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JEROME J. CONNOR, Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is Professor of Civil Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has been active in teaching and research in structural analysis and mechanics
at the U.S. Army Materials and Mechanics Research
Agency and for some years at M.I.T. His primary interest is in computer based analysis methods, and his current research is concerned with the dynamic analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels and the development of finite element models for fluid flow problems. Dr. Connor is one of the original developers of ICESSTRUDL, and
has published extensively in the structural field.
ANALYSIS OF
STRUCTURAL MEMBER
SYSTEMS
JEROME J. CONNOR
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
THE RONALD
PRESS COMPANY • NEW YORK
Copyright ©
1976 by
Ttrn RONALD PRESS COMPANY
All Rights Reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced
in any form without permission in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 74—22535
PRINTED IN ThE UNITCD STATES OF AMERICA
Preface
With the development over the past decade of computerbased analysis methods, the teaching of structural analysis subjects has been revolutionized. The traditional division between structural analysis and structural mechanics became no longer necessary, and instead of teaching a preponderance of solution details it is now possible to focus on the underlying theory. What has been done here is to integrate analysis and mechanics in a systematic presentation which includes the mechanics of a member, the matrix formulation of the equations for a system of members, and solution techniques. The three fundamental steps in formulating a problem in solid mechanics—. enforcing equilibrium, relating deformations and displacements, and relating forces and deformations—form the basis of the development, and the central theme is to establish the equations for each step and then discuss how the complete set of equations is solved. In this way, a reader obtains a more unified view of a problem, sees more clearly where the various simplifying assumptions are introduced, and is better prepared to extend the theory. The chapters of Part I contain the relevant topics for an essential background in linear algebra, differential and matrix transformations. Collecting this material in the first part of the book is convenient for the continuity of the mathematics presentation as well as for the continuity in the following development. Part II treats the analysis of an ideal truss. The governing equations for
small strain but arbitrary displacement are established and then cast into matrix form. Next, we deduce the principles of virtual displacements and
virtual forces by manipulating the governing equations, introduce a criterion for evaluating the stability of an equilibrium position, and interpret the governing equations as stationary requirements for certain variational principles. These concepts are essential for an appreciation of the solution schemes described in the following two chapters. Part III is concerned with the behavior of an isolated member. For completeness, first are presented the governing equations for a deformable elastic solid allowing for arbitrary displacements, the continuous form of the principles of virtual displacements and virtual forces, and the stability criterion. Unrestrained torsionflexure of a prismatic member is examined in detail and then an approximate engineering theory is developed. We move on to restrained torsionflexure of a prismatic member, discussing various approaches for including warping restraint and illustrating its influence for thinwalled
iii
PREFACE
and closed sections. The concluding chapters treat the behavior of planar and arbitrary curved members. How one assembles and solves the governing equations for a member sysopen
tern is discussed in Part IV. First, the direct stiffness method is outlined; then a general formulation of the governing equations is described. Geometrically nonlinear behavior is considered in the last chapter, which discusses member forcedisplacement relations, including torsionalflexural
coupling, solution schemes, and linearized stability analysis. The objective has been a text suitable for the teaching of modern structural member system analysis, and what is offered is an outgrowth of lecture notes
developed in recent years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. To the many students who have provided the occasion of that development, I am deeply appreciative. Particular thanks go to Mrs. Jane Malinofsky for her patience in typing the manuscript, and to Professor Charles Miller for his
encouragement.
JEROME J. CONNOR
Cambridge, Mass. January, 1976
Contents
I—MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARiES
1
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
1—i
1—2 1—3 1—4 1—5 1—6
1—7
1—8 1—9
Definition of a Matrix Equality, Addition, and Subtraction of Matrices Matrix Multiplication Transpose of a Matrix Special Square Matrices Operations on Partitioned Matrices Definition and Properties of a Determinant Cofactor Expansion Formula
3 5 5
8
10
12 16 19
21
Cramer's Rule 1—10 Adjoint and Inverse Matrices 1—11 Elementary Operations on a Matrix 1—12 Rank of a Matrix 1—13 Solvability of Linear Algebraic Equations
2
22 24 27 30
CharacteristicValue Problems and Quadratic Forms
2—1
46
46 48 52
55 57
2—2 2—3 2—4
2—5
Introduction SecondOrder CharacteristicValue Problem Similarity and Orthogonal Transformations The nthOrder Symmetrical CharacteristicValue Problem Quadratic Forms
3
Relative Extrema for a Function
3—1
66
66
71
3—2
3—3
Relative Extrema for a Function of One Variable Relative Extrema for a Function of n Independent Variables Lagrange Multipliers
75 81
81
4
Differential Geometry of a Member Element
4—1
4—2
Parametric Representation of a Space Curve Arc Length
V
82
CONTENTS
4—3 4—4 4—5
4—6
Unit Tangent Vector Principal Normal and Binormal Vectors Curvature, Torsion, and the Frenet Equations Summary of the Geometrical Relations for a Space
Curve
85 86 88
91
4—7 4—8
Local Reference Frame for a Member Element Curvilinear Coordinates for a Member Element
92 94
5
Matrix Transformations for a Member Element
5—1
100
100 103 109
5—2 5—3
Rotation Transformation ThreeDimensional Force Transformations ThreeDimensional Displacement Transformations
Il—ANALYSIS OF AN IDEAL TRUSS
6
Governing Equations for an Ideal Truss
6—1
General
6—2
6—3
6—4
6—5
6—6 6—7
6—8 6—9
Elongation—Joint Displacement Relation for a Bar General Elongation—Joint Displacement Relation ForceElongation Relation for a Bar General Bar Force—Joint Displacement Relation Joint ForceEquilibrium Equations Introduction of Displacement Restraints; Governing Equations Arbitrary Restraint Direction Initial Instability
115 116 120 125 130 130 132 134 137
7
Variational Principles for an Ideal Truss
7—1
152
152 153 159 162
165 169
General
7—2 7—3 7—4
Principle of Virtual Displacements Principle of Virtual Forces Strain Energy; Principle of Stationary Potential
Energy
7—5
7—6
Complementary Energy; Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy Stability Criteria
8
Displacement Method—Ideal Truss
8—1
178
178 178
General
8—2
8—3
Operation on the Partitioned Equations The Direct Stiffness Method
180
CONTENTS
8—4
8—5
Incremental Formulation; Classical Stability Criterion Linearized Stability Analysis
191
200
9
Force Method—Ideal Truss
9—1
General
210
211
9—2 9—3
9—4
Governing Equations—Algebraic Approach Governing Equations—Variational Approach Comparison of the Force and Mesh Methods
216 217
Ill—ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER ELEMENT
10
Governing Equations for a Deformable Solid
10—1
229
229 230 232 240 248
General
10—2
10—3 10—4
10—5 10—6
10—7
Summation Convention; Cartesian Tensors Analysis of Deformation; Cartesian Strains Analysis of Stress Elastic StressStrain Relations Principle of Virtual Displacements; Principle of Stationary Potential Energy; Classical Stability Criteria Principle of Virtual Forces; Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy
253
257
11
St. Venant Theory of TorsionFlexure of Prismatic Members
11—1
271
271
11—2 11—3 11—4
11—5 11—6
11—7
Introduction and Notation The PureTorsion Problem Approximate Solution of the Torsion Problem for ThinWalled Open Cross Sections Approximate Solution of the Torsion Problem for ThinWalled Closed Cross Sections TorsionFlexure with Unrestrained Warping Exact Flexural Shear Stress Distribution for a Rectangular Cross Section Engineering Theory of Flexural Shear Stress Distribution in ThinWalled Cross Sections
273
281
286 293 303
306
12
Engineering Theory of Prismatic Members
12—1
330
330
331
12—2
Introduction ForceEquilibrium Equations
CONTENTS
12—3
12—4 12—5 12—6
ForceDisplacement Relations; Principle of Virtual Forces Summary of the Governing Equations Displacement Method of Solution—Prismatic Member Force Method of Solution
333 339 340 349
13
Restrained TorsionFlexure of a Prismatic Member
13—1
371
13—2 13—3
13—4
13—5 13—6
13—7 13—8
13—9
371 Introduction Displacement Expansions; Equilibrium Equations 372 ForceDisplacement Relations—Displacement Model 375 Solution for Restrained Torsion—Displacement Model 379 ForceDisplacement Relations—Mixed Formulation 383 Solution for Restrained Torsion—Mixed Formulation 389 Application to ThinWalled Open Cross. Sections 395 405 Application to ThinWalled Closed Cross Sections Governing Equations—Geometrically Nonlinear Restrained Torsion 414
14
Planar Deformation of a Planar Member
14—1
425
425 427
14—2 14—3
14—4
14—5
14—6
14—7
14—8
Introduction; Geometrical Relations ForceEquilibrium Equations ForceDisplacement Relations; Principle of Virtual Forces ForceDisplacement Relations—Displacement Expansion Approach; Principle of Virtual Displacements Cartesian Formulation Displacement Method of Solution—Circular Member Force Method of Solution Numerical Integration Procedures
429
435 445 449 458 473
15
Engineering Theory of an Arbitrary Member
15—1
485
485 488
490 .493 499 507
511
15—2 15—3
15—4 15—5
15—6 15—7
15—8
Introduction; Geometrical Relations ForceEquilibrium Equations ForceDisplacement Relations—Negligible Warping Restraint; Principle of Virtual Forces Displacement Method—Circular Planar Member Force Method—Examples Restrained Warping Formulation Member ForceDisplacement Relations—Complete End Restraint Generation of Member Matrices
517
CONTENTS
Member Matrices—Prismatic Member 15—10 Member Matrices—Thin Planar Circular Member 15—11 Flexibility Matrix—Circular Helix 15—12 Member ForceDisplacement Relations—Partial End Restraint
15—9
520 524
531
535
tV—ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER SYSTEM
16
Direct Stiffness Method—Linear System
16—1
545
545 546 547 548
16—2 16—3 16—4
Introduction Member ForceDisplacement Relations System Equilibrium Equations Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints
17
General Formulation—Linear System
17—1
554
554 555 557 559
560 562 565 567 570 573
17—2
17—3
17—4 17—5
Introduction Member Equations System ForceDisplacement Relations System Equilibrium Equations
Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints;
Governing Equations Network Formulation 17—7 Displacement Method 17—8 Force Method 17—9 Variational Principles 17—10 Introduction of Member Deformation Constraints
17—6
18
Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Systems
18—1
585
585 585
591
18—2 18—3 18—4
Introduction Member Equations—Planar Deformation Member Equations—Arbitrary Deformation Solution Techniques; Stability Analysis
597
Index
605
.
Part I MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES .
.
1 a12 a22 am2   a1. a matrix is represented by a boldfaced letter. a twodimensional array. the first subscript defines the row location of an element and the second subscript its column location.. multiplication) associated with it are defined. For convenience.. . 3 ..1 Introduction to Matrix Algebra 1—1. .n rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m by n if certain arithmetic operations (addition.a1. subtraction. . DEFINITION OF A MATRIX An ordered set of quantities may be a onedimensional array. ... . a21.. A twodimensional array having . such as a twodimensional array. . . Note that the first term in the order pertains to the number of rows and the second term to the nuiñber of columns. * In print. . a12.. such as a11. The array is usually enclosed in square brackets and written as* a11 a21 a.. = = a a. a22. we refer to the order of a matrix as simply m x n rather than of order m by n. ami.  a2.
. A knowledge of Vector algebra is assumed in this text. {c1} =c If the number of rows and the number of columns are equal. a vector is defined as a quantity having both magnitude and direction.4. if all the elements are zero. such as force or moment. the matrix is said to be square. Example 3 1—1 x 4 Matrix 4 3 2—1 —7 1 2 —8 1 2 4 —3 1 x 3 Row Matrix [3 4 2] 3 x 1 Column Matrix f3] or 4Jor{3.) Finally. 1 A matrix having only one row is called a row matrix. preceding Problems). For a review..* Braces instead ofbrackets are commonly used to denote a column matrix and the column subscript is eliminated.. see Ref. by means of an italic letter topped by an arrow.2} 2 2 Square Matrix 5 [2 7 2 x 2 Null Matrix [0 [o 0 o * This is the mathematical definition of a vector. . the elements are arranged horizontally instead of vertically. . Similarly.4 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. 2 (at end of chapter. and is represented by 0 (boldface. . a matrix having only one column is called a column matrix or column vector. F.g. We will denote a mechanics vector quantity. to save space. c2. e. In mechanics. The various columnmatrix notations are: C11 C21 C1 C2 {c1. (Special types of square matrices are discussed in a later section. as in the previous case). Also. the matrix is called a null matrix.
. 1. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION EQUALITY.SEC. Addition and subtraction operations are defined only for matrices of the same order. 1—3. AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES Two matrices. is defined to be the m x n matrix + + Similarly. are equal if they are of the same order and if corresponding elements are equal: a= b when If a is of order m x n. The sum of two m x n matrices. For example. a and b. 2. . a and b. 1—2. . 2.m . if k=5 then and [—10 ka=[ 10 +35 5 .. . the matrix equation a=b corresponds to mn equations: = = = 1. (1—6) (1—7) MATRIX MULTIPLICATION The product of a scalar k and a matrix a is defined to be the matrix in which each element of a is multiplied by k. if [1 then 2 ii —d [1 [0 b=[3 1 1 —1 —1 i 0 —1 3 and [1 2 —1 —1 It is obvious from the example that addition is commutative and associative: a+b=b+a a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c 1—3... ADDITION. — = = + — bLJ] For example.
the product ax is of orderr x 1.. .x2 + a12x2 + a21x1 + a22x2 + l2miXi + + + C1 = C2 + am2x2 + This set can be written as alkxk C1 i= 1.. we consider a system of m linear algebraic equations in n unknowns. 2. The result is a column matrix.rn 1.2. Using column matrix notation. we write (1—9) as a matrix product: = {c1} i= 1. . the row order of which is equal to that of a.2 (1—11) Since (1—10) and (1—Il) must be equivalent. if a is of order r x s.6 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP.. it follows that the definition equation for a matrix multiplied by a column matrix is ax = ulkxk} j = 1. (1—9) takes the form i= Now. and x of order s x 1. In general. . Example 1—2 1 a= 11 8 2 x={3} 4j 1(1)(2) + (—1)(3) 4 + (3)(3) 9 . . . .rn where k is a dummy index..m This product is defined only when the column order of a is equal to the row order of x.. That is. ka = ak = {ka11] To establish the definition of a matrix multiplied by a column matrix. x1. 2. 1 Scalar multiplication is commutative. . .
. . . x2. . 1—3. x = by which defines where b is n x s.n (1—13) Substituting for Xk in (1—10).ys: Xk = 1= k= 1. if a is of order r x n. the product ab is of order r x q.m Interchanging the order of summation.2 j— in (1—14) = Noting (1—12). Now. and b of order n x q.SEC.. . This product is associated with a linear transformation of variables.s and y is S x 1. py = C where p is in x .n This product is defined only when the column order of a is equal to the row order of b. The element at the ith row and jth column of the product is obtained by multiplying corresponding elements in the ith row of the first matrix and the jth column of the second matrix. .. in (1—9) are expressed as a linear combination of s new variables Y1. .] k 1.. . .. aby=c and requiring (1—16) and (1—18) to be equivalent. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION We consider next the product of two matrices. we can write (1—15) as i 1. . in matrix form. Suppose that the n original variables x1.x. we also express the transformation of variables.. .2.. = i 1. Substituting for x in (1—11). . 2. . .. . . .2.. 2.Y2. . In general. results in the following definition equation for the product. ab: = ab = [bkJ] = [pt. and letting k=i the transformed equations take the form i = 1.
one should distinguish preinultiplication.8 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. 1 Example 1—3 (1)(1) + (0)(O) (O)(1) + (2)(O) (IXI) + (O)(1) (O)(1) + (2)(l) (1)(O) + 1) (1)(— 1) + (01(3) ab = (—l)(1) + (1)(O) (—1)(l) + (1)(l) (—1)(O) + (0)(0) + (2)(—1) 0 —1 (—1)(—1) + (1)(3) (0)(—1) + (2)(3) [+1 +1 0 —l ab=J_1 +4 [ 0 +2 —2 +6 If the product ab is defined. a and b are said to be confbrmable in the order stated. (ab)c (1—20) a(b + c) = ab + ac (b + c)a = ha + Ca but. We shall indicate the transpose of a by . TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX is defined as the matrix obtained from a by The transpose of a = interchanging rows and columns. ab ba (1—22) Therefore. the products are [a11 [a21 [b11 [b21 a121[bij a22j[b21 b121[aji b22j[a21 b121 b22j — [aitbji + a12b21 a11b12 + a12b22 a21b12 + a22b22 [a21b11 + a22b21 — aizl a22] [bjjaj1 + b12a21 [b21a11 + b22a21 b11a12 + b12a22 b21a12 + b22a22 When ab = ha. if a and b are square matrices of order 2. not commutative. ab. One should note that a and b will be conformable in either order only when a is in x n and b is n x in. in general. In the previous example. When the relevant products are defined. from postrnultiplication ha. a(bc) = and distributive. 1—4. the matrices are said to commute or to be permutable. a and b are conformable but b and a are not since the product ha is not defined. in multiplying b by a. multiplication of matrices is associative. For example.
The element. p79 = k1 = 2. is m x s and the element. S k1 = (ab)T — j= (d) It follows from (d) that = bTaT Equation (1—26) states that the transpose of a product is the product of the .m. where now i varies from 1 to n and j from 1 to m. = m Ilukbkf —1 . .. . Using (1—24) and (b). a2 a.] = (1—25) We consider next the transpose matrix associated with the product of two matrices. (1—23) a 021 a22 = = amj am2 a. For example.SEC. 2 s and j = 1.. The product.. 2. [3 2 T 1 a =[2 r3 7 1 5 4 Since the transpose of a column matrix is a row matrix. a2. 1—4 TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX 9 aT = {a79]: a11 a12 a1. Pu. a21 = [a79] = 012 022 am2 a. an alternate notation for a row matrix is [a1. is given by a79 = (1—24) where is the element at the jth row and ith column of a.. Let p==ab (a) where a is m x n and b is n x s. p... we can 1.1 — (b) The transpose of p will be of order s x m and the typical element is p79 = (c) . where now I = write (c) as 1. a79. at the ith row and jth column of aT.
SPECIAL SQUARE MATRICES If the numbers of rows and of columns are equal. If the elements of a diagonal matrix are all unity. 2. Order 2 [1 7 [3 Diagonal Matrix.. . This rule is also applicable to multiple products. the matrix is said to be square and of order n. where n is the number of rows. Example 1—5 Square Matrix. We will use d for diagonal matrices. For example.10 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP.. Order 3 2 [2 [o Unit Matrix. aT 13 6 (ab)T = [4 13 6] = [2 = —1] —1] (ab)T = bTaT = [2 = [4 13 6] 1—5. A unit matrix is usually indicated by where n is the order of the matrix. the diagonal matrix is referred to as a unit matrix. The elements (i = 1. 1 transposed matrices in reversed order. the matrix is called a diagonal matrix. If all the elements except the principaldiagonal elements are zero. the transpose of abc is (abc)T = cT(ab)T cTbTaT (1—27) Example 1—4 ab = Alternatively. Order 2 0 5 0 0 3 0 12[ 0 I LO . . n) lie on the principal diagonal.
the diagonal matrix. d. 1—5. aT = — a. (1—30) are the principal elements. In this case. If the principal diagonal elements . .. the matrix reduces to = and is called a scalar matrix. two diagonal niatrices of order n are commutative and the product is a diagonal matrix of order a.SEC. 2 n (1—28) With this notation. Premultiplication of a by a conformable diagonal matrix d multiplies the ith row of a by and postmultiplication multiplies the jth column by Example 1—6 [2 [o —i][o 5j[O 5j[O _ij[o —5 [2 01[3 'l_[ 6 2 — 01[3 01[2 01 [6 0 ij [2 7] — [—2 —7 01 [3 11[2 [2 A square matrix a for which = property that a = If 7j[0 _1j[4 = (i [6 —' —7 is called symmetrical and has the j) and the principal diagonal elements all equal zero. . = (1—31) Let a be of order rn x n. takes the form d= where d1. Any square matrix can be reduced to the sum of a symmetrical matrix and a skewsymmetrical matrix: a=b+c = = + — (133) .j = 1. the matrix is said to be skewsymmetrical. the unit matrix can be written as = (1—29) Also. SPECIAL SQUARE MATRICES We introduce the Kronecker delta notation: oij=0 +1 i—j i. One can easily show that multiplication of a by a conformable unit matrix does not change a: a Ima = a (1—32) A unit matrix is commutative with any square matrix of the same order. d2. Similarly. are all equal to k.
2. A square matrix having zero elements to the left (right) of the principal diagonal is called an upper (lower) triangular matrix. result in symmetrical matrices.subina. To reduce the amount of writing. The product of two triangular matrices of like structure is a triangular matrix of the same structure. a11 012 a22 a32 0131 023 a11 a12 032 013 a33 a11 a12 a32 a13 a33 a a21 031 = a1 031 a33J = a31 Note that the partition lines are always straight and extend across the entire matrix. A matrix can be partitioned in a number of ways. . 1—7. For example. OPERATIONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES Operations on a matrix of high order can be simplified by considering the matrix to be divided into smaller matrices. the submatrices are represented by * See Prob. [a11 [a21 0 1[b11 I 0 1 b22j I= [aijbij [a21b11 + a22b21 0 a22b22 16. Examples are: Upper Triangular Matrix 352 071 004 Lower Triangular Matrix 300 570 214 Triangular matrices are encountered in many of the computational procedures developed for linear systems. Some important properties of triangular matrices are: 1.trices or cells.12 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. The partitioning is usually indicated by dashed lines. called . The transpose of an upper triangular matrix is a lower triangular matrix and vice versa. one can easily show that products of the type (aTa) (aaT) (aTba) where a is an arbitrary matrix and b a symmetrical matrix. 1 The product of two symmetrical matrices is symmetrical only when the matrices are commutative.* Finally.
M M (1—36) k= 1. We will use upper case letters to denote the submatrices whenever possible and omit the partition lines. 1—6. .. — ik i i 1.. the rules of matrix addition are applicable to the submatrices. Let a and b be two partitioned matrices: a b [A131t = [B1d = 1.. This restriction allows us to treat the various submatrices as single elements provided that we preserve the order of multiplication. The sum is a +b = [A11 + 8fl LA2I + B21 + B121 A22 + B22j A12 (135) The rules of matrix multiplication are applicable to partitioned matrices provided that the partitioned matrices are conformable for multiplication..SEC.2 .2.i as a [A11 A121 [A21 A22J Ia11 I or a = [A11 [A21 Ia13 I A12 A22 where A11 = [a21 = [a31 a121 A12 = La23 A21 a32] A22 = [a33] If two matrices of the same order are identically partitioned. . a OPERATtONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES single symbol.. I = 1. — the row partitions of b are consistent with the column partitions of a. In general... Example 11 We represent [au a12 a22 a13 a23 a=Ia. 2... two partitioned matrices are conformable for multiplication if the partitioning of the rows of the second matrix is identical to the partitioning of the columns of the first matrix.. Let [A11 [A23 A121 [B11 A22J I [823 8121 B22j (134) where BLJ and A13 are of the same order.S We can write the product as C = ab = [CIk] M 1 C when ..
To show this. The product is ab = [A111 LA2ijb = [A21b b12 [A11b As an alternative. we consider the product au ab = 1221 a12 a22 a32 a13 h1 a23 033 h2 b3 1233 Suppose we partition a with a vertical partition between the second and third columns.14 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. since the row order of B11 and B12 is the same as the column . 1211 1212 a13 a= a21 a22 a23 a33 = [A11A12] a31 a32 For the rules of matrix multiplication to be applicable to the submatrices of a. Taking the product has the form = [A. we partition b with a vertical partition. we consider the product a12 a13 b11 b12 1322 ab £121 1231 1222 a23 1233 a32 b31 b32 Suppose we partition a with a horizontal partition between the second and third rows: a11 1212 C1j3 1223 a 1221 1231 a22 r A11 = a32 a33 Since the column order of A11 and A21 is equal to the row order of b.1A12] = A11B11 + A12B21 The conformability of two partitioned matrices does not depend on the horizontal partitioning of the first matrix or the vertical partitioning of the second matrix. 1 As an illustration. b= b21 b22 = [811B12] b31 In this case. no partitioning of b is required. we must partition b with a horizontal partition between the second and third rows.
0 A1B1 0 .. A1 0 .. no partitioning of a is necessary and the product has the form ab = a[B11B12] = [aBj1 aBi2] To transpose a partitioned matrix. AT A particular type of matrix encountered frequently is the quasidiagonal matrix. A and We use the term quasi to distinguish between partitioned and unpartitioned matrices having the same form. . and whose offdiagonal submatrices are null matrices.. . we call (1—40) a lower quasitriangular matrix. . 0 B1 0 . This is a partitioned matrix whose diagonal submatrices are square of various orders.. The product of two quasidiagonal matrices of like structure (corresponding diagonal submatrices are of the same order) is a quasidiagonal matrix of the same structure. OPERATIONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES order of a. An example is a11 a= 0 0 0 a22 a32 0 a33 which can be written in partitioned form as a = [Ai A2] where A1 = [a11] A2 = [a22 a32 a23] a33 and 0 denotes a null matrix. . AT AT .. For example. If A11 A12 A22 Am2 A1.. 1—6. one first interchanges the offdiagonal submatrices and then transposes each submatrix. a= then A21 Arnt AT1 AT AT AT1 AT . .SEC.. 0 0 A 0 are of the same order.
2). obtained when the thirdorder system ax c is solved successively for x1.16 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CllAP. DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES OF A DETERMINANT The concept of a determinant was originally developed in connection with the solution of square systems of linear algebraic equations. 1 1—7.. e. Each product contains only one clement from any row or column and no element occurs twice in the same product. we see that both expansions involve products which have the following properties: 1. It shou'd be noted that determinants are associated only with square arrays. since they are synonymous. Also. Comparing (l—41) and (1—42). 2. and x3. and x3. we refer to the determinant of an ethorder array as an nthorder determinant. A set of distinct integers is considered to be in natural order if each integer is followed only by larger integers. we obtain (a11a22 — a12a21)x1 (a11a22 — a12a21)x2 c2a12 = —c1a21 + c2a11 The scalar quantity. a1 1a22 — a21 a2 defined as the determinant of the second order square array (i. These properties are associated with the arrangement of the column subscripts and can be conveniently is described using the concept of a permutation. The sign of a product depends on the order of the column subscripts. x2. The products differ only in the column subscripts. A rearrangement of the natural order is called a permutation of the set. To illustrate how this concept evolved. with square matrices. x2. 3. For example. (1. we consider the simple case of two equations: a11x1 + a21X1 = + a22x2 = a12x2 C2 Solving (a) for x3 and x2. The determinant of a thirdorder array is defined as a11 a12 a22 a13 a33 +a11a22a33 a21 a31 a23 = —a12a21a33 + a12a23a31 (1—42) a32 +a13a21a32 — a13a22a31 This number is the coefficient of x1.j 1. which discussed below. The determinant of an array (or matrix) is usually indicated by enclosing the array (or matrix) with vertical lines: a11 a21 a12 a22 = al = a31a22 — a12a21 We use the terms array and matrix interchangeably. 5) is in natural order and . +a11a22a33 and —a11a23a32. that is.g.
. The number of products is equal to the number of possible permutations of the column subscripts that can be formed. . (3. . One can easily show that there are possible permutations for a set of n distinct integers. ce. we can determine the number of integer interchanges required to rearrange the set in its natural order since an even (odd) number of interchanges corresponds to an even (odd) number of inversions. We let . 1—7. DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES OF A DETERMINANT (1. is an odd permutation Using (1—43). 2. Working with interchanges rather than inversions is practical only when the set is small. n). 1. .) an even permutation (1—43) . 2) Total 2 4 2 None (4.. (1..3) is a permutation of(1.. • as • + — I 1 when when . .ithorder determinant can be written as a11 a21 a12 a22 a1. . . 3. a2. Instead of cbunting the inversions..2. Working from left to right. is a. . 3) and (3.5). 3.SEC. A permutation is classified as even (odd) if the total number of inversions for the set is an even (odd) integer. we see that each product is a permutation of the set of column subscripts and the sign is negative the permutation is odd. 2) are even permutations and (1. If an integer is followed by a smaller integer.5. . 1)(3. For example. . According to this convention. • (2)(1). 1) has three inversions and requires one interchange. the integer inversions are: Integer 3 1 Inversions (3. 2). 2. . 1. . 2. the pair is said to form an inversion. Factorial n = 1)(n — 2) . the definition equation for an . 2) is an odd permutation.) be a permutation of the set (1. n) and define . Referring back to (1—41) and (1—42). As an illustration. 4. .2) None 0 1 0 3 This set has three inversions. 1 = (1—44) where the summation is taken over all possible permutations of (1. = n(n — .. The number of inversions for a set is defined as the sum of the inversions for each integer. we consider the set (3.
The value of the determinant is unchanged if the rows and columns are interchanged. 2. We Probs. we obtain a11 a21 a12 a22 a32 a13 a11a22a33 — a11a23a32 a23 = —a12a21a33 + a12a23a31 a33 +a13a21a32 — a13a22a31 This result coincides with (1—42). the determinant is unchanged. 7. Let a = [a31 [a21 a22 The determinant is a! = a11a22 — a12a21 Properties 1 and 2 are obvious. If two successive rows (or two successive columns) are interchanged. If each element in one row (or one column) is expressed as the sum of two terms. 5. 3. 1—17. . It follows from property 2 that laTl * See a!. The following properties of determinants can be established* from (1—44): 1. that is. If corresponding elements of two rows (or two columns) are equal or in a constant ratio. 1—18. then the determinant is zero. in each of which one of the two terms is deleted in each element of that row (or column). the sign of the determinant is changed. aT! = a!. 1 Example 1—8 The permutations for n = 3 are a1=1 cxi—1 x23 1 a33 a32 =3 e123=+1 e132=—1 =2 z1=2 a3=1 a32 a3=1 e231=+1 e312=+1 e321——1 Using (1—44). 1—19. then the determinant is equal to the sum of two determinants. If all elements of one row (or one column) are multiplied by a number k. 4.18 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. If all elements of any row (or column) are zero. We demonstrate these properties for the case of a secondorder matrix. 6. the determinant is zero. If to the elements of any row (column) are added k times the corresponding elements of any other row (column). the determinant is multiplied by k.
to illustrate property 7. Then. a.SEC. COFACTOR EXPANSION FORMULA illustrate the third by interchanging the rows of a: a' = [a21 a22 a12 = a21a12 — a11a22 = —Ia! a'! Property 4 is also obvious from (b). we take a= The values of 328 531 1 7 4 and M23. ibi = (a11 + ka21)a22 — (a12 + ka22)a21 = a! 18. Finally. we take b12 = a12 + ka22 b21 = a21 b22 = a7.ii and a12 in (b). we take a21 = Then a! = Next. ka11 a22 = ka12 a12(ka1j) a11(kaj2) = 0 let a11 + c11 al a12 = b12 + c12 According to property 6. are deleted. the determinant of the remaining square array is called the minor of and is denoted by The cofactor of is related to denoted by the minor of by (1—45) = (— As an illustration. To demonstrate the fifth. = associated with a23 and a22 are = —1 A23 = (— 1)5M23 = + A22 = (—1)4M22 = 1 M22 = = —37 —37 . hi + ci = ci a21 where b11 ibi This a21 b12 a22 a22 result can be obtained by substituting for O. If the row and column containing an element. 1—8. COFACTOR EXPANSION FORMULA in the square matrix.
lower triangular. 1—20. we have 0 0 0 033 a21 031 a22 = a11 (122 0 033 = (a51)(a22a33) = a11a22a33 a32 032 Generalizing this result. 1—21. 1 Cofactors occur naturally when (. * See Probs. 4. Example (1) a11 (121 1—9 We apply (1—46) to a thirdorder array and expand with respect to the first row: a12 a23 a32 a13 a23 a33 a31 = 2 a22 023 a33 + + 023 a31 + 0j3(— a22 1) 035 (133 a32 a11(a22a33 — a23a32) a52(—a21a33 + a23a31) + a53(a21a32 — 022035) To illustrate (1 —47). for example.1 —44) is expanded9 in terms of the elements of a row or column. for a discussion of the general Laplace expansion method. This leads to the following expansion formula. . Since the determinant is zero if two rows or columns are identical. we take the cofactors for the first row and the elements of the second row: = a21(a22a33 — a23a32) + a22(—a21a33 + a23a31) + a23(a21a32 — a22a31) 0 (2) Suppose the array is triangular in form. 3 15. f See Ref. we find that the determinant of a triangular matrix is equal to the product of the diagonal elements. called Laplace's expansion by cofactors or simply Laplace's expansion: = a1kAIk akJAkJ (1 —46) Equation (1—46) states that the determinant is equal to the sum of the products of the elements of any single row or column by their cofactors. if follows that k1 k = 0 (147) 0 s I The above identities are used to establish Cramer's rule in the following section.20 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. sect. This result is quite useful. The expansion in terms of cofactors for a iow Or a COlUmn is a special case of the general method. Expanding with respect to the first row.
t Example 1—10 [1 31 r2 = and Ic! 3 5] a! = Alternatively. c hi 4 = —20 [ [11 29J [1 31 cj = —20 a=[0 a! = 5 Determining c first. particularly when the array is large. . These procedures are described in References 9—13. 1—9. . say c. A number of alternate and more efficient numerical procedures for evaluating determinants have been developed. section 3—16. . 4. It can be shown* that the determinant of the product of two square matrices is equal to the product of the determinants: ci = a! hi (1—48) Whether we use (1—48) or first multiply a and b and then determine lab! depends on the form and order of a and b. CRAMER'S RULE The evaluation of a determinant. Suppose a square matrix. is expressed as the product of two square matrices. CRAMER'S RULE We consider next a set of n equations in n unknowns: = * j = 1. 1—48. . 2. (1—48) is quite efficient. 1 —25 for an important theoretical application of Eq. using the definition equation (1—44) or the cofactor expansion formula (1—46) is quite tedious. we obtain 5] bi = 8 r2 0 b__[1 Ic! = +40 rs 121 = [5 20] and ci = +40 1—9. c='ab and we want cJ. ii (a) See Ref. t See Prob. If they are diagonal or triangular.SEC. .
. Singular matrices and the question of solvability are discussed in Sec. 1 Multiplying both sides of (a) by Air. which can be stated as follows: A set of n linear algebraic equations in n unknowns. has a n) is unique solution when 0. only in that the rth column of a is replaced by c.. k and equals al when r = This follows from (1—47). 1—9).j can be expressed as 1 1. Equation (c) leads to Cramer's rule. 2. ax = c. the denominator is al and the numerator is the determinant of the matrix obtained from a by replacing the rth column by c.. a is said to be singular. 2. . 2 the ratio of two determinants. i. [Au]T{cj} (b) takes the form Equation (e) leads naturally to the definition of adjoint and inverse matrices. Then.22 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. (b) reduces to lalxr = The expansion on the right side of (c) differs from the expansion al = ajrAj. 1—10. n 1. ADJOINT AND INVERSE MATRICES We have shown in the previous section that the solution to a system of n equations in n unknowns... where r is an arbitrary integer from 1 to n. Whether a solution exists in this ease will depend on c. will not be unique.. ii (note that we have taken r = I in Eq. 1 —13. . Using matrix notation. the inner sum vanishes when r = j=1 k. The expression for Xr (r = 1. All we can conclude from Cramer's rule is that the solution. . summation) we obtain (after interchanging the order of Xk k1 Now. and summing with respect to j. if it exists. c of Sec. If jaf = 0.
we can write the solution of (a) as x= Substituting for x in (a) and c in (d). we obtain a1a = aa' It follows that (1—Si) is valid only when 0. aT: 1 (a_la)T = . 1—10. Applying (1—48) to (i—Si). Example 1—11 We determine the adjoint and inverse matrices for a= 2 The matrix of cofactors is 123 412 3 1 5 —1 0 —10 —10 +7 —1 —7 +5 5 Also. Then —i —7 Adja —1/5 0 —10 —10 +5 +7 —1 + 1/25 + 2/5 —7/25 +7/25 — = —. then a is also symmetrical. ADJOINT AND INVERSE MATRICES 23 We define the adjoint and inverse matrices for the square matrix a of order n as adjoint a = Adj a = inverse a = (1—49) a1 Adj a (1—50) Note that the inverse matrix is defined only for a nonsingular square matrix.Adj a a= 0 1/5 +2/5 + 1/25 Using the inversematrix notation. we take the transpose of (1—5 1). and use the fact that a =.. al = —25.SEC. Multiplication by the inverse matrix is analogous to division in ordinary algebra. If a is symmetrical. we see that a1 has the property that = Equation (1—51) is frequently taken as the definition of the inverse matrix instead of (1—50). To show this.
ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON A MATRIX The elementary operations on a matrix are:' 1. called an elementary operation matrix. 9—13.. Premultiplication and then b1 results in by a'c = b (b'a'')c = It follows from the definition of the inverse matrix that (ab)1 = (1—53) In general. the inverse of a multiple matrix product is equal to the product of the inverse matrices in reverse order._t = (1—52) We consider next the inverse matrix associated with the product of two square matrices. we premultiply a by an rn x in matrix obtained by modifying the mthorder unit matrix. The multiplication of the elements of a row or a column by a number other than zero. For example. 3. I. These operations can be effected by premultiplying (for row operation) or postmultiplying (for column operation) the matrix by an appropriate matrix. of k times the corresponding element of another row or column. The interchange of two rows or of two columns.. the inverse and transpose operations can be interchanged: bT. We consider a matrix a of order x n. 2. 1—11. to the elements of a row or column. in the following way: 1. Then. One can also show* that.. These methods are described in Ref. Let c= ab where a and b are both of order n x n and nonsingular. = The determination of the inverse matrix using the definition equation (1 —50) is too laborious when the order is large. The addition. for any nonsingular square matrix. A number of inversion procedures based on (1—51) have been developed. * Interchange Interchange and 5k• and See Prob. 1—28. . 1 Premultiplication by a' results in — a"' and therefore a1 is also symmetrical. 2. Suppose that we want to interchange rowsj and k.24 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA 1 CHAP.
we put in the jth row and kth column of and postmultiply. we first interchange the rows of the conformable unit matrix and premultiply. We let e denote an elementary operation matrix. See . 2. to interchange columns. This simple example shows that to interchange rows. Similarly. 1—11. we interchange columns of the conformable unit matrix and postmultiply. postmultiplication by an nth order diagonal matrix having = 1 for i j and = will multiply thejth column by Suppose that we want to add times row jto row k. ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON A MATRIX 25 For example. * Add (—3) times the first row to the second row. Add (2) times the first row to the third row. ac represents the result of applying a set of elementary operations to thc columns of a. at most.SEC. we obtain e by applying the same operations to the conformable unit matrix. Then. properties of determinants (page 18). In general. we insert in the kth row and jth column of and premultiply. change the value of the determinant by a nonzero scalar factor. Then. Since we start with a unit matrix and since the elementary operations. To add z times column jto column k. The matrix which multiplies row j by is an mth order diagonal matrix having d1 = 1 for i j and = Similarly. premultiplication by 001 010 100 interchanges rows 1 and 3 and postmultiplication by 1000 0001 0010 0100 interchanges columns 2 and 4. Example We 1—12 illustrate these operations on a third matrix: 1 1/2 7 1 1/5 2 5 a= We 3 —2 first: 1. Similarly. if a is 3 x 4.* it follows that e will always be nonsingular. ea represents the result of applying a set of elementary operations to the rows of a. The elementary operation matrices for operations (2) and (3) are also obtained by operating on the corresponding conformable unit matrix.
We write the result as ea = b where e is the product of the four operation matrices listed above: 0 e 0 0 —6/11 2/11 + 1870/2959 —220/2959 55/269 We obtain e by applying successive operations. starting with a unit matrix. The complete set of operations is 100 010 0 0 1 0 1 0110 1 1 0 0 012/110 —310 372 0 0 100 0 1 11/21/5 1 55/269 —2 0 1/5 1 2 —2 5 1/2 1 = 0 00 14/55 =b 1 This example illustrates the reduction of a square matrix to a matrix using elementary operations on rows. and is the basis for the Gauss elimination solution scheme (Refs. This is more convenient than listing and then multiplying the operation matrices for the various steps. we multiply the second row by 2/11: 1 0 0 1 1/2 1/5 1 1/2 1 1/5 0 0 2. 13). we multiply the third row by 55/269. 9. 11.'Il 0 0 1 0 0 11/2 2 7/5 = 0 14/55 27/5 0 2 27/5 Next. we add (—2) times the second row to the third row: 1 0 1 0 1 1/2 1 1/5 1 14/55 1 0 0 269/55 Finally. 1 These operations are carried out by premultiplying by —3 100 0 201 1 and the result is 1 1/2 1/5 0 0 11/2 2 7/5 27/5 Continuing.26 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. The form of e after each step is listed below: 100 0 0 001 1 Initial Step 1 —3 1 100 0 201 Step 2 1 0 0 0 1 —6/11 2 2/11 0 .
of a matrix is defined as the order of the largest square array. Also. This operation will not change the magnitude of Ar+t (see Sec. . In particular. r < q n. 2. Let a be of order in x n. formed by deleting certain rows and columns. a and b are equivalent if b = paq (1—54) where p and q are nonsinqular. Suppose the rank of a is r. Then a has r rows which are linearly independent.. 1—12. it has n — r columns which are linear combinations of r linearly independent columns. Tn general. To establish this result. the solvability of a set of linear algebraic equations is dependent on the rank of certain matrices associated with the set. r. as we shall see in the next section. We consider the (r + 1)thorder determinant associated with the first r rows and columns. we suppose the determinant associated with the first r rows and columns does not vanish. The concept of rank is quite important since. and the remaining rn — r rows are linear combinations of these r rows. If a is of rank r. . 1—7). . This follows from the fact that the elementary operation matrices are nonsingular. Step 3 1 RANK OF A MATRIX 27 0 2/11 —4/11 0 0 0 [1 —6/11 } Step 4 0 2/11 0 —6/11 +34/11 L+187o/2959 —220/2959 0 55/269 Two matrices are said to be equivalent if one can be derived from the other by any finite number of elementary operations. which contain a nonvanishing determinant of order r. RANK OF A MATRIX The rank. the matrices 1 1/2 7 1/5 2 5 1 1/2 1 3 and 0 —21 00 1/5 14/55 1 are equivalent. we determine the constants such that the first r elements . row p. that is.r) and subtract the result from the last row. and column q where r < p in. a11 a12 a22 ar2 aIr 01q a21 an azq (1—55) arr 0rq apq We multiply the elements in rowj by (j 1. Referring to Example 1 —12. which has a nonvanishing deter minant. 112.SEC. one can always rearrange the rows and columns such that this condition is satisfied.
Example 1—13 Consider the 3 x 4 matrix a=21 32 5 1234 7 12 14 ? See Prob.÷1 vanishes when a is of rank r. One can also show* that the last n — r columns of a are linear combinations of the first r columns.÷1 vanishes for all combinations of p and q. we see that A. Then (1 —55) reduces to a11 012 022 a1. It follows that apq = [aiq.2 0 0rr 0 0 where = apq — (1—58) Orq] Applying Laplace's expansion formula to (1—57). (1—57) a21 Ar+i a.. we have a11 a21 0r1 4p1 012 022 r r+2 m (1—60) Equation (1—60) states that the last m — r rows of a are linear combinations of the first r rows. 1 in the last row vanish: a11 021  012 022 a.28 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. a2r apr Equation (1—56) has a unique solution since the coefficient matrix is nonsingular. . 1—39.2 = 0p2 (1—56) a1. 02p . Apr : 0p1 m (1—59) Combining (1—56) and (1—59). A.
This fact can be used to dctcrmine the rank of a matrix.. 1—12. RANK OF A MATRIX 29 We see that a is at least of rank 2 since the determinant associated with the first two rows and columns is finite.SEC. Then. This requires a3q = 2 101q + 22a2q = 3ajq + a3q q = 3. 2.4 Since a33 and (134 satisfy this requirement. 1—40. The rows are related by (third row) = + 3 (first row) + (second row) One can show* that the elementary operations do not change the rank of a matrix. and q: 1 2 1 ajq a2q a3q 2 5 7 Solving the system. It follows that a is of rank p. A matrix having the form of b is called an echelon matrix. A3 must vanish. . + 223 = 5 22 = 7 we obtain If a is of rank 2. it is more efficient to reduce it to an echelon matrix rather than try to find the largest nonvanishing determinant: a11 (121 I (pxpt b12 II. We know that band a have the same rank. Suppose b defined by (1—61) is obtained by applying elementary operations to a. .. the first two rows are linearly independent. we conclude that a is of rank 2. We consider the determinant of the thirdorder array consisting of columns 1. we eliminate 2 1 3 3 4 2 12 7 12 and a31. When a is large. b2p B12 (1—61) 0 0 0 Example 1—14 [i a=)2 [5 First. using the first row: 1 2 3 4 —8 0 0 * See —3 —3 —6 —3 —3 Prob.
To obtain b. the rank of a will be we obtain Evaluating the product. [0 It follows that a is of rank 1. and interchange the third and fourth columns: b= 0 1243 0010 1 2 1 Suppose a is expressed as the product of two rectangular matrices: a = (rnxn) (nxs) b c (1—62) One can show* that the rank of a cannot be greater than the minimum value of r associated with b and C: r(a) ruin [r(b). we see that r = 3. consider the product a [—1/2 — [—1/2 +1/2 +1/2 01 1] 0 I Since each matrix is of rank 2. r(c)] (1—63) As an illustration. the third row by — 1/2. 1—44. 1 Next. we multiply the second row by — 1/3.30 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. 1—13. . we eliminate aW. 0 1 SOLVABILITY OF LINEAR ALGEBRAiC EQUATIONS We consider first a system of two equations in three unknowns: [:: :: Suppose a is of rank 2 and a11 (164) a21 * See a22 0 (1—65) Prob. using the second row: —1 0 2 3 4 —2 —3 —3 —6 0 0 0 At this point.
We rearrange the columns such that the first in columns are . SOLVABILITY OF LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS If a is of rank 2. The defect for this system is 1. we have a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = C1 c2/A (1—69) 2cr. Multiplying the second equation in (1—64) by 1/A. x1 C1 a is of rank in. we transfer the term involving X2 to the righthand side: A1X1 = c — A2X2 (1—67) 0. a [a11 [a21 X1 a12 a22 a131 a23j [A1 A2] (1—66) çx1 1x2 and write (1—64) as A1X1 + A2X2 = c.SEC. Finally. (1—64) has a solution only if the rows of c are related in the same manner as the rows of a. The procedure followed for the simple case of 2 equations in 3 unknowns is also applicable to the general case of in equations in n unknowns: a11 (221 a12 a1. Next. the equations are inconsistent and no solution exists. If a is of rank 1. We partition a and x. of the first row. Then.. the second row is a scalar multiple. the solution is Tf c2 x1 = (1/a11)(c1 — a12x2 — a13x3) (1—70) The defect of this system is 2. 1—13. say A. there exists an mth order array which has a nonvanishing determinant. the system does not have a unique solution for a given c. when a is of rank 1. Assuming that 0. we can always renumber the rows and columns such that (1—65) is satisfied. If this condition is satisfied. we can write the solution as = Aj'(c — A2X2) (1—68) Since X2 is arbitrary. the two equations in (1—69) are identical and one can be disregarded. The order of X2 is generally called the defect of the system. it follows from Cramer's rule that (1—67) has a unique solution Since jA1j for X1.
1—45. that is. x4 = c — A2X2 { X1 (m 1) ((n—rn)x 1) X2 } we write (1—71) as A3X1 (1—73) 0. Partitioning a and x. The general case is handled in the same manner. and add to 0= C3 — — I12C2 (d) Unless the righthand side vanishes. . Suppose a is of rank r where r < m. The defect of the set is n — m. the elements of c must satisfy the requirement.. we obtain the second by —A2. Using (b). A1C1 + 22C2 (c) To show this. a11 a12 az.* solution (x See Prob. consider the thirdorder system a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = a21x1 + a22x2 + a73x3 = a31x1 + a32x3 + Suppose C1 (a) = C3 that r = 2 and the rows of a are related by (third row) = (first row) + (second row) (b) For (a) to be consistent. the relations between the rows of c must be the same as those for a.. The defect for this case is n — r. 1 linearly independent. ai. {x1 X2 Xm+i •... the solution involves n — m arbitrary constants represented by X2. we multiply the first equation in (a) by these equations the third equation. For (1—71) to be consistent. Then. (1—73) can be solved for X1 in terms of c and X2. have a solution.. the equations are contradictory or inconsistent and no solution exists.32 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. Since IA1I Example 1—15 As an illustration.m÷1 Xm az. that is.. (c) is identically satisfied and we see that (a) has a nontrivial 0) only when r < 3.. When e 0. The remaining m — r rows are linear combinations of these r rows. = [ A1 (mxm) A2 ] (1—72) am2 amni a. a has r rows which contain an rthorder array having a nonvanishing determinant.m+1 a2m÷1 am.
: Matrix calculus.. Blaisdell. Reading.2 [a Cm cJ (1—74) a. J. C1 = afl. PrenticeHall. BODBWIG. New York. HADLEY. F. The reduction can be represented as (176) where > r(a) and has a nonvanishing element.: Calculus and Analytical Geometry. 13).: Linear Algebra. 1952. cOLLAR: Elementary Matrices. Mass. THOMAS. Dover Publications. New York. 6. 3. Macmillan Co. r(a). 9. G. It follows that (1—71) has a solution only if the rank of the augmented matrix is equal to the rank of the coefficient matrix: = r(a) (1—75) Note that (1—75) is always satisfied when r(a) = m for arbitrary c. F. NOBLE. 1958. (1—71) contains r independent equations involving n unWhen knowns.flfl When the rows of a and c are related in the same way.. 2.. London. REFERENCES 1. E. AddisonWesley Publishing Co. is of rank r(a).: Applied Linear Algebra. the rank of tz is equal to the rank of a. New York. Reading. G. W. 1961. A. 8. R. 1953. . We define the augmented matrix.n if the relations between the rows of a and c are identical. 9. R. HIL DEBRAND. Mass.: Elementary Matrix Algebra. for (1—71) as a11 a12 a2. Faddeeva. S. cambridge University Press.: The Theory of Matrices in Numerical Analysis. the problem reduces to first finding r@) and then solving a set of r independent equations in n unknowns. 1969. New York. HOUN. E.: Computational Methods of Linear Algebra. New York. B. Mass. 5. The remaining m — r equations are linear combinations of these r equations and can be disregarded. We can determine r(cz) and i(a) simultaneously using elementary operations on provided that we do not interchange the elements in the last column. If no solution exists. ci... B. Waltham. Thus. 1956.: Methods of Applied Mathematics. JR. HOUSEHOLDER. V. N. (1 —71) can be solved when r < . 4. DUNCAN and A. The complete problem can be efficiently handled by using the Gauss elimmation procedure (Refs... AddisonWesley Publishing Co. 1959. Interscience Publishers. PrenticeHall.. A. 1964. 1963. B.. 7.REFERENCES 33 In general. 11.
12. 1967. b2. PrenticeHall. and H. New York. and C. McGrawHill. 1962. 11. . P. 1960. . [b1. a2. . VARGA. New York. S. 1. and N. S.. Vol. G. Vol. B. . FORSYTHE. S. Mass. Reading. 1965. .: Elementary Numerical Analysis. 13. 15.: Matrix Iterative Analysis.. RALSTON. . CONTE. D. . Vols. and H. PROBLEMS 1—1. 14. I. I and 2. Wiley. AddisonWesley Publishing Co. b2 [a11 [a21 [c1 01 c2j a12 [o a22 . INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. 2. . . S. ZHIDKOV: Computing Methods. S. A. 1 RALSTON. PrenticeHall. b. MALER: Computer Solution of Linear Algebraic Systems. {b1. New York. (c) a2. 1965. WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers.34 10.. Wiley. 2 —3 Expand the following products: [a1. R. New York. A. New York. . BEREZIN. Carry out the indicated operations: 1 (a) 321 +713 510 056 (b) [2 1 1 4 0 2 . E.j (b) {ai. 1967. . WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers.3 5 6j[ 3 —1 2 (c) [1 3[3 21 [—i ii [2 4j+2[ 0 3j4[l 3 (d) [i [—i [ —2152 4J 55 [—3 (e) l][4 —3j [2 1 2 3 [4 11 3j [—i [ I [2 1—2. .
PROBLEMS 35 (d) [Cii [021 1—3. where a is a square matrix. show that if = ab then dc dy 1—5. case where c 1—6. abc. Suppose the elements of a and b are functions of y. When is this product defined? Let p = abc What is the order of p? Determine Determine an expression for aT. 1—8. =a—+—b db dy da dy Consider the triple product. Evaluate the following products: (a) F for the 41 [1 [—2 (b) ij [2 sj 21 [5 [4 1 1 1—7. Let cia — db — — [dblk] dy [dv j c dy [dy j Using (1—19). a121 0 C2 022j [0 Show that the product of Sl= a1+ a2 + 03 = S2 = + b2 + b3 3 = bk can be written as 3 S1S2 I 1 Generalize this result for the sum of n elements. (a + b)(a + b) Show that the product of two symmetrical matrices is symmetrical only when they are commutative. 1—4. Show that the following products are symmetrical: (a) aTa (b) aTba (c) where b is symmetrical where c is symmetrical bTaTcab .
a (a) Suppose we partition a square matrix with i. For example. Ars = have the same order. Hint: See Eq. c= (a) ab If a and b are symmetrically partitioned. 1—10. Deduce that the diagonal submatrices are square and Ars.. the same order. (pxp) (pxq) (nxn) — — [C11 C12 [c21 (q><p) c22 (qxg) . using the indicated submatrices: 1 3 4 51 1 3 1—10. N .j = 1. 1 symmetrical partitions. . Suppose we symmetrically partition c. The order of the partitioned matrices are indicated in parentheses. Evaluate the following matrix product. Consider the triple product. deduce that 1—12. C= a symmetric rthorder square matrix and a is of order r x ii. 1 19. A12 A22 (b) 1—13. Show that the horizontal partitions of c correspond to those of a and the vertical partitions of c correspond to those of b. What restrictions are placed on the partitions of a and b? Does it follow that we must also partition a and b symmetrically? Hint: See Prob. (b) If a = aT. e. Illustrate for the case of one partition. 1—11. (1—37).. A matrix is said to be symmetrically partitioned if the locations of the row and column partitions coincide. a11 a21 a31 012 0131 a22 a32 a23 a33 is symmetrically partitioned and a11 a31 is a12 a13 033 a32 N— unsymmetrically partitioned. Consider the product of two square nth order matrices. AJk. Let c = ab.36 INTRODUCTION TO MATRtX ALGEBRA CHAP.g. show that CJk.. Suppose we symmetrically partition c. 2. a — are of [A11 [A2.
4.2) in terms of A1.3. (fl1. 1—19.PROBLEMS (a) 37 Show that the following partitioning of a is consistent with that of c. Using this result. A2. 1.2) (3. Express (j. Suppose that = Then.1. Determine the number of inversions and interchanges for the (4. For example. al = 1—18. 3. show that = p also an even and. 3. in general. We obtain (b) by rearranging (a) such that the second subscripts are in natural order.2) is Show that if is an even permutation. Show that da = bd = when the matrices are [DJAJk] [BJkDk] conformably partitioned. Consider the terms . Let d = [Di] be a quasidiagonal matrix. 5) have? 1a1122a1h3 The first subscripts in (a) are in natural order. 2. 1) following sets. and b. (a) (b) 1—16. (b) takes the form = = Show that (c) = —(a) Generalize this result and establish that the sign of a determinant is reversed when two rows are interchanged.2. 1—iS. Consider the thirdorder determinant a! = . 1—17. 4. (r x n) (r X p1 a ={A1 (r x q) A2] (b) 1—14. permutation. k = 1. rearranging e231 a12 a23 a31 = (2. How many permutations Consider the terms does (1. 1) we obtain e312a31a12a23 fi = (3.
1—22. It follows that the sign of the resulting set is changed by 1) In — 1—21.. establish Laplace's cofactor expansion formula for an nthorder determinant. Suppose all the integers of a set are in natural order except for one integer. 3 l2—* 132—* 123 231 —*21 3—* 123 Show that In — p1 adjacent interchanges (called transpositions) are required. (Hint: = Show that properties 5 and 7 of Sec. .i a11 0n1 (un (12..38 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. . 1 Suppose the second row is a multiple of the first row: = Generalize this result and establish = 0.J. (pxp) d_[D1 [o (qxp) By expressing d as 0 (qxq) D2 0 [o Iqj[0 D2 . k12 0n2 Consider the quasidiagonal matrix. which is located at position p. We can write the expansion for the thirdorder determinant as \ i=1 ( \j = k / ) t. — — Using the result of the previous problem. — 1—20. For example. Use Laplace's expansion formula to show that 1 0 0 o b12 b22 b2P 0 9 o b11 0 (pxp) a (pxn) . and (a) reduces to 3 3 — = Following this approach. 1—7.7 012 a22 bFa = al (nXn) bni 1—23. say n. We can put the set in natural order by successively interchanging adjacent integers.
(qxp) (pxq) B12 A22J — [G2. = jG1 (pxp) (pxq) 0 G22 (qxq) Show that G221 Generalize for a quasitriangular matrix whose diagonal submatrices are square. g. 1—25. = g21 ? 0 1n2 Yflfl 0 bflfl introduce symmetrical partitions after row (and column) p and write the product as We (pxp) (pxq) (pxp) (pxq) 0 (pxp) [A1.. 2. . of various orders. G22J[0 (qxq) B22 (qxq) Note that the diagonal submatrices of g and b are triangular in form. and an upper triangular matrix. a11 a21 a12 g11 0 g22 0 0 b11 b12 b22 a22 '1n2 az.PROBLEMS show that dl = D11 D21. . Verify this result for 1100 2 3 d— Generalize for d 1—24.n — 1. deduce that this requirement leads to the .11 G11B12 = A12 G21B11 = A21 G21B12 (b) + G22B22 = A22 1G111 Show that A111 = BijI and al = 1G111 G22j 1B111 1B221 (c) Suppose we require that By taking p = 1. (a) Show that = A. Let g — [Gii [G2. . (qxp) 1[Bi.. b. 0 0 0021 0053 [A. LA21 (qxp) A121 (qxq) [G1. Suppose we express a as the product of a lower triangular matrix.
Starting with the condition aa' 13 . 1—26. where the order of BJk is the same as AJ1. 1 following n conditions on the elements of a: a11 a12 2 aj1 aj2 The determinant of the array contained in the firstj rows and columns is called the jthorder discriminant.. 123 1 3 7 5 3 11 exist? T = Find the inverse of Show that b1' bT. Determine the adjoint matrix for a= Does a 1—28. 32 — 33 and B32 [8.40 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. (a) [1 3 [3 (b) 2 [2 4 [i (c) S [1 31[2 4 [3 (d) 2J[l s [2 O1[2 [o Let a12 3j[l s a [A11 A12 A22 = 31 = [A2. 82. Does the following set of equations have a unique solution? 1 2 3 7 3 x1 X2 2 1 5 = 3 3 ii x3 5 1—27.
1—31 and 1—32 to find the inverse of b — [B11 B12 [o B22 where B11. Use the results of Probs. 2).PROBLEMS 41 determine the four matrix equations relating BJk and Aft (j. Find the inverse of L0 lq Note that A is (p x q). Determine °1 [ L0 cj [A21 lqj [0 — A 01 01 [A11 Iqj [A21 Aizi — AW A22J — [o Iq AIA \1 1—36. A22 0. Suppose we want to rearrange the columns of a in the following way: 1 2 1 3 3 a= 2 3 4 5 col2—+coll col3—*col2 . Show that the following elementary operations 0 and on the partitioned rows of a reduce a to a triangular matrix. B22 are square and nonsingular. Let (pxp) (p'<q) a31 = a where [A11 A12 (qxq) [A2. [B11 01[1 0 1 [o ij[o a= 3 j[o B22 Consider the 3 x 4 matrix 1121 1211 1 2 2 Determine the elementary row operation matrix which results in a21 = = Oand a11 022 033 = +1. 1—35. Use this result to find the inverse of 124 212 121 A 1—3!. k 1. Hint: write has b 1—34. Find the inverse of 0 D2 1—33. 132.
Find the rank of a by reducing it to an echelon matrix.. Show that a is of rank 1 when 1—37. 4. third 1—38. consider the first r rows and columns to be linearly independent. 1 Show that postmultiplication byIl(which is called a permutation matrix) results in the desired column rearrangement: o 0 11 H= 1 0 01 o i oj rearranges the rows of a in the Note that we just rearrange the corresponding columns of 13. Let a be of order in x ii and rank r. Let a be of order 2 x n. the nth columns are multiples of the first column. Show that = a! 2. 1—41. Show that a has n — r columns which are linear combinations of r linear independent columns. deduce that the elementary operations do not change the rank of a matrix. Also. show that when r = 1. (d) (e) Show that 11TH 13. Generalize for the case where a is n x n. Determine the rank of (a) 1 3 7 5 3 2 4 —4 —10 2 3 (b) 1 —1 2 —1 4 6 —2 1 —2 —3 1—39.42 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA (a) CHAP.nultiplication by same way. and 7 of determinants (see Sec. Using properties 3. a— 1122 2132 7797 4 2 1 . second. For con venience. Verify for a= 2 1234 1 3 2 5 7 12 14 1—40. where n the second row is a multiple of the first row. (b) (c) Show that pre. 1—7).
1 h2 =  Let  .2 ' b11 b12 h22 b21 a.. a12 a22 a. row and therefore r(c) 1 —44. 43 Show that c is at most of rank 1. we can write . . a1 a2 C : When will r(c) 1—43. ra + 2.. third.. 0? Consider the product.. ..m 1. a11 a12 r b11b12 b is of rank 1 and b11 0. Consider the product a11 a21 mth rows of c are multiples of the first When will r(c) = 0? a1. we can write cblk) (j)2kj (b) Show that the second. third j = 2. For convenience. When will r(c) = 0? Suppose r(a) = 1 and a11 0. we can write (a) as A1 A2 Am Suppose r(a) = r4. A3 = p= 1 j = ra + 1. nth columns of c are multiples of the first column and therefore r(c) 1. r(b) rb. .3. Then... we assume the first r0 rows of a and the first r1 columns of b are linearly independent. . . = Show that the second.. Then. In this case.  B1 {b11b21   Using (b)..PROBLEMS 1—42... m .
r + 2 m (a) Show that the system is consistent only if Ck k= p=1 i• + 1. Let = Using (b). . we must find the rank of A1 A1B1 A1B2 A2B2 AraB2 A1Br1. 2. 1 . of the first columns. . . . . in of c are linear combinations of the first rows. (b) Show that columns Tb + 1. j 1. What canyou conclude about A1 is orthogonal toB1. . . A3x = j A1 = k = r + 1.. A2Brb Suppose ra (e) Tb. in Note that this requirement is independent of whether in < n or in > n. . Show that r(e) = s. .B2 Br? Utilize these results to find the rank of —1/2 1/2 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 —1/2 —1 1/2 1 1 1 1 2 (f) Suppose ra = rb = s. suppose a is of rank r and the first r rows are linearly independent.. . Verify for U 1—45. n of c are linear combinations From (a) and (b). Consider the m x n system a12 021 Gm i X1 C1 022 0 C2 2 0R111 X. what can you conclude about an upper bound on r(c)? (d) To determine the actual rank of e. . . Tb + 2. . 2 (c) Now. Bk = q 1 XkqBq k— + 1. (a) Show that rows ra + 1. + 2.... . we write (a) as .. A2B1 rb] •. Then. fl2 in = 1. r + 2. (c) + 2.. A2 B2 [1 B •.44 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA rb CHAP. . ..
the equations are consistent for an arbibrary c.x3+7x4=23 Determine whether the above system is consistent using elementary operations on the augmented matrix. Consider the following system of equations: x1 + X2 + 2x3 + 2x4 4 2x1+x2+3x3+2x4=6 3x1l4x2+2x3+x4=9 7x1 +7x2+9. Is this also true when rn > n and r = n? Illustrate for [i [i and —1 2 11 4] 1 1 X2 fc1 C1 —1 1 2 c2 4 c3 1—46. (b) Find the solution in terms of x4. (a) .PROBLEMS 45 (b) If m < n and r = m.
we can write (2—i) as ax or (a — 212)x 0 (2—3) Ax (2—2) The values of 2. The equations of motion for the case of no applied forces (the freevibration case) are d2y2 + k2(y2 — k2(y2 — 0 y1) m1 d2y + k1y1 — = 0 * Also called "eigenvalue" problem in some texts. Using matrix notation.* problem occurs naturally in the freevibration The analysis of a linear system. We illustrate for the system shown in Fig. The term "cigenvalue" is a hybrid of the German term Elgenwerte and English "value.2 CharacteristicValue Problems and Quadratic Forms 2—i. (ajj 2)x1 + at2xz 0 a25x1 + (a22 — A)x2 = 0 where A is a scalar. INTRODUCTION Consider the secondorder homogeneous system. the problem of finding the characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions of (2—i) is referred to as a secondorder characteristicvalue problem. Also." 46 . 2—1. for which nontrivial solutions of (2—i) exist are called the characteristic values of a.
2—i. 2—1. This fact is quite significant. 2—1. The as we shall see in the following sections. NTRODUCT$ON 47 Assuming a solution of the form — A iwt y2zize A and substituting in (a) lead to the following set of algebraic equations relating the frequency. A2: (k1 + k2)A1 — k2A2 = in1w2A1 —k2A1 + k2A2 = m2w2A2 We can transform (c) to a form similar to that of(2—1) by defining new amplitude measures.* 2—co2 A2 = and the final equations are k2 k1+k2_ — —== 2 = A — rn1 k2 A1 + 'fl2 A2 = 2A2 characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions of (e) are related to the natural frequencies and normal mode amplitudes by (d). .SEC. ] Fig. Note that the coefficient matrix in (e) is symmetrical. A1. I Although the application to dynamics is quite important. A system with two degrees of freedom. our primary reason for considering the characteristicvalue problem is that results obtained for the characteristic value problem provide the basis for the treatment of quadratic * See Prob. and the amplitudes. w.
the solution is 21. a12 = a21. Example 2—i [2 a={2 2 =2÷ 5= The characteristic equation for this matrix is 22 — 7 P2 = (2)(5) — (2)(2) = 6 72 +6= 0 .48 PROBLEMS CHAP.2 = (P1 ± When a is symmetrical. 0 (25) Expanding (2—5) results in the following equation (usually called the characteristic equation) for 1: 22 — (a11 + a22)). + (a11a22 — a21a12) = 0 (2—6) We let = a11 + a22 = a11a22 — a12a21 = H and the characteristic equation reduces to 22 — (2—7) + P2 = 0 (2—8) The roots of (2—8) are the characteristic values of a. Reference 9 contains a definitive treatment of the underlying theory and computational procedures. SECONDORDER CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEM We know from Cramer's rule that nontrivial solutions of — 2)x1 + a12x2 A)x2 — 0 0 a21x1 + (a22 — when a11 — a21 A = (2—4) are possible only if the determinant of the coefficient matrix vanishes. and stability criteria (Chapters 7. 2 forms which are encountered in the determination of the relative extrema of a function (Chapter 3). 2—2. Denoting the roots by 22. that is. it follows that the characteristic values for a symmetrical secondorder matrix are always real. This discussion is restricted to the case where a is real. a12 a22—). the construction of variational principles (Chapter 7). 18). and — (2—9) = (a11 a22)2 + 4(a12)2 Since this quantity is never negative.
the soluAssuming* tiOn is not unique. nontrivial solutions of (2—4) exist only when 2 = or 22. we work with the second equation.1)x1 + a12x2 = = 0 0 a21x1 + (a22 — The second equation is related to the first by second eq. we suppose the characteristic values are real. In what follows. denoted by Q1.1 2— ±j where i= By definition. We consider first the case where A A. times the first eq. [1 —2 —! 131=0 A.1. Equation (2—4) becomes (a11 — A. and the resulting column matrix. is referred to as the characteristic vector for = a12 (2—10) = By definition. we let and take c1 such that = 1. Continuing. This follows from the fact that the coefficient matrix is singular. + L —_2112 J  Q1Q1 = 1 (2—11) if a12 0. the solution of the first equation is that a12 xi') = 1) C1 = 012 where c1 is an arbitrary constant. 2—2.SEC. We define as the solution for A = 0. (Oii — %1)(a22 — — a12a21 = 0 Since only one equation isindcpendcnt and there are two unknowns. SECONDORDER CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEM 49 Solving (a). . This operation is called normalization.
Using this terminology. This result is also valid when the roots are equal. +1} If a is not symmetrical. the. aQ1 = (2—12) Following the same procedure for A = Q2 = c2 we obtain (2—13) ) where = Also. In general. Two nth order column vectors U. QfQ2. From (2—10) and (2—13). It is of interest to examine the product. . Equation (2—4) takes the form (a11 — A)xi + (0)xz 0 (O)x1 + (a11 A)x2 = 0 These equations are linearly independent. Q1 and Q2 are orthogonal for the symmetrical case. the characteristic values will be equal only when a11 a22 and a12 = c121 = 0.50 CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEMS CHAP.righthand term vanishes since a11 — A2 —(a22 — A1) = — a11 — we see that QrQ2 = 0. QIQ2 0 when a is unsymmetrical. (2—15) we have Q1Q2 — — —C1C2 /1 + (a11  — A1)(a11 2 a12 — A2) Now. V having the property that and UTV=VTU=0 (2—16) are said to be orthogonal. and the two independent solutions {c1. 0} {0. when a is symmetrical. 2 Since Qi is a solution of (2—4) for A = we see that A1Q1 A2. If a is symmetrical. there is only one independent nontrivial solution when the characteristic values are equal.0} Q2 = {0. c2} The corresponding characteristic vectors are Q1 = {+1. aQ2 + L j (2—14) = It remains to discuss the case where A1 = A2.
and = 2} = 2c1 the normalized solution is Q1 Repeating forA = and A2 = +1. = and — — j = 1. 2—2. c1 = Then. we find = Q2 One can easily verify that c2{1. Solving the first equation. Actually.2 — Ii a=[t 8 3 The characteristic values and corresponding normalized solutions for this matrix are 1 Q2 = {4. QTQ2 = [1 A1—_+i —2 —l A2=—i We have included this example to illustrate the case where the characteristic values are .SEC. — l} We see that 0. SECONDORDER CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEM Example 2—2 [2 a=[2 2 A1=+6 The equations for A = A2=+1 +6 are —4x1 + 2x2 = 0 2x1 — =0 We see that the second equation is we obtain times the first equation.
The general solution is x(1t = Repeating for c1 2= 12. SIMILARITY AND ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS The characteristic vectors for the relations: system satisfy the following (a) aQ1 = aQ2 = We can write (a) as 22Q2 Q2] = EQ1 2j Q2] (b) Now. 12 is the complex conjugate of We determine c1 such that Then. the characteristic values and characteristic vectors are 21. Also. we find = c2 13i} Now. we take c2 = c1. 2 complex. The equations corresponding to 2 (1 — i)x1 x5 — are 2x2 0 (1 + i)x2 = 0 Note that the second equation is (1 — i) times the first equation.2 = In general. When the roots are complex. we let q=[Qj = (2—17) We call q the normalized Column j of q contains the normalized solution for modal matrix* for a. the corresponding characteristic vectors are complex conjugates. the characteristic values are complex conjugate quantities when the elements of a are real.2 = Qt. . (b) takes the form aq = (2—18) * This terminology has developed from dynamics. With this notation. xt2> is the complex conjugate of = I Finally. where the characteristic vectors define the normal modes of vibration for a discrete system.52 PROBLEMS CHAP. 2—3.
SEC. the normalized characteristic vectors are orthogonal. the modal matrix for a symmetrical matrix is orthogonal and we can write qTaq = (2—21) Example 2—3 p' [2 +6 2 5 Q2{2. AND ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS 53 We have shown that the characteristic vectors are always linearly indepen dent when a is symmetrical. q1( )q. reduces a to a diagonal matrix whose elements are the characteristic values of a. having the property that is called an = orthogonal matrix and the transformation. is called a similarity transformation. Note that an orthogonal transformation is also a similarity transformation. If 0. 2—3. Then. is called an orthogonal transformation. If a is symmetrical. They are also independent when a is unsymmetrical.2. pT( )p. Equation (2—19) states that the similarity transformation. Then.1} —[0 0 +1] q=[Qi . — — Using these properties. say p. — — — — Also. we see that q q = [QTJ [Qi [Qfl Q2] qT [1 0 1 [o and it follows that (2—20) A square matrix. provided that 0 except for the case where a is 11. q1 exists and we can express (2—18) as q'aq = (2—19) The matrix operation. that is. by definition. p is arbitrary. unsymmetrical and the characteristic values are equal.
We find q — 1.54 PROBLEMS CHAP. qT q Actually. they are linearly independent and q ' exists.15/6 — [\/17/6 — [1 —2 01 Lo —iJ [1 1 q involves complex elements. 1 ( 1— [— One can easily verify that q j [5 01 [. Since the characteristic vectors are complex conjugates. 2 We verify that qT = q' and qTaq = 1 [1 21 [1 21 1 [5 01 —lj[2 1 aq — — [2 21[1 [2 [1 21 1 [6 sj[o i 2 [1 0 —ij — [12 —1 I q T aq i[i = 5L2 —ij[o 21[6 01 21 21[6 [6 01 _1][12 —ii = [o ij = (2) [1 8 3 = +5 Qi = +1} 01 — Lo Since —ij q a is not symmetrical. using the definition equation for the inverse (Equation (1—50)): .
22. delete the kth row and column). denote the roots.. we suppose a is real. The normalized characteristic vectors Q1.. a — AI. .4 0 (2—24) The expansion of the determinant is + where + + = 0 = a11 + a22 ± and (2—25)  is the sum of all the jth order minors that can be formed on the diagonal.g. + (226) We summarize below the theoretical results for the real symmetrical case. are orthogonal: . The characteristic values are all real. QTQJ = i.j = 1. Q..* Letting 22... THE nthORDER SYMMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEM The nth order symmetrical characteristicvalue problem involves determining the characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions for a11x1 + a12x2 + a12x1 + + + + = Ax1 — AX2 (2—22) + We can write (2—22) as + + ax = AX (2—23) (a — 0 In what follows. . Q2.. . . 2—4 THE nthORDER SYMMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 55 One can easily verify that q 1 [+i 0 01 2—4.. = 2522 + 2523 + .2 * Minors having a diagonal pivot (e. . the coefficient matrix must be singular. and expressing the characteristic equation in factored form. .. They are generally called principal minors. we see that . . 2.SEC. For (2—23) to have a nontrivial solution. . The proofs are too detailed to be included here (see References 1 and 9): 1.
84 +0. 5+ $2 /33 3 +1 +9 +11 + 5 + 2 +18 = 5(2) — (—2)(—2) = +6 The characteristic equation is 182—6=0 and the approximate roots are 22 +0. the modal matrix (to 2place accuracy) is +0.22 q = [Q1Q2Q3] = +0.50 +0.2. we expand ax = 2x. (5 — 2)x1 = 2x2 —x3 = —(3 — 2)x2 (l—. 2 a is diagonalized by the orthogonal transformation involving the normalized modal matrix. the general solution is j=l.85 (2) +0.3 Finally.30 +6.68 —0.28 To determine the characteristic solutions.54 —0.10 a= 2 120 1 0 3 0 . $2. its characteristic values are all real.51 +0. qTaq where = Example 2—4 5—2 0 —. We first determine /3k.42 +2. f33.0 . CHARACTERiSTICVALUE PROBLEMS CHAP.1 1 a= —2 0 using (2—25): 3 —1 Since a is symmetrical.56 3.t)x3= x2 Solving the first and third equations for x1 and x3 in terms of x2.52 —0.
Finally. 2—5. we can obtain two linearly independent solutions for the repeated root. (a) reduces to —2x3 +2x2 = 0 —2x2 = 0 (b) (0)x3=0 We see from (b) that (a — 213) is of rank 1 when 2 = 3. the characteristic vectors for 22 = 3 are Q2 = (0. QUADRATIC FORMS The homogeneous seconddegree function F a quadratic form in + 2a12x1x2 + x2. QUADRATIC FORMS 213J 57 The expansion of Ia — = 0 is and the roots are 22—3 Writing out ax = 2x. The general solution of (b) is xI=c1 x2=cl x3=cz By specializing the constants. The characteristic vectors corresponding to the repeated roots are linearly independent. (a) reduces to 2x3 + 2x2 = 0 2x1 + 2x2 4x3 0 =0 are The general solution and characteristic vector for and = o} 0  This example illustrates the case of a symmetrical matrix having two equal characteristic values.SEC.01) When 2 = 23 = —1. 25. This follows from the fact that a — 213 is of rank I for the repeated roots. we have (1—2)x1 2x1 23=—i +2x2 +(1 — 1)x2 (3 — 2)x3 =0 = = 0 0 (a) When 2 = 3. Using matrix notation. we can express [a11 F as F=[xix2]t[a12 ajal T .
Therefore. x2. But y is uniquely related to x and y = 0 only when x = 0. . x we is zero for some x x If F = a positive definite a 0. 2 In general. F is also positive definite with respect to x. (2—27) . letting y= qTx x qy (2—29) (a) reduces to a canonical form in y: F = xTax = (2—30) It follows that F is positive definite with respect to y when all the characteristic values of a are positive. We define negative definite and negative semidefinite quadratic forms in a similar manner. where q is the orthogonal normalized modal matrix for a. to establish whether is positive definite. the function F= where afk = = j=1 . q '()q. for] for k. is said to be a quadratic form in xj.... We write xTax = (xTq)(q_taq)(qlx) = Then. Consider the quadratic form F= b1 LXIX2 13 b2 0 x2 (2—28) 1 When F involves only squares of the variables. For example. it is said to be in canonical form. According to the definition introduced above. x. we will show that an equilibrium position for a discrete system is stable when a certain quadratic form is positive definite.58 CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. we say that F is positive semidefinite. . we first reduce a to a diagonal matrix by applying the transformation. The problem of establishing whether xTax is positive definite consists in determining whether all the characteristic values of a are positive. F is positive definite when b1 >0 It is positive semidefinite when b1 b2 >0 0 and at least one of the elements is zero. The question as to whether a quadratic form is positive definite is quite important. A quadratic form is negative definite if F 0 for all x and F = 0 only when x = 0. Now.
Equivalent conditions can be expressed in terms of the discriminants.. a is positive definite when a11a12 a11 a12a12 = at (2—31) 132>0 (2—3 2) A1>O The quantities A2>0 and are called the invariants and discriminants of a. 1 for a detailed proof.t122 = 132 =aii F a22 = a11a22 — = aJ We see from (a) that the conditions 132>0 are equivalent to . /3. (d) is equivalent to (b). We let 0. Let represent the determinant of the array consisting of the first j rows and columns. a11a22 > 0 Since a1 > 0.t2>0 Suppose we specify that au > — 0 at —. > 0 (2—35) are sufficient for a to be positive definite. QUADRATIC FORMS We consider first the secondorder symmetric matrix [a11 cz12 Laiz a22 Using (2—26). 131 > 0 > 0 •. 2—15.SEC.. = aj1j = A2 = Then.. A. The above criteria also apply for the case. . That is. A1 > 0 £112 a22 a2J A2 > 0 .* * See Ref. the characteristic values are related by + . Also see Prob... a11 a12 aU (2—34) A= The conditions. it follows from the second requirement in (d) that a22 > Therefore. one can show that a is positive definite when all its invariants are greater than zero. > 0 (2—33) where is the sum of all the jthorder principal minors. 2—5.
H. Prob.* This follows from — = — a — (2—38) Then. 1961. 2. 2 Example 2—5 111 The discriminants are 122 123 A1 = +1 = 2 — 1 = +1 = 1(6—4)— 1(3—2) + 1(2—2) = +1 Since all the discriminants are positive. * See . B. PrenticeHall. Reading. SMiRNOV. 1956. HILDSBRAND. W. b is also positive definite. AddisonWesley Publishing Co.. 2—5. 5.: Methods of Applied Mathematics. HADLEY. and A.. Interscience Publishers. In general. BODEWIG. Reading.: Linear Algebra. C.: Linear Algebra. E. I. 1964. The corresponding invariants are = 1 + 2 + 3 = +6 $2(2—1)+(3—1)+(64) /13 +5 = A3 = +1 1 1 1 1 1 —2 2 3 2 Since A2 is negative = —3). 4. New York. AITKEN: An Introduction to the Theory of Canonical Matrices. 3. Dover Publications. New York. REFERENCES 1. b and a have the same characteristic values.. Mass. AddisonWesley Publishing Co. V.. Suppose b is obtained from a by an orthogonal transformation: b = pTap p1ap pTap (2—36) If a is symmetrical. F. b is also symmetrical: bT = pTaTp (2—37) Now. TURNBULL.: Matrix Calculus. 1952. the positive definite character of a matrix is preserved under an orthogonal transformation. this matrix is nor positive definite. Mass. G. if a is positive definite.60 CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEMS CHAP.. this matrix is positive definite. New York.
" Comput. 2. RALSTON. Determine the characteristic values and the modal matrix for (a) [3 [2 [2 0 2 7 3 (b) to s [3 0 0 2 2—4. FRAZER. New York.. 2—I. If c1x_I + c2x2 0 only when c1 = = 0..: Engineering Analysis. 1969. Determine the expression for a in terms of A and b. N... and J. R. New York. PrenticeHall. NOBLE.: Applied Linear Algebra. WILKINSON: "Eigenvalues of AX = A and B. x2 be two nthorder column matrices or column vectors and be arbitrary scalars. 12. 1953. Cambridge University Press. E.PROBLEMS 6. WILKINSON. PrenticeHall. H. 13. H.. c2 by. DUNCAN and A. let c1. and Q2 arc linearly independent when Using (2—10) and (2—13). 1—25) B = brb where b is nonsingular. and H. A. H.: Computational Methods of Linear Algebra. WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. London. Wiley. Oxford University Press. It follows that x1 and x2 are linearly dependent when one is a scalar multiple of the other. FORSYTHE. B. show that 2—3. A. 7. 1967. London. 1963. V. New York. New York. J. Dover Publications. FADDEVA. B. Following the procedure outlined in Prob. 1965. with Band Synimetric PETERS. S. 8. G. Reduce (a) to the form ax = where x 2—2. 11. determine the characteristic values and modal matrix for + 12Y2 l2Y1 + = . J. G. PROBLEMS 2—1. 398—404. x1 and x2 are said to be linearly independent. Suppose B can be expressed as (see Prob.: The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem. W. 1967. COLLAR: Elementary Matrices. New York. and C. 10. Let x1. 12. 1969. 1956. 9. Vol. Consider the system Ay = where A and B arc symmetrical nthorder matrices and is a scalar. 3. MALER: Computer Solution of Linear Algebraic Systems. R. S. CRANDALL. McGrawHill.
k (a) k 2—6.. Show that value of ar and is the corresponding characteristic vector.Q. and it follows from the definition that = a'' Show that ar is symmetrical when a is symmetrical. lb — t1. n 1 Demonstrate for [1 —21 [1 P[2 The fact that (b) . and premultiply by a. /3. b = p'ap Then. .62 . we can write qTaq = Express in terms of q and Use this result to find the inverse of [3 a=[2 2—7. 2. are invariant under a similarity transP —1 formation is quite useful. is a characteristic Let 2L be a characteristic value of a. the third order polynomial has the form P(a) = c0a3 + c1a2 + c2a + c3L Note that P(a) is symmetrical when a is symmetrical. 2 Suppose that b is derived from a by a similarity transformation.4 = a — and it follows that b and a have the same characteristic equation. say a. 2—8. A linear combination of nonnegative integral powers of a is called a polynomial function of a and written as P(a). . For example. . (a) Deduce that 2(b) — '(a) k a(b) — p(a) Yk Pk k = 1. Show that Q U') _. (a) (b) exists.. CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEMS CHAP.. arc defined as a2 = a3 = aa aa2 ar = If al # 0. 2 Positive integral powers of a square matrix.2—5. When a is symmetrical.. . Hint: Start with = 2.
. . Generalize this result for the multiple product.n) ax = 0 has a nontrivial solution. — /31a + /3213) forn = 3 Establish a general expression for a —' using (2—25). When the characteristic values of a are distinct. (a) Verify this theorem for [2 1 2 (b) Note: F(a) = Show that a2 f31a + /3212.a22>O (Hint: = 0. Consider the quadratic form a11 a12 a22 : x1 a12 : x2 x.. F can equal zero only when x 0 in order for the form to be positive definite.. = '(a2 (c) 2—9.PROBLEMS Let F(1) 0 be the characteristic equation for a. a27. one can show that (see Ref: 1) F(a) = 0 where 0 is an nthorder null matrix. IC! (hint: Start with F = xT(CTC)x and let y = Cx. (a) (b) 2—10. . .. What is.. a satisfies its own characteristic equation. 2—11. Determine whether the following quadratic forms are positive definite. Show that CTC is positive definite when 0 and positive sernidefinite when CI = 0. where a is positive definite and C is 0 and positive semisquare. If value of xfax1? Note that 2 0 is a characteristic value of a when a is singular. say x1. What can we say about b when r(C) < n? 2—15. b = CTaC Show that b is positive definite only when the rank of C is equal to n. 2—12.2. Let C be a square matrix. That is.) 2—13. the . Let a be an mthorder positive defInite matrix and let C be of order m x n. = Oforj 1. Consider the product CTaC.] = 1. 2—14. By definition. . Consider the product. This result is known as the CayleyHamilton Theorem. Show that C1aC is positive definite when CI definite when CI = 0. . F= F = 34 + + + 4x1x2 + — 4x1x2 + 6x1x3 — 8x2x3 Show that a necessary but not sufficient condition for a to be positive definite is a11>O.
(b) Discuss the case where = 0.. is symmetrically partitioned. 2. deduce that p=1.. A11 must be positive definite.11 — .. the submatrix A11 is also a quasidiagonal matrix. Consider a to be symmetrical. Then...2 —A ti. . 2—17. (b) Suppose we take Show that a is positive definite when j=1. The expansion of F = XTaX has the form F= Now. ... If a quasidiagonal matrix.. N .. 2 We partition a symmetrically. we take X2 XfA11X1 i. Note that it remains to show that they are also sufficient conditions. . say a.2 Upp Show that the diagonal elements of b will always be real when a is positive definite. 1. Suppose we take g = hT. Refer to Prob...2.j = .n and at least one of the diagonal elements of g is zero. Establish that a= i.h2i. = and A . . .. 2. (i = 1. (a) By taking p = 1..2... (a) Deduce that one can always express a as the product of nonsingular lower and upper triangular matrices when a is positive definite. Since 1A111 is equal For to the product of the characteristic values of A11.2XTA12A2 + 0 and denote the result by XTAIIX1 > 0 for arbitrary X1. .n are necessary conditions for a to be positive definite..2.. n. N) are positive definite.. 246. (pxp) (pXl) NzTvTl [A11 AT (qxp) A121 f Xt A (qxq) MV ("2 where q= n — p. t—25.i.. is positive definite only when A.n and positive semidefinite when j=1. it follows that Ajj must be positive. 2.64 CHARACTERISTICVALUE PROBLEMS CHAP..
Suppose we express a as the product of two quasitriangular matrices. (qxp) G22j[O B22 where p + q = n. Verify for 1100 2300 0021 0052 (pxq) 1) 2—18. We take B11 1P 8221q Show that the diagonal submatrices of g are nonsingular for arbitrary p when a is positive definite. (pxp) (nxn) a [G11 1 [B11 B12 = [G2. for example. . 1—23.PROBLEMS 65 Hint: Use the result of Prob.
we say that f(a) is a relative minimum. f(x) x1 x a b c X2 Fig. Stationary points at points A. except x a.3 Relative Extrema for a Function 3—1. As an illustration. we say the function has an absolute minimum at x a. respectively. f(h). consider the function shown in Fig. we say that f(b) is a relative minimum for the interval x fib. C. If f(x) — f(a) 0 for all values of x in the total interval x1 x x2. x containing x = a. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE Letf(x) be a function of x which is defined for the interval x1 x x2. it is a minimum with respect to all other values of f(x) for the particular subinterval. The relative extrema are [(a). and 0. 66 . If f(x) — f(a)> 0 for all values of x except x = a in the subinterval. 8. The absolute maximum and minimum values of f occur at x = a and x = d. 3—1. that is. 3—i. Using the notation introduced above. One should note thatf(x) may have a number of relative extreme values in the total interval x1 x x2. The relative maximum and minimum values of a function are called relative extrema. f(d). f(c). Absolute and relative maxima are defined in a similar manner.
= x2 = —2— J(x) = The first two derivatives are (x — a)3 +c = 3(x — a) Since both derivatives vanish at x = a. We then test each stationary point to see if the slope changes sign. we must consider the third derivative: d3f dx3 6 The stationary point. the third derivative must also vanish for the stationary point to be a relative extremum. dx and solving for x. These points are called stationary points. Example 3—1 Setting the first derivative equal to zero.2 = —2 I = 0 ± The second derivative is d2f = 2x +4= 2(x + 2) Thcn. The general shape of this function is shown in Fig. 3—1.x = x1 = —2 + corresponds to a relative maximum. We could have also established this result by considering the expression for the slope. If the second derivative is positive (negative) the stationary point is a relative minimum (maximum). E3—l. To find the relative extrema for a continuous function. values of x at which the slope changes sign correspond to relative extrema. x = a. If the second derivative also vanishes. we must consider higher derivatives at the stationary point in order to determine whether the slope actually changes sign. We see from (a) that the slope is positive on both sides of x = a. we first determine the points at which the first derivative vanishes. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE 67 In general. . we obtain x2 + 4x + x1.SEC. In this case. is neither a relative minimum nor a relative maximum since the third derivative is finite.
represented by due to truncating the series at n terms. We can also establish the criteria for a relative extremum from the Taylor series expansion of f(x). 3 Fig.66 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. Since this approach can he readily extended to functions of more than one independent variable we will describe it in detail. In all other cases. Equation (3—1) is called the Taylor series expansion* of f(x) about x = a. 1.1) a. Suppose we know the value of f(x) at x = a and we want f(a + Ax) where Ax is some increment in x. Since depends on we can only establish bounds on The following example illustrates this point. If f(x) is an ethdegree polynomial. the (n + 1)th derivative vanishes for all x and the expansion will yield the exact value off(a + Ax) when n terms are retained. Article 16—8. a x a + Ax. and the where denotes the jth derivative of f(x) evaluated at x is given by 1 remainder (32) where is an unknown number between a and a + Ax. If the first n + 1 derivatives off(x) are continuous in the interval. we can express f(a + Ax) as f(a + Ax) f(a) = Ax + (Ax)2 + (Ax)" + (3. See Ref. there will be some error. E3—1 f(x) I a x The sufficient condition for a stationary value to be a relative extremum (relative minimum (maximum) when d2f/dx2 > 0 (< 0)) follows from a consideration of the geometry of the f(x) vs. . x curve in the vicinity of the stationary point.
and higherorder terms) (3—3) For f(a + Ax) — f(a) to be positive for both positive and negative values of Ax. fourth the firstorder increment in f(x) due to the increment. that is. This requires d2f(a)/dx2 > 0. the secondorder increment will dominate: f(a + Ax) — f(a) = (Ax)2 + (third. we obtain sin Ax = Ax + R2 2. the firstorder increment dominates and we can write x f(a + Ax) — f(a) = Ax + (second. f(a) is a relative minimum when f(a + Ax)— f(a) > 0 for all points in the neighborhood of Ax e. Now.2). the first term on the righthand side of (3—1) is the dominant term in the expansion. Using (3—1) and (3—2). > 3 5 lithe first two derivatives vanish at x = the dominant term in the expansion. that is. for all finite values of Ax in some interval.and higherorder terms) (3—6) Since the thirdorder increment depends on the sign of Ax. and so on.0013. the thirdorder increment is now f(a + Ax) + f(a) = (Ax)3 + (fourth. If Ax is small with respect to unity. Also. the second term is more nth terms. df(a)/dx must vanish. if the firstorder increment vanishes. we call 4d2f/dx2(Ax)2 the secondorder increment.and higherorder terms) (3—4) It follows from (3—4) that the secondorder increment must be positive for > 0 to be satisfied. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE 69 Example 3—2 We expand sin x in a Taylor series about x = 0 taking n = and noting that a = 0. the upper bound on the truncation error is 0. Ax. 3—1. where a. Finally.SEC. The bounds on R2j are cos Ax < R21 If we use (a) to find sin (0. it must vanish for . Considering Ax to be small. the first order increment must vanish. Similarly. — and e are arbitrary small positive numbers. Note that this is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a relative minimum. f(a + Ax) — the necessary and sufficient conditions for a relative minimum at x = a are df(a) dx — 0 d2f(a) dx2 a. We refer to df/dx Ax as significant than the third.
RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. Ax) 0. For example. then df/dx = 1 and c/f = dx = Ax (3—11) One can use dx and Ax interchangeably. d. we define the differential operator. x and Ax. The sufficient conditions for this case are as follows: Relative Minimum d3f d4f dX4> (3—7) Relative Maximum d3f d4f The notation used in the Taylor series expansion off(x) becomes somewhat cumbersome for more than one variable. In what follows. First. 3 f(a) to be a relative extremum.Ax) The first differential off(x) is a function of two independent variables. we introduce new notation which can be readily extended to the case of 11 variables. Z\x. the second differential is given by d2f = d(df) Since Ax is independent of x. we take d(Ax) = . we to be the total increment in f(x) due to the increment. (3—12) = (Ax) = 0 and d2f reduces to d2f = (Ax)2 = d2f(x. (3—13) In forming the higher differentials. Higher differentials of f(x) are defined by iteration. Iff(x) = x. namely. (3—9) The result of operating onf(x) with d is called the first by df: and is denoted (3—10) df=1Ax = df(x. however. define 41 = f(x + Ax) — f(x) (3—8) This increment depends on Ax as well as x. we will use Ax rather than dx. Next.
the second differential is a measure of the secondorder increment. Similarly. (x1. .. FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Using differential notation. x2 Af = f(x1 + Ax1. the Taylor series expansion (3—1) about x can be written as (314) The first differential represents the firstorder increment in f(x) due to the increment. We establish criteria for a relative extremum by expanding f in an ndimensional Taylor series. Ax2 Let f(x1. the stationary point is a relative minimum (maximum) when d2f> 0 (<0) for all permissible values of Ax. that f(x1. . . x2 is a relative minimum (maximum). .. . If Af> 0 (<0) for all points in the neighborhood of(x1. The procedure is identical to that followed in the onedimensional case. 3—2. Also. x2 + Ax2. Then. f= u(x) + v(x) df=du+dv d2f = d(df) d2u + d2v 3 — 15 f= u(x)v(x) df df = u dv + v du 2 = ud2 v + 2dudv + vd 2u (3—16 f = fly) where y = y(x) df dy dy 32. and so on. Ax. Actually. Rules for forming the differential of the sum or product of functions are listed below for reference. .f(x) is a stationary value when df = 0 for all permissible values of Ax. we just have to extend the differential notation from one to n dimensions. + — f(x1.. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES be a continuous function of n independent variables We define Af as the total increment in f due to increments in the independent variables (Ax1. .. x2. . The above criteria reduce to (3—5) when the differentials are expressed in terms of the derivatives.SEC. Problems 3—4 through 3—7 illustrate their application. (3—18) we say . x2.
3 We define the ndimensional differential operator as d Ax1 + ox2 Ax2 + + = (319) . = 0 j= 1. (3—24) . This (3—26) = 0 Equation (3—26) represents n scalar equations. the second differential has the form d2f=d(df)= Since (3—21) are considered to be independent. . . x2.n (3—27) The scalar equations corresponding to the stationary requirement are usually . k = 1. . For example. .. .72 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. . 2. x2. Axk (3—22) Now. . we let f(2) r 1 j. (3—21) reduces to d2f k=i. Ax2 where the increments are independent of (x1. .. namely. has the form when expressed in Af= df + + + + (325) We say that f(x1. The result obtained when d is applied to f is called the first df = (3—20) Higher differentials are defined by iteration. .n (3—23) LOXJOXkJ Ax = and the expressions for the first two differentials simplify to df = d2f = AXTf(l) AXTf(2) Ax . 2. terms of differentials. . The Taylor series expansion forf about (x1. x2 is stationary when df requirement is satisfied only when 0 for arbitrary Ax.
g. The extremum problem is also related to certain other problems of interest. Example 3—3 f= = x2 y.SEC. The classification of a stationary point is determined by evaluated at the point..) df= 1 1 ek k 1 j 1 Xk Now.. f df = Introducing matrix notation.e. indifferent) of We are interested in the extremum problem since it is closely related to the stability problem. the solutions of the Euler equations correspond to points at which f is stationary. It is called a neutral point when d2f is either positive or negative semidefinite and a saddle point when d2f is indifferent. > k=t The first differential (see Prob. This terminology was originally introduced for the two dimensional case where it has geometrical significance. In the following examples. we illustrate various special forms of f which are encountered in member system analysis. 3—9) has the form (duJwJkvk + dwfkvk + dv1) u= and letting w= = du [w31] v= {v1} . the character (definite. A stationary point corresponds to a relative minimum (maximum) of f when d2f is positive (negative) definite. Note that the number of equations is equal to the number of independent variables. the characteristicvalue problem. 3—2. the eigenvalues are both positive and negative. semidefinite. FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 73 called the Euler equations for f. k1 It follows that >—&Xk OXk df= Repeating leads to j=l d2f = Consider the double sum. e. To summarize. i.
but the order must be preserved. consider f= where — x7c dc a. ax—Ax=0 which we recognize as the symmetrical problem. where a is symmetrical from the point of view of finding the stationary — XTC.74 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. = —f dv) = xx where a is symmetrical. 3—5) = —f.vJ — ldu V UX1 :X3 1(6u we can write uôv vax1 df = We apply (b) to 1. Noting that da = df AxT(ax — c) AxTa Ax = 0 and dx Ax. value of a polynomial having the form f = Suppose f u/v. and obtain (see Prob.(ax — 2x) (d) 2 AXT (122 = xx Ax A AxT Ax — 2 dA AxTx) Setting dA = 0 leads to the Euler equations for (c). c are constant and a is symmetrical. If a is positive definite. Using the fact that 3j7u\ \. (e) . the stationary point is a relative minimum. As an illustration. One can visualize the problem of solving the system ax = c. the first two differentials are d2f = Comparing (g) and (3—24). 3 and so forth. we can write df as df = = d(urwv) duTwv + nTdWv + uTwdv One operates on matrix products as if they were scalars. we see that fO) ax — c = The Euler equations are obtained by setting ax a equal to 0: c The solution of (i) corresponds to a stationary value of (f).
2. Finally. The general stationary requirement is df= > of (3—28) j=1 for all arbitrary differentials of the independent variables. . 6 and Prob. For a more detailed discussion.. In what follows. 3—3. x2 = 0 It = 1. there are only n — r independent variables.. where x is arbitrary and a is symmetrical. . we discuss how one can modify the procedure to handle the case where some of the variables are not independent. Equating the coefficients to zero leads to a system of n — r equations which.r (3—30) Using (3—30). Then. We have shown that the characteristic values of a are stationary values of Rayleigh's quotient.. 3—11. see Ref. This property can he used to improve an initial estimate for a characteristic value. Example We 3—4 2 illustrate the procedure for n = and r = 1: f= g(x1. LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 75 The quotient xTax/xTx. We use instead to emphasize that some of the variables are dependent. we have considered only the case where the function is expressed in terms of independent variables. we must express df in terms of the differentials of the independent variables. In order to establish the Euler equations. This modification is conveniently effected using Lagrange multipliers. 33. x2 some of which are not independent.r (3—29) One can consider these relations as constraint conditions on the variables. we reduce (3—28) to a sum involving the n — r indepen dent differentials.. Actually. LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS Up to this point. Since = 0. say x1. "a j=t k=1. . together with the r constraint equations.SEC. is called Rayleigh's quotient. Now. we can express r differentials in terms of the remaining n — r differentials. are sufficient to determine the stationary points. of the form g5(x1. it follows that 0. we suppose there are r relations between the variables. x2) = 0 The first variation is ox1 Ox2 .2. Suppose f is expressed in terms of n variables. We obtain r relations between the n differentials by operating on (3—29).
x2) = 0. we must investigate the behavior of the second differential.76 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. We first describe this procedure for the case of two variables and then generalize it for n variables and r restraints. Solving (b) for dx2 (we replace dx1 by x1 is the independent variable.) dx2= —t—iitSx1 8x2/ and substituting in (a). defined by H(x1. d2x1 using (c). 3 Operating on g(x1. x2) subject to the constraint condition. x2. We . x2) we have ax1 Now. is an unknown parameter. g(x1. x2) + Ag(x1. the equations defining the stationary points arc ax1 \ox1fOx2/ox2 g(x1. We introduce the function H.2 ox2 + \0x1 + ax2j Ox2 where u= Og Jag The character of the stationary point is determined from the sign of the bracketed term. The problem consists in determining the stationary values of f(x1. A. and noting = 0. we obtain /ag\ df = [PL ax1 — 8x1 ox2 ox2 Finally. An automatic procedure for handling constraint conditions involves the use of Lagrange multipliers. we suppose ag/ax2 0. x2) (3—31) where A. The general form of d2f for a function of two variables (which are not necessarily independcnt) is d2f = 2 2 2 = k1 dx1 + Of —i— a quadratic form in the independent differential. d2f + ax1ax. x2) = 0 To determine whether a stationary point actually corresponds to a relative extremum. referred to as a Lagrange multiplier.) = f(x1.
and 2 as independent variables is 6x1 + 2 + 2 = 4x2 0 0 +7— x1 — 2 = x2 = 0 Solving this system for x1. = 0. The Euler equations for H are OH Ox. We see that the Euler equations for II are the stationary conditions for f including the effect of constraints. and H has k = 1. .. and require H to be sta tionary. x2. There will be r Lagrange multipliers for this case. . x2) = 0 0 (334) Equations (3—34) and (e) of the previous example are identical. . x2. x2) = 0. x2 and A we obtain A 4x2 +7 = —9/10 = This procedure can be readily generalized to the case of n variables and r constraints. x2 and . 3—3. . . Example 3—5 f= g + — x2 + 2x1 + 7x2 = 0 = We form H f+ 2g. we obtain We suppose Og/0x2 A= 0x2/ Ox2 (333) and — Ox1 = g(x1.SEC. . LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 77 consider x1. 2. solving the second equation in (3—32) for A. x2. . where j(x1. . Ox2 Ox2 — + Og A Ox1 — Ox2 — (332) 0 OH g(x1. r.% to be independent variables. and substituting in the first equation. The problem consists of determining the stationary values Of subject to the constraints gk(xl. Then. . H= + + 2x1 + 7x2 + A(x1 — x2) The stationary requirement for H treating x1.
1937. 1960. C'alculus and Analytical Geometry. New York. 4. Reading. New York.. . AddisonWesley Publishing Co. M. Mass.. r We first solve r equations in (3—36) for the r Lagrange multipliers.. . Dover Publications. 3—4. Theory of Maxima and Minima. Differential and Integral Calculus. 1953. REFERENCES 1.. McGrawHill. 1. New York. Mass. HANCOCK.. x2 . New York. Vol. Expand cos x in a Taylor series about x = the upper and lower bounds on R3. AddisonWesley Publishing Co. PROBLEMS 3—1. 1952. 1936.. G. London. R. Mathematical Analysis. APOSTOL. Find df and d2f for (a) f=x2+2x+5 (d) (b) f=3x3+2x2+5x+6 (c) f=x2sinx f= cosywhcrey = x3 . Methods of Applied Mathematics. n= 3.. Determine the relative extrema for (a) (b) (c) (e) (f) (g) (d) f(x)=x3+2x2+x+10 f(x)=1x3+2x2+4x+15 f(x) = f(x) = (x — f(x) = f(x) = f(x) = 2x2 + —2x2 ax2 + 4x + 5 + 8x + 10 2bx + c + (x — a)2 4ax3 + 4bx2 + cx + d 0. taking 3—2. 7. HILDEBRAND.. F. 1957.. 2. 3. 5. THOMAS.. Determine 2. . H. COURANT. R.. 6. CRANDALL.n (3—36) (3—37) 9k = 0 = 1. Blackie. Vol... Engineering Analysis.. T. Reading.. 3—3. H. S. 2. and then determine the n coordinates of the stationary points from the remaining n — r equations in (3—36) and the r constraint equations (3—37). The use of Lagrange multipliers to introduce constraint conditions usually reduces the amount of algebra. Expand(1 + x)112inaTaylorseriesaboutx = Otakingn = Deter mine upper and lower bounds on R2. JR. (3—35) The Euler equations for H are 0 k=1 i = 1. B. B. k . Differential and Integral Calculus. Interscience Publishers. 3 the form H= f + k1 + 2k9k H(x1.2. PrenticeHall.. COURANT. 2..78 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. 1956. .
3—10. x2) = y2(x1. Since a is symmetrical. Suppose f = u(x)w(y) where y = y(x). u3 be functions of x and f = f(u1. Apply to (a) u=x3—x (b) w=cosy (c) y=x2 (a) (b) 3—8. = j=j .PROBLEMS 3—5. Find the first two differentials for the following functions: + + + 5x1 — 4x2 + 6x1x2 + Consider f = uv. Show that (du — df = d2f = 3—6. f= f' = 3—9. Determine df. u3). its characteristic vectors are linearly independent and we can express x as x= where Q3 (a) (j = 1. u2. . where u= and Yi u(y1. . u2. x2) or of dependent variables. 3—7. 79 Let f = u(x)/v(x). Show that . Y2) y1(x1. x2) Show that df = d(uv) u dv + v du d2f = ud2v + 2 du dv + vd2u Note that the rule for forming the differential of a product is independent of whether the terms are functions of the independent variables (x1. Determine expressions for df and d2f. . n) are the normalized characteristic vectors for a. + 6x1x2 6x1x2 + 2x1 + 6x1x2 + 34 — 3x1 = Consider Rayleigh's quotient.. Classify the stationary points for the following functions: (a) — 9x1 + 12x2 — 10 3xl + (b) f f f f 3—11.v2) v = v(y1. xTax x is arbitrary. 2. f dv) fd2v) — — Let u1.
Supposef = a. ICjI Specialize (a) for this case. Using (3—36) we write g2=x1—x2+2x3+2=0 H =f+ Ag = x1 + x2 + X3 = 0 — 2(XTX —1) (a) Show that the equations defining the stationary points off are ax=Ax (b) xTx=1 Relate this problem to the characteristic value problem for a symmetrical matrix. a=[i x [3 {1. = 1. 3—14. for j k. determine the stationary values for the following constrained functions: (a) g (b) + x2 0 — 1 g1 = 3—13. Show that and g = I — xTax = 0 where aT the Euler equations for H have the form xTax=1 We see that the Lagrange multipliers are the reciprocals of the characteristic values of a. Hint: Factor out 2k and Use (b) to obtain an improved estimate for A. —3} The exact result is 2=1 x={1. 3 << Suppose x differs only slightly from Qk. Using Lagrange multipliers.—2} 3—12.80 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION (b) (c) CHAP. How are the multipliers related to the stationary values of f? . Consider the problem of finding the stationary values of f = = xrarx subject to the constraint condition. Then.
4—1). A knowledge of vectors is assumed. For a review. see Ref. we first discuss the. PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF A SPACE CURVE A curve is defined as the locus of points whose position vector* is a function of a single parameter. 4—1. Cartesian reference frame with position vector ?(y). 1. * The vector directed from the origin of a fixed reference frame to a point is called the position vector. moments of inertia. 81 . differential geometry of a space curve in considerable detail and then extend the results to a member element. Our primary objective is to introduce the concept of a local reference frame for a member. Let F he the position Vector to a point directions X1.) are specified. etc.4 Differential Geometry of a Member Element The geometry of a member element is defined once the curve corresponding to the reference axis and the properties of the normal cross section (such as area. 4—1. We take an orthogonal cartesian reference frame having and X3 (see Fig. In this chapter. x3 i3 X3(y) x2 X2(y) x1 Fig.
care constants. the chord length ds2 approaches the arc length. b. E4—1A).2. Noting that = dx1 = dy we can express ds as ds + + + dy (44) . X2 plane is an ellipse having semiaxes a and b. 3) (4—2) Both forms are called the parametric representation of a space curve. corresponding to y and and The cartesian coordinates are length of the chord from P to Q is given by y+ + (j 1. 3) and the As Exy —* 0. The position vector for this curve has the form F = a cos + b sin Y12 + CYI3 4—2. In the limit. We = an alternate representation is Since F = i—i = (j = 1. 3) and let y be the parameter. P and Q. 2. ARC LENGTH Figure 4—2 shows two neighboring points. 4 on the curve having coordinates can represent the curve by 3 (j = 1. Example (1) 4—i let a = Consider a circle in the X1X2 plane (Fig. The projection on the X. We take y as the polar angle and The coordinates are and x1 = x2 = F = a a cos y sin y + asiny'12 (2) Consider the curve (Fig. E4—1B) defined by = X3 = a cos y (4—3) x2 = bsiny CY where a.82 DIFFERENTiAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. 2.
Differentia' segment of a curve.Fig. 4—2. E4—1A Fig. E4—1B Q(+Ay) I LISI P(y) Fig. 83 .
It is customary to call the sense of increasing s the positive sense of the curve. Note that +1. Then. x > 0. the previous equations reduce to dx 2 1/2 (46) ds = dy (4—7) One can visualize as a scale factor which converts dy into ds. we let = + Then. S = ny . 4 Finally. To simplify the expressions. 3. integrating (4—4) leads to s(y) dx 2 dx 2 dx 21/2 dy (4—5) = + + We have defined ds such that s increases with increasing y. When b = is called a circular helix and the relations reduce to the curve = (a2 + const. then Example 4—2 Consider the curve defined by (4—3). y) a. we express where = (b2 + c2)"2 [1 — k2 = b2 — b2 + The arc length is given by s 2 k2 sin2 y]"2 c2 dy = (b2 + [1 — k2 sin2 yJ112 dv The integral for s is called an elliptic integral of the second kind and denoted by E(k. if we take y = s. s (b2 + c2)'12 E(k.84 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. as Then. the scale factor is [a2 sin2 y + We suppose that b b2 cos2 y + c2]'12 a. Also. Tables for E(k. y). One can always orient the axes such that this condition is satisfied. Using (4—6). y) as a function of k and y are contained in Ref.
Jim PQ d1 =—ds (4—8) Using the chain rule. we can express I as — — — dP dy — 1 dF ds — dy ds — (4—9) dy Since > 0. 4—3. and approaches the tangent to the curve at P.SEC. 1 always points in the positive direction of the curve. Unit tangent vector at P(y). the unit tangent vector at P is given by* As L\y + 0. 1. The corresponding position vectors are P(y + ky). . UNIT TANGENT VECTOR 85 UNIT TANGENT VECTOR We consider again the neighboring points. 401. It follows that dP/dy is also a tangent vector and — dy /df dP\"2 \dy dy Equation (4—10) reduces to (4—6) when coordinates. 4—3.y) + r(y) Fig. Then. +s (4—10) is expressed in cartesian Q(y+6. in the direction of increasing s (or y). 4—3. p. • t= . * See Ref. that is. P(y) and Q(y + shown in Figure 4—3.
4.86 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. H= ldt dy where d (1 The binormal vector. The unit vector pointing in the direction of di/dy is called the principal normal vector and is usually denoted by ii.lt) dF b='?xh We see that b is also a unit vector and the three vectors. PRINCIPAL NORMAL AND BINORMAL VECTORS Differentiating = 1 with respect to y. b) and are referred to as the osculating normal. ñ. Chap. (412) b comprise a right handed mutually orthogonal system of unit vectors at a point on the curve. 1. The position vector is F = a cos + b sin Y12 + cyi3 Differentiating P with respect to y. and rectifying planes (see Fig. A space curve having the property that the angle between the tangent and a fixed direction (X3 direction for this example) is constant is called a helix.. Note that the vectors are uniquely defined once y) is specified. (ii. ñ). . h. The frame associated with b_and ii is called the moving trihedron and the planes determined by (1. dP dy = —a sin + h cos Y12 + and using (4—9) and (4—10). a [a2 + direction is constant. we have  dy = 0 It follows from (a) that di/dy is orthogonal to f. is defined by (4.* 44. 4—4). 4 Example 4—3 We determine the tangent vector for the curve defined by (4—3). and the angle between the t?ngent and the X3 When a b. we obtain a = +[a2 sin2 y + b2 cos2 y + c2]"2 =1[—asinyT1 + bcosyi2 + c13] =' coast. * See Ref.
Definition of local planes. a sin C — — cos a + a £3 a The unit vectors are shown in Fig. we obtain di Then. It follows that the rectifying plane is orthogonal to the X1X2 plane. PRiNCIPAL NORMAL AND BINORMAL VECTORS 87 Normal plane Rectifying plane Fig. We have already found that a — [a2 + and = sin VT1 + a cos + c13] Differentiating t with respect to y. Example 4—4 We determine fi and b for the circular helix. 4—4. — a — [cos ytj + Sm i dt fl dt dy dy — C05 — Sm The principal normal vector is parallel to the plane and points in the inward radial direction. We can determine b using the expansion for the vector product. . E4—4.SEC. a This reduces to —asiny acosy C b C. 4—4.
CURVATURE. R is the radius of the circle passing through three consecutive points* on the curve. From Fig. AND THE FRENET EQUATIONS The derivative of the tangent vector with respect to arc length is called the curvature vector. We let R be the reciprocal of the curvature: R= K1 iS) In the case of a plane curve. 4 Fig. 14.88 GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. we express I in terms of 0 and then differentiate with respect to s. we have cos * See + Sifl 012 Ref. 4—5. we can write — ic/i c/s2 (4—13) ds — Ku (4—14) 0. The Note that K points in the same direction as Ft since we have taken K curvature has the dimension L1 and is a measure of the variation of the tangent vector with arc length. 4. K dt c/s d2F i/s2 K Using (4—11). p. TORSION. K. E4—4 4—5. for a discussion of the terminokgy 'three consecutive points. and K = JdO/dsj where 6 is the angle between I and To show this." .
We express db/ds as db = —tn (4—16) where r is called the torsion and has the dimension. A measure of the variation of the osculating plane is given by db/ds. Radius of curvature for a plane curve. K and [—sin dO 1 + cos 617] dO a— K ds dO/ds R [— sin + cos 612] In the case of a space curve. TORSION. x2 \ R + R t i2 it Fig. 4—S. the tangents at two consecutive points. that is. are in the osculating plane at F. Since his a unit vector. AND THE FRENET EQUATIONS Then — . P. It should be noted that the osculating plane will generally vary along the curve. The binormal vector is normal to both and ñ and therefore is normal to the osculating plane.SEC.  db  dl ds ds But dl/ds Kñ and b ii = 0. db/ds is also orthogonal to I and involves only ñ. with respect to s. CURVATURE. db/ds is orthogonal to h. 4—5. To determine whether db/ds involves we differentiate the orthogonality condition I b 0. We can interpret R as the radius of the osculating circle at P. L . Then. say P and Q. the plane determined by and ñ at.
Now. Finally. the torsion is given by dñ ds —— —b ldfl — dy (4—17) Note that a can be positive or negative whereas K is always positive. From (4—17). To complete the discussion. we have db = di xn+t diii dñ This reduces to —=t x db ii = 0. c2)112 K=— adv and 1— a a a a +c c c 2 dñ a dy a 2—const We have developed expressions for the rate of change of the tangent and binormal vectors. according to our definition. The torsion is zero for a plane curve since the osculating plane coincides with the plane of the curve and b is constant. 4 It remains to develop an expression for a. using (4—16). h is defined by xn Differentiating with respect to s. dñ/ds is orthogonal to ñ. Since fi is a unit vector. b— ds  dñ a . we consider the rate of change of the principal normal vector with respect to arc length. Example 4—5 The unit vectors for a circular helix are = [—a —cos sin vij + — a cos Yti + cT3] sin b= where yl' — ccosyi3 + at3] a = (a2 + Then.90 DiFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP.
I n = 0. 4—6. ii. we differentiate the orthogonality relation.i— di principal normal vector (4—19) = I x ñ binormal vector di ds — dy dy Di:fferenriation Formulas Equations) — — = Kn ds ady db 1db — = —— = —rn ds ctdy dñ . 1 dñ —Kt ds ady dl lull +tb (4—20) K= = —b 1 di — curvature a dy 1—dñ a — = torsion dy We use the orthogonal unit vectors (I. b) to define the local reference frame for a member element. This is discussed in the following sections. 4—6. ñ. SUMMARY OF THE GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS FOR A SPACE CURVE We summarize the geometrical relations for a space curve: Orthogonal Unit Vectors t = di thu 1 = — = tangent vector exdy ldi a= —i. and b are called the Frenet equations. The Frenet .SEC. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS FOR A SPACE CURVE 91 To determine the component of dñ/ds in the I direction. ds ds (b) it follows from (a) and (b) that — = —I(t + tb us dñ  (4—18) The differentiation formulas for 1.
The components b) are actually the direction cosines for the natural of the unit vectors frame with respect to the basic cartesian frame which is defined by the orthogonal unit vectors (1k. Y2. Now. The reference frame associated with ñ.92 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. 4—6. 46. 3 (4—22) Equation (4—22) leads to the important result [ljk]T = (4—23) and we see that is an orthogonal matrix. t See Prob. 13).f The results presented above arc applicable to an arbitrary continuous curve. = 1) We will always take the positive tangent direction as the Y1 direction x and we work only with right handed systems t3). 2. 4—6) at every point. we can specify the orientation of the local frame with respect to the natural frame in terms of the angle between the principal normal direction and the I'2 direction. b) are mutually or13) the direction cosines are related by thogonal unit vectors (as well as 1jm6m = j. in this case. say P. it is a property of the curve. We refer to this frame as the natural frame at P. 4 equations are utilized to establish the governing differential equations for a member element. 1'3) and the corresponding unit vectors by (t1. x2. LOCAL REFERENCE FRAME FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 4—7. we consider the curve to be the reference axis for a member clement and take the positive tangent direction and two orthogonal directions in the normal plane as the directions for the local member frame. Y3 as the principal inertia directions for the cross section. k = 1. When the centroid of the normal crosssection coincides with the origin of the local frame (point P in Fig. The unit vectors defining the local and natural frames * See Prob. the reference axis is called the centroidal axis for the member. that is. . and b at a point. to take Y2. 2. 12. We denote the directions of the local frame by (Y1. We write the relations between the unit vectors as ft n £12 133 11 = t22 £32 e33 12 (4—21) One can express* the direction cosines in terms of derivatives of the cartesian coordinates (x1. 45. Since (1. This notation is shown in Fig. x3) by expanding (4—19). It is convenient. In general. on a curve is uniquely defined once the curve is specified.
fJjk = Xk) (4—26) '. 4—6. x3 Normat Y1 Fig. Definition of local reference frame for the normal cross section. J1 chapter to establish the transformation law for the components of a vector. We will utilize (4—25) in the next Since both frames are orthogonal. 4—7 LOCAL REFERENCE FRAME FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 93 are related by tl — t2  = COS 4)11 + sin 4)b (4—24) çbn + cos 4th Combining (4—21) and (4—24) and denoting the product of the two direction cosine matrices by the relation between the unit vectors for the local and basic frames takes the concise form t= where (4—25) [ £21cos4)+€31sin4) €12 €j3 €22cos4)+ €32sin4) €23cosçb+ €33sinqS —€23 sin 41+ £33cos41 [21sin4)+€31cos4) —€22si+C32cos4) Note that the elements of fi are the direction cosines for the local frame with respect to the basic frame.SEC. .
94 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. Y2' Y3) be the position vector for Q(Yl. CURVILINEAR COORDINATES FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT We take as curvilinear coordinates (yi. say Q. 4—7. Y2 y3 — —— Y2 Fig. They are related by = r + Y2t2 + y3t3 where COS + Sifl ( t3 = = + cos4b (4—27) We consider 4 to be a function of y1. y3) and position vector for the reference axis. 4 Example 4—6 We determine for the circular helix. —slay a —cosy a a Using (4.by I ——slay a a. Curvilinear coordinates for the cross section. the parameter of the reference axis and the coordinates (Y2. of Q with respect to the orthogonal directions (Y2. a a a 4—8. 1'3) in the normal cross section (see Fig.25) a a a cos y a —sinycosçb ——cosysin4 a a +cosysm4 + —sinycos4 C. a —cosy — a — c a 0 a — = b — cos y sin y c 12 = {Ik} C. The natural frame is related to the basic frame. Let F(y1) the R(y1. . 4—7). sin y sin — — cos y cos I. Yz' y3) for a point.
there are three parametric curves through a point. the partial derivatives of R are 0R — dy1 = = t2 t3 + dt2 Y2 dy1 + Y3 dy1 aR aR . CURVILft4EAR COORDiNATES FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 95 The curve through point Q corresponding to increasing Yj with Y2 and y3 held constant is called the parametric curve (or line) for yj. Ui = 13R (4—28) aIR = The differential arc length along the aIR curve is related to by (4—29) = (or = This notation is illustrated in Fig. In general. One can consider the vectors to define a local reference frame at Q. Operating on (4—27). 4—8. x3 y2t2 +y3t3 x2 Fig.SEC. Vectors defining the curvilinear directions. 4—8. 4—8. By definition. We define as the unit tangent vector for the parametric curve through Q.
However.96 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. dy1 g3=1 (4—30) = = 1db '\dv1 Also. j — dy1 —11—— dy1 dt3 = . of y. 4—9 that y'2 is the coordinate of the point with respect to the principal normal direction. u2. will not be orthogonal. 4 We see that t2 g2 1 ü3=t3 It remains to determine ü1 and g1. d12 (dñ \dy1 dy1 + dy1 + —bj dçb . Ky'2)!1 + / + d4)\ _)(Y2t3 y3t2) (4—31) Y2 COS 4) J73 sin 4) We see from Fig. cit2 dy1 dyj I and finally. we can reduce it to an orthogonal . = cc(1 — d4)'\. 4—9. y3 \y3 Fig. (dii \dy1 + b—)+ dy1j dq5\ 1db \dy1 We use the Frenet equations to expand the derivatives of ñ and h. Since 13R/ay1 (and therefore ii1) involve the reference frame defined and by iii. Then. Now.
JR. varies linearly with y (or arc length). G. JA}INKE. 1953. AddisonWesley Publishing Co. B. 13. the local frame at Q coincides with the frame at the centroid. EMDE: Tables of Functions. Mass. hi = ds1 = a(1 — Ky2) a cc x(l — '\ / REFERENCES 1. 4. AddisionWesley Publishing Co.. 1950.. E. 1943. Reading. THOMAS.. (4—33) aR and = — Ky'2)t1 = = (4—34) cx(l — In this case. Mass. 3. Example 4—7 The parameters a and t are constant for a circular helix: a= (a2 C + c2)112 Then. . STRUm. J. HAY. and F. Dover Publications.REFERENCES 97 system by taking dy = cer dy 150 (4—32) which requires = When (4—32) is satisfied.. Dover Publications.: Differential Geometry. Inc. at = — a C and integrating (4—33).. One should note that this simplification is practical only when ccc can be readily integrated. 2. Reading. New York.: Analytical Geometry and Calculus. U. The parameter g1 follows from (4—34). New York. we obtain — Yo) tS For this curve. 1953..: Vector and Tensor Analysis.. D.
and K corresponding to this representation. !.DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. If 0. A curve is said to be shallow when 02 << 1.f"etc 4a — 2 x1) Apply the results of (a) to = where (c) a and b are constants. . b. = sec 0. 4—2.r Oandb ±i3. ñ. Suppose the equation defining the curve is expressed in the form x2=J(x1) x3=0 Equation (a) corresponds to taking x1 as the parameter for the curve. This approximation leads to sin 0 cos 0 tan 0 1 0 4—3. 4 PROBLEMS 4—1. x for the following curves: x2 = 3 sin y cos y x3 = 5y x1 3 cos y x2 = 6 sin y x3 = 5y + p313 + = x1 = cos y x2 = sin y Determine 3 x1 = x3 = cy where a. Show that (see (4—20)) Let K = l/R and t di dh dñ — = —— 12 dy. h. /3. and K in terms of 0. K. Then. This is the equation for a parabola symmetrical about x1 = b/2. Note that Let y and + f(x1)12 + _Lf' (b) . b. The sign of b will depend on the relative orientation of ñ with respect to 1. . Let 9 be the angle between and cos0 = I Deduce that Specialize (d) •11. (a) Determine the expressions for 7. c are real constants. the curve lies in the plane. (a) (b) (c) (d) Il. Express t. for the case where 02 is negligible with respect to unity.
n for both parametric representations. Show that dx. Note that b = €3313 where 431 = 1. Does y have any geometrical significance? 4—5.. ° 42 Let 43] Then. Determine a. we call the member a "planar" member. 49.PROBLEMS 4—4. c5Jk. €1 [4k] €3 Using (4—22). show that 4—7. Determine a. 99 The equations for an ellipse can be written as x1 = or a cos y 2 x1 2 x2 x2 = b sin y Determine 1. We express the differentiation formulas for 4—8.. 72 1k C IA A C2k [3 (d€ [. . Determine JI for Prob. The member is not planar in this case. 4—lb. skewsymmetric for an orthogonal system of unit vectors. When the reference axis is a plane curve and = 0. Ii' iT — i—i Determine D for Prob. Specialize for the case where the reference axis is in the X1 — X2 plane. 4—la. Take x1 as the parameter for (b).=. ie.. dt — = at ds (a) (b) Show that a is. Suppose the reference axis is a plane curve but çb 0. in general. as 4—10. \ dyj J €13 dy dv2 = 42 \ dy 1€21 dy dyj j €311 €32 0 €33j 4—6..
" 100 . ROTATION TRANSFORMATION Suppose we know the scalar components of a vector with respect to a reference frame and we want to determine the components of the vector corresponding to a second reference frame. unit vectors. Directions for reference frames "1" and "2. (See Fig. 5—1.5 Matrix Transformations for a Member Element 5—1. (j = 1. 5—1. 2) be the directions and corresponding unit Let vectors for reference frame n. we call the matrix which defines the transformation a rotation matrix. and scalar a Fig. Also. 2.) We will generally use a superscript to indicate the reference frame for directions. 3 and n = 1. We refer to this transformation as a rotation transformation. We can visualize the determination of the second set of components from the point of view of applying a transformation to the column matrix of initial components.
For example. We see that the transformation matrix for the scalar components of a vector is the inverse transpose of the transformation matrix governing the unit vectors for the reference frames. Example 5—i We consider the twodimensional case shown in Fig. The relations between the unit vectors are = cos + sin = —sin + cos We write (a) according to (5—2). 5—1. ROTATION TRANSFORMATION components in this text. we let R'2 R21 = form (53) With this notation.SEC. a= = (a2)Ti2 To proceed further. cos6 sinO . The scalar components of a with respect to frame n are a a is independent of the reference frame. a. We consider a vector. Substituting for and equating the coefficients of i' leads to a' = a2 Finally. is nonsingular when the unit vectors are linearly independent. E51. Then. R'2 is the rotation transformation matrix corresponding to a change from frame 1 to frame 2. We write. the relations between the component matrices take the a2 = a1 = = R21a2 The order of the superscripts on R corresponds to the direction of the trans formation. the relations between the unit vectors as i2 = Ili' where is the scalar component of with respect to The transformation matrix. we must relate the two reference frames.
E5—1 12 The result obtained in the preceding example can be readily extended to the orthogonal reference frames. we use superscripts p and p' for the local and natural frames at p and a superscript 1 for the basic cartesian frame: = = {Z. ñ. at a point on the reference axis of a member element with respect to the natural frame (1. When both frames are orthogonal. we defined the orientation of the local frame (1k.102 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. = t2. in turn. 5 Then. 4—7. q5 = 0 and ir Fig. R21 —sin4 Lsinfl 1 cos4 L—sjn 6 cos U R'2 = (fV) = + sin o sin 0 cos and Jafl — I [ cos — ?J L — sin 0 cos oJ When both frames are orthogonal. ii. A' k (55) In Sec. This frame. 13. b) at the point. b} (5—6) . 13). f3jk is the direction cosine for with respect to and the rotation transformation matrix is an orthogonal matrix: case of two 1 R'2 — LI'jki — 'X2 Pjk — COSt j. In order to distinguish between the three frames. was defined with respect to a fixed cartesian frame 12. the change in reference frames can be visualized as a rigid body rotation of one frame into the other.
defined by (4—25). Q 5—2. 0 0 =0 0 3. The statically equivalent force and moment at Q are Feqrnv. Equivalent force system. We shall refer to both forces and moments as "forces. . 5—2." Also. This transformation will be Fcquiv. Consider a force F and moment M acting at P shown in Fig. The relationship between the external force system at P and the statically equivalent internal force system at Q hasa simple form when vector notation is used. Mequiv = M + XF  (58) One can visualize (5—8) as a force transformation in which the force system at P is transformed into the force system at Q. cos4. that is. —sin4. 5—2.SEC. From (4—24). we speak of the force and moment at a point. We will write (5—8) in matrix form and treat force transformations as matrix transformations. as the "force system" at P. if the geometry of the element does not change appreciably when the external loads are applied. the relations between the unit vectors and the various rotation matrices are: t" = R141 = 1. sin 4. say P. THREEDIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS 103 With this notation. — (5—7) 1 2. From(4—21). THREEDIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS The equilibrium analysis of a member element involves the determination of the internal force and moment vectors at a cross section due to external forces and moments acting on the member. linear if is constant. cos4. 5—2.
Let be a force vector acting at point P and MQ the moment vector at point Q corresponding to We will always indicate the point of application of a force or moment vector with a subscript. 0 1 — Note that matrix. Notation for orthogonal reference frame. product leads to = 0 — Expanding the vector cross (5—11) (1 —(42 1\ XQ2) — (1 (1. .. 5—3 and write the component expansions as — v' PL.104 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP._ '1 P = (jl)TM1 — (5—10) The scalar components of QP are 4. One can interpret it as a forceis a into translation transformation matrix. 5—3.1 — 2 M1 43 I' / Xp3 / xP1 / 'i Fig. ri 1 . The force at P is transformed by F1 P3 'Ik i—i / . The relation between MQ and is — = QP x (5—9) We work with an orthogonal reference frame (frame 1) shown in Fig. 5 We develop first the matrix transformation associated with the moment of a force about a point.
there will be a local orthogonal reference frame associated with each point on the axis of the member. and these frames will coincide only when the member is prismatic. Using The 6 x 1 matrix this notation. With this notation.SEC. the matrix transformation is 'Q) — I L"PQ L3J (b) We let = (5—14) is called the force system at Q referred to frame 1. Note that the order of the subscripts for the translation transcorresponds to the order of the translation (from P formation matrix. 5—2. Also. a THREEDIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS 105 moment at Q. Up to this point. (b) simplifies to d1 — When the force systems are referred to local frames. the superto Q). In general. scripts must be equal. Utilizing the general matrix. To handle the general case we must introduce rotation transformations which transform the components of F and M from the local frames to the basic frame (frame 1) and vice versa. say frame 1. = = and the general expression for takes the form (5—12) = (5—13) We consider next the total force transformation. and must be referred to the same frame. We use a superscript p to indicate the local frame at point P and the rotation matrix corresponding to a transformation from the local frame at P to frame 1 is denoted by R'1. that is. we have considered only one orthogonal reference frame. I 0 1 _ (5—16) and applying. The statically equivalent force and moment at Q associated with a force and moment at P are given by MQ = + QP x — (a) When all the vectors are referred to a common frame. we mast first transform them to a common frame and then apply (515). = = (a) .
Then. if 1 and q are parallel. In general. 4—7 and 5—f.. . alone. from frame p to frame q. Actually. the geometry of a member element is defined with respect to a basic we must determine reference frame which we take as frame 1. We have and Rn'. from P to Q.g. where tion matrix. Note that the force transformation generally involves both translation and rotation. . matrices.. is carried out in the order P S1. . Similarly the order of the superscripts defines the direction of the rotation or change in reference frames. we could leave off the to appears subscripts and superscripts on when we write (5—17). — reduces I to (519) When both p and q arc parallel to 1. S. S1 are intermediate points. = 91i'PQ By transforming from P to Q and back to F... = 0) . To evaluate from the geometrical relations for the member. — (5—22) * If the reference axis isa plane curve and the local frame coincides with the natural frame we say the member is planar. e. —÷ Q. the transformais equal to the product of the intermediate transformation S2. suppose we reduces to take frame I parallel to frame p. The order of the subscripts corresponds to the direction of the translation. e.106 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. we obtain = and it follows that (5—20) (5—21) If the transformation from P to S2. R1 = 1 and — [R = (S—18) Similarly. we must include them. When the member is planar* and the geometry is fairly simple (such as a straight or circular member). However.. For example.. 5 we obtain = (5—17) is applied Equation (5—17) states that when the matrix transformation we obtain its statical equivalent at Q. This eliminates one rotation transformation. already discussed how one determines R1 in Secs. we can take frame I parallel to one of the local frames..g.
We take frame 1 parallel to frame p. ES—2. SN are arbitrary reference frames. THREEDIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS . —a(1 — 0 cos 0). The general . It is convenient to take a common reference frame for the intermediate transformations. 107 where s1. . E5—2 asin0 P p 2 t7 Example 5—3 Cartesian frame. O} 0 —a(1—cos6) —a = = 0 a(1 — cos 0) 0 a sin 0 0 Sin 6 0 cos6 = = sin 0 0 —sinO cos 0 0 0 The transformation matrix has the form — — — — 9 I where 0 0 =0 a(1 — cos 0) 0 +a(1 —cos6) —asinO 0 Fig. . 4 — = {a sin 0. Example 5—2 We consider the plane circular member shown in Fig. we consider the problem of finding As an illustration of the case where the geometry is defined with respect to a basic for a circular helix. s2.SEC. 5—2. Then..
cy0} Then. 4—i: a a = = where cos y sin y = cy (j = 1. Using the results of Sec.. we obtain (a\2 I—I /c\2 I a ——sin ij cc I —i (1 — cos cc ac c cc /a\2 /c'\2 \ccJ . 5 expansion for has the form [RPS The parametric representation for a circular is given in Sec. Evaluating the product. — cos YQ) = C(yp y0) — 0 —a(sin sin yQ) a(cos Yp 0 To simplify the algebra. that is. a sin YQ. a cc C cc 0 where cc2 a2 + c2. a Sifl — C(yp — Cyp) = {a cos yQ. The coordinate matrices for P and Q are 4 = {a cos Vp.3) are the cartesian coordinates with respect to the basic frame (frame 1).108 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. we suppose the local frame coincides with the natural frame at every point along the reference axis.. Let yp and y corresponding to points P and Q. we take = 0. 4—7. 0 a(sin y. the rotation matrices reduce to a a C a C.2. — sin —a(cos C05 Y0) .
57. 5—3. as the translation and rotation* vectors for point P. The displaccment at Q resulting from the rigid body displacement at P is given by — [13 L"l 3J = 0 — XPQ1 i — consider next the case where the local frames at P and Q do not coincide. We define Up and Ui. Also. Suppose that the body experiences a translation and a rotation. THREEDIMENSIONAL DISPLACEMENT TRANSFORMATIONS where = yp = y0. I — sinq) a — cosn)(a5 — c2)] a — a I a a ac2 a a — — c2) a a2 a ci2c — a a a Note that we can specialize the above general results for the case of a plane circular member (Example 52) by taking c = 0 and = 0.. .SEC. a2c —3(2 ac — I a (IC . The general relation between the displacements has the form 13  (5—27) [o One can showt that alternate forms of (5—27) are j T d14 = The units are (yqp)T radians.  t See Prob. 5—3. The corresponding vectors for point Q are given by UQ = Up + (Up X (5—23) = Wp Equation (5—23) is valid only when Since PQ — QP and x PQ We define is — PQ x negligible with respect to unity. an alternate form for is (5—24) UQ = Up + QP X (5—25) = as the displacement matrix for P referred to frame 1. THREEDIMENSIONAL DISPLACEMENT TRANSFORMATIONS Let P and Q be two points on a rigid body.
a1 = Consider the twodimensional {50.t. 5. MORLCE. The orientation of two orthogonal frames is specified by the direction cosine table listed below.: Matrix Methods in Elastomechanics. and LECKIE. HALL.Ey. 1966. K. Livasr.. 2d ed. F. New York. REFERENCES 1. New York. Pergamon Press. C. W. 1/2 1/2 (a) 1/2 1/2 \/2/2 Determine R12.: Linear Structural Analysis. WOODSLEAD: Frame Analysis. 2.. R. PROBLEMS 5—1. B. H. cartesian reference frames shown. Verify that (R12)T = (R12y1 o . Ronald Press. 1964. find a2. 5—i 5—2. E. 1963. New York.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. 3. 1967. 1959. MARTLS. and R. McGrawHill. New York.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. PESTEL. London. 4. If Prob. —100}.. McGrawHill. This result is quite useful. S.110 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. P. Wiley. 5 We see that the displacement transformation matrix is the inverse transpose of the corresponding force transformation matrix. A.
+60). —50.PROBLEMS (b) If a1 = {10. 10. 0}.2) and (—5. 5—3.  Suppose 4(y) = Suppose 0. find a'. 1.4) with respect to frame 1. 5. find a2. P and Q. = (a) 2 cos + 2 sin + Take 13. Calculate Consider the planar member consisting of a circular segment and a Prob. —40..Q and Determine Suppose 54. 5—4 S straight segment shown in the sketch below. 10}. Also find Determine by transforming from P to S and then from S to Q. 10). 1. 0. —1 —. The direction cosine tables for the local reference frames are listed below. 20. 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 — 12/2 (a) (b) (c) Determine 91'). 0. Consider two points. Determine by transforming directly from P to Q. (b) = —y. {l00. 3. Determine Determine = ir/2. Consider the circular helix. having coordinates (6. t'i Q Ic (a) (b) (c) 5—5. YQ = . 0. 100. Point P is at the center of the circle. (c) If a2 {5. Find corresponding to = {0.
Note that •1 rI IA ii r 5—8. Refer to Problem 5—3. Prob. The reference axis is defined by I niT I I —c ort x2 = f(xj). Q_ — I _T___ P 5—7.112 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. 1/3. 0}. Verify that (5—27) and (5—28) are equivalent forms. — 1/4. 5 5—6. — 1/10. Verify that Q corresponding to P = {1/2. 4—2. Use the results of . Determine 1/10. coordinate of point Q is equal to h/4. 3 3J L" 1 Consider the plane member shown. Specialize part (a) for the case where — 4a 2 (x1b — Xj) and the x1 Prob. 5—8 x1 (a) (b) Determine Note that the local frame at P coincides with the basic frame whereas the local frame at Q coincides with the natural frame at Q.
C XCI) Cl) z .
.
Since the bars are weightless and the hinges are frictionless. namely. a general system is called a space or threedimensional truss.6 Governing Equations for an Ideal Truss 6—i. and there are three displacement components associated with each joint. There are two displacement components associated with each joint of a plane truss. In general. it follows that each bar is in a state of direct stress. Let r be the number of prescribed displacement components (displacement restraints) and nd the total number of unknown joint displacements. the system is called a plane or twodimensional truss. the magnitude of the axial force. GENERAL A system of bars* connected at their ends by frictionless hinges to joints and subjected only to forces applied at the joint centers is called an ideal truss. the direction of the force coincides with the line connecting the joint If the bars lie in one plane. ± See Ref. 115 . there are if displacement quantities associated with the] joints. We suppose there are in bars (members) and j joints. 1. some of the jointdisplacement components are prescribed. There is only one force unknown associated with each bar. It follows that = if — r (6—2) Corresponding to each joint displacement restraint is an unknown joint force A prismatic member is conventionally referred to as a bar in truss analysis. We define i as = = 2 3 for a plane truss for a space truss Using this notation. Similarly.t The bars arc assumed to be weightless and so assembled that the line connecting the joint centers at the ends of each bar coincides with the centroidal axis.
and direction cosines for the lines connecting the joint centers in the deformed state. We prefer to proceed from the truss to the general system since the basic formulation techniques for the ideal truss can be more readily described. to a member system having moment resisting connections. Let (j = 1. there are iJ scalar forceequilibrium equations relating the bar forces. we first derive the elongation—joint displacement relation for a single bar and then express the complete set of in relations as a single matrix equation. In this chapter. for an ideal truss is (6—3) fl—flj+flj—(j+tfl (6—4) The equilibrium equations for the bars have been used to establish the fact that the force in each bar has the direction of the line connecting the joint centers at the ends of the bar. Finally. and joint displacements. n. 6 (reaction).116 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN iDEAL TRUSS CHAP. and the external joint load components to a common righthanded cartesian reference frame. the total number of unknowns. m additional independent equations are required. 3) be the axes and corresponding orthogonal unit . The two general procedures for solving the governing equations are described in Chapters 8 and 9. Some authors start with the general system and then specialize the equations for the case of an ideal truss. ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION FOR A BAR We number the joints consecutively from 1 through j. Since each joint is subjected to a concurrent force system. 6—2. that is. In Chapter 7. we briefly discuss the solvability of the governing equations for the linear case. to determine the bar forces. Thisprocedure is repeated for the bar forceelongation relations and the joint forceequilibrium equations. Then. In order to solve the problem. To adequately describe the formulation for a general system requires introducing a considerable amount of notation which tends to overpower the reader. we develop variational principles for an ideal truss. There remains the equilibrium equations for the joints. The basic concepts employed in formulating and solving the governing equations for an ideal truss are applicable. n1—m+r Finally. the question of initial instability is directly related to the solvability. It is convenient to refer the coordinates of a joint. We refer to these procedures as the displacement and force methods. These additional equations are referred to as the bar force—joint displacement relations and are obtained by combining the bar force—bar elongation relation and bar elongation—joint displacement relation for each of the in bars. reactions. the jointdisplacement components. They are also called the stWhess and flexibility methods in some texts. with slight extension. 2. We then describe a procedure for introducing the jointdisplacement restraints and summarize the governing equations. We let flf be the total number of force unknowns. external joint loads. In this case.
3) and the corresponding vectors are written as rk = j= Uk = Ukl Pk 1 (6—5) The coordinates and position vector for joint k in the deformed state are 1k + 11k = (6—6) + Uk Figure 6—1 illustrates the notation associated with the joints. 6—2 the initial length of bar n. displacement components. Notation for joints.SEC. 6—1. 14313 Deformed position of joint k // 11k2 // x2 flkl x1 Fig. 2. denoted by = — is equal to the magnitude of the vector = (6—7) . From Fig. We number the bars from 1 through m and consider bar n to be connected to joints k and s. and components of the resultant external force for joint k are denoted by (j = 1. 6—2. ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION vectors for the basic frame. The centroidal axis of bar n coincides with the line connecting joints k and s. The initial coordinates.
=L — Xk) (6—10) 1. 6—2.  = 1 Ar = 12 The deformed position of bar n is shown in Fig. 6—3. Finally. .3 I / / XkI / Xg3 // 12 Xk2 Fig. due to the orthogonality of the reference frame. to joint s and define as the direction cosine for the positive sense of bar n direction: in the undeformed state with respect to the = 1 (Ar = 1 — XkJ) (6—9) It is convenient to list the direction cosines in a row matrix. Let L12 + e12 be the deformed length.116 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. By definition. 6 Since the basic frame is orthogonal. The length and direction cosines for bar n are equal to the magnitude and direction cosines for the vector.. the unit vector = — Pk. (6—7) reduces to = Before the orientation of the bar can be specified. Undeformed position of Bar n. We take the positive sense for bar n to be from joint k 13 = — xk)T(xs — xk) — xkf) (6—8) s x. a positive sense or direction must be selected. Note that we let be the unit vector associated with the positive direction of bar n in the undeformed state.
Deformed position of Bar n. . ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION x3 Ap Joints x2 t?&2 x1 Fig. 6—2. 6—3. and the corresponding direction cosine matrix.: E UkJ) (6—16) We list the fl's in a row matrix. — 1 Uk) + — uk)T(US ilk) (6—15) The expression for the direction cosine. after dividing both sides by (1 + = 1 + 2. Substituting for = A1 + e 2 — Uk) and noting (6—7).. — — (6—13) (6—14) We consider first (6—12). These quantities are defined by + — eh) 1 (6—12) —. associated with the positive direction in the deformed state. 1 expands to = [cx.SEC. we obtain. (6—11).j [ + 1 I +.
e./L7.120 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. We use the term linear geometry for this case. 6 (6—17) [cm + uk)T] By definition. GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION We have derived expressions for the. If the initial geometry is such that the bar cannot experience a significant change in orientation. we can write (6—19) as = This / + 1 — (u. The relations for bar n. The linearized relations are — Uk) (6—21) We discuss this reduction in greater detail in Chapter 8. is the change in length of bar n. By considering the truss as a system or network. the strain is only for steel at a stress level of 3 x ksi.. we will assume small strain. Then. — Uk) + (ii.. Since we are concerned in this chapter with the formulation of the governing equations. then we can neglect the nonlinear terms. we need to interpret the quadratic terms. Uk) form shows that the secondorder terms arc related to the change in orientation of the bar. — uk)T(u$ — Uk) (6—19) The direction cosines for the deformed orientation reduce to + — Uk) (6—20) To simplify the expression for further. For example. which is connected to joints s and k (positive direction . we work with (6—19). i. << I Expanding the lefthand side of (6—15). we will retain the nonlinear rotation terms. The relations simplify if we introduce the assumption of small strain. the geometric relations for all the bars can be expressed as a single matrix equation.direction cosines and elongation of a bar in terms of the initial coordinates and displacement components of the joints at the ends of the bar. we obtain e. Using (6—20). (6—20). However. is the extensional strain which is considerably less than unity for most engineering materials.. and noting (6—18).. 6—3.e.
n_ denote the joint numbers for the joints at the positive and negative ends of and k member n. and in the other two columns the corresponding numbers... GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION 121 from k to s) are summarized below for convenience: = (x.) = = ci. and n. and we shall refer to this table as the memberjoint incidence table or simply as the connectivity table. Example 6—1 As an illustration.* For structural systems. a branch corresponds to a member and a node to a joint.. The conneêtivity See Ref. In the first column. = = = = — — Xk) (x.SEC. The geometric relations take the form (we replace s by bynJn(a)): = = — — x.. we must specify the connectivity of the truss. — xk) T — Uk) + + (ii. + u. 6—3. we must relate the bars and joints of the system. . of the joints at the positive and negative ends of the members.) To proceed further.. that is. — 11)T = ci. positive and negative ends of member n. The connectivity can be defined by a table having m rows and three columns.. it is independent of the initial geometry and distortion of the system. The positive directions of the bars are indicated by arrowheads and the bar numbers are encircled. we have considered joints s and k as coinciding with the. It should be noted that the connectivity depends only on the numbering of the bars and joints. 8.. — (6—22) + (u.. Let n÷. Now we introduce new notation which is more convenient for generalization of the geometric relations. that is. consider the twodimensional truss shown. we list the bar numbers in ascending order. This table is referred to as the branchnode incidence table in network theory. — uk)T Uk) Up to this point.
for bar 8.) 1 4 5 1 3 1 2 6 4 6 5 3 0 2 0 Fig. The elements in the uth row of d involve only Then.. For example. x2 To compute and a. ishing submatrices for row n are the two subinatrices whose column number corresponds to the joint number at the positive or negative end of member it. x1. the evaluation of the initial length and direction cosines can be easily automated. 2 it follows that the only nonvanj. 8. partitioning d into submatrices..122 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN DEAL TRUSS CHAP.n 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 2 5 7 8 9 2 6 10 4 2 11 5 3 +Joint(n÷) —Joint(n.. . 6 table (we list it horizontally to save space) for this numbering scheme takes the following form: Bar..u2 6—23 and express the m elongationdisplacement relations as a single matrix equation e = u (6—24) where d is of order m x ij. xs• — x1 — x5 (x1 — x)T(x * x5) — = x5)T We define e and qj as the system elongation and jointdisplacement matrices. of order 1 x 1. C2.. = {u1. e= {e1... E6—1 0 6 4 With the connectivity table. we first determine n÷ and n_ from the connectivity table and then use the first two equations of(6—22). The initial data consists of the j coordinate matrices. and 1.. 2 in and £ = 1. the elements of where k = 1. 8÷ 5.
& matrix can be readily established by using the connectivity table. It is of interest to express d in a form where these two effects are segregated. The form of (6—25) suggests that we list the y's in a quasidiagonal matrix. We have also listed the elongations and joint displacement matrices to emphasize the significance of the rows and partitioned columns of . The general form of the d matrix for the truss treated in Example 6—1 is listed below. one puts +y. at column at column n_..: = +777 = (6—25) t' = Example 6—2 0 when n÷ orn The . GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION namely.&. For row n. Uj e1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 Ii 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 e2 e3 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 14 e4 0 15 0 0 0 0 14 0 e5 0 e6 0 0 is 0 0 0 —Ys 0 0 0 e5 e9 e10 is 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 —19 0 0 1io 0 ho 0 0 0 e11 The d matrix depends on both the geometry and the topology. and null matrices at the other locations. 6—3. 71 = 72 (6—26) .SEC. n÷ and n.
.2 in e= 1..124 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Joint Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 12 2 +12 12 +12 12 Bar Numbers +12 +12 +12 +12 12 12 12 +12 12 +12 One can consider row n of C to define the two joints associated with bar n.  *= + =0 Then. Example 6—3 The connectivity matrix for Example 6—1 is listed below. = — Ij n÷ or n..j Cr. 8. The unit matrices are of order 2 since the system is twodimensional.. 6—6.. 6 and define C as C = [Ck(i k 1.. It follows that column k of C defines the bars associated with joint k. This association is usually See Prob. . See also Ref. (6—27) d = yC (6—28) The network terminology* for C is augmented branchnode incidence matrix.2.. We shall refer to it simply as the connectivity matrix.
For example. 6—4. FORCEELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR By definition. Stressstrain curves for elastic and inelastic behavior. 64. 2. the material is said to be inelastic. 4.e. A material is said to be elastic when the stressstrain curve is unique. A typical ac curve is shown in Fig. we see that joints 1 and 4 are incident on bar 5 and bars 3. i. 6—4).. If the behavior for decreasing a is different. Similarly. . We introduce the following notation: A = cross sectional area F axial force. positive when tension = initial elongation. and 11 are incident on joint 5. The initial portion of the curve is essentially straight for engineering materials such as steel and aluminum. 8. elongation not associated with stress * A detailed discussion of the behavior of engineering materials is given in Chap. a. We will consider each bar to be homogeneous but we will not require that all the bars be of the same material. 6—4. the unloading curve (BC) is essentially parallel to the initial curve. FORCEELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 125 referred to as incidence. We will use this property of the connectivity matrix later to generalize the joint forceequilibrium equations.that a joint is positive incident on a bar when it is at the positive end of the bar. will be constant when the bar is homogeneous and the forceelongation relation will be similar in form to the uniaxial stressstrain curve for the material. For ductile materials. Fig. and also. s. when the curves corresponding to increasing and decreasing a coincide (OAB and BAO in Fig. that is. a is constant throughout the bar. 5 of Ref.* Elastic behavior B 0 C 6—4. It follows that the only nonvanishing stress component is the axial stress.SEC. 6. We say. a bar is positive incident on a joint when its positive end is at the joint. The strain. each bar of an ideal truss is prismatic and subjected only to axial load applied at the centroid of the end cross sections.
The material is said to be piecewise linear. Physically. which is the inverse of k. 6—5. A superscript (j) is used to identify the modulus and limiting stress for segment j. The forceelongation relation will still be linear. C0 Fig. Linear elastic behavior. but now we have to determine what . A material having this property is called Hookean. Figure 6—6 shows this idealization for two segments. We consider next the case where the stressstrain relation is approximated by a series of straight line segments. We consider first the case where the stressstrain relation is linear. k is the force required per unit elongation and f. as shown in Fig. 6 Since the stress and strain are constant throughout the bar. F= e = e0 = Lg Le0 (6—29) We convert the ac relation for the material to the forceelongation relation for the bar by applying (6—29). is the elongation due to a unit force. f the stiffness and flexibility factors for the bar. 6—5.126 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. The initial and transformed relations are a= F a E(r — AE = (e — e0) k(e — a0) (6—30) L F + e0 = fF + e0 We call k.
+ (f°> — Unloading—Second Segment F k>1>(e — (6—33) One can readily generalize these relations for the nth segment. the curve is assumed to be parallel to the initial segment. t See Prob. 1.f * We are neglecting the Bauschinger etlect. For unloading. See Ref.SEC.* The relations for the various possibilities are listed below. 2. Piecewise linear approximation. (6—3 1) Loading—Second Segment F>l) < F F . 74. 64. segment the deformation corresponds to and also whether the strain is increasing (loading) or decreasing (unloading). Art. 3. 6—6.4a12> F>2> k'2>(e (6—32) = 3. . 5. FORCEELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 127 Fig. 6—8.9. Sec. or Ref. Loading or Unloading—initial Segment F = k">(e — F>1> F= 2.
3 kips/in. 6—6): = = — + (f>2) — = + 0.— = 41.) Taking L=lQft=l2Oin we obtain .4=lin.7)(e — Suppose a force of 35 kips is applied and the bar is unloaded.7 30 (in. L in. We have to modify the stiffness and equivalent initial elongation only when the limit of the seg ./kip —.3)(e — 120 (41. 6 Example 6—4 We consider a bilinear approximation. Fig.36 in. E6—4.128 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.06 in. Segment 1 Segment 2 F F (83. E6—4 40 41. which can be interpreted as an average tangent stiffness for the segment.2 f"> = f"> = 120 1/k"> = 24 x = k>2> = L AE>2> = 83./in. shown in Fig./kip F"> = 42> = 3okips = + ([1) — — 0. The procedure described above utilizes the segment stiffness. The equivalent initial strain is (see Equation 6—33 and Fig. 12 x in.7 kips/in.
Since e in turn depends on F. eq kU)(e — eo. Fig. An alternate procedure is based on using the initial linear stiffness for all the segments.SEC.4 'I I' /1 eo.eq = A = (6—35) — — The equivalent initial strain. we will drop all the additional superscripts and write the forcedeformation relations for bar n in the simple linear form of = = + (6—36) . one has to iterate on eoeq regardless of whether the segment limit has been exceeded. We write the forceelongation relation F— — segment 2 as (6—34) — A = where e0. Rather than continue with this detailed notation.eq) is interpreted as the equivalent linear initial strain and is given by eo. 6—7. eoeq. 6—7. depends on e. we outline the initial st(ffness approach. In what follows. 64. The notation introduced for the piecewise linear case is required in order to distinguish between the various segments and the two methods. which is too cumbersome. This disadvantage is offset somewhat by the use for all the segments.eq. ment . FORCEELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 129 is reached. the actual strain. Notation for the initial stiffness approach. Consider Fig.
Then... The generalized forms of (6—37) and (6—38) are: F= and k(e e0 — e0) = F0 + (6—40) (6—41) d°1I = 6—6. f.. The two forms are: F.y. = — F... we define F. 6 where k. be the axial force vector for bar n (see Fig.. 6—8. = and — — e0. i.....i F..e0. (6—37) F0... e0.. u. which defines the orientation of the bar in the deformed state.. + fF JOINT FORCEEQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS Let F. Combining these two relations leads to an expres sion for the bar force in terms of the displacement matrices for the joints at the ends of the bar... the sense of F. is the same as the positive sense for the bar. The forcedeformation and deformationdisplacement relations for bar n are given by (6—22) and (6—36). 6—8).. = (6—43 .. GENERAL BAR FORCE—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION 6—5. From Fig..u.. + — k. is positive.i. as the forces exerted by bar n on the joints at the positive and negative ends of the bar.. + f. = — F... F. = fi.. Continuing..fi.F... = —k.. and e0 are defined by (6—31) through (6—35) for the physically nonlinear case.. = (6—42) When F.130 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.. +F. Now.. The force vector has the direction of the unit vector. (6—38) We can express the forcedisplacement relations for the "m" bars as a single matrix equation by defining (6 39) k2 k1 k= km and noting (6—24)._) = e. = F0.
= 1.. It will have the same form as dT with y. Then. — (6—44) be the general external joint load matrix: = . JOINT FORCEEQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS Joint n_ Fig.. (if x 1) (6—45) We write the complete set of joint forceequilibrium equations as: = (6—46) Note that the rows of pertain to the joints and the columns to the bars. = = and . there will be only two elements in any column of From (6—44). 6—6.. 2. 6—8. . Using (643). .j+=k — The first summation involves the bars which are positive incident on joint k (positive end at joint k) and the second the bars which are negative incident. k= 2.j . where For equilibrium. The external joint load vector is Pk. We consider next joint k. replaced by n. Notation for barforce. We partition into submatrices of order i x 1.. When the geometry is linear.SEC. . we see that. for column n. the resultant force vector must equal zero. the matrix equilibrium equation for joint k takes the form: Pk = Let j+k P2. = (if x and m) 1.m (6—47) Since a bar is incident only on two joints. Pk = Pk . . = = (6—48) e = 0 when orn_ The matrix can be readily developed using the connectivity table.
* See Sec. in our derivation.132 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Eq. 6 Example 6—5 The matrix for the truss of Example 6—1 has the following general form: Bar Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 +llç RT + T 2 nT OF +p7 nT —plo OT ftT I z a C ' A DT P2 oT ±1J3 oT nT oT +p4 øT •r C I J3 P6 oT +pU I. . we have = 6—7. We could have also utilized the connectivity* matrix C to develop ft was pointed out in Example 6—3 that the elements of the kth column of C define the incidence of the bars on joint k. e. Now. 6—27. we can write the generalized form of (6—44) as where 0 . GOVERNING EQUATIONS and qj. We have developed the following equations relating F. 6—3. Also. we where the elements of have considered the components to be referred to a basic reference frame. Using this property. (6—50) INTRODUCTION OF DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS. e = d°l1 = e0 + IF = and are the external jointdisplacement and external jointload matrices arranged in ascending order. 0 (rn x Lm) o o (6—49) Finally.
the number of force unknowns. U2 be the column matrices of unknown and prescribed joint displacement components and P1. This is necessary when the restraint direction at a joint does not coincide with one of the directions of the basic frame. A and B involve the joint displacements. and the r prescribed displacements. 6—7. A J3T. Equation (6—55) represents r equations. Finally. We let U1. This will require a rearrangement of and when Let r be the number of displacement restraints and 11d the number of displace ment unknowns. there will be a reduction in the number of joint displacement unknowns and a corresponding increase in d. B consistent with the partitioning of U. Lastly. the nd unknown displacements.SEC. (a) takes the form: e= P BF = AU e0 + fF We partition A. we let A and B be the transformation matrices associated with U and P. P: (fflxnd) (mxr) A2] (6—52) B [Bil (nd x in) LB2i(r x m) and write (b) in expanded form: e A1U1 + A2tJ2 = e0 + fF (6—53) (6—54) (6—55) = P2 B1F B2F Equation (6—53) represents equations relating the in unknown bar forces. When the geometry is nonlinear. Then. 2 (6—56) . Equation equations involving the in unknown bar forces and the prescribed joint loads. The rearranged system joint displacement and joint load matrices are written as U. There will be n4 prescribed joint loads and r unknown joint loads (usually called reactions) corresponding to the na unknown joint displacenients and the r known joint displacements. for the r reactions in terms of the m bar forces. P2 the corresponding prescribed and unknown joint load matrices. If the geometry is linear. P: (fld x >< 1) (r x 1) — 6—51 We 1) x 1) + V = 13 point out that the components contained in U (and P) may be referred to local reference frames at the various joints rather than to the basic frames. INTRODUCTtON OF DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS 133 joint displacement restraints are imposed. and (6—54) represents = AT j = 1.
Also. B replacing d. since P corresponds to U. we treat the case of an arbitrary restraint from d. Finally. it is necessary first to transform the joint displacement and external load components from the basic frame to a local frame associated with the restraint at the joint. B. 2. 3) be the orthogonal directions for the local reference frame associated with the displacement restraint at joint k. R02 . . as the system jointdisplacement and force matrices referred to the local joint reference frames. to simplify the notation. When the restraint at a joint does not coincide with one of the directions of the basic frame. To obtain A. In the following section.. We also describe how one can represent the introduction of displacement restraints as a matrix transformation.134 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.. = as the system jointrotation matrix. ARBITRARY RESTRAINT DIRECTION When all the restraint directions are parallel to the direction of the global reference frame. We define CU'. direction. Suppose there is a displacement restraint at joint k. by operating on the columns and then transposing the resulting matrix. and = . 6—8. (6—60) R0j = = (a) . 6 We have introduced the displacement restraints into the formulation by with A. (659) R°1 = Then. let R0k be the rotation transformation matrix for the local frame at joint k with respect to the basic frame (frame o). we perform the same operations on the columns of d. we obtain B by operating on the rows of or alternately. we obtain U from by simply rearranging the rows of such that the elements in the first rows are the unknown displacements and the last r rows contain the prescribed displacements. let and be the corresponding displacement and external joint load components. Let (j = 1. Finally. . . It remains to discuss how one determines A. The components are related by: Uk— k_ ok k. Pk— where ROk Uk — ak Pk = [cos (6—58) We have omitted the frame superscript (o) for quantities referred to the basic frame (ut..
determined by transposing One can visualize the introduction of displacement restraints as a matrix transformation. We represent the operations U as and P (6—62) U=D°lI and call D the displacementrestraint transformation matrix. where H is the permutation matrix corresponding to the displacement restraints. = (a) The step. Postmulti plication by Dr effects the same rearrangements on the columns. —* U.* Dr D1. alternately. The matrix can be and replacing il. we can premultiply the submatrices in row k of by R°". * See Prob. As an illustration.. that is. Now. I —36 for a discussion of permutation matrices.SEC. ARBITRARY RESTRAINT DIRECTION 135 Operating on the initial equations with (a). we obtain A by rearranging the columns of . D is a permutation matrix which rearranges the rows of We obtain D by applying the same row rearrangement to a unit matrix of order ij. . see the matrix for Example 6—5 on page 136. b (IP = leads to = (6—61) The transformation to is the same as for the case where the restraint directions are parallel to the directions of the basic frame.. When the restraint directions are parallel to the directions of the basic frame. it will involve only a rearrangement of the rows of Similarly. by y. Also. 6—8.cifi. The steps are A2] + * B LB2 Example 6—6 To obtain the submatrices in column k of we postmultiply the submatrices in column k of ri by R°" T We can perform the same operation on and then transpose the resulting matrix or. we first determine and then U. For the general case of arbitrary restraint directions. involves only a permutation of the rows of U = (6—63).
C) for Example 6—6 0 F4 F5 F6 F7 F1 F2 F8 F9 F3 F10 F11 m Pt R°'pb z z 0 C — m pt —1 — 0 z C.) m 0 — R04P1 :13 > 2 ROSDTI C m 1 C (I) Cl) .
B1 is independent of the loading and the initial stability criterion is also applicable for a finite loading. (a) represents linear equations in in unknowns. B with it. . take B1 as constant. D is also an orthogonal matrix. We treat stability under a finite loading in Chapter 7. 1—45. ax=c (b) In general. In this section. However.SEC. If these equations are inconsistent for an arbitrary infinitesimal loading.s. Then. one would not generate A. P. When the geometry is nonlinear. see also Prob. 6—9. 6—9. (b) can be solved only if a and [a c] have the same rank. When the geometry is linear. we have U= and it follows that I) = Since both H and Using (6—62). we are concerned with the behavior under an infinitesimal loading. local rotation matrices lead to B A= ( 6 65 ) — Equation (6—65) is of interest since the various terms are isolated. and D in terms of the geometrical. we they will be negligible in comparison to the linear terms for this case. connectivity. INITIAL INSTABILITY 137 Combining (a) and (6—63). Since the nonlinear terms depend on the load intensity. A and dDT then substituting for d. 1—13. B1 depends on the joint displacements as well as on the initial geometry and < restraint directions. INITIAL INSTABILITY The force equilibrium equations relating the prescribed external joint forces and the (internal) bar forces has been expressed as (see Equation 6—54): P1=B1F where P1 is I) and F is (m x 1).* It follows that the equations are consistent for an arbitrary righthand side only when the rank of a is equal to]. the total number of equations. HPII°' (6—64) are orthogonal matrices. Consider a set of j linear algebraic equations in k unknowns. we say the system is initially unstable. This is not true for a nonlinear system. Applying this condition * See Sec.
one must actually find the rank of B1. . we see that the truss is initially unstable when the rank of B1 is less than na. The following examples illustrate various cases of initial instability. In order to determine whether a truss is initially stable. 6 to (a).138 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. For the truss to be initially stable under an arbitrary loading. E6—7 x2 in = 4 5 na = x1 F1 Pu F F2 F3 F4 —1 P12 ) — P21 +1 B1 +1 +1 +1 P22 P31 Row 3 is (— 1) times row 1. Since the rank this condition is necessary but not sufficient for initial may still be less than stability. the number of bars must be at least This requires m of rank equal to the number of unknown displacement components. B1 must be That is. Example 6—7 The forceequilibrium equations for the accompanying sketch are: Fig. The equations are consistent only if P21 = — Pu Since m < we know the system is unstable for an arbitrary loading without actually finding r(B1).
INITIAL INSTAB1LITY 139 Example 6—8 We first develop the matrix for the truss shown in Fig. Fig. E6—8A '1 J 0 M 4 3 I F6 —cosU F F F2 F3 F4 F5 ® Pit © Piz ® Psi P22 —1 +1 sinO +1 —a—— ±1 +1 —1 cosO . E6—8A and then specialize it for various restraint conditions.SEC. sinO cosO —sinO ® Psi ® P32 © P41 —1 —1 —cosO —sinO There are three relations between the rows (1) row®+row®+row®= —row® row® + row® + row = —row® (sin 8)(row ® + row ©) — cos U (row ®) = cos U (row ®) (2) (3) . 6—9.
the origin of the basic frame. E6—8B 1 2 x2 m6 x1 . Equation (b) reduces to —d(p11 + P21) + b(p22 Using ci + P32) = 0 =L sin 8 b = L cos 0 we can write (c) as cos 0p32 sin O(pii + P21) — cos which is relation 3. 4. A sufficient number of restraints are introduced (/24 = 5) but the rows of B1 are not linearly independent. 6 The first two relations correspond to the scalar force equilibrium conditions for the external joint loads: Pkl = P11 + P21 + P31 + P41 = 0 Pk2 = P12 + P22 + P32 + P42 = 0 The third relation corresponds to the scalar moment equilibrium condition: k1 Mk is the moment of the external force vector acting at joint k with respect to point 0. it follows that we must introduce at least three restraints. Case 1 Fig. 8) contains only three independent rows. 3. Since has three linear dependent rows. We say the restraints are not independent in this case. we obtain B1 from by first taking a linear combination of the rows (when the restraints are not parallel to the basic frame) and then deleting the rows corresponding to the joint forces associated with the prescribed joint displacements. An insufficient number of restraints are introduced (n4 > 5). 7. We see that rows 2 and 5 arc independent.140 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Thc remaining set (rows 1. Now. 2. 6. We obtain relation (3) by taking Oat joint 4. Initial instability will occur if— 1. These cases are illustrated below.
In Example 6—8. we showed that there are three relations between the rows for a twodimensional truss. (jxl) 3 o (2i—3)x 1 0 is the moment of with respect to an arbitrary moment center. r(81) = 4. we start with the equilibrium equations. INITIAL INSTABILITY We obtain B1 by deleting rows 6 and 8 (corresponding to P32 and P42). For convenience.and momentequilibrium conditions for the complete truss. 0. The system is stable only when the applied joint loads satisfy the condition Pu + P21 + P31 = Case 2 P41 Fig. To make the system stable.SEC. at least onc horizontal restraint must be introduced. E6—8C x2 rn = 6 —5 xl We delete rows 4. These relations correspond to the force. The number of restraints is sufficient (fld = 5) but the restraints are not independent since r(B1) < 5. 6—9. Parwhere titioning (6—66) where is of order (i x m) and using the matrix notation introduced in . To establish the relations for the threedimensional case. Actually. we take 0 at the origin of the basic reference frame. 6. and 8.
pp." J. Vol. NORRIS. ASCE. I. BRANIN: "NetworkTopological Formulation of Structural Analysis. of restraints 3(i — 1) (6—70) Note that this requirement is independent of the number of bars. H.. DAHL: An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids. and F. 1941. it is a necessary but not sufficient condition for initial stability. 1963. FENVES. 483—514. 5—2 for the moment. row q + row (q + I) + .: Strength of Materials. Part 2. McGrawHill. 2. H. New York. in. * See .: Matrices jbr Structural Analysis.. S. 1. REFERENCES C.. The number of restraints must also satisfy the necessary condition This requires r = ((j — — m) (6—71) Both (6—70) and (6—71) must be satisfied. B. 5. Either condition may control r... and J. 1966.. S.142 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. MARTIN. we obtain B by combining and rearranging the rows of PA. WILBUR: Elementary Structural Analysis. R. YOUNG: Theory of Structures. Finally. S. we obtain by deleting the rows corresponding to the restraints. S. and N. Wiley. CRANDALL. McGrawHill. S. New York. Eq. New York. For the system to be initially stable.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. New York.2.i (6—69) + q] and (6—68) corresponds to (2i — 3) relations. 6.. Van Nostrand. and D. TIMoSISENKO. 1962. It follows that B will also have at least 3(i — 1) relations between its rows. 4.* the equilibrium equations take the form PA. McGrawHill. No. H. = 0 (6—67) (6—68) =0 Equation (6—67) represents i relations between the rows of PA. 89.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. 1945. McGrawHill. New York. 1960. London. We have shown that there are at least 3(i — 1) relations between the tows of PA. LIVIISLEY. New York. C. Struct.. 8. Pergamon Press. MCMINN.. C. we must introduce at least 3(i — 1) restraints: r no. Now. + row [i(j — 2) + q] = row [i(j 1) q=l. 1959. 3. 1964. Also. 6 Sec.. ST4. K. depending on the arrangement of the bars. J. TIMOSNENKO. H. 5—11. H. Div. 7..
—2] (ft) (a) (b) Take the positive direction of bar n from k to s. Suppose bar n is connected to joints s and k where Xk = {l. Find 1k and Determine and ji. 6—3.. and 6—20). Determine and Suppose Uk {1/10. using the exact expressions (Equations 6—15. (b) (c) List the initial direction cosines.0] (ft) = {5. 1/20. r.. using the connectivity table. — 1/30} (inches) (inches) Note that the units of x and u must be consistent. . the expressions specialized for the case of small strain (Equations 6—19. —5. Consider the truss shown: (a) Establish the connectivity table. Discuss when the linear geometric relations are valid and develop the appropriate nonlinear elongationdisplacement relations for the trusses shown.J. and the expressions for the linear geometric case (Equation 6—21). Do we have to include nonlinear geometric terms for this truss? Locate the nonzero submatrices in . 6—17). 1. 6—4. 6—1 (a) (b) 6—2. Determine the complete form of d.sd. 1/l0} = — 1/10. Compare the results for the three cases. Assume no support movements.PROBLEMS 143 PROBLEMS 6—1. Determine in. and for the following plane trusses: Prob.
6—6. The encircled numbers refer to the branches and the arrowheads indicate the positive sense (of the current) for each branch. Determine C. Determine d for the threedimensional truss shown. 6—4 I' (d) (e) 6—5. . The Junctions are generally called nodes. 6 Prob. Consider the dc network shown. 6—3 2 . and the line connecting two nodes is called a branch.3 (a) x2 X1 3 2 Ib) x2 Prob.144 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Verify that d = cxC.
1. 2. . 6—6 3 0 0' drop for branch n.. . . e2. indicated by We define v and e as is given by = v.. v= e= {v1..0. form of ad. . Discuss how the truss problem differs from the electrical network problem with respect to the. 145 Let and n.cjv Determine d. 5) denote the potential at node j. ad is called the augmented branch node incidence matrix.. v5} = general node potential matrix = general branch potential difference matrix {e1. let denote the nodes at the positive and negative ends of branch n.0) xI (1. using the branchnode connectivity table.0) Prob. . (j = 1. . . v2.PROBLEMS . 6—5 x3 4 (0. .0) (1.1. and write the system of branch potential difference—node potential relations as e= .. Also. . The potential Prob. How many independent columns does ad have? In network theory.
by a= E(s — be3) Prob. 6 6—7. Develop the piecewise linear forceelongation relations. Consider the material to be aluminum. Prob.146 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Generalize Equation 6—35 for segmcntj. 6—7 6X ksi 20 ksi 6—8. Generalize Equation 6—32 for segmentj. Suppose the stressstrain relation for initial loading is approximated. Start with e + and express eb0 in terms of quantities associated with segment (J — 1). Determine the initial elongation. I)etermine the forceelongation relation for the inelastic case. and the as curve shown. (a) (b) (c) Take L 20 ft. 6—9. as in the sketch. Suppose a force of + 60 kips is applied and then removed. A = 2 in2. Suppose the bar experiences a temperature increase of 1000 F. 6—10 GA Ee da Et . 6—10.
node 6—14.PROBLEMS (a) 147 Determine expressions for ES and E'. Let be the current in branch n. 6—13. Prob. 6—10. (u + For the accompanying sketch: Prob. Suppose the material behaves inelastically for decreasing 4 Consider the unloading curve to be parallel to the initial tangent. 6—li. Now. 6—6. 6—13 LX2 I 'I. Determine the forceelongation relation for AB. (a) Consider the electrical network of Prob. the total current flowing into a node must equal the total current flowing out of the node. This requirement leads to one equation for each node involving the branch currents incident on . using the stressstrain relation (b) (c) = where E. 6—12 for the threedimensional truss shown. p 6—12 (a) Locate the nonzero submatrices in (b) Assemble for the linear geometric case. Determine expressions for k5 and kt. the secant and tangent moduli. is from. Repeat Prob. and n are constants. Repeat Prob. The positive sense of n_ to node n÷. 6—12. c.
. that is. 6—16 frame at joint 5 is shown in the sketch. . 6—6. 6—12. is the branch resistance. j2. . The partitioned equations are developed in Prob. the current and potential drop for a branch are related by = e0 is the branch emf and R. 6 the node. When the resistance is linear.. 6—15. = general branchcurrent matrix (Sxl) 0 Show that the complete system of node equations can be written as (b) where d is given in Prob.. Refer to Prob. it does not involve geometry. 6—16. Determine B1 and B2. An i. Actually. Let = {i1. u42. The d matrix depends only on the topology (connectivity) of the system.. Show that the complete system of branch curpotential relations can be written as e= = e0 — + Ri = R1(e e0) = R1dv — R1e0 Equations (a) and (c) are the governing unpartitioned equations for a linearresistance dc network. = — e0 . How many independent equations does (a) represent? (Hint: d has only four independent columns).148 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.) alternate form is Note the similarity between (b) and the linear elastic member forceelongation relation. (a) (b) Develop the general form of Suppose is21. 6—3 with i = 1. 6—23. Identify B1 and B2. are prescribed. . Refer to Prob. The orientation of the local Prob. u42. 6—12. Suppose u11. x2 . d corresponds to the C matrix used in Sec. is52 are prescribed. It should be noted that the network problem is onedimensional.
x1 x2 1/2 1/2 x3 0 1/2 1/2 6—48. Consider the twodimensional truss shown.nxrn) equations for P1 (mxl) B1 F=0 Fk rnXl If (a) has a nontrivial solution. say bar k. Repeat for the case of four bars. 1—45). U13 The local frame at joint 2 is defined by the following direction cosine table. Investigate the is initial stability of this system. Rather than operate on B1. U33. 6—19. The bars are of equal length and 0 is the center of the circumscribed circle. Suppose na = 0 are in. U23. equal to C: = C . we can proceed as follows: (1) We take the force in some bar. 6—18 r (restraint direction) t (tangent) 11 = 13 I. The restraint direction degrees counterclockwise from the tangent at each joint. B1 is of order tn x m.PROBLEMS 6—17. Prob. Refer to Prob. U12. the rank of B1 is less than m and the system is initially unstable (see Prob. The equilibrium (. Then. 6—13 (a) (b) Develop the general form of Determine B1 and B2 corresponding to the following prescribed displacements: U11. to determine r(B1). U3j.
6—18. 2. since the system. Note that the general solution of B1F 0 involves m — r(B1) arbitrary constants. we can determine F. In this case. r(B1) < since a nontrivial solution for F exists. (3) The last equilibrium equation leads to an expression for Fk in terms of C. If this reduces to an identity. Do initial (b) elongations and support settlements introduce forces in the bars of a statically determinate truss? 6—20. and then F1 using the equilibrium condition (summation of forces normal to r must equal zero) for joints 1. 6 (2) Using the joint forceequilibrium equations. Investigate the initial stability of the twodimensional truss shown. Take F1 = C and determine F2. Prob. 6—21 5 6—22. F3. 6—21.150 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN DEAL TRUSS CHAP. Investigate the initial stability of the system shown. Prob. (a) Apply this procedure to Prob. is square. The restraint directions are indicated by the slashed lines. the truss is said to be statically determinate. When n4 = m and the geometry is linear. P1 = B1F. 3. 6—22 j 4 t I 3 c . Modify the zero load test for the case where na < in. we express the remaining bar forces in terms of C. Use the zero load test. using only the equations of static equilibrium. This procedure is called the zero load test.
Therefore. . 6—6. One can easily show that the row ii row k 1 are related by = It follows that (a) represents only n — independent equations. = branch current matrix = {i1. We have deleted the last column of d which corresponds to node n. . j2 = node potential matrix = {v1. dT rows of has only n — 1 independent rows.PROBLEMS 6—23. v2. Equation (e) represents (n — 1) equations. The general relations are (1) node equations (n equations) &T (bxl) (nxl) = Ri and (2) branch equations (b equations) e = dv = e0 + Now. one of the node potentials must be specified. and one equation must be disregarded. (bxn) bx(n—1) bxl d2] and let d1 = A. Suppose we delete the last equation. We partition d. — Show that dv = AV (b) Summarize the governing equations for the network. (a) Let = {v1 — v2 — . That is. . e2. matrix = {e1. . The reduced system of node equations has the form ATj =0 Note that AT corresponds to B1 for the truss problem.. . we can only determine the potential difference for the nodes with respect to an arbitrary node. Since v is of order n. We generalize the results of Probs. Let e v branch potential duff. and 6—14 for a network having b branches and n nodes. . Compare the necessary number of restraints required for the network and truss problems. . we take as the reference potential. This corresponds to deleting the last column of d (last row of dT). . . (nxb) . The operation corresponds to introducing displacement restraints in the truss problem.
3. In this chapter. in Chapter 10. Next. Finally. we shall two additional transformation matrices follow essentially the same approach to establish the governing equations for an elastic solid. Also.7 Variational Principles for an Ideal Truss 71. Later. The system equations were obtained by generalizing the member forcedisplacement and joint force equilibrium equations and required defining only Later. we can illustrate these principles quite easily with the truss. Both principles are then identified as the stationary requirements for certain functions. The principle of virtual displacements is treated first. we shall 152 . 2. Next. we discuss the principle of virtual forces and show that it is basically a geometrical compatibility relation. we develop two variational principles and illustrate their application to an ideal truss. The elbngation of a bar was related to the translations of the joints at the end of the bar. resulting in equations relating the external joint loads and internal bar forces. This principle is just an alternate statement of force equilibrium. Why bother with variational principles when the derivation of the governing equations for an ideal truss is straightforward? Our objective in discussing them at this time is primarily to expose the ieader to this point of view. Finally. the bar force was expressed in terms of the elongation and then in terms of the joint translations. we utilize the material presented in Chapter 3. the equilibrium conditions for the joints were enforced. which treats relative extremas of a function. we discuss the question of stability of an elastic system and develop the stability criterion for an ideal truss. GENERAL The formulation of the governing equations for an ideal truss described in Chapter 6 involved three steps: 1. For this step.
The work done by F (see Fig. particularly the principle of virtual forces. 7—1. 3—I. 7—2. the increment in W due to an increment Ar can be expressed in terms of the differentials of W when F is a continuous function of yr f = dW + 4d2W + dW dW —Ar = dv F Au (7—2) d2W = d(dW) refer to dW as the firstorder work. we must use the value of dF/dv corresponding to the sense of Av. Similarly. F w—rv0 Fig. Since W is a function of v. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DiSPLACEMENTS The principle of virtual displacements is basically an alternate statement of force equilibrium.SEC. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 153 these principles. . Let v be the displacement of the point of application of a force F in the direction of F. t Differential notation is introduced in Sec. we review briefly the definition of work before starting with the derivation. as in inelastic behavior. We will establish its form by treating first a single particle and then extending the result to a system of particles interconnected with internal restraints. use 72. The principle utilizes the concept of incremental work and. we call d2W the secondIf dF/dv is discontinuous. to construct approximate formulations for a member. 7—1) is defined as w w0 + JFdv = W(v) where v0 is an arbitrary reference displacement. Work integral for the onedimensional forcedisplacement relation. for completeness. This is illustrated in We order work.
7—2.154 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP 7 < 0. We consider first a single mass particle subjected to a system of forces (see Fig. Let firstorder work associated with the forces acting on particle q and We consider the forces to be continuous functions of Au. Work integral for directiondependent force. R+ Fig. Virtual displacement of a single mass particle. 7—3. We use dF/dv = +k1 for > 0. and dF/du = Fv curve. dW 0 for arbitrary Au since 0. an alternate statement of the equilibrium requirement is: The firstorder work is zero for an arbitrary displacement of a particle from an equilibrium position. One can readily generalize (7—4) for the case of S particles. The firstorder work is dW=R'Afi R= (7—3) If the initial position is an equilibrium position. be the the . Let R be the resultant force vector. We visualize the particle experiencing a displacement increment Au from the initial position. The incremental displacement 74 — is called a virtual displacement. the particle is in equilibrium when R = 0. A vs V Fig. this statement is the definition of the principle of virtual displacements. 7—3). By definition. Therefore. 7—2. —k2 for of v when there is a reversal in the Note that W is not a singlevalued function Fig.
for arbitrary It follows that the scalar forceequilibrium equations for the system are equivalent to the general requirement. but opposite in sense. 7—2.2 be the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on Now. If particle q is in equilibrium. it follows that As an illustration. 7—4. Since the points of application coincide. In general. We use the subscript D for this term since it involves the F1 /(Deformedl I . (7—5) becomes dW5 + dW1 = 0 for arbitrary S q=l. We define dW5 as the firstorder work done by the external forces and dW1 as the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the particles. The restraint force acting on a particle is equal in magnitude.. For this case. some of the forces acting on the particles will be due to internal restraints. we have dW. to the reaction of the particle on the restraint. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 155 corresponding virtualdisplacement vector. let the restraints. = —F1 Au1 + F1 Au2 F1 Au2 dW1 = F1 Au1 — .SEC. Work done on the mass particles and internal restraints. deformation of the restraints. 7—4. Substituting for dW. = 0 dW = = 0 for arbitrary Equation (7—5) is the definition of the principle of virtual work for a system of particles. F1 El (Initial) (Deformed) F1 F1 II Fig. consider the simple system shown in Fig.
de. It is convenient to first establish the expression for the differential elongation of an individual bar and then assemble de. (de. we obtain de. d2e. 7 Using (b)...2. we can write (a) as: dWE = dWD for arbitrary q=1.. de. de. + F. Some authors refer to (7—6) as the work equation. Using (3—17). Operating on — ( — U — — u. We emphasize again that (7—6) is just an alternate statement of the force equilibrium conditions for the system. We have defined and as the column matrices of external joint loads and corresponding joint displacements. the general principle of virtual displacements can be expressed as follows: The firstorder work done by the external forces is equal to the firstorder work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints for any arbitrary virtual displacement of a system of particles from an equilibrium position. = where &W contains the virtual joint displacements. = Wd(e.) (Au — Au..) = de. = F. ..)2 = d(F.. we have F. Then. To apply the principle of virtual displacements to an ideal truss. and noting the definition of (see (6—22)). we can write dW4 = d2 dWd de de..156 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. the work equation for an ideal truss has the form Ml = FT de for arbitrary MIt (7—7) The scalar forceequilibrium equations are obtained by substituting for de in terms of Mt.)T] Au. = + — — u. The firstorder work done by the restraint forces acting on bar n due to the virtual displacements is = Generalizing (b).. we con sider the joints to be mass points and the bars to be internal restraints. depends on the joint displacements. F.). deH dW0 = FraC Finally.) (7—8) = 1= J.S (7—6) Also. We must use the rules for forming the differentials of a compound function since e..
E7—1 b displacements shown above.. ( — d\ + Au2 7d dW = — + — Au2 {R2 — =0 Requiring (c) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au. as in the diagram. dW = Now. Then. in that order.SEC. 7—2.. Example 7—1 We consider a rigid member subjected to a prescribed force. . Introducing the virtual Fig. with il.TMI = and requiring (a) to be satisfied for arbitrary results in the joint force force equilibrium equations. Au2 leads to R2 = P which are the force and moment equilibrium equations. Au1 + R2 Au2 — P is not independent: = Au.. For the geometrically linear case. and reactions R. We just have to replace y. We have treated the geometrically nonlinear case here to show that the principle of virtual displacements leads to forceequilibrium equations which are consistent with the geometrical assumptions associated with the deformationdisplacement relations.: de MI (7—9) Substituting for de in (7—7). e where d is constant and de = dM1 follows directly from e. R2. ?. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 157 The assembled form follows from (6—25). P. = R. There is no internal work since the body is rigid. and evaluating the firstorder work..
and collecting terms. Then. 5. of the point of application of F: dWE = PAu1 dW0 F1 de1 + F2 de2 The firstorder increments in the elongations are de1 = Au1 cos El de2 = —Au2 cos El —Au1 cos U where U defines the initial position. Au1. It is possible Fig. E7—2 Bars 3. equating dW5 and dW0. . 3—3. The equilibrium equations See See. F2. Au1 — Au2 = 0 Multiplying the constraint relation by —2. we introduce a virtual displacement. cos 0)Au2 = 0 (d) (e) Now. 7 Example 7—2 We consider the outside bars to be rigid (see sketch). To obtain the force equilibrium equation relating P and the internal bar forccs F1. we obtain Au1(P — F1 cos 0 — 2) + Au2(F2 cos 0 + 2) = 0 (f) Finally. 6 are rigid to include F3 even though bar 3 is rigid by treating it as a Lagrange multiplier. adding the result to (d).158 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. dWE = (1WD for arbitrary Au1 P= (F1 — Fjcos 0 The force in bar 3 does not appear explicitly in the equilibrium equation. (c). we require (f) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au1 and Au2.4.f We consider Au3 as independent in the work equation: P Au1 — (F1 cos 0)Au1 + (F.
and placements. the forceequilibrium equations: = A force system which satisfies the equations of static equilibrium is said to be statically permissible. are PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 159 P=F1cosO+A F2cos6+2=O and we recognize 2 as the force in bar 3. 7—3. PRINCJPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES The principle of virtual forces is basically an alternate statement of geometrical compatibility. (7—10) takes the form: AFTe — U2 = APr U1 . We develop it here by operating on the elongation— joint displacement relations. for a threedimensional solid and describe an alternate derivation. We restrict this discussion to geometric linearity. we visualize a set of bar forces AF. is called a virtualforce system. If we multiply the equation for Ck by note (c). in To illustrate the application of this principle. The statically permissible system (AF. where U2 contains the prescribed support movements. 7—3. The governing equations — e = = which satisfy Now. Later. we obtain the result AFTe = = which is the definition of the principle of virtual forces: The actual elongations and joint displacements satisfy the condition AFTC — =0 (710) for any statically permissible system of bar forces and joint loads. we generalize the principle. in Chapter 10.SEC. and joint loads. Using (a). we express cW and partitioned form. The principle of virtual forces is independent of material behavior but is restricted to the geometrically linear case. Equation (b) relates the actual elongations and joint dissum over the bars.
. 7 If the elongations are known. Fig. statically permissible force systems which involve only bar forces and reactions.. 5. a selfequilibrating force system F*. P7 = P7 = B2F* 0 (7—13) = 0 (7—14) Equation (7—14) represents a restriction on the elongations and is called a geometric compatibility equation.4. E7—3A u. 6 are rigid .k1_ U2TP2IPkJ1 The principle of virtual forces is also used to establish geometric compatibility relations required in the force method which is discussed in Chapters 9 and 17. E7—3A) has support movements and is subjccted to a loading which results in elongations (e1.e. To determine a particular displacement component. APf U1 (l)ukj (7—12) and (b) reduces to Ukf = eTFJ. i. Since only one element of is finite. = (7—11) = The internal bar forces and reactions are obtain from an equilibrium analysis of a statically determinate structure. say we generate a force system consisting of a unit value of PkJ and a set of bar forces and reactions which equilibrate Pkj = 1.160 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. By definition. (b) reduces to —. e7) in the diagonal bars.P Bars 3. Example 7—3 The truss shown (Fig. we can determine the unknown displacements by specializing AP1. We outline the approach here for completeness. One works with selfequilibrating virtualforce systems. f)* satisfies B1F* = For this case. We are coniidering the outside bars to be rigid.
We could have arrived at Equation (a) starting from Equation (b) rather than (7—14). u. The equation which determines F2 is 0 Fig. we select a statically determinate force system consisting of a unit force in the direction of u and a set of bar forces and reactions required to equilibrate the force. is obtained by taking a selfequilibrating force system consisting ofF2 = + I and a set of bar forces and reactions required for equilibrium. One possible choice is shown in Fig. say F2. E7. which. Flowever. . PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES To determine the translation. (7—14) is more convenient since it does not involve any algebraic manipulation. Evaluating (7—12) leads to u = cos 6 + — tan — This truss is statically indeterminate to the first degree. We discuss this topic in depth later in Chapter 9. E73C. E7—3B derived from the gcometric compatibility relation. E7—3C — ens 6 0 Evaluating (7—14). A convenient choice of force redundant is one of the diagonal bar forces. we obtain e1 + e2 = 0 To show that (a) represents a geometrical compatibility requirement. in turn.3B. The forces are shown in Fig. Fig.SEC. we note that the elongationdisplacement relations for the diagonal bars are ucos6 e2 = —ucosO Specifying e1 determines u and also e2. 7—3.
This requirement is satisfied when the material is elastic. 7—2. Equation (7—18) states that the joint forceequilibrium equations (P1 = B1F) expressed in terms of the unknown displacements are the Euler equations for the t See Secs. . 64. The reduced form is iW1 = 0 for arbitrary AU1 (7—15) where now In what follows. we will work with (7—15). Our objective is to interpret (7—15) as the stationary requirement for a function of U1. We start with the general form developed in Sec. 6—5. where e = e(U1). The form of F = F(e) depends on the material behavior. FT de = gpT for arbitrary to be arbitrary. V1. = can obtain the equation for P1 by rearranging (c) or by starting with the partitioned form of We and noting that FT de — U2 is prescribed. i. 7 7—4. One should note that VT exists only when F is a continuous singlevalued function of e. and letting = we can write (7—15) as VT — = for arbitrary (7—17) = 0 (7—18) We call the total strain energy function and the total potential energy.. If we consider all the elements of de = A'W and (a) leads to the complete set of forceequilibrium equations in unpartitioned form. STRAIN ENERGY.= VT(e). The essential step involves defining a function.e. PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY POTENTIAL ENERGY In this section. We consider F to be a function of e. according to FT dc = (7—16) With this definition.162 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we specialize the principle of virtual displacements for elastic behavior and establish from it a variational principle for the joint displacements. We could express F in terms of U1 but it is more convenient to consider F as a compound function of e. unrestrained.
SEC. 7—4.
STRAIN ENERGY
163
total potential energy. It follows that the actual displacements, i.e., the displacements which satisfy the equilibrium equations, correspond to a stationary
value of 11,'
It remains to discuss how one generates the strainenergy function. By
definition,
dVT
and
=
where is the strain energy for bar). Since we are considering pound function of e1, Equation (b) is equivalent to
to be a com(7—19)
= That is, the strain energy function for a bar has the property that its derivative
with respect to the elongation is the bar force expressed in terms of the elongation. Finally, we can express as
(7—20) = where e0 is the initial elongation, i.e., the elongation not associated with the force. Actually, the lower limit can be taken arbitrarily. This choice corresponds to taking as the area between the Fc curve and thee axis, as shown in Fig.7—5.
Fig. 7—5. Graphical representation of strain energy and complementary energy.
We consider the linearly elastic case. Using (6—30),
F1
— e0,
Then
=
VTas
VT
— e0,
)2
(7—21)
The total strain energy is obtained by summing over the bars. We can express
=
j=1
4(e
—
e0)Tk(e
—
eo)
(7—22)
164
VARIATIONAL PRNCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS
CHAP. 7
Finally, we substitute for e in terms of U1, U2, using
e=
A1U1 + A2U2
(7—23)
When the geometry is linear, A1, A2 are constant and is a quadratic function. If the geometry is nonlinear, is a fourth degree function of the displacements. Up to this point, we have shown that the displacements defining an equilibrium position correspond to a stationary value of the potential energy function. To determine the character (relative maximum, relative minimum, indifferent,
neutral) of the stationary point, we must examine the behavior of the second differential, in the neighborhood of the stationary point. and noting that AP1 = 0 leads to Operating on
d2
(7—24)
=
+
The next step involves expressing d2VT as a quadratic form in AU1. We restrict this discussion to linear behavior (both physical and geometrical). The general
nonlinear case is discussed in Sec. 17.6 When the geometry is linear, we can operate directly on (7—23) to generate the differentials of e,
de
A1AU1
0
d2e =
since A1 is constant. When the material is linear,
dF=kde
where k is a diagonal matrix containing the stiffness factors (AE/L) for the bars. Then, d2VT reduces to
d2VT = dFT dc = deTk de
AUT(ATkA1)AU1
7 25

If de
0 for all nontrivial AU1, d2VT is positive definite and the stationary
0 for AU1 0
point is a relative minimum. This criterion is satisfied when the system is
initially stable, since de = 0 would require that
unknowns)
A1 AU1 =
(m equations in
have a nontrivial solution. But a nontrivial solution of (a) is possible only when for the geometrically linear case and r(B1) = r(A1) < ne,. However, A1 = when the system is initially stable. Therefore, it follows that the displacements
defining the equilibrium position for a stable linear system correspond to an
absolute minimum value of the potential energy.
Example
7—4
We establish the total potential energy function for the truss considered in Example 7—2.
For convenience, we assume no initial elongation or support movement. The strain
SEC. 7—5.
energy is
COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY
165
VT
=
+
Substituting for the elongations in terms of the displacement,
e1 =u1cosO
results in
e2= —u2cosO= —u1cosO
+
cos2 0
cos2 0 — P1u1
=
and finally
=
The first differential of
is
+
= {{(k1 + k2)cos2 Ojuj
Requiring
— P1}Au1
to be stationary leads to the Euler equation,
P1 =
[(k1 + k2)cos2 0]u1
which is just the forceequilibrium equation
P1 =
F1 =
=
(F1
—
F2)cos 0
with the bar forces expressed in terms of the displacement using
k1e1
ku1
cos 0
F2 =
k2e2
=
—k2u1
cos 0
The second differential of
is
=
and
[(k1 + k,)cos2 0](Au1)2
we see that the solution,
Ul
P1
= k1 +
0. Thc truss is initially unstable
corresponds to an absolute minimum value of H,, when 0 when 0 0.
7—5.
COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY; PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY
The principle of virtual forces can be transformed to a variational principle for the force redundants. We describe in this section how one effects the trans
formation and utilize the principle later in Chapter 9. This discussion is
restricted to linear geometry. We start with Equations (7—13) and (7—14), which we list below for convenience:
eTAF
where AF,
—
=
0
represent a selfequilibrating force system, i.e., they satisfy the the following constraint relations:
B1 iW = 0
B2 AF
166
VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS
CHAP. 7
Our objective is to establish a function of F, whose Euler equations are (a) and
(b). We cannot work only with (a) since F is not arbitrary but is constrained by the forceequilibrium equations,
P1 =
We interpret
B1F
(fld
equations in m variables)
as the first differential of a function
=
and call
eT
=
dV7
(7—26)
the complementary energy function for bar j. By definition,
=
(7—27)
That is, the complementary energy function for a bar has the property that its derivative with respect to the bar force is the elongation expressed in terms of the force. We express as
dF1
(7—28)
This definition corresponds to taking Vj' as the area bounded by the Fe curve
and the F axis as shown in Fig. 7—5. Also, the strain and complementary
energy functions are related by
+
When the material is linear elastic,
=
+
(7—29)
=
11
e0,
j—
1.1r2 rj T 2Jj' 3
—
= Next, we define II. as:
1Ic =
+ 4FTfF
7—31)
—
=
We call
the total complementary energy function. With these definitions, Equations (a), (b), and (c) can be interpreted as
0
subject to the constraint condition
d(P1 — 81F)
=
0
We can combine (e) and (f) into a single equation by introducing Lagrange multipliers. Following the procedure described in Sec. 3—3, we add to (7—31) the joint force equilibrium equations and write the result as:
+ (P1 —
where
.
(7—32)
,
contains the Lagrange multipliers. The Euler equa
SEC. 7—5.
COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY
167
tions for
treating F and
as independent variables are
0
dfl, =
for AF,
arbitrary
(7—33)
e(F) B1F = P1
+ B102
We recognize the first equation in (7—33) as the member forcedisplacement relation, and it follows that = U1.
An alternate approach involves first solving the forceequilibrium equation,
(d). There arena equations in m variables. Since B1 is of rank n4 when the system is initially stable, we can solve for na bar forces in terms of P1 and the remaining
bar forces. One can also work with a combination of bar forces and reactions as force unknowns. We let
(rn —
q= m — X = {X1, X2
number of redundant forces Xq} = matrix of force redundants
(734)
and write the solution of the forceequilibrium equations as
F=
P2
+ P2,0 +
F0
is
(735)
The force system corresponding to
selfequilibrating, i.e.,
=
0
for arbitrary X
to
(7—36)
We substitute for F in (7—3 1) and transform
eT
Then,
AF —
—
UI AP2
UIP2,
x
=
and the Euler equations are
eTFx
(eTFx
—
UIP2
0
(737)
Note that (7—37) is just a reduced form of (7—33). Also, we could have obtained this result by substituting directly in (a).
Up to this point, we have shown that the force redundants which satisfy the geometric compatibility equations correspond to a stationary value of the total complementary energy. To investigate the character of the stationary point, we evaluate the second differential. Operating on (g),
=
deTFx AX
d2 is positive definite with regard to AX, the stationary point is a relative minimum. This requirement is satisfied for the linear elastic case. To show this, we note that
de
= fAF = WXAX
=
168
VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS
CHAP. 7
Since f contains only positive elements, AX provided that there does not exist a
is positive definite with regard to nontrivial solution of
AX =
=0
For (j) to have a nontrivial solution, there must be at least one relation between the columns of But this would correspond to taking force redundants which
are not independent, and the solution scheme would degenerate. Therefore, we can state that the actual force redundants correspond to an absolute minifor the linear elastic case. mum value of
Example
7—5
We consider the truss treated in Example 7—3. It is statically indeterminate to the first degree with respect to the bars (statically detcrminate with respect to the reactions) and we take X = F2
The force influence matrices defined by (7—35) follow from the force results listed on the sketches:
F0 =
0; 0; 0; 0; —tan 0; 0}
= {+1; +1; —cosU; —sin 0; —sin 0; —cos0} P20 = P{—l; —tanG; +(an0} =0
Assuming a bar is rigid is equivalent to setting f = mentary energy is due only to the diagonal bars:
= yr + = ± e02F2 +
We convert
0
for the bar. Then, the comple
+ f2Fi')
to a function of X by substituting
F1 =
Finally,
has the form
cos 0
± X
F2 = +X
=
tan 0)P + + 4(f1 + f2)X2
e0,1
+
+
tan 0 —
+
(eoi + e0,2 + f1
Differentiating (e) leads to
dIlC =
{[eoi +
+
(fl
d211, = (f1 +
(g)
SEC. 7—6.
STABILITY CRITERIA
The Euler equation follows from (f):
e01 + C02 +f1
(f1
+ f2)X = 0
is the
Comparing (h) with (a) of Example 7—3, we see that the Euler equation for geometric compatibility equation expressed in terms of the force redundant.
7—6.
STABILITY CRITERIA
Section 6—9 dealt with initial stability, i.e., stability of a system under infinitesimal load. We showed there that initial stability is related to rigid body motion. A system is said to be initially unstable when the displacement restraints are insufficient to prevent rigid body motion. In this section, we develop criteria for stability of a system under finite loading. If a linear system is initially stable, it is also stable under a finite loading. However, a nonlinear (either physical or geometrical) system can become unstable under a finite load. We consider first a single mass particle subjected to a system of forces which are in equilibrium. Let Il be the displacement vector defining the equilibrium position. We introduce a differential displacement All, and let AW he the work done by the forces during the displacement All. if A W > 0, the particle energy is increased and motion would ensue. It follows that the equilibrium position (ll) is stable only when AW < 0 for arbitrary All. We consider next a system of particles interconnected by internal restraints. Let AWE be the incremental work done by the external forces and AW1 the incremental work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the particles. The total work, AW, is given by
=
AWE + AW1
The system is stable when A W < (I for all arbitrary permissible displacement increments, that is, for arbitrary increments of the variable displacements. Now, we let AW11 be the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the restraints. Since —AW1, we can express the stability requirement as (738)
One can interpret AW0 as the work required to deform the system to the alternate
position and as the actual work done on the system. When the behavior is continuous, we can express and AWE as Taylor series expansions in terms of the displacement increments (see (7—2)):
=
dW0
+ +
0
+ +
We have shown that the firstorder work is zero at an equilibrium position:
dWD — dWE
170
VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS
CHAP. 7
If we retain only the first two terms in (b), the general stability condition reduces to
d2 WD — d2 W5
>0
for all arbitrary permissible displacement increments
(7—39)
Equation (7—39) is called the "classical stability criterion." Retaining only the first two differentials corresponds to considering only infinitesimal displacement increments. If (7—39) is satisfied, the equilibrium position is stable with respect to an infinitesimal disturbance. In order to determine whether it is stable with respect to a finite disturbance, one must use (7—38). If
d2WD = d2WE
(7—40)
for a particular set of displacement increments, the equilibrium position is said position infinitesimally to be neutral, and there exists an alternate displaced from the first position. One can interpret (7—40) as the necessary condition for a bifurcation of equilibrium positions. To show this, suppose U and U represent the displacement components for the two possible equilibrium positions of a system where
Also, let R and
We can express
represent the resultant forces corresponding to U and 0.
as
= R + dR +
d2W
+
Now, the secondorder work for the initial equilibrium position is given by
d2W5
—
d2WD
=
txUT dR
If d2 W =
0
for some finite
it follows that
dR = R0AU =
The condition
0
=
0
is equivalent to (7—40). Finally, if we consider
to he infinitesimal,
R=R+dR
and (7—40) implies R =
0.
To apply the classical stability criterion to an ideal truss, we note that the
firstorder work terms have the form
dW5 =
dWD =
P1
AU1
where U2, P1 are prescribed. Operating on (a) yields
d2W5
d2WD
0
>jFjd2ej +
(741)
SEC. 7—6.
STABILITY CRITERIA
and the stability criterion reduces to
for arbitrary nontrivial AU1 d2 WD = 0 for a particular nontrivial AU1 (7—42) d2 WD < 0 for a particular nontrivial AU1 where d2WD is a quadratic form in AU1. We postpone discussing how one transforms (7—41) to a quadratic form in AU1 until the next chapter. When the material is elastic, we can identify (7—39) as the requirement that Fir, be a relative minimum. By definition,
d2WD > 0
drIp = dVT
—
stable neutral unstable
dWE
For elastic behavior,
dVT = dWD
and it follows that
(7—43) d2WD — d2WE = Finally, we can state: An equilibrium position for an elastic system is stable (neutral, un
stable) if it corresponds to a relative minimum (neutral, indifferent) stationary point of the total potential energy.
Example 7—6 The system shown in Fig. E7—6A consists of a rigid bar restrained by a linear elastic
spring which can translate freely in the .x2 direction. Points A and A' denote the initial and deformed positions. We will first employ the principle of virtual displacements to establish the equilibrium relations and then investigate the stability of the system.
Fig. E7—6A
x1
j2
The firstorder work terms are
dWD = F de
=
P2 du2
(a)
172
VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN iDEAL TRUSS
CHAP. 7
where F, e are the spring force and extension. Since the bar is rigid, the system has only one
degree of freedom, i.e., only one displacement measure is required to define the configuration. It is convenient to take 0 as the displacement measure. The deformationdisplacement relations follow from the sketch:
e=
u1
= L(sin
0 — sin
0)
0 — sin
and
de =
(cos 0)L
du, =
(sin 0)L
Using (a) and (d), the principle of virtual displacements takes the form
dW0 — dWa
= {F cos 0 —
P2
sin 0) (L AO) =
0
for arbitrary AG
Finally, (e) leads to the equilibrium relation,
F cos 0 =
P2
sin 0
which is just the moment equilibrium condition with respect to point 0. We transform (1) to an equation for ()by substituting for F using (c). The result is
sin 0
—
tan
0=
sin 00
Since the system is elastic,
—
dW5
and (e) is equivalent to
=
0
for arbitrary AU
The potential energy function for this system has the form
=
and (g) can be interpreted as
—
P2u2
= 4kL2(sin 0 —
sin
0)
=
0
of 00 are plotted in Fig. E7—6B. The result
for
0
consists of two curves, defined by
0=
0
for arbitrary P2/kL
for (P2/kL)
1
cos 0 = P2/kl
To investigate the stability of an equilibrium position, we have to evaluate the secondorder work at the position. After some algebraic manipulation, we obtain =
d2W0
—
= k(L
AU)2
[cossU —P2/kL]
cos 0
Let 0* represent a solution of(g). Applying (m) to 0* results in the following classification:
REFERENCES
stable
COS 0* >
cos3
3 cos 0'
P2
neutral
unstable
P2
One can show that (n) is equivalent to
stable
dP2
0
neutral unstable
dP2
dO
o
dP2
A transition from stable to unstable equilibrium occurs at point A, the peak of the deflection curve. The solution for 0 is different in that its stable segment is the linear kL) corresponds to a branch point, solution and the neutral equilibrium point (P2 Both the linear and nonlinear branches are unstable.
Fig. E7—6B
0
REFERENCES
1
2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7.
WANG, C. T.: Applied Elasticity, McGrawHill, New York, 1953. LANGHAAR, H. L,: Energy Methods in Applied Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1962. REISSNeR, E.: "On a Variational Theorem in Elasticity," J. Math. Phys., Vol. 29, pages 9095, 1950. ARGYRIS, i. H., and S. KIsLseY: Energy Theorems and Structural Analysis, Butterworths, London, 1960. CI.IARLTON, T. M.: Energy Principles in Applied Statics, Blackie, London, 1959. HOFF, N. J.: The Anal vsis of Structures, Wiley, & New York, 1956. K.: Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity, Pergamon Press, 1968.
174
VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS
CHAP. 7
PROBLEMS
7—1.
Consider the twodimensional symmetrical truss shown. Assume = 03 = 0. (a) Determine the first two differentials of e1 and ez by operating on the
expanded expression (equation 6—19) for e.
(b)
(c)
When a b, we can neglect the nonlinear term involving u12 in the Specialize (a) for this case. expressions for e and When a b, we can neglect the nonlinear term involving u11 in the Specialize (a) for this case. expressions for e and
Prob. 7—1
x2
T
3
21
7—2. Refer to the figure of Prob. 7—1. Assume = u3 = 0 and a> b. Using the principle of virtual displacements, determine the scalar forceequilibrium equations for joint 1. 7—3. Suppose a force F is expressed in terms of e,
F=
a
C1e
+ 4C2e3
where a is related to the independent variable u by
u + 1u2
(a)
Determine the first two differentials of the work function, W = W(u),
defined by
W
=
C1(e
F de
(b)
Suppose (a) applies for increasing e and
F=
7—4.
—
e decreasing from e*. Determine d2 W at a = e*. Refer to Prob. 6—23. The n — 1 independent node equations relating the branch currents are represented by ATI
U
1
Now, the branch potential differences, e, are related to the n — node potentials, V, by
independent
e=
AV
7—5. obtain a relation between the elongations and ü32. using branches 1. One can develop a variational principle similar to the principle of virtual forces by operating on the branch potential difference—node potential relations. 1T de = 0 for arbitrary is equivalent to (a). = F. One should always work with a statically determinate system when applying (7—12). 2. Using (7—12).PROBLEMS 175 Deduce that the requirement. We work with expressed as a compound function of e = e(U) since it is more convenient than expressing V directly in terms of U1. and 6. u12 in terms of e1. 7—7. Consider the twodimensional truss shown. (a) (b) Using (7—14).. Prob. Note that the currents must satisfy the node equations ATi 0 Deduce Kirchhoff's law (the sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop must equal zero) by suitably specializing Lsi in (a). Compare this principle with the principle of virtual displacements for an ideal truss. Refer to Prob. Take the virtualforce system as LxF2 and the necessary bar forces and reactions required to equilibrate AF2. Show that  AiTe=0 for any permissible set of current increments. 4. 6—6. Note that bar 2 is not needed.. de. By definition. Assume u2 = = 0. e3. the first differential of the strainenergy function due to an increment in U1 has the form = n1 dV. 7—5 x2 2 7—6. Illustrate for the circuit shown in Prob. express u11. 6—23. One can also .
Show that (7—12) can be written as UkJ = 0Pkj is defined by (7—31).176 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP 7 write (a) as Using (b). show that the system of if joint forceequilibrium equations expressed in terms of the joint displacements can be written as: ÔU(k k= Equation c is called Castigliano's principle. dV*. Assume linear elastic material and f1 = = = f. part I. and d2V for the case where the stressstrain relation has the form (see Prob. Determine V*(F). part b. The Euler equations for . (b) Let W where h = total number of branches. 7—8. = (a) — Suppose we define a function. 7—5. 7—4. 6—10) a= — be3) 7—9. Rework P rob. Use the results of Prob. This result specialized for U2 = 0 is = called Castigliano's principle. Considering the branch potential drops to be functions of the node potentials. Determine V(e). which has the property that = Determine b corresponding to (b). Apply it to Prob. we can express as a function of e1. deduce that the actual node potentials V correspond to a stationary value of W. The current and potential drop for a linear resistance are related by where ef e0. (b) Show that an alternate form of (c) is P(k= Note that (d) is just the expansion of (c). and d2V* for the case where the stressstrain relation has the form = (a + ca3) 7—10. using (d). dv.j + Inverting (a). 7—11. part H. 7—2.
Suppose we define a function which has the property that = Determine b (d) corresponding to (a). = aL2k5 P Prob. Show that the actual currents correspond to a stationary value of One can either introduce the constraint condition. 7—6. Take k. 7—12 Linear translational restraint Rigid rod ICr (Linear rotational restraint) and consider a to range from 0 to 6. Show that the Euler equations for H= (e) iTe — = 1T(AV) — = H(i. An = 0. Investigate the stability of the system shown below. in (e) or use the result of Prob. . (d) Let W* = W7.PROBLEMS 177 W = W(V) are the node current equilibrium equations expressed in (c) terms of the node potentials. 7—12.V) (e) are the governing equations for a dc network.
We outline an incremental analysis procedure. reduce the governing equations to a set of equations involving certain bar forces. apply the classical stability criterion. The latter procedure is referred to as the . and finally.. OPERATION ON THE PARTITIONED EQUATIONS The governing partitioned equations for an ideal truss are developed in 178 Sec. i. we summarize these equations below. For convenience. GENERAL The basic equations defining the behavior of an ideal truss consist of forceequilibrium equations and forcedisplacement relations. The remaining portion of the chapter is devoted to the treatment of nonlinear behavior. The displacement method is easier to automate than the force method and has a wider range of application.e. We then describe a procedure for assembling the necessary system matrices using only the connectivity table. This procedure follows naturally if one first operates on the unpartitioned equations and then introduces the displacement restraints. However.fin'ce or flexibility method. it is not suited for hand computation. we first develop the equations for the displacement method by operating on the governing equations expressed in partitioned form. Alternatively. by eliminating the displacements. one can.8 Displacement Method Ideal Truss 8—1. This particular method of solution is called the displacement or method. In what follows. discuss linearized stability analysis. 8—2. the force method is more suited to hand computation than to machine computation. In contrast. . it is a computerbased method. We emphasize that these two methods are just alternate procedures for solving the same basic equations. 6—7. One can reduce the system to a set of equations involving only the unknown joint displacements by substituting the forcedisplacement relations into the forceequilibrium equations.
One can iterate on (8—1). and P2 from (b).) The unknowns are the in bar forces (F). Then — B1F1 represents the net unbalanced joint forces. 8—2. when r(B1) Conversely. The term kA1U1 represents the bar forces due to U1. to represent the initial bar forces. determine F from (e). However. the system is initially unstable.SEC. but this requires solving a nonsymmetrical system of equations. + kA1U1 F. . Even when the behavior is completely linear. the bar forces due to the initial elongations and support movements 0. U1. by substituting for F in (a). Then. The resulting matrix equation has the form (B1kA1)U1 = — B1F1 We solve (8—i) for U1. 8—4. When the with U1 material is linear elastic. and the na joint displacements (U1). the procedure outlined above for generating the system matrices is not efficient for a large structure. When the geometry is linear. k and e0 are constant. = BT when the geometry is linear. The geometrically nonlinear case is more difficult since both A and B depend on U1. that is. one has to iterate when the limiting elongation for a segment is exceeded. The coefficient matrix for U1 is called the system stiffness matrix and written as K11 = B1kA1 (8—2) as representing the initial joint forces due to the initial One can interpret elongations and support movements with U1 = 0. = k(—e0 + A2tJ2) (r eqs. Nonlinear analysis procedures are treated in Sec.) (in eqs. It is more efficient to transform (8—1) to a symmetrical system by transferring some nonlinear terms to the righthand side.) F = F. K1 reduces to 1 K11 = B1kBT = AfkA1 If the material is linear. One can consider F. We have employed a piecewise linear representation for the forceelongation curve which results in linear relations. If the material is nonlinear. Also. the r reactions (P2). the stiffness matrix for the linear case is posiLive definite when the system is initially stable. k is constant and positive definite for real materials. that is. k and e0 depend on e. We obtain a set of equations relating the flj displacement unknowns. if it is not positive definite. since f See Prob. 2—14. OPERATION ON THE PARTITIONED EQUATIONS 179 = B1F P2 = B2F P1 eqs.
be the external joint force matrices Noting (6—43).. With this notation. we let required to equilibrate the action of fixed (un. (b) takes a more compact form. respectively. 8 it requires the multiplication of large sparse matrices. what is needed is a method of generating K which does not involve multiplication of large sparse matrices. metrical. as the bar force due to the initial elongation with the ends = 0). A method which has proven to be extremely efficient is described in the next section. When the geometry is linear. the forcedisplacement relation for bar ii: = F0. but A1 is generally quite sparse. For example. one obtains the system stiffness matrix by evaluating the triple matrix product. Therefore. + = where n4. Equation (8—6) defines the joint forces required for bar n. Continuing. One can consider F0. denote the joints at the positive and negative ends of barn. and is sym= y. we see that p. =AfkA1 One can take account of symmetry and the fact that k is diagonal. Now. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD We start with (6—37).180 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. .I_ = = (8—4) Substituting for (8—4) expands to = pn_ = + — One can interpret (b) as end action—joint displacement relations since the elements of ± are the components of the bar force with respect to the basic frame. 8—3. we let (8—5) Note that is of order i x i where I = 2 or 3 for a two or threedimensional truss. = = + — — + (8—6) We refer to as the bar stiffness matrix. n. The total joint forces required are obtained by summing over the bars.
we write the complete system of if joint forceequilibrium equations. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD We have defined — p2. The contributions for member n follow directly from (8—6). = {u1. E8—l 0 4 3 . E8—l are presented below: for the numbering shown in Fig. . 8—8 if (Partitioned Form is j x j) +k. . 8—3. column n Example 8—1 The connectivity table and general form of if and Fig. We assemble if and in partitioned form. expressed in terms of the displacements. Now. — k.SEC. . working with successive members. (Partitioned Form is j x 1) in row in row n. The elements of are the required joint forces due to the initial elongations and represents the required joint forces due to the joint displacements. u2 X 1) (ii x 1) (U as the general external joint force and joint displacement matrices. —ku in row column in row column in row n_.. as = + (8—7) We refer to if. which is of order if x as the unrestrained system stiffness matrix.
© .2 Po. This is quite desirable from a computational point of view. For example. involves and the displacement matrices for those joints connected to joint j by bars. We group the vertical joints into sections.. Now. to column j of ir. 8 Bar 1 2 2 1 3 4 4 3 5 +joint —joint 1 2 3 2 4 4 U1 U2 U3 U4 k1+k2 P2 —k2 —k1 —k2 k2 + k3 + k5 k3 —k5 —k3 k3 + k4 —k4 —k4 —k1 k1 + k4 + k0 Pai . By suitably numbering the joints. the equations for section 3 (which correspond to P6) will involve only the displacement matrices for sections 2. Fig. 4. This suggests that we number the joints by section.— fs (71 ft® 2: / \ 3 L6 '. E8—2 Sect. øT r0. 1 0 (I .10 P0. one can restrict the finite elements of X' to a zone about the diagonal. 41'4 0. 3 L' L' 0. Consider the structure shown.2P2 nT 0. 0.3P3 0. corresponds to row j and ii. 5P5 Example 8—2 The external force matrix.. 3. The equilibrium equations for section k involve only the joints in section k and the adjacent sections..212 r 0. %. UT pT L' = — ftT 0.182 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.SPS L' 3P3 — 1I'I 1 UT t' 4P4 UT Po. The unpartitioned stiffness matrix corresponding to the above numbering scheme ..1PI — 0. 4 — uT 0._ — / .
.. + U + We write the system of joint forceequilibrium equations referred to the local joint frames as = + and T (8—10) The transformation la'vs for the submatrices of follow from (6—57).2 JJ7 —k. k.+k3 —k3 +k4 k2+k3 —k2 —k3 —k5 I —k6 —k7 +k6 —k4 —k.n= 1. Note that has the form of a quasitridiagonal band matrix when it is partitioned according to sections rather than individual joints..0 p6 —k7 —k8 I —k9 k8+k7 +k9 —k1. —k.2+k.SEC.3 k. (8—11) = = €. +k2 —k. The submatrices for this truss are of order 4 x 4.0 —k.. U' U2 U3 U4 U6 U7 U8 k. —k. —k. permuting the actual rows. k4+k51 —k8 —k6 k6+k9 —k9 —k10 +k...2. The introduction of displacement restraints involves first transforming the partitioned elements and to local frames associated with the restraints. k10+k.2 +k... 8—3. P2 I—k2 —k4 —k. and finally partitioning the actual rows.j . 3 p8 —k. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD is listed below.. The steps are indicated below.
The diagonal submatrices arc of order i. r.2 8 13 The first equation in (8—13) is identical to (8—1). 8 The step. Example 8—3 It is of interest to express the partitioned elements of K in terms of the geometrical. (6—50): F F0 + kda/1 = F0 + kyC'W = = Then. we express (8—12) in partitioned form: = P2 = K11U1 + K1202 + P0. (8—9) is more efficient than (f). and (6—44). We start with the general Unconnectivity. and displacement transformation partitioned equations(6—28). K.T 2p272 we can express as = CTk5c Carrying out (8—9) for n = 1. Then. DTkY. Obviously. P. The introduction of displacement restraints can be represented as P= 11 = = and D1dP (g) = DTU = DfU1 + (h) . and the submatrix at location n has the form.. by performing the same operations on both the rows and columns of The rearranged system of equations is written as P = KU + P0 (812) Finally. involves only a rearrangement of the rows of We obtain the corresponding stiffness matrix. 2 m is the same as evaluating the triple matrix product.184 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS —+ CHAP. substituting for F in (a) and equating the result to (8—7) leads to The matrix.1 + K2202 + P0.. is a quasidiagonal matrix of order im. (6—40). if we let = k5 [ki I. We have defined this product as k.
we add to the external force matrices for those joints which are unrestrained. = prescribed = = unknown . Also. It remains to modify the rows and columns corresponding to joints which are either fully or partially restrained. We replace the equation for Pq by = Uq This involves the following operations on the submatrices of X and On X. it leads to rectangular submatrices. Set off diagonal matrix elements in row q and column q equal 1. This operation is quite timeconsuming. = = DsCTDke0 t—12 — In order to obtain (8—13). THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 185 Substituting (g) and (h) in (8—7) and equating the result to (8—13). we describe a procedure for introducing displacement restraints which avoids these difficulties. we must rearrange the rows and columns of then partition.. In what follows. to 0 and the diagonal matrix element equal to I. = P0. On Add terms in t due to C X(qUq (8—16) j ease B: Partial Restraint—Local Frame We suppose the rth element in is prescribed. We start with the complete system of equations referred to the basic frame. Then. I= 0 (8—15) = Ii 2.. we obtain K. 8—3.SEC. and (8—14) We assemble and using (8—8) and (8—9). Then is unknown. Case A: Fit!! Restraint Suppose uq = Uq.
Suppose joint G=11 5 is partially restrained. we insert the values of the prescribed joint forces (local frame) in their natural locations. (a) direction r. Then. ui'. (b) The direction (or directions) of the displacement restraint and the value (or values) of the prescribed displacement. 1. and we set G. in (b). We start with G=O. us'. 8 We have to delete the equation corresponding to and replace it with 4= Step I —Assemblage of Basic Matrices We assemble Eq. according to the following: Eq and Gq. we read in —5 2. Note that the elements corresponding to the reactions are zero.r +1 2. We start with an ithorder column vector having zero elements and 3. we read in Psi —5 P53 2) The four basic matrices are (for r = 1 0 0 [0 0 1 0 E5= 0 0 0 0 0 1 Gs=IO 0 [0 0 0 ... R°5. defining the direction of the local frame at 5 with respect to the basic frame.. suppose r = In (c). E=O.i As an illustration. We start with an ithorder column vector having zero elements and we set the element in the rth row equal to Note that this matrix involves only the prescribed displacements (local frame) in their natural locations. The data consist of: The rotation matrix. (c) The values of the prescribed joint forces: j=1. When the joint is fully restrained..186 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Gq.
q I?'N.SEC..YV'eq(E9R0")T (Eq R°"). — . .j (8—18) + +0 When ir is symmetrical (this will be the case when the system is geometrically linear). 2. q — 1' 2' — . . .— 1 . the symmetrical case are threefold: = — it"eq(EqR°")T (8—19) €= 1. On Jr = X'qq = Oiz 2PN.q = 1. Premultiply row q of it" and by e = " N. . 1. we can work only with the submatrices on and above the diagonal. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 187 1° In —5 Step 2—Operation on Jr and 1. = 3..2. ''q 1% " N. q 2.q. 8—3. .. Postmultiply column q of it" by (Eq irtq = 4.. Add Gq to irqq = it"qq + Gq 5.. .Y(qq(Eq + — — 1' 2 I R0q. Add and to = P'N.q + U + The operation on row q and column q are summarized below. Postmultiply column q of it" by — T11* and add to PPN. The contracted operations for. 2.
+ Next. we start with the first equation in (8—13) and an additional set of r dummy equations: 1 [K11 fJ Olfuil — f—P0.... we convert the joint displacement matrices to the basic frame. Once ciii' is known. = F0. This system is transformed to (8—22) when to d?tJ. according to increasing joint number. It follows that = HT[K11 and. 8 + + it'qq = — + Gq — (8—20) * = (8—21) The operations outlined above are carried out for each restrained joint. that is.1 —  + — N Equation (a) represents 1/equations. J = rVp where H is a permutation matrix. — and assemble in partitioned form by summing the .. we permute U. The coefficient matrix nonsingular when K1 is nonsingular. using uq = The bar forces are determined from F. we calculate F. since H is an orthogonal matrix.188 q DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS q— Ttlq* CHAP. We denote the mOdified system of equations by = (8—22) will be Equation (8—22) represents if equations. They are related by (sec (6—63)) U [1°?. Note that the modifications for joint q involve only row q and column q. = IK11I (8—23) It is more convenient to work with (8—22) rather than (a) since the solution of (8—22) yields the joint displacement matrices listed in their natural order. To show this.
. This operation The final result is provides a static check on the solution in addition to furnishing the reactions. Fig. Assemblage of = and We consider the geometry to be linear. In this case. For member n. . (8—9) results in = Applying listed below. and depend on the joint displacements. E8—4.. Example 8—4 We illustrate these operations for the truss shown in Fig. y. E8—4 / Ii 1. THE DiRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 189 contribution for each member.. 8—3. Then.) 1 1 4 2 3 6 4 2 4 2 4 6 4 6 2. When the problem is geometrically nonlinear. using = required to equilibrate the bar forces.SEC. it is generally more efficient to apply an incremental formulation rather than iterate on (8—22). /50 MemberJoint Connectivity Table Bar(n) 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 5 6 3 7 5 3 8 9 5 10 11 5 +joint(n+) —joint(n. we put (see (8—4)) + FOIIPf — in row n+ in row n_ Once is known. we convert the force matrix for each partially restrained joint to the local joint reference frame.
ii42j Joint 1 (t42 is prescribed) 1 [ 01 ii ii = ri E6=[0 — — oJ . Note that this procedure does not destroy the banding of the stiffness matrix.Yt'. The basic matrices for joints 4. It is convenient to work with successive joint numbers.190 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: DEAL TRUSS 2 3 CHAP. For this system. we modify and according to (8—15) and (8—16). joint 2 is fully restrained and joints 4. We start with i?PN If joint q is un— restrained. Joint 4 (u42 is prescribed) R°4 2 E4=[ ri 01 oj 6 G4=[0 = [0 0 = {O. we use (8—19) through (8—21). if joint q is partially restrained. —k10 —k11 +k8+k10 +k11 Note that i( 3. 6 are partially restrained. Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints = The original equations are = where contains the external joint forces. with submatrices of order 4 x 4. is symmetrical and quasitridiagonal. Since is symmetrical. we have to list only the submatrices on and above the diagonal. 8 N — 2 1 4 —k3 51 0 —k7 — k3 6 k1+k2+k3 —k1 —k1 —k2 k1+k4+k5 k4 —k4 —k5 3 —k2 k2+k4+k6 +k7+k8 —k6 —k6 4 —k3 —k5 k3+k5±k6 +k9+k10 —k9 —k9 —k10 5 —k7 +k7+k9 +k11 —k11 — 6 0 —k8 . we put in row q If joint q is fully restrained. are listed below. Finally.6 and the initial and final forms of.
8—4.K34E4 J35 E4ir46(E6R°6)T + G4 + — — +  ir56(E6R°6)T — . in this case. (E6R°6)iq66(E6R°6)T + G6 E6R°6(— 8—4. the equations can be linearized. In this section. one is working with total displacement rather than with incremental displacement. An incremental loading procedure can also be used with (8—13) but.SEC.) o (U3) (U4) (Us) ir. one applies the load in increments and determines the corresponding displacements. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION Initial matrices (ir and ("1) (Us) (U4) = ir22 )r33 ir34 . These equations are also nonlinear. However. we develop a set of equations relating the external load and the resulting incremental displacements. Our approach will be similar to that followed previously. With an incremental formulation.0 . CLASSICAL STABILITY CRITERION Equations (8—13). (8—22) are valid for both linear and nonlinear behavior. but if one works with small load increments. it is more efficient with respect to computational effort to employ an incremental formulation when the system is nonlinear. We first establish incremental member forcedisplacement relations and then apply the direct stiffness method to .X44 ir4. The total displacement is obtained by summing the displacement increments. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION.5 Sym Final matrices (ir* and (ui) (u.K13 0 .4E4 U 1.
— u.. their values will change.)Tg. We suppose an in cremental external load AP is applied and define AU as the resulting incremental displacement for the new equilibrium position. which defines the external joint forces required to equilibrate the action of the force for bar n... (8—26) and Ae. D due to AU. we delete the corresponding element in For geometrically linear behavior.. we obtain dv. and requiring (a) to be satisfied at both positions. = 0..) + — u..) (8—25) Yh(ufl.. Letting AF. Au. Since F and depend on U. AD be the total increments in F... generate Pn* = p.. We allow for a piecewise linear material and employ the relationst developed in Sec.. — u. We start with (8—4). . — u. = To neglect a particular displacement component.. g. (6—32).. (8—24) To proceed further.. and (6—33)... = Equations (a) are satisfied at an equilibrium position. we need to evaluate the increments in e and relations are given by (6—22): The exact = — ci.÷ — u)Tg...) (827) — It remains to evaluate AF.._) If all the nonlinear terms are retained. we write (a) as fi. = — Au. We complete the section with a discussion of the classical stability criterion. leads to the following incremental forceequilibrium equations: = Ap.. = + — = d2e.192 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we drop all the t See (6—31). 6—4. For convenience. Operating on (8—25). — = = = (u.. = Afif + + D._) + — — = — To allow for the possibility of retaining only certain nonlinear terms. S the incremental system equations..
Note that is symmetrical. are constant for a segment. Substituting for (8—28) takes the form At' _AC' — Finally. They have to be changed if the limit is unknown. — AP0. L\p9. taking the values of k. We write the total set of incremental joint equilibrium equations as = where + M'0 + (832) is assembled using (8—9) and MPO + with (8—8). The initial elongation. Since has to iterate. t We describe here the method of successive substitutions.. We cannot solve (8—33) directly for algebraic equations. quadratic.) + + (8—30) where = Fag. contains linear. The modified equations are = — — (833) It is convenient to include the prescribed incremental support displacement terms in involves only the incremental temperature and so that the variable displacement increments...SEC. we introduce the displacement restraints by ap plying (8—19)—(8—21). t See Ref. This is equivalent to using the tangent stiffness. Ae0. and cubic terms in We have included the subscript g to indicate that it is a nonlinear geometric term. is included to allow for an incremental temperature change. Finally. one of the segment is exceeded or the bar is unloading. Ae0 corresponding to the initial equilibrium position as the first estimate. in — (8—24) and group the terms as follows: &i. There are a number of techniques for solving nonlinear is symmetrical.11 AU1 = where K1. + = (8—31) i = + + We interpret k7 as the tangent stiffness matrix. The vector.1 — AP9.1 — 1(1. 8—4.12 AU2 (834) since contains quadratic and cubic terms in MI.. . The contracted equations are K1. we substitute for LXPn+ = Q + I + if 72 Ct (8—29) Lw. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 193 notation pertaining to a segment and write the "generalized" incremental expression in the simple form = k(Ae — (8—28) where k. 12.
The appropriate form for a truss is given by (7—41): ± den)> 0 for arbitrary AU1 with AU2 = 0 (a) We have already evaluated the above terms. 18—8. They depend only on the initial equilibrium position and the incremental loading. we delete solution of . The solution degenerates when the tangent stiffness matrix becomes singular. We combine and and write (8—33) as X7K MI1 = — (835) Now. 8 which is the easiest to implement. The factor method is particularly convenient since X7 is symmetrical. — — Au. we apply the classical stability criterion developed in Sec. 7—6. we note that and are independent of A'1/1. One can interpret this scheme as one cycle successive substitution. STS (8—37) where S is an upper triangular matrix. First. but its convergence rate is slower in com parison to most of the other methods.. ¶ Iterative techniques are discussed in greater detail in Secs. To investigate the behavior in the neighborhood of this point. . and (8—29) with Ae0 = 0. in (8—35) and take the (839) as the "actual" displacement increment. 18—9. 18—7. With this method. Using (8—26).194 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.) (b) AU1 > 0 for arbitrary AU1 (8—40) It follows that must be positive definite for a stable equilibrium position. (8—27). We replace (8—36) with = STQ = A9* S (8—38) — In linearized incremental analysis. we let represent the nth estimate for LXa/IJ and determine the (n + 1)th estimate by solving )p* L\cW(n+ = — &?P (8—36) The iteration involves only evaluation of and backsubstitution once is transformed to a triangular matrix. + and (a) can be written as d2WD ALT ICE.
and there are no initial elongations or support movement. 2—5. 2—13 for a proof. iNCREMENTAL FORMULATION But K1. To simplify the analysis. . i. b <<d Fig. E8—5A.. + fl = 1. 8—4._____ SEC. k1 = k2 = k. which rearranges the elements of according to (842) =H Then.2 for this example. See Sec.e. iii (8—43) Example We illustrate the application of both the total (8—13) and incremental (8—34) formulations to the truss shown in Fig. we can take 1 [0 0 1 t See Prob. E8—5A x2 d d_____ The initial direction cosines for the bars are —b] —b] The deformed geometric measures are defined by (8—25).11 (8—41) where H is a nonsingular permutation matrix. we can classify the stability of an equilibrium position in terms of the determinant of the tangent stiffness matrix: D stable neutral unstable D>O D=0 D< 0 8—5 = = 1K1. They reduce to + = = cc. and K1 have the same definiteness Finally. we suppose the material is linearly elastic. we can neglect the nonlinear terms due to u11. and are related by HT[Kt. Since b cc d.
. 8 Using (c). the bar forcedisplacement relations are = = + = ky. 1 I Pi —b + u12] 12 —b + 112 —b + Continuing. 2 Finally. (k1 k2)u1 = k(11r71 ± 11212)U1 Equations (e) and (1) expand to Jusi 0 — u12)(b and F1 = — (h — F2 = — (b — The diagonal form of the coefficient matrix is due to the fact that we neglected u11 in the expressions for y and This approximation uncouples the equations.196 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Solving the first equationt in (g). . we obtain I (J\2 The corresponding bar forces are Pti Pi = This result is actually the solution for the linear geometric case. Note that (g) is the first equation in (8—13) with U2 and P0 set to 0. The expression for and the corresponding bar forces follow from the second equation [2k P12 — u12)(b — 1u12)j 012 1 t Equation (g) is (8—1) with F1 = 0. the forceequilibrium equation for joint I follows by applying (8—6) to both bars.u1 n = 1.
. = [o a. Using (n). E85B. Applying (8—26). = = (Au1 )2 n=l. we obtain + u12) = Sym (Au12)2 + u12)2 + . = de. The latter approach works only when there is one variable. 5—4. F1 INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 197 P12 = F2 = — — (b k L — 2u12)u12 = 1 2b—u12 L We can write (k) as L2 U12 =—— 2k (b — u12)(b 1 and solve (m) by iteration. k = k(de.2 We arc assuming no initial elongation.1 Au11 = Au1 + + d2e.SEC. one can specify u12 and evaluate from (k). P12 A 9 Fig. (8—27) to (b)—(d) results in = d[i. + The tangent stiffness matrix and incremental geometric load term are defined by (8—31). Alternatively.. E8—5B (I + 0 b B We describe next the generation of the incremental equations which follow from (8—26)— (8—32). The solution is plotted in Fig. Then.
198 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP. the incremental equations are uncoupled. Now there is a discontinuity in k at F = — Feb. Using (u). Ap1 = + k. B are stability transition points and the segment AB is unstable. du12 = L + L + u12)2) (u) Applying the classical stability criterion (8—43) to (t). the pinended Euler load.t2EI3 (w) To determine whether the members buckle before point A is reached. b must satisfy b (y) where p is the radius of gyration of the section. F4 = — AE( \2 AEb2 )= = (x) Then. The coefficient of Au12 is the tangent stiffness with respect to u12. the truss is neutral with respect to Au11. for system instability rather than member instability to occur. . 2 (r) o ?4(_b + u12)2 + + F2) 0 — [3(—b + u12) + Au12]} Note that (s) is (8—34). 8 Finally. when the material is linearly elastic: k=0 . 2)Au1 + Ap1. If k = 0. we compare F4 With — Feb. We restrict the analysis to only 112 loading. i + Al)9. Also. we see that > du12 0 0 < 0 stable neutral unstable (v) Points A. we assemble the incremental equilibrium equations for joint 1 using (8—30). Setting F1 = F2 in (s) results in + + u17)2)] Au12 = Ap12 [Au12 + 3(—b + (t) where F is determined from (e).
0 . we outline how one applies the method of successive substitution to (t). 8—4. Case (b) shows how the scheme diverges Fig. ES—5C — (a) Lip Ib) in the vicinity of a neutral point = 0). INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 199 Lastly. For convenience. we drop the subscripts and write (t) as Ltu = — In the first step. E8—5C. =— The second estimate is determined from (aa) = Generalizing (bb). Convergence generally degenerates as and one has to resort to an alternate method. (bb) = — The convergence is illustrated in Fig.SEC. we take Ap9 = 0.
. If the loading is defined in terms of a single load parameter.. we can take = in the expression for terms in This approximation is quite convenient since we have only to solve the linear problem in order to apply the stability criterion.. We refer to this procedure as linearized stability analysis. in turn. is positive definite if. We generate for positive definiteness. with k.. we approximate k. intransform to and test different). Once the nonlinear equilibrium equations are solved. = k. Working with i(7 rather than K. we can write (8—44) as F.i + Kg. is positive definite for 2 = 0. i. We express the actual and modified matrices as K. K1. The tangent stiffness matrix is generated by applying the Direct Stiffness Method to each term in (8—45). LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS In the previous section. ii + (8—46) and (8—47) where K1 is the system stiffness matrix for linear behavior. = (8—45) k1. the stability can be readily determined. K. In linearized stability analysis.k9...e. Now.. unstable) when the tangent stiffness matrix is positive definite (positive semidefinite. According to (8—40).K7 is positive definite. It is symmetrical and positive definite when the system is initially stable. = 0 which. The geometrical stiffness.. an equilibrium position is stable ineutral. (8—44) The first term is the linear stiffness matrix. If the system is initially stable.. We interpret the second term as a geometric stiffness.. u have the same definiteness property.. = = K1. The bar forces are determined from a linear analysis of the truss. We have shown that and K.. K9. say 2cr To determine we note that neutral equilibrium (see (8—43)) corresponds to K. Equation (8—46) shows that the tangent stiffness matrix varies linearly with the load parameter. avoids having to permute the rows and columns. .. we can neglect the displacement that is. = + F.. can be interpreted as the existence of a 'nontrivial solution of K. As 2 is increased. The analysis involves first solving the nonlinear equilibrium equations for the displacements and then applying the classical stability criterion to determine the stability of a particular equilibrium position. is also symmetrical but it may not be positive definite. if a geometrically nonlinear system is loaded in such a way that it behaves as if it were geometrically linear... we illustrated the behavior of a geometrically nonlinear system. + ). a transition from stable to neutral equilibrium may occur at some load level. =0 (a) .200 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAR 8 8—5.g.
We suppose the bars are identical. we have F1 = = F2 = — = — F Matrix iteration (Ref.. ii AU1 (b) (c) AU2 = The solution of (c) is —2 AU2 (r eqs.. ii 01 5Au1 [o i. transforms (a) to a characteristic value problem. and there is no support movement.1 = 0 Ault' = Mlii I (8—49) instead of (8—48). we can work with = Mt' 1. Working with the undeformcd geometry. we substitute for note (8—42). AU1 = and Since 1K1. 1) is a convenient computational scheme for determining 2.. ii AU1 = '2Kg. 8—5.j l. the material is linearly elastic.K5.SEC. itt —). We apply (—K9. The geometry change is negligible under a vertical load and we can use the linearized stability criterion. Both equations lead to the same value of (8—49) has r additional characteristic values equal to — r dummy equations. . Example 8—6 Consider the system shown.11 AU1 (8—48) is the smallest eigenvaluet of (8—48). To show this. since we have added using (8—41) and 0 1JAU51 U [o Premultiplying by H = — — AHT [Kg. However. LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS 201 Substituting for K1.) K1.AU2 (a) becomes (na eqs..1)AU1 = AU1 jtto which satisfies the restrictions on the method.) 1 0 0 AU2C1 o +C2 o i This solution must be disregardcd since AU2 is actually a null matrix. 11T [ICe.
= — 21 + k€ 2 = 0 + (b) and = k8. arc L —b] This is reasonable when d K< b. The system stiffness matrices follow from (8—44) and (8—45)..ii + AKçj.202 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. The L —b] (e) i[l 0 0 0 0 (d)2 = 11e.2 = — (g5 + g2) (c) It remains to determine g1 and g2 which are defined by = + ufg. and g. (d) We neglect u12 in the general expression for approximate expressions for fi. & A Fig.ji = 2k 0 (b)2 (g) 0 0 .1 + k9. £8—B d <<b 12 We let k1 = k2 = k.
jj = I. This is a consequence of our using approximate expressions for Equations (e) instead of the exact expressions. = K. Kg.. There we considered d b and followed the nonlinear behavior up to the point at which the slope of the P12 — u12 curve vanished (neutral with respect to Au12): d 1(1 = du12 0 mex = (0) The linearized result is significantly higher than the true buckling load. The value of 2 for Euler buckling of the bars is eb = — L 2b = 2b k2EIl 2AEb/irp'\2 LLL2J I L \L Comparing (h) and (i). is semidefinite) occurs at 2kb \\L) L \. How close it is to the actual value will depend on the geometry and loading. we see that Euler buckling of the bars controls when d> irp The exact expression for g. the linear buckling load is an upper bound. Neutral equilibrium also occurs when the bars either buckle or yield. the buckling mode is antisymmetric.LJ Note that (g) has only one eigenvalue instead of two. At 2 = the system is neutral with respect to Au1 i. it is quite close. . 8—5. + = 2k (b)2 —2 0 In this case. 1 = 2kb 2kb (d\2 (Ii) 2cr.e. (d)2 K1. there are two characteristic values and therefore two critical values of 2. while it considerably overestimates the true load for d b. is If we work with (k). It is of interest to compare 2cr 2 with the buckling load found in Example 8—5. b.SEC. In general. For this example. LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS 203 Neutral equilibrium (K1.. and the first root defines the critical load. When d << b.. 2 C) Acri The second root corresponds to neutral equilibrium with respect to Au12.
London. S. PrenticeHall. 1964. Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. \EaJ For the structure sketched: Develop the general form of Indicate how you would obtain K11. PROBLEMS 8—1. M. 1966. J. Vol. 4. H. THOMPSON. 8—4. New York. Consider U2 and P1 to he prescribed and the behavior to be physically — linear. DC VEUBEKE. HALL. A. For the structure sketched. of Example 8—2. Hint: Obtain d2e by operating on (7—8). H.'ns—Statics. 1960. LIVESLEY. 1965.: Matric Computer Analvsis of Structures. R. 11. B. 1970. C. 3.11 (c) 8—2. 1964. 4. FL. Butterworths. Wiley.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. W. ARGYRIS. McGrawHill. McGrawHill. Pergamon Press. W00DHEAD: Frame Analysis. J. 8 REFERENCES C. 9. RUBINSTEIN. For the structure sketched: Determine K11. F. 10. and Stability. Assume no support movements at joints 2. 8—6. Introduction to Matris Methods of StructuralAnalysis. McGrawHill. (a) Express = Vr VT — PTU1 in terms of U1. Suppose we number the joints as shown. MARTIN. determine . bar forces. Pergamon Press. and reactions. and S. 1968. M. RALSTON. 1. 1964. pp.: A First Course in Numerical Analysis. U2... T. 6. C. 757—768. RUBINSTEIN. J.S'vsse. McGrawHill." Jut. 1965. A. B. For the structure sketched: Determine the displacements.: Structural . 1960. and R. and J. J.: Recent Advances in Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. WALKER: "The Nonlinear Perturbation Analysis of Discrete Structural Systems. 1967. Dynamics. 8.204 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 2. K. 7. (a) (b) Refer to Example 8—2. 12. and A. 1968. PrenticeHall. New York. H. Determine and F due to a temperature increase of 100°F for all the bars. Kelsey: Energy Theorems and StruciuralAnalysis. 8—3. M. 4. F. WILCUR Elementary Structural Analysis. New York. Express as a quadratic form in AU1. 5. Pergamon Press. 3. Use — = e0. Develop the general form 8—5. F.1)2 = eo)Tk(e e0) (b) Show that (84) are the Euler equations for dVT = FTde Note that de = BfAT. ARGYSIS. J. PRZEMIENIECKI. S. Solids Structures.: Theory of Matrix Structural Aizah'sis.
8—2 E=3X Bar areas = 3 ksi Coefficient of thermal expansion = 6 X 106/°F Prob. 20' 10' 8—3 I E=3X ksi Initial elongation of = in.PROBLEMS 205 Prob. 8—4 © 807 0 605 . Horizontal displacement of joint 2 = to the left I 0 6 kips x2 Prob.
Assume the material is linearly elastic and all bars have the same stiffness. 8—8. 8—5 E constant for all bars Bar Area 3a I Y3 I 2 3 4a 3a 4 5 4a 2.5a Prob. Assume the material is linearly elastic and no support movements. Consider the material to be linearly elastic and the bars to bc identical. Use the linearized stability criterion and work with the exact expression for Rework the problem. Determine the lowest critical load for the truss shown. considering d b and using the corresponding approximate expression for 8—9.206 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Investigate the elastic stability of the system shown. Determine the loaddeflection relation for the system shown. Assume no initial elongation or support movement. 8 20' Prob. 86 8—7. .
8—9 T 20' H .wp Prob.8—7 0 d <<b k1 —Ic2 — _AE —•y x1 H K2 2¼ Prob. 8—S Prob.
we must shift from matrix to indicial notation.Pn_j (U. We have expressed them as = + = ± contain linear displacement terms. define p and u as l.e. 8 8—10. range over the total number of unknowns...= — p.. . (j = 1.(u. The first step involves converting the matrix expressions p. 2 is a load parameter... The secondorder tensor. it is understood the term is summed over the range of the repeated subscript.. 'y. = 2P1 k. An example is where d. For convenience. is the linear stiffness matrix. we employ the summation convention. + F0.J (f) and write (d) in the form = (k. and fourthorder tensors. = k.. + where i. . j.. This form is dictated by our choice of matrix notation. In order to expand (a). (d) where F... third. If a subscript is repeated in a term. e. The governing equations for geometrically nonlinear behavior of a linearly elastic discrete system such as a truss are nonlinear algebraic equations containing up to thirddegree displacement terms.÷ — p.1 + + + Po. U1 is the total value of the jth displacement unknown.208 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 2 n) We write the ith equilibrium equation for tile system as (this representation is suggested in Ref.. (a) We generate the system tensors by superimposing the contribution of each bar. and the K's are constants which can be interpreted as second. 840): + KIJkU.. defines the load distribution. = + — u)T — = + over to indicial form.. We drop the n subscript.
PROBLEMS 209 Show that k11 = =L = where c is defined by [1 + (Ii) {::} = cu (i) Discuss how you would locate the appropriate addresses for the bar stiffness tensors in the system tensors. Specialize the incremental equations for linearized stability analysis. P2 P2. (c) 8—11. is applied in addition to librium position corresponding to Pi = . the linearized critical load. Pi ±ep2. Comment on how the system behaves when a small horizontal load. Ic1 = =k (a) (b) Determine the nonlinear incremental equilibrium equations at the equi0. What symmetry properties do the k's exhibit? Do these properties also apply for the system tensors? (b) Develop the incremental equations relating Au. No support movement or initial elongation. 8—11 Linearly elastic material. AA and compare with (8—30). Take Ap1 = 0 and solve for Ap2 as a function of Au1. Cr. For the structure sketched: Prob.
r(B1) = be linearly independent. One can solve (a) for na bar forces in terms of the applied forces and q bar forces. and is called the degree of indeterminacy. Equation (a) represents linear equations relating the na prescribed joint forces and the in unknown bar forces. the rows of B1 must For the system to be initially stable. The defect of (a) is equal to in — nd = q. This procedure is applicable only when the geometry is linear. GENERAL The basic equations for the linear geometric case have the form P1 = B1F e = BfU1 + P2 = B2F e0 + fF where the elements of B1 and B2 are constants. we compare the force method for a truss with the mesh method for an electrical network. If in = since one can find the bar forces and reactions using only the equations of statics. In order to determine F. In what follows. These equations are called compatibility conditions and are obtained by operating on (b) which represents m relations between the na unknown displacements and the bar forces. The general procedure outlined above is called the Jbrce or flexibility method. This requires in In what follows. that is.9 Force Method Ideal Truss 9—i. Finally. 210 . q additional equations relating the bar forces are required. we consider the system is said to be statically determinate only stable systems. we first develop the governing equations for the force method by operating on (a)—(c). We then show how one can establish the compatibility equations using the principle of virtual forces and discuss the extremal character of the force redundants. We refer to the system defined by the na bars as the primary structure and the q unknown forces as force redundants.
and f.o = P2.F2 where F1. F2 contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to a unit value of the kth element in F2. we can solve (9—2) for F1.) (9—2) (9—3) P2 = B21F1 + B22F2 (reqs. B2 and F as follows: B1 x nil =[B11 ii B12] I "a) (na x q) B2 (rxm) [B21 (rxn4) (na x 1) (rxq) B22] = F2 (qx 1) The bars corresponding to F1 comprise the primary structure and F2 contains the q redundant bar forces. Also. F2 satisfy (9—4) 1111F10 = P1 B1IFI. with F2 = 0. Partitioning e. 9—2.0 + Fl.F2 = —B12 Note that the kth column of F1. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH We consider the first columns of B1 to be linearly independent (if the system is initially stable. e0. contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to the applied joint loads. The complete set of q + 1 solutions is written as F1 = F1.F. F1. one can always renumber the bars such that this condition is satisfied) and partition B1. Using (9—1). P1.0 and F1.) Since Bit! 0. The reactions follow from (9—3): P2 = P2.SEC.0 = B21FI. the forceequilibrium equations ((a) and (c)) take the form B11F1 = P1 — B12F2 (ad eqs. —B12 as righthand sides. (nixl) e (fl4X 1) = c e1 ——— C2 j (q< 1) ii = (9—7) L 0 f2 (q x q) . GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH 211 92.0 + (9—6) B21F1. considering P1.F2 + B22 We consider next (b).
9—i.0 — 1. and using (9—10) P2.e. (9—11). First (see (9—5)) we note that BT — 12 12 1. F2 We select a stable primary structure F1 and determine the bar forces and reactions due to P1 and a unit value of each force redundant. F2U2 = ez + Ff + f2F2 + Ff. See (1—61). The selection of a primary structure and solution of the force equilibrium equations can be completely t See Prob. I. Finally. F1. + 12F2 Bf2U1 + Bf2U2 (ne. 9—4.. Note that we obtain the primary structure by deleting q = ni — bars.) Once e1 is known. eqs..43 The coefficient matrix.F21 — — IF2 \T_ T T 11 Then.212 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.0 (9—11) The first form. premultiplying (9—8) by Ff. i. o + f1F1 B11U1 + B21U2 = e2 = e2. Iteration is minimized by applying the loading in increments and approximating the forceelongation relation with a piecewise linear representation.1 t'T U2 — —e2. Determination of F1. 0.. shows that the equations are actually restrictions on the elongations. One can interpret (9—10) as a compatibility condition. At this point.) (98) (9—9) (q eqs. is called the flexibility matrix for F2. to an echelon matrix. We obtain the equation for F2 by eliminating U1 in (9—9).F2 r'T ( — + v + nT f'r 1O. This step involves q + 1 force analyses on the primary structure. f22. (9—8) can be solved for U1. 0. displacement. One can show that f22 is positive definite when the bar flexibility factors in f2 are all positive. . and P2. and elongation terms with theit incremental values and interpret las a segmental (tangent) flexibility.FZ(CLO + f1F1) = e2. depend on F1. § We reduce X See Prob. we summarize the steps involved in the force method. the forcedisplacement relations expand to = e1. it must be satisfied in order for the bars tofit in the deJbrmed structure defined by U1. and e0. (a). 9 and using (9—1). P2. (9—6) leads to adding the result to (9—9). The second form. (9—10). follows when we express the elongations in terms of the bar forces. we substitute for F1 and write the result as 122F2 d2 C (9—12) T where f 122 . The incremental equations are similar in form to the total equations4 We just have to replace the force.. F2t1' t.t If the material is physically nonlinear. f.
= e. . P2. and F3 = + 1 can be readily obtained using the method ofjoints. and adding the two scalars..F. 9—2. as U1—'t — e1 — 21 —hT 111 2 We see from (9—15) that the kth column of Br. it follows from (9—6) that the kth column of B2 contains the reactions due to a unit value of the kth clement in P. o. To show this.. F.0 + f1F1 and then solve (9—8)..tr force: F1={F.. Determination of U. aizdP2 We assemble d2. The results are shown in Fig. If only a limited number of displacement components are desired.. and solve f..SEC.pJk = F. F1 P2 = F10 + = P2. Deterininatio.) by multiplying the kth column of Br1' by the kth column of B21Br.pj. we determine F. Now. e1 e1. Also.0 + P2.. Once F1 is known. and P2 by combining the q + basic solutions. Then. = d... = P2 due to an unit value of PJJ. F2.F2} F2={F3} The primary structure consists of bars I and 2. one can determine these components without actually solving (9—8).z of F2. letting F. for F.' contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to a unit value of the kth element in P1.. P2.' by Of. Example 9—1 Step 1: Determination of F. we obtain the kth element in U1 (which corresponds to the kth element in P. we can evaluate e. for U.ik I nT fl — Note that one works with the statically determinant primary structure to — mine the displacements. Note that all force analyses are performed on the primary structure. and P2 F2 q= For the truss shown in Fig. E9—1B. The forces and reactions corresponding to P. E9—IA. 2 in 3 1 We take F3 as the redundant b. Then. with F2 = 0 due to an unit value of with F2 0 as — (9—14) we can write the expression for 0. we write U. = F. GOVERNfNG APPROACH 213 2.F2F2 3.
= u41} = {u3. has the form [—.214 FORCE METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP. we can contract U2 and P2. (3) e0.1 —1/16 in. d2.2 (2) Material is linearly elastic. E9—1A 2 3 10 kips I 20 kips (1) A1 = 1.8flFj = Step 2: + [1j{F3} [01 Determination of f22. and write PT fl /D' 2 2 .8 +.. = 0. and F2 Since only u32 and u41 are finite.83 10 kips 20 kips We could have obtained the above results for F1 by solving B11F1 = P1 B12F'2 which. eo.2 A3 =0. 9 Fig.2 A2 0.5 in.6 +61 (F1) 110) [.51n. for this system. F1. Fig.50 3/8 —20.33 1/2 2.Oin. E9—1B 3. u41 =—1/I5in. E = 3 )< i04 ksi for all bars.2 (4) u32 + 1/10th.
The original form of (a) follows from (9—10). Using (9—15).31 Solving (a).3} = 0 f2 and evaluate f22 and d2.018} We apply a unit load at joint 1 in the X1 direction and determine the bar forces in the primary structure and the reactions (P32..24. 2} = { T'6. we obtain (a) F2 = {F3} = —5. )T (c) fr'2 — (1 UO' 1 15 = e1. = Ff. The GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH 215 force matrices follow from step 1: F1.0 + f1F1 {.0 + 1— 17. e0. we are given that e1.1e1 — Now. —.S7kips Equation (a) actually represents a restriction on the elongations.0 F1. 0} (inches) (inches) e2. p. (9—12) reduces to 1. o {eo./kip) 12(25) 12(25) = Then. It remains to assemble The flexibility factors are (in.0 = {eo. 9—2. —4.17} { (kips) (kips) (kips) — = Also. Equation (b) reduces to (a) when we substitute for the elongations in terms of the bar forces.SEC. P41) corresponding to the nonvanishing prescribed displacements 1 .3SF3 = —7.27kips F1 = F1. — 8e1 — a — —.53kips = 0. 3 x 12 = 13 = 12(20) x = f2 = [f3] = 0.8(2 x Evaluating the various products in (943). Step 3: Determination of the Displacements Suppose only u11 is desired. F2 {—2083.
AFTe — 0 for any statically permissible system of virflial bar forces and reactions which satisfy the constraint condition. 9 Substituting in (c). The reactions due to AF2 are obtained from (9—6): A?2 = B2 AF = P2 F2 Substituting for AF and A?2. we obtain a11 = +185 to solving (9—8). (a) expands to F2e1 + C2 — F2U2) 0 Equation (h) must be satisfied for arbitrary AF2.e. (9—5). we apply (9—15) twice. i. they must be selfequilibrating.. we can write F where = {Fio} + B1 and B1 = 0 Then AF2 = satisfies (b) for arbitrary AF2. It is shown there (see Equation (7—14)) that the true elongations satisfy the condition. — . Finally.F. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—VARIATIONAL APPROACH We obtained the elongation compatibility equations (9—10) by operating on the elongationdisplacement equations. Alternatively. it follows that FT.el + C2 P2 F2U2 = 0 (i) Equation (i) is identical to (9—10). 7—3. B1 AF = AP1 = 0 Equation (b) states that the virtual bar forces cannot lead to increments in the prescribed jOint loads. This is equivalent 9—3. Now.216 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Note that the elongation compatibility .033 = +15 in If both displacement components are desired. one can use the principle of virtual forces developed in Sec. using (9—4).
9—8. when the tangent flexibility factors for the redundant bars are all positive. Since only F1 is required to equilibrate P1. — Pf02 = This approach is discussed in sec. We determine the displacements by applying the general form of the principle of virtual forces (see (7—10)) AFTe — = APfU1 = where the virtual forces satisfy the forceequilibrium equations. The latter involves the t See Prob. 9—4. We have written the expanded form of (i) as f22F2 = Since (i) are the Euler equations for d2 = and it follows that d2) 2U2 H _I T 221 2 — 2 c — for the linearly elastic case. (i) leads to a set of q linear equations in F2 when we substitute for the elongations in terms of the bar forces. .F. = P2. t 94. Then. COMPARtSON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 217 equations are independent of the material behavior. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS It is of interest to compare the force method for a truss with the procedure followed to find the currents in an electrical network. We take X = F2 in (7—35). we can take = AF2 = 0 and (j) leads to U1 = Note that I — — 1)11 One can interpret the compatibility equations expressed in terms of F2 as the Euler cquations for the total complementary energy function. One can show that the stationary point corresponds to a relative minimum value of H. If the material is physically linear. = and (7—37) coincides with (i).SEC. 7—5.
) e = {ej. (9—18) v={V1. .. and the governing equations for a linear resistance dc network are developed in Probs.2. . Example 9—2 A network can be represented by a line drawing consisting of curves interconnected at various points. k = emf for branch k = resistance for branch k The governing equations expressed in matrix notation are (see Prob.N Actually. A collection of nodes and branches satisfying the above restrictions is called a linear connected graph. . the graph is said to be . = nodes at positive and negative ends of branch k = current in branch k. positive when directed from node k_ to node = potential drop for branch k = Vk. 6—23): An = 0 (N eqs.218 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. For row k (Ic = jlkk = +1 dkk+ = dkj —1 1 k+ ork. Note that d has only two entries1 in any row. Also. The curves and intersection points are conventionally called branches and nodes respectively. (9—19) =0 1= 1. If each branch is assigned a direction. e2. 9 application of Kirchhoff's laws and is called the mesh method. Each branch is terminated at two different nodes and no two branches have a point in common which is not a node.. We list the notation and governing equations for convenience: b = number of branches N=n—1 M—b—N=b—n+1 k+. 6—14. d is just the matrix equivalent of the branchnode connectivity table. two nodes are connected by at least one path. 6—6..) e0 (9—16) (9—17) e = AV = where i + Ri (b eqs..V2 R1 R= R2 Rb and A is obtained by deleting the last column of the branchnode connectivity matrix d. — Vk+ ek e0. 6—23. 6—14. Various phases of the electrical network formulation are discussed in Probs. k n number of nodes = potential at node j with respect to the reference potential.
4) of d. Therefore. E9—2 3 Node Branch 1 I 2 3 —1 +1 2 3 +1 +1 —. Consider the oriented graph shown. We list the branch numbers vertically and the node numbers horizontally. We assemble d working with successive branches. A has N linearly independent columns. The connectivity relations for a network are topological properties of the corresponding oriented graph.1 A 4 —1 —1 N Now. 9—4. (N x N) (bxN) — [ A1 [A2 (MXN) (Nx 1) = JJi__ (Mx)) . it is possible to solve (9—16) for N branch currents in terms of b — N = M branch currents. i after row N. Finally.SEC. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 219 oriented. 2 Fig. We suppose the branches are numbered such that the first N rows of A contain a nonvanishing determinant of order N and partition A. we obtain A by deleting the last column (cot.
One can express (9—17) in partitioned form and then eliminate V. it should be noted that the network problem is one dimensional whereas the truss problem involves the geometry as well as the cpnnectivity of the system. Although the equations for the truss and electrical network are similar in form. one can use the variational principle developed in Prob. 7—6. This will be the case for a real system. we obtain CTe1 = 0 (9—26) Equation (9—26) represents M equations relating the branch potential differences (voltages). One can represent a mesh by listing sequentially the branches traversed. substituting for in terms of leads to (R2 + CTR1C1)i2 —e2. that is. we write (9—17) as = A1V = e2 e1 + R1i1 A2V = e20 + R212 (N eqs) (M eqs) (9—24) Once i1 is known. 9 Introducing (9—20) in (9—16) leads to ATi1 = (9—21) 0. 0 and for a truss. we can find V from A1V e1 = e2 + e1 + R1i1 (9—25) Eliminating V from the second equation in (9—24) and using (9—23). or alternatively. To find the corresponding matrices (F1. A closed path containing only one repeated node that begins and ends at that node is called a mesh. Also. We write the solution of the Since tAil node equations as i= = Ci2 [Cii.0 — Cfe10 (9—27) The coefficient matrix for i2 is positive definite when the branch resistances are positive. The essential step in the solution involves solving (9—21). one must solve a system of linear equations. we describe a procedure for assembling C1 directly from the oriented graph. In what follows. finding C1. Finally. Using the first approach.220 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. A2 by C1 = (9—23) It remains to determine a set of M equations for i2. we can solve for i1 in terms of i2. I'2 I (9—22) Note that C1 is of order N by M and is related to A1. One can assemble C1 using only the topological properties of the oriented graph which represents the network. Note that C1 corresponds to for the truss problem. A tree is defined as a connected graph having no . the branches comprising A1 (and i1) correspond to the primary structure.
— 1. the current in branch r due to a unit value of is equal to + 1 (—1) if the positive directions of branch rand meshj coincide (are opposite in sense). 2 Fig.SEC. Now. Then M = b — N = 3 and we must remove 3 branches to obtain a tree. The column corresponding to involves only those branches of the tree which are contained in mesh j. Then i1 represents the required branch currents in the tree. E9—3. We enter (+1. Example 9—3 For the graph in example 9—2. and 6 as the chords. 9—4. that is. negatively. Suppose branch r is contained in mesh j. We take the positive direction of mesh j (clockwise or counterclockwise) such that the mesh direction coincides with the positive direction for chord j. We assemble C1 working with the columns. we take the elements of i2 as the chord (mesh) currents. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 221 Let hT be the number of branches in a tree connecting 11 nodes. bT=n—l=N (9—28) We reduce a graph to a tree by removing a sufficient number of branches such that no meshes remain. One can easily show that meshes. Note that one can always number the branches such that the first N branches define a tree. The branches removed are generally called chords. N = n — 1 = 3 and b = 6. say mesh j. We indicate the chords by dashed lines.0) in row k of this column if branch k is (positively. we associate the branches comprising a tree with the rows of A1. Selecting a tree is equivalent to selecting N linearly independent rows in A. Then. The resulting tree is shown in Fig. The required number of chords is equal to b — = b — N = M. We take branthes 4 . Now. E9—3 1 3 . the current is constwit in a niesh. Chord j and the unique path (in the tree) connecting the terminals of chord j define a mesh. The M chords correspond to the redundant branches. We have expressed the solution of the node equations as i1=C1 I) (NXM) (Mxl) 12 Now. 5 . the rows of A2. not) included in mesh j.
We work with successive columns. C = {C1. Note that C1 is just the matrix equivalent of(a). ij = {i1. 4 5 6 Branches 1 — 2 3 1 —l• 0 +1 0 —1 ofthe tree 1 +1 0 +1 —1 The matrices. successive chords. that is. (9—26). Equation (9—30) states that the sum of the potential drops around each mesh must be zero and is just Kirchhoff's voltage law expressed in matrix form. we see that A and C have the property (N x Ill) ATC = 0 (9—29) Also. A1 and A2. as (SIx 1) CTe = 0 (9—30) The rows of CT define the incidence of the meshes on the branches. 9 For this selection of a tree. i2. The matrix . Using (9—23). The resulting matrix is listed below. we can express the compatibility equations. follow from Example 9—2: —! A1= 0 0 —1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 0 0 —l 0 —1 —1 A2= One can readily verify that 0 +1 C1 = The matrix. i5. Im}.222 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. is called thc branchmesh incidence matrix. 13} i2 {i4. i6} The meshes associated with the chords follow directly from the sketch: mesh4 mesh5 mesh6 To assemble C1 we list the branches of the tree vertically and the chord numbers horizontally.
A.E.. FF. Let q = (a) (b) m — n. PROBLEMS 9—1. EM 3.1. August 1963.. and Stability. Show that the consistency requirement. W. 2. Ronald Press. A.: Matrix computer Analyris of Structures. 1968. Use the approach suggested in Problems 2—12 through 2—14.: "NetworkTopological Formulation of Struc 8. 6. 1967. and F. Consider a system of in equations in n unknowns.x2} 2 2 3 1 0 0 l. Di MAGGIO. Wiley. H. F. . tural Analysis. H. 1969. S. 4. F. of course..: Structural Systems—Statics. ax = c. Div. M. MORICE. Show that the coefficient matrix f22 is positive definite for arbitrary rank of F1 P2 when is positive definite. 91. for the system leads to q relations between the elements of c. 3. D.S. PrenticeHall. 1966. New York.. also applies to the truss problem. C. No.'v Structural Analysis.: Theory of Ma/rLr Structural Analysis.C. BRANIN. McGrawHill. Interpret (9—10) from this point of view. B. McGrawHill.. and R. 5. No. where in> n.Y25 0 0 0 0 x1 3 2 12 4 00 1 0 x2 X3 + 1 0002 x4 2 9—3. F. Vol. RUBINSTEIN." Eng. 7.S. This. W000HEAD: Frame Analysis. In the conventional approach. RUBINSTEIN.NVE.: Linear Structural Analysis. REFERENCES 1. HALL. . B. and W. S. and J. 1960. one assembles the equations individually. P. 9—2.. WILBUR: Elementa. A. 9—2. PrenticeFlaIl. New York. 1970. R. The two approaches differ only with respect to the assemblage of the governing equations. JR. 89. Mech. J. Dynamics. SNLLERS: "Network Analysis of Structures. This involves repeated application of the basic laws. ST4. Vol. PRZEMIENIECKI.PROBLEMS 223 formulation of the network problem leads to the same system of equations that one would obtain by applying Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws to the various nodes and meshes. Structures Div. TakeX1 {xi. When the equations are expressed in matrix form. S. June 1965. the steps reduce to a sequence of matrix multiplications.C.E.. M.S. Solve the following system using the procedure outlined in Sec. New York." J. Suppose r(a) = a and the first a rows of a are linearly independent.
Also discuss how you would account for either yielding or buckling of a bar. F10. Discuss how you would organize the computational scheme. Take (3) Only initial elongation for bar 4. F. 9—6 x2 xl 15' 15' (1) Material is linear elastic and the flexibility factors are equal. 9—5. For the truss shown: Using (9—10). (b) Express u52 in terms of the elongations and support movements. 9—6. Distinguish between a redundant bar and a bar in the primary structure. = {u42 } (2) Only u42 is finite./i where 2 is the load parameter and defines the loading distribution. Prob. 8—3 with the force method: Take F3 as the force redundant. (a) 9—8. for the segment corresponding to the initial value of F. where only the magnitude is increased. 9—7. Let P1 1. determine the elongationcompatibility relations.e. Develop an incremental "force" formulation starting with — B1 = Ae B2 AF AF Bf AU1 + AU2 = + ft AF represent the flexibility factor and incremental initial elongation where f'. F9. Consider the case where the loading distribution is constant. By definition (see (7—26) and (7—31)) = AFTe — . for the truss shown. Assemble the equations for F2 = (F8. One has to modify bothft and if the limit of the segment is exceeded (see sec. 9 9—4.. Takt as the redundant bars. 6—4 for a detailed treatment).224 FORCE METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP. i. Solve Prob. bars ©.
9—9. as a quadratic form in AF2. 9—9 0 (a) (b) (c) Determine A. . 9—i 2 x2 x1 Then — = AFT de Express d2fl. Consider the material to be nonlinear elastic and establish criteria for the stationary point to be a relative minimum. Verify that ATC = 0. Determine C. Prob. Consider the oriented linear graph shown.PROBLEMS 225 Prob.
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Part III ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER ELEMENT .
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229 . this step. We also apply the conditions of static equilibrium to the volume elements. the internal force per unit area acting on a differential area. Substitution of the straindisplacement relations in the stressstrain relations leads to a set of equations relating the stress and derivatives of the displacement components. The form of these equations depends on the material behavior (linear elastic. The forces due to the interactions of adjacent volume elements are called internal forces. In this step.10 Governing Equations for a Delormable Solid 10—1. Study of deformation. we analyze the state of stress at a point. Note that the study of forces is purely an equilibrium problem. GENERAL The formulation of the governing equations for the behavior of a deformable solid involves the following three steps: 1. 3. is defined as the stress vector. 2. Also. This step leads to a set of equations relating the strains and derivatives of the displacement components at a point. This leads to a set of differential equations (called stress equilibrium equations) which must be satisfied at each point in the interior of the body and a set of algebraic equations (called stress boundary conditions) which must be satisfied at each point on the surface of the body. We visualize the body to consist of a set of differential volume elements. Note that the analysis of strain is purely a geometrical problem. Study of forces. inelastic.). nonlinear elastic. say dAd. that is. Relate forces and displacements. etc. we investigate how the stress vector varies with orientation of the area element. We analyze the change in shape of a differential volume element due to displacement of the body. The quantities required to specify the deformation (change in shape) are conventionally called strains. We refer to this system as the stressdisplacement relations. we first relate the stress and strain components at a point.
x. In Chapter 14.represent nthorder column matrices: a= b= {Oj. St. We illustrate its application below. Example 1. we develop the engi neering theory for an arbitrary planar member.. a. and the stress and displacement boundary conditions. 1O—2. + = To avoid having to write the summation sign. Venarit's theory of torsionfiexure of prismatic members and apply the theory to some simple cross sections.2 and we write the scalar product as aTb = a1b1 ii) (10—2) (10—3) The summation convention allows us to represent operations on multidimensional arrays in compact form.b2 10—1 Their scalar (inner) product is defined as aTb = bTa = a1b1 + a2h2 + . According to this convention (i = 1. establishing the governing equations. we present the engineering theory for an arbitrary space member. In this chapter.. it is understood the term is summed over the range of the index. i. SUMMATION CONVENTION.e. in Chapter 15. 10 The governing equations for a deformable solid consist of the stress equilib rium equations. stressdisplacement relations. c=ax aisrnx n . Finally. 10—i Consider the product of a rectangular matrix. we develop the governing equations for a linearly elastic solid following the steps outlined above.. In Chapter 11. 02 {h1. and a column vector. CARTESIAN TENSORS Let a and b. The conventional engineering theory of prismatic members is developed in Chapter 12 and a more refined theory for thin walled prismatic members which includes the effect of warping of the cross section is discussed in Chapter 13.230 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. we present St. we introduce the convention that when an index is repeated in a term. It is particularly convenient for formulation. We also extend the variational principles developed in Chapter 7 for an ideal truss to a threedimensional solid. Venant's theory provides us with considerable insight as to the nature of the behavior and also as to how we can simplify the corresponding mathematical problem by introducing certain assumptions.
il. fg. 10—2. we can write (h) as d11 + d22 + d11 = trace of d AIIk(XkX( H= = 4. we must convert cki. = xT(aTa)x H = d= and can be expressed as cc1 = 0f50 The outer product is a secondorder array. = According to the summation convention. g scalars defined by frxTax g = xrbx The matrix form of the product. SUMMATION CONVENTION. Let represent a onedimensional set of elements associated with an orthogonal reference frame having directions If the . Let a. is fg =(xTax)(xTbx) One could expand (d) but it is more convenient to utilize (b) and write (c) (c) as f= g = bk(xkxe fg = = 3.SEC. The inner product is defined as the sum of the products of corresponding elements: Inner product ç. CARTESIAN TENSORS 231 The typical term is c• => (b) 2. ccT axxraT = alkaf. Let represent square secondorder arrays.xlxfxkx( DIJk(XIXJXkX( We return to part 1 The inner product of c is a scalar.xkx. ejj over to onedimensional arrays. x a column vector. and f. alJbk. II Using (b).) = = + + + + g21e21 + (m) In order to represent this product as a matrix product. = AIJk(XkXe = Then.. b be square matrices. H.
Noting = (10—5) (5—5). k. f See Prob. 10—1. The corresponding point and position vector in the deformed state are taken as F'. (10—10) This notation is shown in Fig. 1. sum of the principal secondorder minors. and the determinant are invariant. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. 2—5. the origin of an orthogonal cartesian reference frame.n. 3 . 103. CARTESIAN STRAINS Let P denote an arbitrary point in the undeformed state of a body and the position vector for P with respect to 0. By definition. and the movement from P to P' is represented by the displacement vector. .t = fl(2) where = = b12 021 L 022 7 + b22 032 7 b23 033 7 + b11 b13 1733 In the cases we encounter. Then.232 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP.2. b will be symmetrical. We know that the magnitude of a vector is invariant. we can write (10—4) as and it follows that the set of orthogonal components of a vector are a firstorder cartesian tensor. = (10—8) The transformation (10—8) is orthogonal and the trace. fl. (10—6) A secondorder cartesian tensor is defined as a set of doubly subscripted elements which transform according to = An alternate form is (10—7) j. 2. 10 corresponding set for a second reference frame is related to the first set by — — k = we cos 1. the sum of the squares of the elements of a firstorder tensor is invariant. 3 (10—4) say that the elements of b comprise a firstorder cartesian tensor.
is defined as the relative change in length with respect . The initial length and direction cosines are ds and using the subscript notation for partial differentiation. p = = = (10—13) The extensional strain. approach. Geometric notation. We are = / = (10—12) Since we are in the deformed state is The corresponding line arid we can write following the Lagrange approach.SEC. This is known as the Lagrange Undeformed dp F' (Deformed) i3 2 112 Fig. Then. 10—1). the displacement from the initial undeformed position will be small for a solid. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. we work with cartesian components for ü. Also. (See Fig. ii = We consider a differential line element at P represented by the vector dii. r. and it is reasonable to take the initial Cartesian coordinates (xi) as the independent variables. 10—3. 10—1. to simplify the derivation. CARTESIAN STRAINS 233 Excluding rigid body motion.
= and the strain is defined as = (1 — are also called the See Prob. (10—14) becomes (1 Finally. we consider 2 initially orthogonal line elements represented by (see Fig. 10—2) and having direction cosines + d r'. 10 to the initial length.e.kejk (10—15) — = One can readily establish that (eJk) is a secondorder symmetrical Cartesian tensor4 direction and letting Taking the line element to be initially parallel to the represent the extensional strain. t This is the definition of Lagrangian strain.. we see that (no sum) = e0 (10—16) 1) = To interpret the offdiagonal terms. 10—4. 10—2. xa I — '/12 p.234 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. Notation for shearing strain.t = (1 + (10— 14) Using the dot product. we write (a) as e(1 + 4c) = ap. The elements. In the Eulerian approach. They relate the difference between the square of the initial and deformed lengths of the line element. dp'1 x2 Fig. It is known as Green's strain tensor. an alternate definition of Cjk — ds2 = 2eJkdxJdxk . i. components of finite strain. the cartesian coordinates for the deformed state are taken as the independent variables.
. The relations for "small" strain are: 1 (10—20) It remains to expand eJk.n — . = Differentiating + ii + u. Y12 = Substituting for k)dsf = (1 + (sum on k only) and noting that the lines are initially orthogonal. The state of strain is completely defined once the strain tensor is specified for a particular set of directions.Ji. with respect to S OP = = + Un. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION.. For example. 10—3. COS — (it — . follows by state. ) J= . CARTESIAN STRAINS 235 We define as the angle between the lines in the deformed which is called the shearing strain. shearing strain. 10—3). is related to the (10—18) (I + + = = Equations (10—15) and (10—17) are actually transformation laws for extensional and shearing strain. e for steel. j)l. it is quite reasonable (aside from the fact that it simplifies the expressions) to assume r.SEC. and let = 15 tk. y) are small with respect to unity for engineering materials such as metals and concrete. The expression for taking the dot product of the deformed vectors. To generalize these expressions. we consider two orthogonal frames defined by the unit vectors and (see Fig. Therefore. take the initial frame parallel to the global frame = ti). y in the strain expressions. Now. With this notation: + (1 + + = ) = (10—19) The strain measures (e.. = (a) takes the form (1 + + = shows that 2e13 (10—17) Specializing (10—17) for lines parallel to X.
.. (Equation (10—15)) leads to (sum on m only) (10—21) + 4Um. and the angles which define the rotation of the line toward the X2. (b) for u2. = e11 = U1.u.. 1+ i+ i+ We solve (a).1 1 (1 + 013 — . 03. 10—3. and 03. by definition. we must establish the geometrical significance of the various terms. Unit vectors defining transformation of orthogonal directions.3 X2 With this objective.236 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CllAP. 10 and substituting into the definition of eJk = k + Uk. x3 t3 t2 Fig. k In order to simplify (10—21). The geometrical relations of interest to us are 012. . + + uj 1 i4. sin 0j3 = 033 1 + 1421 sine12 (1 + 81)cos 0j3 )2 (1 + Also. Figure 10—4 shows the initial and deformed positions. K3 directions. / + t. we consider a line element initially parallel to the X1 axis.
10—4. we assume small strain and express the derivatives and extensional strain (see Equation (d)) as u3. Initial and deformed positions of a line element. "13 a11 = + + (f) The various approximate theories are obtained by specializing (f).u1 Fig. according to this approximation. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. = A= 1 (1 + {1 — A}112 — 1 sin2 013 + cos2 013 sin2 012 (10—23) Applying the binomial expansion. the deformed orientation coincides . the rotations are neglected with respect to strain. (1 — x)"2 = I — + + (10—24) to (1 — we can write (10—23) as — + + — + + (10—25) In what follows. 1— u1. Formally. n2 t/12. CARTESIAN STRAINS 237 and then solve (c) for u1. 10—3.SEC. 'U3 dx1 dx1 1123 dx1 X1. In the linear geometric case. 1 = 0(013) U1 1= 0(012. one sets 012 = 613 = 0 in (f) and the result is a linear relation between strain and displacement. a11  (g) Note that.
The relations for finite rotation and small strain are = = = = + + + (no sum) + + u11(l + k + Uk.238 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMA8LE SOLID CHAP. (10—26) The next level of approximation is to consider 62 to be of the same order 02 = sin 0 cos 6 0(s) << 1 0 1 (10—27) We can neglect with respect to 1 in (f). = = =  + + I + + Uk iUk. The first condition will always be satisfied for engineering materials such as metals. If the body is massive in all three directions. The strains are negligible with respect to unity. the rotations are negligible with respect to the strains for an arbitrary loading.. 2. etc. en = = (no sum) + ui. j k (no sum) (10—28) We utilize these expressions to develop a geometrically nonlinear formulation for a member in Chapter 18. consider the simply supported member shown . and Products of the rotations are negligible with respect to the strains. a thin plate or slender member) and the applied loading results in a significant change in the geometry. Whether the second restriction is satisfied depends on the configuration of the body and the applied loading. We have shown that linear straindisplacement relations are based on the following restrictions: 1.j 10—29 Note that the truss formulation presented in Chapter 6 allows for arbitrary magnitude of the rotations. concrete.. u11 + + (h) The complete set of straindisplacement relations for small strain and smallfinite rotation are listed below for reference.g. The general relations for the linear geometric case (small strain and infinitesimal rotation) are = = as strain. 10 with the initial orientation. Lastly. if no restrictions are imposed on the magnitude of the rotations. but we must retain ci 1 and 1 since they are of 0(62). As an illustration. one must use (10—21). We have to include the nonlinear rotation terms in the strain displacement relations only if the body is thin (e.iUk.
P) Case1 (Q) Fig. 10—5. 10—6). This can be defined by tracking the movement of a triad of line elements initially parallel to the global directions. Example of linear and geometrically nonlinear behavior. Equations (10—30) reduce to (10—31) for the geometrically linear case and to + 13j1Jk + (no sum) [0—32 for the case of small strain and smallfinite rotations. To treat a geometrically nonlinear problem. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. The unit vector pointing in the direction of dTh is denoted by p. We can neglect the change in geometry. /3jklk I3jk — + (10—30) + for small strain We will utilize (10—30) in the next section to establish the stress equilibrium equations for the geometrically nonlinear case.if only a transverse loading is applied (case 1). Case 2 (Q. we must work with the deformed geometry rather than the initial geometry. = = = we can write vi (no sum) (no sum) (1 + Using (a). By definition. 10—5. the change in geometry is no longer negligible and we must include the nonlinear rotation terms in the straindisplacement relations. We let be the initial set and the deformed set (see Fig. . However. = for small strain Finally. CARTESIAN STRAINS 239 in Fig. 10—3. we express in terms of the unit vectors for the initial frame. if both axial and transverse loads are applied (case 2).SEC.
We do not allow for the possibility of the existence of a moment acting on a differential area element. We pass a cutting plane through the deformed body and separate the two segments as shown in Fig. Consider a body subjected to some effect which results in internal forces. . 10—6. We let in denote the outward normal direction for the internal face of body and refer to this face as the + in face. . One can include this effect by defining a vectort in addition to a stress vector. p. 6. 10—7. etc. 10—4. Initial and deformed geometries.. I) (10—33) Note that has the units of force/area. i.240 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. This step is generally called the analysis of stress. 68. hm AA. it depends on the orientation of the area element. In this section. the subscript. 10 / ii f =dxji1 Fig. m. we establish the equilibrium conditions for the internal forces in a body.e. Also. ANALYSIS OF STRESS The effects of the surroundings on a body such as contact pressure. In general. on the direction of the outward normal. Now.. and let A Fm be the resultant internal is defined as force vector acting on this element. gravitational attraction. f See Ref. The stress vector.result in internal forces. is used for quantities associated with the + m face. we consider a differential area element AAm.
we use a subscript j for quantities associated with the X face. that is. In the limit (as P Q). we write = = = (10—35) = etc. 10—7. The term M0 represents the change in due to translation from Q to the centroid.SEC. Notation for internal force. 241 We consider next the corresponding area element in the —rn From Newton's law. 3). To simplify the notation. For equilibrium. 2. 10—4. the outward normal direction. j = 1. say Q. 10—8.. the force system is concurrent and therefore we have to . we consider the tetrahedron shown in Fig. = and it follows that = reversed.. The outward normals for the other three faces are parallel to the reference axes (X1. The force vectors acting at the centroids of the faces are shown in Fig. ANALYSIS OF STRESS face. With this objective. the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish. the face whose outward normal points in the + direction. we need an expression for the stress vector associated with an arbitrary plane through Q. (1O—34) The stress vector has the same magnitude and line of action but it's sense is Body I Body 2 Note: Deformed state Fig. —ö. 10—8. For example. In order to analyze the state of stress at a point. The orientation of the arbitrary plane is defined by q.
and letting aqj be the direction cosine for the q direction with respect to the direction. we express the stress vectors in terms of their components with respect to the coordinate axes (j = 1. From Fig. 3). X1) = (10—36) Finally. 2. Differential tetrahedral element. j = 1. AA1 is the projection of AAq on the X2X3 plane. Equation (a) reduces to = (1037) Once the stress vectors for three orthogonal planes at Q are known. Equation (10—37) is the transformation law for the Stress vector. x2 + i2 I + x3 + 2)LXA2 Fig. = = cos(q.2. The component of 5q in a particular direction is equal to the scalar product of 6q and a unit vector pointing in thedesired direction. 10—8. Noting that the projection of LxAq on a plane is equal to AAq times the scalar product of and the unit normal vector for the plane. in the limit. Now. we can determine the stress vector for an arbitrary plane through Q with (10—37). we have crq + &Tq = (a3 + — Now.242 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP.3 (10—38) = aqklk . we can write AA. 10—8. 10 consider only the force equilibrium condition.
m. and the second to the direction.is determined from aqn. in the direction and (10—41) (c) takes the form = This result shows that the set is a secondorder cartesian tensor. For example. Letting and noting (10—38). 10—4. a12 acts on the X1 face and points in the X2 direction... = t3 ii cJ3k:k = (10—40) face Defining identifying as the component acting on the 1 with i. ANALYSIS OF STRESS 243 Note that the first subscript on a stress component always refers to the flice. 10—9. The positive sense of the components for a negative The normal (a13) and inplane (afk) comface is reversed since ponents are generally called normal and shearing stresses. 10—9. x2 ta22 4 T FIg. Notation for stress components..SEC. 10—3) where t. Substituting for the stress vectors in (10—37) results in = cxqjajk (10—39) The component of 5q with respect to an arbitrary direction. . This notation is illustrated in Fig. (a) expands to We generalize (c) for two orthogonal frames specified by the unit vectors (see Fig.
e.e. The equilibrium equations relate to the deformed state. the stress tensor is symmetrical and there are only six independent stress measures for the threedimensional case and three for the twodimensional case. Point 0 is at the centroid of the element. it is natural to work with a rectangular parallelepiped having sides parallel to the global directions. Later we will shift back to the Lagrange approach Second. i. 10 It remains to establish the equilibrium equations for a differential volume element. t We arc following the Eulerian approach here. This is shown in Fig. The stress vectors are considered to be functions of the deformedt coordinates We obtain the forces acting on the faces by expanding the stress vectors about 0 and retaining only the first two terms4 Letting b denote the external force per unit volume and enforcing the equilibrium conditions leads to (1042) and = 0 x = 0 (10—43) The scalar force equilibrium equations are obtained by expanding the vector equations using (10—38). i3 + dfl3 + (— di73 dr13 ant Fig. i. when the element is shrunk to a point. .244 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOUD CHAP. Force equilibrium + = 0 k= k= 1.. 10—10. 10—10. we must consider a differential element on the deformed body.and higherorder terms will vanish in the limit. 2. Since we have defined the stress components with respect to the global Cartesian directions. Differential volume element in Eulerian representation. 3 (10—44) Moment equilibrium = 1 23 (10—45) Moment equilibrium requires the shearing stress components to be symmetrical.. Then.
0 is prescribed.SEC. ANALYSIS OF STRESS 245 Equations (10—44) must be satisfied at each point in the interior of the body. We define and write as the outward normal vector at a point on the deformed surface (10—46) = The external force per unit deformed surface area is denoted by (10—47) = pnjlj Applying (10—37) leads to the stressboundary forceequilibrium relations: Ph = (10—48) Pnj i3nk0kj f= 1. the stress components must equilibrate the applied surface forces.e. If is prescribed. (10—48) represent boundary conditions is a reaction. The analysis of stress described above is based on the Eulërian approach. 10—11.. Also.e. we considered the displacements (and strains) to be functions of the initial coordinates (xi). i. Figure 10—Il shows the initial and Initia' / (I + €2)dx2 (1 +e1)dxj 4 Deformed dX2[ dx1 U12 Lagrange (I Eu'er drj1 (I x2 Fig. 3 When p. f See Prob. i. 2.. This poses a problem since the strain and stress measures are referred to different volume elements. 10—12. where the deformed coordinates are taken as the independent variables. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian representations for a volume element. Our derivation of straindisplacement relations employed the Lagrange approach. at the boundary. 10—4. . on the stress components.
10 deformed area elements corresponding to the two viewpoints. The two approaches coalesce and we just have where is the direction cosine for the with to replace with and initial direction of the exterior normal. In the linear geometric case. Figure . Substituting for  (10—30). b* as the force per unit initial volume. which correspond to (10—44) + b7 = 0 1. we assume small strain and neglect the change in orientation due to rotation. results in the following scalar equations. 2. 3 The boundary equilibrium equations are obtained by expanding = and have the form pnj (10—54) k *_ — — . Conversely. to be consistent with the Eulerian stresses. To be consistent with the Lagrange strains. The stress and force vectors are considered to be functions of the initial coordinates (xe). we have to refer the strain measures to nonorthogonal directions in the initial state.246 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. 10—6) defined by the unit vectors. The linear equilibrium equations are: + hk 0 (10—49) CXj For the geometrically nonlinear case. and as the force per unit initial surface area. The equilibrium equations at an interior point are + b* = x 0 (10—50) (X1 (1 + 0 We express the body force and stress vectors as — k = The set. we must work with a nonorthogonal parallelepiped whose sides are parallel to the deformed line elements in the analysis of stress. we work with stress measures referred to the deformed directions (see Fig. and (10—45): + (105 1) using is called the Kirchhoff stress tensor. We define as the stress vector per unit initial area acting on the face which initially is normal to the direction.2.10—12 shows this notation for the twodimensional case.3 (1052) (10—53) 1.
. Definition of stress components in Lagrangian representation.. we neglect the change in dimensions and shape of the volume element. 10—16. For small strain.SEC. = 4 —oj dx2 dx2 dx1 / p. ANALYSIS OF STRESS 247 These equations apply for arbitrary strain and finite rotation. we will work with the Kirchhoff stress components to keep the treatment general. (10—50). However.ds pn = ij c4 dx1 / (1 e2)dx2 dx2 dx (1 + €1)dx1 x1 Fig. to (10—41). This assumption is introduced by taking (10—56) Since the deformed unit vectors are orthogonal (toe 1). In what follows. the Kirchhoff stresses now comprise a secondorder cartesian tensor and they transform according p2 x2 1. 10—12.. For infinitesimal and the equations reduce to (10—49). t See Prob. The equations simplify somewhat if we assume smallfinite (linear geometry). 10—4. we will assume small strain.
+ h Ltfl)dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—60) Equating OVT and OW leads to the general form of the stressstrain relation for a Greentype material. V= = Y12' . we apply (b) to a differential volume clement in the deformed state (see. they satisfy (10—50). The work done during the deformation process is independent of the order in which the body is deformed. . M. one can show that the first order work done by the force vectors acting on the element is OW = . The forces are in equilibrium. 10—11. + dx2 dx3 + . Fig.) (10—57) The material is said to be hyperelastic (Greentype) when V is a continuous function. Also.. and (a) reduces to OW Now. e. Our starting point is the first law of thermodynamics: 5W = OVT + OQ where OW = firstorder work done by the forces acting on the body 0 VT = firstorder change in the total strain energy (also called internal energy) = firstorder change in the total heat content. We define V as the strain energy per unit initial volume. V is a function of the deformation measures. cejj ciek( (10—58) By definition. 10 10—5. In general. See Prob. ELASTIC STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS A body is said to be elastic if it returns to its initial dimensions and shape when the applied forces are removed. When the deformation process is isothermal or adiabatic. = (3• (10—61) tSeeProb. is.g. . = OV(dx1 dx2 dx3) cW = where cetj (10—59) is the firstorder changet in due to an incremental displacement. OQ = 0. This requires = oek. 1Q—12). 10—18. . We treat first an arbitrary elastic material and then specialize the results for a linearly elastic material.248 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP.
We list the stress and strain components in column matrices and drop the superscript k on the Kirchhoff stress components: = = {e11. ELASTIC STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS 249 This definition applies for arbitrary strain. 2e12. The elements of A are determined from material tests. (10—64) The matrix transformation laws are = (10—65) Since ÔV is invariant under a transformation of reference frames. and A is called the material compliance matrix. Equation (10—62) requires D (and A) to be symmetrical. i. which requires (10—62) 43e1j In what follows. we restrict the discussion to small strain and a linearly elastic material.g. . the stressstrain relations must satisfy (10—58). where the stressstrain relations are linear. e33. e22. 10—13. We also shift from indicial notation to matrix notation. 2e31} (10—63) = With this notation. Substituting for in (10—64).. Once V is specified.e. A' V= — a°)TD(a — a°) (10—69) Since V > 0 for arbitrary (E — a°). we can obtain expressions for the stresses in terms of the strains by differentiating V. The number of independent constants is reduced if the material structure t See Prob. e. 10—5. and D is generated by inverting A. is expressed as a a° ± (10—67) where a° contains the initial strains not associated with stress. Since V is continuous.. 10—6. the transformation matrices are related by 1 (10—66) The total strain. 2e23. There are 21 material constants for a linearly elastic Greentype material. which is more convenient for this phase. We write the inverted relations as = D(a — a°) (10—68) where D = is the material rigidity matrix. D and A are positive definite matrices. we obtain the form of the strain energy density for the linear case.SEC. e. strain due to a temperature increment.
tA material whose structure has no symmetry is said to be anisotropic. Equating the expressions for a' Fig. Rotation of axes for symmetry with respect to the X2X3 plane. exhibits = —x1 = x3 = x2 The stress and deformation quantities are related by (we replace 1 by — I and 3 by —3 in the shear terms) = a12 = Y12 = —a12 Y12 = 1. 10—13.2. and substitute for using (b). A material whose structure has three orthogonal axes of symmetry is called orthotropic.250 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. To determine the number of independent constants for this case. we describe the transition from an anisotropic material to an isotropic material. The structure of an orthotropic material appears identical after a 1800 rotation about a symmetry axis. X2. we suppose X1. We use a prime superscript to indicate the rotated axes.3 —a23 a23 a13 = Y13 a13 Y13 = Y23 Now. From Fig. We expand e = Acv'. . 10—13. the stressstrain relations must be identical in form. 10 In what follows. X3 are axes of symmetry and consider a 180° rotation about X2.
cr12 leads only to An alternate form of the orthotropic stressstrain relations is !(733 V32 a1 = AT + 1 — — E2 —a33 (10—71) a33 — = 1 /13 AT + 1 — —i— Y12 = Y23 = 1 1 Y31 = where E4 are extensional moduli. Also. = + a24a12 + a25a23 = a34a12 + a35a23 = 314(T12 — ti15a33 a25a23 —a24a12 —a34u12 — — For (c) to be satisfied. the shearing effect is uncoupled. There is no interaction between extension and shear. By rotating 1800 about X1. The coupling terms are related by E2 E1 E3 E1 E3 E2 (1072) . Finally.e. 0 0 0 0 a12 a23 (733 (1070) 0 Y31 0 0 a66 We see that A is quasidiagonal and involves 9 independent constants. are shear moduli. Vjk are coupling coefficients. i.. the stressstrain relations for an orthotropic material reduce to a11 a12 — £444 — a12 a22 0j3 a23 0  a1.SEC. ELASTIC STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS 251 and leads to the following relations between the elements of A. 10—5. when the strains are referred to the structural symmetry axes. we find = a36 = a45 0 a16 = A rotation about the X3 axis will not result in any additional conditions. the coefficients must vanish identically. This requires £434 = a15 = 0 a24 = £435 a34a350 = 0 The symmetry conditions require We consider next the expansions for a46 = a56 = 0. and AT is the temperature increment.
is called Poisson's ratio. A = A' for arbitrary The relations are obtained by specializing (10—74): = p AT + (at. A is invariant when we transform from X1X2X3 to This c. 10 It is relatively straightforward to invert these relations:t One should note that (10—71) apply only when X. v. E1. Lastly. IO21.. . § See Prob. coincide with the material symmetry directions4 If the stressstrain relations are invariant for arbitrary directions in a plane. 10—22. The inverted form of (10—75) is written as a= a0 a0 + + + + (10—76) = = + 2G)pAT t See Prob. '—'12''31'' v32 v23 v 1 2(1 + v) F  and the relations reduce to = AT + — (a22 + (10—74) = PAT + = pAT + 1 1 — — — va27) y23 Yi2 2(l+v) Y31 There are five independent constants (F. the material is called isotropic when the stressstrain relations are Invariant for arbitrary directions. — + akk)) (10—75) 2(1 + v) F Note that now there are only two independent constants (F. For this case. v1. v). G1). 10—19 for the inverted form of (10—7 1). the material is said to be transversely orthotropic or isotropic with respect to the plane. i.e. where the material is isotropic with respect to the X2X3 plane. The coupling coefficient. v.252 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. We consider the case where the X1 direction is the preferred direction. By definition.
v is restricted to — 1 < v < 1/2. See Fig. principle of stationary potential energy. STATIONARY POTENTIAL ENERGY. The principle of virtual displacements states that the Iirstorder work done is equal to the first oidcr work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints for an arbitrary virtual displacement of the body from an equilibrium position. we work with Lagrange finite strain components (eJ.SEC. CLASSICAL STABILITY CRITERIA 10—6. § See (10—60). The principle of virtual forces and stationary complementary energy are treated in the next section. the external loads and the internal forces are loading consists of body (b) and surface represented by the stress vectors. The limiting case where v = + 1/2 is discussed in Problem 10—24. 10—6. i. * = = dx2dx3 dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—79) Equating (a) and (b). we obtain the 3dimensional form of the principle of See Sec. p*). Chapter 7 dealt with variational principles for an ideal truss. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 253 where G are called Lamé constants and are related to E. we derive here the 3dimensional form of the principle of virtual displacements. PRINCIPLE OF. f In the continuous case. 7—2. . Let Au denote the virtual displacement. v by G= A shear modulus = yE E 2(1 + v) (10—77) — (1 + v)(1 — 2v) Since D must be positive definite.e. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS. The total internal deformation work is obtained by summing the firstorder work done by the stress vectors acting on a differential volume element. This is consistent with our derivation of the equilibrium equations. The firstorder external work is by the external forces = = dx1 dx2 dx3 + JJj3* Au dx1 dx2 dx3 ± dfI 10—78 where fI is the initial surface area. and the classical stability criterion. 10—12.. We follow the Lagrange approach. For completeness.j. Kirchhoff stresses and external force measures per unit initial volume or area (b*.
we work with the vector form and utilize the following integration by parts formula: t = where J — dx2dx3 (1081) to the is the direction cosine for the initial outward normal (n) with respect direction.254 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. the lefthand side of (10—80) reduces to dx1 dx2 dx3 fJJ öVdx1 dx2 dx3 = We consider the surface area to consist of 2 zones as shown in Fig. 10 virtual displacements. With these definitions. The essential steps required for the truss formulation are described in Sec. = Letting VT denote the total strain energy. Operating on the lefthand term and equating coefficients in the volume and surface integrals leads directly to (10—50) and (10—54). . + where displacements are prescribed on U1 on cd (10—82) and surface force intensities arc prescribed on pni Pni on The displacement variation. To show this. 10—14. The principle of virtual displacements applies for arbitrary loading (static or dynamic) and material behavior. is admissible if it is continuous and satisfies = 0 on (10—83) We also consider the surface and body forces to be independent of the displacements. 5WD = dx1 dx2 dx3 + (10—80) dx1 dx2 dx3 = fJJh* dx1 dx2 dx3 = dx1 dx2 dx3 + Requiring (10—80) to be satisfied for arbitrary (continuous) is equivalent to enforcing the equilibrium equations. When the behavior is elastic and the loading is independent of time. When the behavior is elastic. Their extension to a continuous body is straightforward. the principle of virtual displacements is transt See Prob. 10—25. L\u1. 7—4. it can be interpreted as a variational principle for the displacements.
. V will involve up to fourthdegree reduces terms for the geometrically nonlinear case. + qTQ + . . x3). = q = Const.. and prescribed functions. . = where 0 VT for arbitrary admissible cIx1 dx2 dx3 — (1084) is the total potential energy functional. to a function of the q's. U1 = + where = 0 forj = > 1. one expresses the displacements in terms of unknown parameters. 10—14. to determine approximate solutions for the displacements. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 255 formed to = fl. 10—6. . Note that this result applies for arbitrary strain and finite rotations. Then. Galerkin.SEC. weighted residuals. V is a quadratic function of the strains. The only restrictions are elastic behavior and static loading. Classification of boundary zones. According to (10—84). . (3N x 1) K is symmetrical . In the RayleighRitz method. and others are applied to fl. 2 The displacement boundary conditions on fd are called "essential" boundary conditions. . the displacements defining an equilibrium position correspond to a stationary value of the total potential energy functional. When the material is linearly Substituting for transforms elastic. H. Example 10—2 Direct methods of variational calculus such as RayleighRitz. PH Fig. If the behavior is completely linear. q. x2.
it is more convenient to form the incremental equations directly. the equilibrium position is neutral. . f See Sec. The equations for the case of linearly elastic material and prescribed external forces are listed below. The mathematical basis for direct methods is treated in numerous texts (see Refs. 9. the incremental deformation work is equal to the increment in strain energy = > 0 and (10—84) can be written as = for arbitrary Ad (10—86) It follows that a stable equilibrium position corresponds to a relative minimum value of the total potential energy. requiring to be stationary for arbitrary c5q leads (for linear behavior) to Kq = Q The strains are evaluated by operating on (a) and the stresses are determined from the stressstrain relations. For elastic behavior. 7—6 for a derivation of the classical stability criterion. dx2 dx3 ie11 + dx2 dx3 If = Ô2WE for a particular Ad. Bifurcation (neutral equilibrium) occurs when = 0 for some Ad. The governing equations for bifurcation can be obtained by expanding This involves transforming the integrand of ö2WD = by applying (10—81). Since bifurcation corresponds to the existence of an alternate equilibrium position. If the loading is prescribed. say Ada. are itull vectors when the forces are prescribed. The "classical" stability criterion for a stable equilibrium position ist — o2WE > 0 for arbitrary Ad is the secondorder work done by the external forces where = during the incremental displacement. Polynomials and trigonometric functions are generally used to construct the spatial distribution functions. and WD = ó(ö WD) is the second order work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints during the incremental deformation resulting from Ad.256 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. See Probs. The position is unstable if ö2 WD < o2 Note that öb. The form of the work terms for a continuous body are obtained by operating on (10—78) and = Sfl = = = Ad dx1 dx2 dx3 + j( Ad (10—85) Au1 dx1 dx2 dx3 + J$ Au. Ad. 10 Finally. and ö2VT = 0 at bifurcation. 10—11. 10). 10—18.
a force system which satisfies the linear equilibrium equations. on Static permissibility requires and reactions.2. It applies only for linear geometry. 10—7. we can find the displacements by solving (a) and enforcing (b). . + Au1 0 J = 1. + Au1 AIIm. We will follow the same approach here to establish the threedimensional form.SEC. = u1 + $ Th (10—89) 0. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES. surface forces. The essential step involves selecting a statically permissible force system. We developed its form for an ideal truss in Sec. StrainDisplacement Relations = 3 + AUJ. j Am. i. For the continuous case. j + Urn. 7—3. PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY Let u1 be the actual displacements in a body due to some loading and the geometrically linear strain measures corresponding to u1.3 StressBoundary Force Equations on + 3. integrate over the volume using (10—81). 2.t Acr13 dx1 dx2 dx3 f See Prob..3 = 0 = = on on (10—88) If we multiply e13 by Ac13. 3 (10—87) StressStrain Relations = D 4. the force system consists of stresses. + = 0 = 1.e. and note the static relations. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 257 L Equilibrium Equation in the Interior + 2.. = 0 10—7. 10—26. The strain and displacement measures are related by = + u1=fl Once the strains are known. on Ac31. we obtain the following identity. The principle of virtual forces is basically a procedure for determining displacements without having to operate on (a).
(10—91) is a particular solution of the equilibrium equations which satisfies the boundary conditions on where + 0 = and satisfies Thu on (1092) = = 0 0 on on (10—93) Stress fields satisfying (10—93) are called seljequilibrating stress fields.258 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. . where one reduces the governing equations (stress equilibrium and stress displacement) to a set of equations Fig. Notation for determination of the translation at point Q. the geometry must be linear. Let d0 be the displacement. 10 which is referred to as the principle of virtual forces (or stresses). a° corresponds to the forces in the primary structure due to the prescribed loading and ? represents the contribution of the force redundants. We apply a unit force at Q in the tq direction and generate a statically permissible stress field. We start by expressing the stress field in terms of a prescribed distribution and a "corrective" field + cit. 10—15. For the ideal truss. This result is applicable for arbitrary material behavior. 1lowever. (1) 1q at point Q Acr and The integral on reduces to (l)dQ. involving only force unknowns. and it follows that = dx1 dx2 dx1 — (10—90) A second application is in the force method. 10—15). in the direction defined by is Suppose the translation at a point Q on desired (see Fig.
. follows:t 033 = = = The boundary forces corresponding to Pa as are = OS where s is the arc length on the boundary (sense is from X1 —* X2). 10—14. Geometric compatibility for a continuum requires the strains to lead to continuous displacements. This approach is described in Prob.. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 259 The governing equations for the force redundants were obtained by enforcing geometric compatibility..2a22 The stress field. We illustrate its application to the plane stress problem. dx1 dx2 + a2. oi.displacement relations. 10—7.i There is no loss in generality by taking 22 = 0 on S..2o21 = + •z. 0 f See Prob. must satisfy (a) with h1 = h2 = 0 and also p. integrating (e) by parts. We consider the case where + 012 5 + = = 033 = 0. One can establish the strain compatibility equations by operating on the strain. Substituting for crC.SEC..e. pC in terms of i/i. Example 10—3 If the stress components associated with the normal direction to a plane are zero.. The equilibrium equations and stressboundary force relations reduce to + b1 = 0 2 + b2 = 0 + a. (1094) expands to + a2 11 — y52 12)dx1 if — f CS Ps 0 . — 712. i. 10—10. the bar elongations are constrained by the requirement that the deformed bar lengths fit in the assembled structure. One can also obtain these equations with the principle of virtual forces by taking a selfequilibrating force system. (1089) reduces to dx1 dx2 dx3 = (10—94) The compatibility equations are determined by expressing in terms of stress functions and integrating the lefthand term by parts. Letting Aox. Then. the stress state is called planar. Apc denote the virtual stress system.1 = = 0 on We can satisfy the equilibrium equations by expressing in terms of a function.
2..j = d. 2.j = r$J1T(a° 1.. = = + + (1 + (12(l)2 + ' + 04.r In order to proceed.. where satisfies (10—92) and 1.t The principle of virtual forces is also employed to generate approximate solutions for the stresses... r) results in r (10—97) 1.. = — dx1 dx2 dx3 + A6°)dx1 dx2 dx3 One should note that (10—97) are weighted compatibility conditions. dx1 dx2 dx3 = jjT9. It is convenient to shift over to matrix notation for this discussion. The true stresses must satisfy both equilibrium and compatibility throughout the t See Prob. i.... 2. 10 and requiring (f) to be satisfied for arbitrary results in the strain compatibility equation.. (i = 1 1..r) are selfequilibrating stress states. ... and we write (10—94) as dx1 dx2 dx3 if ApC We express the stress matrix in terms of prescribed stress states and unknown parameters. 2.r (10—98) f. They satisfy the homogenous equilibrium equations and boundary conditions on The corresponding surface forces arc p p° = p° + 0101 + 0209 + = p (i = 1. 10—27.. a1.260 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. 2. = 0 + Taking virtualforce systems corresponding to equations for the parameters. — + which is actually a continuity requirement U1 122 0 + 211 — (u1 212 + 112 112) = 0 We express (g) in terms of by substituting for the strains in terms of the stresses. we need to introduce the material properties. + Ai'= and the equations expand to + + = d1 i. .. When the material is linearly elastic.e.
V+ Then. Since D1'. (a1. We call and call V* the complementary energy density. . (5211. > 0 for arbitrary and we see that the solution actually corresponds to a relative minimum where value of The approximate method described earlier can be applied to 11g. to be stationary for arbitrary (511. dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—104) We shift over to matrix notation and express öe as (10— 105) represents the tangent compliance matrix. 10—7. = — ard + const (10—106) The equations for the stress parameters follow by requiring H. must be positive definite in order for the material to be stable. ar). a2. . . Now. The form of V* for a linearly elastic material is = (10—100) + By definition. . We define = according to = c5V* = (10—99) domain. = — ci) = 0 fa=d A.SEC. (10—107) The classical stability criterion specialized for elastic material and linear geometry requires SCTD. Substituting for given by (10—95) converts to a function of the stress parameters When the material is linearly elastic. we describe here how one establishes a variational principle for Our starting point is (10—94) restricted to elastic behavior. . i. to be positive definite. requires D. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 261 the corrective stress field since it is required to correct the compatibility error due to For completeness. H.t Then. it follows that A must be positive definite for a stable material. letting = = cjx1 dx2 dx3 (10—101) (10—102) we can write (10—94) as (511. & > 0 for arbitrary Sc which. V* complements V. TiC 0 * — for arbitrary = $$ (10—103) This form is called the principle of stationary complementary energy and shows that the true stresses correspond to a stationary value of Since is linear in the second variation of reduces to (52fl = = = A. in turn.e..
of Deformable Solids. the repeated indices to range from 1 to 2. McGrawHill. PROBLEMS 10—1. Consider + u1. Hint: Expand (3/3 (If) P. What are the strain components for the frame? Consider a rectangular parallelepiped having sides dXy in the undeformed state. New York. New York. and J. PrenticeHall. TIMOSHENKO. FUNG. San Francisco. S. What is its deformed shape and relative change with respect to its initial volume? Specialize the expression for in volume. B. C. REFERENCES I.. K. is invariant. J. S. 2d ed. and T... I.: Methods of Applied Mathematics. 1970. PlAN: 5. SOKOLNIKOFF. J. Reading. ± Urn. New York. 1968. we conclude that f is positive definite.262 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. 8. W. H. 7. k) — = Let f be a continuous function of x1. (a) (b) 10—2. 10—4. Establish the transJbk where formation laws for and (3Xk. L.: Foundations of Solid Mechanics. show that r. and N. AddisonWesley. . New York. 10—3. • McGrawHill. WAsmzu. Prove that eJk = are cartesian — ôJk) is a secondorder cartesian tensor... 4. where + Urn. Write out the expanded form of the following products. Y. Mass. R. New York. 3d ed. 10—5.. Establish the transformation law for tensors. MAR. Pergamon Press. S. P. 1956. C. there exists a particular set of directions. CRANDALL. LEKIINITSKU. McGrawHill. J. 1965. say Xi'. for small strain.: Applied Elasticity. WANG. 1959. N.. x2. CRANDALL. F. Since is a symmetrical secondorder cartesian tensor. Equations (10—19) are the strain transformation laws. 1965. for which is a diagonal array. McGrawHill. G. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. 1963. > 0. 6.: Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 1953. x3. S. 1956. GooDiag: Theory of Elasticity. McGrawIjill. DAHL: An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids.: Engineering Analysis. S. 2. Then determine for the initial (Xi) directions and small strain. 9. Finally. HoldenDay. C. 10 Operating on c52fl = LtaTfLui (10—108) and noting that ö211. BISPLINGHOFF. T. H. Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Elastic Body. HLDEBRAND. PrenticeHall. 3.. J. 1965. 10..
6b.e. sin 0 for the rotation shown below. 263 (a) (b) Specialize (10—19) for small strain and write out the expressions for in terms of ei. tions defined below and let 6N = {8a. the cartesian coordinates Ui for the deformed state are taken to be the independent variables. = Xj(f/k) Almansi's strain tensor is defined as — (ds)2 = 2Efk thik Determine the expression for EJk in terms of the displacements. i. Prob. Consider the case of twodimensional deformation in the X1X2 be the extensions in the a. . 6h = 60°. c direcWe can write = BE C= (a) (b) (c) = 90c. 10—6 x2 10—7. 10—8. We can express the strain trans= formation (small strain) as = Let Develop the form of (c) using the results of part a.. . Comment on the transformation law for the outofplane shear strains P32. Evaluate TE in terms of cos 0. b. = 120°.PROBLEMS 10—6. X2. X3. y31}. (d) Extend (a) to the threedimensional case. plane (83 = P13 = P23 = 0). Compare the result with (10—21). Determine for = 0. 9b Determine B1 for Oa = 0. 62. Let 6b. Tn the Eulerian approach. P23. Consider six directions having direction cosines GJ2. with respect to X1. P13• P12. Can we select the six directions arbitrarily? Determine the general form of B. .
. 10—10.. For small strain. = 1 — 2 \CXk + and k. in. Show that + where = CX. 10—8 xz a 10—9. = where is called the spherical strain tensor. 10 Prob. called geometric compatibility relations. and (a) Write out the expanded form for (b) Determine the first invariant of of ejj. the volumetric strain is = Rather than work with + + C3 = eti + &22 + + = one can express it as the sum of two tensors. This expression leads to six independent conditions. and and compare with the invariant (a) This question concerns strain compatibility equations. eflk = ek. n range from I to 3. is the deviator strain tensor. — 8X. and it has the following form: 22 + 83 11 = Is Y12..264 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. 12 the following strain state permissible? = + 82 = kx2 Y12 = 2kx1x2 k = constant ... this called plane strain) there is only one com= 813 = patibility equation. (CII. cXj. (b) Show that for twodimensional deformation in the X1X2 plane = 0. on the strain measures. + (?X.
PROBLEMS 10—11. be the unit vector defining the initial orientation of the = dsi. ai2. in terms of cos (9.. Er a23 = a33 = 0. We refer to 5e as the first variation of e. 265 Equation (10—21) defines the strain measures due to displacements.t xl (d) Plane stress refers to the case where a13 = with reduced stress and strain matrices. We express the (b) Let a22. Let i. at a point. differential line element d1. = (1 + a' = T. a22.. in terms of (a) Starting with (i041).. a22. To analyze geometrically nonlinear behavior. 10—13. 1O—13 x. = stress transformation as a matrix product. The 5symbol denotes the firstorder change in a functional and is called the variational operator (see Ref. sin (9 for the axes shown. Let represent the displacement increment and Ae1k the incremental strain. = and write the transformations in the same form as the threedimensional case: a' = a' = . We work {a11. We write + = where contains linear terms (Aug) and öeJk involves quadratic terms. (c) Evaluate 1'. . The several parts of this question concerns stress transformation. . x2 Prob. = The unit vector defining the orientation in the deformed state is = Determine the general expression for Then specialize it for small strain.. 8). Determine the expressions for 10—12. = stress matrix.. . write out the expressions for all. a33. one can employ an incremental formulation.a Develop the form of T. 1. using the results of part a.
Show that the expressions for and P2 ifl terms of derivatives with respect to x1. ii a12 — — b1 dx1 fx7 b2 dx2 = —1//. The mean stress. is defined as am = + — — a22 + a33) Rather than work with we can express it as the sum of two tensors. x2 10—14 x1 Verify that this definition satisfies the equilibrium equations in the interior. Verify that 10—14.. from part c above and T.266 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP.12 The notation for body and surface forces is defined in the following sketch.. x2.. 10 Evaluate T. from 13 Prob.22 a22 = tI'. Prob. This question develops a procedure for generating selfequilibrating stress fields. a. L aU . and s are Pi P2 — b1 dx1 b2 = T t/"1 — dx2 10—15. Suppose we express the twodimensional stress components in terms of a function = as follows: a33 a11 = t1'. (a) Expand the linear equilibrium equations.. (b) Specialize the equilibrium equations for plane stress (a13 = a23 = (c) = 0). 10—6. (10—49) and (10—50).
= and (a) (b) óijOrn is the deviator stress tensor.k Verify that the inverted form of(l0—71) is D(e — where D11 = E1/C3 D12 D13 C4D11 D22 = E2/C1 + (C2/C1)D12 D23 = v32E2/C1 + (C2/C1)D13 D31 = E3 + v31D13 + v32D23 and C1 = C2 = 1 — v21 + v31v32(E2/E3) E2C1 C4 = v31 + "32 Specialize for plane strain 10—20. i. and the incremental equilibrium equations in terms of Group according to linear and quadratic terms. . + P. Prove (10—60). Consider the threedimensional stressstrain relations defined by (10—71). (10—55) specialized for small strain.. Establish the stressequilibrium equations for smallfinite rotation and small strain. Ab*. 10—17. Hint: = /= 10—19. where approximate with in the incremental equations. Write out the expanded forms for and Determine the first invariant of 1046. Specialize these equations for the case where the initial position is geometrically linear. establish can Au.PROBLEMS 267 where is called the spherical stress tensor.e. 10—18. and = 0) = = Consider 2 sets of orthogonal directions defined by the unit vectors The stressstrain relations for the two frames are = + (a°)' + A'& Express A' in terms of A and Also determine D'. (a) Specialize for plane stress = = = 0). Starting with (10—52). 1O21.
Is this also true for an orthotropic material? 10—24. Start by requiring equal properties for the X2 and X3 directions. 10 (b) Let a22.. Verify (10—73). 10—20.268 GOVERMNG EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOUD CHAP. Y12} Verify that D has the following form: V2t I 0 1 G (1 — n = E2 Assuming X1X2 in the sketch are material symmetry directions. Using the notation introduced in Probs. Then introduce a rotation about the X1 axis and consider the Isotropy in the X2X3 plane requires expression for Y23 =7 I. + a0 . Equations (10—76) can be written as a11 = a°&1 + + 2Ge11 where (a) is the volumetric strain. Use the results of Prob. cri2} C= C= 62. 10—9 and 10—15—— Show that = Ka. 10—13. 023 10—23. Verify that the directions of principal stress and strain coincide for an isotropic material. 10—21 x2 xI 10—22. What relations between the properties are required in order for D' to be identical to D? Prob. determine D' for the X'1X'2 frame.
stressdisplacement relations 3. Discuss the case where Show that = (c) Verify that the strainenergy density can be written as V — = = (d) — + + for the isotropic case. Express (g) in terms of material to be orthotropic. Summarize the governing equations for the incompressible case. stress equilibrium equations 1. 10—28.. 10—25 10—26. stress boundary conditions on 4. = complementary energy density (initial volume) = prescribed force measures (initial dimensions) leads to the complete set of. Is this formula restricted to a specific direction of integration on the boundary? Does it apply for a multiconnected region. Verify Equation (10—89). Consider the Refer to Example 10—3. such as shown in the figure below? . displacement boundary conditions on 5.. 2.. governing equations for an elastic solid. Verify that the stationary requirement 10—27. expressions for the reaction surface forces on .e. i. Prove (l081) for the twodimensional case. Prob. Determine and When v = We must work with 7 stress measures ('u' Urn) = and the mean stress has to be determined from an equilibrium consideration. =0 where for arbitrary — = — — — — dx2 = Kirchhoff stress = Lagrange strain = + + 1u.PROBLEMS 269 — where K is the bulk modulus = (E/3(1 (b) 2v))..10—25.
Hint: Note (10—101). 8). Transform HR to by requiring the stresses to satisfy the stress displacement relations. + and requiring the stresses to satisfy the stress equilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions on Hint: Integrate by parts. Interpret (10—90) as dQ == where PQ is a force applied at Q in the direction of the displacement measure.270 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. using (10—8 1). (b) Transform 11R to — by restricting the geometry to be linear = and (ui. dQ. 10 This variational statement is called Reissner's principle (see Ref. . (a) 10—29.
271 . X2. but this will complicate the derivation. 11—1.11 St. as shown in Fig. Venant Theory of of Prismatic Members 11—1. the centroidal coordinates and product of inertia vanish: '23 jJx2x3 dA = 0 One can work with an arbitrary orientation of the reference axes. X3 are taken as the principal inertia directions. X3 pass through the centroid and are principal inertia directions. The X1 axis is taken to coincide with the centroidal axis and X2. St. We employ the following notation for the crosssectional properties: A = if dx2 dx3 = dA 12 — Sj(x3)2 dA 13 = fl(x2)2 dA Since X2. We define the member geometry with respect to a global reference frame (X1. It is an exact linear formulation for a prismatic member subjected to a prescribed t The case where the crosssectiona' shape is constant but the orientation varies along the centroidal axis is treated in Chapter 15. X3). Venant's theory of torsionflexure is restricted to linear behavior. If the centroidal axis is straight and the the member shape and orientation of the normal cross section are is said to be prismatic. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION A body whose crosssectional dimensions are small in comparison with its axial dimension is called a member.
e. M÷ are called stress resultants and stress couples... Venant theory to account for displacement restraint at the ends and for geometric nonlinearity. The components of F. it distribution of surface forces applied on the end cross sections. i. 11 —1. and their definition equations are F1 = ffcrij c/A M1 = M2 = M3 = F2 JJx3crj1 dA c/A F3 = JJcc13 c/A JJ(x2cr13 — x3c12)dA (11—3) dA The internal force and moment vectors acting on the negative face are denoted byF_.M_. 11—i. Later.272 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. We then extend the formulation to account for flexure . We discuss next the puretorsion case. The distribution of surface forces on a cross section is specified in terms of its statically equivalent force system at the centroid. where the end forces are statically equivalent to only M1. Notation for prismatic member. Since F_ = —F÷ M_ = (11—4) it follows that the positive sense of the stress resultants and couples for the negative face is opposite to that shown in Fig. as the force and moment vectors acting at the centroid which are statically equivalent to the distribution of stresses over the section. in Chapter 13. we modify the St. respectively. Figure 11—1 shows the Stress components on a positive face... x2 F3 Fig. We define M.
The boundary forces acting on the end cross sections arc statically equivalent to just a twisting moment M1. There are no boundary forces acting on the cylindrical surface. THE PURETORSION PROBLEM 273 and treat torsionalflexural coupling.3. Venant. Rather than attempt to solve the threedimensional problem directly.. The analysis of this member presents the puretorsion problem. These conditions lead to the following expansions for the inplace displacements: 112 = —C01X3 03 +W3. .2 (11—5) The corresponding linear strains are 13 = a3 = Li —Ui 1 Y23 0 (11—6) 712 713 U12 + = U5. 11—2. we describe an approximate procedure for determining the flexural shear stress distribution in thinwalled sections. THE PURETORSION PROBLEM Consider the prismatic member shown in Fig. = 723 = 0. i. 012 — + U3. we establish the governing equations for pure torsion. = 05. 11—2. 0 Fig.SEC. 2. there is no restraint with respect to axial (outofplane) displacement at the ends.e. = Each cross section experiences a rotation w5 about the X3 axist and an outofplane displacement u1. 1 t Problem 11—i treats the general case where the cross section rotates about an arbitrary point. Prismatic member in pure torsion. Finally. In what follows. Also. 11—2. using the approach originally suggested by St. we impose the following conditions on the behavior and then determine what problem these conditions correspond to. 11—2. 1.3 + X20)1. Each cross section is rigid with respect to deformation in its plane.
(10—49). x3) (11—10) + x2) a1 3(x2. The complete system of linear stressequilibrium equations. the strains must be independent of x1 since each cross section subjected to the same moment.2 + = 0 (11—11) Substituting for the shearing stresses and noting that Gk1 is constant lead to the differential equation (1112) which must be satisfied at all points in the cross section. This requires = const = k1 = u1(x2. The strains and stresses corresponding to this postulated displacement behavior are = 0 = C3 Cl = 712 = = x3) 713 + x2) a33 and a11 = a22 O'23 = 0 a12 = U13 = Gy12 Go'13 = 2 — x3) = a12(x2. and the stress boundary conditions. x3) is We consider the left end to be fixed with respect to rotation and express co1. reduce to Pfli = + is =0 + x2) = (on S) (11—13) Using (11—10). the boundary condition for 2 — x3) + 0 (11—14) — t Problem 11 —3 treats the orthotropic case. x3) We are assuming that the material is and there are no initial strains. . 11 Now. Then 0.1 = k1x1 (11—8) where x3) defines the outofplane displacement (warping) of a cross = section. The exterior normal n for the cylindrical surface is perpendicular to the X1 direction. (10—49).u1aS = U. namely. reduces to U21.274 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. One step remains. to satisfy the stressequilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions on the cylindrical surface.
Once çb.3) and then substituting for the normal derivative.3) (j=2. The shearing stress distribution must lead to no shearing stress resultants: F2 = This requires dA = 0 F3 = J$a13 dA 0 J J OX2 JJ ('X3 To proceed further. Applying (11—15) to dA leads to 0X2 + 11—16 . we need certain integration formulas. JJV2VJdA dA = (IS which is just a special case of (10—81). THE PURETORSION PROBLEM 275 The puretorsion problem involves solving V2q5. we cannot apply (11—15) directly Since to (b). = 0). /. In this case. we use the fact that = 0 and write cxi Integrating (e). = J$(x2c13 — x3c12)dA (11—17) .1 ôn If is a harmonic function (i. verifies (h). (c) transforms to — #(XH2x3 = 0 is specified on the boundary. is a harmonic function.. ax2 ax2j ox3 \ ax31 (j=2. Note that depends oniy on the shape of the cross section. The constant k1 is determined from the remaining boundary condition. is known.SEC. Usiiig (11—15). 11—2.e. For the formulation to he consistent. We start with if Green's theorem. Green's theorem requires 0 dS = Now. = 0 subject to (11—14). (11—14) must satisfy (c). we determine the distribution of transverse shearing stresses from (11—10).
shown in Fig. We start by expressing the shearing stresses in terms of a stress function so that the stressequilibrium equation (Equation 11—li) is identically satisfied. v directions.X2 (11—20) + X2 Governing Equations mA: on S: — It is possible to obtain the exact solution for for simple cross sections. An appropriate definition is 012 013 X3 (11—21) The shearing stresses for the 2. The procedure outlined above is basically a displacement method. Stresses M3 J 0j3 = —H J 3. 0lv = — . if + — X3 dA Displacements = 02 U3 = W1X2 = k1x1 k1 = (if 2. A'11 \(. One can also use a force approach for this problem. 11—3.276 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. + = At this point. 1. follow directly 01A from the definition equation cv (11—22) CA. we summarize the results for the puretorsion problem. 11 We substitute for the shearing stresses and write the result as Gk1J where J is a crosssectional property.
= 0. M1 — x3) = = + x2) Operating on (a). THE PURETORSION PROBLEM 277 Taking S 900 counterclockwise from the exterior normal direction. The S direction is always taken such that n — S has the same sense as X2 — X3. for continuity. Then. we obtain = It is convenient to express t/. and noting that the stress boundary condition is fort/i. lead to the boundary condition (11—23) = const on S We establish the differential equation for t/i by requiring the warping function be continuous. 112. we equate the expressions for a in terms of t/i and a12 = a13 = Now. This is the reason for the negative sign on the boundary integral. . that CX3J Applying (10—8 1) to (a) and — dS = A1 = area enclosed by the interior boundary curve.SEC. First. the + S direction for an interior boundary is opposite to the + S direction for an exterior boundary since the direction for n is reversed. 3.' as (11—24) The governing equations in terms of aret M1 dt/ (1125) a12 = = a 13 j (mA) (on boundary S1) (11—26) and = tJi = —2 Substituting (11—25) in the definition equation forM1 leads to the following expression for J: cr7 — JJ \. This interpretation is called the "membrane See Ref. S1 (b) = C1 = const t Equations (11—26) can be interpreted as the governing equations for an initially stretched membrane subjected to normal pressure.
278 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Definition of ns and A. we use the is continuous. for the multiply connected case. This requires fact that Js ('IS dS 0 (11—28) for an arbitrary closed curve in the cross section. x x x2 0 Fig. 11—3. 11—4. x3 Fig. .vdirections. To determine the constants C. 11 we can write where J= dA + (11—27) = 0 on the exterior boundary. Graphical representation of sector area.
11—4:1 u. The sign of p is positive if a rotation about X1 produces a translation in the +S direction. taking P = 5dS = 2k1A5 (11—31) where A5 denotes the area enclosed by the curve. 11 —4.SEC. Integrating between points P. we could have started with the fact that the cross section rotates about the centroid. we can write (a) as ct52y12 + 0t53y13 Yis = 2+ k1 3 — xacls2 + (1129) = + where p is the projection of the radius vector on the outward normal. See Prob.. Instead of using (11—9). we obtain = where APQ — + 2APQ) (11—30) = r50 J p dS = area enclosed by the arc PQ and the radius vectors to P and Q. 11—2. this result is independent of the location of the origin.5 = x is) Us = + w1p k1x1p (11—33) Substituting for in Yss = s (11—34) and noting that Ut = lead to (11—29). Using (11—22). 11—14 for an alternate derivation. counterclockwise for this case. Equation (11—29) is used to determine the warping distribution once the shearing stress distribution is known.X2 toward X3. Also. 11—4. THE PURETORSION PROBLEM 279 Consider the closed curve shown in Fig. Q.t The magnitude of p is equal to the perpendicular distance from the origin to the tangent. Since write 2Gk1A5 = = we can (1132) Note that the +S direction for (11—32) is from . we can write = M5 = (11—35) t This interpretation of p is valid only when S is directed from X2 to X3. § This development applies for arbitrary choice of the +S direction. The displacement in the + S direction follows from Fig. The shearing strain is given by Yis = Using (11—9). . sector Finally. See Prob.e. i.
Differential element for determination of the rotational work.e. V = We let V V dA strain energy per unit length (11—37) The strain energy density is given by V= Substituting for Y12' '/13. Instead of integrating the strainenergy density. and M1 = GJk1. Consider the element shown in Fig. We employ (11—36) to determine the values of 17 at the interior boundaries of a multiply connected cross section. + V= X3) 2 +( + x2)j 2 and integrating (b) over the cross section. 11 Then..3 s (11—36) where n is the outward normal. This result is valid for an arbitrary closed curve in the cross section. A5 is the area enclosed by S. Also. we obtain V= Since (11—38) = V. The boundary forces acting on a face are statically equivalent to just a torsional moment. we could have determined the work done by the moments acting on a differential element. and the + S sense is from X2 to X3. i. we obtain = . When the material is linearly elastic and there are no initial strains.280 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. the cross sections are rigid in . It is of interest to determine the energy functions associated with pure torsion. the strain and complementary energy densities are equal. 11—5. it follows that = + (11—39) WI xl dx1 Fig. 11—5. substituting for in (11—32).
Then. see Art.. x3 I dl 2 d.SEC. = = 5jJ dx2dx3 = óVdx1 for an elastic body. APPROXIMATE SOLUTION OF THE TORSION PROBLEM FOR THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS We consider first the rectangular cross section shown in Fig.Xk1 dx1 5WE = Now. and it follows that dk1 = M1 = GJk1 V= 11—3.i = dx1 and the firstorder reduces to workdone by the external forces due to an increment in wj M1 . The relative rotation of the faces is / + dw1 '\— ((01 —dx1 dx1 . 1) and thcrefore we will only summarize the results obtained. 11—6. expanding ö V. . 11—S. Notation for rectangular section. The exact solution for this problem is contained in numerous texts (e.g. 5—3 of Ref. 2 HFigS 11—6. THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 281 their plane and rotate about X1.
Since the stress function approach is quite convenient for the analysis of thinwalled cross sections.985 .687 . 11 0 When t d.422 . The approximate solution for a thin rectangle is J 4dt3 (113 2——x2 = 2Gk1x2 (1142) x2x3 (t)2 (We take d/t = in the exact solution. K2 for d/t ranging from 1 to 10 are tabulated below: d/t 1 K1 K2 0.282 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.930 . we say the cross section is thin.000 If t d.843 2 3 4 5 .873 10 0. 11—7.) The shearing stress across the thickness and M1 varies linearly 3M1 A view of the warped cross section is shown in Fig.997 .675 .789 .. 2n+1 Id Values of K1.936 0. 6). the maximum shearing stress (points 5. we illustrate its application to a thin rectangular .999 1. The exact expressions are occurs at x2 = ± t/2. x3 = J = K1— (1141) = where K2t dt3 K1 = K2 = 192 (t'\ 1 I = — tanh 8 1 1 1 — (2n+1)2 cosh A.
The general requirement is the n — S sense must coincide with the X2X3 sense. Warping function for a rectangular cross section. we shall extend the results obtained for this case to an arbitrary thin walled open cross section. 11—7. The = —2 Solving (b). the shearing Stress component in the thickness direction. 11—3. This corresponds to taking equations reduce to d2 = 0 at all points independent of x3.SEC. must _:k. vanish on the boundary faces. THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 283 section. Fig. . The governing equations for a simply connected cross section are summarized below for convenience (see (11—26). Later. cross (11—27)): = —2 (in A) 0 (on the boundary) = J = (1A where the S direction is 900 counterclockwise from the is direction. it is reasonable to assume in the cross section.t Since t is small and a12. we obtain  J = dx2 = M1 = ———.= 2——x2 J t This applies for X3 counterclockwise from X2.1.
even is small in comparison to amax. This corresponds to using the solution for the thin rectangle and is reasonable when S is a smooth curve. The resulting expressions for I and are J= 4 t3 dS (11—43) M1 a15. Notation for thinwalled open cross section. though fs t(s) Fig.284 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. the moment due to the approximate linear expansion for and is equal to only one half the applied moment: I't/2 d J x2a13 dx. but will have a negligible effect on J Actually. We assume = 0 and take = —n2 + t2/4. This will lead to a12 0 near the ends. The S curve defines the centerline (bisects the thickness) and the n direction is normal to S. We consider next the arbitrary thinwalled open cross section shown in Fig. 11—8. ma. 11 —8. This is reasonable since. = P4 /1 dt3) = The corrective stress system (a12) carries M1/2. its moment arm is large. 11 The expression for (x3 developed above must be corrected near the ends ti ± d/2) since it does not satisfy the boundary condition. = = Gkitrnax .
lt. 11—9. Symmetrical wideflange section. (Iw of an angle having equal flange thicknesses. the formulat = \ + 4rf/ (1146) is the fillet radius and 0rn is given by (14—45). 4.. 11—9. 11—3. Numerical procedures such as finite differences or the finite element must be resorted to in order to obtain exact solutions for irregular sections. We take J as J= ing (11—44). Let of element i. point A in Fig. . For example. THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 285 The results for a single thin rectangle are also applied to a cross section t1 denote the length and thickness (11—44) consisting of thin rectangular elements. for Tf = 0. 2 and Appendix of Ref. consider the symmetrical section shown in Fig. we obtain 3 1'ff + w4v .3. there is a stress concentration at a reentrant corner (e. gives good results for where rf/t < 0. See Ref.g. The stress increase can be significant for small values of rf/t. 11—9) which depends on the ratio of fillet radius to thickness. Apply3 The maximum shearing stress in the center zone of an element is taken as = —7t1 = Gk1t1 M1 (11—45) In general.i Asan illustration.SEC. For the case bi + I Fig.  t See Ref. 9..
11 11—4. 11—10. E Sect.) —2A5 £ j on dS = We consider first the single cell shown in Fig. EE Fig. 2n\ (11—47) where represents the contribution of the interior boundary. Single closed cell. 11—10. APPROXIMATE SOLUTION OF THE TORSION PROBLEM FOR THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS The stress function method is generally used to analyze thinwalled closed cross sections.) = area enclosed by S — and +S sense from X2 toward X3. (11—36)): —2 (in A) — ci J — dA + (on the exterior boundary) (on the interior boundary. the governing equations are summarized below (see (11—26). we have to add a term n S. This expression . involving C1 to the approximate expression for We take as + tz used for the open section. For convenience. S. (11—27). The curve defines the centerline.286 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Since there is an interior boundary.
q = const. 115. 2 = C1 at atn— +t/2 n = — t/2 (a) and is a reasonable approximation when S is a smooth curve. we obtain j = Jo + 4 t3 dS (11—52) = Equation (a) was established by substituting for the shearing stresses in terms in the definition equation forM1 and then transforming the integrand. closed cell) corresponds to a constant shear flow around the cell. given by = The torsional constant is determined from (11—51) J Substituting for dA + 2C1A1 M1/Gk1 (a) using (11—47).e. We could have arrived at (11—52) by first expressing the total torsional moment as M1 = See Prob. + (11—53) . is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment. value is positive when pointing in the + S direction.SEC.. 11—4. 1/2 q = cr15 (11—49) we find (11—50) J —1/2 and call q the shear flow. Substituting for a q The additional shearing stress due to the interior boundary (i. One can readily verifyt that the distribution. THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 287 satisfies the onedimensional compatibility equation and boundary conditions. Differentiating (fl 0 b and substituting (b) in the expressions for the shearing stress components lead to M1 / + C1\ 7) (11—48) cr?5 + The tangential shearing stress varies linearly over the thickness and its average We let q be the shear stress resultant per unit length along S.
it'll = Gk1J° = Gk1J' (11—54) (11—55) J= and it follows that Jo J0 + JC Jc (1156) as Finally. C (11—58) rather than with the actual shear flow.J from (11—52) and the shearing stress from M1 ( + i—.288 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRfSMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. we write M1 = GkIJ Then. The thickness is constant and a. . Next. 11—6. It remains to determine C1 by enforcing continuity of the warping function on the centerline curve. The various CdS 2(a+h) Cl = t See Prob. we can express JC JC = Mu/(M1/J) = q/(M1/J) (11—57) This result shows that we should work with a modified shear flow. 11 where MI is the open section contribution and is due to the closure. Applying (11—32) to we have (11—59) = Substituting for q/t leads M1C1 = (1160) One should note that C1 is a property of the cross section.) (11—61) Example 11—1 Consider the rectangular section shown. using (11—5 1). we can evaluate . Once C1 is known. Note that C C1 for the single cell. b are centerline properties are dimensions.
SEC. We express J as THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 289 = For this section. The total shear flow distribution is obtained . We number the closed cells consecutively and take the + S sense to coincide with the X2X3 sense. Rather than work with it is more convenient to work with the shear flows for the segments. 11—li. + J° 1 (r'Y / (t'Y \\h We consider a > b. q I The strcss follows from (11—61). 114. M1C1/ t2'\ = ————ii ± —I = J C11 t\. we can neglect the contribution of = q/t = M1 We consider next the section shown in Fig.. t2 / h'\t (t i. The +S sense for the open segments is arbitrary. Jo J' Jo vs. In this case. it is reasonable to neglect Fig. for this section. (I ± —s— where.e. we can take If the section is thinwalled. Then. = 01— The section is said to be thinwalled when c< b. Eli—i b H r+tb  +s. We define q3 as the shear flow for çellj and write (11—62) Note that is the value of on the interior boundary of cell j and the shear flow is constant along a segment.
Then. For convenience. we drop the subscripts on and write the limiting values as cr = ±a° + Cr" where cr=—1t It remains to determine C1. Cross section consisting of closed cells and open segments. We have shown (see (11—55)) that M1 /Cnet (11—64) J= and Jo + Jc (a) = We determine J° from (h) (11—65) segments . and A. The sign depends on the sense of S. and J. 11—11. C2. S2 Fig.. q= — q2 = forS2 — C2) for S1 (11—63) q=q2—q1 The shearing stress is assumed to vary linearly ovcr the thickness. 11 x3 q2. are centerline areas. the shear flow in the segment common to cells i andj is the difference between qj and q1.290 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. A. by superimposing the individual cell flows.
THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 291 Substituting for MI = in (b) leads to  2qjA1 + 2q2A2 + C2A2) + A2C2) (11—66) The constants are obtained by enforcing continuity of on the centerline of each cell. The complementary energy per unit length along the centroidal axis is defined 11 2 We apply (11—51) to each cell. positive. . The form of the equations suggests that we define c = A a [a11 a121 a22j (11—70) With this notation. k14 I = 1.!) aC 2A Substituting for A in the expression for JC CTaC and noting that JC is by (11—39). We solve this system of equations for and finally evaluate the stresses with (11—64). the continuity equations take the following form: + a12C2 = a12C1 + a22C2 = (11—69) 2A2 C2. we conclude that a must be positive definite. t a22 = C dS Cads . JC = 2ATC (11—7.J52 = = —I Jc t where a12 involves the segment common to cells 1. then determine f with (11—66). We can represent the governing equations in compact form by introducing matrix notation. See (11—32). 11—4.2 Substituting for q in terms of C and letting (1167) = C dS JS.SEC. 2. This can also be interpreted as requiring each cell to have the same twist deformation.
we can write where = (1172) aq) — i It is reasonable to neglect the open contribution when the section is thinwalled. Examp'e 11—2 The opensection torsional constant for the section shown is = ± 2(b +d+ + htfl (a) Applying (11 —68) to this section.e. C2 and i. i. we obtain = a11 = 012 hd A2=hb 1(h + 2d) + 11 t2 = = tl 6 a22 + 2b) + t2 and the following equations for C1. + +2 — C2 = 2 dt1 c1 + — + ±2 C2 = 2bt1 J= Jo + Jo Finally. the open and closed stress dis= + 2G toq tributions are uncoupled. 11 Since ais varies linearly over the thickness.. the shear stress intensities in the various segments are = M1 (C1 (k— + M1 /C1 — C2 J M1 (C2 t2 +t2 / =7 = M1 t3 + t1 .292 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.
acting at the centroid. i. 11—5. Prismatic member in shear loading.____ _____________ SEC. The distribution of boundary forces x2 x2 —_____ if xI P2 I +S Fig. we shall modify the theory to include restraint against warping. E11—2 t3 tl 03 Ii I 1 I 032 A2 h X3 a' M1 When d= b. . TORSIONFLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 293 Fig. in Chapter 13. we describe St. Venant's torsionflexure formulation for this problem. There are no boundary forces acting on the cylindrical surface.e. In what follows. Also. TORSIONFLEXIJRE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING Consider the prismatic member shown in Fig. 11—5. on the cross section at x1 = L is statically equivalent to a single force P212. warping. Later.. Cl = C2 = —s 2bt3 1 + 213 and the section functions as a single cell with respect to shear flow. 11—12. the end cross sections are not restrained against displacement. 11—12.
S$(x2a13 — x3cr12)dA 0 P2 — The expansion.294 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. isotropic with respect to the X2X3 plane. We suppose the material is linearly elastic. M1) require a12. F2.c.3 + 2a21 + P2 13 0 (mA) (on S) (11—74) =0 At this point. and orthotropic with respect to the axial direction. = M3 13 = 13 satisfies the first three conditions (i. we can either introduce a stress function or express (11—74) in terms of a warping function... x3) a33 a13 = a13(x2. F1. We will describe the latter approach first. M3) identically since JJx2 c/A = jJx2x3 dA = 0 dA = 13 The last three conditions (i. This is a convenient way of keeping track of the coupling between axial and inplane .2 + a31. il We start by postulating expansions for the stresses. The stress resultants and couples required for equilibrium at x1 are =A4. a13 to be independent of x1. F3. X3) a22 0 Introducing (11—73) in the stressequilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions for the cylindrical surface leads to a21.e. This suggests that we consider the following postulated stress behavior: cru = a1 2 ———x2 = 13 P2 — x1)x2 (11 —73) 13 a1 2(x2.r0 F2 = P2 M3 = P2(L — x1) Introducing (a) in the definition equations for the stress resultants and couples leads to the following conditions on the stresses: dA = JJx3a13 c/A = dA = P2(L — x1) Jj712 c/A = $fcrj3 c/A P2 0 0 = —. The displacements can be found by integrating the stressdisplacement relations.
x3 Integrating the first three equations leads to u1 = = E1 13 (Lx1 1 — + f1(x2. x3) x1)x2x3 u3 = ——. at(0. Substituting for the stresses in (10—74). 2 + u2. we obtain = u1 = I P2 E113 V1 E1 (L — xj)x2 x1)x2 = u2. + —7(L — 2E.2 = = V1P2 —(L El3 v1P2 —7—(L —. f3 are determined by substituting (b) in the last three equations..iJ 3 = C3 — C5x1 — C4x2 + k1x1x2 The constants C1. (11—5).t We consider the following displacement boundary conditions: 1.. 63 = u33 = 'Y12 v1 = = I LI3 — xj)x2 = u1. The origin is fixed: u1=u2=u3==0 2. . which involve seven constants: = f2 = C1 + C5x2 + C6x3 + — x3) (c) C2 C5x1 — + C4x3 — k1x1x3 v1P2 Xi.3 + U3. x3 Y13 Y23 U1 3 + U3. = function ofx2.1 = 0 . C6 are associated with rigid body motion and k3 is associated with the twist deformation. TORSIONFLEXIJRE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 295 deformation. C2.SEC.(L El3 — + x2) The functions f1. u3.0.. 1 = = U2.O) A line element oh the centroidal axis at the origin is fixed: = fSee Eq. We omit the details and just list the resulting expressions. x3) (b) v1P2 v1P2 (L — + .0.0) at(0. 11—5. f2.2 0 1 = function ofx2.f2(xj.
3 = 0 These conditions correspond to the "fixedend" case and are sufficient to eliminate the rigid body terms. The final displacement expressions are u1 (Lxj — + 4)(x2. to satisfy the equilibrium equation and boundary condition.2 — k1x3 + v1P2 1 (7j3 4). by using (11—15). TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. x2) (11—76) LI3 x2x3 Substituting for the stresses in (11—74). x3) — = Vj 2 — + — — (11—75) El3 — x1)x2x3 + k1x1x2  One step remains.296 3. Ii A line element on the X2 axis at the origin is fixed with respect to rotation in the X2X3 plane: at (0. 0. Substituting for 4) leads to the following boundary conditions for 4)2. and 2 2 2 ) = 0 + (11—79) One can show. we obtain the following differential equation and boundary condition for 4): P2f'2v1 l\ (mA) + v1P2 C 12) + as  1 . namely. + k1x2 — 2L13 v1P2 —. and 4)2d are harmonic functions which define the warping due to flexure. that cn dS = 0 . 0) u2.77 The form of the above equations suggests that we express 4) 4) = kjq5t + — + + (1178) where is the warping function for pure torsion and 4)2. The transverse shearing stresses are given by 1 41.
defines the flexural warping for a rigid cross section and represents the correction due to inplane deformation.a dA = 0 dA — 0 dA 0 (11—82) Note that the shear stress due to inplane deformation does not contribute to P2.3) (11—SO) + 01j. The total torsional moment consists of a pure torsion term and two flexural terms.2)dA + X242d. Il—lO.r + 01j = and where crU. Then. . deformation in the plane of the cross section. We write the result as (j = 2. = G1k1J. is the puretorsion distribution and butions corresponding to and 42d: r. Terms involving vj/E are due to inplane deformation. and (11—83) reduces to (11—85) Now. 11—5. i. and setting v1/E = 0 corresponds to assuming the cross section is rigid. we let X3 1 13\ = — (1184) J £. — is the statically equivalent torsional moment at the centroid due tSeeProb. TORSIONFLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 297 therefore the formulation is consistent.3 Since and depend only on the shape of the cross section. M1 = G1k1J + S2r S2d 2 + X24)2r 3)dA X34)2a. it follows that and S2d are properties of the cross section.e. d are flexural distri = 2 2 2 P2 x2x3) The pure torsion distribution is statically equivalent to only a torsional mo ment. The shearing stress is obtained by substituting for in (11—76)..SEC. One can show thatt dA P2 J$a12. For convenience.
This involves solving two secondorder partial differential equations. The twist deformation is determined from k1 + (11—86) where M1 is the applied torsional moment with respect to the centroid. The form of the is an even function of x3 and boundary conditions (11—79) requires and to be even functions of x3 . Then. e3 — find x3. 11 to the fiexural shear stress distribution. we present the exact solution for a rectangular cross section. M1 = 0. defines the location of the resultant of the flexural shear stress distribution with respect to the centroid. In the section following. In Sec. In this case (see Fig. Now. 11—13). Suppose the cross section is symmetrical with respect to the X2 axis. If P2 is applied at the centroid.298 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. we describe an approximate procedure for determining the flexural shear stress distribution in thin walled cross sections. 11—13. to Whether twist occurs depends on the relative eccentricity. and k1 = The cross section will twist unless = 0. 11—7. one must resort to such numerical procedures as finite differences to solve the equations. and k1 P2 — e3) For Ilexure alone to occur. M1 = —e3P2. e3 must equal x3 Fig. Notation for eccentric load. If the section is irregular. is an odd function of x3. one must determine S2. Exact solutions can be obtained for simple cross sections. and S2d. Suppose P2 has an eccentricity e3. Then.
3] is odd in x3. Generalizing this result. 11—14. = 0 and S2d = 0. we can state: The resultant of the shear stress distribution due to fiexure in the is an axis of symmetry direction passes through the centroid when for the cross section. TORSIONFLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 299 this case. P3 and at the right end (see Fig. for x3 Shear center Fig. 11—14). and S2r. Finally. The governing equations for the P3 loading can be obtained by transforming the equations for the P2 case according to > X3 .b3d. U2 —* U3 U3—> —U2 —+— ox2 13 Ox3 U12 '* 13 (3 —*13 (3 Ox3 Ox2 U13 12 —a12 Two additional flexural warping functions must be determined.v1G1 P3 L.SEC. The expres sions defining the flexural shear stress distributions due to P3 are cr12 r r 413r.. 3 d = . 2 (11—87) x2x31! 12 = t is even in x>. Vj D i —i + + (. We consider next the case where the member is subjected to P2. Ssd involve only integrals of odd functions of . it Ibilows thatt S2. Coordinates of the shear center. 11—5. 2 12 3 P3 r '2 ((/33r.
we obtain M1 = where defines G1k1J — + (11—90) the location of the resultant of the flexural shear stress distri bution due to P3. the total normal stress is given by M3 13 (P3 P2 13 '\ J (11—89) Superimposing the shearing stresses and evaluating the torsional moment. the shear center coincides with the centroid. the shear center lies on an axis of symmetry. The only finite stress components are 012. harmonic functionst satisfying the following boundary = 2 conditions: (11—88) = (X2 + 2 Note that the distribution due to M2 12 leads to no shearing stress resultants. t The total flexural warping function for P3 is P3 ( — I '\ + v. called the shear center. one must work with the torsional moment with respect to the shear center. lithe cross section is completely symmetrical.300 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS are CHAP. In general. It is of interest to determine the complementary energy associated with Then torsionflexure. not the centroid. Finally. For no twist. One can interpret X2. aild V* reduces to = + + dA (a) follows directly by substituting (11 —89) and using The contribution from the definition equations for 13. 11 where q53r. x3 as the coordinates of a point. 11—14) M1 + P2x3 — P3x2 = the applied moment with respect to the shear center = MT we can write (a) as (11—91) k1 = (11—92) To determine the twist deformation (and the resulting torsional stresses).P3( + —4 1 . The required twist follows from (11—90): k1 = (M1 + — Since (see Fig. the applied force must pass through the shear center.
3. + C12. the distribution associated with inplane deformation of the cross section (defined by 4)jd) We combine the flexural distributions and express the total stress as C33 d12. a pure torsional distribution due to MT the flexural distribution due to F2 the fiexural distribution due to F3 dr. we obtaint JJ = + + F2 + 2FF + F2 dA (1196) Jj 1 See Prob.SEC. 11—il. TORSIONFLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING = 1 M2 M2 (1193) + Now.. the total shearing stress is the sum of three terms: 1. For example.1 + C13r + 013. r= (11—92): F2 13 2 • F3 13 2 The complementary energy due to pure torsion follows from (11—38) and + a as C12r F2 — 3 F3_ 2 3 r+ r) and integrating over the cross section. 2+ 3413r. 2. Each of the flexural distributions can be further subdivided into— the distribution corresponding to a rigid cross section (defined by 2. 11—5.t + C12.d = 013. dId. 3)dA = CIA JJ .d where the various terms are defined by (11—81) and (11—87).
the force redundants have to he determined by requiring the warping function to be continuous. To establish the continuity conditions for flexure.302 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. We consider next the coupling between or. Summarizing. We will not attempt to expand these terms since we are interested primarily in the rigid cross section case. and operate on (11 —81) and (11 is the area enclosed by S. for determining the flexural shear stress distribution. 11 The coupling term. 11 —7.r + = + 2 ± 2) dA + x2) + + — = + + (11—97) — MT ""F2 Jj 13 + F3 12 dA = 0 The remaining terms involve a.a. the shearing stress distribution due to inplane deformation of the cross section.. the complementary energy for flexuretorsion with unrestrained warping is given by 1 M2 M2 M2 I F2 FF F2 (1198) + terms involving v1/E — We introduce the assumption of negligible M1 + inplane deformation by setting v1/E = 0.3 X3 2v1G1P2 dA (11—99) 2v1G1P3 rr ii X2 dA El2 . Similarly. and JJ(a12. I/A23. which is based upon integrating the stressequilibrium equation directly. For pure torsion. called the engineering theory. In Sec.jj 4. This approach is where similar to the torsional stress analysis procedure described in the previous section. vanishes when the cross section has an axis of symmetry. we There are four requirements: j (aisd)F2 dS dS = 2. Since the shear stress distribution is statically indeterminate when the cross section is closed.to12. continuity requires (see (11—32)) = 2G1k1A5 where the integration is carried out in the X2X3 sense around S. we develop an approximate procedure. . we introduce the assumption of negligible warping due to flexure by setting 1/A1 = (&3r 1/A2 1/A23 = 0.
The consistent continuity condition on the flexural shearing stress 4sajsdSO definition.e. the cross section is considered to be rigid.. 1. By coincides with the + S direction. For con venience.SEC. Notation for rectangular cross section. i. 11—15. the positive sense for 11—6. Warping functions + = an = = 1 2 + 2 ) + . 11—15. we first list the governing equations: x2 rd3 '2 — dt3 A = dt d r Fig. EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION 303 In the engineering theory of flex ural shear stress distribution. (11—100) One can take the + S direction as either clockwise or counterclockwise. the distribution due to inplane deformation is neglected. EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DiSTRIBUTION FOR A RECTANGULAR CROSS SECTION We consider the problem of determining the exact shear stress distribution due to F2 for the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. 11—6.
r = 0 0j3. x3) (b) . the form of (a) suggests that we express q52d as = — — f(x2.i. we evaluate 1/A2 using (11—96): = (11—102) Determinatio. of The boundary conditions for /2d are 2= 1(d2 + '\ at x2 = d atx3 = Now. TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. d atx3 = 112 = X2 The corresponding stresses and warping function are 2r = 4)2r 13 12 X2 — 13 (11—101) 012..r One can readily show that F2 Finally. 11 Shearing stresses 012 = F2 + v1G1E2 + x2x3) + xi)] =T 13 Determination 3) + of are The boundary conditions for l(d'\2 =0 We can take the solution as <P2r .304 2.
cos sinh (2nxx2) This expansion satisfies V2f = 0 and the boundary condition at x3 = ± t/2. = (±.a 1/t\2 t I 2nirx2 cosh — 2nxx2\ 1 nnd cosh— t 1 /J [ cJl3... (2nn co sh nicd\ —) c os—— 2nicx3 = 2 x3 < x3 < (f) in a Fourier cosine series and equating coefficients leads to B0 t2 B. The shearing stresses and boundary conditions expressed in terms of f are = v1G1 P2 VLGI F2 2 —f 2) = f3=0 It remains to solve V2f = 0 subject to (d). 11—6. The remaining boundary condition requires B0 + Expanding B... EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS D!STRJBUTON 305 where f is an harmonic function.Y mr1 mtd cosh —— The final expressions for the shearing stresses are = v1G1 P2 . We express f as f= B0x2 + B. cosh— j .d = v1G1 F2 sinh n2 —— t mid t E 13 sin ——t . Since the cross section is symmetricaL f must be an even function of x3 and an odd function of x2. 2n7tx3 (11—103) [ This system is statically equivalent to zero.SEC.
The error decreases as the section becomes thinner.024 0. COS t where 1 2. we • occurs at x2 0: note that the maximum value of F2 2.122 11—7. d)x20 = v1G1 F2 d2 13 '1 2nnx3 C. (512. We apply the engineering theory to typical cross sections ... as d/t becomes large with respect to unity: d/t 2 1 1512..306 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. In what follows. They show that it is reasonable to neglect the corrective stress system for a rectangular cross section.. alternatively.e.4/512. one must resort to a numerical procedure such as finite differences or. solutions can be found for only simple cross sections. When the cross section is irregular. C. i. Now. 11 To investigate the error involved in assuming the cross section is rigid. decreases rapidly with n. ci 2 Specializing d for x2 0. 4 / 1 1 I5lz.di 2. we describe the latter approach for a thinwalled cross section. Retaining only the first term in (b) leads to the following error estimate.r 0. I cosh Results for a representative range of d/t and isotropic material are listed below. introduce simplifying assumptions as to the stress distribution.. 1 cosh 2. only two equations have to be solved.. ENGINEEffiNG THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DISTRiBUTION IN THiNWALLED CROSS SECTIONS The "exact" solution of the flexure problem involves solving four secondorder partial differential equations.092 0. If one assumes the cross section is rigid with respect to inplane deformation. Even in this case. The resulting theory is generally called the engineering theory of shear stress.
Figure 11—16 shows a segment defined by cutting planes at x1 and x1 + dx1. rather than with librium equation. Oh. 11—7.SEC. 11—16. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 307 and also illustrate the determination of the shear center and the energy efficients. we over the cross section when the member is subjected to a constant shear (F2. Since the cross section is thinwalled. Now. 3). thinwafled segment. we obtain the following expression for q. F3 . Integrating the axial forceequiwith the shear flow. ('S (11—104) JSA Equation (11—104) is the starting point for the engineering theory of shear over the cross section is known. stress distribution. it is reasonable to assume that the normal Also. 1/Ai (j 2. — + —(a11t) 0 C2S with respect to S. Once the variation of have shown that the normal stress varies linearly we can evaluate q. q. we work stress. is constant through the thickness and to neglect qA / xl Fig.
Q3: rs Q2 =j = x3tdS = Q2(S. We consider first the open section shown in Fig. SA) With this notation. i. i. The end faces are unstressed. Q3 and then combine according to (11—107).e. 11—17. the derivative of dM2 x2dM3 13 dx1 '2 13 12 dx1 3 X3 + X2 12 and (11—104) expands to .. (b) simplifies to q= F2 — 13 F3 — —Q2 (11—106) Equation (11—106) defines the shear flow distribution for the case of negligible restraint against warping. Note that q is positive when pointing in the + S direction.SA) (11—105) x2t c/S = Q3(S. The shearing stress distribution corresponding to F2. = F2 =0 F3 Taking the origin for S at A.' i'S 12!i'S q=qA——I x2tdS—7H x3tdS 13 j54 JSA The integrals represent the moment of the segmental area with respect to X2. Noting that the member is for this case is — X3 — prismatic. X3 and are generally denoted by Q2.e. we expand = F2 0 + .308 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 11 constant) and the end sections can warp freely. To show this. for a linear variation in normal stress.. (11—106) reduces to q= Q3 fQ2 (11107) =J5x2tdS Q2 =$x3tdS We determine Q2. q= satisfies ffai2 c/A = dA = identically.
11—12. (11—2). By applying the same argument. 11—17. 11—7. Flexural shear flow—open segment. X3 are principal centroidal axes. and evaluate the shear stress resultants: Jjui2dA = J Equation (b) requires rsa J0 dS = =0 Now. Integrating (e) by parts and noting that X2. one can show that the shear flow corresponding to F3 is statically t See Eq. . To determine the location of its line of moment with respect to a convenient moment center. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS x3 — 309 B I Shear center X2 Centroid Fig.t we obtain = — J" dS = 13 = x2x3t dS = 0 — J The shear stress distribution predicted by (a) is statically equivalent to a we evaluate the force F212.SEC.
11—6. 11 The intersection of the lines of action of the two resultants is the shear center for the cross section (see Fig. Only two segments. Example 11—3 Consider the thin rectangular section shown. + q points in the + S direction (from A to B). for r1/E = 0.e. Actually. E11—3 I Example 11—4 symmetrical. + We determine the distribution of q corresponding to F2 for the symmetrical section of Fig. AB and BC. Since q is negative for this segment. x2 Fig. have to be considered since 1Q31 is Segment AB = q = According to our definition. i. the engineering theory is exact for a rigid cross section.310 TORSJONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Eli —4A. Then. We take + S in the + X2 direction. . equivalent to a force. 11—17). it actually acts in the negative S direction (from B to A). The various terms are + q points in the +X2 direction and q/t = tx2 = j d(2 F2 q dx2 = 2 4 — q= tF2 (d2 F2/'d2 — 2 This result coincides with the solution for obtained in Sec..
The resulting expression for kis lÀ. E11—4A IC tw d tf It H Segment BC in Fig. Then. 117. Specializing (1196) for a thinwalled section.. I 3Af\ 6A1 2A F id. if and substituting for q yields 1 dA dS 5 2dS = fl = 1 We let j 2b1t1 = area of the web = A1 = total flange area = A2 = kA.. We measure S from B to C. I.____________________________ SEC. l/bf\2 . ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 311 Pg. E1I—413. The distribution and sense of q are shown It is of interest to evaluate A2. = + [hh1t1 + — q= — xi)] Note that the actual sense of q is from C to B.
Eli —5A) is symmetrical with respect to X2.4f = k= 0. E11—48 . taking as typical.4 — X2) x3 4. for a wideflange section. Each flange carries half the shear and 1 61 5 1 A3 — A1 — 5 hr1 Examp'e 11—5 CrossSectional Properties This section (Fig. 11 Fig.312 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS x2 CHAP.t1 + b2t2 + We neglect the contribution of the web in '2 since it involves 12 (a) + ('2)2 = + (b) . we find . For example. This factor is quite close to unity.95 The shearing stress corresponding to F3 varies parabolically in the flanges and is zero in the web. 1. = 2ç (If = 3.. The shift in the centroid from the center of the web due to the difference in flange areas is b2t2 — b.
El 1—SB. Integrating the shear flow over each flange. 11—7.SEC. we have = t[(b)2 t2 [. Fig."b2\2 2 —X3 (c) =0 since X2 is an axis of symmetry. E11—5A x3 I I Centroid Distribution of q Corresponding to The shear flow corresponding to F3 is obtained by applying q= p3 Q2 and is shown in Fig. where e = R2d R = (12)2 12 Since X2 is an axis of symmetry. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 313 Determination of Taking S as shown in the sketch. . the distribution is statically equivalent to F373 acting at a distance e from the left flange. we obtain = F3 Then. The shear stress vanishes in the web and varies parabolically in each flange. the shear center is located at the intersection of R and X2.
We have previously shown that q q1 = con . Then.314 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. E1158 R = F3 q 1'3t2frbf\2 12 X3 2 R1 The coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid are . We have defined M1 as the required torsional moment with respect to the centroid. 1 1 —3. We take the origin for S at some arbitrary point and apply (11106) to the segment SeS: q= = q1 — 1—Q3 — 13 F2 F3 12 (11— 108) Q3 = where q1 is the shear flow at P. 11 Fig. the required torsional moment with respect to the shear center. the moment which must be balanced by torsion is — F3. Using the approximate theory developed in Sec. the maximum torsional shear stress in a segment is = M ti where .c3 0 = e —(1 + (I =d — L12 2 Torsional Shear Stress to The flexural shear stress distribution is statically equivalent to a torsional moment equal with respect to the centroid.1 = + + We consider next the closed cross section shown in Fig. 11 —18. The shear flow distribution is statically indeter minate since q1 in unknown.
the distribution is statically equivalent to a force Fyi. 11 —14 for the more general expression. located Y4 units from the centroid. dS F2 C dS 2 f (IS and considering separately the distributions corresponding to F2 and F3. . we use (11—100). Also.. P Fig.SEC. Since the engineering theory corresponds to assuming the cross section is rigid with respect to inplane deformation. Note that q = B3 leads only to a torsional moment equal to f One can interpret (11109) as requiring the flexural shear stress distribution to lead to no twist deformation. 11—7. See Prob. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 315 stant is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment equal to The second and third terms are statically equivalent to F212 and F313. The flexural shear stress distribution must satisfy 0 (11—109) for an arbitrary closed C Substituting for q. The constant q1 is determined by applying the continuity requirement to the centerline curve. Notation for closed cell. which allows for a variable shear modulus. we obtain + q = = T (B2 — B Q3) (B3 — Q2) QdS QdS B (11110) 27 — dS I Each distribution satisfies (11—109) identically. 11—18.
Eli —6A.3) and noting that .j. E11—6A H 2z H CrossSectional Properties = = a2 (a3\ + — a2 = 4a3t 3 = (at)(a/2) 5a1 10 it fdS = 3.5t a . convenient to take P at the midpoint since the centerline is symmetrical.TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.3 (11—111) Substituting for 1 = 'k — 2BJQk + (j k. 11 The general expression for 1/Ai follows from (11— 96): == j = 2.1 we obtain 2dS 42j dS QkT (11—112) which applies for an arbitrary single cell. Example 11—6 We illustrate the determination of for the square section of Fig. k 2. It is Fig.
The two distributions are plotted in Fig. To locate the line of action of the resultant. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 317 Determination of We start at P and work counterclockwise around the centerline. Note that + Q2 corresponds tion and actual sense of q due to to a negative i. we sum moments about the midpoint (0 in the sketch: (M)0 = I /a\ + 4F3 /a\ = 19 aF The resultant acts e units to the right of 0.. Ell—6C. Eli —6B. q.SEC. E11—6B Evaluation of B3 By definition. clockwise. Using the above results. where e= 19 a . 11—7. B3= 1 " I dS it I rds. we obtain dS + a3 B3 = of Flexural Shear Flov for F3 The shear flow is given by q— F3 — F3(( Q2) 4Q2 — 12 a 3at (+ sense clockwise). The resulting distribuarc shown in Fig. Fig.e. and noting that the area of a parabola is equal to (2/3) (base) x (height).
For this section. the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the ccntroid (which is A units to the right of 0) are x2 = e — LI = + 16 X3 = 0 Torsional Shear The shear flow for pure torsion is due to Mr. Mr 5L2F3 + M1 — We apply the theory developed in Sec._ 318 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. One just has to replace M1 with MT in .21 6a i F3 30 I F3 F3f 4 Q2 Finally. II —4. Eli —6C t j F3/21 I q — a 1. the torsional moment with respect to the shear center. 11 Fig.
q x3 x2 Fig. The + S sense for the open segments is inward from the free edge. We consider next the analysis of a twocell section and include open segments for generality. Notation for section. ENGtNEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS Equation (11—61): — Ci = 4at ± I C1 J= Determination of 1/A3 Applying (11—112). We select a convenient point in each cell and take the shear how at the point as the redundant for the cell.3at Note that 3at is the total web area. 11—19. This is illustrated in Fig. 11—19: qj represents the shear flow redundant for cell j and the + S sense coincides with the X2X3 sense to be consistent with the puretorsion analysis.276 I) . .SEC. we find 1 +  1 2 dS I B dS'\ — 1. There is one redundant shear flow for each cell. +5. we drop the CL (centerline) subscript on S and A. 11—7. For convenience.
320 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. . Finally.1 2A1 (111l6) 2A2 MT Thus.1 = a12q1. Example 11—7 We determine the flexural shear stress distribution corresponding to F3 for the section shown in Fig. Using the aJk notation defined by (11—68). CrossSectional Properties A1 = A2 202 a2 = (a3t\ '2 [ a21 + 2[(3at)_4_j = 4a 7 = — Ga a22 012 = a See Prob. E11—7A. We locate and P2 at the midpoints to take advantage of symmetry.1 + a22q2. which allows for a variable shear modulus.14 for the more general expression. t q—= 0 j = 1. F3 by applying the continuity requirement to each centerline. 11—11). The equations developed above can he readily generalized. the open crosssection distribution (q1 = q2 = 0). 1!. and q q0 + (11—113) We determine q0 by applying (11—107) to the various segments. 11 The total shear flow is the sum of q0. the equations take the following form: a11q1 + a12q2 = a12q1 + a22q2 = t 11—115 The shear flows q2. we obtain a system of equations relating q1. q2 to F2. for pure torsion are related by (we multiply (11—71) by MT/J and note (11—62)) + a12q2.2 (11—114) where q is positive if it points in the + S direction. the complete shear stress analysis involves solving aq = b for three different righthand sides. The redundant shearflow distribution is the same as for pure torsion (see Fig.
Deter. ._______a _______ SEC.niiuztion of q1. Eli —7C. P2. q2 = C . Eli—lA I We apply x2 +S. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 321 Fig. we find q1 = 2F3 — 161 q2 = + a 11 F3 The total distribution is obtained by adding qR and q0 algebraically. E1l—7B) is statically equivalent to a moment 2a2(2q1 + Distribution of q0 Due to F3 —i02 '2 to the various segments starting at points P1. 11—7.322 q0—=+ t = 1 F3 dS 2F3 The equations for q1 and q2 are 6q1 — q2 7a 70 2 F3 —q1 + 4q2 = —— Solving (a).q 2a a Distribution of This system (Fig. The resulting distribution is shown in Fig.
New York. and letting e be the distance to the action of the resultant.61a The shear center is located on the K2 axis and = c — (2a — = +O.322 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. New York. S. J. we obtain M( + e 2a2(2q1 + q2) + (2a) + (3a) F3) = eF3 = (2 + 32\ a= 1.055a REFERENCES 1. 1953.. McGrawHill. TIMOSHENKO.. C. and J. 11 Fig. McGrawHill. N. 2. WANG. Eli —7C I P3 14 a Location of the Shear Center line Taking moments about the midpoint of the left web. 1970. El 1 —7B q2 4 2q1a q2a q1a q1 Fig. .: Applied Elasticity. 3d ed. T. Oooo!ETt: Theory of Elasticity.
: Thin. 1966.. New York. 10. R. New York. TIMOSHFNKO. McGrawHill.PROBLEMS 3. Berlin.: Strength of Materials. 5. 11—2 considers the cross section to rotate about the centroid.. Div.: Advanced Strength of Materials. KOLLBRUNNER. X3 directions. 11. F.dige Trëger ("Curved Thinwalled Girders"). J.E. VLASOV. HARTOG. Berlin. . Derive the governing differential equation and boundary condition for for the case where the material is orthotropic and the material symmetry axes coincide with the X1. Mech. V. Part 2. 8. 4.S. The puretorsion formulation presented in Sec. 1956. R. ODEN. Show that . Basler: Torsion in Structures. 1969. 7. N.. noncircular cross section for torsion. McGrawHill. P. 6.: Strength of Materials.Walled Elastic Beams. SpringerVerlag. New York. S. HERRMANN. Z. L. A. Jerusalem. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. DABROWSKI. 1968. December 1965.e. Eng. Van Nostrand. PROBLEMS il—i. SpringerVerlag. SOKOLNIKOFF. McGrawHill. 9. 1967.: "Elastic Torsional Analysis of Irregular Shapes." I. + )2 — 2) — 3)2]dA + 3)2]dA 0 dA = Compare this result with the solution for a circular cross section and comment on the relative efficiency of circular vs. J.1 can be expressed as Hint: = = I. 323 Dmt 1952.C.. LS. IJolt. it takes U2 = W1X3 = +(01x2 wj = a1 = Suppose we consider the crosssection to rotate about an arbitrary point The general form of (a) is a2 = —wj(x3 — U3 = +w1(x2 — wj = k1x1 + c1 a1 = k147 a13 and the (a) (b) Starting with Equation (h). T. 11—3. derive the expressions for governing equations for What form do the equations take if we write = + C2 + Do the torsional shearing stress distribution and torsional constant J depend on the center of twist? 11—2. J.: Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. X2. J. Rinchart. and K. 1941. C. 1961.: GekrUmmte diinnwan..: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. CEiRNICA. New York. i. New York.
11—4.324 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.S direction. One selects a positive sense for S. 11—4 of twist — / Center 4 Center of twist b/2 (a) b/2 (bi 11—5. 11—6. The variation in the warping function along an arbitrary curve S is obtained by integrating (11—29). satisfies F2 = ja12 = F3 = dA = x = for the closed cross section sketched. 11 11—4. tf x3 (c) along the centerline for the two thinwalled open Prob. = dS = = dS 0 0 Refer to Prob. we note that (see (11—50)) J a15 = Jq C (a) = k—— = — . To apply Equation (c) to the centerline of a — closed cell. Verify that the distribution. q = const. = where as 1 k1 + (a) is the perpendicular distance from the center of twist to the tangent. The sign of p is positive when a rotation about the center of twist results in translation in the +. We express lM1 (b) and (a) reduces to + a15 Determine the variation of sections shown.
3) and J for the section shown. 2. 11—10. 116 T p . 11—8. and the distribution of the warping function for the section shown. The flexural warping function satisfy mA on S . 11—7. 11—11. 11—5 = + £3 x2 Then. Generalize for a section consisting of "n.PROBLEMS 325 Prob. Take = 0 on the symmetry axis and use the results presented in Prob. Determine the equations for (j = 1. 11—6. Determine the torsional shear stress distribution and torsional constant J for the section shown. Determine the distribution of torsional shear stress. = 0 at point P. Discuss the case where a = b. Ct C + Take Integrating (b) leads to the distribution of Apply (h) to the section shown. Utilize (11—15)." cells. Prob. Specialize for t a. Verify Equation (11—82). the torsional constant J. I 1—9.
11 Prob.2 + 3f2. I Prob. verify Equation (11—96). 11—42. . Refer to Fig. 212.12 are arbitrary functions. 0 Si t t t t 0 t  I 0 t t a a— a I Utilizing the following integration formula. 11—7 0 +S1 +S2 — t I H Prob. 11—8 t I :f T t—.11—9 if (fr. derive the expressions for the coordinates of the shear center in terms of the crosssectional parameters. Starting with (11—107). 11—17. 3)dx2 dx3 dS — JJII V2f2 dx2 dx3 where 11.326 TORS!ONFLEXURE OF PRISMA1]C MEMBERS CHAP.
Prob. I 11—13 R T d/2 x3 + I (b) (a) 2/ 2/ 2/ + (c) I I Ha (dl j I :L 1 = Ca (el ._a PROBLEMS 327 11 —13. Determine the flexural shear flow distributions due to F2. F3 and locate the shear center for the five thinwalled sections shown.
One can also obtain this result by applying the principle of virtual forces to the segment shown as part of the accompanying figure. Prob.328 TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. We established the expression for the twist deformation (Equation (11—31) by requiring the torsional warping function to be continuous. 11 11—14. Arbitrary closed curve 11—14 44 M'11 44— wi LsM1 w1 + dx1 (a) (b) 2G(2E) x3 GtE) G(E) X21 F Ic) 2G(2E) a .
and we can write (J$eT dA)dx1 Next. we select an arbitrary closed curve. Finally. and consider the region defined by S and the differential thickness dn. we select a force system acting on the end faces which is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment M1. Al2. Develop the expressions for the torsional and fiexural shear flow distributions accounting for variable G and E. If we consider the cross section to be rigid. S (part b of figure). say G = fG* (where f = f(x2.1 1 dx1. x3)). we define the torsional constant J according to G*k1J Consider a thinwalled section comprising discrete elements having different material properties.PROBLEMS 329 The general principle states that (a) x+dx = (if AbTu dA)dx1 + if ApT for a statically permissible force system. we can write dn(&riz) and Equation (b) reduces to k1 if = = The derivations presented in the text arc based on a constant shear modulus G throughout the section. We specialize the virtualstress system such that AG = 0 outside this domain and only is finite inside the domain. . Now. and M3. we have to work with G*k1 = Also. Apply your formulation to the section shown in part c of the figure. the righthand side of (a) reduces to AM1o. so we replace (d) with Gk1 If G is a variable. using (11 51). Determine the normal stress distribution from the stressstrain relation. Assume a linear variation in extensional strain and evaluate the coefficients of the strain expansion from the definition equations for F1.
—+——X3 ——Xz 13 '2 F1 M2 M3 is the exact solutiont for where The total shearing stress is given by = + crj (12—2) and represents the is the puretorsion distribution (due to flexural distribution (due to We generally determine by applying the engineering theory of shear stress distribution. The end cross sections can warp freely. a sandwich beam) are treated by assuming a linear variation in extensional strain and obtaining the distributions of from the stressstrain relation.Engineering Theory of Prismatic Members 12—1. which assumes that the cross section is rigid with respect to inplane deformation. St.g. INTRODUCTION Venant's theory of fiexuretorsion is restricted to the case where— 1. the linear expansion pure torsion a11 =—. See Probs. 1—14 and 12—1. A term due to variable warping must be added to the linear expansion for This leads to an additional term in the expression for the flexural shear flow. Since (12—1) t A linear variation of normal stress is exact for a homogeneous beam. There are no surface forces applied to the cylindrical surface. 2. Composite beams (e. 330 . Using (12—1) leads to the following expression for the flexural shear flow (see (11—106)): = — — (12—3) The warping function will depend on x1 if forces are applied to the cylindrical surface or the ends are restrained with respect to warping.. The warping function consists of a term due to flexure (ç&j) and a term due to Since is independent of x1.
we consider the differential element shown in Fig. clxl/2___H — ' dx1 + dx1 dF+ dx1 + 4L dx1 Fig. i.I. Summing forces and moments about 0 — leads to the following vector equilibrium equations (note that F = dx1 + — =o 0 dM÷ dx1 + m+ — x F+) =  . (12—3). M2. we use the stress distribution predicted by the St. i. which is based on cons tant warping and no warping restraint at the ends.SEC. we present a more refined theory which accounts for warping restraint.. FORCE. In the engineering theory of members. FORCEEQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS 331 the definition equations for F1. length along X1 are denoted by b. The statically equivalent external force and moment vectors per unit F—dxi/2 .e. Venant theory. Also.e. 12i. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. F3 identically. In the next chapter. and investigate the error involved in the engineering theory. and the puretorsional distribution due to MT. the normal stress correction is selfequilibrating.EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS In the engineering theory. satisfies 12—2. we take the stress resultants and couples referred to the centroid as force quantities. we neglect the effect of variable warping on the normal and shearing stress.. In what follows. it is statically equivalent to zero. and determine the stresses using (12—1). To establish the forceequilibrium equations. we develop the governing equations for the engineering theory and illustrate the two general solution procedures. M3 identically. the shear flow correction is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment since (12—3) satisfies the definition equations for F2. 12—2. 12—1. This formulation is restricted to the linear geometric case.
The fiexure equilibrium equations can be reduced by solving for the shear force in terms of the bending moment. Flexure in X1 A'2 Plane F2 d2it. and then substituting in the remaining equations. flexure in the X1X3 plane. and twist. The resulting system uncouples into four sets of equations that arc associated with stretching. flexure in the X1X2 plane. 12 We obtain the scalar equilibrium equations by introducing the component expansions and equating the coefficients of the unit vectors to zero.+ b3 = dx1 0 dM2 dx1 + ni2 — F3 = 0 Twist dM1 —— + m1 = 0 ax This uncoupling is characteristic only of prismatic members the equilibrium equations for an arbitrary curved member are generally coupled.13 dM3 — dx1 ui3 dx1 Flexure 2 + din3 dx1 — b2 = 0 (1 25) in X1 A'3 Plane dM2 dx1 + in2 d2M2 2 dx1 + — + b3 = 0 dx1 din2 . We list the results below for future reference. Stretching dF1 dx1 + b1 = 0 Flexure in X1X2 Plane dF2 dx3 dx1 + b2 0 0 + m3 + F2 = (12—4) Flexure in X1 X3 Plane s. as we shall show in Chapter 15.332 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP.
12—2) and take the positive sense of an end x2 MA2 2 x3 —L Fig. The statically equivalent external force and moment components acting on the end cross sections are called end forces. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 12—3. The end forces are related to the stress resultants and couples by force = FAJ = MAJ = A (J 1 2 3) (12—6) minus sign is required at A. We generally use a bar superscript to indicate an end action in this text. Applying the equilibrium conditions to a differential element results in a set of six differential equations relating the six force parameters. B to denote the negative and positive end points (see Fig. These equations are generally called forcedisplacement relations. the force parameters are actually the statically equivalent forces and moments acting at the centroid. FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS 333 Note that the shearing force is known once the bending moment variation is determined. Also. We started by selecting the stress resultants and stress couples as force parameters. FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS. This suggests that we take as displacement . we must select a set of displacement parameters and relate the force and displacement parameters. since it is a negative face. Notation and positive direction for end forces. we must introduce six displacement parameters in order for the formulation to be consistent. To complete the formulation. 12—2. Since we have six equilibrium equations. we use A. 12—3. Now.SEC. to coincide with the corrcsponding coordinate axis.
We establish the forcedisplacement relations by applying the principle of virtual forces to the differential element shown in Fig. we can write dV* dx1 = AP1 represents a displacement quantity. that is. it satisfies the onedimensional equilibrium equations system dx1 dx1 ö + x = O Specializing the principle of virtual forces for the onedimensional elastic case. 12—3. we mean fl +M (. The virtualforce + dx1 I dx1 dudXl dx1 2 2 Fig.12—8) Note that (12—7) corresponds to a linear distribution of displacements over the cross section. owing to shear deformation. we are allowing for an average shear deformation determined such that the energy is invariant. Statically permissible force system. is statically permissible. and is the external force quantity corresponding to The term dV* is the firstorder change in the onedimensional complementary energy density due to increments in the stress resultants and couples. whereas the actual distribution is nonlinear.334 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. where . In this approach. 12 parameters the equivalent rigid body translations and rotations of the cross as (12—7) section at the centroid. 12—3. We define i? and = = = equivalent rigid body translation vector at the centroid equivalent rigid body rotation vector (force intensity) (displacement) dA = By equivalent displacements.
we have = + A]\+ + dx1 Using the second equation in (a). Equating (12—9) and (12—10) leads to the following relation between the deformation measures and the displacements: The quantities Cl = av* = u1. FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATfONS 335 Evaluating the righthand side of (b). evaluating the products. k1 is a twist deformation. (c) takes the form + x + Finally. + — co3) + AF3(u3. we obtain = [AF1u1. j —. 12—3. e3 are average transverse shear deformations. 3. k3 are average bending deformation measures (relative rotations of the cross section about X2. we can evaluate the partial derivatives. 1 + (02) + zXM2a2 + j]dx1 (12—9) Continuing. 4. k2.SEC.1 + /XF2(u2. The general expression for is = + + + denotes the initial extensional strain. Since we are using the engineering theory . we suppose that the material is linearly elastic. but no initial shear strain. 2. e1 is the average extensional strain. Once the form of V" is specified. for unrestrained where torsionIlexure is given by (11—98). 1 (12—Il) (123 We see that— 1. e2. We allow for the possibility of an initial extensional strain. k2 = WL e2 —— = 112. In what follows. we expand dV*: dV* = 3 \CFJ + + = 1 and k1 are onedimensional measures. Now. X3). (03 aF2 = cM2 23 (02.
This result is a consequence of neglecting the inplane deformation terms in i.336 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP. 12 of shear stress distribution.e. u3).. u2. Comparing (a) with (12—13).. Differentiating (12—12) with respect to the stress resultants and couples. and neglecting deformation. we could have started with M1. To interpret the coupling between the shear and twist deformations. and the translations of the shear center. 12—4) by U2 + (01X3 t01X2 U3 = (12—14) . This presupposes that the cross section rotates about the shear center. and substituting in (12—11). of using (12—12). u3 (see Fig. we obtain the following forcedisplacement relations: e?. Instead of working with centroidal quantities (M1. we note (see Fig. not the centroid. Adding terms due to the coupling between F2. i. 12—4) that U2 U3 X3W1 defines the centroidal displacements due to a rigid body rotation about the shear center. We replace u2. v1/E. F1 F2 MT + U21 (03 k2 =k2 = k3 + M2 (12—13) F3 X2 = U3 1 + (02 k3 = (03. we see that the cross section twists about the shear center. One can interpret as "weighted" or equivalent initial strain measures. it is inconsistent to retain terms involving inplane F1/A.e. F3 leads to = Fie? + + where 2AE + + 2GA2 2GA3 LF2 (12—12) + MT e? + + + M1 + F2x3 — = $5 x2e1 cIA We take (12—12) as the definition of the onedimensional linearly elastic com plementary energy density for the engineering theory.
it is more convenient to work and the translations of the shear center. FORCEDtSPLACEMENT 337 where um. F3. We list the uncoupled sets of forcedisplacement relations below for future reference. we can determine 02.SEC. taking as an independent force parameter. U53 denote the translations of the shear center. Once 052. The terms involving F2. 053. we obtain = F2 a)1. 12—3. Al1 in (12—9) transform to 1+ 1 — w3) + 1 + w2) (a) Then. Translations of the centroid and the shear center. 03 from (12—14). 12—4. 1 F3 053 1 + (02 with Since the section twists about the shear center. and w1 are x2 Fig.1 (12— 15) US2. known. Stretching F1 e? + Flexure in X1 X2 Plane 01:1 F2 GA2 = = 1 — (03 + El3 .
Instead of first specializing it for the elastic case. We express the integral as . When the material is elastic. AF1 A taking + —— 12 AM2 AM3 — 13 leads to e1 = k2 if dA k3 if x2c1 dA if + AM1)]dxj = AP1 Once the extensional strain distribution is known. [ss dA] = AP1 (12—17) where represents the actual strain matrix. One should note that (12—19) is applicable for an arbitrary material. the bracketed term is equal to dV*. and denotes a system of statically permissible stresses due to the external force system. and we can write it as dV's dx1 = >d1 AP1 (12—20) . we can evaluate (b). Using (12—18). we could have started with its general form (see (10—94)). the onedimensional principle of virtual forces takes the form (12—19) The virtualforce system must satisfy the onedimensional equilibrium equations (12—4). For example. Now.338 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. AP1. 12 Flexure in X1X3 Plane F3 U53 (12—16) + I k2 + = Twist About the Shear Center MT = Wi. the principle of virtual forces applies for an arbitrary material. if A j=1 and determine using as defined by the engineering theory.1 The development presented above is restricted to an elastic material.
L F3. F1 or u1 prescribed at x1 = L Flexure in X1X2 Plane (F2. M3. etc. u1) F1 I + b1 = F1 0 (12—22) 0. 12—6.x1 = Flexure in the X1X3 Plane (F3. 0. SUMMARY OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS 339 The expanded form for the linearly elastic case is J [(eq + AF1 + AF2 + AF3 + (1221) + + El2) AM2 + + El) AM3] dx1 = We use (12—21) in the force method discussed in Sec. 0 F2 2 = + U2 i— (12—23) M u2 (03. L 0)3 or M2 prescribed at x1 = 0. M2.SEC. + F3 0 — F3 0)3 = 0 = u3 1+ M (12—24) u3 or F3 prescribed at x1 = 0. We list the equations according to the different modes of deformation (stretching. L . we summarize the governing equations for the linear engineering theory of prismatic members. 12—4. or F2 prescribed at x1 = L M3 or 0)3 prescribed at .). U2. 0)3) + b2 = 0 M31 + m3 + F2 = F2. flexure. Stretching (F1. The boundary conditions reduce to either a force or the corresponding displacement is prescribed at each end.1 0. SUMMARY OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS At this point. 12—4.1 + b3 M2. U3.
problem is more difficult. 12 Twist About the Shear Center (MT.. we can integrate the forceequilibrium equations directly and then find the displacements from the forcedisplacement relations. L (12—25) m5. (c) simplifies to FAJ etc. When the applied external loads are independent of the displacements. Example 12—1 We consider the case where b2 = coast (Fig. Flexure in X1 A'2 Plane We start with the forceequilibrium equations.g. F2 = FA2 — b2x1 Substituting for F2 in (b).340 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. and then apply the boundary conditions. we use subscripts A. a beam on an elastic foundation). we have F2 = — b2x1 0. = U2 U3 m1 + b2x'3 — b3g2 X3W1 = 125. If the applied load depends on the displacements (e.1 = —F2 Integrating (a). F21 M3. and noting that b2 = coast. 1 + 01T 0 MT = or a1 prescribed at x1 = 0. and integrating. since it requires solving a differential equation rather than just successive integration. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION—PRISMATIC MEMBER The displacement method involves integrating the governing differential equations and leads to expressions for the force and displacement parameters as functions of x1. we obtain = MAI — XIFA2 + . we must first express the equilibrium equations in terms of the displacement parameters. (01. This. B for quantities associated with x1 = L: = With this notation. This loading will produce flexure in the X1X2 plane and also twist about the shear center if the shear center does not lie on the X2 axis. u3) MT. For convenience. u2. The following examples illustrate the application of the displacement method to a prismatic member. superimpose the results. We solve the two uncoupled problems.
DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION We consider next the forcedisplacement relations. 3 Uz. = (01.SEC.1 MT = and integrating. (f). we obtain MT = MAT — b2y3x1 = + The additional centroidal displacements due to twist are U2 = X3W1 U3 = . 12—5. we obtain £03 = WA3 + — (x1MA3 — 4 \2E13/ GA 12Ff) 4 \ The general flexual solution (for b2 = const) is given by (e). and (I). Fig. i —. M3 £03. + F2 GA2 Integrating (g) and then (h). E12—1 x2 b3 13 Shear center Centroid H L Twist About the Shear Center The applied torsional moment with respect to thc shear center is mr = Substituting for mr in the governing equations.
it is .L and the final expressions reduce to F2 = b2(L M3 = = U2 — x1) — Lx1 + — x1) = + b2Lx1  + + () U3 = b2 4L 4 a)1 It is of interest to compare the deflections due to bending and shear deformation. we consider a rectangular cross section and isotropic material with v = 0. therefore. Evaluating u2 at x1 = L. i2 2 MAT = b2. 12 Cantilever Case We suppose that the left end is fixed. d/L is small with respect to unity for a member element and.3 (d = depth): As 13 613d2 5 A2 A 10 = By definition. The boundary conditions are UA2 = = M53 = MBT =0 FBZ Specializing the general solution for these boundary conditions requires = An b2L A3 11.342 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. we have I h2L U52 LI lh2L2 = = UB2 E 13 GL2A2 an illustration. and the right end is free.
42 = W. However. and subjected only to forces applied at the right end. it may be satisfied for a sandwich beam having a soft core. is the shear area. one sets 1/A2 = 0. The boundary conditions are 0. 12—1. The expressions for the translations and rotations at B in tcrms of the end actions at B and support movement at A are called member forcedisplacement relations. (i). We can obtain these relations for a prismatic member by direct integration of the forcedisplacement t For shear deformation to be significant with respect to bending deformation.43 = MAT = b2L2 12 b2T3L The final expressions are M3 = MT = u2 U3 b2 IL2 Lx1 + b2T3 — = + L — x1 2) + b2 — 2L4 + xi) (u) = —X20)1 (03 b2IL2 = El = b2y3 Xj + xi) xi) Example 12—2 We consider a member (Fig.43 = (ISA! = 0 = = =0 Specializing (h).L2 where A.t Formally. and (k) for this case. E12—2) restrained at the left end. 12—5. . DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 343 reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation with respect to bending deformation for the isotropic case. we obtain FAZ=2 b2L M. We allow for the possibility of support movement at A.SEC. G/E must be of the same order as l/A. See Prob. FixedEnd Case We consider next the case where both ends are fixed. This is not possible for the isotropic case.
. which utilizes the principle of virtual forces4' Fig. 12 relations.344 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 12—11.j = U3. Col. we illustrate an alternative approach. E12—2 x2 FA3 M1.. WB 1 UB 3 MA3/ x3 / = = 3 The boundary conditions at x1 = L are (a) Integrating the forceequilibrium equations and applying (a) lead to the following expressions for the stress resultants and couples: = MT (j= 1.i = t See Prob. In the next section. the forcedisplacement relations take the form C03.1 = + (L — xi)F5] + + — = El2 U3 j = — 0)2 + _ — M5.2.3) M52 — M2 = M3 (L — x1)F53 (b) MB3 + (L Using (b).
we obtain UB1 UAI + L_ (..43 + L_ + M83 L2 L2 UA2 + LWA3 + (052 + LX3_ Mjjr + /L IL + L3\.0 + L MET Finally.SEC. we replace MET by MET = and write the equations in matrix form: + X31B2 US' L L U82 + L3 + L L3 GJ L L (082 (053 L2 L (f) + by fB.42. (. The final relations are listed below for future reference: . + M82 — L2 L2_ — U83 = UA3 — LWA2 — — + + L3\_ = co.43 LOA2. (. UA2 + U.0A3} The coefficient matrix is called the member "flexibility" matrix and is generally denoted We obtain expressions for the end forces in terms of the end displacements by inverting f. 12—5.0. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 345 Integrating (c) and setting x1 = L.053 03.
346 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS AE (um — UA1) CHAP.2.3) MA! = —!V151 MA2 MA3 + LF53 —M53 — LF52 We list only the expressions for MA2 M43: — = 0A3) + — WA!) + (4 + a2) MA3 WA2 + (2 — 02) — —T(uB2 — UA2) + L2 a3) WA!) + (4 + a3) C0A3 + (2 — . 12 = FB2 — — + + + (co82 WA3) — (coB! WA!) (u53 — UA3) + C°A2) + — (co81 — WAI) rGJ MB1 + 12E — WA1) = — L3 (082 — UA2) + + (0A3) + COA2) + MB2 — UA3) + — = — UA3) + + (2 — a2) WA!) + (4 + a2) M83 — j_ WA2 — (053 UA2) + (1)4j) 1 (4 + + (2 12E12 a3)_L_coA3 12E13 a3 where a2 = = 1+03 introduce the assumption of negligible transverse shear deformation by setting 03 = a3 = 0 The end forces at A and B are related by We (j= 1.
The governing equations are given by (12—23): F2 = —M3. 12—5.1 — in3 (b) M3 (03 An alternate form of(a) is M3 + 1723. we substitute forM3 in (e) and obtain a fourthorder differential equation involving 02 and the load terms: d4u2 + d2 ( b2 — '\ + I (din3 — h2) \ = 0 The problem reduces to solving (i) and satisfying the boundary conditions: F2 or 02 prescribed or (03 prescribed) Neglecting transverse shear deformation simplifies the equations somewhat. we solve (d) for 03 and substitute in (c): F2 (03. b2 0 Once M3 is known. find F3.1 F.1 p2. we suppose the shear center is on the X2 axis and the member is loaded only in the plane. — Finally.SEC.11 + Then. To simplify the discussion. we can. using (b). M3 E13(u3 + b2 — and F2 = —m3 — El2 (02 + b2. The member will experience only flexure in the X1X2 plane under these conditions. Now. 11 — F3 = d4u3 — —in3 — E13(u2 1 — d2 (din3 + — b2) = 0 '\ . The resulting equations are (we set 1/GA2 = 0) (03 j = E13(u2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 347 Example 12—3 We consider next the case where the applied loads depend on the displacements.
12 As an illustration. Lb as the width of the boundary layer). increases with increasing x. Enforcement of the boundary conditions at x 0. F2 = d4u2 F3 —E13u2 + k q = or u2 prescribed 1 M3 or (03 prescrihedJ 0L The general solution of (n) is + sin A. and transverse shear deformation is negligible. L leads to the equations relating the four integration constants. Specializing (k) for this case. = q/k The complete solution is U2 = (1 cos Ax1) . a beam on a linearly elastic foundation.348 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. we can approximate the solution by the following: 0 x1 < Lb: = L: + + sin Ax1 + C2 cos Ax1) LB<xl<L—Lb: L — Lb < x1 u2 = sin Ax1 + C4 cos Ax1) 0 The constants (C1.. E12—3A) are 0 u2 = M3 = E13u2. k is constant.11 = 0 Since q is constant. one due to the applied external loading and the other due to the restraint force. We suppose rn3 = = 0. whereas For Ax > 0. e. C4) from the conditions at x1 = L. If the member length L is greater than 2(3/A) = 2Lb (we interpret 3. The distributed loading consists of two terms. We write = q — ku3 where q denotes the external distributed load and k is the stiffness factor for the restraint. Note that C3 and C4 must be of order and since u2isfiniteatx1 = L. the particular solution follows directly from (11).g. The function e_2x decays with increasing x.x1 + C2 cos Ax1) + sin Ax1 + C4 cos Ax1) / where u2 k represents the particular solution due to q.1 The boundary conditions at x1 = 0 (Fig. Application . C3) are determined from the boundary conditions at x1 = (C3. we have (03 = U2 M3 = E13u2. consider the case of linear restraint against translation of the centroid.
12—6. we apply the principle of virtual forces to determine the displacement at a point and also to establish the equations relating the force redundants for a statically indeterminate member. 12—3 (see Equation 12—19): + = d1 AP1 .1 = 0 (Fig.111 = —P12 and the solution is U2 = PA Ax1 + sin Ax1) The four basic functions encountered are = Ax + sin Ax) sin Ax = — = = e (12—26) cos Ax = — Their values over the range from Ax = 0 to Ax = 5 are presented in Table 12—1.SEC. Fig. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION In the force method. We start with the onedimensional form of the principle of virtual forces developed in Sec. E12—3A //////////// ///////////////////////////////////////// X1 x2 Application 2 The boundary conditions at x1 = U2. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 349 q = const Fig. E12—3B) are 0 F2 = —E13u2. E12—3B ////////////////////j/// x2 x1 12—6.
024 —0.007 —0.078 —0.111 —0.6 4.8 2.038 —0.0 2.043 —0.6 3.018 —0. We use AR.067 0.000 0.012 —0.010 —0.350 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS Table 12—i CHAP.8 5.0 0.016 —0.2 3.057 —0..012 —0.000 0.009 0.163 0..061 0.8 5.199 1.6 4.0 3.064 —0.008 —0.6 2.8 1.037 —0.109 0.2 3.4 1.011 —0. d. The appropriate relations for the linear elastic engineering theory are given by (12—13).006 —0.6 3.002 0.005 0.0 3.640 0.025 —0. the corresponding force is actually a reaction.390 0.208 —0.004 —0.006 —0.013 —0.001 4.4 0.007 —0.0 0.123 0.008 —0.281 0.008 —0.2 1. and write (a) as d.042 0.067 —0.243 0.2 0.763 0.020 —0.042 —0.2 2. To determine the displacement at some point.056 —0.012 2. d.0 4..2 2.123 0. We express the required virtualforce system as = AP0 (12—28) = MJ.004 —0. to denote a prescribed displacement and the corresponding reaction increment.356 0.007 3.635 0.6 1.617 0.009 —0.6 0.4 3.161 1. AP..6 1.QAPQ .2 0.006 0.2 4.6 0. say Q.0 —0.143 —0.026 —0.172 —0. and generate the necessary internal forces and reactions required for equilibrium using the onedimensional forceequilibrium equations.0 1.0 1.261 0.020 —0.4 2.014 —0.8 0.000 0.285 0.037 —0.2 4.000 0.4 4.4 4.032 —0.802 0.8 4.041 —0.QAPQ ARk==Rk. represents a displacement quantity.041 —0.202 0. 12 Numerical Values of the .009 —0.002 —0. (12—27) + AM3)]dx.0 4.199 0.201 —0.024 —0.878 0.056 —0.038 1.014 —0. AR. If a displacement is prescribed.008 0.310 0.8 0.012 —0.508 0. — where d.8 3.065 —0.4 3.196 0.322 0.002 where e3.4 2. AP.038 0.2 1.313 0 0. is an external virtual force applied in the direction of The relations between the deformation measures and the internal forces depend on the material properties and the assumed stress expansions.102 —0.090 0.310 0.031 ' 0.8 0.tX iJi1 Functions AX 0. in the direction defined by the unit vector we apply a virtual force APQIq.009 0.049 —0.024 —0.179 —0. are the actual onedimensional deformation measures.4 0.128 —0.155 —0.6 2.4 1. represents an unknown displacement quantity.8 1.001 0.965 0.0 2.453 0.
E12—4A x2 I) Centroid Q Shear center .Q i'F3\ + + + M1. We suppose that the material is linearly elastic and that there is no support movement. E124A.. but is restricted to the linear geometric case. we can express (12—29) for the elastic case in terms of V*: dQ k JxLt'AQ — (12—31) ORQ This form follows from (12—20) and applies for an arbitrary elastic material. Q)]dxj (12—29) + This expression is applicable for an arbitrary material. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 351 Introducing (12—28) in (12—27) and canceling dQ = — Q leads to + k3M1. one can always work with a statically determinate virtual force system.Q 1 1dx1 J if L dA =7±JJx2s?dA Finally. (12—30) + M3\ J.J3/ El21 JM3. Since the only requirement on the virtual force system is that it be statically permissible.SEC. 12—6. Example 12—4 We consider the channel member shown in Fig. We will determine the vertical Fig. The expanded form of (12—29) for the linearly elastic case follows from (12—21): dQ = + (F2\ + where $ + [(e? + Fj.
2.. E12—4C: F2.Q = /L — x1) \ 0 (b) F5. direction.0 = Mr. E12—4B . =o 0 (j= 1. given by AT = a1x1 + a2x1x2 + a3x1x3 Force System Due to P Applying the equilibrium conditions to the segment shown in Fig. 2. •1 M3 ( F2.0 M2. we must apply a unit downward force at Q. System I I P Shear center axis Fe We take dQ positive when downward. E12—4B leads to .3) Fig.e.0 = F3. in the — X.F2 = = +Pe M3 = —P(L — x1) F1 = F3 = M2 0 Fig.0 2 —1 C M3.Q . To be consistent.352 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 12 displacement of the web at point Q due to— 1. The required internal forces follow from Fig. i.Q (p. the concentrated force P a temperature increase AT. E12—4C I Shear center axis / S F2.
4 JJ = ±. 12—6..L2 Example 12—5 When the material is nonlinear. To illustrate the nonlinear case. we must use (12—29) rather than (12—30). We suppose that transverse shear deformation is negligible.ninatio. E12—5.SEC. we determine the vertical displacement due to P at the right end Fig. we obtain dQJ = ('Lii I P Pc2 c2L r 5 1)) P 1 IL \) (f) L cxa. and take the relation between k3 and M3 as k3 = a1M3 + (a) . Jf dA = aa3x1 dA = —aa2x. + a3x1x3) (d) The equivalent onedimensional initial deformations are e? = . E12—5 x2 xi P "I Centroid (and shear center) of the member shown in Fig. of (IQ Substituting for the forces and initial deformations in (12—30).1 d. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 353 hzitial Deformations The initial extensional strain due to the temperature increase is = a = + a2x1x. (e) = Deter.
One must select the force resultants such that the resulting primary structure is stable. and letting e2 = reduces to L the general expression for d0 k3M30dx1 Now.354 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS 0. 12 Noting that only F2.AZ. Z1. = = M3.0 are finite. = F3. With this objective. k) represents the forces and reactions for the primary structure due to a unit value of Zk. — — x1) x1) x1) k3 = —Pa1(L Substituting for k3 in (b). Note that all the force analyses are carried out on the primary structure.. k. M3. = . M3 = —P(L M3. AR. Using the forceequilibrium equations. M3. AM3 = MJ.. we consider the virtualforce system consisting of AZ. R1. we express the internal forces and reactions in terms of the prescribed external forces and the force redundants. = 0 is conventionally called the primary structure. CHAP. Z. R1. and are generally called force redundwns... 0. The first step involves selecting r force quantities. Z2. . k. and M3.kZk (12—32) = + R1. The set (F3.. It remains to establish a system of r equations relating the force redundants. These quantities may be either internal forces or reactions.AZ. (F1.. we obtain dQ = Pa1 — — P3a3(L — x1)3 + P3a3 We describe next the application of the principle of virtual forces in the analysis of a statically indeterminate member.. kZk The member corresponding to = Z2 = ''' = Z. represents the internal forces and reactions for the primary structure due to the prescribed external forces. Also..0 + Mf. Once the force redundants are known. we can find the total forces from (12—32). and the corresponding internal forces and reactions. ..Q = —(L Then. We suppose that the member is statically indeterminate to the rth degree.. .
. . Since fik = fkJ.2. r) (12—36) j= where 1 = fjk rr1 =J + + 1 + + + 1 dx1 => — j [(eq + F1. . we must express the deformations in terms of In what follows. 2. Substituting (a) in (12—27). we can write = (12—37) . it is also equal to the displacement in the direction of Zk due to a unit value of Z3. .. .o)F + + + + + + The various terms in (12—36) have geometrical significance.. The compatibility conditions for the linearly elastic case are given by J [(eq + + + + + + dx1 (12—34) + + A more compact form. 2. We write the = 1. which is valid for an arbitrary elastic material. . r results in a set of r relating the actual deformations. Generalizing this result.r) (1235) The final step involves substituting for resulting equations as . One can interpret these equations as compatibility conditions. is C (7R Ic Ic (k = i.k)] dx1 = k (12—33) Taking k = 1. To proceed further.. since they represent restrictions on the deformations.SEC. . we obtain k + kJMi... (k M1 using (12—32). Using (12—30). FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 355 This system is statically permissible. 12—6.fIcJZJ = is. and noting that = 0.. is the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of we see that Z1 due to a unit value of ZIc. we suppose that the material is linearly elastic.
The member is indeterminate to the first degree. 3.. The reactions are related to the internal forces by = R2 — Z1 R3 R4 = = +[MT]x. 13—2 in Ref. We will take the reaction at B as the force redundant. j are Example 12—6 This loading (Fig. minus the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of Zk due to support movement. E12—6A x2 x2 X3 Shear center Primary Structure One can select the positive sense of the reactions arbitrarily. initial strain.. El 2—6B. . They are generally called superposition equations in elementary texts.) We work with the twisting moment with respect to the shear center. 12 corresponds to arbitrary points. the final equations will be nonlinear. The approach is basically the same as for the linear case.t If the material is physically nonlinear. If we take Zk as an internal force quantity (stress resultant or stress couple). Ak represents a relative displacement (translation or rotation) of adjacent cross sections. One can interpret (12—36) as a superposition of the displacements due to the various effects. (12—36) are not applicable. only F2. Fig. (See Fig. The term Ak is the actual displacement of the point of application of Zk. i. and follows directly from (12—30). The following examples illustrate some of the details involved in applying the force method to statically indeterminate prismatic members. and the prescribed external forces. E12—6A) will produce flexure in the plane and twist about the shear center. for example.356 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. M3 and are finite.e. Art. i has the same direction and sense. and one must start with (12—33). and i. where i. However.=o t See.e. Equation (12—37) is called Maxwell's law of reciprocal deflections.
0 R2. 12—6.1 e Shear center axis .0 = (b) = F3.0 = — x1) R1. E12—6C —__ lB Mr. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 357 E12—68 x2 x2 R3.——p*' b Shear center axis I qe F2.d3 R2.0 = R4.SEC.0 MTo = M3.1 Bt F2.0 = qeL Force System Due to Z1 = + Fig.0 = M2.o F2. d2 ZI = 0 Force System Due to Prescribed External Forces q R1 Fig.0 = F1.0 .0 qe(L q — x1) — = 0 = qL qL2 x1)2 0 R3. E12—60 M3.
358 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.1 = 1 —1 M3.1=+(L—x1) = F3.j = F1. we obtain fit L Le2 L3 (e) (L — x1)dx1 — The value of Z1 for no initial strain or support movement is z1 = 8 Final Forces The total forces are obtained by superimposing the forces due to the prescribed external system and the redundants: F2=F20+Z1F2. = M2. f 11Z1 = = A1 1)2 + 1)2 + )2]dX (d) = and then substituting for the forces and evaluating the resulting integrals.1 = —q(L—x1)+Z1 MT qe(L — x1) — — eZ1 M3 = (L — (g) = qL — Z1 R3 = L2 LZ1 — = e(qL Z1) . Specializing (12—36) for this problem.1=+1 MT. 12 F2. —e R2. 1 = 0 R4•1 = —e Equation for Z1 We suppose that the member is linearly elastic.
We suppose the material is physically nonlinear and take the expression for k3 as k3 = + a1M3 + (a) To simplify the analysis. d2 z1 =0 R1. 12—6.0 = 0 — R2.0 = qL R3.SEC. we neglect transverse shear deformation. E12—78 x1 R2. f // / / F Primary Structure = Z1 R7 = R3 = (b) Fig. E12—7A q V. E12—7A) will produce only flexure in the X1X2 plane. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 359 Example 12—7 This loading (Fig.0 = qL2 .0 = —q(L — x1) M3. Fig.2j Force System Due to Prescribed External Forces (see Example 12—6) F2.0 = R1.
0 = P = MT. (ajM3 + 1W'3 dx1 = = M3. + 030 and (h) reduces to = + — — — fLko(L — xi)dxi] Example 12—8 The member shown (Fig. we obtain the following cubic equation for Z1: z? (asLs) + + + = — — — x1)dx1 + For the physically linear case. = = Z3 = Z2 MTB The forces acting on the primary structure are shown in Fig. E12—8A) is fixed at both ends. +1 M3.1 = —L R21=—1 Compatibility Equation Since the material is nonlinear. — JL + Z1M3. = L — R1. Initial Force System F2.360 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.0 P(a — x1) . 12 Force Due to Z1 = + 1 (see Example 12—6) F2. We consider the case where the material is linearly elastic. the compatibility condition reduces to J We substitute for k3 using (a): dx1 = J Now.3=+1 R3. E12—8B. and there are no support movements or initial strains. Neglecting the transverse shear deformation term (e2). We take the end actions at B referred to the shear Center as the force redundants. — = x1)2 + Z1(L — xt) Introducing (g) in (f). we must use (12—33).
SEC. E12—8A tP x2 Shear • a b L Fig. 12—6.0 P A Shear center axis Px3 . E12—8C M30 MTO ( F2. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 361 Fig. E12—8B z3 x3 Fig.
_________________ 362 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. —x1 //// Shear center axis =+ 1 F3.1=+1 M31=L—x1 —0 (c) Z2 = +1 Fig. M3. E12—8F Al33 (I I.2 M72 ( M3. E12—8E M3.2 = +1 F22 = MT. 12 Z = +1 Fig. E12—8D Al31 '( L—x1 'I ti Shear center axis F2. = 0 (e) .1 F2.2 0 z3 = +1 Fig.
FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 363 Goinpatibility Equations The compatibility equations for this problem have the form JkJZJ = (k = 1. 12—6.2. E12—8G. We can determine the force redundants by substituting for P.SEC. solving (g). The general solution is CL ( 2 = z2 Z3 X3 — + 2 — x1) + 6E13 — 1) j x1q dx1 . and b in (h). a. we obtain = —P 1± 2b1 PICA L2GAZ Z3 Pox3 Z3__ Application Suppose the member is subjected to the distributed loading shown in Fig. P = q dx1 a= b=L — x1 and integrating the resulting expressions.3) + + fkj = i: + + = f Substituting for the various forces and evaluating the resulting integrals lead to the following equations: I) \ /L 7 V l——+——1Z1 +l—1Z2 \GA2 3E13) = [a [GA2 Pa2 I (a3 a2b 2 (L2\ Z1 + /L\ Z2 = '\GJJ El3 \ 3 (g) GJ 6E13 Finally.
and J. Ann Arbor. New York. HETENY!.. M. The accompanying sketch shows a sandwich beam consisting of a core and symmetrical face plates. MARTIN. H. 1941. Elementary Structural Analysis. 12 where C= 1 + 12E13 L2GA2 q As an illustration. J. University of Michigan Press. W. P. 1960. S. ODEN. H. DEN HARTOG.: Analysis of Framed Structures. McGrawHill.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of StructuralAnalysis. z2 = 12 Fig. C. we consider the case where q is we obtain qL z1 = — — 2 const in (j). 1946. 3. 8. J.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. Van Nostrand. TIMOSHaNKO. Van Nostrand. Geac. M. C. S. 5. McGrawHill. 7. McGrawHill.: Advanced Strength of Materials. New York.: Structural Mechanics: Classical and Matrix Methods. T. New York. B. 0.: Beams on Elastic Foundation. L H 2. 1967. 6. PrenticeHall. McGrawHill. 1952. 4. ASPLUND. 1966. New York.364 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. The distribution of normal stress over the depth is determined by assuming a linear variation for the extensional strain: . PROBLEMS 121. New York. : Advanced Strength of Materials. 1966. 1965. J. and WEAVER. J. Noiuus. E12—80 x2 q(xj) H REFERENCES 1.
2 + ba12 = Then. we drop the subscript and write (b) as iVI where (EI)equiv is the equivalent homogeneous flexural rigidity.i + a21. JJ(aii. x2 12—1 012 A* f M3 I The shearing stress distribution is determined by applying the engineering theory developed in Sec. Prob. substituting for cru. (d) becomes a12 = J'J x2E dA .f)k3 To simplify the notation. Integrating the axial forceequilibrium equation over the area A* and assuming is constant over the width. = —(Ek3)x2 ( 3)dA = o (d) cru. we obtain a31. dA M (—Ex2) (e) I)equiv and noting that F2 —M3.PROBLEMS 365 = —x2k3 We relate k3 to M3 by substituting for in the definition equation for M3: M3 = M3 x2a11 dA + Ef13. 11—7.
12—2. are 0 and tf/h 1.366 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS (a) CHAP. Specialize Equation (q) for this section and discuss when transverse shear deformation has to be considered. Also which is defined as = J) (c) dA 1 2 The member forcedeformation relations are F Y2 = M3 = (EI)equjv k Refer to Example 12—1. 12—2 q = const F x1 b 12—3. determine the complete solution by the displacement method.. 12 (b) Apply Equations (e) and (f) to the given section.e. The flange thickness is small with respect to the core depth for a typical beam. the core material is relatively soft. Prob. Determine the solution for the cases sketched. 12—4. determine the complete solution for the problem presented in the accompanying sketch. . small with respect to Ef. Also. Comment on the influence of transverse shear deformation. Using the displacement method. Specialize part a for determine the equivalent shear rigidity (17*) and G. i. For the problem sketched. Express the solution in terms of the functions defined by (12—26).
e. provided that restraint spacing c is small in .PROBLEMS 367 Prob. —ku2 (a) We can apply it to the system of discrete restraints diagrammed in part a of the accompanying sketch.. 12—4 (0) /////////////////////////////7/////////////////// Ib) Jr (c) 12—5. The formulation for the beam on an elastic foundation is based on a continuous distribution of stiffness. 12—3 x2 const q Shear HeH R Prob. i. we wrote b2 = Note that k has units of force/(Iength)2.
P.. we determine the equivalent distributed stiffness k from k= kd/c Evaluate Lb with (b).11 a/2 /7/7 /7/7 (b) 7 Consider the beam of part b. 12 comparison to characteristic length (boundary layer) Lb. supported by cross members which are fixed at their ends. 12—5 ( J > J .— J J r r + C r + (a) r III C+C L.E. . and then check c with (c).368 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. which we have taken as 3 3 2 (k/4E1)'14 A reasonable upper limit on c is c< Letting k4 denote the discrete stiffness. Prob. determine the distribution of force applied to the cross members due to the concentrated load. 1 .. Following the approach outlined above.
Prob. The governing equation for a prismatic beam on a linearly elastic foundation with transverse shear deformation included is obtained by setting b2 = q — ku2 in (i). For convenience.12 dx 4 dx 2 — u—q Note that solution is u is dimensionless and A has units of 1/length. Refer to Example 12—3. we drop the subscripts: d4u We let &112 — k d2u + k u= 1 / — d2 7 + q — and (a) takes the form d4 . The boundary conditions at x 0 are 0) = 0 P F2 Umax Investigate the variation of Mmax and with Consider to vary 12—6 from 0 to 1. Determine the expression for the boundary layer length (e3 0). The homogeneous cos bx + C2 sin bx) + cos bx + C4 sin bx) where a= b 2(1 2(1 + — = To specialize (d) for negligible transverse shear deformation. P /////////)///////////// ////////////)//////// a X L . Assume L large with respect to Lb. Determine the solution for the loading shown. we set (a) (b) = 0.PROBLEMS 369 Evaluate this distribution for a=241t L=64ft c—lit 12—6.
(a) Compare the following choices for the force redundants with respect to computational effort: 1. 12—9 12—10. Assuming Equation (h) is solved for Z1. 12 12—7. Refer to the sketch for Prob. 12—8. discuss how you would determine the translation u2 at x1 = L/2. Refer to Example 12—7. Employ the force method. 12—11. Compare this approach with that followed in Example 12—2. Consider the fourspan beam shown. Consider a linearly elastic member fixed at both ends and subjected to a temperature increase Determine the end actions and displacements (translations and rotations) at midspan. the shear center coincides with the centroid. and planar loading. Assume linearly elastic behavior. 12—3. Prob. reactions at the interior supports 2. 12—9. Consider a linearly elastic member fixed at the left end (A) and subjected to forces acting at the right end (B) and support movement at A. bending moments at the interior supports (b) Discuss how you would employ Maxwell's law of reciprocal detlections to generate influence lines for the redundants due to a concentrated force moving from left to right. . Determine the reaction R and centroidal displacements at x1 L/2 due to a concentrated force Pi2 applied to the web at x1 L/2. Determine the expressions for the displacements at B in terms of the support movement at A and end forces at B with the force method.370 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP.
Venant flexural shear flow distribution is obtained by applying the engineering theory developed in Sec. Venant normal stress distribution satisfies the definition equations for F'1. a fixed point in the cross section. The complete set of governing equations for the engineering theory arc summarized in Sec. the stress distributions predicted by the St.e. i. Variable warping or warping restraint at the ends of the member leads to additional normal and shearing stresses. are used. Prismatic Member INTRODUCTION The engineering theory of prismatic members developed in Chapter 12 is based on the assumption that the effect of variable warping of the cross section on the normal and shearing stresses is negligible. It follows that the additional shear due to warping restraint must be statically equivalent stresses. i. and to only a torsional moment: Sfri2 dA dA 0 = (13—2) 0 To account for warping restraint. This distribution is statically equiva lent to F2. which is valid only for constant warping and no warping restraint at the ends. 371 . M2. the additional normal stress. We will still assume the cross section is rigid with respect to inplane deformation. must be statically equivalent to zero. a 13—1.13 Restrained of.. it must satisfy dA = dA = dA = 0 (13—1) The St. 11—7. Venant theory. M3 identically. Since the St. This leads to the result that the cross section twists about the shear center. one must modify the torsion relations.e. 12—4. Torsion and flexure are uncoupled when one works with the torsional moment about the shear center rather than the centroid. We also assume the cross section is rigid with respect to inplane deformation. F3 acting at the shear center..
We assume the cross section is rigid with respect to inplane deformation.) + JJJJT d(surface area) is identically satisfied for arbitrary displacement. and x3 are the coordinates of the shear center. Solutions of the governing equations for the linear mixed formulation are obtained and applied to thinwalled open and closed cross sections.) = SSSbT d(vol.2. 3. X3 are principal inertia axes. We discuss next two procedures for establishing the forcedisplacement relations. X2.e. The first method is a puredisplacement approach. it takes the stresses as determined from the strain (displacement) expansions. The variation over the cross section is defined by Note that all seven parameters are functions only of x1. and— 1. X3 axes. DISPLACEMENT EXPANSIONS. u1. Finally. 13—1) as U1 = U2 U1 + — W2X3 W3X2 + — w1(x3 (13—3) U3 = + w1(x2 — x2) where 4 is a prescribed function of x2. f is a parameter definining the warping of the cross section. We obtain a system of onedimensional forceequilibrium equations by introducing expansions for the displacements over the cross section in terms of onedimensional displacement parameters. . 2. we develop the governing equations for restrained torsion. L\u. This corresponds to a mixed formulation. i. £03 are the rigid body rotations of the cross section about the shear center and the X2. The X1 axis coincides with the centroid. we derive the governing equations for geomettrically nonlinear restrained torsion. and take the displacement expansions (see Fig. EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS The principle of virtual displacementst states that JJJaT ös d(vol. x3. since we are actually working with expansions for both displacements and stresses. 12. when the stresses (r) are in equilibrium with the applied body (b) and surface (p) forces. 13—2. We introduce expansions for the stresses in terms of the force parameters and apply the principle of virtual forces. 13 En what follows. W2. For pure torsion t See Sec. This leads to force quantities consistent with the displacement parameters chosen. We start by introducing displacement expansions and apply the principle of virtual displacements to establish the force parameters and forceequilibrium equations for the geometrically linear case.. u53 are the rigid body translations of the cross section. work with the translations of the shear center.372 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 10—6. The second method is similar to what we employed for the engineering theory. . We use the same notation as in Chapters 11.
application of the principle of virtual displacements will result in seven equilibrium equations. Notation for displacement measures. 1 1(x3 — x3) + (02 + cot. i = const and For unrestrained variable torsion (i.1 + where the two additional force parameters are defined by = MR = quantity Mci. + M3 Ac)3. 13—2. 1 + (02. EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS (i. . dA + (13—5) Note that Mç1. (13—4) 3 Using (13—4).1 A1 + MR Af]dxi + MT Aw5.e. x3 Shear center — —:: — —e I U52 I I x2 Centroid Fig. The t This derivation is restricted to linear geometry. 1 — C03 — COj. the lefthand side of (a) expands to öe d(voL) + F2(Au. one sets f = 0. 1x2 +f + + 2 = = us2. 373 the St.. The strain expansioust corresponding to (13—3) are 6j Ytz u1. 1(x2 — Au1.e. Since there are seven displacement parameters.2. 13—1. us3.SEC.. (03. Venant theory developed in Chapter 11). 13—9. is called the biinornent. has units of (force) (length)2 and MR has units of moment. one sets f = co1. the engineering theory = developed in Chapter 12). The nonlinear strain expansions are detived in Sec. 1 — Aw3) + F3(Au33 + Aw2) + M2 Aw2. DISPLACEMENT EXPANSIONS.
374 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. Finally. 13 To reduce the righthand side of (a).. or . = 4picb = Then $5pjcb dA dS = distributed bimornent = external bimoment at an end section (x1 = 0. (c) and require the relation to be satisfied for arbitrary variations of the displacement parameters.3 + MTLXWI + M2Aw2 + M3 Aw3 + mj. F. M2.. L) (136) SJJbT Au d(vol. F3. The additional load terms are m4. we equate (b). — MR + 0 Boundary Conditions at x1 u1 0 (13—7) = u1 Us2 US3 or or or or F1 = F2 = F3 —F1 —F3 w1=w1 w3=co3 Mr=—MT M2 = f=J f=J or or or Boundary conditions at x1 = L These are the same as for x1 = For example: 0 with the minus sign replaced with a plus sign. — F3 0 0 + b3 = MTI+mI=O 1 + rn2 = 0 M3. This step involves first integrating (b) by parts to eliminate the derivatives and then equating the coefficients of the displacement parameters. mj'. we refer the transverse loading to the shear center.) + SSPT Au d(surface area) = Au1 + b2 1xu32 + b3 Au. The definitions of are the same as for the engineering theory.2 + F3Au.1 + F2 + m3 = 0 M4. The resulting equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are as follows: Equilibrium Equations F1 + b1 + b2 1 0 F2.3 ± mr + rn2 Aw2 + m3 Aw3 + m# Af]dx1 + JF1 Au1 + F2 Au.
i. 3 is due to warping restraint. We simply point out here that MR involves only the additional shear stresses due correspond to to warping restraint since the St.3 + i + 4(PI — — x. we see that one specifies either f or the bimoment at the ends of the member. the boundary condition is = ± M4. 13—3. 3] i cot. Also. MR = + Integrating (e) by parts leads to SS4(ail. DISPLACEMENT MODEL 375 We recognize the first six equations as the governing equations for the engineering theory.3a13)çdS = 0 (i) + — MR = 0 In most cases. 2 + c713. We neglect and for unrestrained variab'e .3. To establish the relation between force parameters and the displacement parameters. a12. 1 + torsion.e.. If the end cross section is free to warp.2 + a13. We also consider the material to be isotropic and suppose there is no initial strain.2 + a13. We will discuss the determination of stresses in a later section. Pi = 0 on the cylindrical boundary. we consider the definition for MR. The additional equation. 1(x3 (13—8) t M5 = = 0 for St. 1(x2 — + f4. 2] + cot. + X3) + f4.SEC. f=f O<xj<L or end cross section is restrained with respect to warping. Venant shearing FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 1 3—3. 3)dA Utilizing the axial stress equilibrium equation. we consider (134) to define the actual (as well as virtual) strain distribution and apply the stressstrain relations. The condition f = 7' applies when the = + a11. there is no surface loading on S. (+ for x1 = L). To interpret the equation relating MR and the bimoment.. The stress expansions are au a12 1 + — 0)3 = Gy12 = a13 = Gy13 = G[u. 1 0 we can write MR = + JJç'au. Venant (pure) torsion.j dA We see that (h) corresponds to the axial equilibrium equations weighted with respect to $$(a12.
F. F3.1 M2 M3 where E12w2. M2.1 E13a. the inplane stresses vanish on the boundary. Therefore. i + + fS3 (13—12) 11c01.1 — + + — = where + + Si = polar moment of inertia = — 12 + 13 x3q5. In what follows.376 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. requires 4 to satisfy the following orthogonality conditions :t where dA dA = dA = 0 (13—9) Assuming (13—9) is satisfied. we will take = Young's modulus. X3 are principal centroidal axes. it seems more reasonable to use the extensional stressstrain relations for plane stress. the expressions for F1.3 1 j cIA 13—10 We have included the subscript r on E to keep track of the normal stress due to warping restraint. Consider the expression for The term involving is due to warping of the cross section.2)dA = t F1 = M2 = + + = 0 for c11 due to warping restraint. Although our displacement expansions correspond to plane strain (&2 = = 0). which. This additional stress must satisfy (13—1). Inverting (13—10) and then substituting in the expression for lead to F1 'Yii + M2 — M3 13 + (13—Il) The expressions for F2. . 13 denotes the effective modulus. in turn. and the reduce to: EAu1. F2 F3 1 and MR expand to 1 — (03 + i) + fS2 = A(u33. M3. and noting that X2.
We suppose the section twists about an arbitrary point instead . Venant theory of unrestrained torsion. 11—2. mA — — on S We can express as = for tile stresses become C — + x'2x3 + where C is also an arbitrary constant.SEC. the expressions for the shearing stresses canbe written as a12 — +G 1 + f 3 — The essential step is the selection of which. Operating on (a) leads to =0 a12 = 2 (x3 — x3)] 7 3 + follow from the axial equilibrium The equation and boundary condition for equation and boundary condition. DISPLACEMENT MODEL 377 Also.of about the centroid as in Sec. 13—3. it follows that the stress distribution . to this point. To gain some insight as to a suitable form let us reexamine the St.must satisfy only the ortliogonality conditions (13—9). The displacement expansions are for u2 = —w1(x3 — U3 coj(x2 = where i= M1/GJ = const. The boundary condition and expressions — a12 = M1 cr13 3 — x3)  + x2) Since depends only on the cross section.
+ G(x2w1.1 + (13—16) = t See Sec. one can shows that the equations for are identical to the equations for the coordinates of the shear center when the cross section is considered to be rigid with respect to inplane deformation. That is. = 14. x3. See Prob. . 13 torsional constant are independent of the center of twist. we have shown that 4) C — T3x2 + x2x3 + (13—14) is a permissible warping function. one can showt that = 0 SJcbt.2dA = 2)dA 3)2]dA 3 — $S[(4)t. and we obtain are evaluated by requiring C= = = dA Now. x2. 11—2. 11—2 and Prob. the warping function for unrestrained torsion about the shear center is orthogonal with respect to 1. 4' to satisfy (13—9). Also. '13—15 2) + 3)2]dA Shear Stresses a12 = F2 + G(—x3co1. 2) + and Suppose we take 4' = The constants (C.378 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. Summarizing. The crosssectional properties and forcedisplacement relations corresponding to this choice for 4' are listed below: Properties S2 = 14.1 + f4)t. 13—1.
Finally. Equations (13—17) show that restrained torsion results in translation of the shear center. 13—4. 0. M4. j W3 + . (13—17) F3 j + W2 + x2(f Wi. 13—4. which were based on shear stress expansions satisfying (a) identically on the boundary.SEC. one can show that they satisfy + =0 for arbitrary F2.T2F3 — w1.+ (13—19) 14. us3. i — + — — w1.1 = to2 + F2( G\ The shearing stress distributions due to F2. (13—18) MT = and F2(1 \J1 F3( x2x3 F3!'! + . setting Er to MR = 0. = (x3F2 GJW1. F3. we point out that torsion and flexure are uncoupled only when warping restraint is neglected (F. us2. F3 do not satisfy the stress boundary condition 0 on S + However. RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 379 ForceDisplacement Relations MT = MR = G11w1. Equations (13—19) are similar in form to the results obtained in Chapter 12. The left end (x1 = 0) is fixed with . SOLUTION FOR RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL To obtain an indication of the effect of warping restraint. (See Fig. 13—2). = 0). We introduce the assumption of negligible restraint against warping by 0. Then.1 — x21'3) —. and thc seventh equilibrium equation reduces Specializing (13—17) for this case. We will return to this point in the next section. we obtain f — to1. we apply the theory developed in the previous section to a cantilever member having a rectangular cross section.
AA Fig. 13 x3 T 2b / A Sect. Integrating (b) and enforcing the boundary condition at = L leads to (13—20) M1 = M . Restrained torsioncantilever with rectangular cross section. we list the governing equations for restrained torsion: Equilibrium Equations (See (13—7)) M1. (e) Atx1 = M 1.380 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. to both rotation and warping while the right end (x1 = L) is free to warp. The boundary conditions are respect x1=O x1=L M1=M (a) For convenience.1=0 Xj We start with (b).1+m1=O ForceDisplacement Relations (See (13—10) and (13—12). F2 = F3 = 0) (b) (c) Note that = M1 = = G11w11 + + (d) Boundary Conditions (for this example) At xj= 0. 13—2.
0 (13—24) (13—25) In what follows.21 Note that has units of(1/length)2. Lh. We refer to Lb as the characteristic length or boundary layer. we combine (c) and (d): Solving (f) for w1. If the ratio G/ET and on terms derived from .5. 13—4. of the interval in which warping restraint is significant. Venant solution is dw1 M (J) We see that is a measure of the length.. Now. By definition. and the solution reduces to I. 13 . and then substituting in (g) lead to (h) (i) — where 2 is defined as G [i. — As a point of interest. depends on the assumed warping function. we shall take The results obtained show that is the key parameter. The solution of(i) and (h) which satisfies the boundary conditions (e) is (we drop the subscript on x for convenience) f= = = {l — cosh + tanh [sinh sinh x ± + (1 — cosh tL]} (13—22) + '1 The rate of decay of the exponential terms depends on we can take tanh )L 1. the St. G11co11 + i + =M = t (f) (g) G111. RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 381 Next.fr For )L > 2.SEC.
we will show later that it is typical of solid and also thinwalled closed cross sections. Table b /<4 13—1 1 2 3 10 2. The influence of warping restraint is confined to a region of the order of the depth. We see that constant. With these definitions.23 3. Assuming E 2.382 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.683 .K2— K is essentially The coefficients are tabulated in Table 13—1.425 .156 .283 . 13—2) We evaluate the various integrals defined by (13—15) and write and 4) = the results as J= = K1a3b = (13—27) where the K's are dimensionless functions of b/a.21 4. 13 we take 4) the warping functiowt for unrestrained torsion defined by (13—14).0311 ..165 . we restrict the discussion to a rectangular section (see Fig. (13—29) —e reduces to = 0 for a rectangular section and .32 We consider next the problem of locating the center of twist.66 4. the various coefficients are related by J — — (13—26) J At this point. we find 2/b and Lb 2b.2.25 3.36 3.99 .6G and K1 3.450 .964 3. the expression for takes the form 1 /G'\112 2= . Although this result was derived for a rectangular cross section. We utilize the and large solution corresponding to 4) M1 fC = .16 3.
Reissner's principle applies for arbitrary geometry and elastic material. 10—28. — liT11 — V*)d(vol. = oc. We 1 = =— 1— 2L!1 For unrestrained warping. = 13—5. by definition of the complementary energy density. The nonlinear case is treated in Sec. and g = 1. The maximum difference occurs at x = 0 and the minimum at x = L. g called Reissner's principle. = By av* = combining (a) and (b). The stationary requirement. FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—MIXED FORMULATION We first review briefly the basic variational principles for the threedimensional formulation. The principle of virtual displacements requires 5e d(vol. E. 13—9. . 11 and Prob.) + Au d(surface area) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au and leads to the stressequilibrium equations and stressboundary force relations. Setting i12 = in (13—3) and letting lead to 0 denote the coordinates of the center of twist X2 = gx2 x ) see that the center of twist approaches the shear center as x increases. u as independent quantities. This discussion is restricted to linear geometry. is See Ref. Note that ôg is a function of Au and is obtained using the straindisplacement relations.t and b prescribed. 13—5. MIXEIJ FORMULATION 383 The translations of the shear center follow from (13—17): Us31 = x3(f — = —x2(f — (13—30) By definition.SEC. 0.) — d(surface area)] = E(u). The stressstrain relations can be represented as since. we obtain a variational principle which leads to both sets of equations. 0 (13—33) considering i.) = JJjbT Au d(vol. the translations are zero at the center of twist.
. 13 The essential point to recognize is that Reissner's principle allows one to work with and u as independent quantities. i + + + co2) + + i — =o 13—35) In order to proceed further. using the stressdisplacement relations — V* reduces to V. The virtualforce system must be statically permissible. 13—2. This requires const = Then. .3. since it is of interest. We followed this approach in Chapter 12 and. the stationary requirement on the stresses (Equation 13—34) expands to + + 1 — W3) + öF3(u. = dxi{f. The relations between the force and displacement parameters are obtained from the second stationary requirement: Tx1 [f$(CT — öV*)dA]dxj = 0 (13—34) The first step was carried out in Sec. One starts with (see Fig.. it must satisfy the onedimensional equilibrium equations. and using (13—4). This step leads to the definition of force parameters and forceequilibrium equations. we have $5 oiiTudA = ±SJISrsTudA = ±(ISMTWI + ISM4f) where the plus sign applies for a positive face. 13—3) 5V* dx1 = op + [$$uT ISp (a) The boundary forces are the stress components acting on the end faces. 13—3). the strainenergy density. The Euler equations for the displacement parameters are obtained by expanding (a).384 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRTSMATIC MEMBER CHAP.1 1 ISMT} (d) = dx1{f 0M4 + . one can also obtain (13—35) by applying the principle of virtual forces to a differential element.. F2.. we outline the additional steps required for restrained torsion. we must express in terms of the force parameters (F1. Taking u according to (13—3) and considering only MR.[ISMR + . Letting represent the complementary energy per unit length along X1.i + w1. In a displacement formulation (Sec. i. MR). We then generate expansions for the stresses in terms of the forceparameters from an equilibrium consideration. we take as a function of u.e. 13—2 and the expanded form of 5$ dA is given by (b) of Sec. Instead of applying (13—34). In a = and = mixed formulation we start by introducing expansions for the displacements. Equating the coefficients of each force variation to zero results in the forcedisplacement relations.
Virtual force system. linearly elastic easy and isotropic. + WI o. we also suppose there is no initial strain. 13—3. The complementary energy density is = if dA + if + (1336) It remains to introduce expansions for the stress components in terms of the force parameters such that the definition equations for the force parameters are identically satisfied. e. We obtain the forcedisplacement relations by applying the second procedure (principle of virtual forces) without having to introduce strain expansions. a curved member. one has to have the straindisplacement relations. due to warping restraint.1 dxj Fig. we can F1 M2 M3 (a) where satisfies the orthogonality conditions: § dA = JJx2çb c/A = c/A = 0 (b) Note that we have imposed a restriction on q5. it is relatively —aM. In certain cases. Problem § F1 = = M3 = 0 for treats the case of a nonhomogeneous material. To simplify the treatment. See 1).t In what follows. Considering first the normal stress.SEC. The complementary energy due to c11 expands to —.g. . 13—5.1+w11dx1 f + f. MIXED FORMULATION 385 The first procedure (based on (13—34)) is more convenient since it avoids introducing the equilibrium equations. 1 I t The approach based on the principle of virtual forces is not applicable for the geometrically nonlinear case..5 6Mg. f to establish the forceequilibrium equations by applying the equilibrium conditions to a differential element. However. we consider the material to be homogeneous.
11—7. I L.2 + ('13. i.3 = MR 4 0 (mA) — + (on 5) . we utilize the axial equilibrium equations and stress boundary condition: ('12. we have to distinguish between the unrestrained and restrained torsional moments: MT = + (13—38) = = It remains to determine We follow the same approach as in the engineering theory of flexural shear stress. 13 Finally. (13—37) developed in Sec. taking v = 0.2 + mA 0 + on S Differentiating the expression for au and noting the equilibrium equations. The shearing stress distribution must satisfy thc definition equations for F2. F3. For a solid section. 11—2 through 11—4. We write is the unrestrained is torsion distribution. Since we are assuming no inplane deformation. Since the restrainedtorsion distribution is statically equivalent to a torsional moment. the fiexural distribution for a thinwalled section can he obtained by applying the engineering theory where + + ('If = the flcxural distribution due to F2. We can obtain suitable expansions by adding a term due to warping restraint to the results for unrestrained torsion and fiexure. we obtain F1 W3.386 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.1 = F2 13 + F3 12 + MR Since satisfies (a) for arbitrary F2. F3 and a" corresponds to r is = 0. we obtain ('11.. and is the distribution due to restrained torsion.13 f. MT and MR identically. F3.e. substituting for in (13—35). The shear stress distribution for unrestrained torsion is treated in Sees. we utilize the results of Sec. — These expansions coincide with the corresponding relations obtained with the displacement model (see (13—10)). 11—5. it follows that due to MR: y r ('12.
we neglect 0 and (a) reduces to at a free edge d and to be constant over the thickness t and work with the shear Equation (d) becomes = qV 1çô1 0 (13—43) = at a free edge The orthogonality conditions on and boundary condition on ensure that (13—44) = = (IS — 0 0 and equating to (13—41). . MIXED FORMULAflON 387 The orthogonality conditions on and boundary condition on a' ensure thatt 0 = dA = dA = from 0 (13 —40) We solve (13—39) and then evaluate = J$[—(x3 Noting (13—40). 112 Vf = + + 23 3 (a) LI 2GJ — 11* V uf f See Prob. For convenience. We write the expanded form of the shear contribution as V*. these have evaluated and results are summarized below (See Equation 11—98) /z'2 I 13 I. (c) Finally. by evaluating Finally.hear JJ We + + + + + (134) in Sec. (13—42) MT = = = We take flow qr + When the cross section is thinwalled. we write (c1 as = where (13—41) is a crosssectional property which depends on With this definition. 13—2.SEC. we determine We consider next the complementary energy density. 13—5. we see that — x3)a12 + (X2 . 11—5.
— — X2X3 r 5) — — .+ — A3 F3 x3. we write the coupling bctwcen flex ural and restrained torsion as = + (13—48) 1 = + X2rF3Mg) where Xjr have units of length. if X2 is an axis of symmetry. We substitute for in (13—35). + J (13—49) Wi.1. replace Mr with + Ccj. Us3. in addition. Therefore.388 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. If.j I+I = MR + 1 (x3. We evaluate using (13—39) ((13—43) for the thinwalled case). 13 The coupling term. thickness. Up to this point. = 0).F2 + x2. and write the results as Also = if if + (13—46) where Cr is a dimensionless factor which depends on q5. in what follows. OF3.F3) The corresponding relations for the displacement model are given by (13—12). = 0 since is symmetrical and a' is antisymmetrical with respect to the X2 axis.1 + 0)2 = GA23 = C. We will show later that it is possible to make vanish for a closed section by specializing the homogeneous solution of (13—43). The coupling between unrestrained and restrained torsion is expressed as = + (1347) It is obvious that = 0 for a thinwalled open section since is an odd function of n whereas a' is constant over the. we take ISC If" — X3X2 t. The resulting forcedisplacement I relations are U521 — 0)3 "F2 + —.MR. = 0 is a consequence of our assuming the cross section is rigid with respect to inplane deformation. vanishes when the section has an axis of symmetry. we have required to satisfy the orthogonality relations and also determined a' such that there is no energy coupling between au and (C. we will take Cur 0 Finally. 1/A23. and equate the coefficients of oF2. and <5MR.
The forcedisplacement relations are obtained by setting F2. 13—7 and 13—8.1. +1 in (13—49). 13—6. we neglect shear deformation due to restrained torsion by setting Cr = X2r = X3r 1 = 0 (13—52) This assumption leads to the center of twist coinciding with the shear center and (13—53) One now has to determine If from the equilibrium relation. F3. 13—6. For convenience.l4. w3 equal to zero and C.j 1 AK — = GJw1. SOLUTION FOR RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION We suppose only torsional loading is applied. We then discuss the application to open and closed cross section. it is more convenient to work with tsr — — AS — AK:' In what follows. we summarize the governing equations below. co2. Equilibrium Equations MT. = +1 MrT=+MR (13—50 Note that is the warping function for unrestrained torsion about the shear center.1 GJ +f) will be positive. One neglects shear deformations due to flexure by setting (1351) Similarly..SEC. RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 389 Cçt. + in4. We discuss the determination of 4> in Secs. 1 + 112T = 0 MT— ForceDisplacement Relations (4> E. we outline the solution procedure for restrained torsion and list results for various loadings. We include the minus sign so that C1 . 13—3. f See Prob. is known.
390 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. (f) becomes Eric.t + GJ(w1..1 + f) = 0 After some manipulation. .12 is defined ast cc = 1 + Cr ErI# (1355) 22 C Equation (g) corresponds to (h). (i) of Sec. 1 = = dx1 = + (13—54) We start by integrating (a): MT C1 — C1 Substituting (c) in (b) and (13—54) leads to the governing equations for w1 and f: (1 + Cr)O)i. t The corresponding paramater for the We have dropped the subscript formulation is 2 (see (13—21)). 13—4. The general solution for f and has the following form: f Wi C3 cosh 2x + C4 sinh 2x — + (13—56) = — + C2 + sinh 2x + C4 cosh 2x) — is the particular solution due to on x1 for convenience. 13 Boundary Conditions MT or or prescribed at each end Translations of the Shear renter u52. C1x1 I C f — = (C1 + where .
cosh [ M — t The corresponding solution based on the displacement model is given by (13—22). The expressions for! differ by a minus sign.SEC. RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 391 The significance of A has been discussed in Sec.. Example 13—1 Cantilever—Concentrated Moment Fig. we set cv1=f=O f. This is due to our choice of We took in the displacement model and = in the mixed model. E13—l) are x=O x=L Starting with (13—54). = 0 = 0 and C1 = M. (13—26). 13—6. E13—1 X1 The boundary conditions (Fig. . The remaining constants are deter mined from w1—f——0 atx=0 atx=L and the final solution ist M[ GJ WI coshA(L—x) cosh AL {sinh AL — sinh A(L — x)} (13—57) [x — M r LA —c 1 sinh ).L. that AL will be large with respect to unity for a closed section. we list for future reference the solution for various loading and boundary conditions. We should expect.(L — x) cosh . We will return to the evaluation of A in the next section. 13—4. In the examples below. on the basis of the results obtained there.
= u. Note that Xi._______ 392 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. the center of twist coincides with the shear center throughout the length.3 + Substituting for and w1. = = 0 if we neglect shear deformation due to the restrained shear stress and..2.2. The translations of the shear center are obtained by integrating u.L 0. 0s3 to = 0. 13 Note that C... . By definition. The boundary conditions are x=0 x=L co1=f=0 ce1=w [=0 f See (13—31).U X3. = and requiring u. 1 when the complementary energy term due to the restrained torsion shear stress (o') is neglected. = 0 if X. (13—32) for the displacement model solution.L — sinh A.U I u=j Let M1dx=x—co1 M (1358) denote the coordinates and translations of the center of twist. Also. (j x3. c (13—59) — x1] The limiting of g occur at x = (13—60) 1 1 + k) is an axis of symmetry for the cross section.. We determine g(O) by applying L'IIOspital's rule to (13—59). vanish at x = U. we obtain t X2 — — x3) = 0 —X2)=0 — — gx3. g —1 + x — ——f—— [sinh ).2 = We write the result as = X2. the left end (x = 0) is fixed and the right end rotates a specified amount w under the action of a torsional moment. L. There is no twist or translation at x = 0. in this case.. x2.2 — =u. cosh . Example 13—2 We consider next the case where warping is restrained at both ends..
(0. Starting with the general solution.60 .5 1 0. as M = where L.48 4 .98 . we suppose there is no distributed load. For AL > 4. — [cosh Ax + sirih Ax]} — = ErI#A {sinh Ax + (L__f) cosh Ax} We write the relation between the end rotation. that AL C3 0. [2(1 — c)11 + = (0 1 C1( = + Ax /1—c'\ + (1.5 =L r 2C (c— 1'\1 (1362) = L(1 — cC3) The following table shows the variation of with AL. C2 2/AL. and the end moment M.76 2 3 . Note = 1 if transverse shear deformation due to restrained torsion is neglected.SEC. RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 393 To simplify the analysis. sinh Ax — — (1361) (01 cosh Ax) — sinh Ax]} = ci {i = Mç1.924 .ff denotes the effective length: L. 13—6. MT = C1 f = C3 cosh Ax + C4 sinh = + C2 — — {C3 sinh Ax + C4 cosh Ax} and enforcing the boundary conditions leads to the following relations: C3=— = C1L 11—c s = sinh AL GJ = cosh AL 4 C.
394 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. A lower bound is obtained by allowing the section to wrap. i. AL The solution represents an upper bound.nL1— 1 x (13—64) + AL c= AL s= . by taking . Symmetry requires MT=O} and (a) reduces to atx=O (b) MT = [= sinh Ax + x (1363) — = C2 — + cosh xx We treat first the case where the end section is fixed with respect to both rotation and warping.x — c) MT = —mx = . E13—3). 13 Example 13—3 Uniform Distributed MomentSymmetrical Supports The general solution for m for convenience) is: MT = C1 — ?flX f= —coshAx + C1 C3 C4.e... — C1 + flIX = x + C2 — m /x2 + — c (a) (C3 sirth Ax + C4 cosh Ax) We consider the boundary conditions to be identical at both ends and measure x from the midpoint (Fig. Requiring (13—63) to satisfy f= results in =0 sinh Ax} at x = L/2 (a) I= CO1 {x — mL2 fi[ U— ( /x"t21 j+ C ) (cosh .
— c) = —mx ( —x+fsinhAx C (13—65) = IC. we briefly outline the procedure for an arbitrary section. 13—4. Consider the arbitrary segment shown in Fig.t is positive when translation in the + S direction rotates the position vector about the + X1 direction. Before discussing the individual sections. Ic1 = We work with q" rather than and mixed sections where one generates q" in terms of to facilitate treatment of closed . we apply the mixed formulation theory to a wide flange section and also to a channel section. E13—3 —x1 H and the result is f= {x — xc sinh mL2 (1 [ — j+ C.SEC. We select a positive sense for S and an arbitrary origin (point P). 13—7. APPLICATION TO THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS In what follows. I AL cosh Ax — c= cosh 13—7. We first determine the crosssectional and then obtain general expressions for properties corresponding to = — the stresses in terms of dimensionless geometric parameters. The unrestrained torsional shear flow is zero By definition. APPLICATION TO THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 395 Fig. The unrestrained torsion warping function is obtained by applying (11—29) to the centerline curve and requiring the section to rotate about the shear center.
13—4. 13 for an open section. consider the section shown in Fig. = 0. The constant is evaluated by enforcing the —* F1 = 0). Also. The distribution of 4) for the three branches is given by A— B 4)p+$gpscdS 4) B—C B—D b4)B+JopscdS C We are taking the origin at B for branches B — tSeeProb. taking = — and integrating leads to pscclS sP (13—67) Note that one can select the sense of S arbitrarily. varies linearly with S when the segment is straight. and B — D.396 RESTRAfNED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. orthogonality condition dS =0 If the section has an axis of symmetry. Then. t x3 Shear center IPsc x2 Fig.t2 = M3 axis. The remaining orthogonality conditions (a'j1 0). One has only to require continuity of 4) at the junction point. When the section has branches. Notation for determination of the warping function. 13—5. we apply (13—67) to each branch. $4x2tdS = 0 are identically satisfied by definition of the shear center. if we take P on the symmetry ?v. . 13—1. As an illustration.
. is an odd function with respect to the axis and x3 is an even function. Forconvenience. the resulting expression simplifies to + J S q5tdS = + (13—69) We start at a free edge and work inward.e. Once and are known. qr acting in the —S (see Fig. Then. 13—5. and with (13—10). 13—5). (13—46): = JJqYdA = 542tdS Cr = if + In order to evaluate XZr. 13—7.q p S. we need the fiexural shear stress distributions. a + direction. If the section has an axis of symmetry.q Fig. we can evaluate 1w. i. APPLICATION TO THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 397 The shear flow due to is obtained by integrating (13—43) and noting qr (13—50). A +q points in the +S direction corresponds to _qr. we let = 145 (13—68) With this notation. and write We let q(J) be the distribution due to qU) (13—71) j=2 j=3 '(=3 k= 2 . Example of a section with branches. S. X3r.SEC.
El 3—4A) has two axes of symmetry. tions for 4) Example 13—4 Symmetrical I Section The I section shown (Fig.. we obtain q5=O q5 = S forweb for flange Note that the sense of S is reversed for the bottom flange. and X3r = 0. Applying (13—67). it follows that the shear center coincides with the centroid and the warping function is odd with respect to K2. X3. By analogy. E13—4A x3 1. is an even function of x3. x2.398 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. When the section is closed. x2r. apply for an arbitrary thinThe definition equations for Cr. and walled section. . 13 The coupling terms are defined by (13—48). for a thinwalled section with 4) = — Substituting for qr and qf results in J I X3r 3dS (1372) — = Y t If X2 is an axis of symmetry. which reduces to I j q q — X3r + X21. = 0 if X3 is an axis of symmetry. Fig. qt2t is an odd function. Ia. we have only to modify the equaand We will discuss this further in the next section.
SEC. 13—7.
APPLICATION TO THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS
399
The shear flow vanishes at S = ± b/2. Applying (13—69) and starting from pt. A, we find
=
The distributions of
=
Sb/2
(25)2]
and q' are shown in Fig. E13—4B, where the arrows indicate the
sense of q' for + Ms.
Fig. E13—48
b2ht
Plot
Plot of qr
We express the crosssectional properties in terms of Ii, t, and a shape factor
= b/h
3 =
ht3
th5
+
=
=
(t)2
8(1 +
=
The dimensionless parameters occurring in the solution of the differential equations for the mixed formulations are and AL (see (13—55)). Using (c) and assuming a value of 1/3 for Poisson's ratio, we write
[3(1 +
=
I
AL
=
400
RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PR!SMATtC MEMBER CHAP. 13
The coefficients
are tabulated below:
0.75
2.4 2.66
3.2
3
4.22
0.50
6.93
1. The warping parameter, ),L, depends Since (t/h)2 << 1 and 0(1), we see that on t//i as well as L/h. This is the essential difference between open and closed cross sections. For the solid section, we found that AL = 0(L/h) and, since L/h is generally large in com
parison to unity, the influence of restrained warping is Iocalized.f The value of AL for an open section is O(L//,) 00/1,) and the effect of warping restraint is no longer confined to a region on the order of the depth at the end but extends further into the interior.
We consider next the determination of the stresses due to restrained warping. The
general expressions are
M4,
dTts
r
q
=
7
6
Using the distribution for çb and qr shown above, the maximum values of normal and shear
stress are
=
=
The shearing stress due to unrestrained torsion is obtained from
3
To gain some insight as to the relative magnitude of the various strcsses, we consider a member fully restrained at one end and subjected to a torsional moment M at the other end. This problem is solved in Example 13—1. The maximum values of the moments are
tanh
AL
atx = 0
J
= C5M
We substitute for the moments in (f), (g) and write the results in terms
the maximum
t We defined the boundary layer length,
(sec (13—24). (13—25)) as
0
Lh
4
L
;.L
SEC. 13—7.
shear
APPLICATION TO THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS
stress for unrestrained torsion:
,,, =
tanh
(f))
Mt
—
The variation of these coefficients with b/h is shown below:
b
1?
1
2
0.75 0.50
2.11 2.31
1.5 1.67 2
Since
and
are of 0(1), it follows that
=
0(d)
The additional shearing stress (at) is small in comparison to the unrestrained valu
Therefore, it is reasonable to neglect the terms in the complementary energy density due to ic., to take C, = 1 for an open section. We will show in the next section 0 and that this assumption is not valid for a closed section.
Example
13—5
Channel Section
symmetry,
We consider next the channel section shown in Fig. El3—SA. Since X2 is an axis of = x3, = 0. The expressions for the location of the centroid, shear center,
Fig. E13—5A
S
Shear
center
x2
H°
402
RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
and 12 are
=
b
I+
I+
e=b
=be
th3
b h
The dimensionless coefficient? is essentially constant, as the following table shows:
b
h
?
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.429 0.409 0.375
We determine by applying (13—67) to the three segments. Taking S as indicated above, and noting that is odd with respect to X2, we obtain:
Segment 1—2
6
Psc
=
=
Segment 2—3
hh(
 S
bh(
2S\
The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—5B. Since? < 1/2, the maximum value of q5 occurs
at point I (and 4). We generate next the distribution of and using (b):
starting at point 1 (since q =
0
at that point)
Segment 1—2
S
bin
152
Segment 2—3
/
=
The distribution of
'\
+
+
s2
is plotted in Fig. El35C.
SEC. 13—7.
APPLICATION TO THINWALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS
403
Fig. E13—5B
—(1— e)
—e
—
Distribution of
Fig. E13—SC
D2®
D1
)+Mi
D2
I
D2
0
0
Distribution of qr/1242t
The expressions lbr J, example:
and AL are written in the same form as for the previous
I=
(1 ±
+
=
I —h5
c
(t'\2
=
±
+
+
+
(t\2 f=
Cs =
AL
=
(t)
=
404
RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
The following table shows the variation
and
with b/h for G/E. = 3/8. i.e., Poisson's
ratio equal to 1/3. Note that the comments made for the wideflange section also apply
to the channel section.
c =—
h
1
b
2.33
2.65 3.4
2.55
3.39
0.75 0.50
5.24
In order to evaluate X2r, we need the flexural shear stress distribution due to F3. Applying (11—106) leads to
Segment 1—2
4(3)
Segment 2—3
4(3) =
—
— S)
The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—SD; the arrows indicate the sense of q for a +F3.
Fig. E13—5D
+
I
I
t÷F3
t
—1
Distribution of
/2
lb/it
SEC. 13—8.
THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS
and the crosssectional constants in (13—72) leads to
405
Substituting for
=
=
(t\2
(1 +
+
+
The coefficient is of order unity, as the following table shows:
1
0.926
1.03
0.5
In Example 13—1, we determined expressions for the coordinates of the center of twist in terms of .'c,, and It is of interest to evaluate these expressions for this cross section.
The coordinates at x
0(sec (13—59), (13—60)) are
=
0
= X2
——i—1
+
Substituting for
and evaluating
we obtain
X2
=
=
—
1
0.5
0.476 0.625
0.836 0.485
13—8.
APPLICATION TO THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS
We treat first a single closed cell and then generalize the procedure for multicell sections. Consider the section shown in Fig. 13—6. The +S direction is from X2 toward X3 (corresponding to a rotation about the +X1 direction). Using the results developed in Sec. 11—4, the shear flow for unrestrained tor
sion is
q =1C
2A
406
RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
where A is the area enclosed by the centerline curve. The shearing stress varies
linearly over the thickness,
=
+
C'\
—) =
+
but the opensection term has a zero resultant.
x3
q
S
x2
Fig. 13—6. Notation for single closed cell.
Substituting for qU in (13—66), taking 4 P lead to
CS
—
and integrating from point
=
We determine
by enforcing
+
dS — C
(13—73)
=
0
The two additional orthogonality conditions
4x2gbtdS =
0
are identically satisfied by definition of the shear center. t The shear flow due to is defined by (13—69),
q=—7q 14
+ Q4
t Noting that x2t =
dQs/ds, we can write
#x24.t = We merely have to identify this term as the moment of the flexural shear stress about the shear center. See Prob. 1112.
SEC. 13—8.
THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS
407
where
is
indeterminate. Our formulation is based on no energy coupling
i.e., we require (see (13 47))
between qU and
=
(13—74)
Noting that
is constant for a single cell, and using (e), we obtain
f
=
——
dS
(13—75)
The flexural shear flow distributions for F2, F3 are generated with (11—110). We merely point out here that there is no energy coupling between qU and
quqf
0
(f)
tion, i.e., w1
One can interpret (13—74) and (f) as requiring qr to lead to no twist deforma0. We have expressed the fiexural shear flows as (see (13—71)):
ft — qjij=q
(J) —
FJ_0)
j=3 k=2
Cr
=
2
k
Finally, the definition equations for the crosssectional properties have the same form as for the opensection:
Eq. 13—70
Eq. 13—72
X2 is an axis of symmetry. Then, is an odd function of x3. If we take the origin for S (point p) on the X2 axis, = 0. Also, is an even function of x3 and = 0. In what follows, we illustrate the application of the procedure to a rectangular cross section.
Example
13—6
Rectangular Section—C'onsta,,t Thickness
Applying (13—73) and taking q5 = 0 at point
shown in (Fig. E13—6A) leads to
ci + b
fa — b\
The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—6B. Note that
=
0
when a =
b,
i.e., a square
section of constant thickness does not warp.
408
RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
Fig. E13.6A
T
Centroid
 x2
2a—
Fig. E13—6B
(a—b
+
b
Distribution of
We determine Q4, by integrating (a),
= at
— b'\ S2
(
+ bJ — 2
(a — b\
for segment 1—2
for segment 2—3
= (Q4 +
and evaluate
with (13—75):
/ a+b1\
dS
.11
a—b
SEC. 13—8.
THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS
409
The distribution of
follows from (b), (c),
2
j(
2a\)
2a(S
1(S\2\
j/
2a
2 \a+b
corresponds to q' acting in the clockwise and is plotted in Fig. E13—6C. Note that (— S) direction for + Ms. Also, D is negative for b > a.
Fig. E13—6C
x3
b
T
2a
b
q'/D
qr(+
D
2
We introduce a shape factor (,
depth width
b
a
410
RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
The resulting relations are
and express the various coefficients in terms of a, t, and
J=
=
16a3t
(neglecting
—
the contribution oft)
4a5t [2(1
4
LATh
+
+
+
5(1
9(1
I
x2, = x3,.
(G'\ /
0
\) 1/2 L
L
=
The variation of C,,
and = a
with b/a is shown in the table below;
C,
b
L;f for
.'
G
3 8
\
E
2
3
cc 10.43 4.41
0
0.98
1.27
0.0877 0.185
1.39
We found
(g)
=0
T)
IL
for an open section. Our results for the single cell indicate that
=0
C,>> 1
C,
1
for a closed section. We obtained a similar result for using the displacementmodel formulation for a solid section. Since is due to the restrained shearing stress (q'), we see that shear deformation due to q' cannot be neglected for a closed cross section. We discuss next the determination of the normal and shearing stresses due to warping. The general expressions are
°isq
q'
t
tie
L 0$ . We consider the same problem as was treated in Example 13—4.SEC.I [3C. = 1 h/a c.. i. 13—8. The maximum stresses are 2 i tanh 2. THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 411 The maximum normal stress occurs at point 2 while the maximum shear stress can occur at either points I or 3.C The variation of and 2 with height/width is shown below. we found the restrainedtorsion shear stress to be of the order of (thickness/depth) times the unrestrained shear stress.65 For large tanh I and we see that both the normal and shear stress are of the order of the unrestrainedtorsion stress.51 +0. we consider the section shown in Fig.35 —0. (point 2) 0 1. 11—4 (see Fig. To illustrate the procedure for a multicell section. a member fully restrained at one end and subjected to a torsional moment M at the other end. The unrestrainedtorsion analysis for this section is treated in Sec. 13—7. In the open section case.1112 — S. We nttmber the cells consecutively and take the +S sense from X2 to X3 for the closed segments and inward for the open segments.44 +0.nax. M( = J which reduces to + C MC = since M = 7 = = we are considering the section to be thinwalled.46 (point 3) 0 2 3 —1. For convenience.e. 11—11).04 (point 1) 0 —0.. The total shear flow is obtained by superimposing the individual ccli flows q' = qU = 0 for an exterior (open) segment constant for an interior segment — We let WIT (U — . we summarize the essential results here. We are taking Poisson's ratio equal to 1/3. the maximum shear stress for unrestrained torsion. We express the stresses in terms of ag.
we require t See also (11—32). 13 "2 + q. A2} The warping function is generated by applying (13—6): 4' a = = Psc — (13—76) 7 We start at point P1 in cell 1 and integrate around the centerline. Enforcing (11—67). enforcing continuity of 4. . and d. at b. The constants C1.t = for each cell leads to 2A = where a. 13—7.Jsj t — dS dS = A = {A1. at the junction points b. c. A are defined as f = a21 . Notation for mixed cross section. C2 are determined by requiring each cell to have the same twist deformation. w1.S q1 . For example.412 e RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP.S1 Fig.
THINWALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 413 which leads to a relation between and 4). we can write = Finally. e andf The redundant shear flows are evaluated by requiring no energy coupling between qU and qr which is equivalent to requiring qr to lead to no twist deformation. We take the shear flow at points P1. has the same form as We just have to replace C with C'S. Note that is taken on an axis of symmetry. = and express the shear flow as J = 1. Finally. For example.. + = Note that = 0 at points P1. We generate by integrating (i) around the centerline. 2 (13—77) + ii. j. and enforcing equilibrium at the junction points. The shear flow for restrained torsion is obtained with (13—69): a as 0 if P1 = The steps are the same as for the flexural shear determination discussed in Sec. P2.e. 11—7.: Jb = 4)e + j Psc dS = + — dS Repeating for points C and d results in the distribution of 4) expressed in One can easily verify that 4) is continuous. 13—7).. . 13—8. Noting (c).SEC. substituting for we obtain 0 j = 1. i. & determined terms of determined from segment cdcL. we from segment ca is equal to evaluate by enforcing JJ4)dA=J4)tdS=O where the integral extends over the total centerline. where Zj0 is the open section distribution and (13—78) is due to The distribution.2 (13—79) aCr = B 1' — dS (13—80) f See footnote on page 385.. P2 as the redundants. at point b (see Fig.
Y23) are of 0(w2). 63.2 l. are independent variables. C and b are where e(u). 1(u52 i + x3w1.. See Sec. Eq.) — d(surface area)] 0 a.2. To extend the formulation into the geometrically nonlinear realm is straightforward. Our starting point is the stationary requirement t — V*)d(vol.) = 1 1 1)] — W3 + + F2[u. To be consistent. Actually we assume O'22 = 1723 0. We take the displacement expansions according to (13—3) and use the strain = V*(o. sin w and cos w 1. xar) can be evaluated. Also we can readily generalize the above approach for an ncell section. i. This approach is a mixed formulation. Ci. .. 1)] M0f1 + MRf + 1 + i+ MQW1W1.1j3 + U31 + 1)2 The inplane strain measures (62.e. i — w1. One has only to introduce the appropriate nonlinear straindisplacement relations.e. one introduces expansions for both stresses and dis placements. 1 3—9. 13—5.1 + U3.. 10—28. plane Stress. We are working with Kirchhoff Stress and Lagrangian strain here. i. X2r.. 1}dxj f See Eqs. i — T2w1. 1 — co1. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR RESTRAINED TORSION In this section. the first term in (a) expands to d(vol. the crosssectional properties (1 . 10—3. Tile displacement expansions assume smallfinite rotation. displacement relations for small strain and small finite rotations4 U1 112 = U1 + C02X3 — W3X2 + /4) cn1(x3 — x3) U3 = + w1(x2 = Yiz = Y13 + + (13—81 + U2. which is negligible according to the assumption of sinai! finite rotations.e.3U3. Substituting for the displacements and noting the definition equations for the force parameters. i + F3[u53 S + — t+ + M2{w2. The linear case was treated in Sec. we must use (10—28).). + M3[w3. i.414 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. prescribed. 13—33 and corresponding footnote. we establish the governing equations for geometrically nonlinear restrained torsion by applying Reissner's principle. 13 Once 4) and zir are known.
We proceed as follows. there are 8 force M3. MR. Introducing (a) in the definition and MQ leads to = = $2 f11F1 + fl2M2 + fl3M3 + + + = if if if 4. We use the stress expansions employed for the linear case with = They are summarized below for convenience measures.) + jJpTu d(surface area) + + F1u1 + where the end forces (the barred quantities) are defined as previously. but we list them again here for convenience (see (13—6)): JJcbTu d(vol. and M4. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 415 where the two additional force parameters are = ÷ MQ = $J(x2c12 + x3a13)dA The terms involving the external forces have the same form as for the linear case. q. MQ) are present for the nonlinear case but they can be related to the previous force measures. + + mrwi + in2w2 + m3oj3 + rn4f)dxi + F3u33 + MTO1 + M2(02 + M3co3 + (13—83) = (5Jp1 etc. Two additional force measures (Me. Il equations for where 4. = (1384) $3 = /34.SEC. 135): a11 F1 A ± M2 —1—x3 — T—X2 M3 13 + ± = — + &ij + MT + _. x3. f.. It remains to introduce expansions for the stresses in terms of the independent force parameters and to expand V*. for example. + . F1 (see Sec. In the linear case. 13—9. h2 and h3 are functions of x2.
Substituting Equations (13—82)—(13—87) in Reissner's functional and re quiring it to be stationary with respect to the seven displacement and eight force measures leads to the following governing equations: Equilibrium Equations F1.1M3} + b3 = 1 1 (1 + + (1 + — + 1 1 + 2J32w1. 3) = (13—85) + = Certain coefficients vanish if the cross section has an axis of symmetry4 One can readily verify that fi1F1 MQ (13—86) 0 when the section is doubly symmetric. 13—12. For generality. 13 andt MQ — + $J(x2h2k + +xlh3k)dA + (k = 2.1 + b1 = 0 j+ — + — w1F3 — w1 1M2} + b2 0 0 + F3 + w1F2 — wi. + + + = 0 + m2 = M3. 1 — F3 — 0 0 + t See Prob. .. See Prob.1 + F2 + m3 = M2.416 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. The complementary energy density function has the same form as for the linear case: — = —' 1 2Ek. 13—il. X2r X3r = 0) for a thinwalled open section.A + '2 + ——— 13) + 1 + ——' + + + + ((Mw + + X2rF3) We have shown that it is quite reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation due to warping (C. we will retain all the terms here.
w3 + — i) 1FF2 + + F3 + X3r = — + wi[u53.1) = 1. .j(—US2. 13—13. The following example treats one of the cases.1M2 = ±F2 — x2w1. for x1 = 0) u1 prescribed or F1 = prescribed or prescribed or wi prescribed or + (0j(172F2 + + T3w1.SEC. t See Prob. [CrM?+ X3rF2 + Boundarp = I' + — + Conditions (+ for x1 = L.j + + (02 prescribed or M2 = ±M2 (03 prescribed or M3 = ± M3 prescribed or = ± + (I + 1+ + = ±MT f These equations simplify considerably when the cross section is symmetric and transverse shear deformation is neglected. 1 i — x2uS3.j + /32(01. 1M3 + F3 + w1F2 — ±F3 1 + 7J1w1.1 + (0l. 1 + (1 + + M2(—u52. 13—9. 1/33] 1FF2 1 MrTJ = + + (02 + 1+ G = M (13—88) = = (02. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 417 where Relations = 1+ 1+ 1 + Wj.1) + F2 — wjF3 (01.1' We discuss the general solution of (13—88) in Chapter 18. 1 — Wj. a member subjected to an axial force and torsional moment.1) + + j + /33(01.
fully restrained at one end and loaded by an axial force P and torsional moment M. d dx1 0 (M1 + i) = 0 ForceDisplacement Relations = GJw11 = ErI.11 2 . const = corlst =P =M The first equilibrium equation takes the form 1. E13—7A P M F L Equilibrium Equations (symmetrical cross section and no distributed load) = F1. The linear solution (with no axial force) was derived in Example 13—i. E13—7A) having a doubly symmetric cross section.418 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. We are interested here in evaluating the influence of axial force on the torsional behavior.ji F1 = i + Boundary conditions . lead to F1 = M1 + /31F1w1. 13 Example 13—7 We consider a prismatic member (see Fig. x2 Fig.1 = Al Integrating the last two equations in (a) and noting the boundary conditions.xi=O xj = L F1 P = 0 M1 + J3tF1w1.
ux + C2 smh (i + + = C3 + Mx {i + — {C1 sinh px + C2 cosh (We drop the subscript on x1 for convenience.:ij 2GJ GJA i±P I+ + F) This expression reduces to Equation (g) of Sec.J to be less than the yield stress. We let F. specializing (g) for these particular boundary conditions result in f= wi = { —1 + cosh — — — tanh sinh {sinh jtx + (1 — cosh These equations reduce to (1357) when P = 0. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 419 where P11 7. The general solution is. Equation (h) shows that the limiting value of P is 1. The various coefficients (see Example 13—4) are In order for J= + . represent the critical axial force and the corresponding axial stress 11 (. we can determine the rotation by integrating (d). As an illustration. which expands to + F + when we substitute for M1 using (b). 13—6 when P = 0. 13—9. M— f M f= [GJ C1 cosli . A tensile force (P > 0) increases the torsional stiffness whereas a compressive force (P < 0) decreases the stiffness.) Finally. Once f is known.SEC. (J/11) must be small with respect to unity. E13—7B. consider the section shown in Fig.
" J. Cement and Concrete Association. D. . 8..: "Secondary Stresses in ThinWalled Beams with Closed Cross Sections.559—609. HEILIG. I. CHRISTENSEN: "Methods of Analysis of Torsion with Variable Twist. C. London. Mech. Washington. 1961. B. C.. BENSCOTER. 7. 12.. CHIEN: "Torsion with Variable Twist." J. No. 1967. J." Technical Report 440. S. U. 10. R. and N. Franklin Inst. Office of Technical Services. K. 13. 5. R. Aero.C. 2. pp. Aero.: Variational Methods in and Plasticity. T. and W. V. New York. SpringerVerlag." NACA—TN 2529. No. C. israel Program for Scientific Translations. T. VON KARMAN.S. Vol 21.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. J:: "Theory of Bending. 9." J. 3. Dept. Berlin. S. BASLER: Torsion in Structures. Sci. IJ. McGrawHill. Washington. S.. 503—510. 1951.. April 1944. April 1961. E13—78 x3 X2 and r. Appi. 4.." J. 1945.: Thin Walled Elastic Brains. December 1961. T. D.420 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. G (t'\2( REFERENCES 1. TIMOSHENKO.: "Der Schuberverformungseinfiuss auf die Wölbkrafttorsion Von Stilben mit offenern Profil. October 1946. 6. of Commerce. 10. 1954. Pergarnon Press. BENSCOTER. 1969. July 1970. 1968. pp. VON VLASOV. Ii. Vol. KOLLORUNNER..: "Review of Literature Related to the Analysis and Design of ThinWalled Beams.." Der Stahlbau. Sci. 1. U. Torsion and Buckling of ThinWalled Members of Open Cross Section. Z.: "l3eitrag zur Theorie der Kastentrhger beliehiger Der Stahlbau. B. MAISEL.. and K. F. HEILIG.: "A Theory of Torsion Bending for Multiceil Beams. 110—124. 13 Fig. pp.
REISSER. New York.PROBLEMS 13. Equation (b)) is given by IVIT O'12 . is the St. 1967. 1968. STEin': Srabilitar Theorie. 315—316. 18.. Hint: See Prob." ." SpringerVerlag.Walled Structures. 13—3. 16.f U = — X3 + X3] — = (13—39). Chatto and Windus. Berlin. 1952. and H. June 1956. G. McGrawHill. A. T.: "Note on Torsion with Variable Twist. 23. Vol. AppI. GALAMBOS. This problem reviews the subject of the chapter in two aspects. and Equation (11—97). 1957. PROBLEMS 13—1. R. London. (a) No coupling between the unrestrained and restrained torsional distribution requires 0 + The unrestrained torsional shear stress distribution for twist about the shear center (see Sec. PrenticeHall.: "Gekrüinmte dUnnwandige Trager. No. . pp. The coordinate of the shear center is defined by = X3 if X3 3 where 13—2. H. F. 13—3. Verify that + x2 — — x2] The restrained torsional shear stress distribution is determined from = MR when ç& = and (a) is enforced. Venant torsional warping function. 17. The shear stress distribution due to is given by (see (11—95)) F2 ' 3 = where F2 13 2 (733 13 are fiexural warping functions which satisfy = — x2 (in A) (onS) This result applies when the cross section is assumed to be rigid with respect to inplane deformation. Part 1. E.: Buckling Strength of Metal Structures. 11—11 Verify (13—40) and (13—44). BURGERMEISTER. Berlin.. 2.J. 15.: Thin. Mech. 1968.: Structural Members and Fiames. DABROWSKi. BLEICH. CHILVER. Akademie Verlag. 421 14. V.
Consider the cross section fixed at x 0. Discuss how you would modify the member forcedisplacement relations developed in Example 12—2 to account for restrained torsion. Refer to Examples 12—2 and 13—2. (a) and (b) take the form •fquqr_ = o is the perpendicular distance from the shear center to the tangent at the centerline. G). 13—1. Mu. Determine the translations of the shear center. 13—7. show that  '12 = . Specialize (13—57) for . Starting with the forcedeformation relations based on the mixed formulation (13—49). Determine 13—11.L > at x 13—S. 3. 13—10. derive the member forcedisplacement relations (see Example 12—2). 13 (b) When the cross section is thinwalled. Refer to Example 13—2. Determine the distribution of qr. 13—9. Consider a thinwalled section comprising discrete elements of material properties (F. Discuss how the displacement and mixed formulations haveto be modified to account for variable material properties. Equation (d) follows from (11—29) and where Prob. 13—4. We determine qf from (13—43). the force parameters for the thinwalled case are defined as = MR = Verify that 1. and expressions for Cr. Also evaluate L and compare with the unrestrained value.422 RESTRAINED TORSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. Finally. 13—5. 11—4. = MR when Open section Closed section Mixed section = Consider the following cases: I and compare vs. Discuss how the solution has to be modified when the cross section at x = L is restrained against translation. and qr for the section shown. 11—14 and 12—1. Note: The unrestrained torsion and flexural stress distributions are treated in Prob. for the cross sections shown in parts a and b and part e—d of the accompanying sketch (four different sets of data). Consider 1. Using the fiexural shear distributions listed in Prob. Specialize for— (a) symmetrical cross section (b) no shear deformation due to restrained torsion and flexure—arbitrary cross section. dS Jqrc& dS 2. Consider no warping at the end sections and take = + 1. X3r = 0. and—— (a) warping restrained at both ends (b) warping restrained only at x L 13—6.
PROBLEMS 423 Prob. 13—9 I Ii T F— 0. 1310 t 0 t I a 0 ç1s2 I H . (d) /z + 'i—H Prob.75k (b) I I I 2k (c) See part c.
.424 RESTRAINED TOIRSIONFLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. ments. The symmetry reductions are X2 = !72 =0 X2r X3r = 0 = Consider the two following problems involving doubly symmetric cross section. Determine the form of V. expressed in terms of displace13—15. L (unrestrained warping) Neutral equilibrium (buckling) is defined as the existence of a nontrivial solution of the linearized incremental equations for the same external load. 13—13. Specialize Equations (13—84) and (13—85) for the case where the cross section is symmetrical with respect to the X2 axis. an odd function of x3. One sets F1 = U2 —P 0 U3 = W1 = (02 = (03 = f and determines the value of P for which a nontrivial solution which satisfies the boundary conditions is possible. =0 0. Consider the case where the cross section is doubly symmetric and the initial state is pure compression (F1 —P).. Finally. 13—12). L (restrained warping) 2. (a) Establish "linearized" incremental equations by operating on (13—88) 13—14. co1 = == f 0 at x = at x 0. specialize the equations for a doubly symmetric section. Assume no initial strain but allow for geometric nonlinearity. x3)dA = 0 where He is an even function and H. Note that V = V* when there is no initial strain. Evaluate the coefficients for the channel section of Example 13—5. 13 Hint: One can write 13 •JJ (x2 V q52r + 22 Also show that 113 — 13—12. the strain energy density function (strain energy per unit length along the centroidal axis). Utilize x3)H0(x2. Employ the notation introduced in Example 13—7. i/A23=O 'li 0 and retaining only linear terms in the displacement increments. Determine the critical load with respect to torsional buckling for the following boundary conditions: 1. Specialize (13—88) for a doubly symmetrical cross Section. Then specialize further for negligible transverse shear deformation due to flexure and warping. (b) Specialize for a doubly symmetric cross section (see Prob.
3. '[his is shown in Fig. 14—i. The plane containing the centroidal axis also contains one of the principal inertia axes for the cross section. 14—i. notation for planecurve. The orthogonal unit vectors defining the orientation of the local frame (Y1. We consider the centroidal axis to he defined with respect to a global reference frame having directions X1 and K2. INTRODUCTION: GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS A member is said to be planar if— 1. the present discussion will be limited to the case where the shear center axis lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis. 425 . 2.14 Planar Deformation of a Planar Member 14—i. However. Y2) at a point are x 12 = where points in the positive tangent direction and denoted by 13. The centroidal axis is a plane curve. x2 Yl n r2 tl B S A n i2 x1 ii Fig. Item 2 requires Y2 to be a principal inertia axis for the cross section. The shear center axis coincides with or is parallel to the axis.
e. this definition degenerates at an inflection point. for segment AB in Fig. the unit normal vector defined by 1 d11 (144) ciS x 12 = 13 but this choice is inconvenient when there is a reversal in curvature. One could take t2 = ii. it follows that = + dx5 (142) The differentiation formulas for the unit vectors are dt1 1 (143) where 1 dt1 — d2x1 dx2 d2x2 dx1 According to this definition. the +S sense coincides with the direction of t We summarize here for convenience the essential geometric relations for a plane curve which are developed in Chapter 4. The differential arc length is related to dy by dS 2 2 (j45 1/2 + d.g. we consider the general parametric representation for the curve defining the centroidal axis. one can always orient the X1X2 frame so that coincides with ñ. i. .. t = = dx1 + dx2 (141) Since we are taking t2 according to 11 x t2 = dx2 t2 13. To complete the geometrical treatment. Also. rather than according to x1 = x1(y) x2 = x2(y) where y is a parameter. 14 By definition. when dt/dS = O. e. R is negative when d11/dS points in the negative t2 direction.426 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. If the sense of the curvature is constant. to avoid working with a negative R.. 14—1.  + (p)] dv = dy (14—6) According to this definition.
e.. i. except that now the vector . Using (14—6). since one must resort to numerical integration when the cross section is not constant. 14—2. the displacement and force methods.. FORCEEQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS 427 increasing y. The two basic solution procedures._ (It1 = ( t2 dy — — ( k\ d2x1 dx2 dv2 dy + d2x2 dx1 dy2 dy A planar member subjected to inplane forces plane for our notation) will experience oniy inplane deformation. namely. 14—2. ——— dy dy (14_ R if. 14—2. 14—2. a cross section whose outward normal points in the + S direction. we include a discussion of numerical integration techniques. is shown in Fig. are described and applied to a circular member. Finally. . we develop the governing equations for planar deformation of an arbitrary planar member.I'3 dA 012 Centroidal axis Fig.SEC. This formulation is restricted to the linear geometric case. We use the same notation as for the prismatic case. In what follows. Force and moment components acting on a positive cross section. the expressions for and 1/R in terms of y are  t1 = — ( I 7dx1 1j t2 = — ( —1 if 1 +— dy + dx1 dx2 dx2. We also present a simplified formulation (Marguerre's equations) which is valid for a shallow member. FORCEEQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS The notation associated with a positive normal cross section.
_. we work with reduced expressions for F÷ and M÷ (see Fig. We define b and as the statically equivalent external force and moment vectors per unit arc length acting at the centroid. Force and moment components in planar behavior. the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish. These conditions lead to the following vector differential equilibrium equations: — dS + — = o dM÷ + .428 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Y3) rather than the basic frame (X1. 14—3. we consider the differential volume element shown in Fig. For equilibrium. it follows that dA = flY3 dA = loading. To establish the forceequilibrium equations. 14 components are with respect to the local frame (Y1. in + r1 x F+ = 0  (14—12) . 14—4.iJ(Y3)2 = JJ(y2)2 dii (14—8) Since Y2. The crosssectional properties are defined by A 13 = if dy2 dy2 = if dii '2 = . x2 ) = t1 x t2 x1 Fig. Y2. X2. X3). 14—3) and drop the subscript on M3: = M+ = M3t3 + F212' = Mt3 (1411) Note that 13 is constant for a planar member. Y3 pass through the centroid and are principal directions. F3 M1 SSY2Y3 dii = 0 (14—9) When the member is planar (X1X2 plane) and is subjected to a planar M2 0 (14—10) in this case.
and using the differentiation formulas for the unit vectors (14—3). The end forces are related to the stress resultants and stress couples by = = Mj52 = MA= —MISA (1415) j=1. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 429 We expand b and in terms of the unit vectors for the local frame: b= + = mt3 b212 (14—13) Introducing the component expansions in (14—12). We work with components referred to the local frame at each end. FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS. lead to the following scalar differential equilibrium equations: dF1 — F2 + b1 = 0 (1414) dM + +m 0 that the forceequilibrium equations are coupled due to the curvature. dS r(S) Fig. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES We establish the forcedisplacement relations by applying the principal of virtual forces to a differential element. 14—4. The procedure is the same as for the . The positive sense of the end forces is shown in Fig.SEC. The moment equilibrium equation has the same form as for the prismatic case. 14—3. 14—5.2 14—3.
12—3. = equivalent rigidbody rotation vector For planar deformation. Convention for end forces. Definition of displacement measures. F41 Fig. 14—6. . We define ü and as = = = rigidbody translation vector at the (14—16) centroid. and w2 can be deleted: u1t1 + U2T2 — C03t3 Wt3 (14—17) The positive sense of the displacement components is shown in Fig. u2 and 0J3 are finite. See (12—8). co1. t "Equivalence" refers to work. 14—6. 14 prismatic case described in Sec. 14—5. x2 x1 FIg. only u1. except that now we work with displacement components referred to the local frame at each point. and the terms involving u3.430 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.
Virtual force system We apply (14—19) to the differential element shown in Fig. and integrating with respect to the crosssectional coordinates Y2. 14—7. For planar deformation. i. ( Fig. AP1) must be statically permis sible. F2. AF2.e. The virtualforce system (AF1. We will discuss the determination of later. it must satisfy the onedimensional equilibrium equations. M. Specializing the threedimensional principle of virtual forces for the onedimensional elastic case. AM. and writing = cF1 e1 AF1 + 0F2 AF2 k + cM AM (14—18) = AF1 + e2 AF2 + k AM lead to the onedimensional form Ss(ei AF1 + e2 AF2 + AM)dS AP1 (14—19) where is a displacement measure and is the force measure corresponding to d1. F2.SEC. One determines by taking expansions for the stresses in terms of F1. = = {AF1 +AM÷ + AF2 — + (b) + — + dS . = (F1. M).. y3. 14—7. substituting in the complementary energy density. The virtual force system must satisfy the forceequilibrium equations (14—17). PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 431 We define as the complementary energy per unit arc length. 14—3. dS AF÷ = 0 (a) Evaluating AP1.
The vector defining the arc QQ1 is QQ1 = ar2 dy = + — di2 + dt\ dv Noting that dy (112 —7kti dv = o for a planar member. 14 and then substituting in (1449) results in the following relations between the force and displacement parameters: cj du1 U2 du2 u1 (1420) eV* k dw dS We interpret e1 as an average extension. k is the relative rotation of adjacent cross sections. and integrate over the cross section. e.432 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. M. We select suitable expansions for the stress components in terms of F1. we discuss the determination of Consider the differential volume element shown in Fig. as an average transverse shear deformation. 14—8. Substituting for dS2 in the general definition. The only restriction on the stress expansions is that they satisfy the definition equations for the stress resultants and couples identically: dA = F2 $5c12 dA SSa13 dA = JJy3aii dA = 0 —ify2ci1 dA = M J$(y2a13 — y3a12)dA = 0 0 . we obtain dS Y2.Y3 dS2 dv2 dv (14—2 1) if . In what follows. centroidal axis. Actually. and k as a bending deformation. (a) can be written as dS2 — = is the complementary energy per unit length along the = = — By definition. expand V*. V* = V" (ô11. F2. In general.
and q is the flexural shear flow due to F2.. Composite beams are more conveniently treated with the approach described in the next section. — 0 2 a12 2 where c? is the initial extensional strain. 14—8. . Both expansions satisfy (a). Substituting (a) in (14—21) and taking the stresses according to (14—22). x2 r +1)212 +Y33 r2 r1ty +dy) Y2 it Fig.t M — (14—22) where I 13. we consider the material to be linearly elastic.. PRINCIPLE OF VURTUAL FORCES 433 The most convenient choice for iH is the linear expansion... 14—3. 11—7: a11 = 1q(F2) q= F2t/i (14—23) where t denotes the local thickness. (14—23) results in the following expression f This applies for a homogeneous beam. Differential volume element. A logical choice for (when the cross section is thinwalled) is the distribution predicted by the engineering theory of flexural shear stress distribution described in Sec. The complementary energy density is given by 11*.SEC. In what follows.
For example. A curved member is said to be thin when O(d/R) 1. 1 and If the section is symmetrical with respect to the 1'3 axis. 1 d2 AR2 = i2R2 for a rectangular cross section. is of the order of (d/R2) and can be neglected when (dIR)2 1. due to the curvature.1 u2 = = F1 + w dw (1425) M Note that the axial force and moment are coupled. 1 and thick when O(d/R)2 We set ö = 0 for a thick member. — \\ — R} = are A2. 1* The deformationforce relations correspoiiding to this choice for —ei F2 F1 M du2 U1 dr. The thinness assumption is introduced . Inverting (14—25) leads to expressions for the forces in terms of the deformations: F1 = M— — LA — e1) — R(l k ) EI* R(1 Ô)(el — + / k° (1426) F2 We observe that I — where p is the radius of gyration and d is the depth of the cross section. 14 for V*: = e?Fi + k°M + where + = + + dA 2GA2* (1424) if 55 (i  I e. Then.434 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.
e. Note that these expressions are based on a linear variation in normal stress over the cross section. FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—DISPLACEMENT EXPANSION APPROACH. 14—4. we list the expanded forms of the principle of virtual forces for thick and thin members. Thick Member Cit0 + F1 + M'\ AF1 + + F2 /XF2 (14—29) + (ko + Thin AM} dS — J + + / M'\ + (\kO + hi) 1 dS = (14—30) d1 AP1 14—4.. One has only to introduce suitable expansions for the stress components in terms of the onedimensional force parameters. The approximate form of (14—25) for a thin member is F1 dii1 Li2 (14—28) i—k° To complete the treatment of the linear elastic case. We express the . PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 435 neglecting y2/R with respect to unity in the expression for the differential arc length. by taking by dS 14 27  Assuming a curved member to be thin is equivalent to using the expression for V* developed for a prismatic member. Ndw. it is not necessary to analyze the deformation.e.. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS In the variational procedure for establishing onedimensional forcedisplacement relations. i. to determine the strains at a point. i. we• can also establish forcedisplacement relations by starting with expansions for the displacement components in terms of onedimensional displacement parameters and determining the corresponding strain distribution.SEC.
Y2. Y2' y3). we must first analyze the deformation at a point. The effect of transverse shear deformation is usually neglected in this approach. 14—10. at a point (y. = position vector to Q(y.436 PLANAR OEFORMA11ON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. The vectors defining these elements are QQ1 QQ2 = dy2 dy2 t2 a (14—31) a2 = I — We use a prime superscript to denote qua Iltities associated with the deformed position of the member. . 14—9. x2 Q2 Q1 Pj(y +dy) P(y) axis x1 Fig. Initial geometry for orthogonal curvihnear line elements. 14 stresses in terms of the displacement parameters using the stressstrain relations. F2. y3) in the deformed position (point Q'). which is shown in Fig. QQ1 and QQ2. and then substitute the stress expansions in the definition equations for F1. for example: ?'= = position vector to point P(y) in the deformed position (point P'). and M. tangent vector to the deformed centroidal axis. Figure 14—9 shows the initial position of two orthogonal line elements. To determine the strain distribution. This step is described in detail below.
(14—33) expands to Istj. This notation is illustrated in Fig. we restrict this discussion to small strain.V 1 ('U2 Y12 tj ' " a2 t2 ± cc2 The nonlinear terms arc associated with the rotation of the tangent vector. taking y = S. Substituting for the deformed vectors and neglecting strains with respect to unity. Neglecting these terms corresponds to neglecting the difference between the deformed and undeformed geometry. We denote the extensional strains by (j = 1. The next step involves introducing an expansion for in terms of y2. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 437 From Fig.SEC. au2 c'y + 2 2(a2)" —.. we consider only linear geometry. We express ü2 as a linear function of ü wv211 (14—35) where co = w(y) and U U1t1 + U2t2 = 1kv) (14—36) is the displacement vector for a point on the centroidal axis.u2 The analysis of strain consists of determining the extensions and change in angle between the line elements.e. 2) and the shearing strain by Y12 The general expressions are '—12 3— Sin Y12 (13) Now. and evaluating the derivatives lead to the following strain expansions: . One can interpret co as the rotation of the cross section in the direction from toward t2. 14—10. c. ô. Substituting for ü2. i. Equation (14—35) implies that a normal cross section remains a plane after deformation. In what follows. to assuming linear geometry. 14—4. and noting (14—3 1): P'P'1 = 0)) — = / + C))J — = dy dy2 (14—32) or2 &Y2 / \. 14—1 1.
One could include an addiThis would give tional linear term. = $ and. Displacement expansion.438 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER — 1 CHAP. — u2 = I61IY20 0) = doi + (14—37) The vanishing of c2 is due to our choice for ü2. . 14 = y2k) e2 = du. 14—10. 14—11. Deformed geometry for orthogonal curvilinear line elements. u2t2 (u1 —Wy2)tl Centroidal axis UI tl Fig. additional terms in the x2 Q2 x1 Fig.
we obtain F2 = Ge2 if = —Fe1 d (1440) + Ekjj + The various integrals can be expressed in terms of only one integral by using the identity 1 1 — y2/R — 1F 1 y2/R and noting that Y is a axis: $5Y2 dA = 0 11 f The relation for member. The resulting expressions for (0 and k in terms of u1 and u2 are e2 = 0 du2 dS u1 + R dIui dS2 (14—38) — dS — When transverse shear deformation is neglected. we consider the material to be linearly elastic and take the stressstrain relations for c12 as: = E(c1 = Gy12 Substituting for r1. is exact only when = (733 We generally neglect for a . Y12. and M. In what follows. using (14—37). We introduce the assumption of negligible transverse deformation by setting e2 = 0. and M in terms of the onedimensional deformation parameters e1e2 and k. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 439 expressions for and Y12• Note that the assumption that a normal cross section remains plane does not lead to a linear variation in extensional strain over the depth when the member is curved. The next step involves expressing F1. F.. = ————(e1 F 1 —y2/R — y.k) — Fe1 (14—39) and then evaluating F1.SEC. 14—4. F2. one must determine F2 using the momentequilibrium equation.
2 1 — y2/R =—R2bd+R3bln To obtain a more tractable form.y2/R For completeness. = + F2 F1 + M k = k° + + lvi where = = A(1 + 4—42 e? = if (i — c/A k° = if  dA The expressions for e1 are identical with the result (see (14—25)) obtained with the variational approach. we list the inverted form of (14—40). we expand the log terms. 14 One can easily show that ri c/A I' dA = L JJ 1 (14—41) . the result for k differs in the coefficient for M.14—1.440 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. This difference (1' or F') is due to the nonlinear expansion used for Example 14—1 We determine I' for the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. F. I' = 11 1 y2/R =h J—a. However. using (1+x'\ I .
Now. when the member is thick. Then In = d + d3 ii d I 3(d\2 + + 3(d\4 + and I' = { I + 3 2 3 d + + . + Co —. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 441 This series converges for xI < 1.SEC.. 14—4.. This assumption is introduced by taking 1 —y2/R in the expansions for = 1 + and I': + + .e2 Y2 ... E14—1 H Y3 The relations listed above involve exactintegrals.yJR JJ dA + =i{i . we neglect (y2/R)2 with respect to unity. Fig..
1—y2/R — y2k — (14—44) at2 It is of interest to establish the onedimensional form of the principle of virtual displacements corresponding to the linear displacement expansion used in this development. which are listed below for convenience: ci e2 — Y12 — y2/R U2 du1 du2 = k + u1 — U) do dS Substituting for e1. The general threedimensional form for an orthogonal coordinate system is (see Sec. we neglect y2/R with respect to unity.442 PLANAR DEFORMATiON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. we must also neglect 1'/AR2 with respect to unity in the expression for A'2 and I". .) = represents an external force quantity and d1 is the displacement quantity We consider only and Viz to be finitc. Y12 and using the definition equations for F1. The strains corresponding to a linear expansion for displacements and linear geometry are defined by (14—37). F2. When the member is thin.) = dS2 dy2 dv3 (i — dS d7 dy3 Then (a) reduces to (a11 + a12 (i — dA] dS = (14—45) We take (14—45) as the form of the principle of virtual displacements for planar deformation. and express the corresponding to differential volume in terms of the crosssectional coordinates Y2' Y3 and arc length along the ccntroidal axes (see Fig. 10—6): SJJ(aii where + + a12 öy12 )d(vol. 14 To be consistent. and M. 14—9): d(vol.
i. and integrates the lefthand side by parts. provided that (cS) are taken as defining the strain distribution over the cross section. The following example illustrates this application. (c). One starts with onedimensional deformationdisplacement relations.Au2 dM dS 1 +M— dS d dF1 — dM1 + Au2 [ [— F1 dS [— + . in terms of the translation components.and righthand sides of (b) expand to j 54 [F1 + M (5k]dS = — / F1 / I + Rj M\ Au1 dM — dS Au2 +M d uS An2 \ F1 + I +j 1Aui Rj r J Au1 — —. = (In2 + and the relations for negligible transverse shear deformation reduce to hEFt ôe1 + M ök]dS 1< = d (du2 u1 = + Substituting for Aw and the strain variations. 14—4. substitutes in (14—46). PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 443 we obtain Ad1 (14—46) + F2 + M ök]dS = Js[Fi This result depends only on the strain expansions. This leads to an expression for the rotation. We use the principle of virtual displacements to establish consistent forceequilibrium equations. the left. One can apply it for the geometrically nonlinear case.. Equating coefficients of the displacement parameters leads to a set of force equilibrium equations and boundary conditions that are consistent with the geometrical assumptions introduced in establishing the deformationdisplacement relations.e.SEC. = Au1 —id d Au2 1 Aui Au2 — I AU2 (5k = d2 + d and integrating by parts. w. Example 14—2 The assumption of negligible transverse shear deformation is introduced by setting e2 equal to zero.
= (b1 + + (b2 dS + (PB! + + (p22 + ma) Au32 + MA) A A + (p41 + + (r42 014) AUA2 + M4 A The consistent equilibrium equations and boundary conditions for negligible transverse shear deformation follow by equating corresponding coefficients of the displacement variations in (e) and (f): S4<S<S3 + dF1 F1 — + 1dM d2M + b1 + — 01 0 + + drn =0 s—sn u1 prescribed or prescribed or prescribed or F1 — u2 p42 — m do2 M= —MA S= UI U2 prescribed or prescribed or prescribed or F1 = = M F21 —F32 — in du2 One can obtain (g) by solving the last equation in (14—14) for F2 and substituting in the first two equations. Suppose we neglect u1/R in the expression for w: do2 CD k d2u2 This assumptiont is generally referred to as Mush tori's approximation.444 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. . 5. 14 and Ad. The equilibrium equations for the tangential direction reduce to dF1 t See Ref.
An alternate approach. CARTESIAN FORMULATION 445 The other equilibrium equation and the boundary conditions are not changed. 14—13. The resulting expressions differ. and it is therefore of interest to describe this approach in detail. 14—5. we worked with displacement components and external force components referred to the local frame. The vector. 14—1.  (14—48) ax1 + x dx1 + = 0 . f'df'\ + I—)  cos0 1 j t2  [ / df \ d2f + '2  (14—47) = t1 X t2 = 13 I ci: In the previous formulation. Consider the differential clement shown in Fig. CARTESIAN FORMULATION We consider the case where the equation defining the centroidal axis has the form x2 = f(x1). equilibrium equations are dF+ dx1 See Prob. See Ref.SEC. The geometrical relations for this parametric representation are obtained by taking y x1 in (14—7). Using (h) instead of (a) eliminates the shear term. We start with the determination of the forceequilibrium equations. 14—5. F2/R. in the tangential forceequilibrium equation. 14—12: dS = dx1 = i[ I r [ I 7df\21112 1 ylx1jj. 6. originally suggested by involves working with components referred to the basic frame rather than the local frame. They are summarized belowt for convenience and the notation is shown in Fig.
dx1 2 pN2 12 1 F1t1 lj Fig. 14—13. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. .446 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. 14 x2 Y2 YI X2 dx1 x1 'I Fig. 14—12. Notation for Cartesian formulation.
They are related to b and (see Fig.+ hJ=' \dx1 . AF1 + e2 AF2 + k dx1 = d1 (a) where V* V* (F1. per unit x1. CARTESIAN FORMULATION 447 h are the external applied force and moment vectors per unit projected length. = F1t1 + F2t2 = N171 + N212 it—hi3 + P = N1 = F1 cos 0 — F2 sin 0 N2 = F1 sin 0 + F2 cos 0 the equilibrium equations expand to dN1 —dx1 (14—50) d = ——(F1 cosP — dx1 sin 0) = P2 dx1 = dx1 (F1 sin0 + F2 cos 0) (1451) ——(—. Consider the differential element shown in Fig. using the principle of virtual forces.e.SEC. O= (0 v111 + 1)212 (013 = (0t3 (14—52) . F2 M) is the complementary energy per unit arc length. i. it satisfies the forceequilibrium equations identically: dx1 dx1 = = o + J1 x Expanding d1 x and then substituting for the displacement and rotation vectors. 14—14. dx1 = b dS = (cth)dx1 hdx1 = iñdS = (cthi)dx1 (1449) Substituting for the force and moment vectors. i.e. 14—5.. 14—4) by where fl.. The virtualforce system is statically permissible.i We —1(dM '\ F2 —N1 sm0 + N2cosO restrict this treatment to an elastic material and establish the forcedx1 = [e1 displacement relations.
in terms of F1. F2 and equating coefficients of the force increments result in dx1 dx1 = + + (d) oV cos2 0— + sinOcosO—. . 14 we obtain dx1. Marguerre's equations are obtained by assuming the member is shallow and. in addition. neglecting the contribution of F2 in the expression for N1. do2 (14—53) k= = ——— cos 0 dw dx1 The member is said to be shallow when 02 << 1. substituting for N1. 14—14. Virtual force system. do1 do2 dx1 e2 a v* = —sin 0 COS do1 U  +cosO——w dx1 . which relate the cartesian and local forces. 1)2 2 V1 Fig. N2. Finally. One introduces this assumption by setting 4f cos U 1 Sm 0 tan 0 = (14—54) in (14—50).448 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.
prescribed at each end (1457) or 14—6. However.x.. = 0F2 OM = —. One step remains. the boundary conditions for the Marguerre formulation are or w F2 + M F. dF2 0 dx. N2 and ox For example. N2 F1 F2 + and the resulting equations are dF. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION—CIRCULAR MEMBER The displacement method involves solving the system of governing dif ferential equations which. dv2 df dv2 + —— dx. v2 or N2 prescribed at each end (14—56) M or w We obtain the appropriate boundary conditions for the various cases considered above by substituting for N. F2 + d 7 dx. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 449 Marguerre starts with N. —— + Pi = dx.j J + P2 = 0 —— — in (14—55) e. to establish the boundary conditions. 14—6. The general conditions are v1 or N. dw k dx.SEC. namely. dM dx1 (F1 df\ dx. This method is quite straightforward for the prismatic case since stretching and flexure are uncoupled. we can first solve the force equilibrium equations and then integrate the forcedisplacement relations. dx. it is usually quite difficult to apply when the member is . consist of three forceequilibrium equations and three forcedisplacement equations.— co dx. for the planar case. If the applied loads are independent of the displacements. = e2 dv' d.
we illustrate the application of the displacement method to a circular member having a constant cross section. When the centroidal axis is a circular segment. starting with— 1. Integrating the first equilibrium equation. the exact equations (based on stress expansions) for a thick member Marguerre's equations for a thin member The results obtained for this simple geometry provide us with some insight as to the relative importance of transverse shear deformation and stretching deformation versus bending deformation. (14—25) e2 F1 + M = 1 f'du1 — = + ui) F1 — 0) (14—59) k= k° + + M = Idw Solution of the ForceEquilibrium Equations We consider the external forces to be independent of the displacements. 2. 14 curved (except when it is circular) or the cross section varies. 14—15: dF1 dM / = R2b2 — m — RF1 (14—58) 1dM = ej + Eq. We list the governing equations below for convenience and summarize the notation in Fig. It is convenient to take the polar angle 8 as the independent variable in this case. In what follows.450 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. R = const. Substituting for F1 in the second equation results in a secondorder differential equation for M: + M C1 + R2[b2 — + The general solution of (b) is M= C1 + C2cosO + C3sinO + (14—60) . we have RF1 = —M — R2 j (b1 + + where C1 is an integration constant. and the equations simplify somewhat.
Notation for circular member. Once M is known. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 451 where denotes the particular solution due to the external distributed loading and C2.SEC. C3 are constants. we find F1 using (a) and F2 from the moment equilibrium equation. 14—15. [M + (RF1)] transform the first two equations to = u2 + Re? + (M + RF1) (14—62) . Integration of the ForceDisplacement Relations We start with (14—59) written in a slightly rearrangcd form: du1 — u2 Re? + RF2 + RF1) du2 + u1 + Rco = Rk° + To determine u1 and u2.)dU (14—61) dS RdO F F1 Fig. The resulting expressions are F1 = F2 = cosO + C3 sinO + Mr)— R sine + c3 cos 9 + j(b1 — in ± . 14—6.
(14—26). 14 and d2u2 + = = 1/1 + Re? — + RF1) (14—63) ± R2k° + a1R2 — Re? I a1 = — We have previously shownt that is of the order of (d/R)2. Various loading conditions are treated in the following examples. Example to 14—3 Consider a member (Fig. . F2 W 1 (du. 14—3. The boundary conditions for this case are F1=Fa1. we obtain F1 = F2 = M F81 cos(08 — 0) 8) — FRI Sifl(08 RF51(l — cos(08 0)) To simplify the analysis. determine u1 from (14—62). Using (b). we suppose there is no initial deformation.452 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Eq. The six constants are determined by enforcing the three boundary conditions at each end. '\ (1464) This leads to three additional integration constants. It is reasonable to neglect with respect to 1 but we will retain it in order to keep track of the influence of extensional deformation. We solve (14—63) for u2. and w from the second equation in (a). the form — F81 takes R' 'I' [a1 — 02 COS(08 0)1 where EI* (d\' = f See Sec. El4—3) fixed at the negative end (A) and subjected only at the right end (B). F2=M=O u1 =u2=w=O atO=011 atO=O Specializing the force solution for no external distributed loading and enforcing the boundary conditions at B.
14—6.SEC. Substituting for tJ' in (14—63) and integrating. U) = C6 + {O + sm(OB — O)} Finally. E14—3 A F R3 (05 — sin FBI Constant cross section . we evaluate the displacements at 0 and write the resulting expressions Fig. the constants are found by enforcing the displacement boundary conditions at 0 = 0: C4 = C5 = C6 = To determine the relative importance of stretching and shear deformation versus bending deformation. we determine w using (14—64). DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 453 Note that is associated with transverse shear deformation. we obtain c4 cos 0 + c5 sin o + [ai + 0 — 0)] The solution for u1 follows from (14—62): = + sin 0 — C5 cos 0 + C6 {o + [o — 0) + sin(66 — 0)]} Next.
we replace the trigometric terms in (i) by their Taylor series expansions..e. The resulting expressions are P8152 1 1 P31S3 fOfl 032 1* U3j [1 EI* = + Now... are of order (d/R)2. when the segment is not shallow..454 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Also. It follows that the displacements due to stretching and shear deformation are of order (dIR)2 times the displacement due to bending deformation for a nonshallow member. 1* El" = (d'12 .. 14 in the following form: WE = UBI — sin + b1 Oe) = —2 sin 63 + 4sin 03 COS — COS 0B ± b2 + b3 &) 4Sin — sin — Slfl 63 b2 — (I) —4 03 + 2 sin 03 — 4 sin 03 COS 013 63 + sin 03 Co b 4(03 — sin_03 cos 03) T 4sin2 63 b—  — I + COS 63 The coefficients (b1. To investigate the shallow case. öe and ó. b4) are of order unity or less when is not small with respect to unity. i. sin 0 = / 02 — + — 02 cos 6 = I — sin0cos6 + — — 0(1 + — and neglect with respect to unity.
Note that (c) corresponds to (14—62). then u1.26 for a rectangular section and v = 0. The final expressions (for no initial deformation or support . However. we obtain 12u + u2 = du1 R2k° u2 I — Re? + R2 M = + Re? (du2 We determine u2. we must retain the stretching term in u51 since it is of the same order as the bending term. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 455 For example. we can neglect the transverse shcar terms in UBL. Since (cl/S)2 << I for a member.SEC. UB2 and the stretching term in co8. E14—4 are given by F1 0) F2 = F52 cos(05 0) 0) M R sin(02 We suppose the member is not shallow and neglect stretching and shear deformation. the stretching term dominates when the member is quite shallow. 1 (d\2 AS2 EI* E (d\2 = lOG = (d'\2 0. Actually. If the member is shallow < I 5°).3. (14—63) and (14—64) with A = A2 = cc. The forcedisplacement relations reduce to (we set A = = in (14—59)) du1 — dO du2 = Re? u1 + = Rw = Rk° + EJ* RM dw dO Eliminating u1 from the first two equations. and finally oi. The error due to neglecting transverse shear deformation for the shallow case is still only of the order of (d/R)2. we catnwt neglect stretching deformation. Example 14—4 The internal force distributions due to acting on the cantilever member shown sin(011 — in Fig. 14—6. The appropriate expression for is PatS3 In sum. we have shown that the percentage of error due to neglecting stretching and transverse shear deformation is of the order of (d/R)2 for a nonshallow circular member.
the governing equations (see (14—55) and (14—57)) reduce to dx1 d2M dx1 al'1 — P2 = 0 F2 F1 dM = Cl) e? + AL = — + ax1 dx1 dv1 dx1 dv2 dx1 k= v1. k + M = d2v2 v2. 0 — xi)2 x1) — — — x?) p2(L — ax1N51 to simplify the discussion. Integrating the momentcurvature =M = x1)2 CINBI(L2 4) . M =0 Integrating (a) and using the boundary conditions at x1 = L. 14 movement) are = 02 {(O COS(OB — 0) — sin 0 cos 0 0 Sjfl(OB — 0) + COS(OB = 0) = F52R { cos 0)} COS(OB — 0) — cos Example 14—5 We analyze the shallow parabolic member shown in Fig. Taking f = and = rn = 0. E14—5 using Marguerre's equations. We consider the member to be thin and neglect transverse shear deformation.456 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. w prescribed at x1 0 N2 = — dx1 + ax1F1 = 0 at x1 = I. we obtain M= F2 = We suppose e? = k° = relation.
E14—4 B l. E14—5 —..F1 a= L2 Al (h/L)2<(1 t P2 = COflSt B NB! j .SEC. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 457 Fig. 14—6..A const Fig.
k) and the internal forces (F1. and AR1 is the corresponding reaction increment. Arbitrary Linearly Elastic Menther — e1 + F1 + M e2 = F2 (14—66) k= + F1 AER. Then a2L4(A'\ 6 2(h'\2 and we see that this term dominatcs when h is larger with respect to the crosssectional depth./L2 — Now. Js(ei AF1 + e2 AF2 + k AM)dS — AR1 = d1 (14—65) represents a support movement. we list the forcedeformation relations below. M) depend on the material properties and on whether one employs stress or displacement expansions. 14—3. dv1 = F1 — dv2 = NB1X1 AE + + ÷  We express the last term in (g) as + 1 6 ) 1) [VT) a 2h. For convenience. + = El M . The relations where the virtualforce system is statically permissible. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION Our starting point is the principle of virtual forces restricted to planar deformation. 14 and noting that v2 dv2/dxj = 0 at x1 = 0 lead to the solution for v2. This discussion is limited to a linearly elastic material but one should note that (1465) is valid for arbitrary material. between the deformation measures (e1. e2. F2.458 PLANAR DEFORMATfON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. The notation for internal force quantities is shown in Fig. — — Ely2 = — + The axial displacement is determined by integrating the extensional strain displacement relation. 14—7.
Formally. A2. one sets A = A2 = If the member is shallow. E14—6A. 14—7. a?. due to the geometry.Q + e2F2Q + kM. When the member is nor shallow. We set e2 = 0 if transverse a? if stretching deformation is Example 14—6 We consider the thin linearly elastic circular segment shown in Fig. k° are the same as for a prismatic member. We suppose the member is not shallow and neglect stretching and franslerse shear deformation.Q)dS — (14—69) Rk. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 459 k°. we apply an external virtual force. it is reasonable to neglect stretching and transverse shear deformation. and] are defined by(14—24) for the stressexpansion approach and (14—42) for the displacementexpansion approach. This expression is valid for an arbitrary material.QAPQ AM = M AP0 ARk = and substitute in (14—65): dQ = SS(eIFI.Q + WAMA.Q (a) In what follows. APQ7Q.2) (1468) APQ shear deformation is negligible and a1 = negligible. To determine the displacement at Q in the direction defined by tQ. we illustrate tile application of (a) . Thin Linearly Elastic Member e1 = e? + F1 (1467) where A2. we can still neglect transverse shear deformation but we must include stretching deformation. generate a statically determinate system of internal forces and reactions corresponding to = FJ. The basic steps involved in applying the force method to a curved member arc the same as for the prismatic case. The reactions are the end forces at A for this example. As shown in ExampLe 14—3. and (14—69) expands to = + (k0 + + OA1FAIQ + UA2FA2.SEC. We will discuss first the determination of the displacement at a point. the algebra is usually more complicated. Q (j = 1. However. this approximation introduces a percentage error of O(cl/R)2.
F2. Mc. we can evaluate the integral. The internal virtualforce system corresponds 0 as tlie independent variable = To determine u81. in Fig.Q) follow directly from Fig. It is convenient to work with rather than 0. and moment. E14—6B: F10 = = R(1 COSq F20 = = cos (b) Substituting (b) in (a) results in the following general expression for um = R {e? cos + R (ko + sin (1 — cos — cos Jo3 cos + + Once the loading is specified. leads to expression for u82 and Taking = SF82.Q. applied at point C as shown . Terms involving the support displacements define the rigid body displacement at B. M. we take to F81 = ±1. E14—6A U2L Expressions Displacements at B = AF51. 14 Fig.4 + R f3 Solution for a Concentrated Loading at an Arbitrary Interior Point We consider an arbitrary force vector. The forceinfluence coefficients (F10.460 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. We list them below for future reference: " u82 = R Jo COB = j (. E14—6C. Elj (ko + (d) W.
t482 RI — eQS Fig. El 4—SC A. E14—6B ill Ffi2 . . FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 461 Fig.SEC. 14—7.
Let the member be indeterminate to the rth degree and let Z1. The resulting equations relate the displacement at B due to forces applied at B in the directions of the local frame at B and can be interpreted as member forcedeformation relations. 1k + sin Sill 0c cos + PC2R( MCR2 — cos + Or I — sin + = (Oc + Sin OR + cos Sin 1 1 PciR3I + —h— — Oc sin — sm Oc sin PC2R3 /1 cos 1k — cos 1 sin 9c cos + ——. . Using the equilibrium equations. . represent the force redundants. We describe next the application of the principle of virtual forces in the analysis of a statically indeterminate planar member. It is convenient to express these relations in matrix form: = R2[l — cos OR] — — 2 sin OR — sin OR] F81 + 4sin 08 cos 08] = Symmetrical sin °B cos OR] R[l — cos 98] F82 We call the member flexibility matrix._______________ 462 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.(ens 1k — . we express the internal forces and reactions in . Z. . Sin Oc) + R2Pc2 cos Oc) + If we take point C to coincide with B. = 0 and = OR. . + Sill 1k + sin . 14 = = + The expressions for the displacements at B due to an external loading are obtained by specializing (c) and (d) for no initial deformation or support movement and noting that M=O M= RPc1[1 — iic)] + sin(1i — ilc) + ivIc The solution for constant I is Pc1R3( = Sifl 0c — sin . .
J) + . minUs the displacement of the primary structure in the direcapplication of tion of Z..and 1/AR Wesetl = I. From symmetry.. and the prescribed external forces..A2 = Oforathinmember..kM. the compatibility equations take the k1 where . Also.. due to support movement.kZk (which is statically Substituting the virtual force system corresponding to permissible and in (14—65) and letting j range from 1 to r lead to the compatibility equations relating the actual deformations: + + kM. E14—7. initial deformation. 14—7.f) (14—71) =fkj = f + — + + + = + + ± + Fl.r (j = When the material is linearly elastic.1)dS = 0 (a) 1= form l.r) + Fl.. at6r=0 F2 = 0 (a) j .OM.0 + (14—70) M = M0 + k= 1 R1 = R10 + k1 R1.SEC..42. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 463 terms of the applied loads and the force redundants: F1 = F10 + k= 1 F2 = F2. Example 14—7 Consider the symmetrical closed ring shown in Fig. Note that fik is the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of is the actual displacement of the point of Z1 due to a unit value of Zk.
M = R(t — cos 0) We consider I to be constant. Then. Equation (h) states that the net relative rotation must vanish. 14 the moment at 0 = 0 as the force redundant. (b) reduces to (1 — 1 dS — —J cos 8)dO /PR\ JM21 cIS = PR1 TI\1 2\ ——) . E14—7 fm/F M F1 1' Now. The compatibility equations reduces to f11Z1 = fii = &= due to a unit value of Z1 and is the relative rotation is the relative Note that rotation (X) due to the applied load.464 We take PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. we suppose the member is thin and neglect stretching and shear deformation. To simplify the algebra.
The cartesian notation is summarized in Fig.. to use the cartesian formulation developed in Sec. Finally. F2 ——' i2 it Ag. 14—16. The geometrical quantities and relations between the internal force components are tan 6 = dS = dx1 cos 6 F1 = F2 = N1 cos 6 + N2 sin U —N1 sin (9 + N2 cos 0 (14—72) . (14—5). i. Notation for Cartesian formulation. we need to integrate over only a quarter of the ring. xl N2. 14—16. the total moment is The axial and shear force variations are given by F1 F2 = When the equation defining the centroidal axis is expressed in the form x2 = f(x1). it is more convenient to work with force and displacement tities referred to the basic frame rather than to the local frame. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 465 Because of symmetry.e.SEC. 14—7.
PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. When the member is not shallow. ( (14—75) j' One must generally resort to numerical integration in order to evaluate the integrals. We also introduced this assumption in the development of Marguerre's equations. However. The equations for this case reduce to: We Displacement at Point Q dQ = L + (ke + (1473) C'oinpatibility Equations = j = We can — \dx1 (14—74) 5[e?Fi. 14 first find N1.f'N2. it is reasonable to take F1 N1. cos 0 N10j + sin 0 + . F2. and we can approximate (14—72) with cos 0 sm 0 cls 1 tan 0 = dx1 (14—76) F1 N1 +f'N2 —f'N1 + N2 F2 We cannot neglect the stretching deformation term in this case. To obtain the equations for the Cartesian case. we just have to replace dS by dx1/cos U in the general expressions ((14—69) and (14—71)). When the member is shallow. we suppose the member is thin and linearly elastic. we can neglect the stretching and transverse shear deformation terms.i + (ko + and N2 since the terms involving F1 in terms of N1 Plo = Then. The equations for the shallow case with negligible transverse shear deformation and F1 N1 have the forms listed below: Displacement at Point Q dQ =J [(ei° + N1. due to the presence of the term 1/cos 9. (14—77) . In what follows. + (ko + M. N2 and then determine F1. dx1 — R1. 02 1.
Fig.SEC. E14—8B V2 = Z1 zI R242 . E14—SB). respectively. E14—8A P Primary We must carry out two force analyses on the primary structure (Fig. The results are displayed in Figs. dx1 (14—78) — f + + (k0 + Example 14—8 Consider the twohinged arch shown in Fig. We work with reaction components referred to the basic frame and take the horizontal reaction at B as the force redundant. x2. E14—8A. Fig. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 467 Compatibility Equation >j1k4 = fjk = = + Jx. 14—7. one for the external forces (condition Z1 = 0) and the other for Z1 1. E14—8C and D.
1) + (ko + .' ii (+) N2. 14 Fig. E14—8C N2 KM 0 Fig. The compatibility equations for Z1 follow from (14—74): I J11—I El dx t cosO = Jo L + f'N2.. E14—8D (+) H 'VI.468 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.1 Compatibility Equation We suppose the member is not shallow. M.
ft = L cost? ± dx1 + s: + f'N2 + k° JLIJLI(h)(h) + + + JL[( k0(f_ LIcosO !L L (+P(xi . we can determine Z1 from Finally. the total forces are obtained by superposition of the two loadings: M = M•0 + Z1M1 R. we apply a unit vertical load at Q on the prinwry structure and determine the required internal forces and reactions plotted in Fig. F— XQ 1/L Q (i_IL) FQ=+l . E14—8E. = + Z1R. Fig. 3 To evaluate the vertical displacement at point Q. 14—7.a))dxi (c) Once the integrals are evaluated. the various terms in (a) expand to f — h 0E1 = . R4 = = (d) 1.SEC. 2. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 469 Using the results listed above.
the effect of axial deformation cannot be neglected. the deformed shape of the arch coincides with the initial shape when axial deformation is neglected. The expression for Z1 follows from (14—78): — + . Finally. we obtain VQ2 = VA2 + (13B2 — VA2) + ('XQ — — El)cosO XQ1 M'\ dx1 ( +— jo x1(k°+—J—— EljcosO L f \ Jo I x1Ik°+—1———x1 I' M\ dx1 CL I \ 1L (k°+—'l—— El) cosO / dx1 A numerical procedure for evaluating these integrals is described in the next section.470 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. 14 Applying (14—73). the total forces are N1 — N10 + Z1N1 N2 = = N20 + Z1N21 = — M=M. It follows that (c) also apply for the fixed nonshollolv case. per unit x1. We take the horizontal reaction at the right end as the force redundant and consider only bending deformation. Deternzination of Z1 and Total Forces The equation for Z1 follows from (14—74): 1L Jo EJcosO ElcosO pL2 Note that this result is valid for an arbitrary variation of El. Figures E14—9B and C carry through an analysis parallel to that of the preceding example. Example 14—9 The symmetrical nonshallow twohinged parabolic arch shown in Fig. E14—9A is subjected to a uniform load per unit horizontal length. The equation for the centroidal axis is 4h( where h is the elevation at midspan = L/2). When the arch is shallow.0+Z1M.1 =0 Since M = 0. that is.
SEC. E14—9A p = Coflst B xi Pnmary structure R2. 14—7.d2 Fig.00 M0 pL( Xj\ ) pL Force System Due to p . FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 471 Fig. E14—9B N2 xI L N5.
14 If E is constant. we consider A and I to be constant and evaluate ö for this geometry.472 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. N11 = +1 N2. The result is I — 8 Ah2 — 15(p'\2 8 where p is the radius of gyration for the cross section.1 = +f Force System Due to Z1 = + I One should note that (e) applies only for the shallow case.1 = 0 M. 16(h/L)2 must he small with respect to unity. A'2 Fig. in. As an illustration. (d) reduces to JL pL2 — dx1 — pL2 8h I 1 8h 1L1 + — + jL1 The parameter ö is a measure of the influence of axial deformation. 4/1 / 2x1 For the assumption of shallowness to be valid. Now. for (f')2 K< 1. The total forces for the shallow case are N1 = = pL2 1 M= p1? f( ô \= PL( — .
SEC. and one usually must resort to a numerical integration procedure. In what follows. (i) reduces to \ / . we describe two proceduresi which can be conveniently automated and illustrate their application in deflection computations. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES 473 It is of interest to determine the rotation at B. 14—8. We consider the problem of evaluating J t See Ref. the results for the fixed end shallow case will differ slightly from (h). NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES One of the steps in the force method involves evaluating certain integrals which depend on the member geometry and the crosssectional properties. 8 for a more detailed treatment of numerical integration schemes. E14—9D PQ +l 0). the stretching terms vanish since Nj. 14—8.Q = 1L we obtain M x1 P/ j When El is constant. (14—79) . E14—9D). The "Q" loading consists of a unit moment applied at B to the primary structure (see Fig. Closedform solutions can be obtained for only simple geometries. pL3( 2 (5 Since 0. Applying (14—77) (note that Fig.
. we work with subintervals and use a different spacing x. . n must be an even integer. 14—17. a XO 11 B X. The simplest approach consists in approximating the actual curve by a set of straight lines connecting approximation. represent the for each subinterval. . 14 where f(x) is a reasonably smooth function in the interval XA divide the total interval into n equal segments. For convenience.k+2 = fdx J h + 4fk+1 + (14—83) Jk÷2= Jk + To apply (14—83). This leads to AJk. With this EXJk1. 14—18. x1. as shown in Fig. the coordinates of the equally spaced points on the x axis. we use. . as shown in Fig.. we must take an even number of segments. they can . that is. 14—19. X1 X2 Fig. Coordinate discretization for numerical integration. J f(x)dx = + L) (14—82) + which is called the trapezoidal rule.__________________ 474 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. we let x0. and f0. If the values of J at odd points are also desired... of length h: x We h= — XA (14—80) If f(x) is discontinuous. corresponding values of the function. This notation is shown in Figure 14—17. 12 1. ('xk etc. A more accurate formula is obtained by approximating the curve connecting three consecutive points with a seconddegree polynomial.k = f(x)dx dx = h + + (14—81) = If only the total integral is desired.
SEC. 14—8.
NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES
475
be
determined using
h
=
Finally, one can express
in =
Jo
12
{Sfk +
— Jk+2]
(14—84)
as
+
+ 4(11 + .13 +
+
(14—85)
+ 2(f2 +f4 +
Equation (14—85) is called Simpson's rule.
f
N
fk—1
fk
h
fk+1
S
Xk_1
Xk
x
Fig. 14—18. Linear approximation.
I
fk
fk+1
fk÷2
S
Xk
S
Xkf.1
Fig. 14—19. Parabolic approximation.
________________M
476
PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER
CHAP. 14
Example 14—10
Consider the problem of determining the vertical displacement at Q for the straight member of Fig. E14—lO. We suppose shear deformation is negligible. The deflection due
Fig. E14—10
XQ
M
PQ
+1
XQ(1t)
to bending deformation (we consider the material to be linear elastic) is given by
dQ
J
MQ dx
(a)
where M is the actual moment and M0 is due to the "Q" loading. Substituting for M, expands to
=
/ 1L M
CXQ
M
'\
+
J
M
—
M
— J
SEC. 14—8.
NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES
477
To evaluate (b), we divide the total length into ii equal segments of length h, number the points from 0 to n, and let
—dx J0 El Cx M x—dx El Jo
I
I
M
With this notation, (b) takes the form
= Xk
—
+ "k
Xkjk
If, in determining we also evaluate the integrals the interior points, then we can readily determine the displacement distribution using cd).
Example
14—11
Consider the simply supported nonshallow arch shown. We suppose there is some distribution of It'! and we want to determine the vertical deflection at Q. Considering
Fig. E14—11
A
ill
El
L
only bending deformation, dQ is given by
dQ
=
M,
ds
1W
1W,
dx
J
478
PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER
CHAP. 14
Now, the distribution of M
is the same as for the straight member, Then, the procedure followed in Example 14—10 is also applicable here. We just have to replace M/EI with
M/EI cos 0 in Equation (c) of Example 14—10.
REFERENCES
1.
TIMOSHENKO, S. 1.: Advanced Strength of Materials, Van Nostrand, New York, 1941.
2. 3.
Boan, S. F., and J. J. GENNARO: Advanced Structural Analysis, Van Nostrand,
New York, 1959.
REISSNER, E.: "Variational Considerations for Elastic Beams and Shells," J. Lag. Mech. Div., A.S.C.E, Vol. 88, No. EM 1, February 1962.
MARTIN, H. C.: introduction to Matrix lvi etliods of Structural Analysis, McGraw—Hill, New York, 1966. MUSRTARI, K, M., and K. Z. (IALIMOV: "Nonlinear Theory of Thin Elastic Shells,"
4.
5. 6. 7.
8.
Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Jerusalem, 1962 MARGUERRE, K.: "Zur Theoric der gekriimmten Platte grosser Formanderung," Proc. 5th mt. Congress App!. Mccli. pp. 93—101. 1938. Onai'i, J. 1.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. McGrawHill, New York, 1967. HILDEBRAND, F. J.: introduction to Numerical Analysis, McGrawHill, New York,
1956.
PROBLEMS
Specialize (14—7) for the case where Yi = x1. Let x2 = f(x1) and 14—1. let 9 be the angle from X1 to Y1 as shown below. Evaluate the various terms for a parabola
f=
+
Finally, specialize the relations for a shallow curve, i.e., where
Prob.14—1
32
14—2. Evaluate 1* and the sketch. 14—3. Verify (14—34).
(see Equation 1424) for the section defined by
14—4. 14—5.
Verify (14—41) and (14—42).
Discuss the difference between the deformationforce relations based
on stress and displacement expansions (Equations (14—25) and (14—42)). Illustrate for the rectangular section treated in Example 14—i. Which set of relations would you employ?
PROBLEMS
479
I
d
14—6.
2t
Prob.
14—2
T
b=O.75d
I
Evaluate I' and 1" for the symmetrical section shown. Prob.
14—6
h=O.75d
t=d120
14—7. Consider a circular sandwich member comprised of three layers, as shown. The core layer is soft (E 0). and the face thickness is small in comparison to the depth d). Establish forcedeformation relations based
on strain expansions (see (14—37)).
Prob. 14—i
I
I I I
Starting with (14—34) and (14—35), derive a set of nonlinear strain 14—8. displacement relations for a thin member. Assume small finite rotation, and
480
PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER
CHAP. 14
linearize the expressions with respect to Yz' i.e., take
=
Y12
e1 —
Determine the corresponding forceequilibrium equations with the principle of virtual displacements. 14—9. Refer to Fig. 14—10 and Equation (14—31). If we neglect transverse is orthogonal to t'1 and we can write shear deformation,
(1 +
=
—
tj
dt'1
ldF'

= fl1t1 + fl2t2
= —/32t1 + f31t2 1 + e1 ., di'2 I + e1 = =
+
= (1 +
R'
(a)
Verify that
can be expressed as
1
c
Cl
(i+e1
I
 y,k}
initial tangent vectors,
Also determine e1 and R' for small strain. Express ü in terms of th
ü=
and take y
(b) S (i.e.,
1).
U1t1
+ U2t2
Derive the forceequilibrium equations, starting with the vector equations (see (14—12) and Fig. 14—4),
dS
+
—
=
0
dM÷
+m +
x F÷ = 0
and expanding the force vectors in terms of components referred to the deformed frame: = F11'I + = Mi3
(c)
h=
b11'1
+
Assume small strain. Derive the forceequilibrium equations with the principle of virtual displacements. Take the strain distribution according to Equation (b).
________
PROBLEMS
481
(d)
Derive the nonlinear deformationdisplacement and equilibrium equations for the cartesian formulation. Refer the translations and loading to the basic frame, i.e., take
=
P
+ V212
Pi'i + P2t2
problem.
Specialize the equations for the case of a shallow member. 14—10. The accompanying sketch applies to both phases of this
Prob. 14—10
h2 = const
(a)
(b)
Determine the complete solution for the circular member shown. Utilize symmetry at point A = co = F2 = 0) and work with (14—58), (14—59). Discuss the effect of neglecting extensional and shear deformation, i.e., setting (1/A) (1/42) = 0. Repeat (a), using Mushtari's equations for a thin member with no
transverse shear deformation, which are developed in Example 14—2. Show that Mushtari's approximation (u1 << du2/dO) is valid when the segment is shallow. 14—11. The sketch presents the information relevant to the problem:
Prob. 14—11
P2 =
cOnSt
2
L
L
'j
L2
x2
482
PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER
(a)
CHAP. 14
Apply the Cartesian formulation to the symmetrical parabolic arch
shown. Consider the member to be thin and neglect transverse shear deformation. (b) Specialize (a) for negligible extensional deformation (set 1/A = 0).
(c)
Specialize (a) for the shallow case and investigate the validity of
Marquerre's approximation. 1442. Refer to Example 14—6. Determine UB2 due to a uniform distributed constant. loading, b2 Determine the displacement measures at B (see sketch). Consider 14—13. only bending deformation. Note: It may be more convenient to integrate the governing equations rather than apply (14—69).
Prob. 14—13
A
14—14.
Solve two problems with the information sketched:
Prob. 14—14
(a)
Determine the fixed end forces and radial displacement at point B
with the force method. Consider only bending deformation and utilize symmetry at B.
(b)
Generalize for an arbitrarily located radial force.
PROBLEMS
14—15.
483
Refer to Example 14—7.
(a) (b)
Determine the radial displacement at B defined in Fig. E14—7. Determine the force solution for the loading shown.
Prob. 14—15
P
P
14—16.
The sketch defines a thin parabolic twohinged arch.
Prob. 14—16
x2
Determine the horizontal reaction at B due to the concentrated load. Consider the arch to be nonshallow. (h) Utilize the results of(a) to obtain the solution for a distributed loading
(a)
(c)
p2(x) per unit x1. Determine the reactions resulting from a uniform temperature increase,
T.
(d)
Suppose the horizontal support at B is replaced by a prismatic member extending from A to B. Assume the connections are frictionless hinges. Repeat parts a and c.
484
PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER
CHAP. 14
14—17.
Consider the arbitrary twohinged arch shown. Discuss how you
Prob.
14—17
would generate the influence line for the horizontal reaction. Utilize the results contained in Examples 14—10 and 14—11.
15
Engineering Theory of an Arbitrary Member
15—i.
INTRODUCTION; GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS
In the first part of this chapter, we establish the governing equations for a member whose centroidal axis is an arbitrary space curve. The formulation is restricted to linear geometry and negligible warping and is referred to as the theory. Examples illustrating the application of the displacement and force methods are presented. Next, we outline a restrained warping formulation and apply it to a planar circular member. Lastly, we cast the force method for the engineering theory in matrix form and develop the member forcedisplacement relations which are required for the analysis of a system of member elements. The geometrical relations for a member are derived in Chapter 4. For convenience, we summarize the differentiation formulas here. Figure 15—1 shows the natural and local frames. They are related by
—
cos çbñ
+ sin çt'b
= —sin4iii +
where = we obtain
Differentiating (a) and using the Frenet equations (4—20),
dt
= at
0
0
t
0
(151)
1t3
Note that a is skewsymmetric.
485
486
ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER
CHAP. 15
n
I
b
Local reference directions
Fig. 15i. Natural and local reference frames for a member element.
of a point, say Q, are taken as S and Y2, y3. The curvilinear Letting K be the position vector to Q (see Fig. 15—2),
R=
and differentiating, we find
13R
+ y2t2(S) +
(15—2)
= (t
—
—
y2a12
—
y3a23t2 + y2a23t3
(15—3)
— = t2
3K
3y3
3K
The differential volume at Q is
d(vol.)
(1
Y2a12 — y3a13)dS dy2 dy3
=
where
(i
E
dS dy2 dy3
(15—4)
is the coordinate of Q in the normal (11) direction and the radius of curvature. Also,
3R 3R
..
= 1/K
is
(1
Y3
+
(15—5)
y2a23 =
/1
Y2
+
dcb
f See Sec. 4—8.
15—2. . which requires a23 =0 d/ (15—6) It is reasonable to neglect y/R terms with respect to unity when the member is thin. (15—8) is satisfied. i.. Curvilinear directions. INTRODUCTION. i. we will assume the member is thin. when << 1 (15—8) where b is a typical crosssectional dimension. and defines the orientation of the principal inertia directions.. when the crosssectional dimensions are small in comparison to ay2 — Fig. In what follows. and We express d4.e.e. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS 487 and the local vectors at Q are orthogonal when a23 0./dS as dq5 dS (15—7) where L is the total arc length and is the total increment in The nonorthogonality due to can be neglected when the member is only slightly twisted.SEC.
where b is a typical crosssectional dimension. The helix is thin when b/R c< 1. FORCEEQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS To establish the forceequilibrium equations. Only 023 varies linearly with finite for this case: S. We take the centroidal axis to be in the X1X2 plane and define the sense oft2 according tot2 x 13 = Theangle is constant and equal to either 0° (12 or 180° (12 = —ii). a member is planar if r = 0 and the normal direction (Il) is an axis of symmetry for the cross section. 15 Example 15—i The curvature and torsion for a circular helix are derived in Example 4—5: 1 R. we consider the differential element shown in Fig. = a13 (Ic!) = 0 T= If bk < 1.488 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. const IC we can assume aR/aS is orthogonal to F2. The vector equilibrium equations follow from the requirement that the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish: dS _. We use the same notation as for the planar case. + rn + t1 x F÷ = —  0 We express the force and moment vectors in terms of components referred to the local frame. = FTt = = (15—10) m't . 15—3. 15—2. Example 15—2 By definition. Only a12 is finite for a planar member: a13=a23=0 Example 15—3 is Consider the case where the centroidal axis is straight and The member is said to he naturally twisted. R (H'\2 1 where R is the radius of the base circle and H is the rise in one full revolution.
. 15—3. _F3. and noting that librium equations: —a.F2}Tt (b) Substituting in (15—9).SEC. one associated with inplane loading (b1. x = FJ3 = = {O. a13 = a23 = 0 and the equations uncouple naturally into two systems. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. rn3. FORCEEQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS bc/S + 489 dS2 + c/S 2 inc/S + c/S 2 Fig. 15—2. where F= F2. 0 0 (15—11) + a13F1 + a23F2 + b3 = + m1 = a12M2 — a13M3 — + a12M1 a23M3 + m2 — F3 0 When the member is planar. The vector derivatives are dF÷ tIS dS dFT = t + 'Tat dS (a) — dS — + Also. b2. F3} etc. lead to the following equi0 aF + b = dM +F0J — a12F2 —a33F3 + b1 = — 0 + dF3 dM1 a12F1 a23F3 + b2 = 0.
Since we are neglecting warping restraint. + — in1 = = 0 (15—12) + + m2 F3 0 15—3. The inplane equations coincide with (14—14) when we set a12 = 1/R and the outofplane equations take the form F1. m2. M2). PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES We consider the material to be elastic and define V" as the complementary energy per unit arc length. — 1. 2. is a function only of F and M. 15 F2.490 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. Virtual force system. We let Iav* . M3) and the other with outofplane loading (b3. 15—4. in1. . M1. 3 (15 13)  k = {kJ and write the onedimensional principle of virtual forces as dS = Js(eT AF + kT AM)dS (15—14) dS It (0 Fig. RELATIONS—NEGLIGIBLE WARPING RESTRAINT. F3. dF3 dM1 dM2 1 1.
we consider the material to be linearly elastic and approximation with the complementary energy function . the lefthand terms can be expanded. 15—3. In what follows. we apply the principle of virtual forces to the element shown in Fig. We define ü and ii5 as = = uTt = equivalent rigid body translation (15—15) vector at the centroid = = equivalent rigid body rotation vector The virtual system satisfies the equilibrium equations (15—5) identically and therefore is statically permissible.aw) dS and substituting in (15—14) lead to the following forcedisplacement relations: du — 10 an e + (15—16) k dO) = aY* du1 — — e1 = C2 = = du2 Cj2 a v* + a12u1 — + + 023u2 — e3 = k1 (113 = du3 + aV* dw1 = DV" = dw2 — 0120)2 — (1130)3 k2 = k3 = (* = + + 0120)1 — 023C03 = d0)3 + 0230)2 Once is specified. NEGLIGIBLE WARPING RESTRAINT 491 Now. the particular stress expansions selected. Evaluating APi. The form. and the member geometry. of depends on the material properties.SEC. 15—4. AFT an + + AMT .
) + a13co1 + 1223(02 . we are considering the member to be thin. In addition to these approximations. The approximate force displacement relations for a linearly elastic thin curve member are + F2 F1 = du1 — — = e3 + MT = = du2 du3 + a12u1 — C21U3 —  F3 + a13u1 + a21tc2 + (03 15 k1 = MT = dü1 M2 M3 UI3 18 a12co2 — a13w3 dw2 —a23co3 k3 = + dw3 U.492 ENGINEERiNG THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. we are also neglecting the effect of curvature. 15 for the prismatic case. + = is the where is the unrestrained torsional distribution due to MT and flexural distribution due to F2. M3 13 and using the shear stress distribution predicted by the engineering theory. which is developed in Sec. F1 =7+ M. i. = torsional moment with respect to the shear center coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid — F3y2 = if —j' dA = Note that (lSTi7) is based on if dA a linear expansion for the normal stress.e. 1 2—3: = + where + + + + + + + (1517) MT = M1 + Y2..
U2. 15—4. its application is restricted to simple geometries. The governing equations are summarized below and the notation is defined in Fig. It is convenient to take the polar angle e as the independent variable.SEC. In what follows. even when the shear center coincides with the centroid. and outofplane (u3. DiSPLACEMENT METHOD—CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER Since the displacement method involves integrating the governing differential equations. 15—5. That is. Note that flexure and twist are coupled. which. by definition. we apply the displacement method to a circular planar member subjected to outofplane loading. is a plane of symmetry for the cross Section. where 15—4. The approximate forcedisplacement relations for outofplane deformation for a thin planar member are e3 = F3 MT — du3 = MT dw1 I + (1519) k2 = k2 M2 + 1 = M1 — y2F3. We suppose the cross section is constant and the shear center coincides with the centroid. the shear center is on the Y2 axist and there is no coupling between inplane (u1. Equilibrium Equations (sec (15—12)) + — Rh3 0 M2 + R. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 493 When the member is planar. due to the curvature. an outofplane loading will produce only outofplane displacements. . (02) displacements.n1 =0 dM2 +Rrn2—RF3=O ForceDisplacement Relations (see (15—19)) e3 F3 ldu3 = = M1 + k1 I /dw1 + M2 k2 = o k2 = l/dw2 + t The shear center axis lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis.
15—5. + Rm1 is the particular solution of (d). We integrate the first equation directly: F3=C1—RJ0b3d0 The remaining two equations can be transformed to (15—20) (d) = dM1 + Rin1 (e) We solve (d) for M1 and determine M2 from (e). 15 Boundary Conditions F3 M1 M2 The or or or u3 prescribed at each end (pts. Notation for circular member.494 ENGiNEERING THEORY OF AN ARBiTRARY MEMBER CHAP. are axes of symmetry. A. .. x2 P3 i313 F3 B the X1 —X2 plane. B) solution of the equilibrium equations is quite straightforward. The resulting expressions are M1 = C2cosO + C3 sinG + M2 = —C2sinO + C3cosO + where M1 . Fig.
The complete solution involves six integration constants which are determined by enforcing the boundary conditions. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 495 The solution of the forcedisplacement relations is also straightforward. 15—4.SEC. = —C4 sin U + C5cosU + d RM1 C6 — +j dO + is the particular solution for wi. we transform (b) to + w1 = Rk2 R2 — in1 + R (1 + (f) RM5 = where . Solving the first equation for and then determining W2 and u3 from the second and third equations lead to = C4cosO + C5 sin fJ + wi. where Example 15—4 The member shown is Sxed at A and subjected to a uniform distributed loading.Rw2 is a dimensionless parameter. = (15—22) which is an indicator for torsional deformation. we obtain F3 = C1 — Rb30 (a) . E15—4 b3 = const h3 = coast in (15—20). d2co1 First. The following examples illustrate the application of the above equations.. Taking Fig.
sinO + C3cosO — The boundary conditions at B require F3=M1=M2=O = C2 = C3 R5308 —R2h3 sin at 0=08 R2b3 cos Replacing — 0 by the final solution is F3 = = M2 Rb30 R2b3[q — sin ?q] . the equation for w3 becomes + w1 = The particular solution of (b) is (1 — (1 + — 0) (b) + [0 cos(OB 9)] Using the above results and specializing (15—23) for this support condition lead to the following expressions for the displacements: WAI COS 0 + sin 0 C05 + + sin 0 — 9 cos(08 — . — = M2 C2 cos 0 + C3 sin 0 + RF3 R2b3 —C2. 15 The equation for M3 reduces to + Then. M1 = RF3 = RC1 — R250 R2b30 = RF3 = and the solution for M3 and M2 follows from (15—21).496 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. librium conditions directly to the segment shown in Fig. Using (a).—R2h3[1 — cos Example 155 can be determined by applying the The force system due to the end action. E15—SA. This leads to F3 = = FB3R(l — cos F83R[l •— — 0)] (a) M2 = We — sin =— sin(Oa 9) suppose there is no initial deformation.
1] — ——. + + + Roi41(l — cos 1—c3 3 C05 sin Th — 2c1 sin + El2 + . + + sln(OR — and define the rigid body displacements due to support movement. Sm 0 — 133 1 Osln(Oa — — (d) UA3 + RthAI(l — cos RFB3 IF I £1) — Rö5A2 Sifl COS 0 SW + C1j sin P 1L 0 cos(05 — 0) + c.sin 2 Rw42 Sm 0)3 1—c. The rotations and Terms involving Fig. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 497 SlflO + . 15—4. I + cosO] . cosO + . Also. terms involving c1 are due to twist deformation.SEC. E15—5A F3 M2 A I? translation at B are listed below: COS + sin 0a COS + R2P83 f ± c1] sin 1 sin + —h— 13)33 + cos 033 .
11—3.8 7.3) 2 3 2. The properties aret 1 61 _6 (for I A3 5A — 5d2d3 d3) J = Then.4 Fig.69 (Ibr v 1.i2) J 1. 3 and v = 0. The values of 4k and for d3/d2 = are tabulated below: = E12/GJ d3/d2 1 4k 1. (d3\2 El2 — E [1 (di'\21 2.54 0.3 GA3R2 — G [io k. El 5—5)3.16 3.498 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 15 To investigate the relative importance of the various deformation terms. we consider the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. . E15—5B T 1(3 t The torsional constant for a rectangular cross Section is developed in Sec.75 3.
. For the shallow case. From symmetry. the member is thin and slightly twisted. El 5—6) subjected to a uniformly distributed twisting 0 and M1. we find M1 = 1142 0 Rm1 The displacements follow from (15—18) U3 = (13. we can neglect in the expressions for UB3. (15—17)) follow. Then. 15—5. M2 are constant. — 0 RM2 WI R2m1 = = x2 Fig. In general. Example 15—6 moment.SEC. using (15—16). The general form of the expression for the displacement at an arbitrary point and the compatibility equations corresponding to these restrictions (see (15—14). The steps involved are the same as for the prismatic or planar case and therefore we will not reiterate them here. F3 Consider a closed circular ring (Fig. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES In this section. E15—6 b3 = m2 0 const 15—5. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 499 Since (d2/R)2 << 1. we cannot neglect twist deformation when the member is not shallow. we illustrate the application of the principle of virtual forces to curved members. We restrict this discussion to the case where the material is linearly elastic. and warping is neglected. we see that it is reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation.
0 + . We take X1 to coincide with the ceniroidal axis and X2. = cos + sin at çbt3 = —sin + cos x1=O .fkJZJ 3= 1 kA kZk (k = 1.kldS + + + + = + + + = M1 + y3F2 — v2F3 The reduced form for outofplane deformation is obtained by setting F1 = F2 = 0. + Example 15—7 Consider the nonprisinatic member shown below.Q + (a) (15—24) + + Compatibility Equations Z1.k + — + ETM31M3. The principal inertia directions are defined by the unit vectors t2.JMT. 15 Displacement at Point Q = —i + + (k20 + j [(ei° + + + Fj. 2 r) (15—25) where + JMT.ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. X3 to coincide with the principal inertia directions at the left end (point A).0 + R1 = R1. Z2 Zr = force redundants = F30 + = M3. The centroidal axis is straight but the orientations of the principal inertia axes vary. t3.
FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES Now. For P3. E15—7C: — P3(L x1)12 the components of It.SEC. E15—7A.! with respect to the local frame. M3. Spefor a transverse load applied at the centroid.e. we must These follow from Fig.. 15—5. M2 = P2(L M3 == — — P2(L x1)cos q5 . i. 11L(i + (b) Force Systems The moment vectors acting on a positive cross section due to P2. P3 applied at B (Fig. It is convenient to work with translationcomponents (v52. v53) referred to the basic frame. E15—7B) are — P2(L — — = To find M2. We suppose that the shear Fig. the X2. we consider the problem of determining the translations of the centroid at B due to the loadingshown in Fig. E15—7A x2 x1 axts center coincides with the centroid and cializing (15—24). X3 directions. and noting that M1 = the displacement expression reduces to dQ = 0 shear deformation is negligible.
E15—7B 1'2(L—x1)i3 'I —P3(L Lx. /B P3 Fig. E15—7C M2r2 ——P2(L—x1)z1 M3t3 For M2 = M3 = +P3(L — — 1)cos 4) x1)sin4) (C ) Determination of Due to P2 The virtualforce system for we obtain corresponds to P2 = + 1. 15 Fig. (f) Determination of CR3 Due to P2 The virtualforce system for VB3 corresponds to P3 = + 1. Using (e) leads to .502 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. Introducing (d) in (b).
FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 503 Example 15—8 We rework Example 15—6 with the force method. E15—9 x2 42 44 12.J are constant T We take the torsional moment at 0 = M1 0 as the force redundant. The moment distributions T . we see that M1 = = 0 Suppose the rotation w1 in the direction of in1 is desired. we obtain TO R2 COl = Example 15—9 Consider the closed ring shown. 15—5. Also. The virtual loading for this displacement is rn1 = + 1. the behavior is symmetrical with respect to X1 and we have to analyze only one half the ring.SEC. Only M1 and M2 arc finite for this loading. Fig. Using symmetry. Starting with and substituting for M2.
E15—1OA A P13 (Displacement restraint C iriX1 direction at B) B . A1 = = ' 12 E12) sin cos 0 0  [sin2 and it follows that Z1 = 0. and M2 are finite. The virtualforce system for WAI is T = + 1. and only F3. M2. We could have arrived at this result by noting that the behavior is also symmetrical with respect to X2. This requires M2 to be an even function of 0. we consider the shear center to coincide with the centroid and neglect transverse shear deformation./2 [M1 0M1 1 + dO 0M2. Fig. It is convenient to take the reaction at B as the force redundant. El2 dO f11 = 2R J + and then substituting for M1. To simplify the algebra.. f11Z1 = A1 A1 = —2R . 15 Specializing (l5—25) for this problem.504 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. Using (15—24) and (a) leads to 2wAi = 2RJ r/T sin 0\sin 0 + fT cos O'\ cos 01 RTa[l COAl I Example 1510 We analyze the planar circular mcmber shown in Fig. The loading is outofplane. El 5— bA. M1.
15—5. = PR[l M2. xl Force Analyses The force solutions for the loadings shown in Fig.1 = +1 = R(1 — cos M21 —Rsini1 ii) (c) .0 = +P M1. El 5— [OC are: For F: F'3.SEC. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 505 Primary Structure The primary structure is defined in Fig.0 = COS(ii — llc)] (b) —PR sin(lJ — 'Ic) ForZ1 = +1: 'Ic F3. El 5—lOB: B1 = d1 — R4 UA3 R2 —MA2 = —MAI = Z1 = F53 d2 = d4 = = E15—1OB M1 .
E15—1OC C =+i B Compatibility Equation (15—25) IL.j = fit !ii = R + + M2 for Substituting for the internal force and reactions. . we obtain the following expressions and R3 [(1 + — — Sin — — (1 — — Sill COS UA3 + RrOA2 sin cos + R2 sin(05 — O)dG {o. 15 Fig. [i + — cos(05 — Or)] — sin — sin Oc + sin = El2 GJ Note that we could have determined A1 and using the results of Example 15—5.506 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.
Thc approach followed for the prismatic case is also applicable here.) 0 We introduce expansions for fl. we consider the member to be thin and slightly twisted. 15—6. + + cr13y13)dy2dy3 . The forceequilibrium equations follow from the stationary requirement with respect to displacement measures. = One can show thatt Y12. ü = independent quantities = e(iI) p. 15—5. these restrictions lead to dR d(vol. y3). (3U (15—27) is the displacement vector for Q (S. 15—2. Referring to Fig. We start with the strain measures.)  tl dS dr2 dy3 (15—26) Therefore.SEC. Our formulation is based on Reissner's principle (13—33): d(surface area)] = — r. S1 ti tj where au + t2 + (3 . we can treat the differential line elements as if they were orthogonal. RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION In what follows. RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION 507 156. We use the same displacement expansion as for the prismatic case: U1 IA2 + u212 + 113(3 U1 + W2y3 — WIY2 lAsZ — — ± f4i (15—28) y3) = Expanding + co1(y2 Y3) — Y2) = t See Prob. b = prescribed forces = = complementary energy density bTIi V*)d(vol. 13) rather than the global frame. in terms of onedimensional displacement and force measures (functions of S) and integrate over the cross section. One has only to work with stress and strain measures referred to the local frame 12. Yi' Y2). in analyzing the strain at Q (S.
Venant warping function referred to the shear center. 4) = — We write the transverse shear stress distribution as + = are functions of ± (15—32) The corresponding complementary energy function = $SV* dy2 dy3 = + + + M32) + + (15—33) + 2F2F3 + + + + Also..2 + a12çb) + (i5—29) The equilibrium equations consist of(15—11) and the equation due to warping restraint. 13—5. The derivation is discussed in Sec. The normal stress is expressed as F1 = where + M2 '2 Y3 — M3 '3 + r '1) (15—31) the St. noting (b). e1. .. Y3r = Y2r If the cross section is symmetrical.2 + cr134). (15—32) satisfies (see(13—50)) JS(a124). we use the stress expansion developed for the prismatic case.ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER leads CHAP. MR (15—30) which can be interpreted as the stress equilibrium equation for the weighted with respect to 4). direction Now. so we only list the essential results here. .3)dy2dy3 Finally. we express MR as MR = (1 + A23 + b2F2 + b3F3 br = 0 (15—34) where the b's involve the curvature (a32. a1 3). k3 (defined by (15—16)) = SSai14) dy2 dy3 + a134))]dy2dy3 MR = JJ[ci2(4). 15 to dy2 = F1e1 + F2e2 + F3e3 + MTkI + M3k3 + MRf + Mj. . e2. .
we consider a planar circular member having a doubly svrnnietricai cross section (Fig. 15—6. Equilibrium Equations dM1 = = dM2 dO M1 t See Prob. Expanding the stationary requirement with respect to force measures yields the forcedisplacement relations. We neglect transverse shear deformation due to restrained torsion. RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION 509 and b2. Example 15—11 To investigate the influence of warping restraint. 15—4) follow. clampedat one end and subjected Fig. b3 are due to selfequilibrating stress distributions. his—il). R dO + M'j . The governing equations for this loading (See Sec. It is in this case. warping relations arc (15—18).SEC. e2. 15—6. ej a av* k2 av* k3 = = aF2 = e2 + b2f = aV* e3 + b3f = i3V* (15—35) . . The corresponding unrestrained where e1. E15—11 NM to a torsional moment at the other end. k3 are defined by (15—16).t reasonable. A3) based on the primary fiexural shear stress distributions. to take b2 0 and compute the shear coefficients (A2.
. M1 = k1 GJk1 1 — = — — 0) I (dco2 = + Wi) '\ lvi — 0) and solve for k1.ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.. and then Wi. 15 ForceDisplacement Relations M2 = E12k2 = El2 + El4.J . El2 GJ = ME — 1 0) — cos — siiih tanh GJ + = {o cos(05 — 0) sin 0 cos + 0 cos(05 — 0) + — sin 0 cos — {sinh — tanh 0 cosh + cos ü tanli = Warping restraint is neglected by setting Er = and . The resulting expressions are 2 2 =——— G. R f (10 f= = GJk1 1 (dco1 (b) Boundary ('onditions 0—U (01C02J0 1v11 =M M2 = 0 One can write the equilibrium solution directly from the sketch: M1 M — 0) M2 = Al sin(05 — 0) We substitute for the moments in the forcedisplacement relations.
786 0. For a truss. one needs the relations between the for and displacements at the ends of the member. these equations . COMPLETE END RESTRAINT The rotation at B is (RM\ l\ El2) = — COS 0B) + K= 1 + 1 — Sin 0B [ cos2 — tanh 704 If we set On On and let (g) reduces to (13—57). the influence of warping restraint is not as significant as for the prismatic case. 15—7.51)0 5 0.96 0. 15—7.99 10 We showed in Chapter 13 that 2 0 (open section) (j) 2 =0 (closed section) 1 where t is the wall thickness and h is a depth measure. Since 2 = RA and R/li for a thin curved member. 2 for = ir/4.179 0. MEMBER FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—COMPLETE END RESTRAINT  In the analysis of a member system. The influence of warping restraint depends on 2 and Values of K vs. the prismatic solution.907 = ir/2 0.SEC. it/2 are tabulated below: 1 for = + for 1 = it/4 0.
Matrix notation is particularly convenient for this derivation so we start by expressing the principle of virtual forces and the complementary energy density in terms of generalized force and deformation matrices. we define reduce a v* (1536) aM1 and write the principle of virtual forces as Ss dS J dS dT (15—37) Note that we are working with M1. Eq. With the above notation. One has only to delete the rows and columns .512 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.e. (15—17)). Referring back to Sec. 15 to a single relation between the bar force and the elongation. not MT. We use the complementary energy function for a thin slightly twisted member with negligible warping restraint (i. (15—17) + where g= gfm (1538) gf Sym 1 A2G + Y2Y3 (7 I GJ + o J'3 ojo 1 El2 0 0 Sym The forcedeformation relation implied by (15—38) Is + (15—39) We will use these general expressions for planar and outofplane deformation as well as for the arbitrary case.. 15—3.
For example.SEC. Finally. The principle of virtual forces expands to J5(t° + where dS — dT dT (15—41) contains prescribed displacements and R are the corresponding reactions. 15—6. 15—6. we substitute fort in (15 —37) and distinguish between prescribed and unknown displacements. {F1F2M3} = 0 (15—40) El for planar loading applied to a planar member. d contains unknown displacements and are forces corresponding to d. 15—7. Each end is completely restrained against displacement. B 13 Basic member frame Fig. The virtualforce system must satisfy the forceequilibrium equations. The positive sense of S is from A toward B. COMPLETE END RESTRMNT 513 of g corresponding to the zero force measures. Arbitrary curved member. (15—11). Consider the arbitrary member shown in Fig. . It is more convenient to generate and R with the equilibrium equations for a finite segment rather than attempt to solve (15—il).
514 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. A superscript n is used to denote a quantity referred to (lie basic frame. Note that acts on the positive face.e. For example. substituting for . = = d= d Introducing (a). B are denoted and are related to the internal force matrices by by = — = =— 15 42 Also. (b) in (15—41). The force matrix for the negative face is — The end forces at A. the member cantilevered from A. the primary structure consists of the member cantilevered We from A. 15 suppose the geometry of the member is defined with respect to a basic frame which we refer to as frame ii. temperature. We determine for the primary structure. we express as + where (15—44) is the internal force matrix at Q due to the prescribed external loading applied to the member cantilevered from A. we will employ the notation for force and displacement transformations that is developed in Chapter 5. and the end forces at B and then equate it to the actual The virtualforce system is Lw = AR = = Also. Throughout the remaining portion of the chapter. c03}Q {u} (15—43) For this system. and are prescribed. due to displacement of A. U2. W2. it is understood the quantity is referred to the local frame. represents the internal force matrix at point Q referred to the local frame at Q. the displacement matrix at point Q is written as 0//Q = {u1. U3 (Oj. Then. loads applied along the member. we obtain + Il + + + Next. and take the end forces at B as the force redundants. Finally. When no frame superscript is used. i.
out . are also valid for inplane or outofplane deformation of a planar member. We can obtain the total flexibility matrix by compounding the flexibility matrices for the individual elements. It is analogous to the forceelongation relation for the ideal truss element that we developed in Chapter 6. For simple members such as a prismatic member or a planar circular member with constant cross section. AA1 and A1B. we have considered only a simple member. contains the displacements at B due to the end forces at B with A fixed: Now. one must generally resort to numerical integration such as described in Sec. we point out that the general definitions off. When the geometry is complex. 15—7. To illustrate the procedure. 15—7. Now suppose the actual member consists of a set of members rigidly connected to each other and the flexibility matrix for each member is known. One simply has to use the appropriate forms for the various matrices. The matrix. we consider two members. + 0)dS = initial deformation matrix member flexibility matrix (15—47) fll and (15—45) reduces to — = + (15—48) Equation is the forcedisplacement relation for an arbitrary member with complete end restraint.4 is equal to the sum of the second and third terms in (15—45). We also define JSB S4 — to rigid body (1546) notion aI.SEC. f". Finally. is a natural property of the member since it depends only on the geometry and material properties. Then. We define as the member deformation matrix: = By definition. the displacement at B due to the tion of member A1B is A1B . f". Up to this point. suppose point A1 is fixed. one can obtain the explicit form off. The member flexibility matrix. shown in Fig. 14—8 in order to determine f and This problem is discussed in the next section. T(18 + 0)dS (15—45) [JB + The first term is due to rigid body motion of the member about A whereas the second and third terms are due to deformation of the member. COMPLETE END RESTRAINT 515 leads to = + [SB .
mernberAA. we have = + = — = ffl (15—49) The end forces at B are found by inverting (15—48): (fn)_ 1 1 member stiffness matrix •. 'Ai It remains to determine B Fig.J/'fl — = — + 1550 — The first term is due to external load applied along the member and represents the initial (or fixedend) forces at B.' (TI? It Finally. Segmented member. . A. Once is known. the analysis of a completely restrained member reduces to a set of matrix multiplications once the member stiffness and initial deformation matrices are established. For convenience. The additional displacement at B due to movement of A1 is where • B. = 0 + (a) Thus. we can evaluate the interior force matrix at a point using (15—44). 15—7.' displaccment at 4 — — ' BA.516 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. — CFn B and the resulting deformation of member AA1 is A. — — ffl A. let (15—51) The second and third terms are the end forces at B due to end displacement at B. — ffl AA. The force system at A1 due to the end forces at B is given by A. 15 is the flexibility matrix for member A1B referred to frame n.
the forcedisplacement relations simplify to = = Note that only and are + + + + and (15—54) required in order to evaluate 158. In order to express the equations where in a more compact form.SEC. We consider next the initial deformation matrix: = We transform 4'. we need an expression for Now. This is desirable since. as we shall show later. using (15—55) . = Substituting for — 0 leads to i + — BA — —— A. the values of the integral at intermediate points along the centroidal axis as well as the total integral can he determined in the same operation. 15—8. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES 517 When analyzing a system of members by the displacement method.g.0 ( ) B.i represents the initial end forces. we let in KBB in k AB ii — — L inwn.T n — BA BA jn BA — BA With this notation. and + 0)dS from the local frame to the basic frame. expres sions for the end forces in terms of the end displacements are required. In addition to (15—50). the intermediate values can be utilized to evaluate the initial deformation matrix. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES The member flexibility matrix is defined by = Noting that = and letting g014)dS A = ffl (15—55) (15—56) we can write If numerical integration is used.
518 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. M. the external force quantities are referred to the basic frame for the member. but it is more convenient to express the integrand in partitioned form. One can work with unpartitioned matrices. frame n. (f) simplifies to (15—62) Also. Since the formulation is applicable for arbitrary deformation. we partition and g symmetrically. denote the force and moment matrices and the total force matrix: say C. i. i.. it is desirable to maintain this generality when expanding in partitioned form. (15—63) The determination of the member flexibility matrix reduces to evaluating J defined by (15—61).. Therefore.O)dS 0)dS (15—57) (15—58) Suppose there is an external force system applied at an intermediate point. (15—61) = With this notation. The partitioning is consistent with the partitioning of into F. <C Writing or" or" CD and introducing the above relations in (15—59) result in ( = The bracketed term is an intermediate value of the integral defining we let Finally.e. The initial force matrix at Q due to this loading is given by 0 07fl Q.0 — _II U — SA Sc (15—60) c <C. . 15 and = = The contributions of temperature and external load are T. we define a as the row order of F and /3 as the row order of M. g. consistent with (15—64).e. (15—64) Continuing. Let (15—59) = Normally.
= The submatrices follow from (15—65): = (15—67) + '1112 '1122 + + XHQgZ2XBQ (15—68) = = F Next. axial and shear deformation are neglected. g11 = We let 0. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES 519 and simplify the notation somewhat: = 0 (15—65) = (fixfj) — g11 () gQ— () g12 E i g12 g22 The translation and rotation transformation matrices are developed in Secs. the expressions for the submatrices are = (15—66) g22 — g22 are diagonal matrices when the shear center Note that g12 = 0 and coincides with the centroid.SEC. we partition f": r ffl = (1570) . If. we partition J consistent with'1': j— — 'I' dS — I — Jp22j x (15—69) JP = F" ffl is  Finally. The local ilexihility matrix is defined by (15—55). in addition. 15—8. Using the above notation. 5—2 and the form of g for a thin curved member is given by (15—38). 5—1.
Its partitioned form is = 1V01 — r cli rT — C.12 n I BC C.!T 12 I (15—74 AA ] — [k'. 15—8.' — k ii — 11 1n for convenience) (15—73) \1 12) 22k $ — —If çT i Once is known.1 I A 15—9. we obtained the complete set of forcedisplacement relations and also the initial end forces for concentrated and uniform loading. For convenience. We write The member stiffness matrix. we drop the frame reference superscript n. Expanding (15—53) leads to the following partitioned forms: knB — —I I in KBA — rinIi I I nvn.. = I. The notation is summarized in Fig.520 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.e. since the basic frame coincides with the local frame. The positive sense of a displacement. in this section. or end forces coincides with the positive sense of the corresponding coordinate axis.! T ml 12 I= A rnii I I I L 1n. is obtained by inverting = (r)' —( =I [ku 12 22 k22j I (15—72) (11 )< /1) One can easily show that (we drop the frame superscript on k. external force. Now. MEMBER MATRICES—PRISMATIC MEMBER In Chapter 12. 15 The initial deformation matrix due to an arbitrary loading at point C can be determined with (15—62). Starting with (15—66). = from (15—68). 12 — 2V'BC 22J 'C — denote the initial translation and rotation matrices. i. Actually. we have since R$ are identity matrices. we developed the governing equations for a prismatic member and presented a number of examples which illustrate the displacement and force methods of solution. we generate the member flexibility matrix using the matrix formulation.T llJtB. Once XBQ is assembled we can determine the submatriees of . We also list for future reference the various member stiffness matrices.12 Ii (flxfl) C lYe) where L"c. the stiffness matriccs and can be generated.
using g defined by (15—38). Now. MEMBER MATRICES—PRISMATIC MEMBER 521 i2 MB!. Fig. / X1 is centroiclal axis. Summary of notation for a prismatic member. X3 are principal inertia directions. WB i UB! I._________ ______ SEC. we obtain L/AE /1 L Sym 0 0 1) + + L \2x3 I) + 0 + 0 0 f12= GJ LT2 0 . V 2E13 + — (15—75) L2 GJ 2E12 0 0 L/GJ = Sym 10 LIEu . 15—8.xQ1) 0 (a) Then. 15—9. o o 0 X5Q= 0 0 o (L—xQt) —(L—. X2.
15 for reference. 3) and (3. Transverse shear deformation is neglected by setting a2 = The submatrices of k are generated with (1 5—73). 2) in k12) b1 L2 L2 0 0 B= 1! L2 .522 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. (1 5— 74) and are listed below 03 0: a2 = 2 12E12 a3 12E11 = = —I' '2 1 + a2 GJ + 12E  1+03 b1 = AE L + 0 0 k11= Sym 0 L3 0 0 0 6E1 L2 0 (15—76) k12 = L2 k22 L2 0 (4 + Sym 0 — (4 + 0 0 Fl* L L3 0 L2 10 — (change sign of(2.
2). (1. MEMBER b MEMBER 523 —6E!!Ye2 V FI* (4 L2 = + a3)_L_ (change sign of(1. 15—9. the fixed end forces due to a concentrated transverse force and a uniform transverse loading are summarized below. concentrated Force a3 = 12E13 MB3 FB2 — (15—77) — MBI = MA1 + — F112 = —L MA3 = + FB2 + Force a2 12E12 — GA1L2 — ÷ FB3 + + FB3) (15—78) MAI — —MB1 _PC3 — FR3 MA2 L + — MB2) .SEC. 3) in k22) Finally.
It is convenient to take the basic frame (frame n) to be parallel to the local frame at B. the reader should review Example 14—6. b3L2 (15—81) = =0 ——u— MAI = (15—82) 15—10.524 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.e. In particular. 15—5. of constant cross section. which treats planar deformation. b3 F83 = 1q43 = M82 = = Uniformly Distributed Torque.. The notation is summarized in Fig. By definition. Y2 and Y3 are principal inertia axes and p3 = 0. We include extensional and transverse shear deformation for the sake of generality. i. 15—9. 15—10 for outofplane deformation. rn M81 — — — b3L. MEMBER MATRICES—THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER In this section. we generate the flexibility and initial deformation matrices for a thin planar circular member. the shear center lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis. using matrix operations. The threedimensional forms of and are cos — sin 01 0 = = = sin = cos 17] = rRbq ° I 0 1 (15—83) . b2 F82 =   b2L — FA2 M83 = —MA3 = M81 h2L2 (15—80) MAI = 0 Uniformly Distributed Load. and Examples 15—4. Some of the relations have already been obtained as illustrative examples of the force and displacement methods. 15 Concentrated Torque MA1 = = — Tc1(1 (15—79 — Uniformly Distributed Load.
(15—68) leads to the member flexibility matrix. We consider the member to be thin and use the local flexibility matrix defined by (15—38).U. Expanding (15—66).fl for planar deformation and R0=1 — SQ [—R(1 — cos for outofplane deformation. Mw Fig. 15—ID.SEC.3. . it is just as convenient to work with subinatrices of order 3 as to consider separately the planar and outofplane cases. 15—9. x.. THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER 0 525 = jO I 0 R sin R sin . Centroidal axis b B2 F. Summary of notation for a planar circular member. Since the complete flexibility matrix is desired.
12 — sin — T— t212t) — 0 0 —cos05) + 0 + c2 sin cos f15} Ib 22 . 15 ae as = Cs El3 El7 El2 Ct = a1 = = ae + a7 a2 = ae — c1 = + — = (15—84) ( — Y2\ —\2 Y2 \ Symmetrica'  sin ± I + az)i} R3 .526 ENGINEERiNG THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER 13 CHAP.cosO5 + a2)} 0 +r!j) a2)sin — sin2 05(1 2 cos + c41 — 2c3 0 05 — C2 Sifl COS R2 0 0 1.
SEC. BC 3 Finally. the flexibility matrix for the segment AC referred to the local frame at C. V0 — UB — = U j r T c c AC. Now. THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER 527 We consider next the determination of the initial deformation matrix due to an arbitrary concentrltted load at an interior point.. C. the displacement at C is given by ('IC The displacement at B due to rigid body motion about C is "B — — BC TrI & T011hc..3 WB3 {cos 'Ic — cos OB}Tc3 — sin + (1 COS + RO . which we denote is known. We just have to change to and superscript b to c in by When the external load is referred to the local frame at C.11 vI. + 2 j . 1 + — + 00. we can write = 1. Planar Loading = + / = M3 Slfl + 1 1+a1 cos + 'Ic — I' + 1+02 Cos 0c ± —— + ''— R3 I — cog 1+a1 sin ic — o4 1:13 + I 2 + Sifl R ç 5jfl (15—86) — —s—L I = Sill 'Ic 1+02. T /1 Tçc. 1510. — b .4C.121 C T Tcc C The uncoupled expressions follow.i21 \ c C + — 1' + Ii (15—85) ( 4C. T .
. The basic frame is chosen to utilize symmetry. We consider two loadings: a concentrated radial force P applied at C. 15 OutofPlane Loading V0.e. We determine the axial force and moment at C from the symmetry conditions u1 = w3 = 0. The most convenient choice of unknowns is the internal forces at the midpoint. CASE 1—CONCENTRATED RADIAL FORCE P . 15—10 defines the notation for the planar case. 6 = OB/2. and a uniform distributed radial load b2 applied per unit arc length over the entire segment.528 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. Explicit expressions for the fixed end forces due to various loading conditions arc listed below. i. one can utilize symmetry to determine the fixed end forces. = = R3 ( COS 'ic + c4) — C2 Sifl 0c cos 0B + c3(— sin — sin °B + sin 6c COS 0J3 + C3 Sifl ) — — + —+ 1= R21 R21 cos 'ic + C2 £12 ( R2 CZS1flGCS1flOB c3(1 j COS 'ic + c3(sin 0B — sin 'ic) + c2 sin + + RI cos Cos 'ic — 5jfl (15—87) + C2 Sifl °c o5}Tc2 — 2= = — C2 £12 Sjfl 'ic + c3(cos ) COS 'ic) SIfl Oc Sin + ii— )[CIOC sin 'ic + c2 sin sin + E12 cos 'ic + c2 sin 0c cos When the loading is symmetrical. F1 and M3 are unknown for the planar case and only M2 is unknown for the outofplane case. Planar Loading Fig.
THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER P 529 1.s SIfl + 1.SEC./I (sin COS CASE 2—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED RADIAL LOAD b2 = 0 —Rb2(1 sin (1 + ai) 2 — sin2 cc cc + (1 + a2'\ sin cc cos cc . 15—10. 15—10. Notation for planar loading..fl B! MA R Fig. SiflO! — CL cos cc) + ——— SIfl 2 2 1+Q2 CL (1 + a1\ CL sin2 cc — cc I I + (1 + a2\ sin cos (15—88) = ' — 131 — RP ci —i7771 — COS + ( — Al — — 77 — Cl — 1' 'A2 — = MA PR I 1 — co.
and a uniform distributed couple in1.530 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. CASE 1—CONCENTRATED FORCE P = P =0 PR 2 + c3(l — cosa) . Notation for outofplane loading. and a couple T—both applied at C. F3 Mt 1 R Fig. CD2 Tile bending moment at C is obtained using the symmetry condition = 0. 15 Mc=R2b2aecb(_1 = = — C( (15—89) a4) — cos = —Rb2 Sill = —MA = R2b2aecb OutofPlane Loading Figure 15—11 defines the notation for the outofplane case. We consider four loadings: a concentrated force P. 15—li. a uniform distributed force h3.
(1 PR — cos cx)  = — = = — .e. FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX 531 MB1 = MA1 i. at each point. 15—11. i. we develop the flexibility matrix for a member whose centroidal axis is a circular helix. For convenience.SEC. We also suppose the properties are constant.sin PR. The notation is shown in Fig. 15—12. cx FB = CASE 2—CONCENTRATED TORQUE T = = 0 = T c2sin2cx (15—91) 2 cxc1 + c2 sin cx cos cx = FB=FA=0 CASE 3—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED LOAD h3  0 — R 2 b3 c1(sincx — cx)+ c2 sin cx(i — coscx)+ — cxcoscx) + = R2b3(sin cx — cx C2 COS = = (15—92) cos cx) 1 = =FA=—PRcx — R2b3(cx sin cx — + cos cx) CASE 4—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED COUPLE m1 = = 0 m1R————— cj(a — sin cx) + c2 sin cx(cos cx —1) cxc1 + C2 — SJfl cx cos cx (15—93) —m1R sin cx MA2 = 15—11.. we summarize the geometrical . is considered to coincide with the normal direction. Y2. rn1R(1 — cos cx) FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX In this section. The principal inertia direction. the inward radial direction.
With these restrictions. then from (15—68). a —cosO a C ——cos 0 IC R Rc. = R. . We first determine using (15—66). and finally with (15—70). = = g12 = () 1 GJ g2= El3 and the expressions for reduce to = 'I'12 'V22 The flexibility matrix for a constant cross section is given below. t See Examples 4—6 and 5—3. a a 0) R(sin — — sin 0) — = C(OB — 0) — 0 — R(cos 0 cos 0) R(sin sin 0) R(cos The steps involve only algebraic operations and integration.3 = = —sin 0 0 — C(OB — C. we assume the shear center coincides with the centroid and neglect extensional and transverse shear deformation. In what follows. 15 relations: x3 = x2 R cos 0 R sin 0 a dO x3=C8 dS a= [R2 + C2)112 = constant = fl + Rcos 012 + Cl3) — t2 = —COS t3 sin 012 — b= = Ccos 072 + R13) —sinO R.532 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.
ensionless Para.SEC.neters = C12 R2E12 R2 + C2l2 = + C2 (E12\ 13 El2 R2 [12 ij T El2 a3 RC[12 Ra3 a5 = 1+a1 a4+a6 2 a6 = 1—a1 a7= a9 a8= a10 2 a6+3a4 2 a6—3a4 2 . 15—li. Y3—principal inertia directions Fig. X'. Notation for circular helix. 15—12. Notation—Din. X31 —directions of basic frame Y2. FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX 533 j Centroidal axis Yi Xi".
534 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 15 Elements of f71 [fit = C2a( + R2a2cz 1 Sym f22 1 I f33j + (1 02 B a + 2a4 sin 08 + a10 sin — OB} El3 f a6 + Sin208) a8 2sinO8 + 0B — — COS 0B + a4(OB 05 + COS OB)} — El3 0B(08 sin 1 + cos — f31 = = RCr1 + (a1 — a4)(i cos0.1) a4 sin2 05 + a9OssinOn} cos C2x R2a2cc 1 + /1 — a10 2 sin 08 Cos — 2a4OB +El = El2 + a8 f33 = R2a + COS sin + COS sin 08) + a1005 COS 0B + a4 sin 2a1 {(ai + a5)05 — sin a6 sin cos (15—94) Elements of [114 Lf34 1161 f261 f35 f36j COS f14 = sin 08 + a705 + a8 sin 02 + a8 sin2 8 f16 = f24 — El2 — — ( 08} El3 <08 ( sin 1 + cosoB} + a8 sin2 0B <p8(08 a4(1 — cos = f Sffi 0B C05 .
Now. To handle the case of partial restraint. using the primary system corresponding to Z = 0. and there are only a unknowns (where a is the order of F8). say Q. the member cantilevered from A: (a B Next. when the member is only partially restrained. 15—12. we considered an arbitrary member which is completely restrained at both ends. PARTIAL END RESTRAINT 535 f26= = Ca3cJ . Normally. the rotation at B has no effect on the end forces. 15—12. sin OB a1(1 — COS = f36 = — — 0B cos Elements of COS 013j {a508 + a6 sin Sym a {a508 — a6 = El2 sin 2 — sin 08 cos OB} aa2 cos08) aa3 112 . Inverting these equations and using the equilibrium relations for the end forces results in forcedisplacement relations which are consistent with the displacement releases. one would work with the primary structure corresponding to Z = 0. we first determine the compatibility equations corresponding to the reduced set of force unknowns. For example. However. Let Z denote the force redundants. This led to the definition of the member flexibility matrix and a set of equations relating the end forces and the end displacements. if there is no restraint against rotation at B. in terms of the end forces at B. MEMBER FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—PARTIAL END RESTRAINT In Sec. using. 15—7. as a primary structure. M8 = 0. there is a reduction in the number of member force unknowns.SEC. suppose we first express the force at a point. we express in terms of the applied external load and the force redundants: = EZ + G (1595) .
Note that one can determine directly by working with the primary system corresponding to Z = 0.536 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. Taking the system due to AZ results in the compatibility equations for Z. and requiring the resulting restraint case. . Substituting for expression to he satisfied for arbitrary AZ.e. as the reduced flexibility matrix since. It should be noted that We suppose Z is of order q x 1. Note that G = 0) due to the applied external if Z contains only end forces at B.Z ( — ) We refer to 1. 15 The elements of G are the end forces at B (for Z loads. Also. Actually. A. It is convenient to work first with the virtual force system due to Equation (b) reduces to T(. This is the normal approach. Now. The approach that we have followed is convenient when the member flexibility matrix is known.fçfl + T(O//. in general. E is i x q Gisi x 1 and (15—96) represents q equations.e. is the flexibility matrix for Z and it is positive definite since E must be of rank q. i. the force systems corresponding to the redundants must be linearly independent. the principle of virtual forces requires 0 + = + TO/fl for any selfequilibrating virtualforce system. there are q force redundants.. q < i. we obtain where (ETIftE)Z + ET( + = = (15—96) are the displacements of the supports at B. i.l = ffl are the initial deformation and flexibility matrices for thefull end using (15—95). For convenience. (F = ([3 x 1) (15—97) With this notation.. we let t be the row order of (and 0?t). we let (q x q) = + rG — (1 1) (15—98 ) and the member forcedeformation relations take the form trZ = — z) Tcjjgn ETJc) n 'A — ' O.
Equation (e) takes the form = = = + — +G + (I.i I + I n' RB L BA 'A = + .. we let = 15—101 We will use (15—100) in Chapter 17 when we develop the formulation for a kr = The force redundants are obtained by inverting (15—99): (15—102) Z= = We defined — — (15103) Substituting for Z. — (15—105) The end forces at A are determined from (a): = — — + — ar" 'BA ( A. we write the relations in the generalized form B. k is singular when q < i. since E is only of rank q. Continuing.Z = Note that.SEC. we summarize the forcedisplacement relations for partial end restraint: Z = member force matrix = EZ + G f. '7 —. — 14' B G=0 member system. 15—12. for complete end restraint.) ETrE (15—100) f. the end forces at B are given by — — +G (e) as the effective member stiffness matrix: = EkYET LET ( 15—104) In general. PARTIAL END RESTRAINT 537 At this point.z = 0 — = reduced flexibility matrix (q x q) — 'I/'' — p .0 iLl Finally. 0.
Fl +G — For this case. W. the corresponding expressions for the complete restraint case. R. M.C. A. WEAVER: Analysis of Framed Structures. S. R. however. REISSNER. Then. PrenticeHall. 1967. 1964. and W. T it Note that premultiplication of by Er eliminates 9". There is no compatibility requirement for the end rotations in this case. The reduced flexibility and stiffness matrices follow from (15—98). which we have defined as does not introduce any member deformation. G = (15—102). RUEINSTRJN. Vol. Eng. the relative rotation at B. and R. 3. W000HEAD: Frame Analysis. Mech.. 2. 15 where (15—107) = k" AA — — ar" BA BA n — BA e T BA Comparing (15—107) with (15—53). F.. the forcedisplacement relations are (see (15—99)): rt. M. EMI. Div. Wiley. Van Nostrand. REFERENCES I.: Gekriimmte dünnwandige Trüger (Curved thinwalled beams). 1968. we see that one has only to replace by in the partitioned forms for and The equation for is different.S. 1965. 0.i it vn. against rotation at B.E. ii — . February 1962.538 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN MEMBER CHAP. the support rotation at B. i. No. GEaR." J. 88. J. 4. Example 15—12 Suppose there is no restraint and generate E. 5.: Matrix Computer Analysis of Structures. 1966. DAEROWSKJ. Berlin. 6.: "Variational Considerations for Elastic Beams and Shells. SpringerVerlag. New York. G with (15—95). . New York. London. Pcrgamon Press.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. due to the presence of the G term. 0. We take Z .e. A. K. — 1 I o Finally. HALL. F. LIVESLEY. = and the effective stiffness matrix follows from (15—104): rc".
539 V. PROBLEMS 15—1. OfiIce of Technical Services. Prob." International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Publications.: Thin Walled Elastic Beams. 17—39. 1961.C. Determine the reaction at B and translation (in the direction of F) at C for the member sketched. bending deformation (i. Washington. 15—2. 15—3 I— Vertical restraint at B . Consider a rectangular cross section and varying linearly with x1. Z.e. U.: 8. Dept. pp. Refer to Example 15—5.S. 15—2 x2 '2 b x3 y3 13 15—3. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. for a typical wideflange section and a square single cell. D. 25. as shown in the sketch. Neglect transverse shear deformation... / Shear center P Prob. Evaluate VB2 /( vB3/ 3E12 I/p j3\ / \3E12J and for a range of 4 and a/b. BAZANT. Determine c. Refer to Example 15—7.PROBLEMS 7. P. terms involving in Equation (e)). of Commerce. Vol. 1965. Zurich. Comment on the relative importance of torsional deformation vs. Distinguish between deep and shallow members. "Nonuniform Torsion of Thinwalled Bars of Variable Section. Z.
when 15—8. 15—10. using (15—77) and (15—79). 14—8 to evaluate defined by (15—69). considering complete fixity at B.540 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. (see Fig.) = Df) D15 S[fl Y12 = DS E3f) Dy2 DS Dy2 neglect secondorder terms. Repeat Prob. 15—9. 15—6. 15 15—4. 15—11. Derive (15—27). —* 0. Verify that (g) reduces to the prismatic solution. Verify (15—90) and (15—91). Discuss how you would apply the numerical integration schemes described in Sec. . Comment on whether one can neglect these terms. Generalize for n segments. Summarize the governing equations for restrained torsion. Verify (15—73) and (15—74). Apply them to Prob. — 15—7. 15—4. Start with the definitions for the strain measures 15—5. Refer to Example 15—11. Solve Prob. 15—11 15—12. and note (15—26). 15—3. 1 5—2). determine an expression for the member flexibility matrix in terms of the segmental flexibility matrices. 15—13. Determine the fixed end forces for the member shown. X2 Prob. (13—57). Evaluate b2 and b3 (see (15—34)) for a symmetrical wideflange section and a symmetrical rectangular closed cell. DR (1 + r. Assuming the flexibility matrices for the segments are known. Utilize symmetry with respect to point C. Specialize the solution (Equations f) for = 1L 1. Consider a member comprising of three segments. 15—3 using (15—84) and (15—87).
Starting with (15—87). b Y2.fl I I P —— — ir/2 c G =R/2 =E/2 x1 15—16. h3 = b3(O).PROBLEMS 541 15—14. . 15—17. For the planar member shown. (b) Evaluate for the loading and geometry shown. Y2 coincides with the normal direction) developed in Sec. determine E and G corresponding to Z = MB M4} Then specialize for rotation releases at A. 15—11: 1)evelop a matrix equation for the displacements at B due to a loading referred to the global frame and applied at flint: See (15—85). develop expressions for the initial deformations due to an aribitrary distributed loading. Determine the reduced member flexibility matrix for no restraint against rotation at an interior point P. 15—15 Y3. B and determine kg. Using the geometric relations and flexibility matrix for a circular helix (constant cross section. Specialize for b3 = constant and verify(15—92). (a) Prob. 15—15.
.
Part IV ANALYSiS OF A MEMBER SYSTEM .
16
Direct Stiffness Method Linear System
1 6—i.
INTRODUCTION
We
consider a system comprised of in members which are connected at j
joints. We suppose the geometry of the assembled system is defined with
respect to a global framet and use a superscript o to indicate quantities referred to the global frame. The external force and displacement matrices for joint k are denoted by
(p0)
(ax!)
(16—1)
(jOt)
(xxi)
(fbi)
where c is the number of translation (force) components, /1 is the number of rotation (moment) components, and i + fi. Note that = 2, /3 = 1 for a
planar system subjected to inplane loading and 1, /3 = 2 for a planar /3 = 3. system subjected to outofplane loading. For an arbitrary system, In what follows, we assume the material is linearly elastic and the geometry is linear, i.e., we neglect the change in geometry due to deformation. The governing equations consist of joint forceequilibrium equations and member forcedisplacement relations. We have already developed the member forcedisplacement relations in Chapter 15, so that it remains only to establish the joint forceequilibrium equations. In this chapter, we apply the direct stiffness method, which consists in assembling the system stiffness and initial force matrices by superimposing the. contribution of each member. the next chapter, we present the general formulation for a linear member system and obtain the equations corresponding to the force and displacement solution by
t By global
frame, we mean a fixed Cartesian frame.
545
546
DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM
CHAP. 16
matrix operations. Finally, in Chapter 18, we extend the direct stiffness method
to include geometrical nonlinearity.
16—2.
MEMBER FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS
In developing the relations between the end forces and end displacements for a member, we considered the member geometry and loading to be referred to a basic member frame (frame n) and used A, B to denote the negative and positive ends of the member. The general relations were written (see (15—107))
as
=
+ +
+ +
Note that (a) also applies when there is only partial end restraint or internal
releases.
Now, we define n_ as the joints at the positive and negative ends of member n. Replacing B by n, n the member frame take the form
=
•
+ +
\T
+ +
where
—
'
We transform the force and displacement quantities from the member frame to the global frame for the system by applying
= =
(16—2)
to (b). This step is necessary since we are working with joint forces and displacements referred to the global frame. The final expressions arc:
= =
+ +
+ +
(16—3)
where the global member stiffness and initial force matrices are generated with
k
—
TI
n
rzou
16—4
=
Once the displacements are known, we evaluate using (16—3) and then transform to the member frame. Since the initial end force and stiffness matrices are generated in partitioned form, it is natural to express (16—4) in partitioned form. Using the notation
SEC. 16—3.
SYSTEM EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS
547
introduced in Section 1 5—8, we write
(o
plion
=
=
ip
t.MoJ
(flxl)
(16—5)
(Sxo)
()O,22
Expanding (16—4) leads to
on
o
12 —
—
on,T
fi
n
00. 12
21
on on —
on
P
k
1
21 =
0
on, Ti n
ii
11
o,T ( )( ), 12
—
L
(16—6)
"(')(),22
— Don,
t 0,1
= depends on is a natural property of the member whereas Note that the orientation of the member frame with respect to the global frame. The
operations defined by (166) can be considered as the element matrix generation phase. The member forcedisplacement relations satisfy the equilibrium conditions
for the member and compatibility between the restrained end displacements and the corresponding joint displacements. Actually, the equilibrium condi= tions were used to determine Compatibility is satisfied by setting = When there is only partial restraint at an end, there will and be displacement discontinuities. For example, if there is a rotation release at the positive end, will not be equal to the end rotation matrix. We have treated'r partial end restraint by defining an effective member stiffness matrix k0. In the derivation of k0, we consider °1IA to be the displacements of the supports (i.e., the joints) and enforce continuity of only the restrained end
displacements.
16—3.
SYSTEM EQIJILIBRIIJM EQUATIONS
The equilibrium equations for joint k arc obtained by summing the end
forces for the members incident on k:
t See Sec. 16—12.
548
DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM
CHAP. 16
depends on and the displacements of those joints which are In general, connected to joint k. We define as the total (or system) external joint force and joint displacement matrices:
=
(if x 1) (if <
16—7
and write the complete set of if joint forceequilibrium equations as
=
where
91'o
+
(168)
contains the joint forces required to equilibrate the initial end forces We have dropped the reference frame superscript for convenience. The most efficient way to assemble and is to work with submatrices of order 1, the natural partition size, and superimpose the contributions of each member which follow directly from (16—3). This operation requires no matrix multiplications. The terms due to member n are listed below.
In
(Partitioned Form Is] x 1):
in row n÷ in row
(16—9)
111 X (Partitioned Form Isj x
in row column n+ column n_ in row in row n_, column
oT
1
inrown...,columnn_
Since
16—4.
is
symmetrical, only the upper or lower half has to be stored.
INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS
In this section, we extend the procedure described in Sec. 8—3 for introducing
joint translation restraints in the formulation for an ideal truss to an arbitrary member system. Actually, only the notation for the joint force and joint displacement matrices has to be changed. The governing equations are:
=
—
=
1
1
=
+
=
(16—11)
+
The stiffness and initial force matrices are assembled using (16—9) and (16—10). It remains to introduce the prescribed external forces and displaceis prescribed, and we just add ment restraints. If joint q is unrestrained,
SEC. 16—4.
INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS
549
is unknown. We replace q is completely restrained, to — the matrix equation for with the matrix identity,
Finally, ifjoint q is partially restrained, some of the elements in 19q are unknown.
In this case, we replace the scalar equations for the unknown reactions by
scalar identities.
We suppose joint q is partially restrained and, for generality, consider the translation and rotation restraint directions to he arbitrarily orientated with respect to the basic frame. We define X'1, .. , as the orthogonal directions
.
for the translational restraint frame and
as the orthogonal directions
for the rotational restraint frame. Quantities referred to the restraint frames are indicated with primes and a single superscript is used for the total matrix:
=
(flxj)
(16—12)
L°"i
Now,
P, = q
T" —
/3
(16—13
q
We define 9/°" as the total rotation transformation matrix:
0
1
I
=
I
(16—14)
L0
With this notation, the transformation laws take the form
9/oqçpr
(
16—15 )
in
PPO
The modification requires two operations. First, we transform (16—11) to This is accomplished by premultiplying row q of
with
and postmultiplying column q of with 9/°" In the second step, we replace the equations corresponding to the unknown elements in with identities. This operation can also be represented in matrix form. Suppose the rth element in is prescribed. We assemble four matrices, Eq, and as follows:
1.
EqandGq
We start with and set
E=I,
G=O,
+1
550
DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOID—.LtNEAR SYSTEM
CHAP. 16
2.
We start with an ithorder column matrix having zero elements and set the element in row r equal to the prescribed displacement.
We
start with an ithorder column matrix having zero elements and enter
the values of the prescribed forces and moments referred to the restraint frames. Note that element r is zero. Premultiplying transformed row q of 3r, t?P0 with Eq reduces the rth equation to 0 = 0. Then, adding Gq to Eqirqq and to — + q introduces the identity for the rth element and includes the prescribed external forces We also operate on the qth column of in to preserve syrnnwtry and include the terms due to prescribed displacements in The complete set of operations for joint q are listed below:
1.
€=1,2,...,q—l
T)a/e;
T)F
2.
9N, q
q
+
T)Eq + Gq
+
=
3.
(l616)
€=q+i,q+2,...,j
= =
—
The operations defined by (16—16) are carried out for each joint, working with successive joint members. We represent the modified equations as
=
(16—17)
The superscript J is placed on % to indicate that the joint displacement matrices are referred to the local joint restraint frames, which may not coincide with the global frame. Again we point out that the primary advantage of this modifica
tion procedure is that no row or column rearrangement is required. Solving (16—17) yields the joint displacements (local restraint frame) listed in their natural order, i.e., according to increasing joint number. The modified stiffness
matrix,
will be positive definite when the system is stable.
Once QgJ is known, we transform the displacements from the restraint frames
to the global frame, using (16—15), and evaluate the member end forces from (16—3). Next, we the total external force matrix, The contribution
SEC. 16—4.
INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS
is
551
of member n
in row fl...
(16—IS)
Finally, we transform the external joint forces from the global frame to the local restraint frames. This step determines the reactions and also provides a statics check on the solution.
Example
Suppose
16—1
joint q is completely restrained. Then, "li
and
= 0.. The forms
for E, G are
EqOi
and (16—16) reduces to
Gqlj
,t,.
q
1.
€=L2,...,q—l
— —
2.
3.
j
Oi
=
Example 16—2
Suppose
matrix and external moment matrix this case are
joint q is completely restrained against translation. Then, the translation are prescribed. The appropriate matrices for
r0
=
01
Gg
r1
=
}
=
Example 16—3
We consider the case where joint q is restrained with respect to translation in one direc
tion and there is no restraint against rotation. This corresponds to a "roller" support. We take to coincide with the restraint direction and X'2, as mutually orthogonal directions comprising a righthanded system. The translation, is prescribed. The
prescribed forces are P52, and
552
DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM
CHAP. 16
We first assemble
From (16—14),
=
where
rRoa'
I
[
r,s
13
=
1,2,3
=
The forms of E, G,
and
are
0
=
=
We specialize the results for a planar system subjected to planar loading. In order for only planar deformation to occur, the translation restraint direction must lie in the plane plane. It is convenient to select the orientation of the system, which we take as the of X'2 such that X3 coincides with X",. 'Ihe specialized forms are
=
= [S,.,]
0
Eq
r,s =
1,2
1
(d)
=
Gq
= H
0
Finally, we consider the case of a planar system subjected to an outofplane loading. direction in order for only The translational restraint direction must be parallel to the and arc prescribed. The outofplane deformation to occur. For this case, specialized forms are
Eq Cq
=
qe;
=
=
Note that (e) is obtained by settinge =
1,
=
=
2
in (a) of Example 16—2.
REFEREt'JCES
REFERENCES
1.
R. K.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis, Pergamon Press, London,
1964.
2.
3.
MARTIN, H. C.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of StructuralAnalysis, McGrawHill, New York, 1965. RUBINSTEIN, M. F.: Matrix computer Analysis of Structures, PrenticeHall, New York, 1966.
4.
Gere, I. M. and W. Weaver: Analysis of Framed Structures, Van Nostrand, New
York, 1965.
17
General Formulation Linear System
171.
INTRODUCTION
We consider a system comprising m linear elastic members interconnected at j joints. We suppose there are i degrees of freedom per joint (i.e., the joint displacement and force matrices are of order i x 1) and the geometry and joint quantities are referred to a global frame. Also, we neglect geometry change due to deformation. In the previous chapter, we applied the direct stillness method, which is actually a displacement method, to this system. Now, in this chapter, we first develop the governing matrix equations and then deduce the equations corresponding to the force and displacement solution procedures.
We also establish variational principles for the force and displacement methods. Finally, we discuss how one can introduce member deformation constraints in the displacement method. Since the basic steps involved in the member system formulation are the same as for the ideal truss formulation, we recommend that
the reader review Chapters 6 through 9 before starting this chapter. Let r be the number of prescribed joint displacements. Then, the total number is of joint displacement unknowns,
na = if
—
r
(17—1)
The total number of force unknowns, flf, is equal to r (the reactions corresponding to the prescribed displacements) plus qT, the total number of member
force unknowns:
nf=?+qT=r+(qj +q2+ '.. +qm)
where
(17—2)
represents the number of force unknowns for member n. By definition, is equal to the number of force quantities that have to be specified in order to be able to determine the total internal force matrix at an arbitrary point. If the member is fully restrained at each end, q1, = i. For partial restraint, q,, is equal to i minus the number of independent force releases. Note that when the member is pinned at both ends, = 1 since there are only five independent moment releases.
554
SEC. 17—2.
MEMBER EQUATIONS
555
There are qT equations relating the member forces and the joint displacements.
Also, there are ij equilibrium equations relating the external joint forces and the member forces. The formulation is consistent, i.e., the number of equations
is equal to the number of unknowns. If flf if, the system is said to be statically determinate since the force unknowns can be determined using only the equi
librium equations. The difference, flf — ii, is generally called the degree of static indeterminacy, and represents the order of the final system of equations for the force method. For the displacement method, the final system ofequations arc of order In what follows, we first establish the member force—joint displacement relations by generalizing the results of Sec. 15—12. Then, we assemble the joint forceequilibrium equations. Finally, we introduce the joint displacement restraints.
17—2.
MEMBER EQUATIONS
The reduced member equations were developed in Sec. 15—12. For convenience, we summarize the notation and equations below (see (15—100)):
Z=
member force matrix (q, x 1)
(ixi)
—
f"
member flexibility matrix (i x i) = ETfnE reduced member flexibility matrix (q,, x f, — = member deformation matrix (i x i) = + f"G = initial member deformation matrix (i x i) = = — )
These equations include the effect of partial end restraint, internal force releases,
and reductions due to symmetry or antisymmetry. We can also use (a) for complete end restraint by setting F = and G = 0. Now, we introduce new notation which is more convenient. First, we note that G contains the end forces at B due to the external member loads acting are the on the primary structure defined by Z = 0. Also, — —
end forces at A. Then we write
=G
—
(17—3)
is a compatibility Next, we note that the equation relating Z and K", requirement. The term fZ + ETeC?OZ is the relative deformation in the positive
sense of Z due to the member loads and the member redundants, Z, whereas is the relative deformation in the negative sense of Z due to support (joint) movement. The net relative deformation must be zero for continuity.
10—2. 2C.o (175) — + frZ = We generalize the relations for member n by setting B—n÷ A=n_ E=E.556 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.. using = The final equations follow.t n+ — ( 17— ) 8 The force translation transformation matrix. n (176) = fr. . we define = reduced member deformation matrix (q. i. it transforms according tot q and it T T t See Sec. Member Forces—End Forces = = TE)Z + + 17 7 Member Forces—Joint Displacements (q.. = Since Z=Z. x 1) = = — reduced initial member deformation matrix x 1) = ETI/'O z = + f"G) With this notation. .e. the joint quantities are referred to the global frame.. is a secondorder tensor.. we must transform the end forces and displacements from the member frame (frame n) to the global frame (frame o). "r. the member equations take the form — B 17—4 R. 17 Then.
m} = total reduced initial member deformation matrix (q. 2 x Note that f is quasidiagonal. With this forcedeformation relations are given by notation. Z..SEC. we can express and 'r. 1  (1716) . 17—3. . — — as. SYSTEM FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONS forcedeformation relations for member n. . + fZ (17—13) It remains to generalize the deformationdisplacement relations. . = since it is a natural property of the member whereas We prefer to work with depends on the selection of the global frame. mJ '17—12 f total reduced member flexibility matrix fr.. . (17—14) = The partitioned form is (17—15) d12 . 17—3. symmetrical. .. . TF)Z . and positive definite. x 1) x 1) = total reduced member deformation matrix = 2 1... x 1) — I ro. we can express the member forcedeformation relations as a single matrix complete set of equation. ro. the V = V.. Z2. .} . (ij x 1) = and express 'V as °/4. We define as the total joint displacement matrix referred to the global frame. . SYSTEM FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATtONS 557 Using (17—JO). We let Z total member force matrix = {Z1. Equation (17—8) represents the By defining general flexibility and deformation matrices.
411. in It is of interest to express si in factored form. 17 Row n of d corresponds to member n... we define the following matrices: (inz x 1) 411 = _. The assembly of d is defined by d = sins = 0 S 17 17 fl_ 1.. . First. The submatrices in row n are of order x i. ii = 2. 411_ to ET9II(Q71+ — T411) (a) the positive using memberjoint connectivity matrices for and negative (C_) ends: 411÷ C÷% 17 .558 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. we relate 411÷..the expression for "V takes the form = = Next. we see from (17—8) that there are only two nonzero elements in row n and they are at columns n_. . .. Now..19 ._ } (im x 1) (mi x un) E= E Em (im x q1) ([7—18) (zinxirn) (un x im) Using this notation. . .
For row n.SEC. p1. as the total external joint force matrix referred to the global We define frame: (17—22) = 1) and as the initial (Z = 0) joint force matrix: (ijx j) = 1' 2 (17—23) The elements of members with Z 0. are the joint forces due to external forces acting on the We express the complete set of equations as + Z1 . (17—21). and a total of if equations. — contains the direction cosines for the bars.equilihrium equations involves only summing at each joint the end forces incident on the joint. SYSTEM EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS We have used the member forceequilibrium equations in developing the member forcedisplacement relations. 17—4. SYSTEM EQU)L)BRIUM EQUATIONS — 559 Note that rows a of C ÷. we enter n in column n÷ of of C_. so it remains only to satisfy equilibrium of the joints. There is only one nonzero element in a row. The expressions for the end forces in terms of the member forces are given by (17—7). There arc i equations for each joint. Assembling the joint force. = = — For an ideal truss. C correspond to member a. The contribution of member a follows from (17—7): in row .reduces to (see Equation 6—28) = where 17—4. combining (a) and (17—19).1 P1 = + I Z2 Zm (1724) We assemble and working with successive members. Finally. we have and column = and it follows that — 17 20 d.
we see that = We let —— (17—27) 1' 1. We use B. Comparing (17—26) with (17—17). we suppose r joint displacements are prescribed. GOVERNING EQUATIONS The governing equations for the unrestrained system are (1730) Now. we can express as (17—28) = 17—5.O (17—29) INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS. We also rearrange + so U = P cu1) (U2) (rxl) (17—31) —* = Pf (r x where U2. = Then. + C!1. 17 Column n TE n_n — — — Tdyn p171sn = = TE (17—26) 0 S s= fl+. We rearrange and that the prescribed displacements arc last.. P1. 2.. A to represent the rearranged forms d: (qr I x r) B= [liii [ _J A2] = [An [ A2 (17—32) j fr'qr) . and P1 are prescribed.GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.
If the restraints are parallel to the directions of the global frame.) (17—33) (17—34) 17 35  The unknowns are the displacements (U1). (17—39) and H is the row permutation matrix.SEC. = .e. and the r reactions (P2). A1U1 + A2U2 member forces (Z). we write the equations for the restrai. using A O/Iq = This step involves postmultiplying column q of d by T (17—36) row q of by and premultiplying We write the transformed equations as = J)1 + 4L + fZ = (1737) where the superscript J indicates that joint forces and displacements are referred to local restraint frames. The final equations are obtained by permuting the the rows of and then partitioning. (17—40) Then. = DTU P= ... JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS 561 Finally. D is an orthogonal matrix.) (r eqs. columns of d2 (rows of The transformation of a71 to U can be expressed as a matrix product. U = DQ/ = where (17—38) contains the rotation matrices for the joint restraint frames. Now. 2 + = fZ + 1/. We first transform the force and dis d placement matrices for joint q from the global frame to the restraint frame... with the prescribed displacements last. 17—5. i. the (na eqs. One can generate H by starting with I and permuting the rows according to the new listing of the joint displacements.ied system as Pi = + B1Z P1 + AfZ P2 = 2 + B2Z P1. the transformation of d to A (or to B) involve only a permutation of the columns of (rows The same permutation is applied to the rows Suppose joint q is partially restrained and the restraint directions do not coincide with the global frame directions.
(17—25). (r (17—42) A1 = A2 = P1 = 2 = 1 = BT = Bf (1743) To determine the requirement for initial stability. we can write [D 1 LD2J (n x (j) . For the equations to he consistent for an arbitrary loading.562 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.. — A = B (17—41) AT = The partitioned forms are obtained by partitioning D: D= Finally. we develop the stability criteria for a geometrically nonlinear system subjected to a finite loading.. 17 and it follows that P. we can express d in terms of only one . NETWORK FORMULATION In the formulation presented in the previous articles. the stability requirement for the system is r(B1) = . which represents nj equations in unknowns. In the next chapter. 9PI.(A1) = (17—44) Since B1 is of order x a necessary hut not sufficient condition for stability (17—45) Equation (17—44) is the stability requirement for a geometrically linear system. wc consider (17—33). using(17—17). which we list below for convenience: = where + — Tc) + = One assembles d. B1Z = P2 . It is also the initial stability requirement for a geometrically nonlinear system. The governing equations are given by (17—30). 17—6. Therefore. we worked with the actual joint displacements and external joint forces referred to the global frame. the rank of 'B1 must equal n. By introducing new joint variables. which are actually the expansions of(b)..
We let 'Wy = {0/t°y. (1746) = displacement at Y due to rigid body motion about joint k. = (17—48) using (17—47). The rule (17—17) for assembling d still applies except that now Let Y denote some arbitrary point. C... and noting that The remaining steps are the same as followed previously. The actual and equivalent quantities are related by — Y. We define = statically equivalent force at Y due to the actual force matrix at joint k. 17—6. but it is more convenient to start with (17—11): 'Kr. — = Substituting for we obtain 'Kr. = = S 0 = (q. For now n. by definition.. Suppose we express the actual force and connectivity matrix. NETWORK FORMULATION 563 C. k r)r° kY k (17—47) k where 0 kY = I" — 0 Xy2. 1.4 — displacement matrices for joint k in terms of their equivalents at point Y. 0 — Xy1 0 — 4i) plane (1748) t planar We could operate on (b)..SEC. = Now. 'Wy 2 (17—49) (17—50) and write 'K = The generation of follows from (17—48). 2 j . x 1) (17—51) s= 1.
.. 2) have also presented a network formulation for a rigid jointed member system. C_) = as (17—53) We transform the joint forces.YI = The expression for reduces to (1753) when (d) and (c) are introduced.ioned. This advantage is trivial compared to the additional operations required . Fenves and Branin's primary objective was to show that the governing equations for a member system can be cast in a form such that geometrical and topological effects are separated. to to generate to once the solution is obtained. Note .564 GENERAL FORMULATION—UNEAR SYSTEM CHAP. DiMaggio and Spillars (Ref. It is not.. we let 1+Y = + Y (irn x irn) (17—52) Then. to introduce the displacement restraints. i.e. The only operational advantage of not working with the actual joint quantities is in the generation øf d. Actually their formulation is a special case of our first formulation. strictly speaking.m÷ and d.. The only way that one can separate connectivity from geometry is to redefine the joint variables. using (17—47). and write the resulting equations = = + + fZ = (1754) To relate corresponding terms in (a) and (17—54'). Another serious disadvantage transform is that the equations tend to become illcondii.. A simplified version which does not allow for member force releases has been presented by Fenves and Branin (see Ref. a network formulation. 17 To express in factored form. we generalize (17—47): (17—55) = • (if x i/) jY It follows that — . r (17—56) g. a true network formulation since connectivity is not completely separated from geometry (see (17—21)).. The formulation developed above can be interpreted as a network formulation since the connectivity term appears seperately in the factored form of d. and finally. 1).
Z = Z1 + kA1UE + kA2U2 where 1757) = initial member force matrix (q1 x 1) = k= (17—58) = reduced member stiffness matrix x Note that k is quasidiagonal. DISPLACEMENT METHOD The governing equations are given by (17—33).SEC. Z1. it f See Sec. Whether one interprets the governing equations for a member system from a network viewpoint is of academic interest only. . In the displacement method. the equations reduce to the equations for the direct stiffness method. provided that there are no member force releases or partial joint restraints. We substitute for Z in (17—33) and write the result as = where P0 + + K12U2 (nd x lid) (17—59) = K12 = ATkA2 = + x r) (lid X 1) (17—60) The elements of P0 are the joint forces due to the initial end forces. we can find the reactions from (17—34). the selection of a primary structure for a rigidjointed frame having fixed supports is quite simple. 17—7. 9—5. There one can use certain concepts of the mesh methodt to select a primary structure. Since A1 is of rank (when the system is stable) and k is positive definite. we start by solving (17—35) for Z in ternis of the displacements. and even this advantage is debatable. The matrix. See Prob. The only possible advantage of the network interpretation is in the force method. 2—18. However. 17—7. Connectivity and geometry are naturally uncoupled for this system. and positive definite. symmetrical. (17—34). contains the initial member forces due to external loads acting on the members and initial deformation resulting from fabrication errors or temperature changes. Now. and (17—35). Once the member forces are known. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 565 that the ideal truss is an exception.
and (17—il). By first manipulating the unrestrained equations and then introducing the displacement restraints. Operating on (17—30). the expression for takes the form = where — = Finally. reduces to First.. we review the definitions of the member stiffness matrices. (16—10) when we introduce the factored forms of d. 17 that K1. + TE)( — kr. are taken into account. one can avoid any matrix multiplication. n) t See Eqs. . we obtain Z = Z1 + kd°ll (1761) (17—62) and = = + c/TZ + + Equation (17—62) is identical to (16—8). n'17ro. Z1. This procedure corresponds to the direct stiffness method. is not efficient since the various coefficient matrices must be generated by matrix multiplication. we expand (d): (17—63) = + + T)C + — One can easily show that (17—64) reduces to (16—10) when the properties of C. jfK1 is not positive definite.1 is positive definite. Operating on the restrained equations. The initial end actions for member n = T. (17—8). substituting for d using (17—21).H = and L0 ..107) reads to ke.n T n e.566 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP..fl Now. n) TEn(_kr. the system is unstable. (17—7). The of (16—9).. The joint displacements are determined by solving (17—59) and the member forces are obtained by back substitution in (17—57)._1O fl+n+ — e. . Conversely. The effective member stiffness matrix (see (16—104)) has been defined as k to the global frame and applying (16. as we have done above.
equations in Equation (a) represents The system is statically determinate when n4.) (b) (c) unknowns where Also. In Sec. i. (fld eqs.e. = is positive definite when K11 is positive definite. we presented a procedure for introducing joint displacement restraints and represented the modified equations as = (ii eqs.) (r eqs. when It follows that the system is stable. i. FORCE METHOD We start with the governing equations for the restrained system: B1Z = P1 P1. the expression for + takes the = + The general form — (17—65) defined according to (16—9) is = + (17—66) Substituting (e) in (17—65) results in (17—66).. We let B1 is of rank be the degree of static indeterminacy.e. 17—8.) (a) BfU1 + = = 'V0 + fZ 2 + 82Z (qr eqs. FORCE METHOD 567 Using the factored forms for form d. This operation can be represented in terms of the permutation matrix. defined by u=[IdllJ = HTP Then.SEC. and 4. 17—8.) Now. 11. (f) consists of (17—59) plus r relations for the prescribed displacements.. We obtain (f) by starting with [0 = IrJ L U2 and permuting the rows and columns. the number of member force redundants: (17—67) = — . 16—4.
) z Note that the member forces due to B1Z = 0. In the next section.) The equilibrium equations take the form = P1 — P1.e. Finally.) (ZR) 1) (17—68) The elements of ZR are the force redundants for the system.) B1 =[ (r 0 BIR "d> 17 — B2 (i 69 (r °qo. If the system is initially stable. 17 we can solve (a) for member forces in terms of the net prescribed joint forces (P1 — P1 i) and r member forces. The compatibility Since B1 is of rank equations for the member force redundants are obtained by eliminating U1 from (b).2 + We write the solution of (17—70) as ZP BIRZR + B2RZR (17—70) (17—71) + KZR (17—72) The force influence matrices can be expressed as ("a 1) Zr. P2. We refer to the system obtained by setting ZR = 0 as the primary system.568 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. We partition Z after row Z 1) 1z. We suppose the first 0d columns of B1 are linearly independent. 9—2. = (B1pY'(P1 — ZPR = but it is not necessary to determine Actually. they satisfy in the expression for P2 and write the P2 = t See Sec.. This is possible since (b) represents qT equations whereas U1 is only x 1.. we partition B1 and B2 consistent with (17—68): (fld 0 qj) x fld) ("s 'Jo.. we specialize the principle of virtual forces of order for a member system and utilize it to establish the compatibility equations. i. we substitute for result as (1774) are selfequilibrating.( The complete solution for is xqo. the solution procedure can be completely automated. the member force matrix Z can always be rearranged so that this condition is satisfied. Continuing.0 + P2 RZR (17—75) .
Equation (b) represents qr equations in unknowns. Eliminating U1 from (d) leads to RU2 I/R + ZP + + fftftZft ± + + fpftZR) 17—78 Equation (17—78) represents the compatibility equations for the force redun dants.e' 2 1 1 1 *ftftJ o. ftU2 — + p + These equations are similar in form to the corresponding equations for the ideal truss developed in Sec. f is positive definite for a deformable system. Then. Finally. R'PP'—P. Since + = qft.SEC.J( + + + fRRZR (fld eqs. + = + = 1'O. can be expressed as = — lil [Zp [ZP ft 'RRJ J [zp. there are excess equations. 17—8.R1 (17—81) j j Now.R) L PR V R) and obtain the following two sets of equations relating to U1 and ZR: + L"2RJ — + ft BfPU1 + 'V'p BfftU. 9—2. the remaining steps are straightforward. FORCE METHOD 569 where (rXI) = (r X P1. We generate A. rDT 1 1 rDT 1 I. and then determine . ft — 'RR 7T c o) — A = P2. solve for Zft. The flexibility matrix. we substitute for equations as where >< qg) using (17—72) and write the resulting (17—79) 17T — fZRZR = A —f 7T 4• 7 1q'. U1. it follows that fzR is also positive definite.0 B2R + B2pZp.2 + J37PZP.R1T f[ZP. Once the preliminary force analyses have been carried out. we consider the case where certain member deformations may be prescribed. We partition (b) consistent with the partioning of Z.) (17—77) (d) The joint displacements can he determined from (17—77) once Zft is known.) eqs. In a later article.ft '17—76) It remains to determine Zft. fzR.
If the displacements are also desired. Now. In the displacement method. in this section. We start with the forceequilibrium equations. Another disadvantage of the force method is that the compatibility equations tend to he illconditioned unless one is careful in selecting force redundants. If we consider U. using — "1/'. The force method can be completely automated. We refer to (17—83) as the principle of virtual displacements for a member system.570 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. they can be determined by solving (17—77).1 + AfZ = P1. but not as conveniently as the direct stiffness method. we consider the deformationdisplacement relation. V = V(U). we substitute for Z in the joint forceequilibrium equations. + ATZ The partitioned form is = P. (17—35). to be prescribed..K (1783) be satisfied for arbitrary AU is equivalent to (a).t P = P.) Z= = (AU — form of (17—83) suggests that we define a scalar quantity.2 + To interpret (a) as a stationary rcquircment. we developed variational principles for the displacement and force formulations for an ideal truss. However. the requirement that PTAU = + ZTd.. Also. The extension is quite straightforward since the governing equations are almost identical in form. (17—34). The final number of equations for the force method is usually smaller than for the displacement method VS.. automating the preliminary force analyses requires solving an additional set of nd equations. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES In Chapter 7. the force method requires considerably more operations to generate the equations. lid). 17 Zr. we develop the corresponding variational principles for a member system. "K = AU = A1U1+ A2U2 The first differential of "K due to an increment in U is d"K = A AU = A1 AU1 + A2 AU. P2 by back substitution. . having the property dV = = dV(U) (17—84) The t We work with the governing equations for the restrained system. See (17—33). (17—83) results in only (b). 17—9. (1782) Then.
17—9. are the unpartitioned joint forceequilibrium equations expressed in terms of U. By definition. = where V + 1U1 — (17—88) V= form + A202 — i2rr — /tITTIATI A \AIT — 1) + A202 — (17—89) The Euler equation for (17—88) is (17—59).e. and P2 are variables. APTU = (1792) Note that (17—92) is valid only for a statically permissible virtualforce system.. as V+ — PTU (1786) The Euler equations for H. one which satisfies (17—91). We consider next the forcemethod formulation. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES 571 One can interpret V as the strain energy function for the members. we can state that the displacements defining the equilibrium position correspond to a minimum value of defined by (17—88) or (17—87). by writing (17—86) as H. we set U2 = 02 in (17—87). Finally. we introduce the joint displacement constraint condition. U2 =02.. and the second differential has the '4 = AUrK11 AU1 (17—90) Since K11 is positive definite. The Euler equations for (17—87) are the partitioned equilibrium equations (Equations (h). = V + 1U1 + — — — U2) (1787) where U1. V ôan be expressed as 17 85 — Continuing. 17—7. (c)) expressed in terms of the displacements with U2 set equal to 02.. AZ be a statically permissible virtualforce system. U2. they are the governing equations for the displacement formulation presented in Sec. We let AP.e. For the V= = — — linear case..SEC. If only the equations for P1 are desired. The compatibility equations follow directly from the principle of virtual forces by requiring the virtualforce system to be selfequilibrating. we define the potential energy function. If AZ satisfies  then (1792) reduces to AP1 = B1 AZ = 0 (1793) (1794) = . i. = ATAZ = BAZ (1791) Premultiplying both sides of (d) with AZT and introducing (17—91) leads to the principle of virtual forces. i.
P2 as Z = + P20 + P2RZR This representation satisfies (g) and (h) identically for arbitrary AZR. and = 4ZTfZ + ZT. (17—94). P2: = = — + B2Z The constraint conditions are the joint forceequilibrium equations. and noting that P. Operating on (g). Sub stituting for Z. and the second differential has the form = AZR (17—100) . lead to the constraint conditions on the force variations B1 AZ = AP2 = selfequilibrating. V's' = V*(Z). we obtain = — + ZR + ZR] (1799) 2. RU2 + const The Euler equations for (17—99) are (17—79). we expressed Z. as (17—97) = — (17—93) The deformation compatibility equations. 2 are prescribed. such that dV* = (17—96) For the linear case.572 GENERAL FORMULATION—LiNEAR SYSTEM CHAP. can he interpreted as the stationary requirement for 11.Rl = A ZR (1795) AP2 = We define the member complementary energy function. subject to the following constraints on Z. The formulation presented in the previous section corresponds to taking AZ [ZP. P2 in (1798) and expanding V* using (1797).K0 We also define the total complementary energy function. 0 B2 AZ Note that (h) require the virtualforce system to be statically permissible and In the previous section. 17 This result is valid for an arbitrary selfequilibrating virtualforce system.
MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 573 is positive definite. This principle is a specialized form of Rcissner's principle. i. One can easily show that the stationary requirement for rIR = ZT(8TU1 + T — — Pfu1 — ( IT 1 IT 7—10 considering Z. . and the forcedisplacement relations (see (17—5)) degenerate to (b) See (16—75). for example.SEC. U1. we discuss the case where neglecting member deformation parameters causes the mmher flexibility matrix t. and P2 as variables. as defined by (17—98). Z k(BfU1 + — = and noting that. it follows that the true forces. if axial extension is to be neglected. correspond to a minimum value Since of Instead of developing separate principles for the displacements and force redundants. 17—10. This happens. = 0.. For example. we set g Now. For complete rigidity. 17—10. we set 1/AE = 0. The rigidity assumption is introduced by setting the corresponding deformation parameters equal to zero in the local flexibility matrix. to be singular. — ZT(BTIJ1 ± reduces 11a to —11. when axial extension is neglected for a straight member..e. The rank is decreasedt by I and the axial forcedeformation relation degenerates to = where — = v. Note that now the axial force has to be determined from the equilibrium equations. — V" = y Introducing the joint forceequilibrium equations as constraint conditions INTRODUCTION OF MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS Suppose a member is assumed to he either completely or partially restrained with respect to deformation due to force. by definition. lead to the partitioned joint forceequilibrium equations and the member forcejoint displacement relations. we could have started with a general variational principle whose Euler equations are the complete set of governing equations. For rigidity. g. +  (a) is the initial axial deformation due to temperature and fabrication error. U2. the forces that satisfy compatibility as well as equilibrium. in what follows. We obtain (17—87) from (17—101) by introducing the forcedisplacement relations as a constraint condition on Z.
(b) as either member deformation constraints or as con straint conditions on the joint displacements. 4 as the redundants: cF1) (F2J IF3 ff4 Then.) = "Zr L — C. f is of rank order to solve (c). We consider first the force method. k does not exist and. i. Suppose these are c deformation constraints. Example 17—1 Consider the ideal truss shown. qT 4 q4 = 2 We take the forces in bars 3. Since f is singular. there must be at least unconstrained member deformations. Aside from insuring that the flexibility matrix is of rank there is no difliculty involved in introducing member deformation constraints in the force formulation. we cannot invert the complete set of forcedisplacement . Then. therefore. The governing equations are given by fZrZR = A where (qR eqs.. However. 3 or 2. 17 One can interpret (a). We consider next the displacement formulation. we cannot specify that bars 1. This condition is necessary but not sufficient as we will illustrate below.574 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. two bars are rigid.e. 4 are rigid. In general. must be nonsingular. the decrease in rank of the system flexibility matrix f is equal to the number of constraint conditions. at most. ri Zr5[0 and 0 1 1 1 0 01 0 = We can specify that. it must be of rank requires qT — C In This (17—402) That is. No difficulty is encountered if only one bar is rigid. For this system.
We partition '/7' and Z as follows: = where (cx1) z = 1 (17—103) contains the constrained member deformations and Z. u to indicate quantities associated with the constrained and unconstrained deformations. we partition A1 (qr A (cx I'd) — 'ia) (cxr) •) (17—104) (qr—e)xi  (qT xl) 05 (cx I) f = fT = 0 (cxc) .e.) + fZ = A1U1 + A2U2 (qT eqs. We then show how the equations can be deduced from the variational principle for displacements. the corresponding member forces. we suppose there are c deformation constraints and the elements of are listed such that the last c elements are the prescribed deformations. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 575 Fig.. In what follows. (17—57) are not applicable. The governing equations are P1 = P1 1 + AfZ eqs.SEC. i.) Now. we first develop the appropriate equations by manipulating the original set of governing equations. Continuing. We use subscripts c. 17—10. E17—1 0 0 relations.
Note that.. the coefficient matrix. U1. The rank of A1.02 (17—105) (17106) (17—107) Equation (17—107) represents c constraint conditions on the unknown joint displacements. Using this notation. The constraint equations arc (we take — = {e1. the governing equations take the form P1 = = + AfCZC + + = + A2aU2 = A1. there must be no coupling between and i.02 — (17—ill) where 4 represents the new force variable and is an arbitrary symmetrical . f must have the form shown above. in order for f to be singular.. we can transform (17—109) such that the coefficient matrix is always nonsingular. we cannot find the forces in bars 1. is equal to the number of independent constraint equations. This is permissible since is nonsingular. e1}) — U21 = = —u11 + e3 = For (a) to be consistent. we must have er..576 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.02 (17—110) Now. + e30 = + U41 Even if(b) is satisfied. 3 are rigid for the system considered in Example 17—I. =4+ =4+ — + A2. We solve (17—106) for 4 and substitute in (17—105). The resulting equations are 4= = and + — — — (17—108) — + AfCZC = P1 — (17—109) A1. 17 The deformation constraints are introduced by setting = 0. we assume A1. 3 due to Pi 1. In what follows. Suppose we write Z. Example 17—2 Suppose we specify that bars 1.U1 = A2. is of rank c.e.U1 + A2. By suitably redefining 4. is nonsingular only when the structure obtained by deleting the restraint forces (4) is stable. One can easily demonstrate that c independent constraint conditions are required in order to be able to analyze the system for an arbitrary loading.
we can write (a) as Pi + ATk'(A2tY2 — + (Afk'A1)U1 + Using the notation introduction in Sec. It is only necessary to specify the locations of the constraint forces (elements of in.. . can be listed arbitrarily.1 + T + By defining [k. 1 ([A1. / (O/g° '. 17—10. 1/v. ro. have the same form as the The expressions for Z and unconstrained expressions (17—57) and (17—59). A2. for arbitrary k'. One can work with the natural member force listing. Z. we can determine the force matrix for member n by first evaluating (see (17—8) and (17—11)) Z =k'r. it follows that K1 is positive definite. We obtain K11 and Fl1 by first generating using the direct stiffness method and then deleting the rows and columns corresponding to the prescribed displacements.} and take arbitrary values for the member deformation parameters that are to be negelected. — fl r. Also. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 577 positive definite matrix of order c. 17—7 (see (17—60)). with Z. The constrained deformations. ATk'A. . Now. we let Kr. it is not necessary to rearrange Z such that the constraint forces arc last.j — n n — " n+ .. Once the ments and constraint forces are known.. . . = = (17—113) ± Finally. the natural member force listing. the solution for U1 must satisfy (17—116) and we see from (17—111) that is equal to the actual constraint force matrix..1 11 (17112) = rk L 1 rf L kcj = and noting (17—104).SEC.. deleted. the governing equations take the form Z — (17114) (17—115) = K11U1 + = = = — — — K1202 = H1 = H2 (17—116) Since A1 must he of rank for stability and we have required to be positive definite. . we obtain (a) P1 = P1.. Z = {Z1. Substituting for in (17—109)..
we must invert an ndth and order matrix and also solve a set of c equations. with this procedure. E17—3) is rigid.1=2 (P1 U2. E17—3 are null matrices.578 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. c=1 Fig.. we solve (17—115) for U1.. the various matrices for this example are U1 P1 {u1. In what follows. we consider only the effect of joint forces. = To simplify the example. and then adding the constraint forces in the appropriate locations. Using the notation introduced above. we have to solve only equations. In the first method. = e2 1 . Note that. The constraint equation is e2 = U.u2} Pz} = e1 e2 4= 4= F1 k. 17 where k. we describe two procedures for solving (17—115) and (17—116). Example 17—3 We suppose bar 2 (Fig. is the modified stiffness matrix.. For the unconstrained case. — (17—118) = — 112 (17—119) The coefficient matrix for is positive definite since K1 is positive definite is of rank c.) 0 Bar is rigid We start by assembling A1. U1 = and then substitute in (17—116). F2 = = 11.
k.. and (17116) reduce to = K11U1 + + = P1 [u. We just have to take H2 = = (k) 1 [1+2a —ii Then (1k1[l +Ij I (1) . (17—119). 17—10. u2 in (h): F1 = F2 = F'2 = P2 — P1 . and assemble K1 i: = L 0 kJ LU a 1 K11 = Afk'A1 — k1•[I' The governing equations (17—114).SEC. since Af..A1. — a is an arbitrary positive constant..L[1 = and (17—119) reduces to ak1 +11 = ak1 F'2—p2—p1 Substituting for F'2 in (17—118). we obtain U1 (n) = 2p' Id1 U2 = 0 Finally. we substitute for U1.] 0 (h) (i) (j) = H1 = The inverse of K11 is 0 The solution follows from (17—118). we assume an arbitrary value for the stiffness of bar 2. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 579 and then partition according to (17104): Ii 1] Note that we cannot invert (17—109). Now. is singular. (17—115).
(17—115). we can express c displacements in terms of rid — c displacements. one can start with = — = H2 which represents c relations between the displacements. we can always permute the columns such that this requirement is satisfied.GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. is nonsingular. The resulting system of n equations for U is (BTK11B)U = BTH4 (n eqs. H3 from same procedure as employed in the force method to select the primary structure. We suppose the first c columns of are linearly independent. Then.) (17—126) Since B is of rank n. We consider next the joint forceequilibrium equations. Since A is of rank c.) Substituting for U1 leads to (K11B)U + We eliminate . the coefficient matrix is positive definite. we express U1 as — 2U (17—122) U1 = BU + H3 where a) (17123) (cx = I L f fl 0 J I (axx) H3 = ( (cxl) j 0 (ax!) Note that B is of rank n and (17125) H2 can be completely automated using the The generation of B. Since is of rank c. solving (a) for the constrained displacements. we have = Finally. there are only nd — c independent displacements. K11U1 + = H1 = (fld eqs. One can interpret .e. i.K11H3 114 from (b) by premultiplying by BT and noting (17—125). We let — c (17—120) and partition U1: (cx 1) U1 (cxnd) (Cxc) (nxl) (17—121) The elements of U are the independent displacements.. 17 Instead of first solving (17—115) for U1 in terms of (17—116). By definition.
We consider again Eq.1 is known.. is the difference between the external applied force.0 e30 (a) n42 = e2 = 021 — U22 — 032 031 144j = e3 e4 (b) e4. we have to invert a matrix of order c and solve a system equations. we have 1 (17—129) Since is nonsingular. . Although the final number of equations is less than in the first approach. It remains to determine the restraint forces. of no — c Example 17—4 For this example (Fig. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 581 BTK1 1B as the reduced system stiffness matrix. we permuted the columns partition after row C: [ATe. Now has c independent rows. 115 = where (see (17—114)) — P1. 115. we can write = — K11U1 = 115 (n0 eqs. E17—4). i such that the first c columns are linearly independent.e. we can solve (17—129) for We obtain the final member forces by adding the elements of Z defined by (17—114) and (d). 1 — ATZ (c) Z — = k'(A1U1 + A2U2 — (d) We determine Z using the member forcedisplacement relations and assemble P1 + AfZ by the direct stiffness method. In determining B. In this approach. We solve for U and then evaluate U1 from (17—123). 17—10. Assuming U. c—4 The constraint conditions are e1 U12 n=1 e10 e. there is more preliminary computation (generation of B) and the procedure cannot be automated as easily.) (17—127) The matrix. (a).SEC. i. P1. and the joint force due to member force with the constraint forces deleted. We apply the same permutation to (17—127) and (17—128) H5 2 Considering the first c equations.
Columns 2.4.2 The rearranged form of U1 is U1 = {u12.. Then.u22u31 = (U. 17 Note that (b) corresponds to (17—107).0 I— 1142 U21 U22 = +1 {u11} + 0 0 1' e30 + 1132 u31 e4. It is convenient to take U = u1 We permute the columns according to 1 1 —*5 2—.o + U41J U31 I U1 FL2 A1. U} u11} We determine U. This step is simple for this example since I. 5. The final result is U11 +1 0 0 e1. and either I or 3 comprise a linearly independent set. we can take either u1 or u21 as U.4 are rigid listing of U1.0 e30 + u32f .u21. e2.582 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.0 + U4j I 113 B .3..by applying (17—122). E17—4 2 x2 ears 1. Finally. we assemble U1 defined by (e) and then permute the rows to obtain the initial Fig.. 1 3. The form corresponding to (17—116) is +1 —1 +1 +1 +1 1 U12( 1e10 + Je.2.e4.
"Kr — by substituting for V using (d) and = 0: + — + — (17430) The elements of 4 are Lagrange multipliers. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRMNTS 583 The constraint forces are determined from (17—127). Taking — — V= — (17—131) in (17—130) leads to (17—115) and (17—116). we substitute U1=BU+H3 (f) . 17—9. 17—10. It is of interest to derive the equations for the constrained case by suitably specializing the variational principle for displacements.5 I I H.SEC. In the second approach. One can easily show that the stationary requirement for (17—130) considering U1 and 4 as independent variables leads to (17—109) and (17—110). We start with the unconstrained form of developed in Sec. permute the rows of (g) according to (d) and consider only the first four equations. the displacements are constrained by = Then. we can add the term '(1"' to (d). V reduces to + = V= + )Tk('K — We obtain the appropriate form of = V introducing the constraint condition. Since = v". = where V + !5L1U1 — V= "K = A1U1 + A202 Now. The resulting equations correspond to (17—129). which for this example has the form +1 +1 +1 I We I [ F4 = H5.
"The Matrix Analysis of Structures with CutOuts and Modifications. 131—142. R. 3. S. pp." . 1963.. L. ARGYRIS. Mech. EM3.C. Vol. H. No. 4.. No.. "NetworkTopological Formulation of Structural Analysis. J. H. Note that we could have used the reduced form for V. i.17—126).. and W. Ninth International congress App!. ô. Vol." J.E. we still have to determine the constraint forces. JR.S. DIMAGOT0. 2.584 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. Vol 91. ST4. Div. FENVES. June. "Network Analysis of Structures." Proc. August. J. pp.. BRANIN. Also.C. A.. . F.e. 1957. 483—514.. 89. 169—188. Mech. Structural Div. Eng. 17 in (a) and (17—131): = V V + — — — + H3) (17—132) A1BU + A1H3 + A2U2 The variation of considering U as the independent variable is = AUT[BT(P1 = 1 P1) — + (g) + BTATkr(ASH3 + A2U2 — BTH4] Requiring to be stationary for arbitrary AU results in (.E.. REFERENCES 1. and F.S. equation (d).. SPILLARS. 1965. pp.1..
MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION  Figure shows the initial and deformed positions of the member. since the equations for this case are easily integrated and it reveals the essential nonlinear effects.e. INTRODUCTION In this chapter. We work with displacements (u1. We also consider the material to be linearly elastic and the member to be prismatic. The derivation is restricted to small rotation. u2. Finally. The first phase involves developing appropriate member forcedisplacement relations by integrating the governing equations derived in Sec. we utilize the classical stability criterion to investigate the stability of an equilibrium position. The centroidal axis initially coincides with the X1 direction and X2 is an axis of symmetry for the cross section. We treat first planar deformation. we described two iterative procedures for solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. the governing equations are now nonlinear. successive substitution and NewtonRaphson iteration. This phase is essentially the same as for the linear case. 13—9. i. co3). The direct stiffness method is employed to assemble the system equations. where squares of rotations are negligible with respect to unity. we extend the displacement formulation to include geometric nonlinearity. However. We will briefly sketch out the solution strategy and then present a linearized solution applicable for doubly symmetric crosssections. 182.. These methods are applied to the system equations and the appropriate rerelations are developed.18 Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Systems 181. Next. The threedimensional problem is more formidable and one has to introduce numerous approximations in order to generate an explicit solution. 585 .
and end forces (F1. M3) referred to the initial (X1X2X3) member frame. 18 distributed external force (b2). and M3. For convenience. Notation for p'anar bending. 18—1. .586 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONUNEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. — CO (b) M (0. Also. we drop the subscript on x1.is F1 = ULx + F2 2 = = U2. Centroidai exis Fig. we consider h1 = rn3 = 0. F2. The rotation of the chord is denoted by p3 and is related to the end displacements by — U. + F2) + b2 0 (a) F2 = ForceDisplacement Relatio. w3.42 L The governing equations follow from (13—88). Deformed position b2 dxi 1182 x1 . 13. Equilibrium Equations =0 (F1u2.
SEC. we obtain M = El / + P\ u2 + ri Finally. = — j (u2 2 dx (18—2) Combining the remaining two equations in (a).tx + C5 cos px) (18—4) x  (i + C2 + + C4 b2 dx + (i + where U2b denotes the particular solution due to b2. U2b b(EI — 1/ (18—5) . The axial displacement is determined from the first equation in (a). If b2 is constant. MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION 587 Boundary Conditions Forx = 0: = U2 = UAI w= WA3 or or or or or 1F110 = —FAI iF2 + Mb = FIlL Forx = U1 = = +FB1 IF2 + Ml. C3 are integration constants.. P — = F112 (d) or Integrating (a) leads to F1 = F2 + Pu2 = — C3P C2Px + Jx(Jx b2 dx)dx where C2. the governing equation for u2 follows from the third equation in (e). PL 11111 — UAI 1 ('1. We include the factor P so that the dimensions are consistent. 18—2. + where + C3)+ — 2__ El = co (18—3) The solutions for u2 and M arc C4 cos px + C5 sin + C2x + C3 + U2b sin j.
1. We omit the algebraic details since they are obvious and list the final form below. We consider the case where the end displacements are prescribed. When the coefficient matrix is singular. The net displacements are u = (u — CD' = (a5 Evaluating (18—4) with A2 = oc. In what follows.. ('Lj (u2. the member is said to have buckled.u sin . 18 Enforcing the boundary conditions on u2. 2 dx = PL — erL where —j 2(1 — cos — — D= Dç62 = pL sin pL 1iL cos cos 1zL) — sin iL) = + . w at x = 0. i. L leads to four linear equations relating (C2 C5). (18—6) U2bX)X_OL we obtain C2 = C3 = — — 1 — jzC5 — C4 — — C 1 sin 1iL — — . MA3 = MB3 + + + + + + — — uA2)] UA2)] = — + FB2 = — — UA2)] — (u52 — uA2) (18—9) 2 C0A3 — — Unz)] 1 + P — = P1.588 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. We also neglect transverse shear deformation since its effect is small for a homogeneous cross section. (18—7) C5 = 1tL — 1— COS/LL — D= buckling load: 2(1 — Note that D 4 0 as This defines the upper limit on P.e. we exclude member buckling. the member (18_8) PJrnax The end forces can be obtained with (c—e).
If jiL is not close to 2ic. The relative displacement is determined from UB1 = UA1 + ('L PL — Le. The initial end forces depend on 18 —2. = —— j dx = er( jiL. bL A2 — 52 — bL2 1 — 1  (18—10) — = In order to evaluate the stiffness coefficients.SEC. 18—2. —+ 27t. If one end. is a nonlinear function of P. is unrestrained with respect to axial displacement. UA2. 7). when both axial displacements are prescribed. we can assume the stability functions . The simplest iterative scheme is p(i+ 1)  sin jiL cos jiL = (u51 — UAI) +  (18—12) and convergence is rapid when jiL is not close to 2it. If b2 is constant. P has to be known. say B. U52. They degenerate rapidly as the transverse loading. Expressions for the incremental end forces due to increments in the end displacements are needed in the procedure and also for stability analysis. we have to resort to iteration in order to evaluate P since e. WA. w5) + Dg54 = C5 — w43) 2 + (UB2 — L (U52 sin — j — (18—11) = = = = (1 — — WAS) + — WA3 sin jiL cos jiL) + 2(1 — cos cos jiL) — (1 eos jiL'\ 4 if + + We call Cr the relative end shortening due to rotation. b2. there is no difficulty since is now prescribed. and are plotted in Fig. MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION 589 The functions were introduced by Livesley (Ref. However.
32 — dMB3 = dMç3 + dP42 + + AWA3 — — + — P — (18—13) — ——h——.43 + c&2 — AU42)] (Au.41 41 — .590 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. 18—2.dP . Plot of the 0 functions. 18 I +02 pL —2 —4 —6 —8 Oi —10 A Fig. are constant and equal to their values at the initial position. when operating on (18—9).JL'i 112 112 42 1 42 dFB1 = dP dF41 = — —dP dP = Au41) + AEder . The resulting expressions are (IMA3 + Aco.
18—3.tL is constant. 18—3.SEC. 1 (1815) d(. we have to add El3 F + .uL) = — 2b13 .41 = ae cIUA2 — + +  (18—16) pL) We also have to use the exact expression for der = + ——Au52 + (WA tie. The derivatives of the stability functions are listed below for reference: 2(1iL)2 sin D = . AuA2) (18—14) The coefficients in (18—13) arc tangent stiffnesses. 5. They are not exact since we have assumed and Au2. . Note that the force and displacement measures are referred to the fixed member frame. 1O—6. The problem is transformed into a set of nonlinear algebraic equations relating the eters. 13—9. The governing equations for small rotations were derived in Sec. 18—3. . We can by assuming Au2 obtain an estimate for Au12. — 1LA2 — j 4)3] dCuL) . An improvement on (18—14) is obtained by operating on (18—11). Some applications of this technique are presented in Ref. MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION The positive sense of the end forces for the th case is shown in Fig. t This method is outlined in Sec. . To obtain the exact coefficients. — . and assuming . MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION 591 where the incremental initial end forces are due to loading. Lxb2. + — + ——A(1zL) in the equation for dP. dP to dM4 and similar terms to dM5. They are nonlinear.x dx is constant. and one must resort to an approximate method such as the Galerkin scheme.t in which the displacement measures are expressed in terms of prescribed functions (of x) and parameters. constant.
called the Kap pus equations. If we consider b1 = 0. Their form is: Equilibrium Equations F1 P + x3w1.3 i + F3] + b3 = — 1+ 1 + rn1.1) + dx1 F2]+ b2 0 0 [P(u.592 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP.1 — (18—18) + 11 = + + . Notation for threedimensional behavior. WB2 !152 I // // x1 P2 Note: The centroidal axis coincides with X1.+ d dx1 1142 + 711w1 1 =0 — F3 + = = 0 0 0 M. the axial force F1 is constant along the member and the nonlinear terms involve and coupling terms such as co1M2. Fig. 18—3. X2 and X3 are principal inertia directions. 18 x2 M52. + F2 + in3 = M4. Neglecting these terms results in linearized equations.
X3r i— I U52. we consider (13—81). This has been demonstrated by Black (Ref. + 1 and assumes + + + = = = 0 0 0 one obtains (13—81).r.SEC. 1 = 1 = X2r = X3r = A23 =0 (18—19) = r2 — . to u2 and However.. MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION 593 ForceDisplacement Relations = u1. term.1 + takes the extensional strain as a1 u1 + zfu2. If one neglects the nonlinear terms in the shearing strains. Assumptions (a) and (b) are reasonable if is small w.t M2 M3 + X3rF7 ± X2rF3) — Boundary Goiidif ions (± for x = L. 18—3. i + U3.1  u13 + U3. Equations are exact when the section is doubly symmetric. + Ui2 = 1/F2 GA23 + J (Dz. When the cross section is doubly symmetric. i + 1 + u53. CO3 1 + "F2 F3 + A23 w1. they introduce considerable error when co1 is the dominant u3.— + + F3 A3 J x2 U53. P(u521 for x= 0) P = + — + F2 = i) + P(u.ij7f + C01.3 •t + M!1 + M2 = ±M2 — + 711w1 M3 = ±M3 F3 = ±F3 = = To interpret the linearization. Y12 Y13 u12 + 112.1 — GA2 . 5).
If the joints are moment resisting (i. rigid). Restrained torsion We have already determined the solution for fiexure in the X1X2 plane.42)] (18—22) = and + + F42 = + U43)] F43 = + [_WB2 W42 — U43)] — — U. (18—13). Flexure in X1X3 plane 3. we obtain the member relations for flexure in the X1X3 frame. which requires f = 0 at x = 0. If we introduce a subscript for /L and Cu2)2 = P P El2 (18—20) = and then replace (02 U3 —* —U2 —4 cbjCu3L) F2 F3 F3 M'2  (18—21) —F2 in (18—9). it is reasonable to assume no warping. 18 (r is the radius of gyration with respect to the centroid) and the problem uncouples to— plane Flexure in 1. We generate the restrained torsion solution following the procedure described in Example 13—7. For example. The corresponding solution is summarized below: . L.594 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. 2.e.43) The expressions for the axial end forces expands to =P P = AE — Ci' J'Al = + AE(Cri + er2 + er3) 1 U41) r2 CL = j er3 dx1 er2 J dx1 (18—23) = 1 2L f (u3 dx1 where is obtained from er2 by applying (18—21).. MA3 + E12 + — U.
0 I c%) +P (18—25) At this point. 0.. 0. we introduce matrix notation: = {F1P2F3M1M2M3}8 {u1u2u3w1w2w3}B etc. contains the initial end forces due to member loads. and AE L El3 El2 'P33 El3 El2 GJ Sym El3 . 0. (18—26) = where + ÷ + kBJl%A + + — contains nonlinear terms due to chord rotation and end shortening uA2). — {AE(eni + er2 + e.. we summarize the member forcedisplacement relations for a doubly symmetric cross section. 18—3. _ 595 MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION r2P P=— GJ MB1 GJ U 1+P + '> Erlcb 1 + <1)A1)  GJ —MB1 2 MA1 (18—24) 1+ — sinh 1uL [iiL(1 + Cr(1 + P)) ( + GJ(1 + P) 1 1—coshuL [ + ————(1 — — sinh. For convenience.3).uL /1(1 + Cr(1 + P))[ We neglect shear deformation due to restrained torsion by setting C. uA3).________1+P SEC. If warping restraint is neglected. En4.
Assuming the stability functions are constant and taking dP — — UA2)(AU82 — + AWAI)} — iiA3)(AuB3 — AuA3) (18—27) + r2(w81 — we obtain + (knE + + (kBA — = + (knA — Mi11 + (kAA + kr)L\%A (18 —28) . El2 GJ El2 k44 = El3 Operating on leads to the incremental equations. i.e.596 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. the three dimensional form of (18—13).. 18 AE L El3 .
SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. The exact solution satisfies x=g t See Ref. one can write down the general solution for an arbitrary cross section. Since the equations are linear. By definition. is the incremental stiffness matrix due to rotation. we present the mathematical background for two solution techniques. using q(k) (18—32) where represents the kth estimate. Consider the problem of solving the nonlinear equation = Let 0 (18—29) represent one of the roots. and then apply them to the governing equations for a nonlinear member system.SEC. 184. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. It will involve twelve integration constants which are evaluated by enforcing the displacement boundary conditions. x= — g(x) (18—31) and successive estimates of the solution arc determined. The algebra is untractable unless one introduces symmetry restrictions.J3 2 Pz rp1 r 2 p1p3 —r2p1p2 (r2p1)2 0 0 0 0 0 + LFB1. successive substitution and NewtonRaphson iteration. one mustinclude additional terms due to the variation in the stability functions and use the exact expression for der Kappas's equations have also been solved explicitly for a monosymmetric section with warping and shear deformation neglected. 9. 0 P3 f.t (18—29) is rewritten in an equivalent form. P2P3 kr AE L Symmetrical + TAT 0 0 0 0 0 p3 = — uA2) p2 = — UA3) Pi = — WA1) 1fF is close to the member buckling load. . STABILITY ANALYSIS In this section. = 0 (18—30) In the method of successive substitution. STABILITY ANALYSIS 597 where k. 18—4.
1)) c — = — g(k)) t See Ref. In the NewtonRaphson method. and the recurrence relation is taken as =c The exact solution satisfies — (18—38) a5 = Then.. x2.and higherorder terms: = + (18—34) The convergence measure for this method can be obtained by combining (a) and (18—34).. Also. and has the form — — (18—35) Note that the NewtonRaphson method has secondorder convergence whereas successive substitution has only firstorder convergence.. We consider next a set of n nonlinear equations: 'I' = = 0 = An exact solution is denoted by In successive substitution. = in a Taylor series about — Expanding = g(k) + g(T — — + — + and retaining only the first two terms lead to the convergence measure — (18—33) where is between and T.t is expanded in a Taylor series about = + Ax + Ax = — + =0 where Ax is the exact correction to An estimate for Ax is obtained by neglecting second. g = g(x).598 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. 18 Then. (18—36) = is rearranged to c — g ax = (18—37) where a. . c are constant. 9..
 e m Pm P1 + + KU 1844 .SEC.n L0xrJ and retaining only the first two terms results in the convergence measure (x — = a (18—39) where lies between xk and less than unity. STABILITY ANALYSIS 599 Expanding g in a Taylor series about = g(k) + = — + 91. i. 18—4.i = 92. One first has to rotate the member end forces. (18—26).2 ' 9i. 1?e — =0 (1843) contains the external nodal forces and — is the summation of the member end forces incident on node i. We introduce the displacement restraints and write the final equations as In our formulation. the member frame is fixed.2 92. must be The generalized NewtonRaphson method consists in first expanding = + + = — 0 where = = = = [T'—j (18—40) Neglecting the second differential leads to the recurrence relation = = + ( 18—41 ) The corresponding convergence measure is — = (18—42) Let us now apply these solution techniques to the structural problem. about For convergence.e. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. The governing equations are the nodal equations referred to the qlobcil system frame. the norm of 'g.1 91n 92. from the member frame to the global frame using = where k° = is constant.
if the axial forces are small in comparison to the member buckling loads. N. we can take K = K1 during the entire solution phase. we write KU = — and iterate on U. Applying successive substitution.(fl) Now. If we assume the stability functions We expensive since . its convergence rate is more rapid than direct substitution. using K K1. Pe(2) anditerate on K (1) and solve for U(I).600 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. Apply the first load increment. This scheme is more has to be updated for each cycle. 18 depend on the axial forces while Pr depends on both the axial force and the member rigid body chord rotation. Pe is prescribed so that = due to + dPr + K LW + (18—47) = where — denotes the tangent stiffness matrix. the linear stiffness matrix. N= — '\ 1 Jabs e va]uc (a specified value) . Continue for successive load increments. we operate on Vi according to (18—41): =— 4. 2. holding K constant during the iteration: P1 — (18—45) = We employ (18—45) together with an incremental loading scheme since K is actually a variable. in this case. The steps are outlined here: 1. In the NewtonRaphson procedure. However. (18—46) This scheme is particularly efficient when the member axial forces are small with respect to the Euler loads since. A convenient convergence criterion is the relative change in the Euclidean norm. The iteration cycle is AU(n) = = — + ( 18—48 ) iterate on (18—48) for successive load increments. we can replace K with Note that K and K1. of the nodal displacements. Update K using the axial forces corresponding to Pe(l)• Then apply (ni_pe(1) _p(n—1) e(2) r 3.
Both the t See Sees. We consider next the question of stability. 0 K + Kr (18—49) where K. The sign is obtained at no cost (i..ive definite. This is called mod (fled one can hold NewtonRaphson. We include the incremental member loads at the start of the iteration cycle. (18—48). With our notation. The correction tends to diverge and oscillate in sign and one has to employ a higher iterative scheme. To detect instability. we keep track of the sign of the determinant of the tangent stiffness matrix during the iteration. Another indication of the existence of a bifurcation point (K1 singular) is the degeneration of the convergence rate for NewtonRaphson. 18—4. the tangent stiffness matrix reduces to dI( 0 dP. Finally. no additional computation) if Gauss elimination or the factor method are used to solve the correction equation. 18—4. Pe)TAU = (d AU (18—51) = AUTK. According to the classical stability criterion. STABILITY ANALYSIS 601 are constant in forming due to AU.. — d2We d2 W. in fixed for a limited number of cycles. 7—6 and 10—6. . AU and the criteria transform to (AU)TK. Rather than update at each cycle. and is the secondorder work done by the member end forces acting on the members.e. is generated with (18—28). When the determinant changes sign.t an equilibrium position is classified as: stable neutral unstable — >0 0 (18—50) d2 d2W. we have passed through a stability transition. d2w. and for a constant loading. AU — / / \T < 0 Pe) AU = 0 >0 stable neutral unstable (18—52) The most frequent case is Pe prescribed. the tangent stiffness matrix must be posil. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. we consider the special case where the loading does not produce significant chord rotation. The convergence rate is lower than for regular NewtonRaphson but higher than successive substitution.. A typical example is shown in Fig.SEC. <0 is the secondorder work done by the external forces during a where d2 displacement increment AU..
and K. F.)AU 0 (18—54) exists. 12X I I Fig. AU = —2K AU (1855) Both K. New York. the bifurcation problem reduces to determining the value of 2 for which a nontrivial solution of (K + 2K. SpringerVerlag. M. In linearized stability analysis. and write K The member axial K is due to a unit value of the load parameter forces are determined from a linear analysis.)Au 1 (18—56) REFERENCES 1. we deletet the rotation terms in K. McGrawHill. 1952. GERE: Theory of Elastic Stability.: Buckling Strength of Metal Structures. 2d ed.. and this can be obtained by applying inverse iterations to (—K. TIMOSHENKO. 18 frame and loading are symmetrical and the displacement is due only to short ening of the columns. Example of structure and loading for which linearized stability analysis is applicable.. C. 3.. 1961. New York.. . 1961. = 0 in (18—28). 2d ed. Also. BLEICH. To investigate the stability of this structure. P. F. McGrawHill. Kippen. Berlin. 11 and 12 of Chapter 2. since K = K(2). t Set Pi P2 = See Refs. K1 is positive definite. Usually. MEIsTER: Knicken.______________________ 602 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. and M. only the lowest critical load is of interest. 18—4. 2. and J. K is assumed to be K1 and one solves K. Biegedriilknicken. Then. S. are symmetrical. This is a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. KOLLBRUNNSR.
T. 9.: Structural Members and Frames. ed.: Introduction to Numerical Analysis. London. 1956. 1975. Dept. AROYRIS.S.. 10. McGrawHill. 603 5. Pergamon Press. 8. 1964.: Thin. HILDEBRAND. . 7. G. Berlin. V. London. New York. Pergamon Press. J.. H.Walled Structures. 1957. D. STEUP: Stabilidhsrheorie.: Recent Advances in Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis.REFERENCES 4: BLYRGERMEISTEa. CFJtLVER. R. A. Israel for Scientific Translations. H. B. 6. 1961. Office of Technical Services: U. 1968. and B. 1967.. of Commerce. GALAMBOS. and F!. 1964. 11. Prentice Hall. V. and Shells. F. Z. AkademieVerlag.C. D.: Thin Walled Elastic Beams. New York.: Matrix Methods of Structural Anal vsis. BRUSU. LIVESLItY. Part 1. Washington. K. ALMROTH: Buckling of Bars. Chatto & Windus. Plates. McGrawHill. VLASOV. London.
.
r—coefficients appearing in complementary energy expression Cr. 383. 330. 84. 119 Discriminant. 4 Degree of statical indeterminacy member. 586 Circular helix. 40. 29 Effective shear area. 37. 589 Column vector. 509 Classical stability criterion continuum. 125. 124. 572 planar curved member. 76. definition equation. 239 tual forces for a planar member. 31 Deformation Branchnode incidence table. of matrices. for restrained torsion. 576 variational approach. 27 Equivalent rigid body displacements. transverse shear. 573 displacement method. 498 for C. 210 Determinant. stretching and transverse shear vs. 385. 414. 31. Engineering theory of a member. 8 Constraint conditions treated. 472 Bar stiffness matrix. with La Augmented branchnode trix. 388. 72. outofplane loading. crosssectional properties. 176 Cayley—Hamilton Theorem. 302 Elastic behavior. 261 member system. 79 Direction cosine matrix for a bar. 121. 8. 387. member system. for outofplane loading of a circular member. 39 Diagonal matrix. vector orientation. 603 truss. 10 Differential notation for a function. 454 Deformation constraints force method. 46 Chord rotation. 248 End shortening due to geometrically nonlinear behavior.index Associative multiplication. 80 Curved member definition of thin and thick. basic assumptions. 373 grange multipliers. 234 605 Consistency. 503 Cofactor. MqS. 487 Defect. 73 Eulerian strain. 19 Column matrix. 180 Bifurcation. 387. of a system of linear algebraic equations. principle of vir planar member. 465 Castigliano's principles. influence on bending of planar member. 430 Euler equations for a function. 434 restrained torsion. twist. 33 Axial deformation. 145 Cç1. 170 Closed ring. 301 Conformable matrices. 70. bending. Neutral equilibrium Bimoment. 487 slightly twisted. 59 Distributive multiplication. 388 unrestrained torsionflexure. 555. p. 563 Connectivity table for a truss. 121. 583 Deformed geometry. 334. 567 truss. 434 thin. 143. of a set of linear algebraic equations.. 256 member system. 485 Equivalence. 35 Connectivity matrix. 44 . 86 Circular segment outofplane loading. 58 Cartesian formulation. 389 Characteristic values of a matrix. 16. and bending. 8 Echelon matrix. 63 Center of twist. 4 Complementary energy continuum. 416 Canonical form. 222 incidence ma Augmented matrix. 504 restrained warping solution.
52 Modified NeutonRaphson iteration. 146 Plane curve. matrix. 38 Linear connected graph. 234 Hookean material. 521 thin planar circular member. 595 Green's strain tensor. 458 prismatic member. 356 Member. 435. 126. 369 Mesh. 55 Principle of virtual displacements member system. 588 Member force displacement relations. 58. 249 Hyperelastic material. 80. 254 Geometric compatibility equation arbitrary member. 160. 537. 135 Permutation of a set of integers. 137 Invariants of a matrix. 259. 264 member system. 570 planar member. 492. 223 unrestrained torsion. 220 Minor. Mushtari's equations. 256. 463. 249 Matrix iteration. 16. planar member. 384. 92 Marguerre equations. arbitrary member. 345. 466 prismatic member. computational method. 528 Flexibility matrix arbitrary curved member. 598 Normalization of a vector. 218 Linear geometry. 216. 562 truss. 126. 212. 355 truss. 62 Isotropic material. 49 Null matrix. 296. 253 Laplace expansion for a determinant. 490. 20. 58 Postmultiplication. 249 Material rigidity matrix. 449. 92 Negative definite. member system. S Potential energy function. 220 Neutral equilibrium. 315 Geometric stiffness matrix for a bar. 602 Local member reference frame. 251 Permutation matrix. member system. 338. 234 Lamé constants. 201 Premuftiplication. 200 Geometrically nonlinear restrained torsion solution. 351 Quadratic forms. 338. 546. 4 Onedimensional deformation 335. 498 Network. network. 456 Material compliance matrix. 601 truss. 463 prismatic member. 63 Positive semidefinite matrix. 592 Kronecker delta notation. 252 Kappus equations. 583 Lagrangian strain. 279.606 INDEX First law of thermodynamics. definition. 193 Inelastic behavior. 98. 76. 601 Moment. 491 Orthogonal matrices and trnasformations. 53 Orthotropic material. 425 Poisson's ratio. 19 Modal matrix. 211 Principle minors. 444 Gauss's integration by parts formula. 125 Initial stability member system. 248 Incremental system stiffness matrix member system. 58 Negligible transverse shear deformation. 526 Flexural warping functions. 556 Member on an elastic foundation. 248 Fixed end forces prismatic member. 252 Positive definite matrix. 50. 515 circular helix. 143. 250. matrix. 523 thin planar circular member. 237 Linearized stability analysis. 271 Member buckling. 499 continuum. 120. 443. 432 measures. 569 planar member. 601 NewtonRaphson iteration. 568 planar member. 57 . MR. 170. 512 member systens. 354 truss. 59. 571 Lagrange multipliers. 300/n Frenet equations. topological. 462 prismatic member. 8 Primary structure member system. 91 Maxwell's law of reciprocal defiections. 454. 442 Principle of virtual forces arbitrary member. 11 Natural member reference frame. 571 planar member. 534 planar member. 37 Piecewise linear material. 42. of a square array.
f. 242 Submatrices (matrix partitioning). 160. iterative method member system. 595 prismatic prismatic member. 287 Shear flow distribution for unrestrained torsiOn. 67. 15. 106 Statically permissible force system. 12 Twohinged arch solutions. 156 . 43 Rayleigh's quotient. 276. 274. 590. 235 Smallfinite rotation approximation. 520 Variable warping parameter. Il. 220 Triangular matrix. torsion. 498 prismatic member. 401 multicell section. 280 Strain energy density. 195 irapezoidal rule. 35 System stiffness matrix member system. 216. 240 Stress vector transformation. 391 nonlinear geometry. 378. for restrained torsion. 355 Stability of an equilibrium position. 565 truss. 238 Square matrix. 272 Stress vector. 568 Shallow member. 270 member. 4 Selfequilibrating force systems. 474 Tree. 561 Symmetrical matrix. linear geometry. 36 Successive substitution. 252 Transverse shear deformation planar member. 242 Kirchhoff. 257 Stationary values of a function. 249 Stress components Eulerian. 297. 434 Rank of a matrix. 281 Torsional constant. 193 prismatic member. 467. 383. 39 modification for partial end restraint. prismatic member. 188. 79 Stiffness matrix arbitrary curved member. 548. 309. 389 Shear flow. network. 53. 79 Reissner's principle continuum. 573 Relative minimum or maximum value of a function. 232 Row matrix. 180. 300. 109 Rotation transformation matrix. 308 Similarity transformation. 103. 22 Skew symmetrical matrix. 206 Restrained torsion stress distribution and crosssectional parameters channel section. 4/n Work done by a force. 258 member systems. 323 Torsional warping function. 232 Torsion solution. 596 Tensor invariants. relative extrema. 407 Rigid body displacement transformation. 38 Quasitriangular matrix. 66 Restrained torsion solution. 411 symmetrical I section. 27. 4 Tangent stiffness matrix for a bar. 454. 414 member system.INDEX 607 Quasidiagonal matrix. 153. 101. 75. definition. 278. J. rectangle. 42. 372 Vector. 470 Unit matrix. geometrically nonlinear behavior. definition (mechanics). 448 Shear center. 193 Summary of system equations. 597 truss. 550. 120. 588. 11 Small strain. 595 prismatic member. 62 Simpson's rule. 211. 179. 276 Stress resultants and stress couples. 398 thin rectangular cell. 159. 522 Strain and complementary energy for pure torsion. 377 Transverse orthotropic material. 10 Stability functions (4). 171. 248 Stress and strain component trnasformations. 475 Singular matrix. force equiibrium and force displacement. assumptions. 516. 12. 589 Statically equivalent force system. 535 Radius of gyration. member linear geometry. 246 Stress function.
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