force system. and the second differential has the form = AZR (17—100) . V's' = V*(Z). 2 are prescribed. subject to the following constraints on Z. (17—94). such that dV* = (17—96) For the linear case. P2 in (17-98) and expanding V* using (17-97).572 GENERAL FORMULATION—LiNEAR SYSTEM CHAP.

and the force-displacement relations (see (17—5)) degenerate to (b) See (16—75). 17—10. This principle is a specialized form of Rcissner's principle.e. we set 1/AE = 0. This happens. Z k(BfU1 + — = and noting that. for example. if axial extension is to be neglected. For rigidity. to be singular. lead to the partitioned joint force-equilibrium equations and the member force-joint displacement relations. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 573 is positive definite. and P2 as variables. The rigidity assumption is introduced by setting the corresponding deformation parameters equal to zero in the local flexibility matrix.SEC. — ZT(BTIJ1 ± reduces 11a to —11. as defined by (17—98). — V" = y Introducing the joint force-equilibrium equations as constraint conditions INTRODUCTION OF MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS Suppose a member is assumed to he either completely or partially restrained with respect to deformation due to force. One can easily show that the stationary requirement for rIR = ZT(8TU1 + T — — Pfu1 — ( IT 1 IT 7—10 considering Z. we discuss the case where neglecting member deformation parameters causes the mmher flexibility matrix t.. in what follows. i. U2. We obtain (17—87) from (17—101) by introducing the force-displacement relations as a constraint condition on Z.. . g. U1. when axial extension is neglected for a straight member. correspond to a minimum value Since of Instead of developing separate principles for the displacements and force redundants. we set g Now. by definition. Note that now the axial force has to be determined from the equilibrium equations. the forces that satisfy compatibility as well as equilibrium. = 0. 17—10. For complete rigidity. The rank is decreasedt by I and the axial force-deformation relation degenerates to = where — = v. we could have started with a general variational principle whose Euler equations are the complete set of governing equations. + - (a) is the initial axial deformation due to temperature and fabrication error. it follows that the true forces. For example.

The governing equations are given by fZrZR = A where (qR eqs. Since f is singular. We consider next the displacement formulation. This condition is necessary but not sufficient as we will illustrate below.574 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. We consider first the force method. 4 as the redundants: cF1) (F2J IF3 ff4 Then. Then. k does not exist and. For this system.. i. 4 are rigid. Aside from insuring that the flexibility matrix is of rank there is no difliculty involved in introducing member deformation constraints in the force formulation. No difficulty is encountered if only one bar is rigid. Suppose these are c deformation constraints. ri Zr5[0 and 0 1 1 1 0 01 0 = We can specify that. we cannot invert the complete set of force-displacement . In general. it must be of rank requires qT — C In This (17—402) That is. Example 17—1 Consider the ideal truss shown. there must be at least unconstrained member deformations. qT 4 q4 = 2 We take the forces in bars 3. at most. (b) as either member deformation constraints or as con- straint conditions on the joint displacements. the decrease in rank of the system flexibility matrix f is equal to the number of constraint conditions. we cannot specify that bars 1. 3 or 2. must be nonsingular. two bars are rigid.) = "Zr L — C. However. 17 One can interpret (a).e. f is of rank order to solve (c). therefore.

) + fZ = A1U1 + A2U2 (qT eqs. We partition '/7' and Z as follows: = where (cx1) z = 1 (17—103) contains the constrained member deformations and Z.) Now. we suppose there are c deformation constraints and the elements of are listed such that the last c elements are the prescribed deformations. We use subscripts c. u to indicate quantities associated with the constrained and unconstrained deformations. E17—1 0 0 relations.e. Continuing. (17—57) are not applicable. In what follows. we partition A1 (q-r A (cx I'd) — 'ia) (cxr) •) (17—104) (qr—e)xi - (qT xl) 05 (cx I) f = fT = 0 (cxc) .. The governing equations are P1 = P1 1 + AfZ eqs. we first develop the appropriate equations by manipulating the original set of governing equations. i.SEC. the corresponding member forces. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 575 Fig. We then show how the equations can be deduced from the variational principle for displacements. 17—10.

we can transform (17—109) such that the coefficient matrix is always nonsingular.e.. The resulting equations are 4= = and + — — — (17—108) — + AfCZC = P1 — (17—109) A1. This is permissible since is nonsingular. we cannot find the forces in bars 1. in order for f to be singular. U1. the coefficient matrix. In what follows. Note that. is of rank c. is equal to the number of independent constraint equations. is nonsingular only when the structure obtained by deleting the restraint forces (4) is stable.. By suitably redefining 4. We solve (17—106) for 4 and substitute in (17—105).576 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. 3 are rigid for the system considered in Example 17—I. The rank of A1. Example 17—2 Suppose we specify that bars 1. f must have the form shown above..02 (17—105) (17106) (17—107) Equation (17—107) represents c constraint conditions on the unknown joint displacements. + e30 = + U41 Even if(b) is satisfied. the governing equations take the form P1 = = + AfCZC + + = + A2aU2 = A1. we assume A1. =4+ =4+ — + A2.02 (17—110) Now. we must have er.U1 = A2.U1 + A2. Suppose we write Z. there must be no coupling between and i. 3 due to Pi 1. One can easily demonstrate that c independent constraint conditions are required in order to be able to analyze the system for an arbitrary loading. e1}) — U21 = = —u11 + e3 = For (a) to be consistent. The constraint equations arc (we take — = {e1.02 — (17—ill) where 4 represents the new force variable and is an arbitrary symmetrical . Using this notation. 17 The deformation constraints are introduced by setting = 0.

1 ([A1. 17—7 (see (17—60)). the solution for U1 must satisfy (17—116) and we see from (17—111) that is equal to the actual constraint force matrix. We obtain K11 and Fl1 by first generating using the direct stiffness method and then deleting the rows and columns corresponding to the prescribed displacements. it is not necessary to rearrange Z such that the constraint forces arc last. the natural member force listing. we can determine the force matrix for member n by first evaluating (see (17—8) and (17—11)) Z =k'r.1 11 (17-112) = rk L 1 rf L kcj = and noting (17—104). can be listed arbitrarily. . ATk'A. / (O/g° '. deleted. we can write (a) as Pi + ATk'(A2tY2 — + (Afk'A1)U1 + Using the notation introduction in Sec.. . 17—10.. Substituting for in (17—109). — fl r. Z. A2. One can work with the natural member force listing. It is only necessary to specify the locations of the constraint forces (elements of in. have the same form as the The expressions for Z and unconstrained expressions (17—57) and (17—59). with Z. Once the ments and constraint forces are known.j — n n -— " n+ . Now.SEC. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 577 positive definite matrix of order c. it follows that K1 is positive definite. for arbitrary k'. Z = {Z1. we let Kr. the governing equations take the form Z — (17-114) (17—115) = K11U1 + = = = — — — K1202 = H1 = H2 (17—116) Since A1 must he of rank for stability and we have required to be positive definite.. The constrained deformations.. = = (17—113) ± Finally. .. ..} and take arbitrary values for the member deformation parameters that are to be negelected. . we obtain (a) P1 = P1.. Also.1 + T + By defining [k. ro. 1/v.

17 where k. Example 17—3 We suppose bar 2 (Fig. the various matrices for this example are U1 P1 {u1.. F2 = = 11. c=1 Fig. = To simplify the example. Using the notation introduced above. U1 = and then substitute in (17—116). In what follows. we describe two procedures for solving (17—115) and (17—116). — (17—118) = — 112 (17—119) The coefficient matrix for is positive definite since K1 is positive definite is of rank c. The constraint equation is e2 = U. In the first method. we consider only the effect of joint forces. For the unconstrained case. with this procedure.1=2 (P1 U2. E17—3) is rigid.) 0 Bar is rigid We start by assembling A1. we solve (17—115) for U1.. and then adding the constraint forces in the appropriate locations.578 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. Note that.. is the modified stiffness matrix. we must invert an ndth and order matrix and also solve a set of c equations. E17—3 are null matrices. = e2 1 .u2} Pz} = e1 e2 4= 4= F1 k. we have to solve only equations.

We just have to take H2 = = (k) 1 [1+2a —ii Then (1k1[-l +Ij I (1) . 17—10.] 0 (h) (i) (j) = H1 = The inverse of K11 is 0 The solution follows from (17—118). and (17-116) reduce to = K11U1 + + = P1 [u-. (17—115). Now. we obtain U1 (n) = 2p' Id1 U2 = 0 Finally. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 579 and then partition according to (17-104): Ii 1] Note that we cannot invert (17—109).L[1 = and (17—119) reduces to ak1 +11 = ak1 F'2—p2—p1 Substituting for F'2 in (17—118). we assume an arbitrary value for the stiffness of bar 2. — a is an arbitrary positive constant. (17—119).A1.... since Af. we substitute for U1. and assemble K1 i: = L 0 kJ LU a 1 K11 = Afk'A1 — k1•[I' The governing equations (17—114).SEC.k. u2 in (h): F1 = F2 = F'2 = P2 — P1 . is singular.

We let — c (17—120) and partition U1: (cx 1) U1 (cxnd) (Cxc) (nxl) (17—121) The elements of U are the independent displacements. (17—115). One can interpret . one can start with = — = H2 which represents c relations between the displacements. we can always permute the columns such that this requirement is satisfied. is nonsingular.e.) Substituting for U1 leads to (K11B)U + We eliminate -. By definition. We suppose the first c columns of are linearly independent.GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.) (17—126) Since B is of rank n.K11H3 114 from (b) by premultiplying by BT and noting (17—125). solving (a) for the constrained displacements. H3 from same procedure as employed in the force method to select the primary structure. 17 Instead of first solving (17—115) for U1 in terms of (17—116). We consider next the joint force-equilibrium equations. Then. Since A is of rank c. K11U1 + = H1 = (fld eqs.. we express U1 as — 2U (17—122) U1 = BU + H3 where a) (17-123) (cx = I L f fl 0 -J I (axx) H3 = ( (cxl) j 0 (ax!) Note that B is of rank n and (17125) H2 can be completely automated using the The generation of B. i. there are only nd — c independent displacements. Since is of rank c. we have = Finally. the coefficient matrix is positive definite. The resulting system of n equations for U is (BTK11B)U = BTH4 (n eqs. we can express c displacements in terms of rid — c displacements.

It remains to determine the restraint forces. of no — c Example 17—4 For this example (Fig. We consider again Eq. we can write = — K11U1 = 115 (n0 eqs. and the joint force due to member force with the constraint forces deleted. is the difference between the external applied force. In determining B. 115. 1 — ATZ (c) Z — = k'(A1U1 + A2U2 — (d) We determine Z using the member force-displacement relations and assemble P1 + AfZ by the direct stiffness method. 115 = where (see (17—114)) — P1.) (17—127) The matrix. i. In this approach. i such that the first c columns are linearly independent. Although the final number of equations is less than in the first approach. there is more preliminary computation (generation of B) and the procedure cannot be automated as easily.0 e30 (a) n42 = e2 = 021 — U22 — 032 031 144j = e3 e4 (b) e4. .SEC. we have 1 (17—129) Since is nonsingular. We solve for U and then evaluate U1 from (17—123). we have to invert a matrix of order c and solve a system equations. P1. c—4 The constraint conditions are e1 U12 n=1 e10 e. We apply the same permutation to (17—127) and (17—128) H5 2 Considering the first c equations. 17—10. (a). MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 581 BTK1 1B as the reduced system stiffness matrix. we can solve (17—129) for We obtain the final member forces by adding the elements of Z defined by (17—114) and (d). E17—4).. we permuted the columns partition after row C: [ATe.e. Now has c independent rows. Assuming U.1 is known.

The final result is U11 +1 0 0 e1.e4. e2.582 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.2.by applying (17—122). 17 Note that (b) corresponds to (17—107). This step is simple for this example since I. E17—4 2 x2 ears 1. 5..0 + U4j I 113 B . 1 3-..0 e30 + u32f .2 The rearranged form of U1 is U1 = {u12.. and either I or 3 comprise a linearly independent set.0 -I— 1142 U21 U22 = +1 {u11} + 0 0 1' e30 + 1132 u31 e4. The form corresponding to (17—116) is +1 —1 +1 +1 +1 1- U12( 1e10 + Je.4 are rigid listing of U1.o + U41J U31 I U1 FL2 A1. we can take either u1 or u21 as U.4.3.u21. we assemble U1 defined by (e) and then permute the rows to obtain the initial Fig. U} u11} We determine U.u22u31 = (U. Finally. It is convenient to take U = u1 We permute the columns according to 1 1 —*5 2—. Then. Columns 2.

we can add the term '(1"' to (d). V reduces to + = V= + )Tk('K — We obtain the appropriate form of = V introducing the constraint condition. One can easily show that the stationary requirement for (17—130) considering U1 and 4 as independent variables leads to (17—109) and (17—110). In the second approach.SEC. Taking — — V= — (17—131) in (17—130) leads to (17—115) and (17—116). which for this example has the form +1 +1 +1 I We I [ F4 = H5. permute the rows of (g) according to (d) and consider only the first four equations. = where V + !5L1U1 — V= "K = A1U1 + A202 Now. 17—10. It is of interest to derive the equations for the constrained case by suitably specializing the variational principle for displacements. we substitute U1=BU+H3 (f) . the displacements are constrained by = Then. "Kr — by substituting for V using (d) and = 0: + — + — (17-430) The elements of 4 are Lagrange multipliers. We start with the unconstrained form of developed in Sec. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRMNTS 583 The constraint forces are determined from (17—127).5 I I H. Since = v". 17—9. The resulting equations correspond to (17—129).

131—142. 3. Vol. pp. EM3.E.. BRANIN. 1963. H. FENVES. 1957. SPILLARS. June. .. H.. JR. Div. pp. Note that we could have used the reduced form for V. pp. August. Vol 91.. and W. F. No. 483—514. No. ARGYRIS. 4. A. we still have to determine the constraint forces. J.." ." J. ST4. Eng. ô. 169—188. DIMAGOT0.. Mech. R.... S. "Network-Topological Formulation of Structural Analysis. Also.S.C. 1965.C.584 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. Vol. 17 in (a) and (17—131): = V V + — — — + H3) (17—132) A1BU + A1H3 + A2U2 The variation of considering U as the independent variable is = AUT[BT(P1 = 1 P1) — + (g) + BTATkr(ASH3 + A2U2 — BTH4] Requiring to be stationary for arbitrary AU results in (. "Network Analysis of Structures.. Ninth International congress App!. Mech. L. equation (d). 89.E. "The Matrix Analysis of Structures with Cut-Outs and Modifications." Proc. REFERENCES 1.17—126). 2. Structural Div.e.S. J. and F. i.1.

We also consider the material to be linearly elastic and the member to be prismatic. However.. where squares of rotations are negligible with respect to unity. The three-dimensional problem is more formidable and one has to introduce numerous approximations in order to generate an explicit solution. The first phase involves developing appropriate member force-displacement relations by integrating the governing equations derived in Sec. These methods are applied to the system equations and the appropriate rerelations are developed. Next. we extend the displacement formulation to include geometric nonlinearity. The direct stiffness method is employed to assemble the system equations. This phase is essentially the same as for the linear case. co3). We treat first planar deformation. The centroidal axis initially coincides with the X1 direction and X2 is an axis of symmetry for the cross section. 585 . i. 18-2. the governing equations are now nonlinear. we utilize the classical stability criterion to investigate the stability of an equilibrium position. INTRODUCTION In this chapter.18 Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Systems 18-1. We will briefly sketch out the solution strategy and then present a linearized solution applicable for doubly symmetric crosssections. 13—9. We work with displacements (u1. successive substitution and Newton-Raphson iteration. The derivation is restricted to small rotation. Finally. MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION - Figure shows the initial and deformed positions of the member. we described two iterative procedures for solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. u2. since the equations for this case are easily integrated and it reveals the essential nonlinear effects.e.

Centroidai exis Fig. For convenience. and end forces (F1. Equilibrium Equations =0 (F1u2.42 L The governing equations follow from (13—88).586 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONUNEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. Notation for p'anar bending. Also. and M3. 18—1. we consider h1 = rn3 = 0. F2. 18 distributed external force (b2). The rotation of the chord is denoted by p3 and is related to the end displacements by — U. — CO (b) M (0. w3. Deformed position b2 dxi 1182 x1 . 13. + F2) + b2 0 (a) F2 = Force-Displacement Relatio.is F1 = ULx + F2 2 = = U2. . we drop the subscript on x1. M3) referred to the initial (X1-X2-X3) member frame.

= — j (u2 2 dx (18—2) Combining the remaining two equations in (a). MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION 587 Boundary Conditions Forx = 0: = U2 = UAI w= WA3 or or or or or 1F110 = —FAI iF2 + Mb = FIlL Forx = U1 = = +FB1 IF2 + Ml. the governing equation for u2 follows from the third equation in (e). P — = F112 (d) or Integrating (a) leads to F1 = F2 + Pu2 = — C3P C2Px + Jx(Jx b2 dx)dx where C2. U2b b(EI — 1/ (18—5) ..tx + C5 cos px) (18—4) x - (i + C2 + + C4 b2 dx + (i + where U2b denotes the particular solution due to b2. If b2 is constant. + where + C3)+ — 2__ El = co (18—3) The solutions for u2 and M arc C4 cos px + C5 sin + C2x + C3 + U2b sin j. we obtain M = El / + P\ u2 + ri Finally. We include the factor P so that the dimensions are consistent. PL 11111 — UAI 1 ('1. C3 are integration constants. 18—2.SEC. The axial displacement is determined from the first equation in (a).

We also neglect transverse shear deformation since its effect is small for a homogeneous cross section. We omit the algebraic details since they are obvious and list the final form below. When the coefficient matrix is singular. MA3 = MB3 + + + + + + — — uA2)] UA2)] = — + FB2 = — — UA2)] — (u52 — uA2) (18—9) 2 C0A3 — — Unz)] 1 + P — = P1. We consider the case where the end displacements are prescribed. the member is said to have buckled. In what follows. L leads to four linear equations relating (C2 C5). the member (18_8) PJrnax The end forces can be obtained with (c—e). i.e. (18—6) U2bX)X_OL we obtain C2 = C3 = — — 1 — jzC5 — C4 — — C 1 sin 1iL — — . 18 Enforcing the boundary conditions on u2. 1. ('Lj (u2.u sin .. 2 dx = PL — erL where —j 2(1 — cos — — D= Dç62 = pL sin pL 1iL cos cos 1zL) — sin iL) = + .588 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. The net displacements are u = (u — CD' = (a5 Evaluating (18—4) with A2 = oc. w at x = 0. we exclude member buckling. (18—7) C5 = 1tL — 1— COS/LL — D= buckling load: 2(1 — Note that D 4 0 as This defines the upper limit on P.

U52. If b2 is constant. 7). there is no difficulty since is now prescribed. is unrestrained with respect to axial displacement. is a nonlinear function of P. w5) + Dg54 = C5 — w43) 2 + (UB2 — L (U52 sin — j — (18—11) = = = = (1 — — WAS) + — WA3 sin jiL cos jiL) + 2(1 — cos cos jiL) — (1 eos jiL'\ 4 if + + We call Cr the relative end shortening due to rotation. MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION 589 The functions were introduced by Livesley (Ref. we can assume the stability functions . They degenerate rapidly as the transverse loading. 18—2. b2. The initial end forces depend on 18 —2. we have to resort to iteration in order to evaluate P since e. say B. If jiL is not close to 2ic. Expressions for the incremental end forces due to increments in the end displacements are needed in the procedure and also for stability analysis. If one end. The simplest iterative scheme is p(i+ 1) - sin jiL cos jiL = (u51 — UAI) + - (18—12) and convergence is rapid when jiL is not close to 2it. —+ 27t. bL A2 — 52 — bL2 1 — 1 - (18—10) — = In order to evaluate the stiffness coefficients. WA. = —— j dx = er( jiL. However. P has to be known.SEC. and are plotted in Fig. The relative displacement is determined from UB1 = UA1 + ('L PL — Le. UA2. when both axial displacements are prescribed.

Plot of the 0 functions. The resulting expressions are (IMA3 + Aco. are constant and equal to their values at the initial position.41 41 — . 18 I +02 pL —2 —4 —6 —8 Oi —10 A Fig.32 — dMB3 = dMç3 + dP42 + + AWA3 — — + — P — (18—13) — ——h-——.JL'i 112 112 42 1 42 dFB1 = dP dF41 = — —dP dP = Au41) + AEder .590 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP.dP . 18—2.43 + c&2 — AU42)] (Au. when operating on (18—9).

dP to dM4 and similar terms to dM5.uL) = — 2b13 . we have to add El3 F + . To obtain the exact coefficients. . + -—-- + —--—A(1zL) in the equation for dP.SEC. 18—3. — .41 = ae cIUA2 — + + - (18—16) pL) We also have to use the exact expression for der = + ——Au52 + (WA tie. The problem is transformed into a set of nonlinear algebraic equations relating the eters. 18—3. and assuming .t in which the displacement measures are expressed in terms of prescribed functions (of x) and parameters.tL is constant. constant. 18—3. We can by assuming Au2 obtain an estimate for Au12. 13—9. 5. and one must resort to an approximate method such as the Galerkin scheme. . MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION 591 where the incremental initial end forces are due to loading. MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION The positive sense of the end forces for the th case is shown in Fig. — 1LA2 — j 4)3] dCuL) . The derivatives of the stability functions are listed below for reference: 2(1iL)2 sin D = . 1O—6. . Some applications of this technique are presented in Ref. They are nonlinear. They are not exact since we have assumed and Au2. The governing equations for small rotations were derived in Sec. Lxb2. Note that the force and displacement measures are referred to the fixed member frame. AuA2) (18—14) The coefficients in (18—13) arc tangent stiffnesses.x dx is constant. An improvement on (18—14) is obtained by operating on (18—11). 1 (18-15) d(. t This method is outlined in Sec.

the axial force F1 is constant along the member and the nonlinear terms involve and coupling terms such as co1M2.1 — (18—18) + 11 = + + . called the Kap pus equations. WB2 !152 I // // x1 P2 Note: The centroidal axis coincides with X1. 18 x2 M52. X2 and X3 are principal inertia directions. + F2 + in3 = M4.+ d dx1 1142 + 711w1 1 =0 — F3 + = = 0 0 0 M. Their form is: Equilibrium Equations F1 P + x3w1. Fig.1) + dx1 F2]+ b2 0 0 [P(u. 18—3.592 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. Neglecting these terms results in linearized equations. If we consider b1 = 0. Notation for three-dimensional behavior.3 i + F3] + b3 = — 1+ 1 + rn-1.

r. If one neglects the nonlinear terms in the shearing strains. MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION 593 Force-Displacement Relations = u1.t M2 M3 + X3rF7 ± X2rF3) — Boundary Goiidif ions (± for x = L.SEC. + Ui2 = 1/F2 GA23 + J (Dz. + 1 and assumes + + + = = = 0 0 0 one obtains (13—81). CO3 1 + "F2 F3 + A23 w1.ij7f + C01. 5). When the cross section is doubly symmetric. i + 1 + u53.1 - u13 + U3.1 + takes the extensional strain as a1 u1 + zfu2.1 — GA2 . Y12 Y13 u12 + 112. Equations are exact when the section is doubly symmetric. i + U3. term.. P(u521 for x= 0) P = + — + F2 = i) + P(u.3 •t + M!1 + M2 = ±M2 — + 711w1 M3 = ±M3 F3 = ±F3 = = To interpret the linearization. 18—3.— + + F3 A3 J x2 U53. X3r i— I U52. 1 = 1 = X2r = X3r = A23 =0 (18—19) = r2 — . we consider (13—81). to u2 and However. Assumptions (a) and (b) are reasonable if is small w. they introduce considerable error when co1 is the dominant u3. This has been demonstrated by Black (Ref.

e. it is reasonable to assume no warping. 18 (r is the radius of gyration with respect to the centroid) and the problem uncouples to— plane Flexure in 1. 2. The corresponding solution is summarized below: . (18—13). We generate the restrained torsion solution following the procedure described in Example 13—7. If we introduce a subscript for /L and Cu2)2 = P P El2 (18—20) = and then replace (02 U3 —* —U2 —4 cbjCu3L) F2 F3 F3 M'2 - (18—21) —F2 in (18—9).43) The expressions for the axial end forces expands to =P P = AE — Ci-' J'Al = + AE(Cri + er2 + er3) 1 U41) r2 CL = j er3 dx1 er2 J dx1 (18—23) = 1 2L f (u3 dx1 where is obtained from er2 by applying (18—21). MA3 + E12 + — U. For example. which requires f = 0 at x = 0. L. Flexure in X1-X3 plane 3.594 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP..42)] (18—22) = and + + F42 = + U43)] F43 = + [_WB2 W42 — U43)] — — U. If the joints are moment resisting (i. Restrained torsion We have already determined the solution for fiexure in the X1-X2 plane. rigid). we obtain the member relations for flexure in the X1-X3 frame.

and AE L El3 El2 'P33 El3 El2 GJ Sym El3 . (18—26) = where + ÷ + kBJl%A + + — contains nonlinear terms due to chord rotation and end shortening uA2).________1+P SEC. En4. — {AE(eni + er2 + e. 0. 0. contains the initial end forces due to member loads. _ 595 MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION r2P P=— GJ MB1 GJ U 1+P + '> Erlcb 1 + <1)A1) - GJ —MB1 2 MA1 (18—24) 1+ — sinh 1uL [iiL(1 + Cr(1 + P)) ( + GJ(1 + P) 1 1—coshuL [ + —-——--—(1 — — sinh. we summarize the member force-displacement relations for a doubly symmetric cross section. If warping restraint is neglected.. uA3). 0. we introduce matrix notation: = {F1P2F3M1M2M3}8 {u1u2u3w1w2w3}B etc. 0 I c%) +P (18—25) At this point.uL /1(1 + Cr(1 + P))[ We neglect shear deformation due to restrained torsion by setting C. For convenience..3). 18—3.

. 18 AE L El3 . El2 GJ El2 k44 = El3 Operating on leads to the incremental equations. i.596 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. the three- dimensional form of (18—13). Assuming the stability functions are constant and taking dP — — UA2)(AU82 — + AWAI)} — iiA3)(AuB3 — AuA3) (18—27) + r2(w81 — we obtain + (knE + + (kBA — = + (knA — Mi11 + (kAA + kr)L\%A (18 —28) .e.

is the incremental stiffness matrix due to rotation. 0 P3 f. and then apply them to the governing equations for a nonlinear member system. one mustinclude additional terms due to the variation in the stability functions and use the exact expression for der Kappas's equations have also been solved explicitly for a monosymmetric section with warping and shear deformation neglected. Since the equations are linear. STABILITY ANALYSIS In this section. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. 18—4. . P2P3 kr AE L Symmetrical + TAT 0 0 0 0 0 p3 = — uA2) p2 = — UA3) Pi = — WA1) 1fF is close to the member buckling load. = 0 (18—30) In the method of successive substitution. The exact solution satisfies x=g t See Ref. we present the mathematical background for two solution techniques. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. Consider the problem of solving the nonlinear equation = Let 0 (18—29) represent one of the roots. x= — g(x) (18—31) and successive estimates of the solution arc determined.SEC. successive substitution and Newton-Raphson iteration. The algebra is untractable unless one introduces symmetry restrictions. By definition. using q(k) (18—32) where represents the kth estimate. It will involve twelve integration constants which are evaluated by enforcing the displacement boundary conditions.J3 2 Pz rp1 r 2 p1p3 —r2p1p2 (r2p1)2 0 0 0 0 0 + LFB1.t (18—29) is rewritten in an equivalent form. 9. one can write down the general solution for an arbitrary cross section. 18-4. STABILITY ANALYSIS 597 where k.

598 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. 1)) c — = — g(k)) t See Ref. c are constant. g = g(x). In the Newton-Raphson method. = in a Taylor series about — Expanding = g(k) + g(T — — + — + and retaining only the first two terms lead to the convergence measure — (18—33) where is between and T.. (18—36) = is rearranged to c — g ax = (18—37) where a. Also.t is expanded in a Taylor series about = + Ax + Ax = — + =0 where Ax is the exact correction to An estimate for Ax is obtained by neglecting second... . and the recurrence relation is taken as =c The exact solution satisfies — (18—38) a5 = Then.and higher-order terms: = + (18—34) The convergence measure for this method can be obtained by combining (a) and (18—34). and has the form — — (18—35) Note that the Newton-Raphson method has second-order convergence whereas successive substitution has only first-order convergence. 9. x2. We consider next a set of n nonlinear equations: 'I' = = 0 = An exact solution is denoted by In successive substitution. 18 Then..

the norm of 'g. The governing equations are the nodal equations referred to the qlobcil system frame.n L0xrJ and retaining only the first two terms results in the convergence measure (x — = a (18—39) where lies between xk and less than unity. from the member frame to the global frame using = where k° = is constant. must be The generalized Newton-Raphson method consists in first expanding = + + = — 0 where = = = = [T'—j (18—40) Neglecting the second differential leads to the recurrence relation = = + ( 18—41 ) The corresponding convergence measure is — = (18—42) Let us now apply these solution techniques to the structural problem.2 ' 9i. We introduce the displacement restraints and write the final equations as In our formulation. (18—26). i.e. STABILITY ANALYSIS 599 Expanding g in a Taylor series about = g(k) + = — + 91.2 92. One first has to rotate the member end forces. 18—4. 1?e — =0 (1843) contains the external nodal forces and — is the summation of the member end forces incident on node i.1 91n 92.i = 92. - e m Pm P1 + + KU 1844 . the member frame is fixed. about For convergence. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES.SEC.

if the axial forces are small in comparison to the member buckling loads. Applying successive substitution. the linear stiffness matrix. using K K1. Continue for successive load increments. In the Newton-Raphson procedure. A convenient convergence criterion is the relative change in the Euclidean norm. Update K using the axial forces corresponding to Pe(l)• Then apply (ni_pe(1) _p(n—1) e(2) r 3. Apply the first load increment. N. (18—46) This scheme is particularly efficient when the member axial forces are small with respect to the Euler loads since. This scheme is more has to be updated for each cycle. The steps are outlined here: 1.(fl) Now. N= — '\ 1 Jabs e va]uc (a specified value) . of the nodal displacements. 2. we can take K = K1 during the entire solution phase. its convergence rate is more rapid than direct substitution. However. The iteration cycle is AU(n) = = — + ( 18—48 ) iterate on (18—48) for successive load increments. we operate on Vi according to (18—41): =— 4. we can replace K with Note that K and K1. we write KU = — and iterate on U. in this case. If we assume the stability functions We expensive since .600 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. 18 depend on the axial forces while Pr depends on both the axial force and the member rigid body chord rotation. Pe(2) anditerate on K (1) and solve for U(I). holding K constant during the iteration: P1 — (18—45) = We employ (18—45) together with an incremental loading scheme since K is actually a variable. Pe is prescribed so that = due to + dPr + K LW + (18—47) = where — denotes the tangent stiffness matrix.

SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. Rather than update at each cycle. d2w. When the determinant changes sign. 18—4. Another indication of the existence of a bifurcation point (K1 singular) is the degeneration of the convergence rate for Newton-Raphson..ive definite. This is called mod (fled one can hold Newton-Raphson. we consider the special case where the loading does not produce significant chord rotation. AU — / / \T < 0 Pe) AU = 0 >0 stable neutral unstable (18—52) The most frequent case is Pe prescribed. STABILITY ANALYSIS 601 are constant in forming due to AU. The correction tends to diverge and oscillate in sign and one has to employ a higher iterative scheme. <0 is the second-order work done by the external forces during a where d2 displacement increment AU..t an equilibrium position is classified as: stable neutral unstable — >0 0 (18—50) d2 d2W.. 0 K + Kr (18—49) where K.. we keep track of the sign of the determinant of the tangent stiffness matrix during the iteration. is generated with (18—28). no additional computation) if Gauss elimination or the factor method are used to solve the correction equation. We include the incremental member loads at the start of the iteration cycle. AU and the criteria transform to (AU)TK. According to the classical stability criterion. Pe)TAU = (d AU (18—51) = AUTK. . — d2We d2 W. We consider next the question of stability. With our notation. The convergence rate is lower than for regular NewtonRaphson but higher than successive substitution. 18—4. The sign is obtained at no cost (i. Both the t See Sees. (18—48). we have passed through a stability transition.SEC. Finally. 7—6 and 10—6. the tangent stiffness matrix reduces to dI( 0 dP. the tangent stiffness matrix must be posil. To detect instability.e. A typical example is shown in Fig. in fixed for a limited number of cycles. and for a constant loading. and is the second-order work done by the member end forces acting on the members.

Then. only the lowest critical load is of interest.______________________ 602 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. TIMOSHENKO... since K = K(2). 12X I I Fig. Springer-Verlag. 2. 2d ed. 11 and 12 of Chapter 2. Kippen. 1961. BLEICH. . New York. McGraw-Hill. 1952. Also.. t Set Pi P2 = See Refs. M. Usually. Berlin. KOLLBRUNNSR. Example of structure and loading for which linearized stability analysis is applicable. In linearized stability analysis. K1 is positive definite. F. F. AU = —2K AU (18-55) Both K. P. = 0 in (18—28). This is a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. 3. MEIsTER: Knicken. and K. To investigate the stability of this structure. are symmetrical.: Buckling Strength of Metal Structures. 2d ed. and write K The member axial K is due to a unit value of the load parameter forces are determined from a linear analysis. Biegedriilknicken. K is assumed to be K1 and one solves K.. C. S. McGraw-Hill. the bifurcation problem reduces to determining the value of 2 for which a nontrivial solution of (K + 2K.)Au 1 (18—56) REFERENCES 1. 18 frame and loading are symmetrical and the displacement is due only to short- ening of the columns. we deletet the rotation terms in K. 1961. and M. and J. and this can be obtained by applying inverse iterations to (—K. 18—4.)AU 0 (18—54) exists. New York. GERE: Theory of Elastic Stability.

C. H. Chatto & Windus.: Introduction to Numerical Analysis. 1975. D. 1957. 10. T. 1956. STEUP: Stabilidhsrheorie. D. ed. H. V. 6. CFJtLVER. Office of Technical Services: U. London. London. of Commerce. Israel for Scientific Translations. LIVESLItY. VLASOV. HILDEBRAND. McGraw-Hill. G.: Matrix Methods of Structural Anal vsis. and F!. 1968..REFERENCES 4: BLYRGERMEISTEa. 1964. V. Z. R. K. New York.. . 11. Akademie-Verlag.: Recent Advances in Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis.S. B. F. Part 1. Washington. New York. Dept. A.: Thin. 9. 7. BRUSU. McGraw-Hill. London. and B. Prentice Hall. AROYRIS.. 8. GALAMBOS. Plates. Pergamon Press. 1961. 603 5. 1967. and Shells. J.: Thin Walled Elastic Beams. 1964.Walled Structures.: Structural Members and Frames. Pergamon Press. Berlin. ALMROTH: Buckling of Bars.

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76. 170 Closed ring. 4 Degree of statical indeterminacy member. 503 Cofactor. 124. 33 Axial deformation. cross-sectional properties. 86 Circular segment out-of-plane loading.. 387. 121. 563 Connectivity table for a truss. 334. 176 Cayley—Hamilton Theorem. 125. 302 Elastic behavior. 330. 222 incidence ma- Augmented matrix. 8 Echelon matrix. 485 Equivalence. 8 Constraint conditions treated. of matrices. 145 Cç1. 261 member system. 414. 301 Conformable matrices. Engineering theory of a member. for restrained torsion. 37. 27 Equivalent rigid body displacements. Neutral equilibrium Bimoment. 59 Distributive multiplication. 586 Circular helix. 119 Discriminant. 80 Curved member definition of thin and thick. 567 truss. definition equation. 72. 383. stretching and transverse shear vs. 434 restrained torsion. 434 thin. 388. 573 displacement method. 16. principle of vir- planar member. 4 Complementary energy continuum. 70. 8. 248 End shortening due to geometrically nonlinear behavior. of a system of linear algebraic equations. p. 40. 555. 454 Deformation constraints force method. 509 Classical stability criterion continuum. 430 Euler equations for a function. 39 Diagonal matrix.r—coefficients appearing in complementary energy expression Cr. 44 . 576 variational approach. bending. vector orientation. basic assumptions. 73 Eulerian strain. 79 Direction cosine matrix for a bar. 416 Canonical form. 121. 31. 385. 387. transverse shear. 487 slightly twisted. 487 Defect. out-of-plane loading. 589 Column vector. 19 Column matrix. 29 Effective shear area. with La- Augmented branch-node trix. 388 unrestrained torsion-flexure. 234 605 Consistency. 180 Bifurcation. 239 tual forces for a planar member. 389 Characteristic values of a matrix. 10 Differential notation for a function. MqS. 63 Center of twist. 35 Connectivity matrix. 256 member system. 31 Deformation Branch-node incidence table.index Associative multiplication. of a set of linear algebraic equations. 84. 504 restrained warping solution. 603 truss. 210 Determinant. member system. 373 grange multipliers. 46 Chord rotation. 498 for C. 472 Bar stiffness matrix. 583 Deformed geometry. twist. 58 Cartesian formulation. 143. and bending. 572 planar curved member. influence on bending of planar member. 465 Castigliano's principles. for out-of-plane loading of a circular member.

76. arbitrary member. 523 thin planar circular member. member system. 20. 237 Linearized stability analysis. 92 Marguerre equations. 526 Flexural warping functions. 220 Minor. 146 Plane curve. 356 Member. 249 Matrix iteration. 458 prismatic member. 355 truss. 170. 588 Member force displacement relations. 53 Orthotropic material. 570 planar member. 279. 562 truss. 137 Invariants of a matrix. 58. 143. 254 Geometric compatibility equation arbitrary member. of a square array. member system. 80. 534 planar member. 212. 300/n Frenet equations. 19 Modal matrix. 463. 98. 546. matrix. 568 planar member. 57 . 354 truss. 223 unrestrained torsion. 58 Negligible transverse shear deformation. 351 Quadratic forms. 220 Neutral equilibrium. 11 Natural member reference frame. MR. 571 Lagrange multipliers. computational method. definition. 58 Postmultiplication. 62 Isotropic material. 515 circular helix. 369 Mesh. 252 Kappus equations. 296. 218 Linear geometry. 252 Positive definite matrix. 160. 37 Piecewise linear material. 521 thin planar circular member. 8 Primary structure member system. 59. 537. 598 Normalization of a vector. 338. 126. 201 Premuftiplication. 583 Lagrangian strain. 338. 443. 601 truss. 271 Member buckling. 249 Hyperelastic material. 466 prismatic member. 216. matrix. 248 Fixed end forces prismatic member. 602 Local member reference frame. 490. 462 prismatic member. 250. 120. 92 Negative definite. Mushtari's equations.606 INDEX First law of thermodynamics. 91 Maxwell's law of reciprocal defiections. 211 Principle minors. 432 measures. 49 Null matrix. 125 Initial stability member system. 248 Incremental system stiffness matrix member system. topological. 251 Permutation matrix. 444 Gauss's integration by parts formula. 449. 442 Principle of virtual forces arbitrary member. network. 126. 601 Newton-Raphson iteration. 200 Geometrically nonlinear restrained torsion solution. 601 Moment. 52 Modified Neuton-Raphson iteration. 454. 491 Orthogonal matrices and trnasformations. 315 Geometric stiffness matrix for a bar. 384. 571 planar member. 456 Material compliance matrix. 595 Green's strain tensor. planar member. 259. 63 Positive semi-definite matrix. 512 member systens. 55 Principle of virtual displacements member system. 528 Flexibility matrix arbitrary curved member. 435. 234 Hookean material. 50. 556 Member on an elastic foundation. 4 One-dimensional deformation 335. 498 Network. 38 Linear connected graph. 234 Lamé constants. 42. 492. 264 member system. 16. 425 Poisson's ratio. 345. 256. 135 Permutation of a set of integers. S Potential energy function. 193 Inelastic behavior. 463 prismatic member. 249 Material rigidity matrix. 499 continuum. 253 Laplace expansion for a determinant. 569 planar member. 592 Kronecker delta notation.

407 Rigid body displacement transformation. Il. 206 Restrained torsion stress distribution and cross-sectional parameters channel section. 242 Submatrices (matrix partitioning). geometrically nonlinear behavior. 276 Stress resultants and stress couples. definition. 103. network. 246 Stress function. 589 Statically equivalent force system. 573 Relative minimum or maximum value of a function. 159.INDEX 607 Quasi-diagonal matrix. 79 Reissner's principle continuum. 4 Self-equilibrating force systems. 36 Successive substitution. 43 Rayleigh's quotient. 401 multicell section. 188. 39 modification for partial end restraint. 280 Strain energy density. 66 Restrained torsion solution. 27. 308 Similarity transformation. rectangle. 590. 38 Quasi-triangular matrix. 15. f. 257 Stationary values of a function. 550. assumptions. 475 Singular matrix. linear geometry. 454. 434 Rank of a matrix. 414 member system. 53. 561 Symmetrical matrix. 42. 238 Square matrix. 4 Tangent stiffness matrix for a bar. 287 Shear flow distribution for unrestrained torsiOn. 242 Kirchhoff. 568 Shallow member. 109 Rotation transformation matrix. 156 . 12. 180. 300. 12 Two-hinged arch solutions. 193 Summary of system equations. 372 Vector. 67. 62 Simpson's rule. 548. 565 truss. iterative method member system. prismatic member. 153. 391 nonlinear geometry. 498 prismatic member. 272 Stress vector. 520 Variable warping parameter. 597 truss. 160. 274. 232 Torsion solution. for restrained torsion. 522 Strain and complementary energy for pure torsion. 79 Stiffness matrix arbitrary curved member. definition (mechanics). 220 Triangular matrix. 595 prismatic member. 258 member systems. 389 Shear flow. 448 Shear center. member linear geometry. 101. 235 Small-finite rotation approximation. 516. 171. 252 Transverse shear deformation planar member. 216. 11 Small strain. 281 Torsional constant. 377 Transverse orthotropic material. 278. 240 Stress vector transformation. 411 symmetrical I section. 398 thin rectangular cell. 193 prismatic member. 270 member. 309. 211. 120. 535 Radius of gyration. 106 Statically permissible force system. 323 Torsional warping function. 22 Skew symmetrical matrix. 596 Tensor invariants. 383. 588. 470 Unit matrix. force equiibrium and force displacement. 35 System stiffness matrix member system. 195 irapezoidal rule. 474 Tree. 4/n Work done by a force. 467. relative extrema. 248 Stress and strain component trnasformations. 75. 249 Stress components Eulerian. J. 10 Stability functions (4). 355 Stability of an equilibrium position. torsion. 595 prismatic prismatic member. 378. 232 Row matrix. 297. 276. 179.

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