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Approval Sheet

Name of Candidates: Christian Jason M. Alfaro


Hazel S. delas Llagas
Katrina P. Mendoza
Rex M. Urbiztondo

Title of Thesis: A Comprehensive Analysis of Coco-Biodiesel Fuel

_____________________________
Engr. Carlos G. Peña
Instructor

_____________________________
Engr. Teodulo A. Valle
Academic Coordinator
School of Mechanical Engineering

Date:
A Comprehensive Analysis of Coco-Biodiesel Fuel

by

Christian Jason M. Alfaro


Hazel S. delas Llagas
Katrina P. Mendoza
Rex M. Urbiztondo

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements


for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering
in the School of Mechanical Engineering,
Mapúa Institute of Technology

March, 2007
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank our instructor, Engr. Carlos G. Peña, for guiding
and supporting us all throughout this project. His constant reminders and
progress report checks have helped us become more focused during this thesis
writing process. He taught us how to undertake this writing task and even
provided us with examples, which were of great assistance.

We would also like to thank Chemrez Technologies, specifically their


employees namely Engr. Alfredo Urlanda Jr. and Mr. Carlos Palad, for
welcoming us in their company and allowing us to attend one of their seminars
and conduct personnel interviews. Our visit to their company has definitely
helped us further understand our topic. The information that we obtained from
them is very significant to our study and cannot be provided by any other
sources.

We would also like to thank our friends for keeping us company while we
were writing this thesis. They greatly eased the boredom and stress caused by
this tedious paper.

Finally, we would like to thank our family for always being there for us. We
thank our parents and guardians for continually supporting us financially and
emotionally as we go through the rigorous path of college life. We are
approaching the end of it and as we look back at our trails, we realize that this
would not have been possible if you were not as supportive and guiding
parents/guardians as you are.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction……………………………...………………………………1

1.1 Objectives…………………………………………………………………..1

1.2 Problem Statement………………………………………………………...2

1.3 Scope and Limitation of the Study……………………………………….3

1.4 Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………3

Chapter 2: Review of Literature………………………………………….…………8

2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………8

2.2 Historical Background……………………………………………….…….9

2.3 Basic Production Process…………………………………………...…..11

2.3.1 Mixing of alcohol and catalyst……………….………………..14

2.3.2 Reaction……………………………………….…………….…..14

2.3.3 Separation…………………………………………………...….15

2.3.4 Alcohol Removal………………………………………………..15

2.3.5 Glycerin Neutralization…………………………………….…..15

2.3.6 Methyl Ester Wash………………………………………….….16

2.3.7 Product Quality and Registration…………….……….………16

2.4 Quality Specification for Biodiesel…………………….…………….….17

2.5 Applications……………………………………………………………….18

2.6 Health Effects…………………………………………….………….……20

2.7 Life Cycle Summary…………………………………………….………..21

2.8 Current Issues…………………………………………….………..……..25

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Chapter 3: Methodology……………………………………………..……………..27

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion……………………………..………….……30

4.1 Economic Benefits…………………………………….……..…………..30

4.2 Environmental and Health Benefits………………….……..…………..30

4.3 Engine Benefits……………………………………….………..…………31

4.4 General Advantages…………………………………………..…………31

4.5 General Disadvantages………………………………………………….32

Chapter 5: Conclusion………………………………………………………….…..33

References…………………………………………………………………………….34

Appendices

Required Forms

Authors’ Biodata

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Biodiesel Production Input and Output Levels……………………..……12

Table 2. Economic of 1% BioActiv™ into Diesel……………………….…………30

Table 3. Comparing Diesel and BioActiv™………………………………………..31

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Molecular Structure of Aromatics………………………………..…….….3

Figure 2. Molecular Structrue of Ester………………………………………...……..4

Figure 3. Molecular Formula Showing the Chemical Reaction of


Transesterification………………………………………………………..…6

Figure 4. The Biodiesel Reaction ……………………………………….………….13

Figure 5. Schematic Diagram of Biodiesel Production Process…………..…….14

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ABSTRACT

Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from


renewable resources. It contains no petroleum, but can be blended at any level
with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can also be used in
compression-ignition (CI) engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is not
the same thing as raw vegetable oil, but is rather a derivation of it and is
produced by a chemical process that removes the glycerin from the oil. Biodiesel
can be derived from different organic materials such as soy, tallow, or rapeseed
oils. However, in a tropical country like the Philippines where coconut trees are
readily available, coconut oil is used to produce coco-biodiesel.

Biodiesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and


aromatics. It is environmental friendly, which is why it is said to be the resolution
to the growing problem of global warming, a phenomenon caused by
greenhouse gases one of which is carbon dioxide. In fact, carbon dioxide is a
major greenhouse gas, thus elimination or reduction of this gas will help stop
further development of global warming. In addition, the respiratory diseases (one
of the leading causes of death in the world) caused by air pollution will be
eliminated. Biodiesel is also engine friendly. It ensures a more efficient
combustion reducing the emission of the poisonous carbon monoxide, which is
emitted in placed of carbon dioxide when there is poor combustion.

The use of biodiesel will also help boost the country’s economy. With the
rising cost of petroleum fuel in the world market, producing an alternative fuel
such as the coco-biodiesel will reduce the cost of petroleum importation of the
Philippines. Moreover, this would generate jobs for Filipinos especially the
coconut farmers. Lastly, the utilization of biodiesel in diesel vehicles will result in
better mileage. With the additional mileage of the same amount of fuel used,
money is definitely saved.