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  • IMT-Advanced WP8F Schedule [23]
  • -Purpose & Requirements
  • -Network Architecture
  • U-Plane Architecture Difference [5]
  • -PHY Features Overview
  • ShiftofKeyTechnologiesin LTE [24]
  • LTE PHY Key Features [2, 3, 33-39]
  • LTE PHY Key Features –cont’d
  • DL Modulation Scheme [2]
  • DL OFDM FDD Parameters [25]
  • ISI (Inter Symbol Interference)
  • ISI Prevents High Data Rate?
  • OFDM is the Antidote for ISI
  • How can we get parallelism?
  • OFDM Principle
  • FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)
  • Guard Interval To Remove ISI
  • CDMA vs. OFDM(A)
  • OFDM Advantage in SINR Distribution
  • Relationship b/w Delay Spread and CP
  • OFDM Transmitter/Receiver Example
  • OFDM Symbol
  • OFDM FFT Interval & Symbol Interval [26]
  • Freq/Time Value of I-path Signal [26]
  • PAPR of OFDM
  • Power Amplifier (PA) Consideration
  • OFDM Summary
  • OFDM in Communication Systems
  • OFDMA –Scheduling
  • OFDMA –Frequency Diversity
  • OFDMA –Loading Gain
  • OFDMA –MS Power Concentration
  • OFDMA –Interference Coordination
  • Interference Coordination: FFR
  • Interference Coordination: FFFR [7]
  • Out-of-Band (OOB) Emission Problem
  • -Antenna Technologies
  • MRC with 2 Rx Antenna [28]
  • STC with 2 TxAntenna* [28]
  • BER of MRC & STC [28]
  • Comparisons: (Rx-)MRC, STC, TX-MRC
  • How can we get multiplexing?
  • MIMO Capacity
  • MIMO Implementation Issues
  • SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO [6]
  • -PHY Specifications
  • LTE Layer1 TR & TS in 3GPP
  • Layer1 Service to Higher Layer
  • Physical Layer Specifications
  • Frame Structure
  • DL Physical Channels
  • DL Slot Structure
  • Definitions
  • DL Physical Channel Processing
  • Modulation
  • DL Layer Mapping and Precoding
  • DL OFDM Signal Generation
  • PBCH
  • UL Physical Channels
  • UL Slot Structure
  • Physical Layer Processing of PUSCH
  • UL SC-FDMA Signal Generation
  • UplinkDataMultiplexing [24]
  • Channel Coding
  • Transport Channels (TS 36.300)
  • Logical Channels (TS 36.300)
  • DL Reference Signals
  • Reference Signal Sequence Generation
  • DL Reference Signals Mapping
  • Synchronization Signals
  • Synchronization Signals –cont’d
  • LTE Cell Search [24]
  • LTE Link Adaptation [25]
  • Simplified SAE Network Architecture [8]
  • Key Issues on SAE [8]
  • Handover Between 3GPP & Non-3GPP
  • Optimized Handover with Non-3GPP

3GPP LTE로의 진화

조봉열 brian.cho@intel.com 인텔

Technology Evolution for 4G 3GPP LTE
Purpose & Requirements Network Architecture PHY Features Overview OFDM/OFDMA, SC-FDMA Antenna Technologies PHY Specifications

3GPP SAE Q&A Backup
3GPP2 UMB, Next Version WiMAX (IEEE 802.16 TGm) WINNER, NGMN
HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 2

Technology Evolution for 4G [18,19]

IMT-2000 / IMT-Advanced Capabilities [19] IMT-Advanced Target Data rates up to 100Mbps for high mobility Target Data rates up to 1Gbps for low mobility The data rate targets are subject to further research and investigation HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 4 .

Study Groups #8 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 5 .int/ITU-R/index.html) ITU Radiocommunication Sector .Study Groups ITU Radiocommunication Sector .itu.ITU-R (http://www.

) in Switzerland HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 6 .1645 Timeline) WRC ’07 (Oct.IMT-Advanced Schedule (M.

IMT-Advanced WP8F Schedule [23] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 7 .

A HSPA+ 3GPP LTE EVDO R.5G~3.99G 2007-2009 4G? 2010+ 3G Technology Evolution WCDMA EVDO R.4G Technology Evolution Path 3G 2005 2006 3.B 3GPP2 UMB LTE-Advanced? ? Wi-Fi OFDM 802.16e MIMO-OFDMA WiMAX2 ? Broadband Wireless Technology Evolution HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 8 .16e OFDMA 802.0 HSDPA EVDO R.

Technology Evolution WiMAX/LTE/UMB have WiMAX/HSDPA/ EVDO/LTE/UMB have Tolerance to Multipath and Self-Interference Scalable Channel Bandwidth Orthogonal Uplink Multiple Access Support for Spectrally-Efficient TDD Frequency-Selective Scheduling Fractional Frequency Reuse Fine Quality of Service (QoS) Advanced Antenna Technology AMC H-ARQ Fast Scheduling Bandwidth Efficient Handoff Old 3G Standards HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 9 .

3GPP LTE .Purpose & Requirements .

3GPP Standards Evolution [25] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 11 .

LTE vs. HSPA+ [33] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 12 .

Sept 08 Timeline has slipped about 6 months but still considered a stretch goal by many Historically. Final specs . test specs have been much more than 3 months after core specs but the gap between core specs and conformance is consistently dropping UE certification not possible until after test implementation and validation Commercial release is hard to predict but is very unlikely before 2010 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 13 . Initial Conformance tests .LTE Development Timing [33] 3GPP plan @ Aug 2007.Feb 08.

LTE focus is on:
enhancement of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) optimisation of the UTRAN architecture

With HSPA (downlink and uplink), UTRA will remain highly competitive for several years LTE project aims to ensure the continued competitiveness of the 3GPP technologies for the future

HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술


LTE Motivations
Need for PS optimized system
Evolve UMTS towards packet only system

Need for higher data rates
Can be achieved with HSDPA/HSUPA and/or new air interface defined by 3GPP LTE

Need for high quality of services
Use of licensed frequencies to guarantee quality of services Always-on experience (reduce control plane latency significantly) Reduce round trip delay

Need for cheaper infrastructure
Simplify architecture, reduce number of network elements Most data users are less mobile

HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술


LTE High Level Requirements
Reduced cost per bit Increased service provisioning – more services at lower cost with better user experience Flexibility of use of existing and new frequency bands Simplified architecture, Open interfaces Allow for reasonable terminal power consumption

HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술


Detailed Requirements [1] Peak data rate Instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100 Mb/s within a 20 MHz downlink spectrum allocation (5 bps/Hz) Instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50 Mb/s (2. to an active state such as Release 6 CELL_DCH Transition time of less than 50 ms between a dormant state such as Release 6 CELL_PCH and an active state such as Release 6 CELL_DCH Control-plane capacity At least 200 users per cell should be supported in the active state for spectrum allocations up to 5 MHz User-plane latency Less than 5 ms in unload condition (ie single user with single data stream) for small IP packet HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 17 .5 bps/Hz) within a 20MHz uplink spectrum allocation) Control-plane latency Transition time of less than 100 ms from a camped state. such as Release 6 Idle Mode.

target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site). spectrum efficiency and mobility targets above should be met for 5 km cells. 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink Mobility E-UTRAN should be optimized for low mobile speed from 0 to 15 km/h Higher mobile speed between 15 and 120 km/h should be supported with high performance Mobility across the cellular network shall be maintained at speeds from 120 km/h to 350 km/h (or even up to 500 km/h depending on the frequency band) Coverage Throughput. 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA ) Uplink: In a loaded network. target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site). 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink Spectrum efficiency Downlink: In a loaded network.Detailed Requirements [1] User throughput Downlink: average user throughput per MHz. HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 18 . Cells range up to 100 km should not be precluded. 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA Uplink: average user throughput per MHz. and with a slight degradation for 30 km cells.

15 MHz and 20 MHz in both the uplink and downlink.Detailed Requirements [1] Spectrum flexibility E-UTRA shall operate in spectrum allocations of different sizes.5 MHz. 2. although provision should be made to support systems supporting real-time and conversational class traffic E-UTRAN architecture shall support an end-to-end QoS Backhaul communication protocols should be optimized Radio Resource Management requirements Enhanced support for end to end QoS Support of load sharing and policy management across different Radio Access Technologies Complexity Minimize the number of options No redundant mandatory features HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 19 .25 MHz. including 1. 5 MHz. Operation in paired and unpaired spectrum shall be supported Co-existence and Inter-working with 3GPP RAT (UTRAN. 10 MHz. GERAN) Architecture and migration Single E-UTRAN architecture The E-UTRAN architecture shall be packet based.

LTE System Performance [25] Peak Data Rate baseline baseline VoIP Capacity HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 20 .

LTE System Performance – cont’d [25] Downlink Spectral Efficiency Uplink Spectral Efficiency HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 21 .

3GPP LTE .Network Architecture .

2-Node Architecture Cost efficient 2-node Architecture eNB (evolved Node B) aGW (Access Gateway) 1-node? HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 23 .

RB Control Radio Admission Control eNB Measurement Configuration & Provision Selection of aGW at attachment Routing towards aGW at RRC activation All radio related functions Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both uplink and downlink The configuration and provision of eNB measurements Radio Bearer Control Radio Admission Control aGW Control Plane Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) SAE Bearer Control MM Entity aGW User Plane Connection Mobility Control in LTE_ACTIVE state.eNB Functions [4] eNB Inter Cell RRM Connection Mobility Cont. ARQ termination Ciphering of the signaling RRC aGW Functions [4] Paging origination LTE_IDLE state management Ciphering of the U-plane PDCP (RoHC) SAE Bearer Control 24 RLC MAC S1 PDCP internet PHY User Plane HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 .

U-Plane Architecture Difference [5] move to eNB HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 25 .

3GPP LTE .PHY Features Overview .

Shift of Key Technologies in LTE [24] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 27 .

UL coverage) Support FDD & TDD (Support TD-SCDMA as optional) User data rates DL (baseline): 172.5 ms TTI: 1 ms HARQ retransmission time: 2ms (This is extremely tight and one of the hardest specs to meet in baseband) HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 28 . power Consumption.4 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW w/ non-MIMO or 1x2 MU-MIMO Radio frame: 10 ms (= 20 slots) Sub-frame: 1 ms (= 2 slots) Slot: 0. 33-39] Downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) Less critical AMP efficiency in BS side Concerns on high RX complexity in terminal side Uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-FDMA) Less critical RX complexity in BS side Critical AMP complexity in terminal side (Cost.LTE PHY Key Features [2. 3.8 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW w/ 2x2 SU-MIMO UL (baseline): 86.

Optional 2x2 SU-MIMO Resource block 12 subcarriers with subcarrier BW of 15kHz 24 subcarriers with subcarrier BW of 7. Beamforming. Antenna Diversity Min requirement: 2 eNB antennas & 2 UE rx antennas DL: Single-User MIMO up to 4x4 supportable UL: 1x2 MU-MIMO.5kHz (only for MBMS) Subcarrier operation Frequency selective (partial band) Frequency diversity by frequency hopping Bearer services Packet only – no circuit switched voice or data services are supported Voice must use VoIP MBSFN Multicast/Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network To support a Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast System (MBMS) Time-synchronized common waveform is transmitted from multiple cells for a given duration HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 29 .LTE PHY Key Features – cont’d MIMO SM (Spatial Multiplexing).

DL Modulation Scheme [2]
Basic modulation scheme

Enhanced modulation scheme
As an alternative to conventional OFDM, OFDM with pulse shaping (OFDM/OQAM) should be studied

ν0 τ0

HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 0 = Tu 2×τ



DL OFDM FDD Parameters [25]

HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술


OFDM Overview HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 33 .

ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) Multi-path makes ISI In general. ISI prevents “HIGH DATA RATE” Paths Previous Symbol Area of ISI Present Symbol Time Base Station Subscriber Echo of Previous Symbol ∆T = Delay Spread HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 34 .

ISI prevents “HIGH DATA RATE” Symbol rate increase Symbol rate decrease Ts decrease Ts increase severe ISI less ISI s1 Ts s1 Ts HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 s2 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8 s9 s10 s11 s12 s13 s14 s15 s16 35 .ISI Prevents High Data Rate? In general.

but data rate goes down too Equalizers. narrowband channels (“subcarriers”) Expensive adaptive equalizers are not required Frequency HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 36 .OFDM is the Antidote for ISI Ways to minimize inter-symbol interference: Reduce the symbol rate. slower channels are free of ISI OFDM splits data into parallel. independent. but equalization is processor intensive & expensive Solution: Transmit data over multiple carrier frequencies in parallel (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) Narrow.

How can we get parallelism? Scheme1: high complexity due to the filters with sharp transition Scheme2: low spectral efficiency Scheme3: high spectral efficiency with low complexity HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 37 .

OFDM Principle HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 38 .

FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) Fourier transform basically converts signals from the time domain to the frequency domain (vice versa for inverse FT) DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) is the discrete version FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) is “fast” FT as it says Received Samples Synchronization FFT Channel Estimation And Equalization Demapping Descrambler Data Viterbi Decoder Deinterleaver HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 Radix-4 Butterfly 39 .

Guard Interval To Remove ISI HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 40 .

Cyclic Prefix for Guard Interval HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 41 .

CDMA vs. OFDM(A) CDMA 셀 간 (섹터 간) 간섭 셀 내 다중사용자 간 간섭 심볼 간 간섭 MIMO 프로세싱 있음 있음 있음 비교적 높은 복잡도 OFDM(A) 있음 없음 없음 비교적 낮은 복잡도 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 42 .

OFDM Advantage in SINR Distribution No intra-cell interference OFDM(A) system CDMA system HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 43 .

Relationship b/w Delay Spread and CP 2-path multi-path channel (2nd path is 6dB lower than 1st) (a) (b) (c) Delay < CP Delay exceeds CP by 3% Delay exceeds CP by 10% 44 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 .

OFDM Transmitter/Receiver Example MAC Data Scrambler Convolutional encoder TX Data Interleaving Training sequence IFFT Add GI Subcarrier Modulation mapping AGC Symbol Wave Shaping IQ Modulation To D/A Add Pilot Pilot extract Power detector RX Remove GI FFT Channel compensator Equalizer From A/D FIR AGC Coarse Frequency Offset estimator Fine Frequency Offset estimator Time Sync estimatior Data Deinterleaving Subcarrier Modulation mapping Viterbi Decoder Data Descrambler MAC HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 45 .

MIMO-CDMA Receiver complexity for MIMO-CDMA grows exponentially with bandwidth and linearly for MIMO-OFDM HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 46 .Complexity of MIMO-OFDM vs.

OFDM Symbol CP CP CP Tc Ts Td HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 47 .

OFDM FFT Interval & Symbol Interval [26] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 48 .

Freq/Time Value of I-path Signal [26] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 49 .

PAPR of OFDM HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 50 .

Power Amplifier (PA) Consideration System with high PAPR System with low PAPR HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 51 .

i. transmitter macrodiversity Disadvantages Sensitive to Doppler shift & frequency synchronization problems Inefficient transmitter power consumption. due to linear power amplifier requirement Generic data rate loss and power loss due to CP (Cyclic Prefix) HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 52 .OFDM Summary Advantages Easily adapt to severe channel conditions “without complex equalization” Robust against narrow-band co-channel interference Robust against ISI and fading caused by multipath propagation High spectral efficiency Efficient implementation using FFT Low sensitivity to time synchronization errors Low sensitivity to DC noise Efficient in MIMO processing Tuned sub-channel filters are not required (unlike conventional FDM) Facilitates Single Frequency Networks.e.

OFDM in Communication Systems 3GPP LTE 3GPP2 UMB WiBro (Mobile WiMAX) DAB. DVB-T. DVB-H T-DMB in Korea (Media)FLO IEEE 802.11a WLAN xDSL PLC Etc… HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 53 .

What is OFDMA? OFDM Access Orthogonal FDMA HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 54 .

OFDMA – Scheduling OFDM gains multiple access by sharing in time (1D multiple access (time)) In OFDMA multiple access can be two dimensional (time and frequency) OFDM User A User B User C User D User E HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 Resource Blocks for different users OFDMA example for 4 simultaneous users 55 .

OFDMA – Frequency Diversity Coded OFDM (COFDM) OFDM combined with Forward Error Correction Coding Interleaving Burst error Scattered error All User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 56 .

OFDMA – Loading Gain Loading gain by “frequency selective scheduling” Adjacent subcarrier assignment HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 Distributed subcarrier assignment 57 .

However.OFDMA – MS Power Concentration Enhance uplink link budget! Active subcarriers are divided into subsets called “resource block” When subscriber uses very few resource blocks. where Fs is the power concentration factor It is true that power concentration has no meaning in information theory. HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 58 . it can concentrate all transmitting power in the used resource blocks It will have additional gain on uplink 10*log10(Fs). it DOES have gain in the implementation point of view.

OFDMA – Interference Coordination Flexible frequency reuse factor HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 59 .

Interference Coordination: FFR Fractional Frequency Reuse Support frequency reuse one No frequency planning Frequency reuse one at cell center to maximize spectral efficiency Higher reuse factor at cell edge to reduce interference Flexible reconfiguration HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 60 .

Interference Coordination: FFFR [7] Flexible Fractional Frequency Reuse A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 weak users good users Cell-B A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 good user weak user Cell-C A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Power Cell-A * Samsung good users weak users HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 61 .

SC-FDMA Transmitter SC-FDMA is a new hybrid modulation technique combining the low PAR single carrier methods of current systems with the frequency allocation flexibility and long symbol time of OFDM SC-FDMA is sometimes referred to as Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM = DFT-SOFDM Signal at each subcarrier is linear combination of all M symbols Coded symbol rate= R Spreading DFT Msymbols Low PAPR HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 Sub-carrier Mapping IFFT CP insertion Size-M High PAPR Size-N Low PAPR 62 .

SC-FDMA Tx/Rx Chain HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 63 .

the technology reduces peaks in time domain but increases the peaks in frequency domain creating larger instantaneous out-of-band emissions HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 64 .SC-FDMA Pros and Cons The SC-FDMA concept improves peak to average transmit power of mobile subscribers by about 2-3 dB The trade-off is a 2-3 dB performance loss (in fading channels) in the receiver on the other end Also.

M=128 10 SC-FDMA OFDMA 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 subcarrier 500 1000 1500 2000 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 65 . PSD (4 symbols).Out-of-Band (OOB) Emission Problem The Spreading causes higher PAPR in frequency domain higher instantaneous OOB Inst. N=1024.

Antenna Technologies .3GPP LTE .

but NLOS ! Improves throughput in cell center Beamforming Improves throughput at cell edge HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 67 .Multiple Antenna Schemes [5] Minimum antennas requirement: 2 at eNodeB. high spatial diversity. 2 Rx at UE Multi-Antenna Diversity Fall back solution if channel conditions don’t allow MIMO STBC SFBC Spatial Multiplexing = MIMO Needs good channel conditions High SNR to enable good channel estimation Rich scattering environment.

MRC with 2 Rx Antenna [28] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 68 .

STC with 2 Tx Antenna* [28] * STC = STBC = Alamouti Code = Simple Open Loop Transmit Diversity HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 69 .

BER of MRC & STC [28] 3dB power penalty huge gain HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 70 .

Comparisons: (Rx-)MRC. s2 2 2 ho x RX h1 ⎡ x(T1 ) ⎤ 1 ⎡ h0 = ⎢ * ⎢ x * (T )⎥ 2 ⎣h1 2 ⎦ ⎣ r r r x = Hs + n h1 ⎤ ⎡ s1 ⎤ ⎡ n1 ⎤ + * − h0 ⎥ ⎢ s 2 ⎥ ⎢n2 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ TX-MRC (Transmit MRC) TX s | ho |2 + | h1 |2 SNR = 2σ 2 x = [ wo h0 + w1h1 ]s + n RX * wo = h0 / h02 + h12 ⎡ w0 ⎤ ⎢w ⎥ ⎣ 1⎦ w0 s ho x w1 = h1* / h02 + h12 w1s h1 SNR = HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 | ho |2 + | h1 |2 σ2 71 . STC. TX-MRC RX-MRC (Receiver MRC) x1 s ho s TX x2 h1 RX (MRC) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡h0 ⎤ ⎡ n1 ⎤ ⎢ x ⎥ = ⎢ h ⎥ s + ⎢n ⎥ ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ 1⎦ ⎣ 2⎦ r r r x = hs + n SNR = | ho |2 + | h1 |2 σ2 STC (Space Time Code. Transmit Diversity) TX s1 * 1 ⎡ − s2 ⎢ * 2 ⎣ s1 − s2 s1 ⎤ ⎥ s2 ⎦ 1 * 1 s2 . s1 2 2 1 * 1 s1 .

MIMO Basics Transmission of several independent data streams in parallel over uncorrelated antennas Increased data rate The radio channel consists of NTX x NRX (ideally uncorrelated) paths Theoretical maximum rate increase factor = Min (NTX. NRX) In a rich scattering environment No gain in a line-of-sight environment HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 72 .

How can we get multiplexing? Simple concept (1) Transmit “one” data in one link (1 Tx & 1 Rx antenna) (2) Transmit “two” data in two links far away from each other (1 Tx & 1 Rx antenna. respectively) (3) Transmit “two” data in one link (1 Tx & 1 Rx antenna) ?? (4) Transmit “two” data in one link (2 Tx & 2 Rx antenna) ?? (4) is just the special case of (2)!! Simple linear algebra Matrix Rank Favorable channel condition for MIMO? Rich scattering for high rank High SNR for reliable decoding HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 73 .

MIMO Capacity HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 74 .

MIMO Implementation Issues Transmission power divided among multiple antennas Tradeoffs between data rate and diversity order Spaced to achieve sufficient fading decorrelation (device form-factor) Demodulator Complexity ZF (Zero Forcing) Brute-force Noise enhancement MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) Consider noise. too A lot of sub-optimal MLD MLD Optimal performance High complexity HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 75 .

All streams to one user Stream-by-stream SIC Spatial domain multiuser diversity is NOT available Single-user MIMO Multi-user MIMO schemes PU2RC Multistreams to multiple users Spatial domain multiuser diversity Larger diversity gain than singleuser MIMO Stream-by-stream SIC is NOT available HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 Multi-user MIMO 76 .SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO [6] Single-user MIMO schemes PARC. S-PARC etc.

MU-MIMO – cont’d Allocate each antenna resource to different user Scheduler selects a user with the highest rate per antenna Increase system throughput! * Samsung HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 77 .

MIMO Precoding & Closed-loop MIMO Why Precoding? Spatial multiplexing Low diversity Error performance is very poor in low SNR regime Solution: Space-time Precoding # transmit antennas > # data streams Intelligently allocate bits & power over transmit antennas Extra antennas provide some diversity Space time coding output can be weighted by a matrix mapping onto transmit antennas 4 actual antennas and 2 space-time coding output streams The channel measurement performed on the UL signal (e.g. TDD) Closed-loop Channel quality indications feedback from the SS HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 78 .

Closed-loop MIMO [25] Open-loop approach No channel feedback from Rx STC optimize according to the receiver (MMSE.Open-loop vs. SIC. ML) MIMO scheme + channel code joint optimization Adaptive MIMO mode according to channel environment using simple CQI Closed-loop approach With channel feedback from Rx MIMO scheme based HARQ Adaptive MIMO-OFDMA using CQI Frequency scheduling algorithm in MIMO-OFDMA in order to obtain multi-user diversity HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 79 .

3GPP LTE .PHY Specifications .

Oct.0. 2007.0. Release 8.General Description.0. Release 7.213: Physical layer procedures. 2007. TS 36.3. V8.912. Sep.214: Physical layer – Measurements. Radio interface protocol aspects. 2006. Release 8. V7.0. E-UTRA and E-UTRAN.0. Release 7.0. Stage 2. TR 25. Sep. TS 36. 2006 TR 25. TS 36.913. Overall description. Sep. March 2006. LTE Physical Layer . HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 81 . V7.0. 2007. Sep. TS 36.1. 2007. Physical channels and modulation.1. Requirements for E-UTRA and E-UTRAN. V8.211.212: Multiplexing and channel coding.814. TS 36.0. Feasibility study for evolved UTRA and UTRAN. V7. V8. Release 8. Sep.1.300: E-UTRA and E-UTRAN.201. 2006. V8. Release 8. TR 25.0. TS 36. Release 7.0.813. June 2007.0.0. Release 7. 2007.0. Physical layer aspects for evolved UTRA.LTE Layer1 TR & TS in 3GPP TR 25.1. Sep.0. Release 8.0. Release 8. V8. V8. V7. Oct.

(Note: see TS 36.Layer1 Service to Higher Layer Error detection on the transport channel and indication to higher layers FEC encoding/decoding of the transport channel Hybrid ARQ soft-combining Rate matching of the coded transport channel to physical channels Mapping of the coded transport channel onto physical channels Power weighting of physical channels Modulation and demodulation of physical channels Frequency and time synchronisation Radio characteristics measurements and indication to higher layers Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna processing Transmit Diversity (TX diversity) Beamforming RF processing.100 series) HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 82 .

Physical Layer Specifications To/From Higher Layers 36.211 Physical Channels and Modulation 36.213 Physical layer procedures 36.212 Multiplexing and channel coding 36.214 Physical layer – Measurements HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 83 .

5 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19 One subframe where. Tf = 307200×Ts=10 ms One slot. Tslot = 15360×Ts = 0.Frame Structure Generic frame structure One radio frame. Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) seconds Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms There is alternative frame structure only applicable to TDD HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 84 .

Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 85 .0 Sep.211 V8.0 March Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH) QPSK. 16QAM.211 V1.DL Physical Channels TS36. 64QAM QPSK QPSK TS36.0.0.

... expressed in units of N sc Tslot RB N sc : Resource block size in the frequency domain.DL Slot Structure DL RB N RB : Downlink bandwidth configuration. l ) RB N sc “Resource Element”: Each element in the resource grid for antenna port p which is uniquely identified by the DL RB index pair (k.. expressed as a number of subcarriers DL N symb : Number of OFDM symbols in an downlink slot DL N symb Transmitted signal in each slot is described by a DL RB DL resource grid of N RB N sc subcarriers and N symb OFDM symbols where 6 ≤ and where DL N RB ≤ 110 DL RB N symb × N sc DL RB N RB × N sc (k .. l ) in a slot where k = 0... N RB N sc − 1 and DL l = 0.. N symb − 1 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 l=0 DL l = N symb − 1 86 .

Definitions Resource Grid DL RB UL RB Defined as N RB N sc ( N RB N sc ) subcarriers in frequency domain and DL UL N symb ( N symb ) OFDM (or SC-FDMA) symbols in time domain Resource Block RB Defined as N sc “consecutive” subcarriers in frequency domain and DL UL N symb ( N symb ) “consecutive” OFDM (or SC-FDMA) symbols in time domain Resource Element Uniquely defined by the index pair (k. l ) in a slot where k and l are the indices in the frequency and time domain. respectively HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 87 .

DL Physical Channel Processing code words Modulation Mapper Layer Mapper Scrambling Modulation Mapper Precoding Resource element mapper layers Resource element mapper antenna ports OFDM signal generation Scrambling OFDM signal generation Scrambling of coded bits Modulation of scrambled bits to generate complex-valued modulation symbols Mapping of the complex-valued modulation symbols onto one or several transmission layers Precoding of the complex-valued modulation symbols on each layer for transmission on the antenna ports Mapping of complex-valued modulation symbols for each antenna port to resource elements Generation of complex-valued time-domain OFDM signal for each antenna port HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 88 .

Modulation HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 89 .

DL Layer Mapping and Precoding Layer Mapping The complex-valued modulation symbols for each of the code words to be transmitted are mapped onto one or several layers For spatial multiplexing.....] to be mapped onto resources on each of the antenna ports T [ ] Why Precoding? Spatial multiplexing Low diversity The number of antenna ports Error performance is very poor in low SNR regime Solution: Space-time Precoding # transmit antennas > # data streams Intelligently allocate bits & power over transmit antennas Extra antennas provide some diversity HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 90 . y ( p) (i) . x (i) from the layer T mapping and generates a block of vectors y(i) = [.. the number of layers is equal to the rank of the transmission Precoding The number of layers ( 0) (υ −1) Precoder takes as input a block of vectors x(i) = x (i) ..

5ms Normal Cyclic Prefix = 160 Ts = 5.2 us Extended Cyclic Prefix = 512 Ts = 16.35us x 6 = 0.l + N )× Ts N=2048 for ∆f=15kHz N=4096 for ∆f=7.3 us HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 91 .DL OFDM Signal Generation OFDM Parameters 0 ≤ t < (N CP .7 us Extended Cyclic Prefix for MBMS = 1024 Ts = 33.88us (144+2048) x Ts = 71.88us + 71.35us 71.5kHz Check with resource block parameters (160+2048) x Ts = 71.

1225 – Channel Response Model HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 92 .ITU-R M.

l ) not reserved for transmission of reference signals shall be in increasing order of first the index k . then the index l in subframe 0 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 93 .PBCH To broadcast a certain set of cell and/or system-specific information Requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell Mapping to resource elements The mapping to resource elements (k.

Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) QPSK. QPSK Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 94 .211 V1. 64QAM Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) BPSK.0 Sep.0 March Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) TS36.211 V8.0.UL Physical Channels TS36. 16QAM.0.

...UL Slot Structure UL RB N RB : Uplink bandwidth configuration... N symb − 1 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 UL RB N RB × N sc l=0 UL l = N symb − 1 95 . N RB N sc − 1 and l = 0. expressed in units of N sc RB N sc : Resource block size in the frequency domain... l ) in a slot UL RB UL where k = 0. expressed as Tslot a number of subcarriers UL N symb : Number of SC-FDMA symbols in an uplink slot UL N symb Transmitted signal in each slot is described by a UL UL RB resource grid of N RB N sc subcarriers and N symb SC- FDMA symbols UL where 6 ≤ N RB ≤ 110 UL RB N symb × N sc and where (k .. l ) RB N sc “Resource Element”: each element in the resource grid which is uniquely defined by the index pair (k.

Physical Layer Processing of PUSCH Scrambling Modulation of scrambled bits to generate complex-valued modulation symbols Transform precoding to generate complex-valued modulation symbols Mapping of complex-valued modulation symbols to resource elements Generation of complex-valued time-domain SC-FDMA signal for each antenna port HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 96 .

2.UL SC-FDMA Signal Generation SC-FDMA parameters 0 ≤ t < (N CP .5 ms 6 x {(512+2048) x Ts} = 0.3-1.l + N )× Ts Check with numbers in Table 5.5 ms HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 97 . {(160+2048) x Ts} + 6 x {(144+2048) x Ts} = 0.

Uplink Data Multiplexing [24] Two Approaches Distributed Frequency diversity “Not used anymore” for PUSCH transmission Localized Frequency selective gain with channel dependent scheduling (Multi-user diversity) HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 98 .

MIMO-related feedback ACK/NAK : in response to downlink data transmission Scheduling request HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 99 .PUCCH PUCCH to Resource Mapping In the presence of UL data transmission Control and data are time multiplexed prior to DFT (The PUCCH is never transmitted simultaneously with the PUSCH) In the absence of UL data transmission Control is transmitted on a reserved frequency region Type of PUCCH CQI : informs current channel conditions.

PRACH Types Normal PRACH burst Extended PRACH burst Structure TCP TPRE Preamble Sequence Design The random access preambles are generated from Zadoff-Chu sequences with zero correlation zone. generated from one or several root Zadoff-Chu sequences Preamble sequence per cell 64 for Type1 and 16 for Type2 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 100 .

Channel Coding Turbo code interleaver QPP (quadratic polynomial permutation) interleaver Applied channel coding scheme HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 101 .

300) Downlink Broadcast Channel (BCH) Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Multicast Channel (MCH) Uplink Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH) Random Access Channel(s) (RACH) RACH UL-SCH Uplink Transport channels PRACH PUCCH PUSCH Uplink Physical channels HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 102 .Transport Channels (TS 36.

300) Control Channels Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Traffic Channels Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH Downlink Logical channels CCCH DCCH DTCH Uplink Logical channels PCH BCH DL-SCH MCH Downlink Transport channels RACH UL-SCH Uplink Transport channels HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 103 .Logical Channels (TS 36.

associated with non-MBSFN transmission MBSFN reference signals. associated with MBSFN transmission UE-specific reference signals (supported in frame structure type 2 only) Objectives Downlink channel quality measurement. 2. Downlink channel estimation Cell search and initial acquisition Numerology Use of Known reference symbols Insertion in the first and third last OFDM symbol of each slot One RS per DL antenna port (1.DL Reference Signals Three types of downlink reference signals are defined: Cell-specific reference signals. or 4) HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 104 .

n and a two-dimensional PRS pseudo-random sequence rm.1.n ⋅ rm.n (ns ) OS of a two-dimensional orthogonal sequence rm.2} For extended cyclic prefix PRS rm .n (ns ) = rm. n ( ns ) is generated as the symbol-by-symbol product rm.n (ns ) N OS = 3 N PRS different two-dimensional orthogonal sequences = 170 different two-dimensional pseudo-random sequences one-to-one mapping b/w the three identities within the physical-layer cell identity group and the three two-dimensional orthogonal sequences such that orthogonal sequence n ∈ {0.n (ns ) one-to-one mapping b/w the physical-layer cell identity and the different two-dimensional pseudo-random sequences N PRS = 510 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 105 .Reference Signal Sequence Generation For normal cyclic prefix OS PRS rm . n ( ns ) is generated from a two-dimensional pseudo-random sequence rm.

normal cyclic prefix) HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 106 .DL Reference Signals Mapping Mapping of downlink reference signals (frame structure type 1.

..61 For frame structure type 1..... n = 0.61 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 107 .30 n = 31. the primary synchronization signal is only transmitted in slots 0 and 10 The sequence shall be mapped to the resource elements according to ak ..1..Synchronization Signals 510 unique physical-layer cell identities 170 unique physical-layer cell-identity groups (0~169) 3 physical-layer identity within physical-layer cell-identity group (0~2) Primary synchronization signal The sequence used for the primary synchronization signal is generated from a frequency-domain Zadoff-Chu sequence ⎧ − j πun ( n +1) 63 ⎪ e d u (n) = ⎨ πu ( n +1)( n + 2) ⎪e − j 63 ⎩ n = 0.l = d (n ). DL RB ⎢ N RB N sc ⎥ k = n − 31 + ⎢ ⎥.32.... 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ DL l = N symb − 1..

61 HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 108 . DL RB ⎢ N RB N sc ⎥ k = n − 31 + ⎢ ⎥.Synchronization Signals – cont’d Secondary synchronization signal Concatenation of two binary sequences (m-sequence) The concatenated sequence is scrambled with a scrambling sequence given by the primary synchronization signal For frame structure type 1.. 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ DL l = N symb − 2.. n = 0...l = d (n ). the secondary synchronization signal is only transmitted in slots 0 and 10 The sequence shall be mapped to the resource elements according to a k .

for PBCH) hypotheses HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 109 . ID) x 2 (frame boundary) x N (antenna config.LTE Cell Search [24] DL Signals used for cell search Primary synchronization signals (PSCH) Secondary synchronization signals (SSCH) Broadcasting channel (BCH) To broadcast a certain set of cell and/or system-specific information PSCH Carries 3 hypotheses (cell ID within a cell group ID) SSCH 170 (cell gr.

DL Frame Structure Type 1 [33] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 110 .

UL Frame Structure Type 1 [33] HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 111 .

LTE Scheduling Multiuser diversity Frequency diversity scheduling UEs are allocated to distributed resource blocks (combs) Not available in UL Frequency selective scheduling: user specific Each UE is allocated its individual best part of the spectrum Best use of the spectrum OFDMA exploits channel capacity Sufficient feedback information on channel conditions from UE required HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 112 .

Selective Fading channel dependent scheduling Transmission power control Guarantee the required packet error rate and bit error rate Tradeoff between fairness and system throughput Adaptive modulation and channel coding rate (AMC) Increases the achievable data rate (frequency efficiency) according to the channel conditions Considerations Control Update Interval Signaling overhead HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 performance enhancement 113 . and latency Maximize the system throughput. packet error rate. UE capability and Required data rate considered Fast Freq.LTE Link Adaptation [25] Purpose Guarantee the required QoS of each UE User data rate. Three Link Adaptation Techniques Adaptive transmission bandwidth Averaged channel conditions.


SAE focus is on: enhancement of Packet Switched technology to cope with rapid growth in IP traffic
higher data rates lower latency packet optimised system

fully IP network simplified network architecture distributed control

HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술


Simplified SAE Network Architecture [8]
MME (Mobility Management Entity)
Manages and stores the UE control plane context, generates temporary Id, UE authentication, authorization of TA/PLMN, mobility management

UPE (User Plane Entity)
Manages and stores UE context, DL UP termination in LTE_IDLE, ciphering, mobility anchor, packet routing and forwarding, initiation of paging

IP networks

3GPP anchor
Mobility anchor between 2G/3G and LTE

SAE Anchor



S2 S5b

SAE anchor
Mobility anchor between 3GPP and non 3GPP (I-WLAN, etc)

3GPP Anchor








HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술


Key Issues on SAE [8]
Mobility Management
Intra LTE Mobility in Idle state Inter 3GPP Mobility in Idle state (2G/3G to/from LTE) Intra LTE Mobility with Core Node Relocation in Active mode Inter Access System Handover (including Non-3GPP) Tracking Area Concepts & Paging Limiting signaling due to idle mode mobility

Roaming and Migration
Migration from pre-Rel8 UMTS to the SAE architecture

QoS and Policy Control
Default IP Access Service QoS concepts and bearer architecture Policy Control and Charging

Other Issues
IP connectivity with multiple PDNs Network Redundancy and Load Sharing Network Sharing
HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 117

S2c is terminal-based solution Note: service continuity shall be supported whether the UE supports simultaneous radio transmission or not PDN Gateway S5/8 Serving Gateway S2a S2b Serving Gateway S1_MME E-UTRAN S1_U Trusted Non-3GPP (M-WiMAX. MIPv4 FA mode S2b: PMIPv6 S2c: DSMIPv6 S2a and S2b is network-based solution.Handover Between 3GPP & Non-3GPP SAE supports heterogeneous access systems mobility via S2 interfaces Mobility protocol S2a: PMIPv6. 3GPP2) Trusted Non-3GPP (WLAN via ePDG) Non-3GPP S2c UE UE HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 118 .

(except WLAN dual mode terminal) Status The solution for tight handover will be investigated in SA WG2 and RAN WG2/3 Technical Challenges Security context transfer to avoid re-authentication delay Layer 3 mobility (Mobile IP) RAN context transfer Backward handover Interface between MME and non-3GPP system is required (Sx interface) Lossless data delivery Consistent provision of QoS Negotiation of QoS between the access system might be necessary * 3GPP TR 36. “Improved network controlled mobility between LTE and 3GPP2/mobile WiMAX radio technologies” HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 119 .939. power consumption and form-factor.Optimized Handover with Non-3GPP Requirements “The evolved 3GPP system shall support service continuity “between 3GPP access systems” and also “between 3GPP access system and non 3GPP access systems” whether the UE supports simultaneous radio transmission or not” This includes HO between pre-LTE (2G/3G) system and non-3GPP Handover using Single Radio terminal Requirement exists It is highly anticipated that the LTE terminal will be a single radio terminal due to the radio interface.

Version 7.org [13] IEEE 802. June 2004. 2007. [8] 3GPP Technical Report. [5] Ulrich Barth. Hojin Kim.html [14] Qualcomm. March 27. 2006. [2] 3GPP Technical Report. Release 7. “3GPP UTRA-UTRAN LTE 및 SAE 표준화 동향”. [6] Sungjin Kim. 박형준. 김재흥.882. Juho Lee. “3GPP Long-Term Evolution / System Architecture Evolution Overview”. 2006년 6월 [10] 김일규. 14.0. TR 23. 2005. R1-051341. Release 7.16 TGm homepage: http://www. 2006년 6월 [11] WINNER homepage: http://www. Release 7. Samsung. Radio interface protocol aspects. 2007. Vol.813. [15] Nortel. 방승찬. CTIA Wireless. March 2006. TR 25. April 2007. HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 120 .913. Version 7.3. “An Overview of MIMO Technologies for Enhanced 3GPP HSDPA”. Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects: 3GPP System Architecture Evolution: Report on Technical Options and Conclusions.wirelessman. Nov.0. Sep.org/index. 유병한. “UMB Technology Overview and Roadmap”.0. Release 7. [9] 이봉주. 2006. “UMB Deployment Options”.ist-winner.1.0. TR 25. 김영훈. No.1. [3] 3GPP Technical Report. TR 25. and Kwang Bok Lee. Version 1. Technical Specification Group RAN: Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN).0.814. Sep. TR 25. 2006.ngmn. 신영승. Oct. Technical Specification Group RAN: Feasibility study for evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) and Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN). [7] 3GPP TSG RAN WG1.html [12] NGMN homepage: http://www. Technical Specification Group RAN: Physical layer aspects for evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA). March 27. 2006 [4] 3GPP Technical Report.1.org/tgm/index. Alcatel White Paper. Version 7. Telecommunications Review. Oct. ETRI 전자통신동향분석 제21권 제3호. CTIA Wireless. “Flexible Fractional Frequency Reuse Approach”. Release 7. “3G LTE 물리계층/MAC 계층 기술 동향”.9.3. Technical Specification Group RAN: Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN). Version 7.912.References [1] 3GPP Technical Report. ETRI 전자통신동향분석 제21권 제3호.

“Physical Layer for Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) Air Interface Specification”. Sep. Qualcomm [22] 3GPP R1-050783. 제3회 차세대 이동통신 기술 단기강 좌. HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 121 . TTA 표준 기술 교육. KRnet 2007. “Concepts of 3GPP LTE”. Version 0. Dec. [32] 3GPP R1-070674. and Huawei [23] Kyu-Jin Wee (MIC in Korea). et al. 20th. 2006.60. “The European WINNER Project Towards IMT-Advanced”.int/ITU-R/index. Sage. RITT. Version 0. “OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications”. June 29 2007 [25] 정재훈 (LGE). ITU-R. [18 ITU-R homepage: http://www.P0084-001. “WiBro를 위한 MIMO 기술”. KICS 제 13회 4세대 이동통신 포럼. Further description of dynamic FFR for OFDM based E-UTRA downlink. no. 2007. [24] 오민석 (LGE). “3GPP LTE”. [30] Werner Mohr (Nokia Siemens Networks). October 1998. ZTE. [17] 3GPP2 C. Aug. [21] 3GPP R1-051123. [29] 이미현 (삼성전자). [20] 윤석현 (LG전자). 16. June 2006. 2006. vol. “ITU-R RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M. LTE physical layer framework fro performance verification”.html [19] ITU-R. ITU-R WP8F Workshop on IMT-Advanced. 2007.. Sep. Feb. 8. Alamouti. Feb. “Next Generation Mobile Networks . 2007. Board Of NGMN Limited. 2007 [31] NGMN. [33] Moray Rumney (Agilent). Feb. “Overview of the anticipated IMT-Advanced process”. May 22. 2003. “Overview for Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) Air Interface Specification”. “Basics and Core Technologies of 3GPP LTE Physical Layer”. “A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications”. 2007.88. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. 2007.Beyond HSPA & EVDO”. “Wireless LAN & OFDM” [27] Richard van Nee and Ramjee Prasad. 2007 [26] Gerald F. Orange.References [16] 3GPP2 C. May 22.1645: Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000”. ITU-R WP8F Workshop on IMT-Advanced. Text Proposal on IDMA for “Inter-cell interference mitigation”.P0084-0-000. “Interference mitigation for 3GPP LTE system”. Live Webinar. Artech House Publishers [28] Siavash M.itu.

214: Physical layer – Measurements. Release 8. HSDPA/HSDPA 이동통신 표준기술 122 . Sep. 2007. Release 8.1. Sep. 2007. [36] TS 36. Release 8. V8.0.0. Release 8. V8. Sep. [37] TS 36. 2007. Physical channels and modulation. Overall description. LTE Physical Layer . Sep.300: E-UTRA and E-UTRAN. June 2007. V8. V8. Release 8. Release 8. [38] TS 36.0. V8.213: Physical layer procedures. [35] TS 36. V8.201.0.211. Stage 2.0. Sep.0.0.212: Multiplexing and channel coding. [39] TS 36.References [34] TS 36.0. 2007. 2007.0.General Description.0.0.

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