JEROME J. CONNOR, Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is Professor of Civil Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has been active in teaching and research in structural analysis and mechanics

at the U.S. Army Materials and Mechanics Research
Agency and for some years at M.I.T. His primary interest is in computer based analysis methods, and his current research is concerned with the dynamic analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels and the development of finite element models for fluid flow problems. Dr. Connor is one of the original developers of ICES-STRUDL, and
has published extensively in the structural field.

ANALYSIS OF
STRUCTURAL MEMBER

SYSTEMS
JEROME J. CONNOR
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

THE RONALD

PRESS COMPANY • NEW YORK

Copyright ©

1976 by

Ttrn RONALD PRESS COMPANY

All Rights Reserved

No part of this book may be reproduced
in any form without permission in writing from the publisher.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 74—22535
PRINTED IN ThE UNITCD STATES OF AMERICA

Preface

With the development over the past decade of computer-based analysis methods, the teaching of structural analysis subjects has been revolutionized. The traditional division between structural analysis and structural mechanics became no longer necessary, and instead of teaching a preponderance of solution details it is now possible to focus on the underlying theory. What has been done here is to integrate analysis and mechanics in a systematic presentation which includes the mechanics of a member, the matrix formulation of the equations for a system of members, and solution techniques. The three fundamental steps in formulating a problem in solid mechanics—. enforcing equilibrium, relating deformations and displacements, and relating forces and deformations—form the basis of the development, and the central theme is to establish the equations for each step and then discuss how the complete set of equations is solved. In this way, a reader obtains a more unified view of a problem, sees more clearly where the various simplifying assumptions are introduced, and is better prepared to extend the theory. The chapters of Part I contain the relevant topics for an essential background in linear algebra, differential and matrix transformations. Collecting this material in the first part of the book is convenient for the continuity of the mathematics presentation as well as for the continuity in the following development. Part II treats the analysis of an ideal truss. The governing equations for

small strain but arbitrary displacement are established and then cast into matrix form. Next, we deduce the principles of virtual displacements and
virtual forces by manipulating the governing equations, introduce a criterion for evaluating the stability of an equilibrium position, and interpret the governing equations as stationary requirements for certain variational principles. These concepts are essential for an appreciation of the solution schemes described in the following two chapters. Part III is concerned with the behavior of an isolated member. For completeness, first are presented the governing equations for a deformable elastic solid allowing for arbitrary displacements, the continuous form of the principles of virtual displacements and virtual forces, and the stability criterion. Unrestrained torsion-flexure of a prismatic member is examined in detail and then an approximate engineering theory is developed. We move on to restrained torsion-flexure of a prismatic member, discussing various approaches for including warping restraint and illustrating its influence for thin-walled
iii

PREFACE

and closed sections. The concluding chapters treat the behavior of planar and arbitrary curved members. How one assembles and solves the governing equations for a member sysopen

tern is discussed in Part IV. First, the direct stiffness method is outlined; then a general formulation of the governing equations is described. Geometrically nonlinear behavior is considered in the last chapter, which discusses member force-displacement relations, including torsional-flexural
coupling, solution schemes, and linearized stability analysis. The objective has been a text suitable for the teaching of modern structural member system analysis, and what is offered is an outgrowth of lecture notes

developed in recent years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. To the many students who have provided the occasion of that development, I am deeply appreciative. Particular thanks go to Mrs. Jane Malinofsky for her patience in typing the manuscript, and to Professor Charles Miller for his
encouragement.
JEROME J. CONNOR

Cambridge, Mass. January, 1976

Contents

I—MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARiES
1

Introduction to Matrix Algebra
1—i
1—2 1—3 1—4 1—5 1—6
1—7

1—8 1—9

Definition of a Matrix Equality, Addition, and Subtraction of Matrices Matrix Multiplication Transpose of a Matrix Special Square Matrices Operations on Partitioned Matrices Definition and Properties of a Determinant Cofactor Expansion Formula

3 5 5
8
10

12 16 19
21

Cramer's Rule 1—10 Adjoint and Inverse Matrices 1—11 Elementary Operations on a Matrix 1—12 Rank of a Matrix 1—13 Solvability of Linear Algebraic Equations
2

22 24 27 30

Characteristic-Value Problems and Quadratic Forms
2—1

46
46 48 52
55 57

2—2 2—3 2—4

2—5

Introduction Second-Order Characteristic-Value Problem Similarity and Orthogonal Transformations The nth-Order Symmetrical Characteristic-Value Problem Quadratic Forms

3

Relative Extrema for a Function
3—1

66
66
71

3—2

3—3

Relative Extrema for a Function of One Variable Relative Extrema for a Function of n Independent Variables Lagrange Multipliers

75 81
81

4

Differential Geometry of a Member Element
4—1

4—2

Parametric Representation of a Space Curve Arc Length
V

82

CONTENTS
4—3 4—4 4—5
4—6

Unit Tangent Vector Principal Normal and Binormal Vectors Curvature, Torsion, and the Frenet Equations Summary of the Geometrical Relations for a Space
Curve

85 86 88
91

4—7 4—8

Local Reference Frame for a Member Element Curvilinear Coordinates for a Member Element

92 94

5

Matrix Transformations for a Member Element
5—1

100
100 103 109

5—2 5—3

Rotation Transformation Three-Dimensional Force Transformations Three-Dimensional Displacement Transformations

Il—ANALYSIS OF AN IDEAL TRUSS
6

Governing Equations for an Ideal Truss
6—1

General

6—2
6—3

6—4
6—5

6—6 6—7

6—8 6—9

Elongation—Joint Displacement Relation for a Bar General Elongation—Joint Displacement Relation Force-Elongation Relation for a Bar General Bar Force—Joint Displacement Relation Joint Force-Equilibrium Equations Introduction of Displacement Restraints; Governing Equations Arbitrary Restraint Direction Initial Instability

115 116 120 125 130 130 132 134 137

7

Variational Principles for an Ideal Truss
7—1

152
152 153 159 162
165 169

General

7—2 7—3 7—4

Principle of Virtual Displacements Principle of Virtual Forces Strain Energy; Principle of Stationary Potential
Energy

7—5

7—6

Complementary Energy; Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy Stability Criteria

8

Displacement Method—Ideal Truss
8—1

178
178 178

General

8—2

8—3

Operation on the Partitioned Equations The Direct Stiffness Method

180

CONTENTS
8—4

8—5

Incremental Formulation; Classical Stability Criterion Linearized Stability Analysis

191

200

9

Force Method—Ideal Truss
9—1

General

210
211

9—2 9—3

9—4

Governing Equations—Algebraic Approach Governing Equations—Variational Approach Comparison of the Force and Mesh Methods

216 217

Ill—ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER ELEMENT
10

Governing Equations for a Deformable Solid
10—1

229
229 230 232 240 248

General

10—2
10—3 10—4

10—5 10—6

10—7

Summation Convention; Cartesian Tensors Analysis of Deformation; Cartesian Strains Analysis of Stress Elastic Stress-Strain Relations Principle of Virtual Displacements; Principle of Stationary Potential Energy; Classical Stability Criteria Principle of Virtual Forces; Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy

253

257

11

St. Venant Theory of Torsion-Flexure of Prismatic Members
11—1

271
271

11—2 11—3 11—4

11—5 11—6
11—7

Introduction and Notation The Pure-Torsion Problem Approximate Solution of the Torsion Problem for Thin-Walled Open Cross Sections Approximate Solution of the Torsion Problem for Thin-Walled Closed Cross Sections Torsion-Flexure with Unrestrained Warping Exact Flexural Shear Stress Distribution for a Rectangular Cross Section Engineering Theory of Flexural Shear Stress Distribution in Thin-Walled Cross Sections

273
281

286 293 303

306

12

Engineering Theory of Prismatic Members
12—1

330
330
331

12—2

Introduction Force-Equilibrium Equations

CONTENTS
12—3

12—4 12—5 12—6

Force-Displacement Relations; Principle of Virtual Forces Summary of the Governing Equations Displacement Method of Solution—Prismatic Member Force Method of Solution

333 339 340 349

13

Restrained Torsion-Flexure of a Prismatic Member
13—1

371

13—2 13—3

13—4
13—5 13—6

13—7 13—8
13—9

371 Introduction Displacement Expansions; Equilibrium Equations 372 Force-Displacement Relations—Displacement Model 375 Solution for Restrained Torsion—Displacement Model 379 Force-Displacement Relations—Mixed Formulation 383 Solution for Restrained Torsion—Mixed Formulation 389 Application to Thin-Walled Open Cross. Sections -395 405 Application to Thin-Walled Closed Cross Sections Governing Equations—Geometrically Nonlinear Restrained Torsion 414

14

Planar Deformation of a Planar Member
14—1

425
425 427

14—2 14—3

14—4

14—5

14—6

14—7
14—8

Introduction; Geometrical Relations Force-Equilibrium Equations Force-Displacement Relations; Principle of Virtual Forces Force-Displacement Relations—Displacement Expansion Approach; Principle of Virtual Displacements Cartesian Formulation Displacement Method of Solution—Circular Member Force Method of Solution Numerical Integration Procedures

429

435 445 449 458 473

15

Engineering Theory of an Arbitrary Member
15—1

485
485 488
490 .493 499 507
511

15—2 15—3

15—4 15—5
15—6 15—7

15—8

Introduction; Geometrical Relations Force-Equilibrium Equations Force-Displacement Relations—Negligible Warping Restraint; Principle of Virtual Forces Displacement Method—Circular Planar Member Force Method—Examples Restrained Warping Formulation Member Force-Displacement Relations—Complete End Restraint Generation of Member Matrices

517

CONTENTS

Member Matrices—Prismatic Member 15—10 Member Matrices—Thin Planar Circular Member 15—11 Flexibility Matrix—Circular Helix 15—12 Member Force-Displacement Relations—Partial End Restraint
15—9

520 524
531

535

tV—ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER SYSTEM
16

Direct Stiffness Method—Linear System
16—1

545
545 546 547 548

16—2 16—3 16—4

Introduction Member Force-Displacement Relations System Equilibrium Equations Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints

17

General Formulation—Linear System
17—1

554
554 555 557 559
560 562 565 567 570 573

17—2
17—3

17—4 17—5

Introduction Member Equations System Force-Displacement Relations System Equilibrium Equations

Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints;

Governing Equations Network Formulation 17—7 Displacement Method 17—8 Force Method 17—9 Variational Principles 17—10 Introduction of Member Deformation Constraints
17—6

18

Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Systems
18—1

585
585 585
591

18—2 18—3 18—4

Introduction Member Equations—Planar Deformation Member Equations—Arbitrary Deformation Solution Techniques; Stability Analysis

597

Index

605

.

Part I MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES .

.

such as a two-dimensional array. ... ami. DEFINITION OF A MATRIX An ordered set of quantities may be a one-dimensional array.n rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m by n if certain arithmetic operations (addition. multiplication) associated with it are defined.. A two-dimensional array having .1 a12 a22 am2 - - a1. subtraction.. a12. .a1. 3 .. .. a21. = = a a. - a2. Note that the first term in the order pertains to the number of rows and the second term to the nuiñber of columns. . a two-dimensional array. we refer to the order of a matrix as simply m x n rather than of order m by n. . The array is usually enclosed in square brackets and written as* a11 a21 a. a22. the first subscript defines the row location of an element and the second subscript its column location. . ..1 Introduction to Matrix Algebra 1—1. For convenience. a matrix is represented by a boldfaced letter.. such as a11. * In print. .

. preceding Problems). Example 3 1—1 x 4 Matrix 4 3 2—1 —7 1 2 —8 1 2 4 —3 1 x 3 Row Matrix [3 4 2] 3 x 1 Column Matrix f3] or 4Jor{3.) Finally. F. Also. and is represented by 0 (boldface.4. In mechanics. the matrix is called a null matrix. the elements are arranged horizontally instead of vertically. Similarly. see Ref. . such as force or moment. if all the elements are zero. The various column-matrix notations are: C11 C21 C1 C2 {c1.4 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. a vector is defined as a quantity having both magnitude and direction. 2 (at end of chapter.* Braces instead ofbrackets are commonly used to denote a column matrix and the column subscript is eliminated. by means of an italic letter topped by an arrow. . For a review. (Special types of square matrices are discussed in a later section. . 1 A matrix having only one row is called a row matrix. {c1} =c If the number of rows and the number of columns are equal. c2. the matrix is said to be square. e. We will denote a mechanics vector quantity. A knowledge of Vector algebra is assumed in this text..2} 2 2 Square Matrix 5 [2 7 2 x 2 Null Matrix [0 [o 0 o * This is the mathematical definition of a vector.. to save space. a matrix having only one column is called a column matrix or column vector.g. as in the previous case).

.m .. . For example. a and b. Addition and subtraction operations are defined only for matrices of the same order. 1—3. . 1. . are equal if they are of the same order and if corresponding elements are equal: a= b when If a is of order m x n. — = = + — bLJ] For example. is defined to be the m x n matrix + + Similarly. ADDITION. if k=5 then and [—10 ka=[ 10 +35 5 . 2. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION EQUALITY. the matrix equation a=b corresponds to mn equations: = = = 1. if [1 then 2 ii —d [1 [0 b=[3 1 1 —1 —1 i 0 —1 3 and [1 2 —1 —1 It is obvious from the example that addition is commutative and associative: a+b=b+a a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c 1—3. . (1—6) (1—7) MATRIX MULTIPLICATION The product of a scalar k and a matrix a is defined to be the matrix in which each element of a is multiplied by k. 1—2. a and b.. AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES Two matrices.SEC. The sum of two m x n matrices. 2.

. The result is a column matrix. 1 Scalar multiplication is commutative.6 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. . .. it follows that the definition equation for a matrix multiplied by a column matrix is ax = ulkxk} j = 1. x1. Example 1—2 1 a= 11 8 2 x={3} -4j 1(1)(2) + (—1)(3) 4 + (3)(3) 9 .rn 1. That is. In general.m This product is defined only when the column order of a is equal to the row order of x. the row order of which is equal to that of a..2. 2. and x of order s x 1. ka = ak = {ka11] To establish the definition of a matrix multiplied by a column matrix.2 (1—11) Since (1—10) and (1—Il) must be equivalent.rn where k is a dummy index.. we write (1—9) as a matrix product: = {c1} i= 1. we consider a system of m linear algebraic equations in n unknowns.x2 + a12x2 + a21x1 + a22x2 + l2miXi + + + C1 = C2 + am2x2 + This set can be written as alkxk C1 i= 1. . .. . .. if a is of order r x s. . Using column matrix notation. 2. (1—9) takes the form i= Now. the product ax is of orderr x 1.

In general.n This product is defined only when the column order of a is equal to the row order of b.. ab: = ab = [bkJ] = [pt. Substituting for x in (1—11). in (1—9) are expressed as a linear combination of s new variables Y1. . in matrix form.Y2. if a is of order r x n. 1—3. . results in the following definition equation for the product. . we can write (1—15) as i 1. we also express the transformation of variables.. . aby=c and requiring (1—16) and (1—18) to be equivalent. .2. = i 1.ys: Xk = 1= k= 1. x2. . . and b of order n x q. .s and y is S x 1. Suppose that the n original variables x1. the product ab is of order r x q.m Interchanging the order of summation. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION We consider next the product of two matrices. The element at the ith row and jth column of the product is obtained by multiplying corresponding elements in the ith row of the first matrix and the jth column of the second matrix.2 j— in (1—14) = Noting (1—12). x = by which defines where b is n x s. 2.2.] k 1.SEC. This product is associated with a linear transformation of variables. py = C where p is in x ..x. and letting k=i the transformed equations take the form i = 1. 2.. .n (1—13) Substituting for Xk in (1—10). Now. . . . . . . .... .. .

the products are [a11 [a21 [b11 [b21 a121[bij a22j[b21 b121[aji b22j[a21 b121 b22j — [aitbji + a12b21 a11b12 + a12b22 a21b12 + a22b22 [a21b11 + a22b21 — aizl a22] [bjjaj1 + b12a21 [b21a11 + b22a21 b11a12 + b12a22 b21a12 + b22a22 When ab = ha. (ab)c (1—20) a(b + c) = ab + ac (b + c)a = ha + Ca but. a and b are said to be confbrmable in the order stated. from postrnultiplication ha. ab.8 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. the matrices are said to commute or to be permutable. a(bc) = and distributive. For example. One should note that a and b will be conformable in either order only when a is in x n and b is n x in. one should distinguish preinultiplication. ab ba (1—22) Therefore. TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX is defined as the matrix obtained from a by The transpose of a = interchanging rows and columns. multiplication of matrices is associative. in general. In the previous example. in multiplying b by a. We shall indicate the transpose of a by . a and b are conformable but b and a are not since the product ha is not defined. not commutative. 1 Example 1—3 (1)(1) + (0)(O) (O)(1) + (2)(O) (IXI) + (O)(1) (O)(1) + (2)(l) (1)(O) + 1) (1)(— 1) + (01(3) ab = (—l)(1) + (1)(O) (—1)(l) + (1)(l) (—1)(O) + (0)(0) + (2)(—1) 0 —1 (—1)(—1) + (1)(3) (0)(—1) + (2)(3) [+1 +1 0 —l ab=J_1 +4 [ 0 +2 —2 +6 If the product ab is defined. if a and b are square matrices of order 2. When the relevant products are defined. 1—4.

a2.. where now i varies from 1 to n and j from 1 to m. Using (1—24) and (b). For example.. .1 — (b) The transpose of p will be of order s x m and the typical element is p79 = (c) . . a2 a. is given by a79 = (1—24) where is the element at the jth row and ith column of a.. an alternate notation for a row matrix is [a1.. is m x s and the element. = m Ilukbkf —1 . [3 2 T 1 a =[2 r3 7 1 5 4 Since the transpose of a column matrix is a row matrix. Pu.. Let p==ab (a) where a is m x n and b is n x s. S k1 = (ab)T — j= (d) It follows from (d) that = bTaT Equation (1—26) states that the transpose of a product is the product of the . we can 1. p. The element. 2. The product.m. a21 = [a79] = 012 022 am2 a.. p79 = k1 = 2. a79.] = (1—25) We consider next the transpose matrix associated with the product of two matrices. (1—23) a 021 a22 = = amj am2 a. 2 s and j = 1. where now I = write (c) as 1. 1—4 TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX 9 aT = {a79]: a11 a12 a1.SEC. at the ith row and jth column of aT.

. . Order 2 [1 7 [3 Diagonal Matrix. A unit matrix is usually indicated by where n is the order of the matrix.. The elements (i = 1. If the elements of a diagonal matrix are all unity.. n) lie on the principal diagonal. 1 transposed matrices in reversed order. the transpose of abc is (abc)T = cT(ab)T cTbTaT (1—27) Example 1—4 ab = Alternatively. If all the elements except the principal-diagonal elements are zero.10 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. Order 3 2 [2 [o Unit Matrix. where n is the number of rows. Example 1—5 Square Matrix. the diagonal matrix is referred to as a unit matrix. the matrix is said to be square and of order n. aT 13 6 (ab)T = [4 13 6] = [2 = —1] —1] (ab)T = bTaT = [2 = [4 13 6] 1—5. For example. SPECIAL SQUARE MATRICES If the numbers of rows and of columns are equal. 2. We will use d for diagonal matrices. the matrix is called a diagonal matrix. This rule is also applicable to multiple products. Order 2 0 5 0 0 3 0 12[ 0 I LO .

j = 1. Similarly. Premultiplication of a by a conformable diagonal matrix d multiplies the ith row of a by and postmultiplication multiplies the jth column by Example 1—6 [2 [o —i][o 5j[O 5j[O _ij[o —5 [2 01[3 'l_[ 6 2 — 01[3 01[2 01 [6 0 ij [2 7] — [—2 —7 01 [3 11[2 [2 A square matrix a for which = property that a = If 7j[0 _1j[4 = (i [6 —' —7 is called symmetrical and has the j) and the principal diagonal elements all equal zero. (1—30) are the principal elements. Any square matrix can be reduced to the sum of a symmetrical matrix and a skew-symmetrical matrix: a=b+c = = + — (1-33) . . If the principal diagonal elements . One can easily show that multiplication of a by a conformable unit matrix does not change a: a Ima = a (1—32) A unit matrix is commutative with any square matrix of the same order. d.SEC. In this case. takes the form d= where d1. 1—5. the matrix reduces to = and is called a scalar matrix. are all equal to k. the unit matrix can be written as = (1—29) Also. . the diagonal matrix. 2 n (1—28) With this notation. d2.. = (1—31) Let a be of order rn x n. two diagonal niatrices of order n are commutative and the product is a diagonal matrix of order a. SPECIAL SQUARE MATRICES We introduce the Kronecker delta notation: oij=0 +1 i—j i. the matrix is said to be skew-symmetrical. aT = — a.

2.* Finally. one can easily show that products of the type (aTa) (aaT) (aTba) where a is an arbitrary matrix and b a symmetrical matrix. 1 The product of two symmetrical matrices is symmetrical only when the matrices are commutative. 1—7. . The product of two triangular matrices of like structure is a triangular matrix of the same structure. the submatrices are represented by * See Prob. Examples are: Upper Triangular Matrix 352 071 004 Lower Triangular Matrix 300 570 214 Triangular matrices are encountered in many of the computational procedures developed for linear systems. OPERATIONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES Operations on a matrix of high order can be simplified by considering the matrix to be divided into smaller matrices. The transpose of an upper triangular matrix is a lower triangular matrix and vice versa. Some important properties of triangular matrices are: 1. result in symmetrical matrices.12 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. To reduce the amount of writing. a11 012 a22 a32 0131 023 a11 a12 032 013 a33 a11 a12 a32 a13 a33 a a21 031 = a1 031 a33J = a31 Note that the partition lines are always straight and extend across the entire matrix.subina. A matrix can be partitioned in a number of ways. [a11 [a21 0 1[b11 I 0 1 b22j I= [aijbij [a21b11 + a22b21 0 a22b22 1-6. For example. The partitioning is usually indicated by dashed lines.trices or cells. called . A square matrix having zero elements to the left (right) of the principal diagonal is called an upper (lower) triangular matrix.

a OPERATtONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES single symbol. 2. — the row partitions of b are consistent with the column partitions of a.. We will use upper case letters to denote the submatrices whenever possible and omit the partition lines. The sum is a +b = [A11 + 8fl LA2I + B21 + B121 A22 + B22j A12 (1-35) The rules of matrix multiplication are applicable to partitioned matrices provided that the partitioned matrices are conformable for multiplication. M M (1—36) k= 1. In general.SEC. I = 1... . Let [A11 [A23 A121 [B11 A22J I [823 8121 B22j (134) where BLJ and A13 are of the same order. 1—6. Let a and b be two partitioned matrices: a b [A131t = [B1d = 1. .2 .. This restriction allows us to treat the various submatrices as single elements provided that we preserve the order of multiplication. — ik i i 1. the rules of matrix addition are applicable to the submatrices.i as a [A11 A121 [A21 A22J Ia11 I or a = [A11 [A21 Ia13 I A12 A22 where A11 = [a21 = [a31 a121 A12 = La23 A21 a32] A22 = [a33] If two matrices of the same order are identically partitioned. Example 1-1 We represent [au a12 a22 a13 a23 a=Ia.. two partitioned matrices are conformable for multiplication if the partitioning of the rows of the second matrix is identical to the partitioning of the columns of the first matrix....S We can write the product as C = ab = [CIk] M 1 C when ..2...

no partitioning of b is required. we consider the product a12 a13 b11 b12 1322 ab £121 1231 1222 a23 1233 a32 b31 b32 Suppose we partition a with a horizontal partition between the second and third rows: a11 1212 C1j3 1223 a 1221 1231 a22 r A11 = a32 a33 Since the column order of A11 and A21 is equal to the row order of b. To show this.1A12] = A11B11 + A12B21 The conformability of two partitioned matrices does not depend on the horizontal partitioning of the first matrix or the vertical partitioning of the second matrix. since the row order of B11 and B12 is the same as the column . The product is ab = [A111 LA2ijb = [A21b b12 [A11b As an alternative. we consider the product au ab = 1221 a12 a22 a32 a13 h1 a23 033 h2 b3 1233 Suppose we partition a with a vertical partition between the second and third columns.14 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. 1 As an illustration. we partition b with a vertical partition. Taking the product has the form = [A. 1211 1212 a13 a= a21 a22 a23 a33 = [A11A12] a31 a32 For the rules of matrix multiplication to be applicable to the submatrices of a. we must partition b with a horizontal partition between the second and third rows. b= b21 b22 = [811B12] b31 In this case.

no partitioning of a is necessary and the product has the form ab = a[B11B12] = [aBj1 aBi2] To transpose a partitioned matrix. we call (1—40) a lower quasi-triangular matrix.. If A11 A12 A22 Am2 A1. A and We use the term quasi to distinguish between partitioned and unpartitioned matrices having the same form. ..SEC. An example is a11 a= 0 0 0 a22 a32 0 a33 which can be written in partitioned form as a = [Ai A2] where A1 = [a11] A2 = [a22 a32 a23] a33 and 0 denotes a null matrix. 1—6.. a= then A21 Arnt AT1 AT AT AT1 AT .. . For example. The product of two quasi-diagonal matrices of like structure (corresponding diagonal submatrices are of the same order) is a quasi-diagonal matrix of the same structure. 0 B1 0 .. AT A particular type of matrix encountered frequently is the quasi-diagonal matrix. OPERATIONS ON PARTITIONED MATRICES order of a.. This is a partitioned matrix whose diagonal submatrices are square of various orders. one first interchanges the off-diagonal submatrices and then transposes each submatrix. 0 A1B1 0 . . . and whose off-diagonal submatrices are null matrices. AT AT .. . 0 0 A 0 are of the same order. A1 0 .

DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES OF A DETERMINANT The concept of a determinant was originally developed in connection with the solution of square systems of linear algebraic equations. and x3. Each product contains only one clement from any row or column and no element occurs twice in the same product. To illustrate how this concept evolved. (1.g. since they are synonymous. and x3. For example. A set of distinct integers is considered to be in natural order if each integer is followed only by larger integers. 5) is in natural order and .. It shou'd be noted that determinants are associated only with square arrays. x2. +a11a22a33 and —a11a23a32. x2. These properties are associated with the arrangement of the column subscripts and can be conveniently is described using the concept of a permutation. The products differ only in the column subscripts.j 1. which discussed below. we obtain (a11a22 — a12a21)x1 (a11a22 — a12a21)x2 c2a12 = —c1a21 + c2a11 The scalar quantity. Comparing (l—41) and (1—42). 2). a1 1a22 — a21 a2 defined as the determinant of the second- order square array (i. The sign of a product depends on the order of the column subscripts. Also. The determinant of a third-order array is defined as a11 a12 a22 a13 a33 +a11a22a33 a21 a31 a23 = —a12a21a33 + a12a23a31 (1—42) a32 +a13a21a32 — a13a22a31 This number is the coefficient of x1. A rearrangement of the natural order is called a permutation of the set. we refer to the determinant of an eth-order array as an nth-order determinant. we consider the simple case of two equations: a11x1 + a21X1 = + a22x2 = a12x2 C2 Solving (a) for x3 and x2.16 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA Cl-lAP. we see that both expansions involve products which have the following properties: 1. with square matrices. The determinant of an array (or matrix) is usually indicated by enclosing the array (or matrix) with vertical lines: a11 a21 a12 a22 = al = a31a22 — a12a21 We use the terms array and matrix interchangeably. obtained when the third-order system ax c is solved successively for x1. 1 1—7. 2. e. 3. that is.

5. = n(n — . n) and define .3) is a permutation of(1. 3. . n). a2. 1.ith-order determinant can be written as a11 a21 a12 a22 a1. Referring back to (1—41) and (1—42). 1—7. the pair is said to form an inversion. As an illustration. (3. . 2) is an odd permutation.. 4. If an integer is followed by a smaller integer. One can easily show that there are possible permutations for a set of n distinct integers. Instead of cbunting the inversions. The number of inversions for a set is defined as the sum of the inversions for each integer. ce. 2. we consider the set (3.) an even permutation (1—43) . (1. 1) has three inversions and requires one interchange.. Working from left to right. DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES OF A DETERMINANT (1. Factorial n = 1)(n — 2) . • (2)(1).. is an odd permutation Using (1—43). the integer inversions are: Integer 3 1 Inversions (3. . 3. . The number of products is equal to the number of possible permutations of the column subscripts that can be formed. 1 = (1—44) where the summation is taken over all possible permutations of (1. . 2) Total 2 4 2 None (4. .5). .2) None 0 1 0 3 This set has three inversions. . . According to this convention. 2). A permutation is classified as even (odd) if the total number of inversions for the set is an even (odd) integer. 1)(3.. . 2. . . Working with interchanges rather than inversions is practical only when the set is small. • as • + — I 1 when when . 2. 2) are even permutations and (1. we can determine the number of integer interchanges required to rearrange the set in its natural order since an even (odd) number of interchanges corresponds to an even (odd) number of inversions. 1.) be a permutation of the set (1.2. the definition equation for an . 3) and (3. we see that each product is a permutation of the set of column subscripts and the sign is negative the permutation is odd. is a.SEC. We let ... For example.

1 Example 1—8 The permutations for n = 3 are a1=1 cxi—1 x23 1 a33 a32 =3 e123=+1 e132=—1 =2 z1=2 a3=1 a32 a3=1 e231=+1 e312=+1 e321—-—1 Using (1—44). 3. . we obtain a11 a21 a12 a22 a32 a13 a11a22a33 — a11a23a32 a23 = —a12a21a33 + a12a23a31 a33 +a13a21a32 — a13a22a31 This result coincides with (1—42). then the determinant is equal to the sum of two determinants. then the determinant is zero. 5. If all elements of any row (or column) are zero. that is. If two successive rows (or two successive columns) are interchanged. in each of which one of the two terms is deleted in each element of that row (or column). If each element in one row (or one column) is expressed as the sum of two terms. 1—18. 6. We Probs. the determinant is unchanged.18 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. Let a = [a31 [a21 a22 The determinant is a! = a11a22 — a12a21 Properties 1 and 2 are obvious. 1—17. aT! = a!. If to the elements of any row (column) are added k times the corresponding elements of any other row (column). If all elements of one row (or one column) are multiplied by a number k. The following properties of determinants can be established* from (1—44): 1. 7. 4. the sign of the determinant is changed. 2. We demonstrate these properties for the case of a second-order matrix. If corresponding elements of two rows (or two columns) are equal or in a constant ratio. 1—19. The value of the determinant is unchanged if the rows and columns are interchanged. the determinant is zero. the determinant is multiplied by k. It follows from property 2 that laTl * See a!.

To demonstrate the fifth.SEC. Then. 1—8. Finally. COFACTOR EXPANSION FORMULA in the square matrix. hi + ci = ci a21 where b11 ibi This a21 b12 a22 a22 result can be obtained by substituting for O. a.ii and a12 in (b). = associated with a23 and a22 are = —1 A23 = (— 1)5M23 = + A22 = (—1)4M22 = 1 M22 = = —37 —37 . ka11 a22 = ka12 a12(ka1j) a11(kaj2) = 0 let a11 + c11 al a12 = b12 + c12 According to property 6. to illustrate property 7. we take a= The values of 328 531 1 7 4 and M23. If the row and column containing an element. we take a21 = Then a! = Next. COFACTOR EXPANSION FORMULA illustrate the third by interchanging the rows of a: a' = [a21 a22 a12 = a21a12 — a11a22 = —Ia! a'! Property 4 is also obvious from (b). we take b12 = a12 + ka22 b21 = a21 b22 = a7. are deleted. ibi = (a11 + ka21)a22 — (a12 + ka22)a21 = a! 1-8. the determinant of the remaining square array is called the minor of and is denoted by The cofactor of is related to denoted by the minor of by (1—45) = (— As an illustration.

1—21. if follows that k1 k = 0 (147) 0 s I The above identities are used to establish Cramer's rule in the following section. we find that the determinant of a triangular matrix is equal to the product of the diagonal elements. 1—20. Expanding with respect to the first row. The expansion in terms of cofactors for a iow Or a COlUmn is a special case of the general method. lower triangular. Example (1) a11 (121 1—9 We apply (1—46) to a third-order array and expand with respect to the first row: a12 a23 a32 a13 a23 a33 a31 = 2 a22 023 a33 + + 023 a31 + 0j3(— a22 1) 035 (133 a32 a11(a22a33 — a23a32) a52(—a21a33 + a23a31) + a53(a21a32 — 022035) To illustrate (1 —47). 3 15. 1 Cofactors occur naturally when (.20 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP.1 —44) is expanded9 in terms of the elements of a row or column. Since the determinant is zero if two rows or columns are identical. sect. we take the cofactors for the first row and the elements of the second row: = a21(a22a33 — a23a32) + a22(—a21a33 + a23a31) + a23(a21a32 — a22a31) 0 (2) Suppose the array is triangular in form. * See Probs. This leads to the following expansion formula. for a discussion of the general Laplace expansion method. called Laplace's expansion by cofactors or simply Laplace's expansion: = a1kAIk akJAkJ (1 —46) Equation (1—46) states that the determinant is equal to the sum of the products of the elements of any single row or column by their cofactors. . for example. we have 0 0 0 033 a21 031 a22 = a11 (122 0 033 = (a51)(a22a33) = a11a22a33 a32 032 Generalizing this result. 4. f See Ref. This result is quite useful.

These procedures are described in References 9—13. If they are diagonal or triangular. section 3—16. . 1 —25 for an important theoretical application of Eq. . 4. CRAMER'S RULE We consider next a set of n equations in n unknowns: = * j = 1. ii (a) See Ref. . CRAMER'S RULE The evaluation of a determinant. particularly when the array is large. t See Prob. (1—48) is quite efficient. is expressed as the product of two square matrices. . 2. . It can be shown* that the determinant of the product of two square matrices is equal to the product of the determinants: ci = a! hi (1—48) Whether we use (1—48) or first multiply a and b and then determine lab! depends on the form and order of a and b. c='ab and we want cJ. 1—9. using the definition equation (1—44) or the cofactor expansion formula (1—46) is quite tedious. 1—48. c hi 4 = —20 [ [11 29J [1 31 cj = —20 a=[0 a! = 5 Determining c first. we obtain 5] bi = 8 r2 0 b__[1 Ic! = +40 rs 121 = [5 20] and ci = +40 1—9. t Example 1—10 [1 31 r2 = and Ic! 3 5] a! = Alternatively. say c. Suppose a square matrix.SEC. A number of alternate and more efficient numerical procedures for evaluating determinants have been developed.

Singular matrices and the question of solvability are discussed in Sec. a is said to be singular. . Equation (c) leads to Cramer's rule. Then. . 1 —13. Whether a solution exists in this ease will depend on c.22 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP.. 2. 1 Multiplying both sides of (a) by Air. summation) we obtain (after interchanging the order of Xk k1 Now. and summing with respect to j. the denominator is al and the numerator is the determinant of the matrix obtained from a by replacing the rth column by c. where r is an arbitrary integer from 1 to n. only in that the rth column of a is replaced by c. has a n) is unique solution when 0. Using matrix notation.. ADJOINT AND INVERSE MATRICES We have shown in the previous section that the solution to a system of n equations in n unknowns. . ax = c.j can be expressed as 1 1. 1—9).. n 1.. which can be stated as follows: A set of n linear algebraic equations in n unknowns. All we can conclude from Cramer's rule is that the solution. [Au]T{cj} (b) takes the form Equation (e) leads naturally to the definition of adjoint and inverse matrices. c of Sec. ii (note that we have taken r = I in Eq. The expression for Xr (r = 1. 2.. the inner sum vanishes when r = j=1 k. i. 1—10. 2 the ratio of two determinants. k and equals al when r = This follows from (1—47). if it exists. will not be unique. (b) reduces to lalxr = The expansion on the right side of (c) differs from the expansion al = ajrAj. If jaf = 0..

then a is also symmetrical. aT: 1 (a_la)T = . To show this. Then —i —7 Adja —1/5 0 —10 —10 +5 +7 —1 + 1/25 + 2/5 —7/25 +7/25 — = —-. Applying (1—48) to (i—Si). Example 1—11 We determine the adjoint and inverse matrices for a= 2 The matrix of cofactors is 123 412 3 1 5 —1 0 —10 —10 +7 —1 —7 +5 5 Also.Adj a a= 0 1/5 +2/5 + 1/25 Using the inverse-matrix notation. we see that a1 has the property that = Equation (1—51) is frequently taken as the definition of the inverse matrix instead of (1—50).. Multiplication by the inverse matrix is analogous to division in ordinary algebra. ADJOINT AND INVERSE MATRICES 23 We define the adjoint and inverse matrices for the square matrix a of order n as adjoint a = Adj a = inverse a = (1—49) a1 Adj a (1—50) Note that the inverse matrix is defined only for a nonsingular square matrix. we take the transpose of (1—5 1). 1—10. and use the fact that a =. al = —25. we can write the solution of (a) as x= Substituting for x in (a) and c in (d). If a is symmetrical.SEC. we obtain a1a = aa' It follows that (1—Si) is valid only when 0.

3. One can also show* that. the inverse and transpose operations can be interchanged: bT. ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON A MATRIX The elementary operations on a matrix are:' 1. I.. 2. For example. of k times the corresponding element of another row or column.. The interchange of two rows or of two columns. A number of inversion procedures based on (1—51) have been developed. The multiplication of the elements of a row or a column by a number other than zero. 1 Premultiplication by a' results in — a"' and therefore a1 is also symmetrical. to the elements of a row or column. called an elementary operation matrix. Let c= ab where a and b are both of order n x n and nonsingular. . 1—28.24 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA 1 CHAP. The addition. Suppose that we want to interchange rowsj and k. 9—13. the inverse of a multiple matrix product is equal to the product of the inverse matrices in reverse order. 2. * Interchange Interchange and 5k• and See Prob. 1—11. These methods are described in Ref. we premultiply a by an rn x in matrix obtained by modifying the mth-order unit matrix. Premultiplication and then b1 results in by a'c = b (b'a'')c = It follows from the definition of the inverse matrix that (ab)1 = (1—53) In general. We consider a matrix a of order x n. These operations can be effected by premultiplying (for row operation) or postmultiplying (for column operation) the matrix by an appropriate matrix. Then. in the following way: 1.._t = (1—52) We consider next the inverse matrix associated with the product of two square matrices. for any nonsingular square matrix. = The determination of the inverse matrix using the definition equation (1 —50) is too laborious when the order is large.

The matrix which multiplies row j by is an mth order diagonal matrix having d1 = 1 for i j and = Similarly. In general. premultiplication by 001 010 100 interchanges rows 1 and 3 and postmultiplication by 1000 0001 0010 0100 interchanges columns 2 and 4. to interchange columns. we first interchange the rows of the conformable unit matrix and premultiply. properties of determinants (page 18). Add (2) times the first row to the third row. Similarly. Example We 1—12 illustrate these operations on a third matrix: 1 1/2 7 1 1/5 2 5 a= We 3 —2 first: 1. Since we start with a unit matrix and since the elementary operations. 1—11. change the value of the determinant by a nonzero scalar factor. if a is 3 x 4. We let e denote an elementary operation matrix. Then.SEC. we insert in the kth row and jth column of and premultiply. we interchange columns of the conformable unit matrix and postmultiply. at most. To add z times column jto column k. we obtain e by applying the same operations to the conformable unit matrix. * Add (—3) times the first row to the second row.* it follows that e will always be nonsingular. This simple example shows that to interchange rows. Then. See . ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON A MATRIX 25 For example. The elementary operation matrices for operations (2) and (3) are also obtained by operating on the corresponding conformable unit matrix. Similarly. ea represents the result of applying a set of elementary operations to the rows of a. ac represents the result of applying a set of elementary operations to thc columns of a. postmultiplication by an nth order diagonal matrix having = 1 for i j and = will multiply thejth column by Suppose that we want to add times row jto row k. 2. we put in the jth row and kth column of and postmu-ltiply.

starting with a unit matrix. and is the basis for the Gauss elimination solution scheme (Refs. 11.'Il 0 0 1 0 0 11/2 2 7/5 = 0 14/55 27/5 0 2 27/5 Next. we multiply the second row by 2/11: 1 0 0 1 1/2 1/5 1 1/2 1 1/5 0 0 2. The complete set of operations is 100 010 0 0 1 0 1 0110 1 1 0 0 012/110 —310 372 0 0 100 0 1 11/21/5 1 55/269 —2 0 1/5 1 2 —2 5 1/2 1 = 0 00 14/55 =b 1 This example illustrates the reduction of a square matrix to a matrix using elementary operations on rows. We write the result as ea = b where e is the product of the four operation matrices listed above: 0 e 0 0 —6/11 2/11 + 1870/2959 —220/2959 55/269 We obtain e by applying successive operations. The form of e after each step is listed below: 100 0 0 001 1 Initial Step 1 —3 1 100 0 201 Step 2 1 0 0 0 1 —6/11 2 2/11 0 .26 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. we multiply the third row by 55/269. This is more convenient than listing and then multiplying the operation matrices for the various steps. 9. we add (—2) times the second row to the third row: 1 0 1 0 1 1/2 1 1/5 1 14/55 1 0 0 269/55 Finally. 1 These operations are carried out by premultiplying by —3 100 0 201 1 and the result is 1 1/2 1/5 0 0 11/2 2 7/5 27/5 Continuing. 13).

. which has a nonvanishing deter- minant. we suppose the determinant associated with the first r rows and columns does not vanish. r. 1-12. Step 3 1 RANK OF A MATRIX 27 0 2/11 —4/11 0 0 0 [1 —6/11 } Step 4 0 2/11 0 —6/11 +34/11 L+187o/2959 —220/2959 0 55/269 Two matrices are said to be equivalent if one can be derived from the other by any finite number of elementary operations. and the remaining rn — r rows are linear combinations of these r rows. a11 a12 a22 ar2 aIr 01q a21 an azq (1—55) arr 0rq apq We multiply the elements in rowj by (j 1. Also. formed by deleting certain rows and columns.r) and subtract the result from the last row. 1—7). RANK OF A MATRIX The rank. Then a has r rows which are linearly independent. we determine the constants such that the first r elements . The concept of rank is quite important since. In particular. a and b are equivalent if b = paq (1—54) where p and q are nonsinqular. it has n — r columns which are linear combinations of r linearly independent columns. .SEC. Tn general. as we shall see in the next section. . the solvability of a set of linear algebraic equations is dependent on the rank of certain matrices associated with the set. If a is of rank r. row p. This operation will not change the magnitude of Ar+t (see Sec. This follows from the fact that the elementary operation matrices are nonsingular. one can always rearrange the rows and columns such that this condition is satisfied. r < q n. We consider the (r + 1)th-order determinant associated with the first r rows and columns. the matrices 1 1/2 7 1/5 2 5 1 1/2 1 3 and 0 —21 00 1/5 14/55 1 are equivalent. of a matrix is defined as the order of the largest square array. Referring to Example 1 —12. that is. and column q where r < p in. 1—12. which contain a nonvanishing determinant of order r. . Let a be of order in x n. To establish this result. 2. Suppose the rank of a is r.

28 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. Then (1 —55) reduces to a11 012 022 a1. . Apr : 0p1 m (1—59) Combining (1—56) and (1—59). A. One can also show* that the last n — r columns of a are linear combinations of the first r columns.2 = 0p2 (1—56) a1.÷1 vanishes when a is of rank r.. 1 in the last row vanish: a11 021 - 012 022 a.÷1 vanishes for all combinations of p and q. we have a11 a21 0r1 4p1 012 022 r r+2 m (1—60) Equation (1—60) states that the last m — r rows of a are linear combinations of the first r rows. 1—39. It follows that apq = [aiq. (1—57) a21 Ar+i a.2 0 0rr 0 0 where = apq — (1—58) Orq] Applying Laplace's expansion formula to (1—57). 02p . Example 1—13 Consider the 3 x 4 matrix a=21 32 5 1234 7 12 14 ? See Prob. we see that A. a2r apr Equation (1—56) has a unique solution since the coefficient matrix is nonsingular.

It follows that a is of rank p. Suppose b defined by (1—61) is obtained by applying elementary operations to a. we conclude that a is of rank 2. b2p B12 (1—61) 0 0 0 Example 1—14 [i a=)2 [5 First. it is more efficient to reduce it to an echelon matrix rather than try to find the largest nonvanishing determinant: a11 (121 I (pxpt b12 II.SEC.4 Since a33 and (134 satisfy this requirement. The rows are related by (third row) = + 3 (first row) + (second row) One can show* that the elementary operations do not change the rank of a matrix.. using the first row: 1 2 3 4 —8 0 0 * See —3 —3 —6 —3 —3 Prob. the first two rows are linearly independent. 1—40.. We know that band a have the same rank. we eliminate 2 1 3 3 4 2 12 7 12 and a31. A3 must vanish. This fact can be used to dctcrmine the rank of a matrix. A matrix having the form of b is called an echelon matrix. 2. . When a is large. We consider the determinant of the third-order array consisting of columns 1. and q: 1 2 1 ajq a2q a3q 2 5 7 Solving the system. . RANK OF A MATRIX 29 We see that a is at least of rank 2 since the determinant associated with the first two rows and columns is finite. Then. + 223 = 5 22 = 7 we obtain If a is of rank 2. This requires a3q = 2 101q + 22a2q = 3ajq + a3q q = 3. 1—12.

the rank of a will be we obtain Evaluating the product. To obtain b. 1—13. we see that r = 3. and interchange the third and fourth columns: b= 0 1243 0010 1 2 1 Suppose a is expressed as the product of two rectangular matrices: a = (rnxn) (nxs) b c (1—62) One can show* that the rank of a cannot be greater than the minimum value of r associated with b and C: r(a) ruin [r(b). consider the product a [—1/2 — [—1/2 +1/2 +1/2 01 1] 0 I Since each matrix is of rank 2. we multiply the second row by — 1/3. 0 1 SOLVABILITY OF LINEAR ALGEBRAiC EQUATIONS We consider first a system of two equations in three unknowns: [:: :: Suppose a is of rank 2 and a11 (1-64) a21 * See a22 0 (1—65) Prob. r(c)] (1—63) As an illustration. we eliminate aW.30 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. using the second row: —1 0 2 3 4 —2 —3 —3 —6 0 0 0 At this point. the third row by — 1/2. 1—44. . [0 It follows that a is of rank 1. 1 Next.

we transfer the term involving X2 to the right-hand side: A1X1 = c — A2X2 (1—67) 0. a [a11 [a21 X1 a12 a22 a131 a23j [A1 A2] (1—66) çx1 1x2 and write (1—64) as A1X1 + A2X2 = c.. when a is of rank 1. we can write the solution as = Aj'(c — A2X2) (1—68) Since X2 is arbitrary. 1—13. the equations are inconsistent and no solution exists. The order of X2 is generally called the defect of the system. If this condition is satisfied. SOLVABILITY OF LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS If a is of rank 2. the solution is Tf c2 x1 = (1/a11)(c1 — a12x2 — a13x3) (1—70) The defect of this system is 2. x1 C1 a is of rank in. the system does not have a unique solution for a given c. the two equations in (1—69) are identical and one can be disregarded. The defect for this system is 1. Assuming that 0.SEC. we can always renumber the rows and columns such that (1—65) is satisfied. (1—64) has a solution only if the rows of c are related in the same manner as the rows of a. we have a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = C1 c2/A (1—69) 2cr. Finally. We rearrange the columns such that the first in columns are . Next. The procedure followed for the simple case of 2 equations in 3 unknowns is also applicable to the general case of in equations in n unknowns: a11 (221 a12 a1. Multiplying the second equation in (1—64) by 1/A. say A. the second row is a scalar multiple. If a is of rank 1. We partition a and x. Then. it follows from Cramer's rule that (1—67) has a unique solution Since jA1j for X1. there exists an mth order array which has a nonvanishing determinant. of the first row.

.. . When e 0.. A1C1 + 22C2 (c) To show this. (c) is identically satisfied and we see that (a) has a nontrivial 0) only when r < 3. consider the third-order system a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 = a21x1 + a22x2 + a73x3 = a31x1 + a32x3 + Suppose C1 (a) = C3 that r = 2 and the rows of a are related by (third row) = (first row) + (second row) (b) For (a) to be consistent. Then. the elements of c must satisfy the requirement. x4 = c — A2X2 { X1 (m 1) ((n—rn)x 1) X2 } we write (1—71) as A3X1 (1—73) 0. {x1 X2 Xm+i •. = [ A1 (mxm) A2 ] (1—72) am2 amni a.. The defect of the set is n — m. that is. 1 linearly independent. The general case is handled in the same manner. and add to 0= C3 — — I12C2 (d) Unless the right-hand side vanishes. we multiply the first equation in (a) by these equations the third equation. a11 a12 az. The remaining m — r rows are linear combinations of these r rows. we obtain the second by —A2.32 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. Suppose a is of rank r where r < m. The defect for this case is n — r. the relations between the rows of c must be the same as those for a. ai.. the equations are contradictory or inconsistent and no solution exists. Partitioning a and x. 1—45. Since IA1I Example 1—15 As an illustration. a has r rows which contain an rth-order array having a nonvanishing determinant. the solution involves n — m arbitrary constants represented by X2. that is..m+1 a2m÷1 am. For (1—71) to be consistent. have a solution. (1—73) can be solved for X1 in terms of c and X2.* solution (x See Prob. Using (b)..m÷1 Xm az.

Prentice-Hall.2 [a Cm cJ (1—74) a. E. Thus. HADLEY. r(a). B. 1964. 11. REFERENCES 1. 1961. HOUSEHOLDER.: Matrix calculus. Mass. 2...REFERENCES 33 In general. E. R. New York. the rank of tz is equal to the rank of a. J. (1—71) contains r independent equations involving n unWhen knowns. Waltham.. . S. Mass. Faddeeva. New York. F. 4. cambridge University Press. New York. the problem reduces to first finding r@) and then solving a set of r independent equations in n unknowns. We define the augmented matrix. We can determine r(cz) and i(a) simultaneously using elementary operations on provided that we do not interchange the elements in the last column. 1963.: Computational Methods of Linear Algebra. F. Reading. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. The complete problem can be efficiently handled by using the Gauss elimmation procedure (Refs. A. 1958. London. 1959.. 8. 9. New York. W.: Methods of Applied Mathematics. 1956. New York. NOBLE. cOLLAR: Elementary Matrices. 6.: Linear Algebra.flfl When the rows of a and c are related in the same way. G. THOMAS. Blaisdell. Prentice-Hall.: Calculus and Analytical Geometry. (1 —71) can be solved when r < . 1952.: Elementary Matrix Algebra. 1969. BODBWIG. is of rank r(a). The remaining m — r equations are linear combinations of these r equations and can be disregarded. Mass. C1 = afl. The reduction can be represented as (1-76) where > r(a) and has a nonvanishing element. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. It follows that (1—71) has a solution only if the rank of the augmented matrix is equal to the rank of the coefficient matrix: = r(a) (1—75) Note that (1—75) is always satisfied when r(a) = m for arbitrary c... 1953. for (1—71) as a11 a12 a2. 9. Macmillan Co. If no solution exists. Interscience Publishers. 3..n if the relations between the rows of a and c are identical. Dover Publications. JR. G. Reading.: Applied Linear Algebra. 13). ci. N. DUNCAN and A. 7. A. HIL DEBRAND.. B. V. 5. B.: The Theory of Matrices in Numerical Analysis.. R. HOUN.

B. and N. Carry out the indicated operations: 1 (a) 321 +713 510 056 (b) [2 1 1 4 0 2 . Wiley. I and 2. 15. .. . Prentice-Hall. New York. 1962. Vol. CONTE. S.3 5 6j[ 3 —1 2 (c) [1 3[3 21 [—i ii [2 4j+2[ 0 3j4[l 3 (d) [i [—i [ —2152 4J 55 [—3 (e) l][4 —3j [2 1 2 3 [4 11 3j [—i [ I [2 1—2. S. D. S. .34 10.: Elementary Numerical Analysis. VARGA. . 13. 14. b2 [a11 [a21 [c1 01 c2j a12 [o a22 . INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. G. . Wiley. E. A. New York. a2. 2 —3 Expand the following products: [a1. MALER: Computer Solution of Linear Algebraic Systems. b. A.. New York. WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. . . and H. Reading. S.j (b) {ai. 1967. ZHIDKOV: Computing Methods. FORSYTHE. [b1. . 1967.: Matrix Iterative Analysis. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. . Vols. PROBLEMS 1—1. I. Mass. (c) a2. 12. 1. 11. Prentice-Hall. RALSTON. McGraw-Hill. New York. . New York. 2. 1960. R. {b1. b2. BEREZIN. Vol. . P. . S. and H. 1965. 1 RALSTON. and C. WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. 1965..

When is this product defined? Let p = abc What is the order of p? Determine Determine an expression for aT. where a is a square matrix.PROBLEMS 35 (d) [Cii [021 1—3. =a—+—b db dy da dy Consider the triple product. 1—4. case where c 1—6. Evaluate the following products: (a) F for the 41 [1 [—2 (b) ij [2 sj 21 [5 [4 1 1 1—7. show that if = ab then dc dy 1—5. abc. Let cia — db — — [dblk] dy [dv j c dy [dy j Using (1—19). Suppose the elements of a and b are functions of y. (a + b)(a + b) Show that the product of two symmetrical matrices is symmetrical only when they are commutative. 1—8. a121 0 C2 022j [0 Show that the product of Sl= a1+ a2 + 03 = S2 = + b2 + b3 3 = bk can be written as 3 S1S2 I 1 Generalize this result for the sum of n elements. Show that the following products are symmetrical: (a) aTa (b) aTba (c) where b is symmetrical where c is symmetrical bTaTcab .

Deduce that the diagonal submatrices are square and Ars. Consider the triple product. Ars = have the same order.. N . 1 symmetrical partitions. Suppose we symmetrically partition c. Illustrate for the case of one partition. A matrix is said to be symmetrically partitioned if the locations of the row and column partitions coincide. a (a) Suppose we partition a square matrix with i.j = 1. 1—11. 2.. Show that the horizontal partitions of c correspond to those of a and the vertical partitions of c correspond to those of b. A12 A22 (b) 1—13. 1—10. (b) If a = aT. 1 1-9. e. (1—37). a11 a21 a31 012 0131 a22 a32 a23 a33 is symmetrically partitioned and a11 a31 is a12 a13 033 a32 N— unsymmetrically partitioned. c= (a) ab If a and b are symmetrically partitioned. Consider the product of two square nth order matrices. What restrictions are placed on the partitions of a and b? Does it follow that we must also partition a and b symmetrically? Hint: See Prob.g. show that CJk.36 INTRODUCTION TO MATRtX ALGEBRA CHAP. Let c = ab.. Evaluate the following matrix product. a — are of [A11 [A2. C= a symmetric rth-order square matrix and a is of order r x ii. Hint: See Eq. using the indicated submatrices: 1 3 4 51 1 3 1—10. AJk. For example. Suppose we symmetrically partition c. The order of the partitioned matrices are indicated in parentheses. deduce that 1—12. (pxp) (pxq) (nxn) — — [C11 C12 [c21 (q><p) c22 (qxg) . . the same order.

Consider the terms . Express (j. Consider the third-order determinant a! = . 4. 3. permutation. Suppose that = Then. 1) following sets. 1) we obtain e312a31a12a23 fi = (3. k = 1. 1—iS. Using this result. 1. Show that da = bd = when the matrices are [DJAJk] [BJkDk] conformably partitioned. (fl1. 1—17. (b) takes the form = = Show that (c) = —(a) Generalize this result and establish that the sign of a determinant is reversed when two rows are interchanged. 2. We obtain (b) by rearranging (a) such that the second subscripts are in natural order.2. al = 1—18. Determine the number of inversions and interchanges for the (4.2) (3. and b. 3. Let d = [Di] be a quasi-diagonal matrix. A2. (a) (b) 1—16.2) in terms of A1.PROBLEMS (a) 37 Show that the following partitioning of a is consistent with that of c.1. rearranging e231 a12 a23 a31 = (2. For example.3. 4. 1—19. in general. 5) have? 1a1122a1h3 The first subscripts in (a) are in natural order.2) is Show that if is an even permutation. How many permutations Consider the terms does (1. (r x n) (r X p1 a ={A1 (r x q) A2] (b) 1—14. show that = p also an even and.

J. Use Laplace's expansion formula to show that 1 0 0 o b12 b22 b2P 0 9 o b11 0 (pxp) a (pxn) . — 1—20. For example. We can put the set in natural order by successively interchanging adjacent integers. and (a) reduces to 3 3 — = Following this approach. 3 l2—* 132—* 123 231 —*21 3—* 123 Show that In — p1 adjacent interchanges (called transpositions) are required. say n. 1—7.. k12 0n2 Consider the quasi-diagonal matrix.38 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP. which is located at position p. It follows that the sign of the resulting set is changed by 1) In — 1—21. — — Using the result of the previous problem.. Suppose all the integers of a set are in natural order except for one integer. We can write the expansion for the third-order determinant as \ i=1 ( \j = k / ) t. (pxp) d_[D1 [o (qxp) By expressing d as 0 (qxq) D2 0 [o Iqj[0 D2 . . 1 Suppose the second row is a multiple of the first row: = Generalize this result and establish = 0. . establish Laplace's cofactor expansion formula for an nth-order determinant.i a11 0n1 (un (12.7 012 a22 bFa = al (nXn) bni 1—23. 1—22. (Hint: = Show that properties 5 and 7 of Sec.

PROBLEMS show that dl = D11 D21. . a11 a21 a12 g11 0 g22 0 0 b11 b12 b22 a22 '1n2 az. b. LA21 (qxp) A121 (qxq) [G1. . G22J[0 (qxq) B22 (qxq) Note that the diagonal submatrices of g and b are triangular in form. (a) Show that = A. 2.n — 1.. 0 0 0021 0053 [A. = g21 ? 0 1n2 Yflfl 0 bflfl introduce symmetrical partitions after row (and column) p and write the product as We (pxp) (pxq) (pxp) (pxq) 0 (pxp) [A1. of various orders. and an upper triangular matrix. g. Verify this result for 1100 2 3 d— Generalize for d 1—24. . Suppose we express a as the product of a lower triangular matrix.. 1—25. = jG1 (pxp) (pxq) 0 G22 (qxq) Show that G221 Generalize for a quasi-triangular matrix whose diagonal submatrices are square. (qxp) (pxq) B12 A22J — [G2. Let g — [Gii [G2. deduce that this requirement leads to the . (qxp) 1[Bi.11 G11B12 = A12 G21B11 = A21 G21B12 (b) + G22B22 = A22 1G111 Show that A111 = BijI and al = 1G111 G22j 1B111 1B221 (c) Suppose we require that By taking p = 1.

82. Does the following set of equations have a unique solution? 1 2 3 7 3 x1 X2 2 1 5 = 3 3 ii x3 5 1—27. 32 — 33 and B32 [8. 1—26. 123 1 3 7 5 3 11 exist? T = Find the inverse of Show that b1' bT. Starting with the condition aa' 13 . (a) [1 3 [3 (b) 2 [2 4 [i (c) S [1 31[2 4 [3 (d) 2J[l s [2 O1[2 [o Let a12 3j[l s a [A11 A12 A22 = 31 = [A2. Determine the adjoint matrix for a= Does a 1—28. where the order of BJk is the same as AJ1. 1 following n conditions on the elements of a: a11 a12 2 aj1 aj2 The determinant of the array contained in the firstj rows and columns is called the jth-order discriminant.40 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAP..

k 1. 1—31 and 1—32 to find the inverse of b — [B11 B12 [o B22 where B11. [B11 01[1 0 1 [o ij[o a= 3 j[o B22 Consider the 3 x 4 matrix 1121 1211 1 2 2 Determine the elementary row operation matrix which results in a21 = = Oand a11 022 033 = +1. Show that the following elementary operations 0 and on the partitioned rows of a reduce a to a triangular matrix. B22 are square and nonsingular. 2). 1-32. Use this result to find the inverse of 124 212 121 A 1—3!. Let (pxp) (p'<q) a31 = a where [A11 A12 (qxq) [A2. 1—35. Use the results of Probs. A22 0. Suppose we want to rearrange the columns of a in the following way: 1 2 1 3 3 a= 2 3 4 5 col2—+coll col3—*col2 . Find the inverse of L0 lq Note that A is (p x q). Determine °1 [ L0 cj [A21 lqj [0 — A 01 01 [A11 Iqj [A21 Aizi — AW A22J — [o Iq AIA \1 1—36.PROBLEMS 41 determine the four matrix equations relating BJk and Aft (j. Find the inverse of 0 D2 1—33. Hint: write has b 1—34.

Show that = a! 2. Find the rank of a by reducing it to an echelon matrix. 4. Show that a is of rank 1 when 1—37. Using properties 3. consider the first r rows and columns to be linearly independent. Show that a has n — r columns which are linear combinations of r linear independent columns. For con- venience. Also. deduce that the elementary operations do not change the rank of a matrix. third 1—38. Let a be of order 2 x n. show that when r = 1. and 7 of determinants (see Sec.42 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA (a) CHAP. (b) (c) Show that pre. Determine the rank of (a) 1 3 7 5 3 2 4 —4 —10 2 3 (b) 1 —1 2 —1 4 6 —2 1 —2 —3 1—39. the nth columns are multiples of the first column. (d) (e) Show that 11TH 13.. where n the second row is a multiple of the first row. 1 Show that postmultiplication byIl(which is called a permutation matrix) results in the desired column rearrangement: o 0 11 H= 1 0 01 o i oj rearranges the rows of a in the Note that we just rearrange the corresponding columns of 13. Verify for a= 2 1234 1 3 2 5 7 12 14 1—40. 1—41. a— 1122 2132 7797 4 2 1 . second. 1—7). Generalize for the case where a is n x n.nultiplication by same way. Let a be of order in x ii and rank r.

1 h2 = - Let - .. we can write (a) as A1 A2 Am Suppose r(a) = r4. third j = 2... . row and therefore r(c) 1 —44.PROBLEMS 1—42. Then. = Show that the second. a1 a2 C : When will r(c) 1—43.. we assume the first r0 rows of a and the first r1 columns of b are linearly independent. -. For convenience... 0? Consider the product... A3 = p= 1 j = ra + 1. When will r(c) = 0? Suppose r(a) = 1 and a11 0. - B1 {b11b21 - - Using (b).. we can write cblk) (j)2kj (b) Show that the second. In this case.. a11 a12 r b11b12 b is of rank 1 and b11 0.. nth columns of c are multiples of the first column and therefore r(c) 1. . m . r(b) rb. a12 a22 a.3. 43 Show that c is at most of rank 1. third.m 1. . ra + 2. Consider the product a11 a21 mth rows of c are multiples of the first When will r(c) = 0? a1. Then. . we can write .2 ' b11 b12 h22 b21 a.

in of c are linear combinations of the first rows... r + 2. . A3x = j A1 = k = r + 1. Bk = q 1 XkqBq k— + 1. . (a) Show that rows ra + 1. Verify for U 1—45. . (c) + 2. . .. . (b) Show that columns Tb + 1. . 1 . of the first columns. what can you conclude about an upper bound on r(c)? (d) To determine the actual rank of e. Show that r(e) = s. n of c are linear combinations From (a) and (b). . A2 B2 [1 B •. suppose a is of rank r and the first r rows are linearly independent..44 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA rb CHAP. we must find the rank of A1 A1B1 A1B2 A2B2 AraB2 A1Br1. . in Note that this requirement is independent of whether in < n or in > n. . Let = Using (b).. we write (a) as .B2 Br? Utilize these results to find the rank of —1/2 1/2 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 —1/2 —1 1/2 1 1 1 1 2 (f) Suppose ra = rb = s. . What canyou conclude about A1 is orthogonal toB1. Consider the m x n system a12 021 Gm i X1 C1 022 0 C2 2 0R111 X. . + 2. 2.. Tb + 2.. fl2 in = 1. r + 2 m (a) Show that the system is consistent only if Ck k= p=1 i• + 1. .. . 2 (c) Now. j 1. . A2B1 rb] •. A2Brb Suppose ra (e) Tb. . Then.

the equations are consistent for an arbibrary c. (a) . (b) Find the solution in terms of x4. Is this also true when rn > n and r = n? Illustrate for [i [i and —1 2 11 4] 1 1 X2 fc1 C1 —1 1 2 c2 4 c3 1—46.x3+7x4=23 Determine whether the above system is consistent using elementary operations on the augmented matrix.PROBLEMS 45 (b) If m < n and r = m. Consider the following system of equations: x1 + X2 + 2x3 + 2x4 4 2x1+x2+3x3+2x4=6 3x1-l-4x2+2x3+x4=9 7x1 +7x2+9.

The equations of motion for the case of no applied forces (the free-vibration case) are d2y2 + k2(y2 — k2(y2 — 0 y1) m1 d2y + k1y1 — = 0 * Also called "eigenvalue" problem in some texts. The term "cigenvalue" is a hybrid of the German term Elgenwerte and English "value. Also.2 Characteristic-Value Problems and Quadratic Forms 2—i. Using matrix notation.* problem occurs naturally in the free-vibration The analysis of a linear system. INTRODUCTION Consider the second-order homogeneous system. (ajj 2)x1 + at2xz 0 a25x1 + (a22 — A)x2 = 0 where A is a scalar. we can write (2—i) as ax or (a — 212)x 0 (2—3) Ax (2—2) The values of 2. the problem of finding the characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions of (2—i) is referred to as a second-order characteristic-value problem. We illustrate for the system shown in Fig." 46 . for which nontrivial solutions of (2—i) exist are called the characteristic values of a. 2—1.

2—1. . and the amplitudes. w. NTRODUCT$ON 47 Assuming a solution of the form — A iwt y2zize A and substituting in (a) lead to the following set of algebraic equations relating the frequency. A system with two degrees of freedom. our primary reason for considering the characteristic-value problem is that results obtained for the characteristic value problem provide the basis for the treatment of quadratic * See Prob. ] Fig. 2—1. 2—i. The as we shall see in the following sections. A2: (k1 + k2)A1 — k2A2 = in1w2A1 —k2A1 + k2A2 = m2w2A2 We can transform (c) to a form similar to that of(2—1) by defining new amplitude measures. A1.SEC.* 2—co2 A2 = and the final equations are k2 k1+k2_ — —== 2 = A — rn1 k2 A1 + 'fl2 A2 = 2A2 characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions of (e) are related to the natural frequencies and normal mode amplitudes by (d). I Although the application to dynamics is quite important. Note that the coefficient matrix in (e) is symmetrical. This fact is quite significant.

it follows that the characteristic values for a symmetrical second-order matrix are always real. Reference 9 contains a definitive treatment of the underlying theory and computational procedures. 0 (2-5) Expanding (2—5) results in the following equation (usually called the characteristic equation) for 1: 22 — (a11 + a22)). 2 forms which are encountered in the determination of the relative extrema of a function (Chapter 3).2 = (P1 ± When a is symmetrical. SECOND-ORDER CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEM We know from Cramer's rule that nontrivial solutions of — 2)x1 + a12x2 A)x2 — 0 0 a21x1 + (a22 — when a11 — a21 A = (2—4) are possible only if the determinant of the coefficient matrix vanishes. the solution is 21.48 PROBLEMS CHAP. + (a11a22 — a21a12) = 0 (2—6) We let = a11 + a22 = a11a22 — a12a21 = H and the characteristic equation reduces to 22 — (2—7) + P2 = 0 (2—8) The roots of (2—8) are the characteristic values of a. a12 = a21. This discussion is restricted to the case where a is real. 2—2. the construction of variational principles (Chapter 7). and — (2—9) = (a11 a22)2 + 4(a12)2 Since this quantity is never negative. Denoting the roots by 22. Example 2—i [2 a={2 2 =2÷ 5= The characteristic equation for this matrix is 22 — 7 P2 = (2)(5) — (2)(2) = 6 72 +6= 0 . 18). and stability criteria (Chapters 7. a12 a22—). that is.

denoted by Q1. SECOND-ORDER CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEM 49 Solving (a). the solution of the first equation is that a12 xi') = 1) C1 = 012 where c1 is an arbitrary constant. [1 —2 —! 131=0 A. 2—2. we work with the second equation. Continuing. we let and take c1 such that = 1. This follows from the fact that the coefficient matrix is singular. we suppose the characteristic values are real. We define as the solution for A = 0. nontrivial solutions of (2—4) exist only when 2 = or 22. times the first eq. the soluAssuming* tiOn is not unique. (Oii — %1)(a22 — — a12a21 = 0 Since only one equation isindcpendcnt and there are two unknowns. Equation (2—4) becomes (a11 — A. We consider first the case where A A.1 2— ±j where i= By definition.1. In what follows.1)x1 + a12x2 = = 0 0 a21x1 + (a22 — The second equation is related to the first by second eq. + L —_2112 J - Q1Q1 = 1 (2—11) if a12 0. is referred to as the characteristic vector for = a12 (2—10) = By definition.SEC. This operation is called normalization. and the resulting column matrix. .

c2} The corresponding characteristic vectors are Q1 = {+1. (2—15) we have Q1Q2 — — —C1C2 /1 + (a11 - — A1)(a11 2 a12 — A2) Now. Q1 and Q2 are orthogonal for the symmetrical case. the. In general. and the two independent solutions {c1. This result is also valid when the roots are equal.0} Q2 = {0. Using this terminology. From (2—10) and (2—13). V having the property that and UTV=VTU=0 (2—16) are said to be orthogonal. 0} {0. It is of interest to examine the product. Two nth order column vectors U. 2 Since Qi is a solution of (2—4) for A = we see that A1Q1 A2. Equation (2—4) takes the form (a11 — A)xi + (0)xz 0 (O)x1 + (a11 A)x2 = 0 These equations are linearly independent. when a is symmetrical. . If a is symmetrical.right-hand term vanishes since a11 — A2 —(a22 — A1) = — a11 — we see that QrQ2 = 0. there is only one independent nontrivial solution when the characteristic values are equal. +1} If a is not symmetrical. the characteristic values will be equal only when a11 a22 and a12 = c121 = 0. aQ1 = (2—12) Following the same procedure for A = Q2 = c2 we obtain (2—13) ) where = Also. QfQ2. aQ2 + L j (2—14) = It remains to discuss the case where A1 = A2.50 CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. QIQ2 0 when a is unsymmetrical.

c1 = Then. and = 2} = 2c1 the normalized solution is Q1 Repeating forA = and A2 = +1.SEC. we find = Q2 One can easily verify that c2{1. — l} We see that 0. Solving the first equation. 2—2. QTQ2 = [1 A1—_+i —2 —l A2=—i We have included this example to illustrate the case where the characteristic values are . = and — — j = 1. SECOND-ORDER CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEM Example 2—2 [2 a=[2 2 A1=+6 The equations for A = A2=+1 +6 are —4x1 + 2x2 = 0 2x1 — =0 We see that the second equation is we obtain times the first equation.2 — Ii a=[t 8 3 The characteristic values and corresponding normalized solutions for this matrix are 1 Q2 = {4. Actually.

With this notation. SIMILARITY AND ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS The characteristic vectors for the relations: system satisfy the following (a) aQ1 = aQ2 = We can write (a) as 22Q2 Q2] = EQ1 2j Q2] (b) Now. the corresponding characteristic vectors are complex conjugates. (b) takes the form aq = (2—18) * This terminology has developed from dynamics.2 = Qt. Also.52 PROBLEMS CHAP. The general solution is x(1t = Repeating for c1 2= 12. where the characteristic vectors define the normal modes of vibration for a discrete system. the characteristic values are complex conjugate quantities when the elements of a are real. we take c2 = c1. 2 complex.2 = In general. When the roots are complex. we find = c2 1-3-i} Now. xt2> is the complex conjugate of = I Finally. we let q=[Qj = (2—17) We call q the normalized Column j of q contains the normalized solution for modal matrix* for a. The equations corresponding to 2 (1 — i)x1 x5 — are 2x2 0 (1 + i)x2 = 0 Note that the second equation is (1 — i) times the first equation. the characteristic values and characteristic vectors are 21. . 12 is the complex conjugate of We determine c1 such that Then. 2—3.

we see that q q = [QTJ [Qi [Qfl Q2] qT [1 0 1 [o and it follows that (2—20) A square matrix. They are also independent when a is unsymmetrical. by definition. unsymmetrical and the characteristic values are equal. provided that 0 except for the case where a is 11. If a is symmetrical.2. Then. reduces a to a diagonal matrix whose elements are the characteristic values of a. p is arbitrary.SEC. If 0. Note that an orthogonal transformation is also a similarity transformation. — — — — Also. AND ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS 53 We have shown that the characteristic vectors are always linearly indepen- dent when a is symmetrical. the normalized characteristic vectors are orthogonal. is called a similarity transformation. pT( )p. is called an orthogonal transformation. q1 exists and we can express (2—18) as q'aq = (2—19) The matrix operation. say p. the modal matrix for a symmetrical matrix is orthogonal and we can write qTaq = (2—21) Example 2—3 p' [2 +6 2 5 Q2{2. Equation (2—19) states that the similarity transformation. 2—3. Then. having the property that is called an = orthogonal matrix and the transformation. that is. q1( )q. — — Using these properties.-1} —[0 0 +1] q=[Qi .

-1 ( 1— [— One can easily verify that q j [5 01 [. using the definition equation for the inverse (Equation (1—50)): .54 PROBLEMS CHAP.15/6 — [\/17/6 — [1 —2 01 Lo —iJ [1 1 q involves complex elements. qT q Actually. We find q — 1. 2 We verify that qT = q' and qTaq = 1 [1 21 [1 21 1 [5 01 —lj[2 1 aq — — [2 21[1 [2 [1 21 1 [6 sj[o i 2 [1 0 —ij — [12 —1 I q T aq i[i = 5L2 —ij[o 21[6 01 21 21[6 [6 01 _-1][12 —ii = [o ij = (2) [1 8 3 = +5 Qi = +1} 01 — Lo Since —ij q a is not symmetrical. Since the characteristic vectors are complex conjugates. they are linearly independent and q -' exists.

. 22. we suppose a is real. The proofs are too detailed to be included here (see References 1 and 9): 1.. we see that . a — AI. + (2-26) We summarize below the theoretical results for the real symmetrical case. are orthogonal: .2 * Minors having a diagonal pivot (e. QTQJ = i. denote the roots. . ..4 0 (2—24) The expansion of the determinant is + where + + = 0 = a11 + a22 ± and (2—25) - is the sum of all the jth order minors that can be formed on the diagonal.j = 1.. delete the kth row and column).. .g. . Q2. 2.SEC. THE nth-ORDER SYMMETRICAL CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEM The nth order symmetrical characteristic-value problem involves determining the characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions for a11x1 + a12x2 + a12x1 + + + + = Ax1 — AX2 (2—22) + We can write (2—22) as + + ax = AX (2—23) (a — 0 In what follows. Q. and expressing the characteristic equation in factored form. . For (2—23) to have a nontrivial solution. The normalized characteristic vectors Q1. the coefficient matrix must be singular.. . .. They are generally called principal minors... The characteristic values are all real. = 2522 + 2523 + . 2—4 THE nth-ORDER SYMMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 55 One can easily verify that q -1 [+i 0 01 2—4.* Letting 22.

42 +2. the modal matrix (to 2-place accuracy) is +0. CHARACTERiSTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP.52 —0.10 a= 2 120 1 0 3 0 . 5+ $2 /33 3 +1 +9 +11 + 5 + 2 +18 = 5(2) — (—2)(—2) = +6 The characteristic equation is 182—6=0 and the approximate roots are 22 +0.54 —0.2.50 +0. f33.28 To determine the characteristic solutions. We first determine /3k.68 —0. the general solution is j=l.85 (2) +0. qTaq where = Example 2—4 5—2 0 —.t)x3= x2 Solving the first and third equations for x1 and x3 in terms of x2.30 +6. (5 — 2)x1 = 2x2 —x3 = —(3 — 2)x2 (l—. its characteristic values are all real.84 +0.3 Finally. $2.56 3.0 . we expand ax = 2x. 2 a is diagonalized by the orthogonal transformation involving the normalized modal matrix.22 q = [Q1Q2Q3] = +0.51 +0.1 1 a= —2 0 using (2—25): 3 —1 Since a is symmetrical.

SEC. Using matrix notation.01) When 2 = 23 = —1. QUADRATIC FORMS The homogeneous second-degree function F a quadratic form in + 2a12x1x2 + x2. the characteristic vectors for 22 = 3 are Q2 = (0. we have (1—2)x1 2x1 23=—i +2x2 +(1 — 1)x2 (3 — 2)x3 =0 = = 0 0 (a) When 2 = 3. we can express [a11 F as F=[xix2]t[a12 ajal T . 2—5. 2-5. QUADRATIC FORMS 213J 57 The expansion of Ia — = 0 is and the roots are 22—3 Writing out ax = 2x. This follows from the fact that a — 213 is of rank I for the repeated roots. The characteristic vectors corresponding to the repeated roots are linearly independent. (a) reduces to —2x3 +2x2 = 0 —2x2 = 0 (b) (0)x3=0 We see from (b) that (a — 213) is of rank 1 when 2 = 3. we can obtain two linearly independent solutions for the repeated root. Finally. (a) reduces to 2x3 + 2x2 = 0 2x1 + 2x2 4x3 0 =0 are The general solution and characteristic vector for and = o} 0 - This example illustrates the case of a symmetrical matrix having two equal characteristic values. The general solution of (b) is xI=c1 x2=cl x3=cz By specializing the constants.

But y is uniquely related to x and y = 0 only when x = 0. According to the definition introduced above. . to establish whether is positive definite. the function F= where afk = = j=1 . for] for k. (2—27) . letting y= qTx x qy (2—29) (a) reduces to a canonical form in y: F = xTax = (2—30) It follows that F is positive definite with respect to y when all the characteristic values of a are positive. we will show that an equilibrium position for a discrete system is stable when a certain quadratic form is positive definite. F is also positive definite with respect to x. 2 In general. x2. x. We write xTax = (xTq)(q_taq)(qlx) = Then. q '()q. Now. x we is zero for some x x If F = a positive definite a 0. F is positive definite when b1 >0 It is positive semidefinite when b1 b2 >0 0 and at least one of the elements is zero. . we first reduce a to a diagonal matrix by applying the transformation. A quadratic form is negative definite if F 0 for all x and F = 0 only when x = 0. Consider the quadratic form F= b1 LXIX2 13 b2 0 x2 (2—28) 1 When F involves only squares of the variables.58 CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. it is said to be in canonical form. The question as to whether a quadratic form is positive definite is quite important. We define negative definite and negative semidefinite quadratic forms in a similar manner. Therefore.. The problem of establishing whether xTax is positive definite consists in determining whether all the characteristic values of a are positive. where q is the orthogonal normalized modal matrix for a. For example... we say that F is positive semidefinite. is said to be a quadratic form in xj.

(d) is equivalent to (b). a is positive definite when a11a12 a11 a12a12 = at (2—31) 132>0 (2—3 2) A1>O The quantities A2>0 and are called the invariants and discriminants of a. QUADRATIC FORMS We consider first the second-order symmetric matrix [a11 cz12 Laiz a22 Using (2—26). a11 a12 aU (2—34) A= The conditions.t2>0 Suppose we specify that au > — 0 at —.* * See Ref. the characteristic values are related by + . it follows from the second requirement in (d) that a22 > Therefore. > 0 (2—33) where is the sum of all the jth-order principal minors.SEC.. > 0 (2—35) are sufficient for a to be positive definite.. /3. Equivalent conditions can be expressed in terms of the discriminants.. = aj1j = A2 = Then. 131 > 0 > 0 •. The above criteria also apply for the case. Let represent the determinant of the array consisting of the first j rows and columns. a11a22 > 0 Since a1 > 0.. . A.. We let 0.t122 = 132 =aii -F a22 = a11a22 — = aJ We see from (a) that the conditions 132>0 are equivalent to . 1 for a detailed proof. 2—15. Also see Prob. A1 > 0 £112 a22 a2J A2 > 0 . 2—5. one can show that a is positive definite when all its invariants are greater than zero. That is.

this matrix is positive definite. W. HILDSBRAND. and A. V. 4. 2—5. Interscience Publishers. Reading.* This follows from — = — a — (2—38) Then. 2.. Dover Publications. Prob. SMiRNOV. The corresponding invariants are = 1 + 2 + 3 = +6 $2(2—1)+(3—1)+(64) /13 +5 = A3 = +1 1 1 1 1 1 —2 2 3 2 Since A2 is negative = —3). BODEWIG. 1964. 1961. this matrix is nor positive definite. b and a have the same characteristic values. 2 Example 2—5 111 The discriminants are 122 123 A1 = +1 = 2 — 1 = +1 = 1(6—4)— 1(3—2) + 1(2—2) = +1 Since all the discriminants are positive. Reading..60 CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP.: Linear Algebra. 5. 1956.: Matrix Calculus. G. C. New York. 1952. HADLEY. F.: Methods of Applied Mathematics. Suppose b is obtained from a by an orthogonal transformation: b = pTap p1ap pTap (2—36) If a is symmetrical. b is also positive definite. TURNBULL. AITKEN: An Introduction to the Theory of Canonical Matrices.: Linear Algebra. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. * See . 3. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.. New York. the positive definite character of a matrix is preserved under an orthogonal transformation... New York. Mass. Mass. if a is positive definite. In general. H. I. REFERENCES 1. Prentice-Hall. B. E. b is also symmetrical: bT = pTaTp (2—37) Now.

B. with Band Synimetric PETERS. H... If c1x_I + c2x2 0 only when c1 = = 0. 13. determine the characteristic values and modal matrix for + 12Y2 l2Y1 + = .PROBLEMS 6. c2 by.: The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem. 398—404." Comput. 1—25) B = brb where b is nonsingular. FORSYTHE. PROBLEMS 2—1. 1969. RALSTON. A. 3. New York. CRANDALL. WILKINSON. R. Reduce (a) to the form ax = where x 2—2. J. DUNCAN and A. let c1. FADDEVA. 12. W. London. N. Suppose B can be expressed as (see Prob. S. MALER: Computer Solution of Linear Algebraic Systems. J. 1967. McGraw-Hill. 2. Following the procedure outlined in Prob. New York. A. 10. 1956. Cambridge University Press. Determine the expression for a in terms of A and b. H. Determine the characteristic values and the modal matrix for (a) [3 [2 [2 0 2 7 3 (b) to s [3 0 0 2 2—4. and C.. NOBLE.: Engineering Analysis. G. 12. New York.: Applied Linear Algebra. x1 and x2 are said to be linearly independent. S. V. x2 be two nth-order column matrices or column vectors and be arbitrary scalars. Oxford University Press. Let x1. 1965. Prentice-Hall. 9. 1969. R. B. E. New York. 2—I. and H. Wiley.: Computational Methods of Linear Algebra. London. show that 2—3. WILF: Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers.. WILKINSON: "Eigenvalues of AX = A and B. and Q2 arc linearly independent when Using (2—10) and (2—13). and J. 8. Vol. 7. Consider the system Ay = where A and B arc symmetrical nth-order matrices and is a scalar. Dover Publications. New York. Prentice-Hall. 1953. COLLAR: Elementary Matrices. H. 1963.. FRAZER. 1967. G. It follows that x1 and x2 are linearly dependent when one is a scalar multiple of the other. 11.

is a characteristic Let 2L be a characteristic value of a. (a) (b) exists.. 2—8. say a. Show that Q U') _. and it follows from the definition that = a'' Show that ar is symmetrical when a is symmetrical. are invariant under a similarity transP —1 formation is quite useful..4 = a — and it follows that b and a have the same characteristic equation. and premultiply by a. Hint: Start with = 2. When a is symmetrical. /3. 2. For example..Q. . lb — t1. 2 Suppose that b is derived from a by a similarity transformation. A linear combination of nonnegative integral powers of a is called a polynomial function of a and written as P(a)..62 . 2 Positive integral powers of a square matrix. . . k (a) k 2—6. Show that value of ar and is the corresponding characteristic vector. n 1 Demonstrate for [1 —21 [1 P[2 The fact that (b) . arc defined as a2 = a3 = aa aa2 ar = If al # 0. the third order polynomial has the form P(a) = c0a3 + c1a2 + c2a + c3L Note that P(a) is symmetrical when a is symmetrical. b = p'ap Then. (a) Deduce that 2(b) — '(a) k a(b) — p(a) Yk Pk k = 1. CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP. we can write qTaq = Express in terms of q and Use this result to find the inverse of [3 a=[2 2—7. .2—5.

— /31a + /3213) forn = 3 Establish a general expression for a —' using (2—25).n) ax = 0 has a nontrivial solution. . . Generalize this result for the multiple product. the .a22>O (Hint: = 0. .2. (a) Verify this theorem for [2 1 2 (b) Note: F(a) = Show that a2 f31a + /3212. What can we say about b when r(C) < n? 2—15.. What is. say x1. Consider the product. Show that C1aC is positive definite when CI definite when CI = 0.. If value of xfax1? Note that 2 0 is a characteristic value of a when a is singular.. where a is positive definite and C is 0 and positive semisquare. By definition. When the characteristic values of a are distinct.] = 1. b = CTaC Show that b is positive definite only when the rank of C is equal to n. . This result is known as the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.PROBLEMS Let F(1) 0 be the characteristic equation for a. a27. 2—11. .) 2—13. IC! (hint: Start with F = xT(CTC)x and let y = Cx. 2—12. Consider the product CTaC. Let a be an mth-order positive defInite matrix and let C be of order m x n. That is. Let C be a square matrix. (a) (b) 2—10.. a satisfies its own characteristic equation. one can show that (see Ref: 1) F(a) = 0 where 0 is an nth-order null matrix. = Oforj 1. F can equal zero only when x 0 in order for the form to be positive definite. Consider the quadratic form a11 a12 a22 : x1 a12 : x2 x. Show that CTC is positive definite when 0 and positive sernidefinite when CI = 0. Determine whether the following quadratic forms are positive definite. . F= F = 34 + + + 4x1x2 + — 4x1x2 + 6x1x3 — 8x2x3 Show that a necessary but not sufficient condition for a to be positive definite is a11>O. 2—14. = '(a2 (c) 2—9.

.. The expansion of F = XTaX has the form F= Now.n and positive semi-definite when j=1. it follows that Ajj must be positive. N .11 — . . (a) Deduce that one can always express a as the product of nonsingular lower and upper triangular matrices when a is positive definite.2XTA12A2 + 0 and denote the result by XTAIIX1 > 0 for arbitrary X1. 2..j = .. Establish that a= i..n and at least one of the diagonal elements of g is zero.. Suppose we take g = hT. (b) Suppose we take Show that a is positive definite when j=1. Then. 2. (b) Discuss the case where = 0. is positive definite only when A.2 —A ti. 2 We partition a symmetrically.. (a) By taking p = 1.. (pxp) (pXl) NzTvTl [A11 AT (qxp) A121 f Xt A (qxq) MV ("2 where q= n — p. say a..2 Upp Show that the diagonal elements of b will always be real when a is positive definite. is symmetrically partitioned. . deduce that p=1... Refer to Prob. N) are positive definite. A11 must be positive definite. Consider a to be symmetrical. (i = 1...2. .. Note that it remains to show that they are also sufficient conditions. we take X2 XfA11X1 -i..h2i. n.n are necessary conditions for a to be positive definite.. 2-46. If a quasi-diagonal matrix. the submatrix A11 is also a quasi-diagonal matrix. . 1..2.i. = and A . Since 1A111 is equal For to the product of the characteristic values of A11.2..64 CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS CHAP... 2. t—25. 2—17. . .

. for example. Verify for 1100 2300 0021 0052 (pxq) 1) 2—18. 1—23. Suppose we express a as the product of two quasi-triangular matrices. We take B11 1P 8221q Show that the diagonal submatrices of g are nonsingular for arbitrary p when a is positive definite. (qxp) G22j[O B22 where p + q = n.PROBLEMS 65 Hint: Use the result of Prob. (pxp) (nxn) a [G11 1 [B11 B12 = [G2.

f(h). As an illustration. we say that f(b) is a relative minimum for the interval x fib. f(d). that is. Stationary points at points A. 3—1. f(x) x1 x a b c X2 Fig. If f(x) — f(a)> 0 for all values of x except x = a in the subinterval. Absolute and relative maxima are defined in a similar manner. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE Letf(x) be a function of x which is defined for the interval x1 x x2.3 Relative Extrema for a Function 3—1. C. Using the notation introduced above. consider the function shown in Fig. it is a minimum with respect to all other values of f(x) for the particular subinterval. x containing x = a. The absolute maximum and minimum values of f occur at x = a and x = d. we say the function has an absolute minimum at x a. and 0. f(c). 3—i. The relative maximum and minimum values of a function are called relative extrema. 8. If f(x) — f(a) 0 for all values of x in the total interval x1 x x2. One should note thatf(x) may have a number of relative extreme values in the total interval x1 x x2. 66 . we say that f(a) is a relative minimum. The relative extrema are [(a). except x a. respectively.

E3—l. We then test each stationary point to see if the slope changes sign. To find the relative extrema for a continuous function. is neither a relative minimum nor a relative maximum since the third derivative is finite. If the second derivative also vanishes. The general shape of this function is shown in Fig.x = x1 = —2 + corresponds to a relative maximum. = x2 = —2— J(x) = The first two derivatives are (x — a)3 +c = 3(x — a) Since both derivatives vanish at x = a. values of x at which the slope changes sign correspond to relative extrema. 3—1. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE 67 In general. we must consider the third derivative: d3f dx3 6 The stationary point. Example 3—1 Setting the first derivative equal to zero. If the second derivative is positive (negative) the stationary point is a relative minimum (maximum). We could have also established this result by considering the expression for the slope. In this case. . we must consider higher derivatives at the stationary point in order to determine whether the slope actually changes sign. the third derivative must also vanish for the stationary point to be a relative extremum. We see from (a) that the slope is positive on both sides of x = a. x = a. dx and solving for x. These points are called stationary points.SEC.2 = —2 I = 0 ± The second derivative is d2f = 2x +4= 2(x + 2) Thcn. we first determine the points at which the first derivative vanishes. we obtain x2 + 4x + x1.

a x a + Ax. In all other cases. If f(x) is an eth-degree polynomial.66 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. Since depends on we can only establish bounds on The following example illustrates this point. the (n + 1)th derivative vanishes for all x and the expansion will yield the exact value off(a + Ax) when n terms are retained. 1. Since this approach can he readily extended to functions of more than one independent variable we will describe it in detail. 3 Fig.1) a. and the where denotes the jth derivative of f(x) evaluated at x is given by 1 remainder (3-2) where is an unknown number between a and a + Ax. x curve in the vicinity of the stationary point. we can express f(a + Ax) as f(a + Ax) f(a) = Ax + (Ax)2 + (Ax)" + (3. We can also establish the criteria for a relative extremum from the Taylor series expansion of f(x). E3—1 f(x) I a x The sufficient condition for a stationary value to be a relative extremum (relative minimum (maximum) when d2f/dx2 > 0 (< 0)) follows from a consideration of the geometry of the f(x) vs. represented by due to truncating the series at n terms. Equation (3—1) is called the Taylor series expansion* of f(x) about x = a. Suppose we know the value of f(x) at x = a and we want f(a + Ax) where Ax is some increment in x. . there will be some error. See Ref. Article 16—8. If the first n + 1 derivatives off(x) are continuous in the interval.

The bounds on R2j are cos Ax < R21 If we use (a) to find sin (0. if the first-order increment vanishes. > 3 5 lithe first two derivatives vanish at x = the dominant term in the expansion. Finally. the first order increment must vanish. We refer to df/dx Ax as significant than the third. Ax. If Ax is small with respect to unity. that is. the second term is more nth terms. the first term on the right-hand side of (3—1) is the dominant term in the expansion. and so on. Considering Ax to be small. fourth the first-order increment in f(x) due to the increment. Similarly. Now. Using (3—1) and (3—2). 3—1.2).and higher-order terms) (3—3) For f(a + Ax) — f(a) to be positive for both positive and negative values of Ax. f(a) is a relative minimum when f(a + Ax)— f(a) > 0 for all points in the neighborhood of Ax e. it must vanish for .SEC. Note that this is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a relative minimum. the first-order increment dominates and we can write x f(a + Ax) — f(a) = Ax + (second. This requires d2f(a)/dx2 > 0. that is.and higher-order terms) (3—6) Since the third-order increment depends on the sign of Ax. f(a + Ax) — the necessary and sufficient conditions for a relative minimum at x = a are df(a) dx — 0 d2f(a) dx2 a. we call 4d2f/dx2(Ax)2 the second-order increment. the second-order increment will dominate: f(a + Ax) — f(a) = (Ax)2 + (third. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF ONE VARIABLE 69 Example 3—2 We expand sin x in a Taylor series about x = 0 taking n = and noting that a = 0. Also. df(a)/dx must vanish.and higher-order terms) (3—4) It follows from (3—4) that the second-order increment must be positive for > 0 to be satisfied.0013. the upper bound on the truncation error is 0. for all finite values of Ax in some interval. we obtain sin Ax = Ax + R2 2. the third-order increment is now f(a + Ax) + f(a) = (Ax)3 + (fourth. where a. — and e are arbitrary small positive numbers.

First. (3—12) = (Ax) = 0 and d2f reduces to d2f = (Ax)2 = d2f(x. we introduce new notation which can be readily extended to the case of 11 variables. then df/dx = 1 and c/f = dx = Ax (3—11) One can use dx and Ax interchangeably. define 41 = f(x + Ax) — f(x) (3—8) This increment depends on Ax as well as x. the second differential is given by d2f = d(df) Since Ax is independent of x. we define the differential operator. 3 f(a) to be a relative extremum.Ax) The first differential off(x) is a function of two independent variables. however. Iff(x) = x. In what follows. Higher differentials of f(x) are defined by iteration. The sufficient conditions for this case are as follows: Relative Minimum d3f d4f dX4> (3—7) Relative Maximum d3f d4f The notation used in the Taylor series expansion off(x) becomes somewhat cumbersome for more than one variable. d. Ax) 0. namely.RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. Next. we will use Ax rather than dx. For example. x and Ax. (3—13) In forming the higher differentials. (3—9) The result of operating onf(x) with d is called the first by df: and is denoted (3—10) df=-1Ax = df(x. we take d(Ax) = . Z\x. we to be the total increment in f(x) due to the increment.

. We establish criteria for a relative extremum by expanding f in an n-dimensional Taylor series. The above criteria reduce to (3—5) when the differentials are expressed in terms of the derivatives. x2. Rules for forming the differential of the sum or product of functions are listed below for reference. .f(x) is a stationary value when df = 0 for all permissible values of Ax. If Af> 0 (<0) for all points in the neighborhood of(x1. x2 is a relative minimum (maximum).. and so on. x2 + Ax2. the second differential is a measure of the secondorder increment. Actually. that f(x1. we just have to extend the differential notation from one to n dimensions. FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Using differential notation. . Also. . + — f(x1. Problems 3—4 through 3—7 illustrate their application. f= u(x) + v(x) df=du+dv d2f = d(df) d2u + d2v 3 — 15 f= u(x)v(x) df df = u dv + v du 2 = ud2 v + 2dudv + vd 2u (3—16 f = fly) where y = y(x) df dy dy 3-2. RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES be a continuous function of n independent variables We define Af as the total increment in f due to increments in the independent variables (Ax1. Ax. the stationary point is a relative minimum (maximum) when d2f> 0 (<0) for all permissible values of Ax. The procedure is identical to that followed in the one-dimensional case..SEC.. . . Similarly. Then. 3—2. . . the Taylor series expansion (3—1) about x can be written as (3-14) The first differential represents the first-order increment in f(x) due to the increment. Ax2 Let f(x1. x2. . x2 Af = f(x1 + Ax1. (3—18) we say . (x1.

.. The Taylor series expansion forf about (x1.72 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. 3 We define the n-dimensional differential operator as d Ax1 + ox2 Ax2 + + = (3-19) . 2. Ax2 where the increments are independent of (x1. . terms of differentials. the second differential has the form d2f=d(df)= Since (3—21) are considered to be independent. . = 0 j= 1. . Axk (3—22) Now. For example. namely. k = 1. . x2 is stationary when df requirement is satisfied only when 0 for arbitrary Ax. (3—21) reduces to d2f k=i. 2. x2. . we let f(2) r 1 j. . . The result obtained when d is applied to f is called the first df = (3—20) Higher differentials are defined by iteration.. This (3—26) = 0 Equation (3—26) represents n scalar equations. has the form when expressed in Af= df + + + + (3-25) We say that f(x1. . (3—24) . .n (3—27) The scalar equations corresponding to the stationary requirement are usually .n (3—23) LOXJOXkJ Ax = and the expressions for the first two differentials simplify to df = d2f = AXTf(l) AXTf(2) Ax . x2.

> k=t The first differential (see Prob. FUNCTION OF n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 73 called the Euler equations for f. To summarize. Example 3—3 f= = x2 y. we illustrate various special forms of f which are encountered in member system analysis. the solutions of the Euler equations correspond to points at which f is stationary. f df = Introducing matrix notation.. 3—9) has the form (duJwJkvk + dwfkvk + dv1) u= and letting w= = du [w31] v= {v1} . e. The classification of a stationary point is determined by evaluated at the point.SEC. indifferent) of We are interested in the extremum problem since it is closely related to the stability problem. k1 It follows that >-—&Xk OXk df= Repeating leads to j=l d2f = Consider the double sum. the characteristic-value problem.e. In the following examples. semidefinite. Note that the number of equations is equal to the number of independent variables. the eigenvalues are both positive and negative.g. It is called a neutral point when d2f is either positive or negative semidefinite and a saddle point when d2f is indifferent. This terminology was originally introduced for the two dimensional case where it has geometrical significance.) df= 1 1 ek k 1 j 1 Xk Now. A stationary point corresponds to a relative minimum (maximum) of f when d2f is positive (negative) definite. i. the character (definite.. 3—2. The extremum problem is also related to certain other problems of interest.

the first two differentials are d2f = Comparing (g) and (3—24). where a is symmetrical from the point of view of finding the stationary — XTC. As an illustration. value of a polynomial having the form f = Suppose f u/v. (e) . c are constant and a is symmetrical.vJ — ldu V UX1 :X3 1(6u we can write uôv vax1 df = We apply (b) to 1. Noting that da = df AxT(ax — c) AxTa Ax = 0 and dx Ax.(ax — 2x) (d) 2 AXT (122 = xx Ax A AxT Ax — 2 dA AxTx) Setting dA = 0 leads to the Euler equations for (c). One can visualize the problem of solving the system ax = c. and obtain (see Prob. we can write df as df = = d(urwv) duTwv + nTdWv + uTwdv One operates on matrix products as if they were scalars. Using the fact that 3j7u\ \. 3—5) = —f---. we see that fO) ax — c = The Euler equations are obtained by setting ax a equal to 0: c The solution of (i) corresponds to a stationary value of (f). 3 and so forth. = —f dv) = xx where a is symmetrical. ax—Ax=0 which we recognize as the symmetrical problem. If a is positive definite.74 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. the stationary point is a relative minimum. but the order must be preserved. consider f= where — x7c dc a.

3—11. .r (3—30) Using (3—30). of the form g5(x1. The general stationary requirement is df= > of (3—28) j=1 for all arbitrary differentials of the independent variables. 2. Example We 3—4 2 illustrate the procedure for n = and r = 1: f= g(x1. we reduce (3—28) to a sum involving the n — r indepen- dent differentials.SEC. x2) = 0 The first variation is ox1 Ox2 . together with the r constraint equations. see Ref. is called Rayleigh's quotient.. x2 = 0 It = 1. Suppose f is expressed in terms of n variables. This modification is conveniently effected using Lagrange multipliers. say x1. We have shown that the characteristic values of a are stationary values of Rayleigh's quotient. Equating the coefficients to zero leads to a system of n — r equations which. Then. we can express r differentials in terms of the remaining n — r differentials.. For a more detailed discussion. . We obtain r relations between the n differentials by operating on (3—29). LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS Up to this point. Now. we discuss how one can modify the procedure to handle the case where some of the variables are not independent. where x is arbitrary and a is symmetrical. 3—3. 6 and Prob. there are only n — r independent variables. it follows that 0. LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 75 The quotient xTax/xTx.2. Since = 0. In order to establish the Euler equations.r (3—29) One can consider these relations as constraint conditions on the variables. we must express df in terms of the differentials of the independent variables. we have considered only the case where the function is expressed in terms of independent variables. In what follows. we suppose there are r relations between the variables.. . x2 some of which are not independent. are sufficient to determine the stationary points. 3-3. This property can he used to improve an initial estimate for a characteristic value. "a j=t k=1. Actually.. We use instead to emphasize that some of the variables are dependent. Finally.

We . d2f + ax1ax. x2) subject to the constraint condition. A.2 ox2 + \0x1 + ax2j Ox2 where u= Og Jag The character of the stationary point is determined from the sign of the bracketed term. we suppose ag/ax2 0. x2) = 0 To determine whether a stationary point actually corresponds to a relative extremum. We first describe this procedure for the case of two variables and then generalize it for n variables and r restraints. x2) + Ag(x1. d2x1 using (c). The general form of d2f for a function of two variables (which are not necessarily independcnt) is d2f = 2 2 2 = k1 dx1 + Of —i— a quadratic form in the independent differential. the equations defining the stationary points arc ax1 \ox1fOx2/ox2 g(x1.) dx2= —t—i-----itSx1 8x2/ and substituting in (a). 3 Operating on g(x1. we obtain /ag\ df = [PL ax1 — 8x1 ox2 ox2 Finally. The problem consists in determining the stationary values of f(x1. We introduce the function H.) = f(x1. defined by H(x1. Solving (b) for dx2 (we replace dx1 by x1 is the independent variable. x2. x2) = 0. is an unknown parameter. x2) (3—31) where A. x2) we have ax1 Now. we must investigate the behavior of the second differential. and noting = 0.76 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. g(x1. An automatic procedure for handling constraint conditions involves the use of Lagrange multipliers. referred to as a Lagrange multiplier.

and require H to be sta- tionary. . x2. . and H has k = 1.SEC. . H= + + 2x1 + 7x2 + A(x1 — x2) The stationary requirement for H treating x1. LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 77 consider x1. x2 and . . . The problem consists of determining the stationary values Of subject to the constraints gk(xl. x2) = 0.% to be independent variables. There will be r Lagrange multipliers for this case. We see that the Euler equations for II are the stationary conditions for f including the effect of constraints. The Euler equations for H are OH Ox. where j(x1.. x2 and A we obtain A 4x2 +7 = —9/10 = This procedure can be readily generalized to the case of n variables and r constraints. x2. 3—3. x2. and 2 as independent variables is 6x1 + 2 + 2 = 4x2 0 0 +7— x1 — 2 = x2 = 0 Solving this system for x1. we obtain We suppose Og/0x2 A= 0x2/ Ox2 (3-33) and — Ox1 = g(x1. Example 3—5 f= g + — x2 + 2x1 + 7x2 = 0 = We form H f+ 2g. solving the second equation in (3—32) for A. x2) = 0 0 (3-34) Equations (3—34) and (e) of the previous example are identical. . . Then. . . r. 2. and substituting in the first equation. = 0. Ox2 Ox2 — + Og A Ox1 — Ox2 — (3-32) 0 OH g(x1.

JR. 7. COURANT.n (3—36) (3—37) 9k = 0 = 1. Differential and Integral Calculus. H. THOMAS.2. REFERENCES 1..78 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION CHAP. McGraw-Hill. C'alculus and Analytical Geometry. (3—35) The Euler equations for H are 0 k=1 i = 1. R. . 3. . Reading. HILDEBRAND.. S.. Blackie. G. 2. 3—4. Mass. F. 2. Expand(1 + x)112inaTaylorseriesaboutx = Otakingn = Deter- mine upper and lower bounds on R2. B. .. 3—3. Engineering Analysis. Reading. Vol. M. New York. Theory of Maxima and Minima. B. CRANDALL. Differential and Integral Calculus... Prentice-Hall. Determine the relative extrema for (a) (b) (c) (e) (f) (g) (d) f(x)=x3+2x2+x+10 f(x)=1x3+2x2+4x+15 f(x) = f(x) = (x — f(x) = f(x) = f(x) = 2x2 + —2x2 ax2 + 4x + 5 + 8x + 10 2bx + c + (x — a)2 4ax3 + 4bx2 + cx + d 0. COURANT. Methods of Applied Mathematics. k . 1952... 2. 1. Expand cos x in a Taylor series about x = the upper and lower bounds on R3... 1960. Vol.. n= 3. Dover Publications. 5. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1957. T. New York. 4. Mass. r We first solve r equations in (3—36) for the r Lagrange multipliers. 1936. R. Determine 2. Find df and d2f for (a) f=x2+2x+5 (d) (b) f=3x3+2x2+5x+6 (c) f=x2sinx f= cosywhcrey = x3 .. Mathematical Analysis. The use of Lagrange multipliers to introduce constraint conditions usually reduces the amount of algebra. New York. 6. APOSTOL. and then determine the n coordinates of the stationary points from the remaining n — r equations in (3—36) and the r constraint equations (3—37). PROBLEMS 3—1. London.. x2 . Interscience Publishers. H. HANCOCK. 1953. 1956. New York.. ... 3 the form H= f + k1 + 2k9k H(x1. 1937. taking 3—2..

its characteristic vectors are linearly independent and we can express x as x= where Q3 (a) (j = 1. Show that (du — df = d2f = 3—6.. Find the first two differentials for the following functions: + + + 5x1 — 4x2 + 6x1x2 + Consider f = uv. u3 be functions of x and f = f(u1. 3—10. Suppose f = u(x)w(y) where y = y(x). 2. x2) or of dependent variables. 3—7. Determine df. . n) are the normalized characteristic vectors for a. Y2) y1(x1. f= f' = 3—9.PROBLEMS 3—5. . u3). f dv) fd2v) — — Let u1. u2.v2) v = v(y1. Since a is symmetrical. = j=j- . Classify the stationary points for the following functions: (a) — 9x1 + 12x2 — 10 3xl + (b) f f f f 3—11. x2) Show that df = d(uv) u dv + v du d2f = ud2v + 2 du dv + vd2u Note that the rule for forming the differential of a product is independent of whether the terms are functions of the independent variables (x1. xTax x is arbitrary. where u= and Yi u(y1. Apply to (a) u=x3—x (b) w=cosy (c) y=x2 (a) (b) 3—8. + 6x1x2 6x1x2 + 2x1 + 6x1x2 + 34 — 3x1 = Consider Rayleigh's quotient. u2. x2) = y2(x1. 79 Let f = u(x)/v(x). . Determine expressions for df and d2f. Show that .

Show that and g = I — xTax = 0 where aT the Euler equations for H have the form xTax=1 We see that the Lagrange multipliers are the reciprocals of the characteristic values of a. determine the stationary values for the following constrained functions: (a) g (b) + x2 0 — 1 g1 = 3—13. Hint: Factor out 2k and Use (b) to obtain an improved estimate for A. 3—14. How are the multipliers related to the stationary values of f? . for j k. 3 << Suppose x differs only slightly from Qk. Supposef = a. —3} The exact result is 2=1 x={1. Using Lagrange multipliers. ICjI Specialize (a) for this case.80 RELATIVE EXTREMA FOR A FUNCTION (b) (c) CHAP. = 1.—2} 3—12. Then. Using (3—36) we write g2=x1—x2+2x3+2=0 H =f+ Ag = x1 + x2 + X3 = 0 — 2(XTX —1) (a) Show that the equations defining the stationary points off are ax=Ax (b) xTx=1 Relate this problem to the characteristic value problem for a symmetrical matrix. a=[i x [3 {1. Consider the problem of finding the stationary values of f = = xrarx subject to the constraint condition.

x3 i3 X3(y) x2 X2(y) x1 Fig. 1. PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF A SPACE CURVE A curve is defined as the locus of points whose position vector* is a function of a single parameter. moments of inertia. In this chapter. 4—1.) are specified. Let F he the position Vector to a point directions X1. A knowledge of vectors is assumed. we first discuss the. For a review. Our primary objective is to introduce the concept of a local reference frame for a member. 4—1. Cartesian reference frame with position vector ?(y). We take an orthogonal cartesian reference frame having and X3 (see Fig. 4—1). * The vector directed from the origin of a fixed reference frame to a point is called the position vector. differential geometry of a space curve in considerable detail and then extend the results to a member element.4 Differential Geometry of a Member Element The geometry of a member element is defined once the curve corresponding to the reference axis and the properties of the normal cross section (such as area. see Ref. 81 . etc.

2. the chord length ds2 approaches the arc length. 4 on the curve having coordinates can represent the curve by 3 (j = 1. ARC LENGTH Figure 4—2 shows two neighboring points.2. We = an alternate representation is Since F = i—i = (j = 1. The position vector for this curve has the form F = a cos + b sin Y12 + CYI3 4—2. E4—1B) defined by = X3 = a cos y (4—3) x2 = bsiny CY where a. In the limit. We take y as the polar angle and The coordinates are and x1 = x2 = F = a a cos y sin y + asiny'12 (2) Consider the curve (Fig. The projection on the X. Noting that = dx1 = dy we can express ds as ds + + + dy (4-4) . 3) (4—2) Both forms are called the parametric representation of a space curve.82 DIFFERENTiAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. Example (1) 4—i let a = Consider a circle in the X1-X2 plane (Fig. corresponding to y and and The cartesian coordinates are length of the chord from P to Q is given by y+ + (j 1. -X2 plane is an ellipse having semiaxes a and b. P and Q. care constants. 2. b. 3) and the As Exy —* 0. 3) and let y be the parameter. E4—1A).

83 . E4—1B Q(+Ay) I LISI P(y) Fig. 4—2. Differentia' segment of a curve.Fig. E4—1A Fig.

s (b2 + c2)'12 E(k. Using (4—6). if we take y = s. then Example 4—2 Consider the curve defined by (4—3). y) a. One can always orient the axes such that this condition is satisfied. To simplify the expressions. y) as a function of k and y are contained in Ref. Then. we express where = (b2 + c2)"2 [1 — k2 = b2 — b2 + The arc length is given by s 2 k2 sin2 y]"2 c2 dy = (b2 + [1 — k2 sin2 yJ112 dv The integral for s is called an elliptic integral of the second kind and denoted by E(k. y). x > 0. Tables for E(k. we let = + Then. 3. the scale factor is [a2 sin2 y + We suppose that b b2 cos2 y + c2]'12 a. integrating (4—4) leads to s(y) dx 2 dx 2 dx 21/2 dy (4—5) = + + We have defined ds such that s increases with increasing y. When b = is called a circular helix and the relations reduce to the curve = (a2 + const.84 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. Also. It is customary to call the sense of increasing s the positive sense of the curve. as Then. 4 Finally. S = ny . the previous equations reduce to dx 2 1/2 (4-6) ds = dy (4—7) One can visualize as a scale factor which converts dy into ds. Note that +1.

401. we can express I as — — — dP dy — 1 dF ds — dy ds — (4—9) dy Since > 0. and approaches the tangent to the curve at P. the unit tangent vector at P is given by* As L\y -+ 0. 1 always points in the positive direction of the curve. P(y) and Q(y + shown in Figure 4—3. +s (4—10) is expressed in cartesian Q(y+6. in the direction of increasing s (or y).SEC.y) + r(y) Fig. * See Ref. that is. It follows that dP/dy is also a tangent vector and — dy /df dP\"2 \dy dy Equation (4—10) reduces to (4—6) when coordinates. . p. Then. • t= . The corresponding position vectors are P(y + ky). Jim PQ d1 --=—ds (4—8) Using the chain rule. Unit tangent vector at P(y). 1. 4—3. UNIT TANGENT VECTOR 85 UNIT TANGENT VECTOR We consider again the neighboring points. 4—3. 4—3.

1. is defined by (4. a [a2 + direction is constant. A space curve having the property that the angle between the tangent and a fixed direction (X3 direction for this example) is constant is called a helix. PRINCIPAL NORMAL AND BINORMAL VECTORS Differentiating = 1 with respect to y..* 4-4. Chap. (4-12) b comprise a right- handed mutually orthogonal system of unit vectors at a point on the curve. 4 Example 4—3 We determine the tangent vector for the curve defined by (4—3). we have - dy = 0 It follows from (a) that di/dy is orthogonal to f. . ñ). The position vector is F = a cos + b sin Y12 + cyi3 Differentiating P with respect to y. * See Ref. and rectifying planes (see Fig. H= ldt dy where d (1 The binormal vector. The unit vector pointing in the direction of di/dy is called the principal normal vector and is usually denoted by ii. Note that the vectors are uniquely defined once y) is specified. The frame associated with b_and ii is called the moving trihedron and the planes determined by (1. 4—4). ñ. we obtain a = +[a2 sin2 y + b2 cos2 y + c2]"2 =1[—asinyT1 + bcosyi2 + c13] =' coast.-lt) dF b='?xh We see that b is also a unit vector and the three vectors. 4. h.86 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. and the angle between the t?ngent and the X3 When a b. b) and are referred to as the osculating normal. (ii. dP dy = —a sin + h cos Y12 + and using (4—9) and (4—10).

Example 4—4 We determine fi and b for the circular helix. we obtain di Then. We have already found that a — [a2 + and = sin VT1 + a cos + c13] Differentiating t with respect to y. a sin C — — cos a + a £3 a The unit vectors are shown in Fig. — a — [cos ytj + Sm i dt fl dt dy dy — C05 — Sm The principal normal vector is parallel to the plane and points in the inward radial direction. . a This reduces to —asiny acosy C b C. 4—4. We can determine b using the expansion for the vector product. It follows that the rectifying plane is orthogonal to the X1-X2 plane. PRiNCIPAL NORMAL AND BINORMAL VECTORS 87 Normal plane Rectifying plane Fig. E4—4.SEC. Definition of local planes. 4—4.

AND THE FRENET EQUATIONS The derivative of the tangent vector with respect to arc length is called the curvature vector. 14. From Fig. E4—4 4—5. and K = JdO/dsj where 6 is the angle between I and To show this.88 GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. CURVATURE. The Note that K points in the same direction as Ft since we have taken K curvature has the dimension L1 and is a measure of the variation of the tangent vector with arc length. K." . for a discussion of the terminokgy 'three consecutive points. 4 Fig. K dt c/s d2F i/s2 K Using (4—11). R is the radius of the circle passing through three consecutive points* on the curve. we can write — ic/i c/s2 (4—13) ds — Ku (4—14) 0. we have cos * See + Sifl 012 Ref. 4—5. 4. p. We let R be the reciprocal of the curvature: R= K1 iS) In the case of a plane curve. we express I in terms of 0 and then differentiate with respect to s. TORSION.

4—S. We express db/ds as db = —tn (4—16) where r is called the torsion and has the dimension. The binormal vector is normal to both and ñ and therefore is normal to the osculating plane. the plane determined by and ñ at. 4—5. P. db/ds is also orthogonal to I and involves only ñ. with respect to s. K and [—sin dO 1 + cos 617] dO a— K ds dO/ds R [— sin + cos 612] In the case of a space curve. say P and Q. It should be noted that the osculating plane will generally vary along the curve. L . TORSION. are in the osculating plane at F.SEC. CURVATURE. A measure of the variation of the osculating plane is given by db/ds. - db - dl ds ds But dl/ds Kñ and b ii = 0. Then. To determine whether db/ds involves we differentiate the orthogonality condition I b 0. Since his a unit vector. x2 \ R + R t i2 it Fig. We can interpret R as the radius of the osculating circle at P. Radius of curvature for a plane curve. db/ds is orthogonal to h. the tangents at two consecutive points. that is. AND THE FRENET EQUATIONS Then — .

h is defined by xn Differentiating with respect to s. 4 It remains to develop an expression for a.90 DiFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. To complete the discussion. the torsion is given by dñ ds —— —b l-dfl — dy (4—17) Note that a can be positive or negative whereas K is always positive. dñ/ds is orthogonal to ñ. we have db = di xn+t diii dñ This reduces to —=t x db ii = 0. The torsion is zero for a plane curve since the osculating plane coincides with the plane of the curve and b is constant. Now. Finally. From (4—17). we consider the rate of change of the principal normal vector with respect to arc length. according to our definition. Example 4—5 The unit vectors for a circular helix are = [—a —cos sin vij + — a cos Yti + cT3] sin b= where yl' — ccosyi3 + at3] a = (a2 + Then. using (4—16). c2)112 K=-— adv and 1— a a a a +c c c 2 dñ a dy a 2—const We have developed expressions for the rate of change of the tangent and binormal vectors. Since fi is a unit vector. b— ds - dñ a .

1 dñ —Kt ds ady dl lull +tb (4—20) K= = —b 1 di — curvature a dy 1—dñ a — = torsion dy We use the orthogonal unit vectors (I. ds ds (b) it follows from (a) and (b) that — = —I(t + tb us dñ - (4—18) The differentiation formulas for 1. ñ. 4—6. SUMMARY OF THE GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS FOR A SPACE CURVE We summarize the geometrical relations for a space curve: Orthogonal Unit Vectors t = di thu 1 = — = tangent vector exdy ldi a= —i-. The Frenet . 4—6. b) to define the local reference frame for a member element. and b are called the Frenet equations. I n = 0. we differentiate the orthogonality relation. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS FOR A SPACE CURVE 91 To determine the component of dñ/ds in the I direction. ii.i— di principal normal vector (4—19) = I x ñ binormal vector di ds — dy dy Di:fferenriation Formulas Equations) — -— = Kn ds ady db 1db — = —— = —rn ds ctdy dñ -.SEC. This is discussed in the following sections.

12. Now. it is a property of the curve. 2. on a curve is uniquely defined once the curve is specified. in this case. 2. LOCAL REFERENCE FRAME FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 4—7. b) are mutually or13) the direction cosines are related by thogonal unit vectors (as well as 1jm6m = j. The components b) are actually the direction cosines for the natural of the unit vectors frame with respect to the basic cartesian frame which is defined by the orthogonal unit vectors (1k. . and b at a point. k = 1. We refer to this frame as the natural frame at P. 4-5. Y3 as the principal inertia directions for the cross section. 4—6) at every point. 3 (4—22) Equation (4—22) leads to the important result [ljk]T = (4—23) and we see that is an orthogonal matrix. that is. 13). = 1) We will always take the positive tangent direction as the Y1 direction x and we work only with right handed systems t3). We write the relations between the unit vectors as ft n £12 133 11 = t22 £32 e33 12 (4—21) One can express* the direction cosines in terms of derivatives of the cartesian coordinates (x1. we can specify the orientation of the local frame with respect to the natural frame in terms of the angle between the principal normal direction and the I'2 direction. When the centroid of the normal cross-section coincides with the origin of the local frame (point P in Fig. In general. The unit vectors defining the local and natural frames * See Prob. This notation is shown in Fig. We denote the directions of the local frame by (Y1. 4 equations are utilized to establish the governing differential equations for a member element. to take Y2.92 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. we consider the curve to be the reference axis for a member clement and take the positive tangent direction and two orthogonal directions in the normal plane as the directions for the local member frame. 4—6. t See Prob. Y2. say P. Since (1. The reference frame associated with ñ. 1'3) and the corresponding unit vectors by (t1. It is convenient. x3) by expanding (4—19). 4-6. x2.f The results presented above arc applicable to an arbitrary continuous curve. the reference axis is called the centroidal axis for the member.

Definition of local reference frame for the normal cross section. fJjk = Xk) (4—26) '. 4—7 LOCAL REFERENCE FRAME FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 93 are related by tl — t2 - = COS 4)11 + sin 4)b (4—24) çbn + cos 4th Combining (4—21) and (4—24) and denoting the product of the two direction cosine matrices by the relation between the unit vectors for the local and basic frames takes the concise form t= where (4—25) [ £21cos4)+€31sin4) €12 €j3 €22cos4)+ €32sin4) €23cosçb+ €33sinqS —€23 sin 41+ £33cos41 [21sin4)+€31cos4) —€22si+C32cos4) Note that the elements of fi are the direction cosines for the local frame with respect to the basic frame. x3 Normat Y1 Fig. .SEC. J1 chapter to establish the transformation law for the components of a vector. We will utilize (4—25) in the next Since both frames are orthogonal. 4—6.

Y2 y3 — —— Y2 Fig. —slay a —--cosy a a Using (4-. the parameter of the reference axis and the coordinates (Y2. . CURVILINEAR COORDINATES FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT We take as curvilinear coordinates (yi. a —cosy — a — c a 0 a — = b — cos y sin y c 12 = {Ik} C.94 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. sin y sin — — cos y cos I. Curvilinear coordinates for the cross section. a a a 4—8. Yz' y3) for a point. The natural frame is related to the basic frame. 4 Example 4—6 We determine for the circular helix. y3) and position vector for the reference axis. Let F(y1) the R(y1. 1'3) in the normal cross section (see Fig. Y2' Y3) be the position vector for Q(Yl. of Q with respect to the orthogonal directions (Y2. They are related by = r + Y2t2 + y3t3 where COS + Sifl ( t3 = = + cos4b (4—27) We consider 4 to be a function of y1.by I ——slay a a. say Q.25) a a a cos y a —sinycosçb ——cosysin4 a a +cosysm4 + —sinycos4 C. 4—7. 4—7).

One can consider the vectors to define a local reference frame at Q. We define as the unit tangent vector for the parametric curve through Q. the partial derivatives of R are 0R — dy1 = = t2 t3 + dt2 Y2 dy1 + Y3 dy1 aR aR . Operating on (4—27). 4—8. By definition. there are three parametric curves through a point. 4—8.SEC. In general. CURVILft4EAR COORDiNATES FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT 95 The curve through point Q corresponding to increasing Yj with Y2 and y3 held constant is called the parametric curve (or line) for yj. Ui = 13R (4—28) aIR = The differential arc length along the aIR curve is related to by (4—29) = (or = This notation is illustrated in Fig. x3 y2t2 +y3t3 x2 Fig. Vectors defining the curvilinear directions. 4—8.

= cc(1 — d4)'\. Then. cit2 dy1 dyj I and finally. Since 13R/ay1 (and therefore ii1) involve the reference frame defined and by iii. dy1 g3=1 (4—30) = = 1db '\dv1 Also. d12 (dñ \dy1 dy1 + dy1 + —bj dçb . y3 \y3 Fig. j — dy1 —11—— dy1 dt3 = . 4 We see that t2 g2 1 ü3=t3 It remains to determine ü1 and g1. However. of y. Ky'2)!1 + / + d4)\ _)(Y2t3 y3t2) (4—31) Y2 COS 4) J73 sin 4) We see from Fig. Now. will not be orthogonal. 4—9 that y'2 is the coordinate of the point with respect to the principal normal direction. we can reduce it to an orthogonal . (dii \dy1 + b—)+ dy1j dq5\ 1db \dy1 We use the Frenet equations to expand the derivatives of ñ and h. 4—9.96 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. u2.

One should note that this simplification is practical only when ccc can be readily integrated. 2. THOMAS. New York. and F... at = — a C and integrating (4—33). Example 4—7 The parameters a and t are constant for a circular helix: a= (a2 C + c2)112 Then. varies linearly with y (or arc length).. (4—33) aR and = — Ky'2)t1 = = (4—34) cx(l — In this case. 1953.. Reading. D. 1953.REFERENCES 97 system by taking dy = cer dy 150 (4—32) which requires = When (4—32) is satisfied. 13. HAY. The parameter g1 follows from (4—34). Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.: Differential Geometry.: Vector and Tensor Analysis. Reading. EMDE: Tables of Functions. hi = ds1 = a(1 — Ky2) a cc- x(l — '\ / REFERENCES 1. J. 4. U.: Analytical Geometry and Calculus. JR. 1943. New York. the local frame at Q coincides with the frame at the centroid. 3. Dover Publications.. G. 1950. . Mass. JA}INKE.. Dover Publications.. STRUm. Mass. Addision-Wesley Publishing Co. E. B. Inc. we obtain — Yo) tS For this curve.

= sec 0. A curve is said to be shallow when 02 << 1. Then. Let 9 be the angle between and cos0 = I Deduce that Specialize (d) •11. Show that (see (4—20)) Let K = l/R and t di dh dñ — = —— 12 dy. 4—2. . The sign of b will depend on the relative orientation of ñ with respect to 1.r Oandb ±i3. !. (a) Determine the expressions for 7. b. If 0. x for the following curves: x2 = 3 sin y cos y x3 = 5y x1 3 cos y x2 = 6 sin y x3 = 5y + p313 + = x1 = cos y x2 = sin y Determine 3 x1 = x3 = cy where a. K. . and K in terms of 0. 4 PROBLEMS 4—1.f"etc 4a — 2 x1) Apply the results of (a) to = where (c) a and b are constants. Note that Let y and + f(x1)12 + _Lf' (b) . Suppose the equation defining the curve is expressed in the form x2=J(x1) x3=0 Equation (a) corresponds to taking x1 as the parameter for the curve. (a) (b) (c) (d) Il. b. Express t. This approximation leads to sin 0 cos 0 tan 0 1 0 4—3. c are real constants.DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. the curve lies in the plane. /3. ñ. and K corresponding to this representation. This is the equation for a parabola symmetrical about x1 = b/2. for the case where 02 is negligible with respect to unity. h.

4-9. ie.. n for both parametric representations.. skewsymmetric for an orthogonal system of unit vectors. Take x1 as the parameter for (b). Determine JI for Prob.=. When the reference axis is a plane curve and = 0. dt — = at ds (a) (b) Show that a is.PROBLEMS 4—4. we call the member a "planar" member. 4—lb. We express the differentiation formulas for 4—8. c5Jk. Suppose the reference axis is a plane curve but çb 0.. . in general. Note that b = €3313 where 431 = 1. Ii' iT — i—i Determine D for Prob. 99 The equations for an ellipse can be written as x1 = or a cos y 2 x1 2 x2 x2 = b sin y Determine 1. Specialize for the case where the reference axis is in the X1 — X2 plane. as 4—10.. Determine a. Does y have any geometrical significance? 4—5. €1 [4k] €3 Using (4—22). 72 1k C IA A C2k [3 (d€ [. The member is not planar in this case. Show that dx. Determine a. \ dyj J €13 dy dv2 = 42 \ dy 1€21 dy dyj j €311 €32 0 €33j 4—6. show that 4—7. ° 42 Let 43] Then. 4—la.

(See Fig. (j = 1. 3 and n = 1. and scalar a Fig. 2) be the directions and corresponding unit Let vectors for reference frame n. we call the matrix which defines the transformation a rotation matrix." 100 .5 Matrix Transformations for a Member Element 5—1. 5—1. ROTATION TRANSFORMATION Suppose we know the scalar components of a vector with respect to a reference frame and we want to determine the components of the vector corresponding to a second reference frame. We refer to this transformation as a rotation transformation. 2. 5—1. Directions for reference frames "1" and "2. Also. unit vectors. We can visualize the determination of the second set of components from the point of view of applying a transformation to the column matrix of initial components.) We will generally use a superscript to indicate the reference frame for directions.

Then. the relations between the component matrices take the a2 = a1 = = R21a2 The order of the superscripts on R corresponds to the direction of the trans- formation. The scalar components of a with respect to frame n are a a is independent of the reference frame. Example 5—i We consider the two-dimensional case shown in Fig. The relations between the unit vectors are = cos + sin = —sin + cos We write (a) according to (5—2). Substituting for and equating the coefficients of i' leads to a' = a2 Finally. R'2 is the rotation transformation matrix corresponding to a change from frame 1 to frame 2. For example. a= = (a2)Ti2 To proceed further. we must relate the two reference frames. 5—1. is nonsingular when the unit vectors are linearly independent.SEC. a. We see that the transformation matrix for the scalar components of a vector is the inverse transpose of the transformation matrix governing the unit vectors for the reference frames. cos6 sinO . We consider a vector. ROTATION TRANSFORMATION components in this text. the relations between the unit vectors as i2 = Ili' where is the scalar component of with respect to The transformation matrix. we let R'2 R21 = form (53) With this notation. We write. E5-1.

b} (5—6) . q5 = 0 and ir Fig. E5—1 12 The result obtained in the preceding example can be readily extended to the orthogonal reference frames. in turn. was defined with respect to a fixed cartesian frame 12. A' k (55) In Sec.102 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. 5 Then. ii. we defined the orientation of the local frame (1k. ñ. In order to distinguish between the three frames. When both frames are orthogonal. we use superscripts p and p' for the local and natural frames at p and a superscript 1 for the basic cartesian frame: = = {Z. 13). at a point on the reference axis of a member element with respect to the natural frame (1. b) at the point. the change in reference frames can be visualized as a rigid body rotation of one frame into the other. 4—7. f3jk is the direction cosine for with respect to and the rotation transformation matrix is an orthogonal matrix: case of two 1 R'2 — LI'jki — 'X2 Pjk — COSt j. R21 —sin4 Lsinfl 1 cos4 L—sjn 6 cos U R'2 = (fV) = + sin o sin 0 cos and Jafl — I [ cos — ?J L — sin 0 cos oJ When both frames are orthogonal. = t2. 13. This frame.

defined by (4—25)." Also. We shall refer to both forces and moments as "forces. linear if is constant. The statically equivalent force and moment at Q are Feqrnv. 5—2. — (5—7) 1 2. Mequiv = M + XF -- (5-8) One can visualize (5—8) as a force transformation in which the force system at P is transformed into the force system at Q. cos4. 0 0 =0 0 3. From (4—24).SEC. cos4. say P. 5—2. Consider a force F and moment M acting at P shown in Fig. 5—2. This transformation will be Fcquiv. as the "force system" at P. sin 4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS 103 With this notation. the relations between the unit vectors and the various rotation matrices are: t" = R141 = 1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS The equilibrium analysis of a member element involves the determination of the internal force and moment vectors at a cross section due to external forces and moments acting on the member. The relationship between the external force system at P and the statically equivalent internal force system at Q hasa simple form when vector notation is used. —sin4. Equivalent force system. From(4—21). . that is. if the geometry of the element does not change appreciably when the external loads are applied. We will write (5—8) in matrix form and treat force transformations as matrix transformations. Q 5—2. we speak of the force and moment at a point.

1 — 2 M1 43 I' / Xp3 / xP1 / 'i Fig. One can interpret it as a forceis a into translation transformation matrix. ri 1 .104 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. Notation for orthogonal reference frame.. 5—3. 5—3 and write the component expansions as — v' PL. . 0 1 — Note that matrix. The relation between MQ and is — = QP x (5—9) We work with an orthogonal reference frame (frame 1) shown in Fig. product leads to = 0 — Expanding the vector cross (5—11) (1 —(42 1\ XQ2) — (1 (1. 5 We develop first the matrix transformation associated with the moment of a force about a point. Let be a force vector acting at point P and MQ the moment vector at point Q corresponding to We will always indicate the point of application of a force or moment vector with a subscript._ '1 P = (jl)TM1 — (5—10) The scalar components of QP are 4. The force at P is transformed by F1 P3 'Ik i—-i / .

we have considered only one orthogonal reference frame. the superto Q). To handle the general case we must introduce rotation transformations which transform the components of F and M from the local frames to the basic frame (frame 1) and vice versa. there will be a local orthogonal reference frame associated with each point on the axis of the member. 5—2. say frame 1. Note that the order of the subscripts for the translation transcorresponds to the order of the translation (from P formation matrix. With this notation. Up to this point. = = and the general expression for takes the form (5—12) = (5—13) We consider next the total force transformation. The statically equivalent force and moment at Q associated with a force and moment at P are given by MQ = + QP x — (a) When all the vectors are referred to a common frame. I 0 1 _ (5—16) and applying. and these frames will coincide only when the member is prismatic. Also. Using The 6 x 1 matrix this notation. and must be referred to the same frame. a THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS 105 moment at Q.SEC. (b) simplifies to d1 — When the force systems are referred to local frames. = = (a) . Utilizing the general matrix. scripts must be equal. we mast first transform them to a common frame and then apply (5--15). that is. In general. the matrix transformation is 'Q) — I L"PQ L3J (b) We let = (5—14) is called the force system at Q referred to frame 1. We use a superscript p to indicate the local frame at point P and the rotation matrix corresponding to a transformation from the local frame at P to frame 1 is denoted by R'1.

Then. Actually.g. from frame p to frame q.. already discussed how one determines R1 in Secs. suppose we reduces to take frame I parallel to frame p.g. if 1 and q are parallel.. 4—7 and 5—f. is carried out in the order P S1. 5 we obtain = (5—17) is applied Equation (5—17) states that when the matrix transformation we obtain its statical equivalent at Q. This eliminates one rotation transformation.106 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. e. from P to Q. the geometry of a member element is defined with respect to a basic we must determine reference frame which we take as frame 1. alone.. S. The order of the subscripts corresponds to the direction of the translation. . When the member is planar* and the geometry is fairly simple (such as a straight or circular member).. we obtain = and it follows that (5—20) (5—21) If the transformation from P to S2. R1 = 1 and — [R = (S—18) Similarly. we must include them. For example. — (5—22) * If the reference axis isa plane curve and the local frame coincides with the natural frame we say the member is planar. However. . — reduces I to (5-19) When both p and q arc parallel to 1. Note that the force transformation generally involves both translation and rotation. = 91i'PQ By transforming from P to Q and back to F. Similarly the order of the superscripts defines the direction of the rotation or change in reference frames. where tion matrix. e. we could leave off the to appears subscripts and superscripts on when we write (5—17). . the transformais equal to the product of the intermediate transformation S2. We have and Rn'.. To evaluate from the geometrical relations for the member. S1 are intermediate points. matrices.. = 0) . we can take frame I parallel to one of the local frames. In general.. —÷ Q.

ES—2. 107 where s1. Example 5—2 We consider the plane circular member shown in Fig. The general . Then. . —a(1 — 0 cos 0). THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORCE TRANSFORMATIONS . .. 4 — = {a sin 0. we consider the problem of finding As an illustration of the case where the geometry is defined with respect to a basic for a circular helix.SEC. O} 0 —a(1—cos6) —a = = 0 a(1 — cos 0) 0 a sin 0 0 Sin 6 0 cos6 = = sin 0 0 —sinO cos 0 0 0 The transformation matrix has the form — — — — 9 I where 0 0 =0 a(1 — cos 0) 0 +a(1 —cos6) —asinO 0 Fig. E5—2 asin0 P p 2 t7 Example 5—3 Cartesian frame. We take frame 1 parallel to frame p. It is convenient to take a common reference frame for the intermediate transformations. SN are arbitrary reference frames. 5—2. s2.

Evaluating the product. 5 expansion for has the form [RPS The parametric representation for a circular is given in Sec. — cos YQ) = C(yp y0) — 0 —a(sin sin yQ) a(cos Yp 0 To simplify the algebra. that is.2. 4—i: a a = = where cos y sin y = cy (j = 1. The coordinate matrices for P and Q are 4 = {a cos Vp.108 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. Using the results of Sec.. we suppose the local frame coincides with the natural frame at every point along the reference axis. 4—7. — sin —a(cos C05 Y0) . we obtain (a\2 I—I /c\2 I a ——sin ij cc I —i (1 — cos cc ac c cc /a\2 /c'\2 \ccJ . a sin YQ.. a Sifl — C(yp — Cyp) = {a cos yQ. we take = 0. Let yp and y corresponding to points P and Q. cy0} Then.3) are the cartesian coordinates with respect to the basic frame (frame 1). a cc C cc 0 where cc2 a2 + c2. 0 a(sin y. the rotation matrices reduce to a a C a C.

5—3. The corresponding vectors for point Q are given by UQ = Up + (Up X (5—23) = Wp Equation (5—23) is valid only when Since PQ — QP and x PQ We define is — PQ x negligible with respect to unity. The general relation between the displacements has the form 13 - (5—27) [o One can showt that alternate forms of (5—27) are j T d14 = The units are (yqp)T radians. . THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISPLACEMENT TRANSFORMATIONS where = yp = y0. 5--7. Also. Suppose that the body experiences a translation and a rotation.. as the translation and rotation* vectors for point P.SEC. 5—3. The displaccment at Q resulting from the rigid body displacement at P is given by — [13 L"l 3J = 0 — XPQ1 i — consider next the case where the local frames at P and Q do not coincide. a2c —3-(2 ac — I a (IC . I — sinq) a — cosn)(a5 — c2)] a — a I a a ac2 a a — — c2) a a2 a ci2c — a a a Note that we can specialize the above general results for the case of a plane circular member (Example 5-2) by taking c = 0 and = 0. We define Up and Ui. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISPLACEMENT TRANSFORMATIONS Let P and Q be two points on a rigid body. an alternate form for is (5—24) UQ = Up + QP X (5—25) = as the displacement matrix for P referred to frame 1. - t See Prob.

REFERENCES 1. 1964. K.. cartesian reference frames shown. 1963. Livasr. McGraw-Hill. F. The orientation of two orthogonal frames is specified by the direction cosine table listed below.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. 1966. and LECKIE.110 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. HALL. 1959. PESTEL. New York. 2. 5. B. Wiley. MORLCE. 3. S. New York. 4. H.Ey.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. WOODS-LEAD: Frame Analysis. Verify that (R12)T = (R12y1 o . 1967. P. Ronald Press. W. This result is quite useful. Pergamon Press. If Prob.. 2d ed.. 5 We see that the displacement transformation matrix is the inverse transpose of the corresponding force transformation matrix.: Matrix Methods in Elastomechanics. R. McGraw-Hill. New York. —100}. New York. find a2. PROBLEMS 5—1. C. and R. 5—i 5—2. 1/2 1/2 (a) 1/2 1/2 \/2/2 Determine R12.t.: Linear Structural Analysis. A. E. a1 = Consider the two-dimensional {50. MARTLS. London.

P and Q. —50. —40. 3. 0}. 5.Q and Determine Suppose 5--4. Also find Determine by transforming from P to S and then from S to Q. 10). 0. 5—4 S straight segment shown in the sketch below.. {l00. 0. Consider two points. find a'. 1. The direction cosine tables for the local reference frames are listed below. = (a) 2 cos + 2 sin + Take 13. 100. (b) = —y. - Suppose 4(y) = Suppose 0. Consider the circular helix.PROBLEMS (b) If a1 = {10. 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 — 12/2 (a) (b) (c) Determine 91'). +60). Calculate Consider the planar member consisting of a circular segment and a Prob. Point P is at the center of the circle. Determine Determine = ir/2. —1 —.4) with respect to frame 1. having coordinates (6. find a2. 5—3. Find corresponding to = {0. 0. YQ = . 1. 10}. (c) If a2 {5. 10. 20. Determine by transforming directly from P to Q.2) and (—5. t'i Q Ic (a) (b) (c) 5—5.

0}. Prob.112 MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR A MEMBER ELEMENT CHAP. The reference axis is defined by I niT I I —c ort x2 = f(xj). 5—8 x1 (a) (b) Determine Note that the local frame at P coincides with the basic frame whereas the local frame at Q coincides with the natural frame at Q. — 1/4. Note that •1 rI IA ii r 5—8. Q_ — I _T___ P 5—7. 5 5—6. 3 3J L" 1 Consider the plane member shown. 1/3. Use the results of . coordinate of point Q is equal to h/4. — 1/10. 4—2. Refer to Problem 5—3. Verify that Q corresponding to P = {1/2. Determine 1/10. Verify that (5—27) and (5—28) are equivalent forms. Specialize part (a) for the case where — 4a 2 (x1b — Xj) and the x1 Prob.

C XCI) Cl) z .

.

Let r be the number of prescribed displacement components (displacement restraints) and nd the total number of unknown joint displacements. 115 . There are two displacement components associated with each joint of a plane truss.t The bars arc assumed to be weightless and so assembled that the line connecting the joint centers at the ends of each bar coincides with the centroidal axis. there are if displacement quantities associated with the] joints. Similarly. the direction of the force coincides with the line connecting the joint If the bars lie in one plane. There is only one force unknown associated with each bar. Since the bars are weightless and the hinges are frictionless. namely. a general system is called a space or three-dimensional truss.6 Governing Equations for an Ideal Truss 6—i. GENERAL A system of bars* connected at their ends by frictionless hinges to joints and subjected only to forces applied at the joint centers is called an ideal truss. It follows that = if — r (6—2) Corresponding to each joint displacement restraint is an unknown joint force A prismatic member is conventionally referred to as a bar in truss analysis. ± See Ref. and there are three displacement components associated with each joint. the system is called a plane or two-dimensional truss. some of the joint-displacement components are prescribed. it follows that each bar is in a state of direct stress. We define i as = = 2 3 for a plane truss for a space truss Using this notation. the magnitude of the axial force. We suppose there are in bars (members) and j joints. 1. In general.

external joint loads. The two general procedures for solving the governing equations are described in Chapters 8 and 9. to determine the bar forces. n1—m+r Finally. These additional equations are referred to as the bar force—joint displacement relations and are obtained by combining the bar force—bar elongation relation and bar elongation—joint displacement relation for each of the in bars. for an ideal truss is (6—3) fl—flj+flj—(j+tfl (6—4) The equilibrium equations for the bars have been used to establish the fact that the force in each bar has the direction of the line connecting the joint centers at the ends of the bar. that is. the joint-displacement components. to a member system having moment resisting connections. The basic concepts employed in formulating and solving the governing equations for an ideal truss are applicable. 6 (reaction). Some authors start with the general system and then specialize the equations for the case of an ideal truss. We then describe a procedure for introducing the joint-displacement restraints and summarize the governing equations. In this chapter. Finally. It is convenient to refer the coordinates of a joint. and the external joint load components to a common right-handed cartesian reference frame. There remains the equilibrium equations for the joints. the total number of unknowns. and direction cosines for the lines connecting the joint centers in the deformed state. with slight extension. We refer to these procedures as the displacement and force methods. reactions. m additional independent equations are required. 6—2. Let (j = 1. ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION FOR A BAR We number the joints consecutively from 1 through j. we first derive the elongation—joint displacement relation for a single bar and then express the complete set of in relations as a single matrix equation. 3) be the axes and corresponding orthogonal unit . Since each joint is subjected to a concurrent force system. we briefly discuss the solvability of the governing equations for the linear case. They are also called the stWhess and flexibility methods in some texts. 2. In this case. Then. n. there are iJ scalar force-equilibrium equations relating the bar forces. We prefer to proceed from the truss to the general system since the basic formulation techniques for the ideal truss can be more readily described. To adequately describe the formulation for a general system requires introducing a considerable amount of notation which tends to overpower the reader. the question of initial instability is directly related to the solvability. we develop variational principles for an ideal truss. In Chapter 7. We let flf be the total number of force unknowns. and joint displacements.116 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN iDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Thisprocedure is repeated for the bar force-elongation relations and the joint force-equilibrium equations. In order to solve the problem.

From Fig. 6—2 the initial length of bar n. 6—1. denoted by = — is equal to the magnitude of the vector = (6—7) . 3) and the corresponding vectors are written as rk = j= Uk = Ukl Pk 1 (6—5) The coordinates and position vector for joint k in the deformed state are 1k + 11k = (6—6) + Uk Figure 6—1 illustrates the notation associated with the joints. 6—2. The centroidal axis of bar n coincides with the line connecting joints k and s. ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION vectors for the basic frame.SEC. Notation for joints. displacement components. and components of the resultant external force for joint k are denoted by (j = 1. 2. We number the bars from 1 through m and consider bar n to be connected to joints k and s. The initial coordinates. 14313 Deformed position of joint k // 11k2 // x2 flkl x1 Fig.

We take the positive sense for bar n to be from joint k 13 = — xk)T(xs — xk) — xkf) (6—8) s x. (6—7) reduces to = Before the orientation of the bar can be specified. Undeformed position of Bar n. . due to the orthogonality of the reference frame. to joint s and define as the direction cosine for the positive sense of bar n direction: in the undeformed state with respect to the = 1 (Ar = 1 — XkJ) (6—9) It is convenient to list the direction cosines in a row matrix. 6 Since the basic frame is orthogonal.. Let L12 + e12 be the deformed length. Finally. Note that we let be the unit vector associated with the positive direction of bar n in the undeformed state. The length and direction cosines for bar n are equal to the magnitude and direction cosines for the vector. =L — Xk) (6—10) 1. 6—2.116 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. the unit vector = — Pk. By definition.3 I / / XkI / Xg3 // 12 Xk2 Fig. - = 1 Ar = 12 The deformed position of bar n is shown in Fig. 6—3. a positive sense or direction must be selected.

6—2..SEC. 6—3. and the corresponding direction cosine matrix. (6—11). we obtain. Deformed position of Bar n.j [ + 1 I +-. 1 expands to = [cx. associated with the positive direction in the deformed state.:- E UkJ) (6—16) We list the fl's in a row matrix. after dividing both sides by (1 + = 1 + 2. Substituting for = A1 + e 2 — Uk) and noting (6—7). — — (6—13) (6—14) We consider first (6—12). . ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION x3 Ap Joints x2 t?&2 x1 Fig. These quantities are defined by + — eh) 1 (6—12) —. — 1 Uk) + — uk)T(US ilk) (6—15) The expression for the direction cosine.

is the change in length of bar n. We use the term linear geometry for this case. If the initial geometry is such that the bar cannot experience a significant change in orientation. For example. e. The linearized relations are — Uk) (6—21) We discuss this reduction in greater detail in Chapter 8. Since we are concerned in this chapter with the formulation of the governing equations. Using (6—20). Uk) form shows that the second-order terms arc related to the change in orientation of the bar. However. << I Expanding the left-hand side of (6—15). we obtain e.120 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 6 (6—17) [cm + uk)T] By definition.. the geometric relations for all the bars can be expressed as a single matrix equation.. The relations for bar n. we work with (6—19). GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION We have derived expressions for the. i. the strain is only for steel at a stress level of 3 x ksi.. — Uk) + (ii. is the extensional strain which is considerably less than unity for most engineering materials. we will assume small strain. and noting (6—18). we will retain the nonlinear rotation terms. we can write (6—19) as = This / + 1 — (u. then we can neglect the nonlinear terms. 6—3.. — uk)T(u$ — Uk) (6—19) The direction cosines for the deformed orientation reduce to + — Uk) (6—20) To simplify the expression for further. Then./L7. we need to interpret the quadratic terms. The relations simplify if we introduce the assumption of small strain.e.direction cosines and elongation of a bar in terms of the initial coordinates and displacement components of the joints at the ends of the bar. which is connected to joints s and k (positive direction . (6—20). By considering the truss as a system or network.

= = = = — — Xk) (x. This table is referred to as the branch-node incidence table in network theory. Example 6—1 As an illustration. consider the two-dimensional truss shown. n_ denote the joint numbers for the joints at the positive and negative ends of and k member n. of the joints at the positive and negative ends of the members. . we must relate the bars and joints of the system. Let n÷. we must specify the connectivity of the truss. The geometric relations take the form (we replace s by bynJn(a)): = = — — x. — 11)T = ci. In the first column. that is...) To proceed further. 8.. 6—3. we have considered joints s and k as coinciding with the. that is. Now we introduce new notation which is more convenient for generalization of the geometric relations.) = = ci. — (6—22) + (u. The conneêtivity See Ref.. — xk) T — Uk) + + (ii.. and in the other two columns the corresponding numbers.. + u. The positive directions of the bars are indicated by arrowheads and the bar numbers are encircled. The connectivity can be defined by a table having m rows and three columns. GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION 121 from k to s) are summarized below for convenience: = (x.* For structural systems. and n.SEC.. a branch corresponds to a member and a node to a joint. It should be noted that the connectivity depends only on the numbering of the bars and joints. we list the bar numbers in ascending order. — uk)T Uk) Up to this point.. and we shall refer to this table as the member-joint incidence table or simply as the connectivity table. positive and negative ends of member n. it is independent of the initial geometry and distortion of the system.

the elements of where k = 1. . e= {e1. = {u1.. for bar 8. 6 table (we list it horizontally to save space) for this numbering scheme takes the following form: Bar. 8÷ 5. The elements in the uth row of d involve only Then. partitioning d into submatrices.. x2 To compute and a. 8. and 1... For example.. the evaluation of the initial length and direction cosines can be easily automated.... E6—1 0 6 4 With the connectivity table. xs• — x1 — x5 (x1 — x)T(x * x5) — = x5)T We define e and qj as the system elongation and joint-displacement matrices. x1.) 1 4 5 1 3 1 2 6 4 6 5 3 0 2 0 Fig. 2 in and £ = 1. we first determine n÷ and n_ from the connectivity table and then use the first two equations of(6—22). ishing submatrices for row n are the two subinatrices whose column number corresponds to the joint number at the positive or negative end of member it.n 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 2 5 7 8 9 2 6 10 4 2 11 5 3 +Joint(n÷) —Joint(n. of order 1 x 1. 2 it follows that the only nonvanj. The initial data consists of the j coordinate matrices. C2.122 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN DEAL TRUSS CHAP.u2 6—23 and express the m elongation-displacement relations as a single matrix equation e = u (6—24) where d is of order m x ij.

at column at column n_. For row n. 6—3. The form of (6—25) suggests that we list the y's in a quasi-diagonal matrix.& matrix can be readily established by using the connectivity table. Uj e1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 Ii 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 e2 e3 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 14 e4 0 15 0 0 0 0 14 0 e5 0 e6 0 0 is 0 0 0 —Ys 0 0 0 e5 e9 e10 is 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 —19 0 0 1io 0 ho 0 0 0 e11 The d matrix depends on both the geometry and the topology. The general form of the d matrix for the truss treated in Example 6—1 is listed below. 71 = 72 (6—26) . We have also listed the elongations and joint displacement matrices to emphasize the significance of the rows and partitioned columns of . It is of interest to express d in a form where these two effects are segregated. and null matrices at the other locations. n÷ and n.: = +777 = (6—25) t' = Example 6—2 0 when n÷ orn The . one puts +y.&.SEC.. GENERAL ELONGATION—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION namely.

. 6—6. It follows that column k of C defines the bars associated with joint k. Joint Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 12 2 +12 12 +12 12 Bar Numbers +12 +12 +12 +12 12 12 12 +12 12 +12 One can consider row n of C to define the two joints associated with bar n.2 in e= 1. = — Ij n÷ or n. (6—27) d = yC (6—28) The network terminology* for C is augmented branch-node incidence matrix. - *= + =0 Then.2.. Example 6—3 The connectivity matrix for Example 6—1 is listed below. The unit matrices are of order 2 since the system is two-dimensional.. . 8... See also Ref. We shall refer to it simply as the connectivity matrix.. This association is usually See Prob..124 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.j Cr. 6 and define C as C = [Ck(i k 1.

FORCE-ELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR By definition. Stress-strain curves for elastic and inelastic behavior. 5 of Ref. 6.SEC. The initial portion of the curve is essentially straight for engineering materials such as steel and aluminum. For example. 6—4. For ductile materials. positive when tension = initial elongation. will be constant when the bar is homogeneous and the force-elongation relation will be similar in form to the uniaxial stress-strain curve for the material. and also. a bar is positive incident on a joint when its positive end is at the joint. that is.that a joint is positive incident on a bar when it is at the positive end of the bar.. A material is said to be elastic when the stress-strain curve is unique. a. 4.* Elastic behavior B 0 C 6—4. The strain. a is constant throughout the bar. Fig. we see that joints 1 and 4 are incident on bar 5 and bars 3. We will use this property of the connectivity matrix later to generalize the joint force-equilibrium equations. . the material is said to be inelastic. If the behavior for decreasing a is different. i. 2. the unloading curve (BC) is essentially parallel to the initial curve. and 11 are incident on joint 5. It follows that the only nonvanishing stress component is the axial stress.e. 8. s. We introduce the following notation: A = cross sectional area F axial force. 6—4. when the curves corresponding to increasing and decreasing a coincide (OAB and BAO in Fig. 6-4. A typical a-c curve is shown in Fig. Similarly. 6—4). We say. elongation not associated with stress * A detailed discussion of the behavior of engineering materials is given in Chap. each bar of an ideal truss is prismatic and subjected only to axial load applied at the centroid of the end cross sections. We will consider each bar to be homogeneous but we will not require that all the bars be of the same material. FORCE-ELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 125 referred to as incidence.

C0 Fig. is the elongation due to a unit force. A superscript (j) is used to identify the modulus and limiting stress for segment j. The initial and transformed relations are a= F a E(r — AE = (e — e0) k(e — a0) (6—30) L F + e0 = fF + e0 We call k. The forceelongation relation will still be linear. but now we have to determine what . A material having this property is called Hookean. 6 Since the stress and strain are constant throughout the bar. Physically. Linear elastic behavior. 6—5. as shown in Fig. We consider first the case where the stress-strain relation is linear. k is the force required per unit elongation and f. 6—5. The material is said to be piecewise linear. Figure 6—6 shows this idealization for two segments.126 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. F= e = e0 = Lg Le0 (6—29) We convert the a-c relation for the material to the force-elongation relation for the bar by applying (6—29). which is the inverse of k. We consider next the case where the stress-strain relation is approximated by a series of straight line segments. f the stiffness and flexibility factors for the bar.

Art. 3. Piecewise linear approximation. 74. (6—3 1) Loading—Second Segment F>l) < F F . 2. Sec. the curve is assumed to be parallel to the initial segment. 1. See Ref. FORCE-ELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 127 Fig. or Ref. For unloading. + (f°> — Unloading—Second Segment F k>1>(e — (6—33) One can readily generalize these relations for the nth segment. . 6—8.f * We are neglecting the Bauschinger etlect.* The relations for the various possibilities are listed below. 5.9. 6—6. t See Prob.4a12> F>2> k'2>(e (6—32) = 3.SEC. Loading or Unloading—initial Segment F = k">(e — F>1> F= 2. 6-4. segment the deformation corresponds to and also whether the strain is increasing (loading) or decreasing (unloading).

E6—4.— = 41. Segment 1 Segment 2 F F (83.7 30 (in.2 f"> = f"> = 120 1/k"> = 24 x = k>2> = L AE>2> = 83. 6—6): = = — + (f>2) — = + 0.3)(e — 120 (41.7 kips/in.7)(e — Suppose a force of 35 kips is applied and the bar is unloaded. 12 x in.06 in. L in.3 kips/in.36 in. The equivalent initial strain is (see Equation 6—33 and Fig.4=lin. We have to modify the stiffness and equivalent initial elongation only when the limit of the seg- . 6 Example 6—4 We consider a bilinear approximation.128 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. shown in Fig. Fig. E6—4 40 41./kip F"> = 42> = 3okips = + ([1) — — 0. The procedure described above utilizes the segment stiffness./in.) Taking L=lQft=l2Oin we obtain . which can be interpreted as an average tangent stiffness for the segment./kip —.

An alternate procedure is based on using the initial linear stiffness for all the segments. In what follows. one has to iterate on eoeq regardless of whether the segment limit has been exceeded.4 'I I' /1 -eo.eq.SEC. the actual strain.eq = A = (6—35) — — The equivalent initial strain. which is too cumbersome. FORCE-ELONGATION RELATION FOR A BAR 129 is reached. depends on e. eq kU)(e — eo.eq) is interpreted as the equivalent linear initial strain and is given by eo. we will drop all the additional superscripts and write the force-deformation relations for bar n in the simple linear form of = = + (6—36) . ment . we outline the initial st(ffness approach. The notation introduced for the piecewise linear case is required in order to distinguish between the various segments and the two methods. 6—7. Rather than continue with this detailed notation. eoeq. Notation for the initial stiffness approach. Fig. We write the force-elongation relation F— — segment 2 as (6—34) — A = where e0. This disadvantage is offset somewhat by the use for all the segments. Since e in turn depends on F. Consider Fig. 6-4. 6—7.

. +F. 6—8).i. The generalized forms of (6—37) and (6—38) are: F= and k(e e0 — e0) = F0 + (6—40) (6—41) d°1I = 6—6... as the forces exerted by bar n on the joints at the positive and negative ends of the bar. (6—37) F0.. GENERAL BAR FORCE—JOINT DISPLACEMENT RELATION 6—5..u.F. The force vector has the direction of the unit vector.. Combining these two relations leads to an expres- sion for the bar force in terms of the displacement matrices for the joints at the ends of the bar.fi. u...... be the axial force vector for bar n (see Fig. = (6—43 . Then... e0.. = — F. + — k. The force-deformation and deformation-displacement relations for bar n are given by (6—22) and (6—36). = fi.y. Now.. we define F.._) = e.... and e0 are defined by (6—31) through (6—35) for the physically nonlinear case. = and — — e0.... F.. 6 where k. i.130 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.. = (6—42) When F.e0.. is positive. which defines the orientation of the bar in the deformed state.. = F0. = — F. the sense of F. + f. (6—38) We can express the force-displacement relations for the "m" bars as a single matrix equation by defining (6 39) k2 k1 k= km and noting (6—24). The two forms are: F.. 6—8. From Fig. f.. + fF JOINT FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS Let F.i F... = —k.. is the same as the positive sense for the bar. Continuing..

. where For equilibrium. We consider next joint k. When the geometry is linear. . Notation for barforce. the matrix equilibrium equation for joint k takes the form: Pk = Let j+k P2. = (if x and m) 1. Then. The external joint load vector is Pk.. = = and .m (6—47) Since a bar is incident only on two joints.. 2. — (6—44) be the general external joint load matrix: = . = 1. .. Using (6--43). . replaced by n. . there will be only two elements in any column of From (6—44). k= 2. We partition into submatrices of order i x 1. (if x 1) (6—45) We write the complete set of joint force-equilibrium equations as: = (6—46) Note that the rows of pertain to the joints and the columns to the bars. we see that. JOINT FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS Joint n_ Fig. It will have the same form as dT with y. 6—8. for column n. the resultant force vector must equal zero. = = (6—48) e = 0 when orn_ The matrix can be readily developed using the connectivity table. Pk = Pk .j+=k — The first summation involves the bars which are positive incident on joint k (positive end at joint k) and the second the bars which are negative incident. 6—6.j .SEC.

132 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. e. Eq. (6—50) INTRODUCTION OF DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS. 0 (rn x Lm) o o (6—49) Finally. Using this property. Also. GOVERNING EQUATIONS and qj. . in our derivation. we where the elements of have considered the components to be referred to a basic reference frame. Now. We could have also utilized the connectivity* matrix C to develop ft was pointed out in Example 6—3 that the elements of the kth column of C define the incidence of the bars on joint k. We have developed the following equations relating F. 6 Example 6—5 The matrix for the truss of Example 6—1 has the following general form: Bar Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 +llç RT + T 2 nT OF +p7 nT —plo OT ftT I z a C -' A DT P2 oT ±1J3 oT nT oT +p4 øT •r C -I J3 P6 oT +pU I. 6—27. we have = 6—7. 6—3. * See Sec. e = d°l1 = e0 + IF = and are the external joint-displacement and external joint-load matrices arranged in ascending order. we can write the generalized form of (6—44) as where 0 -.

This is necessary when the restraint direction at a joint does not coincide with one of the directions of the basic frame. We let U1. If the geometry is linear. for the r reactions in terms of the m bar forces. Equation (6—55) represents r equations. The rearranged system joint displacement and joint load matrices are written as U. Then. P2 the corresponding prescribed and unknown joint load matrices.SEC. A and B involve the joint displacements. 6—7. we let A and B be the transformation matrices associated with U and P. there will be a reduction in the number of joint displacement unknowns and a corresponding increase in d. and the r prescribed displacements. P: (fld x >< 1) (r x 1) — 6—51 We 1) x 1) + V = 13 point out that the components contained in U (and P) may be referred to local reference frames at the various joints rather than to the basic frames. the number of force unknowns. Equation equations involving the in unknown bar forces and the prescribed joint loads. P: (fflxnd) (mxr) A2] (6—52) B [Bil (nd x in) LB2i(r x m) and write (b) in expanded form: e A1U1 + A2tJ2 = e0 + fF (6—53) (6—54) (6—55) = P2 B1F B2F Equation (6—53) represents equations relating the in unknown bar forces. INTRODUCTtON OF DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS 133 joint displacement restraints are imposed. B consistent with the partitioning of U. (a) takes the form: e= P BF = AU e0 + fF We partition A. Finally. There will be n4 prescribed joint loads and r unknown joint loads (usually called reactions) corresponding to the na unknown joint displacenients and the r known joint displacements. and (6—54) represents = AT j = 1. When the geometry is nonlinear. U2 be the column matrices of unknown and prescribed joint displacement components and P1. 2 (6—56) . Lastly. the nd unknown displacements. A J3T. This will require a rearrangement of and when Let r be the number of displacement restraints and 11d the number of displace- ment unknowns.

134 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. and = . it is necessary first to transform the joint displacement and external load components from the basic frame to a local frame associated with the restraint at the joint. Pk— where ROk Uk — ak Pk = [cos (6—58) We have omitted the frame superscript (o) for quantities referred to the basic frame (ut. let and be the corresponding displacement and external joint load components. . B. = as the system joint-rotation matrix. It remains to discuss how one determines A. We define CU'. To obtain A. .. Also. we perform the same operations on the columns of d. Let (j = 1. We also describe how one can represent the introduction of displacement restraints as a matrix transformation. 6 We have introduced the displacement restraints into the formulation by with A. by operating on the columns and then transposing the resulting matrix. The components are related by: Uk— k_ ok k. R02 . Finally. direction. since P corresponds to U.. as the system joint-displacement and -force matrices referred to the local joint reference frames. . 6—8. In the following section. When the restraint at a joint does not coincide with one of the directions of the basic frame. we obtain U from by simply rearranging the rows of such that the elements in the first rows are the unknown displacements and the last r rows contain the prescribed displacements. we obtain B by operating on the rows of or alternately. 3) be the orthogonal directions for the local reference frame associated with the displacement restraint at joint k. ARBITRARY RESTRAINT DIRECTION When all the restraint directions are parallel to the direction of the global reference frame. Finally. let R0k be the rotation transformation matrix for the local frame at joint k with respect to the basic frame (frame o).. Suppose there is a displacement restraint at joint k. to simplify the notation. we treat the case of an arbitrary restraint from d. (6-59) R°1 = Then. 2. B replacing d. (6—60) R0j = = (a) .

we can premultiply the submatrices in row k of by R°". When the restraint directions are parallel to the directions of the basic frame. Postmulti- plication by Dr effects the same rearrangements on the columns. that is. where H is the permutation matrix corresponding to the displacement restraints. * See Prob.. D is a permutation matrix which rearranges the rows of We obtain D by applying the same row rearrangement to a unit matrix of order ij. Also. alternately. by y. see the matrix for Example 6—5 on page 136. determined by transposing One can visualize the introduction of displacement restraints as a matrix transformation. b (IP = leads to = (6—61) The transformation to is the same as for the case where the restraint directions are parallel to the directions of the basic frame. . For the general case of arbitrary restraint directions. The matrix can be and replacing il. we obtain A by rearranging the columns of . it will involve only a rearrangement of the rows of Similarly.* Dr D1.cifi. —* U. Now. 6—8.SEC. As an illustration. we first determine and then U. ARBITRARY RESTRAINT DIRECTION 135 Operating on the initial equations with (a). I —36 for a discussion of permutation matrices. The steps are A2] -+ -* B LB2 Example 6—6 To obtain the submatrices in column k of we postmultiply the submatrices in column k of ri by R°" T We can perform the same operation on and then transpose the resulting matrix or. involves only a permutation of the rows of U = (6—63). = (a) The step. We represent the operations U as and P (6—62) U=D°lI and call D the displacement-restraint transformation matrix..

) m 0 — R04P1 :13 > 2 ROSDTI C m -1 C (I) Cl) .C) for Example 6—6 0 F4 F5 F6 F7 F1 F2 F8 F9 F3 F10 F11 m Pt R°'pb z z 0 C — m pt —1 — 0 z C.

1—45. Applying this condition * See Sec. B1 is independent of the loading and the initial stability criterion is also applicable for a finite loading. HPII°' (6—64) are orthogonal matrices. (b) can be solved only if a and [a c] have the same rank. B with it. the total number of equations. In this section.* It follows that the equations are consistent for an arbitrary right-hand side only when the rank of a is equal to]. However. INITIAL INSTABILITY 137 Combining (a) and (6—63). Then. If these equations are inconsistent for an arbitrary infinitesimal loading. we are concerned with the behavior under an infinitesimal loading. we have U= and it follows that I) = Since both H and Using (6—62). B1 depends on the joint displacements as well as on the initial geometry and < restraint directions. (a) represents linear equations in in unknowns. see also Prob. we say the system is initially unstable. one would not generate A. When the geometry is linear. We treat stability under a finite loading in Chapter 7. INITIAL INSTABILITY The force equilibrium equations relating the prescribed external joint forces and the (internal) bar forces has been expressed as (see Equation 6—54): P1=B1F where P1 is I) and F is (m x 1).s. 6—9. Since the nonlinear terms depend on the load intensity. When the geometry is nonlinear.SEC. connectivity. Consider a set of j linear algebraic equations in k unknowns. P. 1—13. . take B1 as constant. and D in terms of the geometrical. A and dDT then substituting for d. 6—9. This is not true for a nonlinear system. ax=c (b) In general. D is also an orthogonal matrix. local rotation matrices lead to B A= ( 6 65 ) — Equation (6—65) is of interest since the various terms are isolated. we they will be negligible in comparison to the linear terms for this case.

B1 must be That is. E6—7 x2 in = 4 5 na = x1 F1 Pu F F2 F3 F4 —1 P12 ) — P21 +1 B1 +1 +1 +1 P22 P31 Row 3 is (— 1) times row 1. For the truss to be initially stable under an arbitrary loading. Example 6—7 The force-equilibrium equations for the accompanying sketch are: Fig. the number of bars must be at least This requires m of rank equal to the number of unknown displacement components. . one must actually find the rank of B1. we see that the truss is initially unstable when the rank of B1 is less than na. In order to determine whether a truss is initially stable. The equations are consistent only if P21 = — Pu Since m < we know the system is unstable for an arbitrary loading without actually finding r(B1). 6 to (a).138 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Since the rank this condition is necessary but not sufficient for initial may still be less than stability. The following examples illustrate various cases of initial instability.

INITIAL INSTAB1LITY 139 Example 6—8 We first develop the matrix for the truss shown in Fig.SEC. E6—8A and then specialize it for various restraint conditions. Fig. sinO cosO —sinO ® Psi ® P32 © P41 —1 —1 —cosO —sinO There are three relations between the rows (1) row®+row®+row®= —row® row® + row® + row = —row® (sin 8)(row ® + row ©) — cos U (row ®) = cos U (row ®) (2) (3) . E6—8A '1 J 0 M 4 3 I F6 —cosU F F F2 F3 F4 F5 ® Pit © Piz ® Psi P22 —1 +1 sinO +1 —a--—-— ±1 +1 —1 cosO . 6—9.

7. A sufficient number of restraints are introduced (/24 = 5) but the rows of B1 are not linearly independent. An insufficient number of restraints are introduced (n4 > 5). 4. Since has three linear dependent rows. Initial instability will occur if— 1. it follows that we must introduce at least three restraints. 2. Case 1 Fig. 6. We obtain relation (3) by taking Oat joint 4. Equation (b) reduces to —d(p11 + P21) + b(p22 Using ci + P32) = 0 =L sin 8 b = L cos 0 we can write (c) as cos 0p32 sin O(pii + P21) — cos which is relation 3. These cases are illustrated below. 3.140 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we obtain B1 from by first taking a linear combination of the rows (when the restraints are not parallel to the basic frame) and then deleting the rows corresponding to the joint forces associated with the prescribed joint displacements. E6—8B 1 2 x2 m6 x1 . 8) contains only three independent rows. We say the restraints are not independent in this case. We see that rows 2 and 5 arc independent. 6 The first two relations correspond to the scalar force equilibrium conditions for the external joint loads: Pkl = P11 + P21 + P31 + P41 = 0 Pk2 = P12 + P22 + P32 + P42 = 0 The third relation corresponds to the scalar moment equilibrium condition: k1 Mk is the moment of the external force vector acting at joint k with respect to point 0. Now. the origin of the basic frame. Thc remaining set (rows 1.

These relations correspond to the force.and moment-equilibrium conditions for the complete truss. To establish the relations for the three-dimensional case. Actually. at least onc horizontal restraint must be introduced. The system is stable only when the applied joint loads satisfy the condition Pu + P21 + P31 = Case 2 P41 Fig. E6—8C x2 rn = 6 —5 xl We delete rows 4. Parwhere titioning (6—66) where is of order (i x m) and using the matrix notation introduced in . we start with the equilibrium equations. r(81) = 4. To make the system stable. and 8. 6—9. 0. In Example 6—8. (jxl) 3 o (2i—3)x 1 0 is the moment of with respect to an arbitrary moment center. we take 0 at the origin of the basic reference frame. The number of restraints is sufficient (fld = 5) but the restraints are not independent since r(B1) < 5.SEC. we showed that there are three relations between the rows for a two-dimensional truss. For convenience. INITIAL INSTABILITY We obtain B1 by deleting rows 6 and 8 (corresponding to P32 and P42). 6.

TIMOSNENKO. MARTIN. Eq. It follows that B will also have at least 3(i — 1) relations between its rows. CRANDALL. 1941.. H. 89. MCMINN. New York..* the equilibrium equations take the form PA.: Strength of Materials. Either condition may control r. For the system to be initially stable.. 1960. Also. The number of restraints must also satisfy the necessary condition This requires r = ((j — — m) (6—71) Both (6—70) and (6—71) must be satisfied. + row [i(j — 2) + q] = row [i(j 1) q=l. Van Nostrand.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. Now. New York.. 6 Sec. 7. Vol. S. 1945. Pergamon Press. we obtain B by combining and rearranging the rows of PA. McGrawHill. TIMoSISENKO.. H. 1963. 483—514.i (6—69) + q] and (6—68) corresponds to (2i — 3) relations. H." J. McGraw-Hill. McGraw-Hill. LIVIISLEY.. H. and J. and D. row q + row (q + I) + . ASCE. S. pp. Part 2. and F. 3. 8. S. ST4. and N. = 0 (6—67) (6—68) =0 Equation (6—67) represents i relations between the rows of PA. 1. J. BRANIN: "Network-Topological Formulation of Structural Analysis. New York.2. McGraw-Hill. DAHL: An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids. New York. Div. NORRIS.. 1964. B.. Struct. 5—2 for the moment. No. Finally. H.. K. depending on the arrangement of the bars. New York. WILBUR: Elementary Structural Analysis. * See . 1962. 5. I.: Matrices jbr Structural Analysis. it is a necessary but not sufficient condition for initial stability. S. R. FENVES.142 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. YOUNG: Theory of Structures. in. REFERENCES C. S.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. C. 6. 2. we obtain by deleting the rows corresponding to the restraints. C.. London. 1966. New York. we must introduce at least 3(i — 1) restraints: r no. of restraints 3(i — 1) (6—70) Note that this requirement is independent of the number of bars. We have shown that there are at least 3(i — 1) relations between the tows of PA.. 5—11. 4. 1959. Wiley.

J. 6—1 (a) (b) 6—2. 1. and 6—20). (b) (c) List the initial direction cosines. Consider the truss shown: (a) Establish the connectivity table. Find 1k and Determine and ji. Determine and Suppose Uk {1/10. —2] (ft) (a) (b) Take the positive direction of bar n from k to s.. and the expressions for the linear geometric case (Equation 6—21). 6—3. Compare the results for the three cases.PROBLEMS 143 PROBLEMS 6—1. and for the following plane trusses: Prob. r. 1/l0} = — 1/10. Do we have to include nonlinear geometric terms for this truss? Locate the nonzero submatrices in . Assume no support movements. Determine in.. the expressions specialized for the case of small strain (Equations 6—19. using the exact expressions (Equations 6—15. — 1/30} (inches) (inches) Note that the units of x and u must be consistent. Suppose bar n is connected to joints s and k where Xk = {l. —5. . using the connectivity table.sd. 6—4. 6—17).0] (ft) = {5. Determine the complete form of d. Discuss when the linear geometric relations are valid and develop the appropriate nonlinear elongation-displacement relations for the trusses shown. 1/20.

144 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. and the line connecting two nodes is called a branch. The Junctions are generally called nodes. The encircled numbers refer to the branches and the arrowheads indicate the positive sense (of the current) for each branch. Verify that d = cxC.3 (a) x2 X1 3 2 Ib) x2 Prob. Determine d for the three-dimensional truss shown. Determine C. . 6—4 I' (d) (e) 6—5. 6—6. 6—3 2 . Consider the d-c network shown. 6 Prob.

. 5) denote the potential at node j.cjv Determine d. (j = 1. 1.0. . The potential Prob. . 145 Let and n.. . form of ad.0) Prob.0) (1. v5} = general node potential matrix = general branch potential difference matrix {e1.0) xI (1.PROBLEMS . 6—5 x3 4 (0. let denote the nodes at the positive and negative ends of branch n. e2. . . How many independent columns does ad have? In network theory. . indicated by We define v and e as is given by = v. using the branch-node connectivity table. 2. ad is called the augmented branch node incidence matrix.1. .. and write the system of branch potential difference—node potential relations as e= . v= e= {v1.. Also. v2. 6—6 3 0 0' drop for branch n.. . Discuss how the truss problem differs from the electrical network problem with respect to the. .

(a) (b) (c) Take L 20 ft. Prob. 6—10 GA Ee da Et . Develop the piecewise linear force-elongation relations. Start with e + and express eb0 in terms of quantities associated with segment (J — 1). by a= E(s — be3) Prob. Suppose the bar experiences a temperature increase of 1000 F. 6 6—7. as in the sketch. A = 2 in2. Suppose a force of + 60 kips is applied and then removed. and the a-s curve shown. 6—9. Generalize Equation 6—32 for segmentj. 6—10. I)etermine the force-elongation relation for the inelastic case. Suppose the stress-strain relation for initial loading is approximated. Determine the initial elongation.146 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Consider the material to be aluminum. 6—7 6X ksi 20 ksi 6—8. Generalize Equation 6—35 for segmcntj.

Determine expressions for k5 and kt. Repeat Prob. the secant and tangent moduli. is from. 6—10. Let be the current in branch n. Suppose the material behaves inelastically for decreasing 4 Consider the unloading curve to be parallel to the initial tangent. 6—li. Determine the force-elongation relation for AB. 6—12 for the three-dimensional truss shown. 6—6. p 6—12 (a) Locate the nonzero submatrices in (b) Assemble for the linear geometric case. 6—12. This requirement leads to one equation for each node involving the branch currents incident on . node 6—14. c. the total current flowing into a node must equal the total current flowing out of the node. 6—13. using the stress-strain relation (b) (c) = where E. 6—13 LX2 I 'I. Now. Prob. and n are constants. Repeat Prob. (u + For the accompanying sketch: Prob. The positive sense of n_ to node n÷.PROBLEMS (a) 147 Determine expressions for ES and E'. (a) Consider the electrical network of Prob.

How many independent equations does (a) represent? (Hint: d has only four independent columns). Actually. 6—15. (a) (b) Develop the general form of Suppose is21. An i. Show that the complete system of branch curpotential relations can be written as e= = e0 — + Ri = R1(e e0) = R1dv — R1e0 Equations (a) and (c) are the governing unpartitioned equations for a linear-resistance d-c network. u42. Refer to Prob. Determine B1 and B2. j2. 6—3 with i = 1. 6—6. Suppose u11.) alternate form is Note the similarity between (b) and the linear elastic member forceelongation relation. the current and potential drop for a branch are related by = e0 is the branch emf and R. = general branch-current matrix (Sxl) 0 Show that the complete system of node equations can be written as (b) where d is given in Prob.. are prescribed. The orientation of the local Prob. . is52 are prescribed. . It should be noted that the network problem is onedimensional. The d matrix depends only on the topology (connectivity) of the system. 6—16.148 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 6—12. 6—12. Identify B1 and B2.. is the branch resistance. Refer to Prob. d corresponds to the C matrix used in Sec. The partitioned equations are developed in Prob. When the resistance is linear. it does not involve geometry. that is. x2 . = — e0 . 6 the node.. 6—16 frame at joint 5 is shown in the sketch. u42. . Let = {i1. 6—23. .

6—18 r (restraint direction) t (tangent) 11 = 13 I. the rank of B1 is less than m and the system is initially unstable (see Prob. Suppose na = 0 are in. U-33. 6—19. say bar k. 6—13 (a) (b) Develop the general form of Determine B1 and B2 corresponding to the following prescribed displacements: U11. The bars are of equal length and 0 is the center of the circumscribed circle. Prob. to determine r(B1). x1 x2 1/2 1/2 x3 0 1/2 1/2 6—48. equal to C: = C . Then. 1—45). we can proceed as follows: (1) We take the force in some bar. Consider the two-dimensional truss shown. B1 is of order tn x m. The equilibrium (.PROBLEMS 6—17.nxrn) equations for P1 (mxl) B1 F=0 Fk rnXl If (a) has a nontrivial solution. U23. Rather than operate on B1. U13 The local frame at joint 2 is defined by the following direction cosine table. Investigate the is initial stability of this system. The restraint direction degrees counterclockwise from the tangent at each joint. U3j. U12. Repeat for the case of four bars. Refer to Prob.

6—18. Take F1 = C and determine F2. Investigate the initial stability of the system shown. In this case. Note that the general solution of B1F 0 involves m — r(B1) arbitrary constants. since the system. F3. (3) The last equilibrium equation leads to an expression for Fk in terms of C. (a) Apply this procedure to Prob. 3. 6—21 5 6—22. and then F1 using the equilibrium condition (summation of forces normal to r must equal zero) for joints 1. 6 (2) Using the joint force-equilibrium equations. the truss is said to be statically determinate. we express the remaining bar forces in terms of C. The restraint directions are indicated by the slashed lines.150 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR AN DEAL TRUSS CHAP. Prob. r(B1) < since a nontrivial solution for F exists. If this reduces to an identity. Modify the zero load test for the case where na < in. Investigate the initial stability of the two-dimensional truss shown. Prob. we can determine F. 6—21. 2. When n4 = m and the geometry is linear. Do initial (b) elongations and support settlements introduce forces in the bars of a statically determinate truss? 6—20. This procedure is called the zero load test. 6—22 -j 4 -t I 3 c . using only the equations of static equilibrium. Use the zero load test. P1 = B1F. is square.

one of the node potentials must be specified. . and 6—14 for a network having b branches and n nodes. (bxn) bx(n—1) bxl d2] and let d1 = A. matrix = {e1. That is. 6—6. .PROBLEMS 6—23. we can only determine the potential difference for the nodes with respect to an arbitrary node. we take as the reference potential. j2 = node potential matrix = {v1. (nxb) . -. dT rows of has only n — 1 independent rows. — Show that dv = AV (b) Summarize the governing equations for the network. . We generalize the results of Probs.. . Compare the necessary number of restraints required for the network and truss problems. . Equation (e) represents (n — 1) equations. v2. and one equation must be disregarded. Therefore. e2. Suppose we delete the last equation. Since v is of order n. This corresponds to deleting the last column of d (last row of dT). The reduced system of node equations has the form ATj =0 Note that AT corresponds to B1 for the truss problem. The general relations are (1) node equations (n equations) &T (bxl) (nxl) = Ri and (2) branch equations (b equations) e = dv = e0 + Now. . We have deleted the last column of d which corresponds to node n. . Let e v branch potential duff. The operation corresponds to introducing displacement restraints in the truss problem. One can easily show that the row ii row k 1 are related by = It follows that (a) represents only n — independent equations. We partition d. . (a) Let = {v1 — v2 — . = branch current matrix = {i1.

7 Variational Principles for an Ideal Truss 7-1. Next. The elbngation of a bar was related to the translations of the joints at the end of the bar. Also. GENERAL The formulation of the governing equations for an ideal truss described in Chapter 6 involved three steps: 1. Why bother with variational principles when the derivation of the governing equations for an ideal truss is straightforward? Our objective in discussing them at this time is primarily to expose the ieader to this point of view. we discuss the question of stability of an elastic system and develop the stability criterion for an ideal truss. we shall two additional transformation matrices follow essentially the same approach to establish the governing equations for an elastic solid. Finally. which treats relative extremas of a function. in Chapter 10. 2. The principle of virtual displacements is treated first. 3. For this step. Finally. we discuss the principle of virtual forces and show that it is basically a geometrical compatibility relation. we shall 152 . we can illustrate these principles quite easily with the truss. resulting in equations relating the external joint loads and internal bar forces. we develop two variational principles and illustrate their application to an ideal truss. Both principles are then identified as the stationary requirements for certain functions. we utilize the material presented in Chapter 3. the bar force was expressed in terms of the elongation and then in terms of the joint translations. The system equations were obtained by generalizing the member forcedisplacement and joint force equilibrium equations and required defining only Later. This principle is just an alternate statement of force equilibrium. In this chapter. the equilibrium conditions for the joints were enforced. Later. Next.

Similarly. 7—1. we must use the value of dF/dv corresponding to the sense of Av. F w—rv0 Fig. We will establish its form by treating first a single particle and then extending the result to a system of particles interconnected with internal restraints. we call d2W the secondIf dF/dv is discontinuous. to construct approximate formulations for a member. t Differential notation is introduced in Sec. This is illustrated in We order work. we review briefly the definition of work before starting with the derivation. 7—1) is defined as w w0 + JFdv = W(v) where v0 is an arbitrary reference displacement. use 7-2.SEC. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DiSPLACEMENTS The principle of virtual displacements is basically an alternate statement of force equilibrium. Since W is a function of v. Work integral for the one-dimensional force-displacement relation. particularly the principle of virtual forces. 3—I. 7—2. Let v be the displacement of the point of application of a force F in the direction of F. The principle utilizes the concept of incremental work and. . PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 153 these principles. as in inelastic behavior. for completeness. The work done by F (see Fig. the increment in W due to an increment Ar can be expressed in terms of the differentials of W when F is a continuous function of yr f = dW + 4d2W + dW dW —Ar = dv F Au (7—2) d2W = d(dW) refer to dW as the first-order work.

154 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP 7 < 0. the particle is in equilibrium when R = 0. One can readily generalize (7—4) for the case of S particles. We use dF/dv = +k1 for > 0. Work integral for direction-dependent force. Virtual displacement of a single mass particle. an alternate statement of the equilibrium requirement is: The first-order work is zero for an arbitrary displacement of a particle from an equilibrium position. We consider first a single mass particle subjected to a system of forces (see Fig. be the the . 7—2. R+ Fig. this statement is the definition of the principle of virtual displacements. The first-order work is dW=R'Afi R= (7—3) If the initial position is an equilibrium position. Therefore. and dF/du = F-v curve. Let first-order work associated with the forces acting on particle q and We consider the forces to be continuous functions of Au. By definition. —k2 for of v when there is a reversal in the Note that W is not a single-valued function Fig. 7—2. Let R be the resultant force vector. A vs V Fig. The incremental displacement 74 — is called a virtual displacement. 7—3. We visualize the particle experiencing a displacement increment Au from the initial position. dW 0 for arbitrary Au since 0. 7—3).

In general. We use the subscript D for this term since it involves the F1 /(Deformedl I . some of the forces acting on the particles will be due to internal restraints. deformation of the restraints. Substituting for dW. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 155 corresponding virtual-displacement vector. If particle q is in equilibrium. Work done on the mass particles and internal restraints. let the restraints. F1 El (Initial) (Deformed) F1 F1 II Fig. it follows that As an illustration. = —F1 Au1 + F1 Au2 F1 Au2 dW1 = F1 Au1 — . Since the points of application coincide. We define dW5 as the first-order work done by the external forces and dW1 as the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the particles.SEC. we have dW. The restraint force acting on a particle is equal in magnitude. but opposite in sense. For this case. 7—4. consider the simple system shown in Fig. (7—5) becomes dW5 + dW1 = 0 for arbitrary S q=l. for arbitrary It follows that the scalar force-equilibrium equations for the system are equivalent to the general requirement.2 be the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on Now. to the reaction of the particle on the restraint. 7—2. = 0 dW = = 0 for arbitrary Equation (7—5) is the definition of the principle of virtual work for a system of particles.. 7—4.

)T] Au..... deH dW0 = FraC Finally..2.)2 = d(F. de. + F. d2e. = Wd(e. and noting the definition of (see (6—22)).) = de.) (Au — Au. de. we have F.. we obtain de. de.. To apply the principle of virtual displacements to an ideal truss. We must use the rules for forming the differentials of a compound function since e. F. Using (3—17). Some authors refer to (7—6) as the work equation.) (7—8) = 1= J.. We have defined and as the column matrices of external joint loads and corresponding joint displacements. depends on the joint displacements. Operating on — ( — U — — u. we can write dW4 = d2 dWd de de. we can write (a) as: dWE = dWD for arbitrary q=1.. 7 Using (b). It is convenient to first establish the expression for the differential elongation of an individual bar and then assemble de. we con- sider the joints to be mass points and the bars to be internal restraints. the work equation for an ideal truss has the form Ml = FT de for arbitrary MIt (7—7) The scalar force-equilibrium equations are obtained by substituting for de in terms of Mt. Then. = F.156 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. . The first-order work done by the restraint forces acting on bar n due to the virtual displacements is = Generalizing (b).S (7—6) Also. (de.). = + — — u. We emphasize again that (7—6) is just an alternate statement of the force equilibrium conditions for the system. = where &W contains the virtual joint displacements. the general principle of virtual displacements can be expressed as follows: The first-order work done by the external forces is equal to the first-order work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints for any arbitrary virtual displacement of a system of particles from an equilibrium position.

= R.: de MI (7—9) Substituting for de in (7—7). Au2 leads to R2 = P which are the force and moment equilibrium equations. e where d is constant and de = dM1 follows directly from e. We have treated the geometrically nonlinear case here to show that the principle of virtual displacements leads to forceequilibrium equations which are consistent with the geometrical assumptions associated with the deformation-displacement relations.. For the geometrically linear case... . Then. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 157 The assembled form follows from (6—25). Introducing the virtual Fig. with il. as in the diagram. dW = Now. ( — d\ + Au2 7d dW = — + — Au2 {R2 — =0 Requiring (c) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au.SEC. We just have to replace y. Au1 + R2 Au2 — P is not independent: = Au. and evaluating the first-order work. 7—2. ?. R2. Example 7—1 We consider a rigid member subjected to a prescribed force. and reactions R. There is no internal work since the body is rigid.TMI = and requiring (a) to be satisfied for arbitrary results in the joint force force equilibrium equations. P. in that order.. E7—1 b displacements shown above.

158 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Au1. (c). of the point of application of F: dWE = PAu1 dW0 F1 de1 + F2 de2 The first-order increments in the elongations are de1 = Au1 cos El de2 = —Au2 cos El —Au1 cos U where U defines the initial position. we introduce a virtual displacement. E7—2 Bars 3. Then.f We consider Au3 as independent in the work equation: P Au1 — (F1 cos 0)Au1 + (F. equating dW5 and dW0. The equilibrium equations See See. . adding the result to (d). 5. we require (f) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au1 and Au2. cos 0)Au2 = 0 (d) (e) Now. dWE = (1WD for arbitrary Au1 P= (F1 — Fjcos 0 The force in bar 3 does not appear explicitly in the equilibrium equation. and collecting terms. 6 are rigid to include F3 even though bar 3 is rigid by treating it as a Lagrange multiplier. 7 Example 7—2 We consider the outside bars to be rigid (see sketch). 3—3. To obtain the force equilibrium equation relating P and the internal bar forccs F1.4. F2. Au1 — Au2 = 0 Multiplying the constraint relation by —2. we obtain Au1(P — F1 cos 0 — 2) + Au2(F2 cos 0 + 2) = 0 (f) Finally. It is possible Fig.

We restrict this discussion to geometric linearity. The principle of virtual forces is independent of material behavior but is restricted to the geometrically linear case. for a three-dimensional solid and describe an alternate derivation. (7—10) takes the form: AFTe — U2 = APr U1 . are PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 159 P=F1cosO+A F2cos6+2=O and we recognize 2 as the force in bar 3. we generalize the principle. 7—3. PRINCJPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES The principle of virtual forces is basically an alternate statement of geometrical compatibility. we express cW and partitioned form. We develop it here by operating on the elongation— joint displacement relations. If we multiply the equation for Ck by note (c). The statically permissible system (AF. where U2 contains the prescribed support movements. Equation (b) relates the actual elongations and joint dissum over the bars. and placements. in Chapter 10. Using (a). we visualize a set of bar forces AF. 7—3. and joint loads. we obtain the result AFTe = = which is the definition of the principle of virtual forces: The actual elongations and joint displacements satisfy the condition AFTC — =0 (7-10) for any statically permissible system of bar forces and joint loads. in To illustrate the application of this principle. The governing equations — e = = which satisfy Now. Later.SEC. is called a virtual-force system. the force-equilibrium equations: = A force system which satisfies the equations of static equilibrium is said to be statically permissible.

P7 = P7 = B2F* 0 (7—13) = 0 (7—14) Equation (7—14) represents a restriction on the elongations and is called a geometric compatibility equation. 5. f)* satisfies B1F* = For this case. One works with self-equilibrating virtual-force systems. a self-equilibrating force system F*. = (7—11) = The internal bar forces and reactions are obtain from an equilibrium analysis of a statically determinate structure. 6 are rigid . Example 7—3 The truss shown (Fig. Since only one element of is finite. APf U1 (l)ukj (7—12) and (b) reduces to Ukf = eTFJ. 7 If the elongations are known. By definition. Fig. we can determine the unknown displacements by specializing AP1.P Bars 3. To determine a particular displacement component. We are coniidering the outside bars to be rigid. E7—3A u.160 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.. say we generate a force system consisting of a unit value of PkJ and a set of bar forces and reactions which equilibrate Pkj = 1. E7—3A) has support movements and is subjccted to a loading which results in elongations (e1..4. i. statically permissible force systems which involve only bar forces and reactions.e. We outline the approach here for completeness. e7) in the diagonal bars.k1_ U2TP2IPkJ1 The principle of virtual forces is also used to establish geometric compatibility relations required in the force method which is discussed in Chapters 9 and 17. (b) reduces to —.

We discuss this topic in depth later in Chapter 9. One possible choice is shown in Fig. The equation which determines F2 is 0 Fig. We could have arrived at Equation (a) starting from Equation (b) rather than (7—14).-3B. is obtained by taking a self-equilibrating force system consisting ofF2 = + I and a set of bar forces and reactions required for equilibrium. E7. 7—3. Evaluating (7—12) leads to u = cos 6 + — tan — This truss is statically indeterminate to the first degree. The forces are shown in Fig. E7--3C. u. we obtain e1 + e2 = 0 To show that (a) represents a geometrical compatibility requirement. we select a statically determinate force system consisting of a unit force in the direction of u and a set of bar forces and reactions required to equilibrate the force. Fig. E7—3B derived from the gcometric compatibility relation. E7—3C — ens 6 0 Evaluating (7—14).SEC. we note that the elongation-displacement relations for the diagonal bars are ucos6 e2 = —ucosO Specifying e1 determines u and also e2. in turn. (7—14) is more convenient since it does not involve any algebraic manipulation. say F2. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES To determine the translation. A convenient choice of force redundant is one of the diagonal bar forces. which. Flowever. .

6-4. we will work with (7—15). If we consider all the elements of de = A'W and (a) leads to the complete set of force-equilibrium equations in unpartitioned form. and letting = we can write (7—15) as VT — = for arbitrary (7—17) = 0 (7—18) We call the total strain energy function and the total potential energy. V1.. One should note that VT exists only when F is a continuous single-valued function of e.e. We could express F in terms of U1 but it is more convenient to consider F as a compound function of e. We consider F to be a function of e. 7 7—4.= VT(e).162 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we specialize the principle of virtual displacements for elastic behavior and establish from it a variational principle for the joint displacements. Our objective is to interpret (7—15) as the stationary requirement for a function of U1. The essential step involves defining a function. PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY POTENTIAL ENERGY In this section. . FT de = gpT for arbitrary to be arbitrary. STRAIN ENERGY. unrestrained. 7—2. where e = e(U1). The reduced form is iW1 = 0 for arbitrary AU1 (7—15) where now In what follows. according to FT dc = (7—16) With this definition. 6—5. This requirement is satisfied when the material is elastic. Equation (7—18) states that the joint force-equilibrium equations (P1 = B1F) expressed in terms of the unknown displacements are the Euler equations for the t See Secs. i. The form of F = F(e) depends on the material behavior. = can obtain the equation for P1 by rearranging (c) or by starting with the partitioned form of We and noting that FT de — U2 is prescribed. We start with the general form developed in Sec.

SEC. 7—4.

STRAIN ENERGY

163

total potential energy. It follows that the actual displacements, i.e., the displacements which satisfy the equilibrium equations, correspond to a stationary
value of 11,'

It remains to discuss how one generates the strain-energy function. By
definition,
dVT

and

=
where is the strain energy for bar). Since we are considering pound function of e1, Equation (b) is equivalent to

to be a com(7—19)

= That is, the strain energy function for a bar has the property that its derivative
with respect to the elongation is the bar force expressed in terms of the elongation. Finally, we can express as
(7—20) = where e0 is the initial elongation, i.e., the elongation not associated with the force. Actually, the lower limit can be taken arbitrarily. This choice corresponds to taking as the area between the F-c curve and thee axis, as shown in Fig.7—5.

Fig. 7—5. Graphical representation of strain energy and complementary energy.

We consider the linearly elastic case. Using (6—30),
F1
— e0,

Then

=
VTas
VT

— e0,

)2

(7—21)

The total strain energy is obtained by summing over the bars. We can express

=
j=1

4(e

e0)Tk(e

eo)

(7—22)

164

VARIATIONAL PRNCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

Finally, we substitute for e in terms of U1, U2, using

e=

A1U1 + A2U2

(7—23)

When the geometry is linear, A1, A2 are constant and is a quadratic function. If the geometry is nonlinear, is a fourth degree function of the displacements. Up to this point, we have shown that the displacements defining an equilibrium position correspond to a stationary value of the potential energy function. To determine the character (relative maximum, relative minimum, indifferent,

neutral) of the stationary point, we must examine the behavior of the second differential, in the neighborhood of the stationary point. and noting that AP1 = 0 leads to Operating on
d2

(7—24)

=

+

The next step involves expressing d2VT as a quadratic form in AU1. We restrict this discussion to linear behavior (both physical and geometrical). The general

nonlinear case is discussed in Sec. 17.6 When the geometry is linear, we can operate directly on (7—23) to generate the differentials of e,
de
A1AU1
0

d2e =

since A1 is constant. When the material is linear,

dF=kde
where k is a diagonal matrix containing the stiffness factors (AE/L) for the bars. Then, d2VT reduces to
d2VT = dFT dc = deTk de
AUT(ATkA1)AU1

7 25

-

If de

0 for all nontrivial AU1, d2VT is positive definite and the stationary
0 for AU1 0

point is a relative minimum. This criterion is satisfied when the system is
initially stable, since de = 0 would require that
unknowns)

A1 AU1 =

(m equations in

have a nontrivial solution. But a nontrivial solution of (a) is possible only when for the geometrically linear case and r(B1) = r(A1) < ne,. However, A1 = when the system is initially stable. Therefore, it follows that the displacements

defining the equilibrium position for a stable linear system correspond to an
absolute minimum value of the potential energy.

Example

7—4

We establish the total potential energy function for the truss considered in Example 7—2.

For convenience, we assume no initial elongation or support movement. The strain

SEC. 7—5.
energy is

COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY

165

VT

=

+

Substituting for the elongations in terms of the displacement,

e1 =u1cosO
results in

e2= —u2cosO= —u1cosO
+
cos2 0
cos2 0 — P1u1

=
and finally

=
The first differential of
is

+

= {{(k1 + k2)cos2 Ojuj
Requiring

— P1}Au1

to be stationary leads to the Euler equation,

P1 =

[(k1 + k2)cos2 0]u1

which is just the force-equilibrium equation

P1 =
F1 =
=

(F1

F2)cos 0

with the bar forces expressed in terms of the displacement using
k1e1

ku1

cos 0

F2 =

k2e2

=

—k2u1

cos 0

The second differential of

is

=
and

[(k1 + k,)cos2 0](Au1)2

we see that the solution,
Ul

P1

= k1 +
0. Thc truss is initially unstable

corresponds to an absolute minimum value of H,, when 0 when 0 0.

7—5.

COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY; PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY

The principle of virtual forces can be transformed to a variational principle for the force redundants. We describe in this section how one effects the trans-

formation and utilize the principle later in Chapter 9. This discussion is
restricted to linear geometry. We start with Equations (7—13) and (7—14), which we list below for convenience:

eTAF
where AF,

=

0

represent a self-equilibrating force- system, i.e., they satisfy the the following constraint relations:
B1 iW = 0
B2 AF

166

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

Our objective is to establish a function of F, whose Euler equations are (a) and

(b). We cannot work only with (a) since F is not arbitrary but is constrained by the force-equilibrium equations,

P1 =
We interpret

B1F

(fld

equations in m variables)

as the first differential of a function

=
and call

eT

=

dV7

(7—26)

the complementary energy function for bar j. By definition,

=

(7—27)

That is, the complementary energy function for a bar has the property that its derivative with respect to the bar force is the elongation expressed in terms of the force. We express as
dF1
(7—28)

This definition corresponds to taking Vj' as the area bounded by the F-e curve

and the F axis as shown in Fig. 7—5. Also, the strain and complementary
energy functions are related by

+
When the material is linear elastic,

=
+

(7—29)

=
11

e0,

j—

1.1r2 rj T 2Jj' 3

= Next, we define II. as:
1-Ic =

+ 4FTfF
7—31)

=
We call

the total complementary energy function. With these definitions, Equations (a), (b), and (c) can be interpreted as
0

subject to the constraint condition
d(P1 — 81F)

=

0

We can combine (e) and (f) into a single equation by introducing Lagrange multipliers. Following the procedure described in Sec. 3—3, we add to (7—31) the joint force equilibrium equations and write the result as:
+ (P1 —
where
.

(7—32)

,

contains the Lagrange multipliers. The Euler equa-

SEC. 7—5.

COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY

167

tions for

treating F and

as independent variables are
0

dfl, =

for AF,

arbitrary
(7—33)

e(F) B1F = P1

+ B102

We recognize the first equation in (7—33) as the member force-displacement relation, and it follows that = U1.

An alternate approach involves first solving the force-equilibrium equation,
(d). There arena equations in m variables. Since B1 is of rank n4 when the system is initially stable, we can solve for na bar forces in terms of P1 and the remaining

bar forces. One can also work with a combination of bar forces and reactions as force unknowns. We let
(rn —

q= m — X = {X1, X2

number of redundant forces Xq} = matrix of force redundants

(734)

and write the solution of the force-equilibrium equations as

F=
P2

+ P2,0 +
F0
is

(735)

The force system corresponding to

self-equilibrating, i.e.,

=

0

for arbitrary X
to

(7—36)

We substitute for F in (7—3 1) and transform
eT

Then,

AF —

UI AP2
UIP2,
x

=
and the Euler equations are
eTFx

(eTFx

UIP2

0

(737)

Note that (7—37) is just a reduced form of (7—33). Also, we could have obtained this result by substituting directly in (a).

Up to this point, we have shown that the force redundants which satisfy the geometric compatibility equations correspond to a stationary value of the total complementary energy. To investigate the character of the stationary point, we evaluate the second differential. Operating on (g),

=

deTFx AX

d2 is positive definite with regard to AX, the stationary point is a relative minimum. This requirement is satisfied for the linear elastic case. To show this, we note that

de

= fAF = WXAX
=

168

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

Since f contains only positive elements, AX provided that there does not exist a

is positive definite with regard to nontrivial solution of

AX =

=0

For (j) to have a nontrivial solution, there must be at least one relation between the columns of But this would correspond to taking force redundants which

are not independent, and the solution scheme would degenerate. Therefore, we can state that the actual force redundants correspond to an absolute minifor the linear elastic case. mum value of
Example
7—5

We consider the truss treated in Example 7—3. It is statically indeterminate to the first degree with respect to the bars (statically detcrminate with respect to the reactions) and we take X = F2

The force influence matrices defined by (7—35) follow from the force results listed on the sketches:
F0 =
0; 0; 0; 0; —tan 0; 0}

= {+1; +1; —cosU; —sin 0; —sin 0; —cos0} P20 = P{—l; —tanG; +(an0} =0

Assuming a bar is rigid is equivalent to setting f = mentary energy is due only to the diagonal bars:
= yr + = ± e02F2 +
We convert

0

for the bar. Then, the comple-

+ f2Fi')

to a function of X by substituting

F1 =
Finally,
has the form

cos 0

± X

F2 = +X
=
tan 0)P + + 4(f1 + f2)X2

e0,1

+

+

tan 0 —

+

(eoi + e0,2 + f1

Differentiating (e) leads to
dIlC =

{[eoi +

+

(fl

d211, = (f1 +

(g)

SEC. 7—6.

STABILITY CRITERIA

The Euler equation follows from (f):

e01 + C02 +f1

(f1

+ f2)X = 0
is the

Comparing (h) with (a) of Example 7—3, we see that the Euler equation for geometric compatibility equation expressed in terms of the force redundant.

7—6.

STABILITY CRITERIA

Section 6—9 dealt with initial stability, i.e., stability of a system under infinitesimal load. We showed there that initial stability is related to rigid body motion. A system is said to be initially unstable when the displacement restraints are insufficient to prevent rigid body motion. In this section, we develop criteria for stability of a system under finite loading. If a linear system is initially stable, it is also stable under a finite loading. However, a nonlinear (either physical or geometrical) system can become unstable under a finite load. We consider first a single mass particle subjected to a system of forces which are in equilibrium. Let Il be the displacement vector defining the equilibrium position. We introduce a differential displacement All, and let AW he the work done by the forces during the displacement All. if A W > 0, the particle energy is increased and motion would ensue. It follows that the equilibrium position (ll) is stable only when AW < 0 for arbitrary All. We consider next a system of particles interconnected by internal restraints. Let AWE be the incremental work done by the external forces and AW1 the incremental work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the particles. The total work, AW, is given by

=

AWE + AW1

The system is stable when A W < (I for all arbitrary permissible displacement increments, that is, for arbitrary increments of the variable displacements. Now, we let AW11 be the work done by the internal restraint forces acting on the restraints. Since —AW1, we can express the stability requirement as (7-38)
One can interpret AW0 as the work required to deform the system to the alternate

position and as the actual work done on the system. When the behavior is continuous, we can express and AWE as Taylor series expansions in terms of the displacement increments (see (7—2)):

=

dW0

+ +
0

+ +

We have shown that the first-order work is zero at an equilibrium position:
dWD — dWE

170

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

If we retain only the first two terms in (b), the general stability condition reduces to
d2 WD — d2 W5

>0

for all arbitrary permissible displacement increments
(7—39)

Equation (7—39) is called the "classical stability criterion." Retaining only the first two differentials corresponds to considering only infinitesimal displacement increments. If (7—39) is satisfied, the equilibrium position is stable with respect to an infinitesimal disturbance. In order to determine whether it is stable with respect to a finite disturbance, one must use (7—38). If
d2WD = d2WE
(7—40)

for a particular set of displacement increments, the equilibrium position is said position infinitesimally to be neutral, and there exists an alternate displaced from the first position. One can interpret (7—40) as the necessary condition for a bifurcation of equilibrium positions. To show this, suppose U and U represent the displacement components for the two possible equilibrium positions of a system where

Also, let R and
We can express

represent the resultant forces corresponding to U and 0.
as

= R + dR +
d2W

+

Now, the second-order work for the initial equilibrium position is given by
d2W5

d2WD

=

txUT dR

If d2 W =

0

for some finite

it follows that

dR = R0AU =
The condition

0

=

0

is equivalent to (7—40). Finally, if we consider

to he infinitesimal,

R=R+dR
and (7—40) implies R =
0.

To apply the classical stability criterion to an ideal truss, we note that the
first-order work terms have the form
dW5 =
dWD =
P1

AU1

where U2, P1 are prescribed. Operating on (a) yields
d2W5
d2WD

0

>jFjd2ej +

(7-41)

SEC. 7—6.

STABILITY CRITERIA

and the stability criterion reduces to

for arbitrary nontrivial AU1 d2 WD = 0 for a particular nontrivial AU1 (7—42) d2 WD < 0 for a particular nontrivial AU1 where d2WD is a quadratic form in AU1. We postpone discussing how one transforms (7—41) to a quadratic form in AU1 until the next chapter. When the material is elastic, we can identify (7—39) as the requirement that Fir, be a relative minimum. By definition,
d2WD > 0
drIp = dVT

stable neutral unstable

dWE

For elastic behavior,
dVT = dWD

and it follows that
(7—43) d2WD — d2WE = Finally, we can state: An equilibrium position for an elastic system is stable (neutral, un-

stable) if it corresponds to a relative minimum (neutral, indifferent) stationary point of the total potential energy.
Example 7—6 The system shown in Fig. E7—6A consists of a rigid bar restrained by a linear elastic
spring which can translate freely in the .x2 direction. Points A and A' denote the initial and deformed positions. We will first employ the principle of virtual displacements to establish the equilibrium relations and then investigate the stability of the system.
Fig. E7—6A
x1

j2

The first-order work terms are
dWD = F de

=

P2 du2

(a)

172

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN iDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

where F, e are the spring force and extension. Since the bar is rigid, the system has only one

degree of freedom, i.e., only one displacement measure is required to define the configuration. It is convenient to take 0 as the displacement measure. The deformation-displacement relations follow from the sketch:

e=

u1

= L(sin

0 — sin

0)

0 — sin

and

de =

(cos 0)L

du, =

(sin 0)L

Using (a) and (d), the principle of virtual displacements takes the form
dW0 — dWa

= {F cos 0 —

P2

sin 0) (L AO) =

0

for arbitrary AG

Finally, (e) leads to the equilibrium relation,

F cos 0 =

P2

sin 0

which is just the moment equilibrium condition with respect to point 0. We transform (1) to an equation for ()by substituting for F using (c). The result is
sin 0

tan

0=

sin 00

Since the system is elastic,

dW5

and (e) is equivalent to

=

0

for arbitrary AU

The potential energy function for this system has the form

=
and (g) can be interpreted as

P2u2

= 4kL2(sin 0 —

sin

0)

=
0

of 00 are plotted in Fig. E7—6B. The result

for

0

consists of two curves, defined by

0=

0

for arbitrary P2/kL
for (P2/kL)
1

cos 0 = P2/kl

To investigate the stability of an equilibrium position, we have to evaluate the secondorder work at the position. After some algebraic manipulation, we obtain =
d2W0

= k(L

AU)2

[cossU —P2/kL]
cos 0

Let 0* represent a solution of(g). Applying (m) to 0* results in the following classification:

REFERENCES

stable

COS 0* >
cos3
3 cos 0'

P2

neutral
unstable

P2

One can show that (n) is equivalent to
stable
dP2
0

neutral unstable

dP2
dO

o

dP2

A transition from stable to unstable equilibrium occurs at point A, the peak of the deflection curve. The solution for 0 is different in that its stable segment is the linear kL) corresponds to a branch point, solution and the neutral equilibrium point (P2 Both the linear and nonlinear branches are unstable.
Fig. E7—6B

0

REFERENCES
1

2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7.

WANG, C. T.: Applied Elasticity, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953. LANGHAAR, H. L,: Energy Methods in Applied Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1962. REISSNeR, E.: "On a Variational Theorem in Elasticity," J. Math. Phys., Vol. 29, pages 90-95, 1950. ARGYRIS, i. H., and S. KIsLseY: Energy Theorems and Structural Analysis, Butterworths, London, 1960. CI.IARLTON, T. M.: Energy Principles in Applied Statics, Blackie, London, 1959. HOFF, N. J.: The Anal vsis of Structures, Wiley, & New York, 1956. K.: Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity, Pergamon Press, 1968.

174

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS

CHAP. 7

PROBLEMS
7—1.

Consider the two-dimensional symmetrical truss shown. Assume = 03 = 0. (a) Determine the first two differentials of e1 and ez by operating on the
expanded expression (equation 6—19) for e.
(b)
(c)

When a b, we can neglect the nonlinear term involving u12 in the Specialize (a) for this case. expressions for e and When a b, we can neglect the nonlinear term involving u11 in the Specialize (a) for this case. expressions for e and
Prob. 7—1

x2

T
3

21

7—2. Refer to the figure of Prob. 7—1. Assume = u3 = 0 and a> b. Using the principle of virtual displacements, determine the scalar force-equilibrium equations for joint 1. 7—3. Suppose a force F is expressed in terms of e,

F=
a

C1e

+ 4C2e3

where a is related to the independent variable u by

u + 1u2

(a)

Determine the first two differentials of the work function, W = W(u),
defined by
W

=
C1(e

F de

(b)

Suppose (a) applies for increasing e and

F=
7—4.

e decreasing from e*. Determine d2 W at a = e*. Refer to Prob. 6—23. The n — 1 independent node equations relating the branch currents are represented by ATI
U
1

Now, the branch potential differences, e, are related to the n — node potentials, V, by

independent

e=

AV

(a) (b) Using (7—14). the first differential of the strain-energy function due to an increment in U1 has the form = n1 dV. Consider the two-dimensional truss shown. 7—5 x2 2 7—6. express u11. Note that bar 2 is not needed. de. 7—5. 6—6. Using (7—12). e3. Assume u2 = = 0. Note that the currents must satisfy the node equations ATi 0 Deduce Kirchhoff's law (the sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop must equal zero) by suitably specializing Lsi in (a). Prob. 2. using branches 1. obtain a relation between the elongations and ü32.. One can develop a variational principle similar to the principle of virtual forces by operating on the branch potential difference—node potential relations. One can also . 6—23. Refer to Prob. Illustrate for the circuit shown in Prob.PROBLEMS 175 Deduce that the requirement. = F. Show that - AiTe=0 for any permissible set of current increments. Compare this principle with the principle of virtual displacements for an ideal truss. u12 in terms of e1. Take the virtual-force system as LxF2 and the necessary bar forces and reactions required to equilibrate AF2. We work with expressed as a compound function of e = e(U) since it is more convenient than expressing V directly in terms of U1. 4. By definition. One should always work with a statically determinate system when applying (7—12).. and 6. 1T de = 0 for arbitrary is equivalent to (a). 7—7.

6—10) a= — be3) 7—9. 7—8. This result specialized for U2 = 0 is = called Castigliano's principle. Determine V(e). show that the system of if joint force-equilibrium equations expressed in terms of the joint displacements can be written as: ÔU(k k= Equation c is called Castigliano's principle. Considering the branch potential drops to be functions of the node potentials. part H. (b) Let W where h = total number of branches. (b) Show that an alternate form of (c) is P(k= Note that (d) is just the expansion of (c).176 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR AN IDEAL TRUSS CHAP 7 write (a) as Using (b). Determine V*(F). part b. and d2V* for the case where the stress-strain relation has the form = (a + ca3) 7—10. dv. 7—2. which has the property that = Determine b corresponding to (b). = (a) — Suppose we define a function. using (d). dV*. 7—11. Show that (7—12) can be written as UkJ = 0Pkj is defined by (7—31). The Euler equations for . Assume linear elastic material and f1 = = = f. Rework P rob. we can express as a function of e1. deduce that the actual node potentials V correspond to a stationary value of W. 7—5. Apply it to Prob. and d2V for the case where the stress-strain relation has the form (see Prob. 7—4. Use the results of Prob. part I.j + Inverting (a). The current and potential drop for a linear resistance are related by where ef e0.

V) (e) are the governing equations for a d-c network. Show that the Euler equations for H= (e) iTe — = 1T(AV) — = H(i. . (d) Let W* = W7. Investigate the stability of the system shown below. Show that the actual currents correspond to a stationary value of One can either introduce the constraint condition. 7—12 Linear translational restraint Rigid rod ICr (Linear rotational restraint) and consider a to range from 0 to 6. 7—6. 7—12. in (e) or use the result of Prob. Suppose we define a function which has the property that = Determine b (d) corresponding to (a). An = 0.PROBLEMS 177 W = W(V) are the node current equilibrium equations expressed in (c) terms of the node potentials. Take k. = aL2k5 P Prob.

we first develop the equations for the displacement method by operating on the governing equations expressed in partitioned form. This procedure follows naturally if one first operates on the unpartitioned equations and then introduces the displacement restraints. GENERAL The basic equations defining the behavior of an ideal truss consist of forceequilibrium equations and force-displacement relations. One can reduce the system to a set of equations involving only the unknown joint displacements by substituting the force-displacement relations into the force-equilibrium equations. and finally. by eliminating the displacements. We outline an incremental analysis procedure. i. However. In what follows.e. The latter procedure is referred to as the . reduce the governing equations to a set of equations involving certain bar forces.8 Displacement Method Ideal Truss 8—1. Alternatively. In contrast. we summarize these equations below. The remaining portion of the chapter is devoted to the treatment of nonlinear behavior. apply the classical stability criterion. We then describe a procedure for assembling the necessary system matrices using only the connectivity table. it is not suited for hand computation. We emphasize that these two methods are just alternate procedures for solving the same basic equations. This particular method of solution is called the displacement or method. it is a computer-based method.. discuss linearized stability analysis. OPERATION ON THE PARTITIONED EQUATIONS The governing partitioned equations for an ideal truss are developed in 178 Sec.fin'ce or flexibility method. 8—2. 6—7. the force method is more suited to hand computation than to machine computation. The displacement method is easier to automate than the force method and has a wider range of application. For convenience. . one can.

the bar forces due to the initial elongations and support movements 0. OPERATION ON THE PARTITIONED EQUATIONS 179 = B1F P2 = B2F P1 eqs. + kA1U1 F. the r reactions (P2). k is constant and positive definite for real materials. to represent the initial bar forces. The geometrically nonlinear case is more difficult since both A and B depend on U1. that is. When the with U1 material is linear elastic. that is. The term kA1U1 represents the bar forces due to U1. Then — B1F1 represents the net unbalanced joint forces. the stiffness matrix for the linear case is posiLive definite when the system is initially stable. One can iterate on (8—1). The coefficient matrix for U1 is called the system stiffness matrix and written as K11 = B1kA1 (8—2) as representing the initial joint forces due to the initial One can interpret elongations and support movements with U1 = 0. one has to iterate when the limiting elongation for a segment is exceeded. when r(B1) Conversely. Also. It is more efficient to transform (8—1) to a symmetrical system by transferring some nonlinear terms to the right-hand side. We have employed a piecewise linear representation for the force-elongation curve which results in linear relations. The resulting matrix equation has the form (B1kA1)U1 = — B1F1 We solve (8—i) for U1. U1. by substituting for F in (a). since f See Prob. Nonlinear analysis procedures are treated in Sec. the procedure outlined above for generating the system matrices is not efficient for a large structure. k and e0 are constant.) The unknowns are the in bar forces (F). determine F from (e). and the na joint displacements (U1). We obtain a set of equations relating the flj displacement unknowns. and P2 from (b). 8—2. but this requires solving a nonsymmetrical system of equations. Then. .) F = F. k and e0 depend on e. Even when the behavior is completely linear. = k(—e0 + A2tJ2) (r eqs. If the material is nonlinear. 2—14. K1 reduces to 1 K11 = B1kBT = AfkA1 If the material is linear. One can consider F. However. = BT when the geometry is linear. if it is not positive definite. 8—4. the system is initially unstable.SEC.) (in eqs. When the geometry is linear.

With this notation. Now. = = + — — + (8—6) We refer to as the bar stiffness matrix. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD We start with (6—37). we let (8—5) Note that is of order i x i where I = 2 or 3 for a two or three-dimensional truss. (b) takes a more compact form. Equation (8—6) defines the joint forces required for bar n. metrical. When the geometry is linear.. 8—3. and is sym= y. n. as the bar force due to the initial elongation with the ends = 0). we see that p. + = where n4. what is needed is a method of generating K which does not involve multiplication of large sparse matrices. Continuing. Therefore. A method which has proven to be extremely efficient is described in the next section. we let required to equilibrate the action of fixed (un.I_ = = (8—4) Substituting for (8—4) expands to = pn_ = + — One can interpret (b) as end action—joint displacement relations since the elements of ± are the components of the bar force with respect to the basic frame. one obtains the system stiffness matrix by evaluating the triple matrix product. respectively. the force-displacement relation for bar ii: = F0. The total joint forces required are obtained by summing over the bars. One can consider F0. For example. denote the joints at the positive and negative ends of barn. =AfkA1 One can take account of symmetry and the fact that k is diagonal. be the external joint force matrices Noting (6—43). . 8 it requires the multiplication of large sparse matrices.180 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. but A1 is generally quite sparse.

. working with successive members. .SEC. . The contributions for member n follow directly from (8—6). The elements of are the required joint forces due to the initial elongations and represents the required joint forces due to the joint displacements. we write the complete system of if joint force-equilibrium equations. u2 X 1) (ii x 1) (U as the general external joint force and joint displacement matrices. (Partitioned Form is j x 1) in row in row n. 8—8 if (Partitioned Form is j x j) +k. Now. E8—l are presented below: for the numbering shown in Fig. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD We have defined — p2. as = + (8—7) We refer to if. column n Example 8—1 The connectivity table and general form of if and Fig. — k. expressed in terms of the displacements. E8—l 0 4 3 . —ku in row column in row column in row n_. 8—3. which is of order if x as the unrestrained system stiffness matrix. = {u1. We assemble if and in partitioned form. .

one can restrict the finite elements of X' to a zone about the diagonal. 41'4 0.212 r 0.182 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 3 L' L' 0. The unpartitioned stiffness matrix corresponding to the above numbering scheme . For example. © -. 0.. UT pT L' = — ftT 0. This suggests that we number the joints by section. Consider the structure shown. 4.2P2 nT 0. corresponds to row j and ii.3P3 0. E8—2 Sect. involves and the displacement matrices for those joints connected to joint j by bars. We group the vertical joints into sections.—-- fs (71 ft® 2: / \ 3 L6 '.SPS L' 3P3 — 1I'I 1 UT t' 4P4 UT Po. 8 Bar 1 2 2 1 3 4 4 3 5 +joint —joint 1 2 3 2 4 4 U1 U2 U3 U4 k1+k2 P2 —k2 —k1 —k2 k2 + k3 + k5 --k3 —k5 —k3 k3 + k4 —k4 —k4 —k1 k1 + k4 + k0 Pai .. By suitably numbering the joints. This is quite desirable from a computational point of view._ —-- / .2 Po.1PI — 0. the equations for section 3 (which correspond to P6) will involve only the displacement matrices for sections 2.10 P0. 1 0 (-I -. %. 5P5 Example 8—2 The external force matrix. The equilibrium equations for section k involve only the joints in section k and the adjacent sections. øT r0. Now. 3.. Fig. 4 — uT 0. to column j of ir..

SEC. (8—11) = = €.n= 1.. P2 I—k2 —k4 —k... Note that has the form of a quasi-tridiagonal band matrix when it is partitioned according to sections rather than individual joints. k. 8—3. The submatrices for this truss are of order 4 x 4.0 p6 —k7 —k8 I —k9 k8+k7 +k9 —k1.j . —k. k4+k51 —k8 —k6 k6+k9 —k9 —k10 +k..2 JJ7 —k. +k2 —k. and finally partitioning the actual rows.0 —k. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD is listed below..+k3 —k3 +k4 k2+k3 —k2 —k3 —k5 I —k6 —k7 +k6 —k4 —k. The introduction of displacement restraints involves first transforming the partitioned elements and to local frames associated with the restraints. 3 p8 —k.2 +k. —k... —k.2.. permuting the actual rows. U' U2 U3 U4 U6 U7 U8 k.2+k.. The steps are indicated below. -+ U -+ We write the system of joint force-equilibrium equations referred to the local joint frames as = + and T (8—10) The transformation la'vs for the submatrices of follow from (6—57).3 k. k10+k.

by performing the same operations on both the rows and columns of The rearranged system of equations is written as P = KU + P0 (8-12) Finally. substituting for F in (a) and equating the result to (8—7) leads to The matrix. r. if we let = k5 [ki I. The diagonal submatrices arc of order i. Then.2 8 13 The first equation in (8—13) is identical to (8—1).T 2p272 we can express as = CTk5c Carrying out (8—9) for n = 1. (6—50): F F0 + kda/1 = F0 + kyC'W = = Then. 8 The step. and the submatrix at location n has the form.184 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS —+ CHAP. K. and (6—44). Obviously. DTkY.. The introduction of displacement restraints can be represented as P= 11 = = and D1dP (g) = DTU = DfU1 + (h) .. (6—40). we express (8—12) in partitioned form: = P2 = K11U1 + K1202 + P0. and displacement transformation partitioned equations(6—28). is a quasi-diagonal matrix of order im. P. We start with the general Unconnectivity.1 + K2202 + P0. Example 8—3 It is of interest to express the partitioned elements of K in terms of the geometrical. (8—9) is more efficient than (f). involves only a rearrangement of the rows of We obtain the corresponding stiffness matrix. We have defined this product as k. 2 m is the same as evaluating the triple matrix product.

Then is unknown. It remains to modify the rows and columns corresponding to joints which are either fully or partially restrained. In what follows.. We replace the equation for Pq by = Uq This involves the following operations on the submatrices of X and On X. Also. we must rearrange the rows and columns of then partition. we describe a procedure for introducing displacement restraints which avoids these difficulties.SEC. 8—3. = P0. THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 185 Substituting (g) and (h) in (8—7) and equating the result to (8—13). it leads to rectangular submatrices. = prescribed = = unknown . Then. We start with the complete system of equations referred to the basic frame. we add to the external force matrices for those joints which are unrestrained. and (8—14) We assemble and using (8—8) and (8—9). Set off diagonal matrix elements in row q and column q equal 1. = = DsCTDke0 t—12 — In order to obtain (8—13).. to 0 and the diagonal matrix element equal to I. On Add terms in t due to C X(qUq (8—16) j ease B: Partial Restraint—Local Frame We suppose the rth element in is prescribed. Case A: Fit!! Restraint Suppose uq = Uq. I= 0 (8—15) = Ii 2. This operation is quite time-consuming. we obtain K.

we insert the values of the prescribed joint forces (local frame) in their natural locations. we read in —5 2. Gq. Then. 1. Note that the elements corresponding to the reactions are zero.186 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. R°5. We start with an ith-order column vector having zero elements and 3. and we set G. suppose r = In (c). in (b). according to the following: Eq and Gq. Suppose joint G=11 5 is partially restrained. ui'. When the joint is fully restrained... us'. we read in Psi —5 P53 2) The four basic matrices are (for r = 1 0 0 [0 0 1 0 E5= 0 0 0 0 0 1 Gs=IO 0 [0 0 0 . (c) The values of the prescribed joint forces: j=1.. We start with G=O.i As an illustration. E=O. 8 We have to delete the equation corresponding to and replace it with 4= Step I —Assemblage of Basic Matrices We assemble Eq. (b) The direction (or directions) of the displacement restraint and the value (or values) of the prescribed displacement. The data consist of: The rotation matrix. (a) direction r.. We start with an ith-order column vector having zero elements and we set the element in the rth row equal to Note that this matrix involves only the prescribed displacements (local frame) in their natural locations.r +1 2. defining the direction of the local frame at 5 with respect to the basic frame.

.. The contracted operations for. 1. . . q 2. q — 1' 2' — .. Postmultiply column q of it" by (Eq irtq = 4.— 1 .q = 1..j (8—18) + +0 When ir is symmetrical (this will be the case when the system is geometrically linear).q + U + The operation on row q and column q are summarized below. q I?'N. '-'q 1% " N. Add and to = P'N.q. — .SEC. .2.YV'eq(E9R0")T (Eq R°").Y(qq(Eq + — — 1' 2 I R0q. 2. the symmetrical case are threefold: = — it"eq(EqR°")T (8—19) €= 1. Postmultiply column q of it" by — T11* and add to PPN. = 3. . THE DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 187 1° In —5 Step 2—Operation on Jr and 1. Premultiply row q of it" and by e = " N. On Jr = X'qq = Oiz 2PN. Add Gq to irqq = it"qq + Gq 5.. 2. . . we can work only with the submatrices on and above the diagonal. 8—3.

Once ciii' is known. J = rVp where H is a permutation matrix. using uq = The bar forces are determined from F.188 q DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS q— Ttlq* CHAP. = F0. We denote the mOdified system of equations by = (8—22) will be Equation (8—22) represents if equations. They are related by (sec (6—63)) U [1°?. according to increasing joint number. — and assemble in partitioned form by summing the .. This system is transformed to (8—22) when to d?tJ. 8 + + it'qq = — + Gq — (8—20) * = (8—21) The operations outlined above are carried out for each restrained joint.. To show this. since H is an orthogonal matrix. = IK11I (8—23) It is more convenient to work with (8—22) rather than (a) since the solution of (8—22) yields the joint displacement matrices listed in their natural order.. It follows that = HT[K11 and.. we convert the joint displacement matrices to the basic frame. The coefficient matrix nonsingular when K1 is nonsingular. Note that the modifications for joint q involve only row q and column q. we calculate F. + Next. that is. we permute U.1 — - + — N Equation (a) represents 1/equations. we start with the first equation in (8—13) and an additional set of r dummy equations: 1 [K11 -fJ Olfuil — f—P0.

and depend on the joint displacements. it is generally more efficient to apply an incremental formulation rather than iterate on (8—22). (8—9) results in = Applying listed below. /50 Member-Joint Connectivity Table Bar(n) 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 5 6 3 7 5 3 8 9 5 10 11 5 +joint(n+) —joint(n. Then. Fig. For member n.. When the problem is geometrically nonlinear. . y. we put (see (8—4)) + FOIIPf — in row n+ in row n_ Once is known. E8—4 / Ii 1. This operation The final result is provides a static check on the solution in addition to furnishing the reactions. THE DiRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 189 contribution for each member.SEC. Assemblage of = and We consider the geometry to be linear.. we convert the force matrix for each partially restrained joint to the local joint reference frame.. E8—4. In this case.) 1 1 4 2 3 6 4 2 4 2 4 6 4 6 2. 8—3. using = required to equilibrate the bar forces. Example 8—4 We illustrate these operations for the truss shown in Fig.

For this system. we modify and according to (8—15) and (8—16). Introduction of Joint Displacement Restraints = The original equations are = where contains the external joint forces. we use (8—19) through (8—21). we have to list only the submatrices on and above the diagonal. with submatrices of order 4 x 4. if joint q is partially restrained. 8 N — 2 1 4 —k3 51 0 —k7 -— k3 6 k1+k2+k3 —k1 —k1 —k2 k1+k4+k5 ---k4 —k4 —k5 3 —k2 k2+k4+k6 +k7+k8 —k6 —k6 4 —k3 —k5 k3+k5±k6 +k9+k10 —k9 —k9 —k10 5 —k7 +k7+k9 +k11 —k11 — 6 0 —k8 . —k10 —k11 +k8+k10 +k11 Note that i( 3.Yt'. 6 are partially restrained. Joint 4 (u42 is prescribed) R°4 2 E4=[ ri 01 oj 6 G4=[0 = [0 0 = {O. are listed below. The basic matrices for joints 4.6 and the initial and final forms of. we put in row q If joint q is fully restrained. We start with i?PN If joint q is un— restrained. It is convenient to work with successive joint numbers. Finally. Since is symmetrical. is symmetrical and quasi-tridiagonal.190 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: DEAL TRUSS 2 3 CHAP. joint 2 is fully restrained and joints 4. Note that this procedure does not destroy the banding of the stiffness matrix.ii42j Joint 1 (t42 is prescribed) 1 [ 01 ii ii = ri E6=[0 — — oJ .

An incremental loading procedure can also be used with (8—13) but.5 Sym Final matrices (ir* and (ui) (u. (8—22) are valid for both linear and nonlinear behavior. 8—4. one is working with total displacement rather than with incremental displacement. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION Initial matrices (ir and ("1) (Us) (U4) = ir22 )r33 ir34 . but if one works with small load increments.SEC. it is more efficient with respect to computational effort to employ an incremental formulation when the system is nonlinear. we develop a set of equations relating the external load and the resulting incremental displacements. one applies the load in increments and determines the corresponding displacements. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION.4E4 U 1.X44 ir4. the equations can be linearized. With an incremental formulation.K13 0 . In this section. CLASSICAL STABILITY CRITERION Equations (8—13).0 .K34E4 J35 E4ir46(E6R°6)T + G4 + — — + -- ir56(E6R°6)T — . Our approach will be similar to that followed previously. in this case. (E6R°6)iq66(E6R°6)T + G6 E6R°6(— 8—4. We first establish incremental member force-displacement relations and then apply the direct stiffness method to . These equations are also nonlinear.) o (U3) (U4) (Us) ir. However. The total displacement is obtained by summing the displacement increments.

. = Afif + + D.. generate Pn* = p._) + — — = — To allow for the possibility of retaining only certain nonlinear terms. we delete the corresponding element in For geometrically linear behavior. D due to AU. We complete the section with a discussion of the classical stability criterion. — u. we drop all the t See (6—31).) + — u. — = = = (u.. We suppose an in- cremental external load AP is applied and define AU as the resulting incremental displacement for the new equilibrium position. (8—24) To proceed further. and (6—33)..._) If all the nonlinear terms are retained... We allow for a piecewise linear material and employ the relationst developed in Sec..÷ — u)Tg. we obtain dv.. 6—4. S the incremental system equations.) (827) — It remains to evaluate AF. — u. — u. = 0.. We start with (8—4). For convenience. leads to the following incremental force-equilibrium equations: = Ap.. we write (a) as fi. their values will change. . Au... Since F and depend on U.. = To neglect a particular displacement component. = + — = d2e.192 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP... = — Au.. AD be the total increments in F. (6—32). Operating on (8—25)... = Equations (a) are satisfied at an equilibrium position.)Tg. (8—26) and Ae. which defines the external joint forces required to equilibrate the action of the force for bar n. we need to evaluate the increments in e and relations are given by (6—22): The exact = — ci. and requiring (a) to be satisfied at both positions. Letting AF. g...) (8—25) Yh(ufl..

Substituting for (8—28) takes the form At' _AC' — Finally. t We describe here the method of successive substitutions. t See Ref. The initial elongation. is included to allow for an incremental temperature change. quadratic. This is equivalent to using the tangent stiffness. The contracted equations are K1. There are a number of techniques for solving nonlinear is symmetrical. contains linear. We cannot solve (8—33) directly for algebraic equations. are constant for a segment. and cubic terms in We have included the subscript g to indicate that it is a nonlinear geometric term.12 AU2 (8-34) since contains quadratic and cubic terms in MI. taking the values of k.. one of the segment is exceeded or the bar is unloading. L\p9.SEC. we substitute for LXPn+ = Q + I + if 72 Ct (8—29) Lw.11 AU1 = where K1. + = (8—31) -i- = + + We interpret k7 as the tangent stiffness matrix. Ae0.) + + (8—30) where = Fag. We write the total set of incremental joint equilibrium equations as = where + M'0 + (8-32) is assembled using (8—9) and MPO + with (8—8). Note that is symmetrical. Since has to iterate. 8—4. The vector. we introduce the displacement restraints by ap- plying (8—19)—(8—21).1 — AP9. Ae0 corresponding to the initial equilibrium position as the first estimate. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 193 notation pertaining to a segment and write the "generalized" incremental expression in the simple form = k(Ae — (8—28) where k. 12. The modified equations are = — — (8-33) It is convenient to include the prescribed incremental support displacement terms in involves only the incremental temperature and so that the variable displacement increments... Finally. — AP0..1 — 1(1. in — (8—24) and group the terms as follows: &i. They have to be changed if the limit is unknown. .

(8—27). we note that and are independent of A'1/1. The factor method is particularly convenient since X7 is symmetrical. The appropriate form for a truss is given by (7—41): ± den)> 0 for arbitrary AU1 with AU2 = 0 (a) We have already evaluated the above terms. 7—6. First. — — Au. in (8—35) and take the (8-39) as the "actual" displacement increment. We combine and and write (8—33) as X7K MI1 = — (8-35) Now. 8 which is the easiest to implement. ¶ Iterative techniques are discussed in greater detail in Secs. We replace (8—36) with = STQ = A9* S (8—38) — In linearized incremental analysis. and (8—29) with Ae0 = 0. + and (a) can be written as d2WD ALT ICE. we let represent the nth estimate for LXa/IJ and determine the (n + 1)th estimate by solving )p* L\cW(n+ = — &?P (8—36) The iteration involves only evaluation of and back-substitution once is transformed to a triangular matrix. 18—7. One can interpret this scheme as one cycle successive substitution. Using (8—26). STS (8—37) where S is an upper triangular matrix. The solution degenerates when the tangent stiffness matrix becomes singular. we delete solution of . 18—8. With this method. They depend only on the initial equilibrium position and the incremental loading..) (b) AU1 > 0 for arbitrary AU1 (8—40) It follows that must be positive definite for a stable equilibrium position.194 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. we apply the classical stability criterion developed in Sec. 18—9. . To investigate the behavior in the neighborhood of this point. but its convergence rate is slower in com- parison to most of the other methods.

and there are no initial elongations or support movement. and K1 have the same definiteness Finally. They reduce to + = = cc. See Sec.2 for this example. E8—5A. + fl = 1. Since b cc d.11 (8—41) where H is a nonsingular permutation matrix. we can classify the stability of an equilibrium position in terms of the determinant of the tangent stiffness matrix: D stable neutral unstable D>O D=0 D< 0 8—5 = = 1K1.e. 2—13 for a proof. To simplify the analysis. b <<d Fig. 8—4. and are related by HT[Kt. k1 = k2 = k. we can neglect the nonlinear terms due to u11._____ SEC. 2—5. we suppose the material is linearly elastic. we can take 1 [0 0 1 t See Prob. iNCREMENTAL FORMULATION But K1.. which rearranges the elements of according to (8-42) =H Then. . i. E8—5A x2 d d_____ The initial direction cosines for the bars are —b] —b] The deformed geometric measures are defined by (8—25). iii (8—43) Example We illustrate the application of both the total (8—13) and incremental (8—34) formulations to the truss shown in Fig.

. Note that (g) is the first equation in (8—13) with U2 and P0 set to 0.196 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.u1 n = 1. 1 I Pi —b + u12] 12 —b + 112 —b + Continuing. the force-equilibrium equation for joint I follows by applying (8—6) to both bars. the bar force-displacement relations are = = + = ky. 8 Using (c). . we obtain I (J\2 The corresponding bar forces are Pti Pi = This result is actually the solution for the linear geometric case. Solving the first equationt in (g). 2 Finally. (k1 k2)u1 = k(11r71 ± 11212)U1 Equations (e) and (1) expand to Jusi 0 — u12)(b and F1 = — (h — F2 = — (b — The diagonal form of the coefficient matrix is due to the fact that we neglected u11 in the expressions for y and This approximation uncouples the equations. The expression for and the corresponding bar forces follow from the second equation [2k P12 — u12)(b — 1u12)j 012 1 t Equation (g) is (8—1) with F1 = 0.

1 Au11 = Au1 + + d2e. one can specify u12 and evaluate from (k). we obtain + u12) = Sym (Au12)2 + u12)2 + . k = k(de. = de. E8—5B (I + 0 b B We describe next the generation of the incremental equations which follow from (8—26)— (8—32). (8—27) to (b)—(d) results in = d[i.SEC. Then.. 5—4. Alternatively. The latter approach works only when there is one variable. = [o a. = = (Au1 )2 n=l. + The tangent stiffness matrix and incremental geometric load term are defined by (8—31). E8-5B. Using (n). The solution is plotted in Fig. F1 INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 197 P12 = F2 = — — (b k L — 2u12)u12 = 1 2b—u12 L We can write (k) as L2 U12 =—— 2k (b — u12)(b 1 and solve (m) by iteration. P12 A 9 Fig..2 We arc assuming no initial elongation. Applying (8—26).

F4 = — AE( \2 AEb2 )= = (x) Then. when the material is linearly elastic: k=0 . we compare F4 With — Feb. Using (u). . We restrict the analysis to only 112 loading.t2EI3 (w) To determine whether the members buckle before point A is reached. Setting F1 = F2 in (s) results in + + u17)2)] Au12 = Ap12 [Au12 + 3(—b + (t) where F is determined from (e). Also. If k = 0. we assemble the incremental equilibrium equations for joint 1 using (8—30).198 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP. The coefficient of Au12 is the tangent stiffness with respect to u12. 8 Finally. for system instability rather than member instability to occur. we see that > du12 0 0 < 0 stable neutral unstable (v) Points A. 2 (r) o ?4(_b + u12)2 + + F2) 0 — [3(—b + u12) + Au12]} Note that (s) is (8—34). the truss is neutral with respect to Au11. du12 = L + L + u12)2) (u) Applying the classical stability criterion (8—43) to (t). b must satisfy b (y) where p is the radius of gyration of the section. Ap1 = + k. B are stability transition points and the segment A-B is unstable. 2)Au1 + Ap1. the incremental equations are uncoupled. i + Al)9. Now there is a discontinuity in k at F = — Feb. the pin-ended Euler load.

For convenience. (bb) = — The convergence is illustrated in Fig.SEC. Case (b) shows how the scheme diverges Fig. ES—5C — (a) Lip Ib) in the vicinity of a neutral point = 0). we take Ap9 = 0. we outline how one applies the method of successive substitution to (t). we drop the subscripts and write (t) as Ltu = — In the first step. E8—5C. 0 . 8—4. Convergence generally degenerates as and one has to resort to an alternate method. INCREMENTAL FORMULATION 199 Lastly. =— The second estimate is determined from (aa) = Generalizing (bb).

= (8—45) k1. avoids having to permute the rows and columns.k9...g. The geometrical stiffness. =0 (a) .. K. is also symmetrical but it may not be positive definite. We refer to this procedure as linearized stability analysis.. We have shown that and K. the stability can be readily determined. if a geometrically nonlinear system is loaded in such a way that it behaves as if it were geometrically linear.. We express the actual and modified matrices as K. The tangent stiffness matrix is generated by applying the Direct Stiffness Method to each term in (8—45). in turn. In linearized stability analysis... can be interpreted as the existence of a 'non-trivial solution of K. we can write (8—44) as F.K7 is positive definite. It is symmetrical and positive definite when the system is initially stable. . = k. = 0 which.. ii + (8—46) and (8—47) where K1 is the system stiffness matrix for linear behavior. we approximate k.. intransform to and test different). a transition from stable to neutral equilibrium may occur at some load level. (8—44) The first term is the linear stiffness matrix. we illustrated the behavior of a geometrically nonlinear system.. = = K1... Equation (8—46) shows that the tangent stiffness matrix varies linearly with the load parameter.. LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS In the previous section. is positive definite for 2 = 0. Once the nonlinear equilibrium equations are solved.. + ). an equilibrium position is stable ineutral. with k. we can take = in the expression for terms in This approximation is quite convenient since we have only to solve the linear problem in order to apply the stability criterion. u have the same definiteness property.. We interpret the second term as a geometric stiffness. As 2 is increased. K9. Now.i + Kg. i. K1.200 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAR 8 8—5. is positive definite if. If the system is initially stable. we can neglect the displacement that is.e.. We generate for positive definiteness. = + F. unstable) when the tangent stiffness matrix is positive definite (positive semi-definite. The bar forces are determined from a linear analysis of the truss. say 2cr To determine we note that neutral equilibrium (see (8—43)) corresponds to K. The analysis involves first solving the nonlinear equilibrium equations for the displacements and then applying the classical stability criterion to determine the stability of a particular equilibrium position. Working with i(7 rather than K. If the loading is defined in terms of a single load parameter. According to (8—40).

K5. we can work with = Mt' 1.j l.1)AU1 = AU1 jtto which satisfies the restrictions on the method. since we have added using (8—41) and 0 1JAU51 U [o Premultiplying by H = — — AHT [Kg. 1) is a convenient computational scheme for determining 2. Both equations lead to the same value of (8—49) has r additional characteristic values equal to — r dummy equations..) K1. ii AU1 (b) (c) AU2 = The solution of (c) is —2 AU2 (r eqs. ii 01 5Au1 [o i.AU2 (a) becomes (na eqs. LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS 201 Substituting for K1..SEC. Working with the undeformcd geometry. 8—5.. Example 8—6 Consider the system shown. 11T [ICe. we substitute for note (8—42). We apply (—K9. . we have F1 = = F2 = — = — F Matrix iteration (Ref. transforms (a) to a characteristic value problem. We suppose the bars are identical. itt —). To show this.) 1 0 0 AU2C1 o +C2 o i This solution must be disregardcd since AU2 is actually a null matrix. The geometry change is negligible under a vertical load and we can use the linearized stability criterion. However.1 = 0 Ault' = Mlii I (8—49) instead of (8—48).11 AU1 (8—48) is the smallest eigenvaluet of (8—48). AU1 = and Since 1K1. and there is no support movement. the material is linearly elastic.. ii AU1 = '2Kg.

ji = 2k 0 (b)2 (g) 0 0 .ii + AKçj.202 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. and g. = — 21 + k€ 2 = 0 + (b) and = k8. (d) We neglect u12 in the general expression for approximate expressions for fi. The system stiffness matrices follow from (8—44) and (8—45).1 + k9. £8—B d <<b 12 We let k1 = k2 = k. & A Fig. arc L —b] This is reasonable when d K< b.2 = — (g5 + g2) (c) It remains to determine g1 and g2 which are defined by = + ufg.. The L —b] (e) i[l 0 0 0 0 (d)2 = 11e.

jj = I. = K. 2 C) Acri The second root corresponds to neutral equilibrium with respect to Au12. the buckling mode is antisymmetric. there are two characteristic values and therefore two critical values of 2. and the first root defines the critical load.SEC. When d << b. + = 2k (b)2 —2 0 In this case. LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS 203 Neutral equilibrium (K1.LJ Note that (g) has only one eigenvalue instead of two. is If we work with (k).. (d)2 K1. we see that Euler buckling of the bars controls when d> irp The exact expression for g. This is a consequence of our using approximate expressions for Equations (e) instead of the exact expressions. How close it is to the actual value will depend on the geometry and loading. Neutral equilibrium also occurs when the bars either buckle or yield. It is of interest to compare 2cr 2 with the buckling load found in Example 8—5. The value of 2 for Euler buckling of the bars is eb = — L 2b = 2b k2EIl 2AEb/irp'\2 LLL2J I L \L Comparing (h) and (i). the linear buckling load is an upper bound. 8—5. Kg. b. In general. There we considered d b and followed the nonlinear behavior up to the point at which the slope of the P12 — u12 curve vanished (neutral with respect to Au12): d 1(1 = du12 0 mex = (0) The linearized result is significantly higher than the true buckling load. For this example. it is quite close.. 1 = 2kb 2kb (d\2 (Ii) 2cr. while it considerably overestimates the true load for d b. At 2 = the system is neutral with respect to Au1 i.. is semidefinite) occurs at 2kb \\L) L \. .e.

1. \EaJ For the structure sketched: Develop the general form of Indicate how you would obtain K11. 8—3. 12. WILCUR Elementary Structural Analysis. Vol. and reactions. Develop the general form 8—5. 1964. S. 1966. McGraw-Hill. RALSTON. 11. Introduction to Matris Methods of StructuralAnalysis. J. determine . C. PRZEMIENIECKI. LIVESLEY. ARGYSIS. M. Dynamics. W00DHEAD: Frame Analysis. 4. 1960. 3. MARTIN.: Structural . Suppose we number the joints as shown. 1964. F. J. Pergamon Press. R. 7. THOMPSON. of Example 8—2. FL.: Recent Advances in Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. 1970. For the structure sketched: Determine K11. DC VEUBEKE. F. 6. McGraw-Hill. Kelsey: Energy Theorems and StruciuralAnalysis. and R. Assume no support movements at joints 2. Consider U2 and P1 to he prescribed and the behavior to be physically — linear. bar forces. Butterworths. Use — = e0. PROBLEMS 8—1. H.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis.S'vsse. J. pp.204 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. RUBINSTEIN. 2. C. M. U2.. Prentice-Hall. 8—6. and Stability. 1965. M. 1960. A. and A.'ns—Statics. A. and J. 8—4. 1968.11 (c) 8—2. 1968. 5. For the structure sketched: Determine the displacements. Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. H. 1964. B. (a) Express = Vr VT — PTU1 in terms of U1. Determine and F due to a temperature increase of 100°F for all the bars. HALL. Express as a quadratic form in AU1. Hint: Obtain d2e by operating on (7—8). (a) (b) Refer to Example 8—2. Pergamon Press. T. K.. 1965. 8. J. 757—768.: A First Course in Numerical Analysis. S. 9. B. New York. 4. H. WALKER: "The Nonlinear Perturbation Analysis of Discrete Structural Systems. McGraw-Hill. RUBINSTEIN. W. Wiley. Pergamon Press. Solids Structures. 1967. ARGYRIS. 3. J. 4.: Theory of Matrix Structural Aizah'sis. F. For the structure sketched. New York. 8 REFERENCES C.1)2 = eo)Tk(e e0) (b) Show that (8-4) are the Euler equations for dVT = FTde Note that de = BfAT. and S. New York." Jut. McGraw-Hill. London. PrenticeHall.: Matric Computer Analvsis of Structures. 10.

8—2 E=3X Bar areas = 3 ksi Coefficient of thermal expansion = 6 X 106/°F Prob. 20' 10' 8—3 I E=3X ksi Initial elongation of = in.PROBLEMS 205 Prob. 8—4 © 807 0 605 . Horizontal displacement of joint 2 = to the left I 0 6 kips x2 Prob.

Assume the material is linearly elastic and no support movements. Investigate the elastic stability of the system shown. Assume no initial elongation or support movement. Determine the lowest critical load for the truss shown.206 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 8-6 8—7. 8—8. Determine the load-deflection relation for the system shown. 8—5 E constant for all bars Bar Area 3a I Y3 I 2 3 4a 3a 4 5 4a 2. considering d b and using the corresponding approximate expression for 8—9.5a Prob. 8 20' Prob. . Assume the material is linearly elastic and all bars have the same stiffness. Use the linearized stability criterion and work with the exact expression for Rework the problem. Consider the material to be linearly elastic and the bars to bc identical.

8—9 T 20' H .8—7 0 d <<b k1 —Ic2 — _AE —-•y- x1 H K2 2¼ Prob. 8—S Prob.wp Prob.

. + where i. and the K's are constants which can be interpreted as second-.. 8-40): + KIJkU. we employ the summation convention.1 + + + Po.J (f) and write (d) in the form = (k. 2 is a load parameter. e. and fourth-order tensors. 8 8—10. 'y. range over the total number of unknowns. third.e. . The first step involves converting the matrix expressions p.. In order to expand (a). We drop the n subscript. (d) where F. This form is dictated by our choice of matrix notation. The governing equations for geometrically nonlinear behavior of a linearly elastic discrete system such as a truss are nonlinear algebraic equations containing up to third-degree displacement terms. = + — u)T — = + over to indicial form.. The second-order tensor.. (a) We generate the system tensors by superimposing the contribution of each bar. 2 n) We write the ith equilibrium equation for tile system as (this representation is suggested in Ref.Pn_j (U. = k. is the linear stiffness matrix. = 2P1 k. U1 is the total value of the jth displacement unknown. + F0. (j = 1.... An example is where d.= — p.208 DISPLACEMENT METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. defines the load distribution. define p and u as l. We have expressed them as = + = ± contain linear displacement terms. it is understood the term is summed over the range of the repeated subscript.. we must shift from matrix to indicial notation... For convenience..÷ — p.. j. If a subscript is repeated in a term. .(u.

What symmetry properties do the k's exhibit? Do these properties also apply for the system tensors? (b) Develop the incremental equations relating Au. Ic1 = =k (a) (b) Determine the nonlinear incremental equilibrium equations at the equi0. AA and compare with (8—30). is applied in addition to librium position corresponding to Pi = . (c) 8—11. the linearized critical load. Pi ±ep2. Comment on how the system behaves when a small horizontal load. For the structure sketched: Prob. 8—11 Linearly elastic material. Specialize the incremental equations for linearized stability analysis. No support movement or initial elongation. Cr. Take Ap1 = 0 and solve for Ap2 as a function of Au1.PROBLEMS 209 Show that k11 = =L = where c is defined by [1 + (Ii) {::} = cu (i) Discuss how you would locate the appropriate addresses for the bar stiffness tensors in the system tensors. P2 P2.

Equation (a) represents linear equations relating the na prescribed joint forces and the in unknown bar forces. These equations are called compatibility conditions and are obtained by operating on (b) which represents m relations between the na unknown displacements and the bar forces. In what follows. r(B1) = be linearly independent. In order to determine F. If in = since one can find the bar forces and reactions using only the equations of statics. Finally. GENERAL The basic equations for the linear geometric case have the form P1 = B1F e = BfU1 + P2 = B2F e0 + fF where the elements of B1 and B2 are constants. The general procedure outlined above is called the Jbrce or flexibility method. 210 . One can solve (a) for na bar forces in terms of the applied forces and q bar forces. We then show how one can establish the compatibility equations using the principle of virtual forces and discuss the extremal character of the force redundants. and is called the degree of indeterminacy. we compare the force method for a truss with the mesh method for an electrical network. This requires in In what follows. we first develop the governing equations for the force method by operating on (a)—(c).9 Force Method Ideal Truss 9—i. the rows of B1 must For the system to be initially stable. We refer to the system defined by the na bars as the primary structure and the q unknown forces as force redundants. we consider the system is said to be statically determinate only stable systems. This procedure is applicable only when the geometry is linear. q additional equations relating the bar forces are required. that is. The defect of (a) is equal to in — nd = q.

the force-equilibrium equations ((a) and (c)) take the form B11F1 = P1 — B12F2 (ad eqs.0 and F1. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH 211 9-2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH We consider the first columns of B1 to be linearly independent (if the system is initially stable. F2 satisfy (9—4) 1111F10 = P1 B1IFI.F. The complete set of q + 1 solutions is written as F1 = F1.0 + Fl. B2 and F as follows: B1 x nil =[B11 ii B12] I "a) (na x q) B2 (rxm) [B21 (rxn4) (na x 1) (rxq) B22] = F2 (qx 1) The bars corresponding to F1 comprise the primary structure and F2 contains the q redundant bar forces.) (9—2) (9—3) P2 = B21F1 + B22F2 (reqs. with F2 = 0. The reactions follow from (9—3): P2 = P2. contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to the applied joint loads. Partitioning e. (nixl) e (fl4X 1) = c e1 ——— C2 j (q< 1) ii = (9—7) L 0 f2 (q x q) .0 = B21FI. F1. 9—2. —B12 as righthand sides.SEC. e0.o = P2.0 + (9—6) B21F1. Using (9—1).) Since Bit! 0.F2 = —B12 Note that the kth column of F1. one can always renumber the bars such that this condition is satisfied) and partition B1. and f.F2 where F1. P1. considering P1. F2 contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to a unit value of the kth element in F2. Also.F2 + B22 We consider next (b). we can solve (9—2) for F1.

depend on F1. (9—10).. 9—i. This step involves q + 1 force analyses on the primary structure. follows when we express the elongations in terms of the bar forces. F2U2 = ez + Ff + f2F2 + Ff. + 12F2 Bf2U1 + Bf2U2 (ne. 0. Note that we obtain the primary structure by deleting q = ni — bars. We obtain the equation for F2 by eliminating U1 in (9—9). F1.212 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP.. 0. it must be satisfied in order for the bars tofit in the deJbrmed structure defined by U1.e.) Once e1 is known. o + f1F1 B11U1 + B21U2 = e2 = e2. and P2.0 (9—11) The first form.. . is called the flexibility matrix for F2. f22. I.F21 — — IF2 \T_ T T 11 Then. P2. (a).. Iteration is minimized by applying the loading in increments and approximating the force-elongation relation with a piecewise linear representation.0 — 1. the force-displacement relations expand to = e1. to an echelon matrix. Determination of F1. At this point. See (1—61).t If the material is physically nonlinear. we substitute for F1 and write the result as 122F2 d2 C (9—12) T where f 122 . premultiplying (9—8) by Ff.FZ(CLO + f1F1) = e2. shows that the equations are actually restrictions on the elongations. (9—8) can be solved for U1. f. One can show that f22 is positive definite when the bar flexibility factors in f2 are all positive. First (see (9—5)) we note that BT — 12 12 1. § We reduce X See Prob. displacement. we summarize the steps involved in the force method.F2 r'T ( — + v + nT f'r 1O.43 The coefficient matrix. and elongation terms with theit incremental values and interpret las a segmental (tangent) flexibility. F2t1' t. and using (9—10) P2. F2 We select a stable primary structure F1 and determine the bar forces and reactions due to P1 and a unit value of each force redundant. and e0. One can interpret (9—10) as a compatibility condition.) (9-8) (9—9) (q eqs. i. eqs. Finally. (9—11). The selection of a primary structure and solution of the force equilibrium equations can be completely t See Prob. 9 and using (9—1).1 t'T U2 — —e2. The second form. 9—4. (9—6) leads to adding the result to (9—9). The incremental equations are similar in form to the total equations4 We just have to replace the force.

. as U1—'t — e1 — 21 —hT 111 2 We see from (9—15) that the kth column of Br. Deterininatio.tr force: F1={F. e1 e1.0 + f1F1 and then solve (9—8). F1 P2 = F10 + = P2. o. and adding the two scalars. and F3 = + 1 can be readily obtained using the method ofjoints. The forces and reactions corresponding to P..pj. and solve f. Example 9—1 Step 1: Determination of F. Determination of U.ik I nT fl — Note that one works with the statically determinant primary structure to — mine the displacements. one can determine these components without actually solving (9—8)... for U. GOVERNfNG APPROACH 213 2.. F2.0 + P2. for F. = F.F. we determine F. and P2 F2 q= For the truss shown in Fig. 2 in 3 1 We take F3 as the redundant b. E9—IA. .. P2. letting F. and P2 by combining the q + basic solutions. = d. P2. with F2 = 0 due to an unit value of with F2 0 as — (9—14) we can write the expression for 0.SEC.' contains the bar forces in the primary structure due to a unit value of the kth element in P1. Note that all force analyses are performed on the primary structure.. The results are shown in Fig.F2F2 3.) by multiplying the kth column of Br1' by the kth column of B21Br. we obtain the kth element in U1 (which corresponds to the kth element in P. Then. aizdP2 We assemble d2. 9—2. it follows from (9—6) that the kth column of B2 contains the reactions due to a unit value of the kth clement in P.. Then. Also.. = e. To show this. F. Once F1 is known. = P2 due to an unit value of PJJ.F2} F2={F3} The primary structure consists of bars I and 2. E9—1B. Now. If only a limited number of displacement components are desired.. we can evaluate e. we write U.pJk = F.' by Of.z of F2.

83 10 kips 20 kips We could have obtained the above results for F1 by solving B11F1 = P1 B12F'2 which. E9—1B 3.50 3/8 —20. for this system.33 1/2 2.2 A2 0.1 —1/16 in. (3) e0. = u41} = {u3. we can contract U2 and P2. Fig. d2.51n.Oin. F1. u41 =—1/I5in. E9—1A 2 3 10 kips I 20 kips (1) A1 = 1.8 +. and write PT fl /D' 2 2 .5 in.2 A3 =0.8flFj = Step 2: + [1j{F3} [01 Determination of f22. E = 3 )< i04 ksi for all bars.214 FORCE METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP. = 0.2 (4) u32 + 1/10th.6 +61 (F1) 110) [-.. has the form [—.2 (2) Material is linearly elastic. 9 Fig. and F2 Since only u32 and u41 are finite. eo.

)T (c) fr'2 — (1 UO' 1 15 = e1. we are given that e1./kip) 12(25) 12(25) = Then. 2} = { T'6.0 F1.S7kips Equation (a) actually represents a restriction on the elongations. 9—2.24. o {eo. P41) corresponding to the nonvanishing prescribed displacements 1 .0 = {eo.31 Solving (a).3} = 0 f2 and evaluate f22 and d2. Step 3: Determination of the Displacements Suppose only u11 is desired. It remains to assemble The flexibility factors are (in. The GOVERNING EQUATIONS—ALGEBRAIC APPROACH 215 force matrices follow from step 1: F1.53kips = 0. Using (9—15). —4. —. (9—12) reduces to 1. F2 {—2083.8(2 x Evaluating the various products in (9-43). p. we obtain (a) F2 = {F3} = —5.0 + 1— 17.27kips F1 = F1. 0} (inches) (inches) e2.17} { (kips) (kips) (kips) — = Also. The original form of (a) follows from (9—10).3SF3 = —7. = Ff. e0.0 + f1F1 {-. — 8e1 — a — —.SEC.-.1e1 — Now. Equation (b) reduces to (a) when we substitute for the elongations in terms of the bar forces. 3 x 12 = 13 = 12(20) x = f2 = [f3] = 0.018} We apply a unit load at joint 1 in the X1 direction and determine the bar forces in the primary structure and the reactions (P32.

GOVERNING EQUATIONS—VARIATIONAL APPROACH We obtained the elongation compatibility equations (9—10) by operating on the elongation-displacement equations. This is equivalent 9—3.216 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. B1 AF = AP1 = 0 Equation (b) states that the virtual bar forces cannot lead to increments in the prescribed jOint loads. they must be self-equilibrating. i. (9—5). 9 Substituting in (c). we apply (9—15) twice. It is shown there (see Equation (7—14)) that the true elongations satisfy the condition.F. 7—3. we obtain a11 = +185 to solving (9—8).. using (9—4). Alternatively. Finally.e. The reactions due to AF2 are obtained from (9—6): A?2 = B2 AF = P2 F2 Substituting for AF and A?2. Note that the elongation compatibility . AFTe — 0 for any statically permissible system of virflial bar forces and reactions which satisfy the constraint condition. Now. it follows that FT. — . (a) expands to F2e1 + C2 — F2U2) 0 Equation (h) must be satisfied for arbitrary AF2. we can write F where = {Fio} + B1 and B1 = 0 Then AF2 = satisfies (b) for arbitrary AF2.033 = +15 in If both displacement components are desired.el + C2 P2 F2U2 = 0 (i) Equation (i) is identical to (9—10). one can use the principle of virtual forces developed in Sec.

One can show that the stationary point corresponds to a relative minimum value of H. COMPARtSON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 217 equations are independent of the material behavior. 9—8. — Pf02 = This approach is discussed in sec. We take X = F2 in (7—35). The latter involves the t See Prob. If the material is physically linear. 9—4. we can take = AF2 = 0 and (j) leads to U1 = Note that I — — 1)11 One can interpret the compatibility equations expressed in terms of F2 as the Euler cquations for the total complementary energy function. 7—5. Since only F1 is required to equilibrate P1.F. = and (7—37) coincides with (i). We determine the displacements by applying the general form of the principle of virtual forces (see (7—10)) AFTe — = APfU1 = where the virtual forces satisfy the force-equilibrium equations. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS It is of interest to compare the force method for a truss with the procedure followed to find the currents in an electrical network. when the tangent flexibility factors for the redundant bars are all positive. = P2. . Then. We have written the expanded form of (i) as f22F2 = Since (i) are the Euler equations for d2 = and it follows that d2) 2U2 H _I T 221 2 — 2 c — for the linearly elastic case. t 9-4. (i) leads to a set of q linear equations in F2 when we substitute for the elongations in terms of the bar forces.SEC.

Each branch is terminated at two different nodes and no two branches have a point in common which is not a node. 9 application of Kirchhoff's laws and is called the mesh method. k n number of nodes = potential at node j with respect to the reference potential. We list the notation and governing equations for convenience: b = number of branches N=n—1 M—b—N=b—n+1 k+. k = emf for branch k = resistance for branch k The governing equations expressed in matrix notation are (see Prob. Note that d has only two entries1 in any row.. Example 9—2 A network can be represented by a line drawing consisting of curves interconnected at various points. the graph is said to be . 6—14.) e = {ej. For row k (Ic = jlkk = +1 dkk+ = dkj —1 1 k+ ork. . positive when directed from node k_ to node = potential drop for branch k = Vk. and the governing equations for a linear resistance d-c network are developed in Probs. Various phases of the electrical network formulation are discussed in Probs.V2 R1 R= R2 Rb and A is obtained by deleting the last column of the branch-node connectivity matrix d.) e0 (9—16) (9—17) e = AV = where i + Ri (b eqs. — Vk+ ek e0. Also. . = nodes at positive and negative ends of branch k = current in branch k. two nodes are connected by at least one path. 6—14. 6—23): An = 0 (N eqs. e2.N Actually.218 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. A collection of nodes and branches satisfying the above restrictions is called a linear connected graph.. d is just the matrix equivalent of the branch-node connectivity table. (9—19) =0 1= 1. The curves and intersection points are conventionally called branches and nodes respectively.. If each branch is assigned a direction. 6—23.2. (9—18) v={V1. . 6—6..

9—4. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 219 oriented. (N x N) (bxN) — [ A1 [A2 (MXN) (Nx 1) = JJi__ (Mx)) . Therefore. 4) of d. E9—2 3 Node Branch 1 I 2 3 —1 +1 2 3 +1 +1 —. We assemble d working with successive branches. The connectivity relations for a network are topological properties of the corresponding oriented graph. A has N linearly independent columns. Consider the oriented graph shown. we obtain A by deleting the last column (cot. We list the branch numbers vertically and the node numbers horizontally. Finally.SEC. it is possible to solve (9—16) for N branch currents in terms of b — N = M branch currents. We suppose the branches are numbered such that the first N rows of A contain a nonvanishing determinant of order N and partition A.1 A 4 —1 —1 N Now. i after row N. 2 Fig.

A tree is defined as a connected graph having no . Using the first approach. one can use the variational principle developed in Prob.0 — Cfe10 (9—27) The coefficient matrix for i2 is positive definite when the branch resistances are positive. we can solve for i1 in terms of i2. Also. This will be the case for a real system. Although the equations for the truss and electrical network are similar in form. I'2 I (9—22) Note that C1 is of order N by M and is related to A1. The essential step in the solution involves solving (9—21). To find the corresponding matrices (F1. the branches comprising A1 (and i1) correspond to the primary structure. substituting for in terms of leads to (R2 + CTR1C1)i2 —e2. In what follows.220 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. 7—6. Note that C1 corresponds to for the truss problem. we obtain CTe1 = 0 (9—26) Equation (9—26) represents M equations relating the branch potential differences (voltages). we describe a procedure for assembling C1 directly from the oriented graph. that is. finding C1. or alternatively. One can express (9—17) in partitioned form and then eliminate V. One can represent a mesh by listing sequentially the branches traversed. 9 Introducing (9—20) in (9—16) leads to ATi1 = (9—21) 0. it should be noted that the network problem is one dimensional whereas the truss problem involves the geometry as well as the cpnnectivity of the system. Finally. We write the solution of the Since tAil node equations as i= = Ci2 [Cii. 0 and for a truss. one must solve a system of linear equations. A closed path containing only one repeated node that begins and ends at that node is called a mesh. A2 by C1 = (9—23) It remains to determine a set of M equations for i2. we can find V from A1V e1 = e2 + e1 + R1i1 (9—25) Eliminating V from the second equation in (9—24) and using (9—23). One can assemble C1 using only the topological properties of the oriented graph which represents the network. we write (9—17) as = A1V = e2 e1 + R1i1 A2V = e20 + R212 (N eqs) (M eqs) (9—24) Once i1 is known.

One can easily show that meshes. We assemble C1 working with the columns. We take the positive direction of mesh j (clockwise or counterclockwise) such that the mesh direction coincides with the positive direction for chord j. We enter (+1. Selecting a tree is equivalent to selecting N linearly independent rows in A. Suppose branch r is contained in mesh j. Now. Chord j and the unique path (in the tree) connecting the terminals of chord j define a mesh. the current in branch r due to a unit value of is equal to + 1 (—1) if the positive directions of branch rand meshj coincide (are opposite in sense). the rows of A2.SEC. We take branthes 4 . that is. the current is constwit in a niesh. we take the elements of i2 as the chord (mesh) currents. Example 9—3 For the graph in example 9—2. We have expressed the solution of the node equations as i1=C1 I) (NXM) (Mxl) 12 Now. we associate the branches comprising a tree with the rows of A1. Then. Now. The branches removed are generally called chords. Then i1 represents the required branch currents in the tree. N = n — 1 = 3 and b = 6. Note that one can always number the branches such that the first N branches define a tree. The required number of chords is equal to b — = b — N = M. not) included in mesh j. The column corresponding to involves only those branches of the tree which are contained in mesh j. bT=n—l=N (9—28) We reduce a graph to a tree by removing a sufficient number of branches such that no meshes remain. — 1.0) in row k of this column if branch k is (positively. 2 Fig. The resulting tree is shown in Fig. say mesh j. negatively. COMPARISON OF THE FORCE AND MESH METHODS 221 Let hT be the number of branches in a tree connecting 11 nodes. E9—3 1 3 . Then M = b — N = 3 and we must remove 3 branches to obtain a tree. The M chords correspond to the redundant branches. 9—4. E9—3. We indicate the chords by dashed lines. 5 . and 6 as the chords.

is called thc branch-mesh incidence matrix. i2. The matrix . follow from Example 9—2: —! A1= 0 0 —1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 0 0 —l 0 —1 —1 A2= One can readily verify that 0 +1 C1 = The matrix. We work with successive columns. Note that C1 is just the matrix equivalent of(a). Equation (9—30) states that the sum of the potential drops around each mesh must be zero and is just Kirchhoff's voltage law expressed in matrix form. that is. C = {C1. successive chords. i5. 13} i2 {i4. A1 and A2. 4 5 6 Branches 1 — 2 3 1 —l• 0 +1 0 —1 ofthe tree 1 +1 0 +1 —1 The matrices. ij = {i1. we see that A and C have the property (N x Ill) ATC = 0 (9—29) Also. i6} The meshes associated with the chords follow directly from the sketch: mesh4 mesh5 mesh6 To assemble C1 we list the branches of the tree vertically and the chord numbers horizontally. (9—26). The resulting matrix is listed below. as (SIx 1) CTe = 0 (9—30) The rows of CT define the incidence of the meshes on the branches. we can express the compatibility equations. Im}. 9 For this selection of a tree.222 FORCE METHOD: IDEAL TRUSS CHAP. Using (9—23).

No. B. WILBUR: Elementa. one assembles the equations individually. F. F. also applies to the truss problem.. J.S. 1968. 4. In the conventional approach. HALL. 5.E. Use the approach suggested in Problems 2—12 through 2—14. Consider a system of in equations in n unknowns.C. P. Vol. C.x2} 2 2 3 1 0 0 l. PRZEMIENIECKI. Di MAGGIO. R. 1966. Let q = (a) (b) m — n. D. M. RUBINSTEIN. 2. A." Eng. EM 3. McGraw-Hill.1.C. ax = c. W000HEAD: Frame Analysis. New York.E. Mech. New York. REFERENCES 1.'v Structural Analysis.NVE.PROBLEMS 223 formulation of the network problem leads to the same system of equations that one would obtain by applying Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws to the various nodes and meshes. The two approaches differ only with respect to the assemblage of the governing equations.: Matrix computer Analyris of Structures. A. and W. where in> n. Suppose r(a) = a and the first a rows of a are linearly independent. JR. Interpret (9—10) from this point of view. RUBINSTEIN. Div. 9—2. for the system leads to q relations between the elements of c. TakeX1 {xi.Y25 0 0 0 0 x1 3 2 12 4 00 1 0 x2 X3 + 1 0002 x4 2 9—3. PrenticeFlaIl.. 9—2. Solve the following system using the procedure outlined in Sec. and R. MORICE. New York. 1970. FF.: Structural Systems—Statics. and F. . A. BRANIN. S. W. Dynamics. Ronald Press. June 1965. 91. This involves repeated application of the basic laws. 89. B. Prentice-Hall.. Vol. SNLLERS: "Network Analysis of Structures.: Linear Structural Analysis. PROBLEMS 9—1. of course. F. S.S.. Structures Div. 6. No.: "Network-Topological Formulation of Struc- 8. When the equations are expressed in matrix form.. 1969.. H. Wiley. 1960. McGraw-Hill. ST4. August 1963. This. H. and Stability." J. tural Analysis. . M. and J. 7. Show that the coefficient matrix f22 is positive definite for arbitrary rank of F1 P2 when is positive definite.: Theory of Ma/rLr Structural Analysis.S. Show that the consistency requirement. the steps reduce to a sequence of matrix multiplications. 1967. 3.. S.

/i where 2 is the load parameter and defines the loading distribution. determine the elongation-compatibility relations. F10. F9. 9 9—4. Take (3) Only initial elongation for bar 4. 8—3 with the force method: Take F3 as the force redundant.. 9—6 x2 xl 15' 15' (1) Material is linear elastic and the flexibility factors are equal. for the truss shown. 9—5. Prob. Assemble the equations for F2 = (F8. Takt as the redundant bars. One has to modify bothft and if the limit of the segment is exceeded (see sec. F. By definition (see (7—26) and (7—31)) = AFTe — .e. where only the magnitude is increased. Distinguish between a redundant bar and a bar in the primary structure. Solve Prob.224 FORCE METHOD: DEAL TRUSS CHAP. Develop an incremental "force" formulation starting with — B1 = Ae B2 AF AF Bf AU1 + AU2 = + ft AF represent the flexibility factor and incremental initial elongation where f'. = {u42 } (2) Only u42 is finite. 9—7. Let P1 1. Consider the case where the loading distribution is constant. Also discuss how you would account for either yielding or buckling of a bar. for the segment corresponding to the initial value of F. bars ©. 9—6. Discuss how you would organize the computational scheme. (a) 9—8. For the truss shown: Using (9—10). i. 6—4 for a detailed treatment). (b) Express u52 in terms of the elongations and support movements.

PROBLEMS 225 Prob. 9—i 2 x2 x1 Then — = AFT de Express d2fl. 9—9. Determine C. . Consider the material to be nonlinear elastic and establish criteria for the stationary point to be a relative minimum. Consider the oriented linear graph shown. 9—9 0 (a) (b) (c) Determine A. Verify that ATC = 0. Prob. as a quadratic form in AF2.

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Part III ANALYSIS OF A MEMBER ELEMENT .

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this step. is defined as the stress vector. Substitution of the strain-displacement relations in the stress-strain relations leads to a set of equations relating the stress and derivatives of the displacement components. 2. We refer to this system as the stress-displacement relations. GENERAL The formulation of the governing equations for the behavior of a deformable solid involves the following three steps: 1. the internal force per unit area acting on a differential area. we analyze the state of stress at a point. Relate forces and displacements. We visualize the body to consist of a set of differential volume elements. we investigate how the stress vector varies with orientation of the area element. The forces due to the interactions of adjacent volume elements are called internal forces.). Note that the analysis of strain is purely a geometrical problem. say dAd. We analyze the change in shape of a differential volume element due to displacement of the body. etc. In this step. The quantities required to specify the deformation (change in shape) are conventionally called strains. Note that the study of forces is purely an equilibrium problem. Study of forces.10 Governing Equations for a Delormable Solid 10—1. inelastic. nonlinear elastic. Also. 229 . We also apply the conditions of static equilibrium to the volume elements. This leads to a set of differential equations (called stress equilibrium equations) which must be satisfied at each point in the interior of the body and a set of algebraic equations (called stress boundary conditions) which must be satisfied at each point on the surface of the body. we first relate the stress and strain components at a point. 3. Study of deformation. that is. The form of these equations depends on the material behavior (linear elastic. This step leads to a set of equations relating the strains and derivatives of the displacement components at a point.

1O—2.b2 10—1 Their scalar (inner) product is defined as aTb = bTa = a1b1 + a2h2 + . Venant's theory provides us with considerable insight as to the nature of the behavior and also as to how we can simplify the corresponding mathematical problem by introducing certain assumptions. 10—i Consider the product of a rectangular matrix. In this chapter. and the stress and displacement boundary conditions. it is understood the term is summed over the range of the index.. establishing the governing equations. x. we introduce the convention that when an index is repeated in a term. In Chapter 14. we develop the governing equations for a linearly elastic solid following the steps outlined above. we present St.represent nth-order column matrices: a= b= {Oj. and a column vector. The conventional engineering theory of prismatic members is developed in Chapter 12 and a more refined theory for thin walled prismatic members which includes the effect of warping of the cross section is discussed in Chapter 13. We also extend the variational principles developed in Chapter 7 for an ideal truss to a three-dimensional solid.. stress-displacement relations. 10 The governing equations for a deformable solid consist of the stress equilib- rium equations. + = To avoid having to write the summation sign. We illustrate its application below. a. St.230 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. in Chapter 15. It is particularly convenient for formulation.. 02 {h1. we develop the engi- neering theory for an arbitrary planar member.e. According to this convention (i = 1. i. Example 1. In Chapter 11. we present the engineering theory for an arbitrary space member. SUMMATION CONVENTION.2 and we write the scalar product as aTb = a1b1 ii) (10—2) (10—3) The summation convention allows us to represent operations on multidimensional arrays in compact form. Finally. CARTESIAN TENSORS Let a and b. c=ax aisrnx n . Venarit's theory of torsion-fiexure of prismatic members and apply the theory to some simple cross sections.

is fg =(xTax)(xTbx) One could expand (d) but it is more convenient to utilize (b) and write (c) (c) as f= g = bk(xkxe fg = = 3. The inner product is defined as the sum of the products of corresponding elements: Inner product ç. = xT(aTa)x H = d= and can be expressed as c-c1 = 0f50 The outer product is a second-order array. x a column vector. fg. we can write (h) as d11 + d22 + d11 = trace of d AIIk(XkX( H= = 4. = According to the summation convention.SEC. II Using (b). alJbk.xkx.. = AIJk(XkXe = Then. ejj over to one-dimensional arrays. SUMMATION CONVENTION. Let represent square second-order arrays. il. b be square matrices. ccT axxraT = alkaf.) = = + + + + g21e21 + (m) In order to represent this product as a matrix product. g scalars defined by frxTax g = xrbx The matrix form of the product. we must convert cki. Let a. CARTESIAN TENSORS 231 The typical term is c• => (b) 2. H. Let represent a one-dimensional set of elements associated with an orthogonal reference frame having directions If the . and f.xlxfxkx( DIJk(XIXJXkX( We return to part 1 The inner product of c is a scalar. 10—2.

n. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION.232 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. 1. 10—1. the sum of the squares of the elements of a first-order tensor is invariant. Noting = (10—5) (5—5). = (10—8) The transformation (10—8) is orthogonal and the trace. (10—10) This notation is shown in Fig. 3 (10—4) say that the elements of b comprise a first-order cartesian tensor. Then. 3 . and the determinant are invariant.2. CARTESIAN STRAINS Let P denote an arbitrary point in the undeformed state of a body and the position vector for P with respect to 0. the origin of an orthogonal cartesian reference frame. b will be symmetrical. and the movement from P to P' is represented by the displacement vector. We know that the magnitude of a vector is invariant. The corresponding point and position vector in the deformed state are taken as F'. sum of the principal second-order minors. f See Prob. we can write (10—4) as and it follows that the set of orthogonal components of a vector are a first-order cartesian tensor. . fl. 2. By definition. 10 corresponding set for a second reference frame is related to the first set by — — k = we cos 1. k. 10-3. (10—6) A second-order cartesian tensor is defined as a set of doubly subscripted elements which transform according to = An alternate form is (10—7) j. 2—5.t = fl(2) where = = b12 021 L 022 7 + b22 032 7 b23 033 7 + b11 b13 1733 In the cases we encounter.

Geometric notation. The initial length and direction cosines are ds and using the subscript notation for partial differentiation. Also. we work with cartesian components for ü. ii = We consider a differential line element at P represented by the vector dii. p = = = (10—13) The extensional strain. 10—1). is defined as the relative change in length with respect . 10—1. Then. This is known as the Lagrange Undeformed dp F' (Deformed) i3 2 112 Fig. 10—3. the displacement from the initial undeformed position will be small for a solid. (See Fig. CARTESIAN STRAINS 233 Excluding rigid body motion.SEC. We are = / = (10—12) Since we are in the deformed state is The corresponding line arid we can write following the Lagrange approach. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. r. to simplify the derivation. and it is reasonable to take the initial Cartesian coordinates (xi) as the independent variables. approach.

xa I — '/12 p. we see that (no sum) = e0 (10—16) -1) = To interpret the off-diagonal terms. the cartesian coordinates for the deformed state are taken as the independent variables.- dp'1 x2 Fig. components of finite strain.234 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. i.e. 10—2. t This is the definition of Lagrangian strain. we write (a) as e(1 + 4c) = ap. Notation for shearing strain. (10—14) becomes (1 Finally. In the Eulerian approach.t = (1 + (10— 14) Using the dot product. we consider 2 initially orthogonal line elements represented by (see Fig. The elements. They relate the difference between the square of the initial and deformed lengths of the line element. 10—2) and having direction cosines + d r'. an alternate definition of Cjk — ds2 = 2eJkdxJdxk . 10—4. It is known as Green's strain tensor. 10 to the initial length.. = and the strain is defined as = (1 — are also called the See Prob.kejk (10—15) — = One can readily establish that (eJk) is a second-order symmetrical Cartesian tensor4 direction and letting Taking the line element to be initially parallel to the represent the extensional strain.

with respect to S OP = = + Un. follows by state. j)l. is related to the (10—18) (I + + = = Equations (10—15) and (10—17) are actually transformation laws for extensional and shearing strain. CARTESIAN STRAINS 235 We define as the angle between the lines in the deformed which is called the shearing strain. we consider two orthogonal frames defined by the unit vectors and (see Fig. y) are small with respect to unity for engineering materials such as metals and concrete.Ji. ) J= . it is quite reasonable (aside from the fact that it simplifies the expressions) to assume r. Therefore. COS — (it — . With this notation: + (1 + + = ) = (10—19) The strain measures (e.. take the initial frame parallel to the global frame = ti). ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION.n — .. The expression for taking the dot product of the deformed vectors.SEC. and let = 15 tk. 10—3. The relations for "small" strain are: 1 (10—20) It remains to expand eJk. To generalize these expressions. shearing strain. y in the strain expressions. For example. Now. e for steel. = (a) takes the form (1 + + = shows that 2e13 (10—17) Specializing (10—17) for lines parallel to X. 10—3). Y12 = Substituting for k)dsf = (1 + (sum on k only) and noting that the lines are initially orthogonal. = Differentiating + ii + u.. The state of strain is completely defined once the strain tensor is specified for a particular set of directions.

236 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID Cl-lAP. by definition.u. Figure 10—4 shows the initial and deformed positions. we consider a line element initially parallel to the X1 axis. Unit vectors defining transformation of orthogonal directions. K3 directions. The geometrical relations of interest to us are 012. x3 t3 t2 Fig. k In order to simplify (10—21). . and the angles which define the rotation of the line toward the X2.3 X2 With this objective.. 1+ i+ i+ We solve (a). 03. 10—3. (b) for u2. = e11 = U1.. we must establish the geometrical significance of the various terms. / + t. (Equation (10—15)) leads to (sum on m only) (10—21) + 4Um.1 1 (1 + 013 — .. and 03. 10 and substituting into the definition of eJk = k + Uk. + + uj 1 i4. sin 0j3 = 033 1 + 1421 sine12 (1 + 81)cos 0j3 )2 (1 + Also.

10—4. 'U3 dx1 dx1 1123 dx1 X1. n2 t/12. we assume small strain and express the derivatives and extensional strain (see Equation (d)) as u3. Formally. according to this approximation.SEC. 1— u1. = A= 1 (1 + {1 — A}112 — 1 sin2 013 + cos2 013 sin2 012 (10—23) Applying the binomial expansion. the deformed orientation coincides .u1 Fig. one sets 012 = 613 = 0 in (f) and the result is a linear relation between strain and displacement. CARTESIAN STRAINS 237 and then solve (c) for u1. a11 - (g) Note that. 10—3. (1 — x)"2 = I — + + (10—24) to (1 — we can write (10—23) as — + + — + + (10—25) In what follows. the rotations are neglected with respect to strain. In the linear geometric case. 1 = 0(013) U1 1= 0(012. "13 a11 = + + (f) The various approximate theories are obtained by specializing (f). ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. Initial and deformed positions of a line element.

We have shown that linear strain-displacement relations are based on the following restrictions: 1. but we must retain ci 1 and 1 since they are of 0(62). concrete. a thin plate or slender member) and the applied loading results in a significant change in the geometry. one must use (10—21). The relations for finite rotation and small strain are = = = = + + + (no sum) + + u11(l + k + Uk. The strains are negligible with respect to unity. consider the simply supported member shown . As an illustration. u11 + + (h) The complete set of strain-displacement relations for small strain and smallfinite rotation are listed below for reference.238 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMA8LE SOLID CHAP. (10—26) The next level of approximation is to consider 62 to be of the same order 02 = sin 0 cos 6 0(s) << 1 0 1 (10—27) We can neglect with respect to 1 in (f).. Whether the second restriction is satisfied depends on the configuration of the body and the applied loading. Lastly. if no restrictions are imposed on the magnitude of the rotations.. and Products of the rotations are negligible with respect to the strains.iUk. The general relations for the linear geometric case (small strain and infinitesimal rotation) are = = as strain. If the body is massive in all three directions. = = = - + + I + + Uk iUk.g. en = = (no sum) + ui. The first condition will always be satisfied for engineering materials such as metals. the rotations are negligible with respect to the strains for an arbitrary loading.j 10—29 Note that the truss formulation presented in Chapter 6 allows for arbitrary magnitude of the rotations. j k (no sum) (10—28) We utilize these expressions to develop a geometrically nonlinear formulation for a member in Chapter 18. We have to include the nonlinear rotation terms in the strain displacement relations only if the body is thin (e. 10 with the initial orientation. 2. etc.

we express in terms of the unit vectors for the initial frame. CARTESIAN STRAINS 239 in Fig. we must work with the deformed geometry rather than the initial geometry. To treat a geometrically nonlinear problem. 10—6). However.if only a transverse loading is applied (case 1). . Case 2 (Q. 10—5. /3jklk I3jk — + (10—30) + for small strain We will utilize (10—30) in the next section to establish the stress equilibrium equations for the geometrically nonlinear case. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION. By definition.P) Case1 (Q) Fig. We can neglect the change in geometry. We let be the initial set and the deformed set (see Fig. This can be defined by tracking the movement of a triad of line elements initially parallel to the global directions. if both axial and transverse loads are applied (case 2).SEC. Example of linear and geometrically nonlinear behavior. 10—3. The unit vector pointing in the direction of dTh is denoted by p. = for small strain Finally. Equations (10—30) reduce to (10—31) for the geometrically linear case and to + 13j1Jk + (no sum) [0—32 for the case of small strain and small-finite rotations. 10—5. = = = we can write vi (no sum) (no sum) (1 + Using (a). the change in geometry is no longer negligible and we must include the nonlinear rotation terms in the strain-displacement relations.

68. ANALYSIS OF STRESS The effects of the surroundings on a body such as contact pressure. Now. 10—4. -. Also. it depends on the orientation of the area element. on the direction of the outward normal. we consider a differential area element AAm. 10 / ii f =dxji1 Fig. p. etc. This step is generally called the analysis of stress.. One can include this effect by defining a vectort in addition to a stress vector.240 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. I) (10—33) Note that has the units of force/area. Initial and deformed geometries. hm AA. We pass a cutting plane through the deformed body and separate the two segments as shown in Fig. 10—6.. 10—7. We do not allow for the possibility of the existence of a moment acting on a differential area element. 6. In general. In this section. i. . is used for quantities associated with the + m face.e. gravitational attraction. f See Ref. We let in denote the outward normal direction for the internal face of body and refer to this face as the + in face. m.result in internal forces. The stress vector. we establish the equilibrium conditions for the internal forces in a body. the subscript. and let A Fm be the resultant internal is defined as force vector acting on this element. Consider a body subjected to some effect which results in internal forces.

10—4. j = 1. we write = = = (10—35) = etc.. —ö.SEC. 10—7. In order to analyze the state of stress at a point. The term M0 represents the change in due to translation from Q to the centroid. 10—8. (1O—34) The stress vector has the same magnitude and line of action but it's sense is Body I Body 2 Note: Deformed state Fig. The outward normals for the other three faces are parallel to the reference axes (X1. 2. the face whose outward normal points in the + direction. we need an expression for the stress vector associated with an arbitrary plane through Q.. the force system is concurrent and therefore we have to . The force vectors acting at the centroids of the faces are shown in Fig. 3). With this objective. = and it follows that = reversed. In the limit (as P Q). 10—8. say Q. the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish. Notation for internal force. that is. the outward normal direction. 241 We consider next the corresponding area element in the —rn From Newton's law. we use a subscript j for quantities associated with the X face. For equilibrium. we consider the tetrahedron shown in Fig. ANALYSIS OF STRESS face. For example. To simplify the notation. The orientation of the arbitrary plane is defined by q.

2. in the limit. 10—8. x2 + i2 I + x3 + 2)LXA2 Fig. = = cos(q. j = 1.242 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. Equation (10—37) is the transformation law for the Stress vector. AA1 is the projection of AAq on the X2-X3 plane. 10—8. we can determine the stress vector for an arbitrary plane through Q with (10—37). 10 consider only the force equilibrium condition. we express the stress vectors in terms of their components with respect to the coordinate axes (j = 1. Differential tetrahedral element. 3). From Fig. and letting aqj be the direction cosine for the q direction with respect to the direction. we have crq + &Tq = (a3 + — Now.2. Equation (a) reduces to = (1037) Once the stress vectors for three orthogonal planes at Q are known. The component of 5q in a particular direction is equal to the scalar product of 6q and a unit vector pointing in thedesired direction. Noting that the projection of LxAq on a plane is equal to AAq times the scalar product of and the unit normal vector for the plane. we can write AA. X1) = (10—36) Finally.3 (10—38) = aqklk . Now.

The positive sense of the components for a negative The normal (a13) and in-plane (afk) comface is reversed since ponents are generally called normal and shearing stresses.. This notation is illustrated in Fig. .. = t3 -ii cJ3k:k = (10—40) face Defining identifying as the component acting on the 1 with i. a12 acts on the X1 face and points in the X2 direction. Notation for stress components. 10—9.is determined from aqn. and the second to the direction. 10—4. 10—3) where t. 10—9. m. ANALYSIS OF STRESS 243 Note that the first subscript on a stress component always refers to the flice.SEC. Letting and noting (10—38). (a) expands to We generalize (c) for two orthogonal frames specified by the unit vectors (see Fig.. in the direction and (10—41) (c) takes the form = This result shows that the set is a second-order cartesian tensor. Substituting for the stress vectors in (10—37) results in = cxqjajk (10—39) The component of 5q with respect to an arbitrary direction. For example. x2 ta22 4 T FIg.

t We arc following the Eulerian approach here. when the element is shrunk to a point. i. Force equilibrium + = 0 k= k= 1. it is natural to work with a rectangular parallelepiped having sides parallel to the global directions.and higher-order terms will vanish in the limit. we must consider a differential element on the deformed body. 10—10. Since we have defined the stress components with respect to the global Cartesian directions. Later we will shift back to the Lagrange approach Second.. 2. The equilibrium equations relate to the deformed state. i. Differential volume element in Eulerian representation. 3 (10—44) Moment equilibrium = 1 23 (10—45) Moment equilibrium requires the shearing stress components to be symmetrical. the stress tensor is symmetrical and there are only six independent stress measures for the three-dimensional case and three for the two-dimensional case. i3 + dfl3 + (— di73 dr13 ant Fig.e. 10—10.. Then.244 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOUD CHAP. . Point 0 is at the centroid of the element.e. 10 It remains to establish the equilibrium equations for a differential volume element. The stress vectors are considered to be functions of the deformedt coordinates We obtain the forces acting on the faces by expanding the stress vectors about 0 and retaining only the first two terms4 Letting b denote the external force per unit volume and enforcing the equilibrium conditions leads to (10-42) and = 0 x = 0 (10—43) The scalar force equilibrium equations are obtained by expanding the vector equations using (10—38). This is shown in Fig.

. the stress components must equilibrate the applied surface forces. f See Prob. (10—48) represent boundary conditions is a reaction. 10—12. If is prescribed. 10—11. This poses a problem since the strain and stress measures are referred to different volume elements. ANALYSIS OF STRESS 245 Equations (10—44) must be satisfied at each point in the interior of the body.e.SEC.. Also. Our derivation of strain-displacement relations employed the Lagrange approach. i. . 3 When p. we considered the displacements (and strains) to be functions of the initial coordinates (xi).e. The analysis of stress described above is based on the Eulërian approach. at the boundary. 2.0 is prescribed. Figure 10—Il shows the initial and Initia' / (I + €2)dx2 (1 +e1)dxj 4 Deformed dX2[ dx1 U12 Lagrange (I Eu'er drj1 (I x2 Fig. We define and write as the outward normal vector at a point on the deformed surface (10—46) = The external force per unit deformed surface area is denoted by (10—47) = pnjlj Applying (10—37) leads to the stress-boundary force-equilibrium relations: Ph = (10—48) Pnj i3nk0kj f= 1. where the deformed coordinates are taken as the independent variables. i. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian representations for a volume element. on the stress components. 10—4.

we must work with a nonorthogonal parallelepiped whose sides are parallel to the deformed line elements in the analysis of stress. The linear equilibrium equations are: + hk 0 (10—49) CXj For the geometrically nonlinear case. The stress and force vectors are considered to be functions of the initial coordinates (xe).2. To be consistent with the Lagrange strains. we assume small strain and neglect the change in orientation due to rotation. Conversely. 10—6) defined by the unit vectors. 10 deformed area elements corresponding to the two viewpoints.3 (10-52) (10—53) 1. b* as the force per unit initial volume. Figure . and as the force per unit initial surface area. we have to refer the strain measures to nonorthogonal directions in the initial state. results in the following scalar equations. The two approaches coalesce and we just have where is the direction cosine for the with to replace with and initial direction of the exterior normal. Substituting for - (10—30). The equilibrium equations at an interior point are + b* = x 0 (10—50) (X1 (1 + 0 We express the body force and stress vectors as — k = The set. 2. which correspond to (10—44) + b7 = 0 1. We define as the stress vector per unit initial area acting on the face which initially is normal to the direction. and (10—45): + (10-5 1) using is called the Kirchhoff stress tensor. we work with stress measures referred to the deformed directions (see Fig. 3 The boundary equilibrium equations are obtained by expanding = and have the form pnj (10—54) k *_ — — . In the linear geometric case.10—12 shows this notation for the two-dimensional case. to be consistent with the Eulerian stresses.246 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP.

10—16. = 4 —oj dx2 dx2 dx1 / p. 10—12. to (10—41). For small strain. we will assume small strain.SEC. we will work with the Kirchhoff stress components to keep the treatment general.. . This assumption is introduced by taking (10—56) Since the deformed unit vectors are orthogonal (toe 1). The equations simplify somewhat if we assume small-finite (linear geometry).ds pn = ij c4 dx1 / (1 e2)dx2 dx2 dx (1 + €1)dx1 x1 Fig. t See Prob. the Kirchhoff stresses now comprise a second-order cartesian tensor and they transform according p2 x2 1. ANALYSIS OF STRESS 247 These equations apply for arbitrary strain and finite rotation. Definition of stress components in Lagrangian representation. 10—4. For infinitesimal and the equations reduce to (10—49). (10—50).. However. we neglect the change in dimensions and shape of the volume element. In what follows.

When the deformation process is isothermal or adiabatic. one can show that the first order work done by the force vectors acting on the element is OW = . . Fig. M. This requires = oek. ELASTIC STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS A body is said to be elastic if it returns to its initial dimensions and shape when the applied forces are removed..) (10—57) The material is said to be hyperelastic (Green-type) when V is a continuous function. we apply (b) to a differential volume clement in the deformed state (see. The forces are in equilibrium. OQ = 0. 1Q—12). We define V as the strain energy per unit initial volume. V= = Y12' . We treat first an arbitrary elastic material and then specialize the results for a linearly elastic material. . Our starting point is the first law of thermodynamics: 5W = OVT + OQ where OW = first-order work done by the forces acting on the body 0 VT = first-order change in the total strain energy (also called internal energy) = first-order change in the total heat content. cejj ciek( (10—58) By definition. e. = (3• (10—61) tSeeProb. they satisfy (10—50). = OV(dx1 dx2 dx3) cW = where cetj (10—59) is the first-order changet in due to an incremental displacement.248 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. Also. and (a) reduces to OW Now.g. . The work done during the deformation process is independent of the order in which the body is deformed. See Prob. 10—11. 10 10—5. + dx2 dx3 + . V is a function of the deformation measures. 10—18. In general. is. + h Ltfl)dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—60) Equating OVT and OW leads to the general form of the stress-strain relation for a Green-type material.

we restrict the discussion to small strain and a linearly elastic material. 2e23. the transformation matrices are related by 1 (10—66) The total strain. We write the inverted relations as = D(a — a°) (10—68) where D = is the material rigidity matrix. e33. 10—5. e22. is expressed as a a° ± (10—67) where a° contains the initial strains not associated with stress. Since V is continuous. and A is called the material compliance matrix. The elements of A are determined from material tests.SEC. ELASTIC STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS 249 This definition applies for arbitrary strain. We also shift from indicial notation to matrix notation. . Once V is specified.e. 10—13.g. and D is generated by inverting A. strain due to a temperature increment. 2e31} (10—63) = With this notation. which is more convenient for this phase.. e. we obtain the form of the strain energy density for the linear case. 10—6. We list the stress and strain components in column matrices and drop the superscript k on the Kirchhoff stress components: = = {e11. 2e12.. which requires (10—62) 43e1j In what follows. There are 21 material constants for a linearly elastic Green-type material. Equation (10—62) requires D (and A) to be symmetrical. The number of independent constants is reduced if the material structure t See Prob. i. the stress-strain relations must satisfy (10—58). (10—64) The matrix transformation laws are = (10—65) Since ÔV is invariant under a transformation of reference frames. where the stress-strain relations are linear. we can obtain expressions for the stresses in terms of the strains by differentiating V. D and A are positive definite matrices. A' V= — a°)TD(a — a°) (10—69) Since V > 0 for arbitrary (E — a°). Substituting for in (10—64). e.

X2. we describe the transition from an anisotropic material to an isotropic material. The structure of an orthotropic material appears identical after a 1800 rotation about a symmetry axis. We expand e = Acv'.3 —a23 a23 a13 = Y13 a13 Y13 = Y23 Now. 10—13. 10 In what follows. we suppose X1. exhibits = —x1 = -x3 = x2 The stress and deformation quantities are related by (we replace 1 by — I and 3 by —3 in the shear terms) = a12 = Y12 = —a12 Y12 = 1. A material whose structure has three orthogonal axes of symmetry is called orthotropic. To determine the number of independent constants for this case.2. Equating the expressions for a' Fig.250 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. . tA material whose structure has no symmetry is said to be anisotropic. From Fig. the stress-strain relations must be identical in form. X3 are axes of symmetry and consider a 180° rotation about X2. Rotation of axes for symmetry with respect to the X2-X3 plane. 10—13. and substitute for using (b). We use a prime superscript to indicate the rotated axes.

are shear moduli.SEC. i. 10—5. we find = a36 = a45 0 a16 = A rotation about the X3 axis will not result in any additional conditions. This requires £434 = a15 = 0 a24 = £435 a34a350 = 0 The symmetry conditions require We consider next the expansions for a46 = a56 = 0. Vjk are coupling coefficients. Finally. ELASTIC STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS 251 and leads to the following relations between the elements of A. and AT is the temperature increment. 0 0 0 0 a12 a23 (733 (10-70) 0 Y31 0 0 a66 We see that A is quasi-diagonal and involves 9 independent constants. Also. There is no interaction between extension and shear. cr12 leads only to An alternate form of the orthotropic stress-strain relations is !(733 V32 a1 = AT + 1 — — E2 —-----a33 (10—71) a33 — = 1 /13 AT + 1 — —i—- Y12 = Y23 = 1 1 Y31 = where E4 are extensional moduli.e. when the strains are referred to the structural symmetry axes. The coupling terms are related by E2 E1 E3 E1 E3 E2 (10-72) . By rotating 1800 about X1. the stress-strain relations for an orthotropic material reduce to a11 a12 — £444 -— a12 a22 0j3 a23 0 - a1. the shearing effect is uncoupled. the coefficients must vanish identically.. = + a24a12 + a25a23 = a34a12 + a35a23 = 314(T12 — ti15a33 a25a23 —a24a12 —a34u12 — — For (c) to be satisfied.

e. — + akk)) (10—75) 2(1 + v) F Note that now there are only two independent constants (F. i.252 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. the material is called isotropic when the stress-strain relations are Invariant for arbitrary directions. '—'12'-'31'--' v32 v23 v 1 2(1 + v) F -- and the relations reduce to = AT + — (a22 + (10—74) = PAT + = pAT + 1 1 — — — va27) y23 Yi2 2(l+v) Y31 There are five independent constants (F. G1). v). IO--21. coincide with the material symmetry directions4 If the stress-strain relations are invariant for arbitrary directions in a plane. v. 10 It is relatively straightforward to invert these relations:t One should note that (10—71) apply only when X. A = A' for arbitrary The relations are obtained by specializing (10—74): = p AT + (at. For this case. The inverted form of (10—75) is written as a= a0 a0 + + + + (10—76) = = + 2G)pAT t See Prob. . E1. 10—22. v. We consider the case where the X1 direction is the preferred direction. where the material is isotropic with respect to the X2-X3 plane. The coupling coefficient.is called Poisson's ratio. the material is said to be transversely orthotropic or isotropic with respect to the plane. 10—19 for the inverted form of (10—7 1). By definition. § See Prob. v1.. Lastly. A is invariant when we transform from X1-X2-X3 to This c.

See Fig. We follow the Lagrange approach. we obtain the 3-dimensional form of the principle of See Sec. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 253 where G are called Lamé constants and are related to E. § See (10—60). . 7—2. we derive here the 3-dimensional form of the principle of virtual displacements. i. we work with Lagrange finite strain components (eJ. The principle of virtual forces and stationary complementary energy are treated in the next section. f In the continuous case. For completeness. The firstorder external work is by the external forces = = dx1 dx2 dx3 + JJj3* Au dx1 dx2 dx3 ± dfI 10—78 where fI is the initial surface area. The total internal deformation work is obtained by summing the first-order work done by the stress vectors acting on a differential volume element. v is restricted to — 1 < v < 1/2. and the classical stability criterion. 10—12. * = = dx2dx3 dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—79) Equating (a) and (b). PRINCIPLE OF. CLASSICAL STABILITY CRITERIA 10—6. The limiting case where v = + 1/2 is discussed in Problem 10—24. The principle of virtual displacements states that the Iirst-order work done is equal to the first oidcr work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints for an arbitrary virtual displacement of the body from an equilibrium position. 10—6.. v by G= A shear modulus = yE E 2(1 + v) (10—77) — (1 + v)(1 — 2v) Since D must be positive definite. This is consistent with our derivation of the equilibrium equations. Kirchhoff stresses and external force measures per unit initial volume or area (b*. principle of stationary potential energy. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS. STATIONARY POTENTIAL ENERGY.e. Chapter 7 dealt with variational principles for an ideal truss.j. the external loads and the internal forces are loading consists of body (b) and surface represented by the stress vectors. Let Au denote the virtual displacement.SEC. p*).

. = Letting VT denote the total strain energy. Operating on the left-hand term and equating coefficients in the volume and surface integrals leads directly to (10—50) and (10—54). it can be interpreted as a variational principle for the displacements. + where displacements are prescribed on U1 on cd (10—82) and surface force intensities arc prescribed on pni Pni on The displacement variation. 10 virtual displacements. 10—25. When the behavior is elastic. When the behavior is elastic and the loading is independent of time. The principle of virtual displacements applies for arbitrary loading (static or dynamic) and material behavior. 5WD = dx1 dx2 dx3 + (10—80) dx1 dx2 dx3 = fJJh* dx1 dx2 dx3 = dx1 dx2 dx3 + Requiring (10—80) to be satisfied for arbitrary (continuous) is equivalent to enforcing the equilibrium equations. the left-hand side of (10—80) reduces to dx1 dx2 dx3 fJJ öVdx1 dx2 dx3 = We consider the surface area to consist of 2 zones as shown in Fig.254 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. L\u1. the principle of virtual displacements is transt See Prob. Their extension to a continuous body is straightforward. The essential steps required for the truss formulation are described in Sec. To show this. is admissible if it is continuous and satisfies = 0 on (10—83) We also consider the surface and body forces to be independent of the displacements. 7—4. 10—14. we work with the vector form and utilize the following integration by parts formula: t = where J — dx2dx3 (10-81) to the is the direction cosine for the initial outward normal (n) with respect direction. With these definitions.

According to (10—84). . The only restrictions are elastic behavior and static loading. 2 The displacement boundary conditions on fd are called "essential" boundary conditions. V is a quadratic function of the strains. = where 0 VT for arbitrary admissible cIx1 dx2 dx3 — (1084) is the total potential energy functional.SEC. Example 10—2 Direct methods of variational calculus such as Rayleigh-Ritz. to a function of the q's. and prescribed functions. to determine approximate solutions for the displacements. V will involve up to fourth-degree reduces terms for the geometrically nonlinear case. one expresses the displacements in terms of unknown parameters. . and others are applied to fl. + qTQ + . the displacements defining an equilibrium position correspond to a stationary value of the total potential energy functional. Note that this result applies for arbitrary strain and finite rotations. . Galerkin. PH Fig. H. weighted residuals. 10—14. q. . If the behavior is completely linear. Then. x2. Classification of boundary zones. . = q = Const.. x3).. In the Rayleigh-Ritz method. When the material is linearly Substituting for transforms elastic. 10—6. U1 = + where = 0 forj = > 1. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 255 formed to = fl. (3N x 1) K is symmetrical .

7—6 for a derivation of the classical stability criterion. f See Sec. 10). 9. the incremental deformation work is equal to the increment in strain energy = > 0 and (10—84) can be written as = for arbitrary Ad (10—86) It follows that a stable equilibrium position corresponds to a relative minimum value of the total potential energy. dx2 dx3 ie11 + dx2 dx3 If = Ô2WE for a particular Ad. If the loading is prescribed. say Ada. The equations for the case of linearly elastic material and prescribed external forces are listed below. Since bifurcation corresponds to the existence of an alternate equilibrium position. Polynomials and trigonometric functions are generally used to construct the spatial distribution functions. 10 Finally. 10—18. requiring to be stationary for arbitrary c5q leads (for linear behavior) to Kq = Q The strains are evaluated by operating on (a) and the stresses are determined from the stress-strain relations. and ö2VT = 0 at bifurcation. . The form of the work terms for a continuous body are obtained by operating on (10—78) and = Sfl = = = Ad dx1 dx2 dx3 + j( Ad (10—85) Au1 dx1 dx2 dx3 + J$ Au. See Probs. Ad. it is more convenient to form the incremental equations directly. are itull vectors when the forces are prescribed. For elastic behavior.256 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. The governing equations for bifurcation can be obtained by expanding This involves transforming the integrand of ö2WD = by applying (10—81). the equilibrium position is neutral. 10—11. The "classical" stability criterion for a stable equilibrium position ist — o2WE > 0 for arbitrary Ad is the second-order work done by the external forces where = during the incremental displacement. The mathematical basis for direct methods is treated in numerous texts (see Refs. and WD = ó(ö WD) is the second- order work done by the internal forces acting on the restraints during the incremental deformation resulting from Ad. Bifurcation (neutral equilibrium) occurs when = 0 for some Ad. The position is unstable if ö2 WD < o2 Note that öb.

+ Au1 0 J = 1. The principle of virtual forces is basically a procedure for determining displacements without having to operate on (a).3 = 0 = = on on (10—88) If we multiply e13 by Ac13. 3 (10—87) Stress-Strain Relations = D 4. the force system consists of stresses. surface forces. on Static permissibility requires and reactions.e. + = 0 = 1. j + Urn. . and note the static relations. + Au1 AIIm. on Ac31. For the continuous case. We developed its form for an ideal truss in Sec. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES. we can find the displacements by solving (a) and enforcing (b). 2.t Acr13 dx1 dx2 dx3 f See Prob. integrate over the volume using (10—81). = 0 10—7. = u1 + $ Th (10—89) 0. i. 10—7. The strain and displacement measures are related by = + u1=fl Once the strains are known.SEC. The essential step involves selecting a statically permissible force system. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 257 L Equilibrium Equation in the Interior + 2. j Am. We will follow the same approach here to establish the three-dimensional form. 10—26. It applies only for linear geometry.3 Stress-Boundary Force Equations on + 3.2.. Strain-Displacement Relations = 3 + AUJ. PRINCIPLE OF STATIONARY COMPLEMENTARY ENERGY Let u1 be the actual displacements in a body due to some loading and the geometrically linear strain measures corresponding to u1. 7—3.. we obtain the following identity. a force system which satisfies the linear equilibrium equations.

For the ideal truss. 1-lowever. This result is applicable for arbitrary material behavior. We start by expressing the stress field in terms of a prescribed distribution and a "corrective" field + cit. 10—15). and it follows that = dx1 dx2 dx1 — (10—90) A second application is in the force method. involving only force unknowns. in the direction defined by is Suppose the translation at a point Q on desired (see Fig.258 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. (1) 1q at point Q Acr and The integral on reduces to (l)dQ. a-° corresponds to the forces in the primary structure due to the prescribed loading and ? represents the contribution of the force redundants. . Let d0 be the displacement. 10—15. where one reduces the governing equations (stress equilibrium and stress displacement) to a set of equations Fig. 10 which is referred to as the principle of virtual forces (or stresses). (10—91) is a particular solution of the equilibrium equations which satisfies the boundary conditions on where + 0 = and satisfies Thu on (10-92) = = 0 0 on on (10—93) Stress fields satisfying (10—93) are called seljequilibrating stress fields. We apply a unit force at Q in the tq direction and generate a statically permissible stress field. the geometry must be linear. Notation for determination of the translation at point Q.

10—14. This approach is described in Prob. Substituting for crC. One can also obtain these equations with the principle of virtual forces by taking a self-equilibrating force system. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 259 The governing equations for the force redundants were obtained by enforcing geometric compatibility. dx1 dx2 + a2.. must satisfy (a) with h1 = h2 = 0 and also p.. the bar elongations are constrained by the requirement that the deformed bar lengths fit in the assembled structure.2o21 = + •z. — 712. 10—10. Geometric compatibility for a continuum requires the strains to lead to continuous displacements. Example 10—3 If the stress components associated with the normal direction to a plane are zero. (10-94) expands to + a2 11 — y52 12)dx1 if — f CS Ps 0 .. i. Then.e.. We illustrate its application to the plane stress problem. (10--89) reduces to dx1 dx2 dx3 = (10—94) The compatibility equations are determined by expressing in terms of stress functions and integrating the left-hand term by parts.. oi.SEC. The equilibrium equations and stress-boundary force relations reduce to + b1 = 0 2 + b2 = 0 + a.1 = = 0 on We can satisfy the equilibrium equations by expressing in terms of a function.displacement relations. 0 f See Prob.2a22 The stress field. the stress state is called planar. 10—7. Letting Aox. One can establish the strain compatibility equations by operating on the strain. We consider the case where + 012 5 + = = 033 = 0.i There is no loss in generality by taking 22 = 0 on S. Apc denote the virtual stress system. integrating (e) by parts. follows:t 033 = = = The boundary forces corresponding to Pa as are = OS where s is the arc length on the boundary (sense is from X1 —* X2). pC in terms of i/i. .

. = — dx1 dx2 dx3 + A6°)dx1 dx2 dx3 One should note that (10—97) are weighted compatibility conditions. + Ai'= and the equations expand to + + = d1 i. . i. where satisfies (10—92) and 1. r) results in r (10—97) 1. 2.. 2....e..r (10—98) f. 2. dx1 dx2 dx3 = jjT9. 2.r) are self-equilibrating stress states.j = d. .t The principle of virtual forces is also employed to generate approximate solutions for the stresses. = = + + (1 + (12(l)2 + ' + 04.. They satisfy the homogenous equilibrium equations and boundary conditions on The corresponding surface forces arc p p° = p° + 0101 + 0209 + = p (i = 1. (i = 1 1. 10—27.. 2.. — + which is actually a continuity requirement U1 122 0 + 211 — (u1 212 + 112 112) = 0 We express (g) in terms of by substituting for the strains in terms of the stresses. we need to introduce the material properties.. 10 and requiring (f) to be satisfied for arbitrary results in the strain compatibility equation.. and we write (10—94) as dx1 dx2 dx3 if ApC We express the stress matrix in terms of prescribed stress states and unknown parameters. = 0 + Taking virtual-force systems corresponding to equations for the parameters... When the material is linearly elastic. The true stresses must satisfy both equilibrium and compatibility throughout the t See Prob... It is convenient to shift over to matrix notation for this discussion.r In order to proceed.j = r$J1T(a° 1.260 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. a1.

Substituting for given by (10—95) converts to a function of the stress parameters When the material is linearly elastic. . = — ard + const (10—106) The equations for the stress parameters follow by requiring H. letting = = cjx1 dx2 dx3 (10—101) (10—102) we can write (10—94) as (511. . Since D1'. V* complements V. The form of V* for a linearly elastic material is = (10—100) + By definition. H. to be stationary for arbitrary (511. requires D. i.e. . We define = according to = c5V* = (10—99) domain. & > 0 for arbitrary Sc which. in turn. a2. ar). must be positive definite in order for the material to be stable. V+ Then. 10—7. > 0 for arbitrary and we see that the solution actually corresponds to a relative minimum where value of The approximate method described earlier can be applied to 11g. We call and call V* the complementary energy density. .t Then. (a1. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 261 the corrective stress field since it is required to correct the compatibility error due to For completeness. we describe here how one establishes a variational principle for Our starting point is (10—94) restricted to elastic behavior. (10—107) The classical stability criterion specialized for elastic material and linear geometry requires SCTD. to be positive definite. .SEC. = — ci) = 0 fa=d A. TiC 0 * — for arbitrary = $$ (10—103) This form is called the principle of stationary complementary energy and shows that the true stresses correspond to a stationary value of Since is linear in the second variation of reduces to (52fl = = = A. (5211. Now.. dx1 dx2 dx3 (10—104) We shift over to matrix notation and express öe as (10— 105) represents the tangent compliance matrix. it follows that A must be positive definite for a stable material.

x2. • McGraw-Hill. New York. New York. 3d ed. 1968. for small strain. T. C. 2. 1965. show that r. J. GooDiag: Theory of Elasticity. PROBLEMS 10—1. TIMOSHENKO.. BISPLINGHOFF. Establish the transformation law for tensors.: Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. LEKIINITSKU. . Holden-Day. k) — = Let f be a continuous function of x1. and J. FUNG. 10—4. 1970. Then determine for the initial (Xi) directions and small strain. PlAN: 5. Finally. > 0. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. the repeated indices to range from 1 to 2. N. McGraw-Hill. where + Urn. DAHL: An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids. Reading. Prentice-Hall. F.. Since is a symmetrical second-order cartesian tensor.: Methods of Applied Mathematics.: Foundations of Solid Mechanics. MAR.. SOKOLNIKOFF. is invariant. What is its deformed shape and relative change with respect to its initial volume? Specialize the expression for in volume. McGraw-I-jill. 8. WAsmzu. Pergamon Press. P. of Deformable Solids.. 1963. Mass. 1956. H. 10—5. 3. S. Establish the transJbk where formation laws for and (3Xk. Hint: Expand (3/3 (If) P. 1956. New York. Prentice-Hall. Prove that eJk = are cartesian — ôJk) is a second-order cartesian tensor. J. there exists a particular set of directions. HLDEBRAND. J. S.262 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. we conclude that f is positive definite. say Xi'. REFERENCES I.: Engineering Analysis. 1965. WANG. CRANDALL. C. x3. 10. W. Equations (10—19) are the strain transformation laws. and T. 9. S.: Applied Elasticity. Addison-Wesley.. 6.. S.. Y. 1953. 2d ed. What are the strain components for the frame? Consider a rectangular parallelepiped having sides dXy in the undeformed state.. 10—3. New York. H. I. New York. S. L. McGraw-Hill. 7. McGraw-Hill. C. ± Urn.. (a) (b) 10—2. Write out the expanded form of the following products. 1959. R. B. Consider + u1. K. CRANDALL. 4. J. San Francisco. 1965. Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Elastic Body. for which is a diagonal array. and N. 10 Operating on c52fl = LtaTfLui (10—108) and noting that ö211. G.

Let 6b. . X3. Prob. Consider the case of two-dimensional deformation in the X1-X2 be the extensions in the a. Evaluate TE in terms of cos 0.e. the cartesian coordinates Ui for the deformed state are taken to be the independent variables. . c direcWe can write = BE C= (a) (b) (c) = 90c. 9b Determine B1 for Oa = 0. i. sin 0 for the rotation shown below.. Determine for = 0. = 120°. Comment on the transformation law for the out-of-plane shear strains P32. We can express the strain trans= formation (small strain) as = Let Develop the form of (c) using the results of part a. plane (83 = P13 = P23 = 0). Compare the result with (10—21). 263 (a) (b) Specialize (10—19) for small strain and write out the expressions for in terms of ei. y31}. 62. b.PROBLEMS 10—6. 10—6 x2 10—7. Consider six directions having direction cosines GJ2. 6b. X2. = Xj(f/k) Almansi's strain tensor is defined as — (ds)2 = 2Efk thik Determine the expression for EJk in terms of the displacements. 10—8. P13• P12. P23. with respect to X1. (d) Extend (a) to the three-dimensional case. Can we select the six directions arbitrarily? Determine the general form of B. Tn the Eulerian approach. tions defined below and let 6N = {8a. . 6h = 60°.

n range from I to 3. This expression leads to six independent conditions.. and and compare with the invariant (a) This question concerns strain compatibility equations.. 12 the following strain state permissible? = + 82 = kx2 Y12 = 2kx1x2 k = constant . + (?X. on the strain measures.264 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. is the deviator strain tensor. 10—8 xz -a 10—9. Show that + where = CX. = 1 — 2 \CXk + and k. and it has the following form: 22 + 83 11 = Is Y12.. and (a) Write out the expanded form for (b) Determine the first invariant of of ejj.. (b) Show that for two-dimensional deformation in the X1-X2 plane = 0. (CII. — 8X. in. 10—10. = where is called the spherical strain tensor. 10 Prob. this called plane strain) there is only one com= 813 = patibility equation.. cXj. the volumetric strain is = Rather than work with + + C3 = eti + &22 + + = one can express it as the sum of two tensors. called geometric compatibility relations. For small strain. eflk = ek.

a Develop the form of T. in terms of (a) Starting with (i0--41). sin (9 for the axes shown. We write + = where contains linear terms (Aug) and öeJk involves quadratic terms.t xl (d) Plane stress refers to the case where a13 = with reduced stress and strain matrices. 1O—13 x. a22. We express the (b) Let a22. = (1 + a' = T. The several parts of this question concerns stress transformation. Determine the expressions for 10—12.. Let i. a33. To analyze geometrically nonlinear behavior.. 265 Equation (10—21) defines the strain measures due to displacements.. using the results of part a. The 5-symbol denotes the first-order change in a functional and is called the variational operator (see Ref. . . write out the expressions for all. = and write the transformations in the same form as the three-dimensional case: a' = a' = . We work {a11. be the unit vector defining the initial orientation of the = dsi. = stress matrix.. 8). 10—13. Let represent the displacement increment and Ae1k the incremental strain. = stress transformation as a matrix product. in terms of cos (9. x2 Prob. . = The unit vector defining the orientation in the deformed state is = Determine the general expression for Then specialize it for small strain. differential line element d1.PROBLEMS 10—11. Er a23 = a33 = 0. at a point.. 1. (c) Evaluate 1'. one can employ an incremental formulation. a22. We refer to 5e as the first variation of e. ai2.

This question develops a procedure for generating self-equilibrating stress fields.22 a22 = tI'. and s are Pi P2 — b1 dx1 b2 = T t/"1 — dx2 10—15. a.. L aU . from part c above and T.12 The notation for body and surface forces is defined in the following sketch. (a) Expand the linear equilibrium equations. (10—49) and (10—50).266 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. Prob. (b) Specialize the equilibrium equations for plane stress (a13 = a23 = (c) = 0). Show that the expressions for and P2 ifl terms of derivatives with respect to x1. 10—6. x2 10—14 x1 Verify that this definition satisfies the equilibrium equations in the interior. Verify that 10—14.. 10 Evaluate T.. The mean stress. Suppose we express the two-dimensional stress components in terms of a function = as follows: a33 a11 = t1'.. x2. from 13 Prob. is defined as am = + — — a22 + a33) Rather than work with we can express it as the sum of two tensors. ii a12 — — b1 dx1 fx7 b2 dx2 = —1//.

Prove (10—60). where approximate with in the incremental equations. 10—17. 10—18..e.k Verify that the inverted form of(l0—71) is D(e — where D11 = E1/C3 D12 D13 C4D11 D22 = E2/C1 + (C2/C1)D12 D23 = v32E2/C1 + (C2/C1)D13 D31 = E3 + v31D13 + v32D23 and C1 = C2 = 1 — v21 + v31v32(E2/E3) E2C1 C4 = v31 + "32 Specialize for plane strain 10—20. establish can Au. (a) Specialize for plane stress = = = 0). Hint: = /= 10—19. = and (a) (b) óijOrn is the deviator stress tensor. Starting with (10—52). Specialize these equations for the case where the initial position is geometrically linear. Establish the stress-equilibrium equations for small-finite rotation and small strain. and the incremental equilibrium equations in terms of Group according to linear and quadratic terms. + P. and = 0) = = Consider 2 sets of orthogonal directions defined by the unit vectors The stress-strain relations for the two frames are = + (a°)' + A'& Express A' in terms of A and Also determine D'. Write out the expanded forms for and Determine the first invariant of 10-46. Ab*. i.PROBLEMS 267 where is called the spherical stress tensor. 1O--21. (10—55) specialized for small strain. . Consider the three-dimensional stress-strain relations defined by (10—71).

Y12} Verify that D has the following form: V2t I 0 1 G (1 — n = E2 Assuming X1-X2 in the sketch are material symmetry directions. 10—9 and 10—15—— Show that = Ka. Then introduce a rotation about the X1 axis and consider the Isotropy in the X2-X3 plane requires expression for Y23 =7 I. Equations (10—76) can be written as a11 = a°&1 + + 2Ge11 where (a) is the volumetric strain. Verify that the directions of principal stress and strain coincide for an isotropic material. Use the results of Prob. Start by requiring equal properties for the X2 and X3 directions. 10—21 x2 xI 10—22.268 GOVERMNG EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOUD CHAP. 023 10—23. Verify (10—73). 10—13. Using the notation introduced in Probs. 10 (b) Let a22. cri2} C= C= 62.. Is this also true for an orthotropic material? 10—24. determine D' for the X'1-X'2 frame. 10—20. + a0 . What relations between the properties are required in order for D' to be identical to D? Prob.

governing equations for an elastic solid. stress boundary conditions on 4. Summarize the governing equations for the incompressible case. Prob.. expressions for the reaction surface forces on . 2. =0 where for arbitrary — = — — — — dx2 = Kirchhoff stress = Lagrange strain = + + 1u. = complementary energy density (initial volume) = prescribed force measures (initial dimensions) leads to the complete set of.. Express (g) in terms of material to be orthotropic. stress-displacement relations 3. 10—25 10—26.PROBLEMS 269 — where K is the bulk modulus = (E/3(1 (b) 2v)).. Is this formula restricted to a specific direction of integration on the boundary? Does it apply for a multi-connected region.10—25.e. stress equilibrium equations 1. Determine and When v = We must work with 7 stress measures ('u' Urn) = and the mean stress has to be determined from an equilibrium consideration.. Verify that the stationary requirement 10—27. 10—28. Verify Equation (10—89). i. displacement boundary conditions on 5. such as shown in the figure below? . Discuss the case where Show that = (c) Verify that the strain-energy density can be written as V — = = (d) — + + for the isotropic case. Consider the Refer to Example 10—3. Prove (l0--81) for the two-dimensional case.

10 This variational statement is called Reissner's principle (see Ref. dQ. Interpret (10—90) as dQ == where PQ is a force applied at Q in the direction of the displacement measure.270 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR A DEFORMABLE SOLID CHAP. (b) Transform 11R to — by restricting the geometry to be linear = and (ui. Hint: Note (10—101). Transform HR to by requiring the stresses to satisfy the stress displacement relations. . using (10—8 1). + and requiring the stresses to satisfy the stress equilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions on Hint: Integrate by parts. 8). (a) 10—29.

We define the member geometry with respect to a global reference frame (X1. We employ the following notation for the cross-sectional properties: A = if dx2 dx3 = dA 12 — Sj(x3)2 dA 13 = fl(x2)2 dA Since X2. 11—1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION A body whose cross-sectional dimensions are small in comparison with its axial dimension is called a member. X3 pass through the centroid and are principal inertia directions. but this will complicate the derivation. the centroidal coordinates and product of inertia vanish: '23 jJx2x3 dA = 0 One can work with an arbitrary orientation of the reference axes. If the centroidal axis is straight and the the member shape and orientation of the normal cross section are is said to be prismatic. St.11 St. Venant Theory of of Prismatic Members 11—1. The X1 axis is taken to coincide with the centroidal axis and X2. 271 . X3). It is an exact linear formulation for a prismatic member subjected to a prescribed t The case where the cross-sectiona' shape is constant but the orientation varies along the centroidal axis is treated in Chapter 15. Venant's theory of torsion-flexure is restricted to linear behavior. X2. X3 are taken as the principal inertia directions. as shown in Fig.

Later. The distribution of surface forces on a cross section is specified in terms of its statically equivalent force system at the centroid.. x2 F3 Fig. 11—i. where the end forces are statically equivalent to only M1. Notation for prismatic member.. it distribution of surface forces applied on the end cross sections. respectively. we modify the St.. Since F_ = —F÷ M_ = (11—4) it follows that the positive sense of the stress resultants and couples for the negative face is opposite to that shown in Fig. We then extend the formulation to account for flexure .e. M÷ are called stress resultants and stress couples. as the force and moment vectors acting at the centroid which are statically equivalent to the distribution of stresses over the section.M_. We define M. Figure 11—1 shows the Stress components on a positive face. We discuss next the pure-torsion case. in Chapter 13. and their definition equations are F1 = ffcrij c/A M1 = M2 = M3 = F2 JJx3crj1 dA c/A F3 = JJcc13 c/A JJ(x2cr13 — x3c12)dA (11—3) dA The internal force and moment vectors acting on the negative face are denoted byF_.272 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. i. Venant theory to account for displacement restraint at the ends and for geometric nonlinearity. 11 —1. The components of F..

3 + X20)1. = 723 = 0. Finally. 11—2. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM Consider the prismatic member shown in Fig. In what follows. 11—2. 1 t Problem 11—i treats the general case where the cross section rotates about an arbitrary point. we describe an approximate procedure for determining the flexural shear stress distribution in thin-walled sections. 012 — + U3. 0 Fig. = 05. 11—2. These conditions lead to the following expansions for the in-place displacements: 112 = —C01X3 03 +W3.3. Also. . there is no restraint with respect to axial (out-of-plane) displacement at the ends.. There are no boundary forces acting on the cylindrical surface.SEC. 11—2. 2. Venant. The analysis of this member presents the pure-torsion problem. The boundary forces acting on the end cross sections arc statically equivalent to just a twisting moment M1. 1. using the approach originally suggested by St. Each cross section is rigid with respect to deformation in its plane. we impose the following conditions on the behavior and then determine what problem these conditions correspond to. Rather than attempt to solve the three-dimensional problem directly.e. we establish the governing equations for pure torsion. Prismatic member in pure torsion. i. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM 273 and treat torsional-flexural coupling. = Each cross section experiences a rotation w5 about the X3 axist and an out-of-plane displacement u1.2 (11—5) The corresponding linear strains are 13 = a3 = Li —Ui 1 Y23 0 (11—6) 712 713 U12 + = U5.

The strains and stresses corresponding to this postulated displacement behavior are = 0 = C3 Cl = 712 = = x3) 713 + x2) a33 and a11 = a22 O'23 = 0 a12 = U13 = Gy12 Go'13 = 2 — x3) = a12(x2. and the stress boundary conditions. namely. .u1aS = U. Then 0.2 + = 0 (11—11) Substituting for the shearing stresses and noting that Gk1 is constant lead to the differential equation (11-12) which must be satisfied at all points in the cross section. reduces to U21. x3) (11—10) + x2) a1 3(x2. The complete system of linear stress-equilibrium equations.274 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. (10—49). x3) We are assuming that the material is and there are no initial strains. This requires = const = k1 = u1(x2. 11 Now. to satisfy the stress-equilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions on the cylindrical surface. x3) is We consider the left end to be fixed with respect to rotation and express co1. The exterior normal n for the cylindrical surface is perpendicular to the X1 direction. One step remains. (10—49). the boundary condition for 2 — x3) + 0 (11—14) — t Problem 11 —3 treats the orthotropic case. the strains must be independent of x1 since each cross section subjected to the same moment.1 = k1x1 (11—8) where x3) defines the out-of-plane displacement (warping) of a cross = section. reduce to Pfli = + is =0 + x2) = (on S) (11—13) Using (11—10).

1 ôn If is a harmonic function (i. is a harmonic function. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM 275 The pure-torsion problem involves solving V2q5. Applying (11—15) to dA leads to 0X2 + 11—16 . (11—14) must satisfy (c). is known. For the formulation to he consistent. In this case.SEC. we cannot apply (11—15) directly Since to (b). we use the fact that = 0 and write cxi Integrating (e). The shearing stress distribution must lead to no shearing stress resultants: F2 = This requires dA = 0 F3 = J$a13 dA 0 J J OX2 JJ ('X3 To proceed further. = J$(x2c13 — x3c12)dA (11—17) . Usiiig (11—15).3) and then substituting for the normal derivative.. We start with if Green's theorem. we need certain integration formulas. ax2 ax2j ox3 \ ax31 (j=2. JJV2VJdA dA = (IS which is just a special case of (10—81). = 0). The constant k1 is determined from the remaining boundary condition. /. we determine the distribution of transverse shearing stresses from (11—10). (c) transforms to — #(XH2x3 = 0 is specified on the boundary. Note that depends oniy on the shape of the cross section. Green's theorem requires 0 dS = Now. verifies (h).3) (j=2.e. Once çb. = 0 subject to (11—14). 11—2.

follow directly 01A from the definition equation cv (11—22) CA. Stresses M3 J 0j3 = —H J 3. An appropriate definition is 012 013 X3 (11—21) The shearing stresses for the 2. 11—3.276 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. The procedure outlined above is basically a displacement method. v directions. One can also use a force approach for this problem. we summarize the results for the pure-torsion problem. We start by expressing the shearing stresses in terms of a stress function so that the stress-equilibrium equation (Equation 11—li) is identically satisfied. + = At this point. shown in Fig. 1. if + — X3 dA Displacements = 02 U3 = W1X2 = k1x1 k1 = (if 2. 11 We substitute for the shearing stresses and write the result as Gk1J where J is a cross-sectional property.X2 (11—20) + X2 Governing Equations mA: on S: — It is possible to obtain the exact solution for for simple cross sections. A'11 \(. 0lv = — .

THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM 277 Taking S 900 counterclockwise from the exterior normal direction. and noting that the stress boundary condition is fort/i.SEC. First. S1 (b) = C1 = const t Equations (11—26) can be interpreted as the governing equations for an initially stretched membrane subjected to normal pressure. This is the reason for the negative sign on the boundary integral. The S direction is always taken such that n — S has the same sense as X2 — X3. Then. M1 — x3) = = + x2) Operating on (a). 3. . 11-2. = 0. we equate the expressions for a in terms of t/i and a12 = a13 = Now. for continuity. that CX3J Applying (10—8 1) to (a) and — dS = A1 = area enclosed by the interior boundary curve. we obtain = It is convenient to express t/.' as (11—24) The governing equations in terms of aret M1 dt/ (11--25) a12 = = a 13 j (mA) (on boundary S1) (11—26) and = tJi = —2 Substituting (11—25) in the definition equation forM1 leads to the following expression for J: cr7 — JJ \. lead to the boundary condition (11—23) = const on S We establish the differential equation for t/i by requiring the warping function be continuous. This interpretation is called the "membrane See Ref. the + S direction for an interior boundary is opposite to the + S direction for an exterior boundary since the direction for n is reversed.

This requires fact that Js ('IS dS 0 (11—28) for an arbitrary closed curve in the cross section. 11—3. . x3 Fig. 11—4. Definition of n-s and A. To determine the constants C. Graphical representation of sector area. we use the is continuous. for the multiply connected case.278 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. x x x2 0 Fig.-vdirections. 11 we can write where J= dA + (11—27) = 0 on the exterior boundary.

See Prob. Equation (11—29) is used to determine the warping distribution once the shearing stress distribution is known. Using (11—22). The sign of p is positive if a rotation about X1 produces a translation in the +S direction. taking P = 5dS = 2k1A5 (11—31) where A5 denotes the area enclosed by the curve. The displacement in the + S direction follows from Fig.5 = x is) Us = + w1p k1x1p (11—33) Substituting for in Yss = s (11—34) and noting that Ut = lead to (11—29). we could have started with the fact that the cross section rotates about the centroid. The shearing strain is given by Yis = Using (11—9).X2 toward X3. . 11—2. THE PURE-TORSION PROBLEM 279 Consider the closed curve shown in Fig. See Prob. we obtain = where APQ — + 2APQ) (11—30) = r50 J p dS = area enclosed by the arc PQ and the radius vectors to P and Q. Integrating between points P. 11—4.e. Instead of using (11—9). 11 —4.. 11—14 for an alternate derivation. Also. Since write 2Gk1A5 = = we can (11-32) Note that the +S direction for (11—32) is from . § This development applies for arbitrary choice of the +S direction. we can write = M5 = (11—35) t This interpretation of p is valid only when S is directed from X2 to X3. counterclockwise for this case. we can write (a) as ct52y12 + 0t53y13 Yis = 2+ k1 3 — xacls2 + (11-29) = + where p is the projection of the radius vector on the outward normal.SEC. this result is independent of the location of the origin. Q.t The magnitude of p is equal to the perpendicular distance from the origin to the tangent. 11—4:1 u. i. sector Finally.

280 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. i. It is of interest to determine the energy functions associated with pure torsion. This result is valid for an arbitrary closed curve in the cross section. and the + S sense is from X2 to X3. When the material is linearly elastic and there are no initial strains. we obtain = . 11 Then. the strain and complementary energy densities are equal. 11—5. A5 is the area enclosed by S. We employ (11—36) to determine the values of 17 at the interior boundaries of a multiply connected cross section. the cross sections are rigid in . Consider the element shown in Fig. V = We let V V dA strain energy per unit length (11—37) The strain energy density is given by V= Substituting for Y12' '/13. Instead of integrating the strain-energy density. it follows that = + (11—39) WI xl dx1 Fig. The boundary forces acting on a face are statically equivalent to just a torsional moment.. we obtain V= Since (11—38) = V. substituting for in (11—32). and M1 = GJk1. + V= X3) 2 +( + x2)j 2 and integrating (b) over the cross section.e. Also.3 s (11—36) where n is the outward normal. we could have determined the work done by the moments acting on a differential element. Differential element for determination of the rotational work. 11—5.

x3 I dl 2 d. The exact solution for this problem is contained in numerous texts (e. 11—S. and it follows that dk1 = M1 = GJk1 V= 11—3. = = 5jJ dx2dx3 = óVdx1 for an elastic body.g. .Xk1 dx1 5WE = Now. Notation for rectangular section. 2 HFigS 11—6.SEC. see Art. Then. 11—6.. 5—3 of Ref. The relative rotation of the faces is / + dw1 '\— ((01 —dx1 dx1 . 1) and thcrefore we will only summarize the results obtained.i = dx1 and the first-order reduces to workdone by the external forces due to an increment in wj M1 . expanding ö V. THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 281 their plane and rotate about X1. APPROXIMATE SOLUTION OF THE TORSION PROBLEM FOR THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS We consider first the rectangular cross section shown in Fig.

675 .936 0.000 If t d. The approximate solution for a thin rectangle is J 4dt3 (113 2—-—x2 = 2Gk1x2 (11-42) x2x3 (t)2 (We take d/t = in the exact solution. 2n+1 Id Values of K1.873 10 0. 11—7. K2 for d/t ranging from 1 to 10 are tabulated below: d/t 1 K1 K2 0..282 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.985 .) The shearing stress across the thickness and M1 varies linearly 3M1 A view of the warped cross section is shown in Fig. The exact expressions are occurs at x2 = ± t/2.997 .999 1.422 . Since the stress function approach is quite convenient for the analysis of thin-walled cross sections. 6).789 . 11 0 When t d.930 . the maximum shearing stress (points 5. x3 = J = K1— (11-41) = where K2t dt3 K1 = K2 = 192 (t'\ 1 I = — tanh 8 1 1 1 — (2n+1)2 cosh A.687 .843 2 3 4 5 . we illustrate its application to a thin rectangular . we say the cross section is thin.

Warping function for a rectangular cross section. . The governing equations for a simply connected cross section are summarized below for convenience (see (11—26).t Since t is small and a12. we shall extend the results obtained for this case to an arbitrary thin walled open cross section. it is reasonable to assume in the cross section. THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 283 section. 11—7. must _:k. The = —2 Solving (b).SEC. This corresponds to taking equations reduce to d2 = 0 at all points independent of x3. we obtain - J = dx2 = M1 = ——---—-.1. 11—3. vanish on the boundary faces. Later.= 2——x2 J t This applies for X3 counterclockwise from X2. the shearing Stress component in the thickness direction. Fig. The general requirement is the n — S sense must coincide with the X2-X3 sense. cross (11—27)): = —2 (in A) 0 (on the boundary) = J = (1A where the S direction is 900 counterclockwise from the is direction.

The S curve defines the centerline (bisects the thickness) and the n direction is normal to S. but will have a negligible effect on J Actually. = P4 /1 dt3) = The corrective stress system (a12) carries M1/2. This is reasonable since. 11—8. The resulting expressions for I and are J= 4 t3 dS (11—43) M1 a15. 11 The expression for (x3 developed above must be corrected near the ends ti ± d/2) since it does not satisfy the boundary condition. ma. This corresponds to using the solution for the thin rectangle and is reasonable when S is a smooth curve. its moment arm is large. the moment due to the approximate linear expansion for and is equal to only one half the applied moment: I't/2 d J x2a13 dx. This will lead to a12 0 near the ends. We consider next the arbitrary thin-walled open cross section shown in Fig. though -f-s t(s) Fig. Notation for thin-walled open cross section. 11 —8. We assume = 0 and take = —n2 + t2/4. even is small in comparison to amax.284 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. = = Gkitrnax .

2 and Appendix of Ref. 11—3. gives good results for where rf/t < 0.. point A in Fig.g. Apply3 The maximum shearing stress in the center zone of an element is taken as = —7t1 = Gk1t1 M1 (11—45) In general. 9.. for Tf = 0. We take J as J= ing (11—44).lt. 11—9) which depends on the ratio of fillet radius to thickness.3. consider the symmetrical section shown in Fig. 11—9. the formulat = \ + 4rf/ (1146) is the fillet radius and 0rn is given by (14—45). The stress increase can be significant for small values of rf/t.SEC. For the case bi + I Fig. - t See Ref. (Iw of an angle having equal flange thicknesses. See Ref.i Asan illustration. 4. THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 285 The results for a single thin rectangle are also applied to a cross section t1 denote the length and thickness (11—44) consisting of thin rectangular elements. Numerical procedures such as finite differences or the finite element must be resorted to in order to obtain exact solutions for irregular sections. Let of element i. For example. there is a stress concentration at a reentrant corner (e. Symmetrical wide-flange section. 11—9. . we obtain 3 1'ff + w4v .

) = area enclosed by S — and +S sense from X2 toward X3. 2n\ (11—47) where represents the contribution of the interior boundary. 11—10. 11 11—4. (11—27). E-E Fig. S. The curve defines the centerline. For convenience.286 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. This expression . APPROXIMATE SOLUTION OF THE TORSION PROBLEM FOR THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS The stress function method is generally used to analyze thin-walled closed cross sections. (11—36)): —2 (in A) — ci J — dA + (on the exterior boundary) (on the interior boundary. the governing equations are summarized below (see (11—26). Since there is an interior boundary.) —2A5 £ j on dS = We consider first the single cell shown in Fig. Single closed cell. 11—10. we have to add a term n S. involving C1 to the approximate expression for We take as + tz used for the open section. E Sect.

THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 287 satisfies the one-dimensional compatibility equation and boundary conditions. Differentiating (fl 0 b and substituting (b) in the expressions for the shearing stress components lead to M1 / + C1\ 7) (11—48) cr?5 + The tangential shearing stress varies linearly over the thickness and its average We let q be the shear stress resultant per unit length along S. 11—4. 2 = C1 at atn— +t/2 n = — t/2 (a) and is a reasonable approximation when S is a smooth curve. One can readily verifyt that the distribution. we obtain j = Jo + 4 t3 dS (11—52) = Equation (a) was established by substituting for the shearing stresses in terms in the definition equation forM1 and then transforming the integrand. 11-5. q = const. value is positive when pointing in the + S direction. 1/2 q = cr15 (11—49) we find (11—50) J —1/2 and call q the shear flow. Substituting for a q The additional shearing stress due to the interior boundary (i. + (11—53) ..SEC.e. We could have arrived at (11—52) by first expressing the total torsional moment as M1 = See Prob. is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment. closed cell) corresponds to a constant shear flow around the cell. given by = The torsional constant is determined from (11—51) J Substituting for dA + 2C1A1 M1/Gk1 (a) using (11—47).

Once C1 is known. it'll = Gk1J° = Gk1J' (11—54) (11—55) J= and it follows that Jo J0 + JC Jc (11-56) as Finally.J from (11—52) and the shearing stress from M1 ( + -i—. 11 where MI is the open section contribution and is due to the closure. Next. The various CdS 2(a+h) Cl = t See Prob. . Note that C C1 for the single cell. using (11—5 1). C (11—58) rather than with the actual shear flow. we can evaluate . It remains to determine C1 by enforcing continuity of the warping function on the centerline curve.) (11—61) Example 11—1 Consider the rectangular section shown. 11—6. we write M1 = GkIJ Then. we can express JC JC = Mu/(M1/J) = q/(M1/J) (11—57) This result shows that we should work with a modified shear flow. b are centerline properties are dimensions. Applying (11—32) to we have (11—59) = Substituting for q/t leads M1C1 = (1160) One should note that C1 is a property of the cross section.288 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRfSMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. The thickness is constant and a.

We define q3 as the shear flow for çellj and write (11—62) Note that is the value of on the interior boundary of cell j and the shear flow is constant along a segment. (I ± —s— where. M1C1/ t2'\ = —-———ii ± —-I = J C11 t\. In this case. = 01— The section is said to be thin-walled when c< b. We number the closed cells consecutively and take the + S sense to coincide with the X2-X3 sense.SEC. it is reasonable to neglect Fig. for this section.e. The +S sense for the open segments is arbitrary. t2 / h'\t (t i. 11—li. we can take If the section is thin-walled. we can neglect the contribution of = q/t = M1 We consider next the section shown in Fig. Jo J' Jo vs.. q I The strcss follows from (11—61). Then. The total shear flow distribution is obtained . + J° 1 (r'Y / (t'Y \\h We consider a > b. We express J as THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 289 = For this section. Eli—i b H r+tb - +s. Rather than work with it is more convenient to work with the shear flows for the segments. 11-4.

Then.290 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. q= — q2 = forS2 — C2) for S1 (11—63) q=q2—q1 The shearing stress is assumed to vary linearly ovcr the thickness. C2. Cross section consisting of closed cells and open segments. The sign depends on the sense of S. and A. S2 Fig. we drop the subscripts on and write the limiting values as cr = ±a° + Cr" where cr=—1-t It remains to determine C1.. For convenience. 11—11. and J. are centerline areas. 11 x3 q2. A. the shear flow in the segment common to cells i andj is the difference between qj and q1. by superimposing the individual cell flows. We have shown (see (11—55)) that M1 /Cnet (11—64) J= and Jo + Jc (a) = We determine J° from (h) (11—65) segments .

The complementary energy per unit length along the centroidal axis is defined 11 2 We apply (11—51) to each cell. we conclude that a must be positive definite.J52 = = —I Jc t where a12 involves the segment common to cells 1. 2. 11—4. We can represent the governing equations in compact form by introducing matrix notation.SEC. the continuity equations take the following form: + a12C2 = a12C1 + a22C2 = (11—69) 2A2 C2. . then determine f with (11—66). This can also be interpreted as requiring each cell to have the same twist deformation. JC = 2ATC (11—7.2 Substituting for q in terms of C and letting (11-67) = C dS JS. The form of the equations suggests that we define c = A a [a11 a121 a22j (11—70) With this notation. THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 291 Substituting for MI = in (b) leads to - 2qjA1 + 2q2A2 + C2A2) + A2C2) (11—66) The constants are obtained by enforcing continuity of on the centerline of each cell. See (11—32). positive. We solve this system of equations for and finally evaluate the stresses with (11—64). t a22 = C dS Cads . k14 I = 1.!) aC 2A Substituting for A in the expression for JC CTaC and noting that JC is by (11—39).

e. we obtain = a11 = 012 hd A2=hb 1(h + 2d) + 11 t2 = = tl 6 a22 + 2b) + t2 and the following equations for C1.. we can write where = (11-72) aq) — i It is reasonable to neglect the open contribution when the section is thin-walled. Examp'e 11—2 The open-section torsional constant for the section shown is = ± 2(b +d+ + htfl (a) Applying (11 —68) to this section. 11 Since ais varies linearly over the thickness. the shear stress intensities in the various segments are = M1 (C1 (k— + M1 /C1 — C2 J M1 (C2 t2 +t2 / =7 = M1 t3 + t1 . the open and closed stress dis= + 2G toq tributions are uncoupled. i. C2 and i.292 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. + +2 — C2 = 2 dt1 c1 + — + ±2 C2 = 2bt1 J= Jo + Jo Finally.

TORSION-FLEXIJRE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING Consider the prismatic member shown in Fig. 11—12. Cl = C2 = —s 2bt3 1 + 213 and the section functions as a single cell with respect to shear flow. Venant's torsion-flexure formulation for this problem. There are no boundary forces acting on the cylindrical surface.. Prismatic member in shear loading. in Chapter 13. TORSION-FLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 293 Fig. Later.____ _____________ SEC. we describe St. Also. 11—12. 11—5. acting at the centroid. on the cross section at x1 = L is statically equivalent to a single force P212. 11—5. In what follows. the end cross sections are not restrained against displacement. warping. E11—2 t3 tl 03 Ii I 1 I 032 A2 h X3 a' M1 When d= b. The distribution of boundary forces x2 x2 —_____ if xI P2 I +S Fig. i.e. we shall modify the theory to include restraint against warping. .

294 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.r0 F2 = P2 M3 = P2(L — x1) Introducing (a) in the definition equations for the stress resultants and couples leads to the following conditions on the stresses: dA = JJx3a13 c/A = dA = P2(L — x1) Jj712 c/A = $fcrj3 c/A P2 0 0 = —. This suggests that we consider the following postulated stress behavior: cru = a1 2 ——--—x2 = 13 P2 — x1)x2 (11 —73) 13 a1 2(x2. S$(x2a13 — x3cr12)dA 0 P2 — The expansion. M1) require a12. isotropic with respect to the X2-X3 plane. F1. il We start by postulating expansions for the stresses. The displacements can be found by integrating the stress-displacement relations. M3) identically since JJx2 c/A = jJx2x3 dA = 0 dA = 13 The last three conditions (i.2 + a31. x3) a33 a13 = a13(x2. and orthotropic with respect to the axial direction. We will describe the latter approach first.3 + 2a21 + P2 13 0 (mA) (on S) (11—74) =0 At this point.c. The stress resultants and couples required for equilibrium at x1 are =A4.. = M3 13 = 13 satisfies the first three conditions (i. F3. a13 to be independent of x1. X3) a22 0 Introducing (11—73) in the stress-equilibrium equations and stress boundary conditions for the cylindrical surface leads to a21.e. we can either introduce a stress function or express (11—74) in terms of a warping function. This is a convenient way of keeping track of the coupling between axial and in-plane . F2.. We suppose the material is linearly elastic.

x3 Y13 Y23 U1 3 + U3. u3.O) A line element oh the centroidal axis at the origin is fixed: = fSee Eq. 63 = u33 = 'Y12 v1 = = I LI3 — xj)x2 = u1. TORSION-FLEXIJRE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 295 deformation. 2 + u2. We omit the details and just list the resulting expressions. x3) x1)x2x3 u3 = ——. C6 are associated with rigid body motion and k3 is associated with the twist deformation. which involve seven constants: = f2 = C1 + C5x2 + C6x3 + — x3) (c) C2 C5x1 — + C4x3 — k1x1x3 v1P2 Xi.2 = = V1P2 —(L El3 v1P2 —7—(L —.0.t We consider the following displacement boundary conditions: 1.2 0 1 = function ofx2. 11—5. x3) (b) v1P2 v1P2 (L — + .0.SEC.1 = 0 . at(0. .3 + U3. + —--7-(L — 2E.f2(xj.0) at(0.. 1 = = U2. f3 are determined by substituting (b) in the last three equations.(L El3 — + x2) The functions f1.. (11—5). The origin is fixed: u1=u2=u3==0 2. x3 Integrating the first three equations leads to u1 = = E1 13 (Lx1 1 — + f1(x2. = function ofx2. C2. f2.iJ 3 = C3 — C5x1 — C4x2 + k1x1x2 The constants C1. Substituting for the stresses in (10—74).. we obtain = u1 = I P2 E113 V1 E1 (L — xj)x2 x1)x2 = u2.

and 4)2d are harmonic functions which define the warping due to flexure. by using (11—15). to satisfy the equilibrium equation and boundary condition.77 The form of the above equations suggests that we express 4) 4) = kjq5t + — + + (11-78) where is the warping function for pure torsion and 4)2.3 = 0 These conditions correspond to the "fixed-end" case and are sufficient to eliminate the rigid body terms. 0) u2. that cn dS = 0 . x3) — = Vj 2 — + — — (11—75) El3 — x1)x2x3 + k1x1x2 - One step remains. Substituting for 4) leads to the following boundary conditions for 4)2. Ii A line element on the X2 axis at the origin is fixed with respect to rotation in the X2-X3 plane: at (0. x2) (11—76) LI3 x2x3 Substituting for the stresses in (11—74). The final displacement expressions are u1 (Lxj — + 4)(x2. + k1x2 — 2L13 v1P2 —. and 2 2 2 ) = 0 + (11—79) One can show. TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.296 3. The transverse shearing stresses are given by 1 41. we obtain the following differential equation and boundary condition for 4): P2f'2v1 l\ (mA) + v1P2 C 12) + as - 1 .2 — k1x3 + v1P2 1 (7j3 4). 0. namely.

we let X3 1 13\ = — (1184) J £.r + 01j = and where crU. defines the flexural warping for a rigid cross section and represents the correction due to in-plane deformation. and (11—83) reduces to (11—85) Now. The total torsional moment consists of a pure torsion term and two flexural terms. The shearing stress is obtained by substituting for in (11—76). Terms involving vj/E are due to in-plane deformation. is the pure-torsion distribution and butions corresponding to and 42d: r. We write the result as (j = 2.e.2)dA + X242d. 11—5. it follows that and S2d are properties of the cross section. = G1k1J. and setting v1/E = 0 corresponds to assuming the cross section is rigid. One can show thatt dA P2 J$a12. For convenience.3) (11—SO) + 01j.SEC.3 Since and depend only on the shape of the cross section.a dA = 0 dA — 0 dA 0 (11—82) Note that the shear stress due to in-plane deformation does not contribute to P2. Il—lO. d are flexural distri- = 2 2 2 P2 x2x3) The pure torsion distribution is statically equivalent to only a torsional mo- ment. TORSION-FLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 297 therefore the formulation is consistent. — is the statically equivalent torsional moment at the centroid due tSeeProb. Then. deformation in the plane of the cross section.. . M1 = G1k1J + S2r S2d 2 + X24)2r 3)dA X34)2a. i.

we present the exact solution for a rectangular cross section. 11 to the fiexural shear stress distribution. Notation for eccentric load. Now. defines the location of the resultant of the flexural shear stress distribution with respect to the centroid. one must resort to such numerical procedures as finite differences to solve the equations. Suppose P2 has an eccentricity e3. one must determine S2. In the section following. 11—13). e3 must equal x3 Fig. Then. Suppose the cross section is symmetrical with respect to the X2 axis. and S2d. If P2 is applied at the centroid.298 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 11—13. we describe an approximate procedure for determining the flexural shear stress distribution in thin walled cross sections. and k1 = The cross section will twist unless = 0. Exact solutions can be obtained for simple cross sections. is an odd function of x3. Then. In Sec. The twist deformation is determined from k1 + (11—86) where M1 is the applied torsional moment with respect to the centroid. e3 — find x3. If the section is irregular. 11—7. The form of the is an even function of x3 and boundary conditions (11—79) requires and to be even functions of x3 . In this case (see Fig. This involves solving two secondorder partial differential equations. and k1 P2 — e3) For Ilexure alone to occur. M1 = 0. to Whether twist occurs depends on the relative eccentricity. M1 = —e3P2.

- U2 —* U3 U3—> —U2 —---+-— ox2 13 Ox3 U12 '* 13 (3 —--*-----13 (3 Ox3 Ox2 U13 12 —a12 Two additional flexural warping functions must be determined. 11—5. 11—14). it Ibilows thatt S2. Generalizing this result. = 0 and S2d = 0. The governing equations for the P3 loading can be obtained by transforming the equations for the P2 case according to > X3 . Finally. 11—14.. 2 (11—87) x2x31! 12 = t is even in x>. Ssd involve only integrals of odd functions of .b3d. The expres- sions defining the flexural shear stress distributions due to P3 are cr12 r -r 413r.SEC. we can state: The resultant of the shear stress distribution due to fiexure in the is an axis of symmetry direction passes through the centroid when for the cross section. Vj D i —i--- + + (. P3 and at the right end (see Fig. Coordinates of the shear center. 2 12 3 P3 r '2 ((/33r. 3 d = . 3] is odd in x3.v1G1 P3 L. TORSION-FLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING 299 this case. We consider next the case where the member is subjected to P2. for x3 Shear center Fig. and S2r.

the shear center lies on an axis of symmetry. lithe cross section is completely symmetrical. called the shear center. not the centroid. aild V* reduces to = + + dA (a) follows directly by substituting (11 —89) and using The contribution from the definition equations for 13. Finally. It is of interest to determine the complementary energy associated with Then torsion-flexure. One can interpret X2. one must work with the torsional moment with respect to the shear center. the total normal stress is given by M3 13 (P3 P2 13 '\ J (11—89) Superimposing the shearing stresses and evaluating the torsional moment. the shear center coincides with the centroid. we obtain M1 = where defines G1k1J — + (11—90) the location of the resultant of the flexural shear stress distri- bution due to P3.P3( + —4 1 . the applied force must pass through the shear center. In general. x3 as the coordinates of a point. 11—14) M1 + P2x3 — P3x2 = the applied moment with respect to the shear center = MT we can write (a) as (11—91) k1 = (11—92) To determine the twist deformation (and the resulting torsional stresses). The only finite stress components are 012. t The total flexural warping function for P3 is P3 ( — I '\ + v. 11 where q53r. harmonic functionst satisfying the following boundary = 2 conditions: (11—88) = (X2 + 2 Note that the distribution due to M2 12 leads to no shearing stress resultants.300 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS are CHAP. The required twist follows from (11—90): k1 = (M1 + — Since (see Fig. For no twist.

For example. TORSION-FLEXURE WITH UNRESTRAINED WARPING = 1 M2 M2 (11-93) + Now. we obtaint JJ = + + F2 + 2FF + F2 dA (1196) Jj 1 See Prob. 2. 11—il. 2+ 3413r. + C12.t + C12. 3.1 + C13r + 013. the distribution associated with in-plane deformation of the cross section (defined by 4)jd) We combine the flexural distributions and express the total stress as C33 d12. 11—5. the total shearing stress is the sum of three terms: 1.SEC. a pure torsional distribution due to MT the flexural distribution due to F2 the fiexural distribution due to F3 dr. Each of the flexural distributions can be further subdivided into— the distribution corresponding to a rigid cross section (defined by 2. dId..d = 013. r= (11—92): F2 13 2 • F3 13 2 The complementary energy due to pure torsion follows from (11—38) and + a as C12r F2 — 3 F3_ 2 3 r+ r) and integrating over the cross section.d where the various terms are defined by (11—81) and (11—87). 3)dA = CIA JJ .

. 11 The coupling term. we There are four requirements: j (aisd)F2 dS dS = 2. called the engineering theory. continuity requires (see (11—32)) = 2G1k1A5 where the integration is carried out in the X2-X3 sense around S.r + = + 2 ± 2) dA + x2) + + — = + + (11—97) — MT ""F2 Jj 13 + F3 12 dA = 0 The remaining terms involve a. 11 —7.. Similarly.jj 4. vanishes when the cross section has an axis of symmetry. We consider next the coupling between or. we introduce the assumption of negligible warping due to flexure by setting 1/A1 = (&3r 1/A2 1/A23 = 0. Since the shear stress distribution is statically indeterminate when the cross section is closed. we develop an approximate procedure. To establish the continuity conditions for flexure. I/A23. the complementary energy for flexure-torsion with unrestrained warping is given by 1 M2 M2 M2 I F2 FF F2 (11-98) + terms involving v1/E — We introduce the assumption of negligible M1 + in-plane deformation by setting v1/E = 0. for determining the flexural shear stress distribution. and operate on (11 —81) and (11 is the area enclosed by S.3 X3 2v1G1P2 dA (11—99) 2v1G1P3 rr ii X2 dA El2 . the shearing stress distribution due to inplane deformation of the cross section. We will not attempt to expand these terms since we are interested primarily in the rigid cross section case. This approach is where similar to the torsional stress analysis procedure described in the previous section. For pure torsion. In Sec. which is based upon integrating the stress-equilibrium equation directly. Summarizing.to12. and JJ(a12.a.302 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. the force redundants have to he determined by requiring the warping function to be continuous.

EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DiSTRIBUTION FOR A RECTANGULAR CROSS SECTION We consider the problem of determining the exact shear stress distribution due to F2 for the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. By coincides with the + S direction.e. The consistent continuity condition on the flexural shearing stress 4sajsdSO definition. Warping functions + = an = = 1 2 + 2 ) + . i.SEC. 11—15. (11—100) One can take the + S direction as either clockwise or counterclockwise. 11—15. 11—6. For con- venience. the distribution due to in-plane deformation is neglected. Notation for rectangular cross section.. the cross section is considered to be rigid. EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION 303 In the engineering theory of flex ural shear stress distribution. we first list the governing equations: x2 rd3 '2 — dt3 A = dt d r Fig. the positive sense for 11—6. 1.

i. of The boundary conditions for /2d are 2= 1(d2 + '\ at x2 = d atx3 = Now. we evaluate 1/A2 using (11—96): = (11—102) Determinatio.r One can readily show that F2 Finally.r = 0 0j3.. the form of (a) suggests that we express q52d as = — — f(x2.304 2. x3) (b) . d atx3 = 112 = X2 The corresponding stresses and warping function are 2r = 4)2r 13 12 X2 — 13 (11—101) 012. TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 11 Shearing stresses 012 = F2 + v1G1E2 + x2x3) + xi)] =T 13 Determination 3) + of are The boundary conditions for l(d'\2 =0 We can take the solution as <P2r .

EXACT FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS D!STRJBUTON 305 where f is an harmonic function.d = v1G1 F2 sinh n2 —-— t mid t E 13 sin ——t . We express f as f= B0x2 + B.SEC.. The shearing stresses and boundary conditions expressed in terms of f are = v1G1 P2 VLGI F2 2 —f 2) = f3=0 It remains to solve V2f = 0 subject to (d). 2n7tx3 (11—103) [ This system is statically equivalent to zero.a 1/t\2 t I 2nirx2 cosh — 2nxx2\ 1 nnd cosh— t 1 /J [ cJl3.. The remaining boundary condition requires B0 + Expanding B.. (2nn co sh nicd\ —) c os——- 2nicx3 = 2 x3 < x3 < (f) in a Fourier cosine series and equating coefficients leads to B0 t2 B. = (±. cosh— j .Y mr1 mtd cosh —— The final expressions for the shearing stresses are = v1G1 P2 .. 11—6. cos sinh (2nxx2) This expansion satisfies V2f = 0 and the boundary condition at x3 = ± t/2. Since the cross section is symmetricaL f must be an even function of x3 and an odd function of x2.

d)x20 = v1G1 F2 d2 13 '1 2nnx3 C. C. The resulting theory is generally called the engineering theory of shear stress.4/512. i.092 0. 4 / 1 1 I5lz.122 11—7. ENGINEEffiNG THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS DISTRiBUTION IN THiN-WALLED CROSS SECTIONS The "exact" solution of the flexure problem involves solving four secondorder partial differential equations. 1 cosh 2. I cosh Results for a representative range of d/t and isotropic material are listed below. If one assumes the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. 11 To investigate the error involved in assuming the cross section is rigid.r 0.. ci 2 Specializing d for x2 0.e. solutions can be found for only simple cross sections.. one must resort to a numerical procedure such as finite differences or.306 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.024 0. We apply the engineering theory to typical cross sections . COS t where 1 2. Retaining only the first term in (b) leads to the following error estimate. only two equations have to be solved. we • occurs at x2 0: note that the maximum value of F2 2. When the cross section is irregular. In what follows. decreases rapidly with n.. The error decreases as the section becomes thinner. They show that it is reasonable to neglect the corrective stress system for a rectangular cross section. Now.. introduce simplifying assumptions as to the stress distribution. Even in this case. (512. we describe the latter approach for a thinwalled cross section. alternatively. as d/t becomes large with respect to unity: d/t 2 1 1512.di 2...

we obtain the following expression for q. we work stress. Once the variation of have shown that the normal stress varies linearly we can evaluate q. stress distribution. q. we over the cross section when the member is subjected to a constant shear (F2. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 307 and also illustrate the determination of the shear center and the energy efficients. 11—16. 11—7.SEC. 1/Ai (j 2. it is reasonable to assume that the normal Also. 3). Integrating the axial force-equiwith the shear flow. F3 . is constant through the thickness and to neglect qA / xl Fig. Since the cross section is thin-walled. rather than with librium equation. Oh. Figure 11—16 shows a segment defined by cutting planes at x1 and x1 + dx1. ('S (11—104) JSA Equation (11—104) is the starting point for the engineering theory of shear over the cross section is known. — + —(a11t) 0 C2S with respect to S. thin-wafled segment. Now.

(b) simplifies to q= F2 — 13 F3 — —-Q2 (11—106) Equation (11—106) defines the shear flow distribution for the case of negligible restraint against warping. we expand = F2 0 + . 11 constant) and the end sections can warp freely.e. i. 11—17.e. the derivative of dM2 x2dM3 13 dx1 '2 13 12 dx1 3 X3 + X2 12 and (11—104) expands to . The end faces are unstressed.308 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. X3 and are generally denoted by Q2. (11—106) reduces to q= Q3 f-Q2 (11-107) =J5x2tdS Q2 =$x3tdS We determine Q2. We consider first the open section shown in Fig.. Q3: rs Q2 =j = x3tdS = Q2(S. Note that q is positive when pointing in the + S direction.SA) (11—105) x2t c/S = Q3(S.. q= satisfies ffai2 c/A = dA = identically. Q3 and then combine according to (11—107). To show this. for a linear variation in normal stress. i. SA) With this notation.' i'S 12!i'S q=qA—-—I x2tdS—-7-H x3tdS 13 j54 JSA The integrals represent the moment of the segmental area with respect to X2. = F2 =0 F3 Taking the origin for S at A. The shearing stress distribution corresponding to F2. Noting that the member is for this case is — X3 — prismatic.

11—12. By applying the same argument. 11—17. Flexural shear flow—open segment. 11—7. .t we obtain = — J" dS = 13 = x2x3t dS = 0 — J The shear stress distribution predicted by (a) is statically equivalent to a we evaluate the force F212. To determine the location of its line of moment with respect to a convenient moment center.SEC. (11—2). one can show that the shear flow corresponding to F3 is statically t See Eq. Integrating (e) by parts and noting that X2. and evaluate the shear stress resultants: Jjui2dA = J Equation (b) requires rsa J0 dS = =0 Now. X3 are principal centroidal axes. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS x3 — 309 B I Shear center X2 Centroid Fig.

E11—3 I Example 11—4 symmetrical. Eli —4A. equivalent to a force. Actually.. We take + S in the + X2 direction. Only two segments. The various terms are + q points in the +X2 direction and q/t = tx2 = j -d(2 F2 q dx2 = 2 4 — q= tF2 (d2 F2/'d2 — 2 This result coincides with the solution for obtained in Sec. Then. Since q is negative for this segment. + We determine the distribution of q corresponding to F2 for the symmetrical section of Fig. the engineering theory is exact for a rigid cross section.310 TORSJON-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. for r1/E = 0. 11—6. it actually acts in the negative S direction (from B to A). AB and BC. + q points in the + S direction (from A to B).e. have to be considered since 1Q31 is Segment AB = q = According to our definition. 11—17). i. Example 11—3 Consider the thin rectangular section shown. x2 Fig. . 11 The intersection of the lines of action of the two resultants is the shear center for the cross section (see Fig.

E11—4A IC tw d tf It H Segment BC in Fig. if and substituting for q yields 1 dA dS 5 2dS = fl = 1 We let j 2b1t1 = area of the web = A1 = total flange area = A2 = kA. The distribution and sense of q are shown It is of interest to evaluate A2. I. I 3Af\ 6A1 2A F id. We measure S from B to C.. The resulting expression for kis lÀ.____________________________ SEC.. 11-7. l/bf\2 . = + [hh1t1 + — q= — xi)] Note that the actual sense of q is from C to B. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 311 Pg. E1I—413. Specializing (11-96) for a thin-walled section. Then.

1. 11 Fig. = 2ç (If = 3. E11—48 . Each flange carries half the shear and 1 61 5 1 A3 — A1 — 5 hr1 Examp'e 11—5 Cross-Sectional Properties This section (Fig. taking as typical.4f = k= 0.. for a wide-flange section.4 — X2) x3 4.95 The shearing stress corresponding to F3 varies parabolically in the flanges and is zero in the web.t1 + b2t2 + We neglect the contribution of the web in '2 since it involves 12 (a) + ('2)2 = + (b) . For example. we find .312 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS x2 CHAP. The shift in the centroid from the center of the web due to the difference in flange areas is b2t2 — b. This factor is quite close to unity. Eli —5A) is symmetrical with respect to X2.

where e = R2d R = (12)2 12 Since X2 is an axis of symmetry. the distribution is statically equivalent to F373 acting at a distance e from the left flange. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 313 Determination of Taking S as shown in the sketch. E11—5A x3 I I Centroid Distribution of q Corresponding to The shear flow corresponding to F3 is obtained by applying q= p3 Q2 and is shown in Fig. we obtain = F3 Then. the shear center is located at the intersection of R and X2. 11—7. Integrating the shear flow over each flange. . The shear stress vanishes in the web and varies parabolically in each flange.SEC. we have = t[(b)2 t2 [. El 1—SB. Fig."b2\2 2 —X3 (c) =0 since X2 is an axis of symmetry.

We take the origin for S at some arbitrary point and apply (11-106) to the segment Se-S: q= = q1 — -1—Q3 — 13 F2 F3 12 (11— 108) Q3 = where q1 is the shear flow at P. E11--58 R = F3 q 1'3t2frbf\2 12 X3 2 R1 The coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid are . We have defined M1 as the required torsional moment with respect to the centroid. the required torsional moment with respect to the shear center. the maximum torsional shear stress in a segment is = M ti where . 11 Fig. Using the approximate theory developed in Sec. 1 1 —3.c3 0 = e —(1 + (I =d — L12 2 Torsional Shear Stress to The flexural shear stress distribution is statically equivalent to a torsional moment equal with respect to the centroid. Then. the moment which must be balanced by torsion is — F3. 11 —18.1 = + + We consider next the closed cross section shown in Fig. We have previously shown that q q1 = con- .314 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. The shear flow distribution is statically indeter- minate since q1 in unknown.

11 —14 for the more general expression. 11—7. See Prob. P Fig. Since the engineering theory corresponds to assuming the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. we use (11—100). 11—18. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 315 stant is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment equal to The second and third terms are statically equivalent to F212 and F313. located Y4 units from the centroid. dS F2 C dS 2 f (IS and considering separately the distributions corresponding to F2 and F3. which allows for a variable shear modulus. Notation for closed cell. Note that q = B3 leads only to a torsional moment equal to f One can interpret (11-109) as requiring the flexural shear stress distribution to lead to no twist deformation. The constant q1 is determined by applying the continuity requirement to the centerline curve.. we obtain + q = = T (B2 — B Q3) (B3 — Q2) QdS QdS B (11-110) 27 — dS I Each distribution satisfies (11—109) identically.SEC. . the distribution is statically equivalent to a force Fyi. The flexural shear stress distribution must satisfy 0 (11—109) for an arbitrary closed C Substituting for q. Also.

Example 11—6 We illustrate the determination of for the square section of Fig.1 we obtain 2dS 42j dS QkT (11—112) which applies for an arbitrary single cell. E11—6A H 2z H Cross-Sectional Properties = = a2 (a3\ + — a2 = 4a3t 3 = (at)(a/2) 5a1 10 it fdS = 3.3 (11—111) Substituting for 1 = 'k — 2BJQk + (j k. It is Fig. 11 The general expression for 1/Ai follows from (11— 96): == j = 2.TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Eli —6A.3) and noting that .j. convenient to take P at the midpoint since the centerline is symmetrical. k 2.5t a .

The resulting distribuarc shown in Fig. Fig. Ell—6C.SEC. where e= 19 a . 11—7. and noting that the area of a parabola is equal to (2/3) (base) x (height). q.. The two distributions are plotted in Fig. clockwise. E11—6B Evaluation of B3 By definition. B3= 1 " I dS it I rds. we sum moments about the midpoint (0 in the sketch: (M)0 = I /a\ + 4F3 /a\ = 19 aF The resultant acts e units to the right of 0. Eli —6B.e. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 317 Determination of We start at P and work counterclockwise around the centerline. Note that + Q2 corresponds tion and actual sense of q due to to a negative i. we obtain dS + a3 B3 = of Flexural Shear Flov for F3 The shear flow is given by q— F3 — F3(( Q2) 4Q2 — 12 a 3at (+ sense clockwise). To locate the line of action of the resultant. Using the above results.

the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the ccntroid (which is A units to the right of 0) are x2 = e — LI = + 16 X3 = 0 Torsional Shear The shear flow for pure torsion is due to Mr. Mr 5L2F3 + M1 — We apply the theory developed in Sec. II —4. One just has to replace M1 with MT in .21 6a i F3 30 I F3 F3f 4 Q2 Finally. 11 Fig._ 318 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Eli —6C t j F3/21 I q — a 1. the torsional moment with respect to the shear center. For this section.

. We consider next the analysis of a two-cell section and include open segments for generality. ENGtNEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS Equation (11—61): — Ci = 4at ± I C1 J= Determination of 1/A3 Applying (11—112). +5. We select a convenient point in each cell and take the shear how at the point as the redundant for the cell. There is one redundant shear flow for each cell. we drop the CL (centerline) subscript on S and A. 11—19.276 I) .SEC. This is illustrated in Fig. 11—7. For convenience. The + S sense for the open segments is inward from the free edge.3at Note that 3at is the total web area. we find 1 + - 1 2 dS I- B dS'\ — 1. q x3 x2 Fig. Notation for section. 11—19: qj represents the shear flow redundant for cell j and the + S sense coincides with the X2-X3 sense to be consistent with the pure-torsion analysis.

Finally.1 = a12q1. The redundant shear-flow distribution is the same as for pure torsion (see Fig. 11—11). the equations take the following form: a11q1 + a12q2 = a12q1 + a22q2 = t 11—115 The shear flows q2. q2 to F2. which allows for a variable shear modulus. E11—7A. for pure torsion are related by (we multiply (11—71) by MT/J and note (11—62)) + a12q2. The equations developed above can he readily generalized.14 for the more general expression. Example 11—7 We determine the flexural shear stress distribution corresponding to F3 for the section shown in Fig.320 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.1 2A1 (11--1l6) 2A2 MT Thus. and q q0 + (11—113) We determine q0 by applying (11—107) to the various segments.2 (11—114) where q is positive if it points in the + S direction. Cross-Sectional Properties A1 = A2 202 a2 = (a3t\ '2 [ a21 + 2[(3at)_4_j = 4a 7 = — Ga a22 012 = a See Prob.1 + a22q2. 11 The total shear flow is the sum of q0. . we obtain a system of equations relating q1. the complete shear stress analysis involves solving aq = b for three different right-hand sides. 1!-. Using the aJk notation defined by (11—68). t q—--= 0 j = 1. We locate and P2 at the midpoints to take advantage of symmetry. the open cross-section distribution (q1 = q2 = 0). F3 by applying the continuity requirement to each centerline.

E1l—7B) is statically equivalent to a moment 2a2(2q1 + Distribution of q0 Due to F3 —--i02 '2 to the various segments starting at points P1. 11—7. ENGINEERING THEORY OF FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS 321 Fig. The resulting distribution is shown in Fig. q2 = C . Eli—lA I We apply x2 +S.q 2a a Distribution of This system (Fig. Eli —7C. . P2. Deter.322 q0—=+ t = 1 F3 dS 2F3 The equations for q1 and q2 are 6q1 — q2 7a 70 2 F3 —q1 + 4q2 = —— Solving (a). we find q1 = 2F3 — 161 q2 = + a 11 F3 The total distribution is obtained by adding qR and q0 algebraically._______a _______ SEC.niiuztion of q1.

and J. WANG. New York. T. McGraw-Hill.: Applied Elasticity. TIMOSHENKO. we obtain M( + e 2a2(2q1 + q2) + (2a) + (3a) F3) = eF3 = (2 + 32\ a= 1.322 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. El 1 —7B q2 4 2q1a q2a q1a q1 Fig. Eli —7C I P3 14 a Location of the Shear Center line Taking moments about the midpoint of the left web.61a The shear center is located on the K2 axis and = c — (2a — = +O. S. and letting e be the distance to the action of the resultant. N.. 2. 3d ed. J. 11 Fig. 1970.055a REFERENCES 1.. . Oooo!ETt: Theory of Elasticity. C. New York. 1953. McGraw-Hill.

ODEN. DABROWSKI.: Strength of Materials. 1969. Berlin. it takes U2 = W1X3 = +(01x2 wj = a1 = Suppose we consider the cross-section to rotate about an arbitrary point The general form of (a) is a2 = —wj(x3 — U3 = +w1(x2 — wj = k1x1 + c1 a1 = k147 a13 and the (a) (b) Starting with Equation (h). derive the expressions for governing equations for What form do the equations take if we write = + C2 + Do the torsional shearing stress distribution and torsional constant J depend on the center of twist? 11—2. i. VLASOV. Jerusalem.e. J. 1956. S. J.dige Trëger ("Curved Thin-walled Girders"). New York.: GekrUmmte diinnwan. Show that . HARTOG." I. Derive the governing differential equation and boundary condition for for the case where the material is orthotropic and the material symmetry axes coincide with the X1. McGraw-Hill. 323 Dmt 1952. Z. 7. 4. and K. PROBLEMS il—i. J.. 11. New York.: Strength of Materials.. X2. Springer-Verlag.S.: "Elastic Torsional Analysis of Irregular Shapes. Basler: Torsion in Structures.. 9. New York. 10. Van Nostrand. 1967. T. V. KOLLBRUNNER.: Thin. LS.Walled Elastic Beams. P.E.. I-Jolt. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. X3 directions. 11—2 considers the cross section to rotate about the centroid. SOKOLNIKOFF.: Advanced Strength of Materials. . CEiRNICA.: Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 1968. Div. Berlin.. New York. Springer-Verlag. 8. R. A. C. J. 11—3. Eng.C. R. Rinchart. Part 2. McGraw-Hill. 1966. The pure-torsion formulation presented in Sec. N. 1941. TIMOSHFNKO.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. Mech. New York.1 can be expressed as Hint: = = I. 1961. + )2 — 2) — 3)2]dA + 3)2]dA 0 dA = Compare this result with the solution for a circular cross section and comment on the relative efficiency of circular vs.PROBLEMS 3. L. McGraw-Hill. December 1965. 5. F. 6. HERRMANN. noncircular cross section for torsion.

S direction. q = const. tf x3 (c) along the centerline for the two thin-walled open Prob. = dS = = dS 0 0 Refer to Prob. 11—4. = where as 1 k1 + (a) is the perpendicular distance from the center of twist to the tangent. The variation in the warping function along an arbitrary curve S is obtained by integrating (11—29). satisfies F2 = ja12 = F3 = dA = x = for the closed cross section sketched. To apply Equation (c) to the centerline of a — closed cell. The sign of p is positive when a rotation about the center of twist results in translation in the +. 11 11—4. Verify that the distribution. We express lM1 (b) and (a) reduces to + a15 Determine the variation of sections shown.324 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. One selects a positive sense for S. 11—4 of twist — / Center 4 Center of twist b/2 (a) b/2 (bi 11—5. 11—6. we note that (see (11—50)) J a15 = Jq C (a) = k—— = — .

Determine the equations for (j = 1. Discuss the case where a = b. 11-6 T p . 11—10. and the distribution of the warping function for the section shown. Determine the torsional shear stress distribution and torsional constant J for the section shown. Ct C +- Take Integrating (b) leads to the distribution of Apply (h) to the section shown. 11—11.PROBLEMS 325 Prob. Verify Equation (11—82)." cells. Utilize (11—15). Take = 0 on the symmetry axis and use the results presented in Prob. Specialize for t a. 2. the torsional constant J. Prob. = 0 at point P. I 1—9. 11—8. The flexural warping function satisfy mA on S . 11—5 = + £3 x2 Then. 11—7. 3) and J for the section shown. Generalize for a section consisting of "n. 11—6. Determine the distribution of torsional shear stress.

3)dx2 dx3 dS — JJII V2f2 dx2 dx3 where 11.11—9 if (fr. 11 Prob.12 are arbitrary functions. Starting with (11—107). . 11—17. verify Equation (11—96). I Prob. 212. derive the expressions for the coordinates of the shear center in terms of the cross-sectional parameters. 11—42. 11—8 t I :f T t—. 11—7 0 +S1 +S2 — t I H Prob. Refer to Fig. 0 Si t t t t 0 t - I 0 t t a a— a I Utilizing the following integration formula.326 TORS!ON-FLEXURE OF PRISMA1]C MEMBERS CHAP.2 + 3f2.

Determine the flexural shear flow distributions due to F2._a PROBLEMS 327 11 —13. I- 11—13 R T d/2 x3 + I (b) (a) 2/ 2/ 2/ + (c) I I H-a (dl -j I :L 1 = Ca (el . Prob. F3 and locate the shear center for the five thin-walled sections shown.

328 TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. One can also obtain this result by applying the principle of virtual forces to the segment shown as part of the accompanying figure. We established the expression for the twist deformation (Equation (11—31) by requiring the torsional warping function to be continuous. Prob. 11 11—14. Arbitrary closed curve 11—14 -44 M'11 44— wi LsM1 w1 + dx1 (a) (b) 2G(2E) x3 GtE) G(E) X21 F Ic) 2G(2E) a- .

PROBLEMS 329 The general principle states that (a) x+dx = (if AbTu dA)dx1 + if ApT for a statically permissible force system. Al2. we select an arbitrary closed curve. we select a force system acting on the end faces which is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment M1. Assume a linear variation in extensional strain and evaluate the coefficients of the strain expansion from the definition equations for F1. . Determine the normal stress distribution from the stress-strain relation. and M3. so we replace (d) with Gk1 If G is a variable. We specialize the virtualstress system such that AG = 0 outside this domain and only is finite inside the domain. we define the torsional constant J according to G*k1J Consider a thin-walled section comprising discrete elements having different material properties. Finally. we can write dn(&riz) and Equation (b) reduces to k1 if = = The derivations presented in the text arc based on a constant shear modulus G throughout the section.and we can write (J$eT dA)dx1 Next. and consider the region defined by S and the differential thickness dn. Now. x3)). the right-hand side of (a) reduces to AM1o. Apply your formulation to the section shown in part c of the figure. S (part b of figure). say G = fG* (where f = f(x2. If we consider the cross section to be rigid.1 1 dx1. we have to work with G*k1 = Also. using (11 -51). Develop the expressions for the torsional and fiexural shear flow distributions accounting for variable G and E.

which assumes that the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation.g. St. 1—14 and 12—1.Engineering Theory of Prismatic Members 12—1. 2. INTRODUCTION Venant's theory of fiexure-torsion is restricted to the case where—- 1. There are no surface forces applied to the cylindrical surface. See Probs. Since (12—1) t A linear variation of normal stress is exact for a homogeneous beam. Composite beams (e. A term due to variable warping must be added to the linear expansion for This leads to an additional term in the expression for the flexural shear flow. The warping function consists of a term due to flexure (ç&j) and a term due to Since is independent of x1. The end cross sections can warp freely. Using (12—1) leads to the following expression for the flexural shear flow (see (11—106)): = — — (12—3) The warping function will depend on x1 if forces are applied to the cylindrical surface or the ends are restrained with respect to warping. 330 .. a sandwich beam) are treated by assuming a linear variation in extensional strain and obtaining the distributions of from the stress-strain relation.—+——X3 ——---Xz 13 '2 F1 M2 M3 is the exact solutiont for where The total shearing stress is given by = + crj (12—2) and represents the is the pure-torsion distribution (due to flexural distribution (due to We generally determine by applying the engineering theory of shear stress distribution. the linear expansion pure torsion a11 =—.

e. we neglect the effect of variable warping on the normal and shearing stress. the normal stress correction is self-equilibrating. Summing forces and moments about 0 — leads to the following vector equilibrium equations (note that F = dx1 + — =o 0 dM÷ dx1 + m+ — x F+) = - . The statically equivalent external force and moment vectors per unit F—dxi/2 . i.e. 12—1. and determine the stresses using (12—1). Venant theory. This formulation is restricted to the linear geometric case. we develop the governing equations for the engineering theory and illustrate the two general solution procedures. clxl/2___H — ' dx1 + dx1 dF+ dx1 + 4L dx1 Fig. and the pure-torsional distribution due to MT.. we consider the differential element shown in Fig. M3 identically. In what follows.EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS In the engineering theory. Also.SEC. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS 331 the definition equations for F1. satisfies 12—2. 12--i. we use the stress distribution predicted by the St. it is statically equivalent to zero. we present a more refined theory which accounts for warping restraint. we take the stress resultants and couples referred to the centroid as force quantities. 12—2. F3 identically. and investigate the error involved in the engineering theory. In the next chapter. length along X1 are denoted by b. the shear flow correction is statically equivalent to only a torsional moment since (12—3) satisfies the definition equations for F2. i.-I. (12—3). which is based on cons tant warping and no warping restraint at the ends. FORCE. In the engineering theory of members.. To establish the forceequilibrium equations. M2.

We list the results below for future reference.13 dM3 — dx1 ui3 dx1 Flexure 2 + din3 dx1 — b2 = 0 (1 25) in X1 -A'3 Plane dM2 dx1 + in2 d2M2 2 dx1 + -— + b3 = 0 dx1 din2 . Stretching dF1 dx1 + b1 = 0 Flexure in X1-X2 Plane dF2 dx3 dx1 + b2 0 0 + m3 + F2 = (12—4) Flexure in X1 -X3 Plane --s. and then substituting in the remaining equations.+ b3 = dx1 0 dM2 dx1 + ni2 — F3 = 0 Twist dM1 —— + m1 = 0 ax This uncoupling is characteristic only of prismatic members the equilibrium equations for an arbitrary curved member are generally coupled. Flexure in X1 -A'2 Plane F2 d2it. as we shall show in Chapter 15. The resulting system uncouples into four sets of equations that arc associated with stretching. The fiexure equilibrium equations can be reduced by solving for the shear force in terms of the bending moment.332 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP. flexure in the X1-X2 plane. flexure in the X1-X3 plane. and twist. 12 We obtain the scalar equilibrium equations by introducing the component expansions and equating the coefficients of the unit vectors to zero.

Notation and positive direction for end forces. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS 333 Note that the shearing force is known once the bending moment variation is determined. These equations are generally called force-displacement relations. We started by selecting the stress resultants and stress couples as force parameters. the force parameters are actually the statically equivalent forces and moments acting at the centroid.SEC. We generally use a bar superscript to indicate an end action in this text. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS. The statically equivalent external force and moment components acting on the end cross sections are called end forces. B to denote the negative and positive end points (see Fig. The end forces are related to the stress resultants and couples by force = FAJ = MAJ = A (J 1 2 3) (12—6) minus sign is required at A. to coincide with the corrcsponding coordinate axis. To complete the formulation. we use A. Applying the equilibrium conditions to a differential element results in a set of six differential equations relating the six force parameters. we must introduce six displacement parameters in order for the formulation to be consistent. we must select a set of displacement parameters and relate the force and displacement parameters. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 12—3. Since we have six equilibrium equations. Now. 12—2. This suggests that we take as displacement . 12—2) and take the positive sense of an end x2 MA2 2 x3 —L Fig. 12—3. since it is a negative face. Also.

we are allowing for an average shear deformation determined such that the energy is invariant.12—8) Note that (12—7) corresponds to a linear distribution of displacements over the cross section. We define i? and = = = equivalent rigid body translation vector at the centroid equivalent rigid body rotation vector (force intensity) (displacement) dA = By equivalent displacements. We establish the force-displacement relations by applying the principle of virtual forces to the differential element shown in Fig. Statically permissible force system. and is the external force quantity corresponding to The term dV* is the first-order change in the onedimensional complementary energy density due to increments in the stress resultants and couples. we can write dV* dx1 = AP1 represents a displacement quantity. is statically permissible. owing to shear deformation. 12 parameters the equivalent rigid body translations and rotations of the cross as (12—7) section at the centroid. The virtual-force + dx1 I dx1 dudXl dx1 2 2 Fig. we mean fl +M (. whereas the actual distribution is nonlinear. 12—3. it satisfies the one-dimensional equilibrium equations system dx1 dx1 ö + x = O Specializing the principle of virtual forces for the one-dimensional elastic case. that is. In this approach. where . 12—3.334 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.

Once the form of V" is specified. we suppose that the material is linearly elastic. we have = + A]\+ + dx1 Using the second equation in (a). 12—3. 4. we can evaluate the partial derivatives. evaluating the products. We allow for the possibility of an initial extensional strain. 1 + (02) + zXM2a2 + j]dx1 (12—9) Continuing. 1 (12—Il) (123 We see that— 1. 2.1 + /XF2(u2. Since we are using the engineering theory . we expand dV*: dV* = 3 \CFJ + + = 1 and k1 are one-dimensional measures. 3. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATfONS 335 Evaluating the right-hand side of (b). Equating (12—9) and (12—10) leads to the following relation between the deformation measures and the displacements: The quantities Cl = av* = u1. X3). (c) takes the form + x + Finally. we obtain = [AF1u1. k3 are average bending deformation measures (relative rotations of the cross section about X2. In what follows. k2 = WL e2 —— = 112. e2.SEC. The general expression for is = + + + denotes the initial extensional strain. k2. e1 is the average extensional strain. e3 are average transverse shear deformations. for unrestrained where torsion-Ilexure is given by (11—98). k1 is a twist deformation. Now. (03 aF2 = cM2 23 (02. + — co3) + AF3(u3. but no initial shear strain. j —.

336 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP. To interpret the coupling between the shear and twist deformations. we see that the cross section twists about the shear center. and neglecting deformation. of using (12—12). 12 of shear stress distribution. 12—4) that U2 U3 X3W1 defines the centroidal displacements due to a rigid body rotation about the shear center. we obtain the following force-displacement relations: e?. F3 leads to = Fie? + + where 2AE + + 2GA2 2GA3 LF2 (12—12) + MT e? + + + M1 + F2x3 — = $5 x2e1 cIA We take (12—12) as the definition of the one-dimensional linearly elastic com- plementary energy density for the engineering theory.e. u3). we note (see Fig. u2. we could have started with M1.e. Instead of working with centroidal quantities (M1. not the centroid. This result is a consequence of neglecting the in-plane deformation terms in i. u3 (see Fig. This presupposes that the cross section rotates about the shear center. Adding terms due to the coupling between F2. One can interpret as "weighted" or equivalent initial strain measures. We replace u2. i. it is inconsistent to retain terms involving in-plane F1/A. and substituting in (12—11).. 12—4) by U2 + (01X3 t01X2 U3 = (12—14) . Comparing (a) with (12—13). F1 F2 MT + U21 (03 k2 =k2 = k3 + M2 (12—13) F3 X2 = U3 1 + (02 k3 = (03. and the translations of the shear center.. Differentiating (12—12) with respect to the stress resultants and couples. v1/E.

1 (12— 15) US2. it is more convenient to work and the translations of the shear center. Al1 in (12—9) transform to 1+ 1 — w3) + 1 + w2) (a) Then. 12—3. 12—4.SEC. 1 F3 053 1 + (02 with Since the section twists about the shear center. U53 denote the translations of the shear center. F3. taking as an independent force parameter. 053. Translations of the centroid and the shear center. We list the uncoupled sets of force-displacement relations below for future reference. Stretching F1 e? + Flexure in X1 -X2 Plane 01:1 F2 GA2 = = 1 — (03 + El3 . we can determine 02. known. we obtain = F2 a)1. Once 052. 03 from (12—14). FORCE-DtSPLACEMENT 337 where um. and w1 are x2 Fig. The terms involving F2.

We express the integral as . For example. Now. Instead of first specializing it for the elastic case. AP1. the principle of virtual forces applies for an arbitrary material. and we can write it as dV's dx1 = >d1 AP1 (12—20) . When the material is elastic. [ss dA] = AP1 (12—17) where represents the actual strain matrix.1 The development presented above is restricted to an elastic material. Using (12—18). AF1 A taking + —— 12 AM2 AM3 — 13 leads to e1 = k2 if dA k3 if x2c1 dA if + AM1)]dxj = AP1 Once the extensional strain distribution is known. 12 Flexure in X1-X3 Plane F3 U53 (12—16) + I k2 + = Twist About the Shear Center MT = Wi.338 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. the one-dimensional principle of virtual forces takes the form (12—19) The virtual-force system must satisfy the one-dimensional equilibrium equations (12—4). One should note that (12—19) is applicable for an arbitrary material. the bracketed term is equal to dV*. and denotes a system of statically permissible stresses due to the external force system. if A j=1 and determine using as defined by the engineering theory. we can evaluate (b). we could have started with its general form (see (10—94)).

F1 or u1 prescribed at x1 = L Flexure in X1-X2 Plane (F2. u1) F1 I + b1 = F1 0 (12—22) 0. SUMMARY OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS 339 The expanded form for the linearly elastic case is J [(eq + AF1 + AF2 + AF3 + (12-21) + + El2) AM2 + + El) AM3] dx1 = We use (12—21) in the force method discussed in Sec.).SEC. SUMMARY OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS At this point. The boundary conditions reduce to either a force or the corresponding displacement is prescribed at each end. or F2 prescribed at x1 = L M3 or 0)3 prescribed at . 0)3) + b2 = 0 M31 + m3 + F2 = F2. L . 12—6. we summarize the governing equations for the linear engineering theory of prismatic members. 12—4. U2. We list the equations according to the different modes of deformation (stretching. flexure. etc. L 0)3 or M2 prescribed at x1 = 0. + F3 0 — F3 0)3 = 0 = u3 1+ M (12—24) u3 or F3 prescribed at x1 = 0. 12—4.1 + b3 M2. M3. Stretching (F1.x1 = Flexure in the X1-X3 Plane (F3. M2. 0 F2 2 = + U2 i— (12—23) M u2 (03. 0. U3.1 0. L F3.

problem is more difficult. Example 12—1 We consider the case where b2 = coast (Fig. L (12—25) m5. we must first express the equilibrium equations in terms of the displacement parameters. a beam on an elastic foundation). B for quantities associated with x1 = L: = With this notation. superimpose the results. and noting that b2 = coast. and integrating. u3) MT. When the applied external loads are independent of the displacements. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION—PRISMATIC MEMBER The displacement method involves integrating the governing differential equations and leads to expressions for the force and displacement parameters as functions of x1. If the applied load depends on the displacements (e. we use subscripts A. since it requires solving a differential equation rather than just successive integration. we can integrate the force-equilibrium equations directly and then find the displacements from the force-displacement relations. 12 Twist About the Shear Center (MT. we obtain = MAI — XIFA2 + .1 = —F2 Integrating (a). and then apply the boundary conditions. 1 + 01T 0 MT = or a1 prescribed at x1 = 0. This loading will produce flexure in the X1-X2 plane and also twist about the shear center if the shear center does not lie on the X2 axis.340 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. = U2 U3 m1 + b2x'3 — b3g2 X3W1 = 12-5. we have F2 = — b2x1 0. The following examples illustrate the application of the displacement method to a prismatic member. We solve the two uncoupled problems. (01. This. F21 M3.g. Flexure in X1 -A'2 Plane We start with the force-equilibrium equations. u2. F2 = FA2 — b2x1 Substituting for F2 in (b). (c) simplifies to FAJ etc. For convenience..

E12—1 x2 b3 13 Shear center Centroid H L Twist About the Shear Center The applied torsional moment with respect to thc shear center is mr = Substituting for mr in the governing equations.SEC. and (I). M3 £03. Fig. we obtain £03 = WA3 + — (x1MA3 — 4 \2E13/ GA 12Ff) 4 \ The general flexual solution (for b2 = const) is given by (e). + F2 GA2 Integrating (g) and then (h). i —. 12—5. 3 Uz. (f). we obtain MT = MAT — b2y3x1 = + The additional centroidal displacements due to twist are U2 = X3W1 U3 = . = (01. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION We consider next the force-displacement relations.1 MT = and integrating.

and the right end is free. d/L is small with respect to unity for a member element and. we consider a rectangular cross section and isotropic material with v = 0. Evaluating u2 at x1 = L. i2 2 MAT = b2.342 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.3 (d = depth): As 13 613d2 5 A2 A 10 = By definition. 12 Cantilever Case We suppose that the left end is fixed. The boundary conditions are UA2 = = M53 = MBT =0 FBZ Specializing the general solution for these boundary conditions requires = An b2L A3 11.L and the final expressions reduce to F2 = b2(L M3 = = U2 — x1) — Lx1 + — x1) = + b2Lx1 - + + () U3 = b2 4L 4 a)1 It is of interest to compare the deflections due to bending and shear deformation. it is . we have I h2L U52 LI lh2L2 = = UB2 E 13 GL2A2 an illustration. therefore.

12—5. . G/E must be of the same order as l/A. The expressions for the translations and rotations at B in tcrms of the end actions at B and support movement at A are called member force-displacement relations.43 = MAT = b2L2 12 b2T3L The final expressions are M3 = MT = u2 U3 b2 IL2 Lx1 + b2T3 — = + L — x1 2) + b2 — 2L4 + xi) (u) = —X20)1 (03 b2IL2 = El = b2y3 Xj + xi) xi) Example 12—2 We consider a member (Fig. 12—1.SEC.t Formally. The boundary conditions are 0. we obtain FAZ=---2 b2L M. it may be satisfied for a sandwich beam having a soft core. is the shear area. and subjected only to forces applied at the right end. one sets 1/A2 = 0. However. and (k) for this case. We can obtain these relations for a prismatic member by direct integration of the force-displacement t For shear deformation to be significant with respect to bending deformation. Fixed-End Case We consider next the case where both ends are fixed. E12—2) restrained at the left end.42 = W. See Prob. This is not possible for the isotropic case. We allow for the possibility of support movement at A. (i). DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 343 reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation with respect to bending deformation for the isotropic case.L2 where A.43 = (ISA! = 0 = = =0 Specializing (h).

the force-displacement relations take the form C03.- Col. In the next section.j = U3.1 = + (L — xi)F5] + + — = El2 U3 j = — 0)2 + _ — M5. .3) M52 — M2 = M3 (L — x1)F53 (b) MB3 + (L Using (b).2. 12 relations.i = t See Prob. we illustrate an alternative approach. E12—2 x2 FA3 M1.344 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.. WB 1 UB 3 MA3/ x3 / = = 3 The boundary conditions at x1 = L are (a) Integrating the force-equilibrium equations and applying (a) lead to the following expressions for the stress resultants and couples: = MT (j= 1. 12—11. which utilizes the principle of virtual forces4' Fig.

we replace MET by MET = and write the equations in matrix form: + X31B2 US' L L U82 + L3 + L L3 GJ L L (082 (053 L2 L (f) + by fB. (. (. The final relations are listed below for future reference: .43 LOA2.43 + L_ + M83 L2 L2 UA2 + LWA3 + (052 + LX3_ Mjjr + /L IL + L3\.0A3} The coefficient matrix is called the member "flexibility" matrix and is generally denoted We obtain expressions for the end forces in terms of the end displacements by inverting f.42.053 03. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 345 Integrating (c) and setting x1 = L. UA2 + U.0 + L MET Finally. 12—5. + M82 — L2 L2_ — U83 = UA3 — LWA2 — — + + L3\_ = co.SEC..0. we obtain UB1 UAI + L_ (.

2.3) MA! = —!V151 MA2 MA3 + LF53 —M53 — LF52 We list only the expressions for MA2 M43: — = 0A3) + — WA!) + (4 + a2) MA3 WA2 + (2 — 02) — —T-(uB2 — UA2) + L2 a3) WA!) + (4 + a3) C0A3 + (2 — .346 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS AE (um — UA1) CHAP. 12 = FB2 — — + + + (co82 WA3) — (coB! WA!) (u53 — UA3) + C°A2) + — (co81 — WAI) rGJ MB1 + 12E — WA1) = — L3 (082 — UA2) + + (0A3) + COA2) + MB2 — UA3) + — = — UA3) + + (2 — a2) WA!) + (4 + a2) M83 — j_ WA2 — (053 UA2) + (1)4j) -1 (4 + + (2 12E12 a3)_L_coA3 12E13 a3 where a2 = = 1+03 introduce the assumption of negligible transverse shear deformation by setting 03 = a3 = 0 The end forces at A and B are related by We (j= 1.

The resulting equations are (we set 1/GA2 = 0) (03 j = E13(u2.1 p2.1 — in3 (b) M3 (03 An alternate form of(a) is M3 + 1723.1 F. we solve (d) for 03 and substitute in (c): F2 (03. The member will experience only flexure in the X1-X2 plane under these conditions.11 + Then. M3 E13(u3 + b2 — and F2 = —m3 — El2 (02 + b2. b2 0 Once M3 is known.SEC. find F3. 11 — F3 = d4u3 — —in3 — E13(u2 1 — d2 (din3 + — b2) = 0 '\ . To simplify the discussion. Now. 12—5. we substitute forM3 in (e) and obtain a fourth-order differential equation involving 02 and the load terms: d4u2 + d2 ( b2 — '\ + I (din3 — h2) \ = 0 The problem reduces to solving (i) and satisfying the boundary conditions: F2 or 02 prescribed or (03 prescribed) Neglecting transverse shear deformation simplifies the equations somewhat. The governing equations are given by (12—23): F2 = —M3. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 347 Example 12—3 We consider next the case where the applied loads depend on the displacements. we can. we suppose the shear center is on the X2 axis and the member is loaded only in the plane. using (b). — Finally.

11 = 0 Since q is constant. one due to the applied external loading and the other due to the restraint force. Application . 12 As an illustration. Specializing (k) for this case. whereas For Ax > 0. = q/k The complete solution is U2 = (1 cos Ax1) . L leads to the equations relating the four integration constants. we have (03 = U2 M3 = E13u2. Lb as the width of the boundary layer). C4) from the conditions at x1 = L. The distributed loading consists of two terms. a beam on a linearly elastic foundation. consider the case of linear restraint against translation of the centroid. If the member length L is greater than 2(3/A) = 2Lb (we interpret 3. C3) are determined from the boundary conditions at x1 = (C3. F2 = d4u2 F3 —E13u2 + k q = or u2 prescribed 1 M3 or (03 prescrihedJ 0L The general solution of (n) is + sin A. We suppose rn3 = = 0. Enforcement of the boundary conditions at x 0. e.1 The boundary conditions at x1 = 0 (Fig.x1 + C2 cos Ax1) + sin Ax1 + C4 cos Ax1) / where u2 k represents the particular solution due to q. The function e_2x decays with increasing x.348 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Note that C3 and C4 must be of order and since u2isfiniteatx1 = L. E12—3A) are 0 u2 = M3 = E13u2. We write = q — ku3 where q denotes the external distributed load and k is the stiffness factor for the restraint. we can approximate the solution by the following: 0 x1 < Lb: = L: + + sin Ax1 + C2 cos Ax1) LB<xl<L—Lb: L — Lb < x1 u2 = sin Ax1 + C4 cos Ax1) 0 The constants (C1. increases with increasing x. and transverse shear deformation is negligible. the particular solution follows directly from (11). k is constant..g.

111 = —P12 and the solution is U2 = PA Ax1 + sin Ax1) The four basic functions encountered are = Ax + sin Ax) sin Ax = — = = e (12—26) cos Ax = — Their values over the range from Ax = 0 to Ax = 5 are presented in Table 12—1. We start with the onedimensional form of the principle of virtual forces developed in Sec. E12—3B ////////////////////j/// x2 x1 12—6.1 = 0 (Fig.SEC. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 349 q = const Fig. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION In the force method. 12—3 (see Equation 12—19): + = d1 AP1 . E12—3A //////////// ///////////////////////////////////////// X1 x2 Application 2 The boundary conditions at x1 = U2. Fig. we apply the principle of virtual forces to determine the displacement at a point and also to establish the equations relating the force redundants for a statically indeterminate member. 12—6. E12—3B) are 0 F2 = —E13u2.

We express the required virtual-force system as = AP0 (12—28) = MJ.042 —0.2 0.. The appropriate relations for the linear elastic engineering theory are given by (12—13). — where d.8 3.002 0.243 0.0 3. in the direction defined by the unit vector we apply a virtual force APQIq.261 0.001 4.179 —0.065 —0.0 1. represents an unknown displacement quantity.037 —0.QAPQ ARk==Rk.199 1.2 4.007 —0.024 —0.350 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS Table 12—i CHAP. are the actual one-dimensional deformation measures.008 0.011 —0.6 2.0 4.061 0.012 2. AP.4 3.007 —0.199 0.000 0.8 4.2 3.2 3.009 —0. and write (a) as d. We use AR.508 0.2 0.042 --0.163 0.202 0.0 0.043 —0.310 0.016 —0.617 0.014 —0.123 0.4 0. d.002 where e3.2 1.8 0.067 0.056 —0.111 —0.453 0. If a displacement is prescribed.067 —0.635 0.009 0.4 0.000 0. (12—27) + AM3)]dx.0 2.161 1. AR.004 —0.008 —0.QAPQ .6 1.4 1.020 —0.322 0.064 —0.000 0.012 —0.013 —0.128 —0.056 —0.006 0.640 0.038 —0. 12 Numerical Values of the .802 0.006 —0.310 0.6 0..102 —0.0 —0.878 0.356 0.002 —0.208 —0.078 —0.000 0. to denote a prescribed displacement and the corresponding reaction increment.965 0.004 —0.4 2..6 4.6 2.010 —0. d.143 —0.0 3.313 0 0.172 —0.8 1.109 0. and generate the necessary internal forces and reactions required for equilibrium using the one-dimensional force-equilibrium equations.031 ' 0.390 0.008 —0.012 —0.2 2.155 —0. To determine the displacement at some point.009 0.tX iJi1 Functions AX 0.6 3.008 —0.8 0.4 4.201 —0.018 —-0.007 3.8 5.009 —0.0 0.038 1.024 —0.6 3.0 4.037 —0.2 1.8 1.038 0.049 —0.6 1.057 —0.012 —0. is an external virtual force applied in the direction of The relations between the deformation measures and the internal forces depend on the material properties and the assumed stress expansions.6 0.. say Q.4 3.005 0.8 0.8 2.8 5.041 —0.090 0.025 —0. represents a displacement quantity.4 4.196 0.763 0.0 2.0 1.2 4.4 2.032 —0.026 —0.014 —0.020 —0.4 1.285 0.006 —0.024 —0.2 2. the corresponding force is actually a reaction.123 0.041 —0. AP.281 0.001 0.6 4.

(12—30) + M3\ J. We will determine the vertical Fig. one can always work with a statically determinate virtual force system. E12—4A x2 I) Centroid Q Shear center .J3/ El21 -JM3. we can express (12—29) for the elastic case in terms of V*: dQ k JxLt'AQ — (12—31) ORQ This form follows from (12—20) and applies for an arbitrary elastic material. E12--4A.. Q)]dxj (12—29) + This expression is applicable for an arbitrary material.Q i'F3\ + + + M1. 12—6.SEC. Example 12—4 We consider the channel member shown in Fig.Q 1 1dx1 J if L dA =7±JJx2s?dA Finally. The expanded form of (12—29) for the linearly elastic case follows from (12—21): dQ = + (F2\ + where $ + [(e? + Fj. but is restricted to the linear geometric case. Since the only requirement on the virtual force system is that it be statically permissible. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 351 Introducing (12—28) in (12—27) and canceling dQ = — Q leads to + k3M1. We suppose that the material is linearly elastic and that there is no support movement.

direction.. E12—4C: F2.e. •1 M3 ( F2.0 = F3. E12—4B .3) Fig. 12 displacement of the web at point Q due to— 1. =o 0 (j= 1.F2 = = +Pe M3 = —P(L — x1) F1 = F3 = M2 0 Fig. The required internal forces follow from Fig.0 = Mr. i. we must apply a unit downward force at Q. E12—4B leads to .352 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.0 2 —1 C M3. 2.Q = /L — x1) \ 0 (b) F5.2. System I I P Shear center axis Fe We take dQ positive when downward. the concentrated force P a temperature increase AT.0 M2. E12—4C I Shear center axis / S F2. To be consistent. in the — X.Q .Q (p. given by AT = a1x1 + a2x1x2 + a3x1x3 Force System Due to P Applying the equilibrium conditions to the segment shown in Fig.

we obtain dQJ = ('Lii I P Pc2 c2L r 5 1)) P 1 IL \) (f) L cxa.. we determine the vertical displacement due to P at the right end Fig.ninatio.4 JJ = ±. Jf dA = aa3x1 dA = —aa2x. and take the relation between k3 and M3 as k3 = a1M3 + (a) . 12—6. E12—5 x2 xi P "I Centroid (and shear center) of the member shown in Fig. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 353 hzitial Deformations The initial extensional strain due to the temperature increase is = a = + a2x1x. To illustrate the nonlinear case.SEC.L2 Example 12—5 When the material is nonlinear.1 d. (e) = Deter. We suppose that transverse shear deformation is negligible. + a3x1x3) (d) The equivalent one-dimensional initial deformations are e? = . E12—5. of (IQ Substituting for the forces and initial deformations in (12—30). we must use (12—29) rather than (12—30).

. represents the internal forces and reactions for the primary structure due to the prescribed external forces.0 + Mf. R1. 0.. we can find the total forces from (12—32). The first step involves selecting r force quantities. = 0 is conventionally called the primary structure. M3. k. The set (F3. Once the force redundants are known. R1. Using the force-equilibrium equations. and are generally called force redundwns. = = M3. One must select the force resultants such that the resulting primary structure is stable. = . These quantities may be either internal forces or reactions.. = F3... kZk The member corresponding to = Z2 = ''' = Z. (F1. Z1. Z. M3. and M3.AZ. and the corresponding internal forces and reactions.kZk (12—32) = + R1. we express the internal forces and reactions in terms of the prescribed external forces and the force redundants. . .354 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS 0. We suppose that the member is statically indeterminate to the rth degree. Also. and letting e2 = reduces to L the general expression for d0 k3M30dx1 Now. Note that all the force analyses are carried out on the primary structure.. M3 = —P(L M3. AM3 = MJ.. we consider the virtual-force system consisting of AZ. . Z2. — — x1) x1) x1) k3 = —Pa1(L Substituting for k3 in (b). k.. It remains to establish a system of r equations relating the force redundants.Q = —(L Then.AZ. CHAP. AR. we obtain dQ = Pa1 — — P3a3(L — x1)3 + P3a3 We describe next the application of the principle of virtual forces in the analysis of a statically indeterminate member.. k) represents the forces and reactions for the primary structure due to a unit value of Zk. 12 Noting that only F2.. With this objective.0 are finite.

we obtain k + kJMi.. . Using (12—30). r results in a set of r relating the actual deformations.k)] dx1 = k (12—33) Taking k = 1. The compatibility conditions for the linearly elastic case are given by J [(eq + + + + + + dx1 (12—34) + + A more compact form. r) (12—36) j= where 1 = fjk rr1 =J + + 1 + + + 1 dx1 => — j [(eq + F1. we suppose that the material is linearly elastic. To proceed further.. which is valid for an arbitrary elastic material. 12—6. and noting that = 0.fIcJZJ = is. . Generalizing this result. is C (7R Ic Ic (k = i... Substituting (a) in (12—27)... 2. .r) (1235) The final step involves substituting for resulting equations as . 2. (k M1 using (12—32). Since fik = fkJ. We write the = 1.. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 355 This system is statically permissible. is the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of we see that Z1 due to a unit value of ZIc. . we must express the deformations in terms of In what follows.o)F + + + + + + The various terms in (12—36) have geometrical significance.SEC. . it is also equal to the displacement in the direction of Zk due to a unit value of Z3. since they represent restrictions on the deformations. we can write = (12—37) .2. One can interpret these equations as compatibility conditions. .

=o t See. Ak represents a relative displacement (translation or rotation) of adjacent cross sections. . only F2. M3 and are finite. If we take Zk as an internal force quantity (stress resultant or stress couple).. El 2—6B. for example. and i. They are generally called superposition equations in elementary texts. E12—6A x2 x2 X3 Shear center Primary Structure One can select the positive sense of the reactions arbitrarily. The member is indeterminate to the first degree. Equation (12—37) is called Maxwell's law of reciprocal deflections.356 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.t If the material is physically nonlinear. where i. The approach is basically the same as for the linear case. We will take the reaction at B as the force redundant. j are Example 12—6 This loading (Fig. 12 corresponds to arbitrary points. The term Ak is the actual displacement of the point of application of Zk. Art.e. The following examples illustrate some of the details involved in applying the force method to statically indeterminate prismatic members. and the prescribed external forces..) We work with the twisting moment with respect to the shear center. The reactions are related to the internal forces by = R2 — Z1 R3 R4 = = +[MT]x. (12—36) are not applicable. (See Fig. One can interpret (12—36) as a superposition of the displacements due to the various effects. Fig. 13—2 in Ref. and one must start with (12—33).e. the final equations will be nonlinear. E12—6A) will produce flexure in the plane and twist about the shear center. and follows directly from (12—30). 3. However. i has the same direction and sense. minus the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of Zk due to support movement. initial strain. i.

0 qe(L q — x1) — = 0 = qL qL2 x1)2 0 R3. d2 ZI = 0 Force System Due to Prescribed External Forces q R1 Fig.0 = R4. E12—6C —__ lB Mr.0 MTo = M3.0 = F1.o F2.——p-*' b Shear center axis I qe F2. 12—6. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 357 E12—68 x2 x2 R3.0 = (b) = F3.SEC.1 Bt F2.0 R2.0 = M2.0 = — x1) R1.0 = qeL Force System Due to Z1 = + Fig.0 -.d3 R2. E12—60 M3.1 e Shear center axis .

—e R2.1=+(L—x1) = F3. we obtain fit L Le2 L3 (e) (L — x1)dx1 — The value of Z1 for no initial strain or support movement is z1 = 8 Final Forces The total forces are obtained by superimposing the forces due to the prescribed external system and the redundants: F2=F20+Z1F2.1 = —q(L—x1)+Z1 MT qe(L — x1) — — eZ1 M3 = (L — (g) = qL — Z1 R3 = L2 LZ1 — = e(qL Z1) .358 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. = M2.1 = 1 —1 M3. Specializing (12—36) for this problem.1=+1 MT. 12 F2. 1 = 0 R4•1 = —e Equation for Z1 We suppose that the member is linearly elastic.j = F1. f 11Z1 = = A1 1)2 + 1)2 + )2]dX (d) = and then substituting for the forces and evaluating the resulting integrals.

f // / / F Primary Structure = Z1 R7 = R3 = (b) Fig.0 = —q(L — x1) M3. 12—6. E12—7A q V.0 = 0 — R2.0 = qL R3. Fig. E12—78 x1 R2. we neglect transverse shear deformation.2j Force System Due to Prescribed External Forces (see Example 12—6) F2. d2 z1 =0 R1. E12—7A) will produce only flexure in the X1-X2 plane.SEC.0 = qL2 .0 = R1. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 359 Example 12—7 This loading (Fig. We suppose the material is physically nonlinear and take the expression for k3 as k3 = + a1M3 + (a) To simplify the analysis.

— = x1)2 + Z1(L — xt) Introducing (g) in (f). We take the end actions at B referred to the shear Center as the force redundants. (ajM3 + 1W'3 dx1 = = M3. We consider the case where the material is linearly elastic. E12—8A) is fixed at both ends.0 P(a — x1) . Neglecting the transverse shear deformation term (e2). — JL + Z1M3. E12—8B. = L — R1.1 = —L R21=—1 Compatibility Equation Since the material is nonlinear. + 030 and (h) reduces to = + — — — fLko(L — xi)dxi] Example 12—8 The member shown (Fig.360 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.0 = P = MT. +1 M3. = = Z3 = Z2 MTB The forces acting on the primary structure are shown in Fig. the compatibility condition reduces to J We substitute for k3 using (a): dx1 = J Now. we obtain the following cubic equation for Z1: z? (asLs) + + + = — — — x1)dx1 + For the physically linear case. and there are no support movements or initial strains.3=+1 R3. Initial Force System F2. we must use (12—33). 12 Force Due to Z1 = + 1 (see Example 12—6) F2.

E12—8B z3 x3 Fig. 12—6. E12—8A tP x2 Shear • a b L Fig.0 P A Shear center axis Px3 . FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 361 Fig. E12—8C M30 MTO ( F2.SEC.

1 F2._________________ 362 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP.2 = +1 F22 = MT. E12—8D Al31 '( L—x1 '-I ti Shear center axis F2. = 0 (e) .2 0 z3 = +1 Fig. E12—8E M3. 12 Z = +1 Fig. E12—8F Al33 (I I. —x1 //// Shear center axis =+ 1 F3. M3.1=+1 M31=L—x1 —0 (c) Z2 = +1 Fig.2 M72 ( M3.

The general solution is CL ( 2 = z2 Z3 X3 — + 2 — x1) + 6E13 — 1) j x1q dx1 .2. solving (g). and b in (h). a. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 363 Goinpatibility Equations The compatibility equations for this problem have the form JkJZJ = (k = 1. E12—8G. We can determine the force redundants by substituting for P.3) + + fkj = i: + + = f Substituting for the various forces and evaluating the resulting integrals lead to the following equations: I) \ /L 7 V l——+-—-—1Z1 +l—1Z2 \GA2 3E13) = [a [GA2 Pa2 I (a3 a2b 2 (L2\ Z1 + /L\ Z2 = '\GJJ El3 \ 3 (g) GJ 6E13 Finally. 12—6.SEC. P = q dx1 a= b=L — x1 and integrating the resulting expressions. we obtain = —P 1± 2b1 PICA L2GAZ Z3 Pox3 Z3__ Application Suppose the member is subjected to the distributed loading shown in Fig.

ASPLUND. J. H. New York. 12 where C= 1 + 12E13 L2GA2 q As an illustration. z2 = 12 Fig. 7. The accompanying sketch shows a sandwich beam consisting of a core and symmetrical face plates. 1967. McGraw-Hill. McGraw-Hill. J. : Advanced Strength of Materials.: Advanced Strength of Materials. H. TIMOSHaNKO. University of Michigan Press. 1952. B. T. McGraw-Hill.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. New York. C. 8. DEN HARTOG. and J. 4. E12—80 x2 q(xj) H REFERENCES 1. we consider the case where q is we obtain qL z1 = — — 2 const in (j). P. J. 3. McGraw-Hill. Elementary Structural Analysis. HETENY!. M.: Analysis of Framed Structures. S. Prentice-Hall. 1966. ODEN. C. Ann Arbor.. 1941. New York. MARTIN. S. Van Nostrand. 6. M. 1960. Van Nostrand. L H 2. New York. Noiuus. 1946. 0. W.364 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. Geac. New York. J. 5. The distribution of normal stress over the depth is determined by assuming a linear variation for the extensional strain: .: Introduction to Matrix Methods of StructuralAnalysis. 1966.: Structural Mechanics: Classical and Matrix Methods. and WEAVER. PROBLEMS 12-1.: Beams on Elastic Foundation. 1965.

we drop the subscript and write (b) as iVI where (EI)equiv is the equivalent homogeneous flexural rigidity.f)k3 To simplify the notation. x2 12—1 012 A* f M3 I The shearing stress distribution is determined by applying the engineering theory developed in Sec. JJ(aii. dA M (—Ex2) (e) I)equiv and noting that F2 —M3.PROBLEMS 365 = —x2k3 We relate k3 to M3 by substituting for in the definition equation for M3: M3 = M3 x2a11 dA + Ef13.2 + ba12 = Then. 11—7.i + a21. = —(Ek3)x2 ( 3)dA = o (d) cru. (d) becomes a12 = J'J x2E dA . Prob. we obtain a31. Integrating the axial force-equilibrium equation over the area A* and assuming is constant over the width. substituting for cru.

366 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS (a) CHAP. i. . small with respect to Ef. 12—2. Prob. Determine the solution for the cases sketched. are 0 and tf/h 1.e. Comment on the influence of transverse shear deformation. For the problem sketched. Specialize Equation (q) for this section and discuss when transverse shear deformation has to be considered. determine the complete solution by the displacement method. determine the complete solution for the problem presented in the accompanying sketch. Express the solution in terms of the functions defined by (12—26). Specialize part a for determine the equivalent shear rigidity (17*) and G. 12—2 q = const F x1 b 12—3. 12 (b) Apply Equations (e) and (f) to the given section. the core material is relatively soft. Also which is defined as = J) (c) dA 1 2 The member force-deformation relations are F Y2 = M3 = (EI)equjv k Refer to Example 12—1. Using the displacement method. 12—4. Also.. The flange thickness is small with respect to the core depth for a typical beam.

12—4 (0) /////////////////////////////7/////////////////// Ib) Jr (c) 12—5. provided that restraint spacing c is small in . 12—3 x2 const q Shear HeH R Prob..e.PROBLEMS 367 Prob. i. we wrote b2 = Note that k has units of force/(Iength)2. The formulation for the beam on an elastic foundation is based on a continuous distribution of stiffness. —ku2 (a) We can apply it to the system of discrete restraints diagrammed in part a of the accompanying sketch.

12—5 ( J > J . Following the approach outlined above. which we have taken as 3 3 2 (k/4E1)'14 A reasonable upper limit on c is c< Letting k4 denote the discrete stiffness. we determine the equivalent distributed stiffness k from k= kd/c Evaluate Lb with (b).E. determine the distribution of force applied to the cross members due to the concentrated load.. Prob. and then check c with (c).— J J r r + C r + (a) r III C+C L.368 ENGINEERING THEORY OF PRISMATIC MEMBERS CHAP. 12 comparison to characteristic length (boundary layer) Lb. ..11 a/2 /7/7 /7/7 (b) 7 Consider the beam of part b. P. supported by cross members which are fixed at their ends. 1 .

The governing equation for a prismatic beam on a linearly elastic foundation with transverse shear deformation included is obtained by setting b2 = q — ku2 in (i). we set (a) (b) = 0. Assume L large with respect to Lb.PROBLEMS 369 Evaluate this distribution for a=241t L=64ft c—lit 12—6. we drop the subscripts: d4u We let &112 — k d2u + k u= 1 / — d2 7 + q — and (a) takes the form d4 . Determine the expression for the boundary layer length (e3 0). Refer to Example 12—3. The homogeneous cos bx + C2 sin bx) + cos bx + C4 sin bx) where a= b 2(1 2(1 + — = To specialize (d) for negligible transverse shear deformation. Prob.12 dx 4 dx 2 — u—q Note that solution is u is dimensionless and A has units of 1/length. P /////////)///////////// ////////////)//////// a X L . Determine the solution for the loading shown. For convenience. The boundary conditions at x 0 are 0) = 0 P F2 Umax Investigate the variation of Mmax and with Consider to vary 12—6 from 0 to 1.

370 ENGINEERING THEORY OF MEMBERS CHAP. Compare this approach with that followed in Example 12—2. 12—9. 12 12—7. Consider a linearly elastic member fixed at both ends and subjected to a temperature increase Determine the end actions and displacements (translations and rotations) at mid-span. 12—11. Refer to the sketch for Prob. 12—9 12—10. 12—3. and planar loading. Consider the four-span beam shown. Determine the reaction R and centroidal displacements at x1 L/2 due to a concentrated force Pi2 applied to the web at x1 L/2. 12—8. Assuming Equation (h) is solved for Z1. bending moments at the interior supports (b) Discuss how you would employ Maxwell's law of reciprocal detlections to generate influence lines for the redundants due to a concentrated force moving from left to right. Consider a linearly elastic member fixed at the left end (A) and subjected to forces acting at the right end (B) and support movement at A. discuss how you would determine the translation u2 at x1 = L/2. Prob. reactions at the interior supports 2. the shear center coincides with the centroid. Assume linearly elastic behavior. Determine the expressions for the displacements at B in terms of the support movement at A and end forces at B with the force method. Employ the force method. Refer to Example 12—7. . (a) Compare the following choices for the force redundants with respect to computational effort: 1.

a fixed point in the cross section. The complete set of governing equations for the engineering theory arc summarized in Sec. i. 371 . Torsion and flexure are uncoupled when one works with the torsional moment about the shear center rather than the centroid. 11—7. are used. It follows that the additional shear due to warping restraint must be statically equivalent stresses. which is valid only for constant warping and no warping restraint at the ends. Venant theory. F3 acting at the shear center. Variable warping or warping restraint at the ends of the member leads to additional normal and shearing stresses. the additional normal stress.e.. and to only a torsional moment: Sfri2 dA dA 0 = (13—2) 0 To account for warping restraint.e. M3 identically.13 Restrained of. Since the St. it must satisfy dA = dA = dA = 0 (13—1) The St. Prismatic Member INTRODUCTION The engineering theory of prismatic members developed in Chapter 12 is based on the assumption that the effect of variable warping of the cross section on the normal and shearing stresses is negligible. the stress distributions predicted by the St. a 13—1. We will still assume the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. must be statically equivalent to zero. 12—4. Venant flexural shear flow distribution is obtained by applying the engineering theory developed in Sec. Venant normal stress distribution satisfies the definition equations for F'1. one must modify the torsion relations. This distribution is statically equiva- lent to F2. We also assume the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. This leads to the result that the cross section twists about the shear center.. M2. i.

X3 axes. it takes the stresses as determined from the strain (displacement) expansions.2. DISPLACEMENT EXPANSIONS. The X1 axis coincides with the centroid. X2.) = SSSbT d(vol. f is a parameter definining the warping of the cross section. The variation over the cross section is defined by Note that all seven parameters are functions only of x1. £03 are the rigid body rotations of the cross section about the shear center and the X2. This leads to force quantities consistent with the displacement parameters chosen. For pure torsion t See Sec.372 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. We assume the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. 12. . 3. we derive the governing equations for geomettrically nonlinear restrained torsion. and x3 are the coordinates of the shear center. i. x3. The second method is similar to what we employed for the engineering theory. Finally. L\u.) + JJJJT d(surface area) is identically satisfied for arbitrary displacement. We discuss next two procedures for establishing the force-displacement relations. This corresponds to a mixed formulation. and take the displacement expansions (see Fig. u1. 2. u53 are the rigid body translations of the cross section. 13 En what follows. 13—2. work with the translations of the shear center. 10—6. We use the same notation as in Chapters 11. 13—1) as U1 = U2 U1 + — W2X3 W3X2 + — w1(x3 (13—3) U3 = + w1(x2 — x2) where 4 is a prescribed function of x2.e. We obtain a system of one-dimensional force-equilibrium equations by introducing expansions for the displacements over the cross section in terms of one-dimensional displacement parameters. and— 1. X3 are principal inertia axes. since we are actually working with expansions for both displacements and stresses. EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS The principle of virtual displacementst states that JJJaT ös d(vol. . we develop the governing equations for restrained torsion.. We start by introducing displacement expansions and apply the principle of virtual displacements to establish the force parameters and force-equilibrium equations for the geometrically linear case. W2. The first method is a puredisplacement approach. We introduce expansions for the stresses in terms of the force parameters and apply the principle of virtual forces. when the stresses (r) are in equilibrium with the applied body (b) and surface (p) forces. Solutions of the governing equations for the linear mixed formulation are obtained and applied to thin-walled open and closed cross sections.

one sets f = co1. has units of (force) (length)2 and MR has units of moment.. 1x2 +f + + 2 = = us2. is called the biinornent. 1(x2 — Au1. 13—2. Notation for displacement measures.1 A1 + MR Af]dxi + MT Aw5.1 + where the two additional force parameters are defined by = MR = quantity Mci. us3. application of the principle of virtual displacements will result in seven equilibrium equations.SEC. The nonlinear strain expansions are detived in Sec. (13—4) 3 Using (13—4).. 13—1. 1 — Aw3) + F3(Au33 + Aw2) + M2 Aw2. Venant theory developed in Chapter 11). (03. The strain expansioust corresponding to (13—3) are 6j Ytz u1. dA + (13—5) Note that Mç1. the left-hand side of (a) expands to öe d(voL) + F2(Au. Since there are seven displacement parameters. x3 Shear center — —:: — —e I U52 I I x2 Centroid Fig.e. 1 — C03 — COj. . DISPLACEMENT EXPANSIONS. i = const and For unrestrained variable torsion (i. 1 1(x3 — x3) + (02 + cot. 13—9. the engineering theory = developed in Chapter 12). + M3 Ac)3. one sets f = 0. 1 + (02.e.2. The t This derivation is restricted to linear geometry. EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS (i. 373 the St.

F3. The additional load terms are m4. (c) and require the relation to be satisfied for arbitrary variations of the displacement parameters. — MR + 0 Boundary Conditions at x1 u1 0 (13—7) = u1 Us2 US3 or or or or F1 = F2 = F3 —F1 —F3 w1=w1 w3=co3 Mr=—MT M2 = f=J f=J or or or Boundary conditions at x1 = L These are the same as for x1 = For example: 0 with the minus sign replaced with a plus sign. This step involves first integrating (b) by parts to eliminate the derivatives and then equating the coefficients of the displacement parameters. The definitions of are the same as for the engineering theory. Finally. 13 To reduce the right-hand side of (a). — F3 0 0 + b3 = MTI+m-I-=O 1 + rn2 = 0 M3.3 + MTLXWI + M2Aw2 + M3 Aw3 + mj. L) (136) SJJbT Au d(vol.. F. = 4picb = Then $5pjcb dA dS = distributed bimornent = external bimoment at an end section (x1 = 0. The resulting equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are as follows: Equilibrium Equations F1 + b1 + b2 1 0 F2..2 + F3Au.1 + F2 + m3 = 0 M4.) + SSPT Au d(surface area) = Au1 + b2 1xu32 + b3 Au. mj'.374 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. we equate (b).3 ± mr + rn2 Aw2 + m3 Aw3 + m# Af]dx1 + JF1 Au1 + F2 Au. M2. or . we refer the transverse loading to the shear center.

e. 1(x3 (13—8) t M5 = = 0 for St.3. Also. To establish the relation between force parameters and the displacement parameters. 1(x2 — + f4. 2] + cot. Venant shearing FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 1 3—3. f=f O<xj<L or end cross section is restrained with respect to warping.. The condition f = 7' applies when the = + a11. 3] i cot. Venant (pure) torsion. 1 + torsion.j dA We see that (h) corresponds to the axial equilibrium equations weighted with respect to $$(a12. To interpret the equation relating MR and the bimoment. we see that one specifies either f or the bimoment at the ends of the member. 3 is due to warping restraint. Pi = 0 on the cylindrical boundary.3 + i + 4(PI — — x. 2 + c713.3a13)çdS = 0 (i) + — MR = 0 In most cases. (+ for x1 = L). i. The stress expansions are au a12 1 + — 0)3 = Gy12 = a13 = Gy13 = G[u. we consider (13-4) to define the actual (as well as virtual) strain distribution and apply the stress-strain relations. 3)dA Utilizing the axial stress equilibrium equation. the boundary condition is = ± M4. We will discuss the determination of stresses in a later section. We also consider the material to be isotropic and suppose there is no initial strain. We simply point out here that MR involves only the additional shear stresses due correspond to to warping restraint since the St. a12.2 + a13.SEC. MR = + Integrating (e) by parts leads to SS4(ail. The additional equation. DISPLACEMENT MODEL 375 We recognize the first six equations as the governing equations for the engineering theory.2 + a13. We neglect and for unrestrained variab'e . there is no surface loading on S.. 13—3. If the end cross section is free to warp. we consider the definition for MR. + X3) + f4. 1 0 we can write MR = + JJç'au.

Although our displacement expansions correspond to plane strain (&2 = = 0). F2 F3 1 and MR expand to 1 — (03 + i) + fS2 = A(u33. This additional stress must satisfy (13—1). the in-plane stresses vanish on the boundary. it seems more reasonable to use the extensional stressstrain relations for plane stress.2)dA = t F1 = M2 = + + = 0 for c11 due to warping restraint. and the reduce to: EAu1. we will take = Young's modulus. F3. In what follows. Inverting (13—10) and then substituting in the expression for lead to F1 'Yii + M2 — M3 13 + (13—Il) The expressions for F2. M3. M2.1 M2 M3 where E12w2.3 1 j cIA 13—10 We have included the subscript r on E to keep track of the normal stress due to warping restraint. requires 4 to satisfy the following orthogonality conditions :t where dA dA = dA = 0 (13—9) Assuming (13—9) is satisfied. 13 denotes the effective modulus.1 E13a. and noting that X2. the expressions for F1. Consider the expression for The term involving is due to warping of the cross section. X3 are principal centroidal axes.1 — + + — = where + + Si = polar moment of inertia = — 12 + 13 x3q5.376 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. which. Therefore. . i + + fS3 (13—12) 11c01. F. in turn.

it follows that the stress distribution . the expressions for the shearing stresses canbe written as a12 — +G 1 + f 3 — The essential step is the selection of which. The boundary condition and expressions — a12 = M1 cr13 3 — x3) - + x2) Since depends only on the cross section. 13—3. To gain some insight as to a suitable form let us reexamine the St. The displacement expansions are for u2 = —w1(x3 — U3 coj(x2 = where i= M1/GJ = const. Operating on (a) leads to =0 a12 = 2 (x3 — x3)] 7 3 + follow from the axial equilibrium The equation and boundary condition for equation and boundary condition. Venant theory of unrestrained torsion. DISPLACEMENT MODEL 377 Also. to this point.of about the centroid as in Sec.must satisfy only the ortliogonality conditions (13—9). 11—2. We suppose the section twists about an arbitrary point instead . mA — — on S We can express as = for tile stresses become C — + x'2x3 + where C is also an arbitrary constant.SEC.

one can showt that = 0 SJcbt. 11—2. + G(x2w1. Also. The cross-sectional properties and forcedisplacement relations corresponding to this choice for 4' are listed below: Properties S2 = 14. the warping function for unrestrained torsion about the shear center is orthogonal with respect to 1. . 13—1.1 + f4)t. one can shows that the equations for are identical to the equations for the coordinates of the shear center when the cross section is considered to be rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. we have shown that 4) C — T3x2 + x2x3 + (13—14) is a permissible warping function. 11—2 and Prob. = 14. See Prob. Summarizing. x3. 13 torsional constant are independent of the center of twist.2dA = 2)dA 3)2]dA 3 — $S[(4)t. 4' to satisfy (13—9). and we obtain are evaluated by requiring C= = = dA Now. x2. '13—15 2) + 3)2]dA Shear Stresses a12 = F2 + G(—x3co1. 2) + and Suppose we take 4' = The constants (C.378 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. That is.1 + (13—16) = t See Sec.

= (x3F2 GJW1. The left end (x1 = 0) is fixed with .1 — x21'3) —. we obtain f — to1. (13—18) MT = and F2(1 \J1 F3( x2x3 F3!'! + -. j W3 + . which were based on shear stress expansions satisfying (a) identically on the boundary. we apply the theory developed in the previous section to a cantilever member having a rectangular cross section. F3. Equations (13—17) show that restrained torsion results in translation of the shear center. and thc seventh equilibrium equation reduces Specializing (13—17) for this case. (See Fig. us2. (13—17) F3 j + W2 + x2(f Wi. SOLUTION FOR RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL To obtain an indication of the effect of warping restraint. We introduce the assumption of negligible restraint against warping by 0. us3. 13—4. i — + — — w1. = 0). one can show that they satisfy + =0 for arbitrary F2.1 = to2 + F2( G\ The shearing stress distributions due to F2. RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 379 Force-Displacement Relations MT = MR = G11w1. Equations (13—19) are similar in form to the results obtained in Chapter 12. 13—2).T2F3 — w1. 13—4. we point out that torsion and flexure are uncoupled only when warping restraint is neglected (F. 0. Finally. M4.+ (13—19) 14. Then.SEC. setting Er to MR = 0. We will return to this point in the next section. F3 do not satisfy the stress boundary condition 0 on S + However.

380 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13—2. 13 x3 T 2b / A Sect. Restrained torsion-cantilever with rectangular cross section. F2 = F3 = 0) (b) (c) Note that = M1 = = G11w11 + + (d) Boundary Conditions (for this example) At xj= 0. The boundary conditions are respect x1=O x1=L M1=M (a) For convenience. A-A Fig. we list the governing equations for restrained torsion: Equilibrium Equations (See (13—7)) M1. Integrating (b) and enforcing the boundary condition at = L leads to (13—20) M1 = M .1+m1=O Force-Displacement Relations (See (13—10) and (13—12).1=0 Xj We start with (b). (e) Atx1 = M 1. to both rotation and warping while the right end (x1 = L) is free to warp.

fr For )L > 2. The solution of(i) and (h) which satisfies the boundary conditions (e) is (we drop the subscript on x for convenience) f= = = {l — cosh + tanh [sinh sinh x ± + (1 — cosh tL]} (13—22) + '1 The rate of decay of the exponential terms depends on we can take tanh )L 1.21 Note that has units of(1/length)2. If the ratio G/ET and on terms derived from .. RESTRAINED TORSION—DISPLACEMENT MODEL 381 Next. the St. We refer to Lb as the characteristic length or boundary layer. depends on the assumed warping function. G11co11 + i + =M = t (f) (g) G111. By definition. — As a point of interest. and then substituting in (g) lead to (h) (i) — where 2 is defined as G [i. of the interval in which warping restraint is significant. Lh.5.SEC. we combine (c) and (d): Solving (f) for w1. 13—4. Venant solution is dw1 M (J) We see that is a measure of the length. we shall take The results obtained show that is the key parameter. and the solution reduces to I. Now. 0 (13—24) (13—25) In what follows. 13 .

The influence of warping restraint is confined to a region of the order of the depth.425 .32 We consider next the problem of locating the center of twist. 13 we take 4) the warping functiowt for unrestrained torsion defined by (13—14). we will show later that it is typical of solid and also thin-walled closed cross sections. (13—29) —e reduces to = 0 for a rectangular section and .K2— K is essentially The coefficients are tabulated in Table 13—1.156 . we find 2/b and Lb 2b. Assuming E 2.450 .23 3. the expression for takes the form 1 /G'\112 2= --.99 . We utilize the and large solution corresponding to 4) M1 fC = .16 3..2. Table b /<4 13—1 1 2 3 10 2. With these definitions.25 3.6G and K1 3.683 .964 3. Although this result was derived for a rectangular cross section.382 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. the various coefficients are related by J — — (13—26) J At this point.36 3.283 .165 .66 4.0311 . We see that constant. we restrict the discussion to a rectangular section (see Fig.21 4. 13—2) We evaluate the various integrals defined by (13—15) and write and 4) = the results as J= = K1a3b = (13—27) where the K's are dimensionless functions of b/a.

by definition of the complementary energy density. The stationary requirement. 0 (13—33) considering i. . The principle of virtual displacements requires 5e d(vol. = 13—5. g called Reissner's principle. Note that ôg is a function of Au and is obtained using the strain-displacement relations. the translations are zero at the center of twist.) = JJjbT Au d(vol. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—MIXED FORMULATION We first review briefly the basic variational principles for the three-dimensional formulation. = oc. and g = 1. is See Ref. we obtain a variational principle which leads to both sets of equations. We 1 = =— 1— 2L!1 For unrestrained warping. Setting i12 = in (13—3) and letting lead to 0 denote the coordinates of the center of twist X2 = gx2 x ) see that the center of twist approaches the shear center as x increases. This discussion is restricted to linear geometry. The nonlinear case is treated in Sec. — liT11 — V*)d(vol. 13—9.) + Au d(surface area) to be satisfied for arbitrary Au and leads to the stress-equilibrium equations and stress-boundary force relations. = By av* = combining (a) and (b). E.) — d(surface area)] = E(u). MIXEIJ FORMULATION 383 The translations of the shear center follow from (13—17): Us31 = x3(f — = —x2(f — (13—30) By definition. The stress-strain relations can be represented as since. Reissner's principle applies for arbitrary geometry and elastic material. The maximum difference occurs at x = 0 and the minimum at x = L. u as independent quantities.t and b prescribed. 0. 13—5. 10—28.SEC. 11 and Prob.

13—2.e. In a = and = mixed formulation we start by introducing expansions for the displacements.3. 13—3)... the strain-energy density. F2.i + w1. the stationary requirement on the stresses (Equation 13—34) expands to + + 1 — W3) + öF3(u.1 1 ISMT} (d) = dx1{f 0M4 + . 13—2 and the expanded form of 5$ dA is given by (b) of Sec.384 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRTSMATIC MEMBER CHAP.. and using (13—4). it must satisfy the one-dimensional equilibrium equations. The Euler equations for the displacement parameters are obtained by expanding (a). 13 The essential point to recognize is that Reissner's principle allows one to work with and u as independent quantities. One starts with (see Fig. i + + + co2) + + i — =o 13—35) In order to proceed further. We followed this approach in Chapter 12 and. We then generate expansions for the stresses in terms of the force-parameters from an equilibrium consideration. The virtual-force system must be statically permissible. using the stress-displacement relations — V* reduces to V..[ISMR + . we take as a function of u. = dxi{f. Letting represent the complementary energy per unit length along X1. one can also obtain (13—35) by applying the principle of virtual forces to a differential element. Taking u according to (13—3) and considering only MR. we outline the additional steps required for restrained torsion. we have $5 oiiTudA = ±SJISrsTudA = ±(ISMTWI + ISM4f) where the plus sign applies for a positive face. MR). i. we must express in terms of the force parameters (F1. . In a displacement formulation (Sec. since it is of interest. This requires const = Then. Instead of applying (13—34). 13—3) 5V* dx1 = op + [$$uT ISp (a) The boundary forces are the stress components acting on the end faces. This step leads to the definition of force parameters and forceequilibrium equations. Equating the coefficients of each force variation to zero results in the force-displacement relations. The relations between the force and displacement parameters are obtained from the second stationary requirement: Tx1 [f$(CT — öV*)dA]dxj = 0 (13—34) The first step was carried out in Sec.

f to establish the force-equilibrium equations by applying the equilibrium conditions to a differential element. The complementary energy density is = if dA + if + (13-36) It remains to introduce expansions for the stress components in terms of the force parameters such that the definition equations for the force parameters are identically satisfied.SEC. . e. The complementary energy due to c11 expands to —. Problem § F1 = = M3 = 0 for treats the case of a nonhomogeneous material. 1 I t The approach based on the principle of virtual forces is not applicable for the geometrically nonlinear case. Virtual force system. We obtain the force-displacement relations by applying the second procedure (principle of virtual forces) without having to introduce strain expansions. one has to have the straindisplacement relations. we consider the material to be homogeneous. due to warping restraint.1 dxj Fig. we can F1 M2 M3 (a) where satisfies the orthogonality conditions: § dA = JJx2çb c/A = c/A = 0 (b) Note that we have imposed a restriction on q5. it is relatively —aM. + WI o. However. Considering first the normal stress. To simplify the treatment.t In what follows. In certain cases.g.. linearly elastic easy and isotropic. we also suppose there is no initial strain. 13—5.5 6Mg. a curved member. 13—3.1+w11dx1 f + f. MIXED FORMULATION 385 The first procedure (based on (13—34)) is more convenient since it avoids introducing the equilibrium equations. See 1).

13 Finally. we have to distinguish between the unrestrained and restrained torsional moments: MT = + (13—38) = = It remains to determine We follow the same approach as in the engineering theory of flexural shear stress. F3. — These expansions coincide with the corresponding relations obtained with the displacement model (see (13—10)).13 f.. F3 and a" corresponds to r is = 0. it follows that due to MR: y r ('12. We write is the unrestrained is torsion distribution. The shearing stress distribution must satisfy thc definition equations for F2. we utilize the axial equilibrium equations and stress boundary condition: ('12. we utilize the results of Sec.386 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. I L.e. 11—7.2 + ('13. 11—2 through 11—4. we obtain ('11. The shear stress distribution for unrestrained torsion is treated in Sees. For a solid section. i. Since the restrained-torsion distribution is statically equivalent to a torsional moment. taking v = 0. F3. Since we are assuming no in-plane deformation. and is the distribution due to restrained torsion.2 + mA 0 + on S Differentiating the expression for au and noting the equilibrium equations.1 = F2 13 + F3 12 + MR Since satisfies (a) for arbitrary F2. MT and MR identically. 11—5.3 = MR 4 0 (mA) —- + (on 5) . we obtain F1 W3. the fiexural distribution for a thin-walled section can he obtained by applying the engineering theory where + + ('If = the flcxural distribution due to F2. (13—37) developed in Sec. We can obtain suitable expansions by adding a term due to warping restraint to the results for unrestrained torsion and fiexure. substituting for in (13—35).

we write (c1 as = where (13—41) is a cross-sectional property which depends on With this definition. MIXED FORMULAflON 387 The orthogonality conditions on and boundary condition on a' ensure thatt 0 = dA = dA = from 0 (13 —40) We solve (13—39) and then evaluate = J$[—(x3 Noting (13—40). We write the expanded form of the shear contribution as V*. we determine We consider next the complementary energy density. (13—42) MT = = = We take flow qr + When the cross section is thin-walled. . these have evaluated and results are summarized below (See Equation 11—98) /z'2 I 13 I. 13—2. 13—5.hear JJ We + + + + + (134) in Sec. 11—5.SEC. by evaluating Finally.- (c) Finally. we see that — x3)a12 + (X2 -. we neglect 0 and (a) reduces to at a free edge d and to be constant over the thickness t and work with the shear Equation (d) becomes = qV 1çô1 0 (13—43) = at a free edge The orthogonality conditions on and boundary condition on ensure that (13—44) = = (IS — 0 0 and equating to (13—41). 112 Vf = + + 23 3 (a) LI 2GJ — 11* V uf f See Prob. For convenience.

we will take Cur 0 Finally. Therefore. and equate the coefficients of oF2. = 0 since is symmetrical and a' is antisymmetrical with respect to the X2 axis.1. We evaluate using (13—39) ((13—43) for the thin-walled case).388 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. replace Mr with + Ccj. We will show later that it is possible to make vanish for a closed section by specializing the homogeneous solution of (13—43). in addition. if X2 is an axis of symmetry. in what follows. we write the coupling bctwcen flex ural and restrained torsion as = + (13—48) 1 = + X2rF3Mg) where Xjr have units of length. The resulting force-displacement I relations are U521 — 0)3 "F2 + —-. = 0).MR. The coupling between unrestrained and restrained torsion is expressed as = + (13-47) It is obvious that = 0 for a thin-walled open section since is an odd function of n whereas a' is constant over the. = 0 is a consequence of our assuming the cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. we take ISC If" — X3X2 -t-. + J (13—49) Wi. 13 The coupling term. 1/A23. thickness. OF3. we have required to satisfy the orthogonality relations and also determined a' such that there is no energy coupling between au and (C. Us3. We substitute for in (13—35).— — X2X3 -r 5) — — . Up to this point. vanishes when the section has an axis of symmetry.1 + 0)2 = GA23 = C.F3) The corresponding relations for the displacement model are given by (13—12). If.j I+I = MR + 1 (x3.F2 + x2.+ — A3 F3 x3. and write the results as Also = if if + (13—46) where Cr is a dimensionless factor which depends on q5. and <5MR.

l4.1. For convenience. SOLUTION FOR RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION We suppose only torsional loading is applied. + in4. RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 389 Cçt. 13—7 and 13—8. 1 + 112T = 0 MT— Force-Displacement Relations (4> E. We discuss the determination of 4> in Secs. we neglect shear deformation due to restrained torsion by setting Cr = X2r = X3r 1 = 0 (13—52) This assumption leads to the center of twist coinciding with the shear center and (13—53) One now has to determine If from the equilibrium relation. co2. Equilibrium Equations MT. The force-displacement relations are obtained by setting F2. 13—3. f See Prob. 13—6. we summarize the governing equations below. it is more convenient to work with tsr — — AS — AK:' In what follows. is known.. We include the minus sign so that C1 .SEC. w3 equal to zero and C. One neglects shear deformations due to flexure by setting (13-51) Similarly. We then discuss the application to open and closed cross section. F3.j 1 AK — = GJw1. = +1 MrT=+MR (13—50 Note that is the warping function for unrestrained torsion about the shear center.1 GJ +f) will be positive. +1 in (13—49). 13—6. we outline the solution procedure for restrained torsion and list results for various loadings.

390 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 1 = = dx1 = + (13—54) We start by integrating (a): MT C1 — C1 Substituting (c) in (b) and (13—54) leads to the governing equations for w1 and f: (1 + Cr)O)i. C1x1 I C f — = (C1 + where . 13—4. (f) becomes Eric. The general solution for f and has the following form: f Wi C3 cosh 2x + C4 sinh 2x — + (13—56) = — + C2 + sinh 2x + C4 cosh 2x) — is the particular solution due to on x1 for convenience. t The corresponding paramater for the We have dropped the subscript formulation is 2 (see (13—21)).1 + f) = 0 After some manipulation. 13 Boundary Conditions MT or or prescribed at each end Translations of the Shear renter u52.t + GJ(w1. .. (i) of Sec.12 is defined ast cc = 1 + Cr ErI# (1355) 22 C Equation (g) corresponds to (h).

The expressions for! differ by a minus sign.L. cosh [ M — t The corresponding solution based on the displacement model is given by (13—22). The remaining constants are deter- mined from w1—f——0 atx=0 atx=L and the final solution ist M[ GJ WI coshA(L—x) cosh AL {sinh AL — sinh A(L — x)} (13—57) [x — M r LA —c 1 sinh ). that AL will be large with respect to unity for a closed section. . we list for future reference the solution for various loading and boundary conditions. 13—6.SEC.(L — x) cosh . E13—1 X1 The boundary conditions (Fig. = 0 = 0 and C1 = M. on the basis of the results obtained there. Example 13—1 Cantilever—Concentrated Moment Fig. This is due to our choice of We took in the displacement model and = in the mixed model. 13—4. We will return to the evaluation of A in the next section. RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 391 The significance of A has been discussed in Sec. We should expect. (13—26). E13—l) are x=O x=L Starting with (13—54). In the examples below. we set cv1=f=O f..

(j x3.L 0.. cosh .. 0s3 to = 0. = and requiring u.L — sinh A.. Example 13—2 We consider next the case where warping is restrained at both ends. 1 when the complementary energy term due to the restrained torsion shear stress (o') is neglected. The translations of the shear center are obtained by integrating u. in this case. . g —1 + x — ——f—-— [sinh ).. c (13—59) — x1] The limiting of g occur at x = (13—60) 1 1 + k) is an axis of symmetry for the cross section. Note that Xi. the center of twist coincides with the shear center throughout the length. There is no twist or translation at x = 0.2. (13—32) for the displacement model solution.U X3.._______ 392 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. We determine g(O) by applying L'I-IOspital's rule to (13—59). x2. = 0 if X.2 — =u. vanish at x = U. = u.U I u=j Let M1dx=x—co1 M (13-58) denote the coordinates and translations of the center of twist. = = 0 if we neglect shear deformation due to the restrained shear stress and. we obtain t X2 — — x3) = 0 —X2)=0 — — gx3. the left end (x = 0) is fixed and the right end rotates a specified amount w under the action of a torsional moment. Also. 13 Note that C. By definition.3 + Substituting for and w1.2 = We write the result as = X2.2. The boundary conditions are x=0 x=L co1=f=0 ce1=w [=0 f See (13—31). L..

C2 2/AL.60 . RESTRAINED TORSION—MIXED FORMULATION 393 To simplify the analysis. MT = C1 f = C3 cosh Ax + C4 sinh = + C2 — — {C3 sinh Ax + C4 cosh Ax} and enforcing the boundary conditions leads to the following relations: C3=— = C1L 11—c s = sinh AL GJ = cosh AL 4 C. sinh Ax — — (1361) (01 cosh Ax) — sinh Ax]} = ci {i = Mç1.5 1 0.48 4 .98 . 13—6. as M = where L. [2(1 — c)11 + = (0 1 C1( = + Ax /1—c'\ + (1. For AL > 4.SEC. we suppose there is no distributed load.5 =L r 2C (c— 1'\1 (13-62) = L(1 — cC3) The following table shows the variation of with AL. Note = 1 if transverse shear deformation due to restrained torsion is neglected.76 2 3 . (0. — [cosh Ax + sirih Ax]} — = ErI#A {sinh Ax + (L__f) cosh Ax} We write the relation between the end rotation. that AL C3 0. and the end moment M.ff denotes the effective length: L.924 . Starting with the general solution.

i. AL The solution represents an upper bound..x — c) MT = —mx = . by taking .394 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13 Example 13—3 Uniform Distributed Moment-Symmetrical Supports The general solution for m for convenience) is: MT = C1 — ?flX f= —coshAx + C1 C3 C4. A lower bound is obtained by allowing the section to wrap.nL1— 1 x (13—64) + AL c= AL s= . — C1 + flIX = x + C2 — m /x2 + — c (a) (C3 sirth Ax + C4 cosh Ax) We consider the boundary conditions to be identical at both ends and measure x from the midpoint (Fig. Symmetry requires MT=O} and (a) reduces to atx=O (b) MT = [= sinh Ax + x (13-63) — = C2 — + cosh xx We treat first the case where the end section is fixed with respect to both rotation and warping.. E13—3).e. Requiring (13—63) to satisfy f= results in =0 sinh Ax} at x = L/2 (a) I= CO1 {x — mL2 fi[ U— ( /x"t21 j+ C ) (cosh .

We first determine the cross-sectional and then obtain general expressions for properties corresponding to = — the stresses in terms of dimensionless geometric parameters.SEC. APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS In what follows.t is positive when translation in the + S direction rotates the position vector about the + X1 direction. I AL cosh Ax — c= cosh 13—7. Consider the arbitrary segment shown in Fig. The unrestrained torsional shear flow is zero By definition. We select a positive sense for S and an arbitrary origin (point P). — c) = —mx ( —x+fsinhAx C (13—65) = IC. Ic1 = We work with q" rather than and mixed sections where one generates q" in terms of to facilitate treatment of closed . The unrestrained torsion warping function is obtained by applying (11—29) to the centerline curve and requiring the section to rotate about the shear center. 13—7. E13—3 —x1 H and the result is f= {x — xc sinh mL2 (1 [ — j+ C. Before discussing the individual sections. APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 395 Fig. we apply the mixed formulation theory to a wide flange section and also to a channel section. 13—4. we briefly outline the procedure for an arbitrary section.

The remaining orthogonality conditions (a'j1 0). The distribution of 4) for the three branches is given by A— B 4)p+$gpscdS 4) B—C B—D b4)B+JopscdS C We are taking the origin at B for branches B — tSeeProb. orthogonality condition dS =0 If the section has an axis of symmetry. and B — D. Then. Also. we apply (13—67) to each branch. consider the section shown in Fig. The constant is evaluated by enforcing the —* F1 = 0). 13—4. 13 for an open section. One has only to require continuity of 4) at the junction point. When the section has branches. varies linearly with S when the segment is straight. 13—1. if we take P on the symmetry ?v. As an illustration.396 RESTRAfNED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. . $4x2tdS = 0 are identically satisfied by definition of the shear center. t x3 Shear center IPsc x2 Fig.t2 = M3 axis. Notation for determination of the warping function. = 0. 13—5. taking = — and integrating leads to pscclS sP (13—67) Note that one can select the sense of S arbitrarily.

we need the fiexural shear stress distributions. a + direction. we let = 145 (13—68) With this notation.q p S.e. and with (13—10). Once and are known.q Fig. we can evaluate 1w. Forconvenience.. the resulting expression simplifies to + J S q5tdS = + (13—69) We start at a free edge and work inward. APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS 397 The shear flow due to is obtained by integrating (13—43) and noting qr (13—50). (13—46): = JJqYdA = 542tdS Cr = if + In order to evaluate XZr. Then. 13—5. i. A +q points in the +S direction corresponds to _qr.SEC. S. Example of a section with branches. X3r. If the section has an axis of symmetry. and write We let q(J) be the distribution due to qU) (13—71) j=2 j=3 '(=3 k= 2 . is an odd function with respect to the axis and x3 is an even function. qr acting in the —S (see Fig. 13—5). 13—7.

we have only to modify the equaand We will discuss this further in the next section. apply for an arbitrary thinThe definition equations for Cr. When the section is closed. 13 The coupling terms are defined by (13—-48). X3. Ia. is an even function of x3. = 0 if X3 is an axis of symmetry. Applying (13—67). we obtain q5=O q5 = S forweb for flange Note that the sense of S is reversed for the bottom flange.398 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. which reduces to I j q q — X3r + X21. and walled section. .. for a thin-walled section with 4) = — Substituting for qr and qf results in J I X3r 3dS (13-72) — = Y t If X2 is an axis of symmetry. Fig. x2r. E13—4A x3 1. By analogy. it follows that the shear center coincides with the centroid and the warping function is odd with respect to K2. and X3r = 0. tions for 4) Example 13—4 Symmetrical I Section The I section shown (Fig. x2. El 3—4A) has two axes of symmetry. qt2t is an odd function.

SEC. 13—7.

APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS

399

The shear flow vanishes at S = ± b/2. Applying (13—69) and starting from pt. A, we find

=
The distributions of

=
S-b/2

(25)2]

and q' are shown in Fig. E13—4B, where the arrows indicate the

sense of q' for + Ms-.
Fig. E13—48
b2ht

Plot

Plot of qr

We express the cross-sectional properties in terms of Ii, t, and a shape factor

= b/h
3 =
ht3
th5

+

=

=

(t)2

8(1 +
=
The dimensionless parameters occurring in the solution of the differential equations for the mixed formulations are and AL (see (13—55)). Using (c) and assuming a value of 1/3 for Poisson's ratio, we write

[3(1 +
=

I

AL

=

400

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PR!SMATtC MEMBER CHAP. 13

The coefficients

are tabulated below:

0.75

2.4 2.66
3.2

3

4.22

0.50

6.93

1. The warping parameter, ),L, depends Since (t/h)2 << 1 and 0(1), we see that on t//i as well as L/h. This is the essential difference between open and closed cross sections. For the solid section, we found that AL = 0(L/h) and, since L/h is generally large in com-

parison to unity, the influence of restrained warping is Iocalized.f The value of AL for an open section is O(L//,) 00/1,) and the effect of warping restraint is no longer confined to a region on the order of the depth at the end but extends further into the interior.

We consider next the determination of the stresses due to restrained warping. The
general expressions are
M4,

dTts

r

q

=

7
6

Using the distribution for çb and qr shown above, the maximum values of normal and shear

stress are
=

=

The shearing stress due to unrestrained torsion is obtained from
3

To gain some insight as to the relative magnitude of the various strcsses, we consider a member fully restrained at one end and subjected to a torsional moment M at the other end. This problem is solved in Example 13—1. The maximum values of the moments are
tanh
AL

atx = 0
J

= C5M

We substitute for the moments in (f), (g) and write the results in terms

the maximum

t We defined the boundary layer length,

(sec (13—24). (13—25)) as
0
Lh

4

L

;.L

SEC. 13—7.
shear

APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS

stress for unrestrained torsion:
,,, =

tanh

(f))
Mt

The variation of these coefficients with b/h is shown below:
b
1?

1

2

0.75 0.50

2.11 2.31

1.5 1.67 2

Since

and

are of 0(1), it follows that

=

0(d)

The additional shearing stress (at) is small in comparison to the unrestrained valu
Therefore, it is reasonable to neglect the terms in the complementary energy density due to ic., to take C, = 1 for an open section. We will show in the next section 0 and that this assumption is not valid for a closed section.

Example

13—5

Channel Section
symmetry,

We consider next the channel section shown in Fig. El3—SA. Since X2 is an axis of = x3, = 0. The expressions for the location of the centroid, shear center,
Fig. E13—5A
S

Shear
center

x2

402

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13

and 12 are

=

b

I+
I+

e=b

=be

th3
b h

The dimensionless coefficient? is essentially constant, as the following table shows:
b
h

?

1.00
0.75

0.50

0.429 0.409 0.375

We determine by applying (13—67) to the three segments. Taking S as indicated above, and noting that is odd with respect to X2, we obtain:

Segment 1—2
6
Psc

=

=
Segment 2—3

hh(

- -S

bh(

2S\

The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—5B. Since? < 1/2, the maximum value of q5 occurs

at point I (and 4). We generate next the distribution of and using (b):

starting at point 1 (since q =

0

at that point)

Segment 1—2
S

bin

152

Segment 2—3

/
=
The distribution of

'\

+

+

s2

is plotted in Fig. El3--5C.

SEC. 13—7.

APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED OPEN CROSS SECTIONS

403

Fig. E13—5B

—(1— e)

—e

Distribution of
Fig. E13—SC

D2®
D1

)+Mi
D2
I

D2

0

0
Distribution of qr/1242t

The expressions lbr J, example:

and AL are written in the same form as for the previous

I=

(1 ±
+

=

I —h5
c
(t'\2
=

±

+

+

+

(t\2 f=

Cs =
AL

=

(t)

=

404

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13

The following table shows the variation

and

with b/h for G/E. = 3/8. i.e., Poisson's

ratio equal to 1/3. Note that the comments made for the wide-flange section also apply
to the channel section.

c =—
h
1

b

2.33
2.65 3.4

2.55
3.39

0.75 0.50

5.24

In order to evaluate X2r, we need the flexural shear stress distribution due to F3. Applying (11—106) leads to

Segment 1—2
4(3)

Segment 2—3
4(3) =

— S)

The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—SD; the arrows indicate the sense of q for a +F3.
Fig. E13—5D

+

I

I

t÷F3

t

—1

Distribution of

/2

lb/it

SEC. 13—8.

THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS
and the cross-sectional constants in (13—72) leads to

405

Substituting for

=
=

(t\2
(1 +

+

+

The coefficient is of order unity, as the following table shows:

1

0.926
1.03

0.5

In Example 13—1, we determined expressions for the coordinates of the center of twist in terms of .'c,, and It is of interest to evaluate these expressions for this cross section.

The coordinates at x

0(sec (13—59), (13—60)) are

=

0

= X2

——i—1

+

Substituting for

and evaluating

we obtain
X2

=
=

1

0.5

0.476 0.625

0.836 0.485

13—8.

APPLICATION TO THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS

We treat first a single closed cell and then generalize the procedure for multicell sections. Consider the section shown in Fig. 13—6. The +S direction is from X2 toward X3 (corresponding to a rotation about the +X1 direction). Using the results developed in Sec. 11—4, the shear flow for unrestrained tor-

sion is

q =-1-C

2A

406

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13

where A is the area enclosed by the centerline curve. The shearing stress varies

linearly over the thickness,

=

+

C'\

—) =

+

but the open-section term has a zero resultant.
x3
q

S

x2

Fig. 13—6. Notation for single closed cell.

Substituting for qU in (13—66), taking 4 P lead to
CS

and integrating from point

=
We determine
by enforcing

+

dS — C

(13—73)

=

0

The two additional orthogonality conditions
4x2gbtdS =
0

are identically satisfied by definition of the shear center. t The shear flow due to is defined by (13—69),

q=—-7--q 14
+ Q4
t Noting that x2t =
dQs/ds, we can write

#x24.t = We merely have to identify this term as the moment of the flexural shear stress about the shear center. See Prob. 11-12.

SEC. 13—8.

THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS

407

where

is

indeterminate. Our formulation is based on no energy coupling
i.e., we require (see (13 --47))

between qU and

=

(13—74)

Noting that

is constant for a single cell, and using (e), we obtain

f
=
——

dS

(13—75)

The flexural shear flow distributions for F2, F3 are generated with (11—110). We merely point out here that there is no energy coupling between qU and
quqf
0

(f)

tion, i.e., w1

One can interpret (13—74) and (f) as requiring qr to lead to no twist deforma0. We have expressed the fiexural shear flows as (see (13—71)):
ft — qjij=q
(J) —

FJ_0)

j=3 k=2
Cr

=

2

k

Finally, the definition equations for the cross-sectional properties have the same form as for the open-section:
Eq. 13—70
Eq. 13—72
X2 is an axis of symmetry. Then, is an odd function of x3. If we take the origin for S (point p) on the X2 axis, = 0. Also, is an even function of x3 and = 0. In what follows, we illustrate the application of the procedure to a rectangular cross section.

Example

13—6

Rectangular Section—C'onsta,,t Thickness
Applying (13—73) and taking q5 = 0 at point
shown in (Fig. E13—6A) leads to

ci + b

fa — b\

The distribution is plotted in Fig. E13—6B. Note that

=

0

when a =

b,

i.e., a square

section of constant thickness does not warp.

408

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
Fig. E13-.6A

T
Centroid

- x2

2a—

Fig. E13—6B

(a—b
+
b

Distribution of

We determine Q4, by integrating (a),

= at

— b'\ S2
(

+ bJ — 2
(a — b\

for segment 1—2
for segment 2—3

= (Q4 +
and evaluate
with (13—75):

/ a+b1\
dS

.11

a—b

SEC. 13—8.

THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS

409

The distribution of

follows from (b), (c),
2

j(

2a\)

2a(S

1(S\2\

j/

2a

2 \a+b
corresponds to q' acting in the clockwise and is plotted in Fig. E13—6C. Note that (— S) direction for + Ms-. Also, D is negative for b > a.
Fig. E13—6C

x3

b

T
2a
b

q'/D

qr(+

D-

2

We introduce a shape factor (,
depth width
b

a

410

RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 13
The resulting relations are

and express the various coefficients in terms of a, t, and

J=
=

16a3t

(neglecting

the contribution oft)

4a5t [2(1
4

LATh
+
+

+
5(1

9(1
I
x2, = x3,.

(G'\ /
0

\) 1/2 L

L

=

The variation of C,,

and = -a

with b/a is shown in the table below;
C,

b

L;f for

.'

G

3 8

\

E

2
3

cc 10.43 4.41

0

0.98
1.27

0.0877 0.185

1.39

We found

(g)

=0

T)
IL

for an open section. Our results for the single cell indicate that

=0
C,>> 1
C,
1

for a closed section. We obtained a similar result for using the displacement-model formulation for a solid section. Since is due to the restrained shearing stress (q'), we see that shear deformation due to q' cannot be neglected for a closed cross section. We discuss next the determination of the normal and shearing stresses due to warping. The general expressions are

°isq
q'
t

tie

We consider the same problem as was treated in Example 13—4. we consider the section shown in Fig. we found the restrainedtorsion shear stress to be of the order of (thickness/depth) times the unrestrained shear stress.e.44 +0. (point 2) 0 1. i. 13—8. In the open section case.46 (point 3) 0 2 3 —1.L 0$ .C The variation of and 2 with height/width is shown below. M( = J which reduces to + C MC = since M = 7 = = we are considering the section to be thin-walled.65 For large tanh I and we see that both the normal and shear stress are of the order of the unrestrained-torsion stress.04 (point 1) 0 —0.I [3C. We nttmber the cells consecutively and take the +S sense from X2 to X3 for the closed segments and inward for the open segments. The unrestrained-torsion analysis for this section is treated in Sec. The maximum stresses are 2 i tanh 2. 13—7.nax. we summarize the essential results here. THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 411 The maximum normal stress occurs at point 2 while the maximum shear stress can occur at either points I or 3. To illustrate the procedure for a multicell section.1112 — S. = 1 h/a c. 11—11). We are taking Poisson's ratio equal to 1/3. a member fully restrained at one end and subjected to a torsional moment M at the other end. We express the stresses in terms of ag.SEC. 11—4 (see Fig. The total shear flow is obtained by superimposing the individual ccli flows q' = qU = 0 for an exterior (open) segment constant for an interior segment — We let WIT (U — .. For convenience. the maximum shear stress for unrestrained torsion..51 +0.35 —0.

at the junction points b. 13—7. at b.t = for each cell leads to 2A = where a. For example.S q1 . A are defined as f = a21 .S1 Fig. w1. The constants C1. A2} The warping function is generated by applying (13—6): 4' a = = Psc — (13—76) 7 We start at point P1 in cell 1 and integrate around the centerline. C2 are determined by requiring each cell to have the same twist deformation. and d. enforcing continuity of 4.Jsj t — dS dS = A = {A1.412 e RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. c. . we require t See also (11—32). Enforcing (11—67). 13 "2 + q. Notation for mixed cross section.

The shear flow for restrained torsion is obtained with (13—69): a as 0 if P1 = The steps are the same as for the flexural shear determination discussed in Sec. = and express the shear flow as J = 1. 2 (13—77) + ii. Finally. j. P2 as the redundants. substituting for we obtain 0 j = 1. i..: Jb = 4)e + j Psc dS = + — dS Repeating for points C and d results in the distribution of 4) expressed in One can easily verify that 4) is continuous. For example. & determined terms of determined from segment cdcL. has the same form as We just have to replace C with C'S. we from segment ca is equal to evaluate by enforcing JJ4)dA=J4)tdS=O where the integral extends over the total centerline.e. e andf The redundant shear flows are evaluated by requiring no energy coupling between qU and qr which is equivalent to requiring qr to lead to no twist deformation. 13—7)..SEC. Noting (c). 11—7. we can write = Finally. at point b (see Fig. 13—8. + = Note that = 0 at points P1. Note that is taken on an axis of symmetry. where Zj0 is the open section distribution and (13—78) is due to The distribution. We take the shear flow at points P1..2 (13—79) aCr = B 1' — dS (13—80) f See footnote on page 385. P2. THIN-WALLED CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS 413 which leads to a relation between and 4). . We generate by integrating (i) around the centerline. and enforcing equilibrium at the junction points.

2 l.414 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. We take the displacement expansions according to (13—3) and use the strain- = V*(o. Also we can readily generalize the above approach for an n-cell section. 10—28. i. 1 — co1.e. xar) can be evaluated. the cross-sectional properties (1 . plane Stress.3U3..1j3 + U31 + 1)2 The in-plane strain measures (62. Substituting for the displacements and noting the definition equations for the force parameters. i — T2w1. prescribed. one introduces expansions for both stresses and dis- placements. 1)] M0f1 + MRf + 1 + i+ MQW1W1. Actually we assume O'22 = 1723 0. 1 3—9. which is negligible according to the assumption of sinai! finite rotations. Y23) are of 0(w2). we must use (10—28). 13 Once 4) and zir are known. Eq. i.e. 63.. The linear case was treated in Sec. This approach is a mixed formulation. displacement relations for small strain and small finite rotations4 U1 112 = U1 + C02X3 — W3X2 + /4) cn1(x3 — x3) U3 = + w1(x2 = Yiz = Y13 + + (13—81 + U2. sin w and cos w 1. To be consistent. . 13—33 and corresponding footnote. Our starting point is the stationary requirement t — V*)d(vol.e. i — w1. + M3[w3. 1}dxj f See Eqs. the first term in (a) expands to d(vol. 10—3. are independent variables. To extend the formulation into the geometrically nonlinear realm is straightforward.) = 1 1 1)] — W3 + + F2[u..). i + F3[u53 S + — t+ + M2{w2.) — d(surface area)] 0 a. i. See Sec.1 + U3.2.. we establish the governing equations for geometrically nonlinear restrained torsion by applying Reissner's principle. 13—5. Tile displacement expansions assume small-finite rotation. One has only to introduce the appropriate nonlinear strain-displacement relations. We are working with Kirchhoff Stress and Lagrangian strain here. 1(u52 i + x3w1. X2r. Ci. GOVERNING EQUATIONS—GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR RESTRAINED TORSION In this section. C and b are where e(u).

MR. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 415 where the two additional force parameters are = ÷ MQ = $J(x2c12 + x3a13)dA The terms involving the external forces have the same form as for the linear case. q. Introducing (a) in the definition and MQ leads to = = $2 f11F1 + fl2M2 + fl3M3 + + + = if if if 4. We proceed as follows. Two additional force measures (Me. there are 8 force M3. 13--5): a11 F1 A ± M2 —1—-x3 — -T—X2 M3 13 + ± = — + &ij + MT + _.- Il equations for where 4. f. It remains to introduce expansions for the stresses in terms of the independent force parameters and to expand V*. F1 (see Sec. = (13-84) $3 = /34. x3. + .. but we list them again here for convenience (see (13—6)): JJcbTu d(vol. for example.) + jJpTu d(surface area) + + F1u1 + where the end forces (the barred quantities) are defined as previously. MQ) are present for the nonlinear case but they can be related to the previous force measures. + + mrwi + in2w2 + m3oj3 + rn4f)dxi + F3u33 + MTO1 + M2(02 + M3co3 + (13—83) = (5Jp1 etc.SEC. and M4. We use the stress expansions employed for the linear case with = They are summarized below for convenience measures. 13—9. h2 and h3 are functions of x2. In the linear case.

1 + F2 + m3 = M2.A + '2 + —-—— 13) + 1 + ——' + + + + ((Mw + + X2rF3) We have shown that it is quite reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation due to warping (C.. 1 — F3 — 0 0 + t See Prob. 3) = (13—85) + = Certain coefficients vanish if the cross section has an axis of symmetry4 One can readily verify that fi1F1 MQ (13—86) 0 when the section is doubly symmetric. . Substituting Equations (13—82)—(13—87) in Reissner's functional and re- quiring it to be stationary with respect to the seven displacement and eight force measures leads to the following governing equations: Equilibrium Equations F1. 13—12. X2r X3r = 0) for a thin-walled open section. we will retain all the terms here.1 + b1 = 0 j+ — + — w1F3 — w1 1M2} + b2 0 0 + F3 + w1F2 — wi. 13 andt MQ — + $J(x2h2k + +xlh3k)dA + (k = 2. The complementary energy density function has the same form as for the linear case: — = —----' 1 2Ek.416 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. See Prob. + + + = 0 + m2 = M3. 13—il. For generality.1M3} + b3 = 1 1 (1 + + (1 + — + 1 1 + 2J32w1.

. 1 + (1 + + M2(—u52. 1M3 + F3 + w1F2 — ±F3 1 + 7J1w1. 13—13. w3 + — i) 1FF2 + + F3 + X3r = — + wi[u53.1M2 = ±F2 — x2w1. t See Prob. [CrM?+ X3rF2 + Boundarp = I' + — + Conditions (+ for x1 = L. a member subjected to an axial force and torsional moment. 13—9. for x1 = 0) u1 prescribed or F1 = prescribed or prescribed or wi prescribed or + (0j(172F2 + + T3w1.j + + (02 prescribed or M2 = ±M2 (03 prescribed or M3 = ± M3 prescribed or = ± + (I + 1+ + = ±MT f These equations simplify considerably when the cross section is symmetric and transverse shear deformation is neglected.1' We discuss the general solution of (13—88) in Chapter 18.1 + (0l.j + /32(01.j(—US2.1) = 1.SEC.1) + F2 — wjF3 (01. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 417 where Relations = 1+ 1+ 1 + Wj. 1 i — x2uS3. 1/33] 1FF2 1 MrTJ = + + (02 + 1+ G = M (13—88) = = (02. The following example treats one of the cases.1) + + j + /33(01. 1 — Wj.

418 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. lead to F1 = M1 + /31F1w1. We are interested here in evaluating the influence of axial force on the torsional behavior.11 2 .ji F1 = i + Boundary conditions .1 = Al Integrating the last two equations in (a) and noting the boundary conditions. E13—7A P M F L Equilibrium Equations (symmetrical cross section and no distributed load) = F1. const = corlst =P =M The first equilibrium equation takes the form 1. The linear solution (with no axial force) was derived in Example 13—i. d dx1 0 (M1 + i) = 0 Force-Displacement Relations = GJw11 = ErI. 13 Example 13—7 We consider a prismatic member (see Fig. E13—7A) having a doubly symmetric cross section. x2 Fig. fully restrained at one end and loaded by an axial force P and torsional moment M.xi=O xj = L F1 P = 0 M1 + J3tF1w1.

13—6 when P = 0. The various coefficients (see Example 13—4) are In order for J= + .J to be less than the yield stress. A tensile force (P > 0) increases the torsional stiffness whereas a compressive force (P < 0) decreases the stiffness. We let F.) Finally. The general solution is. Equation (h) shows that the limiting value of P is 1.:ij 2GJ GJA i±P I+ + F) This expression reduces to Equation (g) of Sec. GOVERNING EQUATIONS 419 where P11 7. (J/11) must be small with respect to unity. which expands to + F + when we substitute for M1 using (b). M— f M f= [GJ C1 cosli .ux + C2 smh (i + + = C3 + Mx {i + — {C1 sinh px + C2 cosh (We drop the subscript on x1 for convenience. Once f is known.SEC. consider the section shown in Fig. E13—7B. 13—9. specializing (g) for these particular boundary conditions result in f= wi = { —1 + cosh — — — tanh sinh {sinh jtx + (1 — cosh These equations reduce to (13-57) when P = 0. As an illustration. we can determine the rotation by integrating (d). represent the critical axial force and the corresponding axial stress 11 (.

CHRISTENSEN: "Methods of Analysis of Torsion with Variable Twist. New York. K. T. B. T. 4.S. 5. israel Program for Scientific Translations. Pergarnon Press.. Dept. G (t'\2( REFERENCES 1. 10. 1967. MAISEL.. pp. HEILIG. 1961. Sci. VON VLASOV.: Variational Methods in and Plasticity. B.. S.. 1969." Technical Report 440. IJ. McGraw-Hill. CHIEN: "Torsion with Variable Twist. and N. No. of Commerce.: "Review of Literature Related to the Analysis and Design of ThinWalled Beams." J. Franklin Inst. 1954." J. July 1970. Washington.: "Secondary Stresses in Thin-Walled Beams with Closed Cross Sections." J. J. C.C.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. 3. D. I. 12. Springer-Verlag. BASLER: Torsion in Structures.. KOLLORUNNER. 6. V. Sci. C.. 1968. 110—124. 2. April 1961. 13 Fig. C.: "l3eitrag zur Theorie der Kastentrhger beliehiger Der Stahlbau. 8. April 1944. Mech. U. 10. Aero." NACA—TN 2529. D.: "Der Schuberverformungseinfiuss auf die Wölbkrafttorsion Von Stilben mit offenern Profil. HEILIG. Cement and Concrete Association.. E13—78 x3 X2 and r." Der Stahlbau. TIMOSHENKO. December 1961. BENSCOTER. 1951.: "A Theory of Torsion Bending for Multiceil Beams. J:: "Theory of Bending. Office of Technical Services. Vol. and K. VON KARMAN. 503—510. S. pp. Torsion and Buckling of Thin-Walled Members of Open Cross Section. R.559—609. S.420 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. 9.. BENSCOTER.: Thin Walled Elastic Brains.. 1945. Aero. 1. Z. 13. October 1946. U. Washington. Berlin. Appi. R. and W." J. Ii. London. . 7. F. Vol 21. pp. No. T.

London. 13—3. 23. A. AppI. T.: "Gekrüinmte dUnnwandige Trager. June 1956. The shear stress distribution due to is given by (see (11—95)) F2 ' 3 = where F2 13 2 (733 13 are fiexural warping functions which satisfy = — x2 (in A) (onS) This result applies when the cross section is assumed to be rigid with respect to in-plane deformation. No. is the St. G.: Buckling Strength of Metal Structures. 1968. 1952. 11—11 Verify (13—40) and (13—44). The coordinate of the shear center is defined by = X3 if X3 3 where 13—2. . Chatto and Windus. Part 1. Mech.: Thin. Equation (b)) is given by IVIT O'12 . Prentice-Hall. R.J. This problem reviews the subject of the chapter in two aspects. GALAMBOS. REISSER.: Structural Members and Fiames. CHILVER. DABROWSKi. 16. and H. New York. H. and Equation (11—97). 17. Verify that + x2 — — x2] The restrained torsional shear stress distribution is determined from = MR when ç& = and (a) is enforced. V. F. 2.: "Note on Torsion with Variable Twist. pp." . BURGERMEISTER. Berlin. McGraw-Hill. 18. 15. BLEICH." Springer-Verlag. 1968. PROBLEMS 13—1. 1967..f U = — X3 + X3] — = (13—39). E.Walled Structures. 1957. Hint: See Prob.. 13—3. Vol. 315—316. Berlin. Venant torsional warping function. Akademie Verlag.PROBLEMS 13. (a) No coupling between the unrestrained and restrained torsional distribution requires 0 + The unrestrained torsional shear stress distribution for twist about the shear center (see Sec. 421 14. STEin': Srabilitar Theorie.

Determine the distribution of qr. Mu. dS Jqrc& dS 2. 11—14 and 12—1.422 RESTRAINED TORSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. the force parameters for the thin-walled case are defined as = MR = Verify that 1. Using the fiexural shear distributions listed in Prob. derive the member force-displacement relations (see Example 12—2). Note: The unrestrained torsion and flexural stress distributions are treated in Prob. X3r = 0. show that - '12 = . 3. for the cross sections shown in parts a and b and part e—d of the accompanying sketch (four different sets of data). 13—9. Consider 1. Discuss how the solution has to be modified when the cross section at x = L is restrained against translation. 13—4. Determine 13—11. Finally. 13—1. G). 13—7. Discuss how the displacement and mixed formulations haveto be modified to account for variable material properties. Determine the translations of the shear center. Refer to Examples 12—2 and 13—2. Also evaluate L and compare with the unrestrained value. Refer to Example 13—2.L > at x 13—S. Consider no warping at the end sections and take = + 1. (a) and (b) take the form •fquqr_ = o is the perpendicular distance from the shear center to the tangent at the centerline. Consider a thin-walled section comprising discrete elements of material properties (F. Equation (d) follows from (11—29) and where Prob. Specialize for— (a) symmetrical cross section (b) no shear deformation due to restrained torsion and flexure—arbitrary cross section. 13—5. Starting with the force-deformation relations based on the mixed formulation (13—49). 13 (b) When the cross section is thin-walled. Discuss how you would modify the member force-displacement relations developed in Example 12—2 to account for restrained torsion. Consider the cross section fixed at x 0. and—— (a) warping restrained at both ends (b) warping restrained only at x L 13—6. and qr for the section shown. 13—10. and expressions for Cr. Specialize (13—57) for . 11—4. We determine qf from (13—43). = MR when Open section Closed section Mixed section = Consider the following cases: I and compare vs.

13-10 t 0 t I a 0 ç1s2 I H .75k (b) I I I 2k (c) See part c. 13—9 I Ii T F— 0. (d) /z + 'i—H Prob.PROBLEMS 423 Prob.

13—13. Specialize Equations (13—84) and (13—85) for the case where the cross section is symmetrical with respect to the X2 axis. Employ the notation introduced in Example 13—7. co1 = == f 0 at x = at x 0. Assume no initial strain but allow for geometric nonlinearity. One sets F1 = U2 —P 0 U3 = W1 = (02 = (03 = f and determines the value of P for which a nontrivial solution which satisfies the boundary conditions is possible. ments. i/A23=O 'li 0 and retaining only linear terms in the displacement increments. (b) Specialize for a doubly symmetric cross section (see Prob. L (unrestrained warping) Neutral equilibrium (buckling) is defined as the existence of a nontrivial solution of the linearized incremental equations for the same external load. . Finally. (a) Establish "linearized" incremental equations by operating on (13—88) 13—14. Utilize x3)H0(x2. an odd function of x3. Determine the critical load with respect to torsional buckling for the following boundary conditions: 1. expressed in terms of displace13—15. Evaluate the coefficients for the channel section of Example 13—5. 13 Hint: One can write 13 •JJ (x2 V q52r + 22 Also show that 113 — 13—12.424 RESTRAINED TOIRSION-FLEXURE OF PRISMATIC MEMBER CHAP. x3)dA = 0 where He is an even function and H. =0 0. 13—12). Determine the form of V.. The symmetry reductions are X2 = !72 =0 X2r X3r = 0 = Consider the two following problems involving doubly symmetric cross section. Consider the case where the cross section is doubly symmetric and the initial state is pure compression (F1 —P). Then specialize further for negligible transverse shear deformation due to flexure and warping. Specialize (13—88) for a doubly symmetrical cross Section. the strain energy density function (strain energy per unit length along the centroidal axis). Note that V = V* when there is no initial strain. L (restrained warping) 2. specialize the equations for a doubly symmetric section.

Y2) at a point are x 12 = where points in the positive tangent direction and denoted by 13. notation for planecurve. 425 . x2 Yl n r2 tl B S A n i2 x1 ii Fig. INTRODUCTION: GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS A member is said to be planar if— 1. The orthogonal unit vectors defining the orientation of the local frame (Y1. The plane containing the centroidal axis also contains one of the principal inertia axes for the cross section. However. 14—i. The shear center axis coincides with or is parallel to the axis.14 Planar Deformation of a Planar Member 14—i. 3. Item 2 requires Y2 to be a principal inertia axis for the cross section. We consider the centroidal axis to he defined with respect to a global reference frame having directions X1 and K2. 14—i. '[his is shown in Fig. The centroidal axis is a plane curve. 2. the present discussion will be limited to the case where the shear center axis lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis.

it follows that = + dx5 (142) The differentiation formulas for the unit vectors are dt1 1 (14-3) where 1 dt1 — d2x1 dx2 d2x2 dx1 According to this definition. If the sense of the curvature is constant. t = = dx1 + dx2 (14-1) Since we are taking t2 according to 11 x t2 = dx2 t2 13.. rather than according to x1 = x1(y) x2 = x2(y) where y is a parameter.. i. Also.426 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. this definition degenerates at an inflection point. to avoid working with a negative R. 14 By definition. one can always orient the X1-X2 frame so that coincides with ñ. 14—1. R is negative when d11/dS points in the negative t2 direction. One could take t2 = ii. when dt/dS = O.g.e. e. To complete the geometrical treatment. the unit normal vector defined by 1 d11 (14-4) ciS x 12 = 13 but this choice is inconvenient when there is a reversal in curvature. . - + (p)] dv = dy (14—6) According to this definition. we consider the general parametric representation for the curve defining the centroidal axis. for segment AB in Fig. the +S sense coincides with the direction of t We summarize here for convenience the essential geometric relations for a plane curve which are developed in Chapter 4. The differential arc length is related to dy by dS 2 2 (j45 1/2 + d.

We use the same notation as for the prismatic case. FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS The notation associated with a positive normal cross section. We also present a simplified formulation (Marguerre's equations) which is valid for a shallow member..e. i. namely. This formulation is restricted to the linear geometric case. the displacement and force methods. 14—2. is shown in Fig. The two basic solution procedures. 14—2.I'3 dA 012 Centroidal axis Fig. 14—2._ (It1 = -( t2 dy — — ( k\ d2x1 dx2 dv2 dy + d2x2 dx1 dy2 dy A planar member subjected to in-plane forces plane for our notation) will experience oniy in-plane deformation. since one must resort to numerical integration when the cross section is not constant. the expressions for and 1/R in terms of y are - t1 = — ( I 7dx1 1j t2 = — ( —1 if 1 +— dy + dx1 dx2 dx2. 14—2.. we include a discussion of numerical integration techniques. are described and applied to a circular member. Using (14—6). FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS 427 increasing y. a cross section whose outward normal points in the + S direction. except that now the vector . In what follows. we develop the governing equations for planar deformation of an arbitrary planar member. Force and moment components acting on a positive cross section. . ——-—-- dy dy (14_ R if. Finally.SEC.

the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish. Y3) rather than the basic frame (X1. in + r1 x F+ = 0 - (14—12) . 14—3. 14—4.iJ(Y3)2 = JJ(y2)2 dii (14—8) Since Y2._. x2 ) = t1 x t2 x1 Fig. X2. Y3 pass through the centroid and are principal directions. 14 components are with respect to the local frame (Y1.428 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. We define b and as the statically equivalent external force and moment vectors per unit arc length acting at the centroid. we consider the differential volume element shown in Fig. To establish the force-equilibrium equations. The cross-sectional properties are defined by A 13 = if dy2 dy2 = if dii '2 = . X3). it follows that dA = flY3 dA = loading. 14—3) and drop the subscript on M3: = M+ = M3t3 + F212' = Mt3 (14-11) Note that 13 is constant for a planar member. Y2. These conditions lead to the following vector differential equilibrium equations: — dS + — = o dM÷ + . For equilibrium. we work with reduced expressions for F÷ and M÷ (see Fig. F3 M1 SSY2Y3 dii = 0 (14—9) When the member is planar (X1-X2 plane) and is subjected to a planar M2 0 (14—10) in this case. Force and moment components in planar behavior.

14—3. dS r(S) Fig. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS. The end forces are related to the stress resultants and stress couples by = = Mj52 = MA= —MISA (14-15) j=1. and using the differentiation formulas for the unit vectors (14—3). The moment equilibrium equation has the same form as for the prismatic case. lead to the following scalar differential equilibrium equations: dF1 — F2 + b1 = 0 (14-14) dM + +m 0 that the force-equilibrium equations are coupled due to the curvature. The positive sense of the end forces is shown in Fig. 14—5. We work with components referred to the local frame at each end. The procedure is the same as for the . 14—4.SEC. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 429 We expand b and in terms of the unit vectors for the local frame: b= + = mt3 b212 (14—13) Introducing the component expansions in (14—12). Differential element for equilibrium analysis. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES We establish the force-displacement relations by applying the principal of virtual forces to a differential element.2 14—3.

t "Equivalence" refers to work. except that now we work with displacement components referred to the local frame at each point. 12—3. only u1. and the terms involving u3. . We define ü and as = = = rigid-body translation vector at the (14—16) centroid. and w2 can be deleted: u1t1 + U2T2 — C03t3 Wt3 (14—17) The positive sense of the displacement components is shown in Fig. co1. See (12—8). 14—5. x2 x1 FIg. Definition of displacement measures. Convention for end forces. 14—6. 14—6. = equivalent rigid-body rotation vector For planar deformation.430 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. F41 Fig. u2 and 0J3 are finite. 14 prismatic case described in Sec.

PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES 431 We define as the complementary energy per unit arc length. = = {AF1 +AM÷ + AF2 — + (b) + — + dS . F2. Virtual force system We apply (14—19) to the differential element shown in Fig. = (F1. dS AF÷ = 0 (a) Evaluating AP1. M. For planar deformation. y3. AF2.SEC.. substituting in the complementary energy density. Specializing the three-dimensional principle of virtual forces for the onedimensional elastic case. and writing = cF1 e1 AF1 + 0F2 AF2 k + cM AM (14—18) = AF1 + e2 AF2 + k AM lead to the one-dimensional form Ss(ei AF1 + e2 AF2 + AM)dS AP1 (14—19) where is a displacement measure and is the force measure corresponding to d1. We will discuss the determination of later.e. One determines by taking expansions for the stresses in terms of F1. F2. M). and integrating with respect to the cross-sectional coordinates Y2. 14—7. The virtual force system must satisfy the force-equilibrium equations (14—17). AM. The virtual-force system (AF1. 14—7. ( Fig. AP1) must be statically permis- sible. i. it must satisfy the one-dimensional equilibrium equations. 14—3.

14 and then substituting in (14-49) results in the following relations between the force and displacement parameters: cj du1 U2 du2 u1 (14-20) eV* k dw dS We interpret e1 as an average extension.432 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. V* = V" (ô11. (a) can be written as dS2 — = is the complementary energy per unit length along the = = — By definition. e. F2. we obtain dS Y2. k is the relative rotation of adjacent cross sections. and integrate over the cross section. centroidal axis.Y3 dS2 dv2 dv (14—2 1) if . M. expand V*. and k as a bending deformation. 14—8. The vector defining the arc QQ1 is QQ1 = ar2 dy = + — di2 + dt-\ dv Noting that dy (112 —7k-ti dv = o for a planar member.- In general. Substituting for dS2 in the general definition. we discuss the determination of Consider the differential volume element shown in Fig. The only restriction on the stress expansions is that they satisfy the definition equations for the stress resultants and couples identically: dA = F2 $5c12 dA SSa13 dA = JJy3aii dA = 0 —ify2ci1 dA = M J$(y2a13 — y3a12)dA = 0 0 . as an average transverse shear deformation. Actually. In what follows. We select suitable expansions for the stress components in terms of F1.

Differential volume element. Composite beams are more conveniently treated with the approach described in the next section.SEC. PRINCIPLE OF VURTUAL FORCES 433 The most convenient choice for iH is the linear expansion. . 14—3.t M — (14—22) where I 13. Both expansions satisfy (a). The complementary energy density is given by 11*. (14—23) results in the following expression f This applies for a homogeneous beam. 14—8. and q is the flexural shear flow due to F2.. A logical choice for (when the cross section is thin-walled) is the distribution predicted by the engineering theory of flexural shear stress distribution described in Sec.. In what follows. 11—7: a11 = 1q(F2) q= F2t/i (14—23) where t denotes the local thickness. we consider the material to be linearly elastic. x2 r +1)212 +Y33 r2 r1ty +dy) Y2 it Fig... Substituting (a) in (14—21) and taking the stresses according to (14—22). — 0 2 a12 2 where c? is the initial extensional strain.

— \\ — R} = are A2. 1 and thick when O(d/R)2 We set ö = 0 for a thick member. Inverting (14—25) leads to expressions for the forces in terms of the deformations: F1 = M— — LA — e1) — R(l k ) EI* R(1 Ô)(el — + / k° (14-26) F2 We observe that I — where p is the radius of gyration and d is the depth of the cross section.434 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. For example. 1 and If the section is symmetrical with respect to the 1'3 axis. is of the order of (d/R2) and can be neglected when (dIR)2 1. A curved member is said to be thin when O(d/R) 1. Then. The thinness assumption is introduced . 1* The deformation-force relations correspoiiding to this choice for —ei F2 F1 M du2 U1 dr.1 u2 = = F1 + -w dw (14-25) M Note that the axial force and moment are coupled. 1 d2 AR2 = i2R2 for a rectangular cross section. due to the curvature. 14 for V*: = e?Fi + k°M + where + = + + dA 2GA2* (14-24) if 55 (i - I e.

Note that these expressions are based on a linear variation in normal stress over the cross section.e.. we• can also establish force-displacement relations by starting with expansions for the displacement components in terms of one-dimensional displacement parameters and determining the corresponding strain distribution.SEC. i. we list the expanded forms of the principle of virtual forces for thick and thin members.e.. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 435 neglecting y2/R with respect to unity in the expression for the differential arc length. Ndw. it is not necessary to analyze the deformation. by taking by dS 14 27 - Assuming a curved member to be thin is equivalent to using the expression for V* developed for a prismatic member. 14—4. The approximate form of (14—25) for a thin member is F1 dii1 Li2 (14—28) i—k° To complete the treatment of the linear elastic case. We express the . to determine the strains at a point. FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—DISPLACEMENT EXPANSION APPROACH. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS In the variational procedure for establishing one-dimensional force-displacement relations. i. One has only to introduce suitable expansions for the stress components in terms of the one-dimensional force parameters. Thick Member Cit0 + F1 + M'\ AF1 + + F2 /XF2 (14—29) + (ko + Thin AM} dS — J + + / M'\ + (\kO + h-i) 1 dS = (14—30) d1 AP1 14—4.

To determine the strain distribution. for example: ?'= = position vector to point P(y) in the deformed position (point P'). Figure 14—9 shows the initial position of two orthogonal line elements. 14 stresses in terms of the displacement parameters using the stress-strain relations. QQ1 and QQ2. . y3) in the deformed position (point Q'). at a point (y. Y2' y3). and M.436 PLANAR OEFORMA11ON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. This step is described in detail below. F2. we must first analyze the deformation at a point. The effect of transverse shear deformation is usually neglected in this approach. x2 Q2 Q1 Pj(y +dy) P(y) axis x1 Fig. Initial geometry for orthogonal curvihnear line elements. tangent vector to the deformed centroidal axis. and then substitute the stress expansions in the definition equations for F1. The vectors defining these elements are QQ1 QQ2 = dy2 dy2 t2 a (14—31) a2 = I — We use a prime superscript to denote qua Iltities associated with the deformed position of the member. 14—9. which is shown in Fig. Y2. = position vector to Q(y. 14—10.

In what follows. c. The next step involves introducing an expansion for in terms of y2. Substituting for ü2. We express ü2 as a linear function of ü wv211 (14—35) where co = w(y) and U U1t1 + U2t2 = 1kv) (14—36) is the displacement vector for a point on the centroidal axis. 2) and the shearing strain by Y12 The general expressions are '—12 3— Sin Y12 (1-3) Now. we consider only linear geometry. ô. One can interpret co as the rotation of the cross section in the direction from toward t2. Neglecting these terms corresponds to neglecting the difference between the deformed and undeformed geometry. (14—33) expands to Istj. We denote the extensional strains by (j = 1.. Substituting for the deformed vectors and neglecting strains with respect to unity. 14—10. we restrict this discussion to small strain. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 437 From Fig. and evaluating the derivatives lead to the following strain expansions: .SEC. taking y = S.V 1 ('U2 Y12 tj -' " a2 t2 -± cc2 The nonlinear terms arc associated with the rotation of the tangent vector.u2 The analysis of strain consists of determining the extensions and change in angle between the line elements. This notation is illustrated in Fig. 14—4. au2 c'y + 2 2(a2)" —. 14—1 1. i. Equation (14—35) implies that a normal cross section remains a plane after deformation.e. to assuming linear geometry. and noting (14—3 1): P'P'1 = 0)) — = / + C))J — = dy dy2 (14—32) or2 &Y2 / \.

One could include an addiThis would give tional linear term. . 14—11. Deformed geometry for orthogonal curvilinear line elements. u2t2 (u1 —Wy2)tl Centroidal axis UI tl Fig. additional terms in the x2 Q2 x1 Fig. = $ and. 14—10. — u2 = I61IY20 0) = doi + (14—37) The vanishing of c2 is due to our choice for ü2.438 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER — 1 CHAP. 14 = y2k) e2 = du. Displacement expansion.

F.k) — Fe1 (14—39) and then evaluating F1. is exact only when = (733 We generally neglect for a . we obtain F2 = Ge2 if = —Fe1 d (14-40) + Ekjj + The various integrals can be expressed in terms of only one integral by using the identity 1 1 — y2/R — 1-F 1 y2/R and noting that Y is a axis: $5Y2 dA = 0 11 f The relation for member. The next step involves expressing F1. and M. In what follows. we consider the material to be linearly elastic and take the stress-strain relations for c12 as: = E(c1 = Gy12 Substituting for r1. 14—4. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 439 expressions for and Y12• Note that the assumption that a normal cross section remains plane does not lead to a linear variation in extensional strain over the depth when the member is curved. We introduce the assumption of negligible transverse deformation by setting e2 = 0.. F2.SEC. one must determine F2 using the moment-equilibrium equation. The resulting expressions for (0 and k in terms of u1 and u2 are e2 = 0 du2 dS u1 + R dIui dS2 (14—38) — dS — When transverse shear deformation is neglected. and M in terms of the one-dimensional deformation parameters e1e2 and k. using (14—37). = ———--—-(e1 F 1 —y2/R — y. Y12.

= + F2 F1 + M k = k° + + lvi where = = A(1 + 4—42 e? = if (i — c/A k° = if - dA The expressions for e1 are identical with the result (see (14—25)) obtained with the variational approach. However. we list the inverted form of (14—40). we expand the log terms. 14 One can easily show that ri c/A I' dA = L JJ 1 (14—41) . This difference (1' or F') is due to the nonlinear expansion used for Example 14—1 We determine I' for the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. I' = 11 1 y2/R =h J—a. F.14—1.y2/R For completeness. using (1+x'\ I .2 1 — y2/R =—R2bd+R3bln To obtain a more tractable form. the result for k differs in the coefficient for M.440 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.

.. Then In = d + d3 ii d I 3(d\2 + + 3(d\4 + and I' = { I + 3 2 3 d + + . Now. we neglect (y2/R)2 with respect to unity.e2 Y2 . + Co —.--.yJR JJ dA + =i{i . E14—1 H Y3 The relations listed above involve exactintegrals. This assumption is introduced by taking 1 —y2/R in the expansions for = 1 + and I': + + . 14—4. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 441 This series converges for xI < 1. when the member is thick.. Fig..SEC.

) = represents an external force quantity and d1 is the displacement quantity We consider only and Viz to be finitc. 1—y2/R — y2k — (14—44) at2 It is of interest to establish the one-dimensional form of the principle of virtual displacements corresponding to the linear displacement expansion used in this development. we neglect y2/R with respect to unity. which are listed below for convenience: ci e2 — Y12 — y2/R U2 du1 du2 = k + u1 — U) do dS Substituting for e1.442 PLANAR DEFORMATiON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. and M. When the member is thin. The general three-dimensional form for an orthogonal coordinate system is (see Sec. Y12 and using the definition equations for F1. 14—9): d(vol. . The strains corresponding to a linear expansion for displacements and linear geometry are defined by (14—37). F2. 14 To be consistent. and express the corresponding to differential volume in terms of the cross-sectional coordinates Y2' Y3 and arc length along the ccntroidal axes (see Fig. 10—6): SJJ(aii where + + a12 öy12 )d(vol. we must also neglect 1'/AR2 with respect to unity in the expression for A'2 and I".) = dS2 dy2 dv3 (i — dS d7 dy3 Then (a) reduces to (a11 + a12 (i — dA] dS = (14—45) We take (14—45) as the form of the principle of virtual displacements for planar deformation.

The following example illustrates this application. substitutes in (14—46). = Au1 —id d Au2 1 Aui Au2 — I AU2 (5k = d2 + d and integrating by parts.SEC. Example 14—2 The assumption of negligible transverse shear deformation is introduced by setting e2 equal to zero. w. and integrates the left-hand side by parts. One can apply it for the geometrically nonlinear case.e.and right-hand sides of (b) expand to j 54 [F1 + M (5k]dS = — / F1 / I + Rj M\ Au1 dM — dS Au2 +M d uS An2 \ F1 + I +j 1Aui Rj r J Au1 — —-. (c). i. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS 443 we obtain Ad1 (14—46) + F2 + M ök]dS = Js[Fi This result depends only on the strain expansions.Au2 dM dS 1 +M— dS d dF1 — dM1 + Au2 [ [— F1 dS [— + . One starts with one-dimensional deformation-displacement relations. = (In2 + and the relations for negligible transverse shear deformation reduce to hEFt ôe1 + M ök]dS 1< = d (du2 u1 = + Substituting for Aw and the strain variations. 14—4. This leads to an expression for the rotation. in terms of the translation components. provided that (cS) are taken as defining the strain distribution over the cross section. Equating coefficients of the displacement parameters leads to a set of force equilibrium equations and boundary conditions that are consistent with the geometrical assumptions introduced in establishing the deformation-displacement relations.. We use the principle of virtual displacements to establish consistent forceequilibrium equations. the left.

5. Suppose we neglect u1/R in the expression for w: do2 CD k d2u2 This assumptiont is generally referred to as Mush tori's approximation. = (b1 + + (b2 dS + (PB! + + (p22 + ma) Au32 + MA) A A + (p41 + + (r42 014) AUA2 + M4 A The consistent equilibrium equations and boundary conditions for negligible transverse shear deformation follow by equating corresponding coefficients of the displacement variations in (e) and (f): S4<S<S3 + dF1 F1 — + 1dM d2M + b1 + — 01 0 +- + drn =0 s—sn u1 prescribed or prescribed or prescribed or F1 — u2 p42 — m do2 M= —MA S= UI U2 prescribed or prescribed or prescribed or F1 = = M F21 —F32 — in du2 One can obtain (g) by solving the last equation in (14—14) for F2 and substituting in the first two equations. 14 and Ad.444 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. . The equilibrium equations for the tangential direction reduce to dF1 t See Ref.

Consider the differential clement shown in Fig. 6. 14—12: dS = dx1 = i[ I r [ I 7df\21112 1 ylx1jj. originally suggested by involves working with components referred to the basic frame rather than the local frame. we worked with displacement components and external force components referred to the local frame. The resulting expressions differ. CARTESIAN FORMULATION 445 The other equilibrium equation and the boundary conditions are not changed. 14—1. An alternate approach. The geometrical relations for this parametric representation are obtained by taking y x1 in (14—7). Using (h) instead of (a) eliminates the shear term. 14—13. in the tangential force-equilibrium equation. CARTESIAN FORMULATION We consider the case where the equation defining the centroidal axis has the form x2 = f(x1). We start with the determination of the force-equilibrium equations. 14—5. The vector. and it is therefore of interest to describe this approach in detail. See Ref. - (14—48) ax1 + x dx1 + = 0 . F2/R.SEC. They are summarized belowt for convenience and the notation is shown in Fig. f'df'\ + I—) - cos0 1 j t2 - [ / df \ d2f + '2 - (14—47) = t1 X t2 = 13 I ci: In the previous formulation. equilibrium equations are dF+ dx1 See Prob. 14—5.

Notation for Cartesian formulation. dx1 2 pN2 12 1 F1t1 lj Fig. 14—12.446 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. . 14 x2 Y2 YI X2 dx1 x1 'I Fig. 14—13. Differential element for equilibrium analysis.

AF1 + e2 AF2 + k dx1 = d1 (a) where V* V* (F1.i We —1(dM '\ F2 —N1 sm0 + N2cosO restrict this treatment to an elastic material and establish the forcedx1 = [e1 displacement relations. = F1t1 + F2t2 = N171 + N212 it—hi3 + P = N1 = F1 cos 0 — F2 sin 0 N2 = F1 sin 0 + F2 cos 0 the equilibrium equations expand to dN1 —dx1 (14—50) d = ——(F1 cosP — dx1 sin 0) = P2 dx1 = dx1 (F1 sin0 + F2 cos 0) (14-51) ——-(—-. 14—14. 14—5. dx1 = b dS = (cth)dx1 hdx1 = iñdS = (cthi)dx1 (1449) Substituting for the force and moment vectors. 14—4) by where fl. Consider the differential element shown in Fig.SEC. The virtual-force system is statically permissible.e. They are related to b and (see Fig. F2 M) is the complementary energy per unit arc length.+ hJ=' \dx1 . O= (0 v111 + 1)212 (013 = (0t3 (14—52) .. i. i.e. CARTESIAN FORMULATION 447 h are the external applied force and moment vectors per unit projected length. per unit x1. it satisfies the force-equilibrium equations identically: dx1 dx1 = = o + J1 x Expanding d1 x and then substituting for the displacement and rotation vectors. using the principle of virtual forces..

. do2 (14—53) k= = ——— cos 0 dw dx1 The member is said to be shallow when 02 << 1. do1 do2 dx1 e2 a v* = —sin 0 COS do1 U -- +cosO——w dx1 . Marguerre's equations are obtained by assuming the member is shallow and. 1)2 2 V1 Fig. Finally. 14—14. which relate the cartesian and local forces.448 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. N2. in addition. One introduces this assumption by setting 4f cos U 1 Sm 0 tan 0 = (14—54) in (14—50). neglecting the contribution of F2 in the expression for N1. F2 and equating coefficients of the force increments result in dx1 dx1 = + + (d) oV cos2 0-— + sinOcosO—. substituting for N1. in terms of F1. 14 we obtain dx1. Virtual force system.

consist of three force-equilibrium equations and three force-displacement equations. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 449 Marguerre starts with N. F2 + d 7 dx.— co dx. namely. the boundary conditions for the Marguerre formulation are or w F2 + M F. N2 F1 F2 + and the resulting equations are dF. The general conditions are v1 or N. 14—6. dF2 0 dx. dw k dx. = 0F2 OM = —. = e2 dv' d. we can first solve the force equilibrium equations and then integrate the force-displacement relations. for the planar case. dM dx1 (F1 df\ dx. dx. If the applied loads are independent of the displacements.. dv2 df dv2 + —— dx.SEC. —— + Pi = dx.x. One step remains. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION—CIRCULAR MEMBER The displacement method involves solving the system of governing dif- ferential equations which. However. v2 or N2 prescribed at each end (14—56) M or w We obtain the appropriate boundary conditions for the various cases considered above by substituting for N. N2 and ox For example.j J + P2 = 0 —— — in (14—55) e. to establish the boundary conditions. prescribed at each end (14-57) or 14—6. it is usually quite difficult to apply when the member is . This method is quite straightforward for the prismatic case since stretching and flexure are uncoupled.

2. we illustrate the application of the displacement method to a circular member having a constant cross section. (14—25) e2 F1 + M = 1 f'du1 — = + ui) F1 — 0) (14—59) k= k° + + M = Idw Solution of the Force-Equilibrium Equations We consider the external forces to be independent of the displacements. 14 curved (except when it is circular) or the cross section varies. we have RF1 = —M — R2 j (b1 + + where C1 is an integration constant. It is convenient to take the polar angle 8 as the independent variable in this case. When the centroidal axis is a circular segment. We list the governing equations below for convenience and summarize the notation in Fig. the exact equations (based on stress expansions) for a thick member Marguerre's equations for a thin member The results obtained for this simple geometry provide us with some insight as to the relative importance of transverse shear deformation and stretching deformation versus bending deformation. In what follows. R = const. Substituting for F1 in the second equation results in a second-order differential equation for M: + M C1 + R2[b2 — + The general solution of (b) is M= C1 + C2cosO + C3sinO + (14—60) . and the equations simplify somewhat.450 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. 14—15: dF1 dM / = R2b2 — m — RF1 (14—58) 1dM = ej + Eq. starting with— 1. Integrating the first equilibrium equation.

Integration of the Force-Displacement Relations We start with (14—59) written in a slightly rearrangcd form: du1 — u2 Re? + RF2 + RF1) du2 + u1 + Rco = Rk° + To determine u1 and u2. Once M is known. we find F1 using (a) and F2 from the moment equilibrium equation. 14—6. 14—15. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 451 where denotes the particular solution due to the external distributed loading and C2. C3 are constants. The resulting expressions are F1 = F2 = cosO + C3 sinO + Mr)— R sine + c3 cos 9 + j(b1 — in ± .)dU (14—61) dS RdO F F1 Fig. Notation for circular member. [M + (RF1)] transform the first two equations to = u2 + Re? + (M + RF1) (14—62) .SEC.

F2=M=O u1 =u2=w=O atO=011 atO=O Specializing the force solution for no external distributed loading and enforcing the boundary conditions at B. We solve (14—63) for u2. we obtain F1 = F2 = M F81 cos(08 — 0) 8) — FRI Sifl(08 RF51(l — cos(08 0)) To simplify the analysis. determine u1 from (14—62). Example to 14—3 Consider a member (Fig. The boundary conditions for this case are F1=Fa1. 14—3. 14 and d2u2 + = = 1/1 + Re? — + RF1) (14—63) ± R2k° + a1R2 — Re? I a1 = — We have previously shownt that is of the order of (d/R)2. Using (b). and w from the second equation in (a). It is reasonable to neglect with respect to 1 but we will retain it in order to keep track of the influence of extensional deformation. '\ (14-64) This leads to three additional integration constants. the form — F81 takes R' 'I' [a1 — 02 COS(08 0)1 where EI* (d\' = f See Sec. . F2 W 1 (du. El4—3) fixed at the negative end (A) and subjected only at the right end (B). Various loading conditions are treated in the following examples. we suppose there is no initial deformation. Eq.452 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. The six constants are determined by enforcing the three boundary conditions at each end. (14—26).

14—6. E14—3 A F R3 (05 — sin FBI Constant cross section . we evaluate the displacements at 0 and write the resulting expressions Fig. Substituting for tJ' in (14—63) and integrating. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 453 Note that is associated with transverse shear deformation. we determine w using (14—64). U) = C6 + {O + sm(OB — O)} Finally. the constants are found by enforcing the displacement boundary conditions at 0 = 0: C4 = C5 = C6 = To determine the relative importance of stretching and shear deformation versus bending deformation. we obtain c4 cos 0 + c5 sin o + [ai + 0 — 0)] The solution for u1 follows from (14—62): = + sin 0 — C5 cos 0 + C6 {o + [o — 0) + sin(66 — 0)]} Next.SEC.

e. öe and ó. we replace the trigometric terms in (i) by their Taylor series expansions.... 14 in the following form: WE = UBI — sin + b1 Oe) = —2 sin 63 + 4sin 03 COS — COS 0B ± b2 + b3 &) 4Sin — sin — Slfl 63 b2 — (I) —4 03 + 2 sin 03 — 4 sin 03 COS 013 63 + sin 03 Co b 4(03 — sin_03 cos 03) T 4sin2 63 b— - — I + COS 63 The coefficients (b1. i. Also.. are of order (d/R)2. The resulting expressions are P8152 1 1 P31S3 fOfl 032 1* U3j [1 EI* = + Now.. To investigate the shallow case. when the segment is not shallow. sin 0 = / 02 — + — 02 cos 6 = I — sin0cos6 + — — 0(1 + — and neglect with respect to unity. It follows that the displacements due to stretching and shear deformation are of order (dIR)2 times the displacement due to bending deformation for a nonshallow member. b4) are of order unity or less when is not small with respect to unity.454 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. 1* El" = (d'12 .

The force-displacement relations reduce to (we set A = = in (14—59)) du1 — dO du2 = Re? u1 + = Rw = Rk° + EJ* RM dw dO Eliminating u1 from the first two equations. then u1. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 455 For example. The appropriate expression for is PatS3 In sum.SEC. Example 14—4 The internal force distributions due to acting on the cantilever member shown sin(011 — in Fig. Note that (c) corresponds to (14—62). If the member is shallow < I 5°). (14—63) and (14—64) with A = A2 = cc. we must retain the stretching term in u51 since it is of the same order as the bending term. However.26 for a rectangular section and v = 0. the stretching term dominates when the member is quite shallow. The error due to neglecting transverse shear deformation for the shallow case is still only of the order of (d/R)2. E14—4 are given by F1 0) F2 = F52 cos(05 0) 0) M R sin(02 We suppose the member is not shallow and neglect stretching and shear deformation. we can neglect the transverse shcar terms in UBL. Since (cl/S)2 << I for a member. we obtain 12u + u2 = du1 R2k° u2 I — Re? + R2 M = + Re? (du2 We determine u2. The final expressions (for no initial deformation or support .3. 14—6. we have shown that the percentage of error due to neglecting stretching and transverse shear deformation is of the order of (d/R)2 for a nonshallow circular member. 1 (d\2 AS2 EI* E (d\2 = lOG = (d'\2 0. Actually. we catnwt neglect stretching deformation. and finally oi. UB2 and the stretching term in co8.

E14—5 using Marguerre's equations. the governing equations (see (14—55) and (14—57)) reduce to dx1 d2M dx1 al'1 — P2 = 0 F2 F1 dM = Cl) e? + AL = -— + ax1 dx1 dv1 dx1 dv2 dx1 k= v1. 14 movement) are = 02 {(O COS(OB — 0) — sin 0 cos 0 0 Sjfl(OB — 0) + COS(OB = 0) = F52R { cos 0)} COS(OB — 0) — cos Example 14—5 We analyze the shallow parabolic member shown in Fig. w prescribed at x1 0 N2 = — dx1 + ax1F1 = 0 at x1 = I.456 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. We consider the member to be thin and neglect transverse shear deformation. k + M = d2v2 v2. 0 — xi)2 x1) — — — x?) p2(L — ax1N51 to simplify the discussion. Integrating the moment-curvature =M = x1)2 CINBI(L2 4) . M =0 Integrating (a) and using the boundary conditions at x1 = L. Taking f = and = rn = 0. we obtain M= F2 = We suppose e? = k° = relation.

..A const Fig. E14—5 —.SEC. DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF SOLUTION 457 Fig.F1 a= L2 Al (h/L)2<(1 t P2 = COflSt B NB! j . E14—4 B l. 14—6.

+ -= El M . The relations where the virtual-force system is statically permissible. Arbitrary Linearly Elastic Menther — e1 + F1 + M e2 = F2 (14—66) k= + F1 AER. 14 and noting that v2 dv2/dxj = 0 at x1 = 0 lead to the solution for v2. Then a2L4(A'\ 6 2(h'\2 and we see that this term dominatcs when h is larger with respect to the cross-sectional depth. e2. For convenience. The notation for internal force quantities is shown in Fig. k) and the internal forces (F1. F2. — — Ely2 = — + The axial displacement is determined by integrating the extensional strain displacement relation.458 PLANAR DEFORMATfON OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Js(ei AF1 + e2 AF2 + k AM)dS — AR1 = d1 (14—65) represents a support movement. dv1 = F1 — dv2 = NB1X1 AE + + ÷ - We express the last term in (g) as + 1 6 ) 1) [VT) a 2h. we list the force-deformation relations below. 14—7. M) depend on the material properties and on whether one employs stress or displacement expansions. and AR1 is the corresponding reaction increment. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION Our starting point is the principle of virtual forces restricted to planar deformation. This discussion is limited to a linearly elastic material but one should note that (14--65) is valid for arbitrary material. between the deformation measures (e1. 14—3./L2 — Now.

Q + e2F2Q + kM. As shown in ExampLe 14—3. and] are defined by(14—24) for the stress-expansion approach and (14—42) for the displacement-expansion approach.QAPQ AM = M AP0 ARk = and substitute in (14—65): dQ = SS(eIFI. we can still neglect transverse shear deformation but we must include stretching deformation. one sets A = A2 = If the member is shallow.Q)dS — (14—69) Rk. 14—7. We suppose the member is not shallow and neglect stretching and franslerse shear deformation. generate a statically determinate system of internal forces and reactions corresponding to = FJ. E14—6A. k° are the same as for a prismatic member.SEC. Thin Linearly Elastic Member e1 = e? + F1 (14-67) where A2. we apply an external virtual force. The reactions are the end forces at A for this example. this approximation introduces a percentage error of O(cl/R)2. A2. We will discuss first the determination of the displacement at a point. To determine the displacement at Q in the direction defined by tQ. and (14—69) expands to = + (k0 + + OA1FAIQ + UA2FA2. This expression is valid for an arbitrary material.Q + WAMA. Q (j = 1.2) (14-68) APQ shear deformation is negligible and a1 = negligible. APQ7Q. We set e2 = 0 if transverse a? if stretching deformation is Example 14—6 We consider the thin linearly elastic circular segment shown in Fig. a?. When the member is nor shallow. we illustrate tile application of (a) . FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 459 k°. the algebra is usually more complicated. due to the geometry. it is reasonable to neglect stretching and transverse shear deformation. The basic steps involved in applying the force method to a curved member arc the same as for the prismatic case. Formally.Q (a) In what follows. However.

4 + R f3 Solution for a Concentrated Loading at an Arbitrary Interior Point We consider an arbitrary force vector. 14 Fig. we can evaluate the integral.Q. E14—6A U2L Expressions Displacements at B = AF51.460 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. We list them below for future reference: " u82 = R Jo COB = j (.Q) follow directly from Fig. Terms involving the support displacements define the rigid body displacement at B. The internal virtual-force system corresponds 0 as tlie independent variable = To determine u81. applied at point C as shown . E14—6C. M. It is convenient to work with rather than 0. we take to F81 = ±1. and moment. leads to expression for u82 and Taking = SF82. The force-influence coefficients (F10. F2. E14—6B: F10 = = R(1 COSq F20 = = cos (b) Substituting (b) in (a) results in the following general expression for um = R {e? cos + R (ko + sin (1 — cos — cos Jo3 cos + + Once the loading is specified. Mc. Elj (ko + (d) W. in Fig.

FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 461 Fig. . E14—6B ill Ffi2 .t482 RI — eQS Fig. 14—7. El 4—SC A.SEC.

. Z._______________ 462 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. Sin Oc) + R2Pc2 cos Oc) + If we take point C to coincide with B. 14 = = + The expressions for the displacements at B due to an external loading are obtained by specializing (c) and (d) for no initial deformation or support movement and noting that M=O M= RPc1[1 — iic)] + sin(1i — ilc) + ivIc The solution for constant I is Pc1R3( = Sifl 0c — sin . . . . 1k + sin Sill 0c cos + PC2R( MCR2 — cos + Or I — sin + = (Oc + Sin OR + cos Sin 1 1 PciR3I + —--h-— — Oc sin — sm Oc sin PC2R3 /1 cos 1k — cos 1 sin 9c cos + —-—. represent the force redundants. The resulting equations relate the displacement at B due to forces applied at B in the directions of the local frame at B and can be interpreted as member force-deformation relations. Let the member be indeterminate to the rth degree and let Z1. It is convenient to express these relations in matrix form: = R2[l — cos OR] — — 2 sin OR — sin OR] F81 + 4sin 08 cos 08] = Symmetrical sin °B cos OR] R[l — cos 98] F82 We call the member flexibility matrix.(ens 1k — . Using the equilibrium equations. we express the internal forces and reactions in . . = 0 and = OR. We describe next the application of the principle of virtual forces in the analysis of a statically indeterminate planar member. + Sill 1k + sin .

FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 463 terms of the applied loads and the force redundants: F1 = F10 + k-= 1 F2 = F2.0 + (14—70) M = M0 + k= 1 R1 = R10 + k1 R1.. Note that fik is the displacement of the primary structure in the direction of is the actual displacement of the point of Z1 due to a unit value of Zk. due to support movement. From symmetry.1)dS = 0 (a) 1= form l. and the prescribed external forces.SEC..and 1/AR Wesetl = I. minUs the displacement of the primary structure in the direcapplication of tion of Z. Also...r (j = When the material is linearly elastic.42. the compatibility equations take the k1 where .f) (14—71) =fkj = f + — + + + = + + ± + Fl.J) + . at6r=0 F2 = 0 (a) j ..r) + Fl. 14—7. E14—7.. Example 14—7 Consider the symmetrical closed ring shown in Fig. initial deformation..A2 = Oforathinmember.OM.kM.kZk (which is statically Substituting the virtual force system corresponding to permissible and in (14—65) and letting j range from 1 to r lead to the compatibility equations relating the actual deformations: + + kM.

Then. Equation (h) states that the net relative rotation must vanish. To simplify the algebra. we suppose the member is thin and neglect stretching and shear deformation. (b) reduces to (1 — 1 dS — —J cos 8)dO /PR\ JM21 cIS = PR1 TI\1 2\ ——) . E14—7 fm/F M F1 1' Now. M = R(t — cos 0) We consider I to be constant. 14 the moment at 0 = 0 as the force redundant. The compatibility equations reduces to f11Z1 = fii = &= due to a unit value of Z1 and is the relative rotation is the relative Note that rotation (X) due to the applied load.464 We take PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.

e. The cartesian notation is summarized in Fig. (14—5). we need to integrate over only a quarter of the ring. 14—16. Finally. F2 ——--'- i2 it Ag. 14—7. The geometrical quantities and relations between the internal force components are tan 6 = dS = dx1 cos 6 F1 = F2 = N1 cos 6 + N2 sin U —N1 sin (9 + N2 cos 0 (14—72) .SEC. Notation for Cartesian formulation. xl N2. to use the cartesian formulation developed in Sec. 14—16. i. the total moment is The axial and shear force variations are given by F1 F2 = When the equation defining the centroidal axis is expressed in the form x2 = f(x1).. it is more convenient to work with force and displacement tities referred to the basic frame rather than to the local frame. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 465 Because of symmetry.

To obtain the equations for the Cartesian case. The equations for this case reduce to: We Displacement at Point Q dQ = L + (ke + (14-73) C'oinpatibility Equations = j = We can — \dx1 (14—74) 5[e?Fi. dx1 — R1. ( (14—75) j' One must generally resort to numerical integration in order to evaluate the integrals.PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. cos 0 N10j + sin 0 + . When the member is shallow. we suppose the member is thin and linearly elastic.i + (ko + and N2 since the terms involving F1 in terms of N1 Plo = Then. The equations for the shallow case with negligible transverse shear deformation and F1 N1 have the forms listed below: Displacement at Point Q dQ =J [(ei° + N1.f'N2. 02 1. 14 first find N1. However. N2 and then determine F1. due to the presence of the term 1/cos 9. we can neglect the stretching and transverse shear deformation terms. we just have to replace dS by dx1/cos U in the general expressions ((14—69) and (14—71)). + (ko + M. In what follows. and we can approximate (14—72) with cos 0 sm 0 cls 1 tan 0 = dx1 (14—76) F1 N1 +f'N2 —f'N1 + N2 F2 We cannot neglect the stretching deformation term in this case. it is reasonable to take F1 N1. We also introduced this assumption in the development of Marguerre's equations. When the member is not shallow. F2. (14—77) .

dx1 (14—78) — f + + (k0 + Example 14—8 Consider the two-hinged arch shown in Fig. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 467 Compatibility Equation >j1k4 = fjk = = + Jx. Fig. E14—8B V2 = Z1 zI R242 . E14—8A.SEC. E14—8A P Primary We must carry out two force analyses on the primary structure (Fig. E14—SB). 14—7. respectively. We work with reaction components referred to the basic frame and take the horizontal reaction at B as the force redundant. E14—8C and D. one for the external forces (condition Z1 = 0) and the other for Z1 1. The results are displayed in Figs. Fig. x2.

The compatibility equations for Z1 follow from (14—74): I J11—I El dx t cosO = Jo L + f'N2.468 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP.1) + (ko + .. E14—8C N2 KM 0 Fig. M.1 Compatibility Equation We suppose the member is not shallow. E14—8D (+) H 'VI. 14 Fig.' ii (+) N2.

Fig. R4 = = (d) 1. we can determine Z1 from Finally. the various terms in (a) expand to f — h 0E1 = . F— XQ 1/L Q (i_IL) FQ=+l . FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 469 Using the results listed above. 3 To evaluate the vertical displacement at point Q.SEC. 14—7.a))dxi (c) Once the integrals are evaluated. we apply a unit vertical load at Q on the prinwry structure and determine the required internal forces and reactions plotted in Fig.ft = L cost? ± dx1 + s: + f'N2 + k° JLIJLI(h)(h) + + + JL[( k0(f_ LIcosO !L L (+P(xi . = + Z1R. the total forces are obtained by superposition of the two loadings: M = M•0 + Z1M1 R. 2. E14—8E.

1 =0 Since M = 0. E14—9A is subjected to a uniform load per unit horizontal length. Finally. Example 14—9 The symmetrical nonshallow two-hinged parabolic arch shown in Fig. Figures E14—9B and C carry through an analysis parallel to that of the preceding example. Deternzination of Z1 and Total Forces The equation for Z1 follows from (14—74): 1L Jo EJcosO ElcosO pL2 Note that this result is valid for an arbitrary variation of El. we obtain VQ2 = VA2 + (13B2 — VA2) + ('XQ — — El)cosO XQ1 M'\ dx1 ( +— jo x1(k°+-—J-—— EljcosO L f \ Jo I x1Ik°+—1—---—---—x1 I' M\ dx1 CL I \ 1L (k°+—'l—-— El) cosO / dx1 A numerical procedure for evaluating these integrals is described in the next section. the effect of axial deformation cannot be neglected. We take the horizontal reaction at the right end as the force redundant and consider only bending deformation. the deformed shape of the arch coincides with the initial shape when axial deformation is neglected. that is. When the arch is shallow. the total forces are N1 — N10 + Z1N1 N2 = = N20 + Z1N21 = — M=M. per unit x1.0+Z1M. 14 Applying (14—73). The equation for the centroidal axis is 4h( where h is the elevation at mid-span = L/2). It follows that (c) also apply for the fixed nonshollolv case.470 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. The expression for Z1 follows from (14—78): — + .

SEC. E14—9B N2 xI L N5. FORCE METHOD OF SOLUTION 471 Fig. 14—7. E14—9A p = Coflst B xi Pnmary structure R2.d2 Fig.00 M0 pL( Xj\ ) pL Force System Due to p .

A'2 Fig. The result is I — 8 Ah2 — 15(p'\2 8 where p is the radius of gyration for the cross section. N11 = +1 N2.472 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. (d) reduces to JL pL2 — dx1 — pL2 8h I 1 8h 1L1 + — + jL1 The parameter ö is a measure of the influence of axial deformation. Now. As an illustration.1 = 0 M. for (f')2 K< 1.1 = +f Force System Due to Z1 = + I One should note that (e) applies only for the shallow case. 16(h/L)2 must he small with respect to unity. The total forces for the shallow case are N1 = = pL2 1 M= p1? f( ô \= PL( — . 4/1 / 2x1 For the assumption of shallowness to be valid. 14 If E is constant. we consider A and I to be constant and evaluate ö for this geometry. in.

pL3( 2 (5 Since 0. E14—9D PQ +l 0). 14—8. Closed-form solutions can be obtained for only simple geometries. we describe two proceduresi which can be conveniently automated and illustrate their application in deflection computations.Q = 1L we obtain M x1 P/ j When El is constant. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES One of the steps in the force method involves evaluating certain integrals which depend on the member geometry and the cross-sectional properties. the results for the fixed end shallow case will differ slightly from (h). and one usually must resort to a numerical integration procedure. E14—9D). Applying (14—77) (note that Fig. the stretching terms vanish since Nj. We consider the problem of evaluating J t See Ref. (i) reduces to \ / . NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES 473 It is of interest to determine the rotation at B. The "Q" loading consists of a unit moment applied at B to the primary structure (see Fig. (14—79) . In what follows. 8 for a more detailed treatment of numerical integration schemes. 14—8.SEC.

k+2 = fdx J h + 4fk+1 + (14—83) Jk÷2= Jk + To apply (14—83). ('xk etc. we let x0. they can . 14—17. J f(x)dx = + L) (14—82) + which is called the trapezoidal rule. that is. the coordinates of the equally spaced points on the x axis. 14—19. 12 1. This leads to AJk. x1. For convenience. If the values of J at odd points are also desired. as shown in Fig. corresponding values of the function.. The simplest approach consists in approximating the actual curve by a set of straight lines connecting approximation. . X1 X2 Fig. Coordinate discretization for numerical integration. of length h: x We h= — XA (14—80) If f(x) is discontinuous. we must take an even number of segments. This notation is shown in Figure 14—17. . 14 where f(x) is a reasonably smooth function in the interval XA divide the total interval into n equal segments..__________________ 474 PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER CHAP. as shown in Fig. a XO 11 B X. we work with subintervals and use a different spacing x. and f0.. . n must be an even integer. represent the for each subinterval.k = f(x)dx dx = h + + (14—81) = If only the total integral is desired. A more accurate formula is obtained by approximating the curve connecting three consecutive points with a second-degree polynomial. With this EXJk1. 14—18.. we use.

SEC. 14—8.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES

475

be

determined using
h

=
Finally, one can express
in =

Jo

12

{Sfk +

— Jk+2]

(14—84)

as

+

+ 4(11 + .13 +

+
(14—85)

+ 2(f2 +f4 +
Equation (14—85) is called Simpson's rule.

f

N
fk—1

fk
h

fk+1
S

Xk_1

Xk

x

Fig. 14—18. Linear approximation.

I

fk

fk+1

fk÷2

S
Xk

S

Xkf.1

Fig. 14—19. Parabolic approximation.

________________M
476

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER

CHAP. 14

Example 14—10
Consider the problem of determining the vertical displacement at Q for the straight member of Fig. E14—lO. We suppose shear deformation is negligible. The deflection due

Fig. E14—10

XQ

M

PQ

+1

XQ(1t)

to bending deformation (we consider the material to be linear elastic) is given by
dQ

J

MQ dx

(a)

where M is the actual moment and M0 is due to the "Q" loading. Substituting for M, expands to

=

/ 1L M

CXQ

M

'\

+
J

M

M

— J

SEC. 14—8.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION PROCEDURES

477

To evaluate (b), we divide the total length into ii equal segments of length h, number the points from 0 to n, and let

—dx J0 El Cx M x—dx El Jo
I
I

M

With this notation, (b) takes the form
= Xk

+ "k

Xkjk

If, in determining we also evaluate the integrals the interior points, then we can readily determine the displacement distribution using cd).

Example

14—11

Consider the simply supported nonshallow arch shown. We suppose there is some distribution of It'! and we want to determine the vertical deflection at Q. Considering
Fig. E14—11

A

ill

El
L

only bending deformation, dQ is given by
dQ

=

M,

ds

1W

1W,

dx

J

478

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER

CHAP. 14

Now, the distribution of M

is the same as for the straight member, Then, the procedure followed in Example 14—10 is also applicable here. We just have to replace M/EI with
M/EI cos 0 in Equation (c) of Example 14—10.

REFERENCES
1.

TIMOSHENKO, S. 1.: Advanced Strength of Materials, Van Nostrand, New York, 1941.

2. 3.

Boan, S. F., and J. J. GENNARO: Advanced Structural Analysis, Van Nostrand,
New York, 1959.

REISSNER, E.: "Variational Considerations for Elastic Beams and Shells," J. Lag. Mech. Div., A.S.C.E, Vol. 88, No. EM 1, February 1962.
MARTIN, H. C.: introduction to Matrix lvi etliods of Structural Analysis, McGraw—Hill, New York, 1966. MUSRTARI, K, M., and K. Z. (IALIMOV: "Nonlinear Theory of Thin Elastic Shells,"

4.
5. 6. 7.

8.

Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Jerusalem, 1962 MARGUERRE, K.: "Zur Theoric der gekriimmten Platte grosser Formanderung," Proc. 5th mt. Congress App!. Mccli. pp. 93—101. 1938. Onai'i, J. 1.: Mechanics of Elastic Structures. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967. HILDEBRAND, F. J.: introduction to Numerical Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York,
1956.

PROBLEMS

Specialize (14—7) for the case where Yi = x1. Let x2 = f(x1) and 14—1. let 9 be the angle from X1 to Y1 as shown below. Evaluate the various terms for a parabola

f=

+

Finally, specialize the relations for a shallow curve, i.e., where
Prob.14—1
32

14—2. Evaluate 1* and the sketch. 14—3. Verify (14—34).

(see Equation 14-24) for the section defined by

14—4. 14—5.

Verify (14—41) and (14—42).

Discuss the difference between the deformation-force relations based

on stress and displacement expansions (Equations (14—25) and (14—42)). Illustrate for the rectangular section treated in Example 14—i. Which set of relations would you employ?

PROBLEMS

479

I
d
14—6.

2t

Prob.

14—2

T
b=O.75d

I
Evaluate I' and 1" for the symmetrical section shown. Prob.
14—6

h=O.75d

t=d120

14—7. Consider a circular sandwich member comprised of three layers, as shown. The core layer is soft (E 0). and the face thickness is small in comparison to the depth d). Establish force-deformation relations based

on strain expansions (see (14—37)).
Prob. 14—i

I

I I I

Starting with (14—34) and (14—35), derive a set of nonlinear strain 14—8. displacement relations for a thin member. Assume small finite rotation, and

480

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER

CHAP. 14

linearize the expressions with respect to Yz' i.e., take

=
Y12

e1 —

Determine the corresponding force-equilibrium equations with the principle of virtual displacements. 14—9. Refer to Fig. 14—10 and Equation (14—31). If we neglect transverse is orthogonal to t'1 and we can write shear deformation,

(1 +

=

tj
dt'1

ldF'
-

= fl1t1 + fl2t2

= —/32t1 + f31t2 1 + e1 .-, di'2 I + e1 = =
+
= (1 +
R'

(a)

Verify that

can be expressed as
1

c

Cl

(i+e1

I

- y,k}
initial tangent vectors,

Also determine e1 and R' for small strain. Express ü in terms of th

ü=
and take y
(b) S (i.e.,
1).

U1t1

+ U2t2

Derive the force-equilibrium equations, starting with the vector equations (see (14—12) and Fig. 14—4),

dS

+

=

0

dM÷

+m +

x F÷ = 0

and expanding the force vectors in terms of components referred to the deformed frame: = F11'I + = Mi3
(c)

h=

b11'1

+

Assume small strain. Derive the force-equilibrium equations with the principle of virtual displacements. Take the strain distribution according to Equation (b).

________
PROBLEMS
481

(d)

Derive the nonlinear deformation-displacement and equilibrium equations for the cartesian formulation. Refer the translations and loading to the basic frame, i.e., take

=
P

+ V212

Pi'i + P2t2
problem.

Specialize the equations for the case of a shallow member. 14—10. The accompanying sketch applies to both phases of this

Prob. 14—10

h2 = const

(a)

(b)

Determine the complete solution for the circular member shown. Utilize symmetry at point A = co = F2 = 0) and work with (14—58), (14—59). Discuss the effect of neglecting extensional and shear deformation, i.e., setting (1/A) (1/42) = 0. Repeat (a), using Mushtari's equations for a thin member with no

transverse shear deformation, which are developed in Example 14—2. Show that Mushtari's approximation (u1 << du2/dO) is valid when the segment is shallow. 14—11. The sketch presents the information relevant to the problem:
Prob. 14—11
P2 =
cOnSt

2

L

L

'j

L2

x2

482

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER
(a)

CHAP. 14

Apply the Cartesian formulation to the symmetrical parabolic arch

shown. Consider the member to be thin and neglect transverse shear deformation. (b) Specialize (a) for negligible extensional deformation (set 1/A = 0).
(c)

Specialize (a) for the shallow case and investigate the validity of

Marquerre's approximation. 14-42. Refer to Example 14—6. Determine UB2 due to a uniform distributed constant. loading, b2 Determine the displacement measures at B (see sketch). Consider 14—13. only bending deformation. Note: It may be more convenient to integrate the governing equations rather than apply (14—69).
Prob. 14—13

A

14—14.

Solve two problems with the information sketched:
Prob. 14—14

(a)

Determine the fixed end forces and radial displacement at point B
with the force method. Consider only bending deformation and utilize symmetry at B.

(b)

Generalize for an arbitrarily located radial force.

PROBLEMS
14—15.

483

Refer to Example 14—7.

(a) (b)

Determine the radial displacement at B defined in Fig. E14—7. Determine the force solution for the loading shown.
Prob. 14—15

P

P
14—16.

The sketch defines a thin parabolic two-hinged arch.
Prob. 14—16

x2

Determine the horizontal reaction at B due to the concentrated load. Consider the arch to be nonshallow. (h) Utilize the results of(a) to obtain the solution for a distributed loading
(a)
(c)

p2(x) per unit x1. Determine the reactions resulting from a uniform temperature increase,
T.

(d)

Suppose the horizontal support at B is replaced by a prismatic member extending from A to B. Assume the connections are frictionless hinges. Repeat parts a and c.

484

PLANAR DEFORMATION OF A PLANAR MEMBER

CHAP. 14

14—17.

Consider the arbitrary two-hinged arch shown. Discuss how you

Prob.

14—17

would generate the influence line for the horizontal reaction. Utilize the results contained in Examples 14—10 and 14—11.

15

Engineering Theory of an Arbitrary Member
15—i.

INTRODUCTION; GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS

In the first part of this chapter, we establish the governing equations for a member whose centroidal axis is an arbitrary space curve. The formulation is restricted to linear geometry and negligible warping and is referred to as the theory. Examples illustrating the application of the displacement and force methods are presented. Next, we outline a restrained warping formulation and apply it to a planar circular member. Lastly, we cast the force method for the engineering theory in matrix form and develop the member force-displacement relations which are required for the analysis of a system of member elements. The geometrical relations for a member are derived in Chapter 4. For convenience, we summarize the differentiation formulas here. Figure 15—1 shows the natural and local frames. They are related by

cos çbñ

+ sin çt'b

= —sin4iii +
where = we obtain

Differentiating (a) and using the Frenet equations (4—20),
dt

= at

0

0

t
0

(15-1)

1t3

Note that a is skew-symmetric.
485

486

ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER

CHAP. 15

n

I

b

Local reference directions

Fig. 15-i. Natural and local reference frames for a member element.

of a point, say Q, are taken as S and Y2, y3. The curvilinear Letting K be the position vector to Q (see Fig. 15—2),

R=
and differentiating, we find
13R

+ y2t2(S) +

(15—2)

= (t

y2a12

y3a23t2 + y2a23t3
(15—3)

— = t2
3K
3y3

3K

The differential volume at Q is
d(vol.)
(1

Y2a12 — y3a13)dS dy2 dy3

=
where

(i

E

dS dy2 dy3

(15—4)

is the coordinate of Q in the normal (11) direction and the radius of curvature. Also,
3R 3R
..

= 1/K

is

(1
Y3

+
(15—5)

y2a23 =

/1
Y2

+

dcb

f See Sec. 4—8.

15—2.e. we will assume the member is thin..e. In what follows.SEC./dS as dq5 dS (15—7) where L is the total arc length and is the total increment in The nonorthogonality due to can be neglected when the member is only slightly twisted. Curvilinear directions. when the cross-sectional dimensions are small in comparison to ay2 — Fig. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS 487 and the local vectors at Q are orthogonal when a23 0. i. . i. and We express d4. when << 1 (15—8) where b is a typical cross-sectional dimension. (15—8) is satisfied. which requires a23 =0 d/ (15—6) It is reasonable to neglect y/R terms with respect to unity when the member is thin.. and defines the orientation of the principal inertia directions. INTRODUCTION.

a member is planar if r = 0 and the normal direction (Il) is an axis of symmetry for the cross section. const IC we can assume aR/aS is orthogonal to F2. FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS To establish the force-equilibrium equations. Only a12 is finite for a planar member: a13=a23=0 Example 15—3 is Consider the case where the centroidal axis is straight and The member is said to he naturally twisted. 15—2. Example 15—2 By definition. 15 Example 15—i The curvature and torsion for a circular helix are derived in Example 4—5: 1 R. We take the centroidal axis to be in the X1-X2 plane and define the sense oft2 according tot2 x 13 = Theangle is constant and equal to either 0° (12 or 180° (12 = —ii). where b is a typical cross-sectional dimension. Only 023 varies linearly with finite for this case: S. The helix is thin when b/R c< 1. 15—3. = a13 (Ic!) = 0 T= If bk < 1. We use the same notation as for the planar case. we consider the differential element shown in Fig. + rn + t1 x F÷ = — - 0 We express the force and moment vectors in terms of components referred to the local frame. = FTt = = (15—10) m't .488 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. R (H'\2 1 where R is the radius of the base circle and H is the rise in one full revolution. The vector equilibrium equations follow from the requirement that the resultant force and moment vectors must vanish: dS _.

The vector derivatives are dF÷ tIS dS dFT = -------t + 'Tat dS (a) — dS — + Also. where F= F2. one associated with in-plane loading (b1.F2}Tt (b) Substituting in (15—9). a13 = a23 = 0 and the equations uncouple naturally into two systems. lead to the following equi0 aF + b = dM +F0J — a12F2 —a33F3 + b1 = — 0 + dF3 dM1 a12F1 a23F3 + b2 = 0.SEC. x = FJ3 = = {O. . b2. _F3. Differential element for equilibrium analysis. 15—3. 0 0 (15—11) + a13F1 + a23F2 + b3 = + m1 = a12M2 — a13M3 — + a12M1 a23M3 + m2 — F3 0 When the member is planar. F3} etc. 15—2. rn3. FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS bc/S + 489 dS2 + c/S 2 inc/S + c/S 2 Fig. and noting that librium equations: —-a.

+ — in1 = = 0 (15—12) + + m2 F3 0 15—3. 2. in1. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL FORCES We consider the material to be elastic and define V" as the complementary energy per unit arc length. Since we are neglecting warping restraint. is a function only of F and M. — 1. We let Iav* . The in-plane equations coincide with (14—14) when we set a12 = 1/R and the out-of-plane equations take the form F1. dF3 dM1 dM2 1 1. 15 F2. M3) and the other with out-of-plane loading (b3. 15—4. . m2. M1. RELATIONS—NEGLIGIBLE WARPING RESTRAINT. M2). 3 (15 13) - k = {kJ and write the one-dimensional principle of virtual forces as dS = Js(eT AF + kT AM)dS (15—14) dS It (0 Fig. F3. Virtual force system.490 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.

the particular stress expansions selected. the left-hand terms can be expanded. AFT an + + AMT . 15—3. and the member geometry. In what follows. we apply the principle of virtual forces to the element shown in Fig.SEC. Evaluating APi. we consider the material to be linearly elastic and approximation with the complementary energy function . The form. NEGLIGIBLE WARPING RESTRAINT 491 Now. of depends on the material properties. 15—4. We define ü and ii5 as = = uTt = equivalent rigid body translation (15—15) vector at the centroid = = equivalent rigid body rotation vector The virtual system satisfies the equilibrium equations (15—5) identically and therefore is statically permissible.aw) dS and substituting in (15—14) lead to the following force-displacement relations: du — 10 an e + (15—16) k dO) = aY* du1 — — e1 = C2 = = du2 Cj2 a v* + a12u1 — + + 023u2 — e3 = k1 (113 = du3 + aV* dw1 = DV" = dw2 — 0120)2 — (1130)3 k2 = k3 = (* = + + 0120)1 — 023C03 = d0)3 + 0230)2 Once is specified.

we are considering the member to be thin.) + a13co1 + 1223(02 . we are also neglecting the effect of curvature. 15 for the prismatic case. = torsional moment with respect to the shear center coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid — F3y2 = if —j-'- dA = Note that (lST-i7) is based on if dA a linear expansion for the normal stress..e. + = is the where is the unrestrained torsional distribution due to MT and flexural distribution due to F2. F1 =7+ M-. 1 2—3: = + where + + + + + + + (15-17) MT = M1 + Y2. In addition to these approximations. M3 13 and using the shear stress distribution predicted by the engineering theory. i. which is developed in Sec. The approximate force -displacement relations for a linearly elastic thin curve member are + F2 F1 = du1 — — = e3 + MT = = du2 du3 + a12u1 — C21U3 — - F3 + a13u1 + a21tc2 + (03 15 k1 = MT = dü1 M2 M3 UI3 18 a12co2 — a13w3 dw2 —a23co3 k3 = + dw3 U.492 ENGINEERiNG THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.

. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 493 When the member is planar. its application is restricted to simple geometries. DiSPLACEMENT METHOD—CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER Since the displacement method involves integrating the governing differential equations.SEC. the shear center is on the Y2 axist and there is no coupling between in-plane (u1. even when the shear center coincides with the centroid. The governing equations are summarized below and the notation is defined in Fig. where 15—4. U2. by definition. due to the curvature. We suppose the cross section is constant and the shear center coincides with the centroid.n1 =0 dM2 +Rrn2—RF3=O Force-Displacement Relations (see (15—19)) e3 F3 ldu3 = = M1 + k1 I /dw1 + M2 k2 = o k2 = l/dw2 + t The shear center axis lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis. Note that flexure and twist are coupled. Equilibrium Equations (sec (15—12)) + — Rh3 0 M2 + R. In what follows. and out-of-plane (u3. which. It is convenient to take the polar angle e as the independent variable. The approximate force-displacement relations for out-of-plane deformation for a thin planar member are e3 = F3 MT — du3 = MT dw1 I + (15-19) k2 = k2 M2 + 1 = M1 — y2F3. we apply the displacement method to a circular planar member subjected to out-of-plane loading. an out-of-plane loading will produce only out-of-plane displacements. is a plane of symmetry for the cross Section. 15—5. That is. (02) displacements. 15—4.

are axes of symmetry.. Fig. A. Notation for circular member. . 15 Boundary Conditions F3 M1 M2 The or or or u3 prescribed at each end (pts. x2 P3 i313 F3 B the X1 —X2 plane. B) solution of the equilibrium equations is quite straightforward. + Rm1 is the particular solution of (d). We integrate the first equation directly: F3=C1—RJ0b3d0 The remaining two equations can be transformed to (15—20) (d) = dM1 + Rin1 (e) We solve (d) for M1 and determine M2 from (e). 15—5.494 ENGiNEERING THEORY OF AN ARBiTRARY MEMBER CHAP. The resulting expressions are M1 = C2cosO + C3 sinG + M2 = —C2sinO + C3cosO + where M1 .

. where Example 15—4 The member shown is Sxed at A and subjected to a uniform distributed loading.Rw2 is a dimensionless parameter.SEC. we transform (b) to + w1 = Rk2 R2 — in1 + R (1 + (f) RM5 = where . d2co1 First. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 495 The solution of the force-displacement relations is also straightforward. 15—4. Taking Fig. we obtain F3 = C1 — Rb30 (a) . = —C4 sin U + C5cosU + d RM1 C6 — +j dO + is the particular solution for wi. E15—4 b3 = const h3 = coast in (15—20). Solving the first equation for and then determining W2 and u3 from the second and third equations lead to = C4cosO + C5 sin fJ + wi. = (15—22) which is an indicator for torsional deformation. The following examples illustrate the application of the above equations. The complete solution involves six integration constants which are determined by enforcing the boundary conditions.

librium conditions directly to the segment shown in Fig. 15 The equation for M3 reduces to + Then.496 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.—R2h3[1 — cos Example 15-5 can be determined by applying the The force system due to the end action. the equation for w3 becomes + w1 = The particular solution of (b) is (1 — (1 + — 0) (b) + [0 cos(OB 9)] Using the above results and specializing (15—23) for this support condition lead to the following expressions for the displacements: WAI COS 0 + sin 0 C05 + + sin 0 — 9 cos(08 — . Using (a). E15—SA. M1 = RF3 = RC1 — R250 R2b30 = RF3 = and the solution for M3 and M2 follows from (15—21). — = M2 C2 cos 0 + C3 sin 0 + RF3 R2b3 —C2. This leads to F3 = = FB3R(l — cos F83R[l •— — 0)] (a) M2 = We — sin =— sin(Oa 9) suppose there is no initial deformation.sinO + C3cosO — The boundary conditions at B require F3=M1=M2=O = C2 = C3 R5308 —R2h3 sin at 0=08 R2b3 cos Replacing — 0 by the final solution is F3 = = M2 Rb30 R2b3[q — sin ?q] .

terms involving c1 are due to twist deformation. + + sln(OR — and define the rigid body displacements due to support movement. CIRCULAR PLANAR MEMBER 497 SlflO + .SEC. I + cosO] . 1] — —--—. + + + Roi41(l — cos 1—c3 3 C05 sin Th — 2c1 sin + El2 + . Also. cosO + . E15—5A F3 M2 A I? translation at B are listed below: COS + sin 0a COS + R2P83 f ± c1] sin 1 sin + —h--— 13)33 + cos 033 -. The rotations and Terms involving Fig. 15—4. Sm 0 — 133 1 Osln(Oa — — (d) UA3 + RthAI(l — cos RFB3 IF I £1) — Rö5A2 Sifl COS 0 SW + C1j sin P 1L 0 cos(05 — 0) + c.sin 2 Rw42 Sm 0)3 1—c.

3 and v = 0.3) 2 3 2. we consider the rectangular cross section shown in Fig. E15—5B T 1(3 t The torsional constant for a rectangular cross Section is developed in Sec. 11—3. El 5—5)3. The properties aret 1 61 _6 (for I A3 5A — 5d2d3 d3) J = Then.8 7. (d3\2 El2 — E [1 (di'\21 2.3 GA3R2 — G [io k. .69 (Ibr v 1.4 Fig. 15 To investigate the relative importance of the various deformation terms. The values of 4k and for d3/d2 = are tabulated below: = E12/GJ d3/d2 1 4k 1.498 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.54 0.i2) J 1.75 3.16 3.

we cannot neglect twist deformation when the member is not shallow. (15—17)) follow. The steps involved are the same as for the prismatic or planar case and therefore we will not reiterate them here. M2 are constant. we find M1 = 1142 0 Rm1 The displacements follow from (15—18) U3 = (13. we see that it is reasonable to neglect transverse shear deformation. E15—6 b3 = m2 0 const 15—5. Then. — 0 RM2 WI R2m1 = = x2 Fig. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES In this section.SEC. . we can neglect in the expressions for UB3. El 5—6) subjected to a uniformly distributed twisting 0 and M1. the member is thin and slightly twisted. The general form of the expression for the displacement at an arbitrary point and the compatibility equations corresponding to these restrictions (see (15—14). FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 499 Since (d2/R)2 << 1. From symmetry. 15—5. using (15—16). and warping is neglected. We restrict this discussion to the case where the material is linearly elastic. F3 Consider a closed circular ring (Fig. Example 15—6 moment. In general. we illustrate the application of the principle of virtual forces to curved members. For the shallow case.

0 + . + Example 15—7 Consider the nonprisinatic member shown below. t3.Q + (a-) (15—24) + + Compatibility Equations Z1. The centroidal axis is straight but the orientations of the principal inertia axes vary.kldS + + + + = + + + = M1 + y3F2 — v2F3 The reduced form for out-of-plane deformation is obtained by setting F1 = F2 = 0. 2 r) (15—25) where + JMT. We take X1 to coincide with the ceniroidal axis and X2.JMT.k + — + ETM31M3. = cos + sin at çbt3 = —sin + cos x1=O .fkJZJ 3= 1 kA kZk (k = 1. Z2 Zr = force redundants = F30 + = M3. 15 Displacement at Point Q = —i + + (k20 + j [(ei° + + + Fj. X3 to coincide with the principal inertia directions at the left end (point A). The principal inertia directions are defined by the unit vectors t2.0 + R1 = R1.ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.

FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES Now. we must These follow from Fig. E15—7C: — P3(L x1)12 the components of It. We suppose that the shear Fig. E15—7A x2 x1 axts center coincides with the centroid and cializing (15—24).! with respect to the local frame. For P3. E15—7A.e. 15—5. the X2. E15—7B) are — P2(L — — = To find M2. and noting that M1 = the displacement expression reduces to dQ = 0 shear deformation is negligible. M3. Spefor a transverse load applied at the centroid.SEC. we consider the problem of determining the translations of the centroid at B due to the loadingshown in Fig. It is convenient to work with translationcomponents (v52. v53) referred to the basic frame. i. P3 applied at B (Fig.. 11L(i + (b) Force Systems The moment vectors acting on a positive cross section due to P2. M2 = P2(L M3 == — — P2(L x1)cos q5 . X3 directions.

Using (e) leads to . (f) Determination of CR3 Due to P2 The virtual-force system for VB3 corresponds to P3 = + 1. E15—7C M2r2 ——P2(L—x1)z1 M3t3 For M2 = M3 = +P3(L — — 1)cos 4) x1)sin4) (C ) Determination of Due to P2 The virtual-force system for we obtain corresponds to P2 = + 1. Introducing (d) in (b). 15 Fig. /B P3 Fig. E15—7B 1'2(L—x1)i3 'I —P3(L L-x.502 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.

SEC.J are constant T We take the torsional moment at 0 = M1 0 as the force redundant. the behavior is symmetrical with respect to X1 and we have to analyze only one half the ring. we see that M1 = = 0 Suppose the rotation w1 in the direction of in1 is desired. FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 503 Example 15—8 We rework Example 15—6 with the force method. E15—9 x2 42 44 12. Also. Only M1 and M2 arc finite for this loading. Starting with and substituting for M2. 15—5. The moment distributions T . Fig. Using symmetry. we obtain TO R2 COl = Example 15—9 Consider the closed ring shown. The virtual loading for this displacement is rn1 = + 1.

This requires M2 to be an even function of 0. and only F3.504 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. A1 = = ' 12 E12) sin cos 0 0 - [sin2 and it follows that Z1 = 0. The loading is out-ofplane. and M2 are finite. Using (15—24) and (a) leads to 2wAi = 2RJ r/T sin 0\sin 0 + fT cos O'\ cos 01 RTa[l COAl I Example 15-10 We analyze the planar circular mcmber shown in Fig. E15—1OA A P13 (Displacement restraint C iriX1 direction at B) B . El2 dO f11 = 2R J + and then substituting for M1.. 15 Specializing (l5—25) for this problem. f11Z1 = A1 A1 = —2R ./2 [M1 0M1 1 + dO 0M2. We could have arrived at this result by noting that the behavior is also symmetrical with respect to X2. It is convenient to take the reaction at B as the force redundant. M1. The virtual-force system for WAI is T = + 1. El 5— bA. To simplify the algebra. M2. Fig. we consider the shear center to coincide with the centroid and neglect transverse shear deformation.

FORCE METHOD—EXAMPLES 505 Primary Structure The primary structure is defined in Fig. El 5—lOB: B1 = d1 — R4 UA3 R2 —MA2 = —MAI = Z1 = F53 d2 = d4 = = E15—1OB M1 .SEC.0 = COS(ii — llc)] (b) —PR sin(lJ — 'Ic) ForZ1 = +1: 'Ic F3. = PR[l M2.1 = +1 = R(1 — cos M21 —Rsini1 ii) (c) .0 = +P M1. 15—5. xl Force Analyses The force solutions for the loadings shown in Fig. El 5— [OC are: For F: F'3.

506 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. [i + — cos(05 — Or)] — sin — sin Oc + sin = El2 GJ Note that we could have determined A1 and using the results of Example 15—5. E15—1OC C =+i B Compatibility Equation (15—25) IL. 15 Fig. we obtain the following expressions and R3 [(1 + — — Sin — — (1 — — Sill COS UA3 + RrOA2 sin cos + R2 sin(05 — O)dG {o. .j = fit !ii = R + + M2 for Substituting for the internal force and reactions.

in analyzing the strain at Q (S. The force-equilibrium equations follow from the stationary requirement with respect to displacement measures. RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION 507 15-6. 13) rather than the global frame. y3). b = prescribed forces = = complementary energy density bTIi V*)d(vol. 15—2. Thc approach followed for the prismatic case is also applicable here. S1 ti tj where au + t2 + (3 -. Yi' Y2). One has only to work with stress and strain measures referred to the local frame 12.) - tl dS dr2 dy3 (15—26) Therefore. = One can show thatt Y12. (3U (15—27) is the displacement vector for Q (S. 15—5. these restrictions lead to dR d(vol. in terms of one-dimensional displacement and force measures (functions of S) and integrate over the cross section. 15—6. Our formulation is based on Reissner's principle (13—33): d(surface area)] = — r. ü = independent quantities = e(iI) p. we consider the member to be thin and slightly twisted. RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION In what follows.) 0 We introduce expansions for fl. Referring to Fig. We use the same displacement expansion as for the prismatic case: U1 IA2 + u212 + 113(3 U1 + W2y3 — WIY2 lAsZ — — ± f4i (15—28) y3) = Expanding + co1(y2 Y3) — Y2) = t See Prob. we can treat the differential line elements as if they were orthogonal. We start with the strain measures.SEC. + + cr13y13)dy2dy3 .

noting (b).3)dy2dy3 Finally. The derivation is discussed in Sec. (15—32) satisfies (see(13—50)) JS(a124). 15 to dy2 = F1e1 + F2e2 + F3e3 + MTkI + M3k3 + MRf + Mj. 13—5. . Venant warping function referred to the shear center. Y3r = Y2r If the cross section is symmetrical. . e1. e2. we express MR as MR = (1 + A23 + b2F2 + b3F3 br = 0 (15—34) where the b's involve the curvature (a32.2 + a12çb) + (i5—29) The equilibrium equations consist of(15—11) and the equation due to warping restraint.. so we only list the essential results here.2 + cr134). we use the stress expansion developed for the prismatic case. a1 3). k3 (defined by (15—16)) = SSai14) dy2 dy3 + a134))]dy2dy3 MR = JJ[ci2(4). . 4) = — We write the transverse shear stress distribution as + = are functions of ± (15—32) The corresponding complementary energy function = $SV* dy2 dy3 = + + + M32) + + (15—33) + 2F2F3 + + + + Also. direction Now.ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER leads CHAP. MR (15—30) which can be interpreted as the stress equilibrium equation for the weighted with respect to 4). .. The normal stress is expressed as F1 = where + M2 '2 Y3 — M3 '3 + -r '1) (15—31) the St.

Expanding the stationary requirement with respect to force measures yields the force-displacement relations. 15—6. his—il). warping relations arc (15—18). A3) based on the primary fiexural shear stress distributions. k3 are defined by (15—16). to take b2 0 and compute the shear coefficients (A2. We neglect transverse shear deformation due to restrained torsion. b3 are due to self-equilibrating stress distributions. ej a av* k2 av* k3 = = aF2 = e2 + b2f = aV* e3 + b3f = i3V* (15—35) . Example 15—11 To investigate the influence of warping restraint. . RESTRAINED WARPING FORMULATION 509 and b2. e2. 15—6.t reasonable. R dO + M'j . we consider a planar circular member having a doubly svrnnietricai cross section (Fig. clampedat one end and subjected Fig.SEC. 15—4) follow. The governing equations for this loading (See Sec. Equilibrium Equations dM1 = = dM2 dO M1 t See Prob. E15—11 NM to a torsional moment at the other end. The corresponding unrestrained where e1. It is in this case.

ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. The resulting expressions are 2 2 =——— G. El2 GJ = ME — 1 0) — cos — siiih tanh GJ + = {o cos(05 — 0) sin 0 cos + 0 cos(05 — 0) + — sin 0 cos — {sinh — tanh 0 cosh + cos ü tanli = Warping restraint is neglected by setting Er = and .J . R f (10 f= = GJk1 1 (dco1 (b) Boundary ('onditions 0—U (01C02J0 1v11 =M M2 = 0 One can write the equilibrium solution directly from the sketch: M1 M — 0) M2 = Al sin(05 — 0) We substitute for the moments in the force-displacement relations.. and then Wi.. 15 Force-Displacement Relations M2 = E12k2 = El2 + El4. M1 = k1 GJk1 1 — = — — 0) I (dco2 = + Wi) '\ lvi — 0) and solve for k1.

786 0. COMPLETE END RESTRAINT The rotation at B is (RM\ l\ El2) = — COS 0B) + K= 1 + 1 — Sin 0B [ cos2 — tanh 704 If we set On On and let (g) reduces to (13—57).179 0. one needs the relations between the for and displacements at the ends of the member.907 = ir/2 0.96 0. For a truss. it/2 are tabulated below: 1 for = + for 1 = it/4 0. Since 2 = RA and R/li for a thin curved member. 15—7. these equations . 2 for = ir/4. the prismatic solution. 15—7. the influence of warping restraint is not as significant as for the prismatic case.99 10 We showed in Chapter 13 that 2 0 (open section) (j) 2 =0 (closed section) 1 where t is the wall thickness and h is a depth measure.SEC. MEMBER FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—COMPLETE END RESTRAINT - In the analysis of a member system.51)0 5 0. The influence of warping restraint depends on 2 and Values of K vs.

Eq.512 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 15 to a single relation between the bar force and the elongation.. (15—17) + where g= gfm (15-38) gf Sym 1 A2G + Y2Y3 (7 I GJ + o J'3 ojo 1 El2 0 0 Sym The force-deformation relation implied by (15—38) Is + (15—39) We will use these general expressions for planar and out-of-plane deformation as well as for the arbitrary case. We use the complementary energy function for a thin slightly twisted member with negligible warping restraint (i. Referring back to Sec. With the above notation.e. not MT. (15—17)). One has only to delete the rows and columns . 15—3. Matrix notation is particularly convenient for this derivation so we start by expressing the principle of virtual forces and the complementary energy density in terms of generalized force and deformation matrices. we define reduce a v* (1536) aM1 and write the principle of virtual forces as Ss dS J dS dT (15—37) Note that we are working with M1.

It is more convenient to generate and R with the equilibrium equations for a finite segment rather than attempt to solve (15—il). Consider the arbitrary member shown in Fig. 15—7. we substitute fort in (15 —37) and distinguish between prescribed and unknown displacements. For example. The virtual-force system must satisfy the force-equilibrium equations. The positive sense of S is from A toward B. d contains unknown displacements and are forces corresponding to d.SEC. Finally. (15—11). 15—6. . COMPLETE END RESTRMNT 513 of g corresponding to the zero force measures. The principle of virtual forces expands to J5(t° + where dS — dT dT (15—41) contains prescribed displacements and R are the corresponding reactions. 15—6. {F1F2M3} = 0 (15—40) El for planar loading applied to a planar member. B 13 Basic member frame Fig. Arbitrary curved member. Each end is completely restrained against displacement.

When no frame superscript is used. substituting for . 15 suppose the geometry of the member is defined with respect to a basic frame which we refer to as frame ii. We determine for the primary structure. W2. U2. temperature. Throughout the remaining portion of the chapter. it is understood the quantity is referred to the local frame. U3 (Oj. Note that acts on the positive face. The force matrix for the negative face is — The end forces at A.e. = = d= d Introducing (a). Finally.514 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. we will employ the notation for force and displacement transformations that is developed in Chapter 5. A superscript n is used to denote a quantity referred to (lie basic frame. For example. c03}Q {u} (15—43) For this system. we express as + where (15—44) is the internal force matrix at Q due to the prescribed external loading applied to the member cantilevered from A. (b) in (15—41). and the end forces at B and then equate it to the actual The virtual-force system is Lw = AR = = Also. and are prescribed. represents the internal force matrix at point Q referred to the local frame at Q. Then. i. the displacement matrix at point Q is written as 0//Q = {u1. due to displacement of A. the member cantilevered from A. and take the end forces at B as the force redundants. we obtain + Il + + + Next. B are denoted and are related to the internal force matrices by by = — = =— 15 42 Also. loads applied along the member. the primary structure consists of the member cantilevered We from A.

suppose point A1 is fixed. For simple members such as a prismatic member or a planar circular member with constant cross section. one must generally resort to numerical integration such as described in Sec. Up to this point. To illustrate the procedure.SEC. The member flexibility matrix. Finally. We also define JSB S-4 — to rigid body (1546) notion aI. Now suppose the actual member consists of a set of members rigidly connected to each other and the flexibility matrix for each member is known. The matrix. We can obtain the total flexibility matrix by compounding the flexibility matrices for the individual elements. + 0)dS = initial deformation matrix member flexibility matrix (15—47) fll and (15—45) reduces to — = + (15—48) Equation is the force-displacement relation for an arbitrary member with complete end restraint. T(18 + 0)dS (15—45) [JB + The first term is due to rigid body motion of the member about A whereas the second and third terms are due to deformation of the member. f". the displacement at B due to the tion of member A1B is A1B . is a natural property of the member since it depends only on the geometry and material properties. we have considered only a simple member. shown in Fig. we consider two members.out . we point out that the general definitions off. When the geometry is complex. It is analogous to the force-elongation relation for the ideal truss element that we developed in Chapter 6. are also valid for in-plane or out-of-plane deformation of a planar member. 15—7. COMPLETE END RESTRAINT 515 leads to = + [SB .4 is equal to the sum of the second and third terms in (15—45). AA1 and A1B. 15—7. We define as the member deformation matrix: = By definition. contains the displacements at B due to the end forces at B with A fixed: Now. one can obtain the explicit form off. Then. 14—8 in order to determine f and This problem is discussed in the next section. f". One simply has to use the appropriate forms for the various matrices.

J/'fl — = — + 1550 — The first term is due to external load applied along the member and represents the initial (or fixed-end) forces at B.' (TI? It Finally. The additional displacement at B due to movement of A1 is where • B. 'Ai It remains to determine B Fig. The force system at A1 due to the end forces at B is given by A.516 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. the analysis of a completely restrained member reduces to a set of matrix multiplications once the member stiffness and initial deformation matrices are established. we can evaluate the interior force matrix at a point using (15—44).' displaccment at 4 — — ' BA. . 15—7. Once is known. let (15—51) The second and third terms are the end forces at B due to end displacement at B. — ffl AA. = 0 + (a) Thus. — — ffl A. mernberAA. we have = + = — = ffl (15—49) The end forces at B are found by inverting (15—48): (fn)_ 1 1 member stiffness matrix •. For convenience. A. — CF-n B and the resulting deformation of member AA1 is A. Segmented member. 15 is the flexibility matrix for member A1B referred to frame n.

In order to express the equations where in a more compact form.0 ( ) B. expres- sions for the end forces in terms of the end displacements are required. = Substituting for — 0 leads to i + — BA — —— A. This is desirable since. we need an expression for Now. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES 517 When analyzing a system of members by the displacement method. In addition to (15—50). as we shall show later.i represents the initial end forces. the intermediate values can be utilized to evaluate the initial deformation matrix. the force-displacement relations simplify to = = Note that only and are + + + + and (15—54) required in order to evaluate 15-8. the values of the integral at intermediate points along the centroidal axis as well as the total integral can he determined in the same operation. we let in KBB in k AB ii — — L inwn. using (15—55) . 15—8. and + 0)dS from the local frame to the basic frame.g. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES The member flexibility matrix is defined by = Noting that = and letting g014)dS A = ffl (15—55) (15—56) we can write If numerical integration is used. We consider next the initial deformation matrix: = We transform 4'.T n — BA BA jn BA — BA With this notation.SEC.

it is desirable to maintain this generality when expanding in partitioned form.e.0 — _II U — SA Sc (15—60) c <C.518 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. but it is more convenient to express the integrand in partitioned form. we partition and g symmetrically. The partitioning is consistent with the partitioning of into F.. . frame n. (15—63) The determination of the member flexibility matrix reduces to evaluating J defined by (15—61). <C Writing or" or" CD and introducing the above relations in (15—59) result in ( = The bracketed term is an intermediate value of the integral defining we let Finally. we define a as the row order of F and /3 as the row order of M. (15—64) Continuing. 15 and = = The contributions of temperature and external load are T. Let (15—59) = Normally. i. i. The initial force matrix at Q due to this loading is given by 0 07fl Q. denote the force and moment matrices and the total force matrix: say C. (15—61) = With this notation.e.. g. Since the formulation is applicable for arbitrary deformation. M. (f) simplifies to (15—62) Also. consistent with (15—64). Therefore. the external force quantities are referred to the basic frame for the member.O)dS 0)dS (15—57) (15—58) Suppose there is an external force system applied at an intermediate point. One can work with unpartitioned matrices.

g11 = We let 0. If. GENERATION OF MEMBER MATRICES 519 and simplify the notation somewhat: = 0 (15—65) = (fixfj) — g11 () gQ— () g12 E i g12 g22 The translation and rotation transformation matrices are developed in Secs. the expressions for the submatrices are = (15—66) g22 — g22 are diagonal matrices when the shear center Note that g12 = 0 and coincides with the centroid. in addition. we partition f": r ffl = (15-70) . Using the above notation. we partition J consistent with'1': j— — 'I' dS — I — Jp22j x (15—69) JP = F" ffl is - Finally.SEC. = The submatrices follow from (15—65): = (15—67) + '1112 '1122 + + XHQgZ2XBQ (15—68) = = -F- Next. 5—2 and the form of g for a thin curved member is given by (15—38). axial and shear deformation are neglected. 5—1. 15—8. The local ilexihility matrix is defined by (15—55).

the stiffness matriccs and can be generated. since the basic frame coincides with the local frame.e. For convenience. external force.12 Ii (flxfl) C lYe) where L"c. 12 —- 2V'BC 22J 'C — denote the initial translation and rotation matrices. we have since R$ are identity matrices.1 I A 15—9. We write The member stiffness matrix.!T 12 I (15—74 AA ] — [k'. MEMBER MATRICES—PRISMATIC MEMBER In Chapter 12. or end forces coincides with the positive sense of the corresponding coordinate axis. Now.. Once XBQ is assembled we can determine the submatriees of . = from (15—68). i. Expanding (15—53) leads to the following partitioned forms: knB — —I I in KBA — rinIi I I nvn.' — k ii — 11 1n for convenience) (15—73) \1 12) 22k $ — —If çT i Once is known. 15 The initial deformation matrix due to an arbitrary loading at point C can be determined with (15—62). = I. is obtained by inverting = (r)' —( =I [ku 12 22 k22j I (15—72) (11 )< /1) One can easily show that (we drop the frame superscript on k. 15—8. Actually.T llJtB. we drop the frame reference superscript n. we generate the member flexibility matrix using the matrix formulation. We also list for future reference the various member stiffness matrices. The notation is summarized in Fig. Its partitioned form is = 1V01 — r cli rT — C. The positive sense of a displacement. Starting with (15—66). in this section.! T ml 12 I= A rnii I I I L 1n.12 n I BC C. we obtained the complete set of forcedisplacement relations and also the initial end forces for concentrated and uniform loading. we developed the governing equations for a prismatic member and presented a number of examples which illustrate the displacement and force methods of solution.520 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.

X2. Now. WB i UB! I. Summary of notation for a prismatic member. we obtain L/AE /1 L Sym 0 0 1) + + L \-2x3 I) + 0 + 0 0 f12= GJ LT2 0 . / X1 is centroiclal axis._________ ______ SEC. X3 are principal inertia directions. 15—8. V 2E13 + -— (15—75) L2 GJ 2E12 0 0 L/GJ = Sym 10 LIEu .xQ1) 0 (a) Then. Fig. o o 0 X5Q= 0 0 o (L—xQt) —(L—. 15—9. using g defined by (15—38). MEMBER MATRICES—PRISMATIC MEMBER 521 i2 MB!.

2) in k12) b1 L2 L2 0 0 B= 1! L2 . Transverse shear deformation is neglected by setting a2 = The submatrices of k are generated with (1 5—73). 3) and (3. 15 for reference. (1 5— 74) and are listed below 03 0: a2 = 2 12E12 a3 12E11 = = —I'--- '2 1 + a2 GJ + 12E - 1+03 b1 = AE L + 0 0 k11= Sym 0 L3 0 0 0 6E1 L2 0 (15—76) k12 = L2 k22 L2 0 (4 + Sym 0 — (4 + 0 0 Fl* L L3 0 L2 10 — (change sign of(2.522 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.

2). the fixed end forces due to a concentrated transverse force and a uniform transverse loading are summarized below. 3) in k22) Finally. concentrated Force a3 = 12E13 MB3 FB2 — (15—77) — MBI = MA1 + — F112 = —L MA3 = + FB2 + Force a2 12E12 — GA1L2 — ÷ FB3 + + FB3) (15—78) MAI — —MB1 _PC3 — FR3 MA2 L + — MB2) .SEC. 15—9. MEMBER b MEMBER 523 —6E!!Ye2 V FI* (4 L2 = + a3)_L_ (change sign of(1. (1.

It is convenient to take the basic frame (frame n) to be parallel to the local frame at B. The three-dimensional forms of and are cos — sin 01 0 = = = sin = cos 17] = rRbq ° I 0 1 (15—83) .e.. the reader should review Example 14—6. We include extensional and transverse shear deformation for the sake of generality. the shear center lies in the plane containing the centroidal axis.524 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 15 Concentrated Torque MA1 = = — Tc1(1 (15—79 — Uniformly Distributed Load. which treats planar deformation. i. we generate the flexibility and initial deformation matrices for a thin planar circular member. b3L2 (15—81) = =0 ——u— MAI = (15—82) 15—10. and Examples 15—4. 15—9. The notation is summarized in Fig. b2 F82 = - - b2L — FA2 M83 = —MA3 = M81 h2L2 (15—80) MAI = 0 Uniformly Distributed Load. 15—5. 15—10 for out-of-plane deformation. b3 F83 = 1q43 = M82 = = Uniformly Distributed Torque. rn M81 — — — b3L. By definition. Y2 and Y3 are principal inertia axes and p3 = 0. Some of the relations have already been obtained as illustrative examples of the force and displacement methods. of constant cross section. In particular. using matrix operations. MEMBER MATRICES—THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER In this section.

. 15—ID.SEC. . it is just as convenient to work with subinatrices of order 3 as to consider separately the planar and out-of-plane cases.fl for planar deformation and R0=1 — SQ [—R(1 — cos for out-of-plane deformation.U. x. We consider the member to be thin and use the local flexibility matrix defined by (15—38). THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER 0 525 = jO I 0 R sin R sin . Mw Fig. Expanding (15—66). Centroidal axis b B2 F. (15—68) leads to the member flexibility matrix. Since the complete flexibility matrix is desired.3. 15—9. Summary of notation for a planar circular member.

526 ENGINEERiNG THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER 13 CHAP.cosO5 + a2)} 0 +r!j) a2)sin — sin2 05(1 2 cos + c41 — 2c3 0 05 — C2 Sifl COS R2 0 0 1.12 — sin — T— t212t) — 0 0 —cos05) + 0 + c2 sin cos f15} Ib 22 . 15 ae as = Cs El3 El7 El2 Ct = a1 = = ae + a7 a2 = ae — c1 = + — = (15—84) ( — Y2\ —\2 Y2 \ Symmetrica' - sin ± I + az)i} R3 .

4C. T /1 Tçc. which we denote is known. V0 — UB — = U j r T c c AC. Now. — b . the flexibility matrix for the segment AC referred to the local frame at C. we can write = 1. THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER 527 We consider next the determination of the initial deformation matrix due to an arbitrary concentrltted load at an interior point.i21 \ c C + — 1' + Ii (15—85) ( 4C.11 v-I. T .121 C T Tcc C The uncoupled expressions follow. 1 + — + 00.3 WB3 {cos 'Ic — cos OB}Tc3 — sin + (1 COS + RO .. + 2 j .. the displacement at C is given by ('IC The displacement at B due to rigid body motion about C is "B — — BC TrI & T011hc. We just have to change to and superscript b to c in by When the external load is referred to the local frame at C.SEC. C. Planar Loading = + / = M3 Slfl + 1 1+a1 cos + 'Ic — I' + 1+02 Cos 0c ± -—-— + -'-'--— R3 I — cog 1+a1 sin ic — o4 1:13 + I 2 + Sifl R ç 5jfl (15—86) — —s-—-L I = Sill 'Ic 1+02. BC 3 Finally. 15-10.

6 = OB/2. and a uniform distributed radial load b2 applied per unit arc length over the entire segment. 15—10 defines the notation for the planar case. one can utilize symmetry to determine the fixed end forces.. We consider two loadings: a concentrated radial force P applied at C.e. i. CASE 1—CONCENTRATED RADIAL FORCE P . We determine the axial force and moment at C from the symmetry conditions u1 = w3 = 0.528 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. = = R3 ( COS 'ic + c4) — C2 Sifl 0c cos 0B + c3(— sin — sin °B + sin 6c COS 0J3 + C3 Sifl ) — — + —+ 1= R21 R21 cos 'ic + C2 £12 ( R2 CZS1flGCS1flOB c3(1 j COS 'ic + c3(sin 0B — sin 'ic) + c2 sin + + RI cos Cos 'ic — 5jfl (15—87) + C2 Sifl °c o5}Tc2 — 2= = — C2 £12 Sjfl 'ic + c3(cos ) COS 'ic) SIfl Oc Sin + i-i— )[CIOC sin 'ic + c2 sin sin + E12 cos 'ic + c2 sin 0c cos When the loading is symmetrical. 15 Out-of-Plane Loading V0. The most convenient choice of unknowns is the internal forces at the midpoint. Planar Loading Fig. The basic frame is chosen to utilize symmetry. Explicit expressions for the fixed end forces due to various loading conditions arc listed below. F1 and M3 are unknown for the planar case and only M2 is unknown for the out-of-plane case.

Notation for planar loading. 15—10. THIN PLANAR CIRCULAR MEMBER P 529 1. 15—10. SiflO! — CL cos cc) + —--—— SIfl 2 2 1+Q2 CL (1 + a1\ CL sin2 cc — cc I I + (1 + a2\ sin cos (15—88) = ' — 131 — RP ci —-i7771 — COS + ( — Al — — 77 — Cl — 1' 'A2 — = MA PR I 1 — co..SEC.s SIfl + 1.fl B! MA R Fig./I (sin COS CASE 2—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED RADIAL LOAD b2 = 0 —Rb2(1 sin (1 + ai) 2 — sin2 cc cc + (1 + a2'\ sin cc cos cc .

15 Mc=R2b2aecb(_1 = = — C( (15—89) a4) — cos = —Rb2 Sill = —MA = R2b2aecb Out-of-Plane Loading Figure 15—11 defines the notation for the out-of-plane case. F3 Mt 1 R Fig.530 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. Notation for out-of-plane loading. 15—li. and a couple T—both applied at C. We consider four loadings: a concentrated force P. CASE 1—CONCENTRATED FORCE P = P =0 PR 2 + c3(l — cosa) . CD2 Tile bending moment at C is obtained using the symmetry condition = 0. and a uniform distributed couple in1. a uniform distributed force h3.

We also suppose the properties are constant. the inward radial direction. at each point. is considered to coincide with the normal direction.(1 PR — cos cx) - = — = = — ----. we develop the flexibility matrix for a member whose centroidal axis is a circular helix.e. i. rn1R(1 — cos cx) FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX In this section. Y2. For convenience. 15—12.. cx FB = CASE 2—CONCENTRATED TORQUE T = = 0 = T c2sin2cx (15—91) 2 cxc1 + c2 sin cx cos cx = FB=FA=0 CASE 3—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED LOAD h3 - 0 — R 2 b3 c1(sincx — cx)+ c2 sin cx(i — coscx)+ — cxcoscx) + = R2b3(sin cx — cx C2 COS = = (15—92) cos cx) 1 = =FA=—PRcx — R2b3(cx sin cx — + cos cx) CASE 4—UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED COUPLE m1 = = 0 m1R——--——-—-- cj(a — sin cx) + c2 sin cx(cos cx —1) cxc1 + C2 — SJfl cx cos cx (15—93) —m1R sin cx MA2 = 15—11.SEC. FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX 531 MB1 = MA1 --i-. The notation is shown in Fig. 15—11. we summarize the geometrical . The principal inertia direction.sin PR.

= = g12 = () 1 GJ g2= El3 and the expressions for reduce to = 'I'12 'V22 The flexibility matrix for a constant cross section is given below. we assume the shear center coincides with the centroid and neglect extensional and transverse shear deformation. then from (15—68).532 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. In what follows. We first determine using (15—66). . t See Examples 4—6 and 5—3.3 = = —sin 0 0 — C(OB — C. = R. With these restrictions. a —cosO a C ——-cos 0 IC R Rc. and finally with (15—70). a a 0) R(sin — — sin 0) — = C(OB — 0) — 0 — R(cos 0 cos 0) R(sin sin 0) R(cos The steps involve only algebraic operations and integration. 15 relations: x3 = x2 R cos 0 R sin 0 a dO x3=C8 dS a= [R2 + C2)112 = constant = fl + Rcos 012 + Cl3) — t2 = -—COS t3 sin 012 — b= = Ccos 072 + R13) —---sinO R.

Notation—-Din.SEC. Y3—principal inertia directions Fig. 15—12.neters = C12 R2E12 R2 + C2l2 = + C2 (E12\ 13 El2 R2 [12 ij T El2 a3 RC[12 Ra3 a5 = 1+a1 a4+a6 2 a6 = 1—a1 a7= a9 a8= a10 2 a6+3a4 2 a6—3a4 2 . FLEXIBILITY MATRIX—CIRCULAR HELIX 533 j Centroidal axis Yi Xi". X'.ensionless Para. Notation for circular helix. 15—li. X31 —directions of basic frame Y2.

534 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. 15 Elements of f71 [fit = C2a( + R2a2cz 1 Sym f22 1 I f33j + (1 02 B a + 2a4 sin 08 + a10 sin — OB} El3 f a6 + Sin208) a8 2sinO8 + 0B — — COS 0B + a4(OB 05 + COS OB)} — El3 0B(08 sin 1 + cos — f31 = = RCr1 + (a1 — a4)(i cos0.1) a4 sin2 05 + a9OssinOn} cos C2x R2a2cc 1 + /1 — a10 2 sin 08 Cos — 2a4OB +El = El2 + a8 f33 = R2a + COS sin + COS sin 08) + a1005 COS 0B + a4 sin 2a1 {(ai + a5)05 — sin a6 sin cos (15—94) Elements of [114 Lf34 1161 f261 f35 f36j COS f14 = sin 08 + a705 + a8 sin 02 + a8 sin2 8 f16 = f24 — El2 — — ( 08} El3 <08 ( sin 1 + cosoB} + a8 sin2 0B <p8(08 a4(1 — cos = f Sffi 0B C05 .

15—12. Now. when the member is only partially restrained. Inverting these equations and using the equilibrium relations for the end forces results in force-displacement relations which are consistent with the displacement releases. and there are only a unknowns (where a is the order of F8). 15—12. if there is no restraint against rotation at B. Normally. the rotation at B has no effect on the end forces.SEC. in terms of the end forces at B. using. sin OB a1(1 — COS = f36 = — — 0B cos Elements of COS 013j {a508 + a6 sin Sym a {a508 — a6 = El2 sin 2 — sin 08 cos OB} aa2 cos08) aa3 112 . For example. we express in terms of the applied external load and the force redundants: = EZ + G (15-95) . one would work with the primary structure corresponding to Z = 0. say Q. PARTIAL END RESTRAINT 535 f26= = Ca3cJ . To handle the case of partial restraint. 15—7. as a primary structure. we considered an arbitrary member which is completely restrained at both ends. there is a reduction in the number of member force unknowns. M8 = 0. Let Z denote the force redundants. suppose we first express the force at a point. using the primary system corresponding to Z = 0. This led to the definition of the member flexibility matrix and a set of equations relating the end forces and the end displacements. we first determine the compatibility equations corresponding to the reduced set of force unknowns. MEMBER FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS—PARTIAL END RESTRAINT In Sec. the member cantilevered from A: (a B Next. However.

Note that one can determine directly by working with the primary system corresponding to Z = 0. . Substituting for expression to he satisfied for arbitrary AZ. For convenience. A.Z ( — ) We refer to 1. there are q force redundants. is the flexibility matrix for Z and it is positive definite since E must be of rank q.l = ffl are the initial deformation and flexibility matrices for thefull end using (15—95). 15 The elements of G are the end forces at B (for Z loads. It is convenient to work first with the virtual force system due to Equation (b) reduces to T(.. i. E is i x q Gisi x 1 and (15—96) represents q equations. we obtain where (ETIftE)Z + ET( + = = (15—96) are the displacements of the supports at B. Also. as the reduced flexibility matrix since.fçfl + T(O//. q < i. we let t be the row order of (and 0?t). Now. It should be noted that We suppose Z is of order q x 1.536 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP.e. This is the normal approach. Note that G = 0) due to the applied external if Z contains only end forces at B. i. the principle of virtual forces requires 0 + = + TO/fl for any self-equilibrating virtual-force system. (F = ([3 x 1) (15—97) With this notation. The approach that we have followed is convenient when the member flexibility matrix is known. the force systems corresponding to the redundants must be linearly independent. in general.. we let (q x q) = + rG — (1 1) (15—98 ) and the member force-deformation relations take the form trZ = — z) Tcjjgn ETJc) n 'A — ' O. Actually.e. Taking the system due to AZ results in the compatibility equations for Z. and requiring the resulting restraint case.

we let = 15—101 We will use (15—100) in Chapter 17 when we develop the formulation for a kr = The force redundants are obtained by inverting (15—99): (15—102) Z= = We defined — — (15-103) Substituting for Z. PARTIAL END RESTRAINT 537 At this point. '7 —. 0. 15—12. the end forces at B are given by — — +G (e) as the effective member stiffness matrix: = EkYET LET ( 15—104) In general. we write the relations in the generalized form B. Equation (e) takes the form = = = + — +G + (I. k is singular when q < i. Continuing.SEC.i I + I n' RB L BA 'A = + . for complete end restraint. — 14' B G=0 member system.) ETrE (15—100) f.0 iLl Finally.z = 0 — = reduced flexibility matrix (q x q) — 'I/'' — p .Z = Note that. we summarize the force-displacement relations for partial end restraint: Z = member force matrix = EZ + G f.. since E is only of rank q. — (15—105) The end forces at A are determined from (a): = — — + — ar" 'BA ( A.

RUEINSTRJN. . 6. T it Note that premultiplication of by Er eliminates 9". There is no compatibility requirement for the end rotations in this case. due to the presence of the G term. G = (15—102). 5.S. EMI. No. REFERENCES I. Then. 2. M.C.E. S. Div. Eng.. London.Fl +G — For this case. 1965.538 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN MEMBER CHAP. 0. DAEROWSKJ. R. Van Nostrand. the force-displacement relations are (see (15—99)): rt. 1967. which we have defined as does not introduce any member deformation.. WEAVER: Analysis of Framed Structures. 88. W. The reduced flexibility and stiffness matrices follow from (15—98). = and the effective stiffness matrix follows from (15—104): rc". Example 15—12 Suppose there is no restraint and generate E. 1966. February 1962. the corresponding expressions for the complete restraint case. We take Z . HALL. — 1 I o Finally. however. i. Vol.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. New York.: Gekriimmte dünnwandige Trüger (Curved thin-walled beams). 1968. 0. the support rotation at B. Springer-Verlag. 15 where (15—107) = k" AA — — ar" BA BA n — BA e T BA Comparing (15—107) with (15—53). the relative rotation at B. Pcrgamon Press. M. and R. F. ii — . 3.: Matrix Computer Analysis of Structures. 1964. 4.e. LIVESLEY. W000HEAD: Frame Analysis. and W. F. we see that one has only to replace by in the partitioned forms for and The equation for is different. J.i it vn. A. R. Berlin. New York. A. Wiley. G with (15—95). GEaR." J. Prentice-Hall. Mech. K.: "Variational Considerations for Elastic Beams and Shells. against rotation at B. REISSNER.

. Vol. 1965.S. 15—3 I— Vertical restraint at B . Evaluate VB2 /( vB3/ 3E12 I/p j3\ / \3E12J and for a range of 4 and a/b. Determine the reaction at B and translation (in the direction of F) at C for the member sketched.e.: Thin Walled Elastic Beams. for a typical wide-flange section and a square single cell. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Prob. Comment on the relative importance of torsional deformation vs. / Shear center P Prob. 1961. 15—2 x2 '2 b x3 y3 13 15—3. bending deformation (i. Washington. Zurich.. 15—2.PROBLEMS 7. Dept. OfiIce of Technical Services. as shown in the sketch. 25. D. Distinguish between deep and shallow members. of Commerce. 539 V. U. Neglect transverse shear deformation. terms involving in Equation (e)). P. Z.C. PROBLEMS 15—1. 17—39." International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Publications. pp. Determine c. Refer to Example 15—7. BAZANT. Consider a rectangular cross section and varying linearly with x1. "Nonuniform Torsion of Thin-walled Bars of Variable Section. Refer to Example 15—5.: 8. Z.

using (15—77) and (15—79). —* 0. Evaluate b2 and b3 (see (15—34)) for a symmetrical wide-flange section and a symmetrical rectangular closed cell. Utilize symmetry with respect to point C. Specialize the solution (Equations f) for = 1L 1. when 15—8. Verify (15—73) and (15—74). X2 Prob. Derive (15—27). 15—3 using (15—84) and (15—87). DR (1 + r.540 ENGINEERING THEORY OF AN ARBITRARY MEMBER CHAP. Repeat Prob. Verify (15—90) and (15—91). Generalize for n segments.) = Df) D15 S[fl Y12 = DS E3f) Dy2 DS Dy2 neglect second-order terms. Comment on whether one can neglect these terms. 15—6. 15—11 15—12. Solve Prob. 15—13. Summarize the governing equations for restrained torsion. Apply them to Prob. Discuss how you would apply the numerical integration schemes described in Sec. 15—11. 15—4. considering complete fixity at B. . determine an expression for the member flexibility matrix in terms of the segmental flexibility matrices. 15 15—4. 15—9. 1 5—2). Refer to Example 15—11. (13—57). Determine the fixed end forces for the member shown. (see Fig. Verify that (g) reduces to the prismatic solution. and note (15—26). 14—8 to evaluate defined by (15—69). Assuming the flexibility matrices for the segments are known. — 15—7. 15—3. Start with the definitions for the strain measures 15—5. 15—10. Consider a member comprising of three segments.

Specialize for b3 = constant and verify(15—92). Using the geometric relations and flexibility matrix for a circular helix (constant cross section. determine E and G corresponding to Z = MB M4} Then specialize for rotation releases at A. develop expressions for the initial deformations due to an aribitrary distributed loading. b Y2. Determine the reduced member flexibility matrix for no restraint against rotation at an interior point P. Y2 coincides with the normal direction) developed in Sec. 15—15 Y3. 15—11: 1)evelop a matrix equation for the displacements at B due to a loading referred to the global frame and applied at flint: See (15—85). h3 = b3(O). . B and determine kg. Starting with (15—87). 15—15.fl I I P —— — ir/2 c G =R/2 =E/2 x1 15—16.PROBLEMS 541 15—14. (b) Evaluate for the loading and geometry shown. For the planar member shown. 15—17. (a) Prob.

.

Part IV ANALYSiS OF A MEMBER SYSTEM .

16

Direct Stiffness Method Linear System
1 6—i.

INTRODUCTION

We

consider a system comprised of in members which are connected at j

joints. We suppose the geometry of the assembled system is defined with

respect to a global framet and use a superscript o to indicate quantities referred to the global frame. The external force and displacement matrices for joint k are denoted by
(p0)
(ax!)
(16—1)

(jOt)

(xxi)

(fbi)
where c is the number of translation (force) components, /1 is the number of rotation (moment) components, and i + fi. Note that = 2, /3 = 1 for a

planar system subjected to in-plane loading and 1, /3 = 2 for a planar /3 = 3. system subjected to out-of-plane loading. For an arbitrary system, In what follows, we assume the material is linearly elastic and the geometry is linear, i.e., we neglect the change in geometry due to deformation. The governing equations consist of joint force-equilibrium equations and member force-displacement relations. We have already developed the member forcedisplacement relations in Chapter 15, so that it remains only to establish the joint force-equilibrium equations. In this chapter, we apply the direct stiffness method, which consists in assembling the system stiffness and initial force matrices by superimposing the. contribution of each member. the next chapter, we present the general formulation for a linear member system and obtain the equations corresponding to the force and displacement solution by
t By global
frame, we mean a fixed Cartesian frame.

545

546

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM

CHAP. 16

matrix operations. Finally, in Chapter 18, we extend the direct stiffness method

to include geometrical nonlinearity.
16—2.

MEMBER FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS

In developing the relations between the end forces and end displacements for a member, we considered the member geometry and loading to be referred to a basic member frame (frame n) and used A, B to denote the negative and positive ends of the member. The general relations were written (see (15—107))
as

=

+ +

+ +

Note that (a) also applies when there is only partial end restraint or internal
releases.

Now, we define n_ as the joints at the positive and negative ends of member n. Replacing B by n, n the member frame take the form

=

+ +
\T

+ +

where

'

We transform the force and displacement quantities from the member frame to the global frame for the system by applying

= =

(16—2)

to (b). This step is necessary since we are working with joint forces and displacements referred to the global frame. The final expressions arc:

= =

+ +

+ +

(16—3)

where the global member stiffness and initial force matrices are generated with
k

TI

n

rzou
16—4

=

Once the displacements are known, we evaluate using (16—3) and then transform to the member frame. Since the initial end force and stiffness matrices are generated in partitioned form, it is natural to express (16—4) in partitioned form. Using the notation

SEC. 16—3.

SYSTEM EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

547

introduced in Section 1 5—8, we write
(o

plion

=
=

ip
t.MoJ
(flxl)

(16—5)

(Sxo)

()O,22

Expanding (16—4) leads to
on
o

12 —

on,T
fi

n

00. 12
21

on on —
on
P

k
1

21 =
0

on, Ti n
ii
11

o,T ( )( ), 12


L

(16—6)

"(')(),22

— Don,

t 0,1

= depends on is a natural property of the member whereas Note that the orientation of the member frame with respect to the global frame. The
operations defined by (16--6) can be considered as the element matrix generation phase. The member force-displacement relations satisfy the equilibrium conditions

for the member and compatibility between the restrained end displacements and the corresponding joint displacements. Actually, the equilibrium condi= tions were used to determine Compatibility is satisfied by setting = When there is only partial restraint at an end, there will and be displacement discontinuities. For example, if there is a rotation release at the positive end, will not be equal to the end rotation matrix. We have treated'r partial end restraint by defining an effective member stiffness matrix k0. In the derivation of k0, we consider °1IA to be the displacements of the supports (i.e., the joints) and enforce continuity of only the restrained end
displacements.
16—3.

SYSTEM EQIJILIBRIIJM EQUATIONS

The equilibrium equations for joint k arc obtained by summing the end

forces for the members incident on k:

t See Sec. 16—12.

548

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM

CHAP. 16

depends on and the displacements of those joints which are In general, connected to joint k. We define as the total (or system) external joint force and joint displacement matrices:

=

(if x 1) (if <

16—7

and write the complete set of if joint force-equilibrium equations as

=
where

91'o

+

(16-8)

contains the joint forces required to equilibrate the initial end forces We have dropped the reference frame superscript for convenience. The most efficient way to assemble and is to work with submatrices of order 1, the natural partition size, and superimpose the contributions of each member which follow directly from (16—3). This operation requires no matrix multiplications. The terms due to member n are listed below.
In

(Partitioned Form Is] x 1):
in row n÷ in row
(16—9)

111 X (Partitioned Form Isj x
in row column n+ column n_ in row in row n_, column

oT

1

inrown...,columnn_
Since
16—4.
is

symmetrical, only the upper or lower half has to be stored.

INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS

In this section, we extend the procedure described in Sec. 8—3 for introducing

joint translation restraints in the formulation for an ideal truss to an arbitrary member system. Actually, only the notation for the joint force and joint displacement matrices has to be changed. The governing equations are:
=

=
1

1

=

+

=

(16—11)

+

The stiffness and initial force matrices are assembled using (16—9) and (16—10). It remains to introduce the prescribed external forces and displaceis prescribed, and we just add ment restraints. If joint q is unrestrained,

SEC. 16—4.

INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS

549

is unknown. We replace q is completely restrained, to — the matrix equation for with the matrix identity,
Finally, ifjoint q is partially restrained, some of the elements in 19q are unknown.

In this case, we replace the scalar equations for the unknown reactions by
scalar identities.

We suppose joint q is partially restrained and, for generality, consider the translation and rotation restraint directions to he arbitrarily orientated with respect to the basic frame. We define X'1, .. , as the orthogonal directions
.

for the translational restraint frame and

as the orthogonal directions

for the rotational restraint frame. Quantities referred to the restraint frames are indicated with primes and a single superscript is used for the total matrix:
=
(flxj)
(16—12)

L°"i

Now,

P, = q
T" —
/3

(16—13
q

We define 9/°" as the total rotation transformation matrix:
0

1
I

=

I

(16—14)

L0

With this notation, the transformation laws take the form
9/oqçpr
(

16—15 )
in
PPO

The modification requires two operations. First, we transform (16—11) to This is accomplished by premultiplying row q of

with

and postmultiplying column q of with 9/°" In the second step, we replace the equations corresponding to the unknown elements in with identities. This operation can also be represented in matrix form. Suppose the rth element in is prescribed. We assemble four matrices, Eq, and as follows:
1.

EqandGq

We start with and set

E=I,

G=O,
+1

550

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOID—.-LtNEAR SYSTEM

CHAP. 16

2.

We start with an ith-order column matrix having zero elements and set the element in row r equal to the prescribed displacement.

We

start with an ith-order column matrix having zero elements and enter

the values of the prescribed forces and moments referred to the restraint frames. Note that element r is zero. Premultiplying transformed row q of 3r, t?P0 with Eq reduces the rth equation to 0 = 0. Then, adding Gq to Eqirqq and to — + q introduces the identity for the rth element and includes the prescribed external forces We also operate on the qth column of in to preserve syrnnwtry and include the terms due to prescribed displacements in The complete set of operations for joint q are listed below:
1.

€=1,2,...,q—l
T)a/e;

T)F

2.

9N, q

q

+
T)Eq + Gq

+

=
3.

(l616)

€=q+i,q+2,...,j
= =

The operations defined by (16—16) are carried out for each joint, working with successive joint members. We represent the modified equations as

=

(16—17)

The superscript J is placed on % to indicate that the joint displacement matrices are referred to the local joint restraint frames, which may not coincide with the global frame. Again we point out that the primary advantage of this modifica-

tion procedure is that no row or column rearrangement is required. Solving (16—17) yields the joint displacements (local restraint frame) listed in their natural order, i.e., according to increasing joint number. The modified stiffness
matrix,

will be positive definite when the system is stable.

Once QgJ is known, we transform the displacements from the restraint frames

to the global frame, using (16—15), and evaluate the member end forces from (16—3). Next, we the total external force matrix, The contribution

SEC. 16—4.

INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS
is

551

of member n

in row fl...

(16—IS)

Finally, we transform the external joint forces from the global frame to the local restraint frames. This step determines the reactions and also provides a statics check on the solution.
Example
Suppose
16—1

joint q is completely restrained. Then, "li

and

= 0.. The forms

for E, G are

EqOi
and (16—16) reduces to

Gqlj
,t,.
q

1.

€=L2,...,q—l
— —

2.

3.

j
Oi

=
Example 16—2
Suppose

matrix and external moment matrix this case are

joint q is completely restrained against translation. Then, the translation are prescribed. The appropriate matrices for

r0
=

01
Gg

r1

=

}

=
Example 16—3
We consider the case where joint q is restrained with respect to translation in one direc-

tion and there is no restraint against rotation. This corresponds to a "roller" support. We take to coincide with the restraint direction and X'2, as mutually orthogonal directions comprising a right-handed system. The translation, is prescribed. The
prescribed forces are P52, and

552

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD—LINEAR SYSTEM

CHAP. 16

We first assemble

From (16—14),

=
where

rRoa'
I

[
r,s

13

=

1,2,3

=
The forms of E, G,
and

are

0

=

=

We specialize the results for a planar system subjected to planar loading. In order for only planar deformation to occur, the translation restraint direction must lie in the plane plane. It is convenient to select the orientation of the system, which we take as the of X'2 such that X3 coincides with X",. 'Ihe specialized forms are

=
= [S,.,]
0
Eq

r,s =

1,2

1

(d)

=

Gq

= ---H
0

Finally, we consider the case of a planar system subjected to an out-of-plane loading. direction in order for only The translational restraint direction must be parallel to the and arc prescribed. The out-of-plane deformation to occur. For this case, specialized forms are
Eq Cq

=
qe;

=

=
Note that (e) is obtained by settinge =
1,

=

=

2

in (a) of Example 16—2.

REFEREt'JCES

REFERENCES
1.

R. K.: Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis, Pergamon Press, London,
1964.

2.
3.

MARTIN, H. C.: Introduction to Matrix Methods of StructuralAnalysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965. RUBINSTEIN, M. F.: Matrix computer Analysis of Structures, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1966.

4.

Gere, I. M. and W. Weaver: Analysis of Framed Structures, Van Nostrand, New
York, 1965.

17

General Formulation Linear System
17-1.
INTRODUCTION
We consider a system comprising m linear elastic members interconnected at j joints. We suppose there are i degrees of freedom per joint (i.e., the joint displacement and force matrices are of order i x 1) and the geometry and joint quantities are referred to a global frame. Also, we neglect geometry change due to deformation. In the previous chapter, we applied the direct stillness method, which is actually a displacement method, to this system. Now, in this chapter, we first develop the governing matrix equations and then deduce the equations corresponding to the force and displacement solution procedures.

We also establish variational principles for the force and displacement methods. Finally, we discuss how one can introduce member deformation constraints in the displacement method. Since the basic steps involved in the member system formulation are the same as for the ideal truss formulation, we recommend that

the reader review Chapters 6 through 9 before starting this chapter. Let r be the number of prescribed joint displacements. Then, the total number is of joint displacement unknowns,
na = if

r

(17—1)

The total number of force unknowns, flf, is equal to r (the reactions corresponding to the prescribed displacements) plus qT, the total number of member
force unknowns:

nf=?+qT=r+(qj +q2+ '.. +qm)
where

(17—2)

represents the number of force unknowns for member n. By definition, is equal to the number of force quantities that have to be specified in order to be able to determine the total internal force matrix at an arbitrary point. If the member is fully restrained at each end, q1, = i. For partial restraint, q,, is equal to i minus the number of independent force releases. Note that when the member is pinned at both ends, = 1 since there are only five independent moment releases.
554

SEC. 17—2.

MEMBER EQUATIONS

555

There are qT equations relating the member forces and the joint displacements.

Also, there are ij equilibrium equations relating the external joint forces and the member forces. The formulation is consistent, i.e., the number of equations
is equal to the number of unknowns. If flf if, the system is said to be statically determinate since the force unknowns can be determined using only the equi-

librium equations. The difference, flf — ii, is generally called the degree of static indeterminacy, and represents the order of the final system of equations for the force method. For the displacement method, the final system ofequations arc of order In what follows, we first establish the member force—joint displacement relations by generalizing the results of Sec. 15—12. Then, we assemble the joint force-equilibrium equations. Finally, we introduce the joint displacement restraints.
17—2.

MEMBER EQUATIONS

The reduced member equations were developed in Sec. 15—12. For convenience, we summarize the notation and equations below (see (15—100)):

Z=

member force matrix (q, x 1)

(ixi)

f"

member flexibility matrix (i x i) = ETfnE reduced member flexibility matrix (q,, x f, — = member deformation matrix (i x i) = + f"G = initial member deformation matrix (i x i) = = — )

These equations include the effect of partial end restraint, internal force releases,

and reductions due to symmetry or antisymmetry. We can also use (a) for complete end restraint by setting F = and G = 0. Now, we introduce new notation which is more convenient. First, we note that G contains the end forces at B due to the external member loads acting are the on the primary structure defined by Z = 0. Also, — —
end forces at A. Then we write

=G

(17—3)

is a compatibility Next, we note that the equation relating Z and K", requirement. The term fZ + ETeC?OZ is the relative deformation in the positive
sense of Z due to the member loads and the member redundants, Z, whereas is the relative deformation in the negative sense of Z due to support (joint) movement. The net relative deformation must be zero for continuity.

2C. .. i. n (17-6) = fr. = Since Z=Z. the joint quantities are referred to the global frame.. Member Forces—End Forces = = TE)Z + + 17 7 Member Forces—Joint Displacements (q.e. the member equations take the form — B 17—4 R. is a second-order tensor.t n+ — ( 17— ) 8 The force translation transformation matrix. . 17 Then. we define = reduced member deformation matrix (q.556 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP..o (175) — + frZ = We generalize the relations for member n by setting B—n÷ A=n_ E=E.. "r. using = The final equations follow. it transforms according tot q and it T T t See Sec. 10—2. we must transform the end forces and displacements from the member frame (frame n) to the global frame (frame o). x 1) = = — reduced initial member deformation matrix x 1) = ETI/'O z = + f"G) With this notation.

. ro. and positive definite. . We define as the total joint displacement matrix referred to the global frame. x 1) x 1) = total reduced member deformation matrix = 2 1.. (ij x 1) = and express 'V as °/4.. 1 - (17-16) .. 2 x Note that f is quasi-diagonal. we can express the member force-deformation relations as a single matrix complete set of equation. We let Z total member force matrix = {Z1.} . 17—3. .. = since it is a natural property of the member whereas We prefer to work with depends on the selection of the global frame. Z2.. . With this force-deformation relations are given by notation. x 1) — I ro. SYSTEM FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATtONS 557 Using (17—JO). m} = total reduced initial member deformation matrix (q. the -V = -V. Equation (17—8) represents the By defining general flexibility and deformation matrices. . TF)Z . (17—14) = The partitioned form is (17—15) d12 . . . mJ '17—12 f total reduced member flexibility matrix fr. Z. + fZ (17—13) It remains to generalize the deformation-displacement relations. . we can express and 'r. 17—3. SYSTEM FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS force-deformation relations for member n. — — as.SEC. . symmetrical.

. .the expression for "V takes the form = = Next. .. . we see from (17—8) that there are only two non-zero elements in row n and they are at columns n_. 17 Row n of d corresponds to member n. 411_ to ET9II(Q71+ — T411) (a) the positive using member-joint connectivity matrices for and negative (C_) ends: 411÷ C÷% 17 . 411. The submatrices in row n are of order x i..19 .. Now.. we relate 411÷. we define the following matrices: (inz x 1) 411 = _. First.558 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. The assembly of d is defined by d = sins = 0 S 17 17 fl_ 1._ } (im x 1) (mi x un) E= E Em (im x q1) ([7—18) (zinxirn) (un x im) Using this notation. in It is of interest to express si in factored form. . ii = 2...

1 P1 = + I Z2 Zm (17-24) We assemble and working with successive members. There arc i equations for each joint. (17—21). 17—4. so it remains only to satisfy equilibrium of the joints. The contribution of member a follows from (17—7): in row . combining (a) and (17—19). SYSTEM EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS We have used the member force-equilibrium equations in developing the member force-displacement relations. we enter n in column n÷ of of C_. — contains the direction cosines for the bars.equilihrium equations involves only summing at each joint the end forces incident on the joint. as the total external joint force matrix referred to the global We define frame: (17—22) = 1) and as the initial (Z = 0) joint force matrix: (ijx j) = 1' 2 (17—23) The elements of members with Z 0. and a total of if equations. The expressions for the end forces in terms of the member forces are given by (17—7). are the joint forces due to external forces acting on the We express the complete set of equations as + Z1 . Finally. we have and column = and it follows that — 17 20 d. p1. There is only one nonzero element in a row.reduces to (see Equation 6—28) = where 17—4. C correspond to member a. = = — For an ideal truss.SEC. Assembling the joint force. For row n. SYSTEM EQU)L)BRIUM EQUATIONS — 559 Note that rows a of C ÷.

We use B. P1. Comparing (17—26) with (17—17). + C!1. we see that = We let —— (17—27) 1' 1. we can express as (17—28) = 17—5.. and P1 are prescribed. 17 Column n TE n_n — — — Tdyn p171sn = = TE (17—26) 0 S s= fl+. 2.GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. GOVERNING EQUATIONS The governing equations for the unrestrained system are (17-30) Now. we suppose r joint displacements are prescribed.O (17—29) INTRODUCTION OF JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS. = Then. We rearrange and that the prescribed displacements arc last. A to represent the rearranged forms d: (qr I x r) B= [liii [ _J A2] = [An [ A2 (17—32) j fr'qr) . We also rearrange -+ so U = P cu1) (U2) (rxl) (17—31) —* = Pf (r x where U2..

SEC.e. and the r reactions (P2). 17—5. U = DQ/ = where (17—38) contains the rotation matrices for the joint restraint frames.. Now.) (r eqs. A1U1 + A2U2 member forces (Z). One can generate H by starting with I and permuting the rows according to the new listing of the joint displacements. = DTU P= . using A O/Iq = This step involves postmultiplying column q of d by T (17—36) row q of by and premultiplying We write the transformed equations as = J)1 + 4L + fZ = (1737) where the superscript J indicates that joint forces and displacements are referred to local restraint frames. We first transform the force and dis- d placement matrices for joint q from the global frame to the restraint frame. (17—40) Then.) (17—33) (17—34) 17 35 - The unknowns are the displacements (U1). If the restraints are parallel to the directions of the global frame. The final equations are obtained by permuting the the rows of and then partitioning.. the (na eqs. i. (17—39) and H is the row permutation matrix.. 2 + = fZ + 1/.. = . JOINT DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINTS 561 Finally. with the prescribed displacements last. D is an orthogonal matrix. columns of d2 (rows of The transformation of a71 to U can be expressed as a matrix product.ied system as Pi = + B1Z P1 + AfZ P2 = 2 + B2Z P1. the transformation of d to A (or to B) involve only a permutation of the columns of (rows The same permutation is applied to the rows Suppose joint q is partially restrained and the restraint directions do not coincide with the global frame directions. we write the equations for the restrai.

which represents nj equations in unknowns. wc consider (17—33). For the equations to he consistent for an arbitrary loading. Therefore. using(17—17).. the rank of 'B1 must equal n. In the next chapter. we worked with the actual joint displacements and external joint forces referred to the global frame. NETWORK FORMULATION In the formulation presented in the previous articles. 9PI.(A1) = (17—44) Since B1 is of order x a necessary hut not sufficient condition for stability (17—45) Equation (17—44) is the stability requirement for a geometrically linear system. The governing equations are given by (17—30). — A = B (17—41) AT = The partitioned forms are obtained by partitioning D: D= Finally. we develop the stability criteria for a geometrically nonlinear system subjected to a finite loading.. B1Z = P2 -. we can express d in terms of only one . It is also the initial stability requirement for a geometrically nonlinear system. we can write [D 1 LD2J (n x (j) . 17 and it follows that P. (17—25). By introducing new joint variables. which we list below for convenience: = where + — Tc) + = One assembles d. (r (17—42) A1 = A2 = P1 = 2 = 1 = BT = Bf (17-43) To determine the requirement for initial stability.562 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. which are actually the expansions of(b). 17—6.. the stability requirement for the system is r(B1) = .

and noting that The remaining steps are the same as followed previously.. x 1) (17—51) s= 1.. 1.SEC. 2 j .. — = Substituting for we obtain 'Kr. = Now. The rule (17—17) for assembling d still applies except that now Let Y denote some arbitrary point. 0 — Xy1 0 — 4i) plane (17-48) t planar We could operate on (b).4 — displacement matrices for joint k in terms of their equivalents at point Y. We define = statically equivalent force at Y due to the actual force matrix at joint k. k r)r° kY k (17—47) k where 0 kY = I" — 0 Xy2. by definition. For now n. 'Wy 2 (17—49) (17—50) and write 'K = The generation of follows from (17—48). but it is more convenient to start with (17—11): 'Kr. = = S 0 = (q. C. Suppose we express the actual force and connectivity matrix. We let 'Wy = {0/t°y. The actual and equivalent quantities are related by — Y. (1746) = displacement at Y due to rigid body motion about joint k. = (17—48) using (17—47). 17—6. NETWORK FORMULATION 563 C..

Actually their formulation is a special case of our first formulation. 1). The only operational advantage of not working with the actual joint quantities is in the generation øf d. a network formulation. and finally. Note . strictly speaking. 17 To express in factored form. we generalize (17—47): (17—55) = • (if x i/) jY It follows that — . This advantage is trivial compared to the additional operations required . i. r (17—56) g. and write the resulting equations = = + + fZ = (17-54) To relate corresponding terms in (a) and (17—54'). It is not..ioned.e. DiMaggio and Spillars (Ref. to to generate to once the solution is obtained. 2) have also presented a network formulation for a rigid jointed member system.564 GENERAL FORMULATION—UNEAR SYSTEM CHAP..YI = The expression for reduces to (17--53) when (d) and (c) are introduced. C_) = as (17—53) We transform the joint forces. to introduce the displacement restraints. A simplified version which does not allow for member force releases has been presented by Fenves and Branin (see Ref.m÷ and d. using (17—47)... Fenves and Branin's primary objective was to show that the governing equations for a member system can be cast in a form such that geometrical and topological effects are separated. a true network formulation since connectivity is not completely separated from geometry (see (17—21)). The formulation developed above can be interpreted as a network formulation since the connectivity term appears seperately in the factored form of d.. Another serious disadvantage transform is that the equations tend to become ill-condii. The only way that one can separate connectivity from geometry is to redefine the joint variables. we let 1+Y = + Y (irn x irn) (17—52) Then..

Now. 17—7. the equations reduce to the equations for the direct stiffness method. symmetrical. 17—7.SEC. Once the member forces are known. In the displacement method. 2—18. Whether one interprets the governing equations for a member system from a network viewpoint is of academic interest only. However. (17—34). DISPLACEMENT METHOD The governing equations are given by (17—33). We substitute for Z in (17—33) and write the result as = where P0 + + K12U2 (nd x lid) (17—59) = K12 = ATkA2 = + x r) (lid X 1) (17—60) The elements of P0 are the joint forces due to the initial end forces. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 565 that the ideal truss is an exception. contains the initial member forces due to external loads acting on the members and initial deformation resulting from fabrication errors or temperature changes. The only possible advantage of the network interpretation is in the force method. we can find the reactions from (17—34). 9—5. The matrix. and even this advantage is debatable. it f See Sec. the selection of a primary structure for a rigid-jointed frame having fixed supports is quite simple. provided that there are no member force releases or partial joint restraints. . and positive definite. we start by solving (17—35) for Z in ternis of the displacements. Z1. Z = Z1 + kA1UE + kA2U2 where 17-57) = initial member force matrix (q1 x 1) = k= (17—58) = reduced member stiffness matrix x Note that k is quasi-diagonal. There one can use certain concepts of the mesh methodt to select a primary structure. Since A1 is of rank (when the system is stable) and k is positive definite. and (17—35). See Prob. Connectivity and geometry are naturally uncoupled for this system.

the expression for takes the form = where — = Finally. n) t See Eqs. reduces to First. we review the definitions of the member stiffness matrices. 17 that K1.fl Now. Conversely. Operating on the restrained equations. is not efficient since the various coefficient matrices must be generated by matrix multiplication. we expand (d): (17—63) = + + T)C + — One can easily show that (17—64) reduces to (16—10) when the properties of C. Z1. are taken into account. .n T n e. n'17ro. one can avoid any matrix multiplication. the system is unstable. The of (16—9).H = and L0 . (17—8). n) TEn(_kr. jfK1 is not positive definite._1O fl+n+ — e. (16—10) when we introduce the factored forms of d. The initial end actions for member n = T. The effective member stiffness matrix (see (16—104)) has been defined as k to the global frame and applying (16.. This procedure corresponds to the direct stiffness method. (17—7)..1 is positive definite. By first manipulating the unrestrained equations and then introducing the displacement restraints. we obtain Z = Z1 + kd°ll (17-61) (17—62) and = = + c/TZ + + Equation (17—62) is identical to (16—8). The joint displacements are determined by solving (17—59) and the member forces are obtained by back substitution in (17—57). + TE)( — kr.107) reads to ke.. Operating on (17—30). substituting for d using (17—21).. . as we have done above.566 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. and (17—il).

.) (r eqs.e. This operation can be represented in terms of the permutation matrix. 16—4. equations in Equation (a) represents The system is statically determinate when n4. the number of member force redundants: (17—67) = — . 17—8.) Now. We let B1 is of rank be the degree of static indeterminacy. 11. i. FORCE METHOD 567 Using the factored forms for form d. 17—8. (f) consists of (17—59) plus r relations for the prescribed displacements. We obtain (f) by starting with [0 = IrJ L U2 and permuting the rows and columns. i. (fld eqs. when It follows that the system is stable.SEC. we presented a procedure for introducing joint displacement restraints and represented the modified equations as = (ii eqs. FORCE METHOD We start with the governing equations for the restrained system: B1Z = P1 P1.e. the expression for + takes the = + The general form — (17—65) defined according to (16—9) is = + (17—66) Substituting (e) in (17—65) results in (17—66). In Sec. and 4.) (b) (c) unknowns where Also.) (a) BfU1 + = = 'V0 + fZ 2 + 82Z (qr eqs.. defined by u=[IdllJ = HTP Then. = is positive definite when K11 is positive definite.

) The equilibrium equations take the form = P1 — P1.. the member force matrix Z can always be rearranged so that this condition is satisfied. This is possible since (b) represents qT equations whereas U1 is only x 1.2 + We write the solution of (17—70) as ZP BIRZR + B2RZR (17—70) (17—71) + KZR (17—72) The force influence matrices can be expressed as ("a 1) Zr. = (B1pY'(P1 — ZPR = but it is not necessary to determine Actually.. We partition Z after row Z 1) 1z.0 + P2 RZR (17—75) . The compatibility Since B1 is of rank equations for the member force redundants are obtained by eliminating U1 from (b). we specialize the principle of virtual forces of order for a member system and utilize it to establish the compatibility equations. we substitute for result as (17-74) are self-equilibrating.. we partition B1 and B2 consistent with (17—68): (fld 0 qj-) x fld) ("s 'Jo.568 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.) z Note that the member forces due to B1Z = 0. 17 we can solve (a) for member forces in terms of the net prescribed joint forces (P1 — P1 i) and r member forces.) B1 =[ (r 0 BIR "d> 17 — B2 (i 69 (r °qo. i. If the system is initially stable. In the next section. they satisfy in the expression for P2 and write the P2 = t See Sec. We refer to the system obtained by setting ZR = 0 as the primary system. Continuing. Finally.e.) (ZR) 1) (17—68) The elements of ZR are the force redundants for the system. We suppose the first 0d columns of B1 are linearly independent.( The complete solution for is xqo. 9—2. the solution procedure can be completely automated. P2.

can be expressed as = — lil [Zp [ZP ft 'RRJ J [zp. Finally. f is positive definite for a deformable system. U1. it follows that fzR is also positive definite.R1 (17—81) j j Now. + = + = 1'O.R) L PR V R) and obtain the following two sets of equations relating to U1 and ZR: + L"2RJ — + ft BfPU1 + 'V'p BfftU. ft — 'RR 7T c o) — A = P2. 9—2.0 B2R + B2pZp.R1T f[ZP.SEC.2 + J37PZP. We generate A. the remaining steps are straightforward.e' 2 1 1 1 *ftftJ o. Once the preliminary force analyses have been carried out. We partition (b) consistent with the partioning of Z. 17—8. and then determine . ftU2 — + p + These equations are similar in form to the corresponding equations for the ideal truss developed in Sec. FORCE METHOD 569 where (rXI) = (r X P1. In a later article. Since + = qft. Eliminating U1 from (d) leads to RU2 I/R + ZP + + fftftZft ± + + fpftZR) 17—78 Equation (17—78) represents the compatibility equations for the force redun- dants. Then. there are excess equations. R'PP'—P.ft '17—76) It remains to determine Zft.) (17—77) (d) The joint displacements can he determined from (17—77) once Zft is known. we substitute for equations as where >< qg) using (17—72) and write the resulting (17—79) 17T — fZRZR = A —f 7T 4• 7 1-q'.J( + + + fRRZR (fld eqs. rDT 1 1 rDT 1 I. The flexibility matrix. Equation (b) represents qr equations in unknowns. we consider the case where certain member deformations may be prescribed.) eqs. fzR. solve for Zft.

In the displacement method. If we consider U. but not as conveniently as the direct stiffness method. we substitute for Z in the joint force-equilibrium equations. "K = AU = A1U1+ A2U2 The first differential of "K due to an increment in U is d"K = A AU = A1 AU1 + A2 AU. (17-82) Then.. See (17—33). . However. in this section. We refer to (17—83) as the principle of virtual displacements for a member system. we develop the corresponding variational principles for a member system.1 + AfZ = P1. Another disadvantage of the force method is that the compatibility equations tend to he ill-conditioned unless one is careful in selecting force redundants.. automating the preliminary force analyses requires solving an additional set of nd equations. (17—83) results in only (b). P2 by back substitution.570 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. the requirement that PTAU = + ZTd. Now. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES In Chapter 7. lid). The final number of equations for the force method is usually smaller than for the displacement method VS. + ATZ The partitioned form is = P.) Z= = (AU — form of (17—83) suggests that we define a scalar quantity. having the property dV = = dV(U) (17—84) The t We work with the governing equations for the restrained system. to be prescribed. using — "1/'. Also. If the displacements are also desired. We start with the force-equilibrium equations. (17—34). V = V(U). 17—9.K (17-83) be satisfied for arbitrary AU is equivalent to (a).t P = P. The extension is quite straightforward since the governing equations are almost identical in form. The force method can be completely automated.2 + To interpret (a) as a stationary rcquircment. (17—35). we developed variational principles for the displacement and force formulations for an ideal truss. the force method requires considerably more operations to generate the equations. we consider the deformationdisplacement relation. 17 Zr. they can be determined by solving (17—77)..

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES 571 One can interpret V as the strain energy function for the members. they are the governing equations for the displacement formulation presented in Sec. = V + 1U1 + — — — U2) (17-87) where U1. and P2 are variables. as V+ — PTU (17-86) The Euler equations for H. are the unpartitioned joint force-equilibrium equations expressed in terms of U. i. = where V + 1U1 — (17—88) V= form + A202 — i2rr — /tITTIATI A \AIT — 1) + A202 — (17—89) The Euler equation for (17—88) is (17—59). (c)) expressed in terms of the displacements with U2 set equal to 02. If only the equations for P1 are desired. 17—9. i. If AZ satisfies - then (17--92) reduces to AP1 = B1 AZ = 0 (17-93) (17-94) = .e. and the second differential has the '4 = AUrK11 AU1 (17—90) Since K11 is positive definite.. U2. By definition.. The compatibility equations follow directly from the principle of virtual forces by requiring the virtual-force system to be self-equilibrating. AZ be a statically permissible virtual-force system. = ATAZ = BAZ (17-91) Premultiplying both sides of (d) with AZT and introducing (17—91) leads to the principle of virtual forces. We consider next the force-method formulation.SEC. U2 =02. by writing (17—86) as H. one which satisfies (17—91). The Euler equations for (17—87) are the partitioned equilibrium equations (Equations (h). We let AP. 17—7.e. Finally.. V ôan be expressed as 17 85 — Continuing. we can state that the displacements defining the equilibrium position correspond to a minimum value of defined by (17—88) or (17—87). For the V= = — — linear case.. we define the potential energy function. we set U2 = 02 in (17—87). we introduce the joint displacement constraint condition. APTU = (17-92) Note that (17—92) is valid only for a statically permissible virtual-force system.

such that dV* = (17—96) For the linear case. RU2 + const The Euler equations for (17—99) are (17—79). and noting that P. P2 in (17-98) and expanding V* using (17-97). Sub- stituting for Z.K0 We also define the total complementary energy function. and the second differential has the form = AZR (17—100) .572 GENERAL FORMULATION—LiNEAR SYSTEM CHAP. and = 4ZTfZ + ZT. 0 B2 AZ Note that (h) require the virtual-force system to be statically permissible and In the previous section. The formulation presented in the previous section corresponds to taking AZ [ZP. we expressed Z. 17 This result is valid for an arbitrary self-equilibrating virtual-force system. P2 as Z = + P20 + P2RZR This representation satisfies (g) and (h) identically for arbitrary AZR. 2 are prescribed.Rl = A ZR (17-95) AP2 = We define the member complementary energy function. we obtain = — + ZR + ZR] (17-99) 2. P2: = = — + B2Z The constraint conditions are the joint force-equilibrium equations. subject to the following constraints on Z. as (17—97) = — (17—93) The deformation compatibility equations. (17—94). lead to the constraint conditions on the force variations B1 AZ = AP2 = self-equilibrating. V's' = V*(Z). Operating on (g). can he interpreted as the stationary requirement for 11.

and P2 as variables. This happens. as defined by (17—98). if axial extension is to be neglected.SEC.e. One can easily show that the stationary requirement for rIR = ZT(8TU1 + T — — Pfu1 — ( IT 1 IT 7—10 considering Z. lead to the partitioned joint force-equilibrium equations and the member force-joint displacement relations. correspond to a minimum value Since of Instead of developing separate principles for the displacements and force redundants. This principle is a specialized form of Rcissner's principle. and the force-displacement relations (see (17—5)) degenerate to (b) See (16—75). We obtain (17—87) from (17—101) by introducing the force-displacement relations as a constraint condition on Z. For complete rigidity. the forces that satisfy compatibility as well as equilibrium. 17—10. we could have started with a general variational principle whose Euler equations are the complete set of governing equations. — ZT(BTIJ1 ± reduces 11a to —11. + - (a) is the initial axial deformation due to temperature and fabrication error.. we set 1/AE = 0. — V" = y Introducing the joint force-equilibrium equations as constraint conditions INTRODUCTION OF MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS Suppose a member is assumed to he either completely or partially restrained with respect to deformation due to force. it follows that the true forces. we set g Now. for example. g. i. U1. when axial extension is neglected for a straight member. Note that now the axial force has to be determined from the equilibrium equations. . Z k(BfU1 + — = and noting that. The rigidity assumption is introduced by setting the corresponding deformation parameters equal to zero in the local flexibility matrix. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 573 is positive definite. we discuss the case where neglecting member deformation parameters causes the mmher flexibility matrix t. 17—10. by definition. in what follows. For rigidity. The rank is decreasedt by I and the axial force-deformation relation degenerates to = where — = v.. For example. U2. = 0. to be singular.

we cannot specify that bars 1. k does not exist and. qT 4 q4 = 2 We take the forces in bars 3. i. 4 are rigid. Suppose these are c deformation constraints. We consider next the displacement formulation. This condition is necessary but not sufficient as we will illustrate below. No difficulty is encountered if only one bar is rigid. it must be of rank requires qT — C In This (17—402) That is. there must be at least unconstrained member deformations. ri Zr5[0 and 0 1 1 1 0 01 0 = We can specify that. at most.. 4 as the redundants: cF1) (F2J IF3 ff4 Then.574 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. the decrease in rank of the system flexibility matrix f is equal to the number of constraint conditions. We consider first the force method. (b) as either member deformation constraints or as con- straint conditions on the joint displacements. Example 17—1 Consider the ideal truss shown. Then. two bars are rigid. For this system. 17 One can interpret (a). 3 or 2. In general.) = "Zr L — C. we cannot invert the complete set of force-displacement . f is of rank order to solve (c). therefore. Since f is singular. Aside from insuring that the flexibility matrix is of rank there is no difliculty involved in introducing member deformation constraints in the force formulation. The governing equations are given by fZrZR = A where (qR eqs. However.e. must be nonsingular.

u to indicate quantities associated with the constrained and unconstrained deformations. Continuing. We use subscripts c. we first develop the appropriate equations by manipulating the original set of governing equations. We then show how the equations can be deduced from the variational principle for displacements. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 575 Fig. 17—10. The governing equations are P1 = P1 1 + AfZ eqs. we partition A1 (q-r A (cx I'd) — 'ia) (cxr) •) (17—104) (qr—e)xi - (qT xl) 05 (cx I) f = fT = 0 (cxc) .) + fZ = A1U1 + A2U2 (qT eqs. we suppose there are c deformation constraints and the elements of are listed such that the last c elements are the prescribed deformations. E17—1 0 0 relations..e. the corresponding member forces.) Now. In what follows. i. (17—57) are not applicable. We partition '/7' and Z as follows: = where (cx1) z = 1 (17—103) contains the constrained member deformations and Z.SEC.

Suppose we write Z.e. The constraint equations arc (we take — = {e1. U1.. Using this notation.02 (17—105) (17106) (17—107) Equation (17—107) represents c constraint conditions on the unknown joint displacements. This is permissible since is nonsingular. the coefficient matrix. e1}) — U21 = = —u11 + e3 = For (a) to be consistent..576 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. The rank of A1. Example 17—2 Suppose we specify that bars 1.U1 = A2. there must be no coupling between and i. is of rank c. The resulting equations are 4= = and + — — — (17—108) — + AfCZC = P1 — (17—109) A1. we can transform (17—109) such that the coefficient matrix is always nonsingular. f must have the form shown above. In what follows. we must have er. Note that. the governing equations take the form P1 = = + AfCZC + + = + A2aU2 = A1. 17 The deformation constraints are introduced by setting = 0. 3 due to Pi 1.02 — (17—ill) where 4 represents the new force variable and is an arbitrary symmetrical . 3 are rigid for the system considered in Example 17—I. is equal to the number of independent constraint equations. in order for f to be singular. One can easily demonstrate that c independent constraint conditions are required in order to be able to analyze the system for an arbitrary loading. =4+ =4+ — + A2. we assume A1.U1 + A2. is nonsingular only when the structure obtained by deleting the restraint forces (4) is stable. We solve (17—106) for 4 and substitute in (17—105). we cannot find the forces in bars 1. By suitably redefining 4.02 (17—110) Now.. + e30 = + U41 Even if(b) is satisfied.

We obtain K11 and Fl1 by first generating using the direct stiffness method and then deleting the rows and columns corresponding to the prescribed displacements.1 11 (17-112) = rk L 1 rf L kcj = and noting (17—104). we let Kr... Also.1 + T + By defining [k. Once the ments and constraint forces are known. . .. the solution for U1 must satisfy (17—116) and we see from (17—111) that is equal to the actual constraint force matrix. 17—10. Substituting for in (17—109). One can work with the natural member force listing. have the same form as the The expressions for Z and unconstrained expressions (17—57) and (17—59). — fl r. the governing equations take the form Z — (17-114) (17—115) = K11U1 + = = = — — — K1202 = H1 = H2 (17—116) Since A1 must he of rank for stability and we have required to be positive definite.. A2. 17—7 (see (17—60)). = = (17—113) ± Finally. Z. we can write (a) as Pi + ATk'(A2tY2 — + (Afk'A1)U1 + Using the notation introduction in Sec. it is not necessary to rearrange Z such that the constraint forces arc last. Now. can be listed arbitrarily. 1 ([A1. . the natural member force listing.. Z = {Z1.. It is only necessary to specify the locations of the constraint forces (elements of in. ATk'A.j — n n -— " n+ . with Z. deleted. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 577 positive definite matrix of order c. / (O/g° '. .SEC. it follows that K1 is positive definite. ro.. 1/v. . The constrained deformations. we can determine the force matrix for member n by first evaluating (see (17—8) and (17—11)) Z =k'r. for arbitrary k'. we obtain (a) P1 = P1.} and take arbitrary values for the member deformation parameters that are to be negelected.

= To simplify the example. = e2 1 . we must invert an ndth and order matrix and also solve a set of c equations..u2} Pz} = e1 e2 4= 4= F1 k. In what follows. U1 = and then substitute in (17—116). and then adding the constraint forces in the appropriate locations.1=2 (P1 U2. For the unconstrained case. we have to solve only equations.) 0 Bar is rigid We start by assembling A1. F2 = = 11.. Note that. is the modified stiffness matrix.578 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP. The constraint equation is e2 = U. E17—3 are null matrices. c=1 Fig. we describe two procedures for solving (17—115) and (17—116). 17 where k.. we solve (17—115) for U1. E17—3) is rigid. — (17—118) = — 112 (17—119) The coefficient matrix for is positive definite since K1 is positive definite is of rank c. the various matrices for this example are U1 P1 {u1. Example 17—3 We suppose bar 2 (Fig. we consider only the effect of joint forces. In the first method. Using the notation introduced above. with this procedure.

. (17—119).] 0 (h) (i) (j) = H1 = The inverse of K11 is 0 The solution follows from (17—118). is singular. — a is an arbitrary positive constant.SEC. we assume an arbitrary value for the stiffness of bar 2. 17—10. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 579 and then partition according to (17-104): Ii 1] Note that we cannot invert (17—109)..L[1 = and (17—119) reduces to ak1 +11 = ak1 F'2—p2—p1 Substituting for F'2 in (17—118). u2 in (h): F1 = F2 = F'2 = P2 — P1 . Now. and assemble K1 i: = L 0 kJ LU a 1 K11 = Afk'A1 — k1•[I' The governing equations (17—114).A1. (17—115). and (17-116) reduce to = K11U1 + + = P1 [u-. we substitute for U1. since Af. We just have to take H2 = = (k) 1 [1+2a —ii Then (1k1[-l +Ij I (1) .k.. we obtain U1 (n) = 2p' Id1 U2 = 0 Finally.

We consider next the joint force-equilibrium equations. we can always permute the columns such that this requirement is satisfied. we can express c displacements in terms of rid — c displacements. Since A is of rank c. One can interpret . 17 Instead of first solving (17—115) for U1 in terms of (17—116). We let — c (17—120) and partition U1: (cx 1) U1 (cxnd) (Cxc) (nxl) (17—121) The elements of U are the independent displacements. H3 from same procedure as employed in the force method to select the primary structure. i. By definition. is nonsingular. we express U1 as — 2U (17—122) U1 = BU + H3 where a) (17-123) (cx = I L f fl 0 -J I (axx) H3 = ( (cxl) j 0 (ax!) Note that B is of rank n and (17125) H2 can be completely automated using the The generation of B. Since is of rank c.e. there are only nd — c independent displacements. (17—115). Then. solving (a) for the constrained displacements.) Substituting for U1 leads to (K11B)U + We eliminate -. one can start with = — = H2 which represents c relations between the displacements. K11U1 + = H1 = (fld eqs.K11H3 114 from (b) by premultiplying by BT and noting (17—125). We suppose the first c columns of are linearly independent. the coefficient matrix is positive definite.) (17—126) Since B is of rank n. The resulting system of n equations for U is (BTK11B)U = BTH4 (n eqs.. we have = Finally.GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.

1 — ATZ (c) Z — = k'(A1U1 + A2U2 — (d) We determine Z using the member force-displacement relations and assemble P1 + AfZ by the direct stiffness method. 115 = where (see (17—114)) — P1. We apply the same permutation to (17—127) and (17—128) H5 2 Considering the first c equations. We consider again Eq. we can solve (17—129) for We obtain the final member forces by adding the elements of Z defined by (17—114) and (d). and the joint force due to member force with the constraint forces deleted. P1. we can write = — K11U1 = 115 (n0 eqs. we permuted the columns partition after row C: [ATe. we have to invert a matrix of order c and solve a system equations.1 is known. 17—10. i.e.. i such that the first c columns are linearly independent. of no — c Example 17—4 For this example (Fig.0 e30 (a) n42 = e2 = 021 — U22 — 032 031 144j = e3 e4 (b) e4. Now has c independent rows. (a). c—4 The constraint conditions are e1 U12 n=1 e10 e. there is more preliminary computation (generation of B) and the procedure cannot be automated as easily.SEC. Although the final number of equations is less than in the first approach. Assuming U. . is the difference between the external applied force. It remains to determine the restraint forces. We solve for U and then evaluate U1 from (17—123). MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRAINTS 581 BTK1 1B as the reduced system stiffness matrix. In determining B. we have 1 (17—129) Since is nonsingular.) (17—127) The matrix. In this approach. 115. E17—4).

e4.by applying (17—122). we assemble U1 defined by (e) and then permute the rows to obtain the initial Fig..2.4. we can take either u1 or u21 as U. This step is simple for this example since I. 5.0 -I— 1142 U21 U22 = +1 {u11} + 0 0 1' e30 + 1132 u31 e4. e2. U} u11} We determine U..u21. The form corresponding to (17—116) is +1 —1 +1 +1 +1 1- U12( 1e10 + Je.o + U41J U31 I U1 FL2 A1. The final result is U11 +1 0 0 e1.2 The rearranged form of U1 is U1 = {u12. and either I or 3 comprise a linearly independent set. Columns 2. It is convenient to take U = u1 We permute the columns according to 1 1 —*5 2—..0 e30 + u32f .0 + U4j I 113 B . Finally. 17 Note that (b) corresponds to (17—107).3. 1 3-. Then.582 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP.4 are rigid listing of U1.u22u31 = (U. E17—4 2 x2 ears 1.

which for this example has the form +1 +1 +1 I We I [ F4 = H5. 17—10. The resulting equations correspond to (17—129). In the second approach. We start with the unconstrained form of developed in Sec. permute the rows of (g) according to (d) and consider only the first four equations.5 I I H. we substitute U1=BU+H3 (f) . Taking — — V= — (17—131) in (17—130) leads to (17—115) and (17—116). we can add the term '(1"' to (d).SEC. It is of interest to derive the equations for the constrained case by suitably specializing the variational principle for displacements. V reduces to + = V= + )Tk('K — We obtain the appropriate form of = V introducing the constraint condition. = where V + !5L1U1 — V= "K = A1U1 + A202 Now. One can easily show that the stationary requirement for (17—130) considering U1 and 4 as independent variables leads to (17—109) and (17—110). 17—9. "Kr — by substituting for V using (d) and = 0: + — + — (17-430) The elements of 4 are Lagrange multipliers. Since = v". the displacements are constrained by = Then. MEMBER DEFORMATION CONSTRMNTS 583 The constraint forces are determined from (17—127).

2. Mech. 169—188." J. 17 in (a) and (17—131): = V V + — — — + H3) (17—132) A1BU + A1H3 + A2U2 The variation of considering U as the independent variable is = AUT[BT(P1 = 1 P1) — + (g) + BTATkr(ASH3 + A2U2 — BTH4] Requiring to be stationary for arbitrary AU results in (. Also. SPILLARS.. No. pp. and F. pp.S. Note that we could have used the reduced form for V. S. A. J. Vol. June. DIMAGOT0. 4. Eng. Vol 91.. we still have to determine the constraint forces.1. 89. 131—142. REFERENCES 1. Div. J.584 GENERAL FORMULATION—LINEAR SYSTEM CHAP... .. L. August." . 3." Proc. "The Matrix Analysis of Structures with Cut-Outs and Modifications. 1963. ST4... i. pp.E. No.. "Network-Topological Formulation of Structural Analysis.e. and W. Structural Div. 1957. R. JR.C. Vol. Ninth International congress App!. ô.S.17—126). H. EM3. FENVES.E. H...C. ARGYRIS. F. equation (d). 1965. "Network Analysis of Structures. BRANIN. 483—514. Mech.

18 Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Systems 18-1. We will briefly sketch out the solution strategy and then present a linearized solution applicable for doubly symmetric crosssections. we extend the displacement formulation to include geometric nonlinearity. Finally. u2. we described two iterative procedures for solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. 18-2. We also consider the material to be linearly elastic and the member to be prismatic. We treat first planar deformation. co3). However. 585 . The first phase involves developing appropriate member force-displacement relations by integrating the governing equations derived in Sec. Next. We work with displacements (u1. These methods are applied to the system equations and the appropriate rerelations are developed. the governing equations are now nonlinear..e. The derivation is restricted to small rotation. INTRODUCTION In this chapter. MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION - Figure shows the initial and deformed positions of the member. i. The three-dimensional problem is more formidable and one has to introduce numerous approximations in order to generate an explicit solution. since the equations for this case are easily integrated and it reveals the essential nonlinear effects. successive substitution and Newton-Raphson iteration. This phase is essentially the same as for the linear case. where squares of rotations are negligible with respect to unity. we utilize the classical stability criterion to investigate the stability of an equilibrium position. The centroidal axis initially coincides with the X1 direction and X2 is an axis of symmetry for the cross section. 13—9. The direct stiffness method is employed to assemble the system equations.

M3) referred to the initial (X1-X2-X3) member frame.42 L The governing equations follow from (13—88). we drop the subscript on x1. For convenience.is F1 = ULx + F2 2 = = U2. and end forces (F1. we consider h1 = rn3 = 0. 13. 18—1. w3. Equilibrium Equations =0 (F1u2. Notation for p'anar bending. + F2) + b2 0 (a) F2 = Force-Displacement Relatio. Centroidai exis Fig. 18 distributed external force (b2). — CO (b) M (0. and M3. Deformed position b2 dxi 1182 x1 . .586 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONUNEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. The rotation of the chord is denoted by p3 and is related to the end displacements by — U. Also. F2.

SEC.tx + C5 cos px) (18—4) x - (i + C2 + + C4 b2 dx + (i + where U2b denotes the particular solution due to b2. the governing equation for u2 follows from the third equation in (e). U2b b(EI — 1/ (18—5) . If b2 is constant. We include the factor P so that the dimensions are consistent. The axial displacement is determined from the first equation in (a). we obtain M = El / + P\ u2 + ri Finally. C3 are integration constants. P — = F112 (d) or Integrating (a) leads to F1 = F2 + Pu2 = — C3P C2Px + Jx(Jx b2 dx)dx where C2.. 18—2. + where + C3)+ — 2__ El = co (18—3) The solutions for u2 and M arc C4 cos px + C5 sin + C2x + C3 + U2b sin j. PL 11111 — UAI 1 ('1. = — j (u2 2 dx (18—2) Combining the remaining two equations in (a). MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION 587 Boundary Conditions Forx = 0: = U2 = UAI w= WA3 or or or or or 1F110 = —FAI iF2 + Mb = FIlL Forx = U1 = = +FB1 IF2 + Ml.

18 Enforcing the boundary conditions on u2.588 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. We consider the case where the end displacements are prescribed. ('Lj (u2. When the coefficient matrix is singular. 2 dx = PL — erL where —j 2(1 — cos — — D= Dç62 = pL sin pL 1iL cos cos 1zL) — sin iL) = + . In what follows. w at x = 0. L leads to four linear equations relating (C2 C5). i. we exclude member buckling.e. the member (18_8) PJrnax The end forces can be obtained with (c—e).u sin . The net displacements are u = (u — CD' = (a5 Evaluating (18—4) with A2 = oc. MA3 = MB3 + + + + + + — — uA2)] UA2)] = — + FB2 = — — UA2)] — (u52 — uA2) (18—9) 2 C0A3 — — Unz)] 1 + P — = P1.. (18—6) U2bX)X_OL we obtain C2 = C3 = — — 1 — jzC5 — C4 — — C 1 sin 1iL — — . (18—7) C5 = 1tL — 1— COS/LL — D= buckling load: 2(1 — Note that D 4 0 as This defines the upper limit on P. the member is said to have buckled. 1. We also neglect transverse shear deformation since its effect is small for a homogeneous cross section. We omit the algebraic details since they are obvious and list the final form below.

say B. is unrestrained with respect to axial displacement. —+ 27t. we can assume the stability functions . If b2 is constant. we have to resort to iteration in order to evaluate P since e. 7). is a nonlinear function of P. w5) + Dg54 = C5 — w43) 2 + (UB2 — L (U52 sin — j — (18—11) = = = = (1 — — WAS) + — WA3 sin jiL cos jiL) + 2(1 — cos cos jiL) — (1 eos jiL'\ 4 if + + We call Cr the relative end shortening due to rotation. The simplest iterative scheme is p(i+ 1) - sin jiL cos jiL = (u51 — UAI) + - (18—12) and convergence is rapid when jiL is not close to 2it. bL A2 — 52 — bL2 1 — 1 - (18—10) — = In order to evaluate the stiffness coefficients. UA2. However. The initial end forces depend on 18 —2. The relative displacement is determined from UB1 = UA1 + ('L PL — Le. MEMBER EQUATIONS—PLANAR DEFORMATION 589 The functions were introduced by Livesley (Ref. Expressions for the incremental end forces due to increments in the end displacements are needed in the procedure and also for stability analysis. P has to be known. = —— j dx = er( jiL. there is no difficulty since is now prescribed. WA. 18—2. U52. If one end. and are plotted in Fig. b2. when both axial displacements are prescribed. If jiL is not close to 2ic. They degenerate rapidly as the transverse loading.SEC.

JL'i 112 112 42 1 42 dFB1 = dP dF41 = — —dP dP = Au41) + AEder .41 41 — .32 — dMB3 = dMç3 + dP42 + + AWA3 — — + — P — (18—13) — ——h-——.590 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. when operating on (18—9). The resulting expressions are (IMA3 + Aco. 18 I +02 pL —2 —4 —6 —8 Oi —10 A Fig. are constant and equal to their values at the initial position.43 + c&2 — AU42)] (Au.dP . Plot of the 0 functions. 18—2.

t This method is outlined in Sec. 18—3.SEC. MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION 591 where the incremental initial end forces are due to loading. + -—-- + —--—A(1zL) in the equation for dP.t in which the displacement measures are expressed in terms of prescribed functions (of x) and parameters. Note that the force and displacement measures are referred to the fixed member frame. constant. 13—9. We can by assuming Au2 obtain an estimate for Au12.tL is constant. .41 = ae cIUA2 — + + - (18—16) pL) We also have to use the exact expression for der = + ——Au52 + (WA tie. . The governing equations for small rotations were derived in Sec. and one must resort to an approximate method such as the Galerkin scheme. Lxb2. 18—3. — 1LA2 — j 4)3] dCuL) . . dP to dM4 and similar terms to dM5.x dx is constant. They are not exact since we have assumed and Au2. 18—3. The problem is transformed into a set of nonlinear algebraic equations relating the eters. — . 1O—6. An improvement on (18—14) is obtained by operating on (18—11). 1 (18-15) d(. MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION The positive sense of the end forces for the th case is shown in Fig. 5. and assuming . The derivatives of the stability functions are listed below for reference: 2(1iL)2 sin D = .uL) = — 2b13 . To obtain the exact coefficients. Some applications of this technique are presented in Ref. They are nonlinear. AuA2) (18—14) The coefficients in (18—13) arc tangent stiffnesses. we have to add El3 F + .

called the Kap pus equations. + F2 + in3 = M4. the axial force F1 is constant along the member and the nonlinear terms involve and coupling terms such as co1M2.+ d dx1 1142 + 711w1 1 =0 — F3 + = = 0 0 0 M.3 i + F3] + b3 = — 1+ 1 + rn-1. Their form is: Equilibrium Equations F1 P + x3w1. Neglecting these terms results in linearized equations.1) + dx1 F2]+ b2 0 0 [P(u. 18—3. Notation for three-dimensional behavior. X2 and X3 are principal inertia directions. Fig.1 — (18—18) + 11 = + + .592 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. 18 x2 M52. If we consider b1 = 0. WB2 !152 I // // x1 P2 Note: The centroidal axis coincides with X1.

18—3. X3r i— I U52.t M2 M3 + X3rF7 ± X2rF3) — Boundary Goiidif ions (± for x = L. When the cross section is doubly symmetric.1 + takes the extensional strain as a1 u1 + zfu2.— + + F3 A3 J x2 U53. Equations are exact when the section is doubly symmetric. to u2 and However.1 — GA2 . This has been demonstrated by Black (Ref. i + 1 + u53. Assumptions (a) and (b) are reasonable if is small w.ij7f + C01.. they introduce considerable error when co1 is the dominant u3. Y12 Y13 u12 + 112. 1 = 1 = X2r = X3r = A23 =0 (18—19) = r2 — . we consider (13—81). CO3 1 + "F2 F3 + A23 w1. + 1 and assumes + + + = = = 0 0 0 one obtains (13—81). If one neglects the nonlinear terms in the shearing strains. MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION 593 Force-Displacement Relations = u1.3 •t + M!1 + M2 = ±M2 — + 711w1 M3 = ±M3 F3 = ±F3 = = To interpret the linearization.1 - u13 + U3. P(u521 for x= 0) P = + — + F2 = i) + P(u. + Ui2 = 1/F2 GA23 + J (Dz. 5).SEC.r. term. i + U3.

18 (r is the radius of gyration with respect to the centroid) and the problem uncouples to— plane Flexure in 1. which requires f = 0 at x = 0. MA3 + E12 + — U.43) The expressions for the axial end forces expands to =P P = AE — Ci-' J'Al = + AE(Cri + er2 + er3) 1 U41) r2 CL = j er3 dx1 er2 J dx1 (18—23) = 1 2L f (u3 dx1 where is obtained from er2 by applying (18—21). (18—13).594 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. For example. L. If the joints are moment resisting (i. If we introduce a subscript for /L and Cu2)2 = P P El2 (18—20) = and then replace (02 U3 —* —U2 —4 cbjCu3L) F2 F3 F3 M'2 - (18—21) —F2 in (18—9).42)] (18—22) = and + + F42 = + U43)] F43 = + [_WB2 W42 — U43)] — — U. Flexure in X1-X3 plane 3. The corresponding solution is summarized below: . we obtain the member relations for flexure in the X1-X3 frame. 2. rigid). We generate the restrained torsion solution following the procedure described in Example 13—7. it is reasonable to assume no warping..e. Restrained torsion We have already determined the solution for fiexure in the X1-X2 plane.

0. — {AE(eni + er2 + e. 0. contains the initial end forces due to member loads. uA3).________1+P SEC.. For convenience.3). 0. En4. (18—26) = where + ÷ + kBJl%A + + — contains nonlinear terms due to chord rotation and end shortening uA2). and AE L El3 El2 'P33 El3 El2 GJ Sym El3 . If warping restraint is neglected. 0 I c%) +P (18—25) At this point. we introduce matrix notation: = {F1P2F3M1M2M3}8 {u1u2u3w1w2w3}B etc. we summarize the member force-displacement relations for a doubly symmetric cross section. _ 595 MEMBER EQUATIONS—ARBITRARY DEFORMATION r2P P=— GJ MB1 GJ U 1+P + '> Erlcb 1 + <1)A1) - GJ —MB1 2 MA1 (18—24) 1+ — sinh 1uL [iiL(1 + Cr(1 + P)) ( + GJ(1 + P) 1 1—coshuL [ + —-——--—(1 — — sinh. 18—3..uL /1(1 + Cr(1 + P))[ We neglect shear deformation due to restrained torsion by setting C.

18 AE L El3 . El2 GJ El2 k44 = El3 Operating on leads to the incremental equations.e.. i. the three- dimensional form of (18—13). Assuming the stability functions are constant and taking dP — — UA2)(AU82 — + AWAI)} — iiA3)(AuB3 — AuA3) (18—27) + r2(w81 — we obtain + (knE + + (kBA — = + (knA — Mi11 + (kAA + kr)L\%A (18 —28) .596 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP.

9. The algebra is untractable unless one introduces symmetry restrictions.J3 2 Pz rp1 r 2 p1p3 —r2p1p2 (r2p1)2 0 0 0 0 0 + LFB1. . one can write down the general solution for an arbitrary cross section. is the incremental stiffness matrix due to rotation. one mustinclude additional terms due to the variation in the stability functions and use the exact expression for der Kappas's equations have also been solved explicitly for a monosymmetric section with warping and shear deformation neglected. Since the equations are linear. 18-4. Consider the problem of solving the nonlinear equation = Let 0 (18—29) represent one of the roots. using q(k) (18—32) where represents the kth estimate. successive substitution and Newton-Raphson iteration.t (18—29) is rewritten in an equivalent form. By definition. 0 P3 f. = 0 (18—30) In the method of successive substitution. and then apply them to the governing equations for a nonlinear member system. we present the mathematical background for two solution techniques. x= — g(x) (18—31) and successive estimates of the solution arc determined. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. 18—4. STABILITY ANALYSIS In this section. P2P3 kr AE L Symmetrical + TAT 0 0 0 0 0 p3 = — uA2) p2 = — UA3) Pi = — WA1) 1fF is close to the member buckling load. The exact solution satisfies x=g t See Ref.SEC. It will involve twelve integration constants which are evaluated by enforcing the displacement boundary conditions. STABILITY ANALYSIS 597 where k. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES.

We consider next a set of n nonlinear equations: 'I' = = 0 = An exact solution is denoted by In successive substitution. = in a Taylor series about — Expanding = g(k) + g(T — — + — + and retaining only the first two terms lead to the convergence measure — (18—33) where is between and T..598 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. 9. .. and has the form — — (18—35) Note that the Newton-Raphson method has second-order convergence whereas successive substitution has only first-order convergence. and the recurrence relation is taken as =c The exact solution satisfies — (18—38) a5 = Then. g = g(x). 1)) c — = — g(k)) t See Ref. In the Newton-Raphson method. Also.t is expanded in a Taylor series about = + Ax + Ax = — + =0 where Ax is the exact correction to An estimate for Ax is obtained by neglecting second. x2. 18 Then..and higher-order terms: = + (18—34) The convergence measure for this method can be obtained by combining (a) and (18—34).. (18—36) = is rearranged to c — g ax = (18—37) where a. c are constant.

STABILITY ANALYSIS 599 Expanding g in a Taylor series about = g(k) + = — + 91.e. 18—4.2 ' 9i. - e m Pm P1 + + KU 1844 . We introduce the displacement restraints and write the final equations as In our formulation. about For convergence. The governing equations are the nodal equations referred to the qlobcil system frame.2 92. must be The generalized Newton-Raphson method consists in first expanding = + + = — 0 where = = = = [T'—j (18—40) Neglecting the second differential leads to the recurrence relation = = + ( 18—41 ) The corresponding convergence measure is — = (18—42) Let us now apply these solution techniques to the structural problem. (18—26). the member frame is fixed.SEC.n L0xrJ and retaining only the first two terms results in the convergence measure (x — = a (18—39) where lies between xk and less than unity.1 91n 92. from the member frame to the global frame using = where k° = is constant. i. One first has to rotate the member end forces. the norm of 'g. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES.i = 92. 1?e — =0 (1843) contains the external nodal forces and — is the summation of the member end forces incident on node i.

Applying successive substitution. Continue for successive load increments. its convergence rate is more rapid than direct substitution. Pe(2) anditerate on K (1) and solve for U(I). If we assume the stability functions We expensive since . N. In the Newton-Raphson procedure. Apply the first load increment. in this case.(fl) Now. we can take K = K1 during the entire solution phase. 18 depend on the axial forces while Pr depends on both the axial force and the member rigid body chord rotation. Update K using the axial forces corresponding to Pe(l)• Then apply (ni_pe(1) _p(n—1) e(2) r 3. of the nodal displacements. if the axial forces are small in comparison to the member buckling loads. 2. The iteration cycle is AU(n) = = — + ( 18—48 ) iterate on (18—48) for successive load increments. using K K1. Pe is prescribed so that = due to + dPr + K LW + (18—47) = where — denotes the tangent stiffness matrix. holding K constant during the iteration: P1 — (18—45) = We employ (18—45) together with an incremental loading scheme since K is actually a variable. (18—46) This scheme is particularly efficient when the member axial forces are small with respect to the Euler loads since. The steps are outlined here: 1.600 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. we operate on Vi according to (18—41): =— 4. This scheme is more has to be updated for each cycle. the linear stiffness matrix. However. we can replace K with Note that K and K1. N= — '\ 1 Jabs e va]uc (a specified value) . A convenient convergence criterion is the relative change in the Euclidean norm. we write KU = — and iterate on U.

18—4. Another indication of the existence of a bifurcation point (K1 singular) is the degeneration of the convergence rate for Newton-Raphson. AU — / / \T < 0 Pe) AU = 0 >0 stable neutral unstable (18—52) The most frequent case is Pe prescribed. STABILITY ANALYSIS 601 are constant in forming due to AU. This is called mod (fled one can hold Newton-Raphson. When the determinant changes sign. is generated with (18—28). Both the t See Sees.t an equilibrium position is classified as: stable neutral unstable — >0 0 (18—50) d2 d2W. we consider the special case where the loading does not produce significant chord rotation. AU and the criteria transform to (AU)TK. the tangent stiffness matrix reduces to dI( 0 dP. SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. According to the classical stability criterion. 18—4.. the tangent stiffness matrix must be posil. <0 is the second-order work done by the external forces during a where d2 displacement increment AU. With our notation. The correction tends to diverge and oscillate in sign and one has to employ a higher iterative scheme. and is the second-order work done by the member end forces acting on the members. — d2We d2 W. . 0 K + Kr (18—49) where K. (18—48).. Finally. Rather than update at each cycle. in fixed for a limited number of cycles. Pe)TAU = (d AU (18—51) = AUTK.e. We include the incremental member loads at the start of the iteration cycle. To detect instability... 7—6 and 10—6. We consider next the question of stability. we keep track of the sign of the determinant of the tangent stiffness matrix during the iteration.SEC. no additional computation) if Gauss elimination or the factor method are used to solve the correction equation.ive definite. we have passed through a stability transition. and for a constant loading. d2w. A typical example is shown in Fig. The sign is obtained at no cost (i. The convergence rate is lower than for regular NewtonRaphson but higher than successive substitution.

GERE: Theory of Elastic Stability. 1961. 18—4. only the lowest critical load is of interest. and write K The member axial K is due to a unit value of the load parameter forces are determined from a linear analysis. Biegedriilknicken. McGraw-Hill. To investigate the stability of this structure. Kippen. In linearized stability analysis. = 0 in (18—28). 1952. F. C. Berlin.. Springer-Verlag.)Au 1 (18—56) REFERENCES 1. 3. M. AU = —2K AU (18-55) Both K. the bifurcation problem reduces to determining the value of 2 for which a nontrivial solution of (K + 2K. Also.. 11 and 12 of Chapter 2. New York. 1961. we deletet the rotation terms in K. t Set Pi P2 = See Refs. Example of structure and loading for which linearized stability analysis is applicable. are symmetrical. TIMOSHENKO. KOLLBRUNNSR.)AU 0 (18—54) exists. 2d ed. McGraw-Hill. Usually. since K = K(2). 12X I I Fig.. S. and J. F. 2d ed.______________________ 602 ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS CHAP. P. and K. MEIsTER: Knicken. 18 frame and loading are symmetrical and the displacement is due only to short- ening of the columns. K1 is positive definite. and M. This is a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. BLEICH.: Buckling Strength of Metal Structures.. and this can be obtained by applying inverse iterations to (—K. K is assumed to be K1 and one solves K. New York. Then. 2. .

1967. G. J.: Structural Members and Frames. and F!. AROYRIS. 11. 10. New York. R. H. 603 5. 1964. VLASOV. 1957. 9. 6. V.: Recent Advances in Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis. 1964.. V. London. Part 1.S. Akademie-Verlag. ALMROTH: Buckling of Bars. and Shells. Washington.. 8. McGraw-Hill. Prentice Hall. Berlin. McGraw-Hill.: Matrix Methods of Structural Anal vsis. GALAMBOS. B. K. Israel for Scientific Translations. 1975.REFERENCES 4: BLYRGERMEISTEa.: Thin Walled Elastic Beams.: Thin.. Pergamon Press. of Commerce. Dept. .: Introduction to Numerical Analysis. H. Chatto & Windus. STEUP: Stabilidhsrheorie. ed. Office of Technical Services: U.C. T. 1956. BRUSU. 1968. HILDEBRAND. Plates. 1961. D.Walled Structures. D. London. 7. Pergamon Press. F. London. Z. New York. and B. CFJtLVER. LIVESLItY. A.

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of a set of linear algebraic equations. 498 for C. 84. definition equation. 504 restrained warping solution. 385. 210 Determinant. 388. 37. 31 Deformation Branch-node incidence table. 8 Echelon matrix. of a system of linear algebraic equations. twist. stretching and transverse shear vs. 485 Equivalence. 301 Conformable matrices. 73 Eulerian strain. and bending. 414. 58 Cartesian formulation. 27 Equivalent rigid body displacements. 234 605 Consistency. 39 Diagonal matrix. with La- Augmented branch-node trix. influence on bending of planar member. 79 Direction cosine matrix for a bar. 72. for restrained torsion. 434 thin. 31. 70. 59 Distributive multiplication. 239 tual forces for a planar member. 389 Characteristic values of a matrix. 572 planar curved member. 563 Connectivity table for a truss. 487 slightly twisted.r—coefficients appearing in complementary energy expression Cr. 603 truss. 330. 503 Cofactor. 261 member system. p. 576 variational approach. 80 Curved member definition of thin and thick. 388 unrestrained torsion-flexure. 472 Bar stiffness matrix. Engineering theory of a member.. 434 restrained torsion. 40. 509 Classical stability criterion continuum. 125. 586 Circular helix. 4 Degree of statical indeterminacy member. 46 Chord rotation. 76. 143. 86 Circular segment out-of-plane loading. out-of-plane loading. 4 Complementary energy continuum. 145 Cç1. 119 Discriminant. for out-of-plane loading of a circular member. cross-sectional properties. 10 Differential notation for a function. 487 Defect. 248 End shortening due to geometrically nonlinear behavior. 176 Cayley—Hamilton Theorem. principle of vir- planar member. 583 Deformed geometry. 16. of matrices. 383. 121. MqS. 121. Neutral equilibrium Bimoment. 256 member system. 555. 573 displacement method. 8 Constraint conditions treated. 63 Center of twist. 334. 373 grange multipliers. 180 Bifurcation. 35 Connectivity matrix. 302 Elastic behavior. 33 Axial deformation. 454 Deformation constraints force method. 430 Euler equations for a function. 29 Effective shear area. bending.index Associative multiplication. 19 Column matrix. vector orientation. 589 Column vector. transverse shear. 465 Castigliano's principles. basic assumptions. 387. 416 Canonical form. 222 incidence ma- Augmented matrix. 124. 567 truss. 44 . 8. 387. 170 Closed ring. member system.

135 Permutation of a set of integers. 143. 218 Linear geometry. 57 . 234 Lamé constants. Mushtari's equations. 463 prismatic member. of a square array. 571 Lagrange multipliers. 250. 271 Member buckling. 354 truss. 252 Kappus equations. 251 Permutation matrix. 598 Normalization of a vector. arbitrary member. 160. 515 circular helix. definition. 338. 356 Member. 498 Network. 601 truss. matrix. 583 Lagrangian strain. 355 truss. 491 Orthogonal matrices and trnasformations. 37 Piecewise linear material. 256.606 INDEX First law of thermodynamics. 601 Moment. 384. 568 planar member. 249 Hyperelastic material. 463. 62 Isotropic material. 42. 264 member system. 492. 571 planar member. 523 thin planar circular member. 252 Positive definite matrix. 58. 120. 55 Principle of virtual displacements member system. 220 Neutral equilibrium. 80. 92 Negative definite. 442 Principle of virtual forces arbitrary member. 521 thin planar circular member. 193 Inelastic behavior. network. 248 Incremental system stiffness matrix member system. 602 Local member reference frame. 234 Hookean material. 351 Quadratic forms. 126. 126. 490. 200 Geometrically nonlinear restrained torsion solution. 562 truss. planar member. 279. 19 Modal matrix. 63 Positive semi-definite matrix. 315 Geometric stiffness matrix for a bar. 52 Modified Neuton-Raphson iteration. 11 Natural member reference frame. 249 Material rigidity matrix. 569 planar member. 592 Kronecker delta notation. 137 Invariants of a matrix. 444 Gauss's integration by parts formula. 556 Member on an elastic foundation. 259. 248 Fixed end forces prismatic member. 216. 458 prismatic member. member system. 456 Material compliance matrix. 220 Minor. matrix. 462 prismatic member. 20. 526 Flexural warping functions. 50. 435. 449. MR. 212. 59. 237 Linearized stability analysis. 253 Laplace expansion for a determinant. 125 Initial stability member system. 76. 443. 369 Mesh. 53 Orthotropic material. 432 measures. 201 Premuftiplication. 58 Postmultiplication. 595 Green's strain tensor. 466 prismatic member. 58 Negligible transverse shear deformation. 345. 98. 454. 49 Null matrix. 499 continuum. 91 Maxwell's law of reciprocal defiections. 8 Primary structure member system. 249 Matrix iteration. 300/n Frenet equations. computational method. S Potential energy function. 16. 546. 601 Newton-Raphson iteration. 254 Geometric compatibility equation arbitrary member. 4 One-dimensional deformation 335. 534 planar member. 170. 338. 425 Poisson's ratio. 223 unrestrained torsion. 570 planar member. 537. 588 Member force displacement relations. 211 Principle minors. member system. 92 Marguerre equations. 296. topological. 512 member systens. 528 Flexibility matrix arbitrary curved member. 38 Linear connected graph. 146 Plane curve.

4 Tangent stiffness matrix for a bar. 597 truss. f. 498 prismatic member. network. 548. 281 Torsional constant. 257 Stationary values of a function. 474 Tree. 4/n Work done by a force. 79 Reissner's principle continuum. 270 member. 475 Singular matrix. 10 Stability functions (4). 516. 297. 12 Two-hinged arch solutions. 252 Transverse shear deformation planar member. 211. assumptions. 300. 242 Submatrices (matrix partitioning). 276. 272 Stress vector. 232 Torsion solution. torsion. 216. 35 System stiffness matrix member system. iterative method member system. 595 prismatic prismatic member. 42. 411 symmetrical I section. 568 Shallow member. 109 Rotation transformation matrix. 596 Tensor invariants. definition. geometrically nonlinear behavior. member linear geometry. 79 Stiffness matrix arbitrary curved member. 43 Rayleigh's quotient. 565 truss. definition (mechanics). 355 Stability of an equilibrium position. 588. 153. 101. 248 Stress and strain component trnasformations. 235 Small-finite rotation approximation. 171. 470 Unit matrix. 308 Similarity transformation. 11 Small strain. 159. 520 Variable warping parameter. 240 Stress vector transformation. 188. 278. 398 thin rectangular cell. 454. 246 Stress function. 39 modification for partial end restraint. 66 Restrained torsion solution. 53. 242 Kirchhoff. 206 Restrained torsion stress distribution and cross-sectional parameters channel section. 193 prismatic member. 38 Quasi-triangular matrix. 561 Symmetrical matrix. 414 member system. 180. 378. 274. 467. 106 Statically permissible force system. 595 prismatic member. J. 522 Strain and complementary energy for pure torsion. 276 Stress resultants and stress couples. linear geometry. 448 Shear center. 372 Vector. force equiibrium and force displacement. 67. 120. 238 Square matrix. 62 Simpson's rule. 12. 589 Statically equivalent force system. 389 Shear flow. 36 Successive substitution. 27. prismatic member. 407 Rigid body displacement transformation. 590. 232 Row matrix. 103. 434 Rank of a matrix. 4 Self-equilibrating force systems. 249 Stress components Eulerian. 193 Summary of system equations. 535 Radius of gyration.INDEX 607 Quasi-diagonal matrix. 287 Shear flow distribution for unrestrained torsiOn. relative extrema. 75. 258 member systems. 323 Torsional warping function. 391 nonlinear geometry. 195 irapezoidal rule. 22 Skew symmetrical matrix. 383. rectangle. for restrained torsion. 573 Relative minimum or maximum value of a function. 401 multicell section. 15. 160. 156 . 377 Transverse orthotropic material. 179. Il. 280 Strain energy density. 550. 309. 220 Triangular matrix.

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