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**ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY
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**ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY
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Bo Thidé

Swedish Institute of Space Physics Uppsala, Sweden and

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se/CED .plasma. R A FT Freely downloadable from www. Electromagnetic Field Theory ISBN 978-0-486-4773-2 D The cover graphics illustrates the linear momentum radiation pattern of a radio beam endowed with orbital angular momentum. Bo Thidé and Mattias Waldenvik A This book was typeset in L TEX 2" based on TEX 3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 6 of 262 . generated by an array of tri-axial antennas.5.1415926 and Web2C 7.uu. Sweden All rights reserved. This graphics illustration was prepared by J O H A N S J Ö H O L M and K R I S T O F F E R PA L M E R as part of their undergraduate Diploma Thesis work in Engineering Physics at Uppsala University 2006–2007.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.uu.6 Copyright ©1997–2009 by Bo Thidé Uppsala. Bengt Lundborg.plasma. Also available ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY EXERCISES by Tobia Carozzi. Anders Eriksson.

se/CED/Book Sheet: 7 of 262 .plasma. great physicist. poet and a truly remarkable man. To the memory of professor L E V M I K H A I L OV I C H E RU K H I M OV (1936–1997) dear friend.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. D R A FT .uu.

uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 8 of 262 .plasma. D R A FT .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Complex notation and physical observables . . . . . . . . . . 2 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves 2. . . . . . . CONTENTS Contents List of Figures Preface to the second edition Preface to the ﬁrst edition ix xv FT . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electromotive force . .2 Maxwell equations in Majorana representation . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Faraday’s law of induction . . . . . R A . . .6 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Axiomatic classical electrodynamics . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .plasma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 2. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrodynamics . . . . . . . .1 The indestructibility of electric charge .1. . . . . . . . . . . 1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .3 The wave equations for E and B . 1. . . . . . . 1. . .2 Maxwell’s displacement current . .4 Bibliography . . . . .2. . 1. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . 1. .4 Bibliography . . .2 Magnetostatics . . . . . . . .1 Ampère’s law . . . . . . . . . .3. .1 The time-independent wave equations for E and B 2. .2 The magnetostatic ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The electrostatic ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xvii xix 1 2 2 3 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 15 18 19 19 20 21 22 24 27 30 1 Foundations of Classical Electrodynamics D 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The microscopic Maxwell equations . . . . . .3. . . . . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 9 of 262 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .3. .3. . . .1 Physical observables and averages . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . 2. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . . . .1 Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s law . . . . . . .uu. . . . .

. .3. and time inversion symmetries 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Hertz potential .1 Electric multipole moments . . . .4. . . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 10 of 262 . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. .1 Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gauge conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Conservation of energy . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Gauge transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 4. space. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . The magnetostatic vector potential The electrodynamic potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conservation of centre of energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radiation of angular momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .4 Conservation of linear momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3.3.3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .uu. . .3 Radiation from a localised source volume at rest 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Conservation of electric charge . . . D . . . .4 . . . . . .3. . . . .3 Electric dipole radiation . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Coulomb gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R A 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Radiation and Radiating Systems 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . 6. . . . . .4 Other gauges . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .1 Radiation of linear momentum and energy . .4 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . 6. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Conservation laws . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . FT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .3. . .plasma. . . .1 Monochromatic signals . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .3. . . . . . . . . . . 4. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . x CONTENTS 3 Electromagnetic Potentials and Gauges The electrostatic scalar potential . . . . . . . . 4 Fundamental Properties of the Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The radiation ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Electromagnetic virial theorem . .2 Conservation of total electric current . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 5. . .5 Electric quadrupole radiation . . . . . . . . .3. 31 31 32 35 36 37 40 42 42 42 47 49 49 51 54 55 55 56 59 62 68 69 69 71 73 75 77 81 82 83 84 85 86 86 88 91 95 97 5 Fields from Arbitrary Charge and Current Distributions 5. . . . . . .4 Magnetic dipole radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Conservation of angular momentum . .6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .1 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge . . . . . . . .3 Velocity gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The magnetic ﬁeld . . . 5. . . . . . . .2 The electric ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 3. . . . . . . . . .2 Finite bandwidth signals . . . . . . . .4.2 Electromagnetic duality . . . . . .

. . . .2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 98 105 105 107 118 123 131 133 133 134 135 140 143 144 144 145 148 151 153 153 153 160 160 168 169 170 170 171 173 174 175 176 180 181 183 191 193 7 Relativistic Electrodynamics 7. . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . R A 8 Electromagnetic Fields and Particles 9 Electromagnetic Fields and Matter 9. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . CONTENTS xi 6. 6. . . . 6. . . . .5 Bibliography . . . .3. . . .3 Radiation from charges in a material medium . . . . . . .5. 8. . . . . . . . . . D F Formulæ FT .3 Minkowski space . . . . .4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4 Bibliography . . . .2 Covariant classical mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for ﬁelds and interactions 8. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .2 Covariant ﬁeld theory . . . . . . . . . .1 Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Radiation from a one-dimensional current distribution 6.1 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials . . . . . . . .2 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials 7. . . . . . .1. . . .3. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Magnetisation and the magnetising ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Electromagnetic waves in a medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 6. . . . . .3 The electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .plasma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4.1 The special theory of relativity . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Lorentz transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Covariant equations of motion . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 6.uu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . 7. . L 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Maxwell’s macroscopic theory . 7. .2 Electromagnetic waves in a conducting medium 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Bibliography . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .4 Radiation from an extended source volume at rest . .3 Macroscopic Maxwell equations .1 Polarisation and electric displacement .2 Phase velocity. . . . . .1. . 7. . . . . group velocity and dispersion . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Constitutive relations . . . . .3. 9. . . . .2 Lorentz space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Covariant classical electrodynamics . . . . . . . .1 The four-potential . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 11 of 262 . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .3 Bremsstrahlung . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . . . . . . . .1 The electromagnetic ﬁeld . . . xii CONTENTS F . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 F . . . . . .3. . . . .1 F . . .3 M . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 194 The far ﬁelds from an extended source distribution . 220 Analytical mechanics . . . . . . . . . . 197 Four-potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 F . . .1 R A F . . . . 196 Four-velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Invariant line element . . .3 The microscopic Maxwell (Lorentz) equations . . . . .uu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Four-momentum . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Bibliography . . .7 F . 205 Fields . . . . . . . . . vectors and tensors . . . 228 FT . . . . . . . . . 193 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2.4. . . 197 Spherical polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Field tensor . . . . . . . . . . 194 F .4 F . . . . .1. . 194 Force and energy .9 F . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetic radiation .6 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 F . . . .2. . . . 202 203 Scalars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 The far ﬁelds from a magnetic dipole . . .1. . . . . . . . .4 M . . . .2 Vector relations . . . . .1. . . 198 Vector and tensor formulæ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 F . . . . . . . . .1 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .plasma. . . . . . .1 M . . . . . . . 197 F . .3 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .3. . . . . 196 Lorentz transformation of a four-vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 F . . . . . 228 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Relationship between the ﬁeld vectors in a plane wave . . . . . . .3. . . . . 204 Vectors . . . .3 Vector algebra . . . . . . . . . . . 195 The far ﬁelds from an electric dipole . . . . 195 Metric tensor for ﬂat 4D space . . . .2 M . . . . . . .3 Special relativity . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Four-current density . . . . . . . . . . .1 F . . . . .3 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 D M . . . . . . . . . . .4 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .5 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 The ﬁelds from a point charge in arbitrary motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 196 Covariant and contravariant four-vectors . . . 195 The far ﬁelds from an electric quadrupole . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Lagrange’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Vector analysis . . . . . .3.2 M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 F . .6 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Hamilton’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 M Mathematical Methods M . . . . . . 193 Fields and potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 12 of 262 . . . .2 M . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 M . . . . . . . . . .

plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 13 of 262 . CONTENTS xiii Index 231 D R A FT .

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. . . .1 1. . . . . .1 Vavilov-Cerenkov cone . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 160 L 9. 134 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coulomb interaction for a distribution of electric charges Ampère interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. Synchrotron radiation lobe width . . . . Loop antenna . . . .13 Multipole radiation geometry . . . . . . 177 Tetrahedron-like volume element of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric dipole antenna geometry . . . . . . . Electric dipole geometry . . . . . . . . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 15 of 262 . . . . .1 Relative motion of two inertial systems . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiation from a charge in circular motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 R A . . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 6. . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . .1 Radiation in the far zone . FT xv 1. .plasma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Linear one-dimensional mass chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . Angular distribution of radiation during bremsstrahlung Location of radiation during bremsstrahlung . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Coulomb interaction between two electric charges . LIST OF FIGURES 5. . . . . . . . Moving loop in a varying B ﬁeld . 3 5 7 13 79 89 92 99 100 102 106 108 118 120 124 126 128 130 D M . . . Electron-electron scattering . . . . . .2 6. 142 8. . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Rotation in a 2D Euclidean space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiation from a moving charge in vacuum . . . . .2 1. An accelerated charge in vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .uu. . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The perpendicular electric ﬁeld of a moving charge . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Minkowski diagram . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . 141 7. .

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Curved-space effects are not treated. In addition to the Maxwell-Lorentz equations. in chapter 9. In appendix M. we describe the properties of electromagnetism when the charges and currents are located in otherwise free space. Hopefully. stronger emphasis is now put on the axiomatic foundation of electrodynamics as provided by the Maxwell-Lorentz equations. The collection of formulæ in appendix F has been augmented quite substantially. It also contains new material on wave propagation in plasma and other media. First. before constitutive relations and physical models for the electromagnetic properties of matter.se/CED/Book). D R A xvii FT . a space that is free of matter (vacuum) and external ﬁelds (e. gravitation). When. the presentation of the theory of electromagnetic angular momentum and other observables (constants of motion) has been substantially expanded and put on a more ﬁrm basis. this approach is preferable as it avoids the formal logical inconsistency of discussing. have been derived from ﬁrst principles. which postulate the beaviour of electromagnetic ﬁelds due to electric charges and currents on a microscopic classical scale.uu. the macroscopic Maxwell equations are introduced. and beginning post-graduate/doctoral level. In the author’s opinion.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the inherent approximations in the derived ﬁeld quantities are clearly pointed out.se/CED/Book Sheet: 17 of 262 . master. at the last-year undergraduate..g.plasma. Only when the fundamental properties of the electromagnetic ﬁelds in free space have been establised with sufﬁcent rigour and completeness do we go on to show how the ﬁelds interact with matter. including conductors and dielectrics. the effect on the electric and mangetic ﬁelds when conductors and dielectrics are present (and vice versa). chapter 9 is a complete rewrite that combines material that was scattered more or less all over the ﬁrst edition. In chapter 2. Chapter 4 is new and deals with symmetries and conserved quantities in a more rigourous. very early in the book. the treatment of dyadic products and tensors has been expanded.uu. chapter 1 also introduces Dirac’s symmetrised equations that incorporate the effects of magnetic charges and currents. The main reasons for trying to improve the presentation and to add more material is that this new edition is now being made available in printed form by Dover Publications and is to be used in an extended Classical Electrodynamics course at Uppsala University. this means that the book will ﬁnd new uses in Academia and elsewhere.plasma. For instance. profound and detailed way than in the ﬁrst edition. PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION This second edition of the book E L E C T RO M AG N E T I C F I E L D T H E O RY is a major revision of the ﬁrst edition that was published on the Internet (www. The revision includes a slight reordering of the chapters.

and J O H A N L I N D B E R G who during their work on their Diploma theses suggested improvements and additions and to H O L G E R T H E N and S TA F F A N Y N G V E for carefully checking some lengthy calculations and to the numerous undergraduate students. S TA F F A N R Ö S B Y . thus most profoundly changing our conception of the world and our place in it. F I L I P and O S K A R . astronomy and science as we know it today.se/CED/Book Sheet: 18 of 262 .uu. by sweeping away Aristotelian dogmas. once upon a time. Thanks are also due to J O H A N S J Ö H O L M . and 2010 that made it possible to prepare the current major revision of the book. my daughter K A RO L I NA . 2011 FT I want to express my warm gratitude to professor C E S A R E B A R B I E R I and his entire group. who have been exposed to various draft versions of this second edtion. for stimulating discussions and the generous hospitality bestowed upon me during several shorter and longer visits in 2008. misconceptions and mere superstition. A L B I N . humble way to further these. BO THIDÉ www. I would like to mention B RU N O S T R A N D B E R G. my four grandsons M A X . Galileo’s new ideas transformed society and mankind forever. Italy February. 2009. xviii P R E FAC E TO THE SECOND EDITION D R A Padova. In particular.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. particularly F A B R I Z I O TA M B U R I N I . It is hoped that this book may contribute in some small. In the process. mind-boggling—and even dangerous—ideas of intellectual freedom and enlightment. intellectual titan G A L I L E O G A L I L E I worked for eighteen years and gave birth to modern physics. at the Department of Astronomy.irfu. M A R C U S E R I K S S O N . my high-school physics teacher. In this breathtakingly beautiful northern Italy. and my fellow members of the C A P E L L A P E DAG O G I C A U P S A L I E N S I S . K R I S T O F F E R PA L M E R . University of Padova. This book is dedicated to my son M AT T I A S .physics.se/ bt .plasma.

uu. It aims at providing a thorough treatment of the theory of electrodynamics. Electrodynamics is also by far the most accurate physical theory known. This opened my eyes to the beauty and intricacy of electrodynamics and I simply became intrigued by it. particles and interactions. Emphasis has been put on modern electrodynamics concepts while the mathematical tools used. electromagnetic waves and their propagation. summarised in Lorentz’s microscopic formulation of the Maxwell equations. together with gravitation. which includes modern formulation of the theory.D. thesis adviser. The ﬁrst chapter is. classical electrodynamics. Uppsala University. strong. I took my ﬁrst advanced course in electrodynamics at the Department of Theoretical Physics. Not only does it. a description of how Classical Electrodynamics was established by J A M E S C L E R K M A X W E L L as a fundamental theory of nature. and electromagnetic ﬁeld theory is the prototype of all other ﬁeld theories. These equations are used as an axiomatic foundation for the treatment in the remainder of the book. is the result of a more than thirty-ﬁve year long love affair. E L E C T RO M AG N E T I C F I E L D T H E O RY .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. permanently make itself known to all of us in our everyday lives. Intended primarily as a textbook for physics and engineering students at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level. some twenty odd years after I experienced the ﬁrst encounter with the subject. electromagnetic potentials and gauge transformations.plasma. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION Of the four known fundamental interactions in nature—gravitational. In the autumn of 1972. The teaching of a course in Classical Electrodynamics at Uppsala University. weak. by and large. with the preparation of a new version of his lecture notes on the Theory of Electricity. This book. tested on scales running from sub-nuclear to galactic. it is hoped that the present book will be useful for research workers too. momentum and energy. some of them presented in an Appendix. analysis of symmetries and conservation laws describing the electromagnetic counterparts of the classical concepts of force. which tries to give a modern view of classical electrodynamics. It does so by introducing electrostatics and magnetostatics and demonstrating how they can be uniﬁed into one theory. are essentially the same kind of vector and tensor D R A xix FT . plus other fundamental properties of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. Soon I joined the research group there and took on the task of helping the late professor P E R O L O F F RÖ M A N .se/CED/Book Sheet: 19 of 262 . who was to become my Ph. radiation phenomena. provided the incentive and impetus to write this book. mainly from a classical ﬁeld-theoretical point of view. and electromagnetic—the latter has a special standing in the physical sciences. and covariant Lagrangian/Hamiltonian ﬁeld-theoretical methods for electromagnetic ﬁelds.

To some extent. for recommending this book on his web page ‘How to become a good theoretical physicist’. Condensed Matter Physics. Lindau.se/CED/Book Sheet: 20 of 262 . for pointing out a couple of errors and ambiguities. for more than twenty-ﬁve years a close friend and space physics colleague working at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. to professor G E R A R D U S T ’ H O O F T . developed and taught an earlier. and for numerous deep discussions over the years. who created. and Wireless Communications. and M AT T I A S WA L D E N V I K . Helpful comments and suggestions for improvement from former PhD students T O B I A C A RO Z Z I . for insightful suggestions. electromagnetic radiation and cosmic electrodynamics while cruising up and down the Volga and Oka rivers in Russia at the ship-borne Russian-Swedish summer schools that were organised jointly by late professor L E V M I K A H I L OV I C H E RU K H I M OV and the author during the 1990’s. In an attempt to encourage the involvement of other scientists and students in the making of this book. by my friend and Theoretical Physics colleague B E N G T L U N D B O R G . R O G E R K A R L S S O N . The aim has been to write a book that can serve both as an advanced text in Classical Electrodynamics and as a preparation for studies in Quantum Electrodynamics and Field Theory. two-credit course called Electromagnetic Radiation at our faculty. both at the Department of Physics and Astronomy. as well as more applied subjects such as Plasma Physics. Lund Unversity. are gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are due not only to Bengt Lundborg for providing the inspiration to write this book. comments and historical notes on plasma physics. who not only taught me the practical aspects of the use of high-power electromagnetic radiation for studying space. Thanks are also due to the late H E L M U T K O P K A . I am particularly indebted to the late professor V I TA L I Y L A Z A R E V I C H G I N Z B U R G . it was produced as a World-Wide Web (WWW) project. for decisive encouragement at the early stage of this book project. Germany.uu.plasma. in Swedish. The current version of the book is a major revision of an earlier version. Antenna Engineering. Astrophysics. Optics. parts of those notes were based on lecture notes prepared. but A also some of the delicate aspects of typesetting in TEX and LTEX. This turned out to be a rather successful move. To judge from WWW ‘hit’ statistics. thereby trying to ensure its quality and scope to make it useful in higher university education anywhere in the world. to become the ﬁve-credit course Classical Electrodynamics in 1997. Uppsala University. and professor G Ö R A N F Ä L D T . it seems that the book serves as a frequently used Internet resource. Department of Physics and Astronomy. which in turn was an outgrowth of the lecture notes that the author prepared for the four-credit course Electrodynamics that was introduced in the Uppsala University curriculum in 1992. and professor C E C I L I A J A R L S KO G . xx P R E FACE TO THE FIRST EDITION analysis methods that are used in intermediate level textbooks on electromagnetics but perhaps a bit more advanced and far-reaching. but also to professor C H R I S T E R WA H L B E R G . comments have been received from fellow physicists around the world. as well as A N D E R S E R I K S S O N at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Uppsala and who have all taught Uppsala students on the material covered in this book. University of Hawaii. This way it is hoped that it will be particularly useful for students and research- D R A FT . to professor J O H N L E A R N E D . for his many fascinating and very elucidating lectures. By making an electronic version of the book freely downloadable on the Internet.

I would like to thank all students and Internet users who have downloaded and commented on the book during its life on the World-Wide Web.plasma. P R E FAC E TO THE FIRST EDITION xxi ers working under ﬁnancial or other circumstances that make it difﬁcult to procure a printed copy of the book.irfu. 2008 BO THIDÉ www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 21 of 262 . Sweden December.se/ bt D R A FT .physics.uu. Uppsala.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

se/CED/Book Sheet: 22 of 262 . D R A FT .uu.plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

F R I T Z R O H R L I C H writes ‘To what extent does it make sense to talk about an electron. electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics (CED).plasma.se/CED/Book Sheet: 23 of 262 .’ . Early in the 20th century.1 Clearly. where charges and currents have to be described in a nonlocal quantum formalism. will yield results that agree perfectly with experiments on non-atomtic scales. he also paved the way for the development of quantum electrodynamics (QED ) for which R I C H A R D P H I L L I P S F E Y N M A N . which. this is in contradistinction to electromagnetism on an atomistic scale. With his relativistic quantum mechanics and ﬁeld quantisation concepts. H E N D R I K A N T O O N L O R E N T Z took the electrodynamics theory further to the microscopic scale and also laid the foundation for the special theory of relativity. In his excellent book Classical Charged Particles. and to realise that optics is a sub-ﬁeld of this super-theory. say. assume that an elementary charge has a continuous distribution of charge density. The classical theory of electromagnetism deals with electric and magnetic ﬁelds and interactions caused by distributions of electric charges and currents. In the 1930’s PAU L A D R I E N M AU R I C E D I R AC expanded electrodynamics to a more symmetric form.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. including magnetic as well as electric charges. small or large. and S I N -I T I RO T O M O NAG A were R A 1 D FT 1 FOUNDATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS Accepting the mere existence of an electrically charged particle requires some careful thinking. For there is no theoretical physics without some philosophy.uu. not admitting this fact would be selfdeception. J U L I A N S E Y M O U R S C H W I N G E R . It took the genius of J A M E S C L E R K M A X W E L L to consistently unify the two distinct theories electricity and magnetism into a single super-theory. the limiting processes used in the classical domain. in classical terms? These and similar questions clearly indicate that ignoring philosophy in physics means not understanding physics. This presupposes that the concepts of localised electric charges and currents assume the validity of certain mathematical limiting processes in which it is considered possible for the charge and current distributions to be localised in inﬁnitesimally small volumes of space. However. crudely speaking. formulated in its full extent by A L B E RT E I N S T E I N in 1905.

creating yet another super-theory. alongside other physical theories such as Magnetism. formulated in the clear and concise language of geometry and algebra. simplicity and order. The modern theory of strong interactions.plasma. For a long time. At the end of this chapter we present Dirac’s symmetrised form of the Maxwell equations by introducing (hypothetical) magnetic charges and magnetic currents into the theory. magnetic currents have proved to be a very useful concept. In the simple case depicted in ﬁgure 1.1 on the facing FT . This whole fully satisﬁes the reason of a French physicist and his taste for clarity. physicists such as S H E L D O N G L A S H OW . This theory is described by a system of coupled dynamic ﬁeld equations—the microscopic Maxwell equations introduced by Lorentz—which we take as the axiomatic foundation for the theory of electromagnetic ﬁelds. quantum chromodynamics (QCD ).1 Coulomb’s law awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. 2j 1 . . for instance by allowing for duality transformations in a most natural way. Mechanics. such as in antenna engineering.2 It has been found experimentally that in classical electrostatics the interaction between stationary. Whereas not not identiﬁed unambiguously as free entitied in experiments yet. Optics. and Thermodynamics. . an achievement which rendered them the Nobel Prize in Physics 1979. under the name electricity. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS 2 The physicist and philosopher P I E R R E D U H E M (1861–1916) once wrote: ‘The whole theory of electrostatics constitutes a group of abstract ideas and general propositions. In this introductory chapter we start with the force interactions in classical electrostatics and classical magnetostatics and introduce the static electric and magnetic ﬁelds to ﬁnd two uncoupled systems of equations for them. and S T E V E N W E I N B E R G were able to unify electrodynamics with the weak interaction theory. in practical work. electroweak theory. electrostatics.’ D R A 1. electrically charged bodies can be described in terms of twobody mechanical forces. and connected with one another by the rules of strict logic. . was considered an independent physical theory of its own. We shall make use of these symmetrised equations throughout the book. Around the same time. Then we see how the conservation of electric charge and its relation to electric current leads to the dynamic connection between electricity and magnetism and how the two can be uniﬁed into classical electrodynamics.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. is heavily inﬂuenced by QED. Besides.se/CED/Book Sheet: 24 of 262 . magnetic charges and currents make the theory much more appealing.uu. A B D U S S A L A M . The theory which describes physical phenomena related to the interaction between stationary electric charges or charge distributions in a ﬁnite space with stationary boundaries is called electrostatics.1.1 Electrostatics 1.

formula (F. q0 x0 O page. R A F q!0 q D Estat Á lim def 1.119) on page 201 was used. in the last step. Since the FT 3 4 C H A R L E S . and therefore can be formulated mathematically as qq 0 x x0 D F .1: Coulomb’s law describes how a static electric charge q.AU G U S T I N D E C O U L O M B (1736–1806) was a French physicist who in 1775 published three reports on the forces between electrically charged bodies. Electrostatics j3 q x x x0 Figure 1.1.2 The electrostatic ﬁeld Instead of describing the electrostatic interaction in terms of a ‘force action at a distance’. repulsive for charges of equal signs and attractive for charges of opposite signs.plasma. which we shall use throughout. electric charge in statcoulomb. located at a point x relative to the origin O.x/ D 4 "0 jx x0 j3 Ã Ã Â Â qq 0 0 qq 0 1 1 D r r 4 "0 4 "0 jx x0 j jx x0 j (1. the force F is measured in Newton (N). and R U D O L F K O H L R AU S C H (1809– 1858) and c is therefore sometimes referred to as Weber’s constant. The constant "0 D 107 =.1) where. it turns out that for many purposes it is useful to introduce the concept of a ﬁeld. 1. In all his works from 1907 and onward.2) where F is the electrostatic force.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1. This notation seems to have been introduced by W I L H E L M E D UA R D W E B E R (1804–1891). .3 This law postulates that F is directed along the line connecting the two charges. as deﬁned in equation (1. experiences an electrostatic force from a static electric charge q 0 located at x0 . and the length jx x0 j in metres (m).1).4 In CGS units. A L B E RT E I N S T E I N (1879–1955) used c to denote the speed of light in vacuum.4 c 2 / 8:8542 10 12 Farad per metre (F m 1 ) is the vacuum permittivity and c 2:9979 108 m s 1 is the speed of light in vacuum. due to the presence of the charge q 0 located at x0 in an otherwise empty space. Therefore we describe the electrostatic interaction in terms of a static vectorial electric ﬁeld Estat deﬁned by the limiting process (1. "0 D 1=. The notation c for speed comes from the Latin word ‘celeritas’ which means ‘swiftness’. from a net electric charge q 0 on the test particle with a small electric net electric charge q. the electric charges q and q 0 in Coulomb (C) or Ampere-seconds (A s). and length in centimetres (cm).se/CED/Book Sheet: 25 of 262 .4 / and the force is measured in dyne. In SI units. the force F acting on the electrically charged particle with charge q located at x. is given by Coulomb’s law.uu.

x0 / 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Â Ã Z 1 1 3 0 0 D d x . This means that we can say that any net electric charge produces an electric ﬁeld in the space that surrounds it.x0 /. the expression for Estat does not depend explicitly on q but only on the charge q 0 and the relative position vector x x0 .2) on the previous page.x/ D 4 "0 jx x0 j3 4 "0 4 "0 jx x0 j jx x0 j (1. 6 In the presence of several ﬁeld producing discrete electric charges qi0 .4) ˇ 4 "0 ˇx x0 ˇ3 i i D R A If the discrete electric charges are small and numerous enough. 4j 1 . assume that the total charge q 0 from an extended volume to be built up by local inﬁnitesimal elemental charges dq 0 . they were satisﬁed that they had found it in a power of action at a distance impressed on the electric ﬂuids. vacuum exhibits a quantum mechanical non-linearity due to vacuum polarisation effects manifesting themselves in the momentary creation and annihilation of electron-positron pairs. measured in C m 3 in SI units. James Clerk Maxwell describes this in the following almost poetic manner: ‘For instance. in order to experimentally detect a charge.118) on page 201.x /r 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Z 0 1 . 2. : : : .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we ﬁnd that the electrostatic ﬁeld Estat at the observation point x (also known as the ﬁeld point). but classically this nonlinearity is negligible.x/ D d3x 0 .plasma.x/ D (1. ﬁrst published in 1873. in a continuum limit.x / D r d3x 0 4 "0 jx x0 j V0 FT purpose of the limiting process is to assure that the test charge q does not distort the ﬁeld set up by q 0 . a second (test) charge that senses the presence of the ﬁrst one. due to a ﬁeld-producing electric charge q 0 at the source point x0 . we obtain Z 1 x x0 stat E . the i assumption of linearity of vacuum6 allows us to superimpose their individual electrostatic ﬁelds into a total electrostatic ﬁeld 1 X 0 x x0 i Estat . i D 1. each producing an elemental electric ﬁeld dq 0 x x0 dEstat . respectively.5 However. and formula (F. saw lines of force traversing all space where the mathematicians saw centres of force attracting at a distance: Faraday saw a medium where they saw nothing but distance: Faraday sought the seat of the phenomena in real actions going on in the medium.3) (1.6) 4 "0 jx x0 j3 Integrating this over the entire source volume V 0 .x0 / x x0 dEstat . the elemental charge can be expressed as dq 0 D d3x 0 . regardless of the existence of a second charge anywhere in this space.x/ D qi ˇ (1. must be introduced.5) 4 "0 jx x0 j3 By introducing the electric charge density . 3.uu. at 0 0 0 the point x0 within the volume element d3x 0 D dx1 dx2 dx3 (measured in m3 ).1) on page 3 and equation (1. in an otherwise empty space.se/CED/Book Sheet: 26 of 262 . Using equation (1. we can. located at the points x0 .x/ D (1. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS 5 In the preface to the ﬁrst edition of the ﬁrst volume of his book A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.7) . and the elemental electrostatic ﬁeld as d3x 0 .’ In fact. is given by Â Ã Â Ã q0 1 q0 1 q 0 x x0 0 stat D r D r E . Faraday. in his mind’s eye.

x0 / does not depend on the unprimed (ﬁeld point) coordinates on which r operates.x/ D d3x 0 .x/ Á 0 for any FT 7 (1.x0 / r 2 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Z 1 . equation (1. one ﬁnds that r Estat .8) Since. 8 H E R M A N N L U DW I G F E R D I N A N D VO N H E L M H O LT Z (1821– 1894) was a physicist. and using the representation of the Dirac delta distribution given by formula (F. (1.x0 / 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Â Ã Z 1 1 D d3x 0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 27 of 262 .x x0 / D "0 V 0 "0 Z as illustrated in ﬁgure 1. according to formula (F.118) on page 201 and the fact that .2. in which case is expressed in terms of Dirac delta distributions:7 .z 0 zi / D 1 is dimensionless.9) .2: Coulomb’s law for a distribution of individual charges 0 qi localised within a volume V 0 of limited extent. as we should.x0 / ı.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. ranging from electrodynamics to ophthalmology.121) on page 201. and x has the dimension m. We emphasise that under the assumption of linear superposition. physician and philosopher who contributed to wide areas of science.107) on page 201.x0 x0 / i V0 Z 0 Á d3x 0 ı.8 Taking the divergence of the general Estat expression for an arbitrary electric charge distribution.x/ D r D which is the differential form of Gauss’s law of electrostatics.x0 /r r 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Ã Â Z 1 1 D d3x 0 . Electrostatics j5 q x x x0 i Figure 1.x0 x0 / must have i the dimension m 3 .7) on the facing page is valid for an arbitrary distribution of electric charges. by deﬁnition.7) on the facing page. r Œr ˛. the integral Z d3x 0 ı. Inserting this expression into expression (1. a well-behaved vector ﬁeld is completely known if one knows its divergence and curl.1.4) on the preceding page. the 3D Dirac delta distribution ı.y 0 yi /ı.x0 x0 / i R A 1 x x0 d3x 0 . including discrete charges.7) on the facing page we recover expression (1. Since.x 0 xi / V0 0 0 ı.x0 / D X i qi0 ı. According to Helmholtz’s theorem. equation (1. 1.uu. qi0 x0 i V0 O where we used formula (F.plasma.

Here we shall discuss this theory in some detail. From the deﬁnition of "0 and 0 (in SI units) we observe that D 107 (F m 4 c2 1 FT ) 4 10 7 (H m 1 ) D 1 2 (s m c2 2 ) (1.x0 / 1 3 0 stat r r dx D0 r E .uu. magnetostatics deals with static electric currents.plasma.11b) representing four scalar partial differential equations. electrostatics can be described in terms of two vector partial differential equations r Estat . with tangential line element dl.3 on the next page. that Estat is an irrotational ﬁeld.x/ "0 (1.x/. and the interaction between these currents.10) i. 0 D 4 10 7 1:2566 10 6 H m 1 is the vacuum permeability. i. presented a paper to the Académie des Sciences in Paris.11a) (1.x/ D 0 .e.x/ D dl dl0 4 jx x0 j3 C C0 (1. with tangential line element dl0 . 1. located at x0 and carrying a current I 0 in the direction of dl0 in otherwise empty space.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 9 D R A 1.x/ D 4 "0 jx x0 j V0 (1. we immediately ﬁnd that in electrostatics Â Z Ã . located at x and carrying a current I in the direction of dl.e.2 Magnetostatics Whereas electrostatics deals with static electric charges. electric charges moving with constant speeds. only a few days after he learned about the ﬁndings by the Danish physicist and chemist H A N S C H R I S T I A N Ø R S T E D (1777– 1851) regarding the magnetic effects of electric currents. much the same way that electric charges interact. 6j 1 . To summarise.12) ÄI Â Ã I 0 1 0 II 0 D dl dl r 4 jx x0 j C C0 In SI units.x/ D r Estat . F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS R3 scalar ﬁeld ˛. introducing the law that now bears his name.2.. According to Ampère’s law this force is given by the expression9 ÂI Ã 0 I x x0 0 II F. In ﬁgure 1.13) .1 Ampère’s law "0 0 Experiments on the interaction between two small electric current loops have shown that they interact via a mechanical force.. due to the presence of a small loop C 0 . let F denote such a force acting on a small loop C .se/CED/Book Sheet: 28 of 262 . ANDRÉ-MARIE AMPÈRE (1775–1836) was a French mathematician and physicist who.

The loops can have arbitrary shapes as long as they are simple and closed.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. this integral vanishes and we can rewrite the force expression. Magnetostatics j7 C dj x C0 x0 x x0 dj 0 Figure 1. carrying a static electric current density element dj 0 located at x0 .x/ D 0 II 0 I dl I I C0 C 0 I dl r C Â jx x x 0 1 4 0 II 0 x0 j Since the integrand in the ﬁrst integral is an exact differential. carrying a static electric current density element dj at x. At ﬁrst glance.12) as F . in the following symmetric way F . However. we can rewrite (1.16) .uu. O which is a most useful relation.12) on the facing page may appear asymmetric in terms of the loops and therefore be a force law that does not obey Newton’s third law. The elemental Bstat from the elemental current element dI 0 D I 0 dl0 is deﬁned as 4 dI 0 x jx x0 x0 j3 D 0I 0 4 dl0 FT Ã (1.2. experiences a magnetostatic force from a small loop C 0 .3: Ampère’s law describes how a small loop C .plasma.2 The magnetostatic ﬁeld In analogy with the electrostatic case. D dBstat .2.14) (1. equation (1. by applying the vector triple product ‘bac-cab’ formula (F.12) on the facing page.73) on page 200. formula (1.15) x jx x0 x0 j3 (1.x/ Á def 0 1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 29 of 262 .x/ D 0 II 0 R A 4 C0 jx x0 j 3 dl dl0 I I C x x0 4 C0 jx x0 j 3 dl dl0 which clearly exhibits the expected interchange symmetry between loops C and C 0. we may attribute the magnetostatic interaction to a static vectorial magnetic ﬁeld Bstat . 1.

sometimes called the magnetic ﬂux density or magnetic induction.uu.x / r B . the curl of equation (1.x/ D I dl Bstat . The SI unit for the magnetic ﬁeld. and the fact that j.x0 / 0 D r d3x 0 4 jx x0 j V0 .r a/ vanishes for any vector ﬁeld a.7) on page 4 with equation (1.x/ (1.x/.x/ D d3x 0 j. measured in A m 2 in SI units.se/CED/Book Sheet: 30 of 262 . we determine its divergence and curl.17) above and utilising formula (F.x / r 4 jx x0 j V0 Z j. and we obtain Biot-Savart’s law Z x x0 0 stat B .106) on page 201.x/ D r r d3x 0 D0 (1.x/. If we generalise expression (1. With the use of the operator ‘bac-cab’ rule. formula (F. equation (1.x0 / r 2 4 jx x0 j V0 Â Ã Z 1 0 C d3x 0 Œj.103) on page 201. formula (F.17) above can be written Â Ã Z 0 0 stat 3 0 j.106) on page 201. we obtain Â Ã Z j.x0 / does not depend on the unprimed coordinates on which r operates.x/ D r r dx 0 4 jx x0 j Â V Ã Z 1 0 (1. 8j 1 . r .118) on page 201.17) D d x j.plasma.97) on page 200. we can write I 0 dl D dI 0 D d3x 0 j 0 .17) above. according to formula (F.x0 /.x0 / 4 jx x0 j3 V0 Ã Â Z 1 0 3 0 0 (1.x0 / 0 r Bstat .12) on page 6 may we written I F. With this deﬁnition of Bstat . Taking the divergence of both sides of equation (1. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS D R A C where we used formula (F.16) on the previous page to an integrated steady state electric current density j.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x0 / r 0 r 0 4 jx x0 j V0 FT which expresses the small element dBstat .19) 4 jx x0 j V0 since.20) D d3x 0 j. is Tesla (T). Comparing equation (1.x/ of the static magnetic ﬁeld set up at the ﬁeld point x by a small line current element dI 0 D I 0 dl0 of static current I 0 directed along the line element dl0 at the source point x0 .18) In order to assess the properties of Bstat . we see that there exists a close analogy between the expressions for Estat and Bstat but that they differ in their vectorial characteristics.

x0 / r 0 jx x0 j V0 .x0 /ı.24b) r Since there is nothing a priori which connects Estat directly with Bstat .3 Electrodynamics As we saw in the previous sections.x0 /.x/ D 0 B stat Estat .21) jx x0 j V0 Ã Â Z @ 1 O O D xk d2x 0 n0 j. uncoupled partial differential equations.x0 / 0 @xk jx x0 j S0 Â Ã Z 1 d3x 0 r 0 j. R A . The net result is simply Z stat r B .121) on page 201.x / r (1.94) on page 200.x/ D 0 d3x 0 j.se/CED/Book Sheet: 31 of 262 .uu. we must consider classical electrostatics and classical magnetostatics as two separate and mutually independent physical theories. vanishes when integrated over a large sphere far away from the localised source j. namely the equations of classical electrostatics r Estat .x0 / r 0 r 0 jx x0 j V0 Â Ã Ä Z 1 @ O D xk d3x 0 r 0 j.23b) D r Bstat .22) V0 1. we use the representation of the Dirac delta function given in formula (F. obtained by applying Gauss’s theorem. and integrate the second integral by parts.x/ "0 (1.x0 / 0 @xk jx x0 j V0 Â Ã Z 1 3 0 0 0 0 d x r j. Electrodynamics j9 We note that the ﬁrst integral in the result. utilising formula (F. and that the second integral vanishes because r j D 0 for stationary currents (no charge accumulation in space).24a) (1.3. the laws of electrostatics and magnetostatics can be summarised in two pairs of time-independent.23a) (1.plasma.x/ FT In the ﬁrst of the two integrals on the right-hand side.x/ (1.x/ D r .x x0 / D 0 j.x/ D 0 and the equations of classical magnetostatics (1.x/ D 0 j. as follows: Â Ã Z 1 d3x 0 Œj. 1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

This is the celebrated Faraday’s law of induction.t.t.uu.7) on page 4 to time-varying ﬁelds allows us to make the identiﬁcation11 FT . we would obtain the formal result Z r B.e. In the case of non-stationary sources and ﬁelds.x/ D 0. D R A which states that the time rate of change of electric charge .3. 1.2 Maxwell’s displacement current We recall from the derivation of equation (1. when we include time-dependence.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.22) on the preceding page that there we used the fact that in magnetostatics r j. x/=@t. as a consequence.t. A change in the magnetic ﬂux through a loop will induce an electromotive force electric ﬁeld in the loop. x/ denote the time-dependent electric current density. x0 /ı. As we shall see. Electric charge is a conserved quantity and electric current is a transport of electric charge. in the last step. x/ C r j.t.t. set r j. x/ D 0 @t (1.25) 11 Later. in Maxwell’s displacement current. we must. we have assumed that a generalisation of equation (1. x/ C 0 "0 E. i.3.25) above.26) C d3x 0 . Let j. in accordance with the continuity equation (1. this fact manifests itself in the equation of continuity and.22) on the preceding page.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 32 of 262 .t. x/ is balanced by a divergence in the electric current density j. 1. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS However. the inﬂux of charge. x/. Doing so.10 The electric charge conservation law can be formulated in the equation of continuity for electric charge @ . In the simplest case it can be deﬁned as j D v where v is the velocity of the electric charge density . x/ D @ . x/ @t where. 10 j 1 . x0 /r 0 4 @t V 0 jx x0 j @ D 0 j.plasma. these theories are uniﬁed into a single super-theory. and formally repeating the steps in the derivation of equation (1.t. classical electrodynamics. we will need to consider this generalisation and formal identiﬁcation further.1 The indestructibility of electric charge 10 A more accurate model is to assume that the individual charge elements obey some distribution function that describes their local variation of velocity in space and time.t.t.x x0 / 0 V Â Ã Z 1 0 @ (1.t. x/ D 0 d3x 0 j. 2. This uniﬁcation of the theories of electricity and magnetism can be inferred from two empirically established facts: 1.

x/ If an electric ﬁeld E. linear momentum. x/ D 0 j. at the time. x/ is applied to a conducting medium.t. This will be discussed in subsection 9.t.t.1 on page 170. unobserved current was introduced by Maxwell.t. x/ D E.plasma.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. even through empty space. in a stroke of genius.t.t. where is the electric conductivity (S m 1 ).uu. x /r jx x0 j Â Ã Z 1 1 @ 3 0 0 d x .t.t. is a tensor. This general law incorporates non-linear FT 12 The result is Maxwell’s source equation for the B ﬁeld Â Ã @ r B.t. its existence has far-reaching physical consequences as it predicts that such physical observables as electromagnetic energy. .t. x/ @t (1.28) In semiconductors this approximation is in general applicable only for a limited range of E.27) 1.t.t. x/.t. hydrodynamical and chemical processes can give rise to electric currents. x / @ D r d3x 0 D E. polarisation currents and magnetisation currents. as the ﬁrst term in a Taylor expansion of a general law jŒE. x/ 0j @t 4 "0 @t jx x V0 dx Ä 3 0 0 0 Â 1 Ã (1. As we shall see later.t. This total current which can be split up into ‘ordinary’ conduction currents. x/ is assumed to represent the density of the total electric current.29) R A where "0 @E. equation (1. x/ C "0 E. This approximation is called Ohm’s law:12 (1.3. Electrodynamics j 11 1 @ 4 "0 @t Z V0 .t.3 Electromotive force D j. and angular momentum can be transmitted over very long distances. x /r D @t 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Ä Z 0 @ 1 . 1. x/ will be set up in this medium. x/=@t is the famous displacement current.se/CED/Book Sheet: 33 of 262 . We can view Ohm’s law. This. The displacement current behaves like a current density ﬂowing in free space.3. x/ C @t 0 "0 @ E. in order to make also the right-hand side of this equation divergence-free when j. one can sometimes assume that a linear relationship exists between the electric current density j and E. a current density j. x/ D 0 j. But also mechanical. and for certain materials. In the case of an anisotropic conductor.29) above. Under certain physical conditions.

this electric ﬁeld will exert work on the charges in the medium and.e. This implies that the closed line integral of Estat in equation (1.Estat C Eemf / C (1. time-dependent (temporal dispersive media) but then it is often the case that equation (1.32) It has been established experimentally that a non-conservative EMF ﬁeld is produced in a closed circuit C at rest if the magnetic ﬂux through this circuit varies with time.t. The conductivity is.uu.t.29) on the preceding page is valid for each individual Fourier (spectral) component of the ﬁeld. Speciﬁcally. The time rate at which this energy is expended is j E per unit volume (W m 3 ).t. equation (1.plasma.31) D R A C The term ‘electromotive force’ is something of a misnomer since E represents a voltage. there will be some energy loss.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ D ˆm . Stationary currents therefore require that an electric ﬁeld due to an electromotive force (EMF ) is present.4 Faraday’s law of induction In subsection 1. j will decay away with time. takes the form (1.Estat C Eemf / FT effects such as frequency mixing and frequency conversion. x/. 12 j 1 . i.29) on the previous page.se/CED/Book Sheet: 34 of 262 . in Maxwell’s generalised form. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS j D .t/ dt C Z Z (1. reads I d E. we still have to use Ohm’s law with care.30) The electromotive force is deﬁned as I E D dl .t / D dl E. in general. We draw the attention to the fact that even in cases when the linear relation between E and j is a good approximation.1.33) d @ O O D d2x n B. on page 6 we derived equation (1..31) above vanishes and that this equation becomes I E D dl Eemf (1. unless the medium is superconducting. its SI dimension is V. This is formulated in Faraday’s law which. If E is irrotational (conservative).3. Ohm’s law.10) stating that r Estat D 0 and hence that Estat is a conservative ﬁeld (it can be expressed as a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld).2 we derived the differential equations for the electrostatic ﬁeld. In the presence of such a ﬁeld Eemf . x/ D d2x n B. 13 where dl is a tangential line element of the closed loop C . x/ dt S @t S .13 1. Examples of media which are highly non-linear are semiconductors and plasma.t. If the current is caused by an applied electric ﬁeld E.

Application of Stokes’ theorem on this integral equation. equation (1.4: A loop C which moves with velocity v in a spatially varying magnetic ﬁeld B. x/ (1.v r /B (1. transforms it into the differential equation @ B. v is the ﬂuid velocity. 1.34) r E. x/ D @t which is valid for arbitrary variations in the ﬁelds and constitutes the Maxwell equation which explicitly connects electricity with magnetism.x/ will sense a varying magnetic ﬂux during the motion.3. For this particular choice. Electrodynamics j 13 B. Here. we obtain Z Z Z d @B O O O E. We shall choose the ﬂow path which means that dx=dt D v and d @ D Cv r (1. in a continuum picture.x/ v Figure 1.t.4. The total time derivative is evaluated according to the well-known operator formula d @ dx D C r (1.t. Let us therefore consider the case. x. Applying the rule (1. C dl where ˆm is the magnetic ﬂux and S is the surface encircled by C which can be interpreted as a generic stationary ‘loop’ and not necessarily as a conducting circuit.se/CED/Book Sheet: 35 of 262 .t/ D d2x n B D d2x n d2x n .35) dt @t dt which follows immediately from the multivariate chain rule for the differentiation of an arbitrary differentiable function f . illustrated in ﬁgure 1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/ O d2x n B.37) dt S @t S S D R A FT .36) dt @t where. when the ‘loop’ is moved in such a way that it encircles a magnetic ﬁeld which varies during the movement.t//. Any change of the magnetic ﬂux ˆm will induce an EMF.plasma. dx=dt describes a chosen path in space.33) on the preceding page.uu.t.36) to Faraday’s law. the convective derivative dx=dt is usually referred to as the material derivative and is denoted Dx=Dt .

The application of Stokes’ theorem ‘in reverse’ on equation (1.Eemf v B/ D d2x n (1.46) corresponding to an ‘effective’ electric ﬁeld in the ‘loop’ (moving observer) Eemf D E C v B (1.38) @t @t where in the last step formula (F. we see that @ @ r B.45) D and an observer in the moving frame of reference measures the following Lorentz force on a charge q F D qEemf D qE C q.44) @t An observer in a ﬁxed frame of reference measures the electric ﬁeld (1.42) @t C S C or. x/ D r B. Using this result and formula (F. we ﬁnd that r .t. this is in fact one of the Maxwell equations. i.e.43) yields @B r .98) on page 200.plasma.43) @t C S where Eemf is the ﬁeld which is induced in the ‘loop’.uu.41) @B O O D d2x n d2x n r .40) R A E D Eemf v B since. we conclude that r B. the Maxwell equation @B r ED (1.t / D dl Eemf D d2x n B dt S C Z Z (1..B v / D . F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS Furthermore.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we ﬁnally get I Z I @B O E.34) on the preceding page. x/ D 0 (1. in the moving system. FT . x/ D r Œr E.106) on page 201 was used.t. Since this is true 8t.v r /B (1.t / D dl Eemf D d2x n dl . during spatial differentiation. v is to be considered as constant.se/CED/Book Sheet: 36 of 262 .48) @t is indeed valid even if the ‘loop’ is moving.B v / (1. 14 j 1 . x/ D 0 (1. This allows us to rewrite equation (1.47) Hence. I Z @B O dl .Eemf v B/ D (1.v B/ (1. we conclude that for a stationary observer.39) also for time-varying ﬁelds.37) on the previous page in the following way: I Z d O E. rearranging the terms.t.t.B v / @t S S With Stokes’ theorem applied to the last integral. taking the divergence of equation (1.

D 1.3.t. we see that they exhibit a certain.plasma. The equations are. x/ represents the total. .t. They were ﬁrst formulated by Lorentz and therefore another name often used for them is the Maxwell-Lorentz equations. the equations therefore incorporate the classical interaction between all electric charges and currents. x/. which we denote by j m D j m . electric current density. which relate and j to the ﬁelds.5 The microscopic Maxwell equations We are now able to collect the results from the above considerations and formulate the equations of classical electrodynamics valid for arbitrary variations in time and space of the coupled electric and magnetic ﬁelds E. they form a system of wellposed partial differential equations which completely determine E and B.49).t. Likewise.se/CED/Book Sheet: 37 of 262 . Dirac therefore made the ad hoc assumption that there exist magnetic monopoles represented by a magnetic charge density. in SI units.t. and with the electric charge density denoted e and the electric current density denoted j e . which we denote by m D m . with contributions from conduction currents (motion of free charges) as well as all atomistic (polarisation and magnetisation) currents. j D j. albeit not complete.49c) 0 r BD0 r BD in Heaviside-Lorentz units (one of several natural units) r ED ED 1 @B c @t 1 1 @E jC c c @t C "0 0j C R A In these equations D .49d) r r r r 15 @E D @t 1 @E c 2 @t r BD0 BD and in Planck units (another set of natural units) r ED4 ED @B @t @E @t r BD0 BD4 jC JULIAN SEYMOUR S C H W I N G E R (1918–1994) once put it: ‘.uu. and may have played an important role in the development of the Universe.t.15 With these new hypothetical physical entities included in the theory.t. possibly both time and space dependent. Searches for magnetic charge continue at the present time. Electrodynamics j 15 1.49b) (1.49a) (1. x/ represents the total.14 r ED 14 In CGS units the microscopic Maxwell equations are r ED4 r ED 1 @B c @t 4 1 @E jC c c @t "0 @B r ED @t r BD0 r BD 0j (1. x/. x/. . Together with the appropriate constitutive relations. free or bound.3. x/ and B. The magnetic monopole was ﬁrst postulated by P I E R R E C U R I E (1859–1906) and inferred from experiments in 2009. in the system and are called Maxwell’s microscopic equations. 1. and the initial and boundary conditions pertinent to the physical situation at hand. As they stand. electric charge density. possibly both time and space dependent.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. with contributions from free as well as induced (polarisation) charges. the Maxwell equations will be symmetrised into the following two scalar and . symmetry. emphasising that electromagnetism is very far from being a closed object’. there are strong theoretical reasons to believe that magnetic charge exists in nature.6 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations If we look more closely at the microscopic Maxwell equations (1.3. FT (1. and a magnetic current density.

52) which has the same form as that for the electric charges (electric monopoles) and currents.t. The assumption of the existence of magnetic charges suggests a Coulomb-like law for magnetic ﬁelds: Â Ã Z Z x x0 1 0 0 Bstat .51) where we used the fact that.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS two coupled vectorial partial differential equations (SI units): e r ED r ED "0 0j 0 0j m e m (1.r A FT E/ D @ .1 Faraday’s law derived from the assumed conservation of magnetic charge R @ m . if magnetic currents exist.50a) @B @t @E @t (1.54) Z m . a Biot-Savart-like . Using (1. we postulate that there exists an equation of continuity for magnetic charges: @t C r j m .uu. x/ D 0 (1.50b).50c) to rewrite this relation.r B/ @t 0r jm Á 0 (1. the divergence of a curl always vanishes. 16 j 1 .plasma. equation (1. according to formula (F.53) D Use this postulate and Dirac’s symmetrised form of Maxwell’s equations to derive Faraday’s law.t. In other words.x0 / 0 3 0 D r dx 4 jx x0 j V0 [cf.se/CED/Book Sheet: 38 of 262 . Taking the divergence of (1.50c) C "0 0 r BD r BD (1. E X A M P L E 1. we obtain the equation of continuity for magnetic charge @ m C r jm D 0 @t (1.106) on page 201.1 (I NDESTRUCTIBILITY OF MAGNETIC CHARGE ) Magnetic charge exists and is indestructible in the same way that electric charge exists and is indestructible.50b) (1.25) on page 10.x0 / D d3x 0 m .7) on page 4 for Estat ] and.x0 /r 4 4 jx x0 j jx x0 j3 V0 V0 (1. equation (1.50d) We shall call these equations Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations or the electromagnetodynamic equations. x/ P O S T U L AT E 1.x/ D d3x 0 m . we ﬁnd that r .

26) on page 10] which we recognise as equation (1. equation (1. we realise that Z m d3x 0 j m . equation (1.e.x x0 / D (1. with the use of the representation of the Dirac delta function.57) r Estat . x/ 0 j .98) on page 200.t. Z r E.x0 / r 0 r 0 4 4 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 V0 (1. x0 /ı.50b) on the facing page. we have been able to replace Faraday’s experimental results on electromotive forces and induction in loops as a foundation for the Maxwell equations by a more fundamental one.54) on the facing page to time-dependent magnetic charge distributions.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www..55) Taking the curl of the latter and using the operator ‘bac-cab’ rule. this result seems to be in conﬂict with the concept of retardation. By postulating the indestructibility of a hypothetical magnetic charge. i.20) on page 8 for Estat and the evaluation of the integrals there.x/ D d3x 0 j m .x0 / 4 4 jx x0 j3 V0 V0 Z j m . 1.121) on page 201.x/ D dx D 4 jx x0 j V0 Ã Ã Â Â Z Z 1 1 0 0 D d3x 0 j m .se/CED/Book Sheet: 39 of 262 .56) Comparing with equation (1. equation (1. Electrodynamics j 17 law for electric ﬁelds [cf. equation (F.52) on the preceding page.x/ D 0 0 j . x0 /r 0 4 @t V 0 jx x0 j @ m D B. the Faraday law in the ordinary Maxwell equations. yields the electrodynamic equation (1.55) above is valid also for timevarying magnetic currents. x/ @t FT . then.58) d3x 0 m . the equation of continuity for magnetic charge. End of example 1. thereby letting j m tend to zero. D [cf.t. equation (1. we obtain. at least formally.t. x/ D d3x 0 j m .uu. Therefore a more detailed analysis of it is required.x0 / ı.t.17) on page 8 for Bstat ]: Z Z x x0 0 0 D Estat .50b) on the preceding page. A transformation of this electromagnetodynamic result by rotating into the ‘electric realm’ of charge space. At ﬁrst sight.t.x x0 / 0 V0 Â Ã Z 1 0 @ (1.3. we ﬁnd that Â Z m 0 Ã 0 stat 3 0 j .28) on page 11].x0 / d3x 0 j m . This process would also provide an alternative interpretation of the term @B=@t as a magnetic displacement current.plasma. formula (F. and the assumption of the generalisation of equation (1.x/ V0 by analogy.x0 /r 2 d3x 0 Œj m .1 R A It is intriguing to note that if we assume that formula (1. This analysis is left to the reader. dual to the electric displacement current [cf. and assuming a direct extension of results from statics to dynamics.x0 / 0 r D d3x 0 4 jx x0 j V0 Â r jx 1 x0 j Ã (1.x / r r r E .

Chichester. D. . J. Dover Publications. C.. Pergamon Press. Classical Charged Particles. . second ed. Foundations. 1962. third ed. H UANG. Theory and Applications. New York. Inc. 1975. New York.. NY. L OW. Brisbane. L ANDAU AND E. Classical Electrodynamics. Inc. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-521-41025-8. London. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Fundamental Forces of Nature. [15] J. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. 2. G RIMES. 1. M ELROSE AND R. John Wiley & Sons. . 1993. Inc. Shanghai. C. Heidelberg. FT . C. 1999.se/CED/Book Sheet: 40 of 262 . ISBN 13-978-981-250-654-4 (pbk). Cambridge University Press. H. P HILLIPS. ISBN 0-387-94799-X.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Ltd. ISBN 0-08-025072-6. G REINER. ISBN 0-471-59551-9. ISBN 0-471-57269-1. 18 j 1 . D. . Singapore. M AXWELL.. vol. ISBN 0-201-48300-9. Inc. Beijing. Electromagnetic Processes in Dispersive Media.. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. S TRATTON. Ltd. . . BARRETT AND D.. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co. Electromagnetic Theory. E.uu. Electromagnetic Theory. . Classical Electrodynamics. K. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. New Jersey. JACKSON. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS 1. fourth revised English ed. 2007. . M. J. Classical Field Theory. M AXWELL. ISBN 07-062150-0.. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co. Ltd. New York. and Singapore. MA . M. 1962. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. Inc. . third ed.. . NY . . L. vol. Dover Publications. [11] D. Ltd.. . Pte. Chapman & Hall. A.. W. Taipei. Cambridge . . John Wiley & Sons. London. third ed. Singapore. New York. . Classical Electromagnetic Theory. Hong Kong. . [14] J. PANOFSKY AND M. Reading. B ECKER. 1954.. Toronto.. NY and London. vol. 1997. [12] W. NY . Inc..4 Bibliography [1] T. New York. Singapore. Springer-Verlag. Inc. . Advanced Electromagnetism. New York. The Classical Theory of Fields. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-486-60636-8. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] D R A [9] [10] J. . 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and Chennai. NY. . Dover Publications. 1995.. B. 1982. NY. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co. 1954. [13] F. ROHRLICH.. Berlin.. H ALLÉN. 1953. ISBN 0-486-60637-8. Inc. Pte. ISBN 981-02-2095-2.plasma. K. 2007.. M C P HEDRAN. VANDERLINDE. third ed.. Oxford . ISBN 0-486-64290-9. 1991. New Jersey. New York.. F. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. L IFSHITZ. 1996. London. . E. New York. W. R. The Story of Gauge Fields.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES R A 19 As a ﬁrst step in the study of the dynamical properties of the classical electromagnetic ﬁeld. beauty. the behaviour in time t 2 R1 and in space x 2 R3 of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds FT 2 1 In 1864. in a lecture at the Royal Society of London. One usually desires the postulates (or axioms) to be as self-evident as possible.se/CED/Book Sheet: 41 of 262 . in scalar and vector-differential-equation form.2 As such.’ F R I T Z R O H R L I C H writes in Classical Charged Particles that ‘A physical theory. i.plasma. is a logical structure based on assumptions and deﬁnitions which permits one to predict the outcome of a maximum number of different experiments on the basis of a minimum number of postulates. they describe. we shall in this chapter.1 Axiomatic classical electrodynamics In chapter 1 we described the historical route which led to the formulation of the microscopic Maxwell equations.uu. From now on we shall consider these equations as postulates. It turns out that these second-order equations are wave equations for E and B.’ . which simpliﬁes the algebra. indicating that electromagnetic wave modes are very natural and common manifestations of classical electrodynamics. and even elegance. one demands simplicity. as the axiomatic foundation of classical electrodynamics. at the same time as it clariﬁes the physical content. J A M E S C L E R K M A X W E L L (1831–1879) himself said: ‘We have strong reason to conclude that light itself—including radiant heat and other radiation.1 But before deriving these alternatives to the Maxwell-Lorentz equations. as alternatives to the ﬁrst-order MaxwellLorentz equations. D 2. if any—is an electromagnetic disturbance in the form of waves propagated through the electro-magnetic ﬁeld according to electromagnetic laws. we shall discuss the mathematical techniques of making use of complex variables to represent real physical observables in order to simplify the mathematical work involved. In this chapter we will also describe how to make use of the single spectral component (Fourier component) technique. derive a set of second-order differential equations for the ﬁelds E and B.e.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.. in the narrow sense of the word.

. at least in principle.1c) (2. x/ 2 R3 . when we use such a complex notation we must be very careful how to interpret the results derived within this notation. These charge and current densities may have prescribed arbitrary time and space dependencies and be considered the sources of the ﬁelds. the mathematical expression for the observable under consideration must also be real-valued to be physically meaningful. the charge and current densities. One convenient property of the complex notation is that differentiations often become trivial to perform. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES E.e.3 Consequently.2 Complex notation and physical observables In order to simplify the mathematical treatment. but they may also be generated by the ﬁelds.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. one ˚ « makes the identiﬁcation observable D Re mathematical . the magnitude can be written j jD.4 For mathematical convenience and ease of calculation. be described by real-valued quantities. 20 j 2 . or a component of a physical vector or tensor. respectively. respectively [cf..t. physical observables quantify (our perception of) the physical reality and as such they must. i. Similarly. x/ are the total charge and current densities. x/ 2 R3 and B. care must always be FT We reiterate that in these equations . Despite these dual rôles.1b) (2. of course. we shall refer to them as the source terms of the microscopic Maxwell equations and the two equations where they appear as the Maxwell-Lorentz source equations. real-valued. and other physical quantities to be analytically continued into the complex domain.1d) C "0 0 @E @t 3 A physical observable is something that can. C /. they are considered microscopic in the sense that all charges and currents. However. as the arithmetic mean of and its complex conjugate . stating explicitly when we do not. including the intrinsic ones in matter.49) on page 15]: 2 R1 "0 @B r ED 2 R3 @t r B D 0 2 R1 r ED r BD 0j (Gauss’s law) (Faraday’s law) (No magnetic charges) 2 R3 (Maxwell’s law) (2. the real part can be written 1 Re f g D 2. as the geometric mean of and .uu. is represented mathematically by the complex-valued number . . we shall frequently allow the mathematical variables representing the ﬁelds.e. as well as magnetisation currents in magnetic material. Letting denote complex conjugation.t. 4 D R A 2. /1=2 . i.t. x/ and j. by deﬁnition.1a) (2. i. Under certain conditions. Therefore.. 2 C. This is because every physical observable is. in classical physics as a whole).t. In other words.e. Hence. If a physical scalar variable.se/CED/Book Sheet: 42 of 262 . are included (but macroscopic in the sense that quantum effects are neglected). This is at variance with quantum physics. equations (1. then in classical electrodynamics (in fact. also the imaginary part corresponds to a physical observable. it is always understood that one must take the real part of a complex mathematical variable in order for it to represent a classical physical observable. be ultimately reduced to an input to the human sensory system. we shall in the following regularly use—and tacitly assume—complex notation. such as bound charges in atoms and molecules. where ˇ ˇ observable D ˇ mathematical ˇ.plasma. However.

e. Complex notation and physical observables j 21 exercised.. x/ and b. Furthermore. consider two physical vector ﬁelds a.x/ e i!t 1 1 D Œa0 .1 Physical observables and averages As just mentioned.2.t. x/g C Re fa. x/ ı b.x/ ei!t 2 2 1 D a0 ı b0 C a0 ı b0 C a0 ı b0 e 2i!t C a0 ı b0 e2i!t 4 « 1 1 ˚ D Re fa0 ı b0 g C Re a0 ı b0 e 2i!t 2 2 « 1 ˚ « 1 ˚ i!t D Re a0 e ı b0 ei!t C Re a0 e i!t ı b0 e i!t 2 2 1 1 D Re fa. for such an average D FT « ˚ ı Re b0 .plasma.x/ e i!t « (2.x/ e 2 i!t and similarly for b.x/ e i!t We can express the real part of the complex vector a as ˚ Re fag D Re a0 . On the other hand. the dyadic product operator (juxtaposition). by vectors in (a domain of) 3D complex space C3 . Then we make the interpretation ˚ a.t.x/ ei!t (2. or the outer tensor operator (˝). x/ D Re a0 . a0 .3) . i!t / and b0 . let ı be a binary operator for these vectors.t. it is important to be aware of the limitations of complex representation of real observables when evaluating products of mathematical variables that represent physical quantities.x/ e i!t R A « D 1 Œa0 . x/ D Re fag ı Re fbg D Re a0 . i!t/. the vector product operator ( ).2. We use the notation h i t . 1 2 / D 1 2 .x/ e i!t C b0 .t.2) C a0 .t. we are often forced to measure the temporal average (cycle average) of a physical observable.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 43 of 262 . x/g 2 2 (2.x/ e i!t C a0 . is ˚ « ˚ « a. 2. . for example. i.x/ exp. A typical situation being when products of two or more quantities are calculated since.t.t.t. 2. for two complex-valued variables 1 and 2 we know that Re f 1 2 g ¤ Re f 1 g Re f 2 g. Hence. x/ ı b. x/ ı b .uu. the physically acceptable interpretation of the scalar product of two complex vectors.x/ e i!t ı Re b0 .4) In physics. x/ that are represented by their Fourier components.t. Let us.x/ exp. x/ ı b. representing classical physical observables. for instance. representing either the scalar product operator ( ).x/ ei!t ı Œb0 .

t. x/i t gives no contribution.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.9) D can be rewritten y p GD0 @G D ciy p @t G (2.t. x/ C icB.7b) C 1 @G Á c 2 @t In regions where r GD0 GD D 0 and j D 0 these equations reduce to (2.8b) r i @G c @t which. x/ D E. x/ ı b. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES and ﬁnd that the average of the product of the two physical quantities represented by a and b can be expressed as ha ı bi t Á hRe fag ı Re fbgi t D 1 1 Re fa ı b g D Re fa ı bg 2 2 1 1 D Re fa0 ı b0 g D Re fa0 ı b0 g 2 2 (2.5) This is because the oscillating function exp. 22 j 2 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 44 of 262 .t. y pD i r (2. Expressed in this vector. ha. the help of the linear momentum operator. .t.1) on page 20 transform into R A "0 r G D ic 0j r GD FT 2.6) where G 2 C3 even if E.2. therefore.plasma. also known as the Riemann-Silberstein vector G.10b) i The ﬁrst equation is the transversality condition p D k ? G where we anticipate the quantal relation between the ﬁeld momentum p and the wave vector k and the second equation describes the dynamics. the Maxwell equations (2.10a) (2. x/ (2.uu. and. 2i!t/ in equation (2. B 2 R3 .t.7a) (2.8a) (2.2 Maxwell equations in Majorana representation (2. It is sometimes convenient to introduce the complex-ﬁeld six-vector.4) on the preceding page vanishes when averaged in time over a complete period 2 =! (or over inﬁnitely many periods).

4 on page 215.12) By introducing the Hamiltonian-like operator the Maxwell-Lorentz equations can be written as i @G y D HG @t i. The inner (scalar) product deﬁned as G scalar multiplied with the complex conjugate of itself G G D .1 (2.E C icB/ . we ﬁnd that D E2 R c 2 B 2 D Const E B D Const One fundamental property of C3 .88) on page 200.uu.10b) on the preceding page as i @G y D c S pG @t (2.2. As with any vector. Complex notation and physical observables j 23 Using formula (F. as a Schrödinger/Pauli/Dirac-like equation. we can rewrite equation (2.plasma. to which the Riemann-Silberstein vector G D E C icB belongs. One may say that Majorana used the other branch of p 1 as the imaginary unit. However. Considering the special case of the scalar product of G with itself. As we shall see in chapter 4. 2.6).. 3. but this is no essential difference from the deﬁnition (2.E C icB/ D E 2 c 2 B 2 C 2icE B (2.15) Since ‘length’ is a scalar quantity that is invariant under rotations.14) 5 y y H D cS p (2.11) where 0 0 0 B S D @0 0 0 i 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 i 0 C B C B O O iA x 1 C @ 0 0 0 A x 2 C @ i 0 i 0 0 0 1 i 0 C O 0 0A x3 0 0 (2. the inner (scalar) product in C3 can be deﬁned in two different ways.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. assuming that E 2 R3 and B 2 R3 . E X A M P L E 2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 45 of 262 .13) It so happens that E T T O R E M A J O R A NA (1906-1938) used the deﬁnition G D E icB. we have the following possibilities of deﬁning various products of G with itself: 2. B 2 R3 1. this quantity is proportional to the electromagnetic ﬁeld energy density. the cross product of G with itself vanishes: A FT (2.16a) (2. This formulation of the freespace electromagnetic ﬁeld equations is known as the Majorana representation of the Maxwell-Lorentz equations or the Majorana formalism.16b) . as discussed in example M. The inner (scalar) product deﬁned as G scalar multiplied with itself G G D .e. is that inner (scalar) products in this space are invariant under rotations just as they are in R3 .E icB/ D E E C c 2 B B Á E 2 C c 2 B 2 (2.E C icB/ .5 Products of Riemann-Silberstein vectors with themselves for E.17) which is also an invariant scalar quantity.

GG/ ic. Two of the equations are scalar [equation (2.E 4. which sometimes become decoupled in the process.22) 7. 5. as we shall see. 24 j 2 .E B/ C ic. coupled partial differential equations can be transformed into a smaller set of second order partial differential equations. representing three scalar equations each.23) R A G G D EE C c 2 BB C ic. in component form. However. to be introduced in chapter 4.E B B/ icB/ ic.19) 2ic.GG/ij D Ei Ej c 2 Bi Bj C ic. Hence. it is well known from the theory of differential equations that a set of ﬁrst-order. These secondorder partial differential equations are. . not vanish.EB C BE/ D .E ECc B ic.EB BE/ BE/ D .E C icB/ DE 2 .E D0C0 that is proportional to the electromagnetic energy ﬂux.E C icB/ DE E 2 .1a) and equation (2.1b) and equation (2.B B/ D 0 E/ (2.20) or. wave equations.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.E B/ ic.B B/ D E/ B/ (2. The cross product of G with the complex conjugate of itself does.E B/ C ic.E ic.EB C BE/ (2.18) c B D 0 C 0 C ic.1) on page 20 are four ﬁrst-order coupled differential equations (both E and B appear in the same equations). The dyadic product of G with itself is G G D EE c 2 BB (2. Instead it is G G D . and we D . The dyadic product of G with its own complex conjuagte from the right is GG D EE C c 2 BB and from the left it is (2.EB (2.1d)].21) 6.plasma. the Maxwell equations represent eight (1 C 1 C 3C3) scalar coupled ﬁrst-order partial differential equations.uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 46 of 262 .GG / (2.E C icB/ B C ic. however.1 2. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES G G D . The dyadic product of G with itself is GG D EE c 2 BB C ic. and two are in 3D Euclidean vector form [equation (2. It turns out that in our case we will obtain one second-order differential equation for E and one second-order differential equation for B.Ei Bj C Bi Ej / FT ic.24) End of example 2.3 The wave equations for E and B The Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2.1c)].

r @t 0r B/ j C "0 0 (2.g.25a) As they stand.t.r E/ D B/ D @ .plasma. recalling that "0 0 D 1=c 2 where c is the speed of light in free (empty) space.1) on page 20 into second order one needs. To bring the ﬁrst-order differential equations (2. If we apply the curl vector operator (r ) to both sides of the two Maxwell vector equations.103) on page 201. we obtain the two inhomogeneous vector wave equations 2 D 1 @2 E c 2 @t 2 1 @2 B 2 BD 2 2 c @t ED R A r 2E D r "0 0 @j @t r 2B D 0r j where 2 is the d’Alembert operator. to operate on them with ﬁrst-order differential operators. generated in regions where there exist sources .109) on page 223. x/ of any kind. 2. deﬁned according to formula (M. by using the Maxwell equations once again we can formally decouple them into r r .r ..r E/ r 2E (2. the B wave ﬁeld can be easily obtained from the solution of the E wave equation but in general this is not the case.g. we obtain the second order differential equations r r .26a) (2. x/ and j.uu.3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.r E/ D r . equation (2.r @t E/ (2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 47 of 262 . The wave equations for E and B j 25 shall discuss the implications of them.25b) .28b) @ .26b) (2.27) when applied to E and similarly to B. these second-order partial differential equations still appear to be coupled. radio and TV transmitter antennas) or plasma (e. However. For certain media.r E/ D B/ D 0 0r @j @t j "0 "0 0 @2 E @t 2 @2 B 0 @t 2 Using to the operator triple product ‘bac-cab’ rule equation (F. the Sun and its surrounding corona). Simple everyday examples of such regions are electric conductors (e.28a) (2. and then rearranging the terms. assuming that our physical quantities vary in such a regular way that temporal and spatial differentiation commute.1a) on page 20. which gives r . of course. In FT (2.r .1b) and equation (2.t.1d). Gauss’s law equation (2. These are the general wave equations for the electromagnetic ﬁelds..

. x/ D E1 cos.32) As shown in example M .plasma. if the current density in the RHS of equation (2. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES Clearly. x/ D E0 ei.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. E.1 on page 207. i.kx3 O x2 e i. superpositions of a (possibly inﬁnite) number of individual plane waves with different properties. a transmitting antenna. the electric and magnetic ﬁeld vectors are restricted to a two-dimensional plane that is perpendicular the propagation direction. When ı0 ¤ 0 the wave is in general in a state of elliptical wave polarisation.31) O x1 C E2 e iı0 iı2 D O D E1 x1 C E2 e O x2 e where ı0 D ı2 ı1 . this describes a rotation.. Once these waves impinge upon another region which can sustain charges and/or currents for a long enough time. This is called linear wave polarisation.g. in complex notation. x/ D E1 eiı1 ei.t.28b) is a function of E.. Let us consider a single plane wave that propagates in free space7 i.!t O kx3 C ı1 / x1 C E2 cos. 6 principle.kx3 !t Cı1 / !t / These equations describe how the ﬁelds that were generated in the source region. the electric ﬁeld oscillates along a line directed at an angle arctan .g.30) In complex notation we can write this as E.E2 =E1 / relative to the x1 axis.6 We notice that outside the source region. i. be described as E. in free space where D 0 and j D 0.2 7 Wave polarisation R D E1 e iı1 A single plane wave is a mathematical idealisation. e. homogeneous wave equations 1 @2 E c 2 @t 2 1 @2 B c 2 @t 2 r 2E D 0 r 2B D 0 (2. the sources and j can still cause the wave equations to be coupled. O x2 (2.kx3 !t / A FT O x1 C E2 eiı2 ei..e. Since electromagnetic waves are vector waves they exhibit wave polarisation.e.28) on the previous page. a radio beam from a transmitting antenna is a superposition (Fourier sum or integral) of many plane waves with slightly different angles relative to a ﬁxed.29b) E X A M P L E 2.29a) (2. but in many important situations this is not the case.kx3 !t Cı1 / O x1 ˙ iO 2 x (2. For the special cases ı0 D ˙ =2 and E1 D E2 D E0 the wave can.kx3 !t / i. Let us choose this to be the x1 x2 plane and the propagation vector (wave vector) to be along the x3 axis. the inhomogeneous wave equations (2. a wave appears as a building block of wave packets. as is the case if Ohm’s law j D E is applicable.!t O kx3 C ı2 / x2 (2.28) on the preceding page simplify to the well-known uncoupled. When this phase ı0 vanishes. This rotation is called . a receiving antenna or other electromagnetic sensors.t. A generic temporal Fourier mode of the electric ﬁeld vector E with (angular) frequency ! is given by the real-valued expression E. the ﬁelds interact with the charges and the currents in this second region in accordance with equations (2.. the coupling is not removed. propagate as vector waves through free space.g.t. 26 j 2 .uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 48 of 262 . given axis or a plane. e..e. In reality.

!n t / D En . Bn 2 R3 and !n . allow us to write equation (2. equations (2.36a) (2.x/Re e where En . The handedness refers to the rotation in space of the electric ﬁeld vector.26) on page 25.e.uu. R A i!n t D ˚ E. 1. i.36b) « i!n t Á Bn .t.3. The wave equations for E and B j 27 circular wave polarisation.t.kx3 !t Cı1 / h˙ (2. in other words. i. we recover the wave equations (2. End of example 2.34) O O We use the convention that hC represents left-hand circular polarisation and h right-hand circular polarisation.plasma. End of example 2.!n t / D Bn . in the form of a temporal Fourier series. In such situations it is sufﬁcient to study the properties of one arbitrary member of this set of spectral components f!n W n D 0.1 The time-independent wave equations for E and B Often one can assume that the temporal dependency of E and B and of the sources and j is well-behaved enough that it can be represented by the sum of a ﬁnite number N of temporal spectral components (temporal Fourier components). : : : . En .3. A wave containing only a ﬁnite number of temporal FT 0 cr Wave equations expressed in terms of Riemann-Silberstein vectors E X A M P L E 2. This is because the MaxwellLorentz equations are linear. where the weight of each spectral component is given by its Fourier amplitude. x/ D En . as expected.x/.x/ cos.8 Left-hand (right-hand) circular polarised waves are said to have positive helicity (negative helicity). either when viewed as the wave propagates away from the observer or toward the observer.3 2. implying that the general solution is obtained by a weighted linear superposition (summation) of the result for each such spectral component. or.3 j (2. respectively.se/CED/Book Sheet: 49 of 262 .. In a physical system. 2.7) on page 22.2 In physics. one can perform similar steps as was used in deriving equations (2. The helical base vectors 1 O O x h˙ D p x1 ˙ iO 2 / 2 (2. Using the Maxwell equations expressed in the Riemann-Silberstein vector G D E C icB.t.x/e i!n t i!n t (2.x/e .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. two different conventions are used. and Bn . x/ D Bn ..x/Re e ˚ B.x/ cos. 2.x/. N 1g.32) on the preceding page p O E.e.33) 8 which are ﬁxed unit vectors. assuming that E.35) « Á En . a temporal spectral component is identiﬁed uniquely by its angular frequency !n . B 2 R3 .28) on page 25 and one ﬁnds that 2 GD 1 @2 G c 2 @t 2 r2G D r "0 0 @j Ci @t Taking the real and imaginary parts of this equation. t 2 R1 is assumed. x/ D 2E0 ei.

x/ ei!t 1 i! D dt E.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. In the limit of very many frequency components. Strictly speaking. 28 j 2 .t. Ã Z 1 Â 2 1 @ E.t. consequently. and hence in the ﬁelds.5 billion years. x/ Z 1 1 E! . Solving this equation. t!˙1 D i! E! . x/ i!t dt e 2 @t 1 Z 1 1 1 1 E.9 By inserting the temporal spectral component equation (2. spectral components is called a time-harmonic wave. i!n t/. let us introduce the Fourier transform of E. : : : . we talk about a monochromatic wave. In the limit when only one single frequency is present.39a) 2 1 and the corresponding inverse Fourier transform Z 1 E. x/ D d! E! . E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES 9 When subtle classical and quantum radiation effects are taken into account.plasma. the complete solution of the original wave equation is obtained. n D 0.39b) D where the amplitude E! .x/ and that.x/ e i!t FT ! 2 E! .38) R A 1 and similarly for B.t. this becomes r 2 En C 2 !n En C i!n c2 0 jn D r n "0 (2.x/ D dt E. N 1 present in the sources. the Fourier sum goes over into a Fourier integral . x/ i!t dt e D 2 @t 2 1 (2.t. multiplying the solution obtained by exp. Also. one ﬁnds that all emissions suffer an unavoidable.40) 2 „ 2 ƒ‚ … 1 D0 since E!0. We see that the Fourier transform of @E.t. x/ ei!t (2.28a) on page 25 one ﬁnds that for an arbitrary component the following time-independent wave equation is obtained: r 2 En e i!n t C 2 !n En e c2 i!n t C i!n 0 jn e i!n t D r n e "0 i!n t (2. purely monochromatic waves do not exist. no signals in the Universe can be observed to have a spectral width that is smaller than the inverse of this age.se/CED/Book Sheet: 50 of 262 . 2. which is a ﬁnite time.37) After dividing out the common factor exp.41) .t. simply because the Universe has existed for only about 13.uu. x/=@t becomes Ã Z 1 Â 1 @E. intrinsic line broadening.36a) on the previous page into equation (2.t. x/ ei!t (2. 1.x/ 2 C3 is a continuous function of (angular) frequency ! 2 R1 and of x 2 R3 .t. This is a consequence of the superposition principle which is valid as long as nonlinear effects can be neglected. i!n t / and summing over all N such Fourier (spectral) components with frequencies !n . To illustrate this generic case.x/ (2.

44a) ˚ ik x « B0 . Hence. and then represent them as the Fourier modes ˚ « E0 . respectively.41).Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/ D e0 Re eik0 x D E!.x/ D b0 Re e 0 D B!.44b) and O r eik x D xi @ ikj xj O e D xi ikj ıij eikj xj D iki xi eikj xj D ikeik x @xi we see that for each spectral component in equations (2.38) on the facing page.36b) on page 27.2 /3 1 Z 1 E.44). where k0 is the wave vector (measured in m 1 ) of mode 0.43b) .45a) (2. A subsequent inverse Fourier transformation of the solution E! of this equation leads to the same result as is obtained from the solution of equation (2.3.40) and (2.plasma.k eik x (2.45b) which is mathematically identical to equation (2. since D i!e i!t R A Since we always assume that the real part shall be taken (if necessary). in the last step we introduced a complex notation and also dropped the mode number since the formulæ are valid for any mode n.28a) on page 25 and using (2. temporal and spatial differential operators turn into algebraic operations according to the following FT (2. What was said above in general terms about temporal spectral components is true also for spatial spectral components (spatial Fourier components) only that we must use a three-dimensional Fourier representation Z 1 1 Ek . 2.t. x/ e ik x (2. denote the members of this pair by E0 and B0 .36a) and equation (2.t / eik x (2. The wave equations for E and B j 29 Fourier transforming equation (2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 51 of 262 . under the assumption of linearity (superposition principle) there is usually no need for the formal forward and inverse Fourier transform technique.43a) .38) on page 28.uu. we can pick an arbitrary pair samples of the spatial amplitudes in equation (2.t.k eik x (2. x/ D d3k Ek .42) 1 D @ e @t i!t respectively. we thus obtain r 2 E! C !2 E! C i! c2 0 j! D r ! "0 (2. Now. by considering just one temporal Fourier component we obtain results which are identical to those that we would have obtained by employing the machinery of Fourier transforms and Fourier integrals. Hence.t/ D d3x E.

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30 j

2 . E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES

scheme: @ ! i! @t r ! ik r r ! ik ! ik

(2.46a) (2.46b) (2.46c) (2.46d)

We note that r E D ik E D ik Ek r r E D ik B D ik E D ik B D ik E? B? r B D ik B D ik Bk r D ik r j D ik j D ik (2.47a) (2.47b) (2.47c) (2.47d) (2.47e) (2.47f) (2.47g)

r j D ik j D ik jk

Hence, with respect to the wave vector k, the r operator projects out the spatially longitudinal component, and the r operator projects out the spatially transverse component of the ﬁeld vector in question. Put in another way, .r /? D 0 r E? D 0 r Ek D 0 (2.48a) (2.48b) (2.48c)

D

R A

2.4 Bibliography

and so on for the other observables. As seen from equations (2.46) above, the Fourier transform of a function of time t is a function of angular frequency !, and the Fourier transform of a function of the position vector x is a function of the wave vector k. One says that ! is a reciprocal space to t and that k spans a space that is reciprocal to x.

[16] J. D. JACKSON, Classical Electrodynamics, third ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY . . . , 1999, ISBN 0-471-30932-X. [17] W. K. H. PANOFSKY AND M. P HILLIPS, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, second ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, MA . . . , 1962, ISBN 0-201-05702-6. [18] C. H. PAPAS, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1988, ISBN 0-486-65678-0.

FT

j?

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ELECTROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES

D

As described in chapter 1, the concepts of electric and magnetic ﬁelds were introduced such that they are intimately related to the mechanical forces between charges and currents given by Coulomb’s law and Ampère’s law, respectively. Just as in mechanics, it turns out that in electrodynamics it is often more convenient to express the theory in terms of potentials rather then in terms of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds (Coulomb and Ampère forces) themselves. This is particularly true for problems related to radiation and relativity. As we shall see in chapter 7, the potentials pay a central rôle in the formulation of relativistically covariant electromagnetism. At the quantum level, electrodynamics is almost exclusively formulated in terms of potentials rather than electric and magnetic ﬁelds. In this chapter we introduce and study the properties of such potentials and shall ﬁnd that they exhibit some remarkable properties that elucidate the fundamental aspects of electromagnetism, lead naturally to the special theory of relativity and pave the way for gauge ﬁeld theories.

3.1 The electrostatic scalar potential

As we saw in equation (1.10) on page 6, the time-independent electric (electrostatic) ﬁeld Estat .x/ is irrotational. Hence, it may be expressed in terms of the 31

R A

FT

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32 j

3 . E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES

**gradient of a scalar ﬁeld. If we denote this scalar ﬁeld by Estat .x/ D r
**

stat

stat

.x/, we get (3.1)

.x/

**Taking the divergence of this and using equation (1.9) on page 5, we obtain Poisson’s equation r2
**

stat

.x/ D

r Estat .x/ D

.x/ "0

(3.2)

A comparison with the deﬁnition of Estat , namely equation (1.7) on page 4, shows that this equation has the solution Z .x0 / 1 stat d3x 0 C˛ (3.3) .x/ D 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j where the integration is taken over all source points x0 at which the charge density .x0 / is non-zero and ˛ is an arbitrary scalar function that is not dependent on x, e.g., a constant. The scalar function stat .x/ in equation (3.3) above is called the electrostatic scalar potential .

3.2 The magnetostatic vector potential

Consider the equations of magnetostatics (1.24) on page 9. According to formula (F.106) on page 201 any vector ﬁeld a has the property that r .r a/ Á 0 and in the derivation of equation (1.19) on page 8 in magnetostatics we found that r Bstat .x/ D 0. We therefore realise that we can always write

D

R

Bstat .x/ D r

A FT

Astat .x/

(3.4)

where Astat .x/ is called the magnetostatic vector potential . We saw above that the electrostatic potential (as any scalar potential) is not unique since we may, without changing the physics, add to it a quantity whose spatial gradient vanishes. A similar arbitrariness is true also for the magnetostatic vector potential. In the magnetostatic case, we may start from Biot-Savart’s law as expressed by equation (1.17) on page 8. Identifying this expression with equation (3.4) above allows us to deﬁne the static vector potential as Z j.x0 / 0 Astat .x/ D d3x 0 C a.x/ (3.5) 4 jx x0 j V0 where a.x/ is an arbitrary vector ﬁeld whose curl vanishes. According to formula (F.107) on page 201 such a vector ﬁeld can always be written as the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld.

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3.2. The magnetostatic vector potential

j 33

Multipole expansion of the electrostatic potential The integral in the electrostatic potential formula Z 1 .x0 / stat .x/ D d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j

E X A M P L E 3.1

(3.6)

where is the charge density introduced in equation (1.9) on page 5, is not always possible to evaluate analytically. However, for a charge distribution source .x0 / that is well localised in a small volume V 0 around x0 , a series expansion of the integrand in such a way that the dominant contributions are contained ˇ the ﬁrst few terms can be made. E.g., if we in ˇ Taylor expand the inverse distance 1= ˇx x0 ˇ with respect to the point x0 D x0 we obtain 1 jx x0 j D 1 j.x x0 / .x0 x0 /j

3 X in D1

nD1

i1 D1

@n

1 jx x0 j

@xi1 D 1 jx x0 j

@xin C

0 Œ .xi1

1 X

X

nD1 n1 Cn2 Cn3 Dn ni 0 0 .x1

1 x0 j n n n @x1 1 @x2 2 @x3 3

@n jx

**Inserting this into the integral in formula (3.6), we obtain the expansion " Z 1 X X . 1/n 1 1 stat d3x 0 .x0 / C .x/ D 4 "0 jx x0 j V 0 n1Šn2 Šn3 Š
**

nD1 n1 Cn2 Cn3 Dn ni 0 0 x02 /n2 .x3 1 x0 j n n n @x1 1 @x2 2 @x3 3

@n jx

Z

V0

**Clearly, the ﬁrst integral in this expansion is nothing but the static net charge Z qD d3x 0 .x0 /
**

V0

R

V0 V0

0 d3x 0 .x1

D

@ jx

1 x0 j

If we introduce the electrostatic dipole moment vector Z d3x 0 .x0 x0 / .x0 / d.x0 / D with components pi , i D 1; 2; 3, and the electrostatic quadrupole moment tensor Z Q.x0 / D d3x 0 .x0 x0 /.x0 x0 / .x0 / with components Qij ; i; j D 1; 2; 3, and use the fact that D xi jx x0i x0 j 3

@xi

A FT

x0i /

1

1 3 X 1 X 1 D C nŠ jx x0 j

0 Œ .xin

x0in /

(3.7)

. n1 Šn2 Šn3 Š

1/n

0 x01 /n1 .x2

0 x02 /n2 .x3

x03 /n3

(3.8)

#

0 x01 /n1 .x2

x03 /n3 .x0 /

(3.9)

(3.10)

(3.11)

(3.12)

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34 j

3 . E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES

and that @2 jx

1 x0 j

@xi @xj

D

3.xi

x0i /.xj jx

x0j / x0 j 5

jx

x0 j2 ıij

(3.13)

then we can write the ﬁrst three terms of the expansion of equation (3.6) on the previous page as " 1 q x x0 1 stat .x/ D d C 4 "0 jx x0 j jx x0 j jx x0 j2 # 3 .xi x0i / .xj x0j / 1 Á 1 Qij C ıij C : : : 2 jx x0 j jx x0 j 2 jx x0 j3 (3.14)

from which we draw the conclusion that if q ¤ 0, it is always possible to choose the moment point x0 such that d D 0, and if q D 0, then d is independent of the choice of moment point x0 . Furthermore, one can show that 1 3.xi ˛ ıij 2 x0i /.xj x0j / jx x0 j2 ıij D0 (3.16)

R D

or

Q0 D Q

where ˛ is an arbitrary constant. Choosing it to be Z ˇ ˇ2 1 ˛D d3x 0 ˇx0 x0 ˇ .x0 / 3 V0

A FT

V0

where Einstein’s summation convention over i and j is implied. We see that at large distances from a localised charge distribution, the electrostatic potential can, to the lowest order, be approximated by the (Coulomb) potential from a single point charge q located at the moment point x0 . We also see that Z Z Z d3x 0 .x0 / d3x 0 x0 .x0 / x0 d3x 0 .x0 x0 / .x0 / D d.x0 / D V0 V0 V0 Z d3x 0 x0 .x0 / x0 q (3.15) D

jx

x0 j5

(3.17)

**we can transform Qij into Z 0 Qij D Qij ˛ıij D d3x 0
**

V0

0 .xi

0 x0i /.xj

x0j /

1ˇ 0 ˇx 3

ˇ2 x0 ˇ ıij

Á .x0 / (3.18)

Z

13 ˛ D

V0

d3x 0

.x0

x0 /.x0

x0 /

13

1ˇ 0 ˇx 3

Á ˇ2 x0 ˇ .x0 /

(3.19)

0 O O where 13 D xi xi is the unit tensor. It follows immediately that Qi i D 0 (Einstein summation), i.e., that Q0 is traceless. Rotating the coordinate system, it is possible to diagonalise the tensors Q and Q0 . For any spherical symmetric distribution of charge, all components of Q0 vanish if the moment point x0 is chosen as the symmetry centre of the distribution.

If the charge distribution .x/ is made up of discrete point charges qn with coordinates xn ,

and space-dependent magnetic ﬁeld. rearranging the terms.1) on page 20.t.t.e. we introduce the electromagnetic scalar potential function .21) Inserting this expression into the other non-source Maxwell-Lorentz equation. x/ and A.t. x/ C or. According to the non-source Maxwell-Lorentz equation (2. In other words. Â Ã @ r E.t.1b) on page 20.t. x/ @t @ A.t.t. equation (2.t. x/ D @t r . x/ C A. 3.t.t. the case with temporal and spatial dependent sources .t. x/ Let us now generalise the static analysis above to the electrodynamic case. viz.22) D E. let us study the electrodynamic potentials . x/ @ Œr @t A. d.20c) 1 jxn 3 x0 j2 (3.t.20d) End of example 3..23) becomes equivalent to (3. equation (3. as described the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2.23) .t. Because of this divergence-free nature of the time.plasma. x/ D r @ A. we can express it as the curl of an electromagnetic vector potential : (3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 57 of 262 . Q and Q0 become X qD qn n (3.xn qn .uu. x/ D r R A A. and corresponding ﬁelds E.t. x/. x/ and j.t. x/ D (3. x/. The electrodynamic potentials j 35 the deﬁnitions above of q. we obtain r E.24) FT (3.t.xn qn . in analogy with the electrostatic case. r B D 0 also in electrodynamics.20b) dD QD Q0 D X n qn .xn x0 / x0 /.1 X n 3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ D 0 @t As before we utilise the vanishing curl of a vector expression to write this vector expression as the gradient of a scalar function. If.20a) (3. i.1c).3. x/. x/ and B.t.3 The electrodynamic potentials B.xn x0 /.xn x0 / x0 / 13 X n (3. x/.

t.t. E.27a) c 2 @t 2 "0 @t c @t Â Ã 1 @2 A 1 @ 2 r A D 0 j. there is an important difference between the two approaches: in classical electrodynamics the only directly observable quantities are the ﬁelds themselves (and quantities derived from them) and not the potentials. However. partial differential equations.plasma. it is a matter of convention (or taste) whether we want to express the laws of electrodynamics in terms of the potentials . x/ from formula (3.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ is calculated from the potentials according to the formula E.t. x/ and B. i D 1. use equation (3.t. at the ﬁnal stage. partial differential equations. x/ r r A C 2 (3.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 58 of 262 . we obtain.21) on the preceding page into Maxwell’s equations (2. .r A/ D c 2 @t 2 Inserting (3. 3 of A) are completely equivalent to the formulation of electrodynamics in terms of Maxwell’s equations. On the other hand.1) on page 20. which represent eight scalar ﬁrstorder. x/.21) on the previous page. representing in all four scalar equations (one for and one each for the three components Ai . Hence. FT 0 j. x/ @ A. 2.26a) C 1 @ r c 2 @t (3. x/ @ .27b) c 2 @t 2 c @t These two second order.25) above to calculate the ﬁelds or physical quantities expressed in the ﬁelds.t. x/ D r .t. the treatment becomes signiﬁcantly simpler if we use the potentials in our calculations and then.4 Gauge conditions R A r2 D r 2A .26b) D Subtracting .13) on page 6 the equations (3. after some simple algebra and the use of equation (1. coupled. x/.25) 3.21) on the preceding page and equation (3. This is the strategy we shall follow.1=c 2 /@2 =@t 2 from both sides of the ﬁrst equation and rearranging.r A/ "0 @t 1 @2 A r .t.t.t.uu. x/ @ 1 @ r2 D C r AC 2 (3.t.t. x/ and A. or in terms of the ﬁelds E.25) and (3. these equations turn into the following symmetric general inhomogeneous wave equations Â Ã 1 @2 . x/ @t (3. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES This means that in electrodynamics. coupled. 36 j 3 . x/ and B.

x/ 2 def 2 Á r D 2 2 r2 D (3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 59 of 262 . x/ D B.8 on page 223.t.29b) c 2 @t 2 c @t where 2 is the d’Alembert operator.plasma.21) on page 35 in the form r A. x/="0 or 0 ji . who in 1903 demonstrated the covariance of Maxwell’s equations.t.t.31b) 2 1 exists.4.t. and that the same is true for the generic potential component ‰: Z 1 ‰.30) .x/ D dt f .x/ D 2 1 D FT 1 If we choose r A to fulﬁl the so called Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition 1 In fact. x/ R A where ‰ denotes for either or one of the components Ai of the vector potential A. x/ D f .32b) ‰! . But we know from Helmholtz’ theorem that in order to determine the (spatial) behaviour of A completely.t. equations (3. was not the original discoverer of the gauge condition (3.28) c @t the coupled inhomogeneous wave equations (3. 3. if we write equation (3. . this fact has sometimes been overlooked and the condition was earlier referred to as the Lorentz gauge condition. Each of these four scalar equations is an inhomogeneous wave equation of the following generic form: 2 ‰.1 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge 1 @ r AC 2 D0 (3.t. we are free to choose r A in whatever way we like and still obtain the same physical results! This illustrates the power of the formulation of electrodynamics in terms of potentials.26) and equations (3.27) on the preceding page look complicated and may seem to be of limited use.28). It had been discovered by the Danish physicist L U DV I G VA L E N T I N L O R E N Z (1829-1891) already in 1867. x/ ei!t (3. x/ D d! ‰! . x/ D d! f! .t.t. and f is a shorthand for the pertinent generic source component.29a) c 2 @t 2 c @t "0 Â Ã 1 @2 1 @2 A def 2 AÁ r2 A D 2 2 r 2 A D 0 j.x/ e i!t (3. x/ we can consider this as a speciﬁcation of r A.t. Since this divergence does not enter the derivation above.31a) 1 Z 1 1 f! .t. x/.uu. 3. (3. Gauge conditions j 37 As they stand. However.t. discussed in example M. the Dutch physicist HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ (1853-1928).x/ e i!t (3.32a) 1 Z 1 1 dt ‰.27) on page 36 simplify to the following set of uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations: Â Ã 1 @2 1 @2 .4. respectively.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. We assume that our sources are well-behaved enough in time t so that the Fourier transform pair for the generic source function f Z 1 f .t. x/ ei!t (3. In the literature. we must also specify r A. x/ (3.

The solution of (3.36) (plus boundary conditions) where f! . x0 / D FT ı. The function G.30) on the preceding page. and recall the expression for the Laplace operator in such a coordinate system. often called the 3D inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation.34) which corresponds to the frequency ! is given by the weighted superposition Z ‰! .r/ which is the 3D inhomogeneous time-independent wave equation.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.rG/ C k 2 . E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES Inserting the Fourier representations (3.x0 / is the wavelet amplitude at the source point x0 . x0 / is called the Green function or the propagator. ! D ck (3. i. and the wave number k D . depends only on x x0 and there is no angular dependence in the equation. each point on a wave front acts as a point source for spherical wavelets of varying amplitude (weight).x. A new wave front is formed by a linear superposition of the individual weighted wavelets from each of the point sources on the old wave front.e. the solution can only be dependent on r D jx x0 j and not on the direction of x x0 .. and using the vacuum dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves relating the angular frequency !. As postulated by Huygens’s principle. Furthermore.35) D R A V0 and the solution of equation (3.35) becomes d2 .37) Away from r D jx takes the form x0 j D 0.30) on the previous page. this equation d2 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 60 of 262 .x/ C k 2 ‰! . the speed of light c.35) above.x.x.33) the generic 3D inhomogeneous wave equation (3.31) and (3.2 /= where is the vacuum wavelength .x x0 / rı.rG/ D dr 2 (3. which represents the point source. x0 / (3.x/ D d3x 0 f! . the Dirac generalised function ı. x0 / D G.rG/ C k 2 .uu.plasma. If we interpret r as the radial coordinate in a spherically polar coordinate system.x x0 /.x/ (3.x0 /G. Due to translational invariance in space.38) . G. Hence. equation (3.x x0 /.32a) into equation (3.rG/ D 0 dr 2 (3.x. x0 / C k 2 G.x/ D f! . turns into r 2 ‰! .34) r 2 G. in equation (3. 38 j 3 . away from the source point x0 .34) can therefore be expressed as a weighted sum of solutions of an equation where the source term has been replaced by a single point source (3.x.

35) on the preceding page can be approximated by Â Ã Z 1 3 0 2 .jx x0 j/ and.44) 0 Z Z 1 exp i! t C kjx! x j CC d3x 0 d! f! .x/ D CC d3x 0 f! .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.39) above.CC C C / dx r jx x0 j V0 Z Z (3. 3.52) on page 198].x/ into equation (3.32a) on page 37: h Ái 0 Z Z 1 exp i! t kjx! x j ‰.x0 / jx x0 j V0 1 FT Z V0 the volume integrated equation (3.t.plasma.41) ˇ ˇ 1 3 0 ˇ 0ˇ 2 3 0 D d x ı. equation (3.36) on the facing page gives ‰! . In order to evaluate the constants C˙ .4. hence.43) 0 . Gauge conditions j 39 with the well-known general solution e ikr eikjx x j e ikjx x j eikr CC Á CC CC G D CC r r jx x0 j jx x0 j 0 0 (3. x x / C k .ˇx ˇ x 0 ˇ/ CC 1 jx x0 j CC 1 jx x0 j . Since ˇ G. that (3.35) on the facing page and integrate over a small volume around r D jx x0 j D 0.39) above into equation (3. into equation (3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 61 of 262 .x0 / eikjx x j CC jx x0 j 0 D The inverse Fourier transform of this back to the t domain is obtained by inserting the above expression for ‰! .x0 / jx x0 j V0 1 h Ái (3.CC C C / dx jx x0 j V0 V0 d3x 0 f! . from equation (F. we insert the general solution. we ﬁnd that the integrand in the ﬁrst integral can be written as 4 ı. Furthermore.39) where C˙ are constants.42) Insertion of the general solution equation (3.40) CC C C D R A 1 4 Z V0 In virtue of the fact that the volume element d3x 0 in spherical polar coordinates is proportional to r 2 D jx x0 j2 [see formula (F.121) on page 201.uu. x/ D CC d3x 0 d! f! .x0 / e ikjx x j jx x0 j (3. the second integral vanishes when jx x0 j ! 0. ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ ! 0 (3.

according to equation (3.2 From the above discussion about the solution of the inhomogeneous wave equations in the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge we conclude that.29) on page 37. we must in equation (3. one chooses r A D 0 so that equations (3. and a is a time-independent vector ﬁeld that has vanishing curl. if we discard the advanced potentials. we shall use them frequently in the sequel. inspired by ideas put forward by PAU L A D R I E N M AU R I C E D I R AC (1902– 1984).tret /j Z 0 0 j tret . ˇx x0 ˇ/ D t ! c ˇ ˇ k jx x0 j jx x0 j 0 0 tadv D tadv . x0 . x/ D d3x 0 C˛ (3.26) or equations (3.45b) ! c and use equation (3.5 on page 42.27) on page 36 become (3.t.4 /. J O H N A R C H I BA L D W H E E L E R (1911–2008) and RICHARD PHILLIPS FEYNMAN (1918–1988) derived.tret . However.42) on the preceding page. according to formula (3. CC D 1=.30) on page 37.t..t/ x0 .31) on page 37.tadv .t.t/ x0 . the electrodynamic potentials in free space can be written Z 0 0 tret . x0 / CC d3x 0 (3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ "0 2 1 @ A D c 2 @t 2 0 j.x/ (3. x/ D CC d3x 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 V0 This is a solution to the generic inhomogeneous wave equation for the potential components equation (3.uu. i.tret . x0 / f .2 Coulomb gauge r2 D r 2A . 40 j 3 .t.47b) d3x 0 0 4 "0 c 2 V 0 jx. These retarded potentials were obtained as solutions to the Lorenz-Lorentz equations (3.48a) C 1 @ r c 2 @t (3. x/ In fact. In Coulomb gauge.48b) FT . x0 .33) on page 38]: ˇ ˇ k jx x0 j jx x0 j 0 0 Dt (3.tret /j where ˛ is a scalar ﬁeld depentdent on time at most and therefore has a vanishing gradient.t. we obtain Z Z 0 0 f . if we assume that causality requires that the potential at . x0 /. x/ is set 0 up by the source at an earlier time. ˇx x0 ˇ/ D t C DtC (3. often employed in quantum electrodynamics.se/CED/Book Sheet: 62 of 262 . 0 0 If we introduce the retarded time tret and the advanced time tadv in the following way [using the fact that k=! D 1=c in free space.e. x/ D C a. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES 2 D R A 3. They are therefore valid in the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge but may be gauge transformed according to the scheme described in subsection 3.45a) tret D tret .t.t.tret / 1 .46) above set C D 0 and therefore. a consistent electrodynamics based on both the retarded and the advanced potentials.46) ‰.4. As they stand.tret / 1 A.plasma. at .t. in 1945. We note that the solution at time t at the ﬁeld point x is dependent on the behaviour at other times t 0 of the source at x0 and that both retarded and advanced t 0 are mathematically acceptable solutions.47a) 0 4 "0 V 0 jx.

equation (3. equations (2.48b) on the facing page thus becomes r 2A C 1 @ r D c 2 @t 0j D A.49) Ä @ @ C r jk D @t @t "0 r 2 C r jk D r Furthermore.51) (3. The Coulomb gauge condition is therefore also called the transverse gauge or radiation gauge. The retarded solution is [cf.48) on page 30]. x0 / C a. this implies that "0 r @ D jk @t R A 1 @2 A D c 2 @t 2 0j The inhomogeneous wave equation (3. The retardation (and advancement) effects therefore occur only in the vector potential A.t. The longitudinal part of the current jk does not contribute to the vector potential.3) on page 32.47a) on the preceding page]: Z d3x 0 0 j? . x/ D 0 which shows that in Coulomb gauge the source of the vector potential A is the transverse part of the current.se/CED/Book Sheet: 63 of 262 .53) (3. which is the solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation (3.t. 3.x/ has vanishing curl.4. equation (1. FT ÄÂ "0 r @ @t Ã C jk D 0 (3.52) C 0 jk where ˛ may vary in time but has a vanishing (spatial) gradient.54) . x0 / C ˛.48b) on the preceding page.tret . and note that the equation of continuity.50) (3.uu. one ﬁnds that According to Helmholtz’ theorem. Gauge conditions j 41 The ﬁrst of these two is the time-dependent Poisson’s equation which. so that j Á jk C j? where r j? D 0 and r jk D 0 [cf. one splits up j in a longitudinal (k) and transverse (?) part. in analogy with equation (3.t.25) on page 10 becomes D 0 j? (3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. j? . has the solution . x/ D 1 4 "0 Z V0 d3x 0 . We see that in the scalar potential expression.plasma. the charge density source is evaluated at time t . since r ÄÂ r "0 r @ @t Ã r D 0 and r C jk D 0 jk D 0. In order to solve this equation.x/ jx x0 j 4 V0 where a.t/ jx x0 j (3.

4. i.plasma.56a) (3. the way the electromagnetic scalar . deﬁned by D 0.uu. ˛ D 1. corresponding to an imaginary speed v D ic.5 Gauge transformations We saw in section 3. up to terms of vanishing gradients and curls.se/CED/Book Sheet: 64 of 262 . the velocity gauge is a generalisation of both these gauges. x/ x (3.e. x/ D x d E.3 Velocity gauge If r A fulﬁls the velocity gauge condition. Hence.57a) (3. gives the Kirchhoff gauge.e. The axial gauge. published already in 1857 by G U S TAV R O B E RT K I R C H H O F F (1824–1884). where v is the propagation speed of the scalar potential.t.t.55) into the coupled inhomogeneous wave equations (3. c 2 @t ˛D c2 v2 (3..t. ˛ D 0. 3. i. respectively.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. and the Coulomb gauge condition in the limit v ! 1. D The process of choosing a particular gauge condition is known as gauge ﬁxing.27) on page 36 they become 1 @2 D c 2 @t 2 1 @2 A D c 2 @t 2 .2 on page 32 that in electrostatics and magnetostatics we have a certain mathematical degree of freedom. In fact. to pick suitable forms for the potentials and still get the same physical result.t.t. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES 3.t. x/ "0 ˛ @ @ @t @t 1 ˛ @ r 0 j. deﬁned by A3 D 0..4. 3 we obtain the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition in the limit v D c. x/ C c2 @t 1 (3. also known as the temporal gauge or Hamilton gauge. x/ D d B. r AC˛ 1 @ D 0.4 Other gauges Other useful gauges are R A 0 The Poincaré gauge (or radial gauge) where Z 1 .55) r2 r 2A FT c2 The value ˛ D 1.57b) The Weyl gauge.56b) 3. sometimes referred to as the complete ˛-Lorenz gauge. 42 j 3 .3 Inserting equation (3. x/ 0 Z 1 A.1 on page 31 and in section 3.

invariant is called a gauge transformation. in particular. introduced in 1954.21) on page 35 for the magnetic ﬁeld.60a) 2 @t 2 2 @t 2 c @t c "0 Â Ã 1 @2 1 @2 A r 2A r r 2 D 0 j.58b) where .t.107) on page 201 was used.58).28) on page 37.t.r / @t @A @.t. x/ @t r . x/ and A.r / C D @t @t A A0 D r A .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.25) on page 36 for the electric ﬁeld and into equation (3. x/ @.t. x/ (3. x/ and A0 .t. x/ are related to the physical observables gives leeway for similar manipulation of them also in electrodynamics.t. x/ itself be restricted to fulﬁl the wave equation (3.58) on the resulting Lorenz-Lorentz potential equations (3. Gauge transformations j 43 potential . we choose r A according to the LorenzLorentz condition. once again equation (F. x/ into new ones 0 .26) on page 36. x/ according to the scheme .59a) (3. x/ C A.t.58). x/ and A. x/ is an arbitrary.t. x/ 2 2 r C r D (3. We see that the ﬁelds are unaffected by the gauge transformation (3. the potentials . these equations will be transformed into Â Ã 1 @2 @ 1 @2 .29) on page 37. If.plasma. Any physical law that does not change under a gauge transformation is said to be gauge invariant. and hence Maxwell’s equations.t.t. x/ 7! A0 . can be gauge transformed according to (3.t. sufﬁciently differentiable scalar function called the gauge function.uu. 4 @A0 D @t .58a) (3. we obtain the transformed ﬁelds E0 D B0 D r r 0 r r @. A transformation of the potentials and A which leaves the ﬁelds. 3. with an arbitrary choice of r A. x/ 7! 0 .t.t. x/ D A.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 65 of 262 . x/ (3. and insert the transformed potentials into equation (3. x/ and the vector potential A. It is only those quantities (expressions) that are gauge invariant that are observable and therefore have experimental signiﬁcance.t.5.t. x/ D .t. and apply the gauge transformation (3. This theory has had a profound impact on modern physics.t. x/ calculated from equations (3. If we simultaneously transform both . Trivially.4 As just shown.61) FT r @A @t (3.59b) A very important extension is the Yang-Mills theory. the electromagnetic ﬁelds and the Maxwell-Lorentz equations themselves are gauge invariant and electrodynamics is therefore a gauge theory and as such the prototype for all gauge theories.60b) c 2 @t 2 c 2 @t 2 R A We notice that if we require that the gauge function .t.r / D r D 1 @2 c 2 @t 2 r 2 D 0 where.t. equation (3.

61) on the preceding page.t.62d) @B @t r BD r 0 BD 0j C "0 @E 0 @t In this theory. m . x/ 1 @2 Am c 2 @t 2 "0 m . Inserting the symmetrised expressions (3.64b) (3. one derives the inhomogeneous wave equations for the usual ‘electric’ scalar and vector potentials .62b) (3.25) on page 36 and formula (3. Am / by assuming that the potentials are related to the ﬁelds in the following symmetrised form: ED BD r @ e A .t.plasma. E X A M P L E 3.64a) (3. equations (3.t. x/ restricted to fulﬁl equation (3. x/ (3. e . x/ r Am @t 1 1 @ m r m .t. these formulæ reduce to the usual Maxwell theory formula (3. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES these transformed Lorenz-Lorentz equations will keep their original form.t.uu.t. respectively. 44 j 3 .26) on page 36] @ r Ae @t @ r Am r2 m C @t 1 @2 Ae r 2 Ae C r c 2 @t 2 C D e . x/ C r c2 c 2 @t e .21) on page 35. Ae / and their ‘magnetic’ counterparts . in other words.se/CED/Book Sheet: 66 of 262 . as they should. comprise the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Maxwell’s equations are replaced by [see also equations (1.58) on the previous page with a gauge function . or. x/ c @t Â Ã 1 @ m r 2 Am C r r Am C 2 D 0 j m .64d) By choosing the conditions on the divergence of the vector potentials as the generalised .29) on page 37 are invariant.50) on page 16]: r ED r ED A FT "0 0j m e m e (3.63) above into equations (3.t. one obtains [cf.62c) (3..64c) (3.63a) (3. or. x/ D "0 Â Ã 1 @ e r Ae C 2 D 0 j e . those gauge transformed potentials for which the equations (3.62). x/ c @t (3.t.2 Electromagnetodynamic potentials In Dirac’s symmetrised form of electrodynamics (electromagnetodynamics). x/ A . equivalently for m Á 0 and Am Á 0.62a) (3.t.63b) Ae D R r2 e In the absence of magnetic charges. The set of potentials which have been gauge transformed according to equation (3.

3. x/ "0 0j e (3. x/ exhibiting. x/ D .67a) (3. where the wave function 2 C solves the Schrödinger equation i @ y DH @t (3.t. H D 1 .t.t. x/.t. x/ to new potentials ! 0 .71) (3.5.t. equation (3.t.28) on page 37] 1 @ c 2 @t 1 @ r Am C 2 c @t r Ae C e m D0 D0 (3. described by the scalar potential and vector potential A.plasma.t. once again.3 . expressed in the gauge function .t.67d) .se/CED/Book Sheet: 67 of 262 . so that the transformed A FT End of example 3. x/ and A.t.t.72) and then ﬁnd a Â. x/ The non-relativistic Hamiltonian for a classical particle with charge q in an electromagnetic ﬁeld. x/. the striking properties of Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell theory. x/ D A.t. This gives the Schrödinger equation (3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t.2 on page 20 quantum theory requires that we take the magnitude rather than the real part of our mathematical variables in order to turn them into physical observables. x/ @t r . i r D @t 2m A !A0 . x/ "0 0j m .t. the physical observable probability density is D j j2 .70) The idea is to perform a gauge transformation from the potentials . x/ m . x/ C (3.66) these coupled wave equations simplify to 1 @2 e r2 e c 2 @t 2 1 @2 Ae r 2 Ae c 2 @t 2 1 @2 m r2 m c 2 @t 2 1 @2 Am r 2 Am c 2 @t 2 D D D D e . is D i @ 1 . In non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The corresponding quantal Hamilton operator is obtained y by replacing p by the operator p D i r .67c) (3. x/ where p is the linear momentum. Gauge transformations and quantum mechanics As discussed in section 2.69) E X A M P L E 3.p 2m R qA/2 C q qA/2 Cq @.65) (3. Gauge transformations j 45 Lorenz-Lorentz condition [cf. which is called minimal coupling.uu.t.68) y and H is the Hamilton operator.67b) (3.2 (3.

the Schrödinger equation (3.qr /2 (3.74) we recover the untransformed Schrödinger equation (3. We conclude that for a gauge transformation of the potentials and A and using the minimal coupling as in equation (3. the gauge transformed Hamilton operator is unchanged iff .qr / h i e iÂ .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.r Â/ Clearly.qr / Œ i r qA C .qr /e iÂ qA C .r Â/ D equivalently.r Â/ A FT qA C . Di D R Di 2 @ 0 @Â 0 @ iÂ @Â iÂ C Di . This means that the non-relativistic quantum physical observable j j2 is unaffected by a gauge transformation of the classical potentials and A that appear in the Hamilton operator. iff Â. x/= .t.x/ .e /C e @t @t @t @t @Â iÂ @ @ C i e iÂ C e D e iÂ i @t @t @t (3.70) transforms into i 1 @ 0 Œ i r D @t 2m qA C .r /.t. expression (3.r / i e iÂ . End of example 3. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES Schrödinger equation can be written i @e iÂ @t D 1 .70).74) Now.71) on the previous page W O L F G A N G PAU L I introduced the notation gauge transformation of the second kind whereas he called a wavefunction phase change.r Â/e iÂ i e iÂ r qAe iÂ C .70) on the preceding page.qr /2 0 D Œ i r qA C .uu. the Schrödinger equation is invariant.t. x/ is coordinate dependent.t.75) we see that DŒ i r D Œ i r qA C .plasma.3 .qr / iÂ Œ i r qA C .75) a gauge transformation of the ﬁrst kind . 46 j 3 . x/ D q.qr /2 0 Cq 0 Cq @ @t 0 (3.r Â/ qA C . This has as a consequence that i @ 0 @t q @ @t @Â iÂ e @t 0 q. The fact that Â.qr / e iÂ qAe iÂ C .qr / e iÂ Œ i r i .qr /e iÂ i Œ i r i . i r 2m qA/2 e iÂ C q e iÂ (3.r Â/ qA C . means that we are dealing with a local gauge transformation. but that the wave function changes from to e iÂ where the phase angle is real-valued.76) De Œ i r i .73) Under the gauge transformation. For the gauge transformation given by formulæ (3. x/ D e iÂ.t.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 68 of 262 .qr / h i D i .77) Inserting this into the transformed Schrödinger equation (3. setting 0 . or. x/ (3.

Gauge Field Theories: An Introduction with Applications.t/ k ikk .79a) (3. . ISBN 3-540-42081-9. 1920. SpringerVerlag. third ed. A.80b) (3. New York. 1999.80a) (3. . . PANOFSKY AND M.3. S LAVNOV.-D. D. pp.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 69 of 262 .. JACKSON. Inc. . x/ in the reciprocal k space as described at the end of subsection 2. . For the electric and magnetic ﬁeld the following then applies: Ek D E? D rˆ @Ak @t @A? @t B D r A? 3.80c) End of example 3. 50 in Frontiers in Physics: A Lecture Note and Reprint Series. MA .6. . New York. [20] M. . John Wiley & Sons.t/ (3. whereas a law that depends on the longitudinal component Ak is in general not gauge invariant and therefore does not represent a physical observable. 1980. NY . a law (expression) that depends on A only through its transverse component A? is gauge invariant. 157–. A. MA . 1962. K. Inc.. D. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. Classical Electrodynamics. Reviews of Modern Physics. . ISBN 0-80539016-2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. 3. The Physical Basis of The Direction of Time. NATURE. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. Bibliography j 47 Longitudinal and transverse components in gauge transformations If we represent the vector potential A. W HEELER AND R. . John Wiley & Sons. . Inc.. [21] J. Inc. . Reading. 17 (1945). ISBN 0-471-63117-5.6 Bibliography [19] L. . Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. the gauge transformation equation (3.1. D [24] J.79b) Hence. G UIDRY.78) E X A M P L E 3. . . Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Gauge Fields: Introduction to Quantum Theory. P HILLIPS.. FADEEV AND A. [23] W.uu. H. second ed.4 . . Cambridge ... 1991. R A FT (3.. P.58b) on page 43 becomes Ak . [22] H. F EYNMAN.plasma.t / 7! A0 . NY . fourth ed.4 we can separate it into its longitudinal and transverse components A0 D Ak k A0 ? D A? r (3. Reading. No. Interaction with the absorber as a mechanism for radiation.

plasma.uu. D R A FT .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 70 of 262 .

. and the ﬁelds E and B behave under charge conjugation. linear momentum.1) on page 20 as our axiomatic starting point. These conserved quantities can carry information over large distances and are all more or less straightforwardly related to their counterparts in classical mechanics (indeed in all ﬁeld theories). This includes both discrete and continuous geometric symmetries (reﬂection.uu. angular momentum. where this relation is perhaps less straightforward. under space inversion. But we will also consider other conserved quantities.1 Charge. Of particular interest are symmetries since they have a striking predictive power and are essential ingredients of the physics.plasma.se/CED/Book Sheet: 71 of 262 . translation. space. i. called C symmetry. rotation) and intrinsic symmetries (duality. and centre of energy.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. a change of sign 49 R A FT FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD .e. as well as of the physical observables constructed from them. a change of sign of charge q ! q 0 D q. To derive useful mathematical expressions for the physical observables that we want to study. the current density j.e. and time inversion symmetries Let us ﬁrst investigate how the charge density .. Intimately related to symmetries are conserved quantities (constants of motion) of which our primary interest will be the electromagnetic energy. reciprocity). D In this chapter we will explore a number of fundamental properties of the electromagnetic ﬁelds and their sources. 4. we once again take the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2. i.

a change of sign of the time coordinate t ! t 0 D t . SPACE INVERSION x ! x0 D ! 0 D dt r D d.2a) (4.3b) B.t.4c) (4. x/ D r respectively. x: (4.3a) (4. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD of the space coordinates x ! x0 D x. Let us study them one by one. the Maxwell-Lorentz equations are invariant under charge conjugation.1b) dt the transformation properties follow directly from the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2. CHARGE CONJUGATION q ! q 0 D ! 0 (4. x/ FT dx D dt 0 dx D dt j r E.plasma. Recalling that /q and dx (4.t. x/ D Consequently. x/ D @ @ Œ B0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. implying that E0 . x / D dt 0 j ! j0 D r ! r0 D dx D dt j (4.uu.t.4a) 0 dx 0 P SYMMETRY.2d) @t @t @t When inserted into the two ﬁrst of the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2. No violation of this invariance has yet been found experimentally.t.1) on page 20 we ﬁnd that they become R A r E0 .4d) @ @ @ ! 0 D @t @t @t .1a) q: (4..t. called parity transformation and P symmetry.t.2c) D 0 dx 0 j ! j0 D dt D r ! r0 D r @ @ @ ! 0 D (4.4b) (4.t. called T symmetry.t. 50 j 4 . i.t. x/ D B . x/ D B.t. jD vD C SYMMETRY.2b) (4.e. and under time reversal . x/ @t @t (4.1) on page 20.se/CED/Book Sheet: 72 of 262 . x/ D 0 0 E. x/ D "0 D "0 D and r E0 . x/ Œ E.

T SYMMETRY. 4.uu.6b) .5b) B . No violation of this law has been observed so far. whereas B is a pseudovector (axial vector) as described in subsection M. x/ The CPT theorem states that the combined CPT symmetry must hold for all physical phenomena. ="0 is an ordinary scalar. 4. x/ (4. t. we note that j and E are ordinary vectors.5a) (4.t.7a) (4. x/ D B.se/CED/Book Sheet: 73 of 262 .t. x/ D E. x/ Á E.8f) j ! j0 D (4. x/ B .t. x/ D B. On quantum scales this is exhibited by the uncertainty principle and on classical scales by the arrow of time which is related to the increase of thermodynamic entropy in a closed system. t.8d) (4.1. t.t. Electromagnetic duality j 51 implying that E0 . x/ Á E. by assumption.8e) e cB ! ! m e c ! cj ! j j ! m R A E c m m e We see that E is even and B odd under time reversal. TIME REVERSAL t ! t 0 D ! 0 t: (4.t.6c) (4.50) on page 16 exhibit the following symmetry (recall that "0 0 D 1=c 2 ): (4.3. x/ Since.t.2. x/ Á B.7b) (4.6a) D j @ @t 0 r !r Dr @ @ ! 0 D @t @t implying that 0 E0 . and that the position vector x is the prototype of all ordinary (polar) vectors. The Universe as a whole is asymmetric under time reversal. cj FT (4.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ Á B.2 on page 217.t.t.plasma. x/ D 0 E. consequently.8c) (4.6d) (4. and "0 are ordinary scalars and that.2 Electromagnetic duality D E ! cB e We notice that Dirac’s symmetrised version of the Maxwell equations (1.8a) (4.8b) (4.t.

are invariant under the duality transformation (4.9c) (4. So whether we assume that the particles are only electrically charged or have also a magnetic charge with a given. must be pseudoscalars1 and j m a pseudovector.9a) (4. D E X A M P L E 4. Duality of the electromagnetodynamic equations Show that the symmetric. equations (1.9) means that the amount of magnetic monopole density m is irrelevant for the physics as long as the ratio m = e D tan Â is kept constant. e a (true) scalar. Such particles are referred to as dyons. B a pseudovector (axial vector). also known as the Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformation (indicated by the Hodge star operator ? in the upper left-hand corner of the symbol in question) ? E D E cos Â C cB sin Â E sin Â C cB cos Â e (4. By varying the mixing angle Â we can change the fraction of magnetic monopoles at will without changing the laws of electrodynamics. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD which is a particular case (Â D =2) of the general duality transformation. ﬁxed ratio between the two types of charges is a matter of convention. as long as we assume that this fraction is the same for all particles.se/CED/Book Sheet: 74 of 262 .10) .uu. electromagnetodynamic Maxwell-Lorentz equations (Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations). and hence the physics they describe (often referred to as electromagnetodynamics). invariant.9b) (4.plasma.E cos Â C cB sin Â/ D cos Â C c "0 Â Ã ? e 1 1 m e D cos Â C sin Â D "0 c "0 m sin Â (4. we conclude that the magnetic charge density m and Â .9f) c BD c ? e ? Dc D cos Â C e m sin Â m ? m c sin Â C cos Â c ?j e D cj e cos Â C j m sin Â ? m j D cj sin Â C j cos Â e m 1 Recall that the Taylor expansion for cos Â contains only even powers of Â whereas the expansion for sin Â contains only odd.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 52 j 4 . which behaves as a mixing angle in a two-dimensional ‘charge space’. For Â D 0 we recover the usual Maxwell electrodynamics.9).9d) (4. The invariance of Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations under the duality transformation (4. Explicit application of the transformation yields e 0 A FT E D r .1 R r ? This transformation leaves the symmetrised Maxwell equations.9e) (4.50) on page 16. Since E and j e are true (polar) vectors.

2. the duality transformation equations (4.2 FT QED End of example 4.t.@ t Â/e iÂ G C e iÂ @ t G @t @ ?G Á r ?G D ie iÂ r Â G C e iÂ r G GÁr GD ie iÂ rÂ GCe iÂ r which means that @ t ?G transforms as ?G itself only if Â is time-independent.16) (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 75 of 262 . introduced in equation (2.E cos Â C cB sin Â / E sin Â C B cos Â/ c c 2 @t 1 @B 1 @E m cos Â C 0 j e cos Â C 2 cos Â 0 j sin Â C c @t c @t (4.17a) (4. E X A M P L E 4. assuming that Â D Â.15) (4. D 0 cos Â (4.12) r ? B Duality expressed in Riemman-Silberstein formalism ? G D ?E C ic ?B D E cos Â C cB sin Â D E.11) BDr . and that r ?G and r ?G transform as ?G itself only if Â is space-independent.E C icB/e 2iÂ ? Expressed in the Riemann-Silberstein complex ﬁeld vector.cos Â R A iE sin Â C icB cos Â i sin Â/ D . cj sin Â C j cos Â/ D 0 j . Electromagnetic duality j 53 r ? EC @?B Dr @t D D r ? Ã 1 E sin Â C B cos Â c 1 @E @B m cos Â C c 0 j e sin Â C sin Â 0 j cos Â @t c @t 1 @E @B m e sin Â C cos Â D 0 j cos Â C c 0 j sin Â c @t @t e m ? m 0 .1 iÂ 1 @?E Dr c 2 @t 1 D c 1 1 @ .14) (4.uu. 4.E cos Â C cB sin Â/ C @ @t e 1 E sin Â C B cos Â/ D sin Â C c c"0 c e sin Â C m cos Â D 0 ? m 0 m Â (4. we see that spatial and temporal differentiation of ?G leads to @?G D i.6) on page 22.9) on the preceding page become from which it is easy to see that ˇ ˇ2 ? G ?G D ˇ?G ˇ D Ge iÂ G eiÂ D jGj2 whereas ? G ? G D G Ge D @ t ?G Á @ ? Furthermore.13) 1 @E 1 @B cos Â sin Â 2 c @t cÂ @t Ã 1 m D 0 j sin Â C j e cos Â D 0 ?j e c . End of example 4. x/.17c) .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.cos Â i sin Â/ C icB.2 D Ge iÂ (4.plasma.17b) G (4.

the integrand must vanish and we obtain the continuity equation @% C r . . and the production of the ‘substance’ in the volume enclosed by the surface. Let us denote the volume density of this ‘substance’ by %.e.se/CED/Book Sheet: 76 of 262 . those observables that do not change with time. the equation describes the constancy of the amount of ‘substance’. which states that any differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law. in a time-dependent way. Let us also introduce a closed volume V . If there is no production of the ‘substance’ in V . orthogonal to the tangent plane and pointing outward. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 4. this balance equation can be rewritten Z d3x @% C r .%v / D s @t (4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the following balance equation must hold: Z d d3x % dt V „ ƒ‚ … D Z O d2x n %v C d3x s V … „ ƒ‚ … „ S ƒ‚ Flow into V R A I Total change within V FT Production inside V AMALIE EMMY NOETHER (1882–1935) made important contributions to mathematics and theoretical physics.. which.uu. e. x/ and its ﬂow velocity by v . where dxi and dxj are two coordinates that span the local tangent plane of the surface O and n is a unit vector.2 is closely related to ﬁnding the symmetries of the system. in 3D space. is considered to be a fundamental tool of theoretical physics. this inward ﬂow will increase the amount of ‘substance’ in V . In the special case that the volume V is spherical. formula (F. Recalling that the normal vector O n points outward.20) which expresses.t. Her (ﬁrst) theorem. In other words. if s D 0. x/.plasma. i. 54 j 4 . electric charge.3 Conservation laws It is well established that a deeper understanding of a physical system can be obtained by studying the system’s conserved quantities (constants of motion).%v / @t Á s D0 (4.. the task is to ﬁnd the conservation laws for the physical system under study. i. in differential form. Consider a certain physical property or ‘substance’.g.19) V D Since this equation must hold for an arbitrary volume V . Clearly. The property or ‘substance’ ﬂows into the volume V at the rate %v per unit area.126) on page 202.t.18) With the help of Gauss’s theorem. This increase is quantiﬁed by the source density s. 2 (4. according to Noether’s theorem. ﬁxed in space and enclosed by a perfectly permeable surface O O S with a inﬁnitesimally small directed area element d2x n D dxi dxj n. the balance between the explicit temporal change of the density of the ‘substance’. the ﬂow of it across the surface of a closed volume.e. it is usually referred to as the control sphere. that ﬂows. We also allow for an increase due to the production of the ‘substance’ inside V .

the moment of velocity with respect to x0 .26) FT (4.e. indestructible.. again.r a/ D 0 for any arbitrary.21) Furthermore. differentiable pseudovector ﬁeld with dimension m2 s 1 . of course.2 Conservation of total electric current If we use the notation j c for the electric current associated with electric charge transport and j d for the displacement current @. and one of the founding fathers of the United States of America. is @ d D Cv r dt @t according to the chain rule [cf.. scientist.1d) on page 20 can be rewritten r (4. statesman.25) describes the fact that electric charge is conserved.t. Conservation laws j 55 In fact. i.se/CED/Book Sheet: 77 of 262 . 4.20) on the preceding page is the electric charge density .t /.3. since the time derivative d=dt operating on a scalar. 4.22) where. x/ D 0 @t R A B D jc C jd When the ‘substance’ density % in equation (4. 3 . inventor. i. a is an arbitrary.3 4.3. This result is.x x0 / v . equation (1. we exclude any charge-generating mechanisms.e. we assume that s D 0.e. philosopher.g.plasma.24) This was postulated in 1747 by B E N JA M I N F R A N K L I N (1706– 1770). vector or tensor ﬁeld. differentiable vector ﬁeld a. Then the continuity equation takes the form (4. printer.1) on page 20. dependent on t and x.t. The continuity equation (4.36) on page 13].1 Conservation of electric charge @ . i.20) on the preceding page to @% C r . . consistent a posteriori with the fact that these axiomatic laws were formulated with the a priori assumption that the continuity equation (1.3. e.uu.%v C r @t a/ D s (4.v C r dt a/ D s (4. we can generalise equation (4. equation (2. since r .25) on page 10 was valid..25) D 1 0 This is our ﬁrst conservation law derived from the microscopic Maxwell equations (2.23) (4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.. and interpret v as the electric current density j. x/ C r j.%v / D %r v C v r % we can rewrite the equation of continuity as d% C %r . and since r ."0 E/=@t.

29) and the electromagnetic energy ﬂux or the Poynting vector B D "0 c 2 E B (Wm 2 ) (4.28) R A uem D "0 .EA/ (4.r A/ E .r Á E/ D 0 (4.r B/ (Jm 3 The continuity equation (4.31d) 1 0 . Using the Maxwell equations (2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.E B/ D B .E E C c 2 B B/ 2 SD 1 E 0 where formula (F.1b) on page 20 and formula (F.r A/ E .21) on page 35. As one example of the divergence of a second order vector quantity.31b) (4.r D D B 0 @B @E "0 0 E 0E j @t @t Á @ "0 E E C c2B B C j E @t 2 FT E/ E .se/CED/Book Sheet: 78 of 262 . Let us introduce the electromagnetic ﬁeld energy density ) (4.EA/ C .95) on page 200 was used.r A/ E 1 0 1 0 A C . 56 j 4 .r E/A r .3 Conservation of energy r . we obtain the following conservation law for the total current @j c @j d C Cr @t @t 13 1 0 .31c) (4.r A/ E .28a) on page 25.30) D that can also be viewed as the electromagnetic energy current density. Usually it is written as in equation (2.3.25) on the previous page contains the divergence of the ﬁrst-order vector quantity j.uu. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD Differentiating this with respect to time t and using the Maxwell equation (2.31a) (4.r A/ r . Employing formula (3. 4.1) on page 20 we obtain the balance equation (4. let us study the divergence of E B.plasma.110) on page 201.27) This is a rather unusual way of writing the wave equation for the electric ﬁeld vector Er. the Poynting vector S can be expressed in terms of the vector potential A vector as SD D D D 1 0 E .

34) A? C . formula (F.35) @umech @uem C Cr S D0 (4.1 to resolve A into its longitudinal and transverse components Ak and A? . R Expressing the Lorentz power. It is known as the Lorentz power density and is equivalent to the time rate of change of the mechanical energy density (Jm 3 ) of the current carrying particles (4. For each spatial Fourier component.e.33) above can therefore be written R A From the deﬁnition of E.1a) on page 20.r A? / E .32d) 1 0 .32b) (4.r E/A? r .36) @t @t which is the energy density balance equation in differential form.32a) (4.uu. with the result that SD D D D 1 0 E .EA/? (4.3.. we can use the results in subsection 2.32c) (4. as the time rate of change of the mechanical energy: Z dU mech D d3x j E (4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.r A? / E . 4.96) on page 200 in the second step and the Maxwell-Lorentz equation (2. Conservation laws j 57 where we used formula (F.r A? / E 1 0 1 0 With the help of these deﬁnitions we can write the balance equation (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 79 of 262 . where Z "0 Ue D d3x E E (4.r A? / E .3. as a continuity equation with a source density sD j ED E v (4.EA? / C .33) @umech Dj E @t Equation (4. respectively. V d3x j E.r A/? r . we conclude that E represents force per unit volume (Nm 3 ) and that E v therefore represents work per unit volume or.28) on the facing page as @uem Cr S D j E @t i.plasma.38) 2 V FT (4. in other words. power density (Wm 3 ).37) dt V D and introducing the electromagnetic ﬁeld energy U em D U e C U m .100) on page 201 in the ﬁrst step.

Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. yields Z I Z dU em 3 emf 2 O d xj E D C d xn S (4. Ohmic losses in the system (right-hand side. Conservation of energy Show. we can write the integral version of the balance equation (4. i.40) above and use is made of equation (4.45) 2 2 V is conserved. radiated electromagnetic power.36) on the preceding page as I dU mech dU em O C C d2x n S D 0 (4. that the total energy H of a closed system comprising charged particles of mass mi and speed vi and pertinent electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B Z 1 "0 2 H D mi vi C d3x . by explicit calculation. End of example 4.E C Eemf / FT Z d3x j Eemf V Radiated power Supplied electric power (4. when inserted into equation (4.e. or.plasma.43) D E X A M P L E 4. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD is the electric ﬁeld energy and Z Z "0 1 d3x B B D d3x c 2 B B Um D 2 0 V 2 V (4.39) is the magnetic ﬁeld energy. also known as Poynting’s theorem. Allowing for an EMF and assuming that Ohm’s law j D .37) on the preceding page.E E C c 2 B B/ (4.uu. and Joule heat power.44) d3x j Eemf dt V S V „ƒ‚… „ ƒ‚ … „ ƒ‚ … „ ƒ‚ … This shows how the supplied power (left-hand side. that ED j Eemf (4.3 .40) dt dt S where This is the energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory. equivalently..42) we obtain the relation Z Z j2 d3x j E D d3x V V (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 80 of 262 .3 R A Supplied electric power Field power which. 58 j 4 . RHS). LHS) is expelled in the form of a time rate change of electric and magnetic ﬁeld energy.41) is a valid approximation.

x/v where %m is the (volumetric) mass density (kgm 3 ).91).r E/E 2 Á 1 r EE 13 .t. Euler’s ﬁrst law). x/.plasma.4 Conservation of linear momentum The derivation of the energy conservation formula (4.E E/ C .3. this mechanical force density must equal the time rate change of the mechanical linear momentum density D gem .r E/ D r E E D D E rE D 1 r . In the same vein.110) on page 201.46) as h1 i 1 @S C "0 r 13 E E C c 2 B B EE C c 2 BB C f D 0 (4.EE/ C r .100).49) (4. using the Maxwell equations (2. 4.uu.1) on page 20.50) (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 81 of 262 . x/ D "0 E or. We now seek a balance equation involving the time derivative of S and ﬁnd. and formula (F.t.51) FT (4.96) on page 200. allows us to write E .r E/ C c 2 B . Dividing out c 2 . (F.47) (4.t.E E/ C E 2 where f D ECj R A B BD S.33) on page 57 introduced the Poynting (energy ﬂux) vector S.48) c 2 @t 2 The polar vector f has the dimension Nm 3 and we therefore identify it as a force density and call it the Lorentz force density. x/ c2 and similarly for B. Conservation laws j 59 4. we introduce the electromagnetic linear momentum density em g by making the identiﬁcation (4. and (F. x/ D %m . we can write equation (4. According to classical mechanics (Newton’s second law.r B/ c2j B A combination of formulæ (F. using the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1) on page 20 once more.52) . that @E @B Á @S D "0 c 2 BCE @t @t @t (4.t.46) D "0 c 2 E .E E/ 2 E rE 1 r . and rearranging terms.3. S D gem c 2 gmech .t. alternatively.

where E is energy and m is mass.53) above over the entire ﬁnite volume V . yields the conservation law for linear momentum I dpmech dpem O C C d2x n T D 0 (4. measured in Pa. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD Since the LHS of this equation is (energy density) (velocity) and the RHS is (mass density) (velocity) c 2 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 82 of 262 . .53) "0 E E C c2B B 2 "0 EE C c 2 BB (4. enclosed by the surface S. Nm 2 .54) Tij D ıij uem "0 Ei Ej FT 1 Bi Bj 0 is the electromagnetic linear momentum ﬂux tensor (the negative of the Maxwell stress tensor).E B/ (4. The tensor T is the electromagnetic linear momentum current density of the electromagnetic ﬁeld.plasma.58) This is the linear momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory which describes how the electromagnetic ﬁeld carries linear momentum.55) R A where p mech where the electromagnetic energy density uem is deﬁned in formula (4. In tensor component form. it can be written (4. 60 j 4 .46) on the previous page in differential form.e. i. It is @gem @gmech C Cr TD0 @t @t where T D 13 (4.57a) V V and D or p em Z D V d xg 3 em Z D V d3x "0 .uu. Integration of equation (4.56) dt dt S Z D d xg 3 mech Z D d3x %m v (4. we see that this relation forebodes the relativistic relation E D mc 2 .29) on page 56.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. per unit area.. The component Tij is the electromagnetic linear momentum in the ith direction that passes a surface element in the j th direction per unit time.E „ ƒ‚ 3 I B/ C … EM ﬁeld momentum Linear momentum ﬂow O d2x n T „ ƒ‚ … S D0 (4. We are now able to write down the linear momentum density balance equation (4.57b) Z V Force on the matter d xf „ ƒ‚ … 3 d C dt Z V d x "0 .

and therefore is a consequence of a symmetry of the microscopic Maxwell equations (2. Hence.63) . yielding Z I i"0 i"0 em 3 O ptrans D Re d x . Using formula (4.E C v B/ (4. the evaluation of the ﬁrst integral in equation (4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.64) trans 2! V where we used formula (2. where the sum is over one particle only.e.uu.60) (4. we can discard the surface integral term and ﬁnd that the cycle averaged linear momentum of the transverse ﬁeld is Z i"0 pem D Re d3x . i.1) on page 20.57b) on the facing page.58) on the preceding page shows that the force on this single charged particle is Z Z F D d3x f D d3x . In complex tensor notation with Einstein’s summation convention applied.1a) on page 20.r E/ E (4. E C j B/ D q.61) p D d x A? C "0 d x . the Lorentz force does not have to be presupposed.46) on page 14. see also equation (1.59) V V V V For each spatial Fourier component we use equation (4..r A/ E "0 d2x n EA (4.8) on page 5. we can write the electromagnetic linear momentum of the ﬁeld as Z Z I em 3 3 O p D d x A C "0 d x .5) on page 22.plasma.59) above follows directly from a conservation law. and applying the divergence theorem. Note that equation (4.65) trans 2! V FT S S which is the Lorentz force.62) which allows us to replace A by iE=!. the Maxwell-Lorentz equation (2.r E/ E C Re d2x n EE 2! V ! S R A V V D If EE falls off sufﬁciently rapidly at large distances.32d) on page 57 to ﬁnd the manifestly gauge-independent expression I Z Z 3 em 3 O (4. this can be written Z i"0 pem D d3x Ei r Ei (4. that the charge density is given in terms of a Dirac distribution as in equation (1.r A/? E "0 d2x n EA? If we restrict ourselves to consider a single temporal Fourier component of the transverse component and use the results in example 3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 83 of 262 . Conservation laws j 61 If we assume that we have a single localised charge q. 4.31d) on page 56 in formula (4.3.4 on page 47 we ﬁnd that ED @A D i!A @t (4.

E X A M P L E 4. the total mechanical angular momentum of the system is the vectorial sum of two contributions. describing the motion of the planet in an orbit around FT End of example 4.4 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 84 of 262 . (4.E B/ (4. and its rotational motion. and Lmech is the extrinsic mechanical orbital angular momentum. described by the system’s mechanical moment of momentum..x0 / D † mech C Lmech .4 Conservation of linear momentum Show.x0 / D . D Rational mechanist C L I F F O R D A M B RO S E T RU E S D E L L I I I (1919–2000) wrote several excellent accounts on how this result was arrived at by Euler in the latter half of the 18th century. or mechanical angular momentum J mech .plasma.3. by explicit calculation.68) V is conserved. 62 j 4 . e.5 Conservation of angular momentum Already 1776 it was shown by L E O N H A R D E U L E R that the most general dynamical state of a mechanical system is the sum of its translational motion. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD If we recall that the quantal linear momentum operator is y pD i r (4.69) where † mech is the intrinsic mechanical spin angular momentum. In the special case of a classical rigid body for which the contribution from internal angular momenta cancel the angular momentum around x0 is given by the pseudovector J mech .x0 / about the moment point x0 . described by the linear momentum mechanical linear momentum pmech . a spinning planet orbiting a (non-rotating) star.g.x0 / 4. as a quantum expectation value where the components of the electric ﬁeld vector behave as wavefunctions. describing the spin of the planet around its own axis.66) we see that we can write the expression for the linear momentum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld in terms of this operator as Z "0 y pem D d3x Ei pEi (4..e. that the linear momentum p of a closed system comprising charged particles of mass mi and velocity vi and pertinent electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B Z p D mi vi C "0 d3x .uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 4 R A J mech . For a closed system of rotating and orbiting bodies.x x0 / pmech .67) trans 2 ! V i. and that these two momenta are in general independent of each other 4 .

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4.3. Conservation laws

j 63

the star. As is well known from mechanics, J mech of a closed mechanical system is conserved and to change it one has to apply a mechanical torque .x0 / D dJ mech .x0 / dt (4.70)

Starting from the deﬁnition of the mechanical linear momentum density gmech , formula (4.50) on page 59, and suppressing the obvious dependence of x, we deﬁne the mechanical angular momentum density about a ﬁxed moment point x0 as hmech .x0 / D .x x0 / gmech (4.71)

hem .x0 / D .x

x0 /

gem

where, according to equation (4.52) on page 59, gem D "0 E B D S=c 2 . Now, if f is the Lorentz force density as deﬁned in equation (4.49) on page 59, then @hmech .x0 / @ D .x @t @t C.x x0 / x0 / gmech D dx dt gmech f

R A

@gmech D .x @t x0 / x0 / gem D dx dt gem C .x D "0 .x x0 / @ .E @t 1 B/ D 2 .x c x0 / x0 /

T

is the Lorentz torque density. Furthermore, @hem .x0 / @ D .x @t @t

By introducing the electromagnetic angular momentum ﬂux tensor

D

K.x0 / D .x

where T is the electromagnetic linear momentum ﬂux tensor given by expression (4.54) on page 60, the differential form of the balance equation for angular momentum density can be written @hmech .x0 / @hem .x0 / C C r K.x0 / D 0 @t @t (4.76)

where the pseudotensor K.x0 / represents the electromagnetic angular momentum current density around x0 .

FT

(4.72) (4.73) x0 / @S @t @gem @t (4.74) (4.75)

Analogously, we deﬁne the electromagnetic moment of momentum density or electromagnetic angular momentum density about a moment point x0 as the pseudovector

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4 . F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

Integration over the entire volume V , enclosed by the surface S , yields the conservation law for angular momentum I dJ mech .x0 / dJ em .x0 / O C C d2x n K.x0 / D 0 (4.77) dt dt S where the mechanical and electromagnetic angular momentum pseudovectors are Z mech J .x0 / D d3x hmech .x0 / (4.78a)

V

and

FT

V

J em .x0 / D

**d3x hem .x0 / D V Z D "0 d3x .x x0 /
**

V

Z

Z

d3x .x

x0 /

gem

(4.78b)

.E

B/

**respectively. We can formulate—and interpret—this conservation law in the following way: Z Z d d3x .x x0 / f C "0 d3x .x x0 / .E B/ dt „ V „V ƒ‚ … ƒ‚ …
**

Torque on the matter Field angular momentum

D

R A

I C

V

(4.79)

Angular momentum ﬂow

O d2x n K.x0 / D 0 S „ ƒ‚ …

This angular momentum theorem is the angular analogue of the linear momentum theorem, equation (4.58) on page 60. It shows that the electromagnetic ﬁeld, like any physical ﬁeld, can carry angular momentum. For a single localised charge q, i.e., for a charge density given by equation (1.8) on page 5 with summation over one particle only, the evaluation of the ﬁrst integral in equation (4.79) above shows that the mechanical torque on this single charged particle is Z Z 3 .x0 / D d x .x x0 / f D d3x ..x x0 / . E C j B// V V (4.80) D .x x0 / q.E C v B/

We call it the Lorentz torque. If we study formula (4.78b) a little closer, we see that it can be written Z J em .x0 / D J em .0/ x0 "0 d3x E B D J em .0/ x0 pem (4.81)

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4.3. Conservation laws

j 65

where use was made of equation (4.57b) on page 60. With the help of equation (4.31) on page 56 we can write Z Z 1 em 3 d3x x S (4.82) J .0/ D "0 d x x .E B/ D 2 c V V Z Z (4.83) D "0 d3x x Œ.r A/ E "0 d3x Œx E .r A/

V V

**Partial integration of this yields Z Z em 3 J .0/ D "0 d x E A C "0 d3x x Œ.r A/ E V V Z Z 3 "0 d x r .Ex A/ C "0 d3x .x A/.r E/
**

V V

(4.84)

A

V

and Lem .0/ D "0 Z

V

d3x x

Z Œ.r A/ E C

V

d3x x

D

b †j k D i O ij k xi b †D

S

If there is no net electric charge density in the integration volume, the second integral in the RHS of equation (4.85b) vanishes, and if Ex A Á E.x A/ falls off sufﬁciently fast with jxj, the contribution from the surface integral in equation (4.86) above can be neglected. Furthermore, for a single Fourier component and in the complex notation, we obtain the expressions Z "0 † em D i d3x .E E/ (4.87a) 2! V Z "0 Lem .0/ D i d3x Ei .x r /Ei (4.87b) 2! V

Recalling that in quantum mechanics the spin angular momentum operator is (4.88)

which, with the help of the matrix vector expression (M.27) on page 210 can be written (4.89)

R A

S

applying Gauss’s theorem, formula (F.126) on page 202, and using the MaxwellLorentz equation (2.1a) on page 20, we ﬁnd that expression (4.84) above can be written I em em em O J .0/ D † C L .0/ "0 d2x n .Ex A/ (4.86)

FT

(4.85a) A (4.85b)

By introducing Z em † D "0 d3x E

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4 . F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

and the orbital angular momentum operator is y LD i x r D i O ij k xj @k xi (4.90)

**we can write Z "0 b † D d3x Ej †j k Ek 2 ! V Z "0 y d3x Ei LEi Lem .0/ D 2 ! V
**

em

(4.91a) (4.91b)

Hence, under the assumptions made above, we can interpret † em as the electromagnetic spin angular momentum and Lem as the electromagnetic orbital angular momentum.

E X A M P L E 4.5 Conservation of angular momentum

Show, by explicit calculation, that the total angular momentum J of a closed system comprising charged particles located at xi , of mass mi and velocity vi and pertinent electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B Z J D xi mi vi C "0 d3x Œx .E B/ (4.92)

V

is conserved.

E X A M P L E 4.6

Spin angular momentum and wave polarisation

Consider a generic temporal Fourier mode of the electric ﬁeld vector E of a circularly polarised wave with (angular) frequency !. According to equation (2.34) on page 27 it can be written

R

where E.t; x/ D p and

O E.t; x/ D E.t; x/ h˙

A FT

2E0 ei.kx3

!tCı1 /

End of example 4.5

(4.93)

(4.94)

D

1 O O h˙ D p x1 ˙ iO 2 / x 2

(4.95)

O O As before, we use the convention that hC represents left-hand circular polarisation and h right-hand circular polarisation. Noting that O .h˙ / O h˙ D ˙iO z (4.96)

we see that E O O E D ˙i jEj2 z D ˙iE 2 z (4.97)

When this is inserted into equation (4.87a) on the preceding page one ﬁnds that the spin

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4.3. Conservation laws

j 67

angular momentum of a circularly polarised wave is Z "0 U em em O O † D˙ d3x E 2 z D ˙ z 2! V !

(4.98)

where U em is the ﬁeld energy. Considering the wave consisting of N photons, then U em D N ! which means that the spin of the wave is N ! O O z D ˙N z (4.99) ! Hence, each photon of a right-hand or a left-hand circular polarised wave carries a spin angular momentum of or , respectively. † em D ˙ End of example 4.6 Orbital angular momentum y The Cartesian components of the quantal orbital angular momentum operator (OAM) L as given by expression (4.90) on the preceding page are @ @ Á y Lx D i y z (4.100a) @z @y @Á @ y (4.100b) x Ly D i z @x @z Á @ @ y Lz D i x (4.100c) y @y @x In cylindrical coordinates . ; '; z/ they are Ä @ @Á z @ y Lx D i sin ' z C cos ' @ @z @' Ä @Á z @ @ y sin ' Ly D i cos ' z @ @z @' @ y Lz D i @' and in spherical coordinates .r; '; Â/ they are @ Á @ y C cos ' cot Â Lx D i sin ' @Â @' @ @ Á y Ly D i cos ' sin ' cot Â @Â @' @ y Lz D i @' E X A M P L E 4.7

R

i @E0 .t; x/ ˆ' @' E0 .t; x/ @ˆ.'/ Á @'

D

E D E0 .t; x/ˆ.'/ we ﬁnd that y Lz E.t; x/ D

For an electric ﬁeld E that depends on the azimuthal angle ' in such a way that (4.103)

If E0 .t; x/ is rotationally symmetric around the the z axis, so that E0 D E0 . ; z/ in cylindrical coordinates , E0 D E0 .r; Â/ in spherical (polar) coordinates etc., and if the azi-

A FT

(4.101a) (4.101b) (4.101c) (4.102a) (4.102b) (4.102c) (4.104)

se/CED/Book Sheet: 90 of 262 .t. In addition to the conservation laws for energy.'/ D we see that y Lz E.108) D FT which means that for a rotationally symmetric beam with an azimuthal phase dependence given by exp. x/ D 1 X mD 1 1 X mD 1 cm eim' (4. according to formula (4..105) cm m E0 eim' D 1 X mD 1 cm m Em (4.107) 4.106) i.6 Conservation of centre of energy E X A M P L E 4.87b) on page 65.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. as can be shown by direct calculation based on the Maxwell-Lorentz the following conservation law holds in free space (vacuum): (4.plasma. linear momentum and angular momentum.3. Furthermore.e.7 (4. End of example 4.r E/ C c 2 B .r B/ XDE @E C c2B @t @B @t is the chirality ﬂow. and the pseudovector (4.109) is the chirality density.110) End of example 4. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD muthal part is expressed in a Fourier series ˆ. 68 j 4 .8 R A Examples of other conservation laws @ Cr XD0 @t where the pseudoscalar D E . a large number of other electromagnetic conservation laws can be derived.uu.m'/ one deduces. there exists a centre of energy in electrodynamics. that E is a weighted superpostion of OAM eigenstates Em D E0 eim' .8 . y Lz Em D m Em (4. It can be shown that this vectoral quantity is also conserved. In analogy with the existence of a centre of mass in a classical mechanical system. For instance. that the z component of the orbital angular momentum of each photon in this beam is m .

x x0 / gmech @ . Bibliography j 69 4. third ed. this theorem is a statement of the partitioning of energy in electrodynamics and ﬁnds use in.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.. Cambridge University Press. John Wiley & Sons. D R A FT . 1991.3. NY . Classical Electrodynamics.x C @t x0 / gem Cr @t .111) This is the electromagnetic virial theorem.7 Electromagnetic virial theorem If instead of vector multiplying the linear momentum densities gmech and gem by the position vector relative to a ﬁx point x0 as we did in subsection 4. 4. [26] F. Chicago Lectures in Physics.4 Bibliography [25] J.3. ISBN 0-471-30932-X.4. . 4. New York. Inc. The quantity .x x0 / gem is the electromagnetic virial density. . analogous to the virial theorem of Clausius in mechanics. we scalar multiply. . M ELIA. 1999.se/CED/Book Sheet: 91 of 262 ..g. Electrodynamics. D.5 on page 62. plasma physics.plasma. JACKSON. When integrated over space and time averaged. the following differential balance equation is obtained: @ . Cambridge and London.x x0 / T D uem (4.. ISBN 0-226-51957-0. e.uu.

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D

R A

FT

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That such transform pairs exist is true for most well-behaved physical variables which are neither strictly monotonically increasing nor strictly monotonically decreasing with time.1 For charge and current densities varying in time we can therefore, without loss of generality, work with individual Fourier components ! .x/ and j! .x/, respectively. Strictly speaking, the existence of a single Fourier component assumes a monochromatic source (i.e., a source containing only one single frequency component), which in turn requires that the electric and magnetic ﬁelds exist for inﬁnitely long times. However, by taking the proper limits, we may still use this approach even for sources and ﬁelds of ﬁnite duration. 71

D

R A

While, in principle, the electric and magnetic ﬁelds can be calculated from the Maxwell equations in chapter 1, or even from the wave equations in chapter 2, it is often physically more lucid to calculate them from the electromagnetic potentials derived in chapter 3. In this chapter we will derive the electric and magnetic ﬁelds from the potentials. We recall that in order to ﬁnd the solution (3.46) for the generic inhomogeneous wave equation (3.30) on page 37 we presupposed the existence of a Fourier transform pair (3.31) on page 37 for the generic source term Z 1 f .t; x/ D d! f! .x/ e i!t (5.1a) 1 Z 1 1 f! .x/ D dt f .t; x/ ei!t (5.1b) 2 1

FT

1

FIELDS FROM ARBITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

An example of a physical quantity that cannot be represented in Fourier form is white noise.

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5 . F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

This is the method we shall utilise in this chapter in order to derive the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in vacuum from arbitrary given charge densities .t; x/ and current densities j.t; x/, deﬁned by the temporal Fourier transform pairs Z 1 .t; x/ D d! ! .x/ e i!t (5.2a) 1 Z 1 1 .x/ D dt .t; x/ ei!t (5.2b) ! 2 1 and j.t; x/ D d! j! .x/ e i!t 1 Z 1 1 j! .x/ D dt j.t; x/ ei!t 2 1 Z

1

(5.3a) (5.3b)

under the assumption that only retarded potentials produce physically acceptable solutions. The temporal Fourier transform pair for the retarded scalar potential can then be written Z 1 .t; x/ D d! ! .x/ e i!t (5.4a)

1

1 ! .x/ D 2

Z

1 1

dt .t; x/ ei!t D

FT

1 4 "0 Z d3x 0

V0 0 ! .x /

e ikjx x j jx x0 j

0

(5.4b)

R A

1

where in the last step, we made use of the explicit expression for the temporal Fourier transform of the generic potential component ‰! .x/, equation (3.43) on page 39. Similarly, the following Fourier transform pair for the vector potential must exist: Z 1 A.t; x/ D d! A! .x/ e i!t (5.5a) 1 A! .x/ D 2 Z

1

dt A.t; x/ ei!t D

0

Z

V0

1

4

d3x 0 j! .x0 /

e ikjx x j jx x0 j

0

(5.5b)

D

Similar transform pairs exist for the ﬁelds themselves. In the limit that the sources can be considered monochromatic containing only one single frequency !0 , we have the much simpler expressions .t; x/ D .t; x/ D

0 .x/e i!0 t i!0 t i!0 t i!0 t

(5.6a) (5.6b) (5.6c) (5.6d)

j.t; x/ D j0 .x/e

0 .x/e

A.t; x/ D A0 .x/e

where again the real-valuedness of all these quantities is implied. As discussed above, we can safely assume that all formulae derived for a general temporal

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5.1. The magnetic ﬁeld

j 73

Fourier representation of the source (general distribution of frequencies in the source) are valid for these simple limiting cases. We note that in this context, we can make the formal identiﬁcation ! D 0 ı.! !0 /, j! D j0 ı.! !0 / etc., and that we therefore, without any loss of stringency, let 0 mean the same as the Fourier amplitude ! and so on.

Let us now compute the magnetic ﬁeld from the vector potential, deﬁned by equation (5.5a) and equation (5.5b) on the preceding page, and formula (3.21) on page 35:

B.t; x/ D r

A.t; x/

The calculations are much simpliﬁed if we work in ! space and, at the ﬁnal stage, inverse Fourier transform back to ordinary t space. We are working in the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge and note that in ! space the Lorenz-Lorentz condition, equation (3.28) on page 37, takes the form

r A!

R A

i k c

!

D0

D

B! .x/ D r

which provides a relation between (the Fourier transforms of) the vector and scalar potentials. Using the Fourier transformed version of equation (5.7) and equation (5.5b) on the preceding page, we obtain

A! .x/ D

0

Z r

V0

4

d3x 0 j! .x0 /

FT

(5.7) (5.8) e ikjx x j jx x0 j

0

5.1 The magnetic ﬁeld

(5.9)

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5 . F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

R A

Induction ﬁeld

From this expression for the magnetic ﬁeld in the frequency (!) domain, we obtain the total magnetic ﬁeld in the temporal (t ) domain by taking the inverse Fourier transform (using the identity ik D i!=c): Z 1 B.t; x/ D d! B! .x/ e i!t 1 hR i (Z 0 1 d! j! .x0 /e i.!t kjx x j/ .x x0 / 1 0 3 0 dx D 4 jx x0 j3 V0 hR i ) 0 1 Z d! . i!/j! .x0 /e i.!t kjx x j/ .x x0 / 1 1 C d3x 0 c V0 jx x0 j2 Z Z 0 0 P 0 .x x0 / j.tret ; x0 / .x x0 / 0 0 3 0 j.tret ; x / D dx C d3x 0 4 4 c V0 jx x0 j3 jx x0 j2 V0 „ ƒ‚ … „ ƒ‚ …

Radiation ﬁeld

FT

Utilising formula (F.97) on page 200 and recalling that j! .x0 / does not depend on x, we can rewrite this as " !# Z 0 e ikjx x j 0 3 0 0 d x j! .x / r B! .x/ D 4 jx x0 j V0 "Z Â Ã x x0 0 0 3 0 0 d x j! .x / D e ikjx x j 0 j3 0 4 jx x V # Â Ã Z x x0 ikjx x0 j 1 3 0 0 C d x j! .x / ik e (5.10) jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 "Z 0 j! .x0 /e ikjx x j .x x0 / 0 D d3x 0 4 jx x0 j3 V0 # Z 0 . ik/j! .x0 /e ikjx x j .x x0 / C d3x 0 jx x0 j2 V0

(5.11)

D

where

def P 0 j.tret ; x0 / Á

Â

@j @t

Ã (5.12)

0 tDtret

0 and tret is given in equation (3.45) on page 40. The ﬁrst term, the induction ﬁeld , dominates near the current source but falls off rapidly with distance from it, is the electrodynamic version of the Biot-Savart law in electrostatics, formula (1.17) on page 8. The second term, the radiation ﬁeld or the far ﬁeld , dominates at large distances and represents energy that is transported out to inﬁnity. Note how the spatial derivatives (r ) gave rise to a time derivative (P)!

x /.15) ! .x x0 / 0 3 0 Œr ikj! .25) on page 10 r 0 j! .se/CED/Book Sheet: 97 of 262 . inserting equations (5.x0 /. 5.x0 / e ikjx x j ! .x / D ! Doing so in the last term of equation (5.2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x / dx c V0 jx x0 j jx x0 j „ ƒ‚ … I! (5. since Â 0 xl xl ikjx @ e j!m 0 @xm jx x0 j2 R A Ã D Â @j!m 0 @xm Ã xl 0 xl we see that we can express ! in terms of j! as follows i 0 0 r j! .x x0 / e ikj! .x/ Z Z 0 0 e ikjx x j 1 i 0! e ikjx x j r d3x 0 ! .4b) and (5. we use the temporally Fourier transformed version of formula (3. we can rewrite this equation as "Z 0 ikjx x0 j 1 .x x0 / ! .x /e D d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 # Â Ã Z 0 0 x0 / j! .13) above.17) Ã Â Z 0 0 x xl e ikjx x j 0 3 0 @j!m l O D dx ikj!l .16) e ikjx x j jx x0 j2 Â 0 xl xl ikjx @ C j!m 0 e @xm jx x0 j2 FT (5.14) 0 x0 j Ã (5.plasma.x/ D dx 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Ã ikjx x0 j # Â 0 Z 1 e j! .13) (5.18) .5b) as the explicit expressions for the Fourier transforms of and A: E! . and also using the fact that k D !=c.x x0 / 3 0 ! .x / xl 0 @xm jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 x0 j But.x ik d3x 0 c jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 r ! .2 The electric ﬁeld In order to calculate the electric ﬁeld.25) on page 36.x0 /.x0 / i! ! .x /e E! .x 0 /D0 D The last vector-valued integral can be further rewritten in the following way: Â 0 Ã ikjx x0 j Z Œr j! .x0 / I! D d3x 0 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j V (5.x0 / D C d3x 0 j! . The electric ﬁeld j 75 5.x0 / (5.uu.x0 / 0 4 "0 4 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 "Z V 0 ikjx x0 j 1 .x/ Using the Fourier transform of the continuity equation (1.x/ D C i!A! .

x/ D Using the triple product ‘bac-cab’ formula (F.x x0 / .x0 /e ikjx x j .x /e dx c V0 jx x0 j3 (5. the expression in time domain for the .se/CED/Book Sheet: 98 of 262 . the last term vanishes if j! is assumed to be limited and tends to zero at large distances. we ﬁnd.21).x0 / 0 4 "0 4 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 "Z V 0 ikjx x0 j 1 .x x0 / C d3x 0 c V0 jx x0 j4 # Z 0 ikjx x0 j ik . and inserting the resulting expression for I! into equation (5.x0 /e ikjx x j .16) on the previous page.x /e D d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Z 0 1 Œj! .x x0 /.x x0 / C d3x 0 c V0 jx x0 j4 Z 0 1 Œj! .20) D R A E! .21) Taking the inverse Fourier transform of equation (5.x0 / d3x 0 j! . once again using the vacuum relation ! D kc. Further evaluation of the derivative in the ﬁrst term makes it possible to write FT e ikjx x0 j Z I! D V0 dx Z ik V0 3 0 j! jx x0 j2 jx C 2 ! ikjx x0 j jx x0 j4 j! .73) on page 200 backwards.x x0 / . at last.x 0 x /e 0 0 dx 3 0 Œj! . according to Gauss’s theorem. we arrive at the following ﬁnal expression for the Fourier transform of the total E ﬁeld: Z Z 0 0 1 i 0! e ikjx x j e ikjx x j C r d3x 0 ! .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x x0 / ! .x x0 j3 x0 / e ikjx x0 j e ikjx x j C j! jx x0 j ! (5. F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS we can rewrite I! as # Â Ã 0 0 xl xl e ikjx x j @ ikjx x0 j O C ikj! I! D d x j!m 0 xl e @xm jx x0 j2 jx x0 j V0 Â Ã Z 0 xl xl @ 0 O C d3x 0 0 j!m xl e ikjx x j 0 j2 @xm jx x V0 Z " 3 0 (5. 76 j 5 .x x0 / 3 0 Œj! .x x / .uu.plasma.x x0 / .19) where.

x/ e i!t Z 0 1 .t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x0 / Intermediate ﬁeld Z V0 C d3x 0 .22) above. The ﬁelds which are dominating in this zone are by deﬁnition the radiation ﬁelds..plasma.tret . very far away from the source region(s).tret .. We shall therefore make the assumption that the observer is located in the far zone.x jx x0 / x0 j 4 .x x0 j4 x0 / … (5. which give the R A Here. From equation (5.x Intermediate ﬁeld ƒ‚ 1 C 4 "0 c 2 „ Z V0 d3x 0 P 0 Œj.22) x0 / … jx ƒ‚ 0 Œj.tret . The only assumption made is that the advanced potentials have been discarded. the ﬁrst term represents the retarded Coulomb ﬁeld and the last term represents the radiation ﬁeld which carries energy over very large distances. those parts of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds. x0 / . recall the discussion following equation (3.11) on page 74 and equation (5. calculated above.uu.e.x jx Radiation ﬁeld D 5.46) on page 40 in chapter 3. x0 / ƒ‚ .3. i. The other two terms represent an intermediate ﬁeld which contributes only in the near zone and must be taken into account there. FT x0 / . i. With this we have achieved our goal of ﬁnding closed-form analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds when the sources of the ﬁelds are completely arbitrary. x/ D Retarded Coulomb ﬁeld C 1 4 "0 c „ 1 4 "0 c „ Z V0 d3x 0 0 Œj.x x0 /. 5.x x0 / D d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 „ ƒ‚ … 1 Z 1 E.e. which are capable of carrying energy and momentum over large distances. prescribed distributions of charges and currents.se/CED/Book Sheet: 99 of 262 . The radiation ﬁelds j 77 total electric ﬁeld: d! E! .x x0 / x0 j 3 … .3 The radiation ﬁelds In this section we study electromagnetic radiation. x0 /.tret .

x/ D Instead of studying the ﬁelds in the time domain.t.tret . respectively and are explicitly given by 1 2 Z 1 dt Bfar .t. and the integration surface S. we obtain Bfar . x/ D Z 1 1 far d! B! .se/CED/Book Sheet: 100 of 262 . x0 / Á Z 1 1 d! Efar . we see . centred on x0 .tret . x0 / jx . has a large enough radius jx x0 j sup jx0 x0 j.10) on page 74 and equation (5.uu.x x0 /= jx x0 j.x x0 / ikjx i d3x 0 e 4 "0 c V 0 jx x0 j3 Z 1 Œj! .x0 / .25b) O where we used the fact that k D k k D k.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x x0 j 2 x0 / e ikjx x0 j (5.t.x0 / k .x/ D ! D D D jx Z 0 j! .23a) and equation (5.21) on page 76. 78 j 5 . x/ ei!t d3x 0 (5.x/ e i!t D 0 Z V0 4 c d3x 0 P 0 j.25a) 1 D D Efar .23b) Â @j @t Ã FT j! .x0 / .plasma. A superposition of all these components and a transformation back to the time domain will then yield the complete solution.x jx x0 / x0 j3 . x/ ei!t 2 1 Z k Œj! .x x0 / (5.x/ e ! Z V0 i!t 1 4 "0 c 2 d3x 0 P 0 Œj.23b) above were included in equation (5.x x0 j2 x0 / (5. we can often make a spectrum analysis into the frequency domain and study each Fourier component separately. If the source is located near a point x0 inside a volume V 0 and has such a limited spatial extent that sup jx0 x0 j jx x0 j.x x0 / ikjx x0 j i e d3x 0 4 "0 c V 0 jx x0 j2 V0 i k 4 0 Z x0 j (5.tret .t.x x0 / .24) 0 tDtret R A far B! . x/ D D where def P 0 j.23a) Efar .x / k ikjx x0 j 0 i d3x 0 e 0 4 jx x0 j V Z 1 1 dt Efar . F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS total electric and magnetic ﬁelds. x0 / . The Fourier representation of the radiation ﬁelds equation (5.

x x0 / Á k . The radiation ﬁelds j 79 O n O k S.x0 x0 / i d x Œj! .50) and formula (F.x x0 / 0 d3x 0 Œj! . we see that we can approximate O k dS jx x0 j 2 Á d2x x0 j2 O O k n d (5.1: Relation between the surface normal and the k vector for radiation generated at source points x0 near the point x0 in the source volume V 0 .uu.1 that we can approximate ˇ ˇ k ˇx x0 ˇ Á k . At distances much larger than the extent of V 0 .x/ i e d3x 0 e 4 jx x0 j V0 (5.x / k e 4 jx x0 j V 0 Z Œj! .28a) ikjx x0 j Z 0 e 3 0 0 ik .x0 x0 / 0 ikjx x0 j far B! . the unit O vector n.1 that k and n are nearly parallel. 5. O from ﬁgure 5.x0 / k ik .x/ i e ikjx x0 j d3x 0 e ! 4 "0 c jx x0 j2 V0 Z 1 e ikjx x0 j .x0 / x x x x0 x0 x0 x0 x0 V0 x0 Figure 5.se/CED/Book Sheet: 101 of 262 .3.x x0 / k jx x0 j k . and the O unit vector k of the radiation k vector from x0 are nearly coincident.28b) D R A x0 j2 d D jx x0 j2 sin Â dÂ d' jx FT k .26) the expressions (5. normal to the surface S which has its centre at x0 .x x0 / ik . Within approximation (5.plasma.27) Both these approximations will be used in the following.51) on page 198 that dS D jx O O and noting from ﬁgure 5.25b) for the radiation ﬁelds can be approximated as Z j! .x0 x0 / (5.x0 / k .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x0 x0 / 1 Efar .x 0 x0 / Recalling from Formula (F.x0 / k e ik .25a) and (5.26) .x x0 / i 0 4 "0 c jx x0 j jx x0 j V (5.

se/CED/Book Sheet: 102 of 262 ..Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS I. D R A FT .plasma.e.uu. then the ﬁelds can be approximated as spherical waves multiplied by dimensional and angular factors. 80 j 5 . with integrals over points in the source volume only. if sup jx0 x0 j jx x0 j.

radio astronomy and a host of other applications and technologies. wireless communications. from extremely distant stars and galaxies. of course. with the displacement current included. This consequence of Maxwell’s equations. and angular momentum are all conserved quantities and in this chapter we will show that these quantities can be radiated all the way to inﬁnity and therefore be used in wireless communications over long distances and for observing very remote objects in Nature. was veriﬁed experimentally by H E I N R I C H R U D O L F H E RT Z about twenty years after Maxwell had made his theoretical predictions. This is precisely what makes it possible for our eyes to observe light.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the radiation can. In chapter 4 we showed that the electromagnetic energy.1 However. and even more so radio signals. R A 81 D FT 1 RADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS This is referred to as time arrow of radiation.uu.plasma. The only limitation in the calculation of the ﬁelds was that the advanced potentials were discarded on—admittedly not totally convincing—physical grounds. . Hertz’s experimental and theoretical studies paved the way for radio and TV broadcasting. In chapter 3 we were able to derive general expressions for the scalar and vector potentials from which we later (in chapter 5) derived exact analytic expressions for the total electric and magnetic ﬁelds generated by completely arbitrary distributions of charge and current sources that are located in certain regions. linear momentum. radar. be sensed by other charges and currents that are located in free space. Radiation processes are irreversible in that the radiation does not return to the radiator but is lost from it forever. possibly very far away from the sources. including electromagnetic radiation sources in the Universe.se/CED/Book Sheet: 103 of 262 .

In the general case. be it classical or quantal. it is often difﬁcult to evaluate the source integrals unless the charge and current densities have a simple distribution in space. in practice. Today’s wireless communication technology. when Sfar is integrated over a large spherical shell (centred on the source) for which the dirO O O ected area element is d2x n D r 2 d r D r 2 sin Â dÂ d' r [cf. D R A FT . is based almost exclusively on the utilisation of this translational degree of freedom of the charges (currents) and the ﬁelds. tends to a constant at inﬁnity. and Efar . showing that energy U em and electromagnetic linear momentum pem is carried all the way to inﬁnity and is irreversibly lost there. Hence. the dominating component of the Poynting vector. at least in principle. Consequently. as well as other electromagnetic observables at any time at any point in space for an arbitrary charge and current density of the source. This is the physical foundation of the well-known fact that pem and U em can be transmitted over extremely long distances. Sfar . one has to resort to approximations. However. falls off as 1=r 2 and is purely radial there.25a).plasma. equation (5. equation (5. the leading order contributions to the E and B ﬁelds are purely transverse and fall off as 1=r. formula (F. linear momentum and angular momentum.uu.25b) on page 78. as given by the surface integral in equation (4. We shall consider both these situations in this chapter.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1 Radiation of linear momentum and energy We saw in chapter 5 that at large distances r from the source. calculate the radiated ﬁelds.40) on page 58. ﬂux of energy.51) on page 198]. Let us consider the linear momentum and energy that is carried in the far ﬁelds Bfar . one can. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Thus. at large distances r. 6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 104 of 262 . The force action (time rate of change of pem ) on charges in one region in space can therefore cause a force action on charges in a another region in space. 82 j 6 . the total integrated power. Signals with limited lifetime and hence ﬁnite frequency bandwidth have to be analysed differently from monochromatic signals.

as expected. is the physical foundation for the extremely important wireless communications technology. is ˇZ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ dP 1 ˇ d3x 0 . 6. we can obtain the temporal average of the radiated power P directly. even in vacuum.28b) for the ﬁelds and the p fact that 1=c D "0 0 . Besides determining the strength of the radiated power.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1 on page 79 that k and n are nearly parallel.1. we obtain ˇZ ˇ ˝ far ˛ 1 1 ˇ d3x 0 .x0 x0 / ˇ D R (6. Hence.x0 x0 / ˇ d2x D jx x0 j2 d D jx x0 j2 sin Â dÂ d' . We note that the emitted power is independent of distance and is therefore carried all the way to inﬁnity.28a) and (5. The possibility to transmit electromagnetic power over large distances. and also introducing the characteristic impedance of vacuum r def 0 R0 Á 376:7 (6.5) ˇ 2 0ˇ d 32 V0 D This formula is valid far away from the sources and shows that the radiated power is given by an expression which is resistance (R0 ) times the square of the supplied current (the integrated current density j! ). Radiation of linear momentum and energy j 83 6.4) x0 j Consequently. the amount of power per unit solid angle d that ﬂows across an inﬁnitesimal surface element r 2 d D jx x0 j2 d of a large spherical shell with its origin at x0 and enclosing all sources.50) on page 198 and formula (F.3) "0 ˇ2 ˇ x ˇ jx x0 (6. FT ik .uu.51) on page 198 we see that O O We also note from ﬁgure 5.2) for the vacuum resistance R0 . simply by averaging over one period so that ˚ « 1 1 1 Re fE B g D Re E! e i!t . we can approximate O O k d2x n jx x0 j2 Á d2x jx x0 j2 O O O O k nÁd k n d (6.1.j! S D R 2 ˇ 2 0 32 jx x0 j V0 R A k/e Using the far-ﬁeld approximations (5.1) From formula (F.B! e i!t / hE Bi D hSi D 2 0 2 0 0 ˚ « 1 1 D Re E! B! e i!t ei!t D Re fE! B! g 2 0 2 0 (6. the integral in formula (6.5) above also determines the angular distribution.plasma.se/CED/Book Sheet: 105 of 262 .j! k/e ik .1 Monochromatic signals If the source is strictly monochromatic.

E! B ! C E ! B! / D 0 0 Z 1 2 D d! .10) 0 ..se/CED/Book Sheet: 106 of 262 .E! B! 0 / e i.E! B ! / 0 0 ÂZ0 1 Ã Z 1 2 D d! .26) and (6.2) into equation (6. 84 j 6 . We insert the Fourier transforms of the ﬁeld components which dominate at large distances.E! B! C E! B! / (6.E ! B! / 0 0 0 Z 1 2 d! .9) ˇ 0 ˇ 4 "0 S jx x0 j 0 V Inserting the approximations (5.t / D d! .E! B ! / C d! .plasma. the far ﬁelds (5.E! B ! / 0 1 1 ÂZ 1 Ã Z 0 2 D d! .!C! /t 0 1 1 1 FT If we carry out the temporal integration ﬁrst and use the fact that Z 1 0 dt e i.!C! /t D 2 ı.E! B ! / C d! . after integration over the area S of a large sphere which encloses the source volume V 0 . The total energy transmitted through a unit area is the time integral of the Poynting vector: Z 1 Z 1 1 dt S.E! B ! / d! .uu.25b).1.7) R A 0 0 equation (6. i.E B/ 0 1 1 (6.2 Finite bandwidth signals A signal with ﬁnite pulse width in time (t ) domain has a certain spread in frequency (!) domain.e. is ˇZ ˇ r I Z 1 ˇ 1 j! k ikjx x0 j ˇ2 O 0 ˇ k O U D d2x n d! ˇ d3x 0 e (6. introducing the spectral energy density U! via the deﬁnition Z 1 def U Á d!U! (6.t / D dt .25a) and (5.6) can be written Z 1 Z 1 2 dt S. To calculate the total radiated energy we need to integrate over the whole bandwidth.! C ! 0 / 1 (6.9) above. The result.E! B ! / 0 1 ÂZ0 1 Ã Z 1 2 D d! .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.8) D where the last step follows from physical requirement of real-valuedness of E! and B! .6) Z 1 Z 1 Z 1 1 0 D d! d! 0 dt . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS 6.

6.t 0 / D We see that at very large distances r.t 0 / d3x 0 j.. but the same is also true for electromagnetic angular momentum J em .t 0 .13) (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 107 of 262 . FT (6. in complex notation. i.2 Radiation of angular momentum Not only electromagnetic linear momentum (Poynting vector) can be radiated from a source and transmitted over very long distances. After lengthy calculations.cq C In /I g C (6.x x0 / ˇ d! ˇ ˇ 0 d 4 V (6.uu. Z I.e. one ﬁnds that the complete cycle averaged far-zone expression for a frequency component ! of the electromagnetic angular momentum density generated by arbitrary charge and current sources can be approximated by ˚ « Â P O n Re .11) includes only source coordinates.14) .2. the angular momentum density hem falls off as 1=r 2 . based on the results obtained in chapter 5.plasma. purely transverse. x0 / V0 R A Z P d3x 0 j.12) jx x0 j3 where. It is important to notice that Formula (6.j! k/e ik . we obtain ˇ2 ˇZ ˇ ˇ 1 dU! 0 d! R0 ˇ d3x 0 . x0 / V0 and P I.t 0 .cq C In /I 1 em hh . the angular momentum becomes perpendicular to the linear momentum. it has precisely the same behaviour in the far zone as the linear momentum density and can therefore also transfer information wirelessly over large distances. there. is a good approximation to the energy that is radiated per unit solid angle d in a frequency band d!. 6. at large distances. The use of this rotational degree of freedom of the ﬁelds has only recently been put to practical use even if it has been known for more than a century. Radiation of angular momentum j 85 and recalling the deﬁnition (6. Then torque action (the time rate of change of J em ) in one region causes torque action on charges.e.3) on page 83.x0 /i D 32 2 "0 c 3 c jx x0 j2 Ã O n Re f. i.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.11) which. The only difference is that while the direction of the linear momentum (Poynting vector) becomes purely radial at inﬁnity. This means that the amount of energy that is being radiated is independent on the distance to the source (as long as it is large).

16c) with components Qij . is the electric quadrupole moment tensor.t. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS 6. 3 (Einstein’s summation convention over i and j is implied). i D 1. x0 / 2 i 4 "0 jx x0 j jx x0 j jx x0 j # Â Ã 3 .tret . Z d.e. and Z V0 D Q. one can then.tret .t/ 1 . i. 2.x0 0 x0 / .16a) is the total charge or electric monopole moment. At a large distance jx x0 j. and when we are interested in evaluating the radiation far from a source at rest and which is localised in a small volume. which focuses on the physics rather than the mathematics. approximate the potential by the Taylor expansion [cf.1 Electric multipole moments FT 0 x0 / .x x0 /i .3. i.t.1 on page 33] " 1 q.plasma. Then 0 t D t .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.uu.x0 (6. x0 / D d3x 0 .tret / 0 tret C Const (6.x0 x0 /. The source volume is so small that internal retardation effects can be neg0 lected. 2.47a) on page 40 has such a small extent that all the source points x0 can be assumed to be located very near a point x0 .x x0 /i . to obtain this expansion. x0 / Let us assume that the charge distribution determining the potential in equation (3. x/ D C d . example 3.17) . we can introduce an approximation which leads to a multipole expansion where individual terms can be evaluated analytically. x0 / (6. j D 1.x x0 /j 1 1 Qij . 6.3 Radiation from a localised source volume at rest In the general case.t.t. x0 / D d3x 0 . x0 / (6. that we can set tret t jx x0 j =c..se/CED/Book Sheet: 108 of 262 .t.tret . Here we use Hertz’s method . 3 is the electric dipole moment vector.15) (6. x0 / C ıij C : : : 2 jx x0 j jx x0 j 2 jx x0 j3 R A where Z q.16b) V0 with components di .t / D V0 0 d3x 0 . to a good approximation. 86 j 6 .

21) d .t 0 . x0 / d3x 0 (6. also known as the electric polarisation. non-cancelling dipole moment on the surface of the volume. the electric potential from this volume distribution P .t 0 . unless there is a O discontinuity in n P at the surface.47a) on page 40for the potential from a charge distribution . x0 / r 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j . For a normal medium.t. Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 87 where Const D jx c x0 j (6. x0 / d . we see that r P .t 0 . x/. x/.t 0 .t .t 0 .t . Particularly important is the dipole moment.t. the major contributions to the electrostatic interactions come from the net charge and the lowest order electric multipole moments induced by the polarisation due to an applied electric ﬁeld.t.t. x0 / r 0 P .t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. in which the second term is a polarisation term that we call pol . In analogy with the second term in the expansion equation (6.20) where the ﬁrst term. x0 / of electric dipole moments d at the source point x0 can be written Z 1 x x0 d3x 0 P .t. x / r P .t. x/ D 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 ÄI Z 0 0 0 1 P .18) Using expression (M. x/ has the characteristics of a charge density and that. x/. we ﬁnd that the contribution from the electric dipole moments to the potential is given by Z 1 r 0 P . which describes the effects of the induced. x / r (6.t. In the subsequent ana0 lysis in this Subsection we shall use t 0 to denote this approximate tret . x0 / 3 0 0 dx r d3x 0 d .plasma. the effective charge density becomes .t 0 . x/ D 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Comparing this expression with expression equation (3.19) 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Ã Â Z 1 1 D d3x 0 P .se/CED/Book Sheet: 109 of 262 . unit: C m 2 ). we can rewrite this expression for the potential as follows: ÄZ Â Ã Z 1 P .113) on page 224 and applying the divergence theorem. Let P denote the electric dipole moment density (electric dipole moment per unit volume. to the lowest order. 6. can be neglected.15) on the preceding page.t. Doing so.3. x/ r P . x/ D 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Ã Â Z 1 1 3 0 0 0 D d x P .uu. D R A FT 0 Hence the transformation between t and tret is a trivial. x0 / O D d2x 0 n0 d3x 0 4 "0 S 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 (6. in some medium.

24) R A true The vector is called the polarisation vector because.23a) which means that the associated ‘polarisation current’ now is the true current: FT @ r @t Cr @ D0 @t pol @ D j true @t (6. equations (3. respectively. We now introduce a further potential …e with the following property r …e D e (6.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 110 of 262 . formally.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/. It is called the Hertz vector or polarisation potential .e. the charge density must include all charges. using (6. expression (1.t. one ﬁnds.27) . 88 j 6 .t. satisfy their inhomogeneous wave equations. Since in the microscopic MaxwellLorentz equation (2. x/ D @t (6.3.23) and (6. x/ C r j true .2 The Hertz potential In section 6.26).22) If we adopt the same idea for the ‘true’ charge density due to free charges and introduce a vector ﬁeld .26a) (6. x/ such that the polarisation charge density pol D r P (6.26b) 1 @… DA c 2 @t where and A are the electromagnetic scalar and vector potentials.23b) As a consequence.1a) on page 20. but such that true def Á r (6. that the Hertz vector must satisfy the inhomogeneous wave equation 2 D …e D 1 @2 e … c 2 @t 2 r 2 …e D "0 (6.27) on page 36.t.1 we introduced the electric polarisation P ..uu.plasma.3.25) i. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS 6. analogous to P . we can write this equation r ED "0 D C "0 D r r P "0 (6. As we see. it treats also the ‘true’ (free) charges as polarisation charges. x/. respectively. the equation of continuity for ‘true’ charges and currents [cf.25) on page 10] is satisﬁed: @ true . Requiring that the scalar and vector potentials and A. in a form where all the charges are considered to be polarisation charges.t. …e acts as a ‘super-potential ’ in the sense that it is a potential from which we can obtain other potentials.

then the radiation at x is well approximated by a few terms in the multipole expansion.1) 0 eikjx x j is a Green function or propagator jx x0 j ‚ is the angle between x0 x0 and x Pn . Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 89 x x x x0 x0 x0 ‚ x0 V0 x0 x0 Figure 6. related to the m spherical harmonic Yn as s 2n C 1 .28) (6.plasma. due to the presence of non-vanishing .x x0 /j eikjx x j Á 0j jx x j. For this purpose we recall from potential theory that . '/ D P .1. O eikj.x x0 / .k jx n x0 j/ (6.Â.32) on the next 0 page.cos ‚/jn .se/CED/Book Sheet: 111 of 262 .cos ‚/ D n X mD n According to the addition theorem for Legendre polynomials m .k jx n x0 j/ is the spherical Hankel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n D Pn .1: Geometry of a typical multipole radiation problem where the ﬁeld point x is located some distance away from the ﬁnite source volume V 0 centred around x0 . in a formal series.n m/Š m m Yn .2n C 1/Pn .1/ . If k jx0 x0 j 1 k jx x0 j. expression (6.3.cos ‚/ is the Legendre polynomial of order n ˇ ˇ jn .tret .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.k ˇx0 x0 ˇ/ is the spherical Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n h.cos Â 0 /eim. x0 / in the vicinity of x0 .x0 x0 /j 1 X ˇ D ik . 6.cos Â /Pn m .1/ .uu.29) Assume that the source region is a limited volume around some central point x0 far away from the ﬁeld (observation) point x illustrated in ﬁgure 6. Under these assumptions. we can expand the Hertz vector.x x0 / .k ˇx0 nD0 0 0 where (see ﬁgure 6.cos Â/ eim' 4 . 1/m Pn .n C m/Š n FT ˇ x0 ˇ/h.' '0/ R A x0 m where Pn is an associated Legendre polynomial of the ﬁrst kind .

tret .se/CED/Book Sheet: 112 of 262 . as follows BD 1 @C c 2 @t C (6.30b) This equation is of the same type as equation (3.34a) (6.cos Â/ eim' n 4 "0 nD0 mD n Z ˇ ˇ 0 d3x 0 ! . the last equation is valid only if r E D 0 i.x /e jx x0 j (6.x/ D d3x 0 ! 4 "0 V 0 If we introduce the help vector C such that CDr …e FT 0 ikjx x0 j ! . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS and.k ˇx0 x0 ˇ/ Pn m . a long distance from the source region.ˇx0 x0 ˇ .uu.30a) (6.k jx x0 j/ Pn .35) We notice that there is no dependence on x x0 inside the integral. ˇ ˇ x0 x0 D . 1/m h. Since we are mainly interested in the ﬁelds in the so called far zone.x0 / jn .32). Â. '/ (6. respectively.33) we see that we can calculate the magnetic and electric ﬁelds.2n C 1/.28) on the preceding page. Â 0 . in spherical polar coordinates. and has therefore the retarded solution Z 0 1 . Inserting equation (6.29) on the previous page.plasma. if we are outside the source volume.36) .31) d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j with Fourier components Z 1 …e . together with formula (6. this is no essential limitation.e.1/ . we can in a formally exact way expand the Fourier component of the Hertz vector as 1 n ik X X m .30) on page 37.32) (6.34b) D R A …e D ! V0 EDr Clearly. i.e.cos Â 0 / e im' (6. We are interested in the case where the ﬁeld point is many wavelengths away from the well-localised sources..Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x0 / e … .jx x0 j .t.. ' 0 / x x0 D . 90 j 6 . into equation (6. the integrand is only dependent on the relative source vector x0 x0 . when the following inequalities ˇ ˇ k ˇx 0 x 0 ˇ 1 k jx x0 j (6. x/ D (6.

se/CED/Book Sheet: 113 of 262 .40) …e ! 1 X …e . Then we may to a good approximation replace h.37) on page 91 are not unique.35) on the preceding page.1/ with the ﬁrst term in n its asymptotic expansion: h.3 Electric dipole radiation Choosing n D 0 in expression (6.39b).2n C 1/Š ˇ x0 ˇ n (6. if many …e .3.2n/Š Z ˇ d3x 0 ! .x0 / D d! ! 4 "0 jx x0 j V 0 4 "0 jx x0 j R A FT ˇ x0 ˇ/n Pn . 6.39b). The resulting expression can then in turn be inserted into equations (6.cos ‚/ (6. we obtain Z eikjx x0 j 1 eikjx x0 j …e . Let us now study the lowest order contributions to the expansion of the Hertz vector.0/ D d3x 0 ! .cos Â / gives the angular distribution of the radiation.n/ ! (6. Taking the inverse Fourier transform of …e will yield the Hertz vector in ! time domain.x0 / .1/ .k jx n x0 j/ . and Pn .38) Inserting these expansions into equation (6.uu. which inserted into equation (6.3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 91 hold. In the general case. the expansions of the spherical ! Hankel and Bessel functions used above may not be consistent and must be replaced by more accurate expressions.k ˇx0 ˇ x 0 ˇ/ ˇ 2n nŠ k ˇx 0 . Furthermore.29) on page 89.39b) (6.n/ terms are needed for an accurate result. we obtain the multipole expansion of the Fourier component of the Hertz vector nD0 where …e . asymptotic expansions as the one used in equation (6. 6. i/n ! 1 eikjx x0 j 2n nŠ 4 "0 jx x0 j . For a linear source distribution along the polar axis.k ˇx0 V0 D This expression is approximately correct only if certain care is exercised. the angular distribution must be computed with the help of formula (6.37) and replace jn with the ﬁrst term in its power series expansion: ˇ jn .n/ D .33) on the facing page will yield C. however.34) on the preceding page in order to obtain the radiation ﬁelds.plasma.39a) . ‚ D Â in expression (6. i/nC1 eikjx x0 j k jx x0 j (6.

42b) (6.42a) (6. the Fourier component of the electric dipole moment R A d.0/ are ! O …e Á …e .16b) on page 86]. x0 / D dx 3 0 V0 Z . If a spherical coordinate system is chosen with its polar axis along d! as in ﬁgure 6. x / D FT 0 0 ' Z d3x 0 .33) on page 90 for the help vector C. the components of …e .2.0/ inserted.41) [cf.t.0/ r D r ! def 1 eikjx x0 j d! cos Â 4 "0 jx x0 j 1 eikjx x0 j d! sin Â 4 "0 jx x0 j (6. with the spherically polar components (6. x0 / (6.x0 V0 x0 / .se/CED/Book Sheet: 114 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Â. equation (6.43) Applying this to equations (6. by deﬁnition.' 1 O ®D 4 "0 Â jx 1 x0 j Ã ik eikjx x0 j O d! sin Â ® jx x0 j (6.x0 / is. d! D V 0 d3x 0 ! . we obtain directly the Fourier .0/ ® D 0 ' ! Evaluating formula (6. ') is chosen such that the electric dipole moment d (and thus its Fourier transform d! ) is located at the origin and directed along the polar axis. 92 j 6 .r. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. the calculations are simpliﬁed.0/ C!.t .42) of …e .uu.2: If a spherical polar coordinate system .0/ ™ D ! Â def D O …e Á …e . O k x3 x Efar Bfar Â d O r x2 x1 Since represents a dipole moment density for the ‘true’ charges (in the same R vein as P does so for the polarised charges).t 0 .34) on page 90. we obtain ! C! D .42c) def O …e Á …e .plasma.

d! 4 "0 jx x0 j k/ (6. one obtains A FT ! 4 0 Keeping only those parts of the ﬁelds which dominate at large distances (the radiation ﬁelds) and recalling that the wave vector k D k.kr r Ã O !t 0 / ® (6. and using a spherical coordinate system .x x0 /= jx x0 j where k D !=c.t. the physically observable ﬁelds are found to be R ! 4 0 Â D E.t.44) above. Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 93 components of the ﬁelds ! i 4 0 Â jx x0 j " Â 1 1 E! D 2 4 "0 jx x0 j2 Â 1 C jx x0 j2 B! D 1 Ã ik eikjx x0 j O d! sin Â ® (6.51) on page 59 for the electromagnetic linear momentum density to the ﬁelds from a pure electric dipole. Linear and angular momenta radiated from an electric dipole in vacuum The Fourier amplitudes of the ﬁelds generated by an electric dipole. also known as E1 radiation. x/ D where t 0 D t B. '/. 6.plasma.44a) jx x0 j Ã x x0 ik cos Â jx x0 j jx x0 j # Ã ikjx x0 j ik 2 O e k sin Â ™ d! jx x0 j jx x0 j (6.uu.45b) E X A M P L E 6.kr r2 1 k k2 O cos. Â.kr !t 0 / C 2 sin.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 115 of 262 . are given by formulæ (6. equations (6.r. d! . we can now write down the Fourier components of the radiation parts of the magnetic and electric ﬁelds from the dipole: eikjx x0 j . Applying formula (4.d! jx x0 j k/ (6. oscillating at the angular frequency !.3.45a) k 1 eikjx x0 j Œ.46) above.kr !t 0 / ™ 3 r r r Â Ã 1 1 k O C dw cos Â cos.kr !t 0 / cos.kr !t 0 / r (6.44b) far B! D ! 4 0 eikjx x0 j O d! k sin Â ® D jx x0 j Efar D ! 1 eikjx x0 j O d! k 2 sin Â ™ D 4 "0 jx x0 j These ﬁelds constitute the electric dipole radiation. Inverse Fourier transforming to the time domain. x/ D d! sin Â 1 sin.1 !t 0 / k cos.kr !t 0 / C 2 sin.46a) ! .46b) 2 "0 r3 r 1 dw sin Â 4 "0 r=c is the retarded time.

uu. x0 / (6.kr r2 ! 16 0 2 d 2 ! (6.kr r2 O !t 0 / r gem C k sin2 .53) V0 .kr r5 !t 0 / C !t 0 / 2 k cosŒ2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.kr r4 0 2 d 2 ! !t 0 / k2 sin.kr r3 !t 0 / cos2 .e.49) and using equation (6. Applying formula (4.kr r cos2 .kr r5 !t 0 / !t 0 / cos.t 0 .47) Using well-known trigonometric relations.kr r3 !t 0 / k2 sinŒ2.kr ! 16 C sin2 Â 1 sin. is strictly radial only at inﬁnity. and hence the Poynting vector.kr O !t 0 / ® (6.72) on page 63 for the electromagnetic angular momentum density with the momentum point chosen as x0 D 0.51) 2 k cosŒ2.kr r4 !t 0 / 2 k2 sinŒ2.kr !t 0 / cos. this can be put in the form Ä ! 0 2 1 k gem D d! sin Â cos Â 5 sinŒ2. hem D x (6.kr !t 0 / 8 2 ! r R or hem D !t 0 / cos. we ﬁnd that for a pure electric dipole Ä ! 0 2 1 em h D d sin Â cos Â 4 sin.se/CED/Book Sheet: 116 of 262 .kr r3 !t 0 / cos.kr !t 0 / 2 4 cosŒ2.kr r4 k3 C 2 cos2 .t 0 . i.kr !t 0 / k2 sin. formula (4.52) and the total electromagnetic angular momentum is (cf.50) Ä sin Â cos Â D 1 sinŒ2.kr r3 !t 0 / 2 k2 sin.kr !t 0 / (6.kr r3 0 2 d 2 ! !t 0 / A FT O !t 0 / ™ C ! 32 sin2 Â Ä 1 sinŒ2.57b) on page 60) Z em p D d3x 0 gem .kr r3 k3 1 C cosŒ2.kr r2 The total electromagnetic linear momentum is (cf.48) which shows that the linear momentum density..48) above.kr r5 !t 0 / O !t 0 / r !t 0 / cos.kr r4 !t 0 / O !t 0 / ® (6.kr 16 2 r r k2 sinŒ2.kr !t 0 / k sin2 . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS gem D "0 E C C BD ! 8 0 2 d 2 ! sin Â cos Â cos2 .78b) on page 64) Z em J D d3x 0 hem .kr !t 0 / O !t 0 / ™ k sin2 . 94 j 6 . x0 / V0 (6. formula (4.kr 1 sin.plasma.kr !t 0 / cos.

e. 6.40) on page 58].55) End of example 6. both the linear momentum density gem and the angular momentum density hem fall off as 1=r 2 far away from the source region.x 0 x0 / . I.x 0 Z d x Œ.x x0 / .i 1 eikjx x0 j ik 4 "0 jx x0 j2 x0 / .i /.x0 and introducing Ái D xi Á0 i D xi0 x0.58a) (6.plasma.kr 8 2 ! r2 ! 0 2 k2 O d sin Â cos Â sinŒ2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 117 of 262 . This means that when they are integrated over a spherical surface / r 2 located at a large distance from the source [cf.1 ˇ x0 ˇ 0 ! . to leading order.4 Magnetic dipole radiation The next term in the expression (6.x Œ.x ! . the last term in the LHS of formula (4.58b) .39b) on page 91 for the expansion of the Fourier transform of the Hertz vector is for n D 1: …e . 6.x 0 x0 / / / (6..x0 ! . there is a net ﬂux so that the integrated momenta do not fall off with distance and can therefore be transported all the way to inﬁnity.t.x 0 V0 x0 / / D .x / cos ‚ (6.i / ! . the term Œ.56) ! .xi0 FT (6.far .uu. Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 95 In order to get a total net J em .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.kr !t 0 /® D 16 2 ! r 2 O !t 0 /® respectively.54) sin2 Â 1 C cosŒ2.1/ D ! i eikjx x0 j 4 "0 jx x0 j Z ˇ d3x 0 k ˇx0 3 0 R A V0 D D Here. We note that in the far zone the linear and angular momentum densities tend to gem. x/ ! 16 ! D 32 3 0 2k d! 2 2 r 3 0 2k d! 2 2 r sin2 Â cos2 . x/ ! 0 2 k2 d sin Â cos Â sin. Perhaps the most common conﬁguration yielding a total net J em is two orthogonal co-located dipoles with =2 phase shift between them.i x0.t.kr !t 0 / cos.xi / can be rewritten x0.57) (6.far .kr and hem.3.3.x 0 x0 / x0. it is convenient to superimpose several individual dipoles of (possibly) different strengths and relative phases.kr !t 0 /O r O !t 0 / r (6.

x x0 / d3x 0 ! . j .. as the sum of two parts.59) 0 !.e.plasma. .x0 x0 / 2 V0 Z 1 (6.x0 x0 / ! . x/ D !e i!t FT x0 / m! 1 0 Œ !.23) on page 88.i Áj i.j Ái 0 !.i Áj (6. and the fact that we are considering a single Fourier component.Á ! /j 2 « 1˚ D . antisym ! . 96 j 6 .1/ can be broken up into ! fŒ. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS the j th component of the integrand in …e .x 0 /gj D 1 Ái 2 1 C Ái 2 0 !.x0 x0 / j 2 D (6.j Ái 0 !.63) D i .61) allow us to express ! ! in j! as R A Di j! ! (6.i / i 2 1 D Œ ! .Ái !.x0 / .se/CED/Book Sheet: 118 of 262 .1/ can ! be written …e.x x0 / .uu. We note that the antisymmetric part can be written as 1 Ái 2 0 !. magnetic dipole.65) .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the ﬁrst being symmetric and the second antisymmetric in the indices i. part of …e .Ái Á0 / Áj .x x0 / Œ ! .i Áj The utilisation of equations (6.64) 2 V0 The ﬁnal result is that the antisymmetric.56) on the previous page as Z 1 .j Ái C 0 !.x 4 "0 ! jx x0 j2 (6.j .x0 / .x0 x0 / j! .t.1/ D eikjx x0 j k . we can write the antisymmetric part of the integral in formula (6.x x0 / m! ! D where we introduced the Fourier transform of the magnetic dipole moment Z 1 m! D d3x 0 .60) (6.x0 / (6.x0 x0 / 2! V0 1 D i .Á Á0 / Á0 .x x0 / d3x 0 j! .62) Hence.

k Q! / 8 "0 jx x0 j i k This type of radiation is called electric quadrupole radiation or E2 radiation. all terms belonging to the near ﬁelds and transition ﬁelds and keeping only the terms that dominate at large distances. x0 / (6.tret .39b) on page 91 for the expansion of the Hertz vector can be expressed in terms of the electric quadrupole tensor.plasma.x/ D eikjx x0 j .k Q! / jx x0 j k (6.16c) on page 86: Z 0 Q. yields the resulting ﬁelds.4. x0 / D d3x 0 . conducting medium of simple geometry at rest such as in a stationary antenna.68a) (6.34) on page 90.33) on page 90 to evaluate C. which is deﬁned in accordance with equation (6. D 6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.67) V0 far B! . Tedious. 6. This is for instance the case when the radiating current ﬂows in a ﬁnite.34) on page 90 then gives the B and E ﬁelds.3.1/ The symmetric part …! of the n D 1 contribution in the equation (6.66b) Efar . Radiation from an extended source volume at rest j 97 In analogy with the electric dipole case.5 Electric quadrupole radiation e. as before. The components of the ﬁelds that dominate in the far ﬁeld zone (wave zone) are given by eikjx x0 j . but fairly straightforward algebra (which we will not present here).uu. Discarding.se/CED/Book Sheet: 119 of 262 . 6.t. sym .33) on page 90 to calculate the ﬁelds via equations (6.x/ D ! k eikjx x0 j m! 4 "0 c jx x0 j which are the ﬁelds of the magnetic dipole radiation (M1 radiation).m! 4 jx x0 j 0 k/ k k (6.4 Radiation from an extended source volume at rest Certain radiating systems have a symmetric geometry or are in any other way simple enough that a direct (semi-)analytic calculation of the radiated ﬁelds and energy is possible. we obtain far B! .x0 x0 /. FT k . with which equations (6.66a) (6.x/ D R A i 0! Again we use this expression in equation (6.x/ D ! eikjx x0 j Œ.68b) 8 Efar .x0 x0 / . we insert this expression into equation (6.

x3 / D 0 . by 0 0 0 0 O j. equations (5.x0 / exp. x3 / is the current (measured in A) along the antenna wire. the antenna current is. by I0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 120 of 262 .g. i!0 t 0 / [cf. For simplicity.t 0 . The antenna current forms a standing wave as indicated in ﬁgure 6.x3 / exp. where the antenna is fed across a very short gap in the conducting wire.. L=2/ D I.t 0 .x3 / of the antenna current fulﬁls the time-independent wave equation (Helmholtz equation) (6. in complex notation. equal to the supplied current.4. a transmitter) onto a stationary. Choosing our coordinate system such that the x3 axis is along the antenna axis. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS 6. Since we can assume that the antenna wire is inﬁnitely thin. the antenna current density can be represented. assumed to be constant and supplied by the generator/transmitter at the antenna feed point (in our case the midpoint of the antenna wire) and 1= sin..x2 /I. Linear antennas of this type are called dipole antennas. x0 / D j0 . Due to the applied EMF.x1 /ı. straight.kL=2/ is a normalisation factor. At the midpoint.0/ D I0 (6. time-varying current.t 0 .x3 / D I0 (6.e. 0 For each Fourier frequency component !0 .1 . i. conducting wire across a very short gap at its centre.kL=2/ where I0 is the amplitude of the antenna current (measured in A).x1 /ı. we assume that the conductor resistance and the energy loss due to the electromagnetic radiation are negligible.71) sin.70) D This second-order ordinary differential equation with constant coefﬁcients has the well-known solution ˇ 0ˇ sinŒk.x2 /J. x3 / can 0 0 be written as I. linear.71) above by the ﬁrst term in its Taylor expansion. i!0 t / so that the antenna current density can be represented as j. 02 dx3 FT I. the charges in this thin wire of ﬁnite length L are set into linear motion to produce a time-varying antenna current which is the source of the EM radiation. When the antenna is short we can approximate the current distribution formula (6.5) on page 83 to calculate the radiated EM power from a one-dimensional.6) on page 72] where 0 0 0 O j0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. thin. 98 j 6 .t 0 . of course.69) 0 and where the spatially varying Fourier amplitude I. I.1 Radiation from a one-dimensional current distribution Let us apply equation (6.t 0 . the antenna current J. the antenna current must vanish at the endpoints L=2 and L=2.uu.x3 / x3 R A d2 I 0 C k 2 I. Such a current can be set up by feeding the EMF of a generator (e.L=2/ D 0 . x3 / x3 (measured in Am 2) where J.3 on the facing page.L=2 ˇx3 ˇ/ 0 I.plasma. x0 / D ı.x0 / D ı.

kL=2/ For a half-wave dipole antenna (L D =2). The current in the feeder and the antenna wire is set up by the EMF of the generator (the transmitter).kx3 / R A ˇ 0ˇ 2 ˇx3 ˇ =L/ while for a short antenna (L ) it can be approximated by 0 0 j0 . arbitrary length L directed along the 0 x3 axis. the current is reﬂected back with a 180ı phase shift to produce a antenna current in the form of a standing wave.x2 / exp. kL D ) formula (6. For a half-wave antenna (L D =2 .x / D 0 0 0 sinŒk.72) inserted.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.kx3 / In order to evaluate formula (6.L=2 I0 ı.5) on page 83 with the explicit monochromatic current (6.x1 /ı. x0 / L 2 Figure 6.uu.x2 / ˇ 0ˇ ˇx ˇ/ 3 O x3 sin. Hence.73) (6. the antenna current density is simply 0 0 0 j0 .x0 / D I0 ı.4. inﬁnitely thin antenna of ﬁnite.74) (6.x2 / cos.x1 /ı.kx3 /.1 D In the case of a travelling wave antenna.x0 / D I0 ı.x1 /ı. we use a spherical polar coordinate system as in FT (6. Radiation from an extended source volume at rest j 99 sinŒk. the Fourier amplitude of the antenna current density is j0 . 0 2jx3 j=L/.75) .x1 /ı.se/CED/Book Sheet: 121 of 262 . At the ends of the wire.x2 /.x0 / D I0 ı.72) (6.t 0 . in which one end of the antenna is connected to ground via a resistance so that the current at this end does not vanish.L=2 ˇ 0ˇ ˇx ˇ/ 3 L 2 j. in the most general case of a straight.71) 0 on the facing page simpliﬁes to I0 cos.plasma. the Fourier amplitude of the antenna current density is 0 0 0 j0 .3: A linear antenna used for transmission. 6.

4 to evaluate the source integral ˇZ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ ˇ d3x 0 j0 k e ik .L=2 0 dx3 I0 D Inserting this expression and d D 2 sin Â dÂ into formula (6.k 2 / Â Ã2 cos.5) on page 83 and integrating over Â .kL=2/ sin Â sin.4: We choose a spherical polar coordinate system .78) .x / 0 O k x2 x1 R A V0 ﬁgure 6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Â.kL=2/ cos Â cos.77) One can show that lim P . ') and arrange it so that the linear electric dipole antenna axis (and thus the antenna current density j! ) is along the polar axis with the feed point at the origin.kL=2/ Ã2 sin Â (6.L/ D R0 I0 1 4 Z dÂ 0 FT L 2 ' ˇ 0ˇ ˇx ˇ/ 3 0 ikx3 cos Â ikx0 cos Â0 ˇ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ ˇ Â cosŒ.kL=2/ 2 cosŒ.plasma.se/CED/Book Sheet: 122 of 262 .kx3 cos Â/ˇ D I0 2 L ˇe ˇ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ 0 sin .r D jxj .x0 x0 / ˇ ID ˇ ˇ ˇZ ˇ ˇ D ˇ ˇ L 2 k sin Âe e sin. we ﬁnd that the total radiated power from the antenna is 2 P .76) L 2 sinŒk. O r x3 D z L 2 O ® x O ™ Â j! . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.kL=2/ cos Â D 4I0 sin Â sin.L/ D Â Ã2 L 12 2 R0 I0 kL!0 (6.uu. 100 j 6 .kL=2/ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ ˇ2 ˇ Z L ˇ 2 2 2 ˇ 0 0 0 2 k sin Â ˇ ikx0 cos Â0 ˇ ˇ dx3 sin.kL=2 kx3 / cos.kL=2/ (6.

2 / 2 0 v 2 2 D where in the last step the Euler-Mascheroni constant D 0:5772 : : : and the cosine integral Ci.se/CED/Book Sheet: 123 of 262 . it can in fact also be evaluated analytically as follows: . For the technologically important case of a half-wave antenna.80) Z 0 cos2 R 1:22 Z 1 cos Â cos2 2 u dÂ D Œcos Â ! u D du D sin Â u2 1 1 Ä Á 1 C cos. The quantity P .81) E X A M P L E 6. =2/ D 2 R0 I0 1 4 Z dÂ 0 cos2 cos Â 2 sin Â (6.1 C u/. Inserting this into the expression equation (6.e.1 C u/ 4 1 . But. =2/ 73 .2 The integral in (6. We choose the Cartesian coordinate system x1 x2 x3 with its origin at the centre of the loop as in ﬁgure 6. According to equation (5.1 u/ Z Z 1 1 1 C cos.79) is called the radiation resistance. formula (6.L/ R . u/ D du 2 1 . i.1 u/ Z h 1 1 1 C cos.80) above we obtain the value Rrad .L/ D 2 D 1 2 D R0 6 Ieff I 2 0 rad Â Ã2 L 197 Â Ã2 L (6.5 on the following page. u/ vi D du D 1 C u ! 2 1 . u/ D du C du 4 1 . Radiation from a two-dimensional current distribution As an example of a two-dimensional current distribution we consider a circular loop antenna of radius a and calculate the far-zone Efar and Bfar ﬁelds from such an antenna.plasma.x/ were introduced.80) can always be evaluated numerically. u/ cos2 u D 2 2 Z 1 1 1 C cos.1 C u/ Z 1 2 1 cos v 1 D dv D Œ C ln 2 Ci. u/ 1 1 1 C cos. Radiation from an extended source volume at rest j 101 where is the vacuum wavelength.L/ P ..uu.28a) on page 79 the Fourier component of the radiation part of the A FT (6. for L D =2 or kL D . 6.77) on the facing page reduces to P .4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

uu. This means that the antenna current oscillates in the form of a sinusoidal standing current wave around the circular loop with a Fourier amplitude O a/ı.z 0 /®0 (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 124 of 262 . monochromatic current source is far B! D A FT x0 x1 '0 O ®0 O ¡0 i 0 eikjxj 4 jxj Z V0 j! . '/ describes the ﬁeld point x (the radiation ﬁeld) and the cylindrical coordinate system .x0 / ' d3x 0 e ik x0 j! k (6.82) R j! D I0 cos ' 0 ı. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. The circumference of the loop is chosen to be exactly one wavelength D 2 c=!. z 0 / describes the source point x0 (the antenna current).5: For the loop antenna the spherical coordinate system . we obtain for the . Â.83) For the spherical coordinate system of the ﬁeld point. 102 j 6 . we recall from subsection F. 0 In our case the generator produces a single frequency ! and we feed the antenna across a small gap where the loop crosses the positive x1 axis. 0 .r.1 on page 198 that the following relations between the base vectors hold: O O O O r D sin Â cos ' x1 C sin Â sin ' x2 C cos Â x3 O sin Â x3 O O sin ' x1 C cos ' x2 D O O O ™ D cos Â cos ' x1 C cos Â sin ' x2 O ®D and O O O x1 D sin Â cos ' r C cos Â cos ' ™ O O x3 D cos Â r O sin Â ™ O sin ' ® O O O O x2 D sin Â sin ' r C cos Â sin ' ™ C cos ' ® With the use of the above transformations and trigonometric identities. ' 0 . O r x3 D z D z 0 O ® x O ™ Â O k x2 O z0 magnetic ﬁeld generated by an extended.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.4.plasma.

89) can be rewritten Z 2 00 e ika sin Â cos ' sin ' 00 cos. the ﬁrst integral in the RHS of (6.86) O O O z0 D x3 D cos Â r O O This choice of coordinate systems means that k D k r and x0 D a¡0 so that k x0 D ka sin Â cos.85) (6.' 0 O '/™ C cos.91) O ®0 k D kŒcos.' 0 O '/® (6.' 0 O '/ cos ' 0 d' 0 ® cos2 ' 00 d' 00 C a vanishing integral 1 1 C cos 2' 00 2 2 d' 00 Ã d' 00 (6. recalling that in cylindrical coordinates d3x 0 0 d 0 d' 0 dz 0 .' 0 O ®0 D D sin Â sin.88) .' 00 C '/ d' 00 0 D 1 sin ' 2 Z 0 2 e Z 0 2 ika sin Â cos ' 00 1 sin ' 2 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 A FT D cos.' '/ I0 cos ' 0 ®0 k V0 0 Z D I0 ak 0 2 e ika sin Â cos.2' 00 / d' 00 d' 00 cos 2' 00 d' 00 (6.' 0 O '/™ C cos Â sin.plasma.87) With these expressions inserted. the second integral in the RHS of (6. and utilising standard trigonometric identities. 2 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 125 of 262 .' 0 O '/ cos ' 0 d' 0 ™ (6.' 0 and '/ (6.uu.' 0 O '/™ C sin.' 0 '/ Utilising the periodicity of the integrands over the integration interval Œ0. the source integral becomes Z Z 2 0 0 O d3x 0 e ik x j! k D a d' 0 e ika sin Â cos.84) (6.' 0 r '/O r O sin Â ™ cos Â sin. Radiation from an extended source volume at rest j 103 cylindrical coordinate system which describes the source: O O O ¡0 D cos ' 0 x1 C sin ' 0 x2 D sin Â cos.89) sin.' 0 O '/® O '/® O O sin ' 0 x1 C cos ' 0 x2 (6.' 0 '/ Z C I0 ak cos Â 0 2 e ika sin Â cos.89) can be rewritten Z 2 00 e ika sin Â cos ' cos ' 00 cos.90) Â cos.' 0 '/O C cos Â cos. introducing the auxiliary integration variable ' 00 D ' 0 '.' 00 C '/ d' 00 0 D cos ' D cos ' D R e 0 Z 2 ika sin Â cos ' 00 Z 2 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 0 1 cos ' 2 C Z 2 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 0 D 1 cos ' 2 Z 2 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 0 Analogously. 6.

uu.x/ D i ikr 0e 4 r O O IÂ ™ C I' ® (6. / D .95) To obtain the desired physical magnetic ﬁeld in the radiation (far) zone we must Fourier transform back to t space and take the real part: ( i . 104 j 6 .kr !t 0 / cos ' ŒJ0 . Jn .96) Ã O C cos Â sin ' ŒJ0 .ka sin Â/ ® so that.se/CED/Book Sheet: 126 of 262 .94) O C I0 ak cos Â sin ' ŒJ0 .92) cos n' d' which means that Z 0 2 ika sin Â cos ' 00 e Z 0 2 d' 00 D 2 J0 . 1/n Jn . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS As is well-known from the theory of Bessel functions.ka sin Â/ ™ Á O O IÂ ™ C I' ® ) Á O J2 . / Z i n /D e i 0 cos ' cos n' d' D i n 2 Z 0 2 e i cos ' (6.ka sin Â/ (6.t.ka sin Â/ (6.ka sin Â/ ™ D I0 ak cos ' ŒJ0 . we can obtain the radiated E ﬁeld with the help of Maxwell’s equations.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. End of example 6.ikr !t 0 / 0e B . in spherical coordinates where jxj D r.ka sin Â/ C J2 . we ﬁnd that Z V0 d3x 0 e ik x0 j! O O k D IÂ ™ C I' ® FT O J2 .kr 0 Á O O !t 0 / IÂ ™ C I' ® Â sin.plasma. x/ D Re D far 4 r 0 D 4 r I0 ak D 4r sin. R A far B! .ka sin Â/ ® From this expression for the radiated B ﬁeld.ka sin Â/ (6.ka sin Â/ C J2 . Jn .2 .93) cos 2' d' D 00 00 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 2 J2 .ka sin Â/ Putting everything together.

The part of this ‘charge distribution’ dq 0 which we are considering is located in dV 0 D d3x 0 in the sphere in ﬁgure 6.97b) 6. In order to handle this non-stationary situation.t/ is located at x0 . x0 / R 3 0 0 and V 0 d x v .tret .t 0 .98) 4 . we start from the retarded potentials (3.6 on the following page.tret .tret /j V0 Z d3x 0 (6. respectively. Speciﬁcally.t 0 /j jx.x and consider a source region with such a limited spatial extent that the charges and currents are well localised.tret .plasma.t.tret .47) on page 40 in chapter 3 .uu. x0 / R A .tret / 0 .97) is V 0 d3x 0 . x0 / v 0 . The radius interval of this sphere from which radiation is received at the ﬁeld point x during the time interval . unstructured and rigid ‘charge distribution’ with a small.t 0 / 0 0 dS dt jx x0 j where the last term represents the amount of ‘source leakage’ due to the fact that the charge distribution moves with velocity v 0 . for instance an electron. 6.r 0 .97a) (6.t. because in the ﬁnite time interval during which the observed signal is generated.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x0 /. we R 0 cannot say that the charge and current to be used in (6.t 0 / on a sphere with radius r D jx x0 j D c. Since we assume that the electron (or any other similar electric charge) moves with a velocity v 0 whose direction is arbitrary and whose magnitude can even be comparable to the speed of light. we consider a charge q 0 .1 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials D The charge distribution in ﬁgure 6. can be thought of as a localised. x. part of the charge distribution will ‘leak’ out of the volume element d3x 0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 127 of 262 .6 on page 106 which contributes to the ﬁeld at x.t / x ret V0 0 0 j tret . t 0 C dt 0 / is .tret / d3x 0 0 jx. x0 . Since dt 0 D dr 0 =c FT (6.5.t 0 / D dx0 =dt 0 .5 Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion The derivation of the radiation ﬁelds for the case of the source moving relative to the observer is considerably more complicated than the stationary cases that we have studied so far. which.t t 0 /. ﬁnite radius. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 105 6.5. x0 / dS 0 dr 0 0 .t / x0 . x/ D 1 4 "0 Z 0 0 0 tret . r 0 C dr 0 / and the net amount of charge in this radial interval is 0 dq 0 D . x/ D A. classically.

t 0 / dS0 x0 . x/ D 1 4 "0 Z 0 Z jx jx dq 0 x0 j v 0 dq 0 x0 j .uu.6: Signals that are observed at time t at the ﬁeld point x were generated at time t 0 at source points x0 on a sphere.t / x x0 v 0 .t.plasma.x x0 / v 0 0 D .t. x0 / 3 0 dx D jx x0 j jx dq 0 D x0 j .100) which leads to the expression 0 .x x0 / v 0 c . x0 / d3x 0 c jx x0 j Â Ã .x x0 /= jx x0 j outward from the centre. x0 / dq 0 D . The result is (recall that j D v ) .tret .102b) A. x0 / d3x 0 D . The source charge element moves with an arbitrary velocity v 0 and gives rise to a source ‘leakage’ out of the volume dV 0 D d3x 0 .tret .x x0 / v 0 c (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 128 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.tret . as time increases.97) on the previous page for the retarded potentials.x x0 / v 0 cjx x0 j (6.x x0 / v 0 c (6.99) dq 0 1 .102a) (6.t 0 / dq 0 dr 0 dV 0 and dS 0 dr 0 D d3x 0 we can rewrite the expression for the net charge as R A or 0 .101) This is the expression to be used in the formulæ (6. x/ D 4 .tret .x x0 / v 0 3 0 0 0 dx .tret . 106 j 6 . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. x0 / 1 d3x 0 c jx x0 j FT c (6. x. with velocity c D c. centred on x and expanding.

x/ @t is the retarded relative distance.103) are the Liénard-Wiechert potentials. x/ @A. x/ D r E.t 0 /j ˇ x0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 129 of 262 . Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 107 For a sufﬁciently small and well localised charge distribution we can.103b) v0 D 2 c where x0 . When v 0 k .t.plasma. x/ D 4 "0 c 2 jx x0 j .t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. as we shall see later in the covariant derivation.t. x/ D ˇx These results were derived independently by A L F R E D M A R I E L I É NA R D (1869–1958) in 1898 and E M I L J O H A N N W I E C H E RT (1861–1928) in 1900.t. and we shall now study such emission problems. 6. The potentials (6. x/ D (6.t 0 / v 0 . the observer is in a coordinate system which has an ‘absolute’ meaning and the velocity v 0 is that of the localised charge q 0 . assuming that the integrands do not change sign in the integration volume. .t 0 / c Â Ã ˇ x x0 .x x0 / v 0 4 "0 s c Z q0 1 v0 v0 dq 0 D A.2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge Consider a localised charge q 0 and assume that its trajectory is known experimentally as a function of retarded time (6.104a) (6.x x0 / v 0 4 "0 c 2 s c (6.106) FT (6. x/ D R A A.t.104c) 2 ˇ s D s.t 0 /j Â Ã x x0 . It should be noted that in the complicated derivation presented above.x x0 / and v ! c.2 on page 145 we shall derive them in a more elegant and general way by using a relativistically covariant formalism. The Liénard-Wiechert potentials are applicable to all problems where a spatially localised charge in arbitrary motion emits electromagnetic radiation.t 0 / c jx x0 . x/ r .2 In section 7.5.t.t 0 / v 0 . the potentials become singular.t 0 .5.t 0 / 6.t 0 / x0 . The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are calculated from the potentials in the usual way: (6.t 0 /ˇ 1 c jx x0 .104b) (6.t 0 / x0 . two reference frames of equal standing are moving relative to each other with v 0 . whereas.105b) D x0 D x0 .t 0 /ˇ Œx ˇ D ˇx D Œx B.103a) 4 "0 jx x0 j . use the mean value theorem to evaluate these expressions to become Z q0 1 1 1 dq 0 D .uu.105a) (6.t.t 0 / v 0 .3. This was ﬁrst pointed out by A R N O L D J O H A N N E S WILHELM SOMMERFELD (1868–1951) in 1904.

108a) (6.t 0 /j c (6. at t ) unknown trajectory.e. we drop the subscript ‘ret’ on t 0 from now on). After this time t 0 the particle.108b) D d2 Œx dt 0 2 x0 .109) and we shall see later how this relation can be taken into account in the calculations.plasma. which moves with nonuniform velocity. 108 j 6 . Extrapolating tangentially the trajectory from x0 . the application of (6.t 0 /.e. ? q0 x0 .t / Â0 v 0 . be calculated from the implicit relation t 0 D t 0 .t 0 /.t 0 / dx0 dt 0 FT x0 .107a) (6.t. and deﬁnitely not at the time of observation t ! If we choose the ﬁeld point x as ﬁxed.t / (in the interest of simplifying our notation.t 0 / D v 0 .t /..107) to the relative vector x x0 yields (6.t 0 / D P a0 . at least in principle. x/ D t jx (6.107b) As for the charge coordinate x0 itself. The retarded velocity and acceleration at time t 0 are given by R A v 0 . .t 0 / Â0 jx x0 j 0 v c x0 . based on the velocity v 0 .7: Signals that are observed at time t at the ﬁeld point x were generated at time t 0 at the source point x0 . has followed a so far (i.t 0 / D P v 0 .t 0 / x x x 0 x0 x. This means that we know the trajectory of the charge q 0 . Because of the ﬁnite speed of propagation of the ﬁelds.uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 130 of 262 . deﬁnes the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 . x0 ..t 0 /.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t 0 / D v 0 . for all times up to the time t 0 at which a signal was emitted in order to precisely arrive at the ﬁeld point x at time t .t 0 / D dv 0 d2 x0 D 02 0 dt dt d Œx dt 0 x0 . the trajectory at times later than t 0 cannot be known at time t .t 0 / The retarded time t 0 can. i. we have in general no knowledge of the velocity and acceleration at times later than t 0 . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.

t 0 /ˇp Dp x x x x0 .104) on page 107.. as we shall see below. x/ is the retarded relative distance given by equation (6. we need to investigate carefully the action of differentiation on the potentials.110) . 6. x2 .112) According to formulæ (6.x x0 / v 0 .x x0 / v 0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ given by equation (6.t 0 / D p jx x0 j2 p where s D s. x//j D1 @t x @t c ÄÂ x Ã Â 0Ã @ @t jx x0 j D1 (6. which in turn is expressed implicitly in t via equation (6. With this convention. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 109 6. equations (6.107a) on page 108 and the retarded relative distance s. Despite this complication it is possible.2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 131 of 262 . In these formulæ the unprimed r .t 0 / given by equation (6.t 0 . To this end.x x0 / v 0 .111) @t 0 x c @t x Â Ã .t 0 . Making use of equation (6.@t 0 =@t /x that we can solve to obtain Â 0Ã @t jx x0 j jx x0 j D D @t x s jx x0 j . to determine the electric and magnetic ﬁelds and associated quantities at the time of observation t . But the Liénard-Wiechert potentials and A.t 0 .104) on page 107.plasma. are expressed in the charge velocity v 0 .109) on the preceding page we ﬁnd that Â 0Ã Â Ã @t @ jx x0 .112) above.5. we obtain the following useful FT (6.t.@=@t/x to equation (6.e. x3 / while keeping t ﬁxed.t 0 / 0 0 j2 p @t x @t 0 x jx x (6.uu. respectively.t 0 /=c R A We introduce the convention that a differential operator embraced by parentheses with an index x or t means that the operator in question is applied at constant x and t .109) on the facing page. This means that the expressions for the potentials and A contain terms that are expressed explicitly in t 0 .105) on page 107.1 The differential operator method D Furthermore.5. the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are determined via differentiation of the retarded potentials at the observation time t and at the observation point x. . i. O the spatial derivative differentiation operator r D xi @=@xi means that we differentiate with respect to the coordinates x D . and the unprimed time derivative operator @=@t means that we differentiate with respect to t while keeping x ﬁxed.x1 .103) on page 107. we ﬁnd that Â Ã Â Ã 0 ˇ ˇ @ @ ˇx x0 . by applying the operator .t 0 / @t 0 D1C c jx x0 j @t x This is an algebraic equation in .

t 0 / @s P D 4 "0 c 2 s 3 @t 0 x Utilising these relations in the calculation of the E ﬁeld from the Liénard-Wiechert potentials.t 0 .t / Á D @t @t x @t 4 s x Ä Â Ã ˇ ˇ 0 0 ˇ ˇ q0 ˇx x0 ˇ s v .r / t is acting on an arbitrary function of t 0 and x: Â Ã Â Ã @ x x0 @ 0 .t.r / t to equation (6.t / c2 FT (6. for instance.113).109) on page 108 we obtain Â Ã x x0 jx x0 . x//j .113) Likewise.t.r / t 0 (6.103b) on page 107 and equation (6.t 0 .117a) 0 v 0 .t / ˇx x0 ˇ v 0 . x/ D r .x x0 / v 0 . We ﬁnd.113) we are now able to replace t by t 0 in the operations that we need to perform.t.t 0 / D C .uu.r / t D r 4 "0 s t Ä Â Ã (6.t 0 / jx x0 .x x0 / t c c jx x0 j t (6.r t 0 / t with the solution .t 0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 132 of 262 .t 0 /=c D 4 "0 s 2 . x/ and.116) @t 0 x cs @t 0 x With the help of the rules (6.r t 0 / t D r D r .116) and (6.t 0 /j v 0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma.r / t D . we obtain @ A.t 0 /=c @s.117b) (6.t.114) x x0 . x/ jx x0 .115) which gives the following operator relation when .) Â Ã Ä Â 0 0 0 Ã @A @ @A 0 q v . that Â Ã 1 q0 r Á .r t 0 / t D x cs x0 (6. by applying .t 0 .t 0 /j Â Ã Œx x0 .r t / t C .r t 0 / t c jx x0 j c jx x0 j This is an algebraic equation in .r / t 0 D C .t 0 / x x0 @s x x0 q D 4 "0 s 2 jx x0 j c cs @t 0 x R A D E.103) on page 107. x/ @t 0 x # 0 0 0 0 P jx x .118) .t /j v .t 0 /j v 0 . x/ cs. equations (6. from equation (6.t 0 / jx x0 . 110 j 6 . x/ @t " q0 Œx x0 . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS operator identity Â Ã Â 0Ã Â Ã Â Ã @ @t @ jx x0 j @ D D @t x @t x @t 0 x s @t 0 x (6.

t 0 .t 0 / c @t 0 @t 0 x x 02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v .t/ as the coordinate of the ﬁeld point x relative to the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 .uu.t / C D c c jx x0 . this relative vector is given by x x0 .120) . the electric ﬁeld generated by an arbitrarily moving localised charge at x0 .t 0 / is x0 . tends to the ordinary Coulomb ﬁeld when v 0 ! 0 and does not contribute to the radiation.t // v .t 0 / is given by the expression Â q0 E.t/.t 0 / c (6. respectively.t /.t / ƒ‚ 0 The ﬁrst part of the ﬁeld.@s=@t 0 /x in the following way Â @s @t 0 Ã x Â 0 0 0 Ã ˇ @ ˇ ˇx x0 ˇ . Hence.t 0 / jx x0 .121) D FT x0 .t 0 /j (6.x x / v . were used.t. x/ c2 „ 0 0 x .t / v 0 . the velocity ﬁeld .plasma.t 0 /j v 0 .t 0 /j v 0 .t 0 / to x is jx x0 j =c. During the arbitrary motion.t / . The second part of the ﬁeld. From ﬁgure 6.104a) on page 107 for the retarded relative distance s.t 0 . Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 111 Starting from expression (6.t 0 .107) on page 108.t 0 / @v .t 0 / c Ã ) a .t 0 / c jx ÃÂ 1 v 02 . is radiated into the far zone and is therefore also called the radiation ﬁeld .t 0 / C Œx x0 .t 0 / c2 Ã … 0 x0 .5.t / D x x0 .x x .t 0 /j v 0 . x/ „ ( x x0 . x/.x x .t / jx Velocity ﬁeld (tends to the Coulomb ﬁeld when v ! 0) ƒ‚ 0 R A Acceleration (radiation) ﬁeld ÄÂ Œx x .119) Ä D where equation (6.t 0 / q0 C 4 "0 s 3 . we see that we can evaluate .110) on page 109 and equations (6. the virtual simultaneous coordinate.se/CED/Book Sheet: 133 of 262 .7 on page 108 we see that the position the charged particle would have had if at t 0 all external forces would have been switched off so that the trajectory from then on would have been a straight line in the direction of the tangent at x0 . x/ D Œx 4 "0 s 3 .t / 0 … (6. we interpret x x0 . the acceleration ﬁeld .t / @t 0 c x Ã Â ˇ @ ˇ 0 0 ˇ ˇx x .t / .t // a . Since the time it takes for a signal to propagate (in the assumed free space) from x0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 6.t / D @t 0 x Ã Â 0 0 Ã ÄÂ 1 @Œx x0 .

103) on page 107 and formula (6. x/ D 4 "0 s 3 " x C x x0 . x/ D r D A.127) .x fŒx x/ 0 jx x0 j v 0 c a0 . 112 j 6 .125) above.t / E.t/ c2 a0 . Combining this formula and formula (6.t 0 / The magnetic ﬁeld can be computed in a similar manner: B.t 0 / c2 x Ã # (6.uu.plasma.126) where in the last step we again used formula (6. according to (6.t.120) on the previous page as q0 E .t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 134 of 262 . But. x/ (6.t.125) The electric far ﬁeld is obtained from the acceleration ﬁeld in formula (6. x/ D .121) on the preceding page.t 0 /j (6.117a). the radiation part of the magnetic ﬁeld can be written Bfar .t / 0 0 Â 1 v 02 .t 0 / x0 . x/ D Ä Â Ã x x0 @A r t 0j c jx x @t x 0 0 x x . x x0 c jx x0 j so that r D x q0 2 s 2 jx 4 "0 c x0 x0 j v0 (6.113) on page 110.t.t 0 /j Efar .t.t. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS This allows us to rewrite equation (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.124) t R A B.t/ (6.123) where we made use of equation (6.t 0 / c jx x0 . x/ D c jx x0 .t 0 /g Ã a0 D x0 . x/ Á r q x 4 "0 c 2 s 2 jx 0 A 0 t D r A 0 x t0 x0 Â FT v 0 x x0 j x x c jx x0 j Â cs Ã @A @t x @A @t 0 Ã x (6.120) on the preceding page in the following way q0 E.122) x0 .x 4 "0 c 2 s 3 q0 D Œx 4 "0 c 2 s 3 far x/ 0 ÄÂ .t.t/ x . x/ D x x0 .t.

when inserted into equation (6. we obtain the identity Œx x0 .t /j2 c (6.121) on page 111.130) (6.130).128) D D jx jx x0 j2 v 02 jx x0 j2 v 02 2 0 cos2 Â 0 C sin Â c2 c2 x0 j2 v 02 jx x0 j2 v 02 .t 0 / c (6.t 0 / v 0 .t / v 0 .5. yields the relation Â Ã Â Ã .t 0 / 2 c ˇ 2 ˇx x0 . Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 113 6.2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ D ˇx Â C ˇ2 x0 .x x0 / v 0 jx x0 j v 0 D .5.t 0 .132) If we use the following handy identity Â Ã Ã Â .x x0 / v 0 2 C c c . According to equation (6.131) which.2 The direct method An alternative to the differential operator transformation technique just described is to try to express all quantities in the potentials directly in t and x.uu.x x0 / v 0 2 jx D c Â . the square of this retarded relative distance can be written ˇ s 2 . An example of such a quantity is the retarded relative distance s.t / v0 (6.t 0 .t 0 /ˇ Ã x0 .x x0 / v 0 2 .t 0 /ˇ Œx ˇ Œx x0 . this expression becomes Â Ã 0 0 0 2 02 ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ .104) on page 107.x x0 / v D .x x0 / v 0 2 .x x0 /2 c Â Ã Œx x0 .t 0 / v 0 D Œx x0 .x x0 / v 0 2 2 ˇx x0 ˇ2 2 ˇx x0 ˇ .x Inserting the above into expression (6.x x / v C jx x j v s D c c2 c Â Ã2 Â Ã2 . x/.cos2 Â 0 C sin2 Â 0 / D c2 c2 x0 j2 v 02 c2 Furthermore.x x0 / v 0 2 jx x0 j2 v 02 D c c2 c R A we ﬁnd that Â Ã .t 0 / 2 Á jx x0 .128) above for s 2 .x x0 / c c Â 0 Ã2 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 135 of 262 .129) x0 / c v0 Ã2 (6.t 0 / v 0 .133) D FT (6.plasma. from equation (6. 6.

in other words.t 0 / 2 sin Â0 .t 0 / c Ã2 where in the penultimate step we used equation (6.t/j2 s Â Œx x0 . we obtain the following alternative ﬁnal expressions for the retarded relative distance s in terms of the charge’s virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 ..t/j 1 C 2 c 1 x0 . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS s.e.uu. and hence s itself.t/ c2 Â Ã Â v 02 . the point at which the particle will have arrived at time t .t 0 / Ã2 D jx s D x0 .t 0 / Œx 2 x0 .134a) (6.133) on the previous page. We have.103) can be expressed in terms of the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 . Taking the square root of both sides of equation (6. in this special case we are able to express the retarded relative distance as s D s.134c) above and standard vector analytic formulae. and in the ﬁeld coordinate x D x. viz.. x/ and we do not have to involve the retarded time t 0 or any transformed differential operators in our calculations. when the motion of the charge is somehow known.3 on the facing page for a uniform. i.x x0 / C . shown that all quantities in the deﬁnition of s. x/ D A FT s jx x0 . when we obtain the ﬁrst knowledge of its existence at the source point x0 at the retarded time t 0 . the retarded distance s in the Liénard-Wiechert potentials (6.x x0 / 1 C 2 . expression (6.t 0 /: (6.121) on page 111.t.. What we have just demonstrated is that if the particle velocity at time t can be calculated or projected from its value at the retarded time t 0 .plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 114 j 6 .t/ and velocity v 0 .x x0 / v 0 2 2 2 r s D r jx x0 j 1 C c2 c Ä Â 02 Ã 0 0 v vv (6.x x0 / 2 c c Ä Â 0 Ã v0 v D 2 .134) for s will not be dependent on t 0 .x x0 / c c We shall use this result in example 6. . unaccelerated motion of the charge.134b) (6.t/j jx v 02 .135) D 2 .134c) D R If we know what velocity the particle will have at time t .t 0 .t /. where we make our observations. I.e.t/ v 0 . Using equation (6. be expressed in terms of the time t alone. we obtain " Â Ã Â Ã # v 02 .t/ c v 0 . can.t/.se/CED/Book Sheet: 136 of 262 .

v 0 Á 0. isolated space and we know that it will not be affected by any external forces. i. As depicted in ﬁgure 6.3 the localised charge moves in a ﬁeld-free. x C v 0 dt/ (6.e. x/ has the same value at time t and position x as it has at time t C dt and position x C v 0 dt .135) on the facing page we ﬁnd A FT (6. the angle between x x0 and v 0 is Â0 while then angle between x x0 and v 0 is Â 0 . x C v 0 dt ).se/CED/Book Sheet: 137 of 262 . from its position at the retarded time.7 on page 108. P x0 ..t 0 /.t C dt.103a) on page 107 and equation (6.dt/2 @t From this we conclude that for uniform motion @f D @t v 0 rf Since f is an arbitrary physical observable. any physical observable f .plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.138) (6.t / D x0 . x0 .t. keeping only linear terms in the inﬁnitesimally small dt.t/.105) on page 107.139) Hence. This gives us the possibility to extrapolate its position at the observation time. Hence.. we obtain f .t/ [cf.136) E X A M P L E 6. Since the particle is not accelerated.140a) (6. the E and B ﬁelds can be obtained from formulæ (6. Taylor expanding f . equation (1. the time and space derivatives must be related in the following way when they operate on any physical observable dependent on x.3 3 This problem was ﬁrst solved by O L I V E R H E AV I S I D E in 1888. From equation (6.36) on page 13]: @ D @t v0 r (6.t C dt.t.t. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 115 The ﬁelds from a uniformly moving charge In the special case of uniform motion.t C dt. x0 .103) on page 107 as follows: ED @A 1 @v 0 v0 @ D r D r 2 @t @t c c 2 @t Ã Â 0 Â v0 0v 0 Ã v v D r C r D 1 r c c c2 Â 0 0 Ã vv D 13 r c2 Â 0 Ã v v0 v0 BDr ADr Dr D r 2 2 c c c2 ÄÂ 0 Ã 0 Â 0 0 Ã v0 v v v0 vv D 2 r r D 2 13 r c c c c c2 v0 D 2 E c r R D O O Here 13 D xi xi is the unit dyad and we used the fact that v 0 v 0 Á 0.t/. 6. the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 will be identical to the actual simultaneous coordinate of the particle at time t. In the case of uniform velocity v 0 . x/ C @f dt C v 0 rf dt C O .137) (6. x/ D f .140b) . What remains is just to express r in quantities evaluated at t and x.uu. a velocity that does not change with time. i. x C v 0 dt/ D f . f . with the potentials given by equations (6.e. It will therefore move uniformly in a straight line with the constant velocity v 0 .5.

sin Â0 5.x x0 / C . the FT ! v0 . In a similar way.t/.142) above we conclude that E is directed along the vector from the simultaneous coordinate x0 .x x0 / c c ! q0 v 02 .x Ã x0 / (6.143) D From these explicit formulae for the E and B ﬁelds and formula (6.x x0 / .134b) on page 114 for s. x/ D 4 0 0q 3 s obtains.122) on page 112 with P v 0 Á 0 inserted. v 0 ! c.t/ to the ﬁeld (observation) coordinate x.142) R A B.141) When this expression for r following result Â E. Of course. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS that r Â Ã q0 1 q0 r D r s2 4 "0 s 8 "0 s 3 Ä Â 0 q0 v0 v D .x x0 / D 1 0 v c2 E v 02 =c 2 /ECoulomb v 02 =c 2 / 1=2 ECoulomb D D Â 0 0 Ã q0 vv r D r s2 13 13 8 "0 s 3 c2 ( Â 0 Ã q0 v0 v .x x0 / 1 4 "0 s 3 c2 (6.uu. v 0 ! 0 ) B goes over into the Biot-Savart ﬁeld 3.1 End of example 6.x x0 / 2 3 c c 4 "0 s c Ã# 0 Â v0 v . the same result also follows from equation (6.t. sin Â0 0 ) E ! .x x0 / C .se/CED/Book Sheet: 138 of 262 . v 0 ! c.x x0 / c c 4 "0 s 3 Ä 0 Â 0 Â Ã Ã ) v v0 v0 v 0v 0 v . From equation (6. x/ D D v 0v 0 c2 Ã is inserted into equation (6. v 0 ! 0 ) E goes over into the Coulomb ﬁeld ECoulomb 2. we can discern the following cases: 1.t. v 0 ! c ) E becomes dependent on Â0 4. the magnetic ﬁeld can be calculated and one ﬁnds that v 02 c2 1 (6.x x0 / .140a) on the previous page.x x0 / c c c c c2 " Â Ã v0 v0 v 02 q0 .x x0 / C c c 4 "0 s 3 D .3 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 116 j 6 .plasma.1 1 ) E ! .

plasma.x x0 / Œ. the magnetic ﬁeld Bfar .146) . v0 c (6. x/ D q0 .147) and the electric dipole ﬁeld equations (6.146) and (6.151) Efar .x x0 / v 0 c ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ .t.149a) (6. v0 c (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.v 0 /2 x0 j2 sin2 Â x jx x0 x0 j (6.148) and at the same time make the transitions R P q0v 0 D d ! x x Dx 0 D Sfar D 16 2c The energy ﬂux in the far zone is described by the Poynting vector as a function of Efar and Bfar . v0 c 1.41) on page 92] (6.121) on page 111 x x0 D .150) jx P where Â is the angle between v 0 and x x0 .x x0 / P v 0 .uu.5.3 Small velocities If the charge moves at such low speeds that v 0 =c page 107 simpliﬁes to ˇ s D ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ .x x0 /. x/ D q0 4 "0 c 3 jx x0 j2 P Œv 0 . formula (6.2.5.144) and formula (6. We use the close correspondence with the dipole case to ﬁnd that it becomes P .147) d D q 0 x0 .125) on page 112. 6. v0 c (6.149b) (6. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 117 6.45) on page 93 if we introduce the electric dipole moment for a localised charge [cf.v 0 /2 q 0 2 v 02 P D 6 c 6 "0 c 3 02 FT (6.t 0 / R A ! 2 d! x0 0q 02 It is interesting to note the close correspondence that exists between the nonrelativistic ﬁelds (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 139 of 262 .126) on page 112 can be approximated by x0 j 3 4 "0 c 2 jx from which we obtain. The total radiated power (integrated over a closed spherical surface) becomes P D 0q P .t.104) on (6. formula (6.x x0 / jx x0 j v 0 c x x0 .145) so that the radiation ﬁeld equation (6. with the use of formula (6.

with the use of formula (6.t. the magnetic ﬁeld Bfar .153) The difference between this case and the previous case of v 0 c is that the approximate expression (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 140 of 262 .uu. and the expressions for the Poynting ﬂux and power derived from them. An important special case of radiation is when the velocity v 0 and the acceleraP P tion v 0 are collinear (parallel or anti-parallel) so that v 0 v 0 D 0.t. This condition 0 (for an arbitrary magnitude of v ) inserted into expression (6.plasma. v D 0:5c v D 0:25c v vD0 R A 6. x/ D q 0 jx x0 j 0 P Œv 4 "0 c 3 s 3 . and v 0 D 0:5c. P v0 k v0 (6. The angular FT .t 0 /.126) on page 112 for the radiation ﬁeld. instead we must use the correct expression (6.1 v cos Â=c/5 during bremsstrahlung for particle speeds v 0 D 0. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. x/ D q0 . The angular distribution is that which is ‘frozen’ to the point from which the energy is radiated.125) on page 112.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.3 Bremsstrahlung which is the Larmor formula for radiated power from an accelerated charge.x 4 "0 c 2 s 3 x0 / Œ.8: Polar diagram of the energy loss angular distribution factor sin2 Â=. 118 j 6 .147) on the preceding page. are here instantaneous values. v 0 D 0:25c. Note that here we are treating a charge with v 0 c but otherwise totally unspeciﬁed motion while we compare with formulæ derived for a stationary oscillating dipole.x x0 /.144) on the previous page for s is no longer valid.5. equation (6. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds. respectively.152) D from which we obtain. yields Efar .104) on page 107.x x0 / P v 0 . dependent on the instantaneous position of the charge at x0 . P v0 k v0 (6.146) on the previous page and equation (6.

We must be careful when we compute the energy (S integrated over time).112) on page 109.157) (6.t 0 / C v 0 dt 0 and radius cŒt . The radiated power into a solid angle element d .Â /=dt 0 dt 0 d .x ˇ x 0 / ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ d D On the other hand.158) .t t 0 dt 0 /. we see that they differ by a factor 1 v 0 cos Â=c that comes from the extra factor s= jx x0 j introduced in (6.8 on the preceding page.Â / d dt 0 2 02 sin2 Â v0 c 1 cos Â 6 d (6. and one inner with its origin at 1 x0 .t 0 / and radius c. we obtain Inserting equation (6.9 on the following page this energy is at time t located between two spheres. one outer with its origin at x0 .157). is given by the formula D S . The Poynting vector is related to the time t when it is measured and to a ﬁxed surface in space.t t 0 /. As shown in ﬁgure 6. t 0 C dt 0 / and within the solid angle element d the particle radiates an energy ŒdU rad . During the interval . the radiation loss due to radiation from the charge at retarded time t 0 : Â Ã dU rad dU rad @t d (6.155) (6.uu. measured relative to the particle’s retarded position.157).Â / d dt 0 sin2 Â v0 c 1 cos Â 5 d The angular factors of this expression.t 0 C dt 0 / D c. we obtain the explicit expression for the energy loss due to radiation evaluated at the retarded time dU rad . for three different particle speeds.se/CED/Book Sheet: 141 of 262 .155) with expression (6.t 0 C dt 0 / D x0 .5.154) for S into (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.158) above. Let us explain this in geometrical terms. are plotted in ﬁgure 6. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 119 distribution of the energy ﬂux (Poynting vector) far away from the source therefore becomes Sfar D 0q 0 2 02 v P sin2 Â v0 c 16 2c jx x0 j2 1 cos Â 6 x jx x0 x0 j (6.x x0 /s d D v P 2c 16 0q 0 2 02 Using formula (6.154) It is interesting to note that the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are P the same whether v 0 and v 0 are parallel or anti-parallel. 2 1 D FT v P 2c 16 0q dU rad .156) d D dt 0 dt @t 0 x dU rad d dt 0 R A D dU rad s d dt jx x0 j D S .plasma.t 0 . Comparing expression (6. 6.

t 0 C dt 0 / is located in a volume element whose size is Â dependent. dr denotes the differential distance between the two spheres and can be evaluated in the following way (6.159) R A ˇ d3x D d2x dr D ˇx ˇ2 x0 ˇ d dr 2 ˇ dr D ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ C c dt 0 2 ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ 2 FT x x0 2ˇ ˇ v 0 dt 0 ˇx x 0 ˇ 2 „ ƒ‚ … 0 v cos Â cs ˇ dt 0 x0 ˇ 2 ! v0 dt 0 D ˇ ˇx ˇ d2x cdt 0 x0 ˇ 2 (6.plasma.162) We see that the energy that is radiated per unit solid angle during the time interval . the volume element under consideration is d3x D d2x dr D ˇ ˇx s (6.t 0 .9 we see that the volume element subtending the solid angle element d is Dˇ ˇx d2x ˇ2 x0 ˇ 2 (6.t 0 .uu.104) on page 107 was used in the last step.160) Here.se/CED/Book Sheet: 142 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. This . t 0 C 2 dt 0 /.161) D D c x ˇ ˇx x0 2ˇ x0 ˇ 2 where formula (6.9: Location of radiation between two spheres as the charge moves with velocity v 0 from x0 to 1 x0 during the time interval . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. 120 j 6 . The observation point (ﬁeld point) is at the ﬁxed location x. dS dr x d Â q0 0 x0 vdt x0 2 ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ C c dt 0 2 1 From Figure 6. Hence.

166) (6.121) on page 111.169) If we know v 0 . moving at a non-relativistic speed. Fourier transforming expression (6. free-free radiation).Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we assume v=c ˇ ˇ s ˇx x0 ˇ 1 so that. 6. be denoted U rad . according to formula (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 143 of 262 . We approximate the velocity change at time t 0 D t0 by a delta function: P v 0 .168) Beacuse of the Dirac ı behaviour in time. According to the ‘bremsstrahlung expression’ for Efar . Often. integrated over .5. but relatively straightforward integration of formula (6.4 .125) on page 112 we conclude that E ? B and that it ˇ ˇ sufﬁces to consider E Á ˇEfar ˇ. After tedious. is accelerated or decelerated during an inﬁnitely short time interval.uu. equation (6. q 0 sin Â 0 v 0 ı.t0 / D dt 0 v 0 1 and. E X A M P L E 6.104) on page 107.t 0 t0 / 4 "0 c 2 jx x0 j ˇ ˇ In this simple case B Á ˇBfar ˇ is given by (6. This way we obtain a classical picture of bremsstrahlung (braking radiation.158) on page 119.165) (6.t 0 t0 / which means that Z 1 P v 0 . Q Let the radiated energy.167) (6. one obtains Q dU rad D dt 0 0q v P 6 c 0 2 02 1 1 Â 2 q 0 2 v 02 P 1 Á3 D 3 4 "0 c 3 v 02 c2 v 02 c2 Ã 3 (6. according to formula (6.t 0 / D v 0 ı.158) on page 119. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 121 explains the difference between expression (6.155) on page 119 and expression (6.168) above A FT (6.t 0 /. an atomistic treatment is required for obtaining an acceptable result.152) on page 118.163) Bremsstrahlung for low speeds and short acceleration times Calculate the bremsstrahlung when a charged particle. x x0 x x0 R Also.164) (6. we can integrate this expression over t 0 and obtain the total energy radiated during the acceleration or deceleration of the particle. D ED BD E c From the general expression (6.plasma.

t0 /j 0 (6.!.174) Q rad We see that the energy spectrum U! is independent of frequency !.172) 1 0 which means that the radiated energy in the frequency interval . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS for E is trivial.se/CED/Book Sheet: 144 of 262 .v 0 /2 Q rad d2x 0 d! U! d! D 3" c3 16 jx x0 j2 0 S0 Z Z q 0 2 . 1/.v 0 /2 2 D d' 0 dÂ 0 sin Â 0 sin2 Â 0 d! 16 3 "0 c 3 0 0 Â 0 Ã2 q02 v d! D 3 "0 c c 2 (6. This means that if we would integrate it over all frequencies ! 2 Œ0.170) above.t 0 t0 / in the time domain which produces an inﬁnite spectrum in the frequency domain.t 0 t0 / i!t 0 E! D dt 0 e jx x0 .8) on page 84] the following equality holds: Z 1 Z 1 dt 0 E 2 D 4 d! jE! j2 (6. The total radiation energy is given by the expression Â Z 1 I Z 1 Q dU rad Q O D dt 0 d2x 0 n0 E U rad D dt 0 dt 0 1 S0 1 I I Z 1 Z 1 1 D d2x 0 dt 0 EB D d2x 0 0 S0 0c S 0 1 I Z 1 D "0 c d2x 0 dt 0 E 2 S0 1 B 0 1 1 Ã dt 0 E 2 (6.175) which expresses that the highest possible frequency !max in the spectrum is that for which all kinetic energy difference has gone into one single ﬁeld quantum (photon) with energy !max .plasma. equation (6. we obtain I sin2 Â 0 q 0 2 . ! C d!/ is ÂI Ã Q rad U! d! D 4 "0 c d2x 0 jE! j2 d! S0 A FT 1 m.v 0 C v 0 /2 2 1 02 mv 2 (6. This is a consequence of the inﬁnitely short ‘impulsive step’ ı.uu. with an upper cutoff limit set by the quantum condition (6.170) We note that the magnitude of this Fourier component is independent of !.176) .t 0 /j 4 "0 c 2 2 1 q 0 sin Â 0 v 0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. yielding Z 1 q 0 sin Â 0 1 v 0 ı. In reality. 122 j 6 . equation (6. If we adopt the picture that the total energy is quantised in terms of N! photons radiated during the process.171) According to Parseval’s identity [cf. all spectra have ﬁnite widths. a divergent integral would result. we ﬁnd that (6.t0 / e i!t0 D 2 " c 2 jx 8 x0 .173) D R !max D Q rad U! d! D dN! ! For our inﬁnite spectrum.

valid for any kind of motion of the localised charge. i.10 on the next page. without loss of generality. A very important special case is circular motion. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 123 or.e.x x ˇ x 0 D ˇx ˇ O x0 ˇ . and an angular frequency !0 . From the above expressions we obtain ˇ ˇ x0 / v 0 D ˇx x0 ˇ v 0 sin ˛ cos ' ˇ ˇ ˇ P x0 / v 0 D ˇx x0 ˇ v 0 sin ˛ sin ' D ˇx P (6. Ã2 d! ! 1 2 137 3 Â v 0 c Ã2 d! ! 1=137.4 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation (magnetic bremsstrahlung) Formula (6.5.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x .126) on page 112 for the magnetic ﬁeld and the radiation part of the electric ﬁeld are general..O 2 sin ˛ C x3 cos ˛/ x where ˛ is the angle between x x0 and the normal to the plane of the particle orbit (see Figure 6. D . for an electron where q 0 D dN! D e2 2 4 "0 c 3 Â v 0 c jej. rotate our coordinate system around the x3 axis so the relative vector x x0 from the source point to an arbitrary ﬁeld point always lies in the x2 x3 plane.t / D a!0 ŒO 1 x ˇ 0ˇ 2 ˇv ˇ D a! P 0 0 0 0 0 R A 0 O cos '.se/CED/Book Sheet: 145 of 262 .5.. FT (6.t / D v D P 0 0 0 2 R x .t / ˇ 0ˇ 0 ˇv ˇ D a!0 v D P v . i. we obtain '.t / D a!0 Œ x1 sin '.177) where we used the value of the ﬁne structure constant ˛ D e 2 =.t / D aŒO 1 cos '.179) .125) and formula (6.180b) where in the last step we simply used the deﬁnition of a scalar product and the P fact that the angle between v 0 and x x0 is Â .t / x 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P O O v .t / D x .plasma.4 "0 c/ Even if the number of photons becomes inﬁnite when ! ! 0. the case P v 0 ? v 0.uu.180a) ˇ P x0 ˇ v 0 cos Â (6.10).t / C x2 sin '.178e) (6. (6.t / C x2 sin '.178f) (6. where e is the elementary charge.178c) (6.e. an orbit radius a.178b) (6. With the charged particle orbiting in the x1 x2 plane as in ﬁgure 6. 6.4 6.t / C x2 cos '.t 0 / D !0 t 0 O x . End of example 6.t / Because of the rotational symmetry we can.178d) (6. these photons have negligible energies so that the total radiated energy is still ﬁnite.178a) (6.

t 0 / in circular motion with velocity v 0 . we obtain (6. can be written SD 1 0 . with the help of formula (6.plasma.uu.t 0 / x1 x3 The energy ﬂux is given by the Poynting vector.157) on page 119.se/CED/Book Sheet: 146 of 262 . 124 j 6 . which. that Á2 Á 02 v0 rad 0 2 02 1 sin ˛ cos ' 1 v 2 sin2 ˛ sin2 ' c dU .181) R A dU rad .126) on page 112. so that Â refers to a moving coordinate system. x / x x0 '.˛. But we can parametrise the solid angle d in the angle ' and the angle ˛ so that d D sin ˛ d˛ d'.E B/ D 1 c FT 0 jEj2 x jx x0 x0 j (6. x2 . and using (6.180a) and (6. after some algebra. two limits are particularly interesting: . With the radiation part of the electric ﬁeld.180b) on the preceding page. '/ P c 0q v D 5 0 2c v0 dt 16 1 sin ˛ cos ' c D (6.183) The angles Â and ' vary in time during the rotation. the angular integrated expression Q dU rad D dt 0 0q v P 6 c 0 2 02 1 1 v 02 c2 Á2 (6.˛. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.184) In equation (6.10: Coordinate system for the radiation from a charged particle at x0 .t 0 / along the tangent and constant acceleration P v 0 . one ﬁnds.125) on page 112.183).104) on page 107.t 0 / toward the origin.182) where the retarded distance s is given by expression (6.t. Integration of equation (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.183) above over this d gives. The x1 x2 axes are chosen so that the relative ﬁeld point vector x x0 makes an angle ˛ with the x3 axis. after some cumbersome algebra. expression (6. which is normal to the plane of the orbital motion.t . inserted. The radius of the orbit is a. x/ x v a ˛ 0 Â P v q0 0 0 . '/ jx x0 j s D jEj2 0 dt c 0 Inserting this into equation (6.

When the particle is relativistic.183) on the preceding page sin2 ˛ sin2 '/ (6. by a much weaker pulse.Â / 0q v D .183) on the facing page becomes very small if sin ˛ cos ' 1.187) (6. 0/ P 1 0q v D 0 0 2c dt 16 1 v c 3 R A c 6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.5.4.uu. The two cases represented by equation (6.183) on the facing page gives Á2 Á 02 v0 rad 0 2 02 1 1 v 2 sin2 ' cos ' c dU .183) on the preceding page becomes 0 2 02 dU rad .5.plasma. equation (6. v 0 =c 2.5.186) where Â is deﬁned in ﬁgure 6. In the orbit plane (˛ D =2).189) 5 0 0 2c dt 16 1 v cos ' D FT 0 2 02 v P 2c sin2 Â (6. '/ P 0q v D . which deﬁnes the forward direction of the particle motion (˛ =2.˛. =2.1 Cyclotron radiation For a non-relativistic speed v 0 reduces to 0 2 02 dU rad .188) above are very important results since they can be used to determine the characteristics of the particle motion both in particle accelerators and in astrophysical objects where a direct measurement of particle velocities are impossible. This means that we can write 0 2 02 P dU rad .1 dt 0 16 2 c c.1 dt 0 16 2 c cos2 Â / D 0q 16 Consequently.180b) on page 123 sin2 ˛ sin2 ' D cos2 Â (6. a ﬁxed observer near the orbit plane (˛ =2) will observe cyclotron radiation twice per revolution in the form of two equally broad pulses of radiation with alternating polarisation. half an orbit period later. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 125 1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 147 of 262 . The equation (6. ' 0).4. v 0 =c 1 which corresponds to cyclotron radiation.10 on the preceding page. '/ P c 0q v D (6. 6. 6. the denominator in equation (6. =2. according to equation (6. v 0 c.185) But.188) . 1 which corresponds to synchrotron radiation. equation (6.2 Synchrotron radiation which means that an observer near the orbit plane sees a very strong pulse followed.187) and equation (6.

see ﬁgure 6. synchrotron radiation from ultra-relativistic charges is characterized by a radiation lobe width which is approximately Â 1 (6.11: If the observation point x is in the plane of the particle orbit.uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. For ultra-relativistic particles.t . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.t 0 / x1 x3 This vanishes for angles '0 such thati cos '0 D sin '0 D v0 c s 1 FT v 02 1 D c2 (6. (6.11. the angle '0 is a measure of the synchrotron radiation lobe width Â .190a) R A one can approximate s '0 sin '0 D v 02 c2 (6. the lobe width is given by Â . deﬁned by s 1 v 02 1.194) . .t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 148 of 262 .plasma. Ds 1 1.192) Hence. i. if ˛ D =2. x/ x Â x0 x2 v a 0 q0 0 0 Â . x / P v '. 126 j 6 ..e.191) c2 02 v 1 c2 D 1 (6.193) This angular interval is swept by the charge during the time interval t 0 D Â !0 (6.190b) Hence.

Then the relative phase differences of the individual electric and magnetic ﬁelds radiated are negligible and the total radiated ﬁelds from all individual particles will add up to become N times that from one particle. The charged particles are perfectly evenly distributed in the orbit. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 127 during which the particle moves a length interval l 0 D v 0 t 0 D v 0 Â !0 (6. In the ultrarelativistic synchrotron case one can therefore expect frequency components up to A spectral analysis of the radiation pulse will therefore exhibit a (broadened) line spectrum of Fourier components n!0 from n D 1 up to n 2 3 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 3. contribute to the radiation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 149 of 262 . In this case the phases of the radiation ﬁelds cause a complete cancellation of the ﬁelds themselves.5. From statistical mechanics R A !max 1 D2 t 3 !0 FT (6. When many charged particles.plasma. N say. D 2.197) 2 . the spectral width of a pulse of length t is ! 1=t .196) … „ ƒ‚c Â Ã 1 1 1 v 02 D 3 1 2 c 2 !0 2 !0 „ ƒ‚ … 1= 2 Typically. This means that the power radiated from the N particles will be N 2 higher than for a single charged particle. This is called coherent radiation. which is subject to thermal ﬂuctuations.195) in the direction toward the observer who therefore measures a compressed pulse width of length Â Ã v 0 t 0 v0 l 0 D t 0 D 1 t 0 t D t 0 c c c Á Á 0 0 Â Â 0Ã 0Ã 1 v 1C v c c v Â 1 v 1 D 1 1 D v0 c !0 c !0 !0 1C (6. 6.uu. No radiation escapes. All N radiating particles are spatially much closer to each other than a typical wavelength. we can have three different situations depending on the relative phases of the radiation ﬁelds from the individual particles: 1. carried initially by evenly distributed charged particles. This happens for an open ring current. The charged particles are somewhat unevenly distributed in the orbit.

R A dU rad . 0 0 P If v is collinear with v .198) D Integration over the solid angle Q dU rad D dt 0 0q gives the totally radiated power as v P 6 c 0 2 02 1 1 v 02 c2 v c2 sin2 Á3 02 (6. Examples of this can be found both in earthly laboratories and under cosmic conditions. This means that out of the N particles. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. .3 Radiation in the general case We recall that the general expression for the radiation E ﬁeld from a moving charge concentration is given by expression (6. the radiated power will be proportional to N . '/ D dt 0 0q 6.plasma.uu.4.Â. As a result.5.199) P where is the angle between v 0 and v 0 . sin D 1.x 16 2 cs 5 02 0 FT x/ ÄÂ . vt q0 b jx B O E? x3 Â0 x0 j O v D v x1 we know that this happens forp open systems and that the particle densities all exhibit ﬂuctuations of order N . we get bremsstrahlung. so that sin D 0.se/CED/Book Sheet: 150 of 262 . For P v 0 ? v 0 . p N will exhibit deviation from perfect randomness—and thereby perfect radiation ﬁeld cancellation—and give rise to net radiation ﬁelds which are p proportional to N .x x/ 0 jx x0 j v 0 c Ã 2 P v0 (6.12: The perpendicular electric ﬁeld of a charge q 0 moving O O with velocity v 0 D v 0 x is E? z. This expression in equation (6. 128 j 6 .182) on page 124 yields the general formula jx x0 j .126) on page 112. which corresponds to cyclotron radiation or synchrotron radiation. and we speak about incoherent radiation.

With the use of Parseval’s identity for Fourier transforms.203a) (6. b ! v0 1 0.200) 4 "0 s 3 c2 Utilising expression (6.x x0 / x3 (6.t / ei!t D K1 (6.5. the perpendicular component along the x3 axis of the electric ﬁeld from this moving charge is Â Ã q0 v 02 O E? D E3 D 1 . Due to the equipartitioning of the ﬁeld energy into the electric and magnetic ﬁelds.134) on page 114 and simple geometrical relations.8) on page 84.203b) Œ.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the total ﬁeld energy can be written Z bmax Z 1 Z 2 2 Q U D "0 d3x E? D "0 db 2 b dt v 0 E? (6. b! v0 .204) bmin 1 where the volume integration is over the plane perpendicular to v 0 .? E!.205) Z v0 =! Z 1 q 02 db d! 2 2 "0 v 0 1 b bmin FT 1 (6. we can rewrite this as Z bmax Z 1 Z 1 2 Q Q U D d! U! D 4 "0 v 0 db 2 b d! E!.4 Virtual photons Let us consider a charge q 0 moving with constant. we can rewrite this as E? D q0 4 "0 b 2 This represents a contracted Coulomb ﬁeld. formula (6.plasma. Fourier transforming. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 129 6.142) on page 116 and ﬁgure 6. According to formula (6.? 0 bmin 0 (6. 6.v 0 /.se/CED/Book Sheet: 151 of 262 . b! v0 .5.uu. K1 is the Kelvin function (Bessel function of the second kind with imaginary argument) which behaves in such a way for small and large arguments that E!.? R A q0 4 2 " bv 0 0 .v 0 t 0 /2 C b 2 = 2 3=2 (6. we obtain ÄÂ Ã Â Ã Z 1 q0 b! b! 1 dt E? . high velocity v 0 .201) .t 0 / along the x1 axis. approaching the ﬁeld of a plane wave.202) E!. The passage of this ﬁeld ‘pulse’ corresponds to a frequency distribution of the ﬁeld energy.? D 2 4 2 "0 bv 0 v0 v0 1 Here.12 on the preceding page. b ! v0 D V showing that the ‘pulse’ length is of the order b=.4.

13.206) where an explicit value of bmin can be calculated in quantum theory only. p2 p1 A FT 2˛ ln c ! ˇ ˇp1 ˇÁ d! p0 ˇ 1 ! from which we conclude that Â 0 Ã v q 02 Q! ln U 2" v0 2 bmin ! 0 ¡ p0 2 p0 1 (6.209) 0 m0 c 2 E1 E1 ! a formula which gives a reasonable semi-classical account of a photon-induced electron-electron interaction process. 1 and 2.207) bmin ! ! where ˛ D e2 =. it is intriguing to quantise the energy into photons [cf. . we see that ˇ ˇ! 2˛ E1 ˇcp1 cp0 ˇ d! 1 N! d! ln (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Let us consider the interaction of two (classical) electrons. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. A diagrammatic representation of (a semi-classical approximation of) this process is given in ﬁgure 6. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle gives bmin = ˇp1 p0 ˇ 2 1 so that the number of photons exchanged in the process is of the order R N! d! (6.13: Diagrammatic representation of the semi-classical electron-electron interaction (Møller scattering).4 "0 c/ 1=137 is the ﬁne structure constant. As in the case of bremsstrahlung. this process is known as Møller scattering. equation (6. The result of this interaction is that they change their linear momenta from p1 to p0 and p2 ˇ1 ˇ to p0 . including only the lowest order contributions.176) on page 122].se/CED/Book Sheet: 152 of 262 .uu. Then we ﬁnd that Â Ã 2˛ c d! N! d! ln (6.208) D 0 Since this change in momentum corresponds to a change in energy ! D E1 E1 and E1 D m0 c 2 . 130 j 6 . In quantum theory.plasma. respectively.

. John Wiley & Sons.. 78 (1950). VANDERLINDE. Revised third ed. B ORN AND E. Oxford. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. S TRATTON. ISBN 0-486-64290-9. Toronto. . second ed. PANOFSKY AND M. [34] J. [35] J. 1953. SpringerVerlag. Chichester. Principles of Optics. B ECKER. Classical Electricity and Magnetism.. [32] H. ISBN 0-471-57269-1.6. Reading. . . L.. NY. Applications of Electrodynamics in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics. p. New York. W OLF. 6. Inc. Physical Review. [33] W. [28] R. Electromagnetic Theory. 1980. . Pergamon Press.plasma. NY and London. H ERLOFSON. NATURE. sixth ed.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. fourth ed. D. Cambridge . NY .. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. A. .6 Bibliography [27] H.. .se/CED/Book Sheet: 153 of 262 . Interference and Diffraction of Light. and Singapore. New York. New York. Inc.. JACKSON. 616. 1993. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. [29] M. Montreux. . Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. P HILLIPS. Inc.. . The Physical Basis of The Direction of Time. ISBN 3-540-42081-9. MA . 1999. D R A FT . H. 1989. New York.uu. Paris. Bibliography j 131 6.. third ed. 1982.-D. [30] V. ISBN 07-062150-0... Inc. Classical Electrodynamics. A LFVÉN AND N. London. Brisbane. G INZBURG. Classical Electromagnetic Theory. K. . Tokyo and Melbourne. New York. 1920. 1962. . Dover Publications. . ISBN 2-88124-719-9. Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation. Cosmic radiation and radio stars. [31] J. ISBN 0-08-026481-6.

D R A FT .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma.uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 154 of 262 .

Newton’s ﬁrst law) holds. derived for more or less purely mathematical reasons only. the mathematics is quite simple..se/CED/Book Sheet: 155 of 262 .’ . to the existence of a characteristic.e. and types of approximation etc. contexts.uu. To take this ﬁnite speed of propagation of information into account. and indeed. degrees. by the physicist and philosopher D AV I D J O S E P H B O H M (1917– 1992). or inertial reference frame. is ideal for a formal description of relativistic physics. This is the objective of this chapter. which began in physics. It turns out that this theory of Riemannian spaces.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. ﬁnite speed of propagation of electromagnetic ﬁelds (and related quantities) in free space (vacuum) that p equals the speed of light c D 1= "0 0 and which can be considered a constant of Nature. even into a great deal of thinking outside of science. one which holds independently of all conditions.plasma. within which that concept can be given its full meaning. here specialised to four dimensions. For as is well known. or rigid coordinate system.1 The special theory of relativity An inertial system. the modern trend is away from the notion of sure ‘absolute’ truth. requires a treatment of electrodynamics in a relativistically covariant (coordinate independent) form. In other words. an inertial system is a system in which free bodies FT RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS 1 The Special Theory of Relativity. For the simple case of the special theory of relativity. and which is spreading into other ﬁelds of science. and to ensure that our laws of physics be independent of any speciﬁc coordinate frame. opens with the following paragraph: ‘The theory of relativity is not merely a scientiﬁc development of great importance in its own right.1 The technique we shall use to study relativity is the mathematical apparatus developed for non-Euclidean spaces of arbitrary dimensions. is a system of reference. R A 133 7. (i. in which the law of inertia (Galileo’s law. in a most natural way. whereas for the general theory of relativity it becomes more complicated. It is even more signiﬁcant as the ﬁrst stage of a radical change in our basic concepts.) and toward the idea that a given concept has signiﬁcance only in relation to suitable broader forms of reference. D We saw in chapter 3 how the introduction of electrodynamic potentials led.

y. At time t D t 0 D 0 the origin O 0 of †0 coincided with the origin O of †. FT move uniformly and do not experience any acceleration. x.se/CED/Book Sheet: 156 of 262 .2 (E INSTEIN . 1905) All laws of physics (except the laws of gravitation) are independent of the uniform translational motion of the system on which they operate. y 0 .t.1. z 0 / O z x z0 O0 x0 P O S T U L AT E 7.x. y.t 0 . i. 134 j 7 . and t 0 and .1. The times and the spatial coordinates as measured in the two systems are t and . respectively. They are in rectilinear motion relative to each other in such a way that †0 moves with constant velocity v along the x axis of the † system.1 (Relativity principle. At time t .x 0 . in the same way. z/. vt y † † 0 y0 v P . z 0 / in †0 . rectilinear motion relative to each other and is based on two postulates: .. 7. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS Figure 7. An event represented by P . y.t 0 .uu. y 0 . z/ P .plasma. tensors) in an equation describing a physical process must transform in a covariant manner. x. referred to as the standard conﬁguration. 1905) The velocity of light in empty space is independent of the motion of the source that emits the light. D R A P O S T U L AT E 7. z/ in † is represented by P . A consequence of the ﬁrst postulate is that all geometrical objects (vectors. The special theory of relativity describes how physical processes are interrelated when observed in different inertial systems in uniform.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.e. P OINCARÉ .1 The Lorentz transformation Let us consider two three-dimensional inertial systems † and †0 in free space.1: Two inertial systems † and †0 in relative motion with velocity v along the x D x 0 axis. x 0 . the inertial system †0 has been translated a distance vt along the x axis in †. x 0 . At time t D t 0 D 0 the origins O and O 0 and the x and x 0 axes of the two inertial systems coincide and at a later time t they have the relative location as depicted in ﬁgure 7. y 0 .t. z 0 /.

are connected by the following transformation: x D .3a) and the square of (7. where the zeroth component is ct (c is the speed R A FT (7.1. As shown by Einstein. 7.3d) (7.uu. In the following.1. The special theory of relativity j 135 For convenience.se/CED/Book Sheet: 157 of 262 . 3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x 0 . 1. we shall make frequent use of these shorthand notations.3b) we ﬁnd that c 2 t 02 x 02 D c 2 t 2 2xcˇt C x 2 ˇ 2 x 2 C 2xvt v 2 t 2 Ã Â Ã Ä Â v2 v2 1 x2 1 c2t 2 1 D c2 c2 v2 1 c2 2 2 Dc t x2 2 From equations (7. 2.x.2) Dq where v D jv j.3a) .4) to c2t 2 x2 y2 z 2 D c 2 t 02 x 02 y 02 z 02 (7. y.4) ct 0 D . 7. we ﬁnd that we can generalise the result in equation (7. z 0 / at time t 0 in †0 in such a way that both observers conclude that the speed (spatial distance divided by time) of light in vacuum is c.3b) (7. let us introduce the two quantities ˇD v c 1 1 ˇ2 (7. A linear coordinate transformation which has this property is called a (homogeneous) Lorentz transformation. Hence.plasma.3c) (7.x y Dy z0 D z 0 0 vt / Taking the difference between the square of (7.5) D which means that if a light wave is transmitted from the coinciding origins O and O 0 at time t D t 0 D 0 it will arrive at an observer at . enumerated with the help of upper indices D 0. Using this fact. the two postulates of special relativity require that the spatial coordinates and times as measured by an observer in † and †0 .3) above we see that the y and z coordinates are unaffected by the translational motion of the inertial system †0 along the x axis of system †. z/ at time t in † and an observer at . the speed of light in † and †0 is the same.2 Lorentz space Let us introduce an ordered quadruple of real numbers. y 0 . respectively.ct xˇ/ (7.1) (7.

2.2 Scalar product and norm g x x Dx x where the upper index in x is summed over and is therefore a dummy index and may be replaced by another dummy index . because I am really not responsible for the fact that Nature in its most fundamental aspect is four-dimensional.2.1.1) on page 205: x D . i. y. The vector dual to x is the covariant vector x . . x 2 . 7.7) R A 7. is. x/ (7. In this space we therefore deﬁne a metric tensor.. I do not apologise. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS of light and t is time). linear. Things are what they are.se/CED/Book Sheet: 158 of 262 . x 3 / D . into a convenient mathematical framework. obtained as x Dg x (7.ct. in this space. . x 2 . described by equation (7. and the remaining components are the components of the ordinary R3 position vector x deﬁned in equation (M.2 We require that this four-dimensional space be a Riemannian space.plasma.2. it must transform as (the component form of) a position four-vector (radius four-vector) in a real.x 0 .1 Radius four-vector in contravariant and covariant form The position four-vector x D . a vector in contravariant component form). x 3 / D .1.6).3 Metric tensor In L4 one can choose the metric tensor g 8 ˆ1 if D D 0 ˆ < g DÁ D 1 if if D ¤ ˆ ˆ :0 to take the simple form FT D i D j D 1. or norm.5) on the previous page. x/. which we denote by g . This summation process is an example of index contraction and is often referred to as index lowering. we perceive this invariance as the manifestation of the conservation of the norm in a 4D Riemannian space.1. . also known as the fundamental tensor. In order to put the physical property of Lorentz transformation invariance. 3 (7. by deﬁnition. x 1 . 136 j 7 . 2.’ 2 In order that this quadruple x represent a physical observable. x.6) The British mathematician and philosopher A L F R E D N O RT H W H I T E H E A D (1861–1947) writes in his book The Concept of Nature: ‘I regret that it has been necessary for me in this lecture to administer a large dose of fourdimensional geometry.e. say. the prototype of a contravariant vector (or. more accurately. The scalar product of x with itself in a Riemannian space is deﬁned as (7.9) .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. four-dimensional vector space. as deﬁned in equation (7. z/ Á .ct. a metric space where a ‘distance’ and a scalar product are deﬁned. 7.8) D This scalar product acts as an invariant ‘distance’.ct. To every such vector there exists a dual vector.uu. x 1 .x 0 .

Note that our space. . this can be written x DÁ x D . the covariant position four-vector x is obtained from the contravariant position four-vector x simply by changing the sign of the last three components. x/ . the scalar product of x with itself becomes (7.12) i.9) on the facing page. linear 4D space with a positive deﬁnite norm which is conserved during ordinary rotations is a Euclidean vector space. x/ D c 2 t 2 R A x2 y2 z2 Hence.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.ct.13) which indeed is the desired Lorentz transformation invariance as required by equation (7. i. in matrix representation. The L4 metric tensor equation (7. The latter has the advantage that the transition from 3D to 4D becomes smooth. the zeroth component is referred to as the time component. one can alternatively choose a signature f . We denote such a space R4 . This means that we deal with a non-Euclidean space and we call our four-dimensional space (or space-time) with this property Lorentz space and denote it L4 .ct. The special theory of relativity j 137 or. fC. will have an indeﬁnite norm. the index lowering operation in our ﬂat 4D space L4 becomes nearly trivial: In matrix representation the lowering of the indices of x becomes 0 1 0 1 10 1 0 x0 x0 x0 1 0 0 0 Bx C B0 1 0 0 C Bx 1 C B x 1 C C B 1C B CB C B (7.. or signature. As we see. These components are referred to as the space components.uu. g seems to be the most commonly used one. In current physics literature.plasma. g. a norm which can be positive deﬁnite. we see that this tensor has a trace Tr Á D 2 D FT (7. C.1.e.Á / D B C @0 0 1 0A 0 0 0 1 (7. .ct.13) above. 1 0 1 0 0 0 B0 1 0 0C C B . while it will introduce some annoying minus signs in the theory.10) I four-tensor notation..11) DB C B C CB C D B @x2 A @0 0 1 0 A @x 2 A @ x 2 A x3 0 0 0 1 x3 x3 . the signature fC.se/CED/Book Sheet: 159 of 262 . x/ x x D . Cg.9) on the facing page has a number of interesting properties: ﬁrstly. C. . if the metric tensor is deﬁned according to expression (7. a matrix with a main diagonal that has the sign sequence. Without changing the physics. 7.e. for this particular choice of metric. . A corresponding real. negative deﬁnite or even zero. regardless of signature chosen.

plasma.4 Invariant line element and proper time The differential distance ds between the two points x and x C dx in L4 can be calculated from the Riemannian metric.14a) (7.dx 2 /2 s 1 v2 c2 Here we have introduced the 4D version of the Kronecker delta ı .vx /2 C .ı / D B C @0 0 1 0A 0 0 0 1 i.9) on page 136.se/CED/Book Sheet: 160 of 262 . this form is indeﬁnite as expected for a non-Euclidean space.1.dx 1 /2 . we ﬁnd. the 4 4 unit matrix.14b) (7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. as in any vector space with deﬁnite norm. The square root of this expression is the invariant line element 2 !2 !2 !2 3 1 2 3 dx dx 1 4 dx 5 C C ds D c dt 1 c2 dt dt dt q r D c dt D c dt q 1 1 1 .14d) Á ÄÁ DÁ Dı Á ÁÄ D Á D ı Clearly.vy /2 C . As we see. covariant and mixed forms of the metric tensor hold: Á Á Ä DÁ DÁ Ä (7. that the following relations between the contravariant.17) D where the metric tensor is as in equation (7. after trivial algebra.vz /2 D c dt c2 dt ˇ2 D c D c d (7.uu.18) . Secondly.dx 0 /2 . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS whereas in R4 . a mixed four-tensor of rank 2 that fulﬁls ( 1 if D ı Dı D (7.14c) (7.16) R A ds 2 D Á 7. given by the quadratic differential form dx dx D dx dx D .15) 0 if ¤ (7.2. the matrix representation of this tensor is 1 0 1 0 0 0 B0 1 0 0C C B .. 138 j 7 . the trace equals the space dimensionality.e.dx 3 /2 (7. FT .

a0 . the proper time of a moving object is always less than the corresponding interval in the rest system.1.24) FT (7.1.20) .17) on the facing page.e.x Ä / D Á 7. for such an arbitrary four-vector yields the dual covariant four-vector ﬁeld (7. it is called the proper time. a.5) on page 135 in terms of the differential interval ds and comparing with equation (7. space-like or light-like aspects of an interval ds are invariant under a Lorentz transformation.19) Since d measures the time when no spatial changes are present. 7. remains unchanged.se/CED/Book Sheet: 161 of 262 . we may say that every coordinate transformation which preserves this differential interval is a Lorentz transformation.. we ﬁnd that is invariant..21) ds is a space-like interval . i. a/ for a general contravariant four-vector ﬁeld in L4 and ﬁnd that the ‘lowering of index’ rule. it is not possible to change a time-like interval into a spacelike one or vice versa via a Lorentz transformation. Expressing the property of the Lorentz transformation described by equations (7. D a .a0 .e. by a clock that is ﬁxed relative the given frame of reference.uu. but if dx 2 C dy 2 C dz 2 > c 2 dt 2 (7. Conversely.x Ä / D .23) ds 2 D c 2 dt 2 dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 (7. A vector which has a light-like interval is called a null vector.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma.22) (7..2.x Ä /. whereas dx 2 C dy 2 C dz 2 D c 2 dt 2 R A a .19) shows. The time-like. In analogy with the notation for the position four-vector we introduce the notation a D . As equation (7.5 Four-vector ﬁelds Any quantity which relative to any coordinate system has a quadruple of real numbers and transforms in the same way as the position four-vector x does. If in some inertial system dx 2 C dy 2 C dz 2 < c 2 dt 2 ds is a time-like interval . during a Lorentz transformation. is called a four-vector.7) on page 136. The special theory of relativity j 139 where we introduced d D dt = (7.x Ä // is a light-like interval . we may also say that in this case we are on the light cone. i. formula (7. I. One may say that moving clocks go slower than those at rest.e.

7 The Lorentz group R A ˇD ˇ1 C ˇ2 1 C ˇ1 ˇ2 It is easy to show.. as described by x Ä D . x.27) above.3 Minkowski space Specifying a point x D . b/ D a0 b 0 a b (7. Such a point is therefore called an event. y. by means of direct algebra. from one inertial system † to another inertial system †0 in the standard conﬁguration. respectively. 7. x 1 .a0 . In other words. The trajectory for an event as a function of time and space is called a world line.27) 7. x 2 . z/.x 1 . we shall not make any further use of group theory. x 2 . x 3 /. that two successive Lorentz transformations of the type in equation (7. x 1 . z/ D . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS The scalar product between this four-vector ﬁeld and another one b . x 2 .plasma.1. this set of Lorentz transformations constitutes a mathematical group.2. y.1. can be written x0 D ƒ x (7.x Ä / D . i. For FT .3) on page 135.26) the linear Lorentz transformation (7. x 3 / in 4D space-time is a way of saying that ‘something takes place at a certain time t D x 0 =c and at a certain place .25) which is a scalar ﬁeld .28) D This means that the nonempty set of Lorentz transformations constitutes a closed algebraic structure with a binary operation (multiplication) that is associative.2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 162 of 262 . and deﬁned by the speed parameters ˇ1 and ˇ2 .b 0 . i.6 The Lorentz transformation matrix Introducing the transformation matrix 1 0 ˇ 0 0 B ˇ 0 0C C B ƒ DB C @ 0 0 1 0A 0 0 0 1 (7. However tempting.x 0 . correspond to a single transformation with speed parameter (7.x Ä /b .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www..x Ä / is Á a . Furthermore.uu.ct. an invariant scalar quantity ˛. the coordinate transformation x ! x 0 D x 0 . a/ . 7.e. 140 j 7 .x 0 .x.1.e. x 3 /’.x Ä / which depends on time and space. one can show that this set possesses at least one identity element and at least one inverse element.

This rotation leaves the Euclidean distance x 1 X0 2 2 C D x2 c 2 t 2 invariant.2: Minkowski space can be considered an ordinary Euclidean space where a Lorentz transformation from .dX 2 /2 C .29d) 3 instance. a pseudo-Riemannian space.3 As before. The special theory of relativity j 141 X0 X 00 Â x Â x1 01 Figure 7.29a) (7. X 0 D ix 0 D ict X 1 D x1 X Dx X Dx 3 2 2 3 dS D ids where i D p dS 2 D .e. Introducing The fact that our Riemannian space can be transformed in this way into a Euclidean one means that it is. We shall call the 4D Euclidean space constructed in this way the Minkowski space M4 .dx 1 /2 and we consider the X 0 and X 1 D x 1 axes as orthogonal axes in a Euclidean space. X 0 D ict / to . 7. the world line for a light ray that propagates in vacuum (free space) is the trajectory x 0 D x 1 .dX 0 /2 C .plasma.32a) (7.32b) x D x cos Â C X sin Â See ﬁgure 7.31) .dX 1 /2 C . X 00 D ict 0 / corresponds to an ordinary rotation through an angle Â. As in all Euclidean spaces.29e) (7.29c) (7. FT (7. we see that equation (7. into a 4D differential form that is positive deﬁnite just as is ordinary 3D Euclidean space R3 .1. (7.2.uu.dX 0 /2 C .29b) (7..dX 3 /2 R A x 1 sin Â C X 0 cos Â 1 0 1.dX 0 /2 C . it sufﬁces to consider the simpliﬁed case where the relative motion between † and †0 is along the x axes. strictly speaking.30) i. every interval is invariant under a rotation of the X 0 x 1 plane through an angle Â into X 00 x 01 : (7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Then D X 00 D 01 dS 2 D .se/CED/Book Sheet: 163 of 262 .17) on page 138 transforms into (7.dX 1 /2 D .x 1 .x 01 .

RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS If we introduce the angle ' D iÂ .33a) (7.3: Minkowski diagram depicting geometrically the transformation (7.34c) D It is therefore possible to envisage the Lorentz transformation as an ‘ordinary’ rotation in the 4D Euclidean space M4 . at best.33b) x D x cosh ' R A sinh ' D ˇ cosh ' D tanh ' D ˇ which are identical to the original transformation equations (7.35) The use of ict and M4 . if we leave the ﬂat L4 space and enter the curved space of general relativity. x D ct the world line for a light ray in vacuum. which leads to the interpretation of the Lorentz transformation as an ‘ordinary’ rotation. Let us therefore immediately return to L4 where all components are real valued. The event P 0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.28) on page 140 for successive Lorentz transformation then corresponds to the tanh addition formula tanh. 142 j 7 . † x D ct 0 w x 00 x0 D x1 ' P0 ' O D O0 P ct x1 D x x 01 (7.29) on the preceding page backwards. Besides. may.se/CED/Book Sheet: 164 of 262 . equation (7.34b) (7. but is not very physical. the ‘ict ’ trick will turn out to be an impasse.33) from the unprimed system to the primed system. .uu. which is simultaneous with all points on the x 0 axis. Here w denotes the world line for an event and the line x 0 D x 1 . is not simultaneous with O in the unprimed system but occurs there at time jP P 0 j =c. including the origin O. to an observer at rest in the primed system. be illustrative. often called the rapidity or the Lorentz boost parameter. Note that the event P is simultaneous with all points on the x 1 axis (t D 0). and transform back to the original space and time variables by using equation (7.3. we obtain ct 0 D 0 x sinh ' C ct cosh ' ct sinh ' FT Figure 7. Such a rotation in M4 corresponds to a coordinate change in L4 as depicted in ﬁgure 7.3) on page 135 if we let (7.34a) (7. including O 0 D O.plasma.'1 C '2 / D tanh '1 C tanh '2 1 C tanh '1 tanh '2 (7.

41) FT (7. we interpret cp 0 as the total energy E.40) which. Covariant classical mechanics j 143 7.39) (7. v / D B C 2 2 A @ v v 1 1 c2 c2 (7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. A better way to look at this is that p D mv D m0 v is the covariantly correct expression for the kinetic three-momentum.2.c.E. cp/ (7.uu.plasma. when multiplied with the scalar invariant m0 yields the four-momentum 0 1 .c. cp/ D .cp 0 . we obtain D m0 c 2 cp 0 D m0 c 2 D s D mc 2 v2 1 c2 Since this component has the dimension of energy and is the result of a Lorentzcovariant description of the motion of a particle with its kinetic momentum described by the spatial components of the four-momentum. p/ D m0 . equation (7.s D . v / D B s .p 0 .37) (7.2 Covariant classical mechanics The invariance of the differential ‘distance’ ds in L4 .s B C @ v2 v2 A 1 1 c2 c2 From this we see that we can write p D mv where m D m0 D s m0 v2 c2 R A 1 We can interpret this such that the Lorentz covariance implies that the mass-like term in the ordinary 3D linear momentum is not invariant. Hence.38) (7.18) on page 138] allows us to deﬁne the four-velocity 0 1 dx u D d B C B C v Bs c C D . Multiplying the zeroth (time) component of the four-momentum p by the scalar invariant c. and the associated differential proper time d [see equation (7. 7. u/ .37) above.se/CED/Book Sheet: 165 of 262 .u0 .36) p D m0 dx d B C B m0 c m0 v C C D . cp D .

we obtain cp cp D c 2 Á p p D c 2 Œ.E.44) R A D 0 2 (7.p 0 /2 . hence. 144 j 7 .p 2 /2 .A c (7. The four-vector (in contravariant component form) j with D 0 dx d D 0u FT D 0 .47) . particularly in the frame where p D 0 and there we have E D m0 c 2 This is probably the most famous formula in physics history.94) on page 221. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS Scalar multiplying this four-vector with itself.8 on page 223. x/ D 0 is Lorentz covariant.45) is the four-current.m0 c 2 /2 1 D . the homogeneous wave equation 2 f . The contravariant form of the four-del operator @ D @=@x is deﬁned in equation (M.t. c. cp/ .c.se/CED/Book Sheet: 166 of 262 . (7.E.plasma. respectively.43) 7.3.3 Covariant classical electrodynamics Let us consider a charge density which in its rest inertial system is denoted by 0 .uu.1 The four-potential If we introduce the four-potential Â Ã A D . 7.93) on page 221 and its covariant counterpart @ D @=@x in equation (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.m0 c 2 /2 D v2 c2 1 c2 Since this is an invariant. the d’Alembert operator is the scalar product of the four-del with itself: D@ @ D@ @ D 1 @2 c 2 @t 2 r2 (7. As is shown in example M. cp/ D E 2 c 2 p2 Â Ã v2 .p 3 /2 (7. the d’Alembert operator is invariant and.42) D . v / (7. v / D . this equation holds in any inertial frame.46) D Since it has the characteristics of a four-scalar.p 1 /2 .

28) on page 37. x 03 /. For instance.A /0 D .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. equations (3.49) and the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition. x 01 .2 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials Let us now solve the the inhomogeneous wave equations (3. x 02 . 7..58) on page 43 in covariant form are A 7! A0 D A C @ .A D . x 3 /. the covariant form of the equation of continuity. the charge in a given volume is conserved.e.53) .29) on page 37.48) With the help of the above. we can formulate our electrodynamic equations covariantly. deﬁned in section 3.3 on page 35.45) on the facing page we see that dV D 0 dV0 R A If only one dimension Lorentz contracts (for instance.52) dV D d3x D dV0 D dV0 1 ˇ 2 D dV0 1 c2 i.se/CED/Book Sheet: 167 of 262 .3.x 00 D ct 0 .x 0 D ct. In the rest system we know that the solution is simply Â Ã Â 0 Ã q 1 . a 3D spatial volume element transforms according to s q v2 1 (7. x 1 . due to relative motion along the x direction).0 (7. D 7. then from equation (7.54) c 4 "0 c jx x0 j0 vD0 FT (7.29) on page 37 in vacuum for the case of a well-localised charge q 0 at a source point deﬁned by the position four-vector x 0 Á .50) (7.3. we can write the uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations. The ﬁeld point (observation point) is denoted by the position four-vector x D . We can therefore conclude that the elementary electric charge is a universal constant. equation (3. x 2 . in the following compact (and covariant) way: 2 A D 0j (7.uu. can be written @ A D0 The Lorenz-Lorentz gauge is sometimes called the covariant gauge.25) on page 10 is @ j D0 (7. Covariant classical electrodynamics j 145 where is the scalar potential and A the vector potential. equation (1.x / where dV0 denotes the volume element as measured in the rest system.51) (7.plasma. The gauge transformations (3.

ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ .61) As all scalar products.s D .ˇx x0 ˇ0 .uu. . x x0 / . We note from equation (7. evaluated in the rest system (signiﬁed by the index ‘0’).55) above can be written R A D and ˇ .x x0 /0 / D c ˇx (7.60) (7.57) Inserting this into equation (7. Let us introduce the relative position four-vector between the source point and the ﬁeld point: R Dx x 0 D .x x 0 /0 / ˇ x0 ˇ0 We know that in vacuum the signal (ﬁeld) from the charge q 0 at x 0 propagates to x with the speed of light c so that (7.R /0 0 ˇ ˇ ˇ D . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS where jx x0 j0 is the usual distance from the source point to the ﬁeld point.56) ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ D c.R /0 D . 146 j 7 . . u R is invariant.t t 0 /.56).x x0 // D c 2 . x u R D u R ˇ R D .t t 0/ FT ˇ x 0 /0 D .36) on page 143 that in the rest system 0 1 B C B C v Bs c C .62) .58) or that equation (7. If we evaluate it in the rest system the result is: D .55) Scalar multiplying this relative four-vector with itself. in an arbitrary inertial system.t t 0 /. . 0/ . 0/ C 2 2 A @ v v 1 1 c2 c 2 vD0 (7.u /0 D B . x x0 / (7.54) on the preceding page.c.t t 0 /.c. we obtain R R D .t t 0 /2 ˇ ˇx ˇ2 x0 ˇ (7.c.ˇ x ˇ x0 ˇ0 .u /0 .59) Now we want to ﬁnd the correspondence to the rest system solution. x x0 / (7. we see that R R D0 (7. equation (7.plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. which means that we can evaluate it in any inertial system and it will have the same value in all other inertial systems.se/CED/Book Sheet: 168 of 262 .c.c.ˇ x ˇ x0 ˇ .

equation (7.64) Generalising expression (7. v / ˇx x0 ˇ .1 on page 105.67) (7. It is therefore the correct solution.3.x we can write u R D cs and R A Â 1 v . FT (7.63) subject to the condition R R D 0 has the proper transformation properties (proper tensor form) and reduces. x/ D where in the last step the deﬁnition of the four-potential.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1) on page 135 to vector form: ˇ D ˇv Á O def v c ˇ v . the scalar and vector potentials are given by the expressions q0 1 q0 1 D 4 "0 s 4 "0 jx x0 j ˇ .x x0 / D c ˇx x0 ˇ v .c.x x0 / (7.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 169 of 262 .65) x0 / (7.x x0 / q0 v q0 v A.70a) (7.uu. According to equation (7. we conclude that for a very localised charge volume.66) (7. 7.5.x / D . in the rest system. moving relative an observer with a velocity v .x x0 / Á ˇx c and introducing def ˇ s Á ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ ˇ x0 ˇ ˇ . valid in any inertial system.36) on page 143 and equation (7.x x0 / (7.A 4 "0 cs c 2 s c D .70b) These potentials are the Liénard-Wiechert potentials that we derived in a more complicated and restricted way in subsection 6.69) .63) can be written Â Ã Â Ã q0 1 v Ä A . D .plasma.68) (7. cs c 2 s Ã u D cu R from which we see that the solution (7.54) on page 145. to the solution equation (7.47) on page 144.59) on the facing page ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ u R D . was used. x/ D D 4 "0 c 2 s 4 "0 c 2 jx x0 j ˇ . .t. Writing the solution in the ordinary 3D way. Covariant classical electrodynamics j 147 We therefore see that the expression A D q0 u 4 "0 cu R (7.

Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.76b) i @x @t From this.plasma.76a) i @x @x j @ @Ai Ei D D @i @ t Ai (7. the Maxwell equation (7. i.A (7. j ¤ k (7.77) c Inspection of (7.76) above makes it natural to deﬁne the four-tensor @A @A F D D@ A @ A (7.72) @B (7.a1 b2 x a2 b1 /O 3 x (7.75b) @A @t In component form. we notice the clear difference between the axial vector (pseudovector) B and the polar vector (‘ordinary vector’) E. Our goal is to express the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in a tensor form where the components are functions of the covariant form of the four-potential.75a) (7.47) on page 144: Â Ã A D .uu.73) @t can in this tensor notation be written @Ej @Ei @Bij D (7. the pseudovector c D a b can be considered as an antisymmetric tensor of rank two. For instance.74) i j @x @x @t We know from chapter 3 that the ﬁelds can be derived from the electromagnetic potentials in the following way: r ED R A ED r Bij D BDr A FT In other words.3 The electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor Consider a vectorial (cross) product c between two ordinary vectors a and b: cDa bD O ij k ai bj xk a3 b2 /O 1 C .78) @x @x .71) D . The same is true for the curl operator r operating on a polar vector. equation (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 170 of 262 .a3 b1 x a1 b3 /O 2 C . this can be written D @Ai @Aj D @i Aj @j Ai (7.77) and equation (7.a2 b3 We notice that the kth component of the vector c can be represented as ck D ai bj aj bi D cij D cj i . 148 j 7 . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS 7.3.

i. corresponding to the ﬁrst/leftmost column in the matrix representation of the covariant component form of the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor.79). four-tensor of rank 2 is called the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor or the Faraday tensor.uu. we see that Â Ã @F 10 @F 20 @F 30 1 @Ex @Ey @Ez @F 00 C C C D0C C C @x 0 @x 1 @x 2 @x 3 c @x @y @z (7.49a) on page 15.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.83) 1 0 D r E D 0j D 0c c or.82) D r ED "0 is immediately observed by explicitly solving this covariant equation.plasma. FT (7. equation (7. equivalently (recalling that "0 D 1=c 2 ).81) . the contravariant ﬁeld tensor can be written 0 1 0 Ex =c Ey =c Ez =c BE =c 0 Bz By C B x C . 7.. That the two Maxwell source equations can be written (7.81) with formula (7. In matrix representation.84) which we recognise as the Maxwell source equation for the electric ﬁeld. Covariant classical electrodynamics j 149 This anti-symmetric (skew-symmetric).80) (7.79) C @Ey =c Bz 0 Bx A Ez =c By Bx 0 We note that the ﬁeld tensor is a sort of four-dimensional curl of the fourpotential vector A . (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 171 of 262 .79) above we see that the covariant ﬁeld tensor is obtained from the contravariant one by a transformation E ! E. F . The covariant ﬁeld tensor is obtained from the contravariant ﬁeld tensor in the usual manner by index lowering F DÁ ÄÁ FÄ D @ A @ A which in matrix representation becomes 0 1 0 Ex =c Ey =c Ez =c B E =c 0 Bz By C B x C F DB C @ Ey =c Bz 0 Bx A Ez =c By Bx 0 @ F R A D 0j 0 Comparing formula (7. equation (1.F / D B (7.e.3. Setting D 0.

90) D with the further property ? ? F D F (7. is an even permutation of 0.3 (7.86) or.89) which can be viewed as a generalisation of the Levi-Civita tensor.3 ˆ < D 0 if at least two of .2. x/ C "0 (7.82) on the previous page yields @F 01 @F 11 @F 21 @F 31 C C C D @x 0 @x 1 @x 2 @x 3 D 0j 1 1 @Ex @Bz C0C 2 @t c @y @By @z (7.85) D 0 vx This result can be rewritten as @Bz @y @By @z "0 0 @Ex D @t 0 jx (7. . are equal ˆ ˆ : 1 if .plasma. 3. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS For D 1 [the second column in equation (7. equivalently.r B/x D 0 jx C "0 FT 0 0 @Ex @t (7.79) on the preceding page]. With the help of the fully antisymmetric pseudotensor of rank 4 8 ˆ1 if .87) and similarly for form as r BD D 2. Ä.1.92) . we can write the result in three-vector @E @t 0 j.t. formula (M. 150 j 7 . equation (7.1.49d) on page 15.88) R A Ä which we recognise as the Maxwell source equation for the magnetic ﬁeld. In summary.91) In matrix representation the dual ﬁeld tensor is 1 0 0 Bx By Bz BB 0 Ez =c Ey =c C B x C ? F DB C @By Ez =c 0 Ex =c A Bz Ey =c Ex =c 0 (7. as .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. .2. Ä.22) on page 209. . Ä. we can introduce the dual electromagnetic tensor ? F D 1 2 Ä FÄ D ? F (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 172 of 262 .uu. is an odd permutation of 0. equation (1.

ISBN 0-471-59551-9. Introduction to Electrodynamics and Radiation. Ltd. The Classical Theory of Fields. L OW.93) (7.. [41] F. The covariant form of the two Maxwell ﬁeld equations r ED @B @t (7.97) @Ä F C@ F C @ FÄ D 0 (7. NY. D [38] R. Inc. fourth revised English ed. NY. New York. 7. New York. T. ISBN 0-486-64038-8. G RANDY. 1975. New York and London. 1982. M. D..82) on page 149 and @ ? F D 0 jm where jm is the magnetic four-current. ISBN 0-12-295250-2. Dover Publications. Electrodynamics and Classical Theory of Fields and Particles. . L ANDAU AND E. ISBN 0-486-64870-2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 173 of 262 . revised ed. 1970. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. Dover Publications.. Inc. Bibliography j 151 i.96) above constitute Maxwell’s equations in four-dimensional formalism. NY . the dual ﬁeld tensor is obtained from the ordinary ﬁeld tensor by the duality transformation E ! cB and B ! E=c.95) Explicit evaluation shows that this corresponds to (no summation!) Ä sometimes referred to as the Jacobi identity. vol. . BARUT.96) . 1997. . [37] A.94) r BD0 can then be written @ ? F D0 (7. Classical Field Theory.. E. B ECKER.50) on page 16. ISBN 0-08-025072-6. Inc. R A FT (7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.uu. represent the covariant form of Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations (1. 1980. It is interesting to note that equation (7... Dover Publications.e. 1985. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. equation (7. New York. . Oxford . Hence.82) on page 149 and equation (7. 7. ISBN 0-486-64290-9. John Wiley & Sons. . Academic Press.4. A HARONI. Pergamon Press.. L IFSHITZ. O. . second.plasma. The Special Theory of Relativity. New York. [39] W. Inc.4 Bibliography [36] J.. [40] L.

. 152 j 7 . Ltd. . D R A FT . [43] C. The Theory of Relativity. . 1962.. Advanced Quantum Mechanics.. 1972. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. The Macmillan Press Ltd. M UIRHEAD. Oliver and Boyd. . Beccles and Colchester. Oxford University Press. second ed. MA .uu.. . Reading. ISBN 05-001331-9.plasma. Inc. S PAIN. MA . . 1965.. [46] B. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. second ed. [44] W. Reading. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. Tensor Calculus.. . Glasgow . . third ed. ISBN 0-201-06710-2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. [45] J. J.se/CED/Book Sheet: 174 of 262 . M ØLLER. Edinburgh and London. S AKURAI. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. K. London. . . Inc. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS [42] H. PANOFSKY AND M. ISBN 333-12845-1. H. P HILLIPS. The Special Theory of Relativity.. 1973. 1967.

FT ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES .uu. 8. the dynamics of charged particles in arbitrary. The analysis is based on Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods. but prescribed electromagnetic ﬁelds. is fully covariant. 8. Then we go on to consider the general problem of interaction between electric and magnetic ﬁelds and electrically charged particles. but prescribed distributions of charges and currents.. From these equations we may then calculate the charged particle dynamics in the most general case. viz. We will also show that we can ﬁnd a Hamiltonian-type function in 4D and solve the corresponding 153 R A In previous chapters.se/CED/Book Sheet: 175 of 262 . and yields results which are relativistically correct. In this chapter we ﬁrst study the opposite situation.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1 Covariant equations of motion We will show that for our problem we can derive the correct equations of motion by using in four-dimensional L4 a function with similar properties as a Lagrange function in 3D and then apply a variational principle.1 Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld D We ﬁrst establish a relativistically correct theory describing the motion of charged particles in prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds. we calculated the electromagnetic ﬁelds and potentials from arbitrary.1.plasma.

Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1 Lagrangian formalism In analogy with particle dynamics in 3D Euclidean space. A free particle has only kinetic energy. leads to Z 1 Á m0 ıS4 D ı u u C qu A . We require that L4 is a scalar invariant which does not contain higher than the second power of the four-velocity u in order that the resulting equations of motion be linear. As a result.2) with the 4D Lagrangian (8.125) on page 227 the ordinary 3D Lagrangian is the difference between the kinetic and potential energies.2) above. According to formula (M.x / 2 FT (8.uu. together with the variation principle. we introduce a generalised 4D action Z S4 D L4 . 154 j 8 .x / d 2 Ä Â Ã Z 10 m0 @.77) on page 148 in the following way (8.plasma.3) Again drawing inferences from analytical mechanics in 3D. we introduce a generalised interaction between the particles and the electromagnetic ﬁeld with the help of the four-potential given by equation (7. u / d D 0 (8. yields Lorentz covariant results which are physically correct.5) 2 @u @x Z 01 D m0 u ıu C q A ıu C u @ A ıx d D 0 0 D . 8. formula (8.4) inserted.x .1) where d is the proper time deﬁned via equation (7.2) 0 with ﬁxed endpoints 0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 176 of 262 . This suggests that in 4D the Lagrangian for a free particle should be R A Lfree D 4 1 m0 u u 2 L4 D 1 m0 u u C qu A . If the particle mass is m0 then in 3D the kinetic energy is m0 v 2 =2. 1 must be fulﬁlled. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES Hamilton-type equations to obtain the correct covariant formulation of classical electrodynamics.18) on page 138. u / d (8. The variation principle (8.x . the variational principle Z 1 ıS4 D ı L4 .u u / @A D ıu C q A ıu C u ıx d (8.4) We call this the four-Lagrangian and shall now show how this function.1. and L4 acts as a kind of generalisation to the common 3D Lagrangian.1.

according to the variational principle.ıx / C qA . 8.8) d d 0 Partial integration in the two ﬁrst terms in the right hand member of (8.12) m0 d 0 Since.9) yields.9) ıS4 D m0 d d 0 Applying well-known rules of differentiation and the expression (7. the expression inside in the integrand in the right hand member of equation (8. this expression shall vanish and ıx is arbitrary between the ﬁxed end points 0 and 1 .7) ıu D ı d d Inserting this into the ﬁrst two terms in the last integral in equation (8. we obtain the ﬁnal variational principle expression Z 1Ä du ıS4 D C qu @ A @ A ıx d (8.se/CED/Book Sheet: 177 of 262 .10).Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.11) D m0 du D qu d By inserting this expression (8.1. Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld j 155 According to equation (7. we obtain Ã Z 1Â d d .12) above must vanish. after moving the ensuing common factor ıx outside the parenthesis.plasma. we have found an equation of motion for a charged particle in a prescribed electromagnetic ﬁeld: @ A @ A (8.11) into the second term in right-hand member of equation (8.10) d d 0 FT . and noting the common factor qu of the resulting term and the last term. In other words.ıx / D (8.6) which means that we can write the variation of u as a total derivative with respect to : Ã Â d dx .5) on the preceding page.ıx / C qu @ A ıx d ıS4 D m0 u (8. A change of irrelevant summation index from to in the ﬁrst two terms of the right hand member of (8.36) for the four-velocity.uu.36) on page 143.13) R A where the integrated parts do not contribute since the variations at the endpoints vanish. the four-velocity is u D dx d (8.8) gives Ã Z 1Â dA du ıx q ıx C qu @ A ıx d (8. the following expression: Ã Z 1Â du dA ıS4 D m0 q C qu @ A ıx d (8. we can express dA =d as follows: dA @A dx D d @x d D@ A u (8.

1.18) on page 138.se/CED/Book Sheet: 178 of 262 .80) on page 149 for the covariant component form of the ﬁeld tensor. qi is a P P generalised coordinate and pi is its canonically conjugate momentum.18a) (8. t/ is the ordinary 3D Hamiltonian. 8. deﬁned in equation (7.17) D With the help of these. we introduce the following eight partial differential equations: @H4 dx D @p d @H4 dp D @x d (8. to deﬁne the four-Hamiltonian (8.2 Hamiltonian formalism The usual Hamilton equations for a 3D space are given by equation (M. qi .1. FT . and the invariant line element ds. the position four-vector x . To this end we introduce a canonically conjugate four-momentum p in an analogous way as the ordinary 3D conjugate momentum (8. qi . considered as the generalised four-coordinate. We seek a similar set of equations in 4D space.qi .16) and utilise the four-velocity u .plasma.36) on page 143. These six ﬁrst-order partial differential equations are dqi @H D @pi dt @H dpi D @qi dt (8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the spatial part of this 4-vector equation is the covariant (relativistically correct) expression for the Newton-Lorentz force equation.pi .15b) R A p D @L4 @u H4 D p u L4 where H. As the reader may easily verify.18b) which form the four-dimensional Hamilton equations. as given by equation (7. It is often referred to as the Minkowski equation. 156 j 8 . we can express this equation in terms of the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor in the following way: m0 du D qu F d (8.136) on page 228 in appendix M. t / D pi qi L.14) This is the sought-for covariant equation of motion for a particle in an electromagnetic ﬁeld.15a) (8. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES With the help of formula (7.uu.

Furthermore. Hence we require that the component p 0 of the conjugate four-momentum vector deﬁned according to equation (8.x / (8. equation (8.24) . at the same time (8.18) on the preceding page to derive an explicit algebraic expression for the canonically conjugate momentum four-vector. Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld j 157 Our strategy now is to use equation (8.x / D 1 m0 u u 2 (8. c times a four-momentum has a zeroth (time) component which we can identify with the total energy.17) on the preceding page.4) on page 154. and the expression for L4 . whose value is simply H4 D m0 c 2 2 (8. we see that Â Ã @L4 @ 1 p D D m0 u u C qu A .1.p m0 and if this is used in (8. we obtain H4 D m0 u u C qA u 1 m0 u u 2 R A qA / Since the four-velocity scalar-multiplied by itself is u u D c 2 . equations (8.16) on the facing page and equations (8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.16) on the preceding page be identical to the ordinary 3D Hamiltonian H divided by c and hence that this cp 0 solves the Hamilton equations. the Hamiltonian equals the total energy.21) to eliminate u .41) on page 143. we clearly see from equation (8.x / D m0 u C qA (8. Using the deﬁnition of H4 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 179 of 262 . equation (8.p D qA / p qA 2m0 1 D p p 2qA p C q 2 A A 2m0 FT qu A . we obtain H4 D p u L4 D p u 1 m0 u u 2 qu A . 8.23) (8.16) of the canonically conjugate four-momentum p .20) provides the algebraic relationship D u D 1 .p H4 D qA / p qA 2 m0 m0 1 . According to equation (7.plasma.21) (8.19) 1 Recall that in 3D. from the deﬁnition (8.21) above that H4 is indeed a scalar invariant.19). one gets Â Ã m0 1 1 .22) However.uu.20) @u @u 2 Inserting this into (8.1 This latter consistency check is left as an exercise to the reader.15) on the facing page.

29) 0 .plasma.28) D which is a second-order algebraic equation in p 0 : . Recalling expression (7. we obtain the equation m0 c 2 1 D 2 2m0 Ä . we obtain (8.27a) (8.p/2 . We can therefore safely conclude that the Hamiltonian in question yields correct results.27b) (8.p A/ C 2 c c 2 where in the last step equation (8.27c) Inserting these explicit expressions into equation (8. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES That this four-Hamiltonian yields the correct covariant equation of motion can be seen by inserting it into the four-dimensional Hamilton equations (8.14) on page 156.20) on the preceding page was used.p A/ .47) on page 144 for the four-potential. as derived in equation (8. and using the fact that H4 is equal to the scalar value m0 c 2 =2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 158 j 8 .p m0 q m0 u m0 @A qu @x dp D d qA / @A @x @A @x (8.p 0 /2 1 0 A p D p c 1 A A D 2 2 c .A/2 C 2 ƒ‚ … c .se/CED/Book Sheet: 180 of 262 . and representing the canonically conjugate four-momentum as p D .A/2 (8. p/.22) on the previous page. and using equation (7.A/2 which is identical to the covariant equation of motion equation (8.p 0 /2 2q 0 p c .p/2 „ q2 2qp A C q 2 .24) on the preceding page. we obtain the following scalar products: (8.p 0 .p 0 /2 q 2 .p qA/2 2 m2 c 2 D 0 (8. Rearranging terms.25) du d @A u @x m0 q m0 du D qu d @ A FT @ A D qu F .26) R A p p D .uu.80) on page 149.18) and using the relation (8.p/2 q2 2 q p 0 C 2q.23): @H4 D @x D D D q .

we can rewrite this expression for the ordinary Lagrangian as follows: A v/ mc D 2 q C qA v What we have obtained is the relativistically correct (covariant) expression for the Lagrangian describing the mechanical motion of a charged particle in scalar and vector potentials associated with prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds.34) s m0 c 2 is the ordinary 3D Hamilton function for a charged particle moving in scalar and vector potentials associated with prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds.33) (8.p qA/2 C m2 c 2 0 (8. Consequently.1. q H Á cp D q C c .17) between L4 and H4 ] 1 v2 c2 (8.41) on page 143]. Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld j 159 with two possible solutions q p D c 0 ˙ q .p 0 qA/2 C m2 c 2 0 (8. The ordinary Lagrange and Hamilton functions L and H are related to each other by the 3D transformation [cf.uu.30) Since the zeroth component (time component) p 0 of a four-momentum vector p multiplied by c represents the energy [cf. the 4D transformation (8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. FT (8.se/CED/Book Sheet: 181 of 262 .32) (8.35) . where the quantity mv is the usual kinetic momentum.32).plasma.31) LDp v H Using the the explicit expressions given by equation (8. equation (7. the positive solution in equation (8. 8.p qA/2 C m2 c 2 0 m0 v D mv 1 v2 c2 q q c m2 v 2 C m2 c 2 0 2 and if we make the identiﬁcation p qA D s D L D qA v C mv 2 D mv q.31) and equation (8.30) above must be identiﬁed with the ordinary Hamilton function H divided by c. we obtain the explicit expression for the ordinary 3D Lagrange function LDp v R A q q c .

Let us now put the ﬁelds and the particles on an equal footing and present a theoretical description which treats the ﬁelds. .2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 182 of 262 .plasma. the motion of O mass point i will be a one-dimensional oscillatory motion along x. we have considered two classes of problems.36) According to equation (M. each with mass m and connected to its neighbour along a one-dimensional straight line.t /. i 1 i iC1 m k a m k a m k a m k a m x 8. respectively. ideal springs with spring constants k. and .i 1/th. along the x axis.1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for ﬁelds and interactions Consider the situation. distributed evenly with a distance a to their two nearest neighbours so that the equilibrium O coordinate for the i th particle is xi D iax .1: A one-dimensional chain consisting of N discrete. The equilibrium distance between the neighbouring mass points is a and i 1 . and their interactions in a uniﬁed way. This involves transition to a ﬁeld picture with an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. connected to their neighbours with identical.2 Covariant ﬁeld theory D R A 8. 160 j 8 .1. Either we have calculated the ﬁelds from given. the particles.125) on page 227. We shall ﬁrst consider a simple mechanical problem whose solution is well known.uu. with N identical mass points.t/O . Pi . Then. Let us denote the deviation for mass point i from its equilibrium position by i . the Lagrangian is L D T V where T denotes the kinetic energy and V the potential energy of a classical FT So far. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES Figure 8. t / dt D 0 (8. by identical ideal springs with spring constants k (Hooke’s law).t /. identical mass points m. x As is well known. of positions of the .i C 1/th mass point. we apply a similar view on the electromagnetic problem. the solution to this mechanical problem can be obtained if we can ﬁnd a Lagrangian (Lagrange function) L which satisﬁes the variational equation Z ı L. i . or we have derived the equations of motion for charged particles in given. After perturbation. drawing inferences from this model problem.t / are the instantaneous deviations.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. which we choose to be the x axis. illustrated in ﬁgure 8. At equilibrium the mass points are at rest. iC1 . prescribed ﬁelds. prescribed distributions of charges and currents. i th. i .

t D @t @x 2 @t D Notice how we made a transition from a discrete description. . A consequence of this transition is that the number of degrees of freedom for the system went from the ﬁnite number N to inﬁnity! Another consequence is that L has now become dependent also on the partial derivative with respect to x of the ‘ﬁeld coordinate’ . iC1 2 i/ i (8. FT (8.42) 1 Li D 2 " m P2 a i Â ka i C1 i Ã2 # (8.39) . If we now let N ! 1 and. N . 8.40d) (8. 2. measured in J m 1 .40a) (8. be it classical scalar or vectorial ﬁelds.41) (8. : : : .40c) (8. as we shall see.38) a is the so called linear Lagrange density.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma. to a continuous description.40b) (8. But. . let the springs become inﬁnitesimally short according to the following scheme: a ! dx dm m ! D a dx ka ! Y i C1 i linear mass density Young’s modulus R A ! @ @x Â Y @ @x Ã2 # a we obtain Z L D L dx where " Â Ã Â Ã @ @ 1 @ 2 L . as given by equation (8.2. Covariant ﬁeld theory j 161 mechanical system with conservative forces. where the inﬁnitesimal mass points were instead identiﬁed O by a continuous real parameter x.uu. the transition is well worth the cost because it allows us to treat all ﬁelds. In our case the Lagrangian is LD 1 X h P2 m i 2 iD1 N k. namely their position along x. at the same time.37) above.se/CED/Book Sheet: 183 of 262 .37) Let us write the Lagrangian. in which the mass points were identiﬁed by a discrete integer variable i D 1. in the following way: LD where N X iD1 aLi (8.

42) on the previous page. Under the assumption of time independence and ﬁxed endpoints. the last integral can be integrated by parts. @t @x 2 3 (8. equation (8. the variation principle (8.44) @ @t @ @ @x @ @ @t @x R A @x where the variation is arbitrary (and the endpoints ﬁxed). E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES or wave functions. we obtain the equation of motion for our one-dimensional linear mechanical structure.46). If we introduce the functional derivative 0 1 ıL @L @ @ @L A Á D (8.uu. spinors and other ﬁelds that appear in quantum physics.46) D or which is the one-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equation.43) Â Ã Â Ã ZZ @L @L @L @ @ 5 4 Áı Áı C dx dt D ı C @ @t @x @ @ @ @ @t @x As before.36) on page 160 yields: Z ı L dt Ã Â ZZ @ @ dx dt Dı L . .47b) .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Inserting the linear mass point chain Lagrangian density. It is: @2 @t 2 Y @2 D0 @x 2 (8.se/CED/Book Sheet: 184 of 262 . This results in the expression 2 0 1 0 13 ZZ @ @ @L A5 @ @ @L A 4 @L Á Á ı dx dt D 0 (8.plasma.47a) 1 @2 2 v' @t 2 @2 @x 2 ! D0 (8.45) ı @ @x @ @ we can express this as 0 1 @ @ @L A ıL Á D0 ı @t @ @ @t FT D0 (8. into equation (8. This means that the integrand itself must vanish. on an equal footing. 162 j 8 .

2. Covariant ﬁeld theory j 163 i.uu. i @x @t @t @x If. A generalisation of the above 1D results to a three-dimensional continuum is straightforward.e. we differentiate this expression and identify terms.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.50) (8. .51) (8.se/CED/Book Sheet: 185 of 262 . x/ D @L @ @t @ Á D @H @ D @ @t ıH @ D ı @t and deﬁne the Hamilton density Â Ã Â Ã @ @ @ @ H . .plasma. we may introduce the canonically conjugate momentum density . This means that the integrand itself must vanish: 0 1 Â Ã @L @ @ @L A @L @L Á D @ D0 (8. i It D L .t.49) @ @x @ @. Introducing the three-dimensional functional derivative 0 1 ıL @L @ @ @L A Á D ı @ @x i @ @ @x i R A @t we can express this as 0 1 @ @ @L A ıL Á D0 ı @t @ @ In analogy with particle mechanics (ﬁnite number of degrees of freedom).54b) FT (8. @x 2 0 13 ZZ (8.48) @ @ @L A5 4 4 @L Á D ı dxD0 @ @x @ @ @x @x This constitutes the four-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equations.53) where the variation ı is arbitrary and the endpoints are ﬁxed.x / D .@ / @ @ .52) (8. the one-dimensional wave equation for compression waves which propagate p with phase speed v' D Y = along the linear structure. as usual.. we obtain the following Hamilton density equations (8.54a) (8. For this 3D case we get the variational principle Â Ã Z ZZ Z @ 3 d4x ı L dt D ı L d x dt D ı L . 8.

It is given by L4 =V where L4 is given by equation (8. With the help of the ﬁeld tensor. the mechanical Lagrange density can be written R A L inter D j A L mech D 1 %0 u u 2 (8.3) on page 154 and V is the volume. . We therefore assume that the total Lagrange density L tot for this system can be expressed as L tot D L mech C L inter C L em FT F (8. 164 j 8 .1. when we described the mechanical ﬁeld.55) where the mechanical part has to do with the particle motion (kinetic energy).plasma.56) The L inter part describes the interaction between the charged particles and the external electromagnetic ﬁeld. Expressed in the rest mass density %0 .58) so that the total Lagrangian density can be written L tot D 1 1 %0 u u C j A C F 2 4 0 (8. 8. A convenient expression for this interaction Lagrange density is (8.57) D For the ﬁeld part L em we choose the difference between magnetic and electric energy density (in analogy with the difference between kinetic and potential energy in a mechanical ﬁeld). E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES The Hamilton density functions are in many ways similar to the ordinary Hamilton functions for a system of a ﬁnite number of particles and lead to similar results.x Ä /.59) From this we can calculate all physical quantities. However. a ﬁeld part and an interaction part.uu.2. we express this ﬁeld Lagrange density as L em D 1 4 0 F F (8.1 The electromagnetic ﬁeld Above. If we want to describe the electromagnetic ﬁeld in terms of a Lagrange density L and Euler-Lagrange equations.se/CED/Book Sheet: 186 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we used a scalar ﬁeld .t. they describe the dynamics of a continuous system of inﬁnitely many degrees of freedom. it comes natural to express L in terms of the four-potential A . The entire system of particles and ﬁelds consists of a mechanical part. x/.

64) .@ A @ D @Ä A @.uu.@ A R A 1 Ä 2 @ 0 @ A @Ä A C @ A @ AÄ @Ä A @ AÄ Á @ @Ä A @Ä A @. 8.2. @ @Ä A @Ä A @. the electromagnetic part of the Lagrangian density L EM D L inter C L em D j A C 1 4 0 F F (8.@ A / FT @ AÄ / i (8.@ A / @ @Ä A C @Ä A ÁÄ˛ @˛ Á ˇ Aˇ / @.@ A @ D @Ä A @.49) on page 163 (with replaced by A ).se/CED/Book Sheet: 187 of 262 .@ A / @ @ @Ä A C @Ä A @Ä A @.@ A / @ @Ä A C ÁÄ˛ Á ˇ @Ä A @˛ Aˇ / @. Ä 1 @L EM @ D @ @.60) inserted into the Euler-Lagrange equations.@ A / @.plasma.@ A / 4 0 1 @ D @ 4 0 @.1 that @L EM Dj @A Furthermore. expression (8.60) and the results in Example 8.@ A / @ @Ä A C @˛ Aˇ @˛ Aˇ / @. equation (8.@Ä A @ AÄ /. we can derive the dynamics for the whole system.@ A / h . To see this. yields two of Maxwell’s equations.@ A / Á D @Ä A (8.49) on page 163.@ A / @ D @Ä A @. For instance.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.@ A ( @ 1 D @ 4 0 @.62) ) (8.61) Ä / / Á @ F Ä FÄ @. we note from equation (8. Covariant ﬁeld theory j 165 Using L tot in the 3D Euler-Lagrange equations.63) Á @ @Ä A @ AÄ D 2@ A @.@ A (8.@Ä A @Ä A @Ä A Ä Ä @Ä A @ AÄ Ä D But D D 2@ A Similarly.

82) on page 149.66) @A @.B 2 E 2 =c 2 / .@ A / 0 or @ F D 0j (8.69) (8. E X A M P L E 8.49) on page 163.65) This means that the Euler-Lagrange equations. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES so that Ä 1 @L EM D @ . From formula (7. Einstein summation and D F 00 F00 C F 01 F01 C F 02 F02 C F 03 F03 C F 10 F10 C F 11 F11 C F 12 F12 C F 13 F13 C F 20 F20 C F 21 F21 C F 22 F22 C F 23 F23 C F 30 F30 C F 31 F31 C F 32 F32 C F 33 F33 2 Ex =c 2 2 Ey =c 2 2 Ez =c 2 2 2 2 Ex =c 2 C 0 C Bz C By 2 2 2 Ey =c 2 C Bz C 0 C Bx 2 2 2 Ez =c 2 C By C Bx C 0 2 2Ex =c 2 2 2Ey =c 2 2 2 2 2 2Ez =c 2 C 2Bx C 2By C 2Bz (8.79) on page 149 we recall that 0 1 0 Ex =c Ey =c Ez =c BE =c 0 Bz By C C F DB x @Ey =c Bz 0 Bx A Ez =c By Bx 0 and from formula (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 188 of 262 .1 Field energy difference expressed in the ﬁeld tensor Show.67) which. is a Lorentz covariant formulation of Maxwell’s source equations.uu. according to equation (7.81) on page 149 that 0 1 0 Ex =c Ey =c Ez =c B E =c 0 Bz By C C F DB x @ Ey =c Bz 0 Bx A Ez =c By Bx 0 where denotes the row number and direct substitution yields F F (8. for the Lagrangian density L EM and with A as the ﬁeld quantity become Ä @L EM @L EM 1 @ Dj @ F D0 (8.e. 166 j 8 .@ A @ @. Then.plasma.71) 2E 2 =c 2 C 2B 2 D 2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.70) R D D0 D D the column number.@ A / 0 @ A /D 1 0 @ F (8.68) i.. the difference between the magnetic and electric ﬁeld energy densities. by explicit calculation. that 1 4 0 F A FT F 1 D 2 B2 0 ! "0 E 2 (8. expression (8.

k x R A !t / e mjxj with the solution jxj which describes the Yukawa meson ﬁeld for a scalar meson with mass m. and not only electromagnetic ones.2.1 8.2 Other ﬁelds In general.77) F C m2 A A (8. 2 m2 / D 0 D ei.r /2 C m2 2 2 i which is positive deﬁnite. Covariant ﬁeld theory j 167 or [cf.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. scalar ﬁeld which has the following Lagrange density: L D 1 @ 2 @ m2 2 Insertion into the 1D Euler-Lagrange equation. the identity "0 0 D 1=c 2 was used. consider a real.plasma.73) (8. equation (8. in the last step.E 2 c2B 2/ (8. 8. equation (2.46) on page 162.78) (8. yields the dynamic equation .75) (8.76) D @ F m2 A D we obtain the Hamilton density 1h 2 2 H D c C .1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 189 of 262 .2. As a simple example.74) (8. QED End of example 8. Both linear and non-linear ﬁelds are studied with this technique. the dynamic equations for most any ﬁelds. Another Lagrangian density which has attracted quite some interest is the Proca Lagrangian L EM D L inter C L em D j A C 1 4 0 F which leads to the dynamic equation 0j FT (8.16a) on page 23] 1 4 0 F F D 1 2 B2 0 1 c2 0 ! E2 D 1 2 B2 0 ! "0 E 2 D "0 2 .79) . can be derived from a Lagrangian density together with a variational principle (the Euler-Lagrange equations). With D 1 @ c 2 @t (8.72) where.uu.

P HILLIPS. ISBN 0-486-64038-8. Ltd.. M. ISBN 0-201-06710-2. J. If the photon really has a mass. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.. New York. S AKURAI. E. Sydney and Toronto. Dover Publications. G INZBURG. large-scale magnetic ﬁelds. New York.. Academic Press. K. 1980.. [48] V. 1989. If massive photons do exist. . . second ed. Montreux. D... . G RANDY.uu. ISBN 0-12-295250-2.. second ed. Paris. 1976. S OPER. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES This equation describes an electromagnetic ﬁeld with a mass. should be signiﬁcantly modiﬁed from what they ar to yield measurable discrepancies from their usual form. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. . Classical Field Theory. London. fourth revised English ed. D R A [51] L. Electrodynamics and Classical Theory of Fields and Particles. ISBN 2-88124-719-9.se/CED/Book Sheet: 190 of 262 . L. FT . Pergamon Press. MA . Classical Electricity and Magnetism. L ANDAU AND E. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. G OLDSTEIN. ISBN 0-201-02918-9. . . Oxford . MA . The Classical Theory of Fields. 1981. T. PANOFSKY AND M. [53] J. London. 1975. Inc.. Reading.. Space experiments of this kind on board satellites have led to stringent upper bounds on the photon mass. it will have an impact on electrodynamics as well as on cosmology and astrophysics. . . Reading. Introduction to Electrodynamics and Radiation. John Wiley & Sons. [54] D. Applications of Electrodynamics in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics. H. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. Revised third ed. NY. 8. [49] H. BARUT. Inc. O. 168 j 8 . [52] W. L IFSHITZ. in other words. Classical Mechanics. massive photons. MA . New York and London. [50] W. Tokyo and Melbourne. 1967. . Inc. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. including those of the earth and galactic spiral arms. ISBN 0-08-025072-6. ISBN 0-471-81368-0. . or..Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Inc. Inc. . 1962. vol. Reading. New York.3 Bibliography [47] A.plasma. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. 1970. . Advanced Quantum Mechanics.

in an average sense. microscopic scales. derived ﬁelds are introduced. In a material medium. under certain assumptions. are valid on all scales where a classical description is good.1) on page 20 by the corresponding macroscopic Maxwell equations in which auxiliary. However. these derived ﬁelds are complicated. Consequently. ﬂuid or gaseous state or a combination thereof. viz. on macroscopic and. respectively. functions of D R A 169 FT ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MAT TER . the electric displacement vector D (measured in C m 2 ) and the magnetising ﬁeld H (measured in A m 1 ). be it in a solid. They provide a correct physical picture for arbitrary ﬁeld and source distributions. they represent.plasma. the material properties of the substances are already included. A more complete and accurate theory.se/CED/Book Sheet: 191 of 262 . In the most general case. possibly non-local and nonlinear. is provided by quantum electrodynamics. valid also when quantum effects are signiﬁcant. it is sometimes convenient to replace the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2. The microscopic Maxwell equations derived in chapter 1. QED gives a consistent description of how electromagnetic ﬁelds are quantised into photons and describes their intrinsic and extrinsic properties. or properties that appear when the medium is immersed fully or partially in an electromagnetic ﬁeld.uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. this theory is beyond the scope of the current book. These auxiliary ﬁelds.. electric and magnetic ﬁeld quantities in which. incorporate intrinsic electromagnetic properties of macroscopic matter. which in chapter 2 were chosen as the axiomatic basis for the treatment in the remainder of the book.

t.e. xI E.1a) on page 20 as in equation (6. A general treatment of these ﬁelds will not be included here. x/. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER the primary ﬁelds E and B : D D D. for bound polarisation charges induced by the applied ﬁeld E. and the magnetising ﬁeld H. x/. 9.plasma.t. we may assume that the response of a substance to the ﬁelds can be approximated by a linear one so that D H "E 1 FT true (9.t. i.t.1 Polarisation and electric displacement By writing the ﬁrst microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equation (2. as r ED . and the charge density.. x/ C "0 pol . In this chapter we derive these linearised forms. B/ H D H. x/ of this medium.t. xI E.t. for instance for small magnitudes of the primary ﬁeld strengths E and B. we study certain interesting aspects of the propagation of electromagnetic particles and waves in the medium.t.2) (9.t.t.. x/. x/ is only linearly dependent on the electric ﬁeld E.25) on page 88.t.1 Maxwell’s macroscopic theory Under certain conditions. x/ C P .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 170 j 9 . in a form where the total charge density . and the refractive index or index of refraction n. Only simpliﬁed.t.1.t.e. x/ is only linearly dependent on the magnetic ﬁeld B. and then consider a simple.1b) An example of this are chiral media.uu. true . x/ "0 (9.t. ‘true’ charges.3) B D R A total i.4) 2 and at the same time introducing the electric displacement vector (C m D. x/ D "0 E. that the electric displacement vector D.5) . x/. explicit linear model for a medium from which we derive the expression for the dielectric permittivity ". but important and illuminating examples will be given.1a) (9. the magnetic susceptibility . x/ true D . x/ is split into the charge density for free.se/CED/Book Sheet: 192 of 262 .t. x/ D "0 . B/ (9. 9. x/ r P .t. x/ ) (9.t.t.t. pol . Using this simple model.

1. These techniques are called heterodyning and demodulation. x/ D "0 e . or into the audible spectrum.t. x/ D r D.9) (9.t. This is one of the approximations assumed.8) The fact that the relation between the dipole moment per unit volume P and the applied electric ﬁeld E is local in time and space is yet another approximation assumed in macroscopic Maxwell theory. x/ D1C "0 e . x/ D "0 Œ1 C e . x/ D ". e.4) on the preceding page to obtain r Œ"0 E.7) This approximation is often valid for regular media if the ﬁeld strength jEj is low enough. Another example of the nonlinear response of a medium is the Kerr effect. It is important to remember that only the induced electric dipole moment of matter. x/ D will have to be replaced by a tensor. subject to the ﬁeld E.t. approximately.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/E. the dispersive property of the medium.t. however. as we shall call it.5) on the facing page.. Contributions to D from higher-order electric moments were neglected.10) 2 The nonlinearity of semiconductor diodes is used. In general.t. was included in the above separation into true and induced charge densities.2 9.plasma.1. This would still describe a linear relationship between E and P but one where the linear proportionality factor. e .t.t. respectively. x/ where. x/ C P . x/ For an electromagnetically anisotropic medium such as a magnetised plasma or a birefringent crystal .t. equivalently the relative dielectric permittivity Äe .t.t.t. x/ (9.t. in radio receivers to convert high radio frequencies into lower ones. are usually on much slower and longer scales than for E itself.7) above but non-linear terms are important.t. In such a situation the principle of superposition is no longer valid and non-linear effects such as frequency conversion and mixing can be expected. 9. the susceptibility e or. Here the variations in time and space of the the material dependent electric susceptibility. Another approximation is the assumption that there exists a simple linear relationship between P and E in the material medium under consideration P . x/E. x/ D true .t. (9. . we can write the latter D.g. x/ R A D "0 Äe . is dependent on the direction in space.2 Magnetisation and the magnetising ﬁeld An analysis of the properties of magnetic media and the associated currents shows that three such types of currents exist: FT 1 (9.7) into equation (9.se/CED/Book Sheet: 193 of 262 .1 Inserting the approximation (9. Maxwell’s macroscopic theory j 171 one can reshufﬂe expression (9.t.6) This is one of the original macroscopic Maxwell equations. x/ D ".t. x/ (9. the relationship is not of a simple linear form as in equation (9. ".uu. or.

.14) .x0 x0 / j. 3. 2. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER 1. moving the term r M from the right hand side (RHS) to the left hand side (LHS) and introducing the magnetising ﬁeld (magnetic ﬁeld intensity. formula (6. formula (6. The lowest order magnetic moment. a physical transport of true (free) charges. describe this volume in terms of its magnetisation.plasma.e.se/CED/Book Sheet: 194 of 262 . x0 / (9.12) In a stationary medium we therefore have a total current which is (approximately) the sum of the three currents enumerated above: @P Cr M (9. the Fourier component expression (6. Such currents. corresponding to the electric dipole moment. These magnetisation currents are denoted jM. one may. are called polarisation currents and are identiﬁed with @P =@t.11) 2 V0 (9.16a) on page 86. In analogy with the electric polarisation P there may be a form of charge transport associated with the changes of the polarisation with time. or magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. Via the deﬁnition of the vector potential A one can show that the magnetisation current and the magnetisation is simply related: (9. i. 172 j 9 . is the magnetic dipole moment [cf. R A jM D r M j total D j true C Analogously to the electric case. but which may produce net effects at discontinuities and boundaries.64) on page 96] Z 1 m. induced by an external ﬁeld.13) @t One might then be led to think that the right-hand side (RHS) of the r B Maxwell equation (2.t 0 .t / D d3x 0 . M. for a distribution of magnetic dipole moments in a volume.16b) on page 86.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. often atomistic. There may also be intrinsic currents of a microscopic. Ampère-turn density) as HD B 0 D M FT Magnetic monopoles have not yet been unambiguously identiﬁed in experiments. we may have true currents j true . So there is no correspondence in the magnetic case to the electric monopole moment.1d) on page 20 should be Â Ã @P RHS D 0 j true C Cr M @t However. In analogy with true charges for the electric case.uu. nature that are inaccessible to direct observation.

hence.3 Macroscopic Maxwell equations D r DD r ED @B @t r BD0 r H D j true C Field equations.t.1) on page 20. In the case of anisotropy. the term that. This effect was discovered 1879 by the US physicist E DW I N H E R B E RT H A L L (1855–1938). expressed in terms of the derived. x/B. approximately.3 In chapter 1.t. we ﬁnd that LHS D r H @P @D D j true C @t @t "0 @E @t RHS D j true C H. Maxwell’s macroscopic theory j 173 and using the deﬁnition for D. but it is still only a linear approximation. introduce a magnetic susceptibility for the medium.uu.8) on page 171 and formula (9. This is the case for the Hall effect which produces a potential difference across an electric conduction current channel. to introduce the displacement current.se/CED/Book Sheet: 195 of 262 .18c) @D @t (9. in a way.15) (9.5) on page 170.16) (9. which ensures that electric charge is conserved also in non-stationary problems.t. x/ D and Äm . we discussed an alternative way. in this simplistic view. is the basis for radio communications and other engineering applications of the theory.t. based on the postulate of conservation of electric charge. Äm will be a tensor.18a) (9.plasma. x/ D .18b) (9. x/ true is the relative permeability. is the one that makes it possible to turn the Maxwell equations into wave equations (see chapter 2) and. x/ R A D1C m . in the presence of an external magnetic ﬁeld which is likewise perpendicular to the current. we can write 3 This term.t.t. x/ 0 0 Œ1 C m . x/ D 0 Äm .18d) FT (9. We may.15) above. x/ where. in analogy with the electric case.1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t.1. . respectively: (9. Denoting it m . by replacing the E and B in the two source equations by using the approximate relations formula (9.t. equation (9.4 9.17) 4 Hence. x/ D 1 .t. we would pick up a term "0 @E=@t which makes the equation inconsistent: the divergence of the left hand side vanishes while the divergence of the right hand side does not! Maxwell realised this and to overcome this inconsistency he was forced to add his famous displacement current term which precisely compensates for the last term the RHS expression. . ﬁeld quantities D and H are obtained from the Maxwell-Lorentz microscopic equations (2. orthogonal to this current. 9. and therefore in principle superﬂuous.

i..g. the refractive index becomes negative: nDi D Such negative refractive index materials. For such materials. the refractive index is a rank-two tensor ﬁeld. in the material medium that we consider n D Const for each frequency component of the ﬁelds. 174 j 9 . In certain materials. x/ Á def 6 In fact. c D 1= "0 0 is the speed of light. have quite remarkable electromagnetic properties. should be used with some care.19) R A O k Á k k D k v' D O def p where.uu.20) The ratio of the phase speed in vacuum and in the medium (9. glass and water at optical frequencies). the structure of these equations rely on certain linear approximations and there are many situations where they are not useful or even applicable.t.21) p c p def D Äe Äm D c " Á n v' where the material dependent quantity n. However. they describe uniquely (but only approximately) the properties of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in matter and are convenient to use in certain simple cases.plasma. Together with the boundary conditions and the constitutive relations. there exist metamaterials where Äe and Äm are negative. Under our simplifying assumptions. D p jÄe j i p c D Äe . If the medium is anisotropic or birefringent. the refractive index is larger than unity (e.e.13) on page 6. x/ v' (9..se/CED/Book Sheet: 196 of 262 .5 (9. it can be smaller than unity (e.t. originally derived by Maxwell himself. group velocity and dispersion If we introduce the phase velocity in the medium as 1 v' D p " 1 Dp Äe "0 Äm c Dp Äe Äm FT 0 It should be recalled that Maxwell formulated these macroscopic equations before it was known that matter has an atomistic structure and that there exist electrically charged particles such as electrons and protons.. plasma and metals at radio and optical frequencies).2 Phase velocity.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. .22) p jÄm j jÄe Äm j 1=2 is called the refractive index of the medium and describes its refractive and reﬂective properties. in vacuum. according to equation (1. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER 5 9. which are the original Maxwell equations (albeit expressed in their modern vector form as introduced by O L I V E R H E AV I S I D E ). these equations. are called Maxwell’s macroscopic equations. Therefore. Associated with the phase speed of a medium for a wave of a given frequency ! we have a wave vector. deﬁned as ! v' v' v' (9. in others. the phase speed of electromagnetic waves.g. which possess a quantum mechanical property called spin that gives rise to magnetism! This set of differential equations. x/Äm .6 In general n is a function of frequency. particularly in engineering applications.

If the frequency ! is such that it coincides with !p at some point in the medium. x/H D Äm .!/ D 1 where 2 !p D 2 !p !2 X N q2 "0 m D 9. to some extent. Radiation from charges in a material medium j 175 It is important to notice that depending on the electric and magnetic properties of a medium.!/ and !. so that the group velocity @! (9. dependent on frequency !. one can under certain simplifying assumptions include. In an inhomogeneous plasma. derived ﬁeld quantities D and H according to D D ".t.3. on the value of the refractive index n.27) (9.t. As can be easily seen. Here m and N denote the mass and number density.t. the refractive index is given by the expression vg D n2 .t. Because in this case also k. 9. In a gas of free charges. then at that point v' ! 1 while vg ! 0 and the wave Fourier component at ! is reﬂected there. the phase and group velocities in a plasma are different from each other.uu. x/E D Äe . we say that the medium is dispersive. x/"0 E B D . N D N . such as a plasma. FT (9. the phase speed in the medium can be smaller or larger than the speed of light: ! c (9. vg is always smaller than c. respectively. of charged particle species .k/.3 Radiation from charges in a material medium When electromagnetic radiation is propagating through matter. new phenomena may appear which are (at least classically) not present in vacuum.x/ so that the refractive index and also the phase and group velocities are space dependent.24) @k has a unique value for each frequency component. the inﬂuence from matter on the electromagnetic ﬁelds by introducing new. x/ 0H R A is the square of the plasma frequency !p .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.28) . as is usually the case. If the medium has a refractive index which.se/CED/Book Sheet: 197 of 262 . for each given frequency. and.plasma. in the last step. Except in regions of anomalous dispersion. As mentioned earlier.20) on the preceding page.23) v' D D n k where. hence.26) (9. we used equation (9.25) (9. and is different from v' .

3. see in particular equation (6. are 1 ˇ 4 "0 ˇ ˇjx 1 q0 ˇD ˇ 4 "0 s ˇ v0 (9.30) R A . This is the basis for the Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation.103) on page 107. of course.x x0 / c v0 1 c Dp n " (9. that we shall now study. in the vacuum case. the Liénard-Wiechert potentials in a medium characterized by a refractive index n.uu. consider a medium where " D Const > "0 D 0 (9. rectilinear motion in vacuum does not give rise to any radiation. If we recall the general derivation. which. x/ D 1 ˇ 4 "0 c 2 ˇ ˇjx qv x0 j 0 0 n .x ˇ x0 / v 0 ˇ ˇ ˇ c (9. Speciﬁcally. 176 j 9 . . the speed of propagation of (the phase planes of) electromagnetic waves is less than the speed of light in vacuum. can experience that the particle speeds are higher than the phase L speed in the medium. rectilinear motion in a medium with electric properties which are different from those of a (classical) vacuum.t. are below the phase speed in vacuum.plasma. a charge in uniform.104) on page 107 for s.29a) (9.3.t.x x0 / c 1 q0v 0 ˇD 2 s ˇ 4 "0 c ˇ (9.29b) This implies that in this medium the phase speed is v' D <c 0 FT q0 x0 j n .32) The need for the absolute value of the expression for s is obvious in the case when v 0 =c 1=n because then the second term can be larger than the ﬁrst term. of the retarded (and advanced) potentials in chapter 3 and the Liénard-Wiechert potentials. Let us now consider a charge in uniform.140a) on page 115. in this particular medium. we realise that we obtain the latter in the medium by a simple formal replacement c ! c=n in the expression (6. x/ D Hence.1 Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation As we saw in subsection 6.31b) where now ˇ ˇˇ s D ˇˇx ˇ ˇ x0 ˇ n . E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER L 9. including particles. A medium of this kind has the interesting property that particles.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. which we know is an absolute limit for the motion of anything. equations (6.31a) D A.se/CED/Book Sheet: 198 of 262 . Hence. more commonly known in the western literature as Cherenkov radiation. entering into the medium at high speeds jv 0 j.

equivalently.34) above.34) (9.36) . if v 0 =c 1=n we recover the well-known vacuum case but with modiﬁed phase speed.t. ˇx ˇ 0 0 tadv D tadv . and therefore the denominators in equations (9. the ﬁeld exists within a sphere of radius jx x0 j around the particle while the particle moves a distance (9. vanish when n.t In the direction deﬁned by this angle Âc .uu. We also note that the retarded and advanced times in the medium are [cf. when cos Âc D D l 0 D .t. the retarded distance s.33b) (9. Radiation from charges in a material medium j 177 x.31) on the facing page. equation (3. This generates L a Vavilov-Cerenkov shock wave in the form of a cone.1: Instantaneous picture of the expanding ﬁeld spheres from a point charge moving with constant speed v 0 =c > 1=n in a medium where n > 1.45) on page 40] ˇ 0 0 tret D tret .t / Âc x . During the time interval t t 0 given by expression (9. ˇx ˇ x 0 ˇ/ D t k jx x0 j jx x0 j n Dt ! c ˇ k jx x0 j jx x0 j n x0 ˇ/ D t C DtC ! c (9.plasma.se/CED/Book Sheet: 199 of 262 .t / 0 0 ˛c q0 v Figure 9. 9.35) or.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.33a) t t0 D R A jx x0 j n c ˇ v0 D ˇx c ˇ nv 0 ˇ x0 ˇ cos Âc D ˇx c ˇ x0 ˇ c nv 0 t 0 /v 0 so that the usual time interval t t 0 between the time measured at the point of observation and the retarded time in a medium becomes For v 0 =c 1=n. the potentials become singular.3. FT (9.x x0 / (9.37) along the direction of v 0 .

eventually published in 1937.39) which has the trivial Fourier transform j! D q 0 i!x 0 =v0 e ı.4.41b) D In this manner. Sommerfeld sent a letter to Tamm via Austria. The cone of potential singularities and ﬁeld sphere circumferences propagates with speed c=n in the form of a shock front. The VavilovL Cerenkov cone is similar in nature to the Mach cone in acoustics.plasma.42) is singular of a ‘Dirac delta type’.21) on page 76. using j! from equation (9.z 0 /O 1 x 1 This is illustrated in ﬁgure 9. Vavilov wrote a manuscript with the experimental L ﬁndings. This was indeed the correct interpretation. and the direction to the O The integral in (9. The paper was then sent to Physical Review and was. private communication].y 0 /ı. put Cerenkov as the author. 178 j 9 .j! k/e ik x0 ˇ d ˇ 0 ˇ 4 "0 nc V ˇZ 1 ˇ2 h Ái ˇ q 0 2 n! 2 ˇ 0 ! 0ˇ ˇ D exp ix k cos Â dx ˇ sin2 Â d 16 3 " c 3 ˇ v0 (9.se/CED/Book Sheet: 200 of 262 . k.40) above.8) on page 84 (integrated over a closed sphere at large distances). E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER In the direction Âc where the potentials are singular. I G O R ’ E V G E N ’ E V I C H TA M M (1895–1975) and I LYA M I K H A I L OV I C H F R A N K (1908– 1990) published the theory for the effect (‘the singing electron’).38) The ﬁrst systematic exploration of this radiation was made in 1934 by PAV E L A L E K S E E V I C H L C E R E N KOV (1904–1990). In the manuscript. saying that he was surprised that his old 1904 ideas were now becoming interesting.1 on the preceding page.7 In order to make some quantitative estimates of this radiation. Frank and L Cerenkov received the Nobel Prize in 1958 ‘for the discovery and L the interpretation of the Cerenkov effect’ [V I TA L I Y L A Z A R E V I C H G I N Z B U R G (1916–2009). This radiation in question is therefore L called Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation. If we limit observer.x0 v 0 t 0 / D q 0 v 0 ı. all ﬁeld spheres are tangent to a straight cone with its apex at the instantaneous position of the particle and with the apex half angle ˛c deﬁned according to sin ˛c D cos Âc D c nv 0 (9. For a Fourier component one obtains [cf.41a) (9. who was then a doctoral student in S E R G E Y I VA N OV I C H VAV I L OV ’s (1891–1951) research group at the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Vavilov explained the results in terms of radioactive particles creating Compton electrons which gave rise to the radiation.1 if only we make the replacements (9.z 0 /O 1 x 2 (9. .11) on page 85] ˇZ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ 1 ˇ d3x 0 . but the paper was rejected. after some controversy with the American editors. 7 j D q 0 v 0 ı. On 8 May. Tamm.10) on page 74) and (5. equation (6. In fact. In the same year. predictions of a similar effect had been made as early as 1888 by O L I V E R H E AV I S I D E (1850–1925).42) O1 where Â is the angle between the direction of motion.40) R A "0 ! " D n 2 "0 n! k! c rad U! d 0 This Fourier component can be used in the formulæ derived for a linear current in subsection 6. we note that we can describe the motion of each charged particle q 0 as a current density: (9.y 0 /ı. the resulting Fourier transL forms of the Vavilov-Cerenkov magnetic and electric radiation ﬁelds can be calculated from the expressions (5. but she never pursued the exploration of it.x 0 FT v 0 t 0 /ı.uu. who claimed the results to be wrong. and by A R N O L D JOHANNES WILHELM SOMM E R F E L D (1868–1951) in his 1904 paper ‘Radiating body moving with velocity of light’. x0 . The total energy content is then obtained from equation (6. respectively. The ﬁrst observation of this type of radiation was reported by M A R I E S K L O D OW S K A C U R I E in 1910. 1937. and submitted it to Nature.

44) is strongly peaked near D c=. one may extend the integration interval to .43) nv 0 ! 2 4 3 "0 c 3 1 cos Â 0 c v which has a maximum in the direction Âc as expected. Consequently. the refractive index is usually frequency dependent. This means that the integrand function is practically zero outside the integration interval 2 Œ 1. equivalently.!. we ﬁnd that the radiation energy per frequency unit and per unit length is Â Q rad U! d! q02! D 1 2X 4 "0 c 2 c2 n2 . near cos Âc D c=.nv 0 /.47) R A The integrand in (9.!/v 02 Ã d! (9. 1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Realising this.43) over therefore picks up the main contributions from Â Âc . / d q 0 2 n! 2 sin2 Âc 2 2 "0 c 3 Z 1 1 D q02X Q rad U! d! D 2 "0 c 2 leading to the ﬁnal approximate result for the total energy loss in the frequency interval . ! C d!/ Â 1 c2 n2 v 02 Ã ! d! (9. The integration of (9.46) As mentioned earlier. Consequently.se/CED/Book Sheet: 201 of 262 .uu. or.nv 0 /.44) dÂ D dcos Â D cD2 h Á i 0 X! sin2 1 C nv 0 c v h Á i2 d 0 ! 1 C nv c v0 . 1. 1/ without introducing too much an error. we can set sin2 Â sin2 Âc and the result of the integration is Q rad U! D 2 Z 0 rad U! .Â / sin Â Z 1 1 rad U! . Via yet another variable substitution we can therefore approximate h Á i Ã Â Z Z 1 sin2 1 C nv0 X! c v0 cX 1 sin2 x c2 2 sin Âc dx 1 h Á i2 d 0 n2 v 02 !n 1 x 2 ! 1 1 C nv c v0 Â Ã cX c2 D 1 !n n2 v 02 (9.plasma.45) FT (9.3. 9. The magnitude of this maximum grows and its width narrows as X ! 1. Radiation from charges in a material medium j 179 the spatial extent of the motion of the particle to the closed interval Œ X. X on the x 0 axis we can evaluate the integral to obtain h Á i 0 2 02 2 sin2 1 nv cos Â X! 0 c v q n! sin Â rad U! d D d (9.

e.49) R A where is the conductivity of the medium. and that there is also a linear relation between the electric ﬁeld E and the current density.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Let us make the further assumption that " D ".8) on page 171 and formula (9. or postulates..1) on page 20.uu. assume that the linear relations. these equations just state what relations exist between (the second order derivatives of) the ﬁelds. i.15) on page 173.t. @j @t (9. taken as an axiomatic foundation. as given by formula (9. i. 180 j 9 .48) above. of electromagnetic theory. Our derivation above for a ﬁxed value of n is valid for each individual Fourier component. this is a formidable task. respectively. E and B.x/ are not explicitly dependent on time and are . Then one can solve the wave equations (9.plasma. these wave equations were derived from the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2. hold.4 Electromagnetic waves in a medium 1 @2 E c 2 @t 2 1 @2 B c 2 @t 2 r 2E D r 2B D r "0 0r FT 0 In section 2. D .se/CED/Book Sheet: 202 of 262 .!/ ! 1 when ! ! 1. x/ D . In general. and the dynamics of the charges (charge and current densities) in the region under study.x/. x/E. Even if the and j terms in the Maxwell-Lorentz equations are often referred to as the source terms. so there exist L always a highest frequency for which we can obtain Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation from a fast charge in a medium. x/ (9..3 in chapter 2 we derived the wave equations for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds.t. As such. In order to do so. essentially the Coulomb and Ampère forces. known as Ohm’s law: j. produced in another region with its own charges and currents. impinges. For all media it is true that n. As we recall.48a) (9. and one must often resort to numerical methods. and .t. Let us.!/. one needs to ﬁnd the constitutive relations that describe how charge and current densities are induced by the impinging ﬁelds.x/.48b) j D where the charge density and the current density j were viewed as the sources of the wave ﬁelds. they can equally well be viewed as terms that describe the impact on matter in a particular region upon which an electromagnetic wave. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER This result was derived under the assumption that v 0 =c > 1=n. 9. under the condition that the expression inside the parentheses in the right hand side is positive. for simplicity.e.

x/ E For the case D 0 (no magnetisation) and tions (9.52a) R A are obtained. From now one we assume that and j represent only the charge and current densities (i. polarisation and conduction charges and currents.x/ @2 E D r Œr ln ".x/ . equa- 0 Making the further assumption that the medium is not conductive. to a good approximation. 9 To this category belongs unmagnetised plasma.r H/ r ln ".x/ . E/ E 0 r ln ".52b) 8 @E @t @B .x/ 0 2 D .50a) " @H @2 H r 2H .x/ .se/CED/Book Sheet: 203 of 262 . 9. and atomistic magnetisation currents in magnets) and the self-consistently imposed ones (e.uu.9 D FT (9.x/ .x/ @2 E D ..x/ ". Then we obtain the coupled wave equations r 2E .51b) (9.x/ Eg "0 c 2 @t 2 ". ﬂuid or solid metals.4.g. So do also.x/ @t . This is of course also true for the inhomogeneous wave equations derived from Maxwell’s equations..x/ @t C .r B/ Œr ln ".x/ ".r @t 2 E/ r ln .x/ 0 Œr .e.. ..e.e.x/ @t @t r Œr ln .x/ 0 (9.x/ (9. that D 0. singularities will appear in the theory.50) simplify to r 2E r 2B 0 r Œr ln ". .. the uncoupled wave equations r 2E r 2B ".1 Constitutive relations In a solid.x/ H C r ln ".x/ @2 B D .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. i.e.g. 9. also the intrinsic ones (e.4.x/ E @t 2 @2 B ".e. polarisation currents).x/ "0 c 2 @t 2 (9.x/ E C r (9.x/ @E @t ".51a) If one includes also the effect of the charges on E and B. ﬂuid or gaseous medium the source terms in the microscopic Maxwell equations (2.r B/ r ln "..8 Let us for simplicity consider a medium containing free electrons only and which is not penetrated by a magnetic ﬁeld. Electromagnetic waves in a medium j 181 local in space.x/ .plasma.x/ 2 D .x/E/ Œr . respectively) that are induces by the E and B ﬁelds of the waves impinging upon the medium of interest. i. the medium is assumed to be isotropic with no preferred direction(s) in space. i. the polarisation charges in electrets. i. treat and j as sources for ﬁelds.1) on page 20 must include all charges and currents in the medium.50b) D Const in the medium..x/ @2 E D r fŒr ln ". Such so called self-force effects will not be treated here.

we obtain dD q2 E m. neglect the force from the magnetic ﬁeld.t/ D FT q2 E m Nd . i!t/.56) Using this in formula (9. respectively. For a Fourier component of the electric ﬁeld E D E0 exp .t /.t / i! qx. if the ﬁelds are those of an electromagnetic wave one can.59) on page 61.uu. So the equation of motion for each electron in the medium can be written m d2 x dx Cm D qE 2 dt dt (9.54) above. x/ (9.59) . x/ D ". then its dipole moment is d.x/q 2 D "0 1 m. If Nd . for reasonably high oscillation frequencies.t.x/q 2 "0 m (9.x/ D Nd .! 2 C i! / (9. the equation of motion becomes (9.x/q 2 1 "0 m ! 2 C i! Ã where m and q are the mass and charge of the electron. one ﬁnds that D.se/CED/Book Sheet: 204 of 262 .57) D where ".x/ D "0 Â Nd . this becomes (9.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.! 2 C i! / This is the the lowest order contribution to the dipole moment of the medium from each electron under the inﬂuence of the assumed electric ﬁeld.x/E.t / D qx.plasma. Inserting this in equation (9.t. However. the effective collision frequency representing the frictional dissipative force from the surrounding medium.5) on page 170.x/ electrons per unit volume can be assumed to give rise to the electric polarisation P .58) The quantity s !p .54) If the electron is at equilibrium x D 0 when E D 0. and E the effective applied electric ﬁeld sensed by the electron. Of course.! 2 C i! / (9. 182 j 9 .55) R A P D Nd d D Nd q 2 E m. formula (4. this is also true if there is no magnetic ﬁeld present.53) ! 2 qx. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER Each of these electrons are assumed to be accelerated by the Lorentz force.

and no electromotive force.. since the results for the B ﬁeld follow trivially. This is the basis for over-the-horizon radio communications.4.61) (9. metals and other conductors in free space have a conductivity that is not dependent on t or x. a volume where there exist no net electric charge. the refractive index n D 0. 9.g. At points in the medium where the wave frequency ! equals this plasma frequency and the collision frequency vanishes. e. we obtain. the wave equations for E and for B do not have the same mathematical form. in this case it sufﬁces to consider only the E ﬁeld.2. in the special case under consideration.51) on page 181 are then simpliﬁed to r 2E r 2B 0 R A 0 @E @t @B @t 1 @2 E D0 c 2 @t 2 1 @2 B D0 c 2 @t 2 which are the homogeneous vector wave equations for E and B in a conducting medium without EMF. i. Electromagnetic waves in a medium j 183 is called the plasma frequency and s n. We notice that for the simple propagation media considered here..uu.4. equation (9. In the ionised outer part of the atmosphere called the ionosphere this happens for radio waves of frequencies up to about 10 MHz.38) on page 28. Following the spectral component prescription leading to equation (2.62) . the wave equation for the magnetic ﬁeld B has exactly the same mathematical form as the wave equation for the electric ﬁeld E. the following time- D FT (9.61). Therefore. inhomogeneities.60) is called the refractive index. " D "0 . 9. containing.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 205 of 262 .2 Electromagnetic waves in a conducting medium We shall now restrict ourselves to the wave equations for the electric ﬁeld vector E and the magnetic ﬁeld vector B in a electrically conductive and neutral medium.x/ D "0 s 1 2 !p ! 2 C i! (9.plasma. A highly conductive metal is a good example of such a medium. no dielectric effects.1 The wave equations for E and B To a good approximation. The wave equations (9.4. Eemf D 0. For EM waves propagating in more complicated media.x/ D ". and the wave is totally reﬂected. D 0. 9.e.

in metallic conductors. If we introduce the vacuum wave number (9. Then the del operator becomes O r Dn @ O D nr @ to a given (9.64) tends to which is a time-independent wave equation for E. representing undamped propagating waves. Hence.64) c ! In the limit of long r 2E C !2 ED0 c2 (low conductivity ).2. x/ C 2 1 C E.13) on p we can write. x/ D 0 (9.63) Multiplying by e i!t and introducing the relaxation time D "0 = of the medium in question. 9.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we see that the differential equation for each spectral component can be written Â Ã !2 i r 2 E. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER independent wave equation Â Ã !2 2 E0 D 0 r E0 C 2 1 C i c "0 ! (9. For most metals 10 14 s. which means that the diffusion picture is good for all frequencies lower than optical frequencies. using the fact that c D 1= "0 page 6.65) (9. (9.plasma.67) according to equation (1.66) R A kD ! c which is a time-independent diffusion equation for E. we may say that the displacement current "0 @E=@t is negligible relative to the conduction current j D E. the propagation term @2 E=c 2 @t 2 is negligible even for VHF. r 1 1 0 D D D D R0 ! "0 ! "0 ck k "0 k (9.69) .uu. Alternatively.2 Plane waves Consider now the case where all ﬁelds depend only on the distance O plane with unit normal n. UHF. In the short (high conductivity ) limit we have instead r 2 E C i! 0 ED0 FT 0 (9.3) on page 83.se/CED/Book Sheet: 206 of 262 .t. 184 j 9 .t.4.68) D where in the last step we used the characteristic impedance of vacuum deﬁned according to formula (6. and SHF signals.

x/ (9.73) O Scalar multiplying (9.uu.70b) (9.70c). i.2.70d) which simpliﬁes to the ﬁrst-order ordinary differential equation for the normal component En of the electric ﬁeld dEn C En D 0 dt "0 with the solution E n D E n0 e t ="0 t= D En0 e D @2 E @ 2 0 @B D0 (9.61) on page 183.75) @t From this. 9.t. we conclude that the only longitudinal component of B must be constant in both time and space.70a) @B @t (9.3 Telegrapher’s equation In analogy with equation (9.74) @ @t or FT (9.4.e. O n 9.72) (9.70a). O Scalar multiplying (9.70c) C "0 0 @E D @t 0 E C "0 0 @E @t (9. with a decrement given by the relaxation time in the medium.plasma. and (9. we can easily derive a wave equation @E @t 1 @2 E D0 c 2 @t 2 (9. the component which is perpendicular to the plane surface is independent of and has a time dependence which exhibits an exponential decay. shows that the longitudinal component of E. we similarly ﬁnd that Â Ã @E @B O O O 0Dn n D n (9.71) .70d) by n.4.76) R A This..Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. In other words. together with (9.70b) by n. Electromagnetic waves in a medium j 185 and the microscopic Maxwell equations attain the form @E @ @E O n @ @B O n @ @B O n @ O n D0 D D0 D 0 j.se/CED/Book Sheet: 207 of 262 . we ﬁnd that Ã Â Ã Â @ @B O O O Dn E 0Dn n 0 C "0 0 @ @t (9. the only non-static solution must consist of transverse components.

79) R A E D E0 e i. solving for B.84) . v' t/ C g.70b) on the previous page.uu. 2.!t˙k / If we assume that our electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B are represented by a Fourier component proportional to exp. then the equation takes the form of the one-dimensional wave equation @2 E @ 2 1 @2 E D0 c 2 @t 2 (9.plasma. the solution of equation (9. ct / C g. 3 k !t/ where f and g are arbitrary (non-pathological) functions of their respective arguments. where the f perturbation propagates in the positive direction and the g perturbation propagates in the negative direction. This general solution represents perturbations which propagate along .77) As is well known.80).82) D Let us consider the lower sign in front of k in the exponent in (9. 186 j 9 . C ct/. BD k O n ! ED 1 k ! ED 1 O k c ED p "0 0 O n E (9. i D 1. In a medium. This corresponds to a wave which propagates in the direction of increasing . This equation is is called the telegrapher’s equation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 208 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. (9.99) on page 189 is given by (9.k x !t/ (9. each component of this equation has a solution which can be written Ei D f .83) or. 2.80) By introducing the wave vector O k D kn D ! !O O nD k c c (9. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER describing the propagation of plane waves along in a conducting medium. i!t/. C v' t/. FT i D 1. the general solution to each component of equation (9.81) this solution can be written as E D E0 ei. If the medium is an insulator so that D 0.77) becomes D E0 ei.78) Ei D f . gives O n @E O D i!B D ik n @ E (9. 3 (9. Inserting this solution into equation (9.

equation (9.uu.plasma. Allowing now for a ﬁnite conductivity in our medium. to each transverse component of E.92b) !2 D 2 c Â 1Ci "0 ! Ã Dk 2 Â 1Ci "0 ! Ã (9. Taking the square root of this expression.86) .˛ 2 "0 ! or ˇ 2 / C 2i˛ˇ ˇ2 D ˛2 ˛ˇ D R A k2 2 k 2"0 ! Squaring the latter and combining with the former.90) (9. If E and/or B has a direction in space which is constant in time.88) (9.91) D which can be easily solved and one ﬁnds that vr u Á2 u u 1C C1 t "0 ! ˛Dk 2 vr u Á2 u u 1C 1 t "0 ! ˇDk 2 FT (9. one ﬁnds that Â Ã k2 1 C i D .˛ 2 k2/ D k4 2 4"2 ! 2 0 (9. one obtains the second order algebraic equation (in ˛ 2 ) ˛ 2 . we obtain r D ˛ C iˇ (9.76) on page 185.85) Â 1Ci "0 ! Ã where.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. in the last step.89) (9. we ﬁnd that the timeindependent telegrapher’s equation can be written @2 E C "0 @ 2 where K D "0 2 0! 2 0! 2 ECi 0 !E D @2 E C K 2E D 0 @ 2 (9.87) K Dk 1Ci "0 ! Squaring.se/CED/Book Sheet: 209 of 262 .92a) (9. there exists an associated magnetic ﬁeld given by equation (9.84) on the facing page.4.67) on page 184 was used to introduce the wave number k. 9. and making the spectral component Ansatz in equation (9. Electromagnetic waves in a medium j 187 Hence. we have a plane wave.

both ﬁelds fall off by a factor 1=e at a distance s 2 ıD 0 ! (9. in the last step.97) This distance ı is called the skin depth .76) on page 185] (9.94) 1 Ä "0 ! Á 2 K Dk 1Ci Dk i 1 i "0 ! "0 ! r r p 0 ! D "0 0 !. In the limit "0 ! . Assuming for simplicity that the electric permittivity " and the magnetic permeability . we can approximate K as follows: 2"0 ! (9. by r Âr Ã 0 ! 0 ! 0 E D E0 exp exp i !t (9. .96b) B0 D . E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER As a consequence.˛ !t/ (9. is damped.95) R A D @2 E @ 2 @E @t " @2 E D0 @t 2 In this limit we ﬁnd that when the wave impinges perpendicularly upon the medium.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. From the above.84) on page 186 we can calculate the associated magnetic ﬁeld. and that E and B in the wave are out of phase.1 C i/ 2! Hence. independent on time and space. the solution of the time-independent telegrapher’s equation.k ! E/ jAj ei (9. and consequently also B.k ! E/.85) on the previous page.˛ C iˇ/ D 1 O . and ﬁnd that it is given by BD 1 O Kk ! ED 1 O . the ﬁelds are given. equation (9. we can derive the general telegrapher’s equation [cf. equation (9. we immediately see that E.se/CED/Book Sheet: 210 of 262 . for each type of material we consider.1 C i/ where we have.plasma.98) describing (1D) wave propagation in a material medium.n E 0 / (9. can be written E D E0 e ˇ ei.uu.93) With the aid of equation (9. inside the medium. rewritten ˛ C iˇ in the amplitude-phase form jAj exp. 188 j 9 .1 C i/ 2"0 ! 2 Â Ã1 2 FT r k. and hence the relative permittivity Äe and the relative permeability Äm all have ﬁxed values.96a) 2 2 r 0 O .1 C i/ D .i /.

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9.4. Electromagnetic waves in a medium

j 189

In chapter 2 we concluded that the existence of a ﬁnite conductivity, manifesting itself in a collisional interaction between the charge carriers, causes the waves to decay exponentially with time and space. Let us therefore assume that in our medium D 0 so that the wave equation simpliﬁes to @2 E @ 2 " @2 E D0 @t 2 (9.99)

As in the vacuum case discussed in chapter 2, assuming that E is timeharmonic, i.e., can be represented by a Fourier component proportional to exp. i!t/, the solution of equation (9.99) can be written E D E0 ei.k x

!t /

(9.100)

where now k is the wave vector in the medium given by equation (9.20) on page 174. With these deﬁnitions, the vacuum formula for the associated magnetic ﬁeld, equation (9.84) on page 186, BD p O " k ED 1 O k v' ED 1 k ! E (9.101)

is valid also in a material medium (assuming, as mentioned, that n has a ﬁxed constant scalar value). A consequence of a Äe ¤ 1 is that the electric ﬁeld will, in general, have a longitudinal component.

Electromagnetic waves in an electrically and magnetically conducting medium

Derive the wave equation for the E ﬁeld described by the electromagnetodynamic equations (Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations) [cf. equations (1.50) on page 16] "0 @B r ED @t r BD 0 m r B D "0

0

r ED

R

e 0j m

D

jm D

m

@E C @t

0j

e

under the assumption of vanishing net electric and magnetic charge densities and in the absence of electromotive and magnetomotive forces. Interpret this equation physically. Assume, for symmetry reasons, that there exists a linear relation between the magnetic current density j m and the magnetic ﬁeld B (the magnetic dual of Ohm’s law for electric currents, j e D e E) B

0

Taking the curl of (9.102b) and using (9.102d), one ﬁnds, noting that "0

A FT

(9.102a) (9.102b) (9.102c) (9.102d) (9.103) D 1=c 2 , that

E X A M P L E 9.1

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190 j

9 . E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER

r

.r

E/ D D D

0r 0

0

@ .r B/ @t Â Ã @ 1 @E m e r B 0j C 2 @t c @t Ã Â 1 @E e @E m e 0 0 EC 2 @t c @t jm

(9.104) 1 @2 E c 2 @t 2

Using the vector operator identity r .r E/ D r .r E/ r 2 E, and the fact that r E D 0 for a vanishing net electric charge, we can rewrite the wave equation as Â m Ã @E 1 @2 E e 2 m e C 2 ED0 (9.105) r2E 0 0 @t c c 2 @t 2 This is the homogeneous electromagnetodynamic wave equation for E that we were after. Compared to the ordinary electrodynamic wave equation for E, equation (9.61) on page 183, we see that we pick up extra terms. In order to understand what these extra terms mean physically, we analyse the time-independent wave equation for a single Fourier component. Then our wave equation becomes Â mÃ !2 e 2 m e r 2 E C i! 0 C 2 EC 2 E E 0 c c # "Â (9.106) Ã e C m =c 2 !2 1 0 m e Ci ED0 D r2E C 2 1 "0 ! c ! 2 "0 Realising that, according to formula (6.3) on page 83, 0 ="0 is the square of the vacuum radiation resistance R0 , and rearranging a bit, we obtain the time-independent wave equation in Dirac’s symmetrised electrodynamics 1 0 ! 2 e C m =c 2 C R0 m e B !2 B1 C i Â ÃCE D 0; r2E C 2 1 @ 2 2 c ! R0 m e A (9.107) " ! 1

0 !2

D

R

@E @t Dr 2 E D0

From this equation we conclude that the existence of magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles), and non-vanishing electric and magnetic conductivities would lead to a shift in the effective wave number of the wave. Furthermore, even if the electric conductivity e vanishes, the imaginary term does not necessarily vanish and the wave therefore experiences damping or growth according as m is positive or negative, respectively. This would happen in a hypothetical medium which is a perfect insulator for electric currents but which can carry magnetic currents. p m e def ! , the time-independent Finally, we note that in the particular case ! D R0 Á m wave equation equation (9.106) above becomes a time-independent diffusion equation Â mÃ e r 2 E C i! 0 C 2 ED0 (9.108) c which in time domain corresponds to the time-dependent diffusion equation (9.109)

with a diffusion coefﬁcient given by

A FT

! ¤ R0 p

m e

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9.5. Bibliography

j 191

DD

0

1

e

C

m

Á

(9.110)

c2

Hence, electromagnetic waves with this particular frequency do not propagate. This means that if magnetic charges (monopoles) exist in a region in the Universe, electromagnetic waves propagating through this region would, in this simplistic model, exhibit a lower cutoff at ! D !m . This would in fact impose a lower limit on the mass of the photon, the quantum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld that we shall come across later. End of example 9.1

[55] E. H ALLÉN, Electromagnetic Theory, Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London, 1962.

[56] J. D. JACKSON, Classical Electrodynamics, third ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY . . . , 1999, ISBN 0-471-30932-X.

[57] W. K. H. PANOFSKY AND M. P HILLIPS, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, second ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, MA . . . , 1962, ISBN 0-201-05702-6. [58] J. A. S TRATTON, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, NY and London, 1953, ISBN 07-062150-0.

D

R A

FT

9.5 Bibliography

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D

R A

FT

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FORMULÆ

F .1

The electromagnetic ﬁeld

F .1.1

The microscopic Maxwell (Lorentz) equations

r ED

R A

@B @t

0j

"0 r BD0 ED BD

r r

C "0

0

@E @t

F .1.1.1

Constitutive relations

D 1 c2

D

"0 r

0 0

"0

D R0 . "E B

376:7 /

D

H j P

E "0 E 193

FT

(F.1) (F.2) (F.3) (F.4) (F.5) (F.6) (F.7) (F.8) (F.9) (F.10)

2 E B FT 0 (F. 194 j 6.11) (F.2.1 BD .1.1.16) (F.uu.15) Linear momentum ﬂux tensor (the negative of the Maxwell stress tensor) (F.3.2 The Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition in vacuum 1 @ D0 c 2 @t (F.12) BDr ED F .1.2.2 F .1.18) F .plasma.2.1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1.3 F .14) Electromagnetic ﬁeld energy density in vacuum 1 "0 .13) r AC F .se/CED/Book Sheet: 216 of 262 . FORMULÆ F .1 Fields and potentials Vector and scalar potentials A r @A @t (F.17) "0 E E C c2B B "0 EE C c 2 BB 2 1 Tij D ıij u "0 Ei Ej Bi Bj D F .E E C c 2 B B/ 2 R A uD F .1.1 Force and energy The Poynting vector in vacuum 1 0 SD F .3 T D 13 (F.2 Electromagnetic radiation Relationship between the ﬁeld vectors in a plane wave O k c E (F.3.3.

x x0 / The ﬁelds from a point charge in arbitrary motion Ä q .t.4 The far ﬁelds from a magnetic dipole eikjxj .6 E.x x0 / c2 P v0 (F.t.2.20) Efar .28) FT (F. x/ D . F . Electromagnetic radiation j 195 F .26) far B! .k Q! / jxj k (F.24) far B! .22) (F.plasma.19) (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x 4 "0 s 3 Â x0 / 1 v 02 c2 Ã C .2 The far ﬁelds from an extended source distribution i D 4 0 far B! .se/CED/Book Sheet: 217 of 262 .x/ D ! 1 eikjxj .uu.25) (F. x/ D B.2.x/ D ! i eikjxj O x 4 "0 c jxj d3 x 0 e F .d! 4 "0 jxj k/ k F .2.m! 4 jxj 0 far B! .23) (F. x/ cjx x0 j (F.x/ D ! R A i 0! k eikjxj m! 4 "0 c jxj F .x/ D ! eikjxj Œ.k Q! / 8 "0 jxj i k k D F .x/ D 8 Efar .2.x/ D eikjxj d! jxj k (F.t.21) .x x0 / .2.5 The far ﬁelds from an electric quadrupole eikjxj .3 The far ﬁelds from an electric dipole ! 4 0 Efar .x/ eikjxj jxj Z V0 d3 x 0 e Z V0 ik x0 j! ik x0 k j! k (F.27) E.x/ D k/ k k Efar .2.

Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.34) x0 D ƒ x 0 ˇ D B ˇ B ƒ DB @ 0 0 1 Dp 1 ˇ2 v ˇD c 0 0 (F.3 Special relativity Á 1 B0 B DB @0 0 0 0 1 0 0 FT 0 0 1 0 1 0 0C C C 0A 1 0 0 1 0 0 0C C C 0A 1 1 F .35) (F.33) F .4 Invariant line element dt Dcd (F.3.x x0 / jx Â 0Ã @t jx x0 j D @t x s F .37) F .30) (F. 196 j 6.3.plasma.uu.1 Metric tensor for ﬂat 4D space (F. FORMULÆ ˇ s D ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ .31) x x0 D .2 Covariant and contravariant four-vectors v R A v DÁ (F.se/CED/Book Sheet: 218 of 262 .3.36) (F.32) F .29) (F.x x0 / v0 c x0 j v c 0 (F.3.38) ds D c .3 Lorentz transformation of a four-vector (F.

43) (F.3.x/.p c (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. : : : . a. : : : . B.40) p D m0 u D F .x. where applicable.plasma.3.3. F . x3 / Á .x/. Let further ˛.39) u D F .41) . FT (F.7 j Four-current density F . arbitrary rank two tensor ﬁelds in this space.4 Vector relations Let x be the position vector (radius vector. ˇ. Let denote complex conjugate and denote Hermitian conjugate (transposition and.A A D F . and A.42) (F.3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 219 of 262 . x2 .44) D 0u (F.6 Four-momentum Â Ã E . coordinate vector) from the origin to the Cartesian coordinate point .x/.x1 . arbitrary vector ﬁelds.9 F Field tensor D@ A @ A R A 0 Ex =c 0 Bz By Ey =c Bz 0 Bx 1 Ez =c By C C C Bx A 0 F 0 BE =c B x DB @Ey =c Ez =c D F .4. be arbitrary scalar ﬁelds.3.c.x/. : : :. z/ in 3D Euclidean space R3 and let jxj denote the magnitude (‘length’) of x. v / (F. y.8 Four-potential Â Ã c .5 Four-velocity dx d D .x/. complex conjugation).x/. b. Vector relations j 197 F .uu.

48b) (F.51) O O O d2x n D dS D dS r D r 2 d r F .46) F .5 Volume element (F. 2.1.1 Base vectors O O O O r D sin Â cos ' x1 C sin Â sin ' x2 C cos Â x3 O O O ™ D cos Â cos ' x1 C cos Â sin ' x2 O ®D O O sin ' x1 C cos ' x2 FT O sin Â x3 O sin ' ® F . 3 is the ith unit vector and x1 Á x.49) F .52) d3x D dV D dr dS D r 2 dr d . and x3 Á z.47a) (F.4.3 Solid angle element D d D sin Â dÂ d' (F.4.1.uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 220 of 262 .1. .50) F .4.4 Directed area element (F.4. In component (tensor) notation r can be written Â ri D @i D @ @ @ .plasma. x2 Á y.1.4.1. .4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1 Spherical polar coordinates (F. i D 1.47c) R A O O O x1 D sin Â cos ' r C cos Â cos ' ™ O O x3 D cos Â r O sin Â ™ F .2 (F.47b) (F.48a) (F. @x @y @z Ã (F. FORMULÆ The differential vector operator r is in Cartesian coordinates given by r Á 3 X i D1 O xi @ def @ def O Á xi Á@ @xi @xi (F.48c) O O O O x2 D sin Â sin ' r C cos Â sin ' ™ C cos ' ® Directed line element O O O O dx x D dl D dr r C r dÂ ™ C r sin Â d' ® (F. @x1 @x2 @x3 Ã D Â @ @ @ . 198 j 6.45) O O O O O O O where xi .

53) (F.71) (F.66) (F.se/CED/Book Sheet: 221 of 262 .2.69) (F.c a/b c ab D .plasma.54) where the components Si are the matrices 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 i B C B C S1 D @0 0 iA S2 D @ 0 0 0A 0 i 0 i 0 0 F .63) (F.4. Vector relations j 199 F .1 General vector and tensor algebraic identities a b D b a D ıij ai bj D ab cos Â a .b ab cd D .13 / D @0 1 0A 0 0 1 We also introduce the vector (F.70) (F.56) (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.uu.4.65) (F. k an arbitrary O @ O @ constant vector.67) (F. r 0 Á xi @x 0 . F .b c D a.A/ D Ai i O O Aij D xi A xj O O ab D ai bj xi xj D c ab D . x D xi xi and x0 D xi0 xi are position vectors.c ab c D a.4.x/ an arbitrary vector ﬁeld.a R A b aD O ij k aj bk xi D O j ki ak bi xj D ia Sb D iaS b a/b c/ b/ c c/ D . a D a. i and 1n the n-dimensional unit tensor of rank two.72) O kij ai bj xk O S D Si xi .b c/ ab a .b c/ad a.64) (F.a C b/c D ac C bc FT (F.57) (F. r Á xi @xi .2 Vector and tensor formulæ O O In the following. O O 1 3 D xi xi 1 0 1 0 0 B C .61) (F.60) (F.b C c/ D ab C ac .55) 0 0 B S3 D @ i 0 1 i 0 C 0 0A 0 0 (F.58) (F.a bD b/ D O O A D Aij xi xj O O A D Aij xj xi Tr.59) (F.68) (F.62) (F.

91) (F.2.a .75) (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.90) (F.94) (F.˛ˇ/ D ˛r ˇ C ˇr ˛ Da .r a/b C a r b .ab/ D .78) 0 0 a2 13 / D @ a3 13 a D a 13 D a 13 aDa a/ D . FORMULÆ a a .13 13 FT ir S a .79) (F.86) (F.a b/ (F.ab/ D .a r .93) (F.r r˛ ab/ rb .73) (F.r a a/b b O r ˛ D xi @i ˛ (F.r a/ b C .plasma.76) b/ D 0 .b c/ (F.97) (F.96) (F.se/CED/Book Sheet: 222 of 262 .r b/ D r .3 General vector and tensor analytic identities R A O O r a D xi xj @i aj r a D @i ai r a aD a r D ai @i .r b/ a b/ C b r .c .a c/.a r r r b/ D .13 b/ D a b a .r b/ a/ a a a b/ a .c b d/c .a b/ D .a ab F .87) (F.85) (F. 200 j 6.r a/ C .2.b .ba .a .1 3 B a3 0 a1 a2 C a1 A D 0 1 iS a (F.98) (F.uu.b b/ c/ D ba c c/ C b .r r .77) (F.a d/.88) (F.4.80) (F.˛a/ D a r ˛ C ˛r a r .81) (F.c ca b D b.95) (F.a c/ a/ C c .c d/ D a Œb d/ D .4.r a/ b/ D b .a .74) .a 13 a .b r /a C .89) (F.92) (F.˛a/ D ˛r .r a/ D O ij k xi @j ak ir Sa D r D O ij k xi aj @k r .82) b/ D a b/ D ba b .a r /b .83) (F.2 Special vector and tensor algebraic identities (F.a c.b d/ F .84) (F.a b c/d b/ .a d/ D .99) D r .

r a/ C .124) .109) (F.113) (F.x r / a x r jxj D jxj x x0 r jx x0 j D D r 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j Â Ã 1 x r D jxj jxj3 Â Ã Â Ã x x0 1 1 0 r D D r jx x0 j3 jx x0 j jx x0 j Â Ã Â Ã x 1 r D r2 D 4 ı.r r . F .102) r a 2 r r a D r .x/ 3 jxj jxj Â Ã Â Ã x x0 1 r D r2 D 4 ı.116) (F.x x0 / jx x0 j3 jx x0 j Â Ã Ä Â Ã k 1 k x r Dk r D jxj jxj jxj3 Ä Â Ã Â Ã x k x r k D r if jxj ¤ 0 jxj3 jxj3 Â Ã Â Ã k 1 r2 D kr 2 D 4 kı.13 a/ D r a r .120) (F.plasma.r a/ D xi @i @j aj r .uu.117) (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.122) (F.114) (F.123) (F.111) (F.a r / b D ai r bi a.121) (F.r a/ D r r a 2 (F.r a/ D r .107) r r˛ D r ˛ O r r a D r .105) (F.2.100) (F.4.x a/ D a C x.118) (F.101) (F.4 Special vector and tensor analytic identities r .r r a/ D 0 r˛ D 0 F .13 ˛/ D r ˛ r .x k/ D k r .108) (F.13 r a/ D r a r xD3 xD0 r x D 13 r .r b/ .104) (F.103) (F.a2 / a r a 2 .x/ jxj jxj R A D FT (F.110) (F.r b/ a a r b 1 a .r a/ (F.4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 223 of 262 . Vector relations j 201 a b/ D .119) (F.106) (F.112) (F.115) (F.

international ed.S/. FT V S . H. NY . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 224 of 262 . Then Z I d3x r a D dS a (Gauss’s theorem.. directed along the outO O ward pointing surface normal unit vector n. Inc.V /. M ORSE AND H.. PANOFSKY AND M.127) V S Z I d3x r a D dS a (F. A RFKEN AND H. Part I. ISBN 07-043316-8. . 1962.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.S / be the volume bounded by the closed surface S. Methods of Theoretical Physics.5 Bibliography [59] G.Á dV / and the surface element. [61] W.2.. M. P HILLIPS. . whose line element is dl. Denote the 3D volume element by d3x. New York. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. . J. 1995. curl theorem) (F. by dS.5 Integral identities Let V .k a/ (F.r a/ (Stokes’ theorem. F ESHBACH. Mathematical Methods for Physicists. .128) If S. Inc.r a/ C k . 1953.C / is an open surface bounded by the contour C. ISBN 0-12-0598167. . San Diego. Reading. . W EBER.130) C S D R A F ..125) F . CA . divergence theorem) (F. Academic Press. . Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.plasma. MA .uu. FORMULÆ r .. B. second ed. fourth. [60] P.4. McGrawHill Book Company.k a/ D k. . Inc. then I Z dl ˛ D dS r ˛ (F.129) S IC Z dl a D dS .126) V Z I S d3x r ˛ D dS ˛ (F.r a/ r .Á d2x n/. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. K. 202 j 6.

Even if such a scientiﬁc giant as M I C H A E L F A R A DAY . Had this noncreative. MATHEMATICAL METHODS Physics is the academic discipline which systematically studies and describes the physical world. repeatable experiments that produce objective data. carefully performed. the physical laws that bear his name.uu. in physics. ﬁnds new fundamental laws of Nature or generalises existing ones that govern Nature’s behaviour under different conditions.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Another more modern example is the delta ‘function’ introduced by PAU L A D R I E N M AU R I C E D I R AC . in a compact and unambiguous manner. and—perhaps most important of all—makes new predictions. who started out as a lowly bookbinder apprentice and had very little formal mathematical training. A less archaic example is differential calculus. After all. based on these physical laws. we would all still be doing essentially Newtonian mechanics. it is for us mere mortals most convenient to use the shorthand language of mathematics. mathematics was once introduced by us human beings to make it easier to quantitatively and systematically describe. was able to make truly remarkable contributions to physics (and chemistry) using practically no formal mathematics whatsoever. But the opposite is also very common: the expansion and generalisation of mathematics has more than once provided excellent tools for D R A 203 FT .se/CED/Book Sheet: 225 of 262 . Merely describing Nature and explaining physical experiments in terms of already existing laws is not physics in the true sense of the word. accurately designed.plasma. Examples of this from ancient times are arithmetics and geometry. static view of physics been adopted by physicists since the renaissance. Then these predictions are put to tough tests in independent. understand and predict the physical world around us. together with the formal methods of logic. systematic. needed by S I R I S A AC N E W T O N to formulate.

vector and tensor and a pseudoscalar. Despite certain advantages (and some shortcomings).1 Scalars. pseudovector and a pseudotensor is that the latter behave differently under those coordinate transformations that cannot be reduced to pure rotations. But it is not until these hypotheses and predictions have withstood empirical tests in physical experiments that they can be said to extend physics and our knowledge about Nature. the only conclusion one can draw is that the theory in question is wrong. extending existing physical theories by mathematical and logical generalisations is a very powerful way of making hypotheses and predictions of new physical phenomena. pseudovectors. independent experiments produce results that systematically contradict predictions based on a logically stringent theory. A vector describes some kind of physical motion along a curve in space due to vection. which were not known or not clearly understood at the time when it was invented.plasma. carefully performed. Common sense is not enough and logic and reasoning can never ‘outsmart’ Nature. A tensor describes the local motion or deformation of a surface or a volume due to some form of tension and is therefore a relation between a set vectors.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1 On the other hand. The difference between a scalar.se/CED/Book Sheet: 226 of 262 . Examples of the latter include non-Euclidean geometry and group theory.’ D R A M . FT creating new physical ideas and to better analyse observational data. Ultimately. however mathematically correct and logically consistent this may be. Secondly it must explain in a reasonable manner the new evidence which brought the previous ideas into doubt and which suggested the new hypothesis. Unlike mathematics per se. where the criterion of logical consistency is both necessary and sufﬁcient. a physical theory that is supposed to describe the physical reality has to fulﬁl the additional criterion that its predictions be empirically testable. all of which obey certain canonical rules of transformation under a change of coordinate systems and are completely deﬁned by these rules. vectors. Should the outcome of repeated. which may or may not be constant in time and/or space. A scalar. And thirdly it must predict new phenomena or new relationships between different phenomena. However. MATHEMATICAL METHODS 1 The theoretical physicist S I R R U D O L F P E I E R L S (1907–1995) described an ideal physical theory in the following way: ‘It must ﬁrstly leave undisturbed the successes of earlier work and not upset the explanations of observations that had been used in support of earlier ideas. describes the scaling of a physical quantity. as G A L I L E O G A L I L E I taught us. vectors and tensors Every physical observable can be represented by a mathematical object. We have chosen to describe the observables in classical electrodynamics in terms of scalars. . This appendix describes brieﬂy some of the more common mathematical methods and tools that are used in Classical Electrodynamics. pseudoscalars. 204 j 13. generalisations to more abstract notions of these quantities have proved useful and are therefore commonplace. differential forms will not be exploited to any signiﬁcant degree in our mathematical description of physical observables. and not by mere Aristotelean logical reasoning. tensors and pseudotensors. physical reality is deﬁned by the outcome of experiments and observations.uu.

uu. In classical physics this is achieved by taking the real (or imaginary) part of the mathematical result. .plasma. formally. a vector can be represented in a number of different ways. 3. j. care must be exercised when comparing mathematical results with physical observables.1. and the prototype against which all other vectors are benchmarked.e.. is the position vector (radius vector.1 D xD 3 X i D1 def The most basic vector. the vector from the origin to a point is synonymous with the coordinates of the point itself.1. But since all physical observables are real. i. Note. 3. which are used in four-dimensional (4D) space. 1.. Typographically. to equal in meaning’. do not exhibit vector transformation properties! M .e. i.1) R A Position vector FT 2 3 M . 2. real-valued numbers obtained from physical measurements. Ä. k.1 Vectors It is often very convenient to use complex notation in physics.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. In the 3D Euclidean space R3 . In this sense. One suitable representation in a vector space of dimension N is in terms of an ordered N -tuple of real or complex numbers2 . deﬁniendum Á deﬁniens.x1 . The coordinates xi are scalar quantities which describe the position along the O unit base vectors xi which span R3 . a2 . Throughout we adopt the convention that Latin indices i.1. whereas in quantum physics one takes the absolute value. Mathematically. by deﬁnition. coordinate vector) which is the vector from the origin of the chosen coordinate system to the actual point of interest. We introduce the symbol Á which may be read ‘is. l. it is often useful to allow mathematical objects representing physical observables to be complex-valued. 2. Whenever possible and convenient we shall in the following always assume E† and suppress explicit summation in our formulæ. : : : run over the range 1. : : : . however. i. . . 2. Scalars. we must in the ﬁnal step of our mathematical analysis of a physical problem always ensure that the results to be compared with experimental values are realvalued. def def where we have introduced Einstein’s summation convention (E†) which states that a repeated index in a term implies summation over the range of the index in question. i D 1. and Greek indices . or. since by deﬁnition our physical world is real. Its N -tuple representation simply enumerates the coordinates of the position of this point. : : : . vectors and tensors j 205 For computational convenience. that there are many ordered N -tuples of numbers that do not comprise a vector.. x3 / of its coordinates xi . M . However. This notation can simplify the mathematical treatment considerably. 3 to denote vector or tensor components in the real Euclidean three-dimensional (3D) conﬁguration space R3 . Another symbol sometimes used is ´.1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 227 of 262 . Therefore a convenient representation of the position vector in R3 is3 O O xi xi Á xi xi (M. or ‘equals by deﬁnition’.e. run over the range 0.a1 . aN / of the components along N orthogonal coordinate axes that span the vector space under consideration. we have N D 3 and the position vector x can be represented by the triplet . to let them be analytically continued into (a domain of) the complex plane. x2 .

x2 .5) D R A M .uu. x3 / D .1. '/ and in cylindrical coordinates . . x 2 .x1 . x2 . x1 .x1 . Alternatively. An example is Lorentz space L4 which is a 4D Riemannian space frequently employed to formulate the special theory of relativity. Â. x3 / D . x3 / 4 def (M. MATHEMATICAL METHODS we represent a vector or vector operator in 3D Euclidean space R3 by a boldface letter or symbol in a Roman font. y. x 3 / def FT def This component notation is particularly useful in 4D space where we can represent the (one and the same) position vector either in its contravariant component form. In particular. In Cartesian coordinates4 .plasma.x.x0 . x2 . x2 .x1 . x2 . and . r .1. . '.x1 . x3 / D . z/.2.1 Scalar ﬁelds We denote an arbitrary scalar ﬁeld in R3 by ˛. z/ (M.r. x3 / def (M.3) x Á .2) In spherical polar coordinates .x 0 . (superscript index form) as the quartet (M. 206 j 13.x1 .6) .2 The relation between the covariant and contravariant forms is determined by the metric tensor (also known as the fundamental tensor) whose actual form is dictated by the properties of the vector space in question.se/CED/Book Sheet: 228 of 262 . The dual representation of vectors in contravariant and covariant forms is most convenient when we work in a vector space with an indeﬁnite metric. in a ﬁeld which depends on the usual position vector x of R3 . x3 / Á ˛.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. for instance a.4) or its covariant component form (subscript index form) x Á .xi / (M. x2 . Fields A ﬁeld is a physical entity that depends on one or more continuous parameters. each point in this space can be considered as one degree of freedom so that a ﬁeld is a representation of a physical entity which has an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. Such a parameter can be viewed as a ‘continuous index’ which enumerates the ‘coordinates’ of the ﬁeld. M . x 1 .x/ D ˛. we can describe the position vector x in component notation as xi where xi Á .

x 0 .7) which indicates that the four-scalar ˛ depends on all four coordinates spanning this space.2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. End of example M.!t/O 1 ˙ cos. In 4D.1.9) def (M.x/O i 2 R3 x In component notation this same vector can be represented as ai .x// D ai .2 Vector ﬁelds We can represent an arbitrary 3D vector ﬁeld a. x 3 / Á ˛.8) (M. x 2 .!t/O 2 C iC sin. if we like.x/O R C icI .!t/O 2 x x x (M.x/. Since a four-scalar has the same value at a given point regardless of coordinate system.x/ D .x/ D cR . D D C cos.x/ C icI .1 .10) (M.!t/ C i sin.11b) EXAMPLE M . M . Scalars. vectors and tensors j 207 This ﬁeld describes how the scalar quantity ˛ varies continuously in 3D R3 space.x/ D ai .plasma.!t/O 1 x Complex representation of a rotating vector FT (M.uu.O 1 ˙ iO 2 / x x x x sin. x 1 .x / def (M.x/.!t/ .x/ as follows: a. in R6 ).xj / A 3D complex vector ﬁeld c. M .12) We see that the real part of this vector describes a rotation in positive or negative sense. a2 . depending on the sign. a four-scalar ﬁeld is denoted ˛.x/ Á cR .1. a3 .11a) (M.x/O 2 C3 c a which means that Re fcg D cR Im fcg D cI def The use of complex vectors is in many cases a very convenient and powerful technique but requires extra care since physical observables must be represented by real vectors (2 R3 ). expressed in terms of two real vectors cR and cI in R3 in the following way R A c c.1 Let us consider the complex vector c D C ei!t .O 1 ˙ iO 2 / D C cos.a1 . it is also called an invariant.x/O I Á c.se/CED/Book Sheet: 229 of 262 .x/ is a vector in C3 (or.

during a transformation from a system † with coordinates x to a system †0 with coordinates x 0 . equation (M. MATHEMATICAL METHODS In 4D.x /. according to the rule @x y0 D 0 y (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the differential position vector dx transforms as .x // (M.15).a0 . a3 .. as a . y 3 / constitutes a contravariant four-vector (or the contravariant components of a four-vector) if and only if. in 4D an assemblage y D . For instance. a2 .14) (M. it transforms to the new system according to the rule dx 0 D @x 0 y (M. a1 .x /. x 1 . 208 j 13.15) above.x /.x /. a2 .x 0 . y 2 .x /.x / D .x /. follows trivially from the rules of differentiation.13) where x is the position four-vector (radius four-vector.a0 . depends on its transformation properties during a change of coordinates. x 2 .17) @x i. an arbitrary four-vector ﬁeld in contravariant component form can be represented as a . in the same way as the differential operator @=@x transforms according to equation (M. Whether an arbitrary N -tuple fulﬁls the requirement of being an (N -dimensional) contravariant vector or not.16) 0 @x @x @x which.x / D . in covariant component form. in the same way as the differential coordinate element dx transforms according to equation (M. during the change from † to †0 . x 3 /.x /. due to a transformation from one coordinate system † to another coordinate system †0 . x 0 D x 0 .3 Coordinate transformations D R A y0 D @x 0 dx (M.plasma. i. Analogous to the transformation rule for the differential dx .se/CED/Book Sheet: 230 of 262 .1.e.18) @x i. the relation between a and a is determined by the metric of the physical 4D system under consideration. again. y 1 ..uu. FT We note that for a change of coordinates x ! x 0 D x 0 . a1 . The analogous requirement for a covariant four-vector is that it transforms. M . the transformation rule for the differential operator @=@x under a transformation x ! x 0 becomes @ @x @ D 0 (M.15) @x This follows trivially from the rules of differentiation of x 0 considered as a function of four variables x . Again. a3 .e.2.16). coordinate four-vector)..x // or.e.y 0 .

a scalar is considered to be a tensor of rank n D 0 and a vector to be a tensor of rank n D 1.20) ıij D 1 if i D j The 3D Kronecker delta tensor has the following matrix representation 0 1 1 0 0 B C .2.x/.21) 0 0 1 Another common and useful tensor is the fully antisymmetric tensor of rank three. Consequently. with the following properties: ( 0 if i ¤ j (M. Scalars. A tensor of rank n D 2 may be represented by FT (M.plasma. j. we indicate this by enclosing the mathmatical object in question in parentheses.se/CED/Book Sheet: 231 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.4 Tensor ﬁelds We denote an arbitrary tensor ﬁeld in R3 by A. the notation where a vector (tensor) is represented in its component form is called the tensor notation. This tensor ﬁeld can be represented in a number of ways.23) (M. j.x/ A23 .ıij / D @0 1 0A (M. j. D R A j ki D kij and ij k D D j ik D i kj and has the following further property ij k i lm D ıj l ıkm ıj m ıkl In fact.x/ A22 .25) .. the tensor ﬁeld described here is a tensor of rank two. .x/ Á Aij .3 ˆ < (M. M .1.x/ A33 . k are equal ij k D ˆ ˆ : 1 if i.24) (M. i.1.: : :/. In this picture.x/ A13 .19) A.2.x/ Strictly speaking. k is an odd permutation of 1.x/ A12 . for instance in the following matrix representation:5 1 0 A11 . vectors and tensors j 209 M . also known as the Levi-Civita tensor 8 ˆ1 if i.uu. A particularly simple rank two tensor in R3 is the 3D Kronecker delta tensor ıij . this tensor fulﬁls the relations ij k 5 When a mathematical object representing a physical observable is given in matrix representation.x/A A31 . k is an even permutation of 1.x/ A32 .x/ def def B C (M. tensors may have any rank n.e.2.xk / Á @A21 .22) 0 if at least two of i.3 Clearly.

which at a given . ij k /i D1 D @ 121 122 123 A D @0 0 1A D iS1 (M. acts on matter which lies on the opposite side of d2x. According to Newton’s third law. 3. 2. k D 1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Let dS D d2x n be the directed surface element of this volume element and let the vector Tn d2x be the force that matter.uu..26b) 1 0 0 231 232 233 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 311 312 313 B C B C .2 Tensors of rank higher than 3 are best represented in their tensor notation (component form). denotes the component of such a vector of tensors. 3. A FT 1 i 0 C 0 0A 0 0 i ij k Sk a two-dimensional array or matrix. 2.28) (M. are the matrix indices) 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 111 112 113 B C B C . this surface force fulﬁls T O n D Tn O (M. we ﬁnd that the matter of mass m.g. It is important to remember that a tensor of any rank is fully and totally characterized by its transformation properties under the change of coordinates. lying on the side of d2x O O toward which the unit normal vector n points. ij k /i D3 D @ 321 322 323 A D @ 1 0 0A D iS3 (M.29) EXAMPLE D R M . 210 j 13. these components have the matrix representations (the second and third indices. ﬁgure M.26a) 0 1 0 131 132 133 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 211 212 213 B C B C . and a tensor of rank n D 3 may be represented as a vector of tensors of rank n D 2.1 on the next page indicates O how this volume may look like.30) Using (M. Sj D (M.se/CED/Book Sheet: 232 of 262 .plasma. e.26c) 0 0 0 331 332 333 (M. ﬂuid. This is a very strict constraint. ij k /i D2 D @ 221 222 223 A D @0 0 0 A D iS2 (M. This force concept is meaningful only if the forces are short-range enough that they can be assumed to act only in the surface proper. the ﬁrst index i D 1. Assuming that one of the indices of the Levi-Civita tensor ij k . whose atomistic structure is irrelevant for the present analysis. MATHEMATICAL METHODS Here we have introduced the matrix vector O S D Si xi 6 These matrices are the spin operators for a (classical) 3D vector ﬁeld. Tensors in 3D space Consider a tetrahedron-like volume element V of a solid.30) and Newton’s second law. or gaseous body. j.27) where the vector components Si are the matrices6 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 C B C B B S1 D @0 0 iA S2 D @ 0 0 0A S3 D @ i 0 i 0 0 0 i 0 which satisfy the angular-momentum commutation rule ŒSi .

1. M .32) Tn D n1 Tx1 C n2 Tx2 C n3 Tx3 C 2 a O O O O m dx From the above derivation it is clear that equation (M.1: Tetrahedron-like volume element V containing matter.se/CED/Book Sheet: 233 of 262 .33) above in component O A FT cos Â3 Tx3 d2x C Fext D ma O (M. one ﬁnds that in this limit D Tn D O i D1 3 X R ni Txi Á ni Txi O O Á j where Fext is the external force and a is the acceleration of the volume element.31) (M.plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. O n d2x x2 V x1 instant is located in V obeys the equation of motion Tn d2x O cos Â1 Tx1 d2x O cos Â2 Tx2 d2x O Since both a and Fext =m remain ﬁnite whereas m=d2x ! 0 as V ! 0. In other words Â Ã m Fext (M.33) (M. Introducing the notation Tij D Txi O for the j th component of the vector Txi .34) . we can write equation (M.33) is valid not only in equilibrium but also when the matter in V is in motion. vectors and tensors j 211 x3 Figure M.uu. Scalars.

plasma. x1 . End of example M. here denoted Tij . we obtain d dt Z V Z v dm D V f d3x C FT Z S Hence.38) where.41) Note that @vj =@t is the rate of change with time of the velocity component vj at a ﬁxed point x D . To this end we consider a part V of the body.35) Using equation (M.39) V V V Since this formula is valid for any arbitrary volume. Tn d2x O (M. 212 j 13. x3 /. we can rewrite the result as Z d vj d3x D dt Z fj d3x C Z @Tij 3 dx @xi d3x and using the (M.Tn /j D O O 3 X iD1 ni Tij Á ni Tij (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. equation (M. equivalently @vj C v r vj @t fj @Tij D0 @xi (M.uu.2 .40) D or. we must require that d vj dt fj @Tij D0 @xi (M. the j th component of the vector Txi . If the external force density (force per unit volume) is denoted by f and the velocity for a mass element dm is denoted by v. can be interpreted as the O ij th component of a tensor T. Setting dm D divergence theorem on the last term.35) above was used.x1 .36) We shall now show how one can use the momentum law (force equation) to derive the equation of motion for an arbitrary element of mass in the body. we ﬁnd that the component of the vector Tn in the direction of an O O arbitrary unit vector m is O Tnm D Tn m O O O D 3 X j D1 Tnj mj D O 3 3 X X j D1 i D1 ! ni Tij O O mj Á ni Tij mj D n T m (M.35).se/CED/Book Sheet: 234 of 262 . Note that Tnm is independent of the particular coordinate O O system used in the derivation. in the last step. MATHEMATICAL METHODS form as follows Tnj D .37) The j th component of this equation can be written R A Z V d vj dm D dt Z V fj d3x C Z S Tnj d2x D O Z V fj d3x C Z S ni Tij d2x (M.

x /. A FT (M. . 2 ::: n .se/CED/Book Sheet: 235 of 262 . We speak of a contravariant four-tensor ﬁeld . denoted A a mixed four-tensor ﬁeld . denoted A 1 1 2 ::: n .45) (M.x Ä / More generally. 2. The 4D metric tensor (fundamental tensor) mentioned above is a particularly important four-tensor of rank two. Contravariant and covariant vectors in ﬂat Lorentz space EXAMPLE M .x Ä / Á g def a .x Ä / (M.43) 1 2 ::: k 1 k kC1 ::: n a . we have three forms of four-tensor ﬁelds of rank n.3 D 0 0 0 The 4D Lorentz space has a simple metric which can be described by the metric tensor 8 if D D 0 ˆ1 < g DÁ D (M.Á / D B @0 0 1 0A 1 R L4 A Dg Äg AÄ i.x Ä / D A k k ..48) . the same rank two tensor in its covariant form.uu. fC. g.x Ä / Á g def a . Scalars. or signature.44) 1 2 ::: k 1 k kC1 kC2 ::: n . denoted A a covariant four-tensor ﬁeld . In covariant component form we shall denote it g . .47) 1 if D D i D j D 1.. 3 ˆ : 0 if ¤ which in matrix notation becomes 1 0 1 0 0 0 B0 1 0 0C C .46) (M.x Ä / D A Successive lowering and raising of more than one index is achieved by a repeated application of this rule. a matrix with a main diagonal that has the sign sequence.x /. a dual application of the lowering operation on a rank two tensor in its contravariant form yields i. For example. The raising of index analogue of the index lowering rule is: a .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma.x Ä / (M. This metric tensor determines the relation between an arbitrary contravariant four-vector a and its covariant counterpart a according to the following rule: This rule is often called lowering of index. the following lowering and raising rules hold for arbitrary rank n mixed tensor ﬁelds: g g k k A A 1 2 ::: k 1 k kC1 kC2 ::: n 1 2 ::: k 1 k kC1 ::: n .e.42) . M . 1 2 ::: k kC1 ::: n .e.1.x /.x Ä / (M. vectors and tensors j 213 In 4D.

59) End of example M.a0 . a2 . a/ (M. x.55) (M. a1 . one can deﬁne the metric tensor in L4 as 8 ˆ 1 if < D 1 if ˆ : 0 if D D ¤ D0 D i D j D 1.56) a2 D 0 a C 0 a 0 1 a C0 a D 2 2 3 3 D3W a3 D 0 a C 0 a C 0 a 1 1 a D or a D . a3 / D . a1 . x/ (M. x 2 . (M. a/ def FT a 1 a C0 a C0 a D 1 1 2 3 i.49) Á which in matrix representation becomes 1 B 0 /DB @ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0C C 0A 1 .a0 . a0 . a matrix with signature f .plasma. x 1 .x 0 .a0 . C. a2 . x 3 / D .a0 . x3 / D . a/ (M. .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 214 j 13.se/CED/Book Sheet: 236 of 262 . C. Cg metric we obtain a D . In component form it can be written: a Á . a3 / D . we obtain the covariant version of this vector as a def Á .a0 . a2 . a2 . a0 . a3 / D . x 1 . a3 / D . C. a1 . a1 .a0 .3 .ct.e. using the f .ct.x0 . x1 .a0 . Cg.42) on the preceding page. Of course. g metric we obtain D0W D1W D2W a1 D 0 a 0 0 a0 D 1 a 0 C 0 a 1 C 0 a 2 C 0 a 3 D a 0 a a a 1 2 3 (M. x 2 . a3 / D Á (M.53) (M.uu.58) Analogously. a2 . 3 (M. z/ D . x2 . a3 / D .52) R A In the fC.54) (M. x 3 / D . a1 . y.ct. a2 . the physics is unaffected by the choice of metric tensor. a1 . x/ x D . ..57) D The radius 4-vector itself in L4 and in this metric is given by x D .ct. equation (M.Á (M. MATHEMATICAL METHODS Alternatively. C.51) According to the index lowering rule.50) Consider an arbitrary contravariant four-vector a in this space. 2.

Scalars.3 M .a/2 D jaj2 D .10) on page 207. the 3D scalar product is often denoted .c2 C c2 / R I 1 (M. inner product) of two arbitrary 3D vectors a and b in Euclidean R3 space is the scalar number O O O O a b D ai xi bj xj D xi xj ai bj D ıij ai bj D ai bi (M.60) O O where we used the fact that the scalar product xi xj is a representation of the Kronecker delta ıij deﬁned in equation (M. the deﬁnition of the scalar product in terms of the inner product of a complex vector with its own complex conjugate yields jcj2 Á c c D c2 C c2 D jcj2 R I def (M.10) on page 207.ai /2 D a2 and similarly for b.64) Using this in equation (M.62) def EXAMPLE M .63) from which we ﬁnd that cD q c2 R c2 C 2icR cI 2 C I (M.1 Vector algebra Scalar product The scalar product (dot product.4 Let c be a complex vector deﬁned as in expression (M.1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.66) with the help of which we can deﬁne the unit vector as .c2 C c2 /2 R I s O cR C i c2 R c2 I 1 2icR cI 4c2 c2 sin2 Â R I . This allows us to write a b D ab cos Â def 7 In the Russian literature.1.uu. M . we see that we can deﬁne the complex unit vector as being O cD c D q c cR c2 R c2 I O cR C i q cI c2 I C 2icR cI O cI c2 R R C 2icR cI c2 I D D cR q c2 R q cI 2icR cI 4c2 c2 sin2 Â R I .61) where Â is the angle between a and b.65) On the other hand.c2 C c2 /2 R I s .7 The scalar product of a vector a in R3 with itself is a a Á .plasma.ab/.c2 C c2 / R I O cI 2 C3 .3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 237 of 262 .20) on page 209. The inner product of c with itself may be deﬁned as c2 Á c c D c2 R def c2 C 2icR cI Á c 2 2 C I (M. (M. vectors and tensors j 215 M . Scalar products in complex vector space A FT (M.1.

b 0 . x/ .plasma. For the fC.4 In 4D space we deﬁne the scalar product of two arbitrary four-vectors a and b in the following way a b Dg a b Da b Dg a b (M.ct. Scalar product.x 3 /2 D s 2 (M.e.uu. b/ D a0 b 0 a b (M..5 i.3 on page 213] and. .67) c2 C c2 R I O cI 2 C3 c2 C c2 R I c2 C c2 R I End of example M. the scalar product in equation (M. i. MATHEMATICAL METHODS O cD c cR cI O O D q cR C i q cI jcj 2 2 2 cR C cI cR C c2 I q D cR c2 C c2 R I q O cR C i cI (M. is an invariant called the metric.dx 2 /2 .68) above can be evaluated almost trivially.x 0 .x0 .71) which is the indeﬁnite.x 1 /2 . a/ . norm and metric in Lorentz space In L4 the metric tensor attains a simple form [see example M.dx 1 /2 .68) where we made use of the index lowering and raising rules (M. the scalar product of the differential position four-vector with itself.ct.se/CED/Book Sheet: 238 of 262 .43). real norm of L4 .e. x/ D .a0 . The L4 metric is the quadratic differential form ds 2 D dx dx D c 2 .42) and (M. an invariant which is independent of in which 4D coordinate system it is measured.dx 3 /2 (M. The quadratic differential form ds 2 D g dx dx D dx dx (M..5 . .ct/2 . hence.x 2 /2 . It is also the square of the line element ds which is the distance between neighbouring points with coordinates x and x C dx . x/ D . g signature it becomes a b D . The result is a four-scalar. 216 j 13. x/ .69) EXAMPLE R A M .dt/2 .70) D The important scalar product of the L4 radius four-vector with itself becomes x x D .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.72) FT End of example M.

74) M . On the other hand.se/CED/Book Sheet: 239 of 262 . Here a is called the antecedent and b the consequent. but reverse their sign relative to ordinary vectors for any coordinate change involving reﬂection. x3 /. which is to say that the direction of an ordinary vector is not dependent on the choice of the directions of the coordinate axes. Therefore a (or b) is an example of a ‘true’ vector.uu. FT .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Scalars.x/ is the outer product of a and b known as a dyad .x/ and b.O j xk / D xi . 0 0 0 A spatial reversal of the coordinate system. Here ij k is the Levi-Civita tensor deﬁned in equation (M. Alternatively. Written out in explicit form. x2 .3.plasma. usually denoted ˝. whereas c is an example of an pseudovector or axial vector.x/ with two juxtaposed vector ﬁelds a. and zero-rank pseudotensors are therefore also called O x O O O pseudoscalars. vectors and tensors j 217 M . Tensors (of any rank) which transform analogously to pseudovectors are called pseudotensors. Pseudovectors transform as ordinary vectors under translations and proper rotations. .x/ D a. as is seen from equation (M.3 Dyadic product The dyadic product ﬁeld A. This associative but non-commuting operation is also called the tensor product or. the Kronecker product. ij k xi /. when applied to matrices (matrix representations of tensors). or polar vector.x/b. A prototype for a pseudovector is the angular momentum vector L D x p and hence the attribute ‘axial’. x1 .x/ Á a. known as a parity transformation.2 Vector product 8 The vector product or cross product of two arbitrary 3D vectors a and b in ordinary R3 space is the vector8 cDa bD O ij k xi aj bk D O ij k aj bk xi (M.1.3.x/b. The dyadic product between vectors (rank one tensors) is a special instance of the direct product. a O b D ab sin Â e (M. between arbitrary rank tensors.x/ becomes O O O O A D ab Á a ˝ b D a1 x1 b1 x1 C a1 x1 b2 x2 C O O C a3 x3 b3 x3 (M.75a) D R A O where Â is the angle between a and b and e is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane spanned by a and b. changes sign of the components of the vectors a and b so that in the new coordinate system a0 D a and b0 D b. an example being the pseudoscalar xi .1. This triple product is a representation of the ij k component of the rank three Levi-Civita pseudotensor ij k . the dyadic product A.x1 . Scalars are tensors of rank zero. x3 / D .1. Œab. the cross product vector c does not change sign.22) on page 209. particularly in the Russian literature.73) Sometimes the 3D vector product of a and b is denoted a ^ b or. M .73) above. x2 .

MATHEMATICAL METHODS O O O O O O D ai xi bj xj D ai bj xi xj D xi ai bj xj 0 10 1 O x1 Á a1 b1 a1 b2 a1 b3 B CB C D x1 x2 x3 @a2 b1 a2 b2 a2 b3 A @x2 A O O O O O a3 b1 a3 b2 a3 b3 x3 In matrix representation 0 1 a1 B C . .78b) R which means that O O xj A D aj b D aj bi xi O O xi A xj D ai bj D Aij (M.78c) D The vector product can be represented in matrix form as follows: 0 1 0 1 c1 a2 b3 a3 b2 B C B C .plasma.77a) (M. in the second case as the prefactor. a tensor in matrix representation. 218 j 13. Hence.given by formula (M. if c D xj .x/ D a. and the vector b.uu.27) on page 210.ab/ Á . proportional to a and b.79) c3 a1 b2 a2 b1 where Sb is dyadic product of the matrix vector S.19) on page 209. Scalar multiplication from the right or from the left of the dyad A.x/b. O Speciﬁcally.se/CED/Book Sheet: 240 of 262 .76) O A c Á ab c Á a.75b) (M. emphasising its vectorial characteristics. then O O A xj D abj D ai bj xi (M.77b) O c A Á c ab Á .a ˝ b/ D @a2 A b1 a3 Á a1 b1 B D @a2 b1 a3 b1 0 a1 b2 a2 b2 a3 b2 (M.x/ by a vector c. produces other vectors according to the scheme (M.a b/ D @a3 b1 a1 b3 A D ia Sb D iaS b (M.78a) (M.b c/ D aj bi ci xj def def A FT def def which we identify with expression (M. viz. and aS is the dyadic product of the vector a and the matrix vector S.c a/b D ai bj ci xj respectively.c/ D @c2 A D .75c) b2 b3 1 a1 b3 C a2 b3 A a3 b3 (M. These two vectors. a dyadic of two vectors is intimately related to a rank two tensor.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. are in general not identical to each other. respectively.A/ D . c is known as the postfactor. In the ﬁrst case.

6 (M. M .79). .28) on page 210.81) .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.a a2 b1 b/ b/ D iaS b Likewise. vectors and tensors j 219 Matrix representation of the vector product in R3 Prove that the matrix representation of the vector product c D a (M. the scalar multiplication of a dyadic product of two vectors (in our case S and b) from the left by a vector (in our case a) is interpreted as a Sb D .80) R A b/ 0 0 0 1 0 i 0 0A b2 C @ i 0 0 0 a2 a3 0 @ b3 b2 b3 0 b1 0 1 b2 a2 b 3 b1 A D i @a3 b1 a1 b 2 0 0 a2 b3 iaS b D @a3 b1 a1 b2 ia Sb D 1 a3 b2 a1 b3 A D .82) (M.se/CED/Book Sheet: 241 of 262 .plasma. Scalars.S b/ D i a1 from which follows ia. aS b D a.83) i 0 0 1 0 0A b3 0 (M.S b/ where 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 S b D Si bi D @0 0 iA b1 C @ 0 i 0 i 0 0 1 0 b3 b2 D i @ b3 0 b1 A b2 b1 0 D a.6 According to formula (M.84) 1 a3 b2 a1 b3 A a2 b1 (M.86) QED End of example M. Hence 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 i 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 a S D a1 @0 0 i A C a2 @ 0 0 0 A C a3 @ i 0 0 A 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 i 0 20 1 0 1 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 a2 0 a3 0 D i 4@0 0 a1 A C @ 0 0 0 A C @a3 0 0A5 0 a1 0 a2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 a3 a2 D i @ a3 0 a1 A a2 a1 0 from which we ﬁnd that 0 0 a3 .a a2 b1 0 10 1 a2 b3 a2 b1 a1 A @b2 A D i @a3 b1 a1 b2 0 b3 1 a3 b2 a1 b3 A a2 b1 (M.S b/ D Hence. i.a and FT (M.1.85) (M.uu.77) on the facing page.a S/b D i @ a3 0 a2 a1 In other words.a S/b where a S D ai Si and the components Si are given by formula (M. b is given by formula EXAMPLE M .a S/b D 0 a2 b3 ia Sb D @a3 b1 a1 b2 1 a3 b2 a1 b3 A D .

called a tryad . 220 j 13.13 c/ D .b ab Á . i.c def def c/ D a/b D O O j kl ai bk cl xi xj O O j kl al bi ck xj xi D O O ikl al bj ck xi xj (M. In general. It is therefore sometimes called the Hamilton operator. Since the operator in itself has vectorial properties.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. M .. in matrix representation. a vector a is sometimes called a monad .87a) (M.c 13 / D iS c (M. In this vein. 0 0 c3 B .1 D This operator was introduced by W I L L I A M R OW E N H A M I LT O N (1805–1865) who.90) One can extend the dyadic scheme and introduce abc.4. the unit dyad or the second-rank unit tensor.plasma. the two new dyads thus created are not identical to each other. denoted in Gibbs’ notation by r and deﬁned as9 O O r D xi ri Á xi def @ def @ def Á Á@ @xi @x (M. O O Speciﬁcally.uu.13 c/ D @ c3 0 c2 c1 FT 13 O O C c3 x2 x1 O O c1 x2 x3 (M.27) on page 210. . used the symbol for it. MATHEMATICAL METHODS Vector multiplication from the right and from the left of the dyad A by a vector is another dyad according to the scheme A c D ab ADc c Á a.92) @x1 @x2 @x3 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 242 of 262 .89) Using the matrix vector formula (M.88) 1 c2 C c1 A D . we can write this as R A .e.91) O where xi is the ith unit vector in a Cartesian coordinate system. if A D 13 D xi xi . we denote it with a boldface nabla (r ). 9 In R3 the del operator is a differential vector operator. then 13 cD O O O O c3 x1 x2 C c2 x1 x3 O O O O c2 x1 x3 C c1 x3 x2 D c or.1.87b) c respectively.1.4 Vector analysis The del operator M . and so on.c 0 13 / (M. In ‘component’ (tensor) notation the del operator can be written Â Ã @ @ @ @i D . (M. however.

x/ D @˛. therefore.uu. the four-gradient of a four-scalar is a covariant vector.4. r D —r. .x / @x O and.x / D @˛. .97) (M. then D @ ˛.se/CED/Book Sheet: 243 of 262 . Scalars. In 4D. . with the following component form: (M. / @ A FT (M.96) (M. @ D @x 0 @x 1 @x 2 @x 3 (M.98) y0 D @ x0 y (M.x/ D xi @i ˛. formed as a derivative of a four-scalar ﬁeld ˛. M .99a) with the contravariant form (M. the contravariant component representation of the four-del operator is deﬁned by Â Ã @ @ @ @ @ D .1.17) and (M.2 y The gradient of a scalar ﬁeld The gradient of an R1 scalar ﬁeld ˛.94) We can use this four-del operator to express the transformation properties (M. M .x /. (M. / D — @˛. .95) .x/ Á r ˛.x / @x @ ˛.1.x/.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/ def If the scalar ﬁeld depends only on one coordinate. From this we see that the boldface notation for the gradient (r ) is very handy as it elucidates its 3D vectorial property and separates it from the nabla operator (r) which has a scalar property. vectors and tensors j 221 In 4D.x / D @˛. say. / O D —r˛. is an R3 vector ﬁeld O grad ˛.plasma.99b) R O r ˛.93) @x0 @x1 @x2 @x3 whereas the covariant four-del operator is Ã Â @ @ @ @ .x/ D r ˛.18) on page 208 as and y 0 D @0 x respectively.

222 j 13.x Ä / (M. If a is an ordinary vector (polar vector).O i @i bk xk / a D .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.4.uu.x/ Á r a.22) on page 209.x Ä / D @ a .103) D where use was made of the Levi-Civita tensor.91) on page 200.x/.aj xj bk xk / x O O O O D Œ.x Ä / (M.x / D M .x/ D (M. .x/ D @i ai .a b/ D .100) M .x/ @xj @ a . End of example M.x/ Á r def In R3 the curl of a vector ﬁeld a. MATHEMATICAL METHODS EXAMPLE M .1.r b/ a x x This is the ﬁrst version of formula (F.O i @i aj xj / b C .102) The curl of a vector ﬁeld R A curl a. The covariant 4D generalisation of the curl of a four-vector ﬁeld a . we can write the matrix representation of the curl in R3 as 0 1 @2 a3 @3 a2 B C . as indicated by the notation ˛.O i @i /. then r a is a pseudovector (axial vector) and vice versa.4.aj xj / Œ.7 (M.104) @1 a2 @2 a1 where S is the matrix vector given by formula (M.x Ä / D A .x/ @xi O ij k xi @j ak .se/CED/Book Sheet: 244 of 262 .x / @x (M.101) which.105) A vector with vanishing curl is said to be irrotational . introduced in equation (M.x/ D O ij k xi @ak . Similarly to formula (M.plasma.79) on page 218.O i @i /.x/ is another R3 vector ﬁeld deﬁned in the following way: a.bk xk / C .aj xj / .3 The divergence of a vector ﬁeld We deﬁne the 3D divergence of a vector ﬁeld a in R3 as div a.x/ D def FT @ai .O i @i /. The four-divergence of a four-vector a is the four-scalar @ a .r a/ D @@3 a1 @1 a3 A D ir Sa D ir S a (M.x / is the antisymmetric four-tensor ﬁeld A .1.27) on page 210.4 @a .bk xk / x x O O D . is a scalar ﬁeld in R3 .7 Gradient of a scalar product of two vector ﬁelds The gradient of the scalar product of two vector ﬁelds a and b can be calculated in the following way: O O r .r a/ b C .

M . sometimes denoted opposite sign convention.107) (M. vectors and tensors j 223 M . @ D . together with the Kronecker and Levi-Civita tensors and their generalisations to higher ranks and higher dimensions.r c @t c @t D @ @ D 1 @2 c 2 @t 2 Taking the scalar product of these two. and sometimes deﬁned with an End of example M.108) (M.uu. Numerous vector algebra and vector analysis formulæ are given in appendix F . one obtains which is the d’Alembert operator.8 In L4 the contravariant form of the four-del operator can be represented as Â @ D Ã Â Ã 1 @ 1 @ . r 2 ˛ < 0 at some point in 3D space. R r2 D 2 . Those which are not found there can often be easily derived by using the component forms of the vectors and tensors. r c @t c @t and the covariant form as Â @ D Ã Â Ã 1 @ 1 @ .5 The Laplacian The 3D Laplace operator or Laplacian can be described as the divergence of the del operator: X @2 @2 Á @xi2 @xi2 i D1 3 r r D r 2 Á D @2 D i def (M. Scalars.@ D . If.se/CED/Book Sheet: 245 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.106) The four-del operator in Lorentz space A FT (M.plasma.1. for a scalar ﬁeld ˛.4.109) .x/.1.8 The symbol r 2 is sometimes read del squared . EXAMPLE M . ˛ has a concentration at that point.

110). the following relation holds: Â Ã Ã Â a... This formula follows directly from the fact that Ã Z Â Ã I Â Ã Â Z x x0 x x0 1 O D d3x r D d2x n d3x r r jx x0 j jx x0 j3 jx x0 j3 V V S (M.plasma.xi xi / x O D D xi 0j jx x jx 0 x0 j @ . i. equation (M.9 EXAMPLE M .10 The Laplacian and the Dirac delta D A very useful formula in 3D R3 is Â Ã Ã Â 1 1 r r D r2 D jx x0 j jx x0 j (M. we obtain the following very useful result: q r jx @jx O O x j D xi D xi @xi 0 .91) on page 220.x0 / 1 r0 D C a.x0 / r 0 a.113) which demonstrates how the primed divergence. on jx x0 j.114) where ı.x3 0 x3 /2 D O xi A FT x x0 D jx x0 j3 r0 Â 1 Ã jx x0 j 4 ı. includes x D x0 .e. viz.S/.11 . the corresponding unprimed version.112) End of example M. MATHEMATICAL METHODS EXAMPLE M .V /.se/CED/Book Sheet: 246 of 262 . EXAMPLE R M .9 Gradients of scalar functions of relative distances in 3D Very often electrodynamic quantities are dependent on the relative distance in R3 between two vectors x and x0 . In analogy with equation (M.10 Divergence in 3D For an arbitrary R3 vector ﬁeld a.uu. enclosed by the surface S.110) Using this. deﬁned in terms of the primed del operator in equation (M. works. we can deﬁne the primed del operator in the following way: O r 0 D xi @ 0 0 D@ @xi (M. End of example M.111) Likewise Ã Â 1 D r jx x0 j (M. and elementary rules of differentiation.x x0 / is the 3D Dirac delta ‘function’.115) equals 4 if the integration volume V . and equals 0 otherwise.x1 x0 x0 j 0 x1 /2 C .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x0 / r 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j jx x0 j (M.x x0 / @jx 0 @xi @xi x0 j D r 0 jx x0 j (M.x2 0 x2 /2 C .91) on page 220.11 End of example M.x0 /. 224 j 13.

1.103) on page 222.x/.x/ EXAMPLE M .x/.12 ij k @i @j ak .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. and the gradient.se/CED/Book Sheet: 247 of 262 . we see that r Œr ˛.13 r Œr R a. equation (M. vectors and tensors j 225 The curl of a gradient Using the deﬁnition of the R3 curl.plasma.22) on page 209.x/i D D @ @xi ij k With the use of the deﬁnitions of the divergence (M. .@ @ @ @ /˛.120) Using the deﬁnition for the Levi-Civita symbol.97) on page 221. deﬁned by equation (M. equation (M.x Ä / Á 0 In 4D we note that for any well-behaved four-scalar ﬁeld ˛.x/ Á 0 ij k @2 @x2 @x3 @2 @x3 @x1 @2 @x1 @x2 @2 @x1 @x3 @2 @x2 @x1 for any arbitrary.x/.x/ @ @ ˛.118) (M.x/O 2 x ! ˛. well-behaved R3 scalar ﬁeld ˛.x/ (M.x/ D O ij k xi @j @k ˛. equation (M.103) on page 222. we ﬁnd that. Scalars.x/ ! a2 . vanishes: O ij k xi @j @k ˛.x/O i x @xj @xk @2 @x3 @x2 ! ˛.117) (M.x/O 3 x (M. Hence.x/ D D C C Á0 We thus ﬁnd that r Œr ˛.101) and the curl.x/O 1 x ! ˛. due to the assumed well-behavedness of a. M .x Ä / so that the four-curl of a four-gradient vanishes just as does a curl of a gradient in R3 .x/ ! a3 . The divergence of a curl A FT (M.uu.119) End of example M. D D C C Á0 @i ij k @j ak .12 which.121) @2 @x1 @x3 @2 @x2 @x1 . we ﬁnd that (M.x/ @ a @xj k @2 @x2 @x3 @2 @x3 @x1 @2 @x1 @x2 @2 @x3 @x2 ! a1 . a gradient is always irrotational.x/ D @i Œr a.116) EXAMPLE M . due to the assumed well-behavedness of ˛.

25) on page 209 with m D n.x/. MATHEMATICAL METHODS i.13 (M.124a) where dummy summation indices were changed. In 4D.e. we can rewrite this as .uu.x/ Á 0 r Œr (M. where a and b are 3D vector ﬁelds. one has to ensure that the range of the operator is taken into account in a proper and correct manner. lmn xl ıi m bn / O li n xl aj @k bn D FT b/ O ij k lmn ıi m xl aj @k bn O i ln xl aj @k bn ıj n ıkl /O l aj @k bn x O xj aj @k bk End of example M.102) on page 201.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.. that a. x ij k aj @k /.123) EXAMPLE M .124b) a.122) for any arbitrary.ıj l ık n D O D xk aj @k bj D ai r bi (M.14 A non-trivial vector analytic triple product formula R A .O i D ij k O ij k aj @k /. illustrates how this situation can be handled.plasma. ij k When differential operators appear inside multiple-product vector formulæ.se/CED/Book Sheet: 248 of 262 . Using formula (M.a r/ bD.x Ä / ¤ 0 (M. D O ij k xi aj @k / bD. the four-divergence of the four-curl is not zero. The following calculation of the triple product . 226 j 13. End of example M.a r/ bD . D.r b/ This is formula (F. for @ A D @ @ a . well-behaved R3 vector ﬁeld a.a r / b.14 .x Ä / 2 a .

2.t D T V (M.1 As is well known from elementary analytical mechanics.132a) (M.125) dt where qi is the generalised coordinate.128) (M.126) t1 and the variational principle with ﬁxed endpoints t1 and t2 . P .qi .qi . qi . qi .2.127) (M.2 Analytical mechanics Lagrange’s equations M . t / D L qi . Using the action Z t2 SD dt L. differentiable function ˛ D ˛.128) above that @L D pi P @qi R A d˛ @˛ @˛ D L C qi P C dt @qi @t D L0 D L C then @L0 @L @˛ D C @qi P @qi P @q @L0 @L d @˛ D C @qi @qi dt @q If we introduce an arbitrary. M .qi .132b) . the Lagrange function or Lagrangian L is given by Â Ã dqi L.uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. t / P (M. T the kinetic energy and V the potential energy of a mechanical system. t/ and a new Lagrangian L0 related to L in the following way (M.se/CED/Book Sheet: 249 of 262 . Analytical mechanics j 227 M .131) FT (M. ıS D 0 one ﬁnds that the Lagrangian satisﬁes the Euler-Lagrange equations Â Ã @L d @L D0 dt @qi P @qi To the generalised coordinate qi one deﬁnes a canonically conjugate momentum pi according to pi D @L @qi P (M.129) and note from equation (M.plasma.130) (M.

3 [62] M. A.137b) M .se/CED/Book Sheet: 250 of 262 .135) After differentiating the left and right hand sides of this deﬁnition and setting them equal we obtain @H @H @H dpi C dqi C dt D qi dpi C pi dqi P P @pi @qi @t @L dqi @qi @L dqi P @qi P @L dt @t (M.133) @L @˛ @˛ @L0 D C D pi C @qi P @qi P @qi @qi (M.. t / D pi qi P L. t/ P (M. the second and fourth terms on the right hand side cancel. with corrections. S TEGUN. we P obtain the Hamilton equations: (M.129) on the preceding page. Inc. MATHEMATICAL METHODS Or. Tenth Printing.137a) dpi dt (M. 228 j 13. Dover Publications. New York.pi .2 From L.136) is equal to pi dqi and identifying terms. 1972. noting that according to equation (M.136) R D @H dqi D qi D P @pi dt @H D pi D P @qi According to the deﬁnition of pi .130) on the previous page the third term on the right hand side of equation (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.2.uu. A BRAMOWITZ AND I. qi .134b) M . d @L0 Á @L0 dt @qi P where pi0 D and qi0 D @qi D d @L Á dt @qi P @L @qi (M. Furthermore. A FT Hamilton’s equations Bibliography .plasma. the Hamiltonian (Hamilton function) H can be deﬁned via the Legendre transformation H. qi . equation (M. Handbook of Mathematical Functions. in other words.qi .134a) @L @L0 D D qi @pi P @p P (M.

Academic Press.se/CED/Book Sheet: 251 of 262 . B. Part I.plasma. 1970. San Diego. . D EAN. New York. 1965.. M. . Edinburgh and London. CA .. McGrawHill Book Company. Sixth printing.uu. 1995. E. [69] W. Inc.. Tensor Calculus. North-Holland Publishing Co. D R A FT [68] B. NY . F ESHBACH. 1953. . Oliver and Boyd.. . ISBN 05-001331-9. Mathematical Methods for Physicists. M . Classical Mathematical Physics. . Inc. New York. Ltd. Methods of Theoretical Physics.. . international ed. . M ORSE AND H. New York. third ed..Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. pp. [66] A. . ISBN 0-387-94843-0. Elements of Abstract Algebra. Vienna. [64] R. M ESSIAH. 1967. II. S PAIN. ISBN 07-043316-8.. John Wiley & Sons. vol. [65] A. Springer-Verlag. [67] P. A. T HIRRING. 1997. Inc. 34 (1965). E VETT. A. NY . . Bibliography j 229 [63] G. Amsterdam. W EBER. . A RFKEN AND H. 503–507. ISBN 0-12-0598167. fourth. ISBN 0-471-20452-8. J. Quantum Mechanics. American Journal of Physics.3. Permutation symbol approach to elementary vector analysis.

se/CED/Book Sheet: 252 of 262 .uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. D R A FT .plasma.

22 component notation. 171 231 Bohm. 156 canonically conjugate momentum. 68 Barbieri. 83. 121 bremsstrahlung. 180 consequent. 133 braking radiation. 49 Cherenkov radiation.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. André-Marie. Tobia. 227 canonically conjugate momentum density. 182 collisional interaction. Cesare. 68 CGS units. INDEX L Cerenkov. 128 Carozzi. 140 coherent radiation. 20. 42 axial vector. 68 chirality ﬂow. 172 angular frequency. 97 antenna current. 55 D R A FT . 68 circular wave polarisation. 175 antecedent. 205 complex vector ﬁeld. 217 antenna. 148 arrow of time. 27. 184 charge conjugation. Pavel Alekseevich.plasma. 10 closed algebraic structure. xx canonically conjugate four-momentum. 121. xviii Bessel functions. David Joseph. 38 angular momentum theorem. 40 Ampère’s law. 163 centre of energy. 111 advanced time. 210 anisotropic. 176 chiral media. 174 anisotropic medium. 206 concentration. 15 characteristic impedance of vacuum. 104 Biot-Savart’s law. 156. 189 complete ˛-Lorenz gauge. 3. 6 Ampère. 42 complex conjugate. 148. 140 axial gauge. 98 antisymmetric tensor. 174 birefringent crystal. 127 collision frequency. 64 angular-momentum commutation rule. 51 associated Legendre polynomial of the ﬁrst kind. 217 axiomatic foundation of classical electrodynamics. 89 associative. 217 conservation law. 27 classical electrodynamics. 207 complex-ﬁeld six-vector. 98 antenna feed point. 6 Ampère-turn density.uu. 197 complex notation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 253 of 262 . 178 acceleration ﬁeld. 19 azimuthal phase. 223 conductivity. 170 chirality density. 171 anomalous dispersion. 8 birefringent. 1.

136. 149 contravariant four-tensor ﬁeld. Charles-Augustin. 13 coordinate four-vector. 101 Coulomb gauge. 217 dyons. 223 de Coulomb. 220 diffusion coefﬁcient. 222 curl theorem. 136 duality transformation. 190 dipole antennas. Albert. 161 conserved quantities. 217 Curie. 170 differential distance. 171 dielectric permittivity. 24 covariant. Paul Adrien Maurice. 25. 1. 64 conservation law for linear momentum. 93 E2 radiation. 15 curl. 11 electric current density. 134 covariant component form. 232 INDEX conservation law for angular momentum. 52. 54 constitutive relations. 58 electric charge conservation law. 60 conservation law for the total current. 145 covariant vector. 139 contravariant vector. 15. 139 covariant gauge. 37. Pierre. 208 contravariant four-vector ﬁeld. 217 dyadic product. 206 covariant ﬁeld tensor. 12 conservative forces. 202 cutoff.uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 150 dual vector. 223 demodulation. 208 coordinate vector. 21 cyclotron radiation. 128 D R A d’Alembert operator. 213 covariant four-vector. 149 covariant four-tensor ﬁeld. 202 dot product. 206 contravariant ﬁeld tensor. 222 divergence theorem. 3 deﬁniendum. 52 E1 radiation. 205 deﬁniens. 2 dummy index. 138 differential vector operator. 1. 51 cross product. 97 Einstein’s summation convention. 40 Coulomb’s law. 56 conservation laws. 3 electric and magnetic ﬁeld energy. 122 cycle average. 54 contravariant component form. 54 constants of motion. 10 electric charge density. 136 control sphere. 8 electric dipole moment. 40. 171 displacement current. 224 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations. 215 dual electromagnetic tensor. 3 coupled differential equations. 205 cosine integral. 151 Duhem. Marie Sklodowska. 208 covariant four-vector ﬁeld.plasma. 205 del operator. 144. 217 dispersive. 54 convective derivative. 54 conservative ﬁeld. 98 Dirac delta. 125. 203 direct product. 16 Dirac. 136 dyad. 11 divergence. 213 contravariant four-vector. 180 continuity equation. 4 electric conductivity. 175 dispersive property. 136 CPT theorem.se/CED/Book Sheet: 254 of 262 . 92 FT . 178 Curie. 220 del squared. 205 Einstein. Pierre.

2 electroweak theory. 32 electrostatics. 2 elliptical wave polarisation.plasma. 40 ﬁeld. 17 electric displacement vector. 56 electromagnetic ﬁeld energy. 141 Euclidean vector space. 59 Euler. 69 electromagnetic virial theorem. 1. 57 energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory. 77. 203 Feynman. 57 electromagnetic ﬁeld energy density. 63. 140 far ﬁeld. 169. 74 far zone. 10 equation of continuity for magnetic charge. Lev Mikahilovich. 9 Eriksson. 69 D R A electromagnetism. 35 electromagnetic spin angular momentum. 94 electromagnetic angular momentum ﬂux tensor. xviii Erukhimov. 90 Faraday tensor. 66 electromagnetic scalar potential. 2 electrodynamic potentials. 16 equations of classical electrostatics. 33 electrostatic scalar potential. 56 electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor. 59. 227 Euler-Mascheroni constant. 1 electromagnetodynamic equations. Anders. 33 electrostatic quadrupole moment tensor. 35 electromagnetic angular momentum current density. 101 event. 86 electric dipole radiation. 162 Euler-Lagrange equations. 60 electromagnetic linear momentum density. 93 electric displacement current. 1. INDEX 233 electric dipole moment vector. 10 Faraday. 12 Faraday’s law of induction. 9 equations of classical magnetostatics. 62 Euler-Lagrange equation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 255 of 262 . Richard Phillips. 170 electric ﬁeld energy. 58 electric monopole moment. Leonhard. 86 electric permittivity. 188 electric polarisation. 23. Michael. 137 Euler’s ﬁrst law. 12 electrostatic dipole moment vector. 66 electromagnetic vector potential.uu. 149 electromagnetic linear momentum current density. 58 equation of continuity. 145 equation of continuity for electric charge. 93 electromagnetic linear momentum ﬂux tensor. 163. 12 energy density balance equation. 35 electromagnetic virial density. 87 electric quadrupole moment tensor. 52 electromotive force. xx Euclidean space. Marcus. 22 FT . 97 electric quadrupole tensor. 63 electromagnetic energy current density. 63 electromagnetic angular momentum density. 16 electromagnetodynamics. 170 electric ﬁeld. 171 electricity. 63 electromagnetic orbital angular momentum. 60 electromagnetic moment of momentum density. 86 electric quadrupole radiation. 56 electromagnetic energy ﬂux. 3. 97 electric susceptibility. 149 Faraday’s law. 206 ﬁeld Lagrange density. 26 EMF. 164 ﬁeld momentum.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. xx Eriksson.

43 gauge transformation of the ﬁrst kind. Edwin Herbert. 220 Ginzburg. Göran. 88 Hertz’s method. 206. 12 frequency mixing. 204 Galileo’s law. Per Olof. 178 Glashow. 228 Hamilton function. 163 Hamilton density equations. 2 gradient. 183 Hooke’s law. 27 Fourier integral. 228 Hamilton gauge. 144 four-scalar. 43 gauge invariant. 15 helical base vectors. 98 Helmholtz’ theorem. 156 four-dimensional vector space. 197 Hertz vector. 36 general theory of relativity. 5 D R A ﬁeld point. 28 Fourier transform. 209 functional derivative. 52 homogeneous vector wave equations. 136. 227 generalised four-coordinate. Ilya Mikhailovich. 45. 154 four-momentum. 43 gauge theory. William Rowen.uu. 136 four-divergence. 45. 133 gauge ﬁxing. 122 ﬁne structure constant. 160 Huygens’s principle. 28. 5 help vector. 81 heterodyning. 174. 130 four-current. 139. xx. 208 four-velocity. Galileo. 133 generalised coordinate. 163 Hamilton equations. 221 four-Hamiltonian. 86 Hertz. 140 group velocity. 4 ﬁeld quantum. 175 Hall effect. 213 Fäldt. 156. 43 gauge transformation. 178 Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformation. 156 Gibbs’ notation. 144 four-del operator. 27 Helmholtz equation. 143 four-potential. 221 four-dimensional Hamilton equations. 12 Fröman. 89 group theory. 143 Fourier amplitude. 178 Franklin. 37 Frank. 162 fundamental tensor. 42 gauge function. 213 four-vector. 52 Heaviside-Lorentz units. 220 Hamiltonian. 121 frequency conversion. 123. xx Gauss’s theorem. 171 Hodge star operator. 38. Vitaliy Lazarevich.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 228 Heaviside.se/CED/Book Sheet: 256 of 262 . Sheldon. 220 Hamilton. Benjamin. 222 four-gradient. 115. 38 identity element. Heinrich Rudolf. 42 Hamilton operator. Oliver. 37 Helmholtz’s theorem. 46 gauge transformation of the second kind. xix fully antisymmetric tensor. 173 Hall. 156. 90 Hermitian conjugate. 46 Gauss’s law of electrostatics. 140 FT . 156 four-Lagrangian. 207 four-tensor ﬁelds.plasma. 221 Green function. 173 Hamilton density. 55 free-free radiation. 202 general inhomogeneous wave equations. 234 INDEX Galilei.

Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 137 index contraction. xx Kelvin function. 27. 107. 223 Larmor formula for radiated power. xx Kronecker delta tensor. 129 Kerr effect. 209 Kronecker product. xviii line broadening. 137. 57 Lorentz space. 227 Laplace operator. 42 Kohlrausch. 118 interaction Lagrange density. 133 inertial system. 136 index lowering. 209 light cone. 217 Lagrange density. 60 linear wave polarisation. 37 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge. 171 kinetic energy. 170 induction ﬁeld. 107 Liénard-Wiechert potentials. 6. 161 linear momentum density. 38 inhomogeneous time-independent wave equation. Roger. 160. 164 intermediate ﬁeld. 60 linear momentum operator. 128 indeﬁnite norm. 77 invariant. 207 invariant line element. 101 Lorentz boost parameter. 138 inverse element. 222 Lagrangian. 37. xx left-hand circular polarisation. 228 Levi-Civita tensor. 147 local gauge transformation. 215 instantaneous. 133 Learned. 57 Lorentz power density. 227 kinetic momentum. 136 index of refraction. Alfred-Marie. 26 Liénard. Cecilia. 63 Lorentz transformation. 44 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition. 213 FT . 66 Legendre polynomial. 58 Karlsson. 177 incoherent radiation. 133 inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Johan. Gustav Robert. 64 Lorentz torque density. 206 Lorentz torque. Rudolf. 28 ionosphere. 74 inertial reference frame. xx Joule heat power. 42 Kirchhoff.plasma. 142 Lorentz force. 185 loop antenna.uu. 160. 183 irrotational. 22. 37 inner product. 46 longitudinal component. 135 Lorentz. 37 Lorenz. 62 linear momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory. 151 Jarlskog. Ludvig Valentin. Helmut. 145 lowering of index. 216 linear mass density. 159 Kirchhoff gauge. INDEX 235 Jacobi identity. 118 law of inertia. 59 Lorentz gauge condition. 1. John. 161 Lagrange function. 223 Laplacian. 227 D R A in a medium. 37 Lorentz power. 14. 61 Lorentz force density. 3 Kopka.se/CED/Book Sheet: 257 of 262 . 139 light-like interval. 139 Lindberg. Hendrik Antoon. 160. 38 inhomogeneous wave equation. 28 line element. 89 Legendre transformation. 140 inverse Fourier transform.

60 Maxwell’s displacement current. 20 mechanical angular momentum. 7. 151 magnetic induction. 170 magnetic ﬁeld energy. 173 magnetisation. 130 natural units. 15 magnetic permeability. Bengt. 216 FT . 8 magnetic four-current. 188 magnetic susceptibility. 140 matrix representation. 8 magnetic monopoles. James Clerk. 172 magnetisation currents. 137 non-linear effects. 141 mixed four-tensor ﬁeld. 59 massive photons. 63 mechanical energy. 174 Maxwell’s microscopic equations. 174 metric. 57 mechanical energy density. 27 negative refractive index. 172 magnetic dipole radiation. 54 Noether.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 62 mechanical angular momentum density. 213 minimal coupling. 164 mechanical linear momentum. 171 magnetising ﬁeld. 13 magnetic ﬂux density. 23 Majorana. 97 Mach cone. 12 norm. 57 mechanical Lagrange density. 62 mechanical linear momentum density. 136. 97 magnetic displacement current. 15 Maxwell-Lorentz source equations. 62 mechanical torque. Amalie Emmy. 209 Maxwell stress tensor. 15 magnetic current density. 168 material derivative. 77 negative helicity. xix. 62 mechanical spin angular momentum. 156 Minkowski space. 172 magnetised plasma. 1 magnetostatic vector potential. 1.plasma. 63 metamaterials. 59 Newton. 13 mathematical group. 17 magnetic ﬁeld. 170. 170. 216 metric tensor. 96. 213 mixing angle. 169. 172 magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. 220 monochromatic. 206. 178 magnetic charge density. 174 Newton’s ﬁrst law. 23 Majorana representation. 54 non-Euclidean space. 203 Newton-Lorentz force equation. 86 Møller scattering. Sir Isaac. 10 Maxwell’s macroscopic equations. 45 Minkowski equation. xx M1 radiation. 236 INDEX Lundborg. 32 magnetostatics. 172 magnetism. 6 Majorana formalism. Ettore. 19 D R A Maxwell-Lorentz equations. 15 Maxwell. 52 moment of velocity. 133 Newton’s second law. 156 Noether’s theorem. 15 magnetic dipole moment. 28 multipole expansion. 58 magnetic ﬁeld intensity. 136. 59 mechanical moment of momentum. 62 mechanical orbital angular momentum. 71 monochromatic wave.uu. 172 magnetic ﬂux. 206. 23 mass density.se/CED/Book Sheet: 258 of 262 . 15 near zone. 55 monad.

191 photons. 69 Poincaré gauge. vi. 205 positive deﬁnite. 175. 89 Poynting vector. 208 position vector. 217 pseudotensor. 26 propagator. 188 Relativity principle. 187 plasma. 74. 45 Proca Lagrangian. 208 radius vector. 58 prefactor. 139 pseudo-Riemannian space. 209 rapidity. 188 relative permittivity. 218 probability density. 186 orbital angular momentum operator. 204 phase velocity. 217 Parseval’s identity. 111 radiation ﬁelds. 136. 51. 50. 148. 204 pseudoscalars. 77 retarded potentials. 11. 174 photon. 142 reciprocal space. 67 outer product. 174. 56 Poynting’s theorem. 169 quadratic differential form. 170 polarisation currents. 213 rank. 38. xviii parity transformation. 40 . 217 D R A FT QCD. 164 retarded Coulomb ﬁeld. 1. 30 refractive index. INDEX 237 null vector.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 1. 129 Pauli. 216 quantum chromodynamics. 160. 2 quantum electrodynamics. 136 Planck units. 167 propagation vector. 2 QED. 217 Palmer. 58 radiation ﬁeld. Wolfgang. 170. 122. 180 Ohmic losses. Kristoffer. 139 observation point. 184 rest mass density. 4 Ohm’s law. 175 plasma frequency. 134 relaxation time. Sir Rudolf. 15 plane wave. 42 radiated electromagnetic power. 137 positive helicity. 217 pseudovector. 141 positive deﬁnite norm. 172 polarisation potential. 171 relative permeability. 169 physical observable. 136. 173. 138. 46 Peierls. 32 polar vector. 66. 101 radius four-vector.se/CED/Book Sheet: 259 of 262 . 26. 77. 141 pseudoscalar. 218 postulates.plasma. 4 radial gauge. 20. 41 radiation resistance. 88 position four-vector. 27 postfactor. 42 Poisson’s equation. 122. 227 potential theory. 204 pseudotensors. 148. 89 proper time. 77 radiation gauge. 169 quantum mechanical non-linearity. 183 plasma physics. 217 polarisation charges. 204. 19 potential energy. 40. 205 raising of index. 58 one-dimensional wave equation. 183 relative dielectric permittivity.uu. 88 polarisation vector.

27 tensor. 28. 128 synchrotron radiation lobe width. 41 time-harmonic wave. 206 right-hand circular polarisation. 15 self-force effects. 137 time reversal. 19 rotational degree of freedom.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 28 synchrotron radiation. Abdus. 1. Holger. 89 spherical harmonic.plasma. 149 skin depth.uu. 27 temporal gauge. 134 standing wave. 3. 86 D R A FT . 217 Then. 184 time-like interval. 186. 187 time-independent wave equation. 66 Rohrlich. xviii thermodynamic entropy. 181 shock front. xviii super-potential. 29 special theory of relativity. 136. vi. Johan. 15 signature. 137 spatial Fourier components. 190 time-dependent Poisson’s equation. 178 source equations. Julian Seymour. Bruno. 27. 51 three-dimensional functional derivative. 126 t’Hooft. 137. 138 Riemannian space. 209 tensor product. 40 Riemann-Silberstein vector. 89 spherical waves. 1 total charge. 42 temporal spectral components. 27 temporal Fourier series. 209 tensor notation. 210 standard conﬁguration. 206 scalar product. 140. 188 Sommerfeld. 173 source point. 1. 184 time-independent telegrapher’s equation. 4 source terms. 45 Schwinger. 238 INDEX retarded relative distance. 2 scalar. xviii skew-symmetric. Gerardus. 215 Schrödinger equation. 98. 81 time component. 133. 139 space-time. 12 temporal Fourier components. 202 Strandberg. 21 temporal dispersive media. Sin-Itiro. 50 time-dependent diffusion equation. 65 spin operators. 137 space inversion. Igor’ Evgen’evich. xx Tamburini. 49 space-like interval. 222 scalar ﬁeld. 115 Sjöholm. Fabrizio. 204 tensor ﬁeld. 134 spectral energy density. 125. 84 spherical Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind. 33 Stokes’ theorem. 204. 89 spherical Hankel function of the ﬁrst kind. 28 time-independent diffusion equation. 29 spatial spectral components. 22 Riemannian metric. 85 Salam. xviii Tamm. 98 static net charge. 213 simultaneous coordinate. Fritz. 20 space components. 178 telegrapher’s equation. 107 retarded time. 163 time arrow of radiation. 139 Tomonaga. 107. 188 temporal average.se/CED/Book Sheet: 260 of 262 . 178 SI units. 88 superposition principle. Arnold Johannes Wilhelm. 80 spin angular momentum operator.

34 translational degree of freedom. 178 L Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation. 161 Yukawa meson ﬁeld. 22. 24 D R A FT Yang-Mills theory. 184 vacuum wavelength. 26 wave vector. 136 Wiechert. 204 vector product.uu. Alfred North. Clifford Ambrose. John Archibald. Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand. 217 vector wave equations. 3 Weber. 26 wave polarisation. 220 uncertainty principle. 62 traceless. Mattias. 43 Yngve. 41 Truesdell III. Wilhelm Eduard. Hans Christian. 62 tryad. Steven. 94 total electromagnetic linear momentum. 111 velocity gauge condition.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 94 total mechanical angular momentum. 40 white noise. 181 vacuum permeability. 3 vacuum polarisation effects. 71 Whitehead. 6 vacuum permittivity. 186 Weber’s constant. 2 Weyl gauge. xx Waldenvik. 185 transverse gauge. xviii Young’s modulus. 178 vector.. 220 unit tensor. INDEX 239 total electromagnetic angular momentum. xx wave equation. 25 vector waves. Emil Johann. 56 wave equations. 42 Wheeler. Staffan. 37 unit dyad. 51 uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations. 178 L Vavilov-Cerenkov cone. 3 Weinberg. 140 . 145 unmagnetised plasma. Sergey Ivanovich. Christer. 42 virtual simultaneous coordinate. 82 transversality condition. 107 world line. 174. 22 transverse components. 29. 167 Ørsted. 6 wave number. 38 wave packets. 38 variational principle. 227 Vavilov. 111 von Helmholtz. 176. 4 vacuum wave number. 5 Wahlberg. 26 velocity ﬁeld.se/CED/Book Sheet: 261 of 262 . 220 universal constant.plasma.

uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 262 of 262 .plasma. D R A E L E C T RO M AGNETIC FIELD THEORY ISBN 978-0-486-4773-2 FT .

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