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Chapter 8 Cell Division and Growth

Meiosis (Overview):
• The reduction of the chromosomes to half of the normal (sex cells)
• Egg with half of the number of chromosomes is fertilized by sperm with
half of the number of chromosomes, creating a zygote with a full
number of chromosomes

Egg and Sperm (also Pollen)


• Have half of the full number of chromosomes (haploid cells)
Body Cells
• Have the full number of chromosomes (diploid cells)
• Humans have 46 chromosomes (diploid) / 23 (haploid)
• Fruit flies have 8 chromosomes (diploid) / 4 (haploid)

Meiosis:
• The process that reduces the diploid (2n) to a haploid (n)
• Only occurs in the sex organs
• Production of sperm, egg, or pollen

Meiosis I:
Interphase:
• Same as Mitosis
• Cell Growth occurs (G1)
• Chromosomes replicate (long and thin) (S)
• Production of spindle fibers (G2)
Prophase I:
• Homologous chromosomes with attached pair seek each other out
o Homologous: refer to the same traits (1 from mom / 1 from dad)
o Once they find each other, they make four homologous
chromatids
• Form a tetrad: two homologous chromosomes and pairs
o Attach to spindle
A A A A
B B B B
c C C C
D D d Female
d Male
E E e e
f F F F
g G g g

Metaphase I:
• Tetrads line up on equator
• Crossing-over can occur here
Anaphase I:
• One homolog with its copy goes to one centrioles
• The other homolog with its copy goes to the other centrioles

Telophase I:
• Two new nuclei are formed with 46 chromosomes
Cytokinesis I:
• Two new daughter cells are formed with 46 chromosomes in each
nucleus

Meiosis II:
Interphase II:
• No duplication of chromosomes
• A small, if any, amount of cell growth occurs
• Interphase basically does not occur during this phase
Prophase II:
• One homolog, with its copy still attached, attaches to a spindle
Metaphase II:
• Homologues line up on the equator
Anaphase II:
• Paired chromatids pull apart
• 23 chromosomes go to one centrioles and 23 go to the other
Telophase II:
• Two new nuclei form with 23 chromosomes each
Cytokinesis II:
• Four new gametes with 23 chromosomes (haploid number) are formed

Human Reproductive Cells:


Male:
• One original cell produces four sperm cells (gametes)
Females:
• One original cell produces one egg (gamete with a large amount of
original cytoplasm), and three polar bodies (support egg and die)