BroJon News: Friday May 13, 2005

WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS
CHAPTER ONE: Maybe The Theorists Got It Wrong
In 1980, Dr Luis Alvarez hypothesized that a massive meteorite hit the earth 65 million years ago, leaving a deposit of white powder around the world, known in geology as the K-T boundary. Below the K-T boundary, fossils of large dinosaurs are found, but above the boundary - no dinosaurs. This observation has been the reason for the main accepted theory for the last two decades, that a large meteorite killed the dinosaurs. But it that true?

THE DEBATE: Asteroid or Volcano
Some paleontologists are now proposing that possibly the geologic record shows that severe climate change from extreme volcanic activity during the time was responsible for the death of the dinosaurs. The debate is now forcing scientists to choose up sides - Was it meteorite or volcanoes? But what if both are wrong, and it was neither? Some of the data seem to indicate it might have been a meteorite, but other observations seem to favor a volcanic cause. But there are also holes in both theories. Some of the geologic and scientific observations can't be explained by either or both of the theories. Such as why did whatever happened at the K-T boundary, kill only all the large reptilians, the dinosaurs, but seemed not to have any affect on such smaller ancient reptiles as turtles, crocodiles and alligators? Those animals along with similar reptiles still remain alive today. Also not affected were reptilian-like birds and even insects, other than most of them became much smaller after the K-T event.
Fi g. 1) Dr. Luis Alvarez and son Walter discover the "Boundary"

THE CHANGES: At the Cretaceous-Tertiary K-T Boundary
Some clear changes in the lifeforms on earth did occur at the K-T boundary. Prior to the boundary, the predominant form was reptilian, but afterward, the predominant form was small non-reptiles such as early marsupials and mammals. Most scientists, misconstrue this change as from "cold-blooded" animals to "warm-blooded" animals. Not So. The difference between reptiles and mammals is not the temperature of the blood but the mechanism used to maintain that temperature. Reptiles have no internal organ or means for maintaining their temperature. If the temperature is too hot, then reptiles must hide under a rock or in the shade to keep cool. Or if the temperature is too cool then reptiles must "sun" themselves to gain heat, or burrow in the ground or stay in water to stay warm or regulate their temperature. But normally, reptilian blood temperature is just about the same as in mammals. Reptiles must use external means to regulate their temperature. Most mammals have something like a thyroid gland that monitors the external air temperature breathed in and flowing through the throat, and also monitors the blood temperature flowing from heart to brain. This unique gland sits in the throat and has both hot carotid arteries coming directly from the heart and passing through both thyroid lobes. The thyroid gland then releases the proper amount of thyroxin to control evaporative cooling in the lungs and metabolic heating to maintain a constant bloodbrain temperature - despite the outside air temperature and weather conditions.

CRITICAL TEMPERATURE: 100 Degrees

which either completely die each year and regrow each spring from seeds dropped the previous year. both plants and animals. These primitive plants do have a simple form of seed or spore but without any protective covering. These plants are also called "evergreens" since these plants seem the same. and fern palms. and mammals like the seals live in 32 degree freezing Antarctica and the Arctic. If the brain temperature falls to about 95 degrees. which is a winter survival mechanism for some animals. After the K-T boundary. in fact almost all animals with nerve and brain tissue. or needled trees such as redwoods or pines trees.5 degrees? This would mean that before the K-T event there were no seasons. or the reptile may not survive. If a reptile falls asleep and the surrounding air temperature falls to 70 degrees. But before the K-T boundary. Most angiosperms also need the changes in the length of the daylight as the seasons change to . then the brain tissue ceases to function properly and coma and death soon result. the plants and animals had no means to respond to seasonal changes. The name angiosperm means covered-seed. in what may have happened during the K-T Boundary event.For both reptiles and mammals. causing seasons and seasonal climate changes. But what causes seasonal changes? They are caused by the tilt of the earth. While human body temperature is about 98. Note that temperature for future reference. What this means is that after the K-T boundary. but reptiles do not. In general these are non-flowering non-seed-bearing plants like ferns. If the temperature of a mammal's brain drops about 10 degrees the result is coma. As further evidence. marsupials and birds can Fig. the reptiles only live in a very narrow range of climates around the earth. the brain temperature is about 99 to 100 degrees. Which Is Not Necessary For Mammal Pet Cages storm and still survive. most angiosperms need the changes of the seasons to trigger when to drop seeds or sprout. Prior to the K-T shift nearly all of the plants were gymnosperms. then still sprout the next year. But most reptiles wouldn't have a chance over that wide range of climate. fern trees. the leaves are completely dropped and new growth comes from new leaves and flowering portions of the tree each spring. and then favoring the new angiosperms and mammals. the earth became tilted. But after the KT boundary. most of the vast variety of new plant forms were angiosperms. the brain temperature begins to rise each morning and is back to 100 degrees about 15 minutes before waking up. The seeds of angiosperms have hard coverings or casings which can tolerate hot arid drying desert heat and even cold freezing. the reptile may not wake up. Birds such as penguins. They are not seasonal plants. the new predominant lifeforms. is that not just animals such as dinosaurs were affected. all year round. In some animals this coma condition is recoverable and is called hibernation. 2) for Constant Warmth Above Room Hood tolerate weather changes from arid desert heat to frigid blizzard snow Temperature. During sleep. but also an extreme and vast change in the plant lifeforms of earth also occurred at that same time. and this favored the older life forms of gymnosperms and reptiles. THE K-T EVENT: The Beginning of Earth Seasons Is it possible that before the K-T boundary the earth was not tilted. that brain tissue must be kept at a temperature of about 100F within a few degrees. or green.6 degrees. then the individual goes to sleep. were the ones which could tolerate wide changes in the seasons from winter to summer. THE GREAT SHIFT: Gymnosperms to Angiosperms -. Reptiles have no means to regulate their brain temperature during sleep. That's why terrariums are usually kept heated above room temperature. to remain electrically and chemically active. Or if it is a large tree. then whatever happened at the KT boundary event also caused the earth to tilt at 23. Heated Terrarium With Incandescent What that means is that most mammals.The Record of the Seeds Usually not discussed at all. If not. These are the flowering plants. The name gymnosperm means naked-seed. Today.

This material is mostly iron. Fig. silicon and magnesium metallic alloys and is called SIMA. that what killed the dinosaurs was either a wandering asteroid passing by or impacting earth causing it to tilt over. Above the heavy metallic mantle floats the molten fluid asthenosphere which is where most hot volcanic lava comes from. And the tilting of the earth started seasons. Or maybe it was a large volcanic explosion tilting the earth and causing seasons and killing dinosaurs. There is plenty of data in the geologic record to show that this might be a good idea to revise all three at the same time. Each layer downward was more dense and heavier than the layers above. Is that true? What if some huge volcanic explosion erupted in the earth's northern hemisphere. Does this then show that angiosperms could not and did not develop before the K-T boundary because the earth was not yet tilted and there were no seasons? Not yet.5 degrees. And floating above all of those is the even lighter less dense . Metallic oxides are all called ceramics and are much lighter and less dense than molten pure metals. surely when earth was formed it was layered. causing the earth to recoil and tilt back from the blast and then tilting over at 23.5 degrees at the time of the K-T boundary 65 million years ago. Floating on the astheno. along with seasonal changes in climate. Without the seasonal changes most angiosperms would fail. Is that possible? But again we get back to the current main scientific theories and dilemma.determine when to bloom. Was it asteroid or volcanoes? Was it some as yet unknown and undiscovered "deus ex machina" which caused the tilt of the earth? Again. What does the actual geologic record show? THE LAYERS: Peeling the Earth Like an Onion One of the important items of evidence is that. Could it have been some wandering asteroid passing near or impacting earth that caused the earth to tilt? The laws of physics would say that nothing internal to the earth could have caused the earth to tilt over on its own axis so it must have been some event external to the earth such as a passing asteroid. paleomagnetism and plate tectonics would also need to be revised. maybe it was neither. I have not seen any other scientist look at this possibility to explain the disappearance of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. But if this possibility were correct then current theories about orogeny. The violent eruption could then act like a large rocket jet blasting into space. you probably found that there is significant evidence in the geologic and scientific record indicating that the earth seems to have somehow been tilted over about 23. And it might finally resolve the issue about what really killed the dinosaurs. 3) The Layered Onion Of Earth: The Rigid Layers of SIMA and SIAL lithosphere Float On The Fluid Asthenosphere (shown in red) Floating above the rocky SIAL is the layer of watery oceans or the hydrosphere. and creating seasons and killing dinosaurs. and that is what killed the dinosaurs. This material is almost all silicon and aluminum atoms which are bonded with oxygen.sphere is the lighter rocky continental material. Since it is mostly silicon and aluminum oxide it is called SIAL. WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS CHAPTER TWO: What Caused the Earth to Tilt 65 Million Years Ago? In chapter one. something like the layers of an onion. So the lighter rocky ceramic SIAL continents float on the heavier metallic SIMA asthenosphere.

just as on all the other planets and moons in our solar system.formly spread around the earth to balance the spinning planet in its orbit.gaseous layer of air called the atmosphere. that remnant has broken apart and has uni. Thus the earth is much like all other large bodies in orbit around the sun. And Pangea was originally all in one place. If the This Is Shown Incorrectly. Then about 65 million years ago something tore away about three fourths of that rocky SIAL continental material and exposed the hot SIMA asthenosphere below. this could be simply a problem of geography and Fig. Since that time. The point in time at which the basaltic SIMA material was exposed and cooled is indicated by their present age of 65 million years or less. three fourths of one of the layers of the onion skin on planet earth is completely missing. which are now widely spread around the planet. Information from NASA would seem to indicate that all of the other large bodies. paleo-magnetic measurements.ponents of Laurasia and Gondwanaland about 250 million years ago. That remnant rocky material which now only covers about one fourth of the planet was called Pangea. Except for one thing. What that means is that prior to 65 million years ago there probably was a thick rocky continental layer of SIAL which uniformly and completely covered the whole earth like an onion skin. 4) A Typical Guess of What Pangea May Have Looked Like 200 Million Years Ago. as we will soon see. when three fourths of the rocky continental material was ripped away. then the magnetic dating of Laurasia and Gondwanaland would show they were all in the same place at the same time 250 million years ago. the rocky material that was left was then all in one place and on one side of the planet earth. This was a surprising result but seems to have been largely ignored by the scientific community. Where did it go? And how did such a thing happen? THE GEOLOGIC MYSTERY: Where Did the Missing Continents Go? For almost a century. The broken remnants became the present day continents. But that mystery is now about to be solved. and even up to 65 million years ago. THE REMNANT CALLED PANGEA: Was It a Result of the K-T Event or Pushed Together by Internal Forces Another clue is that about that time. it has been recognized that three fourths of the rocky continental SIAL material of earth is simply missing. The ocean bottom samples they brought back all showed that the ages of almost all the lava-like SIMA material which makes up all the ocean beds are no older than about 65 million years old. Where did it go and when did it disappear? One hundred years ago geologists did not have the information we have now. That newly exposed hot asthenosphere cooled and became the new ocean beds. One of the new clues is that during the 1980's ocean-going prospecting ships took a survey of the ocean beds of earth looking for minerals and oil. A huge portion. Modern day theory mistakenly dates the breakup of Pangea into the two major com. since the 1912 publication of German geologist Alfred Wegener's book. The Upper Portion Called "Laurasia" Should Be Rotated Clockwise About 45 Degrees. But. . This Would Close The Large Opening On the Right whole remnant body of Pangea was Called The Tethys Sea. so it has always just remained a geologic mystery. planets and big moons of our solar system also seem to be layered like onions. Thus the earth is something like a layered onion with each layer going outward lighter and less dense than the deeper layers below. originally rotated about 45 degrees clockwise.

5 degrees. But then they broke up and started to spread apart about 65 million years ago. The problem is putting all of the various pieces of scientific evidence together into one self-consistent hypothesis. causing the beginning of seasons and the demise of the dinosaurs? The earth's geologic record still has much more information readily available which can tell us the answer to that question. This accounts for why all the present day ocean beds have an age of 65 million years or less. Is it possible that whatever event ripped away three fourths of the earth's continental surface material 65 million years ago is also what caused the earth to tilt over at 23.They had always been all in the same place as part of the non-moving uniform layer of rocky material completely covering the earth. . They had been in the same place since the oldest measured dates going back well beyond 600 million years ago.

Earliest life forms seem to appear in the oceans somewhere about a billion or 1. Life only existed in the miles deep ocean. it surely does. This is shown in the geologic record as all the places where the rocky material was ripped off and disappeared. advanced lifeforms including both plants and animals abounded in the oceans in a vast variety of complex and some rather huge forms. Most bio-scientists did not study physics or if they did. Why? Could it be that before 400 million years ago. 5) THE PHANEROZOIC TIME SCALE was no land? The earth was completely covered by water. But that would have completely covered the whole planet with no land or continents visible.tologists. meaning today's ocean beds.5 degrees and the seasonal changes of winter and summer began. but then what made the land mysteriously and suddenly appear during the Devonian Period 400 million years ago? To solve the mystery of the sudden appearance of land during the Devonian Period.WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS CHAPTER THREE: Where did the Missing Continents Go 65 Million Years Ago? What we've seen so far is that sometime about 65 million years ago. This left behind one fourth of that layer as the proto-continent. principle of physics called.000 million years ago. We've also seen that about 65 million years ago. This was shown in the geologic record by the sudden shift in the earth's plants and animals at the K-T boundary from the earlier gymnosperms and reptilians. but no life on the land. ocean and atmosphere. they probably didn't really understand the meaning of the principle of Conservation of Angular Momentum or CAM. the earth was seemingly tilted over at 23. Thus there was no land for the plants and animals to live on. the original depth would have then been about eight miles deep. but only if you know where to look. to the later angiosperms and mammals. That solves one long-standing geologic mystery. All the continental rocky land was covered by a vast eight mile deep ocean. which was all in one place and on one side of the earth. Yes. If three fourths of the rocky continental layer mysteriously disappeared 65 million years ago. though esoteric. Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM). there were four times as much land. PRIMARY PRINCIPLE: The Conservation of Angular Mometum (CAM) . then the depth of the proto-oceans would be four times as deep as it is now. all have an age of 65 million years or less. about three fourths of the rocky SIAL continental layer which had completely covered planet earth seems to have suddenly all disappeared. there simply Fi g. MYSTERIOUS OCEANS: Why It Took So Long for Life to Appear on Land If originally. Did that happen? What does the geologic record show. One of the great mysteries of geology and paleontology is why did it take so long for life to emerge on the land. Pangea. From about 700 million years ago during the PreCambrian Period to about 400 million years ago during the Devonian Period. biologists and botanists would need to understand a basic. paleon. meaning the oceans and atmosphere would also have disappeared at the same time? Does the geologic record show this. wouldn't it be reasonable that also three fourths of the layers above. Does the geologic record show that? With a current average depth of about two miles today.

all that the plants needed was sunlight. as is shown in the geologic record. methane and ammonia. As the planet cooled it shrank as hot gases deep in the mantle were released into the ancient atmosphere. but was only simple single-celled plants called blue-green algae or phytoplankton. at the same time as it made three fourths of the continental rocky layer of earth disappear? The usual explanation of Conservation of Angular Momentum given in physics classes uses an ice skater. Animals were a very different form of life. take carbon dioxide. and converts them into hydrocarbons. So how did CAM suddenly make the land appear on planet earth during the Devonian Period 400 million years ago? And how did it also suddenly make the dinosaurs disappear 65 million years ago. To do all of this. And has done it several times in the past. and there was no land. These "plants" as do all plants. The CAM principle says. The thick dense atmosphere covered the massive thick layer of water about eight miles deep. 7) Tara Lipinski Extends Her Arms and Legs Away From the Center Line of Her Body To Stop Her Rapid Spin So That She Can End Her Routine and Accept Her Olympic Medal. The first life form on earth was not animals. like Tara Lipinski at the Winter Olympics. And the "plantification" of earth completely converted earth's entire atmosphere from carbon dioxide into oxygen and nitrogen. BATTLE OF THE 'SEXES': Plants versus Animals Billions of years later after the first plants had converted most of the primeval atmosphere into oxygen and nitrogen. on the last note of the music on the tinny rink-arena sound system." At the end of Tara's routine. 6) Tara Lipinski Brings Her Arms Inward To Begin Her Astounding Medal-Winning Triple Axel Spin What a wonderful display.It turns out that without the principle of CAM there would be no planetary systems or solar systems. Fig. the plants completely filled the oceans with sun-loving phytoplankton. MYSTERY IN THE AIR: Why the Earth is Different When the earth first formed it had a very thick atmosphere. . And then as a waste product the plants release oxygen and nitrogen. more than four times thicker than at present. as any rotating body reduces its distance from the axis of rotation. bringing in her arms and spinning faster. And why are ice skaters used as examples in physics classes? Only an ice skater on the nearly frictionless ice. With no predators or other lifeforms to compete with. then slowly brings her arms closer to her body. At the end of her skate routine she begins to spin around. As the planet earth cooled and shrank. and Tara seems to spin faster and faster until she is only a swirling blur. As the earth's diameter shrank with age it also rotated faster and faster. It turns out that planet earth is just as agile and adept as Tara and can do that very same trick. just like all the other planets in our solar system. methane and ammonia. its diameter became slightly smaller. it must rotate faster and faster to "conserve angular momentum. But this is the same as skater Tara. carbohydrates and ammonia (or amino) acids which make up proteins and which become the parts of the body of the plant. It was made mostly of carbon dioxide. the first single-celled animals appeared. no planets and certainly no life on any planets. can rotate rapidly and duplicate the rotation of bodies like earth which rotate frictionlessly in space. Fig. Tara flings her arms outward and comes to a sudden complete stop to a loud congratulatory applause.

" The animals needed something to eat to get their energy. The animal were not "breath-airians." At that time. Thus ended the great age of atmosphere conversion. all manner of lifeforms. So what happened 400 million years ago. in only a few hundred or thousand years. the Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM) also caused another vast change in earth about 225 million years ago which completely devastated all life on earth. the earth continued to change until 65 million years ago at the K-T boundary. plants and animals. during the P-T or Permian-Triassic boundary. It leaves the earth now with its oxygennitrogen atmosphere. That's why no other planets in the solar system have an oxygen atmosphere. and began the earth's present balance between two competing and complementary lifeforms. plants and animals. We are now ready to put all the pieces of the geologic record evidence together to find out what really killed the dinosaurs. suddenly spread in teeming abundance all across the newly exposed land surface. in a process called the "Great Dying. Then later.They can't survive on just air and sunlight. nearly 95% of all life in both the oceans and on the land simply disappeared. since it's a by-product of single-celled plant life and requires a very deep watery ocean. the dinosaurs along with three fourths of the rocky continental layer on the earth's surface all suddenly disappeared. . Why? What was the CAM event that caused the "Great Dying?" And by that same CAM process with planet earth doing its imitation of Tara Lipinski routines. during the Devonian period to make land suddenly appear on earth? And then within a geologic blink of an eye. as do the plants. They ate the plants.

the impure dross solidifies into a crust on the surface and can be scooped off the top. The impurities are usually lighter and float on the surface of the molten iron. you would intuitively know the answers. or Orogeny. THE EARTH IS BORN: The Smelting of Iron and Removing the Dross Ignoring for the moment how it got here. That is how most metallic ores are purified and smelted. to the seasonal mammals and angiosperms? Why is it that the seasons caused by the tilting of the earth seem to begin at the K-T boundary? Why is it that the basaltic beds of all the oceans all seem to be of the same age of 65 million years or less? Why is it that all the rocky continental material seemed to be all in the same place about 65 million years ago? And what made the other three fourths of all the rocky continents suddenly disappear 65 million years ago. This is the same force that points away from the center. The real problem for science is usually not finding the right answers. And oblate means it becomes fatter around the middle. and with what causes the continents to move around the planet. This is similar to letting air out of a balloon and the balloon shrinks. What happens when the earth spins faster? As the earth spins faster. But that may be too much information all at once. as when you swing a bucket of water around you and the water stays in the bucket.5 billion years ago. and where did the missing continents go? None of the current theories about the disappearing dinosaurs even ask or address those questions. So what happens to the earth? It becomes oblate because of the outward centrifugal force around the equator. The centrifugal force holds the water in the bucket. As the earth cooled for some billions of years. just like the other planets in the solar system. Each layer lighter and less dense going outward from the center. as the earth shrank. gases in the interior of the earth will leak out into the atmosphere.asteroid or volcanoes? But what if it were something else? The observation of the layer of white powder at the K-T boundary 65 million years ago with dinosaur fossils below and none above. This seems to have occurred about 4. Actually there are whole groups of many other unasked questions about the K-T boundary. but is actually just finding and asking the right questions. Almost any hot metal will shrink when cooled. The shrinkage of earth was caused for two reasons. we've learned that science is currently in a dilemma: What killed the dinosaurs . the centrifugal force along the equator increases. Paleomagnetism and Plate Tectonics -Putting It All Together Previously. and with what causes the earth's magnetic field. As the vessel with the hot metal cools. compared to the distance around the poles. The core of the earth is hot metal. At that time the earth was almost perfectly layered like an onion. which have to do with observations about mountain building. . They are not hard to figure out.WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS CHAPTER FOUR: How CAM Changed Orogeny. This is like heating raw iron ore in a vessel until it melts. Also over time. Just as with ice skater Tara Lipinski pulling in her arms. Let's look at the problem chronologically. exposing the new sea beds. called Plate Tectonics. If I gave you those questions. or Paleomagnetism. Why is it at the K-T boundary 65 million years ago. that the life forms on earth suddenly shift from non-seasonal reptiles and gymnosperms. As it cools the metallic ore also shrinks. the earth at its beginning was in orbit around the sun and was spinning on its axis. it spun around faster and faster. has lead to the current dilemma. a firm surface crust was formed on the outside and the earth began to shrink.

like the solid bowling ball. Many a Lipinski fan paid good money just to watch Tara become "oblate" around the middle. Jupiter and Saturn. to be squeezed together and build up into a thick ring along the equator. does earth become oblate? THE EARTH BECOMES OBLATE: The Bowling Ball versus The Soccer Ball If you spin a bowling ball faster and faster it will not get fat around the middle. since they rotate fast enough for the centrifugal force to make them fat around the middle. her tutu skirt. The mountians are made of ancient seafloor sediment that has been pushed together and then raised up. This caused the rocky lithosphere. But those bodies are mostly gas so becoming oblate is easy. LAND APPEARS ABOVE THE OCEANS: The Orogeny of the Geosynclines This slow squeezing and building up of the earth's surface lithosphere toward the equator causes a unique form of mountain to be created. This is created when a spherical body rotates very quickly and the equatorial region becomes fatter. . the earth's rocky lithosphere floating on the fluid asthenosphere became thicker around the middle and the earth appeared to became oblate. This will be one of the important "questions" later in the proof. like the clay on the bowling ball. These mountains are called "geosynclines" and look something like the skin of wrinkly fruit or a dried prune. It's hard to make a model of a bowling ball inside a soccer ball to make a model of earth. and the outer planets. The sun. While she is spinning. The rocky lithosphere of earth slid toward the equator on the hot fluid layer of molten asthenosphere. In the Solar System. So how Fig. This shows that the American continent was originally on the equator and then rotated counterclockwise about 60 degrees to its present position. Where are the geosyncline mountains today? The location of the present day Fig. her skirt is thrown outward by centrifugal so that it is almost standing straight out. It is just too hard and solid to change shape. did not change shape. If you spin a soccer ball faster and faster it will begin to flatten out and get fat around the middle. a part of her. The rippling sinuous mountians are typical of geosyncline formations around the world. But it was really only the material along the earth's surface around the equator that changed shape. becomes "fatter" around the middle. So we can pretend using a bowling ball which is covered with a layer of soft clay around the ball. Like the soft soccer ball. Compare that to her skirt when she is stopped. In this photo the ancient earth equator ran from the lower central to the upper right. But the earth is mostly a hard solid metallic ball. and then spin the ball and clay faster and faster. the planet Saturn is the most oblate with an equator 10 percent larger than the polar distance.Another example is to look at the two pictures of skater Tara Lipinski as she begins her rapid spin. The earth's highly compressed solid core and lower mantle. 9) A Landsat MSS synthetic color photo of the Geosyncline region of central Pennsylvania. What will happen is that the clay will begin to slowly migrate to the equator of the spinning bowling ball. are measurably oblate. So while Tara is spinning. 8) A geometric model of an Oblate Spheroid. This also happened to the earth about 2 billion years ago.

There is nothing equivalent to the force of gravity on the bowling ball to hold the clay to the surface. fern trees and evergreen pines and redwoods. prior to the time of the K-T boundary. Scientists wanting to duplicate the experiment with the bowling ball covered with a layer of clay might find it easier to use another model. It was at that point in time. Then spin the plastic ball and watch how the clay layer is forced toward the equator. the centrifugal force squeezing the geosyncline mountains.geosyncline mountains. 10) A typical Carboniferous Age gynmosperm equatorial forest filled with ferns. THE CARBONIFEROUS AGE: The Location of the Geosynclines Today The massive growth of the rain forest-like ancient gymnosperm plants such as fern trees. When the trees were buried and compressed they became hard black anthracite coal. During the Devonian period 400 million years ago. The land suddenly appeared during the Devonian. That's why it took so long for life to move from the oceans to the land. the rocky lithosphere material first peeked above the waves of the ancient eight mile deep ocean. This was the original equatorial rain forest before the K-T boundary event. caused by the conservation of angular momentum (CAM) and the earth spinning faster and faster as it cooled. It was just after the Devonian. It is no accident that the prototypical example of the geosyncline mountains is the present day Allegheny mountains and the Carboniferous age coal fields in the eastern United States. It is important to note that the cause of the pushing up of the geosyncline mountains along the equator was due to the Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM) and not due to anything called Plate Tectonics. It is also no accident that the typical subdivisions of the coal-making or Carboniferous age are called the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian ages. so covered the newly exposed land that they died and left thick layers of dead trees and plants now called coal layers along the geosyncline mountains. building up a thick ring around the equator with a rippled surface simulating the formation of geosyncline mountains. When the peat bog was buried and compressed it became soft brown bituminous coal. A better experiment would use a hollow clear Lucite plastic ball lined with clay on the inside. redwoods and pines. F ig. accurately mark the position of the original earth crust compared to the location of the earth's equator. The forest floor became a peat bog sometimes miles thick. for the first time in science. and in the Carboniferous age that the life in the oceans suddenly burst forth upon the land in wild abundance. . Europe and Asia follow the line of the Paleozoic equatorial geosyncline mountain formations around the world. had created a narrow strip of mountain ranges all the way around the equator raised up almost to a height of about eight miles. The vast coal beds of America.

I sent copies of the publication to scientists around the world. If you think this analysis is too new and outlandish to be possible. THE UNASKED QUESTIONS: The Result of NOT Asking Questions The question for you is. But today. the current divisions of theorists between asteroid or volcanic causes. I published this analysis along with an in-depth rigorous mathematical proof in 1993.sion of the narrow strip of geosyncline mountains above the eight mile deep ocean which still covered the whole rest of the planet.zoic and Mesozoic periods. to the end of the Cretaceous age 65 million years ago. It was completely ignored. including all of the scientists at the USGS. what do you think happened to that huge chunk of three fourths of the earth's rocky lithosphere layer when it broke away and spun off into space 65 million years ago? And also what do you think happened to all those huge reptilian dinosaurs remaining on the side of the earth opposite to the point where the big chunk flew off into space. And as I just pointed out they also don't seem to answer the many other important questions about what else happened at the time of the K-T boundary 65 million years ago. Thus showing that current ideas about when and where Pangea was located. the earth will suddenly slow down and become stable again. From that observation. and like Tara putting out her arms at the end of her routine. and the earth suddenly slowed down? You get extra points for also figuring out why that made the earth tilt over 65 million years ago and start earth's seasons.syncline mountains and large coal deposits mark the location around the world which was the original tropical rain forest along the equator of the earth during the late Paleo. It seems the analysis was then too far outside their accepted paradigm. In 1993 the Alvarez theory of asteroid impact causing the dinosaur demise was so deeply entrenched in mainstream science that any alternatives were quickly rejected without consideration. like Tara the skater pulling in her arms. then the geosyncline mountains and coal deposits begin to line up with the equator. a big chunk of the thick clay layer around the equator of the bowling ball. In our model of a bowling ball covered with clay. But that was their problem.since none of the currently accepted theories seem to work. Hint: the orbit of the moon is tilted to the ecliptic plane of the planets and the equator of the earth.Those ages mark the position and gradual uplifting and expan. Thus releasing a huge amount of angular momentum. and what is now called the Tethys Sea is closed up. not mine. The earth. Any place around the world where you now find the narrow strips of wrinkled sinuous geo. If maps of Pangea are rotated clockwise about 45 degrees. means science is now looking around for new answers . if spun fast enough. the lithospheric rocky continental material continued to slide toward the equator and rise higher and higher. From the first appearance of land 400 million years ago. based on paleomagnetism and other data are simply incorrect. it is easy to show that modern scientific attempts to recreate the original position of Pangea are quite wrong. since they don't place the geosynclines mountains and their coal deposits along the equator. will simply and suddenly break free and fly off into space. . cooled and spun faster and faster. Maybe not. about half or more.

something like unzipping a huge strip of Velcro around the equator. Then about 65 million years ago. But since the total angular momentum of the present day earth and moon system is exactly equal to the angular momentum of an oblate earth rapidly spinning at near the "zero g speed" 65 million years ago. Amazing. If there had been an impact with some asteroid. we left the earth spinning so rapidly that the rocky continental lithosphere had formed a thick belt or ring around the equator of the solid core of the earth. As the earth spun faster and faster the net gravitational force along the equator. you will find that the sum is exactly equal to the original angular momentum of a rapid spinning oblate earth rotating with a speed of about 7 hours per revolution. then the force of gravity at the equator is around half of what it would be at the poles. Then the only thing holding it to the earth was the mechanical adhesion of the thick fluid lava layer called the asthenosphere. This is important. let's do a little math. That volume of the three fourths of the surface material missing from the earth's rocky layer is exactly equal to the volume of the moon. and is caused by the body shrinking with age and the principle of Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM). as it does today. There are several planets and moons in the solar system which rotate about that fast. Rapid spinning is a normal part of planet and moon evolution. That three fourths of the thick rocky ring around the earth carried with it a large amount of the rapidly spinning earth's energy in the form of angular momentum. A LITTLE MATH GOES A LONG WAY: Happy Birthday Moon To prove that. that the volume of the moon is exactly equal to the volume of the missing rocky continents of earth does not yet prove that the K-T event might not have been caused by some asteroid impact or some massive volcanic explosion. since it shows that no other body. If the earth spins at 24 hours per day. then the force of gravity becomes rather close to zero at the equator. If the earth spins faster. just prior to 65 million years ago. actually it's total angular momentum. It merely indicates how long the body in space has been cooling and shrinking. then the asteroid's angular momentum would have also been transferred to either the earth or moon or both. And that calculation also shows the two volumes are exactly the same with an accuracy of about one percent. and it floated off into space. Then it simply overcame that sticky adhesion. which is the downward non-spinning gravity force minus the upward centrifugal spinning force. soon approaches zero. then no other body could have been possibly . With another quick calculation we can find the volume of the missing three quarters of the rocky continents of earth. or the average depth to the hot molten fluid asthenosphere where the separation took place. If you calculate the total angular momentum of today's earth and the moon and add them together. then the principle of the Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM) says that even if a portion of the earth separates and flies off into space.WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS CHAPTER FIVE: The K-T Event 65 Million Years Ago In Chapter Four. Simply take three fourths of the surface area of the earth and multiply that by 37 miles. It spiraled outward and was so large that it formed into a sphere by its own gravity and became what is today called the moon. such as a nearby roaming asteroid impact could have been involved in the process. And if the earth spins around in about 7 hours. But another quick calculation will. in about a 12 hour revolution day. then the force of gravity at the equator is about the same as the force of gravity at the north and south poles. CALCULATING THE CAM: The Asteroid Mysteriously Disappears If you calculate the spinning energy of the earth. a large portion of that thick belt of land around the equator had less than zero gravity. while the force at the poles remains the same. That amazing fact. all of the angular momentum will "always" be conserved.

Many other smaller atypical moons give away the fact that they are randomly "captured" intruders. The Inverse Law shows that the spacing of each of the planets from outward to inward is about 62 percent of the distance of the next outer planet. including the formation of a broken ring or asteroid system after the third or fourth planet or moon inward. then surely it would also account for the formation of earth's moon. Other than that. it spins faster and faster. But that does account for the existence of mysterious riverbeds. The moon then became dry and lifeless. the general appearance of the moon close-up is that of rock strewn ocean bottom. This may be repeated with the larger planets. So how did they fly 350 million years ago. but I don't think they noticed. deltas and rills still seen on the dry moon. That amount of regularity. and don't follow the "law". and the observation that the planets and moons are using Tara rotation routines to transfer angular momentum from one body to another can account for the regular spacing. A mathematical proof involves the observation of the Inverse Bode's Law. went off into space. just like Tara Lipinski putting out her arms to slow down her spin. dinosaurs wearing watches might notice that the length of the day had changed from 7 hours to 24 hours. If that is accurate for the other planets and moons. symmetry and following the same "law" in both the planets of the solar system and the moon systems around the planets cannot be accounted for by the random formation of planets and moons out of a primordial nebula of dust around a star. I should note that when three fourths of the rocky lithosphere. the calculations of angular momenta of before and after the K-T event would not be equal. 11) A 6-foot dragonfly. For most of the Cretaceous Age the animals and plants living on the strip of land around the equator were in an almost zero g environment. went from near zero to suddenly increase to about its present force. It releases a moon from the oblate surface. from the Carboniferous era. Fig. Otherwise. Even today. not much difference before and after the K-T event. decreasing the planet's rotation rate and it becomes stable again. But the moon is too small to have enough gravity to hold on to the oceans and atmosphere. TIMING THE K-T BOUNDARY EVENT: Dinosaurs With Wrist Watches So what happened 65 million years ago? Some massive catastrophic earthquake event that shook the earth and killed the dinosaurs. But using the principle of Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM). For a short time the moon was completely covered by water. VISITING THE PLANETS: Many Moons Ago and the Inverse Bode's Law A little further calculation can show that almost all of the moons in our solar system were ejected from their parent planet by this very same process. The larger the planet the more moons it produces to become stable. What happened after the K-T event was that the force of gravity near the equator. Most of the animals and plants living on the earth's surface would hardly notice much of a change. becoming oblate and unstable. As a rotating planet cools. a ring system and then several smaller regularly space moons which follow the "law" inside the ring system. The Inverse Bode's Law also holds true for the major moons of the solar system. Those simply evaporated into the vacuum of space. At that event. unless the earth was far different from today? . spin rates and relative sizes of the planets and moons. so did three fourths of the plants and animals on that land. the larger planets continue to cool and shrink and release another moon. since they are very tiny and usually rotate out of the plane of the ecliptic and may even rotate backwards. It was almost like floating in space or walking on the moon. It is a natural part of the aging and evolution of planetary systems. If you build a model of this dragonfly today. Meganeura. it won't even glide let alone fly.involved in the process. where the animals lived. along with three fourths of the earth's atmosphere. The moons also show the same pattern of three or four large regularly spaced moons. as three fourths of the continents took off into space and became the moon? No. three fourths of the oceans with the fish in them. After a long time.

12) A 60-ton Sauropod (lizard-foot) from the Mesozoic era just prior to the K-T event. The colors indicate the altitude above average lunar terrain. All of those precious materials are all neatly compacted on the far side of the moon. is simply the bottom part of the miss. Only the small animals. The near side of the moon. .nents or the old heavy iron rich lava asthenosphere. the gigantic 6 foot dragon flies could "swim" through the very dense atmosphere as easily as a house fly buzzing past your nose. the moon was part of the earth. The Reynold's Number ratio is 10 to one. while today the biggest walking animals are only about 6 ton elephants. gas. Thus the moon is not really round at all. with almost zero gravity force. like elephants. the huge 60 ton dinosaurs could walk around as easily as a chicken crossing the road. The Froud Number relates momentum or inertia to gravity force. After the K-T separation event and the increase in gravity from near zero to the present day force. That's why the thin front side is covered with black lava parts called maria. The Reynold's Number relates viscosity force (air resistance) to gravity force. The Froud Number ratio is 10 to one. which evolved during the previous several million years. But evidence from fossil foot prints shows no evidence of tail dragging. 60 ton dinosaurs walked around. the moon also has three fourths of the now missing supply of oil. As a human being with that small gravity force on earth.Before the K-T event. From that ratio of ten to one. And that is what is seen in the geologic record. For scientists wanting real numbers. These low spots are the remnants of the very thin crustal layers from the earth's original north and south polar regions. so it is part of the missing geologic record. The average height of the red region is about 5 to 7 miles above the average terrain height which is shown in yellow. With little gravity. ANOTHER LOOK AT THE GEOLOGIC RECORD: What Do the Chinese Know? Next we will take another look at the geologic record. all of the huge mega-fauna. It is heavy on the near side and has a very thick layer of much lighter rocky material on the far side. looking like slow moving giants. Prior to the K-T event huge 6 foot dragonflies were flying. Decades ago museums displayed models and pictures showing these animals dragging their heavy tails. The small running animals shown here are probably more correctly shown. both reptiles and mammals. gold. We will find that along with three fourths of the missing continents. Pictures such as this. Prior to the K-T event. The dark blue at the top of the near side and dark purple at the bottom of the far side are low spots with a depth of 3 to 5 miles below the average. 13) The latest NASA topographical map of the moon.ing conti. The earth was a very different place just prior to the K-T boundary event. you would need to use two dimensionless scientific numbers called the Reynold's Number and the Froud Number. The moon is a vast treasure trove just waiting to be mined. prior to 65 million years ago. leap tall buildings and wear a big red S on your shirt. survived. We will also include the evidence brought back from the moon by the Apollo astronauts as part of the "geologic" record. A quick use of the Reynold's and Froud Numbers would show that prior to the K-T event the net force of gravity along the equator was only about 1/10th of what it is today on earth. That's almost half of the present day gravity on the moon. The large bright red area on the far side slanting from upper left to lower right is the now missing 3/4th of the geosyncline equatorial region of earth. And with riches far greater than on earth. the part we always see. Thus they walked with the tails high in the air to balance their long necks. This animal stood about as tall as a 4 or 5 story building. you can easily calculate the earth's rotation rate of about 7 hours to produce a net gravity of only about 1/10g. you could easily lift cars with one hand. but this time with new information. diamonds and all the other valuable "mineral wealth" of the earth. In fact. such as dinosaurs. simply were crushed by their own weight. Fig. but today even the largest are much smaller than a half foot in size. That would only be necessary if they ran very swiftly. These are often called the rules of scaling. probably are not accurate. Fig.

That's because the heavy side of the moon always points "downward" toward the center of the earth. It used to be the very thick belt of land around the oblate earth just before it separated. It would seem that the backside of the moon would make an ideal space port. Are there dinosaur fossils on the far side of the moon? Nobody ever asked that question before. Working in one sixth gravity would make mining and manufacturing much easier. Do the Chinese know something about the moon that NASA doesn't? What we will find by looking again at the geologic record is the evidence showing exactly what really killed the dinosaurs. And why there is a white powdery layer surrounding earth called the K-T boundary which is rich in Indium. The back side of the moon is appreciably higher and thicker and made of much lighter rocky continental material.otherwise they won't believe you.The lava heavy side of the moon aways points toward us. There are no black maria or seas of lava on the far side of the moon. so I will let you answer. And a pendulum may swing back and forth while pointing to the center of the earth. . just as does the moon rock back and forth with a motion called Libration. they plan to return to the moon by 2015 to begin a manned space program to other planets. According to the Chinese. just as does a pendulum weight always hangs downward toward the center of the earth. The abundance of metallic and ceramic materials in the soil along with vast resources of precious materials and fuel would mean making large spacecraft for long distance travel quite possible and much easier than on earth. Be sure to tell your friends what you just read and where you read it . The moon behaves like a pendulum in space with its heavy side always facing downward toward us. they plan to arrive at the moon and stake claims to all the mineral rights just before 2015. According to NASA.

in fact.the exact length of the year. gamma rays.but just enough to fool both sides into thinking that they each might actually be correct. necessary for maintaining the Hebrew culture . It is a useless debate and a waste of time. I will explain and prove that in detail later.000 BC. During the reversal process. to numerous School Boards. The debate has recently ranged from the depths of the White House. not one. therefore Darwin's gradual evolution theory by "natural selection" is shown to be false. And which theory is correct? It turns out that neither side can "prove" they are correct . Not in anyway that most people believe -.) EVOLUTION: Charles Darwin was also very wrong. you need to know the exact length of the year to be able to know when to plant your crops the next year. The one item of critical evidence to prove that Darwin's Evolution is not correct is that after 150 years of diligent searching. The earth itself does not reverse . But that is exactly what is needed to show Darwin's evolution theory was correct. Every 1 to 2 million years. But to be a true farmer and use agriculture.just the magnetic field. Bishop Usher made a mistake in assuming that Genesis Chapter 5 was about the ages of the patriarchs. the magnetic field of the earth reverses the north and south magnetic poles.not the bible. WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS -. 365 days. They are BOTH wrong.Chapter 3 3. Instead it contains a hidden critical piece of scientific information. I won't mention the number of angels on heads of pins as another example of useless philosophical debates. not even one example of a missing link or any intermediate species form has ever been discovered. to some degree. which usually acts as a shield protecting lifeforms from intense solar X-rays. DID JOSHUA MAKE THE SUN STAND STILL -.) CREATION: The biblical text does not say that the earth is only about 4. creation and evolution are also BOTH correct. and .Chapter 6 RESOLVING THE GREAT DEBATE Recently the Science Vs. most middle-eastern advanced cultures used a 360 day lunar calendar which is good enough for being a shepherd or camel herder. 2. Neither side can prove the other side is correct or incorrect. It's like two blind people arguing over the color of the sky or the sun. Religion debate has heated up over the battle of which "theory" is correct -Creation or Evolution. the earth's magnetic field. no. 2005 THE SHOCKING GREAT WAR: CREATION VERSUS EVOLUTION Who Has the Correct Answer? It's Time to End the Insane Debate ADDENDUM TO ALL THREE TRIPTYCH PARTS OF THE KINECHRON INVESTIGATION 1. People who believe in the "young earth" are wrong. based on a mistaken translation by a Bishop who was not a scientist. 1.for the simple reason that both sides are wrong. The bible. Actually.004 years old. which documents the "evolution" of ancient cultures from huntergathering-herding societies. lawsuits and even many college campuses. Evolution by "natural selection" was not the process which created the myriad lifeforms that now exist on earth. That was Bishop Usher who made that mistake and he was wrong -. There is plenty of evidence which can prove that. into full-fledged agricultural societies which need a proper 365 day solar calendar to survive. WHERE DOCTOR EINSTEIN WENT WRONG -.BroJon News: Monday August 22. Since no intermediate species have ever been found. So Bishop Usher was wrong. Before about 2. A Bishop who didn't understand the scientific and historical meaning of Genesis 5. says nothing about age of the earth. Thus the arguments for both sides of the heated debate between "creation vs evolution" are nonstarters.Chapter 4 2.

Those few 1 percent of survivors. when he invented his evolution theory. in the mid-19th century. No intermediate species or "missing link" were ever born. Since the time of the age of dinosaurs. No missing links between species have ever been discovered." Both scientific and religious "beliefs" are wrong and cannot be proved to be true." enter the scene. or less than one generation. Thus Darwin. and then the survivors quickly "evolved" in just one generation into the many viable new species. it is time to end the inane debate between "creation versus evolution. ocelots. hidden in caves. Marshall Smith Editor. almost instantaneously. But the radiation damage is not visible in those survivors. And the effect of radiation on DNA was completely unknown. by intense solar radiation. eohippus. Darwin's "evolution" didn't and couldn't do all of that within several years. were extremely irradiated and in less than a year became. knew nothing about this. But that is what the geologic record shows -.and thus no "missing links" between species. or under water are highly deformed. during the last magnetic field reversal. had no clue as to what might be the actual cause to make one species change into another species. but it is clearly seen in their direct offspring. modern lions. Another example: The early horse. disappeared. since "radiation" was not "discovered" until 50 years later by Madame Currie. At each reversal. Notice. the new lifeforms are "created" by the intense radiation. the surviving mutants which may or may not still be viable.brojon. suddenly disappears. Within hours. Then and only then. there have been about 15 to 20 magnetic field reversals.but for the wrong reason. since it is no longer competitive. The new species were suddenly "created" by the intense radiation within one generation. in this process there is no gradual evolution -. there is almost instantaneous creation of multitudes of new lifeforms. Thus. until DNA was "discovered" by Watson and Crick 100 years after Darwin.com .almost instantaneous "creation" of many new species by intense random radiation with no intermediate "missing link" forms. pumas. Both can be proved to be false. pussycats and numerous other feline species. Saber Tooth tigers. The new species were "created" almost in the blink of an eye. The new mutant species were born directly from their highly radiated and DNA-modified parents. Now you know why. horses and several equine variants such as zebras which are almost related species. may be able to reproduce. BroJon Gazette www. usually resulting in many forms coming from just one earlier life form. but became donkeys. which ended 65 million years ago. And also both are partly "right" -. to cull the less able or disabled mutant forms to be lost to history. damaged and mutated by the intense radiation causing direct damage to the DNA molecules in their reproductive cells. Within months or a year. one species. And usually the earlier life form disappears. about the size of a dog. tigers.deadly dangerous ionizing particle radiation. The deadly intense solar radiation is momentarily allowed to strike the surface of the earth. does Darwin's evolution process of "natural selection. in geologic time. None of the new species was ever seen before the massive radiation event at the magnetic field reversal. This results in multitudes of numerous competing similar but highly modified mutant lifeforms. about 99 percent of all life on earth is instantly killed by the intense radiation. while the strong survivors with many new adaptable traits become numerous new species. in holes in the earth. Charles Darwin. Thus. Example: About 1 million years ago. and all within one generation. bobcats. Thus Darwin's Theory is wrong.

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