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“Porifera : Spicules + Canal System”

A presentation compiled from various sources by

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA,
Zoology Dept. Bhavan’s College, Andheri.
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Sites from which presentations have been downloaded and later editted. I am indeed thankful to them for their kindness and support :
http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/cb/org/organelles.html http://faculty.pnc.edu/jcamp/parasit/parasit.html http://www.amnh.org/rose/hope/creatinghope/ http://www.biology.eku.edu/SCHUSTER/bio%20141/POWERPOINT %20NOTES/Intro%20to%20Protozoa_files/fullscreen.htm http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~zoology/eeob405/ http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/pwpt/ http://www.iep.water.ca.gov/suisun/photos/wildlife.html http://www.uta.edu/biology/marshall/2343/ http://www.uta.edu/biology/faculty/faculty.html http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/PowerPoint.htm http://bio.fsu.edu/ http://www.aw-bc.com/ http://www.nhm.org/ http://www.geo.cornell.edu/eas/education/course/descr/EAS302/presentations/ It is very easy to find mistakes in these presentations…..I request you to kindly rectify them and supply me the modifications needed at parvishpandya@yahoo.com Thanks a lot and have fun in teaching & learning Zoology…. Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

PHYLUM PORIFERA
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Simple Sponge Morphology

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Phylum Porifera - Sponges
• Mostly marine, but include some freshwater inhabitants;

usually found attached to the substratum in shallow or deep water. • They are sessile; permanently attached to the substrate • Obtain their food by filter feeding

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General Morphology
• The internal cavity is called the atrium or spongocoel • Water is drawn into it through a series of incurrent pores or dermal ostia present in the body wall into a central cavity and then flows out of the sponge through a large opening at the top called the osculum

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Spicule
• Skeleton of sponge
– Calcium carbonate – Silicon – Collagen

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The Skeleton
In the mesohyl is the skeleton composed of tiny pointed structures made of silica or calcium carbonate called spicules. These structures act as an internal scaffolding, but also function in protection Among some sponges the skeleton consist of spongin fibers made of collagenous material; found in many of the commercial sponges

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Archeocyte
• Amoeboid cells • Receive food from choanocytes • Differentiate into other cell types

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Sclerocyte
• Produce spicules

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Asconoid Sponge
Osculum Spongocoel Ostium Porocyte

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Phylum Porifera- Asconoid Type Sponge: This simplest sponge type has it’s choanocytes located in it’s spongocoel. Note buds (asexual reproduction) and many oscula (plural of osculum) on this slide. [fig 1.3-A] PANDYA’s presentation Dr. PARVISH

Phylum PoriferaAsconoid Type Sponge: note spicules, spongocoel, osculum & bud [fig 1.3-A]

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Phylum Porifera- Asconoid Type Sponge: This simplest sponge type has it’s choanocytes located in it’s spongocoel. Its also a small sponge type. [fig 1.3-A]
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Types of Sponges (Canal Systems)

A. Asconoid Sponges • Simple vase-like structure • This structure puts limitations on size; (increase in volume without a corresponding increase in the surface area of the choanocytes)

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Syconoid Sponge
Osculum

Incurrent Canal Ostium

Spongocoel Radial Canal Choanocytes

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Syconoid Sponge Scypha (Grantia) xs
Spongocoel

Incurrent Canal

Radial Canal Choanocytes

Ostium

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Phylum Porifera- Syconoid Type Sponge: An example of a syconoid-type sponge.This sponge type has it’s choanocytes located in its radial canals. Note the prominent spicules [fig 1.4] Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

Types of Sponges (Canal Systems) cont.

B. Synconoid Sponges • The flagellated choanocyte layer has undergone folding forming finger like projections • There is a single osculum but the body wall is more complex, with water being received through incurrent canals, which pass it along to radial canals through to the spongocoel • Results in an increase in the surface area which allowed sponges to increase in the size
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A

Phylum Porifera-Syconoid Type Sponge: a longitudinal & cross-sectional view. Note the osculum (A), spongocoel, radial canals & the choanocytes lining the radial canals. A magnified view Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation of a radial canal showing individual choanocytes is included. [fig 1.4]

Phylum Porifera-Syconoid Type Sponge (CS): This is a close-up of a cross-section through the radial canals of a syconoid-type sponge. Note PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation the radial canals, the choanocytes lining Dr. canals, & osculum [fig 1.4]

Leuconoid Osculum Sponge
Excurrent canal Incurrent pore Incurrent canal Choanocyte chamber

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Phylum Porifera- Leuconoid Type Sponge: These are examples of the most complex sponge type. The choanocytes are located in the many flagellated chambers. Any large sponge is most Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation likely a leuconoid- type sponge.

Types of Sponges (Canal Systems) cont.

C. Leuconoid Sponges • No atrium; several small chambers in which choanocytes are located • There is a whole series of incurrent canals leading to the choanocyte chambers; water is discharges through excurrent canals • The leuconoid sponges exhibit a significant increase in surface area and are, therefore, among the largest sponges
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Sponge Body Forms

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Sponge Reproduction • hermaphroditic or monoecious.
• Sperm leaves a sponge via the osculum, and enters a sponge by the currents generated from the choanocytes. Fertilized eggs develop into ciliated free-swimming larvae called parenchymula larvae Sponges can reproduce asexually by fragmentation

• Many of the freshwater sponges can produce asexual bodies called gemmules, aggregations of cells that are enclosed in hard outer covering containing spicules
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Asexual Reproduction
Micropyle
Budding Fragmentation Gemmule formation -survive freezing -survive

Spicule

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Sexual Reproduction
• Monoecious
– Both male and female

• Sperm and egg derived from choanocytes • Ciliated larva
– Swim to new location

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Hypothesis of Multicellularity

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Sponge Taxonomy
Class Calcarea (Calcispongidae) • Only sponges that possess s composed of calcium carbonate. • have 3-4 rays, and do not have hollow axial canals. • Today, their diversity is greatest in the tropics, predominantly in shallow waters

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Taxonomy cont.

Class Hexactinellida (Hyalospongiae) • Glass sponges; characterized by siliceous of six rays intersecting at right angles • Widely viewed as an early branch within the

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Taxonomy cont.

Class Demospongiae • Greater than 90 percent of the 5,000 known living sponge species are

Yellow sponge growing on a wall on a Caribbean reef.
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The End

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