1ransient Speed Vibration Analysis 1ransient Speed Vibration Analysis

ív.igbt. ivto Macbiver, ßebarior ív.igbt. ivto Macbiver, ßebarior
0¨ 0¨· ·Dec Dec· ·200¨ 200¨
Z5 Lcurel Street
Ccrbondcle, PA 1840Z
Tel. (5Z0) 282·4º4Z
Cell (5Z0) 5Z5·º252
y: y:
Stan ognatz, P.L. Stan ognatz, P.L.
President & Principal Lngr. President & Principal Lngr.
srb srb¸¸mbesi.com mbesi.com
Rotctìny Mcchìnery 0ìcynostìcs 8 lnstrumentctìon Solutìons ]or. "Mcìntencnce Thct Mctters"
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Ok, analysts.. Ok, analysts..
at is wrong wit tis turbine? at is wrong wit tis turbine?
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!4ssibilities !4ssibilities
at causes a predominant 1X Vibration? at causes a predominant 1X Vibration?
Unbalance Unbalance
Misalignment Misalignment
Rotor Resonance Rotor Resonance
Structural Resonance Structural Resonance
Rub Rub
Coupling Lock Up Coupling Lock Up
Oversize bearing Oversize bearing
Bowed Saft Bowed Saft
Hig 1X Slow Roll / Runout Hig 1X Slow Roll / Runout
Cracked Saft Cracked Saft
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%7ansient Vib7ati4n Analysis %7ansient Vib7ati4n Analysis
Transient Transient Speed Speed Vibration Analysis Vibration Analysis
Acquisition & analysis of data taken during startup and sut down Acquisition & analysis of data taken during startup and sut down
Provides significant insigt into te rotor and structural dynamics tat Provides significant insigt into te rotor and structural dynamics tat
cannot be ad wit only steady state analysis cannot be ad wit only steady state analysis
Tis information includes: Tis information includes:
Unbalance "Heavy Spot¨ Locations Unbalance "Heavy Spot¨ Locations
Rotor Mode Sapes Rotor Mode Sapes
Saft Centerline Movement / Alignment Saft Centerline Movement / Alignment
Bearing ear Bearing ear
Saft Runout Saft Runout
Critical Speeds / Resonances Critical Speeds / Resonances
Rotor Stability Rotor Stability
Bearing ear Bearing ear
Foundation Deterioration, and oters Foundation Deterioration, and oters
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%7ansient Data Sampling %7ansient Data Sampling
Tis is not 'PdM' data acquisition Tis is not 'PdM' data acquisition
Multiple cannels (8 Multiple cannels (8 ÷ ÷ 30+) 30+)
All cannels sampled simultaneously & syncronously All cannels sampled simultaneously & syncronously
All data referenced to a once All data referenced to a once- -per per- -revolution speed / tac signal revolution speed / tac signal
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nst7:mentati4n nst7:mentati4n
at are some instrumentation requirements for transient data? at are some instrumentation requirements for transient data?
Here's a "sort¨ list of desired abilities for transient data acquisition: Here's a "sort¨ list of desired abilities for transient data acquisition:
Minimum cannel count of 8, wit 16 or more cannels preferred Minimum cannel count of 8, wit 16 or more cannels preferred
Syncronous sampling of all cannels Syncronous sampling of all cannels
2 or more tac cannels 2 or more tac cannels
Accurately sample data at low rotor speeds (< 100 rpm) Accurately sample data at low rotor speeds (< 100 rpm)
Measures DC Gap Voltages up to Measures DC Gap Voltages up to - -24 Vdc 24 Vdc
Produce DC Produce DC- -coupled data plots (for saft centerline & trust data) coupled data plots (for saft centerline & trust data)
Provide ÌEPE / accelerometer power Provide ÌEPE / accelerometer power
Electronically remove low speed saft runout from at Electronically remove low speed saft runout from at- -speed data speed data
Display bearing clearances; plot saft movement wit available clearance Display bearing clearances; plot saft movement wit available clearance
Specify RPM ranges for sampling, and RPM sampling interval Specify RPM ranges for sampling, and RPM sampling interval
Produce bode, polar, saft centerline, and cascade plots for data analysis Produce bode, polar, saft centerline, and cascade plots for data analysis
Tracking filter provides 1X and oter programmable vector variables Tracking filter provides 1X and oter programmable vector variables
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%e Need f47 (R4t47 Speed %e Need f47 (R4t47 Speed
A key (te key) component to successful transient analysis is a A key (te key) component to successful transient analysis is a
reliable once reliable once- -per per- -revolution tacometer signal revolution tacometer signal
Tis signal provides a triggering pulse for te instrument tracking filter Tis signal provides a triggering pulse for te instrument tracking filter
Ìt lets us establis a rotor pase angle reference system Ìt lets us establis a rotor pase angle reference system
For macines witout a permanent vibration monitoring system, a For macines witout a permanent vibration monitoring system, a
portable laser tacometer can be used to provide a TTL pulse portable laser tacometer can be used to provide a TTL pulse
e ave ad excellent results wit e ave ad excellent results wit
Monarc Ìnstrument's PLT Monarc Ìnstrument's PLT- -200 200
Observes optically reflective Observes optically reflective
tape attaced to te saft tape attaced to te saft
Senses optical tape Senses optical tape
25' away feet 25' away feet
at angles of at angles of II70 70°°!!
Clean TTL pulse output Clean TTL pulse output
Very reliable trigger Very reliable trigger
Use wit ZonicBook/618E Use wit ZonicBook/618E
dedicated Tac inputs dedicated Tac inputs
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%e Need f47 (R4t47 Speed %e Need f47 (R4t47 Speed
Macines wit permanent vibration monitoring systems often use a Macines wit permanent vibration monitoring systems often use a
proximity probe to observe a notc or keyway in te saft proximity probe to observe a notc or keyway in te saft
Tis provides a DC voltage pulse output Tis provides a DC voltage pulse output
Signal must used as an analog tac input on te ZonicBook/618 Signal must used as an analog tac input on te ZonicBook/618
Some signals create triggering problems due to signal quality: Some signals create triggering problems due to signal quality:
Oversoot / ripple Oversoot / ripple ÷ ÷ causes causes
multiple triggers per revolution multiple triggers per revolution
Overall signal contains an Overall signal contains an
AC vibration signal AC vibration signal ÷ ÷
causes multiple triggers causes multiple triggers
Te bottom of eac Te bottom of eac
pulse is not at te pulse is not at te
same voltage level same voltage level ÷ ÷
causes misses samples causes misses samples
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%e Need f47 (R4t47 Speed %e Need f47 (R4t47 Speed
Ìf your instrumentation does not properly trigger using Auto tac: Ìf your instrumentation does not properly trigger using Auto tac:
Try manually adjusting te trigger voltage level to a voltage tat only Try manually adjusting te trigger voltage level to a voltage tat only
allows te instrument to tat voltage level and corresponding slope (+ or allows te instrument to tat voltage level and corresponding slope (+ or - -) )
once per revolution once per revolution
A trigger setpoint of A trigger setpoint of - -2.0 to 2.0 to - -3.0 Vdc would work nicely ere 3.0 Vdc would work nicely ere
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%e Need f47 (R4t47 Speed %e Need f47 (R4t47 Speed
Ìf reliable triggering cannot be establised, a signal conditioner suc Ìf reliable triggering cannot be establised, a signal conditioner suc
as Bently Nevada's TK as Bently Nevada's TK- -15 Keypasor Conditioner can be used to 15 Keypasor Conditioner can be used to
modify te signal modify te signal
Ìt can simultaneously 'clip' te top and bottom portions by applying Ìt can simultaneously 'clip' te top and bottom portions by applying
bias voltages, tus removing any ripple / oversoot from te pulse, bias voltages, tus removing any ripple / oversoot from te pulse,
and producing a more TTL and producing a more TTL- -like pulse like pulse
Te signal can also be amplified Te signal can also be amplified
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%7ansd:.e7 Sele.ti4n vs. Ma.ine Design %7ansd:.e7 Sele.ti4n vs. Ma.ine Design
ournal & Tilt Pad Bearings: ournal & Tilt Pad Bearings:
Macines wit eavy /rigid casings, and 'ligt' rotors Macines wit eavy /rigid casings, and 'ligt' rotors
Most steam turbines, barrel compressors, gearboxes, large pumps, etc. Most steam turbines, barrel compressors, gearboxes, large pumps, etc.
Proximity Probes in X Proximity Probes in X- -Y Configuration at eac bearing Y Configuration at eac bearing
Provide direct measurement of saft Provide direct measurement of saft- -relative vibration relative vibration
Seismic probes (accels) yield attenuated signals & pase lag Seismic probes (accels) yield attenuated signals & pase lag
Macines wit lower case Macines wit lower case- -to to- -rotor mass ratios or flexible supports rotor mass ratios or flexible supports
Gas turbines, LP turbine pedestals, air macines, fans, pumps, motors Gas turbines, LP turbine pedestals, air macines, fans, pumps, motors
Use Proximity & Seismic wen possible Use Proximity & Seismic wen possible
Flexible supports provide comparable Flexible supports provide comparable
saft & casing vibration saft & casing vibration ÷ ÷ bot are bot are
important important
Rolling Rolling- -Element Bearings: Element Bearings:
Accelerometers Accelerometers
True Vertical & Horizontal Planes True Vertical & Horizontal Planes
Aligns probes close to major & Aligns probes close to major &
minor stiffness axes minor stiffness axes
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4nfig:7ati4n & Sampling G:idelines 4nfig:7ati4n & Sampling G:idelines
RPM & Time Sampling Ìntervals RPM & Time Sampling Ìntervals
Generally sample at RPM of 5 to 10 rpm for most macinery Generally sample at RPM of 5 to 10 rpm for most macinery
Produces ig quality data plots Produces ig quality data plots
Keeps database sizes reasonable Keeps database sizes reasonable
Need to consider te total speed range over wic data must be sampled Need to consider te total speed range over wic data must be sampled
ill speed will oscillate during te startup? ill speed will oscillate during te startup?
Turbine startups; VFD drives Turbine startups; VFD drives
Time sampling during startup provides data during eat soak / idle Time sampling during startup provides data during eat soak / idle
periods periods
20 to 30 seconds between samples, unless process conditions are canging 20 to 30 seconds between samples, unless process conditions are canging
rapidly rapidly
Try to estimate total database size required and ensure system will Try to estimate total database size required and ensure system will
not truncate database during sampling not truncate database during sampling
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4nfig:7ati4n & Sampling G:idelines 4nfig:7ati4n & Sampling G:idelines
Fast Ramp Rates Fast Ramp Rates ÷ ÷ AC Motors AC Motors
Ìnduction motor startup will be very fast, accelerating quickly and smootly Ìnduction motor startup will be very fast, accelerating quickly and smootly
from zero to full speed from zero to full speed
Startup lasts only 10 Startup lasts only 10 ÷ ÷ 40 seconds after te breaker is closed 40 seconds after te breaker is closed
Can data acquisition keep pace wit te ramp rate? Can data acquisition keep pace wit te ramp rate?
3,600 rpm motor; 40 second startup time 3,600 rpm motor; 40 second startup time
3600 / 40 = 90 rpm 3600 / 40 = 90 rpm per second per second
At RPM = 5, we would be trying to capture = 16 samples per second At RPM = 5, we would be trying to capture = 16 samples per second
at can we expect from our data? at can we expect from our data?
Examine data acquisition settings: Examine data acquisition settings:
Fmax Fmax
Lines of resolution Lines of resolution
ZonicBook/618E: 2,000 Hz Fmax; 1600 LOR ZonicBook/618E: 2,000 Hz Fmax; 1600 LOR
1 sample = 0.8 seconds = 72 rpm cange between start and end of sample 1 sample = 0.8 seconds = 72 rpm cange between start and end of sample
Data smearing Data smearing
Fmax = 1,000 Hz; 200 LOR Fmax = 1,000 Hz; 200 LOR
1 sample = 0.2 seconds = 18 rpm 1 sample = 0.2 seconds = 18 rpm
Set RPM at 20 Set RPM at 20 - - 30 30
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%7ansient Data !l4t %ypes %7ansient Data !l4t %ypes
Bode Bode
Polar Polar
Saft Centerline Saft Centerline
aterfall / Cascade aterfall / Cascade
Before discussing tese data plots, we need to review te importance Before discussing tese data plots, we need to review te importance
of slow roll compensating our 1X of slow roll compensating our 1X- -filtered saft vibration data to filtered saft vibration data to
remove te effects of runout remove te effects of runout
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Sl4 R4ll 4mpensati4n Sl4 R4ll 4mpensati4n
Slow Slow- -roll: mecanical and electrical saft runout in te target area of roll: mecanical and electrical saft runout in te target area of
a proximity probe a proximity probe
Defects tat create a non Defects tat create a non- -dynamic 'false' vibration signal dynamic 'false' vibration signal
Adds vectorally to te true dynamic vibration at any speed Adds vectorally to te true dynamic vibration at any speed
Prox probe cannot distinguis between runout and true vibration Prox probe cannot distinguis between runout and true vibration
e need to electronically remove slow roll for accurate results e need to electronically remove slow roll for accurate results
For most turbo For most turbo- -macinery: macinery:
Sample vibration at low speeds, typically below 300 rpm Sample vibration at low speeds, typically below 300 rpm
Reasonably sure tere will be little dynamic saft motion Reasonably sure tere will be little dynamic saft motion
Te measured signal will contain te runout of te probe target area Te measured signal will contain te runout of te probe target area
Most data acquisition systems allow runout signal to be store and Most data acquisition systems allow runout signal to be store and
ten digitally subtract it from any at ten digitally subtract it from any at- -speed vibration speed vibration
Te differences can be dramatic.. Te differences can be dramatic..
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Sl4 R4ll 4mpensati4n Sl4 R4ll 4mpensati4n
Time Time- -waveform plot waveform plot
Uncompensated Uncompensated
Dominant 1X signal, some 2X Dominant 1X signal, some 2X
Compensated Compensated
Significant 2X Significant 2X
Different conclusions? Different conclusions?
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Sl4 R4ll 4mpensati4n Sl4 R4ll 4mpensati4n
Selecting te Correct Slow Roll Speed Range on a Bode Plot Selecting te Correct Slow Roll Speed Range on a Bode Plot
Look for low speed region wit constant amplitude and pase Look for low speed region wit constant amplitude and pase
Tis ensures we are not including any 'true' dynamic activity Tis ensures we are not including any 'true' dynamic activity
Effect on Bode plot Effect on Bode plot
Cannot predict ow te bode plot will look like after compensation Cannot predict ow te bode plot will look like after compensation
Amplitude sould be near zero at te speed te slow roll was sampled Amplitude sould be near zero at te speed te slow roll was sampled
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Sl4 R4ll 4mpensati4n Sl4 R4ll 4mpensati4n
Polar Plot Compensation Polar Plot Compensation
Slow roll vector merely moves te entire plot Slow roll vector merely moves te entire plot
"Sape¨ of te data (polar loops) not canged "Sape¨ of te data (polar loops) not canged
Can be done visually Can be done visually
Properly compensated plot will begin at zero amplitude Properly compensated plot will begin at zero amplitude
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%7ansient Data %7ansient Data ÷÷ B4de !l4ts B4de !l4ts
Bode plots typically sow te 1X vector response in X Bode plots typically sow te 1X vector response in X- -Y format Y format
Filtered Amplitude Filtered Amplitude
Pase Lag Angle Pase Lag Angle
Rotor Speed Rotor Speed
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B4de !l4ts B4de !l4ts
Tey elp provide te following information: Tey elp provide te following information:
Slow roll speed range & slow roll vector values Slow roll speed range & slow roll vector values
Te location of te "Hig Spot¨, i.e., te rotor's vibration response Te location of te "Hig Spot¨, i.e., te rotor's vibration response
Te location of te "Heavy Spot¨, i.e., te pysical location of a residual Te location of te "Heavy Spot¨, i.e., te pysical location of a residual
unbalance on te rotor unbalance on te rotor
Amplitude, pase & frequency of rotor and structural resonances Amplitude, pase & frequency of rotor and structural resonances
Te presence of 'split' resonances Te presence of 'split' resonances
Amplification Factor, Damping Ratio & Separation Margin for a resonance Amplification Factor, Damping Ratio & Separation Margin for a resonance
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eavy Sp4t
~90°
Res4nan.e 3.39 mils
at J,8J0 7pm
J8J° !ase at Res4nan.e
B4de !l4ts B4de !l4ts
Resonance information Resonance information
Amplitude Amplitude ÷ ÷ peaks at resonance peaks at resonance
Pase Pase ÷ ÷ must sow a 90 degree sift from low speed must sow a 90 degree sift from low speed
Starting point can be difficult to determine if oter modes are present Starting point can be difficult to determine if oter modes are present
Frequency (rpm) Frequency (rpm)
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!ase Resp4nse
B4de !l4ts B4de !l4ts
Te "Hig Spot¨ = te measured 1X vibration response Te "Hig Spot¨ = te measured 1X vibration response
Canges as a function of speed Canges as a function of speed
Te "Heavy Spot¨ = pysical location residual rotor unbalance Te "Heavy Spot¨ = pysical location residual rotor unbalance
Hopefully doesn't cange Hopefully doesn't cange
Relationsip to Hig Spot depends on weter te rotor operates below, Relationsip to Hig Spot depends on weter te rotor operates below,
near, or above its resonance near, or above its resonance
High Spot
Heavy Spot
~90°
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ig Sp4t
eavy Sp4t
~90°
Res4nan.e 3.39 mils
at J,8J0 7pm
J8J° !ase at Res4nan.e
NJ ~J,7S0 7pm N2 ~J,870 7pm
3.39 x .707 = 2.4 mils 2.4 mils
AI = J8J0 / (J870-J7S0
AIJ = JS.J !!
B4de !l4ts B4de !l4ts
Amplification Factor (AF) a measure of damping for any mode Amplification Factor (AF) a measure of damping for any mode
APÌ Half APÌ Half- -Power Bandwidt Metod: Power Bandwidt Metod:
Multiply (peak amplitude x 0.707) Multiply (peak amplitude x 0.707)
Determine corresponding speeds N1 & N2 == alf Determine corresponding speeds N1 & N2 == alf- -power bandwidt power bandwidt
AF = resonance frequency divided by alf AF = resonance frequency divided by alf- -power bandwidt power bandwidt
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ig Sp4t
eavy Sp4t
~90°
Res4nan.e 3.39 mils
at J,8J0 7pm
J8J° !ase at Res4nan.e
3.39 x .707 = 2.4 mils
NJ ~J,7S0 7pm N2 ~J,870 7pm
2.4 mils
AI = J8J0 / (J870-J7S0
AIJ = JS.J !!
B4de !l4ts B4de !l4ts
Amplification factor APÌ guidelines: Amplification factor APÌ guidelines:
< 2.5 = Critically damped; essentially no resonance seen < 2.5 = Critically damped; essentially no resonance seen
< 5.0 = very good < 5.0 = very good
< 8.0 = still acceptable < 8.0 = still acceptable
8 8 ÷ ÷ 10 = marginal 10 = marginal
> 10 = poorly damped > 10 = poorly damped
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B4de !l4ts B4de !l4ts
ig Sp4t
eavy Sp4t
~90°
Res4nan.e 3.39 mils
at J,8J0 7pm
J8J° !ase at Res4nan.e
3.39 x .707 = 2.4 mils
NJ ~J,7S0 7pm N2 ~J,870 7pm
2.4 mils
AI = J8J0 / (J870-J7S0
AIJ = JS.J !!
SM = (3600 ÷ J8J0 / 3600
SM = 49.7°
R:nning Speed =
3,600 7pm
Separation Margin Separation Margin - - APÌ guidelines: APÌ guidelines:
AF < 2.5: critically damped; no SM required. AF < 2.5: critically damped; no SM required.
AF = 2.5 AF = 2.5 - - 3.55: SM of 15% above MCS & 5% below MOS 3.55: SM of 15% above MCS & 5% below MOS
AF > 3.55 & resonance peak < MOS: AF > 3.55 & resonance peak < MOS:
SM (%MOS) = 100 SM (%MOS) = 100 - - {84 + [6/(AF {84 + [6/(AF- -3)]} 3)]}
AF > 3.55 & resonance peak > trip speed: AF > 3.55 & resonance peak > trip speed:
SM (%MCS) = {126 SM (%MCS) = {126 - - [6/(AF [6/(AF - - 3)]} 3)]} - - 100 100
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!4la7 !l4ts !4la7 !l4ts
Polar plots (Nyquist diagrams) present te same information as bode Polar plots (Nyquist diagrams) present te same information as bode
plots, graping amplitude, pase, and frequency plots, graping amplitude, pase, and frequency
Data is plotted in polar (circular) coordinates Data is plotted in polar (circular) coordinates
Direction of rotation Direction of rotation
!74be angle
R4tati4n
!ase Angle
Amplit:de
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!4la7 !l4ts !4la7 !l4ts
Key advantages over bode plots: Key advantages over bode plots:
Easier data interpretation Easier data interpretation - - resonances appears as loops resonances appears as loops
Plot is oriented to te vibration probe & referenced to macine casing Plot is oriented to te vibration probe & referenced to macine casing
Slow roll compensation is easily performed, even visually Slow roll compensation is easily performed, even visually
Ìncorrect compensation is easily identified Ìncorrect compensation is easily identified
Te Hig Spot and Heavy Spot ave immediate pysical meaning, being Te Hig Spot and Heavy Spot ave immediate pysical meaning, being
directly transferable from te plot to te macine. directly transferable from te plot to te macine.
e can easily identify te 1st and 2nd rotor modes and determine te e can easily identify te 1st and 2nd rotor modes and determine te
ideal locations / planes for balance weigts ideal locations / planes for balance weigts
Structural resonances are easy to identify Structural resonances are easy to identify
Speed normally increases opposite te direction of rotation, providing Speed normally increases opposite te direction of rotation, providing
precessional information precessional information
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!4la7 !l4ts !4la7 !l4ts
Resonances (rotor & structural) appear as loops Resonances (rotor & structural) appear as loops
Same amplitude peak and 90 degree pase cange as bode plot Same amplitude peak and 90 degree pase cange as bode plot
Loop is easier to identify tan bode plot activity Loop is easier to identify tan bode plot activity
Structural resonances appear as small inner loops Structural resonances appear as small inner loops
90°
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!4la7 !l4ts !4la7 !l4ts
Heavy Spot, Hig Spot, and te "Balancing Heavy Spot, Hig Spot, and te "Balancing- -T¨ T¨
Heavy Spot for any resonance located in te direction te polar loop starts Heavy Spot for any resonance located in te direction te polar loop starts
Heavy Spot sould be 90 degrees Heavy Spot sould be 90 degrees wit rotation wit rotation from te resonance peak from te resonance peak
Pase angle well above resonance sould approac 180 from Heavy Pase angle well above resonance sould approac 180 from Heavy
Spot, and be 90 degrees Spot, and be 90 degrees against rotation against rotation from te resonance peak from te resonance peak
Heavy
Spot
Resonance
BaIance
Weight
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!4la7 !l4ts !4la7 !l4ts
Heavy Spot, Hig Spot, and te "Balancing Heavy Spot, Hig Spot, and te "Balancing- -T¨ T¨
Te Low Speed, Resonance, and Hig Speed data sould all lead to Te Low Speed, Resonance, and Hig Speed data sould all lead to
essentially te same balance weigt location. essentially te same balance weigt location.
Heavy
Spot
Resonance
BaIance
Weight
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y D4 Res4nan.es O..:7 y D4 Res4nan.es O..:7
Unbalance creates a CG tat is not coincident wit te geometric center Unbalance creates a CG tat is not coincident wit te geometric center
At low speeds, saft rotation occurs around te geometric center At low speeds, saft rotation occurs around te geometric center
As speed increases, te rotor seeks to "self balance¨, wit te center of As speed increases, te rotor seeks to "self balance¨, wit te center of
rotation migrating from te geometric center toward te mass center rotation migrating from te geometric center toward te mass center
Te 'self Te 'self- -balancing' process is wat occurs as we pass troug resonance balancing' process is wat occurs as we pass troug resonance
At te resonance peak, rotation is centered alf At te resonance peak, rotation is centered alf- -way between te geometric way between te geometric
and mass centers, resulting in maximum vibration and mass centers, resulting in maximum vibration
Geoueliic Cenlei
(Oii}inal Nass Cenlei)
45"
e
R
o
l
'
n
Nass Unbalance
(Heav/ Sµol)
Resullin}
Cenlei ol Giavil/
(lew Nass Cenlei)
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Res4nan.es & M4de Sapes Res4nan.es & M4de Sapes
Rotor may ave more tan one Rotor may ave more tan one
resonance depending on operating resonance depending on operating
speed and mass distribution speed and mass distribution
Eac resonance as an associated Eac resonance as an associated
mode sape. For symmetric rotors: mode sape. For symmetric rotors:
1 1
st st
Mode is in Mode is in- -pase from end to end pase from end to end
Maximum deflection at rotor center Maximum deflection at rotor center
2 2
nd nd
mode out mode out- -of of- -pase end pase end- -to to- -end end
Maximum deflection at 1/3 points Maximum deflection at 1/3 points
'Single disks' suc as 1 'Single disks' suc as 1- -stage fans stage fans
and pumps will ave only 1 rotor and pumps will ave only 1 rotor
mode (if tey operate fast enoug) mode (if tey operate fast enoug)
Multi Multi- -disk (compressors, turbines, disk (compressors, turbines,
some pump) or distributed mass some pump) or distributed mass
rotors (motors, generators) may rotors (motors, generators) may
ave more tan 2 modes ave more tan 2 modes
Do not confuse rotor mode sapes Do not confuse rotor mode sapes
wit structural mode sapes wit structural mode sapes
1
st
Mode - Translational
2
nd
Mode - Pivotal
3
rd
Mode
P1 P2
L/2 L/3 L/3
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90°
180°
270°

90°
180°
270°
468
1470
1960
2275
2485
2520
2555
2625
2660
2695
2730
2765
2800
2835
2870
2905
3220
3465
3710
4550
7315
7420
7875
468
1855
2205
2415
2485
2520
2555
2590
2625
2660
2695
2765
2800
2835
2870
2905
2940 3010
3290
3500
4165
6897
7035
7105
7140
7210
7280
7385
7910
8365
2940
2730
!J !2
!4la7 !l4ts !4la7 !l4ts
Typical 1 Typical 1
st st
and 2 and 2
nd nd
mode responses mode responses
1 1
st st
mode at 2,730 rpm mode at 2,730 rpm ÷ ÷ in in- -pase pase across te rotor across te rotor
2 2
nd nd
mode at 7,420 rpm mode at 7,420 rpm ÷ ÷ out out- -of of- -pase pase across te rotor across te rotor
2 2
nd nd
mode must be compensated to remove residual 1 mode must be compensated to remove residual 1
st st
mode effects if present mode effects if present
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Transient Vibration Analysis / Vibration Ìnstitute Meeting
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34
!4la7 !l4ts !4la7 !l4ts
1 1
st st
Mode balance solution Mode balance solution ÷ ÷ te classic "Static¨ Balance te classic "Static¨ Balance
Balance weigts on bot ends of rotor in Balance weigts on bot ends of rotor in same same angular locations angular locations
e can balance te 1 e can balance te 1
st st
mode witout affecting te 2 mode witout affecting te 2
nd nd
mode mode
Te static balance weigt pair will cancel eac oter out during te 2 Te static balance weigt pair will cancel eac oter out during te 2
nd nd
mode, aving no effect on 2 mode, aving no effect on 2
nd nd
mode vibration mode vibration


90°
180°
270°

90°
180°
270°
468
1470
1960
2275
2485
2520
2555
2625
2660
2695
2730
2765
2800
2835
2870
2905
3220
3465
3710
4550
7315
7420
7875
468
1855
2205
2415
2485
2520
2555
2590
2625
2660
2695
2765
2800
2835
2870
2905
2940 3010
3290
3500
4165
6897
7035
7105
7140
7210
7280
7385
7910
8365
2940
2730
1
st
Mode
Heavy
Spot
1
st
Mode
Resonance
1
st
Mode
BaI. Wt.
1
st
Mode
Heavy
Spot
1
st
Mode
Resonance
1
st
Mode
BaI. Wt.
!J !2
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!4la7 !l4ts !4la7 !l4ts
2nd Mode balance solution 2nd Mode balance solution ÷ ÷ te "Couple¨ Balance te "Couple¨ Balance
Balance weigts on bot ends of rotor in Balance weigts on bot ends of rotor in opposite opposite angular locations angular locations
e can balance te 2 e can balance te 2
nd nd
mode witout affecting te 1 mode witout affecting te 1
st st
mode mode
Te couple balance weigt pair at out of pase during te 1 Te couple balance weigt pair at out of pase during te 1
st st
mode, mode,
canceling eac oter out canceling eac oter out
2 2
nd nd
modes must be separately compensated for proper analysis modes must be separately compensated for proper analysis


90°
180°
270°

90°
180°
270°
468
1470
1960
2275
2485
2520
2555
2625
2660
2695
2730
2765
2800
2835
2870
2905
3220
3465
3710
4550
7315
7420
7875
468
1855
2205
2415
2485
2520
2555
2590
2625
2660
2695
2765
2800
2835
2870
2905
2940 3010
3290
3500
4165
6897
7035
7105
7140
7210
7280
7385
7910
8365
2940
2730
2
nd
Mode
Heavy
Spot
2
nd
Mode
Resonance
2
nd
Mode
BaI. Wt.
!J !2
2
nd
Mode
Heavy
Spot
2
nd
Mode
BaI. Wt.
2
nd
Mode
Resonance
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Saft ente7line !4siti4n Saft ente7line !4siti4n
Saft centerline plot sows te Saft centerline plot sows te
average movement of a saft average movement of a saft
witin te bearing witin te bearing
Plots DC gap voltage canges Plots DC gap voltage canges
from X from X- -Y proximity probes Y proximity probes
Only applies to proximity Only applies to proximity
probes probes
Plots sould be made in Plots sould be made in
relation to te available relation to te available
diametral bearing clearance diametral bearing clearance
e must also assume a e must also assume a
reference position (typically reference position (typically
te bottom of te bearing for te bottom of te bearing for
orizontal macinery) orizontal macinery)
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Saft ente7line Analysis Saft ente7line Analysis
Used Qualitatively Used Qualitatively
Look at motion pats & Look at motion pats &
final positions final positions
Sows misalignment Sows misalignment
and preloads across te and preloads across te
macine macine
Used Quantitatively Used Quantitatively
Need accurate bearing Need accurate bearing
clearance data! clearance data!
Measure Bearing ear Measure Bearing ear
Eccentricity Ratio Eccentricity Ratio
Saft Attitude Angle Saft Attitude Angle
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..ent7i.ity Rati4 ..ent7i.ity Rati4
Any forcing function placing a lateral (radial) preload on te rotor can Any forcing function placing a lateral (radial) preload on te rotor can
result in a cange is saft centerline position. result in a cange is saft centerline position.
Preloads can result from: Preloads can result from:
Misalignment Termal growt Misalignment Termal growt
Casing Deflection Casing Deflection
Pipe Strain Pipe Strain
Rotor rubbing Rotor rubbing
Pumping Pumping
Gravity Gravity
Misalignment from Termal Growt / Deflection is te main cause of Misalignment from Termal Growt / Deflection is te main cause of
excessive lateral preloading ! excessive lateral preloading !
e use Eccentricity Ratio as te key measure of te saft's response e use Eccentricity Ratio as te key measure of te saft's response
to lateral preloads to lateral preloads
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..ent7i.ity Rati4 ..ent7i.ity Rati4
Eccentricity is te ratio between te distance from te saft center to Eccentricity is te ratio between te distance from te saft center to
te bearing center, divided by te te bearing center, divided by te radial radial bearing clearance bearing clearance
Usually abbreviated as 'e' or 'ER' Usually abbreviated as 'e' or 'ER'
Example 1: Example 1:
Given: 15 mils Given: 15 mils radial radial bearing clearance bearing clearance
Saft centerline data sows te saft operating 3 mils from bearing center Saft centerline data sows te saft operating 3 mils from bearing center
ER = 3 / 15 = 0.2 ER = 3 / 15 = 0.2 running 'ig' in te bearing running 'ig' in te bearing
Example 2: Example 2:
Saft is operating 9 mils from te bearing center Saft is operating 9 mils from te bearing center
ER = 9 / 15 = 0.6 ER = 9 / 15 = 0.6 typical typical
Ìf te saft is centered in te bearing, wat is 'e'? Ìf te saft is centered in te bearing, wat is 'e'?
ER = 0 / 15 = 0 ER = 0 / 15 = 0
Ìf it is against te bearing wall? Ìf it is against te bearing wall?
ER = 15 / 15 = 1 ER = 15 / 15 = 1
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Ave7age vs. Dynami. ..ent7i.ity Rati4 Ave7age vs. Dynami. ..ent7i.ity Rati4
Te previous slides sowed 'Average' ER. Tis is te saft position Te previous slides sowed 'Average' ER. Tis is te saft position
obtained wen we only consider te DC Gap Voltage data obtained wen we only consider te DC Gap Voltage data
Ìf we also consider te saft vibration at any given average position, Ìf we also consider te saft vibration at any given average position,
we ave te Dynamic Eccentricity Ratio we ave te Dynamic Eccentricity Ratio
For example, given 15 mils radial bearing clearance: For example, given 15 mils radial bearing clearance:
Ìf saft centerline data sows te saft 9 mils from bearing center, Ìf saft centerline data sows te saft 9 mils from bearing center,
Average ER = 9 / 15 = 0.6 Average ER = 9 / 15 = 0.6
Given 6 mils pk Given 6 mils pk- -pk of 1X saft vibration using 200 mV/mil probes, te pk of 1X saft vibration using 200 mV/mil probes, te
dynamic saft motion varies +/ dynamic saft motion varies +/- - 3 mils from te average position 3 mils from te average position
Dynamic ER = Avg ER +/ Dynamic ER = Avg ER +/- - [(peak [(peak- -to to- -peak vibration / 2) / radial clearance] peak vibration / 2) / radial clearance]
For our data: For our data:
Dynamic ER = 0.6 +/ Dynamic ER = 0.6 +/- - [ (6 / 2) / 15 ] = 0.6 +/ [ (6 / 2) / 15 ] = 0.6 +/- - 0.2 0.2
So te Dynamic ER varies from 0.4 to 0.8 wit eac saft rotation So te Dynamic ER varies from 0.4 to 0.8 wit eac saft rotation
At 0.8 we see te saft is in close proximity to te bearing wall. e At 0.8 we see te saft is in close proximity to te bearing wall. e
migt want to reduce te vibration and/or modify te alignment to migt want to reduce te vibration and/or modify te alignment to
reduce babbitt stress reduce babbitt stress
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Stiffness & Damping vs. ..ent7i.ity Stiffness & Damping vs. ..ent7i.ity
Te radial stiffness and damping Te radial stiffness and damping
of te lubricating fluid witin a of te lubricating fluid witin a
bearing are functions of bearing are functions of
eccentricity ratio eccentricity ratio
Ìncreased eccentricity results in Ìncreased eccentricity results in
non non- -linear increases of stiffness linear increases of stiffness
and damping and damping
at effect does tis ave on at effect does tis ave on
our resonance? AF? our resonance? AF?
Observed frequency will increase Observed frequency will increase
Observed AF will decrease Observed AF will decrease
Practically speaking: eccentricity Practically speaking: eccentricity
ratio and saft position sould ratio and saft position sould
be an integral part of te be an integral part of te
transient vibration analysis transient vibration analysis
process process
Iuid iIm RadiaI Stiffness &
RadiaI Damping vs. Eccentricity Ratio
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Eccentricity (e)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Stiffness Damping
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ate7fall & as.ade !l4ts ate7fall & as.ade !l4ts
aterfall and cascade plots are tree aterfall and cascade plots are tree- -dimensional graps of spectra dimensional graps of spectra
at various macine speeds and times. Tey allow us to see te entire at various macine speeds and times. Tey allow us to see te entire
frequency content from a location as a function of speed. frequency content from a location as a function of speed.
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1X
2X
3X
ate7fall & as.ade !l4ts ate7fall & as.ade !l4ts
Orders of running speed (1X, 2X, 3X, etc.) form near Orders of running speed (1X, 2X, 3X, etc.) form near- -diagonal lines in diagonal lines in
te plot te plot
DiagonaI reIationships
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1X
2X
3X
VerticaI reIationships
HorizontaI reIationships
ate7fall & as.ade !l4ts ate7fall & as.ade !l4ts
Horizontal relationsips can be analyzed for resonance, looseness, Horizontal relationsips can be analyzed for resonance, looseness,
rubs, instability, etc. rubs, instability, etc.
Vertical relationsips onset and progress of resonant related activity, Vertical relationsips onset and progress of resonant related activity,
and any constant and any constant- -frequency vibration tat may be present. frequency vibration tat may be present.
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ate7fall & as.ade !l4ts ate7fall & as.ade !l4ts
Vertical relationsips may be due to: Vertical relationsips may be due to:
Adjacent macinery Adjacent macinery ÷ ÷ ceck teir speeds against your data ceck teir speeds against your data
Ground faults or electrical noise in your instrumentation Ground faults or electrical noise in your instrumentation ÷ ÷ te peaks will te peaks will
line up vertically at 60 Hz (3600 cpm) line up vertically at 60 Hz (3600 cpm)
Structural resonances will get easily excited by orders of running speed as Structural resonances will get easily excited by orders of running speed as
macine speed increases or decreases macine speed increases or decreases
Oil irl: look for subsyncronous vibration at 0.4X Oil irl: look for subsyncronous vibration at 0.4X ÷ ÷ 0.48X tat tracks 0.48X tat tracks
running speed running speed
Oil ip: look for subsyncronous vibration in te at a frequency equal to Oil ip: look for subsyncronous vibration in te at a frequency equal to
te rotor's 1st lateral balance resonance te rotor's 1st lateral balance resonance
Anisotropic saft stiffness due to cracking or by design Anisotropic saft stiffness due to cracking or by design ÷ ÷ look for look for
excitation of te 2X order line at ½ te balance resonance excitation of te 2X order line at ½ te balance resonance
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4n.l:si4n 4n.l:si4n
Tis presentation was compiled from te autor's paper, Tis presentation was compiled from te autor's paper,
"Transient Vibration Analysis, Ìnsigts into Macinery Beavior,¨ "Transient Vibration Analysis, Ìnsigts into Macinery Beavior,¨
presented 07 presented 07- -Dec Dec- -2007 at te Vibration Ìnstitute's Piedmont Capter 2007 at te Vibration Ìnstitute's Piedmont Capter
meeting in Halifax, NC. meeting in Halifax, NC.
For a copy of tat paper, please contact te autor: For a copy of tat paper, please contact te autor:
Stanley R. Bognatz, P.E. Stanley R. Bognatz, P.E.
President & Principal Engineer President & Principal Engineer
M&B Engineered Solutions, Ìnc. M&B Engineered Solutions, Ìnc.
75 Laurel Street 75 Laurel Street
Carbondale, PA 18407 Carbondale, PA 18407
Tel. (570) 282 Tel. (570) 282- -4947 4947
Cell (570) 575 Cell (570) 575- -9252 9252
Email: Email: srb@mbesi.com srb@mbesi.com
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Tank You ÷ Any Questions?

 ,3,898  
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