2008

Ceramic Workshop Handbook
Pottery Tools and Studio Reference

Brought to you by the publishers of
1 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

2008
Workshop Handbook
Publisher: Charles Spahr Editors: Bill Jones, Pottery Making Illustrated Sherman Hall, Ceramics Monthly Assistant Editors: Brandy Agnew, Jessica Knapp Production Editor: Cynthia Conklin Editorial Assistant: Holly Goring Advertising Manager: Mona Thiel Marketing Manager: Steve Hecker Online Editor: Jennifer Poellot Harnetty Editorial and Advertising Offices: 600 N. Cleveland Ave., Suite 210, Westerville, OH 43082 USA
2008 Workshop Handbook is published by the American Ceramic Society, 600 N. Cleveland Ave., Suite 210, Westerville, OH 43082. Opinions expressed are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect those of the editors or the American Ceramic Society. Photocopies: Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use beyond the limits of Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law is granted by The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0009-0328, provided that the appropriate fee is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers, MA 01923, USA; (978) 750-8400; www.copyright.com. Prior to photocopying items for classroom use, please contact Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. This consent does not extend to copying items for general distribution, or for advertising or promotional purposes, or to republishing items in whole or in part in any work in any format. Please direct republication or special copying permission requests to the Publisher, The American Ceramic Society, 600 N. Cleveland Ave., Suite 210, Westerville, Ohio 43082. Copyright © 2008 The American Ceramic Society All rights reserved

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Welcome
Often, in addition to heaps of inspiration and new-found motivation, what we take away from workshops are the little tips or techniques we never considered. Sometimes just one small improvement or one new idea we take away can be enough to justify the entire experience. We have handouts from instructor’s we keep around our studio sometimes for years, and we refer to them often. There is only so much a presenter can fit into a workshop, and there is only so much information our brains can process and retain in a short period of time. Since most workshops span anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks, the extended experimentation and exploration usually happens afterward, in your own studio. It’s our hope that this publication serves not only as a reminder of your intensive workshop experience, but also as a spark to ignite interest in other avenues of exploration. The tools and reference material offered here are accessible enough to be applicable to all kinds of work, regardless of your current skill level or experience, and they’re refined enough so that they may promote experimentation or discussion at your current workshop. Finding a new way of looking at what we do is part of why workshops can be so productive. Perhaps just a new way of looking at a familiar process is what we need to kick start our efforts in the studio. We hope that you’ll find some inspiration in these pages that opens your eyes, your mind and your hands to something new and exciting. Welcome to your workshop! Sherman Hall Bill Jones

Contents
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Whether you want to slip cast, press mold or just make a drying bat, mixing plaster correctly will make the difference between success and—well something less than success. Ingenious gadgets and techniques to make studio life easier and maybe a little more interesting. A popular time saver, this handy tool is indispensable for sectioning the surface of a pot. Unless you use no color whatsoever in your work, you’ll want to keep this one handy on glaze testing day. Simple items you can make that will let you spend less time preparing and more time decorating your work. What happens in a kiln, and when does it happen, and why do you care? Look no further for the answers. If you’re going to bother to spend the energy and hours making your work, you should spend the energy to learn how to fire it properly. There is always something we can do to improve our work at every stage of making—and firing is no exception. The most basic of our materials can sometimes be overlooked. Be sure you are using the right clay for the right job. So you need to reformulate a glaze recipe you haven’t looked at in years. Here’s a handy guide to remind you of what does what.

Perfect Plaster by Vince Pitelka

8 14 16 22 26 28

Clay Tools: Forming

Dividing Web by Sylvia Shirley

Colorant Chart by Robin Hopper Clay Tools: Decoration Kiln Firing Chart

Using Cones by Tim Frederich

30 32 34

Clay Tools: Firing Choosing a Clay

Primary Functions of Raw Materials

36

Don’t lose this list! It has anything and everything you need to locate tools, equipment and supplies for the studio.

Manufacturers and Suppliers

cover images:

2008

Ceramic Workshop Handbook
Pottery Tools and Studio Reference

Brought to you by the publishers of

top: Participants at the Metchosin International Summer School of Art in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. middle (left to right): Processing native clay for handbuilding at Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado; a participant at Hummingbird in Jacksonville, Oregon; Steven Hill demonstrates slip application at Springfield Museum of Art in Springfield, Ohio; Brian Taylor throwing at Haystack Mountain School of Crafts in Deer Isle, Maine. bottom: Ted Saupe details a piece at Santa Fe Clay in New Mexico.

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Perfect Plaster
hether you need a drying bat, a simple hump mold, or you’re making a complex slip mold, you’ll need to mix plaster. Getting the plaster right requires a bit more than just “dumping and mixing.” Here are ten ways to get the best results for your next plaster project.

by Vince Pitelka

W

WATER TO PlASTER Mixing ChART 1 quart. . . . . 2 lbs. 14 oz. (1,293 grams) 1Z\x quarts . . . 4 lbs. 4 oz. (1,937 grams) 2 quarts . . . . 5 lbs. 11 oz. (2,585 grams) 2Z\x quarts . . . 7 lbs. 2 oz. (3,230 grams) 3 quarts . . . . . 8 lbs. 9 oz. (3,878 grams) 3Z\x quarts . . . . . . . 10 lbs. (4,522 grams) 1 gallon . . . . 11 lbs. 6 oz. (5,171 grams) 1Z\x gallons . . 17 lbs. 2 oz. (7,756 grams) 2 gallons . . . 22 lbs. 13 oz. (10,337 grams) 2Z\x gallons . 28 lbs. 8 oz. (12,923 grams) 3 gallons . . 34 lbs. 3 oz. (15,508 grams)
This table is based on USG® No. 1 Pottery Plaster mixed to a consistency of 73 (73 parts plaster to 100 parts water) recommended for most studio applications. Excessive water yields a more porous but more brittle mold, and less water means a very dense, hard mold that will not absorb water.

Prepare Your Mold

A common mistake of potters is to mix plaster only to realize everything’s not set up for pouring. Before casting, make sure your model is set, the mold boards or cottle are secure, and all the surfaces you’re pouring onto are coated with a parting agent such as mold soap. You will need a clean mixing container for the plaster, a scale for weighing the plaster, a measuring cup for the water and a rinse bucket. Note: Plaster cannot be permitted to go down the drain, because it will form a rocklike mass. Even small amounts will accumulate over time. Line a rinse bucket with a plastic garbage bag and fill it with water for rinsing your hands and tools. Allow the plaster to settle for a day, then pour off the water and discard the bag. The mixing water you use should be at room temperature or 70°F. If the water is too warm, the plaster will set too fast and vice versa. Use only clean, drinkable tap water or distilled water. Metallic salts, such as aluminum sulfate, can accelerate the setting time, and soluble salts can cause efflorescence on the mold surface. Plaster is calcined, meaning chemically bound water has been driven off through heating. If the plaster has been sitting around in a damp environment, it will have lumps in it, in which case it is no longer usable. Pitch it. Use plaster that has been stored dry and is lump free. Do not guess about the amounts of plaster and water you’ll need. Once you start the mixing process, you do not want to go back and adjust quantities. To determine the amount you need, estimate the volume in cubic inches then divide by 231 for gallons, or by 58 for quarts. Deduct 20% to allow for the volume of plaster, then refer to the table.

Prepare Your Work Area

surrounded by water and it removes air from the mix. Small batches require less soaking than large batches. If the soaking time is too short, it may contribute to pinholes; and if it is too long, it will contribute to fast set times, early stiffening and gritty mold surfaces.

Use Fresh Water

Mix The Plaster

Use Fresh Plaster

Small batches of plaster can be mixed by hand. Use a constant motion with your hand and you will notice a change in consistency from watery to a thick cream. Break down lumps with your fingers as you mix. Mix only for a minute or two being very careful not to agitate the mixture so much that air bubbles are incorporated into the mix. Mixing time affects absorption rates—longer mixing times produce tighter and less-absorptive molds. After mixing, tap the bucket on a hard surface to release trapped air. Pour the plaster carefully. Wherever possible, pour plaster carefuly into the deepest area so the slurry flows evenly across the surface of the mold. Once the mold is poured, tap the table with a rubber mallet to vibrate the mold and release more air bubbles.

Pouring The Plaster

Weigh Out Materials

When plaster sets, it heats up because of a chemical reaction. When it has cooled, it is safe to remove the cottles or forms—about 45 minutes to an hour after pouring. Molds must be dry before use. Drying molds properly promotes good strength development, uniform absorption and reduced efflorescence. Dry molds Add Plaster To Water evenly. Don’t set them near a kiln where one side is Slowly sift the plaster onto the surface of the water. exposed to excessive heat or the relative humidity is Do not dump the plaster or toss it in by handfuls. Adding near zero. Place them on racks in a relatively dry locathe plaster shouldn’t take more than 3 minutes. tion away from drafts.

Drying Plaster

Soak The Plaster

Allow the plaster to soak for 1–2 minutes maximum. The soaking allows each plaster crystal to be completely
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Sources: United States Gypsum (USG) Company and Clay: A Studio Handbook, by Vince Pitelka, published by The American Ceramic Society, 2001.

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Clay Tools: Forming
Squeeze and Score
With a little squeeze, this tool automatically supplies water to the clay you are scoring to make attachments. To make it, you will need an empty glue bottle and a piece of coat hanger or heavy wire that is 1 inch longer than the height of the bottle and slightly larger in diameter than the hole in the cap. Sharpen one end of the wire with a file or grinder and insert it through the hole in the cap. You will need to cut off the stopper inside the cap first. Bend the blunt end of the wire at a 90° angle so it rests against the bottom of the bottle (this will provide stability when scoring). Fill the bottle with water and squeeze. Drops of water will run down to the tip of the wire wetting the clay that you are scoring. If water does not squeeze out, just move the wire left and right to make the hole bigger and try again. —Paveen Chunhaswasdikul, Gadsden, Alabama After the clay is removed, the shavings underneath dry out and are ready for the next batch. I use a clean canvas for each clay type, especially the white ones, to avoid contamination of color or texture. A note indicating clay type is taped to each bucket, then moved with the clay as it dries so I always know what clay I’m working with. I hose off the canvas outside over a bush or under a thirsty tree. That keeps our plumbing free of clay. The wood shavings go on the compost pile. —Heather Bartmann, Fort Collins, Colorado

Don’t Sweat the Drying
I am a part-time teacher and ceramics artist, and part-time homemaker (or as I like to think, “domestic goddess”). Sometimes when I have the time to work and need to trim, but my pots aren’t dry enough, I will set them on the sweater shelf of my

household Clay Drying
During my first year of pottery classes, I found myself trying a number of the available clays to learn of their traits and qualities. I saved my scraps and kept them in separate buckets of water at home. I don’t have a plaster surface to dry out the recycled clays, so I improvised. Pictured is a plastic sweater storage box with wood shavings in the bottom. To keep the shavings in place I use an old retired dish towel, or pieces of old sheets. On top of that I have a piece of canvas to contain the wet clay. That makes it very simple to lift the clay and roll it up when it’s ready to be bagged for future use. If the clay is getting ready to bag and I do not have time to deal with it just then, I simply put the lid on the box for a day or two.

clothes dryer and allow the warm air to circulate around the pots until they are leather hard. This usually only takes 10–15 minutes and works perfectly! It results in nice, even drying, and the only limitation is the size of your dryer. I’ve shared this tip with several potters and they all love it. Most dryers now come with these shelves (mine is fifteen years old!). Hope it helps others with home studios. —Peggy Breidenbach, Indianapolis, Indiana

Quick-Change Artist
For throwing mugs and small bowls, I use a quick-change bat system. To make one, you need one square plastic bat that attaches to your wheel head with bat pins, PVC molding from the hardware store, PVC cement, and some commercial 6-inch-square terracotta tiles. Cut the PVC molding into two 5-inch lengths and two 4¼-inch lengths. Place one of the terra-cotta tiles in the center of the plastic bat and dry-fit the PVC molding around it, leaving two corners open to make it easy to remove the tiles. Glue down the molding with the cement and let it dry. Remove the tile from the assembly while it dries or you won’t get it out later. Once it’s dry, mount the plastic bat on your bat pins, insert a terra-cotta tile and throw your pot. You can quickly remove the tile and insert a fresh
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Clay Tools: Forming Sponge Brush
For making a spongeon-a-stick, I use one of those 3-inch-diameter round yellow sponges. I cut off about 1 inch on opposite edges and glue an old paint brush into the center of the remaining sponge using Superglue. This gives the sponge long, sharp edges that reach all the way into the corner of a pot. The two pieces that are cut away are excellent for fettling excess glaze from the bottoms of pots and smoothing rims. Since they are triangular at their ends, they can easily get into tight corners. —Eugene Prial, Westfield, New Jersey
center section of sponge

one for your next pot. A terra-cotta tile costs about 30 cents, so it makes a really cheap bat. —Sylvia Shirley, Pittsburg, Kansas

leftover sections

height and Comfort
The splash pan that came with my wonderful new wheel was a little short for the thick bats I use for large platters. This created a lot of problems with slip and trimmings splashing everywhere. Out of frustration came this answer to my problems: I cut a piece of I-inch foam pipe insulation (the kind with a slit all the way down the length) and a piece of H-inch clear vinyl tubvinyl pipe ing to fit the circumfertubing insulation ence of the splash pan. I inserted the tubing into the insulation foam and splash pan placed it on top of the splash pan rim, working it down gently onto the rim, making sure the vinyl tubing stayed on top of the rim. I taped the two ends of the foam insulation tightly together with duct tape. This ring can be removed and replaced when extra height is needed, and it also provides a good deal of cushion for your arms when throwing. —Ann Krestensen, Bozman, Maryland
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Make a name for Yourself
Having not yet come up with a good, clean way to sign my pots, I decided to try to make a signature stamp. Using a broadtipped marker, I signed my name on plastic wrap, flipped the plastic wrap over to the reverse side and traced the outside lines of my signature onto a pad of clay with a needle tool. After letting the clay dry until just before leather hard, I carved away the excess clay with small tools and, voila, the signature appears in relief. Create an embossed signature using the same plastic wrap but this time use a dull pencil to impress and don’t carve. —Gini James, Silver Spring, Maryland

Clay Tools: Forming
Since then, I use the Fun Factory for making various shapes, small handles as well as coils. I purchased a flat plastic Remove fluorescent light cover this part. from a local hardware store and make my own dies to fit into the Fun Factory for additional shapes and designs. I use it with stoneware and porcelain, and it handles each with ease. The tool has only two parts, which snap apart for easy cleaning—much easier than using and cleaning Extrude an extruder for a small task. You could donate the Play-Doh that comes with the item to your favorite tot and everyone wins! Anywhere In order to make an —Rick Erickson, Green Bay, Virginia Add this part and extruder portable (those of attach your extruder us who have limited studio at the proper height. space need to make all sorts Sphere Perfection To make a hollow clay ball perfectly smooth and spherical, it must be of things portable), purchase closed so the air can’t escape, but it does not have to look good at first. an adjustable roller stand and a piece of steel tubing After you pinch or throw the ball, rotate it on a table until it is reasonably the same size in cross-section as the adjustable tube. Mine is 5 feet long, round. Now you need a rigid plastic hemisphere. I bought a clear plastic and that seems to be plenty tall enough. Drill holes in this piece of steel sphere made of two halves that come apart (used to hold ornaments) at a tube to correspond to your extruder’s mounting holes and attach it. crafts-supply store. You can also use a bowl, but it must be perfectly round and smooth inside—no bottom. The diameter of the bowl should be at That’s really all there is to it! The adjustable roller stand is designed to be used with woodworking least twice as much as the desired ball. Put your clay ball in the bowl and equipment like a tablesaw or planer, so it can be found at most places swirl it around. In a few seconds, you will have a very smooth ball, perfect for creating all kinds of fruits and vegetables. that sell woodworking power tools. — Talli Barr, Nahalal, Israel —Fujie Robesky, Fresno, California

Temporary Template
I have found that rigid foam-core board, used by artists and framers, is a handy material for creating templates for repeated shapes to be thrown on the wheel. It can be easily cut with a single-edge blade or a mat knife, and it can be sanded smooth. Since it is paper on both sides, it must be made waterproof, and emulsion wax resist works great. Do not use an acrylic spray, because it will melt the foam in the core. I have used these templates for as many as 25 duplicate forms. They can be used for interior as well as exterior shapes. —Robert Brown, Miami, Florida

Rolling Away
Use discarded casters or bed-frame rollers as clay rollers. Even new ones will work, and they are not that expensive. Drill a hole the same diameter as the caster stem into a piece of wooden dowel to create a handle. Caster posts can be glued into this hole if they are loose. The surface of some of the softer wheels can be carved with designs. — Charley Farrero, Meacham, Saskatchewan, Canada
Drill a hole in the handle that is the same diameter as the caster post.

The rolling surface of the wheels can be carved.

Serious Play
A tool that has become an indispensable part of my studio, and that of several friends, is a simple, economical childs toy. My wife was watching me work in my studio while I was handbuilding a small piece, attempting to roll out a small coil to caulk a clay joint. She mentioned that I should use my daughter’s Play-Doh Fun Factory to form the coil. How simple.
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Dividing Web

by Sylvia Shirley

This handy guide makes it easy to divide the surface of any round pot into as many as twelve equal sections. Whether your decorating, darting, paddling or attaching handles and spouts, you’ll want to keep a few of these around the studio.

Making the Web

Use a photocopier to enlarge this wheel to the desired size. Attach it to a wheel head-sized circle of cardboard. Cover with plastic wrap or have it laminated at an office supply store.
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Dividing Web

The Pointer

The pointer helps you transfer marks from the dividing web to the pot. Make sure the bottom of the pointer is square and the front side is perpendicular.

Using the Dividing Web

Center a pot on the wheel. Draw circles on the pot using a red felt-tip pen. Align the pointer with the selected line and position the Popsicle sticks to to pot. Tighten the wing nuts. Make a tic mark at the end of the Popsicle stick using the red felt pen. Move the pointer to the next position and repeat.

ideas to get Started

Accurately marking off divisions on your form opens up a world of potential design work. Once the desired number of marks are made, decorate as desired, using sgrafitto, trailed slip, brushed oxides, etc.

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Colorant Chart
by Robin Hopper

COLORANT Dark Red Copper

CONE ATMOS.

%

COMMENTS

Vary

Red. 0.5%-5% Best in glazes containing less than 10% clay content, and a high alkaline content. Needs good reduction. In low temperatures it can be reduced during cooling. Good reds as low as Cone 018. Both 5%-10% Good in many glaze bases at all temperatures. Can be improved with the addition of 2%-5% tin oxide. Ox. 5%-8% Use in barium-saturated glazes.

Iron

Vary 4-10

T

he potter’s palette can be just as broad as the painter’s. Different techniques can be closely equated to working in any of the two-dimensional media, such as pencil, pen and ink, pastel, watercolor, oils, encaustics or acrylics. We also have an advantage in that the fired clay object is permanent, unless disposed of with a blunt instrument! Our works may live for thousands of years-a sobering thought. Because a number of colors can only be achieved at low temperatures, you need a series of layering techniques in order to have the fired strength of stoneware or porcelain and the full palette range of the painter. To accomplish this, low-temperature glazes or overglazes are made to adhere to a higher-fired glazed surface, and can be superimposed over already existing decoration. To gain the full measure of color, one has to fire progressively down the temperature range so as not to burn out heat-sensitive colors that can’t be achieved any other way. Usually the lowest and last firing is for precious metals: platinum, palladium and gold. Ceramists looking for difficult-to-achieve colors might want to consider prepared stains, particularly in the yellow, violet and purple ranges. These colors are often quite a problem with standard minerals, be they in the form of oxides, carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, chlorides or even the basic metal itself. The chart should help pinpoint mineral choices for desired colors (note that the color bars are for guidance only and not representative of the actual colors—Ed.). Colors are listed with the minerals needed to obtain them, approximate temperatures, atmosphere, saturation percentage needed, and comments on enhancing/inhibiting factors. Because of the widely variable nature of ceramic color, there are many generalities here. Where the word “vary” occurs in the column under Cone, it signifies that the intended results could be expected most of the time at various points up to Cone 10.

Nickel Burgundy Iron Copper

See Dark Red, Iron. See Dark Red, Copper. Owing to the unstable nature of copper, this colorant can produce a wide range of results. Very controlled reduction firing and cooling are important.

Maroon Chrome-Tin Stains Copper Crimson Copper + Titanium 8-10 Red. 1%-5% Try various blends of copper (1%-5%) and titanium (2%-5%). 0.5-5% Best with special frits. Vary Vary Ox. 1%-5% Use in glazes with calcium. There should be no zinc in the glaze.

Red. 0.5%-5% Best in high alkaline glazes.

Calcium-Selenium Stains 010-05 Ox.

Indian Red Iron Vary Both 5%-10% Best in high calcium glazes; small amount of bone ash helps. Tin addition up to 5% also helps. Also works well in ash glazes.

Brick Red Iron Orange-Brown Iron + Rutile Iron + Tin Orange-Red Cadmium012-05 Ox. Selenium Stains Orange Iron Rutile Copper Orange-Yellow Iron Rutile Yellow Ocher Iron Iron + Tin Iron + Rutile Vary Vary Vary Both 1%-10% Use in high barium, strontium or zinc glazes. Ox. 1%-5% Various mixtures (up to 3.5% iron and 1.5% tin) in many glaze bases. Vary Vary Both 2%-5% With tin or titanium opacified glazes. Ox. 1%-10% Best with alkaline glazes. Vary Vary 8-10 Both 1%-5% Use in tin or titanium opacified glazes. Both 5%-15% Many glaze types, particularly alkaline. More successful in oxidation. Both 1%-3% Use in high alumina or magnesia glazes. Addition of up to 5% rutile sometimes helps. 1%-4% Best with special frits such as Ferro 3548 or 3278 or both. Helps to opacify with zirconium. Vary Vary Both 1%-10% Various mixtures (up to 8% iron and 2% rutile) in most glaze bases. Both 1%-5% Various mixtures (up to 4% iron and 1% tin) in most glaze bases. Creamier than iron with rutile. Vary Both 5%-10% Similar to Indian Red. Tin to 2% helps.

Red to Orange

For the hot side of the spectrum—red, orange, and yellow—there are many commercial body and glaze stains, in addition to the usual mineral colorants. Minerals that give reds, oranges and yellows are copper, iron, nickel, chromium, uranium, cadmium-selenium, rutile, antimony, vanadium, and praseodymium. Variations in glaze makeup, temperature and atmosphere profoundly affect this particular color range. The only materials which produce red at high temperature are copper, iron and nickel—usually muted. Reds in the scarlet to vermilion range can only be achieved at low temperatures.

Both 1%-5% Various mixtures (up to 2.5% iron and 2.5% rutile) in many glaze bases. Ox. 5%-10%Various mixtures in many Zirconium Stain glaze bases.

VanadiumVary Zirconian Stains Lemon Yellow Praseodymium Stains Vary Pale/Cream Yellow Iron + Tin Vary

Both 1%-10% Good in most glazes. Best in oxidation.

Both 2%-5% Various mixtures (up to 3.5% iron and 1.5% tin) in high barium, strontium or zinc glazes. Titanium opacification helps. Both 2%-5% Use in tin-opacified glazes. Ox. 2%-5% Various mixtures (up to 2.5% iron and 2% tin) in variety of glaze bases. Titanium opacification helps.

Vanadium Rutile + Tin

Vary Vary

Note: Colors bars are for visual reference only, and do not represent actual colors.

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Colorant Chart Yellow-green to navy Blue
The cool side of the glaze spectrum (from yellowgreen to navy blue) is considerably easier, both to produce and work with, than the warm. In the main, colorants that control this range create far fewer problems than almost any of the red, orange and yellow range. Some are temperature and atmosphere sensitive, but that’s nothing compared to the idiosyncrasies possible with warm colors.
COLORANT Yellow Green Copper + Rutile Vary Both 2%-10% Various mixtures in a wide variety of glazes, particularly those high in alkaline materials. Almost any yellow glaze to which copper is added will produce yellow green. Both 0.5%-3% In yellow glazes without tin or zinc. Ox. 0.25%-1% In saturated barium glazes. 0-2% 0-1% In high alkaline glazes with no tin. In any yellow glazes. CONE ATMOS. % COMMENTS

The colorants known for creating cool hues are copper, chromium, nickel, cobalt, iron and sometimes molybdenum. For variations, some are modified by titanium, rutile, manganese or black stains. The usual three variables of glaze makeup, temperature and atmosphere still control the outcome, though it is less obvious in this range.

COLORANT Turquoise Copper

CONE ATMOS.

%

COMMENTS

Vary

Ox. 1%-10% In high alkaline and barium glazes. Bluish with no clay content; tends toward greenish tint with added clay. Both 1%-5% In high alkaline and barium glazes. Ox. 1%-10% In high alkaline and barium glazes; usually opaque.

Chromium Chromium Chromium Cobalt Light Green Copper Cobalt Apple Green Chromium

Vary 4-8

Copper + Rutile Copper + Tin Light Blue Nickel Rutile

Vary Vary

018-015 Ox. Vary Both

Vary Vary Vary

Ox.

1%-2% In high zinc or barium glazes.

Vary Vary

Ox. Both

0-2.5% In various glazes except those high in barium or magnesium. Best in glazes opacified with tin or titanium. 0-2% In glazes opacified with titanium, or containing rutile.

Red. 1%-5% In a wide range of glazes; best with low (10% or less) clay content. Both 0.25%-1% Use in most glazes, particularly those opacified with tin. Also use mixed with small amounts of iron.

Cobalt Celadon Blue

Vary

Both

0-2%

In various glazes without zinc or tin. Good in alkaline glazes with zirconium opacifiers. Also use potassium dichromate.

Iron Wedgewood Blue Cobalt + Iron

6-10

Red. 0.25%-1% In high alkaline or calcium clear glazes. Black iron is generally preferable to red iron.

Copper Celadon Green Iron Copper Grass Green Copper Chromium Olive Green Nickel Iron Hooker’s Green Copper + Cobalt Cobalt + Chrome Green Chromium Dark Green Copper Vary Vary Vary Ox. Vary Vary 010-2 Ox. Vary Vary

1%-2% See Light Green; use in non-opacified glazes.

Vary

Both 0.5%-2% In most glazes; small amounts of cobalt with iron, manganese or nickel yield soft blues. Added tin gives pastel blue. Both 0.5%-2% Both 0.5%-2% Both 0.5%-3% In high zinc glazes. Ox. 1%-3% In high barium/zinc glazes; likely to be crystalline.

Red 0.5%-2% Best with high sodium, calcium or potassium glazes. Do not use with zinc glazes. Ox. 0.5%-2% Good in a wide range of glazes.

Cobalt + Manganese Vary Cobalt + Nickel Cobalt Vary 4-10 4-10

1%-5% In high lead glazes; sometimes with boron. 1%-2% In high alkaline glazes.

Nickel Blue Gray Nickel

018-04 Ox.

Vary Vary

Ox. 0.5%-5% In high barium/zinc glazes. Red. 2%-5% In a wide variety of glazes, particularly high alumina or magnesia recipes. Both 0.5%-2% In most opaque glazes. Ox. 0.5%-5% In high zinc glazes.

Both 1%-5% In high magnesia glazes; matt to shiny olive green. Red. 3%-5% In high calcium and alkalines, usually clear glazes.

Rutile

Cobalt + Manganese Vary Cobalt Vary

2%-5% In a wide variety of glaze bases.

Ultramarine Cobalt Cerulean Blue Vary Both 0.5%-5% In high barium, colemanite and calcium glazes; no zinc, magnesium or opacification.

Both 2%-5% In a wide variety of glaze Chromiumbases: no zinc or tin. Good opacified with zirconium or titanium.

06-12 Both 2%-5% In most glazes; no zinc or tin.

Cobalt Cobalt + Chromium

Vary Vary

Both 0.5%-5% In glazes containing cryolite of fluorspar. Both 2%-5% In most glazes except those containing zinc or tin.

Ox. 5%-10% Many glaze bases, particularly high barium, strontium, zinc or alkaline with a minimum of 10% kaolin. Both 5%-10% Blends of these colorants will give a wide range of dark greens. Both 5%-10% Dark greens with blue overtones.

Prussian Blue Nickel 6-10 Ox. 5%-10% In high barium/zinc glazes. Both 5%-10% In most glaze bases. Both 5%-10% In most glazes; for example, cobalt 2%, chromium 2% and manganese 2%.

Cobalt + Chromium Cobalt + Rutile Teal Blue Cobalt + Rutile Cobalt + Chromium

Vary Vary

Cobalt + Manganese Vary Cobalt + Manganese Vary Navy Blue

Vary Vary

Both 1%-5% In a wide variety of glazes. Both 1%-5% In most glazes without tin or zinc.

Cobalt

Vary

Both 5%-10% In most glazes except those high in zinc, barium or magnesium.

Note: Colors bars are for visual reference only, and do not represent actual colors. 11 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

COLORANT

CONE ATMOS. Vary

%

COMMENTS

Colorant Chart indigo to Purple

Indigo Nickel Ox. 8%-15% Use in high barium/zinc glazes. Also likely to crystallize. Both 5%-10% Various mixtures in most glazes. Both 5%-8% Various mixtures in most glazes.

Cobalt + Manganese Vary Cobalt + Black Stain Violet Cobalt Nickel Manganese Copper Purple Copper Copper Nickel Cobalt Manganese Iron Copper + Cobalt 6-10 8-10 Vary Vary 04-10 8-10 Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary

The indigo-to-purple part of the color wheel is small but significant. The colorants that produce this range are nickel, cobalt, manganese, umber, iron, chromium, rutile ilmenite, copper, iron chromate, and black stains. In short, one could say that the colorants needed include just about the whole group that are used for all the other colors in the spectrum. The only ones I haven’t talked about previously in this articles series are umber, ilmenite, iron chromate and black stains. Black stains Formulated from a variable mixture of other colorants, black stains are usually rather expensive due to their being saturations of colorant materials. Various companies produce black stains usually from a combination of iron, cobalt, chromium, manganese, iron chromate and sometimes nickel mixed with fillers and fluxes such as clay, feldspar and silica. I use the following recipe:
BlACK STAin Chromium Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 % Cobalt Carbonate or Oxide . . . . . . . . 20 Manganese Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Red Iron Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Feldspar (any) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Kaolin (any) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Flint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 100 %

Both 5%-10% In high magnesium glazes. Ox. 1%-10% In some saturated-barium glazes. Both 5%-10% In high alkaline glazes. Ox. 8%-10% In some saturated-barium glazes.

Both 8%-10% In high barium and barium/zinc glazes. Red. 1%-5% In copper red glazes opacified with titanium. Ox. 5%-10% In some high barium glazes. Both 5%-10% In high magnesium glazes. Ox. 5%-10% In high alkaline and barium glazes. Red. 8%-10% In high calcium glazes; likely to crystallize. Red. 2%-8% Various mixtures in many glazes. Ox. 2%-8% Various mixtures in many glazes.

Chrome + Tin + Cobalt Vary Mauve or Lilac Cobalt Nickel Pink Cobalt Copper Copper Copper Chromium Iron Rutile Nickel Manganese Brown Iron Manganese Nickel Chromium Umber Ilmenite Rutile Gray Iron Iron Chromate Nickel Copper Cobalt + Nickel Vary Vary Vary 8-10 Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary 6-10 8-10 Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary

Both 1%-5% In high magnesium glazes. Ox. 1%-5% In some saturated-barium glazes.

Ox.

1%-3% In high magnesium glazes opacified with tin. Also in very low alumina content glazes.

Red. 0.2%-2% In copper red glazes with titanium. Ox. 0.2%-3% In high magnesium or high alumina glazes. Red. 5%-10% In copper red glazes opacified w/min. 5% titanium. Ox. Ox. 1%-2% In calcium glazes opacified with 5%-10% tin. 1%-5% In calcium glazes opacified with tin.

This mixture is best ball-milled for a minimum of four hours to limit its tendency toward cobalt specking, and to make sure that the colorants are thoroughly mixed. Because any black stain is a very concentrated mixture, only small amounts are normally needed to cause a strong effect. In a clear glaze, a maximum of 5% should produce an intense black. In opaque glazes, more stain than that may be needed. Black stains and white opacifiers mixed together will produce a range of opaque grays. Stains, like other ceramic materials, are subject to the three variables of glaze makeup, temperature and atmosphere. Outside the color wheel one finds tones of brown, gray and black. These moderate other colors. A color wheel could, I suppose, include the range of opacifiers since they also have a strong role in affecting color. The toning influence of brown, gray and black is just as much opacifying in result as are the white opacifiers such as tin, titanium and zirconium compounds such as Zircopax, Opax, Superpax, and Ultrox. Slight additional increments of any of these colors will render most glazes, colored or not, progressively darker as they are added.
Excerpted from Glazes: Materials, Recipes and Techniques. For the full text and complete explanation of these colorant charts, refer to Robin Hopper’s book, The Ceramic Spectrum: A Simplified Approach to Glaze and Color Development, Krause Publications, 2001.
Note: Colors bars are for visual reference only, and do not represent actual colors. 12 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

Both 5%-10% In high calcium and some ash glazes. 1%-3% In high barium glazes with some zinc.

018-010 Ox. Vary

Both 1%-5% In alkaline glazes opacified with tin or titanium. Also in high alumina glazes.

Both 3%-10% In most glazes. Both 2%-10% In most glazes. Both 2%-5% In high boron, calcium and lead glazes. Both 2%-5% In high zinc glazes. Both 2%-10% In most glazes. Both 2%-10% In most glazes. High calcium may yield bluish tint. Both 5%-10% In most glazes; golden brown.

Red. 2%-4% In many glaze bases; gray brown. Both 2%-5% In most glaze bases without zinc or tin. Both 2%-5% In most glaze bases; gray brown. Both 3%-10% In high magnesium glazes. Warm gray in reduction; cold gray in oxidation. Both 1%-5% Blue gray in most glazes. Both 1%-5% Blue gray to purple gray in most glazes. Both 1%-5% Shades of gray in most opacified glazes.

Cobalt + Manganese Vary Black Stain Black Iron Copper Cobalt Black Stain Vary Vary Vary Vary Vary

Both 8%-12% In high calcium glazes—the temmoku range. Both 8%-10% In a wide range of glazes. Both 8%-10% Blue black in most glazes except those high in zinc and magnesium. Both 3%-10% In most zinc-free, nonopacified glazes.

Clay Tools: Decoration
Pinning Parallel lines
I became frustrated by not being able to draw parallel lines in curves or arcs on my work when it is leather hard. If I tried to draw the lines separately, it would never work, and even if I held two tools at once, one would always wander. I found that a clothespin actually performs this task wonderfully. I sharpen the ends you use as a handle (if you were actually using it as a clothespin) and use these points to draw the lines. They are held at a consistent distance apart, and are infinitely adjustable between open and closed. To adjust the space between the points, I put various small cylindrical objects in the groove of the “mouth” of the pin (pen caps, pencils, dowels). The larger the object in the mouth, the closer the lines become. This tool has become a staple in our studio. —Ken Magee, Talahassee, Florida. This process has several advantages over wax. It is cleaner, safer and cheaper than waxing. It is reversible; if you screw up your glaze job, you simply let the piece dry out and in a few hours you can try again. It works better for heavy iron glazes. It is easier to wipe the glaze off of saturated bisque than wax. —Anthony Merino, San Marcos, Texas

Spray Masking
I spray a lot of my glazes and stains, and I do a lot of masking. The best thing I have found to keep this spray off a particular part of a pot is open-cell foam. I use pieces that are slightly thicker than those that come in Or-ton cone boxes (although those work pretty well). I hold the foam with my left hand and can get a straight or curved line. Also, the foam catches drips when I’m spraying up close. It can then be rinsed out and reused. —Diana Pittis, Daniels, West Virginia

Mini Blunger
I am pretty lazy about blunging, and because of an arthritic condition, stirring little batches of cementhard slip becomes quite wearisome very quickly. I recently found a wonderful device to help me do this: an immersion blender—one of those handy-dandy drink mixers that has a wee, tiny little blade very handy, very fast, and generates a tre- very sharp! mendous amount of agitation while turning fruit into puréed smoothies. It only costs about $10. It’s easy to clean and thoroughly works over the most gloppy, dried-out glazes and slips. Just add some water to the dried slip or glaze and whiz away! The device draws quite a suction on the bottom of a container, so be advised that a sturdy container is necessary. And the tiny blades are very sharp, so be careful! To clean the device, simply place the stirring mechanism into a container of clean water and whiz away! Any residual glaze or slip can be wiped off with a damp sponge. What used to take me twenty minutes now takes about three minutes. Happy blunging! —Lisa Reiser, Greenwich, New Jersey

Fixing Finger Fatigue
I recently attended a wonderful clay workshop focused on the sgraffito process of decoration. Because this involves very controlled carving, at the end of the day everyone was complaining about finger strain and calluses, especially as the clay surfaces gradually dried, making it more difficult to carve. I have made a comfortable device that will ease finger fatigue and calluses: I slip a 1H-inch plastic straw over a tool, with H inch of the blade sticking out. I then slip a pencil grip over the straw. The straw supports the grip beyond the handle, so your fingers are closer to the working tip. —Ellen Kong, Durham, North Carolina

Turning Water into Wax

Try using water instead of wax as a resist when glazing. Simply set out a tray with about G to H inch of water in it. Set your piece in the water for at least two minutes. Glaze sticks to bisque primarMini Tongs ily because the water in the glaze gets absorbed into the piece. If the When space is limited, a pair of staple removers make great bisque ware is already saturated with water, the glaze will not stick. miniature glaze-dipping tongs. They fit inside the palms of your It can simply be wiped off with a wet sponge.
13 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

Clay Tools: Decoration
hands, so they can be more easily maneuvered in a glaze bucket than regular-sized dipping tongs. Don’t forget to round off the sharp teeth with a file so they won’t scratch your bisqueware. —Paveen Chunhaswasdikul, Gadsden, Alabama pipe), which provide a rigid backing when applying a texture to the slabs. A piece of newspaper placed between the form and the clay will prevent sticking when removing the support. Stamps also can be made by throwing a cylindrical or conical form. The center spout is pulled up first, then the outer wall is then raised to form the working surface of the stamp, which will be carved when leather hard. Make sure that the outer surface is perpendicular to the wheel head. An extruder can also produce tubular shapes for rolling stamps. Just cap the ends with slabs, leaving small holes in the center to allow dowels to be used as handles. Interesting surfaces can be obtained by cutting the cylinders into sections and reassembling the parts into different positions. After bisque firing, simply roll the stamps over the surface of the clay with the palm of the hand while varying the pressure to correspond to the width of the stamp. The rolling stamp is ideal for quickly decorating a platter rim. The stamp, held rigidly in a fixed position, quickly prints out the repeated pattern as the wheel spins. Lifting at the right moment can be tricky, but a little practice is all you need. —William Shinn, Santa Maria, CA

Points have been filed to avoid scratching bisqueware

Pencil Pushing
When making beads, I use a pencil to push the hole in on one end until the point of the pencil comes just barely through the bead (1). I then remove the pencil and push it in through the small hole made by the tip on the opposite end of the bead (2). This makes a nice, clean, finished hole. To glaze the bisque-fired bead, I simply insert the pencil

2

1

3

glaze

into the hole again and dip it into the glaze (3). Since the angle of the hole is the same as the pencil, friction keeps it from falling into the glaze. You can also use small dowels or chopsticks for smaller beads instead of a pencil; just sharpen them in your pencil sharpener. —Kathy Sandberg, Plymouth, Michigan

Rolling Stamps
The simplest method of creating rolling stamps is to wrap a clay slab around a tubular shape (a cardboard tube, wooden dowel or plastic
14 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

Kiln Firing Chart
Firing converts ceramic work from weak greenware into a strong, durable permanent form. As the temperature in a kiln rises, many changes take place at different temperatures and understanding what happens during the firing can help you avoid problems with a variety of clay and glaze faults related to firing.

°C

TEMPERATURE

°F

COnE (approx.)
14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 01 02 03 04 05

inCAnDESCEnCE

EvEnT End of porcelain range.

1400

2552

Brilliant white

1300

2372

White Yellow-white

End of stoneware range.

1200

2192

End of earthenware (red clay) range.

Yellow Yellow-orange Orange
1100–1200˚C: Mullite and cristobalite (two types of silica) form as clay begins to convert to glass. Particles start melting together to form crystals, and materials shrink as they become more dense. Soaking (holding the end temperature) increases the amount of fused material and the mount of chemical action between the fluxes and the more refractory materials.

1100

2012

1000

1832

900

1652

800

1472

06 07 08 09 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018

Red-orange
800–900˚C: the beginning of sintering, the stage where clay particles begin to cement themselves together to create a hard material called bisque.

Cherry red
300–800˚C: Carbonaceous materials (impurities in the clay along with paper, wax, etc.) burn out. The kiln requires ample air during this stage

Dull red

since after 800˚C sintering begins and the clay surface begins to seal off, trapping unburned materials and sulfides, which can cause bloating and black coring.

700

1292

019 020 021

Dark red
573˚C: Quartz inversion occurs where the quartz crystals change from an

600

1112

022

Dull red glow 500 932 Black 400 752

alpha (a) structure to a beta (b) structure. The inversion is reversed on cooling. This conversion creates stressses in the clay so temperature changes must be slow to avoid cracking the work. Between 480–700ºC chemical water (“water smoke”) is driven off.

300

572

200

392

Upon cooling, cristobalite, a crystalline form of silica found in all clay bodies, shrinks suddenly at 220ºC. Fast cooling at this temperature causes ware to crack.

100

212
Water boils and converts to steam at 100ºC. Trapped water causes clay to explode so keep the kiln below 100ºC until all water has evaporated.

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Using Cones
P
yrometric cones, often referred to simply as “cones” (or more formally as “witness cones”), are used in pottery making to indicate the amount of “heat work” (or energy) needed during a kiln firing. Cones are shaped like elongated pyramids made of specified mixtures of ceramic materials, and they come in a variety of standard shapes. To get the best results from cones, they must be used correctly. Here are a few guidelines . . .

by Tim Frederich

• SSB cones are made to sit at the correct mounting height and angle without the need to mount them.

Cone Placement

A.

B.

Cone Mounting

Three cones are typically used when firing: a “warning cone” to indicate that the target firing temperature is close; a “firing cone,” which indicates that temperature has been reached; and a “guard cone,” which indicates that the maturing temperature has been exceeded. • Large cones should be mounted with the face at an 8° angle. • Large cones can be mounted at a height of 2 inches above the plaque or conepack. If you mount at the 1¾ inch height, you can use the temperature for self-supporting base (SSB) cones.

C.

• Mount cones in a straight line (A), turned to an angle (B) or spaced CAUTION diagonally (C). Diagonal placement Always use proper safety glasses when viewing is handy when viewing SSB cones cones during firing. through a peephole. • Place cones at least 6 inches from “hold” or “Soak” Time the kiln’s inner wall to protect the When you “soak” a kiln, you hold cones from the effects of drafts. the kiln at a certain temperature. As shown here, you can see that it takes interpreting Cones • The difference between 60° and a significant amount of soaking to 90° bending angles is usually a small cause the next cone to deform. Soak time can be used to equalize the amount in equivalent temperature. temperature distribution within the • If your firing cone deforms to a kiln and ware. lesser bending angle than desired, you may need to increase the firing time. Manual Kilns: Place small cone in kiln sitter in offset position with large end toward center or place next higher cone in kiln sitter if firing cone has hardly moved. (Note: You cannot adjust a pyrometric bar by moving it.) Controller Kilns: Add small amounts of “hold” or “soak” time or raise your end setpoint temperature in custom programs. • If your firing cone is deformed to a greater bending angle than desired, you may need to decrease the firing time.

Manual Kilns: Place small cone in kiln sitter in offset position with small end toward center or place next lower cone in kiln sitter. Controller Kilns: Decrease small amounts of “hold” or “soak” time if this has been set, or lower your end setpoint temperature in custom programs.

16 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

Clay Tools: Firing
best, with minimal warping. When making and trimming plates, Handling large pots may be awkward and can even be difficult, es- always make sure that the foot is the same size. The more variation pecially after pieces are glazed. After glazing, the only surfaces one wants in size, the more warping you will have. to touch are unsprayed or unseen areas. This can make pots difficult to —Linda C. Klaus, Sandy, Oregon transport and load into the kiln. When lifting these pots into the kiln, I use a piece of wood cut just a bit shorter than the interior diameter of the pot shoulder. I place the in the Soda Zone Inspired by Gail Nichols’ article “Soda, Clay and Fire” (Ceramics Monthly, December 2006) and her book of the same title (American Ceramic Society 2006), our firing group conducted an experiment to introduce soda into one segment of a kiln rather than dedicating an entire chamber to it. We fire a small wood kiln with a 50-cubic-foot cross-draft chamber. This chamber has an “in-chamber” firebox in the front and one stoke hole in the middle that helps fire off the back half of the kiln. Two-foot-long pieces of 2-inch tree bark covered with a soda paste were introduced in the rear stoke hole, beginning at Cone 8 and continuing every 15 minutes until Cone 10 was reached. The draft carried soda vapor through the bottom and rear quarter of
A piece of wood, cut slightly shorter than the interior diameter of a pot’s shoulder, acts as a handle for carrying and loading the large pot into a kiln.

Potlifter

wood into the pot vertically and, once inside, turn it horizontally and lift the pot into the kiln. To remove the wood, I simply return it to the vertical position and lift out. In a top-loading kiln like mine, the inside of the pot is still accessible, so any unwanted marks left by the wood can be touched up before closing the kiln. —Rick Erickson, Green Bay, Virginia

Consistent Wadding
When wadding a stack of plates for wood firing, use a template and pencil eraser to neatly facilitate glaze removal and stacking. Make a triangular template to mark a consistent triangular template based on footring configuration for the wads on the foot. After a plate is glazed, use this template and a pencil to transfer the markings to the transferred marks with glaze removed top of the plate. Remove a ½-inch area of the dry glaze at each wad mark with the pencil eraser. Knock down the edge of the glaze around these areas with a damp sponge and proceed to wadding. Although I have stacked as many as six Wads should be placed directly above one small plates together, another to prevent warping. three or four works
17 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

the kiln and then out of the chimney, not affecting the other parts of the kiln. We call this area our “soda zone.” We gained effective distribution of soda in the zone with excellent traditional firing results in the rest of the chamber. The placement of the soda-bearing wood must be done with caution as direct contact between the paste and a pot leaves a permanent scar. Soda does make a mess of the kiln floor and shelves, so we lay a bed of oyster shells in and around the zone floor, which seems to help in clean up. —Mark Bollwinkel, Los Altos, California

Choosing a Clay
M
ost potters use commercially prepared clays, and ceramic suppliers have met their needs by offering a vast, though sometimes bewildering, selection of clays to choose from. If you’re using the clay someone else just handed you, maybe it’s not the right one for the work you’re doing. Every clay body is formulated for a specific use, and finding the right one for your needs takes a bit of research and experimentation. There are several decisions to make when finding a clay body or bodies that meet your skill level, techniques and aesthetic. Now why would you choose a supplier first? They work with amateurs, professionals, students, teachers, sculptors, tile makers, etc., and have solved a wide variety of problems. There are three types of suppliers: those that manufacture their own clays, those that sell clay from other manufacturers and those that do both. And, if you have problems a supplier can’t answer, either you or the supplier can contact the manufacturer. Clay bodies are formulated for different applications. Throwing tableware requires a clay body that is plastic (malleable) and smooth, while constructing a large sculpture may require “toothier” (coarse-grained) clay. In many cases, a clay body may be used for several applications, but some are highly specialized—raku or ovenware, for example. Make a list of the things you want to do, and you may end up with several bodies to achieve the best results. Clays are formulated to fire at specific temperatures within three general ranges: low (Cone 06–2), mid (Cone 3–7) and high (Cone 8–10). Within a range, the higher you fire, the greater the shrinkage and the lower the absorbency of the fired clay. Low-fire clay bodies (earthenware) are easy to work with and fire, and there is a wide range of colorful glazes available. These clay bodies are also used for raku and pit firing. Mid-range clays are more durable and include stoneware and some porcelain bodies, but color is more limited. This situation improves each year as glaze companies improve and expand their offerings. High-fire clays are very durable and include stoneware and porcelain. Color palettes vary depending on firing atmosphere (oxidation or reduction). Color in basic studio clay bodies results mostly from naturally occurring iron and/or iron that has been added. Porcelain contains no iron, light buff bodies have some iron and earthenware bodies may have over 10% iron. The body color (as well as the glazes) changes based on the type of firing atmosphere you have—reduction (from fuel firing) or oxidation. Reduction firing deepens or darkens an otherwise neutral-colored clay body. Some clay companies have duplicated this effect by adding more colorants to their formulas making it possible to achieve “reduction” colors from an electric kiln. Since the iron and other colorants in a body color affect glaze color, you’ll need to test your glazes with each body.

Texture

Supplier

Texture can range from smooth to rough. Smooth bodies contain very small particles of clay, which tend to shrink more. These are best suited for small, fine and/ or detailed work. Adding grog (ground-up fired clay) or sand gives the body “tooth,” and the larger the particle size, the less water the piece will need (hence less shrinkage). Manufacturers offer a range of bodies that incorporate finer particles of grog and sand to get a texture between smooth and rough.

Application

Buy Wisely

Firing Range

Buying prepared clay requires a little judgment. First, try to find a supplier that is nearby because shipping costs can add up and sometimes equal or exceed the cost of the clay body itself. Next, test a sample before purchasing a large quantity. If you’re buying several types of clay bodies, suppliers will typically allow you to combine the weights for a better discount. Finally, buy only enough clay to last you a year maximum. Clay loses moisture in storage and becomes stiffer, possibly even unworkable. You can ask your supplier how long they have stored the clay. A good supplier will only stock what they can sell within a reasonable amount of time.

Buyer Beware

Color

All commercially prepared clay bodies are made from naturally occurring elements scooped from the earth for industrial users. Studio potters do not purchase enough materials to be a major user, so we have to make do with a small portion of what the industry uses (brick and tile manufacurers, china companies, steel industry, paper mills, pharmaceuticals, etc.). Mother Nature did not use any quality control when she created clay deposits, so seams of clay vary from one spot to another. And a mammoth front loader is not a delicate materialselection tool. The good news is that the industry often requires a degree of consistency in their raw materials, so that clay mines make every effort possible to provide them with the very best product out there for an intended application. To make sure your clay meets your every needs and your own quality standards, always test each batch everytime.

18 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

Primary Functions of Raw Materials
CERAMIC MATERIAL GLAZE FUNCTION CLAYBODY FUNCTION CERAMIC MATERIAL GLAZE FUNCTION CLAYBODY FUNCTION

Albany Slip Clay

Glaze Core Alberta Slip (s) Jasper Slip (s) Alumina Opacity Glaze Core Color (ST, P) Opacifier Melter (5–6, E) Glassmaker Carbon Trap (ST, P) Melter (5–6, E) Glassmaker Glaze Core (5–6, E) Melter Colemanite (s) Gerstley Borate (s) Glaze Core (5–6, E) Melter Gerstley Borate (s) Boron Frits (s)

Colorant

Potash Spars Custer

Glaze Core (ST, P) G-200, K200 (s) Custer, K200 (s) Custer, G-200 (s) Color

Melter (ST, P)

Ball Clay Barnard Clay Bone Ash Borax

Plasticity Color Melter (4–6) Melter (4–6, E

G-200 K200 Redart

Melter Color Core (E) Melter Color (ST)

Rotten Stone

Glaze Core (ST, P)

Boric Acid Boron Frits

Melter (4–6, E) Melter (4–6, E)

Soda Spars Kona F-4 Spodumene Talc

Glaze Core (ST, P) C–6 (s) Lithium Glaze Core (ST, P) Melter Opacifier Glaze Core (ST, P) Cornwall Stone (s) Melter (ST, P) Opacifier Wollastonite (s) Dolomite (s) Melter (ST, P) Opacifier Whiting (s) Dolomite (s) Glaze Core (ST, P) Melter (ST, P) Colorant Melter (ST, P) Opacifier (ST, P)

Melter (ST, P)

Melter (FL) Melter (E, 4–6, W)

Colemanite

Melter (4–6, E) Volcanic Ash Whiting

Melter (ST)

Cornwall Stone Dolomite

Glaze Core (ST, P) Melter (P) (Low melter, high SiO2) Melter (ST) Opacifier Whiting (s) Alumina Opacity (ST, P) Glassmaker Melter Glaze Core (4–6, E) Melter Colemanite (s) Boron Frits (s) Melter (4–6, E) Melter (ST) Wollastonite Core (P, W) Glassmaker Glaze-fit Wood Ash

Melter (ST, P)

EPK Kaolin Silica (Flint) Fluorspar Gerstley Borate

Zinc

Key: Core (ST) Core (ST)

(s)=substitute option (E)=earthenware claybody (ST)=stoneware claybody (P)=porcelain claybody (FL)=flameware claybody, c/9-10 (W)=white-burning claybodies, c/4-10

Goldart Clay Kentucky Ball Clay Lepidolite Lithium Glaze Core

Melter (FL) Melter Melter (ST, P)

Magnesium Carbonate Melter (ST, P, W) Opacifier Nepheline Syenite Glaze Core (low SiO2) (high Na2O) (high Al2O3) Lithium Glaze Core (ST 9-10)

Petalite

Melter (FL)

This chart is excerpted from Out of the Earth, Into the Fire, 2nd Edition, by Mimi Obstler, published by The American Ceramic Society, 2000.

19 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

Manufacturers and Suppliers
Quickly locating one of 335 ceramic businesses is easy with this locator. You’ll be able to easily find suppliers nearby and all the suppliers offering various products and services. Companies are arranged alphabetically by state, then by city.
Pre pa red Cl Pre ay pa s red Gl Ra az w es M ate Kil ria na ls nd Ac W ce he sso els rie s Stu dio Eq uip To ols me an nt dS Bo up ok pli sa es nd T il V id ea eo nd s Bis Se qu rvi e ce s W eb sit e

AlABAMA Mecca Pottery Tools (Florence) South Alabama Ceramic Supply (Montgomery) ARiZOnA Marjon Ceramics Inc. (Phoenix) Dolan Tools (Scottsdale) Marjon Ceramics Inc. (Tucson) ARKAnSAS Flat Rock Clay Supplies (Fayetteville) CAliFORniA Phoenix Ceramic & Fire Supply (Arcata) W.P. Dawson Inc. (Brea) Creative Paperclay Co. (Camarillo) Ceramic Services (Chino) Kemper Tools (Chino) Laguna Clay Co. (City of Industry) Graber’s Pottery Inc. (Claremont) Gordon Brush Mfg. Co. Inc. (Commerce) Snyder Imports (Comptche) The Chinese Clay Art, USA (Cupertino) Creative Industries (El Cajon) Mud in Mind (El Cajon) Chris Henley Tools (Encinitas) Duncan Enterprises (Fresno) B & W Tile Co. Inc. (Gardena) Geil Kilns Co. (Huntington Beach) Art Decal Corp. (Long Beach) Echo Ceramics (Los Angeles) West Coast Kiln (Lucerne Valley) Nasco Arts & Crafts (Modesta) Olsen Kiln (Mountain Center) Freeform Clay & Supply (National City) Falcon Company (Olivenhain) Keith Company (Pico Rivera) Aftosa (Richmond) Jiffy Mixer Co. Inc. (Riverside) Industrial Minerals Co. (Sacramento) HyperGlaze/Richard Burkett (San Diego) Ceramics & Crafts Supply Co. (San Francisco) Japan Pottery Tools (San Francisco) A&D Weighing (San Jose) Lily Pond Products (Sanger) Aardvark Clay & Supplies (Santa Ana) Miles Ceramic Color (Santa Ana) Clay Planet (Santa Clara) California Pot Tools (Santa Paula) Peter Pugger Mfg., Inc. (Ukiah) Ceramic ArtSpace (Van Nuys) Pure & Simple Pottery Products (Willits) COlORADO Herring Designs, LLC (Breckenridge)
20 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • www.peterpugger.com www.ceramicartspace.com www.pureandsimplepottery.com www.herringdesigns.com • • • www.clay-planet.com • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • www.keithcompany.com www.aftosa.com www.jiffymixer.com www.clayimco.com www.hyperglaze.com (software for glazes) www.ceramicssf.com www.japanpotterytools.com www.andweighing.com www.lilypond.com www.aardvarkclay.com • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • www.marjonceramics.com www.dolantools.net www.marjonceramics.com www.flatrockclay.com www.phoenixceramic.com www.kiln-sitter.com www.paperclay.com www.ceramicservices.com www.kempertools.com www.lagunaclay.com www.graberspottery.com www.gordonbrush.com www.donsynderimports.com www.chineseclayart.com www.creativewheels.com www.mudinmind.com www.hominid.net/chris.htm www.duncanceramics.com www.bwtile.com www.kilns.com www.artdecalcorp.com (decals) www.echoceramics.com www.westcoastkiln.com www.enasco.com www.olsenkilns.com www.freeformclay.com

Manufacturers and Suppliers
Ceramic Design Group Ltd. (Denver) Killam Gas Burner Co. (Denver) Mile Hi Ceramics, Inc. (Denver) Thomas Stuart Wheels (Denver) Bluebird Mfg. Inc. (Ft. Collins) Rocky Mountain WoodMasters, Ltd. (Highland Ranch) ARC (Lakewood) BNZ Materials Inc. (Littleton) Glyptic Modeling Tools (Loveland) COnnECTiCUT Rusty Kiln Ceramic Studio (North Windham) R.T. Vanderbilt Co. Inc. (Norwalk) Duralite Inc. (Riverton) DElAWARE J. & J. Ceramic Studio (Dover) Nabertherm, Inc. (New Castle) FlORiDA Atlantic Pottery Supply Inc. (Atlantic Beach) Jepson Pottery & World Pottery Institute (Geneva) Jen-Ken Kilns (Lakeland) Summit Kilns (Land O Lakes) C and R Products, Inc. (Ocala) Bennett Pottery Supply (Ocoee) Calcoworld Ceramic Decals (Orlando) Axner Co. Inc. (tradename of Laguna Clay Co.) (Oviedo) Highwater Clays of Florida (St. Petersburg) St. Petersburg Clay Company Inc. (St. Petersburg) The Arts Center (St. Petersburg) OTT-LITE Technology (Tampa) gEORgiA Davens Ceramic Center (Atlanta) Fort Pottery Co. (Augusta) Creative Glazes (Duluth) Olympic Kilns (Flowery Branch) Larkin Refractory Solutions (Lithonia) Kickwheel Pottery Supply Inc. (Tucker) iDAhO The Potter’s Center (Boise) Wendt Pottery (Lewiston) illinOiS U.S. Pigment Corp. (Bloomingdale) Great Lakes Clay & Supply (Carpentersville) Metomic Corporation (Chicago) Paasche Airbrush Co. (Chicago) Boothe Mold Company (Dupo) Ceramic Supply Chicago (Evanston) Badger Air Brush Co. (Franklin Park) Dick Blick Art Materials (Galesburg) Crystal Productions (Glenview) Shimpo Ceramics (Nidec-Shimpo America Corp.) (Itasca) Midwest Ceramics (Joliet) International Decal Corp. (Northbrook) Art Clay World, USA (Oak Lawn) Debcor Inc. (South Holland) inDiAnA United Art & Education (Ft. Wayne) American Art Clay Co., Inc. (Amaco/Brent) (Indianapolis) Brickyard Ceramics & Crafts (Indianapolis) Sugar Creek Industry, Inc. (Linden) Royal and Langnickel Brush Mfg. (Merrillville)
21 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

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www.jonathankaplanceramics.ocm www.killamburner.com www.milehiceramics.com www.thomasstuart.com www.bluebird-mfg.com

www.bnzmaterials.com www.glyptic.com • • • www.nabertherm.com www.atlanticpotterysupply.com www.jepsonpottery.com www.jenkenkilns.com • www.swiftweb.com/summit www.candrproducts.com www.bennettpottery.com www.calcoworld.com (decals) • • • • • • • • • • www.axner.com www.highwaterclays.com/hwcflorida.html www.stpeteclay.com www.theartscenter.org www.ott-lite.com www.davensceramiccenter.com www.fortpottery.com www.creativeglazes.com www.greatkilns.com • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • www.larkinrefractory.com www.kickwheel.com www.potterscenter.com www.wendtpottery.com www.rustykiln.com www.rtvanderbilt.com www.duralite.com

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www.greatclay.com www.metomic.com (lamp parts) www.paascheairbrush.com www.boothemold.com (molds) www.ceramicsupplychicago.com

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www.badgerairbrush.com www.dickblick.com www.crystalproductions.com www.shimpoceramics.com www.midwestcas.net www.timrg.com www.artclayworld.com www.debcor-inc.sbcontract.com www.unitednow.com

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www.amaco.com www.brickyardceramics.com www.sugarcreekind.com www.royalbrush.com

Manufacturers and Suppliers
iOWA Johnson Gas Appliance Co. (Cedar Rapids) Bartlett Instrument Co. (Ft. Madison) Scotlin Ceramics (McGregor) KAnSAS Creative Paradise (Goddard) Easy Ceramic Decals, LLC (Kansas City) Bracker’s Good Earth Clays (Lawrence) Soldner Clay Mixers by Muddy Elbow Mfg. (Newton) ClayStamps.com (Olathe) Evans Ceramic Supply (Wichita) KEnTUCKY Old Hickory Clay Co. (Hickory) Kentucky Mudworks LLC (Lexington) Louisville Fire Brick Works (Louisville) lOUiSAnA Alligator Clay Company (Baton Rouge) Southern Pottery Equipment & Supplies (Baton Rouge) Blue Diamond Kilns (Metarie) New Orleans Clay (New Orleans) MAinE Portland Pottery Supply South (Braintree) Amherst Potters Supply (Hadley) MARYlAnD Baltimore Clayworks (Baltimore) Buyers Market of American Craft (Baltimore) Chesapeake Ceramics Supply (Baltimore) Clayworks Supplies, Inc. (Baltimore) Bear Creek Pottery (Bowie) PotteryTools.com (Sinkburg) MASSAChUSETTS Gare Inc. (Harverhill) The Potters Shop and School (Needham) Sheffield Pottery Inc. (Sheffield) Ceramics Consulting Services (Southampton) Boston Kiln Sales & Service (Watertown) Saint-Gobain Ceramics (Worcester) MiChigAn Pebble Press, Inc. (Ann Arbor) Evenheat Kiln Inc. (Caseville) Runyan Pottery Supply Inc. (Clio) Gilmour Campbell Co. (Detroit) West Michigan Clay (Hamilton) Crossroads Pottery & Clay Company (Jackson) Manitou Arts (Leland) Du-All Drafting & Art (Madison Hts.) Har-Bon Ceramics & Decals (Presque Isle) Rovin Ceramics (Taylor) MinnESOTA Minnesota Clay Co. USA (Edina) Master Kiln Builders (Farmington) Dunghanrach Clay Co. (Melrose) Brown Tool Co. (Minneapolis) Continental Clay Co. (Minneapolis) Smith-Sharpe Fire Brick Supply (Minneapolis) Triarco Arts & Crafts LLC (Plymouth) MiSSiSSiPPi Dogwood Ceramic Supply (Gulfport) Whistle Press (Petal)
22 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

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www.johnsongas.com www.bartinst.com

www.handbuilding.com www.easyceramicdecals.com (decals) • • • www.brackers.com www.soldnerequipment.com www.claystamps.com • • • www.evansceramics.com www.oldhickoryclay.com

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www.alligatorclay.com www.alligatorclay.com www.bluediamondkiln.com www.noclay.com

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www.portlandpottery.com www.amherstpotters.com • www.baltimoreclayworks.org www.americancraft.com www.ceramicsupply.com • www.clayworkssupplies.com www.bcpottery.com www.potterytools.com

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www.gare.com • • www.sheffield-pottery.com www.fixpots.com www.bostonkiln.com www.refractories.saint-gobain.com

www.evenheat-kiln.com • • • www.runyanpotterysupply.com www.westmichiganclay.com www.crossroadspottery.net www.manitouarts.net www.duall.com www.harbon.com (decals) • • • www.rovinceramics.com www.minnesotaclayusa.com www.kilnbuilders.com www.browntool.com • • • • www.continentalclay.com www.kilnshelf.com www.triarcoarts.com www.dogwoodceramics.com www.whistlepress.com

Manufacturers and Suppliers
MiSSOURi Christy Minerals Co. (High Hill) KC Metro Ceramic & Pottery Supplies (Kansas City) L&R Specialties Inc (Nixa) Krueger Pottery, Inc. (St. Louis) MOnTAnA Archie Bray Foundation (Helena) nEvADA Cress Mfg. Co. (Carson City) Aardvark Clay & Supplies (Las Vegas) Bison Studios (Las Vegas) BigCeramicStore.com (Sparks) Nevada Dan’s (Sparks) nEW hAMPShiRE W.K. Hillquist, Inc. (Hudson) Midlantic Clay (Bellmawr) nEW JERSEY Instar Beautiful Decals (E. Brunswick) Curran Pfeiff Corp. (Edison) Hobby Colorobbia (Elmowwod Park) Hammill & Gillespie Inc. (Livingston) Ceramic Supply Inc. (Lodi) New Brunswick Lamp Shade Co. (North Brunswick) L&L Kiln Mfg. Inc. (Swedesboro) nEW MExiCO Coyote Clay & Color (Albuquerque) New Mexico Clay, Inc. (Albuquerque) Taos Clay (El Prado) Santa Fe Clay (Santa Fe) nEW YORK Charles A. Hones Inc. (Amityville) East Valley Supply (Andover) Studio Sales Pottery Supply (Avon) Teka Fine Line Brushes Inc. (Brooklyn) The Mudpit (Brooklyn) Vent-A-Kiln Corp. (Buffalo) Ceramic Arts Library (Corning) PCF Studios (Honeoye) Bailey Pottery Equipment (Kingston) American Craft Council (New York) Artfixtures (New York) Artsystems, Ltd. (New York) Eagle Zinc Company (New York) Rockland Colloid Corp. (Piermont) Clayscapes Pottery Inc. (Syracuse) Oneida Air Systems, Inc. (Syracuse) Northeast Ceramic Supply (Troy) Alpine Kilns and Equipment LLC (Warwick) Doo-Woo Tools LLC (Warwick) Kiln-Ray Services (Warwick) Rochester Ceramics, Inc. (Webster) nORTh CAROlinA Highwater Clays, Inc. (Asheville) Lark Books (Asheville) Carolina Clay Connection (Charlotte) Potterystamp.com (Charlotte) Claymakers (Durham) Resco Products Inc. (Greensboro) Mudtools (Hendersonville) Williams Supply (Star)
23 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

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www.christyco.com www.kcmetroceramic.com www.claydogs.com www.kruegerpottery.com www.archiebray.org www.cressmfg.com www.aardvarkclay.com www.bisonstudios.com www.bigceramicstore.com www.potterywheel.com www.retaildisplays.com www.midlanticclay.com www.instardecals.com (decals)

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www.curranpfeiff.com www.hobbycolorobbia.com www.hamgil.com

www.eceramicsupply.com www.nbls.com (lamp shades) www.hotkilns.com www.coyoteclay.com

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www.nmclay.com www.taosclay.com www.santafeclay.com www.charlesahones.com www.evsupply.com (ceramics repair epoxy)

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www.studiosalespottery.com www.tekabrush.com www.mudpitnyc.com www.ventakiln.com www.ceramicartslibrary.com www.pcfstudios.com

www.baileypottery.com www.craftcouncil.org www.artfixtures.com (display stands)

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www.artsystems.com www.rockaloid.com www.clayscapespottery.com www.oneida-air.com www.alpinekilns.com www.doowoo.com www.kilnray.com www.rochesterceramics.com www.highwaterclays.com www.larkbooks.com www.carolinaclay.com www.potterystamp.com www.claymakers.com www.rescoproducts.com www.mudtools.com www.williamssupplync.com

Manufacturers and Suppliers
Speedball Art Products Co. (Statesville) Fat Cat Pottery Inc. (Wilmington) OhiO National Artcraft Co. (Aurora) A & K Clay Company LLC (Bethel) Laguna Clay Co. (Byesville)) Olympic Enterprises Inc. (Campbell) Vulcan Kilns (Centerville) Funke Fired Arts (Cincinnati) Maxfield Ceramics Supply Inc (Cincinnati) Aegean Sponge Co. (Cleveland) Bareclay (Columbus) Columbus Clay (Columbus) Mudmats (Columbus) RAM Products Inc. (Columbus) Cornell Studio Supply (Dayton) Wise Screenprint (Dayton) Innovative Ceramic Corp. (East Liverpool) Mason Color Works Inc. (East Liverpool) Mayco Colors (Hilliard) Maryland Refractories Co. (Irondale) Ohio Ceramic Supply Inc. (Kent) Handmade Lampshades (Maumee) Cedar Heights Clay Operation (Oak Hill) Krumor Inc. (Valley View) Orton Ceramic Foundation (Westerville) Olympia Enterprises, Inc. (Youngstown) OREgOn The Kiln Elements Co. (Birkenfeld) Aim Kiln Mfg. (Corvallis) Georgies Ceramic & Clay Co. Inc. (Eugene) Georgies Ceramic & Clay Co. Inc. (Portland) Mudshark (Portland) PotteryVideos.com (Portland) Skutt Ceramic Products (Portland) Southern Oregon Pottery Supply (Talent) PEnnSYlvAniA Ceramic Services Inc. (Bensalem) Insulating Firebrick, Inc. (Butler) The Clay Place (Carnegie) M&M Pottery Supply (Corry) Del Val Potter’s Supply Co. (Glenside) Penn-Mo Fire Brick Co. (Harrisburg) Nilfisk-Advance America Inc. (Malvern) Shenango Advanced Ceramics (New Castle) Camp’s Clay Accessories (Philadelphia) The Ceramic Shop (Philadelphia) Standard Ceramic Supply Co. (Pittsburgh) Frog Pond Pottery (Pocopson) Placid Ceramics (Washington) Petro Mold Co (Waterford) RhODE iSlAnD Dew Claw Studios (Pawtucket) SOUTh CAROlinA Clay-King.com (Spartanburg) eArtWorld.com (Spartanburg) Coastal Ceramics (Summerville) SOUTh DAKOTA Pacer Corp. (Custer) Dakota Potters Supply (Sioux Falls)
24 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

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www.speedballart.com www.fatcatpottery.com www.nationalartcraft.com www.lagunaclay.com www.olympicdecals.com www.vulcankiln.com www.funkefiredarts.com www.maxfieldceramics.com www.aegeansponge.com www.bareclay.com www.columbusclay.com www.mostlymud.com www.ramprocess.com www.wisescreenprint.com (decals) www.innovativeceramic.com (inks/decals) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • www.masoncolor.com www.maycocolors.com www.mrcgrog.com www.ohioceramic.com (lampshades) www.rescoproducts.com (thermocouples and RTDs) www.ortonceramic.com www.olympiadecals.com www.kilnelements.com www.aimkilns.com www.georgies.com www.georgies.com www.mudsharkstudios.org www.potteryvideos.com www.skutt.com • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • www.delvalpotters.com www.penn-mo.com www.pa.nilfisk-advance.com (vacuums) • • www.shenangoceramics.com www.campsclayaccessories.com • • • www.theceramicshop.com www.standardceramic.com www.masteringglazes.com • • www.placidceramics.com www.petromolds.com www.dewclawstudios.com www.clay-king.com www.eartworld.com www.coastalceramic.com www.pacerminerals.com • • • • • • www.dakotapotters.com • • • • • • • • • • • • www.southernoregonpottery.com www.kilnman.com www.insulatingfirebrick.com www.clayplace.com

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Manufacturers and Suppliers
TEnnESSEE Ward Burner Systems (Dandridge) Arrowmont School of Arts & Crafts (Gatlinburg) The Clay Lady (Herdersonville) Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Co. (Nashville) Mid-South Ceramic Supply Co. (Nashville) H.C. Spinks Clay Co. Inc. (Paris) TExAS Armadillo Clay & Supplies (Austin) Trinity Ceramic Supply Inc. (Dallas) American Ceramic Supply Co. (Ft. Worth) Texas Pottery Supply & Clay Co. (Ft. Worth) PMC Connection (Garland) Ceramic Store Inc. (Houston) Bella Bisque, Inc. (Kyle) Display Your Art by Glassica (Liberty Hill) Paragon Industries, L.P. (Mesquite) Old Farmhouse Pottery (Rusk) Clayworld Inc. (San Antonio) GSM Enterprises (San Antonio) Etc., Etc., Etc. (Wichita Falls) UTAh Capital Ceramics Inc. (Salt Lake City) viRginiA Spun Earth Pottery (Forest) The Kiln Doctor Inc. (Front Royal) Tin Barn Pottery Supply at Manassas Clay (Manassas) Campbell’s Ceramic Supply Inc. (Richmond) ClayPeople (Richmond) WAShingTOn North Star Equipment Inc. (Cheney) Giffin Tec Inc. (Lummi Island) Crucible Kilns (Seattle) New Century Ceramic Arts Inc. (Seattle) Seattle Pottery Supply (Seattle) Precision Terrefirma (Spokane) Rings & Things Wholesale (Spokane) Clay Art Center (Tacoma) Scott Creek Pottery Inc. (Tacoma) Clay In Motion (Walla Walla) WiSCOnSin MKM Pottery Tools LLC (Appleton) Nasco Arts & Crafts (Ft. Atkinson) Sax Arts & Crafts (New Berlin) A.R.T. Studio Clay Co. Inc. (Sturtevant) AUSTRAliA Venco Products (Kelmscott WA ) CAnADA Plainsman Clay Ltd. (Medicine Hat) Greenbarn Potters Supply Ltd. (Surrey) Bamboo Tools (Hi Tech Marketing) (Surrey) Ceramic Arts & Crafts Supply (Burlington) Euclids Kilns & Elements (Oakville) Euclid’s/The Pottery Supply House Ltd. (Oakville) Tucker’s Pottery Supplies Inc. (Richmond Hill) Spectrum Glazes (Toronto) Mercedes Ceramic Supplies (Woodbridge) Digitalfire Corp. (Cornwall) Edouard Bastarache Inc. (Sorel-Tracy)
25 www.ceramicartsdaily.org

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www.wardburner.com www.arrowmont.org www.theclaylady.com www.ballclay.com www.midsouthceramics.com www.spinksclay.com

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www.armadilloclay.com www.trinityceramic.com www.AmericanCeramics.com www.texaspottery.com www.pmcconnection.com www.ceramicstoreinc.com www.bellabisque.com www.displayyourart.com www.paragonweb.com

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www.farmpots.com www.clayworld.com www.gsmkilns-sales-service.com

www.capitalceramics.com www.spunearth.com www.thekilndoctor.com www.manassasclay.com www.claysupply.com www.claypeople.net www.northstarequipment.com www.giffingrip.com www.seattlepotterysupply.com www.paperclayart.com www.seattlepotterysupply.com www.precision-terrafirma.com www.rings-things.com www.clayartcenter.net www.scottcreekpottery.com www.clayinmotion.com www.mkmpotterytools.com www.enasco.com www.saxarts.com www.artclay.com www.venco.com www.plainsmanclays.com www.greenbarn.com www.bambootools.com www.ceramicarts.com www.euclids.com www.pshcanada.com www.tuckerspottery.com www.spectrumglazes.com www.digitalfire.com www.sorel-tracy.qc.ca/~edouardb

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