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“Foot & Shell in

Mollusca”
A presentation compiled
from various sources by
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA,
Zoology Dept. Bhavan’s College, Andheri.

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation


Sites from which presentations have been downloaded and later editted.
I am indeed thankful to them for their kindness and support :
http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/cb/org/organelles.html
http://faculty.pnc.edu/jcamp/parasit/parasit.html
http://www.amnh.org/rose/hope/creatinghope/
http://www.biology.eku.edu/SCHUSTER/bio%20141/POWERPOINT
%20NOTES/Intro%20to%20Protozoa_files/fullscreen.htm
http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~zoology/eeob405/
http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/pwpt/
http://www.iep.water.ca.gov/suisun/photos/wildlife.html
http://www.uta.edu/biology/marshall/2343/
http://www.uta.edu/biology/faculty/faculty.html
http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/PowerPoint.htm
http://bio.fsu.edu/
http://www.aw-bc.com/
http://www.nhm.org/
http://www.geo.cornell.edu/eas/education/course/descr/EAS302/presentations/

It is very easy to find mistakes in these presentations…..I request you to kindly


rectify them and supply me the modifications needed at parvishpandya@yahoo.com
Thanks a lot and have fun in teaching & learning Zoology….
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
Phylum Mollusca

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Phylum
Mollusca

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Phylum Mollusca (mollis, soft)
• Body usually an anterior head, ventral foot and
a dorsal visceral mass.
• Covered by a fleshy outgrowth of the body wall
called a mantle.
– Shell if present is secreted by the mantle
• Radula- a tongue-like structure bearing
transvers rows of minute chitinous teeth.
• Good phylum for demonstrating Adaptative
Radiation.
• With the exception of Monoplacophora, the
phylum is unsegmented.
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Systems
• Skeletal-
Skeletal Mantle may secretes a shell. Use
hydrostatic pressure for ventral muscular foot.
• Muscles -Ventral muscular foot and other
muscles present.
• Digestive-
Digestive complete complex with salivary
glands, digestive gland and Rasping tongue
(Radula).
• Circulatory - Open except for Cephalopoda.
Dorsal heart, usually in a pericardial cavity.
• Respiratory - Ctenidia (gills) in mantle cavity,
respiratory pigment is copper.
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
Systems
• Excretory-
Excretory by nephridia usually connecting to the
pericardial cavity,
– the coelom is usually reduced to the cavities of the nephridia,
gonads and pericardium.
• Nervous - Nerve ring with various pairs of ganglia—two
pairs of nerve cords, one innervating the foot, the other
the visceral mass (modified ventral ladder-like system)
• Integumentary - Mantle
• Endocrine - nervous systems produces hormones.
• Reproductive - varied- monoecious, protandric, or
dioecious. Larva in marine = trochophore and veliger,
in freshwater clam is glochidium.

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Molluscs
• 50,000 -100,000 living
species
• 35,000 extinct species
• Largest = 1000 pounds
• 80% less than 5 cm
• Soft body
• Most have a shell
• Most marine
• Snails terrestrial
– Most habitat

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Numbers of species
Arthropoda
Mollusca
Chordata
Platyhelminthes
Nematoda
Annelida
Porifera
Echinodermata
Other
Sarcomastigophora
Apicomplex
Ciliophora

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Economics

• Pearls
• Burrowing shipworms
• Snails & slugs
– Garden pests
– Food
– Intermediate hosts for
parasites

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Phylum Mollusca
• Ventral Foot
– Locomotion
• Mantle
– Encloses mantle cavity
• Shell
• Radula
• Coelom
• Metanephridia
• Open circulatory
system
– Closed in cephalopods

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Trochophore Larva
• Same type as Phylum
Annelida

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Echinodermata Uniramia
Vertebrata Lophophores Chelicerata
Other Chordata Crustacea
Hemichordata
Arthropoda Annelida
Mollusca
Other
pseudocoelomates Nemertea
Platyhelminthes
Nematoda Ctenophora
Cnidaria
Mesozoa
Placozoa
Sarcomastigophora
Ciliophora Porifera
Apicomplexa
Microspora Myxozoa

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Body Plan
Pericardial cavity Metanephridium
Mantle cavity
Gonad
Ctenidium
Radula

Stomach and digestive gland Foot

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Dorsal mantle covers the
visceral mass.

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Secretes the shell

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Ctenidium (Respiration)

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Complete digestive system

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Paired ventral nerve cords

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Radula

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Radular Structure

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Coelom - metanephridia

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Class Scaphopoda

• Tooth shells (or


Tusk shells)
– Shell and mantle
slender, tubular, and
slightly curved. It is
open at both ends

Dentalium

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Class Scaphopoda

• Tooth shells
• Shell opens on both
ends
• Burrow into mud
• No gills
– Mantle for gas
exchange
• Feed on detritus and
protozoa

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Class Scaphododa

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Class Polyplacophora
Chitons

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Class Polyplacophora
• Eight dorsal plates
• Reduced head
• Radula reinforced
with iron
– Scrape algae from
rocks

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Class Polyplacophora

Mouth Mantle cavity

Ctenidium

Foot

Anus

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Class Polyplacophora
Stomach Gonad
Digestive Pericardial cavity
gland
Mouth
Nephridium

Anus

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Class Bivalvia
Clams, Oysters, Shipworms

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Class Bivalvia

• Two shells
• Most are filter feeders
• No head or radula
• Burrow
– Sand, wood, rocks

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Giant Clam & Burrowing Clam

Siphon

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Locomotion with Foot

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Zebra Mussel

• Environmental Pest
• Ballast water of ships
from Europe in 1986
• Attach be secreting
adhesive byssal
threads
– Each other
– Other mussels
– Man made objects
• Pipes, plumbing

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Zebra Mussel

• Live in high densities


• Feed on
phytoplankton
• Reproduce rapidly

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Bivalve structures
Hinge

Labial palp
Ctenidium

Excurrent
siphon

Foot Incurrent
siphon

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Clam anatomy
Pericardial cavity
Metanephridium
Heart

Intestine

Excurrent
Stomach Incurrent

Intestine Gonad

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Clam anatomy

Digestive
gland

Excurrent
Stomach
Incurrent

Intestine Gonad

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Clam anatomy
Pericardial cavity

Heart

Intestine

Excurrent

Incurrent

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Clam anatomy
Metanephridium Pericardial cavity

Heart

Intestine

Excurrent

Incurrent

Gonad

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Oysters

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Pearl formation

Shell

Developing pearl

Epithelium

Irritant lodged between shell and mantle


Layers of nacre secreted around foreign material

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Scallops

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Oyster and Scallop

Scallop shells

Oyster cluster Oyster shells


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Shipworms

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Teredo (shipworm)
and the Rock boring worm

Teredo Teredo in wood

Rock boring clam

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Class Gastropoda
Snails, Slugs, Conchs, Limpets

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Class Gastropoda

• One shell (if present)


• Torsion of body

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Torsion in
Gastropods

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Snail

• Terrestrail
• Mantle cavity
functions as lung

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Snail
Pneumostome
Shell Tentacle
(Eye stalks)
Anus Tentacle

Foot
Mouth

Genital pore

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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Internal Structure of a Generalized Gastropod

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Busycon (Whelk)

Busycon (shell removed)

Busycon shells

Busycon eggs
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Other Gastropods

Abalone shells

Conch

Examples of gastropoda
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Abalone

• Several holes in top of shell


– Excrete waste
• Food for man
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Nudibranch

• No shell
• Dorsal projections
– Gills
– Nematocyst discharge
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Slug

• No shell
• Garden pests

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Limpet

• Herbivores
• Cling to rocks or other surfaces

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Conch

• Large shell
• Marine
• Many are predators

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Class Cephalopoda
Squids, Octopuses, Nautiluses

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Class Cephalopoda

• Shell in squid and


octopus absent or
vestigial
• Jet propulsion
• Ink sac
• Food modified into
arms and tentacles
• Marine
• All predators

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Squid
Posterior surface

Right

Ventral
Dorsal

Left

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Squid
Tentacle
Arm
Funnel (siphon)

Collar Fin
Eye

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Squid
Shell (Pen)

Systemic
heart
Branchial heart
Ctenidium
Funnel

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Squid Male
Testis
Penis

Hectocotylous arm

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Squid Female
Ovary with eggs
Oviducal gland
Nidamental glands

Oviducal opening

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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cephalopod Eye

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Octopus

• Eight arms with


suckers
• Crawl or eject water
from siphon
• Change skin color
• Most intelligent
invertebrate

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Octopus • Eight arms

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Nautilus

• Up to 94 tentacles
– No suckers
• Shell with many
chambers
– Lives in outermost

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Nautilus

• (South Pacific and Indian Ocean)

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Ammonoids

• Extinct
• Devonian to
Cretaceous
– 400 to 65 MYA
• Died out with
dinosaurs

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The End
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