Theodore Langley Research

A. Talay Center

Prepared at Langley Research Center

Scientific and Technical Information NATIONAL AERONAUTICS

O_ce AND


For sale by the National Technical Springfield, Virginia 22161 Price - $7.00





...................................... HISTORY OF FLIGHT .......................... ..........................

lit 1 5 5 10 13 25 9.5 9.5 31 39 59 59 84 91 96 103 119 123 127 ........................... 131 131 131 133 137 137 137 149 .......................... ........................... 147 151 151 169

II. BACKGROUND The Atmosphere Winds The

INFORMATION ..................................

and Turbulence


Airplane FLOW

.................................... ...................................

III. FLUID The The Ideal Real Fluid Flow

...................................... ...................................... Flow Flow FLOW .................................. .................................. EFFECTS ...........................

Fluid Fluid


and Wings Devices of Airplane

................................. ............................... ............................... ............................... ................................ ...............................

Aerodynamic Total Drag

Propellers V. TRANSONIC

and Rotors FLOW FLOW


SST ....................................... Boom ..................................... THE Flight SUPERSONIC

VII. BEYOND Hypersonic Lifting Space VIII.

................................. ...................................

Bodies Shuttle

.................................... ................................ ...............................

PERFORMANCE of an Airplane 1 Motion 2 Motion

Motions Class Class Class

................................... ................................... Flight

3 Motion-Hovering

IX. STABILITY Stability Control


....................................... .......................................



A -




181 187 193 197


..................... ......................





111 . Specialization is indicated but a background This ductory Research the The subject result volume knowledge is a result is an essential of several semesters of the author's and technicians teaching of an introLangley treatment of course Center. college level. more the teaching process. courses which. A thorough resulted the of these with considerable It is hoped that up-to-date this volume many material will has in the text interest as presented to pursue stimulate of reader's specialized education in the topics aerodynamics. science of aerodynamics can be traced life from growth span the in the back has first thousands the moon of years first to its begin- remarkably. to fulfill the illustrated objectives notes herein. qualitative. and technology the task and no letup passing who possess subject of education all the of the is staggering. various only one human at Kitty Hawk phenomenal For aspects those separated manned heavier-than-air The last few of aerodynamics encom- landing. of any education. airplane flight witnessed is in sight. °°. have science an interest.FOREWORD The nings powered decades but. in aerodynamics The problem to apprentices faced was at the NASA than a layman's on the through to provide more but not the detail is a highly was modified revision as taught in many individual set of notes better.


man was balloon of the winds small engines designs acquired steering flight lighter-than-air aerostat devices. Instead hot-air first did not imitate took the form the birds. called being is the man's unable culmination desire to soar Greek of the the works actions of many of the himself. on the lighter-than-air 2. bird and fly to copy the air. with one as a passenger. but they still years a of man into the atmosphere. began a basic individuals.) the Constructed distinction thereafter not fly where devices. Galileo. and a tail He understood unit which the basic flew on a wing the with a wing wing angle Stability to this once successfully. the into the heavens philosophers Aristotle formed and bodies Bacon. action pressure man with altitude. attributed to his gods What that is this air has But the air and serious can man law to question: the notion principle that of air substance weight fly in it? conceived Archimedes' Men like and its 1500 one studies correctly resulting of floating Roger decreases (Leonardo flight that lighter-than-air is a gas. A SHORT HISTORY OF FLIGHT The It probably through theory began of aerodynamics with Early ability and prehistoric man. Lilienthal successful designs. to power During of inventors Meanwhile. remained away. Cayley of England (1773-1857) is generally forces recognized acting as the and father built a aerodynamics. designs flying first helicopter a parachute. the balloon Although of initiating became he willed. his brothers from France. in 1896. surfaces would use that He realized produce more importance than conglider 1800's and had named over a little Otto 2000 of attack in his very day: tried and that designs curved came lift force ones. flights Lilienthal death one of his this form of concept of heavier-than-air . to the air of these of bird reaction came that the principles it was the the - and designs concluded several wing - movement lift necessary machines being of the wing to fly. was (See fig. influenced relative As a result intended But these for the ry man ple and Through others. successfully before proved of his own design.I. Pascal proved is compressible. those to carprinciin 1783 by produced ornithopters he designed of a bird's to copy designs the the muscle His 1. da Vinci) foresaw the shape of things that In the years to come. around his avid Da Vinci and the studies. to fly.) based power other The supplied included machine did not leave and the drawing board. Heavier-than-air Sir George of modern glider of the flat cept which number success. vehicles. that were by man. holds the two Montgolfier the first ascent pastime. was toward end of the nineteenth in gliders to his century. at the mercy ballooning and could and popular Gradually. used flew with the of dihedral he built their an important In 1853 it is believed of his to use the flying crashing the servants a steam engine a man-carrying the late airplanes a German He recorded 3 shows Today. (See fig. of a large it was balloon. Figure flight.

Designs of Leonardo da Vinci.- Lilienthal glider (1896).- Montgolfier balloon (1783). . Figure 3.Helicopter Parachute Figure 1.. Figure 2 2.

are now called claims hang-gliding. version caused a pilot. forward research is being in the space of transonic. is enjoying flew given a substantial first the (the credit. The design. pushed (See fig. Samuel Pierpont was Langley steam-powered (fig.C. of their own design. Two world Aerial combat wars was and aerodynamics limited wars have in the airplane." of the same it to crash brothers Their 1 kilometer Dr.- Samuel have spurred War Langley's developed advances I (1918). 1903. supersonic. and German future. comeback. "the Aerodrome. plane's by the end of World War II (1945) pointed concepts wings at the the way to the and the civilian and jet 5. sectors advanced Soon swept commonplace end of World propulsion Today areas shuttle. most fitted airplane twice French. Backed by a grant to carry October success a full-scale gear failure 17. "Aerodrome" rapidly since (1903). Americans At the Smithsonian was wing designing span small which in Washington. and the following on the how and why of an air- . lay in continually Figure Aviation and numerous 4.. 4). launching On December during and December in a gasoline- the Wright achieved success engine-powered improving their machine designs. or the Russians). over flew successful with a steam a 5-meter engine from Unfortuof driving tandem he built biplane two propellers. Although there various as to who really are generally Institution the Germans.) dominated at Langley both the Research military Center of aviation. Congress nately. material and hypersonic will shed some transports. airplanes.flying. light lifting bodies. His in 1896. 1903. 1903. D.

Designs showing advance of aeronautics.World War I (1918) P-51 World War D II (1945) Modern (1974) Figure 5. 4 ..

II. helium (Xe) .. and represents Appendix definitions and units A contains and as used is also an airpaper will in for the types. presented background of aircraft A general Appendix motion above for the in the material presented. surroundof approx- aerodynamicist atmosphere of several makes and represents fluctuating in nearly air near sea winds the Up to altitudes turbulence general atmospheric The I. throughout both general B discusses scalars. nitrogen (SO2'. dust level bacteria. vapor. is given etc. dioxide carbon monoxide and iodine . BACKGROUND INFORMATION As a background material required aeronautical descriptions this paper.up the The Earth's a mixture and same Atmosphere is concerned the gases. dioxide (NO2) (12) . taken local particles.934 . Earth 90 km. (CO2) (He).NORMAL ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION AIR NEAR OF SEA CLEAN. sulfur dioxide. Not included although nitrogen the gases.41-percent represent total volume. volume normal composition atmospheric vapor. LEVEL [U.084 20. gaseous about envelope one fluid. The Nature namely ing the imately keep dry water the air. information motion used included. the various surface.003 Traces of each gas for xenon ozone ammonia _O3) . of the total and oxygen That the 99 percent to vary of all comby monthan can be made pollution has been brought dramatically areas in recent times problem where in industrialized other harmful of carbon higher oxide.. sulfur (NH3). .. TABLE DRY pollutants markedly I. This the reader is urged to examine the appendixes. ethane gas and formula Content. air of the Air atmosphere. and numerous in nonindustrialized areas. to light the percentages are in the table highly variable. a total of 0.. craft's aid coordinate The to define bibliography on the materials at the end of the the reader in locating presented. hydrogen oxide nitrogen (CO).. in table Water Interestingly. estimated together position the air at 0. percent 78.948 . are is mixed proportions.031 by volume krypton (CH4) (Kr). Standard atmosphere.S. in all directions of clean. discussions concerning Appendix information this is basic paper. nomenclature aeronautical dimensions and relative systems discussion C describes the Earth's further of vectors. 1962] Constituent Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon Neon (N2) (02\ (Ar) dioxide (Ne). (H2) (N20).

both the stratosphere. Figure 6 shows temperature and temperature-defined shells. standard and rocket The wind ionization of one or more represents in free at these the outer orbits altitudes of the atmoregion (greater from the of the only to than Sun) all the is significant. never remains Since at any particuto what air in the time a hypothetical This Earth model (that be employed standard as an approximation atmosphere. outwards.performance extends small. of the solar For is negligibly altimeter purposes design. extends begins in which The indefinitely It represents constituents where gravitation. order Fig7 shows the heterosphere. densities. spheric atmosphere the Earth's radiation. particles an "atmosphere" however. Aviation accepted tables new ICAO the basis and forms of tables mean report extended to 20 km above 6 . is the lightest are on composition. model with is assumed respect The Europe ciled Civil cially The to the first to be devoid and water and to be at rest no winds models slight model This or turbulence). composition- thermosphere." homosphere. becomes way to the The aircraft of high-energy so that one has wind. the solar a dominant Sun. distribution. Based and In ascending which there then hydrogen then. to aeronauof course. atmosphere model is known of dust. the different gases begin order to settle one would of all or separate find high the gases. in 1952 5 km below and the and differences was models an internationally Organization by NACA from introduced Standard in 1952 by the Atmosphere in NACA level. about 90 km. It is the tics man since lives most here solar atmospheric occurs here layer and. the or shell is the "shells. of pressure and of plasma which influence density atmosphere. calibrations.Above to their oxygen. absorbing The Without the beneficial life in the stratosphere not have and harmful ionosphere. The accepted (ICAO). of the speed vertiof and their so forth. or place. vapor The may be expected. the composition composition Above common 90 km where Although used with altitude. exosphere. the are ure the most the composition is one way of distinguishing shells In ascending criterion is the temperature mesosphere. troposphere. were developed between in the the 1920's in both were recon- standard United atmospheric States. of such quantities the real as pressure. knowledge density. strata. and shells. known the layer. Below 90 km where two atmospheric is essentially varies layers. shell is called or layers. constant and cal distribution sound lar is required. most important Most ozone weather layer variation troposphere aircraft also. constant the out according concentrations of respective helium. is. must as the moisture. region as we know it would in the mesosphere developed. ultraviolet a popularly in the various which fly in this is the region. the atmospheric exosphere to note that particles can move subject It is interesting (streams 500 km). temperature. sea International was offi1235.

iii:_i::}:_i.-__ l ] ¢J e© n: ..S.....'ilill' ill ' '. !:.' " ' ... ' ' _ ' .S.7 weather ¢ .'.'. '._ / .." '7 ! ' | [ !.'.:::::7:!:i::::/:i:::_f¢::!>:i':::¢':'¢:':'::"_':_'_ _ ] 10 .ii! ! _ 10__20 . i /' " 30 ..::::: ::. _i:.' _t' t'/'..'_l.::::::7: : _:i:rDi:ti:::.....___[ ..'.-..'7/i///I .."..D ): : : :i .. StandardAtmosphere (1962)was publishedto take into account (1962) range able this new data.I_'..." _ "- i . . Satellites : o % :: : : . %. North Pole : :: . (absorbs solar ultra_mlet ..W/.__..i::!ili:ii::i::iiii!ii ::."'/J_'//' /IdWIIJYI' '/_l_i'..""'/.._/f/'i//_ili//I/Stratosphere/ff/////i//////. :.....'" I'_i!.... with altitude Exos }here ?..'i.._/'_' ..With increased knowledgesince 1952becauseof the large scale use of highaltitude soundingrockets andsatellites. [ Jhere Meteors burn up 70 -. _. '.."..'_.l'_ '"_. ..... _'_ ' "_ "'_ " f i / ' [' "/. Standard in values the U...:' radiation) ....ti I_'_ . _:_ ij::: ___::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 500 : : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: c) 2 Thermosphere x-15 :ii ii.''llll'_'"' '[li71]iitHii..' tAzom layer ..'... :_i._ _ Light __. Meteorological Mesos .."]'/'. with the ICAO Atmosphere to 700 kin.'. Finally in 1962.'..._ I ff.'1i'7''." I///i/l '!/////i_ _ t_ I . Mesopause ::)::i!ii::!ii::!::i:::ii!#._t_ [ aire_r_ level laircr'_t Equator Figure 6."]]/'_ "--'._l 40 ''.- Atmospheric structure.iiiiiiii!ii 80 . .i: ..z. For all practical Uncertainty purposes."._.'Ii$ !iillillll Illl'] .. T ropopause ::-:: :-:-:-"./_l_ tSeaSea I /toommerclal.'. increased Standard over their Atmosphere common altitude as availis in agreement but extends data decreased. extendedtables above 20 km were published..'.' tl 'i' 'ill' _ ["'ili' '..the U.'. Balloons .

U.S.S.Atmospheric on U..Mesopause 70 @ o 6O " _ \\\ 5O --Stratopause _J *$ O 4O _ J e_ ¢d i 30 2O 10 f Tropopause Troposphere 150 I 0 I 0 l 200 200 K(temp) I 5 I .5 I 250 kg/m 3_ (density) N/m2(pressure) 250 I 10 I 1.) Standard Atmosphere. of sound 1962 speed Atmosphere /// 9O 8O . (Based 1962 . . temperature. 100 - altitude density.0 I 300 300 15 [:104 I 1. properties variation.5 l 350 m/sec (speed of sound) Figure 7. Standard vs.Geometric pressure.

density is directly is of particular importance on an airfoil atmosphere. density. StandardAtmosphereSupplements(1966). it it troposphere the temperature type to 10 to 20 km in the linearly with altitude. Po = Density. The model atmospheresbelow 120km are given for every 15° of latitude for 15° N to 75° N and in most cases for January andJuly (or winter and summer). of sound to decrease as will be is seen first shows rapidly seen. Above 120kin. a needwas generatedfor information on the variability of atmospheric structure that would be used in the design of second-generationscientific andmilitary aerospacevehicles. that decreases Both curve remains a similar with the lift The real constant at about of variation. The older 1962model is classified in the 1966supplementsas an average mid-latitude (30 N to 60° N) ° spring/fall model. if the Earth's effects all real of the atmosphere Sun.0 N/m2 Po = 1. the corpres- It would atmospheric and the responded ence to a standard but thermal rotation of continents and oceans.- dependent be fortunate model Earth's on the density. Essentially there are two sets of tables . Systematic variations in the troposphere due to seasonandlatitude had been knownto exist andthus a neweffort was begunto take those variations into account.15 K (15 ° C) Acceleration Speed of sound. and pressure standard In the The are atmosphere). stratosphere speed seen since.225 kg/m 3 Temperature. of gravity.S. combine to stir up the 9 . StandardAtmosphere is the more general model andit is useful to list the standard sea level conditions: Pressure.S. T o = 288. The result was the publication of the most up-to-date standard atmospheres .the U. The It is intended merely to indicate parameters. models are presented to take into accountvarying solar activity. In the temperature-defined (from sea level atmospheric also included. The 1962U. 101 325. The 217 K before the increasing density altitude. temperature. again.807 m/sec2 a o = 340. go = 9. the shells and general are speed variation of sound of to 100 km.294m/sec Figure from these sea level 7 gives a multiplot of pressure.With the expansionof this nation's spaceprogram set for altitudes below 120km andone for altitudes. 120km to 1000kin.

considerable the that standard the air attention atmosphere mass through the most important and Turbulence real atmospheric motion flies effect. and affect may be divided Large-scale performance into two classes: motions (1) large-scale (or (2) small-scale the navigation of the atmosphere Figure of an aircraft. which is the relative is motionless an airplane Its of the atmosphere. of winds. Winds Unquestionably. in a state both in time the air with respect is constantly is variable it is known respect to the surface complex. motion motions.atmosphereinto a nonuniform. Wind drift causes actual flight path AC. disThis nonstandard performance cussed in this section. it is essential that "nonstandard" performance shows in the real up in numerous atmosphere ways. A (b) Aircraft yawed into wind Figure with 8. Although a standard atmosphere provides the criteria necessary for design of an aircraft. 8 illustrates (a) Aircraft heading parallel to AB. of the The Earth.- angle Effect _ to account for wind drift. 10 . and the motion is exceedingly motions winds) one effect. some be anticipated of which are also. nonstandardmass of gasesin motion. and one receiving Although of motion and space in with and of late. to the Earth.

pilot flight should path. in figure course. should change for with had have would drift respect values the to the flight time pilot from point A to point large-scale B. time or less Again. for wind conditions and forecasts along his intended 2C o 3 10 J J J J J f i i I i 50 Maximum wind speeds. wind speed curve. real statistithe have average and represent more curve. from velocity at any particular In the consult case local place will vary rather than considerably use a statistical cal average. to which for off would himself off course. of horizontal wind speed as a function curve. of a real Figure of altitude 9 represents the the curve. the aircraft canceled slightly out any into the wind as illustrated Compensation velocity knowledge of both the aircraft's and the wind Statistical been calculated to the ground. 11 . were into pilot This relative required no winds. account. and a standard in the case one such wind typical statistical atmosphere. m/see I 100 Figure 9. The to his intended the pilot winds. forced pointed have requires In order drifting to compensate of the aircraft velocity the winds.In figure 8(a) the pilot is attempting to fly his aircraft He sets motion flight point were his heading and flies directly for point ground) which finds him B but winds are blowing have at point of the atmosphere path.- A typical USAF statistical Handbook maximum of Geophysics. (representing crosswise brought C. After the B if there not taken the 8(b). 3O of wind airports drift then.

The small-scale motion of the atmosphereis called turbulence (or gustiness). The responseof an aircraft to turbulence is an important matter. In passengeraircraft, turbulence may cause minor problems such as spilled coffee and in extreme cases injuries if seat belts are not fastened. Excessive shaking or vibration may render the pilot unableto read instruments. In casesof precision flying such as air-toair refueling, bombing, andgunnery, or aerial photography,turbulence-induced motions of the aircraft are a nuisance. Turbulence-inducedstresses and strains over a long period may causefatigue in the airframe andin extreme cases a particular heavy turbulence may causethe loss of control of an aircraft or evenimmediate structural failure. There are several causesof turbulence. The unequalheating of the Earth's surface by the Sunwill causeconvective currents to rise and make the plane's motion through such unequalcurrents rough. On a clear day the turbulence is not visible but will be felt; hence,the name "clear air turbulence (CAT)." Turbulence also occurs becauseof winds blowing over irregular terrain or, by different magnitudeor direction, winds blowing side by side andproducing a shearing effect. In the case of the thunderstorm, one has oneof the most violent of all turbulences where strong updrafts anddowndrafts exist side by side. The severity of the aircraft motion causedby the turbulence will dependupon the magnitudeof the updrafts anddowndrafts and their directions. Many private aircraft have beenlost to thunderstorm turbulence becauseof structural failure or loss of control. Commercial airliners generally Figure lences fly around 10 illustrates such the storms flight path for the comfort and safety of their passengers. turbuof an aircraft through the various

described. Another real atmospheric form, effect is that for of moisture. in the pure dry Water in the air, in either and of pre-

its will

liquid affect

or vapor an aircraft that

is not accounted degrees. aircraft physical

standard with as icing

atmosphere the forms

in varying affect and

Everyone performance damage humid air

is familiar such

cipitation zero less less tance

can adversely in fog or snow, dry dry air air air. than and

on the wings, vapor vapor) take-off is will disbe

visibility dense dense than than

caused (air

by hail.

Water water

consequently of this, dense


Because in the more

an aircraft dry air. in the lift, and conditions airport


a longer

in humid Air density

is a very depends does

important upon the

factor temperature true




power Since

output the it

of an aircraft standard is important




atmosphere for

not indicate

at a particular local


and place, conditions.

a pilot

to contact

a local

for the



.,i..t.,. .

;i? iL !iLk ?¸

71 ii iiii

Ii ii
pressure power readings, output

?iii?iiiii!i!i iiiiii j'iiiiiN
density may be obtained and,

i iiiiii!!iii!iii!_!:i:i_i:!:i:i:i:i:i:i:i_i:!:i:i:i!iiiiiiii!iiii!ii!i!iii!i!i!iiiii!:i:i:!:i:!:i Figure I0.- Flight path of an aircraft through various forms of turbulence. Relatively stable air exists above thunderstorms. From hence, the local temperature distance pressure pressure and

take-off The local his

and engine is important altimeter

may be determined. using pressure altimeters. pressure readings rather above A pilot than sea to

in aircraft measured

must level.


to local

sea-level altitude




if he is to obtain


Although nonstandard still remains

the preceding atmosphere as a primary



only a few of the the design



of a

on aircraft reference

design in the

and performance, preliminary

standard stage


of an aircraft.

The Basic known airplane.Our Before attention proceeding it would airplane. in exploded as follows: will

Airplane be centered mainly on that class of aircraft theory and

as airplanes.

into any be well


of aerodynamic in some detail

its application physical makeup As figure into several

to airplanes, of a typical 11 demonstrates components gear,

to consider

the overall

view fuselage, The


an airplane tail

may be resolved and control components are

basic landing later


assembly of these

surfaces, considered

and powerplant(s).


in the discussion. The body for of an airplane operating and is called controlling the fuselage. airplane. It houses It may the crew and space

Fuselage.the controls











Figure for cargo and passengers




components. sorts. In addition, the basic to it. with the 12. an strucIt is

and carry in the fuselage.


of various

engine ture

may be housed of the airplane streamlined to be performed Wing.The wing the

The fuselage other large

is, in one sense, components drag. are Designs



of the

attached vary

generally mission

as much and the provides action

as possible variations the principal of the wing as the

to reduce are endless,

as illustrated of an airplane. to the air. The airfoil

in figure Lift is The crosssection depend airplane

lifting with airfoil

force respect section.

obtained sectional planform airplane Figure

from shape shape mission


of the wing of the wing, and

is known

shape, upon the design.

and placement compromise

of the wing necessary often

on the fuselage in the used. overall

the best the shapes and control

13 illustrates Tail assembly

and placements surfaces.rear

The tail of the airplane.


(appendage) assembly stability

represents consists in yaw, in of



of structures stabilizer

at the (fin) and

The tail directional

(1) the vertical and pitch. (2) the





stabilizer the

and elevator numerous

which forms

provide that a tail

longitudinal assembly

stability may take.


14 illustrates











P -47N



j/_- /

I (+









12.- Various




16 .Wing shapes and placements. Figure 13.Wing Wright Brothers P-36 (Subsonic) L F-51 (Subsonic) F-104 (Supersonic) (a)Examples of airfoilshapes..

Rectangular straight wing Tapered straight wing Rounded or straight elliptical wing Slightly swept wing Moderately swept wing Highly swept wing Simple delta wing Complex delta wing (b) Examples Figure of wing 13. Continued. 17 .- planform.

.- Tail assembly forms. Rudder --_ // _ Fin ._il Figure 18 14. ' __'_._ _ [t.r fl}:-t. i zter - _ _ evatlw _ fin Twin tail V-butl(._.l'lZdlntitl Nl:t|)lltZ_l" H orizo nal Rightfin s ta hi.High-wing Mid-willg Low -wing (c) Examples Figure of wing 13.._.ri Elevator .- placements. Concluded.vertical stabiliz(.

The wheels to and landing. elevator.or forces or accomplished placements types be termed of the engine general may possible. or and undercarriage. of the attached Special absorbing landing arrester modern-day gear struts or air cushion floats of landing. rotating 18 illustrates Forces on an piston and accessories. engine's Figure or power to sustain and the if present). rudder. found on hooks Figure 17 shows arrangements airplanes. are all Yaw is those control generally moving (turning attached surfaces the of an airplane airplane fin. With plant few exceptions flight. nose the surfaces heavy. maintairting and hinged lift at are thus or or or (1) to balance cruise tail wing ailerons in a stable particular controls. on the of forces as For body the body face in unaccelerated forces. that forces airplane between may act and this the on suris the a There flight. to move edges for wing surfaces. related and the an The airplane power must plant The engines the is possess consists main such energy as a thrust-producing of the engine the engine are pulse (and the jet. and/or used on trailing primarily of the landing quickly. retractable. are to the Pitch left con- provided the airplane rudder or down) which is to the provided Roll control near by the (rolling the elevators the wing which generally right or left) attached is provided tabs aileron to the by are horizontal the small ailerons stabilizer. wing and used takeBy form 16 shows used on a of the leading They the are lift wing. rocket engine. Body force steady act a distance. control and by the up surfaces drag control. the and Flaps auxiliary whose surface elevator. For gear carrier of include are snow landings. of the effort condition.Included used or trol for right) (nosing attitude. act because gravitational weight. the move pilot the (2) to maintain wishes elevators. reaction Converting force varied two They body from types ram jet. Trim and heavy. crankshaft some airplane. reciprocating turbojet. located hinged functions heavy at to fly whatever on the the parts airspeeds. (or turboprop.on or the The ground Figure and flap of the the and they control provide surfaces 15 illustrates installation attitude a more and complicated arrangement Landing it is at may be rest fixed landing or gear. Spoilers reduced devices to reduce sides an airplane may operating of roll a simple large jet independently control. if it is too rudder. Power_plants. oil for _tirplanes blow water. that use skis used. aileron airliner. type).device propeller. used on both pilot to the edge generally control are outer inserts the trailing on airplane the of the wing. is in the lift. into a thrust many are of a reciprocating by the propeller. an alternate figure to increase off. Surface forces of contact 19 . the without setting (3) to help necessary pilot ailerons are pressures relieve pivoted rudder. gear. during of most the for several the supports take-off are and the airplane The to shocktypes while gear in water.

RuddE Elevator (all-movir Spoiler -. Rudder _ Side view _-T_\ Rudder -_ _ Aileron . AHeron-_ (b) Control Figure 15.- surfaces Main control on T-28B. surfaces. 2O . 'el I Aileron trim tab _ "_ _ . \_ Speed---.Flaps Spoiler Flaps (a) Control surfaces on F-4B Phantom.-_ J .

Left aJleron Right aileron (a) Simp/e Outboard aileron flap arrangement. 2! .Flaps and ailerons. Outboard flap Inboard aileron / Inboard flap (b)Jet airlineraileron and flap assembly on Wing.. Figure 16.

. skids.gear Main gear Arrester hook (a) Tricycle gear - nose wheel. two main wheels. forms. • _ _Tail wheel (b) Conventional gear - tail wheel. Skids (c) Unconventional Figure 17. Landing-gear 29. or floats.- gear - skis. two main wheels.

Lift Thrust =- Weight Figure 19..Forces on an airplane in normal flight. 23 .- Power-plant placements.Reciprocating or turbo-engine propeliors ] Jet engine Starfighter Single engine F-104 Twin engine Phantom _ F-4 Three engines Trident Four engines Multi engine Figure 18.

are known of the situation. line by the flow It represents the airplane. are the lift equals the weight. payload. and drag. through lift and But lift and the air. of the so forth. the the other four The the that three is. fuel. and level under flight these an airplane the travel in straight four at a uniform conditions. engine. thrust They drag major arise. and the body. of an airplane. (except is the thrust. of the resultant portion namic resulting force Drag: normal the component to the this of flight. along itself. in a direc- driving rocket axis of whatever and propulsive system is used. equals generally arise Figure this Weight 19 shows basic flight disposition of the forces To maintain the drag. and the and thrust physical attributes and or can be easily dynamic movement is the determined of the controlled. are thrust. of the simplest velocity. main acting includes forces weight on an airplane the flies. force the component In the resultant flight aerodynamic situation force of flight. drag forces The because airplane the concern This of aerodynamics subject is considered manner in which detail. all Lift. now in some 24 . the major aerody- is generated the wing. Since Weight: fuel is consumed tion toward Thrust: propeller. between forces the air acting and the airplane on an airplane. arises from the flow of air along will the around line the airplane but is Again. Weight and the acts as the center The airplane of the Earth. It may take-off engine be taken driven to act jet engine. for of air vertical around the longitudinal Lift: This force from airplane airplanes). airplane the weight lift. surface drag. force decreases.medium and thrust. Basically. forces. the surface. are weight.

III. FLUID FLOW The Fluid Viscosity.- There are basically three states of matter - solid, liquid, andgas. H20 is commonly called "ice" in the solid state, "water" in the liquid state, and "water vapor" in the gaseousstate. Assume onehas a piece of ice andside forces are applied to it (called shearing forces). Very large forces are neededto deform or break it. The solid has a very high internal friction or resistance to shearing. The
word for internal Liquids a solid. ers, air friction is viscosity are considered of water and one and for a solid its since value they is generally behave are very large. from layand gases to be fluids or air. sustained than differently to these


two layers a substantial faster must over

If shear relative the water the fluids

forces motion layers. indicates


one discovers layers sliding

of the layers However, that they

with the the fact also possess


that a shear force internal friction. Water, under

be applied

to deform

normal more

temperatures, viscous than

is about air. fluids higher



more that,

viscous in general, Under Air,



Ice is 5 × 1016 times have gory mary extremely of fluids, interest

One concludes have

solids the cate-

high viscosities liquids generally

whereas possess has

low viscosities. than gases.

viscosities small zero

of pritheories,

in aerodynamics, as a perfect that fluid even

a relatively one that has

viscosity viscosity

and in some or is "inviscid." friction)

it is described


But it will be shown important effects




of air drag. (that are

(or internal


on an airplane All fluids to some Even not great. be treated At higher

in terms are

of lift and

Compressibility.increasing compared speeds pressure) with involved air gases. are may

compressible but liquids

is, density highly



extent, gases For


incompressible provided below about the flow


be treated flow

as incompressible over (that an airplane is, no change


150 m/sec, throughout into account.

as incompressible speeds the effects

in density must be taken

the flow).

of compressibility

The Pathlines ways the standpoint, time. The and streamlines.approach is chosen out by that ocean buoy A fluid and the

Flow be described approach. as it moves a particle Its position in two different From the Lagrangian space with An exammarked at through pathline. has been

flow may Eulerian

Lagrangian one particle line traced

and it is followed one particle shown in figure

is called 20(a).

ple is a transmitting


6-hour intervals over a period of several days. The path observed is the particle pathline. In order to obtain a clearer idea of the flow field at a particular instant, a Eulerian approachis adopted. One is looking at a "photograph" of the flow. Figure 20(b) showsthe surface oceancurrents at a particular fixed time. The entire flow field is easily visualized. The lines comprising this flow field are called streamlines.
,'_ + 48
f /


t_t+ Particle pathline _-_._ /



it+ ]

36 hrs

., _1+ 30 hrs Coast 2_i + 24 hrs Buoy position at 6 hour intervals

/_+ 18 hrs ! + 12



6 hrs


0 hrs

(a) Particle




at + 6 hours


(b) Streamlines. Figure 20.Particle pathline and streamlines.


It is line.

important refers

to note to the the line



between particle

a particle in time at the

pathline and space time. is


a streamwhereas The a

A pathline presents particle flow

trace of motion and

of a single of many

streamline of whether Stsady fluid person direction "gusty" if its does or velocity not To house of time flow time. on

particles are ever Of basic of a "steady it blows speed flow or

a fixed same

question next.

pathlines compared about

streamlines unsteady is the flow.concept he stands the the



importance flow." constantly direction about remains at fluid all points On

in understanding a windy the day same the wind is a

movements calls the

an object steady speed. In a similar and direction) that


if where If,

from changes, an

at a constant unsteady. (speed

however, manner at the each velocity 21(a) of time flow is

of a fluid flow

object constant in the

is steady this

point be presents and unsteady. are

in the the

necessarily consider a windy later. this day One

require further, at one sees that the

same the

fluid. a

figure instant this


(of air) the flow areas and



21(b) There their

shows are

an instant where shape the with



is different;




Particle pathlines and streamlines

for this flow are not equivalent.





t 0.


(b) Streamlines Figure 21.Unsteady flow

at time of air

t 1. about a house. 27

Figure house) At time develops through not the appear line t 5.

22 shows tunnel. tunnel at time

a nicely At time is started t2

"streamlined" tO the tunnel begins reaches time is,


(as opposed

to the bluff-shaped and no air the body; is flowing. the flow t 3. are The

in a wind t1 the

is not running flowing about

and air finally t4 and that

further an unsteady same. fixed

and state; t3

a constant t 5. When the pathlines

pattern flow and

at time starts, streamlines

flow appears


at time

it passes

transient time with


From in position t3


a steady body. that the

flow is established. A particle P shown

Streamlines on a streamt4 and


to the along with

at time The

moves pathline

downstream coincides


as shown

at times







t o



t 1




t 2



t 3






Tunnel at t4
Steady flow: Particle pathline : Streamline

Tunnel at t 5

Figure Summarizing, are for equivalent and flow visualization. Rotational the elements and irrotational of fluid at each point this the means


Unsteady for a steady

and steady flow is the

flow. pathline Eulerian and streamline approach

a particle same



of view

as the




can be rotational no net angular

or irrotational. (spin) velocity about


in the flow have


as shown in figure can easily imagine actual an "average" of velocity 24(c). for the and other flow properties dimensional. Fluid locity value flows Taken flows varies basic ideas of a simple along is that Figure flow. are "perfect"). through across tubes flows an even a pipe individual varying stream for example. if zero region viscosity the near As the surface airflow passes In real about life. can be thought of as a stream stream larger or channel. arise. and one-dimensional flow. introductory purposes. remains limited irrotational to a small still It is irrotational. made. at each In order observations In addition also be to velocity. the airfoil Most section. the bundle it as. of mass energy conservation of energy. 24(b). section then along The vevelocuniform according One ity variation.A simplifying of a one-dimensional Each streamline In the case of stream water argument flow. streamline value since made. (outside streamlines (a) Stream Figure 30 24.Stream tubes tubes. of steady comprise through to the the "one often employed 24(a) the to aid in undershows a bundle tube tube of since One-dimensional standing streamlines fluid nent. section to represent as indicated it varies only in figure with is considered the tube where dimensional" are the particular pressure.__ velocity out Many (actually streamlines infinitesimal form duct boundary) thickne_ Fluid velocity t/ in _ _ Stream. viscosity effects of the airfoil and in its wake. flow. two basic and can neither cross flow to be one forces and to understand They they are the convey how aerodynamic laws facts of conservation that mass the principles be created must nor be considered. flow. simplifying assumptions (and hence.. must it as if in a tube.constant velocity. uniform temperature. tube. Fluid __. For sidered ered stated. the is permatube. The The fluid is con- to be inviscid steady and incompressible flow is consid- and one dimensional. at the cross The velocity distance density. Simply destroyed. are of the it is assumed. in general. . flow may be treated as irrotational.

an observer is fixed of the airfoil section is uniform and of 29 . According initially the airfoil to a theorem it remains shown. Ik (c) Inviscid. section 23(c). flow far ahead assuming In figure zero viscosity. The of Helmholtz. is rotational. in a moving motion the flow fluid as in figure If the 23(a). the fluid flow is said to be irrotational. if a fluid flow is to irrotational.the points.- irrotational Rotational flow about and irrotational an airfoil. wheel rotating. flow. Figure 23. is irrotational. wheel One can imagine a small paddle If the wheel in a flow. translates as illustrated without in rotates (a) Irrotational flow. irrotational. (b) Rotational flow. figure immersed the 23(b).

Let as the in a system. time rate" no leaks equation mass value creation" in the states continuity equal the the "mass fluid same mass unit passing passing at any - 2 per section steady time. (Mass rate) 1 = (Mass rate)2 (1) 31 . Ideal The tion but tube.The Consider between it is in the A2.flow Concluded. assumption is violated./-Transverse velocity ion _ __'-- Ave ra4Ie veloeit y luidvelocity (b) Real velocity flow profile. (one-dimensional nor the is fluid fluid 1 and V2 be cross-sectional flow is The must that speeds there at are average A further in through station this is an 1 per "mass assumption the unit sides. Stations V1 flow). tions. being pumped and is is uniform 25(a). -- One-dimensional velocity profile idealized --} (c) (e) One-dimensional Figure 24. areas these of mass has continuity equation. is flowing A 1 cross and sections pipe that station cross and the assumed previously 2 have the stated direction respectively. the Fluid Flow equation which in figure fluid. at both a venturi assumpa constriction Furthermore. or In fact. under the a statement in diameter This is called of the conservaends. continuity a pipe ends that indicated. profile. there flow must - be examined flow accumulation Simply of mass stated.

as average equation values equation for inviscid. In the area wide part. This constriction AV commonly remains of the venturi product a constant 25(c) streamlines a tube the of flow allows pattern interpretation the venturi of the streamline tube. kinetic energy arises flow is composed because of the 32 . By rearranging (4). viscous. longer by the arrow contiis at tube. narrowest The fact indicating the part that highest of the the is reached at the of smallest the throat along area. decreases the nuity the A1 is greater than A2 (see fig. a larger speed important where result. Hence. the Figure the shows streamline crowd closer must together and the spaced indicate than fluid in the speed distance between streamlines speaking. that V2 is than V 1. of several energies. incompressible. The of energy. p is a constant and equation (3) (3) is assumed AlV 1 = A2V 2 This is the simple flow as long continuity with no leaks. flow relatively and closely streamlines regions Bernoulli of high-speed 's theorem - the conservation steady.- Assume a fluid The flow which. one obtains A1 V 2 . spaced decreases widely streamlines increases. the area 25(b) than under the assumptions and the flow speed with the In fact. The regions flow. energy in as before. picture. indicate conclusion of low-speed is that. 25(a)). onestill are (4) dimensional be valid If the flow were of Vl and statement cross would section the used.where Mass This equation rate = Density to x Area x Velocity (2) reduces PlA1V1 Since reduces the fluid to = P2A2V2 to be incompressible. it can be concluded It states. and one dimensional. an in at Figure flow speed constriction equation. decreases shows at the station called this ends. of the throat.A2 V1 (5) Since greater made. the is inviscid. This is a most that the flow speed increases where the area increases. V2 across the steady. incompressible.

the sum of the kinetic energy.directed motion of the fluid. the pressure energy is due to the random motion within the fluid. for example. Expressed concisely. andthe potential energy is due to the position of the fluid abovesome referencelevel. If it is further assumedthat the fluid flow is horizontal (as. I Station 1 I Ca) ' > (b) increased flow speed Figure 25. that is. 33 . Bernoulli's theorem reduces to Kinetic energy + Pressure energy = where the the constant per may unit includes volume. of pressure If one and considers (6) of potential the dimensions Bernoulli's theorem be expressed of pressure. the sum total of these energies in a fluid flow remains a constant along a streamline. and potential energy remains a constant. Bernoulli's theorem is an expression of the conservationof the total energy. airflow approachingan aircraft in level flight). then the potential energy of the flow is a constant. the constant value energy one obtains in terms Constant energy.- Venturi tube and continuity principle. pressure energy.

As one increases. in figure 26(b). shows the which static. dams is connected at the fluid measurement and comes the readout to rest tube. the other Pressure pressures hollow bent measurement. shows at the stagnation when the pressure tube is. the greater of the flow. the dynamic the total pressure but may vary flow. the static the pressure. The pressure energy per unit volume (due the static The pressure constant of the fluid energy equation per and is given unit volume to to random p. exists speed pressure. total pressure Pt" motion within the fluid) is the symbol is called the Bernoulli's reduces Dynamic or pressure + Static pressure = Total pressure (7) 1 _V 2 _p + P : Pt (8) For rotational from streamline usual same case flow the total pressure Pt is constant along a streamline to streamline as shown in figure 26(a). a pitot instrument. the is the considered value constant Bernoulli's everywhere states static equation less the in a streamline an_t the less exchange the the and speed greater static must of the flow. hollow been tube of the at the "stagnation point" equation while the static divides around the The total By Bernoulli's since therefore. up immediately the rest pressure to zero device. pitot a total-pressure the fluid flow about of holes Figure facing This the tube except into the now the end tube's side. fluid flow about called tube after The inventor. total remains the same. Except pressure at the stagnation of the fluid is parallel tube's to the tube surface. Since normal to the 34 . In an irrotational for airflow approaching as shown that an aircraft. The static a static and a number tube drilled and may be connected point. and dynamic a simple to a pressure tube entrance up to flow point is in a flow tube. the fluid flow density and speedat the point in question. fluid the flow. Let us now examine Figure 27(a) its fluid how total. respectively. 22(b) the dynamic pressure reduces measuring another have flow stagnates. such that There their a simple between pressures decrease.are measured.The kinetic energy per unit volume is called dynamic pressure q andis deter1 mined by q=_p AV2 where p and V are. readout flow is closed is called as before. acts to a pressure the fluid measuring instrument everywhere.

with the holes parallel to the measuring device. When properly connected between to total flow direction.l everywhere in flow.1 Pt. static tube. Total pressure Figure same constant value Pt.1 Pt. In actual use on aircraft. The by proper gearing. 1 _pV 2. the pitot-static tube is conindicator which. 1 _ Pt. the static pressure The normal to the holes is communicated into the interior of the tube. will automatically mounted forward directly to an airspeed display the aircraft airspeed device is sometimes 35 .1 Pt. equation this difference is p is known.1 _ Pt. pressure must be continuous.Total-pressure variation. therefore..1 /"'_"_ Pt. to the pilot. Total pressure varies from streamline to streamline..1 Pt.I _ _'I_ _ _J (b) Irrotational flow. measuring instrument.2 Pt.4 (a) Rotational flow. is a static-pressure Figure opposite pressure 27(c) shows a combined pitot-static tube. the fluid the dynamic flow speed nected defined as If the fluid density can be calculated.7 / Pt. Bernoulli's the difference is measured. readout By ends of a pressure and static pressure pressure. 26. Pt.1 /""'_ _/ __ t/ . 1 Pt.Pt.

36 . Total_1 pressure ._ Total p_ p. the walls static to measure connected such the pressure.. to a "U-tube as colored manometer" When pressure.:--/ pressure entrance To T pressure readout instrument --"Jl-T To pressure readout instrument (a)Pitot tube. pressures or below of fluid free-stream by a decrease or increase in the level in the tube. measuring to insure called tube its static pressure instrument Middle tube communicates total pressure to readout instrument devices. as closely condition). earlier. than the and the Bernoulli venturi be used pressure the static-pressure free-stream of static static tube holes the a tube static similar are distribution undisturbed ing the tube tube ure tube "static within at the at some pressure then 28 holes of figure taps" which static equal are be used been as a reference value into the drilled Any variation free-stream venturi These of the pressure is a greater or lesser pressure. measuring... extending from the 27. static free-stream But static the fluid above reference indicated level. Smalll --_hoes " Sta. may have 27(b) and are is a liquid tap equals The approaching discussion may static the free-stream introduced of the venturi to describe of the value. the fluid continuity along enterin the In figto the commonly static called flow as pos- the undisturbed Returning to the equations tube..airplane flow Pressure nose (also tube. _rarzc pressure g _ 1/ - I'll /I II I! !l M Outer tube communicates to readout ! (c) l>itot-static Figure on a boom sible. having pressure levels the a U-shape measured in the tube are alcohol. (b) Static tube.

_ q Static pressu P re. at station achieved continuity as seen station the tion flow). it follows the The static of for as the hence pressure diagrams must decrease to maintain a constant value below the venturi tube show this interchange the venturi in the region This is also the than throat free-stream the flow tube. namely. the fluid. incompressible P_oyV_ _ I _I r I Station _/I _ Station 2 (throat) free-strea_ static pressure andvetocity St'ttic tap manometer _ _ __ q pressure.UUlll] Figure Figure and static 2 taps V2 also total 28 shows the complete static than that speed 28.- To supply section of reference the previous in the discussion discussions of venturi to follow of a real following expands 37 .setup Venturi tube flow. of manometers the speed the at at of a venturi By the 1 V1 to measure is greater is the pressure one pressure. dynamic speed throat the highest Pt in the venturi in the Pt By Bernoulli's irrotational equa- is constant 1 and 2 +p2 everywhere pressure equation 2 using flow (assuming in terms Therefore. of high-speed flow and by the liquid risen increases levels above At the in the of the the region demonstrated the liquid static speed manometers level as one indicates static The reaches lower level has reference this pressure. (fluid is incompressible) speed.[nviscid. tube and a set equation previously tube. a point throat is the mini- pressure airfoil since in an ideal fluid. increases. is the highest. lplV122 +pl =pt (9) Since that static block P2 V2 is less is greater than Pl' than V1 and dynamic P2 = Pl pressure. The conclusion drawn of total pressure Pt" of dynamic and static from this is that the pressures pressure low-speed where and mum all along decreases flow. pressures can express the total of the static and at stations 1 =_p2V2 (8).

lowest decreases. the velocity decreasesfrom the free-stream value as one approachesthe airfoil nose (points 1 to 2). It is the always This fluid. The free-stream velocity is denotedby Vo_ and the free-stream static pressure by Po_. however. is equal to the total pressure. Following the particle pathline (indicatedby the dotted line andequal to a streamline in this steady flow) which follows the airfoil contour. direction section pressure gradi- relationship lift is defined free-stream will be of importance as the force direction. From Bernoulli's equationthe static pressure at the nose. point 2. Air desirable section. the velocity increases and the static pressure airfoil.. Figure 29(a)showsa "symmetric" (upper and lower surfaces the same) airfoil operating so that a line drawn through the nose and tail of the airfoil is parallel to the free-stream direction. direction of the pressure of the static-pressure to the free-stream the components by the for this the on the front forces difference surface the upper distribution of the airfoil. the flow comesto rest (stagnates). distribution force since the If. acquired as one reaches value the thickest and the static point on the its 3.flow to the ideal fluid flow past an airfoil. the drag defies is always physical a fluid the orientation as D'Alembert's components surface on the rear seemingly result forces exactly The intuition of zero is known The of assuming parallel balance viscosity. zero norma] For no matter and in the real to the a planar what free-stream airfoil and the drag to the operating of the airfoil paradox. the velocity its highest pressure velocity decreases comes edge static and the with pressure static increases pressure at the trailing pressure. particularly thickness). in the real With world. symmetry This airfoil the is tilted upper and at an angle and lower the main stream. on the This The parallel fect rear distributions streamline that one on the front surfaces pressures of the airfoil (a negative pressures (up to the pressure station gradient) of has decreasing one has surfaces increasing (a positive fluid case. and lower is symthe pressure lift is determined and is zero static-pressure particular case between pressure to the free surfaces metrical. the point Beyond reached this point as one moves along static the the rear surface increases equal the static of the airfoil. point 2. are the flow speed returns for until free-stream to free-stream the center-line velocin fig- ity and static-pressure ures 29(b) Note maximum whereas ent). and 29(c). principles It possesses still apply viscosity. At the airfoil nose. the flow the trailing and the to rest pressure to the total pressure. Moving from the noseup along the front surface of the airfoil (points 2 to 3). until points 3 edge. point value. value is These shown 4. between is very surfaces function no longer of the airfoil slight The exists and a lift results. airflow over continuity 38 . By the continuity has equation. the an is not a perfect and Bernoulli fluid. modification. of the airfoil in a peris. Beyond to 4.

.. Figure of these flow not be in a straight 39 .] (posing e pressure r adient] N eb '_ _o _ \_ve. turbulent flow. will appear to be slightly in several From 29. P_ Zero High (Total speed pressure (al High (Tot al spee_ pressure pressure) pressure) v 4 \ _'x_ _" _reatcr than \ \ \ cce...._ _ Pt D.._'°e?b_ " g "_-----'-77.e. laminas shows a laminar layers the uniform from the left rectilinear to right._'" g > / Leading edge (b) (V = O) Trailing edge Distance IV = O) along [low Leading-edge highest I Increasing P = pressure Pt <)o . streamlines need the direction line.- Ideal fluid flow about an airfoil.c reasing PrOssur . reduction past in lift and repreand a different forms._.lowest pressure speed static mu mu v_ ® _ . consisting in straight-line streamtubes layers.9 "<$'-e _ " Traili highest _g-edge pressure 1) : /L. Real Fluid are Flow two different moves The indicate types of real called may fluid laminas.. few pages is dropped this point on.. with an accompanying The discussions of the assumption existence basic viscous of drag principles. _ _Ve Pr _raclient) ess Ure I l / Lowest pressure at shoulder (c) Distance along flow 0_ Figure airfoil the sent real.. the inviscid flow of air is allowed to exist. (laminas) and then Laminar fluid in layers flow. of air be considered of movement 30(b) shows flow: Figmoving Laminar laminar ure the 30(a) adjacent fluid and and turbulent..vOSl_-I .-'_ / ..\_x_ .- There flow the In laminar flow..

30. . airfoil. as indicated the fluid one another fluid being exchanged shows a disorganized of streamlines. slide over The closer here without also. (d) generally is highly profile _b) Fluid layers (lamina) move more slowly as one approaches the surface but still slide over one another. In turbulent flow. layers. secondary random motions number are superimposed on the principal They are evidently segment surface fluid of the surface smoothly. later. fluid layers the slower layers However.Flow left to right but disorganized.Laminar and turbulent For 30(c) flow.Infinitesimal fluid layers (laminas) w No distinct layers Fluid exchange free No fluid exchange between layers l Uniform flow rectilinear (a) Turbulent moves Adjacent laminas have same Fluid follows curved surface speed in laminas flow . Figure the curved the more for a real surface. ofile (c) _'_ Laminar flow l fluid the are flow follows flow airto the complex by the stream° between (e) Figure a small case foil lines. an ideal shows the of a curved in laminas. to be discussed they move. 4O Figure 30(d) flow.

slow smoke a cigarette. moves suddenly this up into turbulent.pVf # (I0) 41 . fluid parmoving importantly. In the In a mountain Colorado be seen River that over smooth in the in laminas. tube. since been known form as the the a dimensionless a quantitative parameter. was of the up low.not More ticles fluid layers and there there is is an exchange an exchange particles of fluid from one such adjacent that slow sector moving to another. a confused The eddying flow is transition air and out in the turbulent flow example Opened But open closer to the cigarette when of laminar the of a common slightly. injected water identity was tank. streamtubes) the cigarette. motion between room is flow filaments The some laminar disturbed. the brook the flow faucet the flow over at low fully water churns airfoil upon turbulent air. in a tube Reynolds changes setup a stopcock into the is at from demonlami- circumstances of the had The tube. The confused both rapids. into illustrated the end of in figure the tube A large the a long tube the outlet faired at the length broke speed. that fluid when maintained the flow the the turbulent existed Reynolds through defined section. occurrence speeds and may the slide the flow water speeds flows out in a clear column turbulent in a cloudy rocks column. the the speed of the its speed cross through entire filament fig. the filament (See fig. Reynolds strated nar the fact number that over effects under a given water flow was certain region tank on the flow field. speed and from may (or above up and of monmntum give Consider up their figure the smoke fast down moving themselves. causing arises Osborne a disturbance.In his the The tube was flow experiments. is the water laminar filadisand identity. wave around some not distance lose break their in smooth is laminar. flow to turbulent 31(a). to control of colored When the experimental with smoothly the tube mouth. whether a dimension- turbulent. turbulent a laminar downstream surfaces a number flow will cases. number to give R is In equation R . description Reynolds Reynolds number.) flow colored However. A thin filament fluid into flowing for high. of 31(b). For but do momentum 30(e) rises this flow which to the shows slower the particles rising which ments tance turbulent Another faucet. flow. (See 31(c).) which of the has flow. and It will turbulent the may of factors. Reynolds of the laminar introduced gave a quantitative indication to turbulent transition. as to how one a laminar can tell changed is to be parameter to a turbulent laminar which or question In 1883. in the "naturally" in a laminar flow as flow in the can a In other flow. appear by assume characteristic In some smoke be flow less rising depending cases.

l R . . laminar Reynolds found.o flow . ..Filament flow breaks flow up indicating ...% -.._ __ ... R = 2100 This f. m coefficient discussion)./zz'z/zz'zzzzi////// tank -_--_ .5 Water level drops flow continues as / [ [ t/ /-Smooth fairing F .. p... Long Valve control--. by using water. or p. that below filament. of viscosity kg/m-sec (called simply "viscosity" in the earlier For the pipe true this was setup.._- [ / (/ Figure where 31.el of flow on Reynolds number.. m/sec characteristic length. V.] rI --I [] _ye Reynolds experimental [ [ I [ -- . t" | -- / Dye in [il.pVf density of fluid.Dependence . kg/m 3 V mean velocity of fluid.unent flow "° 1_'_ Outlet -NN "_' (a) S remains speed distinct Low flow (R / 2100) indicating throughout (b) R " 40000 Filament _-turbulent laminar . z_/. tuoe speed \ x // I Water [ . the flow in value was as evidenced by the distinct colored of regardless of his varying laminar combinations of values A transi2100 tion between and turbulent flow occurred for Reynolds numbers between 42 .

case number flows forces particles These flows through laminar. The laminar and high Reynolds number Reynolds number may be viewed another way: Reynolds number = Inertia Viscous forces forces friction of the fluid. number Some very are In a high laminar the results Reynolds as typically experienced interesting number Reynolds in the flight of aircraft. slowly the air the liquid. an be far of about the characteristic be the Thus. Surface body rence this immersed laminar contrasts flow will flow and high roughness effects As the on the flow is that surface field. between be demonstrated and turbulent of low Reynolds shortly. as evidenced by the lence colored has The since fluid filament 2100 and breaking up quickly. edge called air whereas would Additionally. The number surface is seen roughness is increased further and the Reynolds upstream in each is held The to go turbulent Reynolds 43 . 32 illustrates of flow and point. the case The number of an airfoil. of turbulent of first move upstream along In each airfoil. the degree fixed. An airfoil is shown. are In a low Reynolds forces to the flow) is a small relative Stoke's ball falls number whereas inertia small through are inertia Reynolds forces with the viscous An example dropped viscous into of a low Reynolds a container are number silicon (called The settling of heavy large. another of a low Reynolds flow. variable The fact that the transition that Reynolds induced turbunumber (between 40 000) was indicates the effect on the flow.- The effect near of surface the body the point Figure case roughness to go from occur- of a in a flow field flow will surface it causes roughness the flow increases. different several the leading between Typically. are number such present. numerical values given for the f transition is the and are diameter trailing for this particular For flows flow experiment an airfoil. the to turbulent. however. mostly million. Dust flow.and40 000dependingupon howsmooth the tube junction was andhow carefully the flow entered the tube. length. The inertia (ii) The forces viscous forces arise the fluid's because natural are number of the internal resistance negligible flows the represent flow the in high forces. the chord would in the Reynolds number experiment laminar airfoils are transition and turbulent operate evident. low Reynolds turbulent. succeeding number case. for distance was the water length between used chosen of the pipe. Above R = 40 000 the flow was always turbulent. compared viscous forces flow oil. steel ball to acceleration. at Reynolds For a particular flows are numbers body. general flows are trends. airfoil.

laminar flow now is hindered go turbulent _ran. All cases at same Reynolds number. edge. in a laminar flow will damp out and the an airfoil flow (or up to the region. 44 . increases with downstream flow will that over in a laminar pressure pressure decreases flow decreased in this the flow will be amplified with will downstream tend to remain point Beyond pressure the trailing and turbulent disturbances Recall thickness. static before of maximum the point A laminar thickness will be encouraged of the airfoil) and may shoulder increased..Surface roughness and flow field. distance. result.surface roughnessare not independentof eachother and both contribute to the determination of the laminar to turbulent transition._tion v_ Tran. sition SY_ly r rough mrwu _//_ . flow field. A very low Reynoldsnumber flow will be laminar evenon a rough surface and a very high Reynoldsnumber flow will be turbulent eventhoughthe surface of a bodyis highly polished. Laminar _. Pressure transition the static from pressure gradient laminar effects on the flow field. of maximum The laminar.///7- v_ v_ Figure 32.Another important gradient disturbances If the the static static factor in the in the If to turbulent flow is the pressure distance.

drag is The foregoing discussion immersed subsonic vehicle. Consider approaching stream. visto shows that in addition pressure forces and everywhere It is fluid immersed forces which in a moving modify the viscous fluid lift are help present.- Pressure and viscous forces. the 34 flow were V_ which ahead ideal. figure flow. the real . surface the plate. the distribution of velocity 45 . the 34(a). to the fluid.Static-pressure forces flmd in a real fluid flow Figure 33. ideal and is strongly dependent and act pressure the factors previously Figure a body cous 33 Reynolds surface roughness. This on has proin a produced during surfaces on a body low-speed of the aerodynamic flow over force force the flight shear is caused to as - by viscous the skin-friction number. force referred mentioned An layer needed important and skin-friction to show how drag. variation simply along as velocity velocity in figure (that is.The vided real the force the fluid shear is boundary background flow. normal these drag. inviscid. forces that also create gradients./._ ___-_-. edge smooth of the fluid At all plate plate would points parallel is to the free over surface moves perthe of a uniform slip the one If the with the fluid is._- Hydrostatic pressure Real fluid at rest Pressure normal forces to surface . as shows of the that shown a very leading thin.

friction) be acting skin-friction 46 .pendicularly drag would away result from if the the surface) fluid were would frictionless be a uniform (inviscid). layer that than the velocity never at the of the body Thus. Reynolds zero. (See This point is the It states away that from at the surface the body the a of a body. surface is the although undergoes As is usual Another 34(b). however. the flow velocity gradually case moves point V_. velocity constant B. 34(b).) as well plate. moving near the wall will be shown to produce Reynolds number number increases layer has an important effect on the the flow boundary speed layer. moves ary layer also is steady layered a laminar and the further as more reached becomes there motion. boundary Eventually. until this adheres to the surface. of fluid condition. of the boundary velocities friction layers and an internal the body. to act to as skin-friction one has a laminar boundary laminar and the boundAs one layer a point and flow. of the fluid value. the turbulent directed difference is a random in the at the layer boundary as the downstream important builds is no slip boundary from velocity up more thickness in figure from quickly is greater. of the boundary must It is clearly in this region. the disappears. No In a real fig. the wall important as moves the wall.) fluid. boundary-layer as shown further condition tendency the can be seen in a turbulent slower by comparing boundary fluid the two profiles layer of the fluid away to reenergize consequences. Initially. surface to hundreds tremendous rise to the of m/sec shearing at the outer forces (internal drag. of the boundary the velocity edge must layer vary on an airfrom zero layer. very a very important thin film no-slip is zero. flow layer. layer of the fact the that total friction. thickness Yet. from one This This the downstream. hence. transition for on the plate. and/or As the decreasing the be the (caused thickens by increasing more slowly. layer where boundary motion laminar layer. effect drag leading and extends these friction forces is to produce drag. increases of a flat zero are plate A the velocity The layer becomes of fluid where in the the velocity Within is changing layer friction cumulative This the from there to a constant relative This of all internal value is known between as the boundary the particle to the surface a drag layer. 34(c). and more on the plate a turbulent There laminar away viscosity fluid continues down thickens is is slowed the by internal boundary (See fig. It is interesting craft at the wing is generally of the evident This to note less wing that gives a typical a centimeter. As one at some value is constant value of Voo. surface even though must large. near force edge is referred of the plate. The Reynolds viscosity). force The is present. the boundary number becomes boundary However.

v_ v_ Flat )late (a) Inviscid flow along a flat plate. and the pressure reaches its pressure). The The the the same velocities real fluid flow over the airV_ originally static considered pressure free-stream ahead and static velocity of the airfoil pressures at the leading free-stream modified apply. fluid.. as for the ideal a stagnation maximum on along point occurs edge of the airfoil (total or stagnation changes. purposes Again flow field is only are slightly the same and for all practical fluid case._j | layer thickness " [--_ _ tilickncss l I"_ Flat plate v_ BW_ Laminar layers botmdal_ "__] Turbulent layer boundary _ / (b) Viscous flow along a flat plate. v_ v... er I__z/ energy profile exchange and Laminar taycr boundary Turbulent layer boundary (c) Comparison Figure 34. Boundary-layer The foil surface and airfoil in a real fluid.- of laminar and turbulent flow in a real flow.. From this point value of the airfoil. Pt at this point the picture 47 .. _rl _l I :1 (/ Steetl.- Figure in figure p_ 35 illustrates 29. B_-oundary_ layer thickness [..

this pressure Over pressure speeds present. stalled edge short and at some of reaching stopping flow stops edge. Pushing against an unfavorable point. with viscosity edge present. outside boundary is in_is(id flow ' ". becomes the with downstream pressure of the flow boundary unfavorable character gradient changes This and the and the turbulent viscous transition quickly laminar boundary gracom(Rememcase. continues and viscosity The the to thicken downstream. plate. boundary layer dient pletely. like that is very thin and of it the on the layer. Bottom Thickness lower of boundary surface layers same and as greatly exaggerated. the the pressure is too much layer the has for the flow.ulder of airfoil maxh_mm speed outside . to rest This the fluid particles than ideal is an unfavorable edge. As the gradient particles forces. case. in thickness are because appear before rear along moving the is reached. static the of the flat layer Also. The fluid is unfavorable must At the layer push (increasing against both this point.- Real fluid flow about an airfoil.Sh¢. pressure boundary at all. flow along is the on the upper As noted because very the earlier in the example This boundary fluid. slower previous favorable The layer flow is When in the flow gradient up along This exists the airfoil.': boundary layer Turbulent (S_alled flow) Figure wake 35. boundary the airfoil.) a turbulent layer. flow will flow the trailing surface. the ideal just that shoulder fluid came the and will the front surface of the airfoil up to the shoulder. surface._/ /--Note / -Flow laver . ber that shoulder pressure the static-pressure distance).a[ Ihe llI)w_d_l'vh_yer _ I _--. (pressure The decreasing flow is laminar layer grows with distance and a laminar laminar boundary however. is reached. at some the condition It would distance to the at the trailing come moves to rest from now. a boundary outside layer begins to form of viscosity. an assisting downstream). and thus feels flow acts surface This acts as if static of much airfoil of an ideal by the through the static outside layer But the pressure the acting is determined is transmitted layer were respond boundary pressure the to the surface boundary layer boundary not present to it. fluid boundary flow reached trailing trailing before in the ideal 48 .

stalling.. a decrease distribution skin-friction Additionally. canceled in the surfaces symmetry on cancellation surface parThe pressure due to the of forces allel net drag. trailing edge . The net In the of the case static-pressure parallel of the and the rear front to the airfoil. in the pressure 36(c).) is the is not very ideal large fluid separation net greatly front modified. actually of upstream whirlpools the it. is a line line.This point moving eddies away and the stall point is into known the as the the separation flow the is nose point.. (net pressure drag).. _[deal . field acting exactly 36(b).. These conll)ollents no lonR'er stream 7 equal component - Net downstream Pressure (b) Ideal fluid airfoil (no pressure 36. free on the airfoil that real acting fluid (up to the on case force that the opposed Now. 1 Separatmn OCCURS near .. surface and however. The toward and This a region flow field represents flow "dead" outside as tile shown air which air disrupting is Thus. before All Beyond turning along this around. and from around airfoil. called drag the is a drag (See fig. edge.. region dead in region 35 is to flow wake away tile of eddies figure called behind 36(a) and compares center-line differences the ideal streamline are fluid case with static-pressure the real but fluid once the shoulder) rear this case. surface point. " x _ _--- / .. free-stream static-pressure now exceeds acting direction force due This acting on the surface. / PressuJ'e distribution _reatlv inodified '" 0 ] Distance in real case alon_ flow here fluid (a) Airfoil Pressure parallel equal alld to forces free upper surface static-pressure distributions. shearing tion ideal of the fluid to the result destroyed..- drag). to the is asymmetric in addition boundary causes pressure to the layer. Real fluid fluid _ k p _' [ leadim. distribution Note that occurs at up the to the the airfoil separation pressure force stream (See fig. Figure 49 . airfoil.. Figure flow. Real fluid (c) effects Real on fluid an airfoil airfoil.) (internal a drag forces friction) distribution in the modificalift from the static-pressure case. starting tile flow is the forced the from is this outward back.

_\\\\-. the occurs.." Figure field..... before case drag already the than has at the A large component. has is Reynolds to the pressure The the (R = 107). flow causes because lift is a skin-friction that a pressure the is disrupted the net pressure Also. field when will discussion. in this the are total The points being number. is a little drag. reduced. considers Effects effects of "streamlining. case. N\ . _. \\*. section. Concluded. to one but the degree effects this viscosity drag. is still that skin-friction same a relatively has operating separation dra_ pressure effects a smaller boundary-layer The smaller skin-friction than plate.Figure 36(d)showsfiguratively the lift anddrag for an airfoil producing lift in both an ideal andreal fluid case.the lift is reduced anda total drag composedof skin-friction drag and pressure drag is present._-4 ". x\\\\\ t \\\\\'.. 50 ..the resultant encountered at plate plate a much placed edge.. . \\.that on an airfoil. of the but from reduced of the flat some of streamlining evident. One sees the effects of viscosity . In summarizing are hence. be occurring beyond the the total that viscosity components to treat discussed.X \\ . a large the result. drag or It is noted one fluid. extent section the result of the observes The of a real a boundary of viscosity of the The arises. wake and cylinder. processes another. fluid layer to the The next flow and. wake the at the with separation drag Reynolds in this larger Overall.. normally is operating flat of subsonic number flow drag cylinder. Both of these are detrimental effects. shoulders for been the plate.. in the higher broadside Four flight 37 shows of the five bodies bodies are aircraft placed operating (R = 104 in a real fluid flow numThe fifth of streamlining. small flow of air bers body and at Reynolds to 105). although are the previous on scope airplane the effects all discussion the of this drag other text is was lim- It should ited of the these to an airfoil aircraft in detail be noted.'\.\_ \\ \\--_ \\" © = ._ \\ \\_\\ "_\ X\. very similar strongly. _ < "_ (d) Viscosity Figure effects 36..

noticeable is the very large reduction by only overall drag compared eliminating the pressure with the cylinder or plate.Effects of streamlining at various Reynolds numbers. --_ Hehtl ] ) I'.Separationpoint R _ 105_ Flat ]D. Also. drag since the sMn-friction more siml)le a greater streamlined. 51 .IL' lye f(lrce plate _Br(adside) Separation R _ 105 point- R _ 10 5 -Separation point R = 10 4 )aration point Skin-friction cl rag Pressure drag Figure 37. fact that area the over This has been accomplished drag has been increasing slightly as the bodies became skin-friction exposed to the drag flow is due and to the thus One can explain that the increase body the boundary has more layer area may in streamlined which has act. may There assume is ahnost no boundary-layer streamline separation may and the wake One then that a Operand in shape be defined as the absence of boundary-layer separation. the pressure the skin-friction drag now Even more is the dominant drag is very small. shape. component ating in the condition shown.. at the same Reynolds number is a streamlined is very small.

This measure of the performance to be the nondimensional coefficients. real It is now possible fluid. this wire reduced have been and body if the structures the introduction bracing. pressure reason drag for the approximately it has the same of the diameter as the much wake. so. drag From is demonstrated in the coefficient. a stiff wind. under felt resistance at 20 km/hr. Reynolds on (velocity) velocity about number times everyday on a body. of 100 km/hr 25 times as great along times higher of 20 km/hr. realizing better next values. To illustrate. The the shape. 1/10 drag in figure of the larger 37 at a Reynolds streamline streamlined shape number of 104 is a cylinder Surprisingly. in the flow of the size.Finally. factor sheet Area cardboard length times up against length) A considerable is another exposed determining by stating is dependent and the the relative that. streamlined. resistance Velocity but if one that flight is considerable. to generalize the aerodynamic the properties the discussion resistance of the fluid. consider lift force 52 . contradictory be explained been compared. and the air. attitude body about a body. up against similarly resistance resistance a much shaped is felt. 2. is a cylinder flow at a much velocity). at the there same in the water The density another It is considerably greater than not impossible. the small (velocity) that factor considering relatively or flow problems viscosities). is little speed. the same of cardboard larger. aerodynamic resistance more to doing difficult. If one places is felt. the need in the for A considerably However. if Density If one walks But try to wade a beach. body. of the fluid One Little of water is much the density felt represents more determining hold a small Now hold stiff to the wind. the aerodynamic velocity. of (or experiment: is experienced.- is needed. of air. shape. is one consider his hand the factors broadside speeds determines (high directly the is although resistance that to a along Aerodynamic determine flow outside at 100 km/hr. the resistance. experience. the and previously the actual that measure section pressure the flow may have discussed drag actual of the same These under is higher by A is much drag larger. different flow speeds. little the aerodynamic a car the window force In fact. of resistance. between as the aero- on the of the velocity defined and the fluid (air). when thickness. to imagine is large slow because of the the turbulent early drag of the biplanes could It is not hard all the realized better shown wire speeds bracing wire used were is considered. facts is evidenced. and a much Reynolds tion points (accomplished downstream This result of the would cylinder by increasing shoulders lead one free-stream cylinder a smaller However. of subsonic the resistance depends (velocity) is five at the In the preceding example. airflow factor piece in the resistance by a body. higher The smaller drag speed than separawake for monoplane The fifth number are eliminated operating the of the to expect size.

Air M. turbulence of the Furthermore. for velocity fluid direction. a laminar past the Mach with the The whereas dimensionless associated the with number the fluid was to have represents the effects of influenced the degree transition wake from formed to a turbulent separation points. (except attitude. times For wing a wing.dynamic vious For force. Also. free-stream speed of sound of fluid (S series is a characteristic of comparison times (chord the its length particular previously a. an effect demonstrated reaction discussion. span of shown S a cylinder however. to the Based shape on viscous. a rectangular for it would it is usually wing). properties. properties density) and influence properties however. length. that quantity number fluid Surface to be the associated compressibility. surface ' a_ roughness. did not From and the pre- velocity). a real the fluid. planform to for necessary definition been is defined quantity used the a body. free-stream shape.__ V_ body frontal area For that is usually chosen be to be the consistent with of the a experiments. the are lift also has be an ideal For fluid. 53 . / Lift = p_. and the elastic. the In addition on the force.. attitude turbulent body. perpendicular lift depends fluid on to the (size.oV_ or viscosity roughness flow. diameter to be it is the cylinder area check taken Thus. air turbulence) \ (12) / PoC. that of the surface roughness it may introductory discussion of this section. is the Reynolds Reynolds the shown number number Mach is It has or the is R. important. free-stream fluid density Vo_ free- stream velocity characteristic body frontal area characteristic body length ot attitude of body P coefficient of viscosity a ¢_3_. where x V 2 × S × Factor 'is. \ p_V_C p V_ .) P.

experiments of the Lift body number. free-stream analogous namely. . and the It is not by any means by measuring dimensions. Lift Equation mined acteristic = C L ×_ p_V_ 2 x S lift formula states for simply usual that aircraft flight. then. × S p_V_ The direction. previously of K defined is doubled as 1 _V 2 _p so if a value the of to keep the equation be replaced 1 Finally. lift Thus. roughness. is generally wind-tunnel free-stream conditions a knowledge CL- 1 (15) 2. The of lift by a coefficient body times the coefficient equation the aerodynamic the free-stream dynamic char- It is very ent tude. of a body are lumped together into the factor. dependent on the previously enumerated (17) where CD is the drag parameters. important shape. having upon and body to realize Mach that the lift coefficient CL CL is a number air turbulence. area. Drag 1 = C D x_p_V_ 2 xS (16) or CD = Drag 1 p_V 2 2 × S coefficient.attitude called and shape K. dependattiby and found the Reynolds or flight number. 54 . Letting the factor be Lift =p_xV_ 2 xSxK (13) The dynamic included 2 same. surface a constant. 2K pressure in equation may of a fluid (13) and by flow was the value C L. pressure CL lift times is known is deterthe (14) as (14) is the fundamental of lift. aerodynamic One obtains drag is the aerodynamic equations resistance to equations parallel (14) and to the (15).

/rat point i on Streamline bed y thickness :d CD = 0. equation acting 38.6 Figure The its center moment of gravity.- Drag coefficients of various of the body's the resultant derivation bodies.Separati point on Flat (B roa( length plate s ide) d CD = 2.2 R = 10 7 Cylinder diameter =d CD = 0. (18) Cm = Moment 1 5 P_V_2S (19) _ 55 . distance.0 Separati point R _ 10 5 on " ----_ _ ..2 R = 10 5 S ep. to the and drag equations (14) and (16) such Moment or 1 2 × S x _ = Cm × _ p<V_...1 10 d CD = 1. Cylinder diameter : d CD = 1. tendency aerodynamic may to turn force about times on a body moment is a measure represents that This a moment moment Let it be stated as used for the lift a similar be applied that.12 Separation Cvlinder diameter =.

and to one-tenth equation basic effect dimension of smaller shape at the cylinders has of the previous size have higher nullifies equivalent Reynolds (16). The drag and. of figure ficients der.2. Figure Reynolds subcritical separates along stalling. and 37 except C D. number. hence. the effect has of larger with the flow. and turbulent reenergizes against occurs turbulence drives gradient wake in the boundary further before results.12. aerodynamic S is the and were to be smooth therefore. flow close forces to the and the of the surface the fluid pressure a smaller lower cylinder Separation this viscous unfavorable and at the downstream with the shoulders and wake Compare condition separation Reynolds 39 is a plot of drag The determined Reynolds numbers of the values curve coefficient for each of the body CD 105. has CD pressure number By equation 38 repeats by the the flat is then directly At the effects small the results drag coefcylinplate. it to be dimensionally Reynolds shape. Mach and body It is now possible pare first had Mach The area CD the three the five same bodies basic bodies to the force the discussion coefficient associated as a measure with figure of the more number 37 and comThe All same by using demonstrated body the resistance. as large 0. the at a Reynolds its diameter a CD CD of 1.2. the in figure number. for all the proportional that now the Reynolds shape of the are. These values include the combined The reduced From the skin-friction operating cylinder. as is the dynamic measured drag force of 105. characteristic CL. the dimension assumed was. R = 105.6.Cm sary is the for coefficient on the of moment number. and air _ is necesCm are turbulence. the small The cylinder last is. drag and drag. coefficient the frontal (17). 1. surface roughness. to return dependent attitude. By assuming bodies to the relative number symmetrically and the drag pressure. number. the of progressively same Reynolds and entirely a unit alined drag length streamlining. of 104 with examples. has a CD of cylinder. boundary 37 is large smaller because drag drag V_ coefficient coefficient further the smaller layer pressure becomes layer the component. CD are (based shown.0. replaced for streamline respectively. on frontal Also. to obtain of the the effect Its aerodynamic the higher smaller Reynolds wake numbers. tested the area) solid layer a very against line is an At and wake number. is a measure for the bodies. the 2. and 0. Figure been values drag. experimentally of cylinders the laminar and in wind tunnels. length CD. and correct. that discussed been increased indicates previously. stalls broad up to about of the boundary produces upstream shoulders cylinder 56 . effects d. upstream At high Reynolds along the cylinder. of 107. CD resistance of this same resistance. number. an additional To reiterate. half The and streamline operating as the aerodynamic number drags.

( for Hiah Small t_evnolds cylinder number c. the numbers the supercritical turbulent abrupt are that are layer are far has the the numbers separation occurs Reynolds laminar smaller of 105 layer values. very as drag similar they hence.. critical interesting bails spheres exhibit rather than behavior smooth their to that were. Reynolds 106 . Much result.(_-O O Flat Lart_e pIate cylinder shape Streamline [] /N Curve 2. normal one free-stream study air- parallel to it. or Fluid streamline in the and flow shapes turbulent other demonstrated.I 3. been rather behavior have wake flow With general has been have been made. of cylto Golf of today boundary distances thus dimpled and once a turbulent driving discussion and thus decrease coefficient. erences layer and to airfoil unsteady since as well boundary is two- flow velocity as dimensional direction craft parameters these ideas vary in mind. between numbers. been and has introduced many Numerous flow The to the may now of the flow imporref- principles. flow.0 O I 10 I 102 I 103 I 104 I 105 I 106 t 107 I 108 I 109 Royllo[ds nu l/ib¢_ F Figure and high CD boundary CD and It is inders. These becomes A rather values to note is delayed.'[indcr g c_ 1. Viscous examined.At Drag coefficients as Reynolds and transition function of Reynolds from 106 number. 39. and larger. operating in a subsonic 57 . induce improved The tant ideas values.

58 .

SUBSONIC FLOW EFFECTS Airfoils The wing cross shape airfoil section. as to how this is determined. Cayley more lift lift but the drag that Figure 13 shows is excessive. curved surfaces the airfoil and Otto and less demonstrated by the Wright Brothers in their 1903 airplane. In those theory. the desirability evolved from procedure experimentation. rounded The systematic National determine World War The came early usual from days of canvas at that and wood time was wings.IV. 13 showed one has and that Wings by taking of the question a slice airfoil arises out of an airplane called the airfoil and viewing section the shape The or more airfoil section. are essential in determining the shape of a typical six terms (1) The (2) The (3) The (4) The (5) The (6) The Figure (1) the leading trailing chord camber upper lower edge edge line line surface surface the step-by-step of the airfoil geometric section construction of an airfoil the section: leading and 59 (or mean line) 40 illustrates desired length is determined by placing . about results that "families" are that of airfoil still shapes. and a sharp methods replaced Force. NACA of most on these following used at G/Jttingen. by the was to During methods Advisory as much from the simply Figure side. performance. objective A flat plate of an airfoil at an angle is to obtain of attack. early days were Air Early leading hit and tests edge miss showed. Sir George produced section used the lift necessary could to keep be used Lilienthal drag than an airto in the flat plane create 1800's surfaces. shapes method. the few airfoil "cut and try" helped surface. The and purpose by much finally here in use are better. investigations or influence based con- the design siderably The airfoil: of today's NACA airplanes. Improveit was of a If the modification in addition trailing of these to a curved edge. discussions follow results. in the the for example. The ultimate air. ments adopted. by the Royal Committee information for Aeronautics as possible produced The (NACA).

greatly about the their desired 40. chord line mean of the camber has a symmetric about the along the one surface is a mirror velocity The image of the lower airstream a chord the the free-stream no lift is produced. the line. sections. line \ Leading edge .Chord Set up leading edge and trailing edge and construct chord line between them. with Camber line Upper Wrap camber upper thickness line to surface. about form surface added Chord line Wrap about form same camber lower thickness line to surface. (__ Figure trailing points curvature "wrapped" and below (4) the last edges together. the same camber (3) a thickness amount function camber line. If the (the upper characteristics all its own which be determined 41 illustrates Figure camber surface line all the aforementioned 42 illustrates is the same an important as the chord terms aspect line. the two This is above distance (2) the amount aids the an airfoil of curvature section's that is. construction The chord of an airfoil. is determined lifting one adds abilities. this final of thickness surfaces. and lower It has from step set of aerodynamic testing. foil When line.Trailing edge 2. Lower surface added 4. for several differently line shaped (or airline). Final airfoil shape. line is drawn by the connecting line. Figure airfoil line). of the angle oncoming of attack is alined angle is the between chord 6O . Add curvature camber line. a specific wind-tunnel camber shows thickness result - determines a typical may the upper airfoil shape.- Geometric apart.

a L = 0 <0° v_ ve camber "lift" Asymmetric Negative "lift" airfoil at -Camber aL line below chord line: a = 0 °._. O.0 °. -- Camber of zero line lift Chord is also line. lift eL at a = 0 airfoil . Angle _z ift v_ ve camber Asymmetric Positive lift airfoil at -- Camber line above chord line: a = 0 °.- Airfoil terminology. _='"_" |'. = 0 > O° Figure 42. .- Airfoil camber line variations.surface G/Jttingen airfoil Upper 387 Leading edge Chord surface line Camber_ line _ Trailing edge NACA 0012 f Upper surface symmetric airfoil Leading edge surface Chord line equal to camber line Whitcomb Trailing edge er surface //---Chord line supercritical airfoil Leading edge ----' / A Lower surface c. Zero camber Symmetric no i._. _ 0 °.n / / "'"_ -- Trailing edge Figure 41.e. 61 .

asymmetrical airfoil the two-dimensional wing. one but a close placed insuring surements. case. characteristics. to give call the the (see (see a circulatory coexist lation. stream chord lift line surface above an asymmetrical lower surface. the same The as at station is the flowing span. case two namic wing of the wind when wall that tunnel 43(b). the is not along a mirror the inclined chord image line is alined be angle an a positive free negatively of zero with 0 is respect less where than to the 0°'!. possible flow Kutta leaves and tangentially value smoothly such theorem 44(c)). angle (that lift aL= In a similar of zero lift tive camber greater than The namic station less causing the yields 0 °. provides corner the is the point circulation. that the spans for no wing model the minor that be discussed from the later). (except tunnel-wall is. flow trailing is and of F not without instead becoming trailing sets edge. that is. fig. 44(a)) 44(b)). in this 0 = 0 °. rear th. lift is zero. wing's is trying to separate effects.) the tunnel to the can other.The _. a = 0 °. be obtained for meaIn this behaves aerodythe by airfoil's Of characteristics is infinite airfoil from three-dimensional simulation in the wind fig. point of this effects to prevent (to around One three-dimensional aerodynamic course. Thus. there is effects no be corrected of the iMluence wing dimensionally. free-stream free-stream flow. the It is or chord zero aL= line. condition to the lift required The moves section trailing by Kutta-Joukowsky relates to the l = p_V_r (20) 62 . to obtain manner OtL= 0 the section freeThe zero negais (Upper velocity line must is. patterns and the other two is fluid one is flows flow is the about an airfoil may motionof or the circutotal flow be Circulation viewed the fluid as consisting about around The by about infinite. supcrimposed fig. edge the the the ab_o_ut _a _tw_oz_diln?j}s_ional of two airfoil airfoil is. answer. This stagnation circ_daliop. that the condition turn a real a sharp fluid. may in length section. represented The These flow question F the if the prescribed. B or anywhere air wing In fig_are along from has 43(a) no variation the airfoil and the the of aerodysection wing wing is tips at limitand characteristics A is in span. span has on spanwise will variation show the airfoil that section limiting A later the aerodynamic discussion characteristics. pattern. (See for). }__'illg . then of the (c_ = 0o). the velocity the it be of any pointed As this value? edgc A physical caImOt with ( a spanwise A two-dimensional direction.) lift stream airfoil When results.and the the angle free-stream of attack camber for velocity zero lies vector. If the results.

.. _ms on de mounted slae mo near wall _ (b) Testing for airfoil by using Figure 43.. 63 . wing testing.- section's aerodynamic characteristics a two-dimensional Two-dimensional (2D) wing.Infinite length infinite__ length (a) Two-dimensional (2D) wing. This side mounted Free this stream direction from _ _' j_'V_ / _ } Wing spans to show wine in tunr_el _ \ L. ..

elocity about trailing sharp edge

(a) Flow


no circulation.

(b) Circulatory

flow only.

Flow edge

leaves smoothly


(c) Flow Figure 44.-


circulation. about a 2D wing.



lift/unit free-stream


of two-dimensional air density




free-stream circulation

velocity strength



Thus, the circulation strenglh I' is set by a necessary physical condition, and the lift l is uniquely determined. For a perfect fluid the drag per unit length is zero.
However, drag wing along in a viscous fluid ilow one loss must include Latex" the a skin-friction changes that drag occur and when a pressure a finite with a resulting of lift.

is considered The

wi]l be shown. coefficiel:ts.q'h,., point :force into is the lift Figure of intersection center of pressure. components 45(a) shows of the the chord resultant line aerodynamic line of

two-dimensional on an airfoil, resultant

force action force drag, attack because has chord dynamic

acting of this may

and the

The as shown

resultant in figure to vary center this

aerodynamic 45(b). The lift, of

be resolved

and drag for

and center is changed. the line

of pressure of action mounted


the cambered moments are force along

airfoil present passes the chord,

shown at the through for

as the angle of pressure point. If one

No aerodynamic

of the aerodynamic at seine fixed edge,

the airfoil length force The

point the

example, the

a quarter resultant

of a aero-


the leading or the


is not zero to the center


is zero

corresponds point of angle center, the lift,

of pressure. a function of angle about of the

moment Figure point

about -

the quart(,r-chord a system functions all are

is generally a lift, of attack. where drag, the drag,




of reporting

and moment

quarter-chord There the angle

is a point,

the aerodynamic 45(d) shows


is independent about the aerody-


of attack. This

Figure system

and moment for a number



of r,,porting

is convenient

of aerodynamic

calculations. The data obtained data. by wind-tunnel Aerodynamic Cd, the testing of NACA families of airfoil include the sections lift coeffiare

two-dimensional cient point These moments el, the drag

characteristics moment

recorded coefficient about

coefficient and the are length moment

the quarter-chord center the forces (em)ac. and

(Cm)0.25c, coefficients per unit

coefficient by measuring,


the aerodynamic tests,

obtained of the

in wind-tunnel



and nondimensionalizing

as follows:

c/ where dynamic Similarly, l is the pressure




measured lift per unit length of the airfoil wing, q is the testing 1 section. or _pV 2, and c is the chord length of the airfoil

d c d -=_-_ where d is the measured drag per unit length of the airfoil wing



Resultant aerodynamic force

of V_ Chord line --] Line of resultant action force of










of pressure moves forward as of attack increases


Chordwise on shape


position camber

depends line


Lift Quarter chord point Aerodynamic__.._ center chord o) point Moment about aerodynamic center (independent of a)


Moment one-quarter (depends

about on

(c) Figure 45.Airfoil aerodynamic



Cm = m qc 2 (23)



is the

measured or the been

moment aerodynamic shown chosen), and air need


unit length center the

acting other

on the airfoil point desired). are


at the

quarter-chord It has body Mach number shape number, effects

point previously (airfoil are

or any


aerodynamic (angle turbulence.


dependent number, flow, Mach


section negligible and

attitude and air

of attack For is dependent

or), Reynolds low subsonic on the





number Figure 46 The on

and surface shows main angle 66 data point

roughness reported of this

not be indicated airfoil the shape,

as a separate namely, of the

dependency. an NACA 2415

for a particular figure is to show number,





of attack,


and surface


This of shape, number, Air cl,

indicates Cd, an_le and turbulence number and of

the c m

dependence on airfoil Reynolds rout_hness. included and roughlless number in tile -.2 0 .2 ,4 .C, .8 1 .C_ _.0_l .2


surface is



Reyl]olds dependency. effects 2.0 -

Math not includ(!d.














0 o 0 0

ca _,| -.4 -.l

-,2 slber -.3 -1.2 _ I_" -.4 -1.6 Angle -.5 of attack variation K2" z2_-;;at|at|on Sur face roughness variation -•3 4"_ -.4 9.0 -•8 -.2 O [] 3.0 6.0 x 10 6




.241 .246 .246 Standard

.014 .013 •013 roughness

,_X 6.0


-24 Section NACA

-[6 -8 angle 2415

of Wirlg

0 attack, Section

8 o0,

16 deg

24 32


-l.2 -.8 Section NACA -.4

----L_A J 0 lift 2415 coefficit, wine se .4 nt, :tio .8 cl

J 1.2

J 1.6







Figure x


Aerodynamic y denote

coefficient distances

dependencies, along X and Y







It is best at this point to examine,

in a general some


the variation of the coef-

ficients with angle of attack and to discuss informative Figure graphs of these results.

typical features often found in the

47 is a typical graph One

of coefficient of lift cI

against the angle of attack

of the airfoil section.

of the first things noticed is the fact that at an angle of positive lift. This One must move is the

attack of 0 °, there is a positive coefficient of lift,and, hence, case of most cambered airfoils and was discussed earlier.

to a nega-

tive angle of attack to obtain zero bered to have

liftcoefficient (hence zero lift). It will be rememlift. A symmetric be expected. is almost a airfoil was shown

that this angle is called the angle of zero an angle of zero liftequal to 0 ° as might next that from There

Notice straight line. Above

0 ° up to about 10 ° or 12 ° the "liftcurve"

is a linear increase

in the coefficient of liftwith angle of attack. a peak and then declines. The

this angle, however,

the liftcoefficient reaches

angle at which

the liftcoefficient (or lift)reaches

a maximum

is called the stall angle.


the lift however.xinmm one may state that the airfoil is stalled has occurred.0 o Negative stall ] . g . drag move angle Past the forward but remain move effects relatively rapidly of the close to and Near rises separation stall lift. slowly the separation the trailing the pressure increased points edge.. The coefficient the stall angle. continues through negative an for a negative angle angle In general. change of attack the stall Beyond in is angle. L -16 -8 Angle of 0 attack. the flow being pattern of lift at the stall angle is the ma. of attack and 47) that stall curve" also..- Coefficient of lift as a funcliun uf angle of x._ . the "lift occurs of attack angle. necessary will be operating at a positive to obtain 68 . It is interesting angles aircraft flight. the the separated flow is to decrease to note that (fig. 0 ° to past on the the the airfoil stall Figure stall 48 shows angle lift coefficient and a remarkable whose that angle below el. an airfoil Note raised from of attack.de_ Figure 47. points the forward greatly abruptly.

/--Separation point moves Maximum 16°. and of angle at a and builds the separated of the lift angle same is a as flow only gradually increase occurring. be plotted coefficient curve as a function up to the much stall the as shown function the same coefficient Since the lift the cd of angle of attack.points Separation c_ = 00 Turbulent wake __:.._ ___'__ ----_ _ Separated expands flow region and reduces lift 5 Large (Reduced lift turbulent and large _ pressure drag) "-3 Figure 48. Usually. of moment be discussed appears is an important when that parameter subject in the stability and control and will is introduced.. coefficient near-linear before and The of an aircraft in As one of the curve angle. is rapid drag greater may also of turbulent coefficient in figure 46. small positive angle at the cd The of attack lower corresponding angles. lift Separation point jumps (Stall = angle_ _ .The wing of the infinite-span shown two- Two-dimensional wing compared with three-dimensional in figure 50 is a finite-span three-dimensional (3D) version 69 ._ = 5° ._.. comments apply...- Stall formation. wing. because coefficient of drag the minimum drag to a positive nears the stall amount lift c d as a function coefficient occurs coefficient however. Figure 49 is a typical graph of the of attack of the airfoil section..

I u . (fig. drag. and is dimensional the chord (2D) length wing c tested times the in the wing wind span tunnel b. Cm one where free-stream pressure.. by obtains the If one using 3D measures the wing the area. deg 8 12 Figure 49.O2O Rapid increases / incd towards . wing. Thus 43). lift. 4 _. nondimensionalizes length. and (L = Total lift on wing) (25) (D = Total drag on wing) (26) M C m =_ qSc (M = Total moment acting on wing) (27) 7O . The wing area is S S = bc (24) This on is this also known and chord as the planform area. and moment dynamic of the 3D wing and CL.- Coefficient of drag of airfoil as a function of angle of attack section. aerodynamic characteristics CD.01C u ¢9 _--_Minimum drag at small cr i -12 i -8 I I I I -4 Angle of attack.

NACA finite CD.vina. Cl. c(p cm _ CL. coefficients the finite-span for 2D coefficients case the letters. answer not But The allow the c m = C m. has how simply At first But this drag.'ste m or'_ _}f![Utc. lower from This is the notation used to distinguish coefficients The airfoil wing? C m._ I)t) I)!P! t'('lli+tiI1 _}1(" 5all/O coeffici_mts <'{. '. the the 2D wing possibility is freely results is wrong! in the wind about free Where spanned tips. 2D 3D and the important characteristics Or to put to obtain way. the airfoil _ing. How can one and and out might use experimental on a real. moments cm in the related lree it another 50 the wing exposed. CL. to stream that the tunnel is. C D. and modified to account of three- dimensional Circulation discussion the vortex sy. arises: the are been glance lift./ / Particularly . Cd. 3D wing stream two-dimensional flow. did The tested of airflow exposed nmst in the be wing spanwise flow effects may of air. wing infinite-span quvstion data now coefficients.- Two-dimensic)md for compared 3I) flow are with c:_pitallzed three-dimensional whereas the conditions. In figure tips are and is that for moved one Why? tunneI the so that c l = CL./" //{¢_>" same 'd ct u_lL il(__qiL( x_in_ hi VES_ I)ifferenl IIIGY_IStlFt_d C'tJ¢'i'P't_ it'ltl. W: sinlp]c . C m Figure Notice flow are that the 50.could be As was shown earlier in the of a two-dimen_sion:d represented by a free-stream 71 ." _ //_--- . and problem walls lie? and fIow occur. freely conclude does the that spanwise for the c d = CD.

two movements on the oncoming surface and flow is strongest by the flow about stream). /_-_" / / 1 / / / /1 Higher static _- _'Equal l]_. midspan on the upper The point spanas an inclined flow at the wing and decreases being parallel evidenced (fig. forces line cannot Instead. .. tip vortices trailing static same circulation formation can be explained on the upper surface the of the The than shown that of a wing is for the most positive tips part lift. the the wing. of circulation extends simply or vortex which wingtips. spanwise the oncoming of air free free-stream are combined one tips flow approaching (superimpose has an inclined of air on the (See fig. the the vortex the wing hence. wing. have vortices pressure the line tips the By a theorem midair. end in but the vortex back an infinite vortex cannot to infinity end at the is permissible continues from These of these where names the free-stream "trailing vortices" strength as follows. 51(b)." the the wing or "wing-tip F. cles The of air gradient wing exists surface region between around the upper differences the wing and lower so that of the air is to equalize the lower pressure any pressure parti- to move the region tip to the upper In addition. tendency tend wing must operating become at a normally equal at the wing in figure pressures A pressure from is a continuous faces.. exactly for two-dimensional balances the downflow of air past at the wing. _ f free-stream " _-1-1-_'_ static pressure . condition. 52(a)). flow direction there to the free-stream direction Head-on view of wing Lower Equal pressures-- than . for a finite For wing. determined at subsonic rear caused by the Kutta-Joukowsky speeds. by the the upflow so that F.Finite-wing flow tendencies. there downward movement a finite the wing circulation three-dimensionai of Helmholtz. outward inward lower to zero flow of air wing at the surface.flow and For wing case a circulation of strength F wing. Physically. in front exists This of the no net is not the an infinite.) the If surface there these wing wing wise (from exists of high to the of low pressure). a line of the wing. outside tips.. function._fpre==. surface flow them to trail vortices. 1". since lower As pressure sur- on the lower 51(a).re= \ than free-stream pressure b | (a) Figure 72 51.

) of vortices and decreasing the wing. the vortex (See at the tips to zero up and at midspan.- Continued. being cylindrical the surface A strongest disvorti- the trailing lower back rapidly roll surface from and helical paths or vortices "strength" fig." replacing the vortex simplified picture of the tip vortex distribution discussed. I (b) Figure 52.i I' I I I I i I l (a) Figure When is inclined whole tance ces line the air to that leaves from the trail 52.Tip flow (b) Figure 51. 52(b). Flow over top surface Flow over bottom surface lll//j "" i l I I t . 73 . the air from the upper result.Formation edge of wing-tip of the wing. vortices. combine A short downstream which constitute the vortices the so-called system into two distinct Figure 52(c) shows just "tip vortices.- Concluded.

are left. (fig. is equivalent shows to the lift of the wing vortex system). shed.Concluded. are air's as the horseshoe manner when and is accomplished starts is being vortices from by the so-called rest in the case changed.4----(a) 1/4c (at vortex 1/4 c line) F .._ .(. back the wing If the the wing lift of the wing the their starting continually are Generally. 3D counterparts.Complete-wing vortex system.. vortex Also. soon dissipated a wing decays influence on the flow behind the further they f __ /_ ____/... Also. the modifications of the 2D airfoil constitutes coefficients vortex in the vortex..F Tip vortex (b) Figure 53. viscosity.Tip vortex vortex (c) Figure An account aerodynamic The called a finite system vortex stant starting because rapidly of the tip-vortex into wing their (which effects 52. the 53(a)) vortex starting of connew is for the bound wing must which vorticity vortices of the Figure known in some 53(b) the bound and the tip vortices (sometimes be closed is left (fig. 74 . behind 53(c)). .

_- 'rip vortex r CY C_ Tip (c) vortex (Lef 2tairport when off influence drag) plmm takes it does not lift or Figure 53. vortex For is directly a finite to the relation lift on the wing becomes as in the dimensional L = p_V_bF where L lift on three-dimensional free-stream free-stream wing span (spin strength) the upflow (or upwash) caused The in front by the of the wing balanced But. two- bound case. additional 75 . The and roll dissipate. prove system As will be discussed to other 54. that air density wing (28) Poo Voo velocity b F circulation In both the 2D and 3D cases in back also vortex take the downflow (or downwash) case one must starting of the wing bound cause vortex. to be dangerous are shown aircraft.- Concluded. and vortex rotates counterclockwise (when viewed from (when the bound The the left side). Indicated rotates behind). in the down- finite-wing influence into account the tip vortices tip vortices (assuming the of the is negligible). and they have a tendency the to sink tip vortices later. vortex from clockwise.F F _-_(_. are important of air the right-tip vortex of the vortex in figure The left-tip viewed directions due to the vortex rotates clockwise related wing the system. toward their may downstream transformed time and may Again. eventually by viscosity. this change The the tip vortices each energy take trail other being some effects movement back from the wing of the tips wing.

_ _ . can become flying through and of the airin that at the shown airto vortex will encounter of downwash motions upwash large Also gradient. all the air Note that outside the vortex flying is moving (this upwash).. and cause flying over. Downwash .¢_'et'" "-h' / Rear view _'\. tip vortices is an airplane plane to roll in the airplane Note that there a tip vortex. Note vortex One that upwash and downwash are due wash the air behind (fig.- Vortex flow effects. "_--. the wing to both the within the bound wing span... creating The the an aircraft pattern perpendicular upwash. for an observer downwards upwards path (this fixed in within air 55) all the whereas the vortex system is moving system is called is downwash) called plane order. and the tip vortices.11. " _... can see that. Upwash ahead of airplane _ _. of severe tendency.. the pilot or in a violent case tip vortices jets. or change extreme into If the very it.JqBound vortex v/ Downwash behind the airplane Figure 54. The the tip low and Federal 76 at high that lift for coefficients a 0. During are compounded these times the by the speed take-off and landings is new generation the airplane Aviation of jumbo is operating of the airplane flight. q t tf_\ \ _. plane.27 MN to maintain (600 000 lb) Agency has shown .. control surfaces is a large are control tendency for the enough of the airplane may lose not effective counteract experience The of the the airplane structural problems roll failure. to the flight downwash. to upwash.

Downwash k [ _ _ [ . of energy of downwash Addition- or power. is requesting and small separation during times take-offs and distances and landings.. may extend 55._. the large jets tip vortices contribute to the downwash contribution required drag force field requires at and the this behind the wing. [ I _ _ n . to induce known may be associated the net lift It may way associated as induced effects. / / in tip vortex Aircraft rolls over in tip vortex Figure vortices approach craft flying 1964 and traced greater especially The create per ally. (_.... To downwash unit time due to finite-wing The wing at this power with an additional on the expenditure component drag..9b) 77 . will with a fluid's a skin-friction possess ratio may viscosity.L " _ -__-_ f /sL_.-------"_ Very ride across vortices turbulent in flying ] I /_ in tip vortex t.I I I // i . incidents downwash light Between could much aircraft be may air- the airplane also show other exceeding 160 meters into 1969 at least vortex (500 ft/min)... and the that 90°/sec.. or pressure an induced be defined (Wing in an ideal often called thus not possess drag) (taken together but will still The aspect if generating lift and a circulation span) 2 area (29a) Aspect or ratio = Wing S for any wing..back per Upwash strongly minute could and downwash for 5 miles over fields from Tests around an airplane. be rolled accidents Realizing between and a small a vortex at rates 100 airplane phenomenom.. is decreased point that by the tip vortex induced A finite drag drag as drag wing be noted is an ideal operating fluid effect not in any fluid parasitic r. countless the FAA to this this. • _ J. "'.

The Figure of an infinite 3D wing has one can value ('2ift that the an infinite mined obtained ces have aspect aspect whose curves effect the is detercurves") tip vortiis flattened aspect ratio by equation 56 shows coefficient evident w at the for both wings in creating at the the same by experiment. (30). shown in figure say 50. a high aspect span length ratio is a measure with of the a short slenderness stubby wing of a wing. additional angle Readily downwash less lift lift curve smaller out so that wing. it has 2D wing is the equivalent ratio. return to the case of the span a finite the 2D and wing and.xa of attack to obtain the the same flow (C L = c/) lift is due to the seen by the wing effect where (31) of tip vortifor small in angle downwash ces on the angles in changing relative w Vo_ It may wing 2D drag be stated coefficient that the drag coefficient drag for the coefficient finite or 3D wing is the infinite- (32) plus the induced CD = c d + (CD)induce d (33) 78 . characteristics.For the special case of a rectangular wing S=b×c so that AR = b = Wing c Chord for a rectangular has wing. of attack C L = c l. is obtained for the is not a beneficial the case where Consider predicted ure by the one wants to get the same lift from the finite wing fig- as 2D aerodynamic by raising 2D wing. of low aspect (30) Aspect ratio a long thin wing ratio. This of attack effect. this over is achieved that of the of the finite by a small amount a3D This increase = a2D + . 3D wings as such. the angle that is. wing From 56. or namely. With The compared this in mind. ratio of lift is the wing.

not to confuse converts the is raised drag increase coefficient in addition. Angle zero of lift I iO3D of attack. is proportional CL 2. are drag modified. coefficient one finds 79 . of a 2D wing slightly. (CD)induce d = KCL2 (34) where K is related to the aspect to this point. (C L = c/) only if its causes drag an increase coefficient. data the same in To summarize lift angle yields coefficient of attack an induced It is important represents. will give This and.- Effect drag of aspect coefficient ratio on coefficient (skin-friction angle of of lift.Infiaite aspect ratio Finite aspect ratio I I I . operating than the at the higher original aspect value of attack cd AR operating and elliptic (CD)induce factor" distribution (CD)induced is inversely relating shown proportional one to give to to the comes ratio an "efficiency spanwise Also. ratio and the efficiency version factor. drag plus pressure a3D at necesa2D. If one a finite-span angle in the In this the drag of attack parasitic way. is the parasitic of the This 2D wing is greater coefficient) to get d e C L. force that it it is the 2D wind-tunnel with induced coefficient to actual the actual drag. I _a2D Angle 0 Figure where drag sary cd here 56. lift how close by theory to achieving induced an ideal drag minimum Thus (e = 1).

the stated e. (higher ciency.- From to obtain results and drag it can be seen acting One on the like that entire these How 2D wind-tunnel if proper data may corrections be used for the the lift are most tip vortices to get the included. not make nearly both wings aspect ratio) should has arises produce one-fourth that lift and drag. and From to the previous e = 1 the free-stream component only one may the Vow. span are be conwings. coefficient. But the span wing effiwhy the induced less induced and therefore. give The thought a wing with flow. drag. factors with the that may for up to 70 percent e and wing The efficiency trolled Both only by proper wings are factor design. dynamic pressure. and proportional to (1) the span efficiency squared factor V_ 2. (2) the wing span squared (3) the free-stream of reducing velocity induced Methods NACA 3D wing corrections may the b fact and drag ponent the drag. as figure 58 of first pl_e Figure 57. with drag (high very an extremely the tip vortex long wing effects span being idealized In fact.inversely b 2. small. longer This a greater wing would spans. (2) increase (3) increase is a small induced drag since speeds (cruising unimportant speeds. 80 . with AR).- Wing-span same lift effect on induced and drag same for airplanes having same wing area. difference the wing second is twice that of the first longer Ideally. Figure lift 57 shows two airplanes and they have wing rectangular wing at the is that same coefficient span of the the same same area. it accounts it constitutes (take-off about 5 to 15 percent of the total com- At low speeds or landing) of the total physical it is a considerable drag. lift with discussion velocity at high would to be as small induced drag as possible the least drag. The wing. (1) increase wing last flight) span This span efficiency (or aspect points relatively at those since ratio up that factor as possible. be reduced? to as close /k_).

wings. with dependent as fuel control and numerous an aspect 6.) 81 . not used valuable methods. angles of attack the wing Planform sections terms wing. geometrically similar. These lastly. sailplanes But structural a large comes that must rely on high become efficiencies. the same (or aspect drag reduction looking and twist ways Normally. categories planes with ratio of _. ratio).illustrates. change may that or chord second. use of tip plates or tip of reducing This is by the to promote physical since arrangement They have these are a 2D flow by inhibiteffect there as an increase are other more in of tip vortices. variations and twist is the (near remain now considered. length and thickness wing as one proceeds tip) so that the reduction the fuselage) of the chord to the from airfoil the root sections tip section (See (at the fig. drag tends AR = 24. and to vary in Before define three the give taper distinct shape for a wing. drag. give structural of decreased the weight drag per- necdue to support vortex This to smaller A compromise also optimum capacity. wing requires There essary formance. and ratio A survey single-engine airplanes of airplane light air- show sailplanes ratio of 15 or more. the of the airfoil of the taper taper section also as one moves change are along along the the wing. may the airfoil length along First. 58. fighter an aspect of about supersonic with an aspect HP-8 (1958) Figure Another tanks ing wing as shown the formation span interesting in figure way 59. disadvantage counteracts aspect of increasing the advantage ratio on factors other would such factors. the section airfoil wing. is necessarily size allowances. very A very long slender considerations structural where wing weight the span thin long to support a point increased effects. do have factor. further at methods For of reducing a general the size induced wing. characteristics. it is necessary sections may may change.- High-aspect-ratio induced wing. 60(a). a dominant it.

- Tip plates and tip tanks.) Planform of only this and thickness the airfoil's reduction remains (b) Thickness taper.) taper the The chord constant. Thickness from tions shows this ness fig. 60(b). Figure 60.reduction tip section fig. ileduction in thickness airfoil thickness . inverse and thick(See and wider than the inboard 82 . at the wing a typical normal so that 60(d).)rd = Constant Reduction in chord length . One taper both planform XF-91 were fighter thicker and thickness which has taper. thickness results taper.lnd sections charltte Thickness Ch. wing was wing is the to the (See with the tips as one proceeds airfoil 60(c) exception to sec- in thinner Figure notable in planform stations.Tip plates inhibit tips _ v Loe _ k_ _iPw ta_kuSt inhibit wing tip Figure 59.airfoil sections sinnlar (a) Planform taper. the root taper section tip.

To give factor lift e distriof lift. Wings decrease in angle represents twist.. the span represents manner aerodynamic by using along an aerodynamic 61(b)). of methods Same used Root s e c ti o n _< NACA of an elliptic the spanwise S."_tk\ _o_x\\\\ _'/positi" / ve _ used throughout \ Neg.__. Root section NACA 4 -221 X-Tip section NACA 0024 (b) Aerodynamic Figure 61. method minimum should bution. A in angle of attack of attack toward the wing washout Geometric whereas twist whereas an increase (fig.. of changing induced be as close A number lift distribution in a spanwise that is the (fig. taper in planform and thickness.. m thickness length secti(ms (c) Planform and thickness taper. 61(a)) the wing method airfoil it was tip is called a geometric different the drag of changing sections demonstrated This available sections the lift distribution./ Washout sR2:tlon / Washin-_ (a) Geometric twist. Redtlctbnl and ('hl)rd iirf.- (d) Inverse Concluded. the spanwise case efficiency to 1 as possible.ative "-I.. 83 . aerodynamic twist.'une NACA spanwise distribution sections are to modify _ throughout . varies along the span. are given twist so that toward the angle of attack tip is called washin.Geometric and twist. Figure 60.

minimizing Taper is discussed of greater importance when the problem of stalling Aerodynamic One of. not want condition flying CL. of these An elliptical point This there efficient cant. Of course.) wing is very drag the may Surprisingly. to obtain taper which to obtain is remarkably an elliptic elliptic. in minimizing presents tip vortex wing-tip formation shape. rectangular in reduced that for a real fig. well think of the most fascinating term. or planform as shown in twist of Spitfire twist (2) a geometric (3) a combination elliptic lift distribution. the of construction. nearly as a square-tipped the gains fact to the tips and elliptic so that induced wing be insignifi- result be traced lift distribution distribution. the The affixed slots. air wing in lift and devices is a piece With that all these the wing hanging on a wing. 62(b). 62(c) one. of air travel take-off the But a purpose is dependent and normal landing flying the safety and economy It is in the a speed interest of safety one to perform does flight at as low to is as possible.These methodsinclude figure and/or all 62(a) for the methods. for want increases brakes. maneuvers characteristics weight the the unknowledgeable. a less importance Figure favorable and twist later. are perhaps being approximates of production an elliptical at the point a good of the tip vortices. of a better or decreases to a simple flaps. does of view is used are This fall The induced cates data as the planform is hard the best by light that to manufacture type of wing and is costly. and thus whereas figure to be of more drag. appears 62(d) indi- off to zero wing-tip at the wing shape. untwisted from wing. equal would a near-level For in which (take-off airplane to the lift be operating (L = W). considerably that indicate wing may is the untapered. yields (35) Vmin = t p_ 2c_. art. minimum lift or minimum speed x. or landing) (25) after wing at maximum for the From equation Vmi n some manipulation. (See plane flight be affected.WmaxS 84 . unsuspecting sound of flaps traveler slats of modern combined and as one approaches apart these at the devices seams" and for a landing may the unnerve with a visual inspection of the wing exists on them. solving velocity. aerodynamic (1) planform wing. Consider But also. spoilers. subjects "aerodynamic drag such Devices of flight is the vast number to achieve and dive might opening "coming for all of of aerodynamics devices" as slats.

ma x and/or to be constant then it is obvious area and if the weight that Slots is considered to reduce used a fixed Vmi n for this is characteristic to increase purpose.slot the the formed operating airfoil. The density Po_ is considered of the airplane. flows and the through Figure through the air the use 63(a) the of a by a leading-edge principle.High cost Minimum complex induced drag (a) Elliptic wing - Supermarine Spitfire Mk. The When called the air illustrates slot and over slot is a boundary-layer layer about angle the control wing and device retards stall thus channeled The get airfoil a higher energizes can then the boundary be flown separation.Reduction (d) Poor of induced tip shape. q/ Low induced drag Aero Commander 100 (b) Untapered. the only way and flaps the wing S. may be increased a slat. tip shape drag) corner Good tip shape for low induced drag Less favorable (Higher induced Rounded Sharp corner (c) Good tip shape. I. drag. and thus at a higher of attack before occurs 85 . CL. are The maximum coefficient auxiliary the slot of lift airfoil is open. untwisted wing. Figure 62. Slots.

airfoil Normal Unslotted |/ I angle with _'_stall . rIncreased slat _/ Angle of attack. the airfoil lift curve is relatively a for the normal and the that for angles of attack unaffected whether the slot is opened There explanatory. Notice particularly than the stall angle.Slat Slot (a) slotted less x value. A curve showing C L as a function of airfoil is given in figure 63(b). a fixed drag the distance The fixed from slot is selfIts a the leading-edge is that War is mounted excessive fighter the airfoil. are two types of slots slat it creates rocket fixed and automatic. main German wing. a (b) Slat Figure aerodynamic Slat-slot effects.- CL. Me-163 lifting the 64 shows in the the wing II designed slot with fixed slat away automatic depends on air pressure . Figure slots from disadvantage World The at high speeds. 86 or closed. operation. 63.

unchanged is shown that the stall from of the angle has unflapped obtained. promotes The in an extreme visibility.- Fixed the lift slots..llaps. is one shaped or both. of slots high angles of against slot. flap A change in the maximum be realized or by increased Figure of accomplishing with a simple for the a normal in the down with the position flap for increased is greater over the maximum unflapped attack tially lift coefficient airfoil. than entire angle to the reduces that the to increase section this. The increase by a and the The for the trailing-edge airfoil camber. shape method airfoil in the may of the be used airfoil 64. slot Me-163 Figure F_. This Also. maximum coefficient 65(a) shows lift coefficient. increased also This flapped that angle-ofis essenslot opera- range. may camber. is opposed airfoil tion where disadvantage a higher that the stall slot was the in high landing 87 . The angles. the airfoil coefficients in figure simple of lift are 65(b). is the high nose-up of both types a landing created. the Its One airplane reduced wing main main must attack leading to open the edge and are slot. Note airfoil. angle which disadvantages disadvantage approach for weight.Flaps wing change flap same area. reduces its added At low angles drag at high of attack speeds the slat is flush with the fixed compared and stall attitude cost.

max normal airfoil Simple flapped _.- Angle of attack. flap operation. 88 . Increases 1) 2) camber wing area Closed position (a) Fowler flap. a aerodynamic Simple effects.Inc reased r Normal airfoil flapped airfoil (a) Flap.Normal airfoil-_ airfoil //// (b) Flap Figure 65. Slot-----_ X_Flap Closed position system Open position • (b) Complex Figure slotted flap Types of Boeing of flaps. CL CL.x flapped CL. 737.

layer controlled as shown suction (a) Suction of boundary layer. Figure 66(b)showsthe arrangement on a Boeing 737airplane which utilizes a leadingedgeslat and a triple-slotted trailing-edge flap.Figure 66(a)shows a Fowler flap which is hinged such that it can move back and increase the airplane wing area. the airfoil. It may also be notedthat flaps in an extreme downposition (50 to 90o) act as a ° high-drag device andcan retard the speedof an airplane before and after landing. The slots in the flaps help retard separation over the flap segmentsand thus enhancelift. /_--Add energy to boundary by blowing high pressure through holes or slots layer air (b) Reenergizing Figure 6'/.Forms the boundary of boundary-layer layer. A very large increase in maximum lift coefficient is idea is to either remove the low-energy by high-energy directly. x. Both delay flow from of these separation. and to be one means of passing high-energy The low-energy in figure backward boundary 67(a) facing holes layer or slots may air thus a higher flow over the through CL. Boundary-layer control. This combination is a highly efficient lift-increasing arrangement. 89 . it may be rotated downto increase the camber. The boundary kinetic nar layer energy to the a longer boundary distance Another method of increasing CL. above layer over methods and x is by segment of the a lamia and let it be replaced or by adding maintain allow flow for one to get larger shown angle of attack before stall occurs.boundary-layer control. control. There are many combinations of slots andflaps available for use on airplanes. top surface slots The slot was of a wing. in the layer wing be sucked may or holes boundary as shown through or high-energy be blown in figure Boundary by into the 67(b).

ma x. the lift is quickly destroyed and the airplane may quickly settle on its landing gear without bouncing. Figure dive has brake promote a civilian the pressure 69 shows arrangement characteristics. first be the "dead of the This and last air" stall.brakes when are Use are ol spoilers. Figure 68 showsthe spoiler arrangement on a Boeing 707wing. rs p. on landing. remain word about stalling is in so that (1) the pilot has (3) there stall The is little tendency wing-tip to sta- may be achieved to stall wake). in a dive..- and two military The present arrangements.Spoilers. o Figure Dive speed. they helpful. Or on large commercial jets they may be usedto help the aileron control by "dumping" lift on one wing and thus help to roll the airplane. Also. They may serve the purpose as on gliders to vary the total lift and control the glide angle. f / // ?.Dive slowing aerodynamic and increase (or speed) down quickly brakes 68. is often 9O . drag. a large aircraft or Whether these wake approaching a landing. condition favorable (2) the stall CL.Spoilers are devices used to reduce the lift on the airplane wing.Spoi. (are at the wingnot immersed employed so let it progress toward effective in a turbulent of twist. A further stall characteristics is gradual. by "forcing" the wing ailerons the and the tips. used in airplanes for to control after descent landing. separation speed-brake Stall operating order. namely washout. considerably on concentrated near or at the stall A wing should possess warning a stall. adequate spin root tions after section should brakes. with spoilers up. aircraft discussion Essentially. so that Use to occur outboard.






brakes F-105D


_-..___ _ _ F-IOOD Speed










section stall (See root pilot's




angle are


(See favorable


70(a).) ones



sections stall

with gradual

characteristics fig. 70(b).) stall,



with quick

characteristics. As the inboard the

stations controls.

turbulent This

flow from

the wing

strikes stall



plane device. with

and buffets With few spin

condition the plane

is an adequate should maintain

warning attitude

a gradual tendencies.


on both wings,

a level

Total Up to now the shown and and that three drag acting are


of Airplane has been considered. drag, of many airplane It has (2) pressure other been drag,

on a finite present: an airplane drag


components drag.

(1) skin-friction is composed Possible

(3) induced each

Of course, a total

components drags 91

will introduce

of its own.




--_ Negative Washout



(a) Twist toward

and wing



that angle




tip as wing

of attack







-\NACA 64,-,18

(b) Gradual Figure 70.Stall include (4) drag stores, aircraft are (1) drag of wing, wing flaps, (2) drag gear, of nacelles, (7) drag (5) drag of landing and sum (8) drag of the aircraft, These component drag one



of attack

stall. characteristics.

of fuselage, (6) drag

(3) drag of wing parts. tanks

of tail


and external The net the drag of an

of engines, the

of miscellaneous of the components.

is not simply into


components and the

combined the drag in the

a complete

component are called

can affect interference interference

the flow field, effects, drag. and Thus,

hence, change

of another. sum of the

effects drags

is called


2 = (Drag)l

+ (Drag)

2 + (Drag)interference


Generally, interference drag will addto the componentdrags but in a few cases, for example, addingtip tanks to a wing, total drag will be less than the sum of the two componentdrags becauseof reduced induceddrag. Interference drag can be minimized by proper fairing andfilleting which induces smooth mixing of air past the components. Figure 71 showsa Grumman F9F Panther Jet with a large degree of filleting. No adequatetheoretical methodwill predict interference drag; thus, wind-tunnel or flight-test measurementsare required. For rough computational purposesa figure of 5 percent to 10 percent can be attributed to interference drag on a total aircraft.

F9F Panther Jet

Figure Small they craft changes items also reduce War add to the the aircraft's II and shows are total



fillets. and although 72 shows coefficient seemingly a TBF as these trivial, Avenger small air-


can greatly from and Figure World

top speed. the increase for. fighter

Figure in drag

components 73 shows breakdown 74 presents


a Me-109G of the drag a graph Doing

German (includes of how the away with


World drag) drag

War of the


Shown is the

percentage Figure decreased streamline all aided upon what

interference total bracing airplane wires,

components. has behind have

coefficient engines


the years. use

shielding of polished

cowls, in the has

of flush-riveting of drag. about

techniques, It is beyond total drag airplane measurements the

and use scope drag


reduction been

of this

discussion speeds. does Even yield here,

to expand Although good however, pilot tech-


at subsonic of models tests.

prediction results, the

of drag final drag of the subsequent

and wind-tunnel evaluation measurements proper must

be obtained is dependent

by flight

accuracy and

on flight-test data.




of test






Aeronautics.) Reference condition (see column 1) _C D

C D at C L Condition 1 2 3 4 Airplane Flat Seals Seals gaps Exhaust Canopy sealed plate Airplane completely removed from from replaced removed, arresting-hook and turret leaks 0.0222 and openings 0.0223 trailing antenna tube 0.0227 leak seals removed 0.0230 0.0234 0.0236 0.0237 0.0251 gaps 0.0260 0.0264 change .......... configuration = 0.245 sealed from and nose air hinge-line 0.0203 stacks fairing 0.0211 exits faired 0.0183 0.0189 0.0199

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 11 12 13

0.0006 0.0010 0.0004 0.0008 0.0011 0.0001 0.0004 0.0003 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001 0.0014 0.0009

removed removed

flapped-cowling cowling-flap

Tail wheel uncovered

Aerial, mast, installed 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Canopy and


Leak seals removed cover plate, and Leak seals removed and miscellaneous Fairings Wheel-well Seals over

from shock strut, wing-fold axis from leak bomb-bay doors seals removed removed









Plates over removed.

wing-tip slot openings Airplane in service condition Total-drag


0.0004 0.0081

Figure 72.- Small item influence on total airplane drag.


... rail surfaces ..0_ D Wright -" ... ..10 S 73........7 6.........3 11................2 drag j Figure .06 _ _hers _9 ... Fuselage .9 23.O2 - homs P-B_1 • • N P-80 • Comet o 1900 I 1910 I 1920 I 1930 Date...04 B 17 St..... 95 ... Engine and radiator ...Typical fighter-drag breakdown............. Appendages ......Component Wing ........ years I 1940 1 1950 I 1960 I 19q0 Figure 74.. ..........5 13...... Induced drag ...4 7...- Decrease in airplane drag coefficient with time................. Percent of total 37......

. configurations is a small wing used on military and civil- Figure jan airplanes.into the thrust per force. equal and the propeller opposite to the rotates propeller at a constant torque. second a spinning air. 76.) and a force The torque propeller motion blades of the (the torque by acting force opposes engine rate as a "drag" by the engine on it. backward moving noticeable. backward If one has crankshaft by the ever this to the velocity behind propeller the slipstream. propeller stood The propeller This times thrust the converts is equal added while and Rotors the turning mass imparted was power of air to this at rest of an engine's forced air. determined Two-bladed Beagle propeller Pup oa Three-bladed Me-109G propeller on Four-bladed propeller B-29 on Eight-bladed contrarotating on Antonov AN-22 propellers Figure 96 75. torque In equilibrium. force along a variety of propeller blade a propeller for axis producing may a resultant into of the the rotary a aerodynamic force pointing which the the purposes of the force). the airplane is very on the ground.- Various propeller configurations. fig. airplane (See of this discussion. be resolved in the plane (thrust). 75 shows Basically.Propellers Propellers.

angle the root blade sections to be twisted large blade with angles the due sections with in main to the increase is also called the pitch angle. controlled is adjustable in the by hand air by automatically power output (controllable power input of a propeller divided 97 . blade airfoil the section blade total section angle from sum This tip is placed the plane helix at an angle proand of to the rotation of attack of the angle the small to the for that is the 78(c). to the tip As to the For since one the a particular tip sections the this are velocity aircraft. the 78(b). of the is known in figure as blade blade in A propeller and angle. in shape airplane is of air also blade. propeller relative of the faster comes is. free-stream airplane. or This may be pitch angle may be fixed on the for a propeller ground pitch hence pitch The a fixed-pitch propeller) efficiency or propeller. vector. figure may respect the relative and the 77 shows. vary the propeller from and rotating is the blade tip consists to the root the respect sum (See rotation velocity fig. of the as shown the Thus. free-stream velocity obtain an relative aerodynamic velocity chord section appears with line force. angles helix approaches inclined helix angle oncoming 90 ° . propeller airplane of the root. As tions fixed (fig. the sections.Direction of rotation _'rhrust T Figure 76. of a set of the of airfoil-shaped Although flow and seca wing of air an is which with 78(a)). closer approaches To attack peller angle angle. (adjustable propeller).- Thrust and torque of a propeller.) is called helix revolving vector that velocity of advance. The blade blade. airplane The the angle to the propeller flow propeller and the sees only with relative to the of the it sees oncoming velocity relative angle root which the vector free-stream angle helix varies than between angle from the or the root this rotational plane of the velocity.

Wing 7 3 fixed to airplane Free-stream velocity (a) Plane of rotation Velocity and of airplane motion q fT'U Blade Rotational velocity of this blade section relative to airplane .- Propeller blade sections. denotes angle of attack of airfoil sections. .z_ _x /_#angle -Tntai a.blade __ller _ Airfoil _ _ections v--" Propeller Figure[e blade angle or pitch angle of blade (c) Figure 98 78. a.o¢.Propeller terminology. Helix angle (b) 5 /9 Angle of attack----_ .

decrease for use as propellers the leading may be edges feathered of the in flight. on the of attack. For used. airfoil sections propeller 79(b). damaging have and pitch to a landing the design blade negative thrust is obtained by turning The of which mise propellor shaped and negative like in design. angle for of one (or 100 and percent) for as possible.Use of pitch control..propeller stopped fi_" . efficiency a fine per minute. or The efficiency requires pitch (flat proportional velocity For take-off.q _'°_'_'_''_:'_ _ q Negative thrust (b) Feathered propeller. are influenced shape performed. is overall to be tips.. Figure 79. I % l _ _ r % I I I I I I I II I] ! I I I I I I I I l I % I \I l t I I o I / / % I I I I f I I _ _ _ 1\ \ I I / / I I 4- fl I_I • .Cruise (high) flight (a) Pitch control. This are (c) Landing brake. maximum uses a different blade or is high angle pitch-angle or is small used an airplane high low of attack) and to provide gives low revolutions per Coarse pitch .and would desirably is be as close to the to a value free-stream setting. high is by many factors. The mission rounded blades Some In this means alined that the blades free-stream an engine reversible are so that to the Feathering the propeller is used drag.) angle an airplane. to avoid propellers case. Some turned velocity. to a large on a stopped (See (See fig. contradictions dependent cause is determined For speeds low largely blade blades is usually are used or slender more with propeller 99 . by speeds larger some comprothe paddle- of a propeller. brake. This A coarse effect pitch cruising revolutions illustrated in figure 79(a).) 79(c). fig.// _'X 2/ \ / Fin(' (low) pitch 'rake. (brake) .

the drag fuselage some important effects detriflow. over tailplane. to it is for by these them. velocities slipstream the tailplane since of the and is beneficial forces air in providing produced over control are by the tail in the surfaces square the aerodynamic velocity of the when or take-off dependent on the cases moving is important be low. tailplane. mental this larger. The rotary of taxiing the free-stream motion of the slipstream. have causes the air on the propellers to strike and the tail- plane at an angle may and not headon. (considered be counteracted Figure an effect The stability rotary control of in of the airplane the propeller opposite producing in a later discussion). by using three effects of the motion contrarotating aircraft that (spinning form directions). 80 shows used this of a thrust- Douglas XB-42 Lockheed XFV-I VTO Figure 100 80. flow is faster and other the free-stream exposed means fuselage. This may however.The wards. effective surfaces This may and slipstream is produced core it strikes The of the moves by a propeller of spiraling the tailplane slipstream air producing that has flows thrust back than parts by forcing over the - air backand It is a cylindrical The some that The fact that beneficial. .- Contrarotating propellers. device.

that Generally. the the helicopter plane may of rotation be controlled as the angle The pitch between of the of the blades collectively blades (collective pitch) individually (cyclic pitch). shaped with the rotor Figure is the lift-producing slender (large three device. 101 . each more airfoil and are long and the design. each must the heavier to reduce the load Bell AH-16 Heuy-Cobra Two-bladed Hughes OH-6A Four-bladed Sikorsky CH-3C Six-bladed Figure As for defined blades. 81 shows for carry.rotor are of blades For vary a helicopter. controlled the airplane 81. helicopter. aspect helicopters. employing blades are a different used number of blades. have and a pitch the chord angle line of the or propeller. The ratio).Lifting blades The of the number rotors.- Helicopters with varying rotor blade blades numbers.

fly forward. to the The lift vector rear. blade path its pitch decreases. thrust to the helicopter. When a pilotwishes to As each rotor blade approaches the forof its As the cycle. may It provides sufficient the thrust by controlling of the tail the heading of the heli- be controlled. climb. disk forward thrust main and the flight angle. copter the in the opposite is accomrotational tend- by a tail Additionally. ward position lift is reduced. to tilt (see blade rotor lift is increased. the whole fig. of the body is given produces direction. is increased. and descend.hover. rotate plished ency.Collective pitch changes the pitch of allblades together and with changes in engine power settings. torque control this which tends to rotor a reactive Directional to counteract rotor. The to the desired component blades the total 82) and a forward rotation helicopter rotor. /. Cyclic pitch is controlled by the swashplate of the rotor head which allows the pitch of individual blades to vary as they rotate about the hub. the swashplate is tiltedforward._ i Thrust component yielding forward m orion Thrust Axis of blades is forwardJ rotation o[ 1 I Main Main rotors rotors V_ Figure 82. net the blade the pitch effect is rotated is rotates ascends.produces the lift necessary for the helicopter to take-off.- Helicopter forward motion. 102 . (toward and the the direction its flight path of flight) descends.

as a result. aerodynamic experienced 103 . the speed square root with altitude.1 This difference an airplane therefore. The him between but observer and the out 83. in the Air ahead out pressure receives in all directions before airplane together as shown the airplane approaches (fig. is down that and.7 is only 295. the distance The shell varies by the time from it takes disturbance as shown propagates in figure the cannon shown in an expanding in figure hemispherical of sound of the K) the As was precise. The question arises as to howfast an airplane nmst be moving before one must take into accountcompressibility. at low incompres- the airplane not flow smoothly from is a change flow speeds. (or the wave is felt) some compute of sound sound by dividing to reach him. At the speed They of sound merge (fig. drag. as the airplane. As the airplane speedincreases. encounters the compressibility An airplane air and sends speed of sound at a slower effects sooner. TRANSONIC FLOW Up to this point the airplane was considered to be in motion at subsonic speeds. An observer situated the sound can easily cannon away some wave distance is heard the from speed the the cannon pressure will see the flash almost time instantaneously later. for example. Oneimportant quantity which is an indicator is the speedof soundof the air through which the airplane is flying. merge elapses closer of sound. temperature. to 216. the temperature indicates speed. is an almost air the has together line ahead in into a "shock and instantaneous of the There about of change temperature. passes the air a warning approach pressure of the pressure. impending approach for and abruptly away from in the shock those is a tendency it. gets of the airplane separates the plane pressure and little around "messages" But as the and the speed flow the airplane.V.15 where of sound of 15 kilometers m/sec.3 K the flying comes To be more At sea m/sec speed at this level but at an of sound altitude it depends standard upon the absolute speed conditions (T o = 288. the air loses its assumedincompressibility andthe error in estimating. The air was treated as thoughit were incompressible and a study of the aerodynamics involved using this simplifying assumption was made. becomesgreater andgreater. flying well below pulses these the up against speed of sound creates a disturbance in figure arrives the 84(a). Consider the instance of a cannon fired at sea level. airplane to break no warning system. is 340. however. of the airairplane 84(c)) the pulses time and closer the time arrival speed which The through and forces 84(b)) in front of the between actual same wave" density. of the the there sible air and the pulses airplane airplane's move at the time. A disturbance in the air will sendpressure pulses or wavesout into the air at the speedof sound. under altitude 7.

flow. air an flight numbers name in 0.t1 time elapses _Direetion of I Time = tB is heard I BOOM A of sound = Distance Elapsed D time Speed Figure The sound. flow.2.- Speed of sound ratio may of a disturbance. greater 85 shows one has to various for Mach 5 the numbers one. may have Mach number words. patterns supersonic and for transonic subsonic a special Mach numbers greater to the or vice than range versa. of the that In other of warning after given Ernst to an airplane professor For than Mach (1838 The Figure than Mach number is named the names subsonic Austrian regimes. flow nor those describing supersonic flow may be accurately applied to 104 . change flow from flow pertains to supersonic problem area of speeds about Mach describ- Transonic presents as neither equations ing subsonic the regime.8 used of is a measure it is a number approach.Time = t 0 Cannon flash observed Cannon fires BOOM Distance D Time . flow Additionally. is hypersonic which to 1. of the airplane relate the degree speed to the speed that Mach. to 1916). one. 83. less flow.

begms movmg pulses disturbance (a) Zero and low-speed disturbance.8 1.. / 1 / discontinuity _ _-_ /_ / _ / __ / / _ _ . n _" _.. . Shock-wave pressure Pressure pulses / / _\\_ \\_ M = 0. _-" / ] / just barely out racing the dmturbance _-_/ Pressure pulses cannot outrace disturbance .Shock-wave formation..{{_: _i{i::ii: . 84.75 / ) .air in front has no warning of particle (or airplane) approach 1 j (b) Nearing Mach 1./- Pressure move pulses away Disturbanee__ f tom sour Pressure ce i_ Disturbance at rest putses" // begin to [ pile up -J \\ _ _/_ _" • t-Pressure left by / _ D_ isturbance. Figure f/fil/1Utl//fl t Subsonie/J ._ransonie .2 3 Maeh number 5 6 7 Figure 85. (c) Mach 1..- Flight regime terminology. 105 .

waves heat. and wing speeds drag composed The drag represented coefficient However. drag. . at these matter.. of the flow ficient shock lished. than energy and to the induced transonic range range. / Due 2_ . regime.. though "Sound Barr[er"-__ r\ / \ / ?o \\ \ / "_ ]/ _. The encountered or for that are drag wave erable of the drag part airplane increases is due of the from part of the airplane. Figure The coefficient can be divided and wave of induced infamous that into two categories: drag to lift) shows provide early speeds. to fly supersonically transonic the airplane is encountered. high any of shock into speeds is called wave rises drag.. to the pressure increase in the total distribution. (even The a supersonic flow has estab86 total flow stabilizes of an airplane supersonic the drag drag coefficient with is reduced...0 Figure 106 86._.... . and less higher show (1) zeroof zero (or drag composed of skin-friction drag due (or pressure-related) drag "sound (drag barrier" must In the to higher decreases. a real and the barrier drag thrust of tranOnce past is flight. coefficient l° wave drag ...- Variation of wing drag coefficient with Mach number. was induced composed drag the airplane of three (or drag due to be in motion skin-friction at subdrag. these definitions in mind. further increases which sharply This a considseparation and large in thrust unstable necessary formation to obtain in speed. there changes This drag to lift). thrust to fly supersonically. toward may due lift and (2) lift-dependent drag 86 since maximum the sound and wave up rather enough days pressure-related) clearly to exceed sonic in figure the to lift. the variation at transonic and the and is greater general because flow instabilities.=_ /-Drag-divergence / Mach number 0 Mach number 1. the transforms available the airplane propulsive surfaces. drag At transonic of the airplane and supersonic due to funda- is a substantial in the increase wing. one may now examine was main considered components in a little more detail the speeds. shows drag lift Throughout in the supersonic Once the of the drag erratic been coef- of the airplane formation however...With flow sonic pressure speeds mental at high speeds. Mach number. the drag increases as it proceeds the drag coefficient supersonic a decrease). barrier the drag the transonic required speeds. Drag and Up to now..

As the freestream Mach number is increased beyondthe critical Mach number andcloser to Mach 1.7 to 0. As the flow must speedup as it proceeds aboutthe airfoil. of propulsive on the the speed than wave occurs in drag energy airplane localized as wave nacelles. boundary large a shock (pressure discontinuity). it must pass by an an These where. was achieved goal.8. There eventually occurs a freestream Machnumber called the critical Machnumber at which a sonic point appears somewhereon the airfoil surface. that is. usually near the point of maximumthickness and indicates that the flow at that point has reachedMach 1 (fig.There is a famous little story. 87(b)). airflow the wave the shocks due to curmust drag shock. surface shock-induced separation is reduced. It is a large loss in propulsive energy due to the formation of shocks that causes wavedrag. of insufficient The but early prototype flight It will speed F-102A that will be limited was originally by the drag-divergence as a supersonic it would for this never airplane designed interceptor achieve through this indicated later because of high drag. etc. anywhere fuselage. separation. the airfoil itself parclose At to one where a free-stream nose. Another case of perpetual motion. larger andlarger regions of supersonic flow appear on the airfoil surface (fig. Mach (fig. allel Most to the in supersonic than greater around to realine of the body is in supersonic and stabilize. may of velocity This heat is accompanied represents drag. 107 . Convair tests further its increases required to produce in airplane If an airplane an engine number. condition accounts increase The is known number as shock-induced at which the drag Mach (boundary-layer) coefficient number. 87(c)).) in temperature. a bow shock flow. be presented engine exceeds For to subsonic flow. a production which (wing. 87(d) large Mach shows regions number airfoil the are character of the flow at a free-stream flow and the 1. 87(a)). and the The flow shocks appears begins are Mach very number strong. of the Large speed. The flow is subsoniceverywhere (fig. compressibility effects have only minor effects on the flow pattern anddrag. of the pilot who flew his plane beyondthe soundbarrier andthen got trapped there becauseof insufficient reverse thrust to get back below the speedof sound. airplane increases in free-stream markedly increases thrust has Mach are the drag-divergence any thrust. the local Mach number at the airfoil surface will be higher than the free-stream Mach number.0 and the flow of sound transonic would interacts be estimated with a loss layer of energy so that This through a separation the boundary the layer immediately which Mach is called behind shock. from and thickness. number 88(a)). below is greater the shock the 1. Up to a free-stream Mach number of about0. be explained how success proper Figure redesigning. untrue of course. figure 87 showsthis shock formation about an airfoil. of the for a through increase expenditure appear vature decelerate increase In fact. In order for this supersonic flow to return This loss of heat.

wraPoSs_°en_/// / (d) Figure This condition than forces shock results transonic in lower flow and drag there 87. to probe the sound With where proper flying configurations posed little gradually evolved to the point the transonic region or no difficulty in terms of wing buffeting lift(fig. 108 . barrier. 88(b)). The This result This sends is that condition unsteady surfaces of both types of the airplane. may in transonic jump back the wing tail flow is unsteady the surface.Shock (leads wave formation to wave drag) Sao = °8 point(M= 1.ock / Supersomc . pulsing the pilot occurred design. especially however.85 Subsonic = .90 Subsonic Subsonic Subsonic Supersonic (c) flow Subsonic A M_ = .0) 0 Subsonic Subsonic flow everywhere (Critical Mach number) Subsonic (b) (a) Supersonic rsonic M_ Moo = .Bows. Supersonic theories flow is more that flow. and controls. surface the Often. and forth can predict the wellthe aero- coefficients. are adequate behaved dynamic and the thus feels and moments waves and back and first present.95 \ Subsonic s \. through or loss of on the body separating to the tail vibration airplane along disrupting flow a buffeting in the airplane flow over wing surface.Shock formation.

the drag-divergence aerodynamic velocities drag.6 I transonic flight. increasing drag-divergence forward or back (3) Low-aspect-ratio (4) Removal of boundary and vortex generators 109 ._ F-100 f e_ (1954) / . b_ / x 0.0 I 1._ (1949) _ X-15 (1964) i. Supersonic may delay of novel characteristics.= 0. airfoils of the wing wing layer drag These a number the the transonic (or equivalently.8 Mach number i 1."_---------M>I (a) Total aircraft shocks.4 e. $ h_ F-84 0. the same Mach number What this available of ways of to a to 1 is a fascinating is the ability before closer of thin of sweep subject to fly at near-sonic large rise include wave encountering wave to 1).2 (b) Improving Figure The question value really engine delaying Mach closer suggests thrust number (1) Use (2) Use as to whether 88. e. There with are designs.

by three etc. than flow is roughly airfoil thicker pro- of the around thickness-chord the airfoil If a thinner those section airpoint the flow one speeds may will be less Mach for the Thus. ratio If the wing new to angle are A. appears of using subsonic tural shows the (fig.(5) Supercritical These methods Thin portional is used.) the wing encounters of thickness airfoil maximum been reduced. is an early and . roots II0 has sections has to the wing. past support the armament used than a thicker over have the Figure airfoil have was sections increased. are and area-rule technology individually. a thinner as the in which and The. the same previously. wave drag possible speed untrained drag. now discussed The wave drag airfoils: to the square rise associated ratio with transonic (t/c). perpendicularly to some that In figure approaching is now swept airfoil chord section number delayed results. and they can accommodate stations.S. Additionally. sweep speeds. that section number Busemann on the is delayed transonic in particular. foil. critical number these sweep. from 91 shows experimental as a wing effect is swept to a high degree using with of sweep. to a greater who proposed wing Sweep: reduce shock reduces confirming One section (t/c the waves the It was effects in 1935 A swept flow sweep the may delay and of compressibility. are desired Forward Mach (at which to higher Figure appears) the drag-divergence will Mach accomplish forward Sweepforward a modern however. jet in the or sweepback airplane stability employing disadvantages.) (wing wing. struc89(a) As are (in terms less structure produced) fuel range members. will thicken In the case of sweepback. designed lift. more point time One is effectively to adjust to the using situation. but was was penalized with low subsonic high and the effect the drag landing of using divergence of this airplane Figure particularly 90 illustrates that common pilots. A major wing. fly at a higher one reaches that they free-stream number Mach before a sonic The and before thin wings speed the drag-divergence are less effective number. were the the minimum landing among decreased. flow has a sonic values. mishaps a thinner Mach Adolf U. value. in transonic over all Mach will delay Mach formation of the it encountered wave this drag result view the to a higher Figure no sweep number. fighters ratios three decades. The F-104 speeds 89(b)) the thickness-chord to achieve As a result. data numbers. 93 shows (See fig. of sweep than longer a typical flow over The section. of lift disadvantages in the tanks. airfoil may of sweep 92(a) of a wing a straight Notice as effectively wing is shown airfoil a thinner the airflow reduced). 92(b). and handling characteristics at low disadvantage layer of swept wings is that toward there the tips there is a spanwise for sweepback flow along and toward separation the the and the boundary for sweepforward. Notice.

Thin airfoils.0 Figure 90. Figure 89.5 number I I . number. MUD .18 O t/c= .104G airplane. drag divergence III .Chord P-51 (1940' s) Thickness _-r _ZZZZzzz_- F-86 (1950' s) T (a) Changes Very F-104 (1960' s) in airfoil thin wings sections. q = Constant. Lift = 0. I .o6 I 0 Mach A . t/c = . i i 1. (b) F.- Effect of airfoil thickness on transonic Mach drag.

on wing I (a) Unswept wing (b) Swept wing Chord v_ [- Chord swept [ Figure 92.transonic Effects drag of sweep coefficient.- Sweep reduces effective thickness-chord ratio.8 . 112 .1 Mach number Figure 91.0 1.0.05 I 40 ° Sweep I 49 1/4 ° Sweep 0 .9 1.10 0° Sweep 10 1/2 ° Sweep 0.7 .

which are thin plates parallel to the axis of symmetry of the airplane.-%_ _ _ Vortex generators (b) Figure 94. 94(a). stall of the wing-tip sections andthe ailerons lose their roll control effectiveness.- Stall fences and vortex generators..Figure 93.HFB 320Hansa Jet with forward sweep... In this manner a strong boundarylayer buildup over the ailerons is prevented. Stall fence Wing (a) Mig-19 __.. The spanwiseflow may be reducedby the use of stall fences..) Wing twist is another possible solution to this spanwiseflow condition. (Seefig. 113 .

increased advantages lift is reduced. the of the supercritical wing two the near Mach has airfoil. the transonic airfoil as shown airfoil in figure high 96. The surface new is greatly delay represents decreased. Supercritical and area-rule technology: One of the more recent developmentsin transonic technologyanddestined to be an important influence on future wing design is the NASAsupercritical wing developedby Dr. permits at lower . A substantial rise in the drag-divergence Mach number is realized. a thicker weight at lower wing and section divergence without numbers. Removal or reenergizing the boundarylayer: By bleeding off some of the boundary layer along an airfoil's surface. mountedalong the surface of a wing and protruding perpendicularly to the surface as shownin figure 94(b). They are small wings. This condition reduces the adverse pressure gradients andprevents the boundarylayer from stalling. A small increase in the drag-divergence Mach number can be achieved. performance. of the separation This a flattened closer and strength shocks to a point Additionally. Substantialincreases in the critical Machnumber occur whenusing an aspect ratio less than aboutfour. the generators feed high-energy air from outside the boundarylayer into the slow moving air inside the boundarylayer. However. penalty. number shock-induced even up to 0. the drag-divergence Mach number can be increased.Low aspect ratio: The wing's aspect ratio is another parameter that influences the critical Mach number andthe transonic drag rise. This methodis economically beneficial to airplanes designedfor cruise at the highest possible drag-divergence Mach number. (supercritical arated same tion boundary Mach Figure 95(a) beyond layer. supercritical This airfoil permits structural to be used higher 114 lift a drag speeds. Because However. Whitcomb of the NASA Langley Research Center. a major is delayed airplane increase in commercial curvature of a wing gives the wing its lift. from previous discussions. The shows the a classical critical 95(b) has Mach shows airfoil number) operating with near the Mach 1 region and sepits associated airfoil which edge. permits Mach Alternatively. This increase results from the reduction or elimination of shock interactions betweenthe subsonicboundarylayer andthe supersonic flow outside of it. Richard T. First. Mach shocks operating delays the Figure airfoil the supercritical upper to the The surface trailing critical at the formathe number. upper this. trailing of the flattened to counteract edge. low-aspect-ratio wings are at a disadvantageat subsonic speedsbecauseof the higher induceddrag.99. subsonic drag by using cruise thickness-chord 1 before the the supercritical drag airfoil reduces rise. Vortex generators are small plates. camber at the supercritical There are main same of the supercritical ratio. andby creating a strong tip vortex.

obtained nal axis changes area when ruling cross-sectional area of the airplane which is smooth is made longitudino abrupt can be projected in cross body section position. concept also developed 1950's for by technology of NASA Langley is the Research in the early transonic later applied states to supersonic that minimum distribution in general. of the cross-sectional curve. and supersonic along and the shows drag is Basically. _ Separated boundary l_ayer (a) Classical Weak shock _Smaller airfoil. Whitcomb airplanes area the and 96. curve length.- Two uses of supercritical "area-rule" Center flight transonic wing. ( _M cruise 15"{ r_ _9 Thickness-chord ratio Figure Coupled Dr. Richard to supercritical T. into a body along its of revolution Or.I trong shock ---. if a graph is smooth.Classical and airfoil. separated boundary layer ( (b) Supercritical Figure 95. 115 against the resulting If it is not a smooth . supercritical airfoils.

Figure 97(b)showsthe F-102A with a coke-bottle-waist-shaped fuselage and bulges addedaft of the wing on each side of the tail to give a better area-rule distribution. transport a super- concept numbers of cruising wing is used. In addition 98 shows Notice this The configuration obtained and the smooth are resulting indicates to a cross-sectional now is completely and drag divergence and delayed that the shape is near optimum.fuselage _ o_ [eal ____ Actual Ideal _ /Actual Nose Body station Tail Nose Body station Tail (a) YF-102A before area ruling. ll6 .the Convair F-102A. as shownin the plot. near-sonic Mach number. Figure 97 presents the classic example of the application of this concept. Figure Recently. 97. Figure 97(a) showsthe original form of the F-102A andthe cross-sectional area plotted against bodystation. Area ruling. area 0. to design a near-sonic to area ruling. savedthe airplane from this fate. Bulges at rear_ _ /-Indent. however. airplane.99.Area has around the curve shocks ruling been (b) F-102A of F-102A applied after area ruling. capable critical the area-rule at Mach Figure plot. But early tests indicated that supersonic flight was beyond its capability becauseof excessive transonic drag andthe project was aboutto be canceled. The F-102A was then able to reach supersonic speedsbecauseof the greatly reduced drag andentered military service in great numbers. Notice that the curve is not very smoothas there is a large increase in cross-sectional area whenthe wings are encountered.then the cross section is changedaccordingly. The original Convair F-102A was simply a scaled-upversion of the XF-92A with a pure delta wing.

98. e_ /-- Completely smooth surve o t / I \ % / Figure / Body station \ Near-sonic \ area ruling.--'-_-.- transport 117 .

118 .

the disadvantages or low aspect of trailing-edge For and of attack straight-wing and reduced not have for example. the a straight drag advan- (no sweep) that becomes wing has drag. Figure 102 shows of aerodynamic and swept-wing efficiency. Sweepback supersonic dominant. 103 shows swing-wing But technolog- is the advances solving these Figure a variety of modern airplanes employing a swing-wing. One of the also. are in the proper applicable design. wing tage may approach the total of even rapidly causes to increase 101 shows wing and. swept back Mach with cone. 99 demonstrates Mach is subsonic 100) has swept at still edge numbers. above in shape it was 1. airplane. cruise and these an airplane is designed it would is the logic to be multimission. flow becomes wing increasingly back As long as over most of is swept behind the the wing sweep loss and relatively but also low drag. cone) that the a bow 88. returns will exist to the discussion of shock Mach formation. (L/D)max. can in a multimissioned airplanes weight individually. the airplane in designing to fly with drag regime. numbers a cone Figure increasing there (fig. and complexity problems total major sweep drawback mechanisms. role. SUPERSONIC FLOW The through directly supersonic previous discussion has centered mainly Many on the transonic of the techniques minimum drag used wave rise also and how. wing.) In as it Mach If one shock three extends cone the wave for free-stream dimensions. the drag Figure a swept numbers. leading to compensate supersonic a highly swept of lift usually the This Mach condition experienced cone in sweepback. has over qualitatively at higher Mach a straight or delta numbers. in fact. be advantageous for the variable subsonic wing Mach supersonic wing design. which cruise. This a measure straight-wing configurations swing-wing better airplane ical than angles The wave They used primarily Mach drag lift. greater wing A delta area wing the advantage wing higher of a large for the Mach delta angle than a simple But. a straight against effectiveness disadvantages.VI. include for been preferable. does in the interest numbers.0. high flaps. back from the bow shock the nose is in reality (a Mach of the airplane. not necessarily it is evident over the in their capability the other added are respective an airplane speed of the regime. it may be delayed. (due to small of minimizing wing span At subsonic high induced maximum airplane however. speed number an optimum to the optimum with be a Although regimes. 119 . shown (See that fig. to combine sweep plotted swept for equal that or swing-wing. transonic and are ratio).

cambered drag and improve Conical bow shock M_= 1. lift drag minimized slender.3 F-100D Conical bow shock_ 1_= 2. 120 .- Mach cone and use of sweep. area supersonic ruling. the spanwise Also wave long. distribution.0 English Lightning Figure 99.In addition may also be to low-aspect-ratio by fuselages employing minimize wings thin at wings supersonic and also using speeds.

wing __ Straight ¢) Swept / '.F-106 Figure 100. St raight-wi ng Swept-back advantage __ J 1.- Wing design drag coefficients as functions of Mach number. 121 .5 Mach number I 2.- Delta-wing airplane.0 1.0 Figure 101.

-1 10 _ Optimum swept wing ! ! J 0 1.0 Mach number 2.0 3.25 2O 15 . .- Variation of (L/D)ma x with Mach number.0 Figure 102.-Ji ¢_::! Mirage III G F-14A Figure 103._'l. Variable sweep airplane. 122 .- Modern variable-sweep airplanes.

competition. President Kennedycommitted this nation to "developat the earliest practical date the prototype of a commercially successful supersonictransport superior to that being built in any other country in the world . whereas. flight. the doubledelta experiences a ground-cushion effect which allows for lower landing speeds. 104(a))to counteract pitch down.. Boeing initially chosea swing-wing design. Lockheedchoseto go with a fixed-wing delta design. Figure 106showsthe British-French Concorde wing called and the Russian wing. uses They use a variation concept of the double delta in the ogee subsonic the vortex-lift for improvement low. Eventually.Lockheed (b) Lockheed SST configurations. 104(b))and the canards were no longer needed. 105(a))increase lift as shownin figure 105(b). too. the Lockheeddesign useda double-delta configuration (fig..speed -Canards lble delta I i (a) Lockheed CL-823. NASAdid considerablework. starting in 1959. andultimately rejection of the supersonic transport (SST)by the United States.The SST On June 5. The swing-wing can maintain the airplane balance andcounteract the pitch-down motion. 123 . This meansthat many flaps and slats could be reducedor done awaywith entirely anda simpler wing design was provided. Figure 104. In landing. This design proved to have many exciting aerodynamic advantages. 1963in a speechbefore the graduating class of the United StatesAir Force Academy. One problem associatedwith the SSTis the tendencyof the noseto pitch down as it flies from subsonic to supersonic flight.on basic configurations for the SST. double delta. This is important since three-quarters of the airplane accidents occur in take-off andlanding. prototypes. TU-144 It. There evolved four basic types of layout which were studied further by private industry. " What lay aheadwas years of development. controversy. At low speedsthe vortices trailing from the leading edgeof the double delta (fig.and it remains to be seenwhether the British-French Concordeor Russian TU-144 designs will prove to be economically feasible andacceptableto the public. Lockheedneededto install canards (small wings placed toward the airplane nose (fig.. The forward delta begins to generatelift supersonically (negating pitch down).

(a) Vortices on double delta wing. design cruise further advantages coefficient Lifting increase vortices design the due to vortices.75 to 8. of the swing-wing 124 .S. design. U.with Figure designs. Nonlinear coefficient vortices excess lift due to on wing Angle of attack (b) Lift Figure Ultimately. from Boeing 105. as the winner design to meet the Boeing originally airline of the derived payload a swing-wing 107 shows The changes lift-drag size were selected of this grew into from impinging SST competition. engines faces. rear tail sur- aft to alleviate previously did not appear quoted a swing-wing Because technologimech- cal advances in construction in time. of double was delta wing.2 and the on the concept. one of the NASA Major supersonic moved the evolution airplane of the requirements. The were Despite incorporated increased exhaust for 2707-100 ratio the 6.

Russian TU-144 Figure i06.- Evolution of Boeing SST design. and Russian SST airplanes.- British-French. 125 . Model 733-197 Model 733-790 Model 2707-100 Y I ' _ Model 2707-300 Figure 10'/.

7. is still the at One such the British-French into advanced and Russian in the TU-144 United fly. structure Boeing due to engine placement. tion of payload Figure and environmental While continuing Concorde M = 2. research States.4. .2 a cruise are being analyzed.anisms and beefed-up resulted.2 to 2. to cancel 107 shows the final factors configuration led the United Concorde in 1972. tested NASA Langley Center is shown in figure Figure 126 108. 108. cruised and TU-144 configurations at the and the Boeing M = 3. the project Political.- Langley advanced SST design. economic. design had no recourse adopted States - but to adopt a fixed-wing the B2707-300. incurable problems in reducconcept. speed Research of Whereas. design supersonic cruise with at transports M = 2.

109. with increasing with increasing that generation. 127 .Sonic-boom The such spheric sonic boom. (See fig. angle or the overpressures of attack. conditions. (bow shock) leading from to be "N" and edges. as shown. atmospheric As shown of attack first overpressures sectional decrease area. cross-sectional and terrain. airplane Bow shock Tail shock underpressures Overpressures with distance decay and Overpressure -Underpressure "N" shaped pulses Figure 109.) shock). the cause as airplane turbulence. area.. tend The two main Shock to merge resulting on the one at the nose off the canopy. in figure and crossand then by factors atmo110. this pulse pulse changes is felt appear To an observer pressure as an abrupt below The compression atmospheric change jolt takes atmospheric and a final followed by a rapid to atmospheric and is felt decompression pressure. angle and are controlled Mach number. altitude. the airshaped generates (tail etc. above pressure place off the airplane tail shock-wave an airplane supersonically." formation shock to as the of the To explain about waves. them. sonic to a description A typical one plane. airplane altitude. with will increase will decrease increase increasing Mach number. pressure ground. flying one transport must return is of the problems boom. and heard recompression or less total in one-tenth of a second as a double or boom. shocks some waves with coming the main wing distance engine nacelles.Sonic One commonly of the referred more objectionable "sonic Boom facing any supersonic boom.

are refracted In a normal Figure in this The strongest atmospheric that with decreasing sures away and travel from decreases 111 shows normal sonic side the directions that they will in which at some beneath the overprespoint the curve case and the Earth.I heard _ _Maximum boom on ground Figure 111. 128 . aftershocks. profile the cause speed and thus lessen in the atmosphere boom or. set directly airplane to note where that on either may of the flight the It is interesting waves locally a turning they supersonic the airplane ground concentrate of shock intersect and produce a superboom. sonic-boom the overpressures. Orthogonals shock refracted (normal waves) by to -Supersonic airplane Stratosphere _/.- Factors affecting may other smooth hand.(_?:S_)_: _W ropopau s e t///_i:_:_/( _ Troposphere Boom .1 f 6 Angle of attack o O9 0 Cross-sectional area 1 Altitude Mach number Figure Turbulence the impact Reflections post-boom of the of the 110. on the "N" wave amplify may the may in fact overpressures. altitude. multiple of sound booms increases or overpressures by terrain and buildings profile. to nothing boom is felt path.- Refraction of shock waves.

129 . The effects run from structural damage (cracked building plaster and broken windows) down to heightened tensions and annoyance of the citizenry. for SST operation. the world's airlines have been forbidden to operate supersonically over the continental United States. This necessitates. that supersonic flightbe limited to overwater operations. Research for ways in which to reduce the sonic boom continues. For this reason.Perhaps the greatest concern expressed about the sonic boom is its effecton the public.

130 .

they placed Otherwise. BEYOND THE SUPERSONIC Hypersonic Hypersonic although magnitude research First. that most the they part. exhibited shows the much highly of this swept Figure design delta tips 112 shows The X-20 control. hypersonic therefore required. for design. by using Aerodynamic flight new The most normal heating metals is a major problem. little Up to now spacecraft control over the landing and followed forces entries recovery . studies Fig- are ure being conducted by NASA to obtain the basic necessary 113 shows Propulsion is another prospect Mach does problem at hypersonic The ramjet speeds. the body used no drastic have airplane. so that they for hypersonic dynamic pressure be strategically to operate. an efficient pulsion method. are effects may increase. the shock seriously boundary the air been flight is arbitrarily are defined evident Flight as flight to define at speeds this. Secondly. would in today's airplanes quickly materials or methods of the that can withstand leading edge the high-temperature of the airplane to obtain surfaces a good wing temperature degree wing be reduced ratio. may these shocks. Additionally.VII. that it has would Bodies long been enable the recognized crew have site. airplanes research has will be ineffective. at high This is the ramjet numbers away with the engine. across strong of a drastic For temperature sustained melt. and the speeds only by rockets formidable problems and spacecraft are back about NASA X-15 speeds. that designs the of reencraft to a near and 131 be found to maneuver reentered Large a great with distance. beyond Mach 5 of this flow changes achieved Several waves To date. wing and the NASA X-15 reentry craft airplane control surfaces out on the wing for effective Although hypersonic hypersonic major flight transport is a long way knowledge (HST). engine the air Economically. works for on the the prinin pro- most ciple the promising that engine. shock waves compress parts and in this combustion many is also moving represents field. NASA research continuing Lifting Because tering landing ballistic spacecraft from of the must cost and safety. in nature. commercial a proposed two proposed modified Dynasoar hypersonic that philosophy. for example. sufficient approaching if shielded flow by the fuselage. flight about a high design of sweepback. Control encounter from the lift-drag a flat-plate must them is used. encountered at such at these angle the generated with are by a body trail a high For interact layers undergoes the boundary highly turbulent layers the body. from being realized.

drag NASA has Starting in the late more lift have involved in designing They that produce bodies. and yet resemble but obtain lift spacecraft. however.. aircraft Proposed hypersonic transport 1950's.Examples of hypersonic designs. lifting for they no wings of their 132 .necessary. because are called body shapes.Figure 112. ° sport Figure operations been were usually 113. than (HST).

payloads The booster to and stage in figure consists tank stage return of two recoverable used by the orbiter llS(b) rockets and a large nonrecoverable into orbit. and it now has a double-delta a more Northrop M2-F3 Northrop HL- 10 Martin X-24B Martin X-24A J Figure The sonic speed lifting ranges bodies being flight-tested 114. nose. optimum 10+ and. how control Representative is the over ratio aid in the of more benefiting advanced from of a new Shuttle. shaped sesses shape a flat pointed Research Center at hypersonic is flat topped a rounded lift-drag Langley and combines at subsonic Center of stability The HL-10 speeds with high by the lifting body trim developed at Mach belly. to developing The basic a lowdesign of delivering is shown returning l15(a). with M2 vehicle belly ratios developed the NASA Ames advantages speeds. is very top and a flat The different the previous Rebuilt two since as the X-24B. generation of vehicles primarily this research Space Space The cost settled solid-fuel stage method upon Space Shuttle represents and the United Shuttle States' commitment from orbit. the subsonic may and low superlanding exploring the lift-drag to show vehicles.Figure teristics 114 shows four of the shapes of this unusual being tested to evaluate The the handling type characat the and flight qualities concept. external The orbit fuel orbiter and engines to complete part of the the boost total vehicle shown to Earth in figure is the actual to go into to a controlled 133 .- Lifting are bodies. like planform the HL-10. NASA Research is it posin has to provide a rounded from bottom. it is more rounded although it. Martin in contrast Marietta to the X-24A M2 vehicle.

part of the numerous aerodynamic The hypersonic landing capability attack - research orbiter flight (fig. as well as stability The cle must considerations of the and mission land like both at low and high is an area of great concern. and landing be able control phase recovery by parachutes. There range of the Space Shuttle the centered are evident.-Delta-wing- orbiter (a) Space Shuttle. orbiter are vehi- to deorbit a conventional with this airplane. as the of dynamic solid-fuel pressures boosters staging aerodynamics. The There mission. high The and phase. Figure landing. to supersonic boost phase the such is covered. 2000 reenters the atmosphere to concentrate of This angle of attack is used maximum 134 . mission from ated Aerodynamic when subsonic with the dynamic interest pressures 115. boost entire some and landing range unique stages of the about The are of Mach problems acting numbers associon the vehicle. Mach numbers.Liquid fuel _. orbiter a side-to-side at a high the of about about 30 °. problems l15(b)) associated uses a double-delta still provide the wing for orbiter configuration a good has lift-drag to optimize ratio in the range angle the characteristics With this lift-drag km. capability. Cargo bay _ udder (b) Orbiter.

a reaction system. to slow open to act as a speed The Space Shuttle brake is deployed to aerodynamic into to a stop. On landing. pressure and splits ailerons builds.aerodynamic tection control become parachute challenge further heating on the underside In the upper of the vehicle where the greatest attitude to control thermal is controlled tail and proby (to roll) and a a is provided. to come flight. control and yaw) reaches elevators rudder orbiter of the atmosphere. elevons but as the (combined the the dynamic the vertical pitch effective. represents for probing research for years and is a stimulus the unknowns of high-speed 135 .

136 .

tile thrust or constant velocity (unac- horizontal that lift it is easily the thrust seen must must To fly at constant equal the drag.VIII. it is relatively easy to follow the results of the application of the fundamentalforces on a complete airplane. one Expanding obtains (25) and combining condition 137 . All the motions may be groupedinto oneof three classes: (1) unacceleratedlinear flight. For equal it is assumed to be horizontal. the conceptsof lift anddrag were explored extensively to discover howthese forces arise. will be made. to be consideredfirst. in curved flight another force. that The 117 shows to the along flight path Earth's this and for plane. Additionally. In the interest of brevity. andthrust. celerated) The weight. must be sufficient closely. only the simplest. it is usually considered the standard on before the force surface condition of an airplane.flight. and (3) hovering flight. PERFORMANCE In the earlier discussions. Performance. the centrifugal force. but probably the most important. drag. weight. As indicated earlier. to produce that there a lift equivalent to the of veloc- velocity If one which it with of the airplane this may examines the the plane statement fly straight that Lift it says is a range equation and level. With these basic ideas in mind. (2) accelerated and/or curved flight. ities over acts occur been and level only touched unaccelerated a small flight section but some system (cruise flight). is basically the effects that the application of these forces have on the flight path of the airplane. considered later. aspects of airplane flight are considered. = Weight. Performance of an airplane is a very broad subject and much could be written on it alone. is the effect that these forces have over a short term on the attitude of the airplane itself. there are four basic forces that act on an airplane . Motions of an Airplane Figure 116illustrates the various flight conditions encounteredby an airplane. design comments and level Although it is very straight important This and level since con- over of the total in the additional for straight simplicity the flight weight. flight. Class 1 Motion Straight flight dition may has Figure is horizontal always altitude.these include lift. appears. Stability and control. For performance purposes the airplane is assumedto possessstability and a workable control system. therefore.

Maneuver (or combat) Maneuver (or combat) Descent turn _lP Indicates flight direction linear and/or flight curved flight _Unaccelerated. flying speed straight also is limited This condition requires angle of attack.max. [III]ffm]Accelerated Figure 116. is operating and decreases. 138 . of speed near by the CL that that may for S air density V_ p_. CL at level increases. flight a small be accomplished by a decrease and level The from the wing for the stall thrust and hence angle.1 Weight = _ p_V_2CL If it is assumed one easily observes which flying that value is. Minimum CL. flight occurs the wing in the wing when lift coefficient angle of attack.- Airplane flight conditions. available a small maximum the engine. as the velocity straight constant. and wing area S are (36) the weight.

flight systems unaccelerated for the assumed climb cases ascent (climb) or descent (dive).- Figure 119 illustrates climb direction or or of an airplane the thrust angle line in a straight.. Low speed (a) Straight and level - low speed. Lift = Weight. the force dive. at low speedsto fly straight andlevel the airplane angle of attack is large (fig. been The that or descent is given If the 139 .Speed and effects level - high speed. Thrust = Drag.In conclusion. Lift Thrust Flight path Weight F-106 horizontal to ground Figure 117. and level flight. l18(a)) whereas for high speeds the airplane angle of attack is small (fig. It has path. respectively. 118(b)).- Straight and level flight. on straight Straight. Need to less generate angle same of attack lift Horizontal z Flight path High speed (b) Straight Figure 118. lies by along +_ the or constant-velocity free-stream ->.

equal path. . ascent and descent. J J J Horizontal (b) Dive.+ y (Horizontal _ Weight t (a) Climb. unaccelerated. it is seen that the Unaccelerated perpendicular to the flight One obtains is resolved L=W cos y= into two components. helps In the the thrust of the dive the condition drag along path by reducing constant velocity. In the the the lift (Dive) equals of the the climb component condition component the component (37) (38) (39) of to T = D + W sin y T =D +W To maintain weight maintain retarding weight for 140 a straight sin (-y) =D- climbing to the velocity motion the flight the (or diving) path thrust (eq. Figure forces weight are force summed parallel 119. W cos (-y) (Climb or dive) (Climb) W siny flight (37)).and unaccelerated. path. must perpendicular a constant the forward component case drag case plus a weight of the flight airplane.

and First. = 90 °. Thus. a hill.- vertical Concluded. (apply thrust This more gas" to climb at constant to the the situcar to dive "give going at constant it the and down three level the gas" "let is analogous to prevent less thrust) where down speeding thrust) (use up a hill up on the to prevent up when also _. special flight. = Weight (L = W) and hence = Drag cos the _. = 0 (39). weight condition cases climb derived Secondly the thrust of the angle use of equations that climb to climb for a ver119(c). conditions in a vertical necessary Also. sin _. the previously (T = D). = 1 to the equals drag zero y = 0. = 1. hence It is interesting (38). and vertically tical climb. in figure Horizontal / = 90 ° Thru Weight Drag_ (c) Unaccelerated Figure 119. 141 . airplane This is equal the lift (T = D + W). (37). is shown (L = 0). and sin Lift _. climb.The conclusion velocity ation from the and of a car slowing car from use less is that thrust one must in going one must use an increased velocity. cos to examine and yields This in straight Thrust and plus V is zero.

varies of the airplane of attack the lift-drag results. for (not to be confused angle of attack glide for which angle and minimum ratio of the flight path). drag the aerodynamic unchanged with the In a glide L = W cos weight. with the This any other hence. angle of attack. its 121.The equals lift and simplified. ground-roll say. The airplane motion and the and curved 2 Motion flight is considered. to get but unless lift-drag the descent will be steeper Class Class cases 2 accelerated landing. needed (2) the obstacle. banked. to consist of three climbout off distance distance. it is under may acceleration. the airplane this gives a steeper (increase maximum It is a natural to try tendency maximum to raise angle of attack) ratio. climbout The total From after takespecifically for the of take-off. is then angle is a particular is a maximum. (50-ft) be considered distance. range. parts: distance motion. the lift-drag efficiency is the maximum. Take-off. For maximum glide pilot range instead. final condition It is therefore to be discussed necessary Equation is gliding to balance (37) remains flight. airplane.turn. but equation yg (40) (41) D = W sin Vg as shown in figure 120(a). (42) In nonmathematical maximum drag sess air the with this ratio currents lift-drag the ratio glide gliding range. and hence The liftposrely on 120(b). design as shown Sailplanes since they in figure is a measure lift-drag them to keep ratio angle of the aerodynamic ratios aloft. nose the with For angle the greatest excellent a particular of attack There the angle aerodynamic airplane. a 15. If one divides equation (40) by equation (41). the result is L _ D tan 1 _g language is obtained this means when that the smallest ratio of the glide angle.25-m transition and (3) the 142 .- constant-altitude is a case roll to the take-off begins of an airplane its take-off continuous the instant the leaving the ground.) (1) the over. glide the is less and the for a is increased. In gliding flight reaction the thrust forces (39) is of zero. of accelerated time it begins (See fig.

I' 4 J 8 J 12 a.g W sin _.Lift Flight path 'L Weight \ cos _.4 r_ _or%_=_u_=_e p_ o_ 2O _Jl _ e _ 10 0 0 0 ) -'JO / -4 I 0 u. 3O 12. (b) Glide aerodynamic Figure 120.g (a) Unaeeelerated glide conditions.0 --. 143 .. 16 20 24 j 28 | angle of attack characteristics.- Glide characteristics.

to the In addition landing acting lift and under to thrust.AB A-37 Viggen . decreases 20 percent velocity. 144 . 122 shows and lift. climbout (38)) (37) and in this //" L I I SA.- Forces acting during take-off ground roll. The during frictional is a rolling direction force of the airplane forces down (thrust in a horizontal the runway. forces to zero at liftoff... At the its end of transition. the forces there 121. velocity The and pitch for attitude safety) 10 percent above is reached the airplane leaves point of Rolling airplane the is "rotated" lift quickly drop gear the for or pitched exceeds the increases attack. and the total drag greatly above The the ordi- as the landing stall nary velocity. the airplane airplane's the ground. The remains airplane in a horizontal stall up. ground as dynamic is still no winds). ground due roll. friction weight.t f //11 Z'-_ ///I/ Rolling _resistance Weight //// Rollins resistance II/I/I/I11 Figure 122.. airplane climb begins (eqs.acting Total take-off the distance. pressure exceeding airplane the is equal to the net force roll. Acting to accelerate drag are and lift At the beginning zero total (assuming retarding the of the force).Figure Figure weight. the net acceleration and drag (about the the velocity until increases some velocity at which angle build. sum the zero drag. equations is retracted. gear. usually apply about at constant case.

rollout. retard the may be reduced is a limit to their devices. aircraft hook usual landing a cable mechanical across to large the in the flight structural of the arresting Deceleration on the airplane swift and engaging is exceedingly the airplane is subjected 145 . drag condition For may is accomplished ground roll during by using landing the flaps acting propellers is retarding. operation used occurs lift condition thrust end of the rollout. touchdown lift equals it is assumed The previous that the vertical about velocity flaps is near indicates they zero that discussion velocity. or The fig- is negative. which 123. for large commercial reversible the thrust for and military pitch force airplanes. more on the wings into the normal air force to "dump" The to prevent increases is zero rebounding as the touchdown. forces. of high takes Some off in the provide this minimum a means method of a second represent short a transitory periods. distance. in a matter of a catapult. the airplane rolling usually from friction the or.vertical touchdown Under and they the tion that are the used Landing an airplane velocities. down and its at the lowest associated possible techniques the Landing. the take-off There is usually an airplane rocket-assisted which minimize to take distance. is increased. From be increased there is a net braking by setting deceleration used maximum airplane therefore.The roll total distance for the airplane to clear 15. consists The of touching phase and horizontal will and ground approach to a landing not be considered. namely. this conthe as the brakes applied. of flaps they also and other contribute an optimum airplanes These acceleration the form units for high lift to increased flap may setting also take-off However. aborted maximum which take-off for deceleration by the use use since to a stop. on the to slow is the it to a Another is opened favorite device On board by military carriers. or two. form deck. thrust airplane ure stop. velocity advantageously lift coefficient to decrease and decrease the landing the landing Indeed. where flying increase On board speed in thrust an aircraft is achieved and carrier. Figure 123 presents same friction near the forces acting on an airplane for their during magnitude For safe are after the landing and rollout. drag for use and airplane's will units acceleration. increase by equa- maximum as indicated (35). This reversers. but only the two terminal phases. They The dition airplane This engine are rolling the as during is greater the the take-off except are Spoilers direction. airplanes the parachute brake laid is at touchdown.25 m (50 ft) required from from for the start of its is important the so that The and determines pilot sufficient distance there should know runway the amount the exists of runway speed design the purposes. may be Additionally. conditions the weight. drag.

Figure particularly causes horizontal centripetal the lift reaction must the is the R (43) of the airplane. the an airof in a curved curve. of motions insignificant. of the airplane this in the equation speeds one in is the radius centrifugal or curved occur for From the highest forces airplanes at high 124 shows that resultant components. 123. in a properly _ to the executed horizontal. not all motions flight in combat heading paths. to the acceleration there is a reactive force. be increased to maintain altitude 146 when entering a banked . a body upon of an airplane. sees tight m and that turns. force.There Forces acting after landing. of an airThese As shown are ample turns. in figure cases the of curved flight-path include banked In the climbing maneuvers and descending required maneuvers and aerobatics. discussions of flight first unless were law. force needed the disposition are banked wings that of forces at an angle to bank also. motion plane the etal of direction By Newton's in that same line in motion line acted that law by an external To maintain toward this. 116. turn. This Notice angle and is the by of the wings lift on the When resolved component into vertical of lift force that it is seen to maintain force. accelerations they acquire will due to a added continue sigin previous change nificance.Rolling resistance and brakes Weight Rolling resistance and brakes Figure Constant-altitude plane cases One altitude are of the in a straight the basic banked line. path requires second an acceleration the force required required force be supplied to perform to maintain the center called curved the By Newton's is proportional third the law centripflight. force opposite by: centripetal centrifugal mVoo 2 R mass centrifugal is given FC where curve. Thus. called by the body. But in a turn in a straight force. This is balanced component constant centrifugal equal the weight. of the turn Voo is the velocity flight massive path. For a constant-altitude lift must turn the vertical the total turn. is the constant- to change turn. it is the horizontal the curved flight path. The By Newton's force.turn.

such._t i of lift I [ I $ I i Lift I I I t I Horizontall component of lift I I I I Centrifugal force Weight Figure 124.t I I i I ] Vertical compone. to produce a large horizontal component Class Class flight. whole. in figure 125. thrust. hovering must balanced shown Thrust By vertically properly as shown = Weight controlling in figure the 126. Vertical force.- Forces in a properly Horizontal lift is or banked = Centrifugal the greater turn. The the chief aircraft advantage may be made to rise and (44) descend ability of such aircraft is their 147 . the assigned is no In hovering As that weight. enough the larger lift required turn. condition. the velocity lift = Weight. is. forces. The the banking smaller angle to hold the must the turning be. no in no forces. airplane radius This is in the in a turn. with forces remaining for respect of the that of hovering to the aircraft atmoon thrust flight. as In equilibrium. sphere. and 3 motion has flight this lift be been there results and drag 3 Motion-Hovering to a special motion aerodynamic of the Flight flight aircraft reaction the Hence.

Thrust = Weight.- Hovering flight. 148 .- VTOL ascent and descent. Thrust _ Thrust Weight Thrust Vehicle > weight rises Weight Thrusq Vehich < weight descends Figure 126./ Thrust of engines / Weight of airplane Figure 125.

sense the entire the was main such aircraft body conventional was to keep from 128(a) was level of the aircraft to the horizontal. and velocities tail. jets Control at low flight tips.- Early VTOL airplanes. maneuvering over into piloting propellers The main required to supply problems in the the vertical and The next with these take-off flight. conventional simplicity present-day four and efficiency. This is why helicopters. The first thrust VTOL landing concept the wing XC-142A two used needed airplanes and the tried and turboprop-powered whereas were need the X-13 the tricky to tilt contrarotating was jet powered. are usually not included in this grouping. incapable of the speedsandmaneuvers of conventional airplanes. at present. the Lockheed XFV-1. nose. Sincethey land andtake-off vertically they are called VTOL aircraft. VTOL aircraft. The first conceptsto be tried were three "tail sitting" airplanes. in a conventional The but tilt engines the vertical LTV-Hiller-Ryan in figure an aircraft. althoughcapableof hovering flight. the Convair XFY-1. of the land- Another ing and For best where down concept to use flight. and in hovering is supplied by reaction in the wing Lockheed XFV- I Convair XFY- 1 Ryan X. 149 .to land and take-off in small spaceswithout the use of long runways. separate But this powerplants added Siddeley plane used uses dead for weight vertical to each (fig. take-off flight and regime.13 Vertijet Figure 127. They are. the Hawker This are in figure Harrier the concept the 128(b)) is one of "vectored from thrust" vertically rotating exhaust nozzles to deflect exhaust to directly flight behind as shown 128(c). They have the addeddistinction of being able to perform at high speedsas a conventionalairplane in flight. and the RyanX-13 Vertijet as shown in figure 127.

- flight. tilts down (a) XC. Forward flight Transition Hover (c) Example Figure 128. concepts.Wing. VTOL 150 .142A. (b) Harrier GR MKI.

and up slightly new forces to nose from increases). of the forces now to on an airplane this subject It remains in view of the presented Stability Simply scribed conditions. of the airplane (See generated and level the disturbed the airplane if restoring it back 129(c). forces to its moments by the condi- airplane tion. stable. are turbulence. Now. flight condition.) This stable. qualities. lift equals acting an airplane the thrust flying equals as in figure are 129(a). flying "hands still be flyable But. (fig. equilibrium. (See fig. with time. unstable last and instance. is dynamically amplitude. 151 .) has is statically If the initial neutral and static tendency diverge to hold fig.) that On the other tend initially stable. caused the the airplane in equilibrium. and its equilibrium. The subject stability is the tendency. that hand. condition. if the pilot uses not need which is be dynamically elevators of this stable in this design he should to do this. of attack for example. consider the sum of of it. up still further. it may undergo noseup. It is in the drag. and eventually overshoot. noses If the if the airplane (angle is disturbed. For all flight defined. of motion degree. by atmospheric is no longer increase. is the ability is considered or lack of a pilot first. material. overshoot condition motion up and dynamic three to a of straight indicates down there- forms smaller and that after (fig. airplane it may to have stability magnitude up and down increasing and be dynamically An airplane control by working 130(c)). no net rotating moments on it. statically necessary An airplane and dynamically has poor An airplane can be flown off" by a pilot with no control except to change the equilibrium flight condition. of an airplane to change to fly a preflight Control of stability the airplane's an airplane to be in equilibrium on it must for a particular be zero. position. in the worst unstable may the Or it may is said nose to nose neutral with The case. STABILITY AND CONTROL The chapters acting consider subject been kept of stability in the and and control of an airplane has throughout the study the previous background the related so as not to complicate performance considerations. unstable tendency stability. ideally. For Then the the forces straight and moments and level and there example. the weight. 130(a). of decaying continue the airplane at a constant 130(b)) or. return to its type former equilibrium oscillatory level (See fig.IX. by the angle-of-attack airplane 129(b). to bring equilibrium straight it is statically If it is assumed the airplane It may nose is statically down. produce motion a will is and moments. flight.

dynamically unstable...airplane holds disturbed condition Equilibrium Disturbed 4 (c) Neutral Figure 129.. . stability. Statically to return stable. I lq _ Statically unstable divergent Disturbed moments increase disturbed condition j Equilibrium (b) Statically unstable No airplane.. (a) Equilibrium flight..- static Static stability..Lift = weight Thrust = drag No net moments --n_=======dm_ . to return do not to equilibrium Equilibrium .oscillations tend decay Equilibrium (a) Statically Moments tend but oscillations and dynamically airplane decay stable... . "t-5-----'')---stable.. airplane dynamically to equilibrium stable moments .... neutral dynamic stability. Moments but tend towards are equilibrium divergent [ _ oscillations (b) Statically Equilibrium "_/ \\_/ (c) Statically stable. Figure 130. moments .Dynamic 152 stability.

The says that the airplane is airplane about its center for an airplane. 153 . It is seen whereas the case and thrust both contribute If these that contributes a nose-up moment. It is evident tail do not cancel another moment wing other is out. above. Since stability.Longitudinal motion. fuselage. Figure forces dynamic airplane example above ter acting center. nose down moments rotate and positive up for angles atrim" of all the moment curves caused tail. tional tional referred lateral stability stability and are stability stability control closely and and relates control is concerned with yawing an airplane's rolling motion. tail. can be considered Consider independent "trim- stability. the airplane the in figure is zero. airplane - not be in equilibrium.) stable case of the moments plotted is no moment angles of attack at the trim above atrim' angle of attack. longitudinal it is discussed stability first.- of lateral and directional an airplane med" to fly at some angle of attack. times the lift in this the distance case. and by Now the curve the different of figure of the 132 is a composite airplane. the lift and drag The at the aeroof the In this may lie the cen- and the is very in back the are aerodynamic of the wing The The thrust moments center alone. center acts as a small of the and the pilot arm can from lift by elevator to the aerodynamic Thus. Because long moment tail. line to the aerodynamic above the center center of gravity. interrelated the two are sometimes to as lateral Longitudinal stability. or (Cm)cg. The total equilibrium moment about elevator center of "trimmed" to a particular airplane angle is statically of attack. Of course. center the forces that of gravity. The source needed achieve the small shown gravity the horizontal lift or negative of gravity are horizontal control. about moments each of gravity between them and the center nose-down of gravity. line. stable moments in a longitudinal are generated to express sense. components for example. (See eq. usually it lies or below in this the drag will 131(a) are the shows weight thrust close of and how pitch through along equilibrium the the center thrust is achieved of gravity. that the tend then if disturbed the away airplane from to the the trim to return equilibrium It is customary the center statically there for below moment nondimensionally as a coefficient of moment about Figure 132 shows the longitudinal against negative moments the angle of attack. pitching motion. the horizontal the balancing condition. Lateral and direcand direcsimply control relates to an airplane's to an airplane's and. only center forces of the horizontal tail supplies relatively moment as is needed. 13 l(b). (27). _trim" This statement in equilibrium and there are no moments tending to pitch the of gravity. If the To fly in a particular angle. rotate the nose the of gravity. the wing. therefore. atrim.

stability ure the Figure 133 shows this qualitatively. to raise of attack to achieve range coefficient. horizontal of the wing. drag moments lift. curve the airplane the the tail of gravity neutral this point toward where 134). thrust. then is moved C in fig. center position and hence. of the center the entire is sufficiently is statically sufficiently. off the usable however. of point angle if the center A). is 134) If the has center positive of gravity is moved airplane further (point moment and the is longitudinally toward the nose Likewise. horizontal. First. moment of gravity slope. the pilot is moved forward too far (forward the will not be able the maximum to generate lift large enough force With There on the tail power are. (b) Equilibrium Figure 131. equilibrium. center=of=gravity is relatively 154 . curve Some of gravity airplane fundamental has static a great stability. of gravity on the static in fig= As shown 134. unstable. for tail force --I Tail moment = Resultant and of thrust. there becomes of the aerodynamic If the is a point.Pitch condition. facts effect are important. airplane D in fig. stable. if the forward stable. 135(a)).k Thrust LLift I ] Thrust momj E oment Drag moment Weight (a) Net moment pitches airplane down. (fig. back center the center of the (points airplane (point neutrally the A or B).

+°+ .Longitudinal staticstabilitymoments as a functionof angle of attack. \ v _\_ h_ ._9 Positive b_ moments.o... ot i . _ I" _trim Angle of attack. _< _trim i ¢9 Zero [ _ moments.__ae_ t_O 0 I __" Angle of attack c9 i _9 O I h_ trim--' _\_ \_ Complete _tatically airplane stable) \ \ \ Figure 133..Longitudinal static stability components. +oo \ \ _ _. \ 155 .4 atrim _9 Negative moments. a > atrim i 0 E & C9 Figure 132.

I _.- Stable. airplane side the the center The airplane plane than factors thrust which effects as shown falls reduce and the usable effects 135(b).J / 0 _ /_ Neutral ¢/ Center of gravity at D _9 % 5 _ Angle Stable of attack. additional engine-on considerations) of the loaded. its curve. range. horizontal as is the a smaller center normal Of course. location of gravity horizontal moment is an important tail is the main in a stable airplane. static By design stability. " at B _9 (equilibrium) condition _ . factor of the the the complete stable tail center more it airlies of controllable tail moment will give case. as possible from the wing with respect the downwash 156 . center-of-gravity (including To insure an airplane landing that range. contributor a more that the to the statically horizontal from it is. o._ _b_Bl_) _/// _ Destabilizing nloments Center of gravity at A Neu!ral A B C D Positions ol center of gravity Figure 134. and power for most is of effects. to 100 percent to the tail. wake depends on the to the airplane as close and slipstream efficiency engine. tail A larger (assuming. it is made Finally. airplane For was range within there or the example. gear.Destabilizing monmnts /---> + O v i. These flaps. and unstable static stability. aft of the gravity enhances tail location of gravity The stability respect of the airplane). neutral. loaded of usable are cargo cases shifted The of transport in flight then airplane factor airplanes so that became the because The of gravity limits. further of the away from distance is important.e. center designed include and other of gravity and the fell outof ground in figure the usable the actual is carefully crashing center unstable. the static with the The center tail of gravity efficiency airplane.

Unstable. it will located is disThe reduce in a in change of attack affects this For it changes airplane. degree the importance. a wing. _off < _-Center xx nmst these (a) lie of gravity between limits Ground Unstable power on .iq_ Center must these (b) of gravity lie between limits Figure considerable it leaves deflected turbed. mal_ . is a very there is made in detail. air it will to which flows This 135. 7. when This deflection results wing rearward its angle and hits the horizontal-tail and the the reason. is deflected reaction force downward or lift. angle tail If the also airplane changes. that directly effectiveness. Hence. as shown longitudinal this stability broad are is concerned subject two primary attempting with the and no attempt forms to return motion of a statically to treat stable this subof airplane.. downwash tail plane. ]ect Again. regard of longitudinal to an equilibrium oscillations trimmed interest to an airplane 157 . Dynamic such it is exposed to as little as possible. with Basically. is often stability of the the horizontal downwash vertical figure location 136(b).Figure Usable 136(a) of air center-of-gravity shows how the in the air range.

is a long Often. may of the This "tuck as the airplane stability to such dive. in figure out very oscillation of the pilot's quickly may However. is most airplane increases the static stable an extent and be extremely in a steep 158 . Horizoa_ F. goes the rearward supersonic that the movement evident.- horizontal tail.) control drag is. with himself oscillation Usually. The of short term mode. to damp he may that may get its natural worsen attempts where it out by use "out of phase" lead of a control with because slow induce type reaction dynamical the oscillation._ Downwash (b) High Figure 136. the more highly variation damps the damped pilot generally the greater of attack with no if a oscillation second 137(b). This main and thus.101A li _ . effects on tail. A second the instability oscillation eventually if the elevators elevator to destructive are left free. slow The first form is the phugoid flight mode path. can the 137(a).Lift _ _ _ _ Downwash angle at tail (a) Downwash of wing. are between and air- Proper design is essential effects as compressibility center of the wing concerned. of the as shown pilot pilot time effort. is vertical the free out of hand if a coupling here. forces. this The oscillation damped and of the airplane's it is poorly can be an annoyance. The of oscilla(See tion which fig. of occurs is called effect "porpoising" accelerations elevator and is influenced the plane airplane occur. Insofar aerodynamic condition under" that by the may get balance. although it is. Downwash flight condition after being period. disturbed. angle is a short-period this oscillation short period.

angle.Slow Axis remains to flight of airplane tamgent path ris(" and _111(1 fall elmnging of :lJl'p|alle Minimum speed spevds _I _lx i tl/tl nl speed (a) Phugoid longitudinal oscillation." center It has a pair of canards the wing for tips staare bility turned at supersonic downward Directional speeds to keep stability. If the the If the airplane tendency airplane holds position. lift and Figure rearward moments the shift center (flaps) to trail nose-down also generate the from canard drag. if the a positive sideslip an airplane is disturbed angle so that the yaw angle a positive yaw as shown To have airplane moment be generated negative negative vious it has tion. sloping line by convention. "tuck Additionally. stable further away from unstable. equilibrium. by proat canard and the viding zero would strong uplift. tailplane aerodynamic to develop range. American high lift devices can be allowed not used. in the free stream minimum North 138 shows XB-70. shows observes angle or alternatively generated in figure stability. This answer condition problem goes has been discussed the Other nose to the previously center with regard rearward the to the SST. Here. apply to directional yawing equilibrium 139(a). for a negative sideslip angle /3 and a The pre- yawing condition neutral moment is shown directional excursion.Two types longitudinal of dynamic oscillation. static stability flies stato a directional also bility. One of fuel config- to this is to move supersonic. longitudinal oscillations. posiFigure one 140 is to increase is directionally with sideslip case. under. at supersonic at low speeds The speeds. the variation a positively of yawing-moment coefficient as a directionally 159 .is zero to prevent the aerodynamic Many stability. its disturbed the disturbed 139(b). This nose-up has an and supersonic of contributing of a canard trim When the for trim and a rear of the for control is beneficial. Short period anglt.-of-attaek variation (b) Short-period Figure 137. of the basic In the usual in figure should ideas involving longitudinal condition. of gravity include by a transfer wing as the airplane uration moment added solutions double-delta an additional arrangement or canards due to lift advantage The use placed in the at the transonic of the airplane airplane lift. forward.

Figure 139. 160 .- XB-70 airplane.Canards Folded down wing tips Figure 138.Staticdirectional stability. (a) Equilibrium condition of zero yaw..

Concluded. (÷) Sideslip ] Positive a_ T (÷) & remS°t °mreing • (-) 0 Sideslip angle J / s /_Negatlve / _ restoring (-) Sideslip o angle (÷) . Figure 140..\ (+) Sideslip angle Positive moment decrease disturbance yawing tends to sideslip \ (b) Sideslip Figure 139. 161 ._..disturbance.- Directional stability curve.

ion at a sideslip tends to increase of static disturbance. the static with a certain during in aircraft require on the direc- A tractor tional stability. tail. may area center back on many useful. When force placed which is the component sideslip arm dition. to counteract airplane a rotational angle at the can be very a carrier the yaw are is a destabilizing velocity tail that to the influence slipstream. Some ratio cannot vertical be adetail covered has and observations to prevent however. which is a component in this of the weight The causes and to move direction. Figure or ventral 142 shows yawing after moment addition a B-17 and fin extension. angle the 8. of a typical imparts a sidewash This F8F pilot effect Bearcat. induced would Grumman by the by the sidewash Contrarotating degree of sweep stability since propellers influences whereas. more instability vertical tail sideslip divergence tail of a dorsal sideslip fin extension angles. the wings shown. A sweptback wing from This is a The wing's will the the yawing moments. it is unstable. it generates equilibrium forces flight to reduce is often view angle produced one and used as a means that to improve has Under just dihedral the lateral where condition the weight. and the vertical As figure tail are the two most when influential components in condithat main 141 shows. turbance lift vector the airplane that choosing sweptforward lateral the static stability. Now. the an airplane alone will The is in a disturbed generate vertical a moment tail t.a disturbance tend An airplane that rolls the bank to possess bank angle and restore if after and _. wings. turned in straight assume by both wings wing to drop there sideways equals relative to the other as shown acting in figure inward is said 144(b). produces or yaw stabilizing to move of the vertical here. a solution to this problem. quately usually results by use at large of a dorsal directional it generates of airplane tends at an angle when multiplied of vertical to a zero factors of attack by the tail) sideslip that The due to the moment a con- a side (center The of gravity moment size that to aerodynamic the airplane tail is dependent are stalling. provides bomber a low aspect a catastrophic If a stall should Adding a stable before occur. airplane to sideslip 162 . of rudder powered 143 it produces reduces pronounced plane. wing add to the directional total directional reason stability for a sweptforward a destabilizing over will detract it is by itself sweptback is said it to some angle wings influence. propeller and it also of the The offset take-offs. stability contributing Lateral undergoing moments condition. result. stability. that stability. As shown stability large degree high- in figure effectiveness engines. fuselage is. Dihedral shows some flight.The directional fuselage stability. in general disturbance. Figure are 144(a) up at and level that a disThe a headon dihedral the lift causes rotates of an airplane to the horizontal.

163 .V_ Sideslip angle Airplane to some is disturbed sideslip angle Fuselage produces side force destabilizing moment arm Moment arm Fin and rudder force produces stabilizing moment Figure 141.- Directional stability moments.

- Improving directional stability.Small fin and rudder-_ _-_ Large Dorsal fin fin and rudder Figure 142. Grurrlman F8F-1 Bearcat Figure 143.- Slipstream effect at tail. 164 .

as of the shown wing also has 145.. 144. lift. angle and is is laterally now in a direction stable. hence and hence angle the tend airplane to the reduce wing lower is the sideslipping. stability. The airplane considerations. toward the velocity). bank closer will There figure angle. to the experience results 144(c). an impact on the lateral lateral stability.Di:e ralT-(a) ---_ Dihedral angle Velocity component due to sideslip (b) Weight !_ _ Component of weight acting to cause sideslip L1 ____/// L1 > L 2 ////// Figure Total relative freestream (main component along longitudinal axis) (c) effect on lateral stability. wing the the wing. in of attack moment greater as shown tending to reduce bank position design.Dihedral the relative free-stream If the From sideslip a greater a net force direction airplane geometric (that is. moments when free-stream than the raised wings toward arise have which that dihedral. A high-wing whereas a in figure contributes to the 165 .

is below increase tend tail may contribute force acts to or detract caused above that there from area of the of the stability.Low-wing placement laterally is destabilizing High-wing placement is stabilizing laterally Figure low wing counteracted Wing swept-wing higher More tends noted bility slightly) The airplane presented gravity. fuselage fuselage In a sideslip. and vertical 147. will away effect may be a destabilizing more dihedral by including sweep airplane normal the will help to improve stability toward edge the the stability. this lateral 146 shows. the bank tends to dimin- the bank moment is a destabi- lizing will further that also Destabilizing a sideslip plane decrease arise use moments because of partial to increase slipstream dihedral angle of an airplane airbe used in of the direction span effects.- Effect of wing effect placement in roll. to the wing's on the bank wing angle and experience from the arises lateral velocity to diminish that and than the wing and a roll produce lift is generated sideslip airplane may moment to equilibrium. of the Added for a propeller-driven or sweep again may and the these to detrimental 166 . angle. the overall stability. too much (wings It may be the combination some to lessen effects lateral by the as shown angle. that stadown promote lateral the wing leading toward return as figure the sideslip is sideslipping. set airplanes the of dihedral will use and sweep amount a small of anhedral turned lateral stability. When a a sideslip. there side force will be a side If the the the side center bank force by the the center in figure If the up that is a roll moment generated of gravity. on lateral However. and vertical there tail. flaps. ish placement has 145.

/_normal ¢ Figure 146.) airplane is broadside (See fig. and Dutch divergence Directional airplane the yawing continue yaws of a direetionally so that side forces the unstable on the sideslip. stability that a interrelated. may moments until the arise to increase to the relative condition 148(a).- Wing sweep aids lateral stability. and a yaw As mentioned the motions earlier. causes a yaw of an airplane a roll motion motion causes motion.stated. airplane This are When the or rolls into that generated. 167 . is a result a sideslip continue static stability and lateral important dynamic motions observed: directional divergence. wind. between three directional roll. lateral are and directional such Thus. airplane. static crossand coupling gives spiral rise exists to the divergence. Cross stability roll are effects and dynamic Briefly motion the effects.

tends to turn lift. continues to turn in an ever-tightening Dutch roll is a motion spiral. airplane Figure occurs. wing although used of attack. is present into this roll.L Laterally destabilizing application I ! moments ( Figure 147. airplane wags in a countermotion. airplane relative will The roll bank airplane the faster. the wake eral of the at high angles the stability and increasing directional stability the effects of Dutch 168 . characteristics stability is strong. and the fig. and by an airplane a large finned that is very stable directionally In laterally. side is weak. as the The and spiral divergence. this of g rav i t Y _Js -I . to augment are also the vertical beneficial to reduce fin which in decreasing may be in the latroll. If a sideslip rolls away The lateral disturbance the directional in one tail from direction. No lateral airplane side with force generates stability no dihedral. primarily airplane 149(a) Ventral illustrates fins._tLmaa! Side _ml_eZa!in_g force I I o ravity / Side force Point of side-force v-_ [ _. to the when is in a bank wind. Spiral but not very this the case plane divergence stable the is characterized for example.Effects of fuselage and tail on lateral stability. to still angle The sideslipping. exhibiting 148(b).) of both directional whereas yaws its divergence stability the to side. wing travels into the airplane outer more and the negate sideslip a higher increases (See bank angle.

_ and _:_flight condition Original (Bank angle increases and causes greater greater sideslip) Figure 148.Initial flight path _ Insufficient stability directional (a) Di_ divergence _ (airplane may yaw broadside \ to \ \stabilily. the ailerons control to provide Some (in roll). they are 15. pedals. directional (in yaw). is the ability use of a pilot of devices to that the airplane's conditions. They by the familiar in figure include lateral other the elevator control to proand longitudinal (in pitch). It is brought about attached. oor atera \ _ I Airplane disturbed (b) Spiral _ divergence --. Control Control.- Directional and spiral divergence. change alter the lift The vide whether force an airplane flight on the controls control surface are is stable to which shown or unstable. devices are the rudder discussed Figure to the pilot's to provide later. control a simple is by use basic of the the control control stick system stick back. turns From upward His the link control point if he pulls control 169 . as operated and rudder the elevator by a pilot._ in sideslip 1 . 150 shows surfaces of view.

up wing lift to and while than roll airplane stick of gravity in the This airplane of one camber produces the pitches aileron of one more control in figure of the movement the then causes the control pedals left pedal down 151(b).- Dutch roll. the rudder If the deflects pilot to the Applying pushes the right to the forward rudder (the will comes 170 . and produces upwards. direction pressure pedal This toward condition which airplane stick was deflect back). to the entire horizontal-tail a nose-up A side the other it increases the other its and moment motion as the a roll- a downward center results produced. the camber in turn. surface about of the shown camber ing axis 151(a)).Tail-wagging "Dutch roll" (a) k Disturbed condition Undisturbed condition _------Ventralfins to improve (b) directional stability (as well as augment the vertical fin) Figure 149. (fig. the rudder. and the This movement lift is gives a negative This. reduces One wing moment in the results. about longitudinal pushed. other wing.

right.. is fitted. control possess control low-aspect-ratio fig. the vertical yaws the nose tail camber increases arises that and a tail and hence. In it the larger the greater greater to which sur(See effectiveness. than a control to the surface entire does surface its job. effectiveness high-aspect-ratio surfaces.) 171 . 150. A moment to the right the airplane effectiveness the the turns Control general. 152.. faces is a measure control control surface of how well is with respect Also.this Basic movement control system. results. As shown force in figure to the left 151(c). Elevator control "-- __roncontrol control I Figure right.

surface operations.(b) Aileron control.1 (c) Rudder Figure 151.Control control. Beagle 206 Z. 172 .

a control to force surface the into the fluid back a pilot deflects tends will be set force up that control control surface surface design. whether In fact. of the that not tire.distribution position. needed The is deflected. the force surface turn tending of the hinge creates This surface reduced. However. distribution. to its a pressure original may the controls. but the forces to reduce balance the are air enough forces hinge the helps face to insure required. of aerodynamic shown. of feel aerodynamic artificial of today's or not. two forms when Balance is used deflection The In figure is set even 153(a) so that further. that force.- Control effectiveness._V larger with respect to _V" entire surface Smaller control effectiveness Greater control effectiveness Figure Balanced flow. control the pilotso that sur- to reduce the control By careful care must them) systems is used supplied controls overcontrol are that effort are is considerably not "too light" be exercised lest the pilot the (little effort to move control balance unwittingly airplanes the airplane and. should the necessary depending the surface to hold a particular upon the control deflection only must not be small to deflect pilot does surface Not be small be able the at will. into power-operated forces the pilot Mass the pilot-felt the controls so control feel is incorporated in the in front may controls._ntrol surface nOW // . of the hinge line of a control surface to preIt is a is employed surface which vent flutter dynamic occur that due to accelerations deflects about on the airplane. lead and a control surface on its own may to dynamic 173 . a sense to its destruction. hence aft of the design. are has balance of the effect small. strikes that surface forward the surface the surface a pressure counteracts deflection. or may pilot The Whenever 152.

in figure two purposes: tabs are set and (2) to trim. to the primary the control control surface the elevator and the surface and movement. Figure 154(b) 174 . J n rfa ce (a) Horn _Movi g-su | weight (b) Mass-balanced Figure 153. arms stick upward as the pressure surface long up will they very to zero insure the a force.Aerodynamic weight. tab will set in reducing down. and the proporpilot for elevator in up to move are used If the deflect create are opposite to assist pilot tional moving example. deflects moment.Tabs or as shown auxiliary Tabs 154(a). in figure 153(b). (a) Inset hinge balance. balances. instability ity near ward of the or forward airplane. to move downward to move tabs tabs the balance distribution down. Mass-balance weight ! " Balanced" moving-surface weight _ _ ._ balance. edges of the control serve balance surfaces at the trailing (1) to balance primary control As shown surfaces. hence the control Because and are forces they when placed at the trailing in action. since be set in holding or manually Trim and set tabs airplane shows ground control operated by the pilot. chosen will not tire balance Trim possess used moment pilot important may powerful are to reduce are very for particular that the pilot is on the a deflected flight conditions.Area forward Area Me109 F forward of hinge. _1_. The solution line. is to move This may the control surface center lead of gravfor- of the hinge line are be accomplished by using placed small by adding mass of the hinge Tabs. and mass balance. wishes. edge. stick They forces. steady They flight.

. surface deflection. to hold the trim The the tab must air- to reduce condition a new moments and control continue to fly in this When is required is needed. surfaces._"__]__ airplane it holds particular is on the grounda control in a fixed position pilot effort.________.. r--/g Fixed surface_* . hinge line to zero. for the deflection be readjusted Other categories control the new setting devices._2_ot--_. Included circumstances reaction advantages. added and control outlined Some They are are above._"_.. are They used are to reduce useful to are 175 on or "dump" the the gliders reduce to vary for altitude airplane from control and on airliners into the air._ _.Balance Fixed surface __ "m':'_ _ surface otal Main surface "-_ ___ _ _ ' ' Fixed surface surface force f--_ / _. tail.__. flow..Tab t. spoilers. they lift quickly bouncing .- tab Balance operation._.- (if adjustable)._ "_._ Tab geared proportional deflection to deflect to the control but in the _ _ __osite direction Tab force helps move control surface (a) Balance tab operation._-. _-/ " _. previously lift on a wing the lift-drag to prevent discussed by altering ratio the with respect pressure to subsonic distribution. control used devices in unusual all-moving do not fall flight into the conventional or for controls._ _----/-----_position /_ _ Trim tab-placed by pilot in a fixed or when O_'. without Mom_ced by M(_ment produced by trim tab to counteract control surface to control surface return to undeflected morn ent position (b) Trim Figure surface plane control with will the trim tab set 154. on landing But. and about no pilot trim the effort tabs. butterfly Spoilers.

reaction control devices may be used. Examples are to be seenon the horizontal-tail surfaces of the F-4 Phantomand the F-14A airplanes (fig.however. At low speeds. The conventional control surfaces are considerably less effective at high speedswhere compressibility effects are dominant. Whereas the conventional control surface changed lift by a changein camber. The limiting case is the all-moving control surface. By being able to changeits angle of attack..ailerons are the primary lateral control devices.. At high speeds. *Large lift lift z . At low dynamic pressures aerodynamic control surfaces becomelargely ineffective becauseonly small forces and momentsare present. . _- f_ Ailerons Spoiler on one up winglateral to dump used control lift at as high device speed low used speeds Figure 176 155. 156). andtail as shownin figure 157. At zero or low speeds. the spoiler will cause a net rolling momentto roll the airplane aboutits longitudinal axis. The all-moving horizontal tails may be movedindependently as well to provide lateral control. they may causebending momentson the wing that distort the wing structure. wing tips.the Hawker Harrier VTOL airplane uses reaction rockets placed in the nose. the all-moving surfaces can remain out of a stalled condition. These are small rockets placed at the extremities of the aircraft to produce the required momentsnecessary to turn the airplane about eachof its axes. Spoilers may be used to avoid these disadvantages. Under these conditions.. Control effectiveness may be increased by increasing the chord length of the control surface relative to the entire surface to which it is fitted.also useful in lateral (roll) control. As shownin figure 155by reducing the lift on one wing. At transonic speedscompressibility effects may limit their effectiveness. the all-moving control surface controls lift by angle-ofattack variations.- Lateral control with spoilers.

variation of the conventional tall. motions and horizontal there and are advantages lems weight yaw. To pitch reduced are dynamic up or down. and both roll in cross-coupling stability. and reaction reason to change The butterfly since claimed attitudes.G All moving "stabilator" / _ _ \ F-4 Phantom control all-moving surfaces Tomcat _" \ All-moving surfaces Figure 156. 159(a)) the is an interesting functions trol system it combines are reduced of the vertical However. and drag. it flew (fig.- Examples of all-moving surfaces.- Hawker Harrier reaction control system. 158(b)) at altitudes In same low air manner. aerodynamic will roll use 158(a)). increased directional up or down The procon- (fig. tail rocket the plane used reaction surfaces controls were controls when useless (fig. for the Shuttle yaw. The North of such the same American density the its X-15 that Space pitch.._ A Roll control thruster _ Roll control thruster / /------_ Engine V Pitch thrust control thruster Figure 157. control surfaces moved 177 . control _ J[ _. of the pitch.

- reaction Reaction controls. conflicting become It must parameters. that are in opposite This brief the the directions introduction deflections in figure many factors to stability and control influence airplanes. 159(b)). controls. final design of an airplane. the final towards design are is at best the a compromise to often multimissioned compromises of design. (b) Space Figure Shuttle 158. more be stressed As one frequent. 1'/8 . To yaw right through or left equal the "ruddervators" as shown has shown that moves and Cost as they are called 159(c).together moved (fig. competition arbiters ___c h thrusters _ lr Yaw thrusters Roll thrusters on wings (a) X-15 reaction controls.

- Butterfly tail operation. down Both elevators airplane pitches up. airplane yaws right left Figure 159.Butterfly or "V" tail Bonanza (a) (b) Both elevators airplane pitches down. airplane yaws Left rudder. 179 . up (c) I Right rudder.

180 .

or reinforced internal Types types defined herein. specifically. of the aircraft (blimp): or skin (dirigibles) a lighter-than-air that is not supported Its gas shape framework by the by stiffening. constructing. craft having by any a gas bag. specifically. heavier than air a mechanically air. aircraft. of gaseous fluids aeronautics the and operating Aircraft Figure airships 160 presents sketches nonrigid envelope.APPENDIX A AERONAUTICAL NOMENC LATURE General aircraft any machine Definitions device (whether lighter air. or or weight-carrying than air) designed heavier either aerodyne that lift airplane (aeroplane) class to be supported action than air by the by bouyancy of aircraft chiefly or by dynamic being from heavier and deriving its in flight aerodynamic forces driven a subset of aerodynes. pressure with which 181 . and with an aerostat a means provided with the a propelling system direction of motion aerostatics the of controlling science that deals with the equilibrium and of bodies immersed in them science aircraft and art of designing. are bodies aerostat that class that and reaction deals of the of the against of air respect air with the forces motion being motion acting with on bodies in relative of aircraft chiefly from lighter than derived and deriving aerostatic support forces airship a subset buoyancy from of aerostats. of the is maintained it is filled. which fixed-wing is supported its wings and other when to such gasethe fluids its by the dynamic aerodynamics the science ous fluids.

usually spherical. amp_bi_ by an interior rigid framework an airplane designed or land to rise from and alight on either water autogyro a rotary-wing aerodyne whose rotor is turned throughout its flight by air forces through balloon the air resulting from the motion of the craft a bag. the wings monoplane ornithopter an airplane having but one wing or supporting surface and propulsion a type of aircraft achieving from its chief support the bird-like flapping of its wings consisting of a canopy a drag and suspension lines. one biplane an airplane located above boat. tough. covered with paper or cloth kite a light frame. which basically produces force to retard the descent of a falling body 182 . and designed to be flown in the wind derives most at the end of a string lifting body an aerodyne the shape nonexistent which or all of its liftin flight from being essentially of its fuselage. material made of silk or other light. rigid: a dirigible having supported several gas bags or cells enclosed in an envelope structure. nonporous than-air. flying the other in which the fuselage (hull) is especially a type of airplane designed to provide flotation on water into air glider an engineless currents airplane flown by being manipulated that keep it aloft aerodyne whose liftand forward thrust helicopter a type of rotary-wing are derived approximately from airfoils mechanically rotated about an vertical axis usually of wood. or supporting surfaces. parachute a cloth device.APPENDIX A - Continued semirigid envelope (sometimes reinforced blimp): a dirigible having its main by a keel but not having a completely rigid framework. gas which is lighter- filled with some It is an aerostat having two wings without a propelling system.

.. recovery pusher airplane an airplane supporting rotary-wing aircraft a type part tical tailless airplane system A - Continued vehicle designed for use in a kite-like for launch vehicles or propellers aft of the main with the surfaces propeller of aerodyne by wings axis which or blades is supported rotating in the about air wholly or in ver- a substantially an airplane control in which are the devices used to obtain stability and incorporated the propeller surfaces in the wing or propellers forward of the tractor airplane an airplane main with supporting take-off take-off which STOL VTOL V/STOL short vertical and landing and landing has both airplane airplane STOL and VTOL capabilities an airplane Amphibian Grumman SA-16A Albatross srihgii'pd Rigid airship . 183 ._.APPENDIX paraglider a flexible-winged.- Examples of aircraft types. °"" _-_ _---- Autogyro _Balloon Biplane Bristol F2B Figure 160.

-----------_* Shin Meiwa PX-S Glider Schweizer 1-23 Helicopter Sikorksky CH-3C Kite HL-IO _ Lifting body 7.- Continued... 184 .APPENDIX A .Continued Flying boat.- Flapping wing ornithopter Figure 160.

APPENDIX A - Continued Paraglider Parachutes Modified ring-sail Disk-Gap-Band aircraft .- Continued. 185 .q____Rotary-wing XB-42 Bell Jet Ranger Tailless airplane airplane Tailles_ Tractor airplane Boeing 377 Stratocruiser Figure 160.

186 .APPENDIX A - Concluded and landing airplane (STOL) Short take-off DHC-6 win Otter Vertical and airplane take-off landing (VTOL) Figure 160.- Concluded.

dimension example. time.APPENDIX B DIMENSIONS AND UNITS There represents is a fundamental the definition scheme in a lump has difference between physical its the dimensions property For of mass and units. to be measured to measure to be employed. and the the quantity physical of metal the dimension the particular. arbitrary of matter of the scheme in the used lump to denote of metal in meters the may magnitude be expres- A unit of a physical sed represents property. or slugs system of units than Thus.3 °. the of length. A list be represented as a length more their dimensions Angular The tended this ally about arc measure one may 57. M. measure of the of the circle central angle Measurement of a circle that is defined is. of 1 radian are Thus. but is assigned in degrees radian value of two lengths. a ratio name as the ratio of the sub- divided by the radius. of radians. T. to aerodynamicists. of the basic For of the are included or primary example. L. mass. kilometers meters or miles. These tempera- of general and basic or primary dimensions by using. Derived Dimensions The tities derived times namics dimensions of all other quantities may be found to be combinations These encountered are of quanknown in aerodyas expressible or secondary a length and or in terms L 2. common in table dimensions. Basic There are ture. called They are the four basic dimensions Dimensions interest are length. area II. Additionequals is dimensionless express The fact the that angle both a special that by noting an angle measure measure of an angle and degree does dimensionof less means that units to another. may be abbreviated respectively. and and 8. the numerical not change from one system 187 . in kilograms on the choice rather and the of units book expressed the quantity or feet or feet influthe length depending ences the of the book Usually that is. which remains A dimension independent of size of of an inherent used to denote has of the particular matter the edge present of a book measure. may quantities dimensions. mass length selected.

Examples of physical quantities that are scalars are mass. Two aerodynamic forces are knownto act on the section: lift and drag. In 1964the United StatesNational Bureau of Standardsofficially adoptedthe International Systemof Units to be used in all of its publications. The resultant can be resolved back into the lift anddrag components.and density. speed. The secondstep is to place the vectors at the center-of-pressure point in the directions specified from the physical definition that lift always acts perpendicularly to the incoming velocity of the air V_ and drag always acts parallel to andawayfrom the incoming velocity of the air.E. Thus. units for both the basic dimer_. speed. Thus. when one states that a car is moving north at 100kilometers per hour. In the first step a scale is chosenandthe force magnitudesare scaled. Figure 161showsthe side view of a wing called the airfoil cross section (or simply airfoil section).Continued Systemsof Units There are two basic engineering systems of units in use in aerodynamics. a Vectors and Scalars Vectors are quantities that haveboth a magnitudeand a direction.E. and acceleration. 188 .). To represent a vector on a diagram._ions nd some of the more commonaerodynamic quantities. Examples of physical quantities that are vectors are force. velocity.S. : Vectors may be addedtogether (composition) to form onevector (the resultant) or one vector may be broken down (resolution) into several components.since only a magnitude(100kilometers per hour) is given (that is. Scalars are quantities that have a magnitudeonly. no direction is specified). In figure 161 the lift and drag havebeen composedinto the resultant shown. distance. The National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration has adopteda similar policy and this is the system of units used in this report. oneis specifying the vector quantity velocity with a magnitude(100kilometers per hour) and a direction (north).S. Table II lists the SI and B. They are vectors andmay be drawn to act through a special point called the center of pressure discussedin the text. whenone states only the fact that a car is moving at 100kilometers per hour onehas specified a scalar. an arrow is drawn. The length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitudeof the vector and the direction of the arrow corresponds to the direction of the vector. They are the International Systemof Units (SI) andthe British Engineering Systemof Units (B.APPENDIX B . with respect to a coordinate system attachedto the Earth.

feet 2 feet 3 feet/second feet/second pound pounds/foot slugs/foot3 feet2/second pound-second foot-pound foot-pound/second radian 2 2 or degree 2 2 2 2 Volume Velocity Acceleration Force Pressure Density Kinematic Momentum Energy Power Angle Angular Angular Moment velocity acceleration of inertia viscosity ML-IT-2 ML-3 L2T .Continued TABLE II.APPENDIX B .1 LT-2 MLT-2 meters meters meters/second meters/second newton newtons/meter kilogram/meter meters2/second newtonsecond 1 2 3 2 2 3 B.E.S.1 MLTML2T-2 ML2T-3 joule watt radian or degree T-1 T-2 ML 2 radians/second radians/second kilogram-meter radians/second radians/second slug-fl 189 .E.S. foot slug second OF (relative) OR (absolute) K (absolute) Units Quantity Area Derived dimensions SI L2 L3 LT.-SYSTEMS OF UNITS Units Quantity Basic dimensions SI Length Mass Time Temperature L M T 0 oc meter kilogram second (relative) B.

the second point of view is adopted where the aircraft or airfoilis fixed in the tunnel and air is forced to flow past it. Center of pre Figure 161. Motion is always with respect to a particular observer. First an observer fixed in the air sees the aircraft approach at velocity Voo. Consider the flightof an aircraft through the air.) The two observers read the same magnitude of velocity (thatis. 162(c).) On the other hand an observer fixed on the aircraft sees the air (or observer fixed in air) approach him at velocity V. (See fig.) 190 . (See fig. Motion is the movement or change in position of a body.APPENDIX B Assume: Continued Lift Drag = 400 = 100 newtons newtons v_ Incoming velocity free-stream vector Airfoil section I 100 I 200 I 300 Magnitude I 400 scale i 500 I 600 1 700 N I I i Step 1 Set magnitude of vectors Lift = 400 newtons _J -I I Drag I 100 newtons I I I J --i Re sultant Step 2 Set directions of vectors O °/ II v. One may adopt two points of view. in the use of a wind tunnel.- Vector Motion representation. (See fig. 162(b). speed) but indicate opposite directions. In many cases. for example. 162(a).o from the opposite direction.

air placed in motion wing 162.APPENDIX B - Concluded Observer in fixed air (a) Observer fixed in air.- with velocity Relative motion. Wing in tunnel ".:::Top of tunnel' Observer' stationary with respect to wing/ / (e) Wind-tunnel operation over Figure - wing fixed in place and V_. r Observer fixed on aircraft (b) Observer fixed on aircraft. 191 .

192 .

yCOIE components Y. point. north and Y in figThe is considered of the the Earth. toward of the as shown 193 . first hand.APPENDIX C COORDINATE SYSTEMS A point in space point stitute point is considered what is then is known located the may be located origin by referencing of three mutually it to a known perpendicular system. X. be resolved Three generally system. axes. (b) Location rectangular system. center lie in the geometric The Z-axis points pointing Earth pointing east. thumb.- Rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. and systems. Earth-Axis In the Earth-axis X and Y axes system the Earth plane down System to be fiat X and nonrotating. This in space the X. the rectangular body-axis Cartesian system. components. Cartesian the number coordinate of units along unknown axes a into coordiused. origin fig. lines The The which known con- to be the as a rectangular by specifying origin. of right Y. of a vector Cartesian Resolution in a right-hand coordinate into and second respectively. fingers Figure 163. each 163(a). are the employing Earth-axis right-handed system.) are measured vector its nate They three from oriented system whose is shown tail Z in figure at the (See at random along is set axes. and the wind-axis )onent _ Origin ° X r Point P Z Z (a) Location rectangular Right-hand Z axes of a point coordinate system point along - in a right-hand system. ure 164. may 163(b). as of the three Additionally.

A that is. toward the X-axis). the airplane positive the right roll wing rotates about its longitudinal axis (that is. Body-Axis In the that the body-axis points system the rectangular nose of the System Cartesian aircraft axis system is oriented with wing such X-axis axis out of the The and is coincident out of the X and Y right axes center the longiof the air- tudinal craft of the aircraft.- Earth-axis system. rotates turning as the Y-axis turning Pitch: the the rises. the yaw is defined nose moves as the X-axis towards viewed the Y-axis. to the right (clockwise when 194 . pitch. that A positive is. Z-axis. Roll: origin point system to define is taken to be the it is useful the important angular and Figure 164. aircraft. from above). X-axis.APPENDIX C . roll. airplane Z-axis about toward the the Y-axis. Z-axis The At this Y-axis is directed to both the and the is perpendicular of the entire and is directed of gravity displacement of the terms downward. pitch is defined as the nose of the airplane Yaw: the airplane turning rotates about the Z-axis. A positive that is.Nonrotati. is defined drops.Continued X_t Lie in geometric y_) Earth's surface E } plane of p.

and yaw are illustrated in YB XB Roll Yaw ZB Figure 165.- Body-axis system. body-axis system and the concepts of roll. geometric plane Z-axis wind-axis of symmetry This plane of symmetry. pitch. aircraft. Wind-Axis In the is at the general wind-axis of the velocity perpendicular system. the in the in the The The X-axis X and the origin The System of the X-axis lies is Z rectangular points in the into the Cartesian direction of symmetry downward. In many (no means yawing that the probsystem of the of center of gravity oncoming the The lems motion) Y-axis The ure airplane Y-axis free-stream and is is Z-axis and plane generally 166(a)). to the to both motion also right the is lies wing. perpendicular airplane the out X-axis of the is termed of interest so that points system 166(b)). directed axes plane (fig. in fig- then simplified is illustrated 195 . vector. again is system in the and of symmetry.APPENDIX C - Continued The figure 165.

Concluded Yw Zw Relative the plane wind of not in )'7 jc/Xw symrnetry//_ (i" system.APPENDIX C . Figure Wind-axis 196 . 166.- X and Z axes system. in plane of symmetry. (a) General wind-axis Yw f (b) Simplified wind-axis system. Z-axis in plane of symmetry.

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