‫حْيِم‬

ِ ‫ن الّر‬
ِ ‫حمـ‬
ْ ‫ل الّر‬
ّ ‫سِم ا‬
ْ ‫ِب‬
Arabic Grammar Rules for Madeenah Book One
The three vowel markings

-ِ kasrah ‫سَرٌة‬
ْ ‫َك‬
(i)

hdhamma

ُ‫ت الّثلَثة‬
ُ ‫حَرَكا‬
َ ‫اْل‬

ٌ‫ضّمة‬
َ

fathah
(a)

(u)

Sukoon
shaddah

ٌ‫حة‬
َ ‫َفْت‬

ْ- ‫ن‬
ٌ ‫سُكْو‬
ُ

‫شّدٌة‬
َ

at-tanween:‫ن‬
ُ ‫الّتْنِوْي‬
((an ((un

fathataan

- dhammataan

((in

kasrataan

ٍ-

ِ ‫حتَا‬
‫ن‬
َ ‫َفْت‬
-ٌ‫ن‬
ِ ‫ضّمَتا‬
َ
-‫ن‬
ِ ‫سَرَتا‬
ْ ‫َك‬

When vowel markings are doubled at the end of a word they are called

ٌ‫( َتْنِوْين‬tanween). The additional vowel at the end of a word represents a
ْ (noon saakinah). The ‫ن‬
‫ن‬
ْ is not written but is only pronounced. e.g.
‫جد‬
ِ‫س‬
ْ ‫ٌ َم‬- ‫ن‬
ْ ‫جُد‬
ِ‫س‬
ْ ‫َم‬
The Arabic language is made up of ‫ت‬
ٌ ‫َكِلَما‬
of three types they are known as:
Particle/Letter -

ٌ‫حْرف‬
َ
to -‫ِإلى‬

Action/Verb
went,/to go

1

(words) and these words are

- ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ِفْع‬
-‫ب‬
َ ‫َذَه‬

- ‫سٌم‬
ْ ‫ِا‬
house -‫ت‬
ٌ ‫َبْي‬
Noun

He went to a house :ceSenten

ٍ ‫ب ِإَلى َبْي‬
‫ت‬
َ ‫ َذَه‬:ُ‫جْمَلة‬
ُ ‫اْل‬

The table below shows the properties of an ‫سٌم‬
ْ ‫( ِا‬noun):
Examples

ٌ‫طاِلَبة‬
َ ،‫ب‬
ٌ ‫طاِل‬
َ
،‫ن‬
ِ ‫طاِلَبـــــا‬
َ ،‫ب‬
ٌ ‫طـــــاِل‬
َ
ٌ ‫ل‬
‫ب‬
ّ‫ط‬
ُ
ٌ ‫ َبْي‬،‫ب‬
‫ت‬
ٌ ‫طاِل‬
َ
ُ ‫طاِل‬
‫ب‬
ّ ‫ ال‬،‫ب‬
ٌ ‫طاِل‬
َ

Translation
Masculine, feminine
Singular, dual, plural
Intellect, non-intellect
Indefinite, definite

Properties

ٌ‫ ُمَؤّنث‬،‫ُمَذّكٌر‬
‫جْمٌع‬
َ ،‫ ُمَثّنى‬،‫ُمْفَرٌد‬
ٍ ‫عاِق‬
‫ل‬
َ ‫غْيُر‬
َ ،‫ل‬
ٌ ‫عاِق‬
َ
ٌ‫ َمْعِرَفة‬،‫َنِكَرٌة‬

‫ َنِكَرٌة‬is when an ism is indefinite or not specific, it is general i.e., the
ism ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫‘ ِكَتا‬a book’ this can be any book from the different types of
books.

‫ ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬is when an ism is definite or specific, it is not general i.e., the
ism ُ‫كَتاب‬
ِ ‫‘ اْل‬the book’ or ‫حّمٍد‬
َ ‫ب ُم‬
ُ ‫‘ ِكَتا‬Muhammad’s book’, here the
book is a particular book not just any book in general.
An ism in the Arabic language can be ‫مَثّنى‬
ُ (dual) meaning it shows upon
two i.e., the ism ‫ن‬
ِ ‫طاِلَبا‬
َ means ‘two students’ this is done by adding ‫ن‬
ِ‫ا‬
(alif and noon)at the end of an ism.
An ism can be ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫عاِق‬
َ possess intellect such as humans, angels and jinns or
it can be
e.t.c.

ٍ ‫عاِق‬
‫ل‬
َ ‫غْيُر‬
َ

possess no intellect such as animals, objects, trees

The ‫ل‬
ٌ‫ص‬
ْ ‫( َأ‬Asl) origin of an ism is that it carries ‫ن‬
ِ ‫ضـّمَتا‬
َ ٌ- ‘two
dhammas’ (tanween) on the last letter of the word. The tanween
generally is also a sign showing that the ism is ‫رٌة‬
َ ‫( َنِك‬indefinite), however
there is an exception to this because you will find that Arabic male names
such as ‫س‬
ٌ ‫عّبا‬
َ ،‫حّمٌد‬
َ ‫ ُم‬accept tanween but they are ‫(ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬definite).
The tanween is the Arabic indefinite article corresponding to the English
‘a’/ ‘an’.
2

(١) ‫ل‬
ُ ‫لّو‬
َ‫س ا‬
ُ ‫الّدْر‬
ٌ ‫َهَذاْ َبْي‬
‫ت‬

This is a house

‫ف ِللّتْنِبْيِه‬
ٌ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫َهْا‬

Letter to bring to attention or alert

‫ف ِللّتْنِبْيِه‬
ٌ ‫حْر‬
َ is a letter that is used to alert or to bring to attention the
person who is being addressed and it is mostly connected to ‫ء‬
ُ ‫سَما‬
ْ ‫َأ‬
‫شاَرِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫( ا‬nouns of indication).
noun of indication

‫شاَرِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬-‫َذْا‬

‫ َهَذْا‬is pronounced as ‫َهاَذا‬, but it is written without the first alif.
The ‫شارَِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬is used to point or indicate to people, animals, objects
things which can be felt or touched and can also indicate to things that
have meaning such as ‫ي‬
ٌ ‫‘ َرْأ‬opinion’ or ‫عْلٌم‬
ِ ‘knowledge’.

This is beneficial knowledge
The table below shows the properties of the ‫هَذْا‬
َ)
Indicates,points to

‫شاَرِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫)ِا‬
‫شاَرُة ِإَلى‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬
ُ ‫اْلَقِرْي‬
‫ب‬
‫اْلُمَذّكُر‬
‫اْلُمُفَرُد‬

the near
The masculine
the singular
The ‫شارَِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬

‫عْلٌم َناِفٌع‬
ِ ‫َهَذْا‬

‫سُم‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬is ‫(ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬definite).
3

It can be used to indicate or point to those possessing intellect

ٌ ‫عاِق‬
‫ل‬
َ

or

things that do not possess intellect ‫ل‬
ٍ ‫عاِق‬
َ ‫غْيُر‬
َ.

‫سِتْفَهاٌم‬
ْ ‫سٌم ِإ‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬-‫َما‬

Interrogative or Questioning Noun
The Interrogative Noun

‘‫’َما‬

is used to ask a question about something

that does not possess intellect ‫ل‬
ٍ ‫عاِق‬
َ ‫غْيُر‬
َ and it always comes at the
beginning of a sentence. When a word comes at the beginning of a
sentence it is called in Arabic ِ‫مَلة‬
ْ‫ج‬
ُ ‫صْدُراْل‬
َ .
?What is this

‫َما َهَذا ؟‬

‫سِتْفَهاِم‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫ َهْمَزُة ا‬، ‫سِتْفَهاِم‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫فا‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫َأ‬
Particle/Letter of interrogation or questioning or also known as the
Interrogative Hamzah.
The ‫هاِم‬
َ ‫سِتْف‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫ َهْمَزُة ا‬comes at the beginning of the sentence as do all the
nouns or particles of questioning. It can be used to ask a question about
those possessing intellect as well as the things that do not possess
intellect.
?Is this a house
?Is this a boy

ٍ ‫جَوا‬
‫ب‬
َ ‫ف‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫َنَعْم‬

Letter of answer or reply
Letter/particle of answer and negation

‫ت؟‬
ٌ ‫َأ َهَذا َبْي‬
‫َأ َهَذا َوَلٌد؟‬

ٍ ‫ب ِو َنِف‬
‫ي‬
ٍ ‫جَوا‬
َ ‫ف‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫ل‬

ْ‫ َنَعم‬is used to reply to a question with affirmation
whereas the particle ‫ ل‬is used to reply to a question with negation.
The particle of reply

?Is this a pen
Yes this is a pen

4

‫َأ َهَذا َقَلٌم؟‬
.‫َهَذا َقَلٌم‬،‫َنَعْم‬

?Is this a shirt
.No, this is a pen

Noun of interrogation/questioning

‫ص؟‬
ٌ ‫َأ َهَذا َقِمْي‬
‫َهَذا َقَلٌم؟‬،‫ل‬

‫سِتْفَهاِم‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ن – ِا‬
ْ ‫َم‬

This interrogative noun is used to ask a question about those who possess
intellect

ٌ ‫عاِق‬
‫ل‬
َ
?Who is this man

‫ل؟‬
ُ‫ج‬
ُ ‫ن َهَذاالّر‬
ْ ‫َم‬

Question mark

‫سِتْفَهاِم‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫لَمةُ ا‬
َ‫ع‬
َ -‫؟‬

5

‫س الَثاِني‬
ُ ‫( الّدْر‬٢)
‫شاَرِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ِا‬-‫ك‬
َ ‫َذِل‬

Noun of indication/pointing

‫جٌد‬
ِ‫س‬
ْ ‫ك َم‬
َ ‫ت َوَذِل‬
ٌ ‫َهذا َبْي‬

This is a house and that is a mosque

َ ‫ َذِل‬is a noun of indication it is used to indicate/point to objects or people
‫ك‬
that are distant or far. ‫ك‬
َ ‫ َذِل‬can be broken down into three parts:
Noun of indication

‫لشاَرِة‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬-‫َذا‬

The laam is for the far/distant

‫ل – َاللُم ِلْلُبْعِد‬
ِ

Particle of address

ٌ ‫طا‬
‫ب‬
َ‫خ‬
ِ ‫ف‬
ٌ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫ك‬
َ

Some of the grammarians say that the
indicates upon far/distant and the
increased furtherness/distance.
The letter/particle of address
addressing is masculine.

‘‫ك‬
َ’

‘‫ل‬
ِ’

‘‫ك‬
َ’

particle of address also

shows upon even more or

is used if the person or objectwe are

The table below shows the properties of ‫ك‬
َ ‫َذِل‬:
Indicates,points to

‫شاَرُة ِإَلى‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬
‫اْلَبِعْيُد‬
‫اْلُمَذّكُر‬
‫اْلُمُفَرُد‬

The far/distant
The masculine
the singular
All the ‫رِة‬
َ ‫شا‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬

‫سَماُء‬
ْ ‫ َأ‬nouns of indication are ‫ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬definite.

َ ‫ َذِل‬is pronounced ‫ك‬
‫ك‬
َ ‫ َذاِل‬but is written without the alif.

6

Some of the grammarians say that the ‫رِة‬
َ ‫شا‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬

‫سَماُء‬
ْ ‫ َأ‬have three levels

َ ‫ث َمَراِت‬
‫ب‬
ُ ‫ ثل‬:
For the near/close

ِ ‫َهَذا – ِللَقِرْي‬
‫ب‬

For the far/distant

‫ ِلْلَبِعْيِد‬-‫ك‬
َ ‫َذِل‬

For the middle between near and far

ِ‫س‬
‫ط‬
ْ ‫ ِلْلَو‬-‫ك‬
َ ‫َذا‬

‫جَتِمُع َها ِللَتْنِبْيِه َولُم اْلُبْعِد‬
ْ ‫ل َي‬
The particle of alert/bringing to attention and the laam indicating upon
the distant or far will never come together in a noun of indication i.e;

َ ‫َهاَذِل‬-this is wrong ‘‫طأ‬
‫ك‬
َ‫خ‬
َ ’ٌ .

7

‫ث‬
ُ ‫س الَثاِل‬
ُ ‫( الّدْر‬٣)

al) Definite Particle)
The definite particle

ٌ ‫ف َتْعِرْي‬
‫ف‬
ٌ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫ل‬
ْ ‫َا‬

ْ ‫ َا‬is prefixed to an ism which is ‫( َنِكَرٌة‬indefinite)
‫ل‬
become ‫رَفة‬
ِ ‫( ٌ َمْع‬definite), and it also causes the

and it causes it to
tanween at the end to be dropped. The definite particle (al) corresponds
to the English ‘the’.
.This is a doctor

ٌ ‫طِبْي‬
‫ب‬
َ ‫َهَذا‬

.The doctor is sitting

ٌ ‫جاِل‬
‫س‬
َ ‫ب‬
ُ ‫طِبْي‬
ّ ‫ال‬

The Arabic alphabet consists of 28 letters. Of these 14 are called Solar

‫سّية‬
ِ ‫شْم‬
ّ ‫ف ال‬
ُ ‫حُرْو‬
ُ ‫ُ اْل‬, and the other 14 are called Lunar Letters
‫ف الَْقَمِرّية‬
ُ ‫حُرْو‬
ُ ‫ُ اْل‬.

Letters

In the articulation of the Solar Letters the tip or the blade of the tongue is
involved in the pronunciation. The tip or the blade of the tongue does not
play any part in the articulation of the Lunar Letters, (refer to lesson 3,
pg.19 Madinah bk.1).
When ْ‫ ال‬is prefixed to an ism beginning with a Solar Letter the laam of
‘al’ is not pronounced but is written, and the first letter of the ism takes a
shaddah –ّ. For example, ُ‫مس‬
ْ‫ش‬
ّ ‫( َال‬ash-shamsu).
When ْ‫ َال‬is prefixed to an ism beginning with a Lunar Letter the laam of
‘al’ is pronounced and written. For example, ‫ر‬
ُ ‫( َاْلَقَم‬al-qamaru).
In the definite particle ‫ل‬
ْ ‫( َا‬al) the ‫( َا‬a) is known as ‫ل‬
ِ‫ص‬
ْ ‫ َهْمَزُة اْلَو‬the
Connecting Hamzah. If it is not preceded by a word it will be
pronounced with the vowel marking َ- (fathah). If it is preceded by a
word it is dropped in pronunciation, though remains in writing.
The student is sitting and the
ٌ ‫َواِق‬
‫ف‬
teacher is standing, (wa l-mudarrisu…).
8

ُ ‫س َواْلُمَدّر‬
‫س‬
ٌ ‫جاِل‬
َ ‫ب‬
ُ ‫طاِل‬
َ ‫ اّل‬:‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ِمَثا‬

ُ‫سِمّية‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫جْمَلةُ ا‬
ُ ‫اْل‬
‫خَبُر‬
َ ‫اْل‬

‫ُاْلُمْبَتَدأ‬

‫سِمّية‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫جْمَلةُا‬
ُ ‫ُ َاْل‬is a beneficial sentence (‫جْمَلةٌُمِفْيَدٌة‬
ُ ), and it is made up
of 2 parts known as ‫ر‬
ُ ‫خَب‬
َ ‫( َاْلُمْبَتَدأُ َواْل‬al-mubtada wa l-khabar).
‫َاْلُمْبَتَدأ‬
(1) ‫مْبَتَدأ‬
ُ ‫ َاْل‬is from the Arabic word ‫لْبِتَداُء‬
ِ ‫ َا‬meaning the beginning or
starting, and from its origin is that it comes at the beginning of the
sentence.
(2) ‫مْبَتَدأ‬
ُ ‫ َاْل‬is an ism that is the subject of talk or discussion.
(3) ‫مْبَتــَدأ‬
ُ ‫ َاْل‬is ‫ع‬
ٌ ‫( َمْرُفــْو‬marfoo’) meaning it takes a dhammah or
dhammataan on the last letter of the ism.
(4) ‫مْبَتَدأ‬
ُ ‫ َاْل‬in its ‫ل‬
ٌ‫ص‬
ْ ‫( أ‬origin) precedes ‫خَبُر‬
َ ‫( َاْل‬the khabar).
(5) ‫مْبَتَدأ‬
ُ ‫ َاْل‬in its ‫ل‬
ٌ‫ص‬
ْ ‫( أ‬origin) is ‫(ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬definite).

‫خَبُر‬
َ ‫َاْل‬
(1) ‫ر‬
ُ ‫خَب‬
َ ‫ َاْل‬is that which comes after ‫ َاْلُمْبَتَدأ‬in its ‫ل‬
ٌ‫ص‬
ْ ‫( أ‬origin).
(2)

‫خَبُر‬
َ ‫َاْل‬

gives information or news about

completes a benefit with ‫مْبَتَدأ‬
ُ ‫َاْل‬.

9

‫َاْلُمْبَتَدأ‬,

and by which it

(3) ‫ر‬
ُ ‫خَب‬
َ ‫ َاْل‬in its ‫ل‬
ٌ‫ص‬
ْ ‫( أ‬origin) is ‫( َنِكَرٌة‬indefinite).
(4) ‫ر‬
ُ ‫خَبــ‬
َ ‫ َاْل‬is ‫ع‬
ٌ ‫( َمْرُفــْو‬marfoo’) meaning it takes a dhammah or
dhammataan on the last letter of the ism.

ُ ‫سِمّية‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫جْمَلةُا‬
ُ ‫َاْل‬

.The mosque is near

ٌ ‫جُد َقِرْي‬
‫ب‬
ِ‫س‬
ْ ‫َاْلَم‬
‫خَبُر‬
َ ‫َاْل‬

‫َاْلُمْبَتَدأ‬

10

‫س الّراِبُع‬
ُ ‫( َالّدْر‬٤)

Particle of Jarr

-From‫ن‬
ْ ‫ِم‬

‫جّر‬
َ ‫حْرفُ اْل‬
َ
1) ‫ر‬
ّ‫ج‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ)

-‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ

-On/Above‫عَلى‬
َ

In

-‫ي‬
ْ ‫ِف‬

is a Letter/Particle that enters upon an ism only.

(2) ‫ر‬
ّ ‫جـ‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ changes the state of the ism to ‫جـُرْوٌر‬
ْ ‫( َم‬majroor),
meaning the ism takes kasrah/kasrataan on the last letter.
(3) ‫ر‬
ّ‫ج‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ can have many meanings and its meaning is not known
or complete until it enters upon a sentence. Then its exact meaning is
known from the context of the sentence.

‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ

ِ ‫ي اْلَبْي‬
‫ت‬
ْ ‫ِف‬

ٌ ‫َمْرُفْو‬
‫ع‬

ُ ‫َاْلَبْي‬
‫ت‬

‫جُرْوٌر‬
ْ ‫َم‬
Muhammad is in the house

ِ ‫ي اْلَبْي‬
‫ت‬
ْ ‫حّمٌد ِف‬
َ ‫ُم‬
ِ ‫سِتْفَهاٌم ِلْلَمَكا‬
‫ن‬
ْ ‫سٌم ِا‬
ْ ‫ن – ِا‬
َ ‫أْي‬

Noun of Questioning for Place

11

ِ ‫سِتْفَهاٌم ِلْلَمَكا‬
‫ن‬
ْ ‫سٌم ِا‬
ْ ‫ِا‬

is an ism which is used to ask a question about the
whereabouts of someone/something.

‫ب؟‬
ُ ‫ن اْلِكَتا‬
َ ‫أْي‬

?Where is the book

‫ب؟‬
ِ ‫عَلى اْلَمْكَت‬
َ ‫ُهَو‬

?It is on the desk/table

ُ‫صل‬
ِ ‫ضِمْيُراْلُمْنَف‬
ّ ‫َال‬
I -‫أَنا‬

You -‫ت‬
ِ ‫أْن‬

You-‫ت‬
َ ‫أْن‬

It/She-‫ي‬
َ ‫ِه‬

He/It-‫و‬
َ ‫ُه‬

ُ‫ص‬
‫ل‬
ِ ‫ضِمْيُراْلُمْنَف‬
ّ ‫َال‬-Detached Pronoun
ُ‫صل‬
ِ ‫ضِمْيُراْلُمْنَف‬
ّ ‫ َال‬is a type of ism that is used to indicate upon the
ٌ ‫غاِء‬
‫ب‬
َ (Absent), or the ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫ط‬
َ ‫خا‬
َ ‫( ُم‬Addressed), or the ‫( ُمَتَكّلٌم‬Speaker).

(1)

(2) ُ‫صل‬
ِ ‫ضِمْيُراْلُمْنَف‬
ّ ‫ َال‬you can begin a sentence with it.
(3) ُ‫صل‬
ِ ‫ضِمْيُراْلُمْنَف‬
ّ ‫ َال‬is a type of a ‫ُمْبَتَدأ‬
(4) ُ‫صل‬
ِ ‫ضِمْيُراْلُمْنَف‬
ّ ‫ َال‬is ‫(ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬definite).
5) The dhameer ‫و‬
َ ‫ ُه‬and ‫ي‬
َ ‫ ِه‬can be used for those who possess intellect
and things that do not possess intellect. If they are used for the latter they
will have the meaning ‘it’.

12

?Where is ‘Aaisha

‫شةُ؟‬
َ ‫عاِء‬
َ ‫ن‬
َ ‫أْي‬

She is in the room

‫ي اْلُغْرَفِة‬
ْ ‫ي ِف‬
َ ‫ِه‬

?Where is the watch

‫عةُ؟‬
َ ‫سا‬
ّ ‫ن ال‬
َ ‫أْي‬

It is on the bed
The table below shows the properties of ‫صَلة‬
ِ ‫اْلُمْنَف‬
Detached Pronouns):

‫سِرْيِر‬
ّ ‫عَلى ال‬
َ ‫ي‬
َ ‫ِه‬
‫ضَماِءُر‬
ّ ‫(ُ ال‬the

‫عَدٌد‬
َ

ٌ ‫جْن‬
‫س‬
ِ

‫عَلى‬
َ ‫ل‬
ّ ‫َيُد‬

ُ‫ص‬
‫ل‬
ِ ‫ضِمْيُراْلُمْنَف‬
ّ ‫َال‬

Number

Gender

Indicates upon

Detached Pronoun

‫اْلُمْفَرُد‬
(1)

‫اْلُمَذّكُر‬

ُ‫اْلُمْفَرد‬
(1)

‫اْلُمْفَرُد‬
(1)

It/He

-‫ُهَو‬

The Absent-

ُ‫اْلَغاِءَبة‬

She/It -‫ي‬
َ ‫ِه‬

The Addressed-

ُ ‫ط‬
‫ب‬
َ ‫خا‬
َ ‫اْلُم‬

You-‫ت‬
َ ‫أْن‬

Female

‫اْلُمَذّكر‬
Male

‫ث اْلُمْفَرَدُة‬
ُ ‫اْلُمَؤّن‬
(1)

ُ ‫اْلَغاِء‬
‫ب‬

Male

‫ث اْلُمْفَرَدُة‬
ُ ‫اْلُمَؤّن‬
(1)

The Absent-

The Addressed-ُ‫طَبة‬
َ ‫خا‬
َ ‫اْلُم‬

You

-‫ت‬
ِ ‫أْن‬

I/Me

- ‫أَنا‬

Female

ُ‫اْلُمَذّكر‬
‫َواْلُمَؤّن‬
ُ
‫ث‬

The Speaker-

13

‫اْلُمَتَكّلُم‬

ِ ‫صْر‬
‫ف‬
ّ ‫ن ال‬
َ ‫ع ِم‬
ٌ ‫َمْمُنْو‬
‫حْمَزُة‬
َ

‫َمْرَيُم‬

ُ‫طَمة‬
ِ ‫َفا‬

ِ ‫ن الصّْر‬
‫ف‬
َ ‫ع ِم‬
ٌ ‫َمْمُنْو‬

(Prevented from Tanween) is a Term that is used
for a particular group of nouns which do not accept tanween and when
they are in a state of ‫ر‬
ٌ ‫جُرْو‬
ْ ‫( َم‬kasra) they take Fathah.
This particular group of nouns further divides up into many categories
:and from them is the category known in the Arabic language as
Female Names Without Alif

ٍ ‫ث ِبَغْيِر أِل‬
‫ف‬
ِ ‫َاْلَعَلِمّيةَُمَع الّتْأِنْي‬

This category contains Female Names which do not accept tanween but
there is a condition '‫ط‬
ٌ ‫شْر‬
َ ' for them not accepting tanween and that is,
that the names are made up of more than 3 letters. This category of
names is divided up into into 3 types with regards to their femininity.

Femininity-‫ث‬
ُ ‫الّتأِنْي‬
-In)Wording)‫ي‬
ّ‫ظ‬
ِ ‫َلْف‬

ُ‫حة‬
َ ‫طْل‬
َ ،‫حْمَزُة‬
َ

ّ ‫َمْعَنِو‬
‫ي‬

-‫ي‬
ّ‫ظ‬
ِ ‫ي َو َلْف‬
ّ ‫َمْعَنِو‬
(In)Meaning and Wording

9in wo

-In)Meaning)

ُ ‫َزْيَن‬،‫َمْرَيُم‬
‫ب‬

14

ُ‫طَمة‬
ِ ‫َفا‬،ُ‫آِمَنة‬

‫ة‬

The ‫طة‬
َ ‫( َمْرُبْو‬Round Taa) is a letter that is added at the end of an ism
and it signifies femininity of a word.
The diagram above shows that there are 3 categories of femininity in
female names without alif:
1) In wording and meaning - names which are feminine in their
wording i.e. they end in taa marboota and in their meaning i.e. they
are names which are used for females.
2) In meaning - names which are used for females but not feminine in
wording.
3) In wording - names which are feminine in wording but not
meaning, they are names which are used for males.

‫ة‬

The origin of nouns ending with the ‫طة‬
َ ‫( َمْرُبْو‬Round Taa) is only to
distinguish the feminine from the masculine. And you will mostly find
that with the ‫ت‬
ٌ ‫صَفا‬
ِ (Adjectives) i.e. ‫َكِرْيَمة‬/‫(ٌ َكِرْيٌم‬Generous, Noble).

The Verb/Action

ُ‫ل الْمر‬
ُ ‫اْلِفْع‬

-‫ل‬
ُ ‫َاْلِفْع‬

ُ ‫ضاِر‬
‫ع‬
َ ‫ل اْلُم‬
ُ ‫َاْلِفْع‬

ْ ‫ض‬
‫ي‬
ِ ‫ل اْلَما‬
ُ ‫اْلِفْع‬

The Command Verb

The Present Verb

The Past Verb

!you)Write)-‫ب‬
ْ ‫ُاْكُت‬

He Writes-‫ب‬
ُ ‫َيْكُت‬

He Wrote-‫ب‬
َ ‫َكَت‬

The Definition :‫ف‬
ُ ‫الّتْعِرْي‬

ِ ‫ل َزَما‬
‫ن‬
َ ‫ي َقْب‬
ْ ‫ن اّلِذ‬
ِ ‫ي الّزَما‬
ْ ‫ث َوَقَع ِف‬
ٍ ‫حَد‬
َ ‫عَلى‬
َ ‫ل‬
ّ ‫ َما َد‬-‫ي‬
ْ ‫ض‬
ِ ‫ل اْلَما‬
ُ ‫الِفْع‬
.‫الّتَكّلِم‬
The Past Verb-that which indicates upon an event/happening taking place
in the time which is before the time of speaking/conversation.
15

‫س؟‬
ٌ ‫عّبا‬
َ ‫ن‬
َ ‫أْي‬

?Where is Abbaas
He went to the head teacher

‫ب ِإَلىاْلُمِدْيِر‬
َ ‫َذَه‬

For every action we have a doer or the one who performs the action. In
Arabic the doer of the action is called ‫ل‬
ُ‫ع‬
َ ‫( َاْلَفا‬al-faa’il).
The Definition:‫ف‬
ُ ‫الّتْعِرْي‬

.‫ع اْلَمْذُكْوُر َقْبَلُه ِفْعُلُه‬
ُ ‫سُم اْلَمْرُفْو‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫ل ُهَو ا‬
ُ‫ع‬
ِ ‫َاْلَفا‬
ُ‫ع‬
‫ل‬
ِ ‫( اَْلَفا‬the Doer) is an ism which is ‫ع‬
ُ ‫ اْلَمْرُفْو‬takes dhammah or
dhammataan on the last letter and mentioned before it is its ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ ِفْع‬verb.
ٌ ‫َمْرُفْو‬
‫ع‬
‫جِد‬
ِ‫س‬
ْ ‫حاِمٌد ِإَلى اْلَم‬
َ ‫ب‬
َ ‫َذَه‬

Haamid went to the mosque

‫جُرْوٌر‬
ْ ‫َم‬

َ‫َذَهب‬.
That is because in the past-tense verbs for the Male Absent if ‫ل‬
ُ‫ع‬
ِ ‫ َاْلَفا‬is
not apparent then the ‫ر‬
ٌ ‫ضِمْي‬
َ (pronoun) '‫( 'ُهَو‬He) will be ‫ل‬
ُ‫ع‬
ِ ‫َاْلَفا‬. And
this dhameer is known as ‫ر‬
ُ ‫سَتِت‬
ْ ‫ضِمْيُر اْلُم‬
ّ ‫( َال‬The Hidden Dhameer), you
You will find that

ُ‫ع‬
‫ل‬
ِ ‫ َاْلَفا‬is not

ُ‫ع‬
‫ل‬
ِ ‫ِفْعلُ اْلَفا‬
ٍ ‫َما‬
‫ض‬

always apparent after the verb

will not see it in writing or pronounce it even though it is there.
?Where is Muhammad
He left from the mosque ‫جِد‬
ِ‫س‬
ْ ‫اْلَم‬

16

‫حّمٌد؟‬
َ ‫ن ُم‬
َ ‫أْي‬
َ ‫ج ِم‬
‫ن‬
َ ‫خَر‬
َ

The four signs of an ism

(٤)‫سِم‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫تا‬
ُ ‫علَما‬
َ
-ٍ -ِ ‫جّر‬
َ ‫اْل‬

ْ‫ا‬
‫ل‬

‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حُرْو‬
ُ

-ً –ٍ –ٌ ‫ن‬
ٌ ‫َتْنِوْي‬

There are 4 signs by which an ism is known, and you will not find these
signs entering upon the verbs or particles/letters, so they are specific to
the nouns. These 4 signs can be used to distinguish between the

‫سَماٌء‬
ْ‫أ‬

(nouns) and the ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫( أْفَعا‬verbs) and ‫ف‬
ٌ ‫حُرْو‬
ُ (particles).
(1) The first sign is that the ism accepts ‫ن‬
ٌ ‫( َتْنِوْي‬tanween).
(2) The second sign is that ‫ل‬
ْ ‫( َا‬alif and laam) can enter upon the ism.
(3) The third sign is that
the ism.

‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حُرْو‬
ُ (particles of jarr) can enter upon

(4) The fourth sign is that the ism can take
the last letter.

‫جّر‬
َ ‫اْل‬
ْ‫ا‬
‫ل‬

Muhammad prayed in the mosque

ٌ ‫َتْنِوْي‬
‫ن‬

‫جِد‬
ِ‫س‬
ْ ‫ي اْلَم‬
ْ ‫صّلى ِف‬
َ ‫حّمٌد‬
َ ‫ُم‬

(kasrah)‫ر‬
ّ‫ج‬
َ ‫َاْل‬

17

(kasrah/kasrataan) on

‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ

ُ ‫خاِم‬
‫س‬
َ ‫س اْل‬
ُ ‫( الّدْر‬٥)
‫ضاَفة‬
َ ‫ل‬
ِ ‫َُا‬
‫ف ِإَلْيِه‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ُم‬

ٌ ‫ضا‬
‫ف‬
َ ‫ُم‬

‫حّمٍد‬
َ ‫ُم‬

ُ ‫ِكَتا‬
‫ب‬

‫سـُم‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫ ا‬،‫جـّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ِ ‫حـْر‬
َ ‫عَلــى َتقـِدْيِر‬
َ ‫ن‬
ِ ‫سـَمْي‬
ْ ‫ن ال‬
َ ‫سَبةٌ َبْيـ‬
ْ ‫ي ِن‬
َ ‫ ِه‬:ُ‫ضاَفة‬
َ ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬
.‫ف ِإَلْيِه‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫سّمى ُم‬
َ ‫ي ُي‬
ْ ‫سُم الّثاِن‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫ف َوا‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫سّمى ُم‬
َ ‫ل ُي‬
ُ ‫لّو‬
َ‫ا‬
‫ضاَفة‬
َ ‫ل‬
ِ ‫( ُ ا‬al-idhaafah) is a relationship between two nouns with a hidden
particle of jarr, the first noun is called ‫ف‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫( ُم‬mudhaaf) and the second
noun is called ‫ه‬
ِ ‫ف ِإَلْي‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫( ُم‬mudhaaf ilaih).
.‫صُه‬
َ ‫صْي‬
ِ ‫خ‬
ْ ‫ف َأْو َت‬
ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ف اْلُم‬
َ ‫ضاَفةُ ُتِفْيُد َتْعِرْي‬
َ ‫ل‬
ِ ‫َهَذاا‬
This Particular idhaafah gives benefit by giving

ٌ ‫( َتْعِرْي ـ‬to
‫ف‬

make

ٌ‫صْيص‬
ِ ‫خ‬
ْ ‫( َت‬to narrow down/particularise).
Meaning, if the ‫ه‬
ِ ‫ف ِإَلْي‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ ُم‬is ‫( ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬definite) then the ‫ف‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ ُم‬will
become ‫رَفة‬
ِ ‫َمْع‬, if the ‫ف ِإَلْيِه‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ ُم‬is ‫( َنِكَرٌة‬indefinite) then the ‫ف‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ُم‬
will be particularised or not so general but it will not be ‫رَفة‬
ِ ‫( َمْع‬definite).
‫ف ِإَلْيِه‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ُم‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
‫ف‬
َ ‫ُم‬
definite) to the mudhaaf or

This is the teacher’s book

ِ ‫ب اْلُمَدّر‬
‫س‬
ُ ‫َهَذا ِكَتا‬
ٌ‫َمْعِرَفة‬

18

ٌ‫َمْعِرَفة‬

The Idhafaah construction has a ‫ر‬
ّ‫ج‬
َ ‫اْل‬

ُ ‫حْر‬
‫ف‬
َ which is omitted/hidden.

ّ‫جر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ gives meaning to the Idhaafah, there are 3 different
‫جّر‬
َ ‫حُرْوفُ اْل‬
ُ that an Idhaafah can have, (1) ‫ي‬
ْ ‫( ِف‬in), ‫ن‬
ْ ‫( ِم‬from/part of)
and ‫ل‬
ِ ) ‫( )اللُم‬for/belonging to).
At the moment we have only taken one meaning of the Idhaafah the ‫اللُم‬
ِ ) ‫جّر‬
‫ل‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ ) which has the meaning of, for/belonging to/possession.
So when we say ‫مٍد‬
ّ‫ح‬
َ ‫ب ُم‬
ُ ‫ ِكَتا‬it literally means, ‘the book belongs to
Muhammad or Muhammad’s book (‫مٍد‬
ّ‫ح‬
َ ‫ب ِلُم‬
ٌ ‫)ِكَتا‬.
This

(‫جّر )اللم‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ
‫حّمٍد‬
َ ‫ُم‬

ُ ‫ِكَتا‬
‫ب‬

‫ف ِإَلِيِه‬
ُ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫اْلُم‬
Always – ‫ر‬
ٌ ‫جُرْو‬
ْ ‫َداِءًما َم‬

ُ ‫ضا‬
‫ف‬
َ ‫َاْلُم‬
Does not accept tanween

–‫ن‬
ُ ‫ل ُيَنّو‬

Majroor
Does not accept alif laam

–‫ل‬
ْ ‫لا‬
ُ ‫ل َيقَب‬

‫ن اْلَبِعْيِد‬
ِ ‫شاَرِة ِلْلَمَكا‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬-(over there) -‫ك‬
َ ‫ُهَنا‬
َ ‫ ُهَنا‬is a noun which is used to indicate/point to a place that is distant or
‫ك‬
far.

‫حّمٍد؟‬
َ ‫ب ُم‬
ُ ‫ن ِكَتا‬
َ ‫َأْي‬:‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ِمَثا‬
It is on the table over there ‫ك‬
َ ‫ب ُهَنا‬
ِ ‫عَلى اْلَمْكَت‬
َ ‫ُهَو‬

?Where is Muhammad’s book

(‫جّر َما َبْعَدُه‬
َ ‫ن )ُي‬
ِ ‫ف اْلَمَكا‬
ُ ‫ظْر‬
َ /‫ن‬
ِ ‫سُم اْلَمَكا‬
ْ ‫ِا‬

(under)

-‫ت‬
َ ‫ح‬
ْ ‫َت‬

ِ ‫سُم اْلَمَكا‬
‫ن‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬is a noun of place and the ism that follows it is majroor.
ِ ‫ت اْلَمْكَت‬
‫ب‬
َ ‫ح‬
ْ ‫حِقْيَبةُ َت‬
َ ‫اْل‬

The bag is under the table

19

ُ ‫عّبا‬
‫س‬
َ ‫َيا‬
‫ اْلُمَناَدى‬-‫س‬
ُ ‫عّبا‬
َ

‫ف الّنَداِء‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫َيا‬

Abbaas- The one being called

O- Particle of calling

The particle ‫( َيا‬O!) is used when we want to call somebody and the
person we are calling is the ism which comes after this particle and it is
known as ‫مَناَدى‬
ُ ‫( اْل‬the one being called). There are 5 types of
we will study 3 for now.

‫اْلُمَناَدى‬,
‫اْلُمَناَدى‬

The first type is when we call ‫س‬
ُ ‫عّبا‬
َ ،‫حاِمُد‬
َ ،‫حّمُد‬
َ ‫ َيا ُم‬:‫( َاْلُمْفَرُداْلَعَلُم‬١)
somebody by their name i.e. O Muhammad!, Haamid!, ‘Abbaas!, and so
.on
The second type is
،‫ل‬
ُ ‫جـ‬
ُ ‫ َر‬،‫سـَتاُذ‬
ْ ‫ َيــا أ‬:‫صـْوَدُة‬
ُ ‫( الّنِكَرُة اْلَمق‬٢)
when we call somebody and we intend a particular or specific person i.e.
.O Teacher!, Man!, and so on
The third type is when the one
‫خاِلٍد‬
َ ‫ت‬
َ ‫ِبْن‬،‫ل‬
ِّ ‫عْبَد ا‬
َ ‫ َيا‬:‫ف‬
ُ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫( َاْلُم‬٣)
being called is mudhaaf i.e. O ‘Abdallaahi!, O Daughter of Khaalid!,
.and so on
It is important to note that the first and the second types of ‫مَناَدى‬
ُ end in
one dhamma, not tanween. As for the third type then the Mudhaaf will
be ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫صْو‬
ُ ‫( َمْن‬take Fathah on the last letter).
The words ‫سٌم‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬and ‫ن‬
ٌ ‫ ِاْب‬begin with hamzatu l-wasl. When preceded by a
word the kasrah (ِ-) is dropped in pronunciation, i.e.

ِ ‫ب اْلُمَدّر‬
‫س‬
ُ ‫طاِل‬
َ ‫ل‬
ٍ ‫ن ِبل‬
ُ ‫ َواْب‬،‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ب ِبل‬
ِ ‫طِبْي‬
ّ ‫سُم ال‬
ْ ‫ َوا‬، ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫طِبْي‬
َ ‫س‬
ِ ‫ن اْلُمَدّر‬
ُ ‫ِاْب‬.
20

ُ ِ‫ساد‬
‫س‬
ّ ‫س ال‬
ُ ‫( الّدْر‬٦)
‫َهِذِه ِمْكَوٌة‬

This is an iron

‫ف ِللّتْنِبْيِه‬
ٌ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫َهْا‬

Letter to bring to attention or alert

‫ف ِللّتْنِبْيِه‬
ٌ ‫حْر‬
َ is a letter that is used to alert or to bring to attention the
person who is being addressed and it is mostly connected to ‫ء‬
ُ ‫سَما‬
ْ ‫َأ‬
‫شاَرِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫( ا‬nouns of indication).
‫شاَرِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ِا‬

Noun of Indication

‫ِذِه‬

‫َهِذه‬is pronounced as ‫ َهاِذِه‬but it is written without the first alif.
The ‫شارَِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬is used to point or indicate to people, animals, objects
things which can be felt or touched and can also indicate to things that
have meaning such as ‫عَدٌة‬
ِ ‫‘ َقا‬principle’ orٌ‫حة‬
َ ‫صْي‬
ِ ‫‘ َن‬advice’.
.This advice is beneficial

-ٌ‫حةٌ َناِفَعة‬
َ ‫صْي‬
ِ ‫َهِذِه َن‬

The table below shows the properties of ‫هِذِه‬
َ.
Indicates,points to

‫شاَرُة ِإَلى‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬
ُ ‫اْلَقِرْي‬
‫ب‬
ُ ‫َاْلُمَؤّن‬
‫ث‬
‫اْلُمُفَرُد‬

the near
the feminine
the singular or (non-intelligent
plurals)
The ‫شارَِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬

‫سُم‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬is ‫(ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬definite).

It can be used to indicate or point to those possessing intellect
things that do not possess intellect ‫ل‬
ٍ ‫عاِق‬
َ ‫غْيُر‬
َ.

21

ٌ ‫عاِق‬
‫ل‬
َ

or

-Generally words ending in ‫( ة‬taa marboota) are regarded as feminine so
when we indicate to them we use the ‫هِذِه‬
َ ‫شاَرِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ِا‬. However there
are exceptions to this, (refer to lesson 4 under ‘types of femininity’).

ٌ ‫جة‬
َ ‫سّياَرٌة َوَهِذِه َدّرا‬
َ ‫َهِذِه‬: ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ِمَثا‬

.This is a car and this is a bike

-Body parts that are in pairs are regarded as feminine.

ٌ ‫عْي‬
‫ن‬
َ ‫ن َوَهِذِه‬
ٌ ‫َهِذِه أُذ‬:‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ِمَثا‬

This is an ear and this is an eye

-Also words which are particular to females are regarded as feminine.
This is the engineer’s

ِ‫ت الَمام‬
ُ ‫س َوَهِذِه ِبْن‬
ِ ‫ت اْلُمَهْنِد‬
ُ ‫خ‬
ْ ‫َهِذِه أ‬:‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ِمَثا‬
.sister and this is the imaam’s daughter

( ,Particle of Jarr (for, belongs to

‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ - ‫ل‬
ِ

The particle of jarr ‫ل‬
ِ enters upon an ism and causes it to take
(kasrah).
.Whose is this? This belongs to Yaasir‫ر‬
ٍ‫س‬
ِ ‫لَِيا‬

‫جّر‬
َ ‫َاْل‬

‫ن َهِذِه؟ َهِذِه‬
ْ ‫لَِم‬

‫جُرْوٌر‬
ْ ‫َم‬
All Praise belongs to Allaah‫ل‬
ِّ

‫حْمُد‬
َ ‫َاْل‬

Note that the word ‫ل‬
ّ ‫ َا‬becomes ‫ل‬
ِّ by just dropping the alif and no laam
will need to be added to the word.

22

‫ساِبُع‬
ّ ‫س ال‬
ُ ‫(الّدْر‬٧)
‫شاَرِة‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬-‫ك‬
َ ‫ِتْل‬

Noun of Indication

ٌ‫ضة‬
َ ‫ك ُمَمّر‬
َ ‫طِبْيَبةٌ َوِتْل‬
َ ‫َهِذِه‬

.This a doctor and that is a nurse

َ ‫ِتْل‬is a noun of indication it is used to indicate/point to objects or people
‫ك‬
that are distant/far and feminine. ‫ك‬
َ ‫ِتْل‬can be broken down into three parts:
Noun of indication

‫لشاَرِة‬
ِ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ ِا‬-‫ي‬
ْ ‫ِت‬

The laam is for the far/distant

‫ل – َاللُم ِلْلُبْعِد‬
ِ

Particle of address

ٌ ‫طا‬
‫ب‬
َ‫خ‬
ِ ‫ف‬
ٌ ‫حْر‬
َ -‫ك‬
َ

Some of the grammarians say that the
indicates upon far/distant and the
increased furtherness/distance.
The letter/particle of address
addressing is masculine.

‘‫ك‬
َ’

‘‫ك‬
َ’

‘‫ل‬
ِ’

shows upon even more or

is used if the person or objectwe are

The table below shows the properties of ‫ك‬
َ ‫ِتْل‬
Indicates,points to

:
‫شاَرُة ِإَلى‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬
‫اْلَبِعْيُد‬
ُ ‫َاْلُمَؤّن‬
‫ث‬
‫اْلُمُفَرُد‬

The far/distant
The feminine
The singular
All the ‫رِة‬
َ ‫شا‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬

particle of address also

‫سَماُء‬
ْ ‫ َأ‬nouns of indication are ‫ٌ َمْعِرَفة‬definite.

ْ in ‫ي‬
‫ي‬
ْ ‫ ِت‬is dropped when joined to the laam and kaaf and the
laam takes a sukoon ‫ِتْلك‬.
The letter

23

‫شاَرِة ِلْلَبِعْيِد‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سَماءُ ا‬
ْ‫ب أ‬
ِ ‫شاَرِة ِلْلَقِرْي‬
َ‫ل‬
ِ ‫سَماُء ا‬
ْ‫أ‬
‫حاِمٌد‬
َ ‫َذِلَك‬
‫حّمٌد‬
َ ‫َهَذا ُم‬
ُ ‫ِتْلَكَزْيَن‬
‫ب‬
ُ‫َهِذِه آِمَنة‬
Al-I’raab-‫ب‬
ُ ‫عَرا‬
ْ ‫َال‬

:‫ف‬
ُ ‫الّتْعِرْي‬
‫عَلْيَهــا‬
َ ‫خَلـِة‬
ِ ‫ل الّدا‬
ِ ‫ف اْلَعَواِمـ‬
ِ ‫خِتل‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫خـِر اْلَكِلـِم‬
ِ ‫ َتْغِيْيـُر َأَوا‬:‫ب ُهَو‬
ُ ‫عَرا‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬
.‫َلْفظًا َأْو َتقِدْيرًا‬
The Definition:
The I’raab is: Changing of the endings of the words because of the
changing of the active elements entering upon them (the change is)
apparent or not-apparent.

‫سِم‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫تا‬
ُ ‫حال‬
َ

‫صِلّية‬
ْ ‫ب ال‬
ِ ‫عَرا‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫تا‬
ُ ‫علَما‬
َ ُ‫ب‬
ِ ‫عَرا‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫عا‬
ُ ‫َأْنَوا‬

The cases of the
ism

The origin signs of ‘Iraab

Types of ‘Iraab

ٌ‫َمْرُفْوع‬
ٌ ‫صْو‬
‫ب‬
ُ ‫َمْن‬
‫جُرْوٌر‬
ْ ‫َم‬

-ٌ /-ُ
-ً / ٍَ- / ِ-

ُ‫َالّرْفع‬
ُ ‫ص‬
‫ب‬
ْ ‫َالّن‬
‫جّر‬
َ ‫َاْل‬

The above definition for I’raab mentions the ending of words changing
what is meant by this is the changing of vowel markings that are on the
end or last letter of a word. It also mentions that it is the active elements
that enter upon a word that cause the change at the ending of a word, an
example of active elements are the

ٌ ‫حُرْو‬
‫ف‬
ُ (letters/particles).

The active

element is called ‫ل‬
ُ ‫( َاْلَعاِم‬al-‘aamil) in Arabic and the plural is ‫ل‬
ُ ‫َاْلَعَواِم‬.

24

The definition also mentions that the change of a word can be apparent or
not apparent. What is meant by ‫ َلْفظَا‬apparent change is when the vowel
markings at the end of a word can be pronounced and when the vowel
markings at the end of a word cannot be pronounced then the change is

‫ َتقِدْيًرا‬not apparent.

This part will be explained in more depth later.

The table above illustrates types of I’raab and its origin signs.

‫( الّرْفُع‬ar-raf’u) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a dhammah
or dhammataan
ُ ‫ اْلَبْي‬/ ‫ت‬
‫ت‬
ٌ ‫َبْي‬
ُ ‫ص‬
‫ب‬
ْ ‫(الّن‬an-nasbu) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a fatha
or fathataan
َ ‫ اْلَبْي‬/ ً‫َبْيتا‬
‫ت‬
‫جّر‬
َ ‫( اْل‬al-jarru) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a khasrah or
khasrataan
ِ ‫ اْلَبْي‬/ ‫ت‬
‫ت‬
ٍ ‫َبْي‬
Also when an ism is in the state of
(marfoo’).
When an ism is in the state of
mansoob).

‫( الّرْفُع‬ar-raf’u) it is called ‫ع‬
ٌ ‫َمْرُفْو‬

ُ ‫ص‬
‫ب‬
ْ ‫( الّن‬an-nasbu) it is called ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫صْو‬
ُ ‫َمْن‬

When an ism is in the state of
(majroor).

‫جّر‬
َ ‫اْل‬

(al-jarru) it is called

‫جُرْوٌر‬
ْ ‫َم‬

(‫ل‬
ُ ‫اْلَعاِم‬
ِ‫ل ِبه‬
ٌ ‫َمْفُعْو‬
‫جُروٌْر‬
ْ ‫سُم َم‬
ْ ِ‫ب ال‬
ٌ ‫صْو‬
ُ ‫َمْن‬
Zayd slaughtered the chicken
with the knife.

(

ٍ ‫ل َما‬
‫ض‬
ُ ‫ِفْع‬

ِ‫سّكْين‬
ّ ‫جة َ ِبال‬
َ ‫جا‬
َ ‫ح َزْيٌد الّد‬
َ ‫ ذََب‬:‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ِمَثا‬

(‫ل‬
ُ ‫جّر ( اْلَعاِم‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ
ٌ ‫ل َمْرُفْو‬
‫ع‬
ُ‫ع‬
ِ ‫اْلَفا‬
25

ٌ‫ َزْيد‬is ‫ع‬
ٌ ‫ َمْرُفْو‬the
ٌ ‫عاِم‬
‫ل‬
َ (active element) which is causing it to be ‫ع‬
ٌ ‫ َمْرُفْو‬is the ‫ل‬
ُ ‫ِفْع‬
ٍ‫( َماض‬past tense verb) ‫جة‬
َ ‫جا‬
َ ‫ الّد‬, ‫ح‬
َ ‫ َ َذَب‬is ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫صْو‬
ُ ‫ َمْن‬the ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫عاِم‬
َ (active
element) which is causing it to be ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫صْو‬
ُ ‫ َمْن‬is the ‫ض‬
ٍ ‫ل َما‬
ُ ‫( ِفْع‬past tense
verb) ‫كْين‬
ّ‫س‬
ّ ‫ ال‬,‫ح‬
َ ‫( ِ َذَب‬knife) is ‫جُرْوٌر‬
ْ ‫ َم‬the ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫عاِم‬
َ (active element) which
is causing it to be ‫ر‬
ٌ ‫جُرْو‬
ْ ‫ َم‬is the ‫ب‬
ِ ) ‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حْر‬
َ).
The example above shows the three types of I’raab ,

The words which fall into the definition of I’raab as mentioned above are
known in Arabic as ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫( ُمْعَر‬mu’rab).

ُ‫( اْلِبَناء‬al-binaa)
‫( الِبَناُء‬al-binaa) are words which do not show change in their endings and
they are considered by the grammarians to be the opposite of words

ُ ‫عَرا‬
‫ب‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫( ا‬al-I’raab), as mentioned above.
fall into this category are called ‫ي‬
ّ ‫( َمْبِن‬mabni).
which take

The words which

.‫عَلْيَها‬
َ ‫خَلِة‬
ِ ‫ل الّدا‬
ِ ‫ب اْلَعَواِم‬
ِ ‫سَب‬
َ ‫خُرُه ِب‬
ِ ‫َما ل َيَتَغّيُر آ‬: ‫ي‬
ِّ ‫ف اْلَمْبِن‬
ُ ‫َتْعِرْي‬
Definition of ‫ي‬
ّ ‫( َمْبِن‬mabniyy): That which it’s ending doesn’t change
because of the active elements entering upon it.
The definition explains that words which are

ّ ‫ َمْبِن‬their endings do not
‫ي‬

change because of the ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫عَواِم‬
َ (active elements) entering upon them, but
rather they are built upon one ending which doesn’t change at all.
However, these words can grammatically have a place in I’raab but they
will be in the position or state of ‫ر‬
ّ‫ج‬
َ ‫اْل‬،‫ب‬
ُ ‫ص‬
ْ ‫الّن‬،‫ الّرْفُع‬due to their place
in the sentence. This point will be elaborated upon later.

26

..... ‫عَلى‬
َ ‫ي‬
ّ ‫َمْبِن‬

‫ٌ أْمِثلة‬

‫ع اْلِبَناِء‬
ُ ‫أْنَوا‬

……Built upon

Examples

Types of Al-binaa

ٍ‫سُكْون‬
ُ ‫عَلى‬
َ ‫ي‬
ّ ‫َمْبِن‬
ْ ‫ ِف‬،‫ َنَعْم‬،‫ هذْا‬،‫ن‬
‫ي‬
ْ ‫َم‬
‫ضّمٍة‬
َ ‫عَلى‬
َ ‫ي‬
ّ ‫َمْبِن‬
ُ ‫حْي‬
‫ث‬
َ ،‫ن‬
ُ‫ح‬
ْ ‫َن‬
‫حٍة‬
َ ‫عَلى َفْت‬
َ ‫ي‬
ّ ‫َمْبِن‬
َ ‫ أْن‬،‫ب‬
‫ت‬
َ ‫ َذَه‬،‫ن‬
َ ‫أْي‬
‫سَرٍة‬
ْ ‫عَلى َك‬
َ ‫ي‬
ّ ‫ َهُؤلِء َمْبِن‬،‫ل‬
ِ ،‫ت‬
ِ ‫ أْن‬،‫َهِذِه‬

ْ-ُ

-‫ن‬
ٌ ‫سُكْو‬
ُ
-ٌ‫ضّمة‬
َ
- ٌ‫حة‬
َ ‫َفْت‬
-ٌ‫سَرة‬
ْ ‫َك‬

The table above shows that words which are ‫ي‬
ّ ‫ َمْبِن‬can fall into four types
of endings which do not change due to the ‫ل‬
ٌ ‫عَواِم‬
َ entering upon them,
rather they are fixed or built upon that particular ending. There are four
possible endings, ‫رة‬
َ‫س‬
ْ ‫َك‬

،‫حة‬
َ ‫ َفْت‬،‫ضّمة‬
َ ،‫ن‬
ٌ ‫سُكْو‬
ُ .
‫ف ِإَلْيِه‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ف ُم‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ُم‬

?Whose book is this

‫ن هذا؟‬
ْ ‫ب َم‬
ُ ‫ ِكَتا‬:‫ل‬
ٌ ‫ِمَثا‬
ٍ ‫سُكْو‬
‫ن‬
ُ ‫عَلى‬
َ ‫ي‬
ّ ‫َمْبِن‬

The above example shows that the word ‫ن‬
ْ ‫ َم‬is ‫ف إَلْيِه‬
ٌ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ ُم‬and we
know that the mudhaaf ilaih is always majroor (takes kasrah), however
the word ‫ن‬
ْ ‫( َم‬who) is ‫ن‬
ٍ ‫سُكْو‬
ُ ‫عَلى‬
َ ‫ي‬
ّ ‫( َمْبِن‬built upon a sukoon) so the
ending will always show a sukoon even though it is in the position or
state of

‫جّر‬
َ ‫اْل‬

ٌ‫عاِمل‬
َ
is ‫ي‬
ّ ‫َمْبِن‬

(al-jarr) due to its place in the sentence. So the

(active element) does not affect the ending of a word that
(mabni).

27

ُ ‫س الثاِم‬
‫ن‬
ُ ‫( الّدْر‬٨)
ُ ‫اْلَبَد‬-(Badal-al)
‫ل‬
ُ‫خَبر‬
َ ‫اْل‬
.This man is a trader

‫اْلُمْبَتَدأ‬

.‫جٌر‬
ِ ‫ل َتا‬
ُ‫ج‬
ُ ‫هَذا الّر‬
(al-badal)‫ل‬
ُ ‫اْلَبَد‬

ُ‫ج‬
‫ل‬
ُ ‫ الّر‬is grammatically known as ‫ل‬
ُ ‫اْلَبَد‬
(al-badal), it used in a sentence in order to give ‫كْيٌد‬
ِ ‫( َتْو‬emphasis) and
ٌ ‫( َبَيا‬clarity or explanation) to the word that precedes it. So in the above
‫ن‬
example the ism ‫ل‬
ُ‫ج‬
ُ ‫ الّر‬is giving emphasis and clarity to the word ‫َهَذا‬, it
In the above example the ism

is telling us that the one being indicated to is ‘the man’.It can also be
understood that the badal is the same the thing as the word which
precedes it, i.e. the man is the one being indicated to and the one being
indicated to is the man.
Another example can be used to explain this, if I had a book in my hand
which I was indicating to and I said to my teacher, ‘this is new’

‫جِدْيٌد‬
َ '.

It would be understood that the book is new and if I was to

mention the book in my sentence I would say in Arabic, ‫ب‬
ُ ‫اْلِكتا‬

‫جِدِيٌد‬
َ.

'‫َهَذا‬

‫( ٌ ِزَياَدة‬extra or additional
word in the sentence which is known as ‫ل‬
ُ ‫( اْلَبَد‬al-badal). It is important
to note here that if I were to say in Arabic, ‘‫ب‬
ُ ‫ ’َهَذا اْلِكتا‬this would not
By mentioning

'‫ب‬
ُ ‫'اْلِكتا‬,

‫َهَذا‬

I have put a

be considered to be a complete or beneficial sentence. To make it a
beneficial sentence we must add a ‫ر‬
ٌ ‫خَب‬
َ (khabar), as shown in the example
above. The subject of
later on inshaallaah.

ُ ‫ اْلَبَد‬and the types of al-badal will be covered
‫ل‬

28

‫صْوُر‬
ُ ‫سُم اْلَمق‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬
The teacher is from

‫صْوُر‬
ُ ‫سُم اْلَمق‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬

.‫ن ِإْنَكْلَتـّرا‬
ْ ‫ب ِمـ‬
ُ ‫طــاِل‬
ّ ‫ن َأْمِرْيَكــا َو ال‬
ْ ‫س ِمـ‬
ُ ‫َاْلُمَدّر‬
.America and the student is from England

.Hamid went to the hospital.‫شَفى‬
ْ ‫سَت‬
ْ ‫اْلُم‬

‫ب ِإَلى‬
َ ‫حاِمٌد َذَه‬
َ

‫صْوُر‬
ُ ‫سُم اْلَمق‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ‫ا‬
ٌ‫حة‬
َ ‫لِزَمةٌ َمْفُتْو‬
َ ‫ف‬
ٌ ‫خُرُه َأِل‬
ِ ‫بآ‬
ٌ ‫سٌم ُمْعَر‬
ْ ‫صْوُر ُهَو ا‬
ُ ‫سُم اْلَمق‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫ ا‬:‫ف‬
ُ ‫الّتْعِرْي‬
.‫ت‬
ِ ‫حَرَكا‬
َ ‫جِمْيُع اْل‬
َ ‫عَلْيِه‬
َ ‫َما َقْبَلَها َو ُتَقّدُر‬
Definition: al-ismul-maqsoor, it is an ism mu’rab which has an
inseparable or binding alif on its end and the letter before it takes a fatha
and all the vowel markings on it are not apparent.

‫شَفى‬
ْ ‫سَت‬
ْ ‫ُم‬،‫ِإْنَكْلَتّرا‬،‫سى‬
َ ‫ُمْو‬،‫ َأْمِرْيَكا‬all end with an binding alif
or the letter ‫ ى‬which looks like the letter ‫( ي‬ya) except that it doesn’t
The words

have the two dots but it is pronounced as an alif. Also the ismul-maqsoor
is ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫( ُمْعَر‬mu’rab) it takes ‫ب‬
ُ ‫عَرا‬
ْ‫ل‬
ِ ‫( َا‬al-I’raab) but the I’raab is ‫َتقِدْيٌر‬
(taqdeer) not apparent. The examples above illustrate this, the ismulmaqsoor (nouns ending with the binding alif at the end) are preceded by

‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حُرْو‬
ُ but the change caused by the ‫جّر‬
َ ‫ف اْل‬
ُ ‫حُرْو‬
ُ is not apparent,
the case of ‫ر‬
ّ‫ج‬
َ ‫( َاْل‬al-jarr) cannot be seen. The Ismul-maqsoor falls into
one of the categories or types of words where the I’raab is ‫را‬
ً ‫( َتقِدْي‬please
refer back to the definition of I’raab).

29

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