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Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 3rd Solution Manual

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 3rd Solution Manual

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Fundamentals of Electric Circuits
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits

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Chapter 1, Solution 1

(a) q = 6.482x10
17
x [-1.602x10
-19
C] = -0.10384 C

(b) q = 1. 24x10
18
x [-1.602x10
-19
C] = -0.19865 C

(c) q = 2.46x10
19
x [-1.602x10
-19
C] = -3.941 C

(d) q = 1.628x10
20
x [-1.602x10
-19
C] = -26.08 C

Chapter 1, Solution 2

(a) i = dq/dt = 3 mA
(b) i = dq/dt = (16t + 4) A
(c) i = dq/dt = (-3e
-t
+ 10e
-2t
) nA
(d) i=dq/dt = 1200 120 π π cos t pA
(e) i =dq/dt = − +

e t
t 4
80 50 1000 50 ( cos sin ) A µ t

Chapter 1, Solution 3

(a) C 1) (3t + = + =

q(0) i(t)dt q(t)
(b) mC 5t) (t
2
+ = + + =

q(v) dt s) (2t q(t)
(c) ( ) q(t) 20 cos 10t / 6 q(0) (2sin(10 / 6) 1) C t π π µ = + + = + +

(d)
C 40t) sin 0.12 t (0.16cos40 e
30t -
+ − =

+
= + =

t) cos 40 - t 40 sin 30 (
1600 900
e 10
q(0) t 40 sin 10e q(t)
-30t
30t -

Chapter 1, Solution 4

( ) mC 4.698 = − =

= = =
∫ ∫
π
π
π
06 . 0 cos 1
6
5
t π 6 cos
6
5
dt t π 6 5sin idt q
10
0

Chapter 1, Solution 5

µC mC ) e 1 (
2
1
e
2
1
- mC dt e idt q
4
2
0
2t - 2t -
490 = − =
= = =
∫ ∫

Chapter 1, Solution 6

(a) At t = 1ms, mA 40 = = =
2
80
dt
dq
i

(b) At t = 6ms, mA 0 = =
dt
dq
i

(c) At t = 10ms, mA 20 - = = =
4
80
dt
dq
i

Chapter 1, Solution 7

¸

< <
< <
< <
= =
8 t 6 25A,
6 t 2 25A, -
2 t 0 A, 25
dt
dq
i

which is sketched below:

Chapter 1, Solution 8

C 15 µ 1 10
2
1 10
idt q = × +
×
= =

Chapter 1, Solution 9

(a) C 10 = = =
∫ ∫
1
0
dt 10 idt q

(b)
C 22.5 = − + =
× +
|
.
|

\
|
×
− + × = =

25 10 15
1 5
2
1 5
10 1 10 idt q
3
0

(c) C 30 = + + = =

10 10 10 idt
5
0
q

Chapter 1, Solution 10

q ixt x x x = = =

8 10 15 10 120
3 6
C µ

Chapter 1, Solution 11

q = it = 85 x10
-3
x 12 x 60 x 60 = 3,672 C

E = pt = ivt = qv = 3672 x1.2 = 4406.4 J

Chapter 1, Solution 12

For 0 < t < 6s, assuming q(0) = 0,

q t idt q tdt t
t t
( ) ( ) . = + = + =
∫ ∫
0 3 0 15
0
2
0

At t=6, q(6) = 1.5(6)
2
= 54
For 6 < t < 10s,

q t idt q dt t
t t
( ) ( ) = + = + = −
∫ ∫
6 18 54 18 5
6 6
4
66

At t=10, q(10) = 180 – 54 = 126
For 10<t<15s,

q t idt q dt t
t t
( ) ( ) ( ) = + = − + = − +
∫ ∫
10 12 126 12 246
10 10

At t=15, q(15) = -12x15 + 246 = 66
For 15<t<20s,

q t dt q
t
( ) ( ) = + =

0 15
15

Thus,

q t
t
t
t
( )
.
,
=

− +
¦
´
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
15
18 54
12 246
66
2
C, 0 < t < 6s
C, 6 < t < 10s
C, 10 < t < 15s
C 15 < t < 20s

The plot of the charge is shown below.
0 5 10 15 20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
t
q
(
t
)

Chapter 1, Solution 13

kJ 2.486 - =
|
.
|

\
|
− =
|
.
|

\
|
− =
= =
= =

∫ ∫
2 16 sin
4
1
1200 8 sin
8
2
1200
1) - 2x cos 2 x cos (since, 1)dt - t 8 cos 2 ( 1200
dt t 4 cos 1200 vidt w
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
t t

Chapter 1, Solution 14

(a)
( ) ( )
( ) C 2.131 = − + =
+ = = =
∫ ∫
2 e 2 1 10
2e t 10 dt e - 1 10 idt q
0.5 -
1
0
0.5t -
1
0
0.5t -

(b) p(t) = v(t)i(t)
p(1) = 5cos2 ⋅ 10(1- e
-0.5
) = (-2.081)(3.935)
= -8.188 W

Chapter 1, Solution 15

(a)
( ) C 1.297 = − − =

= = =
∫ ∫
1 e 5 . 1
e
2
3
dt 3e idt q
2 -
2
0
2t
2
0
2t -

(b)
W e 90
) (
t 4 −
− = =
− = − = =
vi p
e 30 5 e 6
dt
di 5
v
2t - 2t

(c) J 22.5 − =

= = =
∫ ∫
3
0
4t -
3
0
4t -
e
4
90
dt e -90 pdt w

Chapter 1, Solution 16

mJ 916.7
) (
(
( ( (
,
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ − − + + =
− +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
− + − + + + = =

¸

¸

< <
< <
< <
=
< <
< <
=

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
4
3
2
2
4
3
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
0
3
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
3
t
4t - t 16 250 2 8
2
9
12 250 3
2
250
3
250
dt t) 4 250
2
t
- t 4 250
2
250
t
3
250
25t)mJ - t)(100 10 40 t)dt 25 100 10 t)dt 25 10 (25t)dt 10 v(t)i(t)dt w
4 t 3 V 10t - 40
3 t 1 V 10
1 t 0 V 10t
v(t)
4 t 2 mA 25t - 100
2 t 0 mA 25t
i(t)

Chapter 1, Solution 17

Σ p = 0 → -205 + 60 + 45 + 30 + p
3
= 0

p
3
= 205 – 135 = 70 W

Thus element 3 receives 70 W.

Chapter 1, Solution 18

p
1
= 30(-10) = -300 W
p
2
= 10(10) = 100 W
p
3
= 20(14) = 280 W
p
4
= 8(-4) = -32 W
p
5
= 12(-4) = -48 W

Chapter 1, Solution 19

p I x x x
s s
= ÷ → ÷ − − − + = ÷ → ÷ =

0 4 2 6 13 2 5 10 0 3 A I

Chapter 1, Solution 20

Since Σ p = 0

-30×6 + 6×12 + 3V
0
+ 28 + 28×2 - 3×10 = 0

72 + 84 + 3V
0
= 210 or 3V
0
= 54

V
0
= 18 V

Chapter 1, Solution 21

nA 8 .
( .
C/s 10 0.8 C/s 10 6 1 10
8
4
electron) / C 10 6 1
photon
electron
8
1
sec
photon
10 4

8 - 19 11
19 11
= × = × × × =
× ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
× =

=

t
q
i

Chapter 1, Solution 22

It should be noted that these are only typical answers.

(a) Light bulb 60 W, 100 W
(b) Radio set 4 W
(c) TV set 110 W
(d) Refrigerator 700 W
(e) PC 120 W
(f) PC printer 18 W
(g) Microwave oven 1000 W
(h) Blender 350 W

Chapter 1, Solution 23

(a) W 12.5 = = =
120
1500
v
p
i
(b) kWh 1.125 . = × = ⋅ × × × = = kWh
60
45
1.5 J 60 45 10 5 1
3
pt w
(c) Cost = 1.125 × 10 = 11.25 cents

Chapter 1, Solution 24

p = vi = 110 x 8 = 880 W

Chapter 1, Solution 25

cents 21.6 cents/kWh 9 30 hr
6
4
kW 1.2 Cost = × × × =

Chapter 1, Solution 26

(a) mA 80
.
=

=
10h
h A 8 0
i
(b) p = vi = 6 × 0.08 = 0.48 W
(c) w = pt = 0.48 × 10 Wh = 0.0048 kWh

Chapter 1, Solution 27

∫ ∫
= × × = = = =
× = =
kC 43.2 3600 4 3 T 3 3dt idt q
36005 4 4h T Let (a)
T
0

| |
kJ 475.2
.
.
.
) ( (
=
× × + × =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = = =
×
∫ ∫ ∫
3600 16 25 0 3600 40 3
3600
25 0
10 3
dt
3600
t 5 0
10 3 vidt pdt W b)
3600 4
0
2
0
T
0
t
t
T

cents 1.188
(
= × =
= =
cent 9 kWh
3600
475.2
Cost
Ws) (J kWs, 475.2 W c)

Chapter 1, Solution 28

A 0.25 = = =
120
30
(a)
V
P
i

\$31.54
(
= × =
= × × = =
262.8 \$0.12 Cost
kWh 262.8 Wh 24 365 30 pt W b)

Chapter 1, Solution 29

cents 39.6
.
= × =
= + =
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
= =
3.3 cents 12 Cost
kWh 3.3 0.9 2.4
hr
60
30
kW 1.8 hr
60
45) 15 40 (20
kW 2 1 pt w

Chapter 1, Solution 30

Energy = (52.75 – 5.23)/0.11 = 432 kWh

Chapter 1, Solution 31

Total energy consumed = 365(4 +8) W
Cost = \$0.12 x 365 x 12 = \$526.60

Chapter 1, Solution 32

cents 39.6
.
= × =
= + =
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
= =
3.3 cents 12 Cost
kWh 3.3 0.9 2.4
hr
60
30
kW 1.8 hr
60
45) 15 40 (20
kW 2 1 pt w

Chapter 1, Solution 33

C 6 = × × = = → =

3
10 3 2000 idt q
dt
dq
i

Chapter 1, Solution 34

(b) Energy =

= 200 x 6 + 800 x 2 + 200 x 10 + 1200 x 4 + 200 x 2 pt
= 10,000 kWh

(c) Average power = 10,000/24 = 416.67 W

Chapter 1, Solution 35

kWh 10.4
) ( (
= + =
× + × × × + × + × = =

2800 7200
2 400 2 1200 12 200 2 1000 6 400 W a) dt t p

W/h 433.3 ( =
h 24
kW 10.4
b)

Chapter 1, Solution 36

days 6,667
,
(
A 4
= = =
=

=
day / 24h
h 000 160
0.001A
160Ah
t b)
40
h A 160
i (a)

Chapter 1, Solution 37

( )
J 901.2 .
. .
− = × − = =
− = × − × =

12 1 80 W
C 1 80 10 602 1 10 5 q
19 20
qv

Chapter 1, Solution 38

P = 10 hp = 7460 W

W = pt = 7460 × 30 × 60 J = 13.43 × 10
6
J

Chapter 1, Solution 39

A 16.667 =
×
= = → =
120
10 2
v
p
i vi p
3

Chapter 2, Solution 1

v = iR i = v/R = (16/5) mA = 3.2 mA

Chapter 2, Solution 2

p = v
2
/R → R = v
2
/p = 14400/60 = 240 ohms

Chapter 2, Solution 3

R = v/i = 120/(2.5x10
-3
) = 48k ohms

Chapter 2, Solution 4

(a) i = 3/100 = 30 mA
(b) i = 3/150 = 20 mA

Chapter 2, Solution 5

n = 9; l = 7; b = n + l – 1 = 15

Chapter 2, Solution 6

n = 12; l = 8; b = n + l –1 = 19

Chapter 2, Solution 7

7 elements or 7 branches and 4 nodes, as indicated.

30 V
1 20Ω 2 3
+++-

2A 30Ω 60Ω 40Ω 10Ω

4
+ -

Chapter 2, Solution 8

d
c
b
a
9 A
i
3
i
2
12 A
12 A
i
1

8 A

At node a, 8 = 12 + i
1
i
1
= - 4A
At node c, 9 = 8 + i
2
i
2
= 1A
At node d, 9 = 12 + i
3
i
3
= -3A

Chapter 2, Solution 9

Applying KCL,

i
1
+ 1 = 10 + 2 i
1
= 11A
1 + i
2
= 2 + 3 i
2
= 4A
i
2
= i
3
+ 3 i
3
= 1A

Chapter 2, Solution 10

At node 1, 4 + 3 = i
1
i
1
= 7A
At node 3, 3 + i
2
= -2 i
2
= -5A
3
2
-2A
3A
1

4A

i
2
i
1

Chapter 2, Solution 11

Applying KVL to each loop gives

-8 + v
1
+ 12 = 0 v
1
= 4v
-12 - v
2
+ 6 = 0 v
2
= -6v
10 - 6 - v
3
= 0 v
3
= 4v
-v
4
+ 8 - 10 = 0 v
4
= -2v

Chapter 2, Solution 12

For loop 1, -20 -25 +10 + v
1
= 0 v
1
= 35v
For loop 2, -10 +15 -v
2
= 0 v
2
= 5v
For loop 3, -v
1
+v
2
+v
3
= 0 v
3
= 30v
+ 15v

-

loop 3
loop 2
loop 1
+
20v

-
+ 10v

- – 25v

+
+ v
2
-
+
v
1
-
+
v
3
-

Chapter 2, Solution 13

2A

I
2
7A I
4
1 2 3 4

4A

I
1

3A I
3

At node 2,
3 7 0 10
2 2
+ + =  →  = − I I A
12
2A
2 5A
At node 1,
I I I I A
1 2 1 2
2 2 + =  →  = − =
At node 4,
2 4 2 4
4 4
= +  →  = − = − I I
At node 3,
7 7
4 3 3
+ =  →  = − = I I I
Hence,

I A I A I A I
1 2 3 4
12 10 5 2 = = − = = , , , A −
V
11
8

Chapter 2, Solution 14

+ + -
3V V
1
I
4
V
2

- I
3
- + 2V - +

- + V
3
- + +
4V
I
2
- I
1
V
4

+ -
5V

For mesh 1,
− + + =  →  = V V
4 4
2 5 0 7
For mesh 2,
+ + + =  →  = − − = − 4 0 4 7
3 4 3
V V V V
For mesh 3,
− + − =  →  = + = − 3 0 3
1 3 1 3
V V V V V
For mesh 4,
− − − =  →  = − − = V V V V V
1 2 2 1
2 0 2 6
Thus,
V V V V V V V
1 2 3 4
8 6 11 = − = = − V 7 = , , ,

Chapter 2, Solution 15

+ +
+ 12V 1 v
2

- - 8V + -
v
1

- 3 + 2 -
v
3
10V
- +

For loop 1,
8 12 0 4
2 2
− + =  →  = v v V
V
V

For loop 2,
− − − =  →  = − v v
3 3
8 10 0 18
For loop 3,
− + + =  →  = − v v v
1 3 1
12 0 6
Thus,
v V v V v
1 2 3
6 4 = − = = − , , V 18

Chapter 2, Solution 16
+ v
1
-

+ - + -
6V
-
+ loop 1
loop 2
12V
10V
+
v
1
-

+ v
2
-

Applying KVL around loop 1,

–6 + v
1
+ v
1
– 10 – 12 = 0 v
1
= 14V

Applying KVL around loop 2,

12 + 10 – v
2
= 0 v
2
= 22V
Chapter 2, Solution 17

+ v
1
-

+
- +
-
+
10V
12V
24V
loop 2
+
v
3
-
v
2
-
loop 1
-
+

It is evident that v
3
= 10V

Applying KVL to loop 2,

v
2
+ v
3
+ 12 = 0 v
2
= -22V

Applying KVL to loop 1,

-24 + v
1
- v
2
= 0 v
1
= 2V

Thus,

v
1
= 2V, v
2
= -22V, v
3
= 10V

Chapter 2, Solution 18

Applying KVL,

-30 -10 +8 + I(3+5) = 0

8I = 32 I = 4A

-V
ab
+ 5I + 8 = 0 V
ab
= 28V

Chapter 2, Solution 19

Applying KVL around the loop, we obtain

-12 + 10 - (-8) + 3i = 0 i = -2A

Power dissipated by the resistor:

p
3Ω

= i
2
R = 4(3) = 12W

Power supplied by the sources:

p
12V
= 12 (- -2) = 24W

p
10V
= 10 (-2) = -20W

p
8V
= (- -2) = -16W

Chapter 2, Solution 20

Applying KVL around the loop,

-36 + 4i
0
+ 5i
0
= 0 i
0
= 4A

Chapter 2, Solution 21
10 Ω
+
-
45V
-
+
+ v
0
-

Apply KVL to obtain

-45 + 10i - 3V
0
+ 5i = 0

But v
0
= 10i,

3v
0
-45 + 15i - 30i = 0 i = -3A

P
3
= i
2
R = 9 x 5 = 45W
5 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 22

4 Ω

+ v
0
-
10A

2v
0 6 Ω

At the node, KCL requires that

0
0
v 2 10
4
v
+ + = 0 v
0
= –4.444V

The current through the controlled source is

i = 2V
0
= -8.888A

and the voltage across it is

v = (6 + 4) i
0
= 10 111 . 11
4
v
0
− =

Hence,

p
2
v
i
= (-8.888)(-11.111) = 98.75 W

Chapter 2, Solution 23

8//12 = 4.8, 3//6 = 2, (4 + 2)//(1.2 + 4.8) = 6//6 = 3
The circuit is reduced to that shown below.

i
x
1Ω

+ v
x
-

6A 2Ω 3Ω

Applying current division,

i A A v i
x x
=
+ +
= =
2
2 1 3
6 2 1 2 ( ) , V
x
=
The current through the 1.2- resistor is 0.5i Ω
x
= 1A. The voltage across the 12-
resistor is 1 x 4.8 = 4.8 V. Hence the power is

p
v
R
W = = =
2 2
4 8
12
192
.
.

Chapter 2, Solution 24

(a) I
0
=
2 1
R R
V
s
+

α − =
0
V I
0 ( )
4 3
R R
=
4 3
4 3
2 1
0
R R
R R
R R
V
+

+

α

( )( )
4 3 2 1
4 3 0
R R R R
R R
Vs + +
V −
=
α

(b) If R
1
= R
2
= R
3

= R
4
= R,

10
4 2
R
R 2 V
V
S
0
=
α
= ⋅
α
= α = 40

Chapter 2, Solution 25

V
0
= 5 x 10
-3
x 10 x 10
3
= 50V

Using current division,

I
20
=
+
) 50 01 . 0 (
20 5
x =
5
0.1 A

V
20
= 20 x 0.1 kV = 2 kV

p
20
= I
20
V
20
= 0.2 kW

Chapter 2, Solution 26

V
0
= 5 x 10
-3
x 10 x 10
3
= 50V

Using current division,

I
20
=
+
) 50 01 . 0 (
20 5
x =
5
0.1 A

V
20
= 20 x 0.1 kV = 2 kV

p
20
= I
20
V
20
= 0.2 kW

Chapter 2, Solution 27

Using current division,

i
1
= =
+
) 20 (
6 4
4
8 A

i
2
= =
+
) 20 (
6 4
6
12 A

Chapter 2, Solution 28

We first combine the two resistors in parallel

= 10 15 6 Ω

We now apply voltage division,

v
1
= =
+
) 40 (
6 14
14
20 V

v
2
= v
3
= =
+
) 40 (
6 14
6
12 V

Hence, v
1
= 28 V, v
2
= 12 V, v
s
= 12 V

Chapter 2, Solution 29

The series combination of 6 Ω and 3 Ω resistors is shorted. Hence

i
2
= 0 = v
2

v
1
= 12, i
1
= =
4
12
3 A

Hence v
1
= 12 V, i
1
= 3 A, i
2
= 0 = v
2

Chapter 2, Solution 30

i
+
v
-
8 Ω
6 Ω

i
1

9A
4 Ω

By current division, =
+
= ) 9 (
12 6
12
i 6 A

4 x 3 = = = = − =
1 1
i 4 v , A 3 6 9 i 12 V

p
6
= 1
2
R = 36 x 6 = 216 W

Chapter 2, Solution 31

The 5 Ω resistor is in series with the combination of Ω = + 5 ) 6 4 ( 10 .

Hence by the voltage division principle,

=
+
= ) V 20 (
5 5
5
v 10 V

by ohm's law,

=
+
=
+
=
6 4
10
6 4
v
i 1 A

p
p
= i
2
R = (1)
2
(4) = 4 W

Chapter 2, Solution 32

We first combine resistors in parallel.

= 30 20 =
50
30 x 20
12 Ω

= 40 10 =
50
40 x 10
8 Ω

Using current division principle,
A 12 ) 20 (
20
12
i i , A 8 ) 20 (
12 8
8
i i
4 3 2 1
= = + =
+
= +

= = ) 8 (
50
20
i
1
3.2 A

= = ) 8 (
50
30
i
2
4.8 A

= = ) 12 (
50
10
i
3
2.4A

= = ) 12 (
50
40
i
4
9.6 A

Chapter 2, Solution 33

Combining the conductance leads to the equivalent circuit below

i
+
v
-
9A 1S
i
+
v
-
4S
4S
1S

9A
2S

= S S 3 6 25
9
3 x 6
= and 25 + 25 = 4 S
Using current division,

=
+
= ) 9 (
2
1
1
1
i 6 A, v = 3(1) = 3 V
Chapter 2, Solution 34

By parallel and series combinations, the circuit is reduced to the one below:

-
+
+
v
1
-
8 Ω i
1
= + ) 13 2 ( 10 Ω = 6
25
15 10x

= + ) 6 4 ( 15 Ω = 6
25
15 15x

28V
6 Ω
Ω = + 6 ) 6 6 ( 12

Thus i
1
= =
+ 6 8
28
2 A and v
1
= 6i
1
= 12 V

We now work backward to get i
2
and v
2
.

+
6V

-
1A
1A 6 Ω
-
+
+
12V
-
12 Ω
8 Ω i
1
= 2A

28V 6 Ω

0.6A
+
3.6V

-
4 Ω
+
6V

-
1A
1A
15 Ω
6 Ω
-
+
+
12V
-
12 Ω
8 Ω i
1
= 2A

28V 6 Ω

Thus, v
2
= , 12 3 ) 6 3 (
15
13
⋅ = ⋅ i
2
= 24 . 0
13
v
2
=

p
2
= i
2
R = (0.24)
2
(2) = 0.1152 W

i
1
= 2 A, i
2
= 0.24 A, v
1
= 12 V, v
2
= 3.12 V, p
2
= 0.1152 W

Chapter 2, Solution 35

i
20 Ω
+
V
0
-
i
2
a b
5 Ω
30 Ω 70 Ω
I
0
i
1
+
V
1
-
-
+

50V

Combining the versions in parallel,

= 30 70 Ω = 21
100
30 x 70
, = 15 20 =
25
5 x 20
4 Ω

i = =
+ 4 21
50
2 A

v
i
= 21i = 42 V, v
0
= 4i = 8 V
i
1
= =
70
v
1
0.6 A, i
2
= =
20
v
2
0.4 A

At node a, KCL must be satisfied

i
1
= i
2
+ I
0
0.6 = 0.4 + I
0
I
0
= 0.2 A

Hence v
0
= 8 V and I
0
= 0.2A

Chapter 2, Solution 36

The 8-Ω resistor is shorted. No current flows through the 1-Ω resistor. Hence v
0

is the voltage across the 6Ω resistor.

I
0
= = =
+ 4
4
16 3 2
4
1 A

v
0
= I
0
( ) = =
0
I 2 6 3 2 V

Chapter 2, Solution 37

Let I = current through the 16Ω resistor. If 4 V is the voltage drop across the R 6
combination, then 20 - 4 = 16 V in the voltage drop across the 16Ω resistor.
Hence, I = =
16
16
1 A.
But I = 1
R 6 16
20
=
+
4 = = R 6
R 6
R 6
+
R = 12 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 38

Let I
0
= current through the 6Ω resistor. Since 6Ω and 3Ω resistors are in parallel.

6I
0
= 2 x 3 R
0
= 1 A

The total current through the 4Ω resistor = 1 + 2 = 3 A.

Hence
v
S
= (2 + 4 + 3 2 ) (3 A) = 24 V

I = =
v

10
S
2.4 A

Chapter 2, Solution 39
(a) R
eq
= = 0 R 0
(b) R
eq
= = + R R R R = +
2
R
2
R
R
(c) R
eq
= = = + + R 2 R 2 ) R R ( ) R R ( R
(d) R
eq
= ) R
2
1
R ( R 3 ) R R R ( R + = + 3
= =
+ R
2
3
R 3
R
2
3
Rx 3
R
(e) R
eq
= R 3 R 3 R 2 R =

 ⋅
R 3
R 2 R

= R 3 =
+
=
R
3
2
R 3
R
3
2
Rx 3
R
3
2
R
11
6

Chapter 2, Solution 40

Req = = + = + + 2 3 ) 3 6 2 ( 4 3 5Ω
I = =
5
10
q Re
=
10
2 A

Chapter 2, Solution 41

Let R
0
= combination of three 12Ω resistors in parallel

12
1
12
1
12
1
R
1
o
+ + = R
o
= 4

) R 14 ( 60 30 ) R R 10 ( 60 30 R
0 eq
+ + = + + + =

R 74
) R 14 ( 60
30
+
+
+ = 50 74 + R = 42 + 3R

or R = 16 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 42

(a) R
ab
= = = + = +
25
20 x 5
) 12 8 ( 5 ) 30 20 8 ( 5 4 Ω

(b) R
ab
= = + + = + + = + + + + 5 . 2 2 2 5 5 4 4 2 ) 4 6 ( 10 5 8 ) 3 5 ( 4 2 6.5 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 43

(a) R
ab
= = + = + = + 8 4
50
400
25
20 x 5
40 10 20 5 12 Ω

(b) = 30 20 60 Ω = = 

+ +

10
6
60
30
1
20
1
60
1
1

R
ab
= ) 10 10 ( + 80 =
+
=
100
20 80
16 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 44

(a) Convert T to Y and obtain

R
x x x
1
20 20 20 10 10 20
10
800
10
80 =
+ +
= = Ω
R R
2 3
800
20
40 = = = Ω
The circuit becomes that shown below.

R
1

a

R
3
R
2
5Ω

b

R
1
//0 = 0, R
3
//5 = 40//5 = 4.444Ω
R R
ab
= + = =
2
0 4 444 40 4 444 4 / /( . ) / / . Ω

(b) 30//(20+50) = 30//70 = 21 Ω
Convert the T to Y and obtain
R
x x x
1
20 10 10 40 40 20
40
1400
40
35 =
+ +
= = Ω
R
2
1400
20
70 = = Ω , R
3
1400
10
140 = = Ω
The circuit is reduced to that shown below.

11Ω R
1

R
2
R
3

30Ω 21Ω

21Ω

15Ω
Combining the resistors in parallel

R
1
//15 =35//15=10.5, 30//R
2
=30//70 = 21
leads to the circuit below.

11 10.5Ω Ω

21Ω 140Ω

21Ω 21Ω

Coverting the T to Y leads to the circuit below.

11Ω 10.5Ω

R
4

R
5
R
6
21Ω

R
x x x
R
4 6
21 140 140 21 21 21
21
6321
21
301 =
+ +
= = = Ω

R
5
6321
140
4515 = = .
10.5//301 = 10.15, 301//21 = 19.63
R
5
//(10.15 +19.63) = 45.15//29.78 = 17.94
R
ab
= + = 11 17 94 28 94 . . Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 45
(a) 10//40 = 8, 20//30 = 12, 8//12 = 4.8

R
ab
= + + = 5 50 4 8 59 8 . . Ω

(b) 12 and 60 ohm resistors are in parallel. Hence, 12//60 = 10 ohm. This 10 ohm
and 20 ohm are in series to give 30 ohm. This is in parallel with 30 ohm to give
30//30 = 15 ohm. And 25//(15+10) = 12.5. Thus
R
ab
= + + = 5 12 8 15 32 5 . . Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 46

(a) R
ab
= = + + 20 60 40 70 30
80
20 60
40
100
70 x 30 +
+ +

= + + 15 40 21 = 76 Ω

(b) The 10-Ω, 50-Ω, 70-Ω, and 80-Ω resistors are shorted.

= 30 20 Ω =12
50
30 x 20

40 = 60 24
100
60 x
=
40

R
ab
= 8 + 12 + 24 + 6 + 0 + 4 = 54 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 47

= 20 5 Ω = 4
25
20 x 5

6 = 3 Ω = 2
9
3 x 6

8 Ω
a b
10 Ω

2 Ω
4 Ω

R
ab
= 10 + 4 + 2 + 8 = 24 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 48

(a) R
a
= 30
10
100 100 100
R
R R R R R R
3
1 3 3 2 2 1
=
+ +
=
+ +

R
a
= R
b
= R
c
= 30 Ω

(b) Ω = =
+ +
= 3 . 103
30
3100
30
50 x 20 50 x 30 20 x 30
R
a

, 155
20
3100
R
b
Ω = = Ω = = 62
50
3100
R
c

R
a
= 103.3 Ω, R
b
= 155 Ω, R
c
= 62 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 49

(a) R
1
= Ω =
+
=
+ +
4
36
12 12
R R R
R R
c b a
c a

R
1
= R
2
= R
3
= 4 Ω

(b) Ω =
+ +
= 18
10 30 60
30 x 60
R
1

Ω = = 6
100
10 x 60
R
2

Ω = = 3
100
10 x 30
R
3

R
1
= 18Ω, R
2
= 6Ω, R
3
= 3Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 50

Using = 3R

R
Y
= 3R, we obtain the equivalent circuit shown below:

3R 30mA
R
R
3R
3R
3R
30mA

3R/2

= R R 3 R
4
3
R 4
RxR 3
=
) R 4 /( 3 ) R 4 /( ) RxR 3 ( R = 3

R R
2
3
R 3
R
2
3
Rx 3
R
2
3
R 3 R
4
3
R
4
3
R 3
= +
= =

+
P = I
2
R 800 x 10
-3
= (30 x 10
-3
)
2
R

R = 889 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 51

(a) Ω =15 30 30 and Ω = = 12 ) 50 /( 20 x 30 20 30
R
ab
= = = + ) 39 /( 24 x 15 ) 12 12 ( 15 9.31 Ω

b
15 Ω
a
20 Ω
30 Ω
b
a
20 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω

12 Ω

12 Ω

(b) Converting the T-subnetwork into its equivalent network gives ∆

R
a'b'
= 10x20 + 20x5 + 5x10/(5) = 350/(5) = 70 Ω
R
b'c'
= 350/(10) = 35Ω, Ra'c' = 350/(20) = 17.5 Ω

Also Ω = = 21 ) 100 /( 70 x 30 70 30 and 35/(15) = 35x15/(50) = 10.5
R
ab
= 25 + 5 . 31 5 . 17 25 ) 5 . 10 21 ( 5 . + = + 17
R
ab
= 36.25 Ω

b’
c’ c’
b
a
15 Ω 35 Ω 17.5 Ω
25 Ω 70 Ω
a’
b
a
30 Ω
25 Ω
5 Ω
10 Ω
15 Ω
20 Ω
30 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 52

(a) We first convert from T to ∆.

R
3
R
2
b
a
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
b
a
200 Ω
200 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω

R
1

Ω = =
+ +
= 800
100
80000
100
100 x 200 200 x 200 200 x 100
1
R

R
2
= R
3
= 80000/(200) = 400
But Ω = = 80
500
400 x 100
400 100
We connect the ∆ to Y.

R
a
= R
c
= Ω = =
+ + 3
400
960
000 , 64
800 80 80
800 x 80

R
c
R
b
b
a
R
a
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
b
a
800 Ω
80 Ω
80 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
R
b
= Ω =
3
20
960
80 x 80

We convert T to . ∆

R
3

R
2

b
a
500/3 Ω
500/3 Ω
R
1

b
a
500/3 Ω
500/3 Ω
320/3 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω

Ω = =
+ +
= 75 . 293
) 3 /( 320
) 3 /( 000 , 94
3
320
3
320
x 100
3
320
x 100 100 x 100
'
1
R

33 . 313
100
) 3 /( 000 , 94
R R
1
3
'
2
= = =

796 . 108
) 3 /( 1440
) 3 /( 500 x ) 3 /( 940
) 3 /( 500 ) 30 /( 940 = =

R
ab
= = =
36 . 511
6 . 217 x 75 . 293
) 796 . 108 x 2 ( 75 . 293 125 Ω

(b) Converting the T
s
to ∆
s
, we have the equivalent circuit below.

100 Ω

a
b
300 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω

100 Ω

100 Ω

b
a
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω

100 Ω

, 75 ) 400 /( 100 x 300 100 300 = = 100 ) 450 /( 150 x 300 ) 75 75 ( = = + 300
R
ab
= 100 + ) 400 /( 300 x 100 200 100 300 + = + 100
R
ab
= 2.75 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 53

(a) Converting one ∆ to T yields the equivalent circuit below:

20 Ω
b’
c’
a’
b
80 Ω
a
20 Ω
5 Ω
4 Ω
60 Ω
30 Ω

R
a'n
= , 4
50 10 40
10 x 40
Ω =
+ +
, 5
100
50 x 10
R
n ' b
Ω = = Ω = = 20
100
50 x 40
R
n ' c

R
ab
= 20 + 80 + 20 + 65 34 120 ) 5 60 ( ) 4 30 ( + = + +
R
ab
= 142.32 Ω

(a) We combine the resistor in series and in parallel.

Ω = = + 20
90
60 x 30
) 30 30 ( 30

We convert the balanced ∆s to Ts as shown below:

b
10 Ω
10 Ω 10 Ω
10 Ω
10 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
b
a
20 Ω
20 Ω 10 Ω
a

R
ab
= 10 + 40 20 20 10 ) 10 20 10 ( ) 10 10 + = + + + + (
R
ab
= 33.33 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 54

(a) R
ab
= + + + = + = 50 100 150 100 150 50 100 400 130 / /( ) / / Ω

(b) R
ab
= + + + = + = 60 100 150 100 150 60 100 400 140 / /( ) / / Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 55

We convert the T to . ∆

50 Ω
I
0
-
+
24 V
b
a
35 Ω
70 Ω
140 Ω
R
eq
-
+
24 V
60 Ω
b
a
20 Ω
40 Ω
10 Ω
20 Ω
I
0

60 Ω

70 Ω

R
eq
R
ab
= Ω = =
+ +
=
+ +
35
40
1400
40
20 x 10 10 x 40 40 x 20
R
R R R R R R
3
1 3 3 2 2 1

R
ac
= 1400/(10) = 140Ω, R
bc
= 1400/(40) = 35Ω
35 70 70 = and = 160 140 140x60/(200) = 42
R
eq
= Ω = + 0625 . 24 ) 42 35 ( 35
I
0
= 24/(R
ab
) = 0.9774A

Chapter 2, Solution 56

We need to find R
eq
and apply voltage division. We first tranform the Y network to ∆.

c
35 Ω
16 Ω
30 Ω
37.5 Ω
a b
30 Ω
45 Ω
R
eq
+
100 V
-
20 Ω
35 Ω
16 Ω
30 Ω
10 Ω
12 Ω
15 Ω
R
eq
+
100 V
-

20 Ω

R
ab
= Ω = =
+ +
5 . 37
12
450
12
15 x 12 12 x 10 10 x 15

R
ac
= 450/(10) = 45Ω, R
bc
= 450/(15) = 30Ω

Combining the resistors in parallel,

30||20 = (600/50) = 12 Ω,

37.5||30 = (37.5x30/67.5) = 16.667 Ω

35||45 = (35x45/80) = 19.688 Ω

R
eq
= 19.688||(12 + 16.667) = 11.672Ω

By voltage division,

v = 100
16 672 . 11
672 . 11
+
= 42.18 V

Chapter 2, Solution 57

4 Ω
e
c
f
a
b
d
36 Ω
7 Ω
27 Ω
2 Ω
18 Ω
28 Ω
10 Ω

1 Ω

14 Ω

R
ab
= Ω = =
+ +
18
12
216
12
6 x 8 8 x 12 12 x 6

R
ac
= 216/(8) = 27Ω, R
bc
= 36 Ω
R
de
= Ω =
+ +
7
8
56
8
4 x 8 8 x 2 2 x 4

R
ef
= 56/(4) = 14Ω, R
df
= 56/(2) = 28 Ω

Combining resistors in parallel,

, 368 . 7
38
280
28 10 Ω = = Ω = = 868 . 5
43
7 x 36
7 36
Ω = = 7 . 2
30
3 x 27
3 27

4 Ω
0.5964 Ω
3.977 Ω
1.829 Ω
4 Ω
7.568 Ω 14 Ω
2.7 Ω
14 Ω
18 Ω
5.868 Ω
7.568 Ω

Ω = =
+ +
= 829 . 1
567 . 26
7 . 2 x 18
867 . 5 7 . 2 18
7 . 2 x 18
R
an

Ω = = 977 . 3
567 . 26
868 . 5 x 18
R
bn

Ω = = 5904 . 0
567 . 26
7 . 2 x 868 . 5
R
cn

) 14 5964 . 0 ( ) 368 . 7 977 . 3 ( 829 . 1 4 R
eq
+ + + + =
= + 5964 . 14 346 . 11 829 . 5 = 12.21 Ω
i = 20/(R
eq
) = 1.64 A

Chapter 2, Solution 58

The resistor of the bulb is 120/(0.75) = 160Ω

2.25 A

1.5 A
40 Ω

0.75 A

80 Ω 160 Ω
+ 90 V -
+
120
-
+

V
S

Once the 160Ω and 80Ω resistors are in parallel, they have the same voltage 120V.
Hence the current through the 40Ω resistor is

40(0.75 + 1.5) = 2.25 x 40 = 90

Thus

v
s
= 90 + 120 = 210 V

Chapter 2, Solution 59

Total power p = 30 + 40 + 50 + 120 W = vi

or i = p/(v) = 120/(100) = 1.2 A

Chapter 2, Solution 60

p = iv i = p/(v)
i
30W
= 30/(100) = 0.3 A
i
40W
= 40/(100) = 0.4 A
i
50W
= 50/(100) = 0.5 A

Chapter 2, Solution 61

There are three possibilities

(a) Use R
1
and R
2
:
R = Ω = = 35 . 42 90 80 R R
2 1

p = i
2
R
i = 1.2A + 5% = 1.2 ± 0.06 = 1.26, 1.14A
p = 67.23W or 55.04W, cost = \$1.50

(b) Use R
1
and R
3
:
R = Ω = = 44 . 44 100 80 R R
3 1

p = I
2
R = 70.52W or 57.76W, cost = \$1.35

(c) Use R
2
and R
3
:
R = Ω = = 37 . 47 100 90 R R
3 2

p = I
2
R = 75.2W or 61.56W, cost = \$1.65

Note that cases (b) and (c) give p that exceed 70W that can be supplied.
Hence case (a) is the right choice, i.e.

R
1
and R
2

Chapter 2, Solution 62

p
A
= 110x8 = 880 W, p
B
= 110x2 = 220 W

Energy cost = \$0.06 x 360 x10 x (880 + 220)/1000 = \$237.60

Chapter 2, Solution 63

Use eq. (2.61),

R
n
= Ω =

=

04 . 0
10 x 2 5
100 x 10 x 2
R
I I
3
3
m
m
m
I

I
n
= I - I
m
= 4.998 A
p = ( I = 9992 . 0 ) 04 . 0 ( ) 998 . 4 R
2 2
n
= ≅ 1 W

Chapter 2, Solution 64

When R
x
= 0, i R = A 10
x
= Ω =11
10
110

When R
x
is maximum, i
x
= 1A Ω = = + 110
1
110
R
x
R
i.e., R
x
= 110 - R = 99 Ω
Thus, R = 11 Ω, R
x
= 99 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 65

= Ω − = − = k 1
mA 10
50
R
I
V
R
m
fs
fs
n
4 kΩ

Chapter 2, Solution 66

20 kΩ/V = sensitivity =
fs
I
1

i.e., I
fs
= A 50 V / k
20
µ = Ω
1

The intended resistance R
m
= Ω = Ω = k 200 ) V / k 20 ( 10
I
V
fs
fs

(a) = Ω −
µ
= − = k 200
A 50
V 50
R
i
V
R
m
fs
fs
n
800 kΩ
(b) p = = Ω µ = ) k 800 ( ) A 50 ( R I
2
n
2
fs
2 mW

Chapter 2, Solution 67

(a) By current division,

i
0
= 5/(5 + 5) (2 mA) = 1 mA
V
0
= (4 kΩ) i
0
= 4 x 10
3
x 10
-3
= 4 V

(b) . k 4 . 2 k 6 k 4 Ω = By current division,
mA 19 . 1 ) mA 2 (
5 4 . 2 1
5
i
'
0
=
+ +
=
= Ω = ) mA 19 . 1 )( k 4 . 2 ( v
'
0
2.857 V

(c) % error =
0
'
0 0
v
v v −
x 100% = = 100 x
4
143 . 1
28.57%
(d) . k 6 . 3 k 30 k 4 Ω = Ω By current division,
mA 042 . 1 ) mA 2 (
5 6 . 3 1
5
i
'
0
=
+ +
=
V 75 . 3 ) mA 042 . 1 )( k 6 . 3 ( v
'
0
= Ω
% error = = =

4
100 x 25 . 0
% 100 x
v
v v
0
'
0
6.25%

Chapter 2, Solution 68

(a) Ω = 60 24 40
i = =
+ 24 16
4
0.1 A
(b) =
+ +
=
24 1 16
4
i
'
0.09756 A
(c) % error = =

% 100 x
1 . 0
09756 . 0 1 . 0
2.44%

Chapter 2, Solution 69

With the voltmeter in place,

S
m 2 S 1
m 2
0
V
R R R R
R R
+ +
= V
where R
m
= 100 kΩ without the voltmeter,

S
S 2 1
2
0
V
R R R
R
+ +
= V

(a) When R
2
= 1 kΩ, Ω = k
101
100
R R
2 m

V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 101
100
101
100
1.278 V (with)
V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 1
1
1.29 V (without)
(b) When R
2
= 10 kΩ, Ω = = k 091 . 9
110
1000
R R
m 2

V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 091 . 9
091 . 9
9.30 V (with)
V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 10
10
10 V (without)
(c) When R
2
= 100 kΩ, Ω = k 50 R R
m 2

=
+
= ) 40 (
30 50
50
V
0
25 V (with)
V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 100
100
30.77 V (without)

Chapter 2, Solution 70

(a) Using voltage division,
v V
a
=
+
=
12
12 8
25 15 ( )
v V
b
=
+
=
10
10 15
25 10 ( )
v v v
ab a b
= − = V − = 15 10 5

(b)

+ 8kΩ 15kΩ
25 V
- a b

12kΩ 10kΩ

o

v v V v v v
a b ab a b
= = = V − = − = − 0 10 0 10 1 , , 0

Chapter 2, Solution 71

V
s R
L
R
1
+

i
L

Given that v
s
= 30 V, R
1
= 20 Ω, I
L
= 1 A, find R
L
.

v i R R R
v
i
R
s L L L
s
L
= +  →  = − = − = ( )
1 1
30
1
20 10Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 72

The system can be modeled as shown.

12A

+

9V R R ••• R
-

The n parallel resistors R give a combined resistance of R/n. Thus,

9 12
12
9
12 15
9
20 =  →  = = = x
R
n
n
xR x

Chapter 2, Solution 73

By the current division principle, the current through the ammeter will be
one-half its previous value when

R = 20 + R
x

65 = 20 + R
x
R
x
= 45 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 74

With the switch in high position,

6 = (0.01 + R
3
+ 0.02) x 5 R
3
= 1.17 Ω

At the medium position,

6 = (0.01 + R
2
+ R
3
+ 0.02) x 3 R
2
+ R
3
= 1.97

or R
2
= 1.97 - 1.17 = 0.8 Ω

At the low position,

6 = (0.01 + R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+ 0.02) x 1 R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
= 5.97
R
1
= 5.97 - 1.97 = 4 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 75
M
R 100 Ω
V
S
-
+

12 Ω

(a) When R
x
= 0, then
I
m
= I
fs
=
m
R R
t
+
R
2
=
m
fs
2
R
I
E
− = Ω = − k 9 . 19 100
10 x 1 . 0
2
3

(b) For half-scale deflection, I
m
= mA 05 . 0
2
I
fs
=
I
m
=
x m
R R R
E
+ +
R
x
= = Ω − = + −

k 20
10 x 05 . 0
2
) R R (
I
E
3
m
m
20 kΩ

Chapter 2, Solution 76

For series connection, R = 2 x 0.4Ω = 0.8Ω
= = =
8 . 0
) 120 (
R
V
2 2
p 18 kΩ (low)
For parallel connection, R = 1/2 x 0.4Ω = 0.2Ω
p = =
2 . 0
) 120
=
(
R
V

2 2
72 kW (high)

Chapter 2, Solution 77

(a) 5 Ω = 20 20 20 20 10 = 10
i.e., four 20 Ω resistors in parallel.

(b) 311.8 = 300 + 10 + 1.8 = 300 + 8 . 1 20 20 +
i.e., one 300Ω resistor in series with 1.8Ω resistor and
a parallel combination of two 20Ω resistors.

(c) 40kΩ = 12kΩ + 28kΩ = k 50 k 56 k 24 24 +
i.e., Two 24kΩ resistors in parallel connected in series with two
50kΩ resistors in parallel.

(d) 42.32kΩ = 42l + 320
= 24k + 28k = 320
= 24k = 20 300 k 56 k + + 56
i.e., A series combination of 20Ω resistor, 300Ω resistor, 24kΩ
resistor and a parallel combination of two 56kΩ resistors.
Chapter 2, Solution 78

The equivalent circuit is shown below:

R
+
V
0
-
-
+

V
S
(1-α)R

V
0
=
S 0 S
V R ) 1 ( V
R ) 1 ( R
R ) 1
α − =
α − +
α − (

R ) 1 (
V
V
S
0
α − =

Chapter 2, Solution 79

Since p = v
2
/R, the resistance of the sharpener is
R = v
2
/(p) = 6
2
/(240 x 10
-3
) = 150Ω
I = p/(v) = 240 mW/(6V) = 40 mA

Since R and R
x
are in series, I flows through both.

IR
x
= V
x
= 9 - 6 = 3 V
R
x
= 3/(I) = 3/(40 mA) = 3000/(40) = 75 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 80

The amplifier can be modeled as a voltage source and the loudspeaker as a resistor:

V

-
+
Case 1

R
1
-
+ V

R
2

Hence ,
R
V
p
2
=
2
1
1
2
R
R
p
p
= = = = ) 12 (
4
10
p
R
R
1
2
1
2
p 30 W
Case 2

Chapter 2, Solution 81

Let R
1
and R
2
be in kΩ.

5 R R
2 1 eq
+ = R (1)

1 2
2
S
0
R R 5
R 5
V
V
+
= (2)

From (1) and (2),
40
R 5
05 .
1
= 0 2 =
2
2
2
R 5
R 5
R 5
+
= or R
2
= 3.33 kΩ
From (1), 40 = R
1
+ 2 R
1
= 38 kΩ

Thus R
1
= 38 kΩ, R
2
= 3.33 kΩ

Chapter 2, Solution 82

(a)
10 Ω

1 2
10 Ω
40 Ω

80 Ω

R
12

R
12
= 80 + = + = +
6
50
80 ) 40 10 ( 10 88.33 Ω

(b)
3
20 Ω
10 Ω
10 Ω
80 Ω
40 Ω

R
13

1

R
13
= 80 + = + = + + 50 10 100 20 ) 40 10 ( 10 108.33 Ω

20 Ω
10 Ω
10 Ω
1
4
80 Ω
(c)

R
14
40 Ω

R
14
= = + + = + + + + 20 0 80 20 ) 10 40 10 ( 0 80 100 Ω

Chapter 2, Solution 83

The voltage across the tube is 2 x 60 mV = 0.06 V, which is negligible
compared with 24 V. Ignoring this voltage amp, we can calculate the
current through the devices.

I
1
= mA 5
V 9
mW
V
1
1
=
45 p
=
I
2
= mA 20
24
mW
V
2
2
=
480 p
=

60 mA

i
2
= 20 mA

R
1
i
R2
i
R1
i
1
= 5 mA
R
2
-
+

24 V

By applying KCL, we obtain

and mA 40 20 60 I
1
R
= − = mA 35 5 40 I
2
R
= − =

Hence, R
1
R
I
1
= 24 - 9 = 15 V = =
mA 40
V 15
R
1
375 Ω
V 9 R I
2 R
2
= = =
mA 35
V 9
2
R 257.14 Ω
Chapter 3, Solution 1.

8 Ω
v
2

2 Ω
40 Ω v
1

6 A
10 A

At node 1,

6 = v
1
/(8) + (v
1
- v
2
)/4 48 = 3v
1
- 2v
2
(1)

At node 2,

v
1
- v
2
/4 = v
2
/2 + 10 40 = v
1
- 3v
2
(2)

Solving (1) and (2),

v
1
= 9.143V, v
2
= -10.286 V

P
8Ω
=
( )
= =
8
143 . 9
8
v
2 2
1
10.45 W

P
4Ω
=
( )
=

4
v v
2
2 1
94.37 W

P
2Ω
=
( )
=
=
=
2
286 . 10
2
v
2 1
2
52.9 W

Chapter 3, Solution 2

At node 1,

2
v v
6
5
v
10
v
2 1 1 1

+ = −

60 = - 8v
1
+ 5v
2
(1)
At node 2,

2
v v
6 3
4
v
2 1 2

+ + = 36 = - 2v
1
+ 3v
2
(2)
Solving (1) and (2),

v
1
= 0 V, v
2
= 12 V
Chapter 3, Solution 3

Applying KCL to the upper node,

10 =
60
v
2
30
v
20
v
10
v
0 o o
+ + +
0
+ v
0
= 40 V

i
1
= =
10
0
v
4 A , i
2
= =
20
v
0
2 A, i
3
= =
30
v
0
1.33 A, i
4
= =
60
v
0
67 mA

Chapter 3, Solution 4

At node 1,

4 + 2 = v
1
/(5) + v
1
/(10) v
1
= 20

At node 2,

5 - 2 = v
2
/(10) + v
2
/(5) v
2
= 10

i
1
= v
1
/(5) = 4 A, i
2
= v
1
/(10) = 2 A, i
3
= v
2
/(10) = 1 A, i
4
= v
2
/(5) = 2 A

Chapter 3, Solution 5

Apply KCL to the top node.

k 4
v
k 6
v 20
k 2
v 30
0 0 0
=

+

v
0
= 20 V
i
1
10 Ω 10 Ω
2A
i
4
i
3
v
1
v
2
i
2
4 A
5 Ω 5 Ω
5 A

Chapter 3, Solution 6
i
1
+ i
2
+ i
3
= 0 0
2
10 v
6
v
4
12 v
0 0 2
=

+ +

or v
0
= 8.727 V

Chapter 3, Solution 7

At node a,
b a
b a a a
V V
V V V V
3 6 10
10 15 30
10
− = ÷→ ÷

+ =

(1)
At node b,
b a
b b b a
V V
V V V V
7 2 24 0
5
9
20
12
10
− = ÷→ ÷ =
− −
+

+

(2)
Solving (1) and (2) leads to
V
a
= -0.556 V, V
b
= -3.444V

Chapter 3, Solution 8

i
2
5 Ω
2 Ω
i
1
3 Ω v
1
i
3
1 Ω
+

4V
0

3V

+

+
V
0

i
1
+ i
2
+ i
3
= 0 0
5
v 4 v
1
3 v
5
v
0 1 1 1
=

+

+
But
1 0
v
5
2
v = so that v
1
+ 5v
1
- 15 + v
1
- 0 v
5
8
1
=
or v
1
= 15x5/(27) = 2.778 V, therefore v
o
= 2v
1
/5 = 1.1111 V

Chapter 3, Solution 9

+
v
1

i
2
6 Ω i
1
3 Ω v
1
i
3
8 Ω
+

+ v
0

2v
0

12V

+

At the non-reference node,

6
v 2 v
8
v
3
v
0 1 1 1
12 −
+ =

(1)

But
-12 + v
0
+ v
1
= 0 v
0
= 12 - v
1
(2)

Substituting (2) into (1),

6
24 v 3
8
v
3
v
1 1 1

+ =
− 12
v
0
= 3.652 V

Chapter 3, Solution 10

At node 1,

8
v
4
1
v v
1 1 2
+ =

32 = -v
1
+ 8v
2
- 8v
0
(1)
1 Ω
4A
2i
0
i
0

v
1

v
0

8 Ω 2 Ω

v
2

4 Ω

At node 0,

0
0
I 2
2
v
+ = 4 and
8
v
I
1
0
= 16 = 2v
0
+ v
1
(2)

At node 2,

2I
0
=
4
v
1
v
2 1 2
+
− v
and
8
v
1
0
= I v
2

= v
1
(3)

From (1), (2) and (3), v
0
= 24 V, but from (2) we get
i
o
= 6 2
4
24
2
2
2
v
4
o
− = − =

= - 4 A

Chapter 3, Solution 11

i
3
6 Ω
v i
1
i
2
4 Ω 3 Ω

+

10 V
5 A

Note that i
2
= -5A. At the non-reference node

6
v
5
4
v 10
= +

v = 18

i
1
= =

4
v 10
-2 A, i
2
= -5 A

Chapter 3, Solution 12

i
3
40 Ω
v
1
v
2
10 Ω 20 Ω

+
5 A
50 Ω

24 V

At node 1,
40
0 v
20
v v
10
v 24
1 2 1 1

+

=

96 = 7v
1
- 2v
2
(1)

At node 2,
50
v
20
v v
2 2 1
=

+ 5 500 = -5v
1
+ 7v
2
(2)

Solving (1) and (2) gives,

v
1
= 42.87 V, v
2
= 102.05 V
= =
40
v
i
1
1
1.072 A, v
2
= =
50
v
2
2.041 A

Chapter 3, Solution 13
At node number 2, [(v
2
+ 2) – 0]/10 + v
2
/4 = 3 or v
2
= 8 volts
But, I = [(v
2
+ 2) – 0]/10 = (8 + 2)/10 = 1 amp and v
1
= 8x1 = 8volts

Chapter 3, Solution 14
1 Ω 2 Ω
4 Ω
v
0

v
1

5 A
8 Ω
20 V

+
40 V

+

At node 1,
1
v 40
5
2
v v
0 0 1

= +

v
1
+ v
0
= 70 (1)

At node 0,
8
20 v
4
v
5
2
v v
0 0 0 1
+
+ = +

4v
1
- 7v
0
= -20 (2)

Solving (1) and (2), v
0
= 20 V

Chapter 3, Solution 15
1 Ω 2 Ω
4 Ω
v
0

v
1

5 A
8 Ω
20 V

+
40 V

+

Nodes 1 and 2 form a supernode so that v
1
= v
2
+ 10 (1)

At the supernode, 2 + 6v
1
+ 5v
2
= 3 (v
3
- v
2
) 2 + 6v
1
+ 8v
2
= 3v
3
(2)

At node 3, 2 + 4 = 3 (v
3
- v
2
) v
3
= v
2
+ 2 (3)

Substituting (1) and (3) into (2),

2 + 6v
2
+ 60 + 8v
2
= 3v
2
+ 6 v
2
=
11
56 −

v
1
= v
2
+ 10 =
11
54

i
0
= 6v
i
= 29.45 A

P
65
= =
|
.
|

\
|
= = 6
11
54
G v
R
2
2
1
2
1
v
144.6 W
P
55
= = |
.
|

\
| −
= 5
11
56
G v
2
2
2
129.6 W

P
35
= ( ) = = − 3 ) 2 ( G v v
2 2
3 L
12 W

Chapter 3, Solution 16

2 S

+
v
0

13 V

+
i
0
1 S 4 S
8 S
v
1
v
2
v
3

2 A

At the supernode,

2 = v
1
+ 2 (v
1
- v
3
) + 8(v
2
– v
3
) + 4v
2
, which leads to 2 = 3v
1
+ 12v
2
- 10v
3
(1)

But
v
1
= v
2
+ 2v
0
and v
0
= v
2
.

Hence
v
1
= 3v
2
(2)
v
3
= 13V (3)

Substituting (2) and (3) with (1) gives,

v
1
= 18.858 V, v
2
= 6.286 V, v
3
= 13 V

Chapter 3, Solution 17

60 V

i
0
3i
0
2 Ω
10 Ω
4 Ω
60 V

+

8 Ω

At node 1,
2
v v
8
v
4
v 60
2 1 1 1

+ =

120 = 7v
1
- 4v
2
(1)
At node 2, 3i
0
+ 0
2
v v
10
v 60
2 1 2
=

+

But i
0
= .
4
v 60
1

Hence

( )
0
2
v v
10
v 60
4
v 60 3
2 1 2 1
=

+

+

1020 = 5v
1
- 12v
2
(2)

Solving (1) and (2) gives v
1
= 53.08 V. Hence i
0
= =

4
v 60
1
1.73 A

Chapter 3, Solution 18

+
v
3

+
v
1

10 V

– +
v
1
v
2
2 Ω 2 Ω
4 Ω
8 Ω
v
3
5 A

(a) (b)

At node 2, in Fig. (a), 5 =
2
v v
2
v v
3 2 1 2

+

10 = - v
1
+ 2v
2
- v
3
(1)

At the supernode,
8
v
4
v
2
v v
2
v v
3 1 3 2 1 2
+ =

+

40 = 2v
1
+ v
3
(2)

From Fig. (b), - v
1
- 10 + v
3
= 0 v
3
= v
1
+ 10 (3)

Solving (1) to (3), we obtain v
1
= 10 V, v
2
= 20 V = v
3

Chapter 3, Solution 19

At node 1,

3 2 1
1 2 1 3 1
4 7 16
4 8 2
3 5 V V V
V V V V V
− − = ÷→ ÷ +

+

+ = (1)
At node 2,

3 2 1
3 2 2 2 1
2 7 0
4 2 8
V V V
V V V V V
− + − = ÷→ ÷

+ =

(2)
At node 3,

3 2 1
3 2 3 1
3
7 2 4 36 0
4 2 8
12
3 V V V
V V V V
V
− + = − ÷→ ÷ =

+

+

+ (3)
From (1) to (3),

B AV
V
V
V
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

− −
− −
36
0
16
7 2 4
2 7 1
4 1 7
3
2
1

Using MATLAB,

V 267 . 12 V, 933 . 4 V, 10
267 . 12
933 . 4
10
3 2 1
1
= = = ÷→ ÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =

V V V B A V

Chapter 3, Solution 20

Nodes 1 and 2 form a supernode; so do nodes 1 and 3. Hence
0 4 0
4 1 4
3 2 1
3 2 1
= + + ÷→ ÷ = + + V V V
V V V
(1)

.
V
1 .
V
2
2Ω V
3

4Ω 1Ω 4Ω

Between nodes 1 and 3,
12 0 12
1 3 3 1
− = ÷→ ÷ = + + − V V V V (2)
Similarly, between nodes 1 and 2,
(3) i V V 2
2 1
+ =
But i . Combining this with (2) and (3) gives 4 /
3
V =
. V (4) 2 / 6
1 2
V + =

Solving (1), (2), and (4) leads to

V 15 V, 5 . 4 V, 3
3 2 1
− = = − = V V V

Chapter 3, Solution 21

4 kΩ
2 kΩ
+
v
0

3v
0
v
1
v
2
v
3
1 kΩ
+
3 mA
3v
0
+
v
2

+
v
3

+

(b)

(a)

Let v
3
be the voltage between the 2kΩ resistor and the voltage-controlled voltage source.
At node 1,

2000
v v
4000
v v
10 x 3
3 1 2 1 3

+

=

12 = 3v
1
- v
2
- 2v
3
(1)
At node 2,

1
v
2
v v
4
v v
2 3 1 2 1
=

+

3v
1
- 5v
2
- 2v
3
= 0 (2)

Note that v
0
= v
2
. We now apply KVL in Fig. (b)

- v
3
- 3v
2
+ v
2
= 0 v
3
= - 2v
2
(3)

From (1) to (3),

v
1
= 1 V, v
2
= 3 V
Chapter 3, Solution 22

At node 1,
8
v v
3
4
v
2
v
0 1 1 0
12 −
+ + =

24 = 7v
1
- v
2
(1)

At node 2, 3 +
1
v 5 v
8
v v
2 2 2 1
+
=

But, v
1
= 12 - v
1

Hence, 24 + v
1
- v
2
= 8 (v
2
+ 60 + 5v
1
) = 4 V

456 = 41v
1
- 9v
2
(2)

Solving (1) and (2),

v
1
= - 10.91 V, v
2
= - 100.36 V

Chapter 3, Solution 23

At the supernode, 5 + 2 =
5
v
10
v
2 1
+ 70 = v
1
+ 2v
2
(1)

Considering Fig. (b), - v
1
- 8 + v
2
= 0 v
2
= v
1
+ 8 (2)

Solving (1) and (2),

v
1
= 18 V, v
2
= 26 V

+
v
1

5 Ω 10 Ω
v
1
v
2
8 V

– +
5 A
2 A

+
v
2

(b) (a)

Chapter 3, Solution 24

6mA

1 kΩ 2 kΩ 3 kΩ
V
1
V
2
+ i
o -
30V 15V
- 4 kΩ 5 kΩ +

At node 1,
2 1
2 1 1 1
2 7 96
2 4
6
1
30
V V
V V V V
− = ÷→ ÷

+ + =

(1)
At node 2,
2 1
1 2 2 2
31 15 30
2 5 3
) 15 (
6 V V
V V V V
+ − = ÷→ ÷

+ =
− −
+ (2)
Solving (1) and (2) gives V
1
=16.24. Hence
i
o =
V
1
/4 = 4.06 mA

Chapter 3, Solution 25

Using nodal analysis,
1 Ω
v
0

2 Ω
4 Ω
2 Ω
10V

+

+
40V

+
i
0

20V

4
0 v
2
v 10
2
v 40
1
v 20
0 0 0 0

=

+

+

v
0
= 20V

i
0
=
1
v 20
0

= 0 A
Chapter 3, Solution 26

At node 1,

3 2 1
2 1 3 1 1
2 4 7 45
5 10
3
20
15
V V V
V V V V V
− − = − ÷→ ÷

+

+ =

(1)
At node 2,
5 5
4
5
3 2 2 2 1
V V V I V V
o

=

+

(2)
But
10
3 1
V V
I
o

= . Hence, (2) becomes
3 2 1
3 15 7 0 V V V + − = (3)
At node 3,
3 2 1
3 2 3 3 1
5 2 10 0
5 5
10
10
3 V V V
V V V V V
− + = − ÷→ ÷ =

+
− −
+

+ (4)
Putting (1), (3), and (4) in matrix form produces

B AV
V
V
V
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

− −
10
0
45
5 2 1
3 15 7
2 4 7
3
2
1

Using MATLAB leads to

|
|
|
.
|

\
|

= =

96 . 1
982 . 4
835 . 9
1
B A V
Thus,
V 95 . 1 V, 982 . 4 V, 835 . 9
3 2 1
− = − = − = V V V

Chapter 3, Solution 27

At node 1,

2 = 2v
1
+ v
1
– v
2
+ (v
1
– v
3
)4 + 3i
0
, i
0
= 4v
2
. Hence,

2 = 7v
1
+ 11v
2
– 4v
3
(1)
At node 2,

v
1
– v
2
= 4v
2
+ v
2
– v
3
0 = – v
1
+ 6v
2
– v
3
(2)

At node 3,
2v
3
= 4 + v
2
– v
3
+ 12v
2
+ 4(v
1
– v
3
)

or – 4 = 4v
1
+ 13v
2
– 7v
3
(3)

In matrix form,

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

4
0
2
v
v
v
7 13 4
1 6 1
4 11 7
3
2
1

, 176
7 13 4
1 6 1
4 11 7
=

= ∆ 110
7 13 4
1 6 0
4 11 2
1
=
− −

= ∆

, 66
7 4 4
1 0 1
4 2 7
2
=
− −

= ∆ 286
4 13 4
0 6 1
2 11 7
3
=

− = ∆

v
1
= , V 625 . 0
176
110
1
= =

v
2
= V 375 . 0
176
66
2
= =

v
3
= . V 625 . 1
176
286
3
= =

v
1
= 625 mV, v
2
= 375 mV, v
3
= 1.625 V.

Chapter 3, Solution 28

At node c,
d c b
c b c c d
V V V
V V V V V
2 11 5 0
5 4 10
− + − = ÷→ ÷ +

=

(1)
At node b,
c b a
b b c b a
V V V
V V V V V
2 4 45
8 4 8
45
+ − = − ÷→ ÷ =

+
− +
(2)
At node a,
d b a
b a a d a
V V V
V V V V V
4 2 7 30 0
8
45
16 4
30
− − = ÷→ ÷ =
− +
+ +
− −
(3)
At node d,
d c a
c d d d a
V V V
V V V V V
7 2 5 150
10 20 4
30
− + = ÷→ ÷

+ =
− −
(4)
In matrix form, (1) to (4) become
B AV
V
V
V
V
d
c
b
a
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

− −

− −
150
30
45
0
7 2 0 5
4 0 2 7
0 2 4 1
2 11 5 0

We use MATLAB to invert A and obtain

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

= =

17 . 29
736 . 1
847 . 7
14 . 10
1
B A V
Thus,
V 17 . 29 V, 736 . 1 V, 847 . 7 V, 14 . 10 − = − = = − =
d c b a
V V V V

Chapter 3, Solution 29

At node 1,
4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1
4 5 0 2 5 V V V V V V V V − − = − ÷→ ÷ = − + + − + (1)
At node 2,
3 2 1 3 2 2 2 1
4 7 0 0 ) ( 4 2 V V V V V V V V − + − = ÷→ ÷ = − + = − (2)
At node 3,
4 3 2 4 3 3 2
5 4 6 ) ( 4 6 V V V V V V V − + − = ÷→ ÷ − = − + (3)
At node 4,
4 3 1 4 4 1 4 3
5 2 3 2 V V V V V V V V + − − = ÷→ ÷ = − + − + (4)
In matrix form, (1) to (4) become
B AV
V
V
V
V
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
| −
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− −
− −
− −
− −
2
6
0
5
5 1 0 1
1 5 4 0
0 4 7 1
1 0 1 4
4
3
2
1
Using MATLAB,

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
| −
= =

7076 . 0
309 . 2
209 . 1
7708 . 0
1
B A V
i.e.
V 7076 . 0 V, 309 . 2 V, 209 . 1 V, 7708 . 0
4 3 2 1
= = = − = V V V V

Chapter 3, Solution 30

v
1
10 Ω
20 Ω
80 Ω
40 Ω
1

v
0
I
0
2I
0
2
v
2
4v
0
120 V
+

+
– +

100 V

At node 1,

20
v v 4
10
v 100
40
v v
1 o 1 2 1

+

=

(1)

But, v
o
= 120 + v
2
v
2
= v
o
– 120. Hence (1) becomes

7v
1
– 9v
o
= 280 (2)

At node 2,
I
o
+ 2I
o
=
80
0 v
o

80
v
40
v 120 v
3
o o 1
= |
.
|

\
|
− +

or 6v
1
– 7v
o
= -720 (3)

from (2) and (3),
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

720
280
v
v
7 6
9 7
o
1

5 54 49
7 6
9 7
= + − =

= ∆

8440
7 720
9 280
1
− =
− −

= ∆ , 6720
720 6
280 7
2
− =

= ∆

v
1
= , 1688
5
8440
1
− =

=

v
o
= V 1344
5
6720
2

=

I
o
= -5.6 A

Chapter 3, Solution 31

1 Ω

i
0
2v
0
v
3
1 Ω
2 Ω
4 Ω
10 V

+
v
1
v
2
+ v
0

4 Ω

1 A

At the supernode,

1 + 2v
0
=
1
v v
1
v
4
v
3 1 2 1

+ + (1)

But v
o
= v
1
– v
3
. Hence (1) becomes,

4 = -3v
1
+ 4v
2
+4v
3
(2)

At node 3,
2v
o
+
2
v 10
v v
4
v
3
3 1
2

+ − =

or 20 = 4v
1
+ v
2
– 2v
3
(3)

At the supernode, v
2
= v
1
+ 4i
o
. But i
o
=
4
v
3
. Hence,

v
2
= v
1
+ v
3
(4)

Solving (2) to (4) leads to,

v
1
= 4 V, v
2
= 4 V, v
3
= 0 V.

Chapter 3, Solution 32

v
3
v
1
v
2
10 V

loop 2

– +
20 V

+ –
12 V

loop 1

+

+
v
3

+
v
1

10 kΩ
4 mA
5 kΩ

(b)
(a)

We have a supernode as shown in figure (a). It is evident that v
2
= 12 V, Applying KVL
to loops 1and 2 in figure (b), we obtain,

-v
1
– 10 + 12 = 0 or v
1
= 2 and -12 + 20 + v
3
= 0 or v
3
= -8 V

Thus, v
1
= 2 V, v
2
= 12 V, v
3
= -8V.

Chapter 3, Solution 33

(a) This is a non-planar circuit because there is no way of redrawing the circuit
with no crossing branches.

(b) This is a planar circuit. It can be redrawn as shown below.

1 Ω
2 Ω
3 Ω
4 Ω
5 Ω
12 V

+

Chapter 3, Solution 34

(a) This is a planar circuit because it can be redrawn as shown below,

7 Ω
10 V

+
1 Ω
2 Ω
3 Ω
4 Ω
6 Ω

5 Ω

(b) This is a non-planar circuit.

Chapter 3, Solution 35

5 kΩ
i
1

i
2
+
v
0

2 kΩ
30 V

+

+ 20 V

4 kΩ

Assume that i
1
and i
2
are in mA. We apply mesh analysis. For mesh 1,

-30 + 20 + 7i
1
– 5i
2
= 0 or 7i
1
– 5i
2
= 10 (1)

For mesh 2,

-20 + 9i
2
– 5i
1
= 0 or -5i
1
+ 9i
2
= 20 (2)

Solving (1) and (2), we obtain, i
2
= 5.

v
0
= 4i
2
= 20 volts.
Chapter 3, Solution 36

i
1
i
2
2 Ω
4 Ω
10 V

+ –
12 V

+

I
2
6 Ω
I
1

i
3

Applying mesh analysis gives,

12 = 10I
1
– 6I
2

-10 = -6I
1
+ 8I
2

or

(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(
¸

2
1
I
I
4 3
3 5
5
6

, 11
4 3
3 5
=

= ∆ , 9
4 5
3 6
1
=

= ∆ 7
5 3
6 5
2
− =
− −
= ∆

,
11
9
I
1
1
=

=

11
7
I
2
2

=

=

i
1
= -I
1
= -9/11 = -0.8181 A, i
2
= I
1
– I
2
= 10/11 = 1.4545 A.

v
o
= 6i
2
= 6x1.4545 = 8.727 V.

Chapter 3, Solution 37

5 Ω
4v
0

2 Ω
1 Ω
3 Ω
3 V

+
+

+
v
0

i
2

i
1

Applying mesh analysis to loops 1 and 2, we get,

6i
1
– 1i
2
+ 3 = 0 which leads to i
2
= 6i
1
+ 3 (1)

-1i
1
+ 6i
2
– 3 + 4v
0
= 0 (2)

But, v
0
= -2i
1
(3)

Using (1), (2), and (3) we get i
1
= -5/9.

Therefore, we get v
0
= -2i
1
= -2(-5/9) = 1.111 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 38

6 Ω
2v
0

8 Ω
3 Ω
12 V

+
+

+ v
0

i
2

i
1

We apply mesh analysis.

12 = 3 i
1
+ 8(i
1
– i
2
) which leads to 12 = 11 i
1
– 8 i
2
(1)

-2 v
0
= 6 i
2
+ 8(i
2
– i
1
) and v
0
= 3 i
1
or i
1
= 7 i
2
(2)

From (1) and (2), i
1
= 84/69 and v
0
= 3 i
1
= 3x89/69

v
0
= 3.652 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 39

For mesh 1,
0 6 10 2 10
2 1
= − + − I I I
x

But . Hence,
2 1
I I I
x
− =
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 4 5 6 10 12 12 10 I I I I I I − = ÷→ ÷ − + + − = (1)
For mesh 2,
2 1 1 2
4 3 6 0 6 8 12 I I I I − = ÷→ ÷ = − + (2)
Solving (1) and (2) leads to
-0.9A A, 8 . 0
2 1
= = I I
Chapter 3, Solution 40

2 kΩ
i
2
6 kΩ
4 kΩ
2 kΩ
6 kΩ
i
3
i
1

+
4 kΩ

30V

Assume all currents are in mA and apply mesh analysis for mesh 1.

30 = 12i
1
– 6i
2
– 4i
3
15 = 6i
1
– 3i
2
– 2i
3
(1)

for mesh 2,

0 = - 6i
1
+ 14i
2
– 2i
3
0 = -3i
1
+ 7i
2
– i
3
(2)

for mesh 2,

0 = -4i
1
– 2i
2
+ 10i
3
0 = -2i
1
– i
2
+ 5i
3
(3)

Solving (1), (2), and (3), we obtain,

i
o
= i
1
= 4.286 mA.

Chapter 3, Solution 41

10 Ω

i
3
i
i
2
2 Ω
1 Ω
8 V

+
6 V

+ –
i
3
i
2
i
1

5 Ω 4 Ω

0

For loop 1,

6 = 12i
1
– 2i
2
3 = 6i
1
– i
2
(1)

For loop 2,

-8 = 7i
2
– 2i
1
– i
3
(2)

For loop 3,

-8 + 6 + 6i
3
– i
2
= 0 2 = 6i
3
– i
2
(3)

We put (1), (2), and (3) in matrix form,

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

2
8
3
i
i
i
6 1 0
1 7 2
0 1 6
3
2
1

, 234
6 1 0
1 7 2
0 1 6
− =

= ∆ 240
6 2 0
1 8 2
0 3 6
2
− = = ∆

38
2 1 0
8 7 2
3 1 6
3
− =

= ∆

At node 0, i + i
2
= i
3
or i = i
3
– i
2
=
234
240 38
2 3

− −
=

∆ − ∆
= 1.188 A

Chapter 3, Solution 42

For mesh 1,
(1)
2 1 2 1
30 50 12 0 30 50 12 I I I I − = ÷→ ÷ = − + −
For mesh 2,
(2)
3 2 1 3 1 2
40 100 30 8 0 40 30 100 8 I I I I I I − + − = ÷→ ÷ = − − + −
For mesh 3,
(3)
3 2 2 3
50 40 6 0 40 50 6 I I I I + − = ÷→ ÷ = − + −
Putting eqs. (1) to (3) in matrix form, we get

B AI
I
I
I
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

− −

6
8
12
50 40 0
40 100 30
0 30 50
3
2
1

Using Matlab,

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

44 . 0
40 . 0
48 . 0
1
B A I
i.e. I
1
= 0.48 A, I
2
= 0.4 A, I
3
= 0.44 A

Chapter 3, Solution 43

30 Ω
30 Ω
20 Ω
20 Ω
20 Ω
80 V

+
80 V

+
i
3
i
2
i
1

a

+

V
ab

30 Ω

b

For loop 1,

80 = 70i
1
– 20i
2
– 30i
3
8 = 7i
1
– 2i
2
– 3i
3
(1)

For loop 2,

80 = 70i
2
– 20i
1
– 30i
3
8 = -2i
1
+ 7i
2
– 3i
3
(2)

For loop 3,

0 = -30i
1
– 30i
2
+ 90i
3
0 = i
1
+ i
2
– 3i
3
(3)

Solving (1) to (3), we obtain i
3
= 16/9

I
o
= i
3
= 16/9 = 1.778 A

V
ab
= 30i
3
= 53.33 V.

Chapter 3, Solution 44

6 V

1 Ω
4 Ω i
3
i
2
i
1
3 A
+
6 V

+

2 Ω

5 Ω

i
2
i
1

Loop 1 and 2 form a supermesh. For the supermesh,

6i
1
+ 4i
2
- 5i
3
+ 12 = 0 (1)

For loop 3, -i
1
– 4i
2
+ 7i
3
+ 6 = 0 (2)

Also, i
2
= 3 + i
1
(3)

Solving (1) to (3), i
1
= -3.067, i
3
= -1.3333; i
o
= i
1
– i
3
= -1.7333 A

Chapter 3, Solution 45

4 Ω 8 Ω

1 Ω
i
1
2 Ω 6 Ω
3 Ω

+
i
4
i
3
i
2

30V

For loop 1, 30 = 5i
1
– 3i
2
– 2i
3
(1)

For loop 2, 10i
2
- 3i
1
– 6i
4
= 0 (2)

For the supermesh, 6i
3
+ 14i
4
– 2i
1
– 6i
2
= 0 (3)

But i
4
– i
3
= 4 which leads to i
4
= i
3
+ 4 (4)

Solving (1) to (4) by elimination gives i = i
1
= 8.561 A.

Chapter 3, Solution 46

For loop 1,
12 8 11 0 8 11 12
2 1 2 1
= − ÷→ ÷ = − + − i i i i (1)
For loop 2,
0 2 14 8
2 1
= + + −
o
v i i
But v ,
1
3i
o
=
2 1 1 2 1
7 0 6 14 8 i i i i i = ÷→ ÷ = + + − (2)
Substituting (2) into (1),
1739 . 0 12 8 77
2 2 2
= ÷→ ÷ = − i i i A and 217 . 1 7
2 1
= = i i A

Chapter 3, Solution 47

First, transform the current sources as shown below.

- 6V +
2Ω

I
3

V
1
8Ω V
2
4Ω V
3

4Ω
8Ω
I
1
2Ω I
2

+ +
20V 12V
- -

For mesh 1,
3 2 1 3 2 1
4 7 10 0 8 2 14 20 I I I I I I − − = ÷→ ÷ = − − + − (1)
For mesh 2,
3 2 1 3 1 2
2 7 6 0 4 2 14 12 I I I I I I − + − = − ÷→ ÷ = − − + (2)
For mesh 3,
3 2 1 1 2 3
7 2 4 3 0 8 4 14 6 I I I I I I + − − = ÷→ ÷ = − − + − (3)
Putting (1) to (3) in matrix form, we obtain
B AI
I
I
I
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− −
− −
− −
3
6
10
7 2 4
2 7 1
4 1 7
3
2
1

Using MATLAB,
8667 . 1 , 0333 . 0 , 5 . 2
8667 . 1
0333 . 0
2
3 2 1
1
= = = ÷→ ÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =

I I I B A I
But
1 1
20
20 4 10 V
4
V
I V

= ÷÷→ = − =
1
I
2 1 2
2( ) 4.933 V V I I = − =
Also,
3
2 3 2
12
12 8 12.267V
8
V
I V I

= ÷÷→ = + =
Chapter 3, Solution 48

We apply mesh analysis and let the mesh currents be in mA.
3kΩ

I
4

4kΩ 2kΩ 5kΩ

I
o
1kΩ I
3
-
I
1
I
2
6V
+ +
12 V + 10kΩ
- 8V
-

For mesh 1,
4 2 1 4 2 1
4 5 4 0 4 5 8 12 I I I I I I − − = ÷→ ÷ = − − + + − (1)
For mesh 2,
4 3 2 1 4 3 1 2
2 10 13 8 0 2 10 13 8 I I I I I I I I − − + − = ÷→ ÷ = − − − + − (2)
For mesh 3,
4 3 2 4 2 3
5 15 10 6 0 5 10 15 6 I I I I I I − + − = ÷→ ÷ = − − + − (3)
For mesh 4,
0 14 5 2 4
4 3 2 1
= + − − − I I I I (4)
Putting (1) to (4) in matrix form gives
B AI
I
I
I
I
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− − −
− −
− − −
− −
0
6
8
4
14 5 2 4
5 15 10 0
2 10 13 1
4 0 1 5
4
3
2
1

Using MATLAB,

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

6
791 . 7
087 . 8
217 . 7
1
B A I
The current through the 10k resistor is I Ω
o
= I
2
– I
3
= 0.2957 mA

Chapter 3, Solution 49

3 Ω
(a)

2i
0
i
2
0
16 V

+
1 Ω 2 Ω
i
3
i
2
i
1
i
1
2 Ω
16V
2 Ω
i
2
+
v
0

+
v
0
or

i
1
1 Ω

+

2 Ω

(b)

For the supermesh in figure (a),

3i
1
+ 2i
2
– 3i
3
+ 16 = 0 (1)

At node 0, i
2
– i
1
= 2i
0
and i
0
= -i
1
which leads to i
2
= -i
1
(2)

For loop 3, -i
1
–2i
2
+ 6i
3
= 0 which leads to 6i
3
= -i
1
(3)

Solving (1) to (3), i
1
= (-32/3)A, i
2
= (32/3)A, i
3
= (16/9)A

i
0
= -i
1
= 10.667 A, from fig. (b), v
0
= i
3
-3i
1
= (16/9) + 32 = 33.78 V.

Chapter 3, Solution 50

10 Ω
4 Ω 2 Ω
i
3
i
2
i
1
3i
0
60 V

+

8 Ω

i
3
i
2

For loop 1, 16i
1
– 10i
2
– 2i
3
= 0 which leads to 8i
1
– 5i
2
– i
3
= 0 (1)

For the supermesh, -60 + 10i
2
– 10i
1
+ 10i
3
– 2i
1
= 0

or -6i
1
+ 5i
2
+ 5i
3
= 30 (2)

Also, 3i
0
= i
3
– i
2
and i
0
= i
1
which leads to 3i
1
= i
3
– i
2
(3)

Solving (1), (2), and (3), we obtain i
1
= 1.731 and i
0
= i
1
= 1.731 A

Chapter 3, Solution 51

5 A

+
v
0
1 Ω
4 Ω
2 Ω
i
3
i
2
i
1
20V

+
40 V

+
8 Ω

For loop 1, i
1
= 5A (1)

For loop 2, -40 + 7i
2
– 2i
1
– 4i
3
= 0 which leads to 50 = 7i
2
– 4i
3
(2)

For loop 3, -20 + 12i
3
– 4i
2
= 0 which leads to 5 = - i
2
+ 3 i
3
(3)

Solving with (2) and (3), i
2
= 10 A, i
3
= 5 A

And, v
0
= 4(i
2
– i
3
) = 4(10 – 5) = 20 V.

Chapter 3, Solution 52

i
3
i
2
2 Ω
4 Ω
8 Ω
i
3
i
2
i
1
3A
+
v
0

2V
0
+

+

V
S

For mesh 1,

2(i
1
– i
2
) + 4(i
1
– i
3
) – 12 = 0 which leads to 3i
1
– i
2
– 2i
3
= 6 (1)

For the supermesh, 2(i
2
– i
1
) + 8i
2
+ 2v
0
+ 4(i
3
– i
1
) = 0

But v
0
= 2(i
1
– i
2
) which leads to -i
1
+ 3i
2
+ 2i
3
= 0 (2)

For the independent current source, i
3
= 3 + i
2
(3)

Solving (1), (2), and (3), we obtain,

i
1
= 3.5 A, i
2
= -0.5 A, i
3
= 2.5 A.

Chapter 3, Solution 53

i
3
i
2
2 Ω
4 Ω
8 Ω
i
3
i
2
i
1
3A
+
v
0

2V
0
+

+

V
S

For mesh 1,

2(i
1
– i
2
) + 4(i
1
– i
3
) – 12 = 0 which leads to 3i
1
– i
2
– 2i
3
= 6 (1)

For the supermesh, 2(i
2
– i
1
) + 8i
2
+ 2v
0
+ 4(i
3
– i
1
) = 0

But v
0
= 2(i
1
– i
2
) which leads to -i
1
+ 3i
2
+ 2i
3
= 0 (2)

For the independent current source, i
3
= 3 + i
2
(3)

Solving (1), (2), and (3), we obtain,

i
1
= 3.5 A, i
2
= -0.5 A, i
3
= 2.5 A.

Chapter 3, Solution 54

Let the mesh currents be in mA. For mesh 1,
2 1 2 1
2 2 0 2 10 12 I I I I − = ÷→ ÷ = − + + − (1)
For mesh 2,
(2)
3 2 1 3 1 2
3 10 0 3 10 I I I I I I − + − = ÷→ ÷ = − − + −
For mesh 3,
3 2 2 3
2 12 0 2 12 I I I I + − = ÷→ ÷ = − + − (3)
Putting (1) to (3) in matrix form leads to

B AI
I
I
I
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

− −

12
10
2
2 1 0
1 3 1
0 1 2
3
2
1

Using MATLAB,

mA 25 . 10 , mA 5 . 8 , mA 25 . 5
25 . 10
5 . 8
25 . 5
3 2 1
1
= = = ÷→ ÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =

I I I B A I

Chapter 3, Solution 55
d
I
1
i
2
a 0
b c
1A
4A

i
1
i
3
I
4
1A
I
2
I
3
8 V
12 Ω 4 Ω
2 Ω
6 Ω
10 V

+
+ –
4 A
I
4
I
3
I
2

It is evident that I
1
= 4 (1)

For mesh 4, 12(I
4
– I
1
) + 4(I
4
– I
3
) – 8 = 0 (2)

For the supermesh 6(I
2
– I
1
) + 10 + 2I
3
+ 4(I
3
– I
4
) = 0
or -3I
1
+ 3I
2
+ 3I
3
– 2I
4
= -5 (3)

At node c, I
2
= I
3
+ 1 (4)

Solving (1), (2), (3), and (4) yields, I
1
= 4A, I
2
= 3A, I
3
= 2A, and I
4
= 4A

At node b, i
1
= I
2
– I
1
= -1A

At node a, i
2
= 4 – I
4
= 0A

At node 0, i
3
= I
4
– I
3
= 2A

Chapter 3, Solution 56

+ v
1

2 Ω
2 Ω
2 Ω
2 Ω
2 Ω
i
3
i
2
i
1
12 V

+

+
v
2

For loop 1, 12 = 4i
1
– 2i
2
– 2i
3
which leads to 6 = 2i
1
– i
2
– i
3
(1)

For loop 2, 0 = 6i
2
–2i
1
– 2 i
3
which leads to 0 = -i
1
+ 3i
2
– i
3
(2)

For loop 3, 0 = 6i
3
– 2i
1
– 2i
2
which leads to 0 = -i
1
– i
2
+ 3i
3
(3)

In matrix form (1), (2), and (3) become,

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
− −
− −
0
0
6
i
i
i
3 1 1
1 3 1
1 1 2
3
2
1

∆ = , 8
3 1 1
1 3 1
1 1 2
=
− −
− −
− −

2
= 24
3 0 1
1 3 1
1 6 2
=

− −

3
= 24
0 1 1
0 3 1
6 1 2
=
− −

, therefore i
2
= i
3
= 24/8 = 3A,
v
1
= 2i
2
= 6 volts, v = 2i
3
= 6 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 57

Assume R is in kilo-ohms.
V V V V mA x k V 28 72 100 100 , 72 18 4
2 1 2
= − = − = = Ω =
Current through R is
R
R
R i V i
R
i
R o R
) 18 (
3
3
28
3
3
1 ,
+
= ÷→ ÷ =
+
=
This leads to R = 84/26 = 3.23 kΩ

Chapter 3, Solution 58
30 Ω

10 Ω
30 Ω
10 Ω
i
3
i
2
i
1
120 V

+

30 Ω

For loop 1, 120 + 40i
1
– 10i
2
= 0, which leads to -12 = 4i
1
– i
2
(1)

For loop 2, 50i
2
– 10i
1
– 10i
3
= 0, which leads to -i
1
+ 5i
2
– i
3
= 0 (2)

For loop 3, -120 – 10i
2
+ 40i
3
= 0, which leads to 12 = -i
2
+ 4i
3
(3)

Solving (1), (2), and (3), we get, i
1
= -3A, i
2
= 0, and i
3
= 3A

Chapter 3, Solution 59

i
1
2I
0
I
0
10 Ω
20 Ω
40 Ω
+
v
0

100V

+
120 V

– +

+

4v
0

i
3
i
2

80 Ω

i
2
i
3
For loop 1, -100 + 30i
1
– 20i
2
+ 4v
0
= 0, where v
0
= 80i
3

or 5 = 1.5i
1
– i
2
+ 16i
3
(1)

For the supermesh, 60i
2
– 20i
1
– 120 + 80i
3
– 4 v
0
= 0, where v
0
= 80i
3

or 6 = -i
1
+ 3i
2
– 12i
3
(2)

Also, 2I
0
= i
3
– i
2
and I
0
= i
2
, hence, 3i
2
= i
3
(3)

From (1), (2), and (3),
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −

1 3 0
12 3 1
32 2 3
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
6
10
i
i
i
3
2
1

∆ = , 5
1 3 0
12 3 1
32 2 3
=

− −

2
= , 28
1 0 0
12 6 1
32 10 3
− =

− − ∆
3
= 84
0 3 0
6 3 1
10 2 3
− = −

I
0
= i
2
= ∆
2
/∆ = -28/5 = -5.6 A

v
0
= 8i
3
= (-84/5)80 = -1344 volts
Chapter 3, Solution 60

0.5i
0

i
0
v
1
1 Ω
4 Ω 8 Ω 10 V
10 V

+

v
2

2 Ω

At node 1, (v
1
/1) + (0.5v
1
/1) = (10 – v
1
)/4, which leads to v
1
= 10/7

At node 2, (0.5v
1
/1) + ((10 – v
2
)/8) = v
2
/2 which leads to v
2
= 22/7

P
1Ω
= (v
1
)
2
/1 = 2.041 watts, P
2Ω
= (v
2
)
2
/2 = 4.939 watts

P
4Ω
= (10 – v
1
)
2
/4 = 18.38 watts, P
8Ω
= (10 – v
2
)
2
/8 = 5.88 watts

Chapter 3, Solution 61

+
v
0

20 Ω
v
2
v
1
+

30 Ω
5v
0
40 Ω
10 Ω

i
0

i
s

At node 1, i
s
= (v
1
/30) + ((v
1
– v
2
)/20) which leads to 60i
s
= 5v
1
– 3v
2
(1)

But v
2
= -5v
0
and v
0
= v
1
which leads to v
2
= -5v
1

Hence, 60i
s
= 5v
1
+ 15v
1
= 20v
1
which leads to v
1
= 3i
s
, v
2
= -15i
s

i
0
= v
2
/50 = -15i
s
/50 which leads to i
0
/i
s
= -15/50 = -0.3

Chapter 3, Solution 62

i
1
4 kΩ
A

+
B
8 kΩ
100V

+
i
3
i
2
2 kΩ

40 V

We have a supermesh. Let all R be in kΩ, i in mA, and v in volts.

For the supermesh, -100 +4i
1
+ 8i
2
+ 2i
3
+ 40 = 0 or 30 = 2i
1
+ 4i
2
+ i
3
(1)

At node A, i
1
+ 4 = i
2
(2)

At node B, i
2
= 2i
1
+ i
3
(3)

Solving (1), (2), and (3), we get i
1
= 2 mA, i
2
= 6 mA, and i
3
= 2 mA.

Chapter 3, Solution 63
A
5 Ω
10 Ω
i
2
i
1
+

4i
x
50 V

+

For the supermesh, -50 + 10i
1
+ 5i
2
+ 4i
x
= 0, but i
x
= i
1
. Hence,

50 = 14i
1
+ 5i
2
(1)

At node A, i
1
+ 3 + (v
x
/4) = i
2
, but v
x
= 2(i
1
– i
2
), hence, i
1
+ 2 = i
2
(2)

Solving (1) and (2) gives i
1
= 2.105 A and i
2
= 4.105 A
v
x
= 2(i
1
– i
2
) = -4 volts and i
x
= i
2
– 2 = 4.105 amp
Chapter 3, Solution 64

i
0
i
1

2 A
10 Ω
50 Ω A 10 Ω i
2
+ −
0.2V
0
4i
0
+

100V

+
i
3
i
2
i
1

40 Ω

i
1
i
3
B

For mesh 2, 20i
2
– 10i
1
+ 4i
0
= 0 (1)

But at node A, i
o
= i
1
– i
2
so that (1) becomes i
1
= (7/12)i
2
(2)

For the supermesh, -100 + 50i
1
+ 10(i
1
– i
2
) – 4i
0
+ 40i
3
= 0

or 50 = 28i
1
– 3i
2
+ 20i
3
(3)

At node B, i
3
+ 0.2v
0
= 2 + i
1
(4)

But, v
0
= 10i
2
so that (4) becomes i
3
= 2 – (17/12)i
2
(5)

Solving (1) to (5), i
2
= -0.674,

v
0
= 10i
2
= -6.74 volts, i
0
= i
1
- i
2
= -(5/12)i
2
= 0.281 amps

Chapter 3, Solution 65

For mesh 1,
4 2 1
6 12 12 I I I − − = (1)
For mesh 2,
5 4 3 2 1
8 16 6 0 I I I I I − − − + − = (2)
For mesh 3,
5 3 2
15 8 9 I I I − + − = (3)
For mesh 4,
5 4 2 1
2 5 6 I I I I − + − − = (4)
For mesh 5,
5 4 3 2
8 2 10 I I I I + − − − = (5)

Casting (1) to (5) in matrix form gives
B AI
I
I
I
I
I
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− − −
− − −
− −
− − − −

10
6
9
0
12
8 2 1 1 0
2 5 0 1 1
1 0 15 8 0
1 1 8 16 6
0 1 0 6 12
5
4
3
2
1

Using MATLAB leads to
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

411 . 2
864 . 2
733 . 1
824 . 1
673 . 1
1
B A I
Thus,
A 411 . 2 A, 864 . 1 A, 733 . 1 A, 824 . 1 A, 673 . 1
5 4 3 2 1
= = = = = I I I I I

Chapter 3, Solution 66

Consider the circuit below.

2 kΩ 2 kΩ

+ +
20V I
1
1 kΩ I
2
10V
- -
1 k 1 k Ω Ω

I
o

1 kΩ 2 kΩ
2 kΩ I
3
I
4

-
12V
+

We use mesh analysis. Let the mesh currents be in mA.
For mesh 1, (1)
3 2 1
4 20 I I I − − =
For mesh 2, (2)
4 2 1
4 10 I I I − + − = −
For mesh 3, (3)
4 3 1
4 12 I I I − + − =
For mesh 4, (4)
4 3 2
4 12 I I I + − − = −

In matrix form, (1) to (4) become
B AI
I
I
I
I
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− −
− −
− −
− −
12
12
10
20
4 1 1 0
1 4 0 1
1 0 4 1
0 1 1 4
4
3
2
1

Using MATLAB,

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

= =

5 . 2
75 . 3
75 . 1
5 . 5
1
B A I
Thus,
mA 75 . 3
3
− = − = I I
o

Chapter 3, Solution 67

G
11
= (1/1) + (1/4) = 1.25, G
22
= (1/1) + (1/2) = 1.5

G
12
= -1 = G
21
, i
1
= 6 – 3 = 3, i
2
= 5-6 = -1

Hence, we have,
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

1
3
v
v
5 . 1 1
1 25 . 1
2
1

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

25 . 1 1
1 5 . 1
1
5 . 1 1
1 25 . 1
1
, where ∆ = [(1.25)(1.5)-(-1)(-1)] = 0.875

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(
¸

2
4
) 4286 . 1 ( 1 ) 1429 . 1 ( 3
) 1429 . 1 ( 1 ) 7143 . 1 ( 3
1
3
4286 . 1 1429 . 1
1429 . 1 7143 . 1
v
v
2
1

Clearly v
1
= 4 volts and v
2
= 2 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 68
By inspection, G
11
= 1 + 3 + 5 = 8S, G
22
= 1 + 2 = 3S, G
33
= 2 + 5 = 7S
G
12
= -1, G
13
= -5, G
21
= -1, G
23
= -2, G
31
= -5, G
32
= -2
i
1
= 4, i
2
= 2, i
3
= -1

We can either use matrix inverse as we did in Problem 3.51 or use Cramer’s Rule.
Let us use Cramer’s rule for this problem.
First, we develop the matrix relationships.

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
− −
− −
1
2
4
v
v
v
7 2 5
2 3 1
5 1 8
3
2
1

85
7 2 1
2 3 2
5 1 4
, 34
7 2 5
2 3 1
5 1 8
1
=
− −

− −
= ∆ =
− −
− −
− −
= ∆

87
1 2 5
2 3 1
4 1 8
, 109
7 1 5
2 2 1
5 4 8
3 2
=
− − −

= ∆ =
− −
− −

= ∆

v
1
= ∆
1
/∆ = 85/34 = 3.5 volts, v
2
= ∆
2
/∆ = 109/34 = 3.206 volts
v
3
= ∆
3
/∆ = 87/34 = 2.56 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 69

Assume that all conductances are in mS, all currents are in mA, and all voltages
are in volts.

G
11
= (1/2) + (1/4) + (1/1) = 1.75, G
22
= (1/4) + (1/4) + (1/2) = 1,
G
33
= (1/1) + (1/4) = 1.25, G
12
= -1/4 = -0.25, G
13
= -1/1 = -1,
G
21
= -0.25, G
23
= -1/4 = -0.25, G
31
= -1, G
32
= -0.25

i
1
= 20, i
2
= 5, and i
3
= 10 – 5 = 5

The node-voltage equations are:

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
− −
− −
5
5
20
v
v
v
25 . 1 25 . 0 1
25 . 0 1 25 . 0
1 25 . 0 75 . 1
3
2
1

Chapter 3, Solution 70

G
11
= G
1
+ G
2
+ G
4
, G
12
= -G
2
, G
13
= 0,
G
22
= G
2
+ G
3
, G
21
= -G
2
, G
23
= -G
3
,
G
33
= G
1
+ G
3
+ G
5
, G
31
= 0, G
32
= -G
3

i
1
= -I
1
, i
2
= I
2
, and i
3
= I
1

Then, the node-voltage equations are:

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + −
− + −
− + +
1
2
1
3
2
1
5 3 1 3
3 2 1 2
2 4 2 1
I
I
I
v
v
v
G G G G 0
G G G G
0 G G G G

Chapter 3, Solution 71

R
11
= 4 + 2 = 6, R
22
= 2 + 8 + 2 = 12, R
33
= 2 + 5 = 7,
R
12
= -2, R
13
= 0, R
21
= -2, R
23
= -2, R
31
= 0, R
32
= -2

v
1
= 12, v
2
= -8, and v
3
= -20

Now we can write the matrix relationships for the mesh-current equations.

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −

20
8
12
i
i
i
7 2 0
2 12 2
0 2 6
3
2
1

Now we can solve for i
2
using Cramer’s Rule.

408
7 20 0
2 8 2
0 12 6
, 452
7 2 0
2 12 2
0 2 6
2
− =

− − − = ∆ =

− −

= ∆

i
2
= ∆
2
/∆ = -0.9026, p = (i
2
)
2
R = 6.52 watts

Chapter 3, Solution 72

R
11
= 5 + 2 = 7, R
22
= 2 + 4 = 6, R
33
= 1 + 4 = 5, R
44
= 1 + 4 = 5,
R
12
= -2, R
13
= 0 = R
14
, R
21
= -2, R
23
= -4, R
24
= 0, R
31
= 0,
R
32
= -4, R
34
= -1, R
41
= 0 = R
42
, R
43
= -1, we note that R
ij
= R
ji
for
all i not equal to j.

v
1
= 8, v
2
= 4, v
3
= -10, and v
4
= -4

Hence the mesh-current equations are:

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −
− −

4
10
4
8
i
i
i
i
5 1 0 0
1 5 4 0
0 4 6 2
0 0 2 7
4
3
2
1

Chapter 3, Solution 73

R
11
= 2 + 3 +4 = 9, R
22
= 3 + 5 = 8, R
33
= 1 + 4 = 5, R
44
= 1 + 1 = 2,
R
12
= -3, R
13
= -4, R
14
= 0, R
23
= 0, R
24
= 0, R
34
= -1

v
1
= 6, v
2
= 4, v
3
= 2, and v
4
= -3

Hence,

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −

− −
3
2
4
6
i
i
i
i
2 1 0 0
1 6 0 4
0 0 8 3
0 4 3 9
4
3
2
1

Chapter 3, Solution 74

R
11
= R
1
+ R
4
+ R
6
, R
22
= R
2
+ R
4
+ R
5
, R
33
= R
6
+ R
7
+ R
8
,
R
44
= R
3
+ R
5
+ R
8
, R
12
= -R
4
, R
13
= -R
6
, R
14
= 0, R
23
= 0,
R
24
= -R
5
, R
34
= -R
8
, again, we note that R
ij
= R
ji
for all i not equal to j.

The input voltage vector is =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

4
3
2
1
V
V
V
V

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + − −
− + + −
− + + −
− − + +
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
8 5 3 8 5
8 8 7 6 6
5 5 4 2 4
6 4 6 4 1
V
V
V
V

i
i
i
i
R R R R R 0
R R R R 0 R
R 0 R R R R
0 R R R R R

Chapter 3, Solution 75

* Schematics Netlist *

R_R4 \$N_0002 \$N_0001 30
R_R2 \$N_0001 \$N_0003 10
R_R1 \$N_0005 \$N_0004 30
R_R3 \$N_0003 \$N_0004 10
R_R5 \$N_0006 \$N_0004 30
V_V4 \$N_0003 0 120V
v_V3 \$N_0005 \$N_0001 0
v_V2 0 \$N_0006 0
v_V1 0 \$N_0002 0
i
3
i
2
i
1

Clearly, i
1
= -3 amps, i
2
= 0 amps, and i
3
= 3 amps, which agrees with the answers in
Problem 3.44.

Chapter 3, Solution 76

* Schematics Netlist *

I_I2 0 \$N_0001 DC 4A
R_R1 \$N_0002 \$N_0001 0.25
R_R3 \$N_0003 \$N_0001 1
R_R2 \$N_0002 \$N_0003 1
F_F1 \$N_0002 \$N_0001 VF_F1 3
VF_F1 \$N_0003 \$N_0004 0V
R_R4 0 \$N_0002 0.5
R_R6 0 \$N_0001 0.5
I_I1 0 \$N_0002 DC 2A
R_R5 0 \$N_0004 0.25

Clearly, v
1
= 625 mVolts, v
2
= 375 mVolts, and v
3
= 1.625 volts, which agrees with
the solution obtained in Problem 3.27.

Chapter 3, Solution 77

* Schematics Netlist *

R_R2 0 \$N_0001 4
I_I1 \$N_0001 0 DC 3A
I_I3 \$N_0002 \$N_0001 DC 6A
R_R3 0 \$N_0002 2
R_R1 \$N_0001 \$N_0002 1
I_I2 0 \$N_0002 DC 5A

Clearly, v
1
= 4 volts and v
2
= 2 volts, which agrees with the answer obtained in Problem
3.51.

Chapter 3, Solution 78

The schematic is shown below. When the circuit is saved and simulated the node
voltages are displaced on the pseudocomponents as shown. Thus,

, V 15 V, 5 . 4 V, 3
3 2 1
− = = − = V V V

.

Chapter 3, Solution 79

The schematic is shown below. When the circuit is saved and simulated, we obtain the
node voltages as displaced. Thus,

V 88 . 26 V V, 6944 . 0 V V, 28 . 10 V V, 278 . 5 V
d c b a
− = = = − =

Chapter 3, Solution 80

* Schematics Netlist *

H_H1 \$N_0002 \$N_0003 VH_H1 6
VH_H1 0 \$N_0001 0V
I_I1 \$N_0004 \$N_0005 DC 8A
V_V1 \$N_0002 0 20V
R_R4 0 \$N_0003 4
R_R1 \$N_0005 \$N_0003 10
R_R2 \$N_0003 \$N_0002 12
R_R5 0 \$N_0004 1
R_R3 \$N_0004 \$N_0001 2

Clearly, v
1
= 84 volts, v
2
= 4 volts, v
3
= 20 volts, and v
4
= -5.333 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 81

Clearly, v
1
= 26.67 volts, v
2
= 6.667 volts, v
3
= 173.33 volts, and v
4
= -46.67 volts
which agrees with the results of Example 3.4.

This is the netlist for this circuit.

* Schematics Netlist *

R_R1 0 \$N_0001 2
R_R2 \$N_0003 \$N_0002 6
R_R3 0 \$N_0002 4
R_R4 0 \$N_0004 1
R_R5 \$N_0001 \$N_0004 3
I_I1 0 \$N_0003 DC 10A
V_V1 \$N_0001 \$N_0003 20V
E_E1 \$N_0002 \$N_0004 \$N_0001 \$N_0004 3

Chapter 3, Solution 82
+ v
0

4

3 kΩ
2 kΩ
4 kΩ 8 kΩ
6 kΩ
0
1

2

3 3v
0

2i
0

100V

+
4A
+

This network corresponds to the Netlist.

Chapter 3, Solution 83

The circuit is shown below.

+ v
0

4

3 kΩ
2 kΩ
4 kΩ 8 kΩ
6 kΩ
1

3

20 V

+ 30 Ω 2 A
0
50 Ω
0
1

2

3
3v
0

2i
0

2
100V

+
4A
+
20 Ω 70 Ω

When the circuit is saved and simulated, we obtain v
2
= -12.5 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 84

From the output loop, v
0
= 50i
0
x20x10
3
= 10
6
i
0
(1)

From the input loop, 3x10
-3
+ 4000i
0
– v
0
/100 = 0 (2)

From (1) and (2) we get, i
0
= 0.5µA and v
0
= 0.5 volt.

Chapter 3, Solution 85

The amplifier acts as a source.

R
s

+
V
s
R
L
-

For maximum power transfer,

Ω = = 9
s L
R R
Chapter 3, Solution 86

Let v
1
be the potential across the 2 k-ohm resistor with plus being on top. Then,

[(0.03 – v
1
)/1k] + 400i = v
1
/2k (1)

Assume that i is in mA. But, i = (0.03 – v
1
)/1 (2)

Combining (1) and (2) yields,

v
1
= 29.963 mVolts and i = 37.4 nA, therefore,

v
0
= -5000x400x37.4x10
-9
= -74.8 mvolts

Chapter 3, Solution 87

v
1
= 500(v
s
)/(500 + 2000) = v
s
/5

v
0
= -400(60v
1
)/(400 + 2000) = -40v
1
= -40(v
s
/5) = -8v
s
,

Therefore, v
0
/v
s
= -8

Chapter 3, Solution 88

Let v
1
be the potential at the top end of the 100-ohm resistor.

(v
s
– v
1
)/200 = v
1
/100 + (v
1
– 10
-3
v
0
)/2000 (1)

For the right loop, v
0
= -40i
0
(10,000) = -40(v
1
– 10
-3
)10,000/2000,

or, v
0
= -200v
1
+ 0.2v
0
= -4x10
-3
v
0
(2)

Substituting (2) into (1) gives,
(v
s
+ 0.004v
1
)/2 = -0.004v
0
+ (-0.004v
1
– 0.001v
0
)/20

This leads to 0.125v
0
= 10v
s
or (v
0
/v
s
) = 10/0.125 = -80

Chapter 3, Solution 89

v
i
= V
BE
+ 40k I
B
(1)

5 = V
CE
+ 2k I
C
(2)

If I
C
= βI
B
= 75I
B
and V
CE
= 2 volts, then (2) becomes 5 = 2 +2k(75I
B
)
which leads to I
B
= 20 µA.

Substituting this into (1) produces, v
i
= 0.7 + 0.8 = 1.5 volts.
2 kΩ

I
B
40 kΩ

+
V
BE

-
+
-
+
v
i 5 v

Chapter 3, Solution 90

1 kΩ

100 kΩ
I
E
I
B
+
V
BE

+
V
CE

i
2
i
1 -
+
18V
-
+
500 Ω
+
V
0

v
s

For loop 1, -v
s
+ 10k(I
B
) + V
BE
+ I
E
(500) = 0 = -v
s
+ 0.7 + 10,000I
B
+ 500(1 + β)I
B

which leads to v
s
+ 0.7 = 10,000I
B
+ 500(151)I
B
= 85,500I
B

But, v
0
= 500I
E
= 500x151I
B
= 4 which leads to I
B
= 5.298x10
-5

Therefore, v
s
= 0.7 + 85,500I
B
= 5.23 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 91
We first determine the Thevenin equivalent for the input circuit.
R
Th
= 6||2 = 6x2/8 = 1.5 kΩ and V
Th
= 2(3)/(2+6) = 0.75 volts

5 kΩ

I
C
1.5 kΩ
I
E
I
B
+
V
BE

+
V
CE

i
2
i
1 -
+
9 V

-
+
400 Ω
+
V
0

0.75 V

For loop 1, -0.75 + 1.5kI
B
+ V
BE
+ 400I
E
= 0 = -0.75 + 0.7 + 1500I
B
+ 400(1 + β)I
B

I
B
= 0.05/81,900 = 0.61 µA

v
0
= 400I
E
= 400(1 + β)I
B
= 49 mV

For loop 2, -400I
E
– V
CE
– 5kI
C
+ 9 = 0, but, I
C
= βI
B
and I
E
= (1 + β)I
B

V
CE
= 9 – 5kβI
B
– 400(1 + β)I
B
= 9 – 0.659 = 8.641 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 92

I
C
V
C
10 kΩ
I
E
I
B
+
V
BE

+
V
CE

12V
-
+
4 kΩ
+
V
0

I
1
5 kΩ
I
1
= I
B
+ I
C
= (1 + β)I
B
and I
E
= I
B
+ I
C
= I
1

Applying KVL around the outer loop,

4kI
E
+ V
BE
+ 10kI
B
+ 5kI
1
= 12

12 – 0.7 = 5k(1 + β)I
B
+ 10kI
B
+ 4k(1 + β)I
B
= 919kI
B

I
B
= 11.3/919k = 12.296 µA

Also, 12 = 5kI
1
+ V
C
which leads to V
C
= 12 – 5k(101)I
B
= 5.791 volts

Chapter 3, Solution 93

i
1
i
2
i

4 Ω
4 Ω
2 Ω
2 Ω
1 Ω
8 Ω
3v
0
+
v
2

+
v
1

+

+
3v
0
+
2 Ω i

v
2
v
1
i
3
+
v
0

24V

(a) (b)

From (b), -v
1
+ 2i – 3v
0
+ v
2
= 0 which leads to i = (v
1
+ 3v
0
– v
2
)/2

At node 1 in (a), ((24 – v
1
)/4) = (v
1
/2) + ((v
1
+3v
0
– v
2
)/2) + ((v
1
– v
2
)/1), where v
0
= v
2

or 24 = 9v
1
which leads to v
1
= 2.667 volts

At node 2, ((v
1
– v
2
)/1) + ((v
1
+ 3v
0
– v
2
)/2) = (v
2
/8) + v
2
/4, v
0
= v
2

v
2
= 4v
1
= 10.66 volts

Now we can solve for the currents, i
1
= v
1
/2 = 1.333 A, i
2
= 1.333 A, and

i
3
= 2.6667 A.
Chapter 4, Solution 1.

i i
o
5 Ω
8 Ω
1 Ω

+

1 V
3 Ω

Ω = + 4 ) 3 5 ( 8 ,
5
1
4 1
1
i =
+
=
= = =
10
1
i
2
1
i
o
0.1A

Chapter 4, Solution 2.

, 3 ) 2 4 ( 6 Ω = + A
2
1
i
2 1
= = i
,
4
1
i
2
1
i
1 o
= = = =
o o
i 2 v 0.5V
5 Ω 4 Ω
i
2
8 Ω
i
1
i
o
6 Ω

1 A
2 Ω

If i
s
= 1µA, then v
o
= 0.5µV

Chapter 4, Solution 3.

R

+
v
o

3R
i
o
3R
3R
R
+

3R
+

1 V

1.5R
V
s
(b)
(a)

(a) We transform the Y sub-circuit to the equivalent ∆.

, R
4
3
R 4
R 3
R 3 R
2
= = R
2
3
R
4
3
R
4
3
= +
2
v
v
s
o
= independent of R
i
o
= v
o
/(R)

When v
s
= 1V, v
o
= 0.5V, i
o
= 0.5A

(b) When v
s
= 10V, v
o
= 5V, i
o
= 5A
(c) When v
s
= 10V and R = 10Ω,
v
o
= 5V, i
o
= 10/(10) = 500mA

Chapter 4, Solution 4.

If I
o
= 1, the voltage across the 6Ω resistor is 6V so that the current through the 3Ω
resistor is 2A.

+
v
1

3A
I
s
2 Ω 4 Ω
i
1
3A

1A

I
s
2A

6 Ω 4 Ω 3 Ω
2 Ω 2 Ω

(a)

(b)

Ω = 2 6 3 , v
o
= 3(4) = 12V, . A 3
4
v
o
1
= = i
Hence I
s
= 3 + 3 = 6A

If I
s
= 6A I
o
= 1
I
s
= 9A I
o
= 6/(9) = 0.6667A

Chapter 4, Solution 5.

If v
o
= 1V, V 2 1
3
1
V
1
= + 

=

3
10
v
3
2
2 V
1 s
= +

=

If v
s
=
3
10
v
o
= 1
Then v
s
= 15 v
o
= = 15 x
10
3
4.5V
v
o
3 Ω 2 Ω

+

6 Ω 6 Ω 6 Ω
v
1
V
s

Chapter 4, Solution 6

Let
s
T
T
o T
V
R R
R
V
R R
R R
R R R
1 3 2
3 2
3 2
then , //
+
=
+
= =

1 3 3 2 2 1
3 2
1
3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
R R R R R R
R R
R
R R
R R
R R
R R
R R
R
V
V
k
T
T
s
o
+ +
=
+
+
+
=
+
= =

Chapter 4, Solution 7

We find the Thevenin equivalent across the 10-ohm resistor. To find V
Th
, consider the
circuit below.

3V
x

5Ω 5Ω

+
+

4V 15Ω V
Th

- 6Ω
-

+ V
x -

From the figure,

V 3 ) 4 (
5 15
15
, 0 =
+
= =
Th x
V V
To find R
Th,
consider the circuit below:

3V
x

5Ω 5Ω
V
1
V
2

+

4V 15Ω 1A
- 6Ω

+ V
x
-

At node 1,
1 2
2 1 1 1
7 3 258 6 1 6 ,
5 15
3
5
4
V V x V
V V V
V
V
x x
− = →  = =

+ + =

(1)
At node 2,
95 0
5
3 1
2 1
2 1
− = →  =

+ + V V
V V
V
x
(2)
Solving (1) and (2) leads to V
2
= 101.75 V
mW 11 . 22
75 . 101 4
9
4
, 75 . 101
1
2
max
2
= = = Ω = =
x R
V
p
V
R
Th
Th
Th

Chapter 4, Solution 8.

Let i = i
1
+ i
2
,

where i
1
and i
L
are due to current and voltage sources respectively.

6 Ω
i
1

+

20V
i
2
5 A
4 Ω 6 Ω

4 Ω

(a)

(b)

i
1
= , A 3 ) 5 (
4 6
6
=
+
A 2
4 6
20
2
=
+
= i

Thus i = i
1
+ i
2
= 3 + 2 = 5A

Chapter 4, Solution 9.

Let i
2
x
1
x x
i i + =

where i is due to 15V source and i is due to 4A source,
1
x
2
x

12Ω
-4A
40Ω 10Ω
i
x2
40Ω
i

10 Ω
i
x1
12 Ω

+

15V

(a)

(b)

For i
x1
, consider Fig. (a).

10||40 = 400/50 = 8 ohms, i = 15/(12 + 8) = 0.75

i
x1
= [40/(40 + 10)]i = (4/5)0.75 = 0.6

For i
x2
, consider Fig. (b).

12||40 = 480/52 = 120/13

i
x2
= [(120/13)/((120/13) + 10)](-4) = -1.92

i
x
= 0.6 – 1.92 = -1.32 A

p = vi
x
= i
x
2
R = (-1.32)
2
10 = 17.43 watts

Chapter 4, Solution 10.

Let v
ab
= v
ab1
+ v
ab2
where v
ab1
and v
ab2
are due to the 4-V and the 2-A sources
respectively.

+
v
ab2

10 Ω
+ −
3v
ab2
2 A

10 Ω

+

+
v
ab1

+ −
3v
ab1

4V

(a) (b)

For v
ab1
, consider Fig. (a). Applying KVL gives,

- v
ab1
– 3 v
ab1
+ 10x0 + 4 = 0, which leads to v
ab1
= 1 V

For v
ab2
, consider Fig. (b). Applying KVL gives,

- v
ab2
– 3v
ab2
+ 10x2 = 0, which leads to v
ab2
= 5

v
ab
= 1 + 5 = 6 V

Chapter 4, Solution 11.

Let i = i
1
+ i
2
, where i
1
is due to the 12-V source and i
2
is due to the 4-A source.

12V
4A
2Ω 2Ω
i
x2
6Ω
4A
3Ω 2Ω
i
2
3Ω
i
o
(a)
2 Ω
i
1
6 Ω

+

(b)

For i
1
, consider Fig. (a).

2||3 = 2x3/5 = 6/5, i
o
= 12/(6 + 6/5) = 10/6

i
1
= [3/(2 + 3)]i
o
= (3/5)x(10/6) = 1 A

For i
2
, consider Fig. (b), 6||3 = 2 ohm, i
2
= 4/2 = 2 A

i = 1 + 2 = 3 A

Chapter 4, Solution 12.

Let v
o
= v
o1
+ v
o2
+ v
o3
, where v
o1
, v
o2
, and v
o3
are due to the 2-A, 12-V, and 19-V
sources respectively. For v
o1
, consider the circuit below.

5 Ω
5 Ω
+ v
o1

i
o
2A
2A

3Ω
4 Ω
6Ω 12 Ω
5 Ω
+ v
o1

6||3 = 2 ohms, 4||12 = 3 ohms. Hence,

i
o
= 2/2 = 1, v
o1
= 5io = 5 V

For v
o2
, consider the circuit below.

6 Ω 5 Ω 4 Ω 6 Ω 5 Ω

+ v
o2

3 Ω 3 Ω
+
v
1

+

12V
+ v
o2

12 Ω
+

3 Ω

12V

3||8 = 24/11, v
1
= [(24/11)/(6 + 24/11)]12 = 16/5

v
o2
= (5/8)v
1
= (5/8)(16/5) = 2 V

For v
o3
, consider the circuit shown below.

4 Ω 5 Ω 5 Ω
4 Ω

2Ω
+ v
o3

12 Ω
+
v
2

+

19V

+

19V 6Ω
+ v
o3

12 Ω
3 Ω

7||12 = (84/19) ohms, v
2
= [(84/19)/(4 + 84/19)]19 = 9.975

v = (-5/7)v2 = -7.125

v
o
= 5 + 2 – 7.125 = -125 mV

,

Chapter 4, Solution 13

Let
i i i i
3 2 1 o
+ + =
where i
1
, i
2
, and i
3
are the contributions to i
o
due to 30-V, 15-V, and 6-mA sources
respectively. For i
1
, consider the circuit below.

1 kΩ 2 kΩ 3 kΩ

+ i
1
30V
- 4 kΩ 5 kΩ

3//5 = 15/8 = 1.875 kohm, 2 + 3//5 = 3.875 kohm, 1//3.875 = 3.875/4.875 = 0.7949
kohm. After combining the resistors except the 4-kohm resistor and transforming the
voltage source, we obtain the circuit below.

i
1
30 mA
4 kΩ 0.7949 kΩ

Using current division,
mA 4.973 mA) 30 (
7949 . 4
7949 . 0
1
= = i
For i
2
, consider the circuit below.

1 kΩ 2 kΩ 3 kΩ

i
2 -
15V
4 kΩ 5 kΩ +

After successive source transformation and resistance combinations, we obtain the circuit
below:
2.42mA
i
2

4 kΩ 0.7949 kΩ

Using current division,
mA 4012 . 0 mA) 42 . 2 (
7949 . 4
7949 . 0
2
− = − = i

For i
3
, consider the circuit below.

6mA

1 kΩ 2 kΩ 3 kΩ

i
3

4 kΩ 5 kΩ

After successive source transformation and resistance combinations, we obtain the circuit
below:

3.097mA
i
3

4 kΩ 0.7949 kΩ

mA 5134 . 0 mA) 097 . 3 (
7949 . 4
7949 . 0
3
− = − = i
Thus,

mA 058 . 4
3 2 1
= + + = i i i i
o

Chapter 4, Solution 14.

Let v
o
= v
o1
+ v
o2
+ v
o3
, where v
o1
, v
o2
, and v
o3
, are due to the 20-V, 1-A, and 2-A
sources respectively. For v
o1
, consider the circuit below.

6 Ω
20V

+

+
v
o1

4 Ω
2 Ω

3 Ω

6||(4 + 2) = 3 ohms, v
o1
= (½)20 = 10 V

For v
o2
, consider the circuit below.

6 Ω 6 Ω

1A
2 Ω
4 Ω
+
v
o2

4V
− +
2 Ω
4 Ω
3 Ω
+
v
o2

3 Ω

3||6 = 2 ohms, v
o2
= [2/(4 + 2 + 2)]4 = 1 V

For v
o3
, consider the circuit below.

6 Ω

3 Ω
− v
o3
+

3 Ω
2A
2 Ω
4 Ω
3 Ω
+
v
o3

2A

6||(4 + 2) = 3, v
o3
= (-1)3 = -3

v
o
= 10 + 1 – 3 = 8 V

Chapter 4, Solution 15.

Let i = i
1
+ i
2
+ i
3
, where i
1
, i
2
, and i
3
are due to the 20-V, 2-A, and 16-V sources. For
i
1
, consider the circuit below.

i
o

4Ω
3Ω
i
1
1 Ω
+

20V

2 Ω

4||(3 + 1) = 2 ohms, Then i
o
= [20/(2 + 2)] = 5 A, i
1
= i
o
/2 = 2.5 A

For i
3
, consider the circuit below.

2||(1 + 3) = 4/3, v
o
’ = [(4/3)/((4/3) + 4)](-16) = -4

i
3
= v
o
’/4 = -1

For i
2
, consider the circuit below.
3Ω
i
2
1 Ω
(4/3)Ω
3Ω
i
2
1 Ω 2A
4Ω
+

v
o

4Ω
3Ω
i
3
1 Ω
2 Ω

+
16V

2A
2 Ω

2||4 = 4/3, 3 + 4/3 = 13/3

Using the current division principle.

i
2
= [1/(1 + 13/2)]2 = 3/8 = 0.375

i = 2.5 + 0.375 - 1 = 1.875 A

p = i
2
R = (1.875)
2
3 = 10.55 watts

Chapter 4, Solution 16.

Let i
o
= i
o1
+ i
o2
+ i
o3
, where i
o1
, i
o2
, and i
o3
are due to
the 12-V, 4-A, and 2-A sources. For i
o1
, consider the circuit below.

5Ω
i
o1
10 Ω
4 Ω

+

3 Ω 2 Ω

12V

10||(3 + 2 + 5) = 5 ohms, i
o1
= 12/(5 + 4) = (12/9) A

For i
o2
, consider the circuit below.
i
o2
i
1
4A
10Ω
2 Ω
4Ω
3 Ω

5 Ω

2 + 5 + 4||10 = 7 + 40/14 = 69/7
i
1
= [3/(3 + 69/7)]4 = 84/90, i
o2
=[-10/(4 + 10)]i
1
= -6/9

For i
o3
, consider the circuit below.
i
2
2 A

i
o3
10 Ω 5 Ω 4 Ω
3 Ω 2 Ω

3 + 2 + 4||10 = 5 + 20/7 = 55/7

i
2
= [5/(5 + 55/7)]2 = 7/9, i
o3
= [-10/(10 + 4)]i
2
= -5/9

i
o
= (12/9) – (6/9) – (5/9) = 1/9 = 111.11 mA

Chapter 4, Solution 17.

Let v
x
= v
x1
+ v
x2
+ v
x3
, where v
x1
,v
x2
, and v
x3
are due to the 90-V, 6-A, and 40-V
sources. For v
x1
, consider the circuit below.

30 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω

12 Ω
+ −
v
x1

10 Ω
20 Ω

3 A
i
o
30 Ω
+ −
v
x1

60 Ω
+

90V

20||30 = 12 ohms, 60||30 = 20 ohms
By using current division,
i
o
= [20/(22 + 20)]3 = 60/42, v
x1
= 10i
o
= 600/42 = 14.286 V
For v
x2
, consider the circuit below.

i
o

20 Ω 30 Ω
i
o

6A

60 Ω 30 Ω
10 Ω
+ − v
x2 + v
x2

6A

20 Ω 12 Ω
10 Ω

i
o
’ = [12/(12 + 30)]6 = 72/42, v
x2
= -10i
o
’ = -17.143 V

For v
x3
, consider the circuit below.

20 Ω
+ −
v
x3

7.5Ω

4A
i
o

+

40V
30 Ω 30 Ω
+ −
v
x3

60 Ω
10 Ω 10 Ω 10 Ω

i
o
” = [12/(12 + 30)]2 = 24/42, v
x3
= -10i
o
” = -5.714

v
x
= 14.286 – 17.143 – 5.714 = -8.571 V
Chapter 4, Solution 18.

Let i
x
= i
1
+ i
2
, where i
1
and i
2
are due to the 10-V and 2-A sources respectively. To
obtain i
1
, consider the circuit below.

2 Ω

+ −
10i
1
i
1
2 Ω

+

10V
1 Ω
i
1

4 Ω
5i
1
1 Ω

+

4 Ω
10V

-10 + 10i
1
+ 7i
1
= 0, therefore i
1
= (10/17) A

For i
2
, consider the circuit below.

i
o
+ −
10i
2
2 Ω

+

2V
1 Ω
i
o
i
2

1 Ω
4 Ω
2 Ω
10i
2
2 A

+ −

4 Ω

-2 + 10i
2
+ 7i
o
= 0, but i
2
+ 2 = i
o
. Hence,

-2 + 10i
2
+7i
2
+ 14 = 0, or i
2
= (-12/17) A

v
x
= 1xi
x
= 1(i
1
+ i
2
) = (10/17) – (12/17) = -2/17 = -117.6 mA

Chapter 4, Solution 19.

Let v
x
= v
1
+ v
2
, where v
1
and v
2
are due to the 4-A and 6-A sources respectively.

i
x
v
1
i
x
v
2

+
v
2

+
v
1

8 Ω 2 Ω
4i
x
6 A
− +
8Ω 2 Ω
4i
x
4 A

− +

(a) (b)

To find v
1
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

v
1
/8 = 4 + (-4i
x
– v
1
)/2

But, -i
x
= (-4i
x
– v
1
)/2 and we have -2i
x
= v
1
. Thus,

v
1
/8 = 4 + (2v
1
– v
1
)/8, which leads to v
1
= -32/3

To find v
2
, consider the circuit shown in Fig. (b).

v
2
/2 = 6 + (4i
x
– v
2
)/8

But i
x
= v
2
/2 and 2i
x
= v
2
. Therefore,

v
2
/2 = 6 + (2v
2
– v
2
)/8 which leads to v
2
= -16

Hence, vx = –(32/3) – 16 = -26.67 V

Chapter 4, Solution 20.

Transform the voltage sources and obtain the circuit in Fig. (a). Combining the 6-ohm
and 3-ohm resistors produces a 2-ohm resistor (6||3 = 2). Combining the 2-A and 4-A
sources gives a 6-A source. This leads to the circuit shown in Fig. (b).

i
6Ω
4A
3Ω 2Ω
i

6A
2 Ω 2 Ω

2A

(a) (b)

From Fig. (b), i = 6/2 = 3 A

Chapter 4, Solution 21.

To get i
o
, transform the current sources as shown in Fig. (a).

6 Ω
+
v
o

2 A

3 Ω
i
6 Ω
2 A

+

6V
i
o

3 Ω

+

12V

(a) (b)

From Fig. (a), -12 + 9i
o
+ 6 = 0, therefore i
o
= 666.7 mA

To get v
o
, transform the voltage sources as shown in Fig. (b).

i = [6/(3 + 6)](2 + 2) = 8/3

v
o
= 3i = 8 V

Chapter 4, Solution 22.

We transform the two sources to get the circuit shown in Fig. (a).

5 Ω 5 Ω

10V
4Ω 10Ω
2A
i
10Ω
1A

2A
(a)
10Ω 4 Ω

+

(b)
We now transform only the voltage source to obtain the circuit in Fig. (b).

10||10 = 5 ohms, i = [5/(5 + 4)](2 – 1) = 5/9 = 555.5 mA

Chapter 4, Solution 23

If we transform the voltage source, we obtain the circuit below.

8Ω

10Ω 6Ω 3Ω 5A
3A

3//6 = 2-ohm. Convert the current sources to voltages sources as shown below.

10 8 Ω Ω 2Ω

+ +
10V
30V -
-

Applying KVL to the loop gives
A 1 0 ) 2 8 10 ( 10 30 = →  = + + + + − I I

W 8
2
= = = R I VI p

Chapter 4, Solution 24

Convert the current source to voltage source.

16Ω 1Ω
4Ω

+ 5Ω +

48 V
10Ω V
o
-
+
-

12 V
-

Combine the 16-ohm and 4-ohm resistors and convert both voltages sources to current
Sources. We obtain the circuit below.

1Ω

2.4A 20 5 Ω Ω 2.4A 10Ω

Combine the resistors and current sources.
20//5 = (20x5)/25 = 4 , 2.4 + 2.4 = 4.8 A Ω
Convert the current source to voltage source. We obtain the circuit below.

4Ω 1Ω

+ +
19.2V V
o
10Ω
- -

Using voltage division,

8 . 12 ) 2 . 19 (
1 4 10
10
=
+ +
=
o
V V

Chapter 4, Solution 25.

Transforming only the current source gives the circuit below.

12V
30 V
5 Ω
9 Ω
18 V
+ −
v
o

4 Ω
2 Ω
i
+ −
− +

+

+

30 V

Applying KVL to the loop gives,

(4 + 9 + 5 + 2)i – 12 – 18 – 30 – 30 = 0

20i = 90 which leads to i = 4.5

v
o
= 2i = 9 V

Chapter 4, Solution 26.
Transform the voltage sources to current sources. The result is shown in Fig. (a),

30||60 = 20 ohms, 30||20 = 12 ohms

10 Ω
+
+ v
x

12 Ω 10 Ω

96V
i

20 Ω

+

60V
20Ω
3A

2A

+ v
x

60Ω 30Ω
6A
(a)
30Ω

(b)

Combining the resistors and transforming the current sources to voltage sources, we
obtain the circuit in Fig. (b). Applying KVL to Fig. (b),

42i – 60 + 96 = 0, which leads to i = -36/42

v
x
= 10i = -8.571 V

Chapter 4, Solution 27.

Transforming the voltage sources to current sources gives the circuit in Fig. (a).

10||40 = 8 ohms

Transforming the current sources to voltage sources yields the circuit in Fig. (b).
Applying KVL to the loop,

-40 + (8 + 12 + 20)i + 200 = 0 leads to i = -4

v
x
12i = -48 V

12 Ω

+ v
x

10Ω 20Ω 40Ω
5A

8A 2A

(a)

8 Ω 12 Ω 20 Ω

+

+

+ v
x

40V 200V
i

(b)

Chapter 4, Solution 28.

Transforming only the current sources leads to Fig. (a). Continuing with source
transformations finally produces the circuit in Fig. (d).

3 Ω
i
o

10 V
+ −
12 V
+ −

+

4 Ω 5 Ω 2 Ω
10Ω

12 V

(a)

4 Ω
5 Ω
i
o

+

12V
4 Ω

+

11V
i
o
i
o

+

12V
10Ω
4 Ω
2.2A
10Ω
i
o

+

22 V
(b)

+

12V
10Ω
10 Ω

(c) (d)

Applying KVL to the loop in fig. (d),

-12 + 9i
o
+ 11 = 0, produces i
o
= 1/9 = 111.11 mA

Chapter 4, Solution 29.

Transform the dependent voltage source to a current source as shown in
Fig. (a). 2||4 = (4/3) k ohms

4 kΩ

It is clear that i = 3 mA which leads to v
o
= 1000i = 3 V

If the use of source transformations was not required for this problem, the actual answer
could have been determined by inspection right away since the only current that could
have flowed through the 1 k ohm resistor is 3 mA.

Chapter 4, Solution 30

Transform the dependent current source as shown below.

i
x
24Ω 60Ω 10Ω

+ +
12V 30Ω 7i
x

- -
+
v
o

1 kΩ
+
v
o

3 mA
2v
o
(4/3) kΩ
(b)
i
− +
3 mA
1.5v
o
1 kΩ
2 kΩ
(a)

Combine the 60-ohm with the 10-ohm and transform the dependent source as shown
below.

i
x
24Ω

+
12V 30Ω 70Ω 0.1i
x

-

Combining 30-ohm and 70-ohm gives 30//70 = 70x30/100 = 21-ohm. Transform the
dependent current source as shown below.

i
x
24Ω 21Ω

+ +
12V 2.1i
x

- -

Applying KVL to the loop gives

mA 8 . 254
1 . 47
12
0 1 . 2 12 45 = = →  = + −
x x x
i i i

Chapter 4, Solution 31.

Transform the dependent source so that we have the circuit in
Fig. (a). 6||8 = (24/7) ohms. Transform the dependent source again to get the circuit in
Fig. (b). 3 Ω

6 Ω
+ −
v
x

+

8 Ω

v
x
/3
12V

(a)

(24/7) Ω 3 Ω

i
+
+ −
v
x

+

(8/7)v
x
12V
(b)

From Fig. (b),

v
x
= 3i, or i = v
x
/3.

Applying KVL,

-12 + (3 + 24/7)i + (24/21)v
x
= 0

12 = [(21 + 24)/7]v
x
/3 + (8/7)v
x
, leads to v
x
= 84/23 = 3.625 V

Chapter 4, Solution 32.

As shown in Fig. (a), we transform the dependent current source to a voltage source,

15 Ω 10 Ω
− +
50 Ω
+

5i
x

40 Ω
60V

(a)

15 Ω

i
x
50 Ω 50 Ω
(b)

+

i
x
25 Ω

+

60V
2.5i
x

15 Ω

60V
0.1i
x

(c)

In Fig. (b), 50||50 = 25 ohms. Applying KVL in Fig. (c),

-60 + 40i
x
– 2.5i
x
= 0, or i
x
= 1.6 A

Chapter 4, Solution 33.

(a) R
Th
= 10||40 = 400/50 = 8 ohms

V
Th
= (40/(40 + 10))20 = 16 V

(b) R
Th
= 30||60 = 1800/90 = 20 ohms

2 + (30 – v1)/60 = v
1
/30, and v
1
= V
Th

120 + 30 – v
1
= 2v
1
, or v
1
= 50 V

V
Th
= 50 V

Chapter 4, Solution 34.

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
3 A

R
Th
= 20 + 10||40 = 20 + 400/50 = 28 ohms
(b)
v
2

+
V
Th
20 Ω
40 Ω
10 Ω
v
1

+

40V
R
Th
20 Ω
40 Ω
10 Ω
(a)
To find V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b).

At node 1, (40 – v
1
)/10 = 3 + [(v
1
– v
2
)/20] + v
1
/40, 40 = 7v
1
– 2v
2
(1)
At node 2, 3 + (v1- v2)/20 = 0, or v1 = v2 – 60 (2)

Solving (1) and (2), v
1
= 32 V, v
2
= 92 V, and V
Th
= v
2
= 92 V
Chapter 4, Solution 35.

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

R
Th
= R
ab
= 6||3 + 12||4 = 2 + 3 =5 ohms

To find V
Th
, consider the circuit shown in Fig. (b).

R
Th

At node 1, 2 + (12 – v
1
)/6 = v
1
/3, or v
1
= 8

At node 2, (19 – v
2
)/4 = 2 + v
2
/12, or v
2
= 33/4

But, -v
1
+ V
Th
+ v
2
= 0, or V
Th
= v
1
– v
2
= 8 – 33/4 = -0.25
b
R
Th
= 5 Ω
10 Ω
+ −
v
o

a
+ −
4 Ω

+

+
v
2

+
v
1

12Ω
v
2
+
V
Th
3 Ω
2 A
v
1

+

12V
6 Ω
(b)
a b
4 Ω 12 Ω 6 Ω 3 Ω
(a)
19V

V
Th
= (-1/4)V

v
o
= V
Th
/2 = -0.25/2 = -125 mV
Chapter 4, Solution 36.

Remove the 30-V voltage source and the 20-ohm resistor.

a
b
10Ω
+
V
Th
+

50V
a
b
40Ω
R
Th

10Ω

40Ω

(a)
(b)

From Fig. (a), R
Th
= 10||40 = 8 ohms

From Fig. (b), V
Th
= (40/(10 + 40))50 = 40V

+

a
b
12 Ω
(c)
i

+

40V
8 Ω

30V

The equivalent circuit of the original circuit is shown in Fig. (c). Applying KVL,

30 – 40 + (8 + 12)i = 0, which leads to i = 500mA

Chapter 4, Solution 37

R
N
is found from the circuit below.
20 Ω
a

40Ω
12Ω

b
Ω = + = 10 ) 40 20 //( 12
N
R
I
N
is found from the circuit below.
2A

20 Ω
a

+ 40Ω
120V 12Ω
- I
N

b

Applying source transformation to the current source yields the circuit below.

20Ω 40Ω + 80 V -

+
120V I
N
-

Applying KVL to the loop yields
A 6667 . 0 60 / 40 0 60 80 120 = = →  = + + −
N N
I I

Chapter 4, Solution 38

We find Thevenin equivalent at the terminals of the 10-ohm resistor. For R
Th
, consider
the circuit below.
1Ω
4Ω

5Ω

R
Th
16 Ω

Ω = + = + + = 5 4 1 ) 16 4 //( 5 1
Th
R
For V
Th
, consider the circuit below.
1Ω
V
1
4Ω V
2

5Ω +

3A 16Ω V
Th

+
-

12 V
-

At node 1,
2 1
2 1 1
4 5 48
4 16
3 V V
V V V
− = → 

+ = (1)
At node 2,
2 1
2 2 1
9 5 48 0
5
12
4
V V
V V V
+ − = →  =

+

(2)
Solving (1) and (2) leads to
2 . 19
2
= = V V
Th

Thus, the given circuit can be replaced as shown below.

5 Ω

+ +
19.2V V
o
10Ω
- -

Using voltage division,

8 . 12 ) 2 . 19 (
5 10
10
=
+
=
o
V V

Chapter 4, Solution 39.

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

- 1 – 3 + 10i
o
= 0, or i
o
= 0.4

R
Th
= 1/i
o
= 2.5 ohms

To find V
Th
, consider the circuit shown in Fig. (b).

[(4 – v)/10] + 2 = 0, or v = 24

But, v = V
Th
+ 3v
ab
= 4V
Th
= 24, which leads to V
Th
= 6 V

Chapter 4, Solution 40.

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
40V
a
10 Ω
(a)
+ −
1V
50V

+
v
1

+

3v
ab 10 Ω
i
o
b
a
(b)
+ −
4
40 Ω
V

+

3v
ab

20 Ω
2A

+

v
40Ω
R
Th
a b
10 Ω 20 Ω
+
v
2

+
V
Th
8 A

+

(b)
10 Ω
+
v
ab
= V
Th

b

(a)

R
Th
= 10||40 + 20 = 28 ohms

To get V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b). The two loops are independent. From loop 1,

v
1
= (40/50)50 = 40 V

For loop 2, -v
2
+ 20x8 + 40 = 0, or v
2
= 200

But, V
Th
+ v
2
– v
1
= 0, V
Th
= v
1
= v
2
= 40 – 200 = -160 volts

This results in the following equivalent circuit.

28 Ω

v
x
= [12/(12 + 28)](-160) = -48 V

Chapter 4, Solution 41

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit below

14Ω
a

6Ω 5 Ω

b

+

+
v
x

12 Ω
-160V

N Th
R R = Ω = + = 4 ) 6 14 //( 5
Applying source transformation to the 1-A current source, we obtain the circuit below.

6Ω - 14V + 14Ω V
Th
a

+

6V 3A 5Ω

-
b

At node a,
V 8
5
3
14 6
6 14
− = →  + =
+
− +
Th
Th Th
V
V V

A 2 4 / ) 8 ( − = − = =
Th
Th
N
R
V
I
Thus,
A 2 V, 8 , 4 − = − = Ω = =
N Th N Th
I V R R

Chapter 4, Solution 42.

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

20 Ω

30 Ω
10 Ω
20 Ω 10 Ω
10Ω
10 Ω

a
10 Ω 10 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
b
b a

(a)

(b)

20||20 = 10 ohms. Transform the wye sub-network to a delta as shown in Fig. (b).
10||30 = 7.5 ohms. R
Th
= R
ab
= 30||(7.5 + 7.5) = 10 ohms.

To find V
Th
, we transform the 20-V and the 5-V sources. We obtain the circuit shown in
Fig. (c).

+

50V
10 Ω
10 Ω 10 Ω
10 Ω
− +
10 V
a
10 Ω
+
b

+

30V
i
2
i
1

(c)

For loop 1, -30 + 50 + 30i
1
– 10i
2
= 0, or -2 = 3i
1
– i
2
(1)

For loop 2, -50 – 10 + 30i
2
– 10i
1
= 0, or 6 = -i
1
+ 3i
2
(2)

Solving (1) and (2), i
1
= 0, i
2
= 2 A

Applying KVL to the output loop, -v
ab
– 10i
1
+ 30 – 10i
2
= 0, v
ab
= 10 V

V
Th
= v
ab
= 10 volts

Chapter 4, Solution 43.

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

R
Th

a b
5 Ω
+
v
b

+
v
a

+
V
Th
10 Ω
+

50V
10 Ω
5 Ω 10Ω
a b
10Ω
(a)

2 A

(b)

R
Th
= 10||10 + 5 = 10 ohms

To find V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b).

v
b
= 2x5 = 10 V, v
a
= 20/2 = 10 V

But, -v
a
+ V
Th
+ v
b
= 0, or V
Th
= v
a
– v
b
= 0 volts

Chapter 4, Solution 44.

(a) For R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

R
Th
= 1 + 4||(3 + 2 + 5) = 3.857 ohms

For V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b). Applying KVL gives,

10 – 24 + i(3 + 4 + 5 + 2), or i = 1

V
Th
= 4i = 4 V

3Ω 1Ω
+
a

+

V
Th 3Ω 1Ω
a 4 Ω

24V

+

b
R
Th
4 Ω
10V
2 Ω
b 2 Ω
i 5 Ω 5 Ω

(b)
(a)

(b) For R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (c).

3Ω 1Ω 3Ω 1Ω

+

24V
2 Ω
2A
c
b
5 Ω
+
V
Th

v
o
4 Ω
2 Ω
5 Ω
4 Ω
R
Th
c
b
(c) (d)
R
Th
= 5||(2 + 3 + 4) = 3.214 ohms

To get V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (d). At the node, KCL gives,

[(24 – vo)/9] + 2 = vo/5, or vo = 15

V
Th
= vo = 15 V

Chapter 4, Solution 45.

For R
N
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

6 Ω 6 Ω
R
N 6 Ω 4 Ω
4A
6 Ω 4 Ω

I
N

(a) (b)

R
N
= (6 + 6)||4 = 3 ohms

For I
N
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b). The 4-ohm resistor is shorted so that 4-A current
is equally divided between the two 6-ohm resistors. Hence,

I
N
= 4/2 = 2 A

Chapter 4, Solution 46.

(a) R
N
= R
Th
= 8 ohms. To find I
N
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

10 Ω 60 Ω

4 Ω

+

30V
2A I
N
30 Ω
+

I
sc

20V

(a) (b)
I
N
= I
sc
= 20/10 = 2 A

(b) To get I
N
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b).

I
N
= I
sc
= 2 + 30/60 = 2.5 A

Chapter 4, Solution 47

Since V
Th
= V
ab
= V
x
, we apply KCL at the node a and obtain

V 19 . 1 126 / 150 2
60 12
30
= = →  + =

Th Th
Th Th
V V
V V

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit below.

12Ω V
x
a

2V
x

60Ω
1A

At node a, KCL gives
4762 . 0 126 / 60
12 60
2 1 = = →  + + =
x
x x
x
V
V V
V
5 . 2 4762 . 0 / 19 . 1 , 4762 . 0
1
= = = Ω = =
Th
Th
N
x
Th
R
V
I
V
R
Thus,
A 5 . 2 , 4762 . 0 , 19 . 1 = Ω = = =
N N Th Th
I R R V V

Chapter 4, Solution 48.

To get R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

+
V
Th

10I
o
+ −
I
o
2A
4 Ω
2 Ω
I
o

2 Ω
4 Ω
+ −
+
V

10I
o
1A

(a) (b)

From Fig. (a), I
o
= 1, 6 – 10 – V = 0, or V = -4

R
N
= R
Th
= V/1 = -4 ohms

To get V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b),

I
o
= 2, V
Th
= -10I
o
+ 4I
o
= -12 V

I
N
= V
Th
/R
Th
= 3A

Chapter 4, Solution 49.

R
N
= R
Th
= 28 ohms

To find I
N
, consider the circuit below,
3A

v
o
i
o
20 Ω

+

40 Ω
10 Ω

I
sc
= I
N
40V

At the node, (40 – v
o
)/10 = 3 + (v
o
/40) + (v
o
/20), or v
o
= 40/7

i
o
= v
o
/20 = 2/7, but I
N
= I
sc
= i
o
+ 3 = 3.286 A

Chapter 4, Solution 50.

From Fig. (a), R
N
= 6 + 4 = 10 ohms

6 Ω 6 Ω
4 Ω
12V

+

4 Ω
2A
I
sc
= I
N

(b) (a)

From Fig. (b), 2 + (12 – v)/6 = v/4, or v = 9.6 V

-I
N
= (12 – v)/6 = 0.4, which leads to I
N
= -0.4 A

Combining the Norton equivalent with the right-hand side of the original circuit produces
the circuit in Fig. (c).

i
4A
5 Ω
0.4A

10 Ω

(c)

i = [10/(10 + 5)] (4 – 0.4) = 2.4 A

Chapter 4, Solution 51.

(a) From the circuit in Fig. (a),

R
N
= 4||(2 + 6||3) = 4||4 = 2 ohms

2 Ω

+

120V
+
6A

V
Th
4 Ω
3 Ω
6 Ω
R
Th
4 Ω
3 Ω
6 Ω

2 Ω

(a) (b)

For I
N
or V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b). After some source transformations, the
circuit becomes that shown in Fig. (c).

i
2 Ω

+

12V

+

+
V
Th
4 Ω 2 Ω

40V

(c)

Applying KVL to the circuit in Fig. (c),

-40 + 8i + 12 = 0 which gives i = 7/2

V
Th
= 4i = 14 therefore I
N
= V
Th
/R
N
= 14/2 = 7 A

(b) To get R
N
, consider the circuit in Fig. (d).

R
N
= 2||(4 + 6||3) = 2||6 = 1.5 ohms

i

2 Ω

+

12V
+
V
Th
R
N
4 Ω
3 Ω 2 Ω
6 Ω

(d) (e)

To get I
N
, the circuit in Fig. (c) applies except that it needs slight modification as in
Fig. (e).

i = 7/2, V
Th
= 12 + 2i = 19, I
N
= V
Th
/R
N
= 19/1.5 = 12.667 A

Chapter 4, Solution 52.

For R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

a

I
o
b
2 kΩ 3 kΩ
20I
o

R
Th

(a)

+
+

I
o
a
b
2 kΩ V
Th

20I
o
3 kΩ

6V

(b)

For Fig. (a), I
o
= 0, hence the current source is inactive and

R
Th
= 2 k ohms

For V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b).

I
o
= 6/3k = 2 mA

V
Th
= (-20I
o
)(2k) = -20x2x10
-3
x2x10
3
= -80 V

Chapter 4, Solution 53.

To get R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

0.25v
o
0.25v
o

1/2
a
2 Ω
1A
+
v
o

2 Ω
(b)
b
+
v
ab

1/2
a
b
2 Ω
1A
+
v
o

3 Ω
(a)

6 Ω

From Fig. (b),
v
o
= 2x1 = 2V, -v
ab
+ 2x(1/2) +v
o
= 0

v
ab
= 3V

R
N
= v
ab
/1 = 3 ohms

To get I
N
, consider the circuit in Fig. (c).

0.25v
o

6 Ω
a
2 Ω
+
v
o

3 Ω
+

18V
I
sc
= I
N

b

(c)

[(18 – v
o
)/6] + 0.25v
o
= (v
o
/2) + (v
o
/3) or v
o
= 4V

But, (v
o
/2) = 0.25v
o
+ I
N
, which leads to I
N
= 1 A
Chapter 4, Solution 54

To find V
Th
=V
x
, consider the left loop.

x o x o
V i V i 2 1000 3 0 2 1000 3 + = →  = + + − (1)
For the right loop,
(2)
o o x
i i x V 2000 40 50 − = − =
Combining (1) and (2),
mA 1 3000 4000 1000 3 − = →  − = − =
o o o o
i i i i
2 2 2000 = →  = − =
Th o x
V i V
To find R
Th
, insert a 1-V source at terminals a-b and remove the 3-V independent
source, as shown below.

1 k i Ω
x
.

i
o
+ + +
2V
x
40i
o
V
x
50 Ω 1V
- - -

mA 2
1000
2
, 1 − = − = =
x
o x
V
i V
-60mA A
50
1
mA 80
50
40 = + − = + =
x
o x
V
i i

Ω − = − = = 67 . 16 060 . 0 / 1
1
x
Th
i
R

Chapter 4, Solution 55.

To get R
N
, apply a 1 mA source at the terminals a and b as shown in Fig. (a).

80I
+

v
ab
/1000
+
v
ab

8 kΩ
a
I

50 kΩ

1mA

b

(a)

We assume all resistances are in k ohms, all currents in mA, and all voltages in volts. At
node a,
(v
ab
/50) + 80I = 1 (1)
Also,
-8I = (v
ab
/1000), or I = -v
ab
/8000 (2)

From (1) and (2), (v
ab
/50) – (80v
ab
/8000) = 1, or v
ab
= 100

R
N
= v
ab
/1 = 100 k ohms

To get I
N
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b).

v
ab
/1000
I

80I
a
50 kΩ
+
v
ab

+

+

8 kΩ

I
N

2V

b

(b)

Since the 50-k ohm resistor is shorted,

I
N
= -80I, v
ab
= 0

Hence, 8i = 2 which leads to I = (1/4) mA

I
N
= -20 mA

Chapter 4, Solution 56.

We first need R
N
and I
N
.

16V
2A
4 Ω
2 Ω
I
N
1 Ω

+

+

20V
4 Ω 2 Ω
R
N

a
b
1 Ω

(a)
(b)
To find R
N
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

R
N
= 1 + 2||4 = (7/3) ohms

To get I
N
, short-circuit ab and find I
sc
from the circuit in Fig. (b). The current source can
be transformed to a voltage source as shown in Fig. (c).

v
o

i
R
N
a
I
N
1 Ω

+
16V
2V
4 Ω
2 Ω
I
N

+

+

20V

3 Ω

b
(c) (d)

(20 – v
o
)/2 = [(v
o
+ 2)/1] + [(v
o
+ 16)/4], or v
o
= 16/7

I
N
= (v
o
+ 2)/1 = 30/7

From the Norton equivalent circuit in Fig. (d),

i = R
N
/(R
N
+ 3), I
N
= [(7/3)/((7/3) + 3)](30/7) = 30/16 = 1.875 A

Chapter 4, Solution 57.

To find R
Th
, remove the 50V source and insert a 1-V source at a – b, as shown in Fig. (a).

B A
i
10 Ω 6 Ω
+
v
x

0.5v
x
a
b
(a)
2 Ω

+

1V 3 Ω

We apply nodal analysis. At node A,

i + 0.5v
x
= (1/10) + (1 – v
x
)/2, or i + v
x
= 0.6 (1)
At node B,
(1 – v
o
)/2 = (v
x
/3) + (v
x
/6), and v
x
= 0.5 (2)

From (1) and (2), i = 0.1 and

R
Th
= 1/i = 10 ohms

To get V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (b).

10 Ω 6 Ω
+
v
x

0.5v
x
a
b
(b)
2 Ω

+

v
1

3 Ω
v
2

+
V
Th

50V

At node 1, (50 – v
1
)/3 = (v
1
/6) + (v
1
– v
2
)/2, or 100 = 6v
1
– 3v
2
(3)

At node 2, 0.5v
x
+ (v
1
– v
2
)/2 = v
2
/10, v
x
= v
1
, and v
1
= 0.6v
2
(4)

From (3) and (4),

v
2
= V
Th
= 166.67 V

I
N
= V
Th
/R
Th
= 16.667 A

R
N
= R
Th
= 10 ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 58.

This problem does not have a solution as it was originally stated. The reason for this is
that the load resistor is in series with a current source which means that the only
equivalent circuit that will work will be a Norton circuit where the value of R
N
=
infinity. I
N
can be found by solving for I
sc
.

v
o i
b

+

β i
b
R
2
R
1

I
sc
V
S

Writing the node equation at node vo,

i
b
+ βi
b
= v
o
/R
2
= (1 + β)i
b

But i
b
= (V
s
– v
o
)/R
1

v
o
= V
s
– i
b
R
1

V
s
– i
b
R
1
= (1 + β)R
2
i
b
, or i
b
= V
s
/(R
1
+ (1 + β)R
2
)

I
sc
= I
N
= -βi
b
= -βV
s
/(R
1
+ (1 + β)R
2
)

Chapter 4, Solution 59.

R
Th
= (10 + 20)||(50 + 40) 30||90 = 22.5 ohms

To find V
Th
, consider the circuit below.

10 Ω
50 Ω
+ V
Th
8A
i
1
i
2

20 Ω

40 Ω

i
1
= i
2
= 8/2 = 4, 10i
1
+ V
Th
– 20i
2
= 0, or V
Th
= 20i
2
–10i
1
= 10i
1
= 10x4

V
Th
= 40V, and I
N
= V
Th
/R
Th
= 40/22.5 = 1.7778 A

Chapter 4, Solution 60.

The circuit can be reduced by source transformations.

2A

5 Ω
10 Ω
18 V
+ −
12 V
+ −
10 V
+ −

2A

b a
3A
2A
10 Ω
5 Ω

3A

10 V
+ −
3.333Ω
a b
3.333Ω
a b

Norton Equivalent Circuit Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Chapter 4, Solution 61.

To find R
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

Let R = 2||18 = 1.8 ohms, R
Th
= 2R||R = (2/3)R = 1.2 ohms.

To get V
Th
, we apply mesh analysis to the circuit in Fig. (d).

2 Ω
a
2 Ω
6 Ω
6 Ω
2 Ω
6 Ω

b
(a)

1.8 Ω
1.8 Ω
a
b
1.8 Ω R
Th
18 Ω
18 Ω 18 Ω
2 Ω
a
b
(b)
2 Ω

2 Ω

(c)

+

+

12V
i
3
i
2
i
1
2 Ω
6 Ω
6 Ω
a
b
2 Ω
6 Ω
12V

+

+

12V
2 Ω

V
Th

(d)
-12 – 12 + 14i
1
– 6i
2
– 6i
3
= 0, and 7 i
1
– 3 i
2
– 3i
3
= 12 (1)

12 + 12 + 14 i
2
– 6 i
1
– 6 i
3
= 0, and -3 i
1
+ 7 i
2
– 3 i
3
= -12 (2)

14 i
3
– 6 i
1
– 6 i
2
= 0, and -3 i
1
– 3 i
2
+ 7 i
3
= 0 (3)

This leads to the following matrix form for (1), (2) and (3),

− =

− −
− −
− −
0
12
12
i
i
i
7 3 3
3 7 3
3 3 7
3
2
1

100
7 3 3
3 7 3
3 3 7
=
− −
− −
− −
= ∆ , 120
7 0 3
3 12 3
3 12 7
2
− =

− − −

= ∆

i
2
= ∆/∆
2
= -120/100 = -1.2 A

V
Th
= 12 + 2i
2
= 9.6 V, and I
N
= V
Th
/R
Th
= 8 A

Chapter 4, Solution 62.

Since there are no independent sources, V
Th
= 0 V
To obtain R
Th
, consider the circuit below.

2
2v
o
0.1i
o i
x
v
1
i
o
40 Ω
10 Ω
+ −

+

V
S
+
v
o

1
20 Ω

At node 2,

i
x
+ 0.1i
o
= (1 – v
1
)/10, or 10i
x
+ i
o
= 1 – v
1
(1)
At node 1,
(v
1
/20) + 0.1i
o
= [(2v
o
– v
1
)/40] + [(1 – v
1
)/10] (2)

But i
o
= (v
1
/20) and v
o
= 1 – v
1
, then (2) becomes,

1.1v
1
/20 = [(2 – 3v
1
)/40] + [(1 – v
1
)/10]

2.2v
1
= 2 – 3v
1
+ 4 – 4v
1
= 6 – 7v
1

or v
1
= 6/9.2 (3)

From (1) and (3),
10i
x
+ v
1
/20 = 1 – v
1

10i
x
= 1 – v
1
– v
1
/20 = 1 – (21/20)v
1
= 1 – (21/20)(6/9.2)

i
x
= 31.52 mA, R
Th
= 1/i
x
= 31.73 ohms.
Chapter 4, Solution 63.

Because there are no independent sources, I
N
= I
sc
= 0 A

R
N
can be found using the circuit below.

3 Ω
i
o
10 Ω

+

+
v
o

v
1

0.5v
o
20 Ω

1V

Applying KCL at node 1, 0.5v
o
+ (1 – v
1
)/3 = v
1
/30, but v
o
= (20/30)v
1

Hence, 0.5(2/3)(30)v
1
+ 10 – 10v
1
=v
1
, or v
1
= 10 and i
o
= (1 – v
1
)/3 = -3

R
N
= 1/i
o
= -1/3 = -333.3 m ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 64.

With no independent sources, V
Th
= 0 V. To obtain R
Th
, consider the circuit
shown below.

1 Ω
i
x
i
o
4 Ω

+

+

10i
x
v
o

2 Ω

1V

i
x
= [(1 – v
o
)/1] + [(10i
x
– v
o
)/4], or 2v
o
= 1 + 3i
x
(1)

But i
x
= v
o
/2. Hence,

2v
o
= 1 + 1.5v
o
, or v
o
= 2, i
o
= (1 – v
o
)/1 = -1

Thus, R
Th
= 1/i
o
= -1 ohm

Chapter 4, Solution 65

At the terminals of the unknown resistance, we replace the circuit by its Thevenin
equivalent.
V 24 ) 32 (
4 12
12
, 5 3 2 12 // 4 2 =
+
= Ω = + = + =
Th Th
V R
Thus, the circuit can be replaced by that shown below.

5Ω I
o

+ +
24 V V
o

- -

Applying KVL to the loop,

o o o o
I 5 24 V 0 V I 5 24 − = →  = + + −

Chapter 4, Solution 66.

We first find the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a and b. We find R
Th
using the circuit
in Fig. (a).

3 Ω
5 Ω
b a
R
Th

2 Ω
2 Ω
10V
− +
i
20V

+

30V
3 Ω
+
V
Th
a b

+
5 Ω
(a) (b)

R
Th
= 2||(3 + 5) = 2||8 = 1.6 ohms

By performing source transformation on the given circuit, we obatin the circuit in (b).

We now use this to find V
Th
.

10i + 30 + 20 + 10 = 0, or i = -5

V
Th
+ 10 + 2i = 0, or V
Th
= 2 V

p = V
Th
2
/(4R
Th
) = (2)
2
/[4(1.6)] = 625 m watts

Chapter 4, Solution 67.

We need to find the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a and b.

From Fig. (a),

R
Th
= 4||6 + 8||12 = 2.4 + 4.8 = 7.2 ohms

From Fig. (b),

10i
1
– 30 = 0, or i
1
= 3

+

4 Ω
12 Ω 8 Ω
6 Ω
i
2
i
1
+ −
+

30V
R
Th
4 Ω
12 Ω 8 Ω
6 Ω

V
Th

+

(b) (a)

20i
2
+ 30 = 0, or i
2
= 1.5, V
Th
= 6i
1
+ 8i
2
= 6x3 – 8x1.5 = 6 V

For maximum power transfer,

p = V
Th
2
/(4R
Th
) = (6)
2
/[4(7.2)] = 1.25 watts

Chapter 4, Solution 68.

This is a challenging problem in that the load is already specified. This now becomes a
"minimize losses" style problem. When a load is specified and internal losses can be
adjusted, then the objective becomes, reduce R
Thev
as much as possible, which will result
in maximum power transfer to the load.

-
+
-
+

Removing the 10 ohm resistor and solving for the Thevenin Circuit results in:

R
Th
= (Rx20/(R+20)) and a V
oc
= V
Th
= 12x(20/(R +20)) + (-8)

As R goes to zero, R
Th
goes to zero and V
Th
goes to 4 volts, which produces the
maximum power delivered to the 10-ohm resistor.

P = vi = v
2
/R = 4x4/10 = 1.6 watts

Notice that if R = 20 ohms which gives an R
Th
= 10 ohms, then V
Th
becomes -2 volts and
the power delivered to the load becomes 0.1 watts, much less that the 1.6 watts.

It is also interesting to note that the internal losses for the first case are 12
2
/20 = 7.2 watts
and for the second case are = to 12 watts. This is a significant difference.

Chapter 4, Solution 69.

We need the Thevenin equivalent across the resistor R. To find R
Th
, consider the circuit
below.

22 kΩ
v
1

Assume that all resistances are in k ohms and all currents are in mA.
1mA
3v
o
30 kΩ 40 kΩ
+
v
o

10 kΩ

10||40 = 8, and 8 + 22 = 30

1 + 3v
o
= (v
1
/30) + (v
1
/30) = (v
1
/15)

15 + 45v
o
= v
1

But v
o
= (8/30)v
1
, hence,

15 + 45x(8v
1
/30) v
1
, which leads to v
1
= 1.3636

R
Th
= v
1
/1 = -1.3636 k ohms

To find V
Th
, consider the circuit below.

10 kΩ 22 kΩ
v
o
v
1

(100 – v
o
)/10 = (v
o
/40) + (v
o
– v
1
)/22 (1)
3v
o
30 kΩ 40 kΩ
+
v
o

+

+
V
Th

100V

[(v
o
– v
1
)/22] + 3v
o
= (v
1
/30) (2)

Solving (1) and (2),
v
1
= V
Th
= -243.6 volts

p = V
Th
2
/(4R
Th
) = (243.6)2/[4(-1363.6)] = -10.882 watts

Chapter 4, Solution 70

We find the Thevenin equivalent across the 10-ohm resistor. To find V
Th
, consider the
circuit below.

3V
x

5Ω 5Ω

+
+

4V 15Ω V
Th

- 6Ω
-

+ V
x -

From the figure,

V 3 ) 4 (
5 15
15
, 0 =
+
= =
Th x
V V
To find R
Th,
consider the circuit below:

3V
x

5Ω 5Ω
V
1
V
2

+

4V 15Ω 1A
- 6Ω

+ V
x
-

At node 1,
1 2
2 1 1 1
7 3 258 6 1 6 ,
5 15
3
5
4
V V x V
V V V
V
V
x x
− = →  = =

+ + =

(1)

At node 2,
95 0
5
3 1
2 1
2 1
− = →  =

+ + V V
V V
V
x
(2)
Solving (1) and (2) leads to V
2
= 101.75 V
mW 11 . 22
75 . 101 4
9
4
, 75 . 101
1
2
max
2
= = = Ω = =
x R
V
p
V
R
Th
Th
Th

Chapter 4, Solution 71.

We need R
Th
and V
Th
at terminals a and b. To find R
Th
, we insert a 1-mA source at the
terminals a and b as shown below.

Assume that all resistances are in k ohms, all currents are in mA, and all voltages are in
volts. At node a,
a
b

+
1mA
120v
o
40 kΩ 1 kΩ
+
v
o

10 kΩ
3 kΩ

1 = (v
a
/40) + [(v
a
+ 120v
o
)/10], or 40 = 5v
a
+ 480v
o
(1)

The loop on the left side has no voltage source. Hence, v
o
= 0. From (1), v
a
= 8 V.

R
Th
= v
a
/1 mA = 8 kohms

To get V
Th
, consider the original circuit. For the left loop,

v
o
= (1/4)8 = 2 V

For the right loop, v
R
= V
Th
= (40/50)(-120v
o
) = -192

The resistance at the required resistor is

R = R
Th
= 8 kohms

p = V
Th
2
/(4R
Th
) = (-192)
2
/(4x8x10
3
) = 1.152 watts

Chapter 4, Solution 72.

(a) R
Th
and V
Th
are calculated using the circuits shown in Fig. (a) and (b)
respectively.

From Fig. (a), R
Th
= 2 + 4 + 6 = 12 ohms

From Fig. (b), -V
Th
+ 12 + 8 + 20 = 0, or V
Th
= 40 V

12V
4 Ω 4 Ω 6 Ω 2 Ω 6 Ω

− +

+
V
Th

+

R
Th
2 Ω
8V
20V
+ −

(b) (a)

(b) i = V
Th
/(R
Th
+ R) = 40/(12 + 8) = 2A

(c) For maximum power transfer, R
L
= R
Th
= 12 ohms

(d) p = V
Th
2
/(4R
Th
) = (40)
2
/(4x12) = 33.33 watts.

Chapter 4, Solution 73

Find the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the terminals of R.

10 Ω 25Ω
R
Th

20Ω 5Ω

Ω = = + = 833 . 10 30 / 325 5 // 25 20 // 10
Th
R

10 Ω 25Ω

+ + V
Th
-
60 V + +
-
V
a
V
b
20Ω 5Ω
- -

10 ) 60 (
30
5
, 40 ) 60 (
30
20
= = = =
b a
V V
V 30 10 40 0 = − = − = →  = + + −
b a Th b Th a
V V V V V V
W 77 . 20
833 . 10 4
30
4
2
2
max
= = =
x R
V
p
Th
Th

Chapter 4, Solution 74.

When R
L
is removed and V
s
is short-circuited,

R
Th
= R
1
||R
2
+ R
3
||R
4
= [R
1
R
2
/( R
1
+ R
2
)] + [R
3
R
4
/( R
3
+ R
4
)]

R
L
= R
Th
= (R
1
R
2
R
3
+ R
1
R
2
R
4
+ R
1
R
3
R
4
+ R
2
R
3
R
4
)/[( R
1
+ R
2
)( R
3
+ R
4
)]

When R
L
is removed and we apply the voltage division principle,

V
oc
= V
Th
= v
R2
– v
R4

= ([R
2
/(R
1
+ R
2
)] – [R
4
/(R
3
+ R
4
)])V
s
= {[(R
2
R
3
) – (R
1
R
4
)]/[(R
1
+ R
2
)(R
3
+ R
4
)]}V
s

p
max
= V
Th
2
/(4R
Th
)

= {[(R
2
R
3
) – (R
1
R
4
)]
2
/[(R
1
+ R
2
)(R
3
+ R
4
)]
2
}V
s
2
[( R
1
+ R
2
)( R
3
+ R
4
)]/[4(a)]

where a = (R
1
R
2
R
3
+ R
1
R
2
R
4
+ R
1
R
3
R
4
+ R
2
R
3
R
4
)

p
max
=

[(R
2
R
3
) – (R
1
R
4
)]
2
V
s
2
/[4(R
1
+ R
2
)(R
3
+ R
4
) (R
1
R
2
R
3
+ R
1
R
2
R
4
+ R
1
R
3
R
4
+ R
2
R
3
R
4
)]

Chapter 4, Solution 75.

We need to first find R
Th
and V
Th
.

R

+

+

2V
R
R

+

3V
+
V
Th

v
o

R R R

R
Th

1V
(a)

(b)
Consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

(1/R
Th
) = (1/R) + (1/R) + (1/R) = 3/R

R
Th
= R/3

From the circuit in Fig. (b),

((1 – v
o
)/R) + ((2 – v
o
)/R) + ((3 – v
o
)/R) = 0

v
o
= 2 = V
Th

For maximum power transfer,

R
L
= R
Th
= R/3

P
max
= [(V
Th
)
2
/(4R
Th
)] = 3 mW

R
Th
= [(V
Th
)
2
/(4P
max
)] = 4/(4xP
max
) = 1/P
max
= R/3

R = 3/(3x10
-3
) = 1 k ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 76.

Follow the steps in Example 4.14. The schematic and the output plots are shown below.
From the plot, we obtain,

V = 92 V [i = 0, voltage axis intercept]

R = Slope = (120 – 92)/1 = 28 ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 77.

(a) The schematic is shown below. We perform a dc sweep on a current source, I1,
connected between terminals a and b. We label the top and bottom of source I1 as 2 and
1 respectively. We plot V(2) – V(1) as shown.

V
Th
= 4 V [zero intercept]

R
Th
= (7.8 – 4)/1 = 3.8 ohms
(b) Everything remains the same as in part (a) except that the current source, I1, is
connected between terminals b and c as shown below. We perform a dc sweep on
I1 and obtain the plot shown below. From the plot, we obtain,

V = 15 V [zero intercept]

R = (18.2 – 15)/1 = 3.2 ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 78.
he schematic is shown below. We perform a dc sweep on the current source, I1,

V
Th
= -80 V

T
connected between terminals a and b. The plot is shown. From the plot we obtain,

[zero intercept]
R
Th
= (1920 – (-80))/1 = 2 k ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 79.

After drawing and saving the schematic as shown below, we perform a dc sweep on I1
connected across a and b. The plot is shown. From the plot, we get,

V = 167 V [zero intercept]

R = (177 – 167)/1 = 10 ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 80.

The schematic in shown below. We label nodes a and b as 1 and 2 respectively. We
perform dc sweep on I1. In the Trace/Add menu, type v(1) – v(2) which will result in the
plot below. From the plot,

V
Th
= 40 V [zero intercept]

R
Th
= (40 – 17.5)/1 = 22.5 ohms [slope]

Chapter 4, Solution 81.

The schematic is shown below. We perform a dc sweep on the current source, I2,
connected between terminals a and b. The plot of the voltage across I2 is shown below.
From the plot,
V
Th
= 10 V [zero intercept]

R
Th
= (10 – 6.4)/1 = 3.4 ohms.

Chapter 4, Solution 82.

V
Th
= V
oc
= 12 V, I
sc
= 20 A

R
Th
= V
oc
/I
sc
= 12/20 = 0.6 ohm.

0.6 Ω

i = 12/2.6 , p = i
2
R = (12/2.6)
2
(2) = 42.6 watts
i
+

2 Ω
12V

Chapter 4, Solution 83.

V
Th
= V
oc
= 12 V, I
sc
= I
N
= 1.5 A

R
Th
= V
Th
/I
N
= 8 ohms, V
Th
= 12 V, R
Th
= 8 ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 84

Let the equivalent circuit of the battery terminated by a load be as shown below.

R
Th

I
L

+ +

V
Th

-
V
L
R
L
-

For open circuit,

V 8 . 10 , = = = →  ∞ =
L oc Th L
V V V R
When R
L
= 4 ohm, V
L
=10.5,

7 . 2 4 / 8 . 10 = = =
L
L
L
R
V
I
But
Ω =

=

= →  + = 4444 . 0
7 . 2
8 . 10 12
L
L Th
Th Th L L Th
I
V V
R R I V V

Chapter 4, Solution 85

(a) Consider the equivalent circuit terminated with R as shown below.
R
Th
a

+ +
V
Th
V
ab
R
- -

b
Th
Th
Th
Th
ab
V
R
V
R R
R
V
+
= → 
+
=
10
10
6
or

Th Th
V R 10 6 60 = +
(1)

where R
Th
is in k-ohm.

Similarly,

Th Th Th
Th
V R V
R
30 12 360
30
30
12 = + → 
+
= (2)
Solving (1) and (2) leads to

Ω = = k R V
Th Th
30 V, 24

(b) V 6 . 9 ) 24 (
30 20
20
=
+
=
ab
V

Chapter 4, Solution 86.

We replace the box with the Thevenin equivalent.

R
Th

+
v

i
R
+

V
Th

V
Th
= v + iR
Th

When i = 1.5, v = 3, which implies that V
Th
= 3 + 1.5R
Th
(1)

When i = 1, v = 8, which implies that V
Th
= 8 + 1xR
Th
(2)

From (1) and (2), R
Th
= 10 ohms and V
Th
= 18 V.

(a) When R = 4, i = V
Th
/(R + R
Th
) = 18/(4 + 10) = 1.2857 A

(b) For maximum power, R = R
TH

Pmax = (V
Th
)
2
/4R
Th
= 18
2
/(4x10) = 8.1 watts

Chapter 4, Solution 87.

(a)
i
m
= 9.975 mA i
m
= 9.876 mA

+
v
m

R
s
R
m
R
s
R
s
R
m

I
s
I
s

(a) (b)

From Fig. (a),
v
m
= R
m
i
m
= 9.975 mA x 20 = 0.1995 V

I
s
= 9.975 mA + (0.1995/R
s
) (1)
From Fig. (b),
v
m
= R
m
i
m
= 20x9.876 = 0.19752 V

I
s
= 9.876 mA + (0.19752/2k) + (0.19752/R
s
)

= 9.975 mA + (0.19752/R
s
) (2)
Solving (1) and (2) gives,

R
s
= 8 k ohms, I
s
= 10 mA

(b)

i
m
’ = 9.876 mA

8k||4k = 2.667 k ohms

i
m
’ = [2667/(2667 + 20)](10 mA) = 9.926 mA

Chapter 4, Solution 88

To find R
Th,
consider the circuit below.

R
Th
5kΩ
A B

30k 20k Ω Ω

R
s
(b)
R
s
I
s R
m
10kΩ
Ω = + + = k R
Th
44 5 // 20 10 30

To find V
Th
, consider the circuit below.

5kΩ
A B
i
o
+
30k 20k Ω Ω
4mA 60 V
-

10kΩ

V 72 , 48 ) 60 (
25
20
, 120 4 30 = − = = = = =
B A Th B A
V V V V x V

Chapter 4, Solution 89

It is easy to solve this problem using Pspice.

(a) The schematic is shown below. We insert IPROBE to measure the desired ammeter
reading. We insert a very small resistance in series IPROBE to avoid problem. After the
circuit is saved and simulated, the current is displaced on IPROBE as A 99 . 99 µ .

(b) By interchanging the ammeter and the 12-V voltage source, the schematic is shown
below. We obtain exactly the same result as in part (a).

Chapter 4, Solution 90.

R
x
= (R
3
/R
1
)R
2
= (4/2)R
2
= 42.6, R
2
= 21.3

which is (21.3ohms/100ohms)% = 21.3%

Chapter 4, Solution 91.

R
x
= (R
3
/R
1
)R
2

(a) Since 0 < R
2
< 50 ohms, to make 0 < R
x
< 10 ohms requires that when R
2

= 50 ohms, R
x
= 10 ohms.

10 = (R
3
/R
1
)50 or R
3
= R
1
/5

so we select R
1
= 100 ohms and R
3
= 20 ohms

(b) For 0 < R
x
< 100 ohms

100 = (R
3
/R
1
)50, or R
3
= 2R
1

So we can select R
1
= 100 ohms and R
3
= 200 ohms

Chapter 4, Solution 92.

For a balanced bridge, v
ab
= 0. We can use mesh analysis to find v
ab
. Consider the
circuit in Fig. (a), where i
1
and i
2
are assumed to be in mA.

2 kΩ

5 kΩ
i
2
i
1

+

+ v
ab

a b
3 kΩ

6 kΩ

220V

10 kΩ

0

(a)

220 = 2i
1
+ 8(i
1
– i
2
) or 220 = 10i
1
– 8i
2
(1)

0 = 24i
2
– 8i
1
or i
2
= (1/3)i
1
(2)
From (1) and (2),
i
1
= 30 mA and i
2
= 10 mA

Applying KVL to loop 0ab0 gives

5(i
2
– i
1
) + v
ab
+ 10i
2
= 0 V

Since v
ab
= 0, the bridge is balanced.

When the 10 k ohm resistor is replaced by the 18 k ohm resistor, the gridge becomes
unbalanced. (1) remains the same but (2) becomes

0 = 32i
2
– 8i
1
, or i
2
= (1/4)i
1
(3)
Solving (1) and (3),
i
1
= 27.5 mA, i
2
= 6.875 mA

v
ab
= 5(i
1
– i
2
) – 18i
2
= -20.625 V

V
Th
= v
ab
= -20.625 V

To obtain R
Th
, we convert the delta connection in Fig. (b) to a wye connection shown in
Fig. (c).

2 kΩ
a R
Th
b
18 kΩ
6 kΩ R
2
R
1
a R
Th
b
5 kΩ 18 kΩ R
3
6 kΩ 3 kΩ

(b) (c)

R
1
= 3x5/(2 + 3 + 5) = 1.5 k ohms, R
2
= 2x3/10 = 600 ohms,

R
3
= 2x5/10 = 1 k ohm.

R
Th
= R
1
+ (R
2
+ 6)||(R
3
+ 18) = 1.5 + 6.6||9 = 6.398 k ohms

R
L
= R
Th
= 6.398 k ohms

P
max
= (V
Th
)
2
/(4R
Th
) = (20.625)
2
/(4x6.398) = 16.622 mWatts

Chapter 4, Solution 93.

R
s
R
o i
x

βR
o
i
x
+

i
x

+

V
S

-V
s
+ (R
s
+ R
o
)i
x
+ βR
o
i
x
= 0

i
x
= V
s
/(R
s
+ (1 + β)R
o
)

Chapter 4, Solution 94.

(a) V
o
/V
g
= R
p
/(R
g
+ R
s
+ R
p
) (1)

R
eq
= R
p
||(R
g
+ R
s
) = R
g

R
g
= R
p
(R
g
+ R
s
)/(R
p
+ R
g
+ R
s
)

R
g
R
p
+ R
g
2
+ R
g
R
s
= R
p
R
g
+ R
p
R
s

R
p
R
s
= R
g
(R
g
+ R
s
) (2)

From (1), R
p
/α = R
g
+ R
s
+ R
p

R
g
+ R
s
= R
p
((1/α) – 1) = R
p
(1 - α)/α (1a)

Combining (2) and (1a) gives,

R
s
= [(1 - α)/α]R
eq
(3)

= (1 – 0.125)(100)/0.125 = 700 ohms

From (3) and (1a),

R
p
(1 - α)/α = R
g
+ [(1 - α)/α]R
g
= R
g

R
p
= R
g
/(1 - α) = 100/(1 – 0.125) = 114.29 ohms

(b)

R
Th

+

I

R
L
V
Th

V
Th
= V
s
= 0.125V
g
= 1.5 V

R
Th
= R
g
= 100 ohms

I = V
Th
/(R
Th
+ R
L
) = 1.5/150 = 10 mA

Chapter 4, Solution 95.

Let 1/sensitivity = 1/(20 k ohms/volt) = 50 µA

For the 0 – 10 V scale,
R
m
= V
fs
/I
fs
= 10/50 µA = 200 k ohms
For the 0 – 50 V scale,
R
m
= 50(20 k ohms/V) = 1 M ohm

+

V
Th
R
Th
R
m

V
Th
= I(R
Th
+ R
m
)

(a) A 4V reading corresponds to

I = (4/10)I
fs
= 0.4x50 µA = 20 µA

V
Th
= 20 µA R
Th
+ 20 µA 250 k ohms

= 4 + 20 µA R
Th
(1)

(b) A 5V reading corresponds to

I = (5/50)I
fs
= 0.1 x 50 µA = 5 µA

V
Th
= 5 µA x R
Th
+ 5 µA x 1 M ohm

V
Th
= 5 + 5 µA R
Th
(2)
From (1) and (2)

0 = -1 + 15 µA R
Th
which leads to R
Th
= 66.67 k ohms

From (1),
V
Th
= 4 + 20x10
-6
x(1/(15x10
-6
)) = 5.333 V

Chapter 4, Solution 96.

(a) The resistance network can be redrawn as shown in Fig. (a),

+

V
Th
R
Th
+
V
o

+
V
Th

R
10 Ω 8 Ω 10 Ω
40Ω
10 Ω
i
2
i
1

+

60 Ω
8 Ω

9V
R

(a) (b)

R
Th
= 10 + 10 + 60||(8 + 8 + 10||40) = 20 + 60||24 = 37.14 ohms

Using mesh analysis,

-9 + 50i
1
- 40i
2
= 0 (1)
116i
2
– 40i
1
= 0 or i
1
= 2.9i
2
(2)

From (1) and (2), i
2
= 9/105

V
Th
= 60i
2
= 5.143 V

From Fig. (b),

V
o
= [R/(R + R
Th
)]V
Th
= 1.8

R/(R + 37.14) = 1.8/5.143 which leads to R = 20 ohms

(b) R = R
Th
= 37.14 ohms

I
max
= V
Th
/(2R
Th
) = 5.143/(2x37.14) = 69.23 mA

Chapter 4, Solution 97.

4 kΩ
4 kΩ

+

+
B

V
Th

E
12V

R
Th
= R
1
||R
2
= 6||4 = 2.4 k ohms

V
Th
= [R
2
/(R
1
+ R
2
)]v
s
= [4/(6 + 4)](12) = 4.8 V

Chapter 4, Solution 98.

The 20-ohm, 60-ohm, and 14-ohm resistors form a delta connection which needs to be
connected to the wye connection as shown in Fig. (b),

b
a
R
Th

R
2
R
3
30 Ω
R
1
b
a
R
Th
20 Ω
60 Ω
30 Ω
14 Ω

(a) (b)

R
1
= 20x60/(20 + 60 + 14) = 1200/94 = 12.97 ohms

R
2
= 20x14/94 = 2.98 ohms

R
3
= 60x14/94 = 8.94 ohms

R
Th
= R
3
+ R
1
||(R
2
+ 30) = 8.94 + 12.77||32.98 = 18.15 ohms

To find V
Th
, consider the circuit in Fig. (c).

16 V
I
1
I
T
I
T
+ −
b
a
+
V
Th
20 Ω
60 Ω
30 Ω
14 Ω

(c)

I
T
= 16/(30 + 15.74) = 350 mA

I
1
= [20/(20 + 60 + 14)]I
T
= 94.5 mA

V
Th
= 14I
1
+ 30I
T
= 11.824 V

I
40
= V
Th
/(R
Th
+ 40) = 11.824/(18.15 + 40) = 203.3 mA

P
40
= I
40
2
R = 1.654 watts

Chapter 5, Solution 1.

(a) R
in
= 1.5 MΩ
(b) R
out
= 60 Ω
(c) A = 8x10
4
Therefore A
dB
= 20 log 8x10
4
= 98.0 dB

Chapter 5, Solution 2.

v
0
= Av
d
= A(v
2
- v
1
)
= 10
5
(20-10) x 10
-6
= 0.1V

Chapter 5, Solution 3.

v
0
= Av
d
= A(v
2
- v
1
)
= 2 x 10
5
(30 + 20) x 10
-6
= 10V

Chapter 5, Solution 4.

v
0
= Av
d
= A(v
2
- v
1
)
v
2
- v
1
= V 20
10 x 2
4
A
v
5
0
µ − =

=

If v
1
and v
2
are in mV, then

v
2
- v
1
= -20 mV = 0.02
1 - v
1
= -0.02
v
1
= 1.02 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 5.

+
v
0
-
-

v
d

+
R
0
R
in
I

v
i
-
+
Av
d
+
-

-v
i
+ Av
d
+ (R
i
- R
0
) I = 0 (1)

But v
d
= R
i
I,

-v
i
+ (R
i
+ R
0
+ R
i
A) I = 0

v
d
=
i 0
i i
R ) A 1 ( R
R v
+ +
(2)

-Av
d
- R
0
I + v
0
= 0

v
0
= Av
d
+ R
0
I = (R
0
+ R
i
A)I =
i 0
i i 0
R ) A 1 ( R
v ) A R R (
+ +
+

4
5
5 4
i 0
i 0
i
0
10
) 10 1 ( 100
10 x 10 100
R ) A 1 ( R
A R R
v
v

+ +
+
=
+ +
+
=

( )
= ⋅
+
4
5
9
10
10 1
10
=
001 , 100
000 , 100
0.9999990

Chapter 5, Solution 6.

-

v
d

+
+
v
o
-
R
0
R
in
I

v
i
+ -
Av
d
+
-

(R
0
+ R
i
)R + v
i
+ Av
d
= 0

But v
d
= R
i
I,

v
i
+ (R
0
+ R
i
+ R
i
A)I = 0

I =
i 0
i
R ) A 1 ( R
v
+ +

(1)

-Av
d
- R
0
I + v
o
= 0

v
o
= Av
d
+ R
0
I = (R
0
+ R
i
A)I

Substituting for I in (1),

v
0
=

+ +
+
i 0
i 0
R ) A 1 ( R
A R R

 − v
i
=
( )
( )
6 5
3 5 6
10 x 2 x 10 x 2 1 50
10 10 x 2 x 10 x 2 50
+ +
⋅ +

≅ mV
10 x 2 x 001 , 200
10 x 2 x 000 , 200
6
6

v
0
= -0.999995 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 7.

100 kΩ

1

2 10 kΩ
-
+
+

V
d

-
+
V
out
-
R
out
= 100 Ω
R
in
AV
d
+
-

V
S

At node 1, (V
S
– V
1
)/10 k = [V
1
/100 k] + [(V
1
– V
0
)/100 k]

10 V
S
– 10 V
1
= V
1
+ V
1
– V
0

which leads to V
1
= (10V
S
+ V
0
)/12

At node 2, (V
1
– V
0
)/100 k = (V
0
– AV
d
)/100

But V
d
= V
1
and A = 100,000,

V
1
– V
0
= 1000 (V
0
– 100,000V
1
)

0= 1001V
0
– 100,000,001[(10V
S
+ V
0
)/12]

0 = -83,333,334.17 V
S
- 8,332,333.42 V
0

which gives us (V
0
/ V
S
) = -10 (for all practical purposes)

If V
S
= 1 mV, then V
0
= -10 mV

Since V
0
= A V
d
= 100,000 V
d
, then V
d
= (V
0
/10
5
) V = -100 nV

Chapter 5, Solution 8.

(a) If v
a
and v
b
are the voltages at the inverting and noninverting terminals of the op
amp.

v
a
= v
b
= 0

1mA =
k 2
v 0
0

v
0
= -2V
(b)

10 kΩ
2V
+ -
+
v
a

-
10 kΩ
i
a
+
v
o

-
+
v
o

-
v
a
v
b
i
a
2 kΩ
2V

-
+
1V

-
+
-
+

(b)

(a)

Since v
a
= v
b
= 1V and i
a
= 0, no current flows through the 10 kΩ resistor. From Fig. (b),

-v
a
+ 2 + v
0
= 0 v
a
= v
a
- 2 = 1 - 2 = -1V

Chapter 5, Solution 9.

(a) Let v
a
and v
b
be respectively the voltages at the inverting and noninverting
terminals of the op amp

v
a
= v
b
= 4V

At the inverting terminal,

1mA =
k 2
0
v 4 −
v
0
= 2V

Since v
a
= v
b
= 3V,

-v
b
+ 1 + v
o
= 0 v
o
= v
b
- 1 = 2V
+
v
b

-
+
v
o

-
+ -
(b)

1V

Chapter 5, Solution 10.

Since no current enters the op amp, the voltage at the input of the op amp is v
s
.
Hence

v
s
= v
o

2
v
10 10
10
o
=

+

s
o
v
v
= 2

Chapter 5, Solution 11.

8 kΩ

v
b
= V 2 ) 3 (
5 10
10
=
+

i
o
b
a

+

5 kΩ
2 kΩ
4 kΩ
+
v
o

10 kΩ

+
3 V

At node a,

8
v v
2
v 3
o a a

=

12 = 5v
a
– v
o

But v
a
= v
b
= 2V,

12 = 10 – v
o
v
o
= -2V

–i
o
= mA 1
4
2
8
2 2
4
v 0
8
v v
o o a
= +
+
=

+

i
o
= -1mA

Chapter 5, Solution 12.

4 kΩ

b
a

+

2 kΩ
1 kΩ
+
v
o

4 kΩ

+

1.2V

At node b, v
b
=
o o o
v
3
2
v
3
2
v
2 4
4
= =
+

At node a,
4
v v
1
v 2 . 1
o a a

=

, but v
a
= v
b
=
o
v
3
2

4.8 - 4 x
o o o
v v
3
2
v
3
2
− = v
o
= V 0570 . 2
7
8 . 4 x 3
=

v
a
= v
b
=
7
6 . 9
v
3
2
o
=

i
s
=
7
2 . 1
1
v 2 .
a

=
1 −

p = v
s
i
s
= 1.2 = 

7
2 . 1

-205.7 mW

Chapter 5, Solution 13.

By voltage division,
i
1
i
2
90 kΩ
10 kΩ
b
a

+

100 kΩ
4 kΩ
50 kΩ
+

i
o
+
v
o

1 V
v
a
= V 9 . 0 ) 1 (
100
=
90

v
b
=
3
v
v
150
o
o
=
50

But v
a
= v
b
9 . 0
3
v
0
= v
o
= 2.7V
i
o
= i
1
+ i
2
= = +
k 150
v
k 10
v
o o
0.27mA + 0.018mA = 288 µA
Chapter 5, Solution 14.

Transform the current source as shown below. At node 1,

10
v v
20
v v
5
v 10
o 1 2 1 1

+

=

But v
2
= 0. Hence 40 - 4v
1
= v
1
+ 2v
1
- 2v
o
40 = 7v
1
- 2v
o
(1)
20 kΩ
v
o
10 kΩ

+

v
1

+
v
2
5 kΩ
10 kΩ
+
v
o

10V

At node 2, 0 v ,
10
v v
20
v v
2
o 2 2 1
=

=

or v
1
= -2v
o
(2)

From (1) and (2), 40 = -14v
o
- 2v
o
v
o
= -2.5V

Chapter 5, Solution 15

(a) Let v
1
be the voltage at the node where the three resistors meet. Applying
KCL at this node gives
3 3 2
1
3
1
2
1
1 1
R
v
R R
v
R
v v
R
v
i
o o
s

+ =

+ = (1)
At the inverting terminal,
1 1
1
1
0
R i v
R
v
i
s s
− = → 

= (2)
Combining (1) and (2) leads to

+ + − = →  − =

+ +
2
3 1
3 1
3 3
1
2
1
1
R
R R
R R
i
v
R
v
R
R
R
R
i
s
o o
s

(b) For this case,
Ω = Ω 

+ + − = k 92 - k
25
40 20
40 20
x
i
v
s
o

Chapter 5, Solution 16
10kΩ

i
x

5kΩ v
a
i
y

-
v
b
+ v
o

+ 2kΩ
0.5V
- 8kΩ

Let currents be in mA and resistances be in kΩ. At node a,
o a
o a a
v v
v v v
− = → 

=

3 1
10 5
5 . 0
(1)

But

a o o b a
v v v v v
8
10
2 8
8
= → 
+
= = (2)
Substituting (2) into (1) gives
14
8
8
10
3 1 = →  − =
a a a
v v v
Thus,
A 28 . 14 mA 70 / 1
5
5 . 0
µ − = − =

=
a
x
v
i
A 85.71 mA
14
8
4
6 . 0
)
8
10
( 6 . 0 ) ( 6 . 0
10 2
µ = = − = − =

+

= x v v v v
v v v v
i
a a a o
a o b o
y

Chapter 5, Solution 17.

(a) G = = − = − =
5
12
R
R
v
v
1
2
i
o
-2.4
(b)
5
80
v
v
i
o
− = = -16
(c) = − =
5
2000
v
v
i
o
-400
Chapter 5, Solution 18.

Converting the voltage source to current source and back to a voltage source, we have the
circuit shown below:

3
20
20 10 = kΩ

1 MΩ

3
v 2
3
20
50
1000
v
i
o

+
− = = − =
17
200
v
1
o
v
-11.764

Chapter 5, Solution 19.

We convert the current source and back to a voltage source.

3
4
4 2 =
5 kΩ
v
o
0V

(4/3) kΩ 10 kΩ

+
4 kΩ

+

(2/3)V
(20/3) kΩ
+
v
o

+
50 kΩ

+

2v
i
/3

=

− =
3
2
k
3
4
x 4
k 10
v
o
-1.25V
=

+ =
k 10
0 v
k 5
v
i
o o
o
-0.375mA

Chapter 5, Solution 20.

8 kΩ

+

v
s

+

4 kΩ
+
v
o

+
2 kΩ
4 kΩ
a b

9 V

At node a,

4
v v
8
v v
4
v 9
b a o a a

+

=

18 = 5v
a
– v
o
- 2v
b
(1)

At node b,

2
v v
4
v v
o b b a

=

v
a
= 3v
b
- 2v
o
(2)

But v
b
= v
s
= 0; (2) becomes v
a
= –2v
o
and (1) becomes

-18 = -10v
o
– v
o
v
o
= -18/(11) = -1.6364V

Chapter 5, Solution 21.

Eqs. (1) and (2) remain the same. When v
b
= v
s
= 3V, eq. (2) becomes

v
a
= 3 x 3 - 2v
0
= 9 - 2v
o

Substituting this into (1), 18 = 5 (9-2v
o
) – v
o
– 6 leads to

v
o
= 21/(11) = 1.909V

Chapter 5, Solution 22.

A
v
= -R
f
/R
i
= -15.

If R
i
= 10kΩ, then R
f
= 150 kΩ.

Chapter 5, Solution 23

At the inverting terminal, v=0 so that KCL gives

1 2 1
0 0 0
R
R
v
v
R
v
R R
v
f
s
o
f
o s
− = ÷ ÷ → ÷

+ =

Chapter 5, Solution 24

v
1
R
f

R
1
R
2

- v
s
+ -
+
+
R
4

R
3
v
o

v
2
-

We notice that v
1
= v
2
. Applying KCL at node 1 gives

f
o s
f f
o s
R
v
R
v
v
R R R R
v v
R
v v
R
v
= −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ÷→ ÷ =

+

+
2
1
2 1
1
2
1
1
1
1 1 1
0
) (
(1)
Applying KCL at node 2 gives

s
s
v
R R
R
v
R
v v
R
v
4 3
3
1
4
1
3
1
0
+
= ÷→ ÷ =

+ (2)
Substituting (2) into (1) yields

s
f
f o
v
R R R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R v
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + =
2 4 3
3
2
4 3
1
3
1

i.e.
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + =
2 4 3
3
2
4 3
1
3
1
R R R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R k
f
f

Chapter 5, Solution 25.

v
o
= 2 V

+ −

+
v
a
+
v
o

-v
a
+ 3 + v
o
= 0 which leads to v
a
= v
o
+ 3 = 5 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 26
+

v
b
- i
o

+ +
0.4V 5k Ω
- 2kΩ v
o
8kΩ
-

V 5 . 0 8 . 0 / 4 . 0 8 . 0
2 8
8
4 . 0 = = ÷→ ÷ =
+
= =
o o o b
v v v v
Hence,
mA 1 . 0
5
5 . 0
5
= = =
k k
v
o
o
i
Chapter 5, Solution 27.

(a) Let v
a
be the voltage at the noninverting terminal.

v
a
= 2/(8+2) v
i
= 0.2v
i

i a 0
v 2 . 10 v
20
1 = |
.
|
\
+
1000
v
|
=
G = v
0
/(v
i
) = 10.2

(b) v
i
= v
0
/(G) = 15/(10.2) cos 120πt = 1.471 cos 120πt V

Chapter 5, Solution 28.

+

+

At node 1,
k 50
v v
k 10
v 0
o 1 1

=

But v
1
= 0.4V,

-5v
1
= v
1
– v
o
, leads to v
o
= 6v
1
= 2.4V

Alternatively, viewed as a noninverting amplifier,

v
o
= (1 + (50/10)) (0.4V) = 2.4V

i
o
= v
o
/(20k) = 2.4/(20k) = 120 µA

Chapter 5, Solution 29

R
1
v
a
+
v
b
- +

+
v
i
R
2
R
2
v
o

- R
1

-

o b i a
v
R R
R
v v
R R
R
v
2 1
1
2 1
2
,
+
=
+
=

But
o i b a
v
R R
R
v
R R
R
v
2 1
1
2 1
2
+
=
+
÷→ ÷ = v
Or
1
2
R
R
v
v
i
o
=

Chapter 5, Solution 30.

The output of the voltage becomes

v
o
= v
i
= 12
Ω = k 12 20 30

By voltage division,

V 2 . 0 ) 2 . 1 (
60 12
12
v
x
=
+
=

= = =
k 20
2 . 0
k 20
v
i
x
x
10µA

= = =
k 20
04 . 0
R
v
p
2
x
2µW

Chapter 5, Solution 31.

After converting the current source to a voltage source, the circuit is as shown below:

12 kΩ
2
v
o
6 kΩ
+

+

6 kΩ
3 kΩ
1
v
1

v
o

12 V

At node 1,

12
v v
6
v v
3
v
o 1 o 1 1
12 −
+

=

48 = 7v
1
- 3v
o
(1)

At node 2,

x
o o 1
i
6
0 v
6
v v
=

=

v
1
= 2v
o
(2)

From (1) and (2),
11
48
v
o
=
= =
k 6
v
i
o
x
0.7272mA

Chapter 5, Solution 32.

Let v
x
= the voltage at the output of the op amp. The given circuit is a non-inverting
amplifier.

=
x
v |
.
|

\
|
+
10
50
1 (4 mV) = 24 mV
Ω = k 20 30 60

By voltage division,

v
o
= mV 12
2
v
v
20 20
o
o
= =
+
20

i
x
=
( )
= =
+ k 40
mV 24
k 20 20
v
x
600nA

p = =

3
6 2
o
10 x 60
10 x
=
144
R
v
204nW

Chapter 5, Solution 33.

After transforming the current source, the current is as shown below:

1 kΩ

This is a noninverting amplifier.
3 kΩ
v
i
v
a
+

+

2 kΩ
4 kΩ
v
o
4 V

i i o
v
2
3
v
2
1
1 v = |
.
|

\
|
+ =

Since the current entering the op amp is 0, the source resistor has a OV potential drop.
Hence v
i
= 4V.

V 6 ) 4 (
2
3
v
o
= =

Power dissipated by the 3kΩ resistor is

= =
k 3
36
R
v
2
o
12mW

=

=

=
k 1
6 4
R
v v
i
o a
x
-2mA
Chapter 5, Solution 34

0
R
v v
R
v v
2
in 1
1
in 1
=

+

(1)

but
o
4 3
3
a
v
R R
R
v
+
= (2)

Combining (1) and (2),

0 v
R
R
v
R
R
v v
a
2
1
2
2
1
a 1
= − + −

2
2
1
1
2
1
a
v
R
R
v
R
R
1 v + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

2
2
1
1
2
1
4 3
o 3
v
R
R
v
R
R
1
R R
v R
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
2
2
1
1
2
1
3
4 3
o
v
R
R
v
R
R
1 R
R R
v

v
O
= ) v R v (
) R R ( R
R R
2 2 1
2 1 3
4 3
+
+
+

Chapter 5, Solution 35.

10
R
R
1
v
v
A
i
f
i
o
v
= + = = R
f
= 9R
i

If R
i
= 10kΩ, R
f
= 90kΩ

Chapter 5, Solution 36

V
ab Th
V =
But
ab s
V
R R
R
2 1
1
+
= v . Thus,
s s ab Th
v
R
R
v
R
R R
V V ) 1 (
1
2
1
2 1
+ =
+
= =
To get R
Th
, apply a current source I
o
at terminals a-b as shown below.

v
1

+
v
2
- a

+

R
2

v
o
i
o
R
1

-
b

Since the noninverting terminal is connected to ground, v
1
= v
2
=0, i.e. no current passes
through R
1
and consequently R
2
. Thus, v
o
=0 and
0 = =
o
o
Th
i
v
R

Chapter 5, Solution 37.

(
¸
(

¸

+ + − =
3
3
f
2
2
f
1
1
f
o
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
R
R
v

(
¸
(

¸

− + + − = ) 3 (
30
30
) 2 (
20
30
) 1 (
10
30

v
o
= -3V

Chapter 5, Solution 38.

(
¸
(

¸

+ + + − =
4
4
f
3
3
f
2
2
f
1
1
f
o
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
R
R
v

(
¸
(

¸

− + + − + − = ) 100 (
50
50
) 50 (
10
50
) 20 (
20
50
) 10 (
25
50

= -120mV

Chapter 5, Solution 39

This is a summing amplifier.

2 2 3
3
2
2
1
1
5 . 2 9 ) 1 (
50
50
20
50
) 2 (
10
50
v v v
R
R
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
f f f
o
− − = |
.
|

\
|
− + + − =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + − =
Thus,
V 3 5 . 2 9 5 . 16
2 2
= ÷→ ÷ − − = − = v v v
o

Chapter 5, Solution 40

R
1

R
2
v
a

+
R
3
v
b -

+ +
v
1
+
- v
2
R
f
v
o

- +
v
3
R -
-

Applying KCL at node a,

)
1 1 1
( 0
3 2 1 3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
R R R
v
R
v
R
v
R
v
R
v v
R
v v
R
v v
a
a a a
+ + = + + ÷→ ÷ =

+

+

(1)

But

o
f
b a
v
R R
R
v
+
= = v (2)

Substituting (2) into (1)gives

)
1 1 1
(
3 2 1 3
3
2
2
1
1
R R R R R
Rv
R
v
R
v
R
v
f
o
+ +
+
= + +

or

)
1 1 1
/( ) (
3 2 1 3
3
2
2
1
1
R R R R
v
R
v
R
v
R
R R
v
f
o
+ + + +
+
=

Chapter 5, Solution 41.

R
f
/R
i
= 1/(4) R
i
= 4R
f
= 40kΩ

The averaging amplifier is as shown below:

Chapter 5, Solution 42
v
1

R
2
= 40 kΩ
v
2

R
3
= 40 kΩ
v
3

R
4
= 40 kΩ
v
4

10 kΩ

+
R
1
= 40 kΩ
v
o

Ω = = k 10 R
3
1
R
1 f

Chapter 5, Solution 43.

In order for

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
4
4
f
3
3
f
2
2
f
1
1
f
o
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
R
R
v

to become
( )
4 3 2 1 o
v v v v
4
1
v + + + − =

4
1
R
R
i
f
= = = =
4
12
4
R
R
i
f
3kΩ

Chapter 5, Solution 44.
R
4

At node b, 0
R
v v
R
v v
2
2 b
1
1 b
=

+

2 1
2
2
1
1
b
R
1
R
1
R
v
R
v
v
+
+
= (1)
b
a
R
1

v
1

R
2

v
2

R
3

v
o

+

At node a,
4
o a
3
a
R
v v
R
v 0 −
=

3 4
o
a
R / R 1
v
v
+
= (2)

But v
a
= v
b
. We set (1) and (2) equal.

2 1
1 1 1 2
3 4
o
R R
v R v R
R / R 1
v
+
+
=
+

or
v
o
=
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1 2
2 1 3
4 3
v R v R
R R R
R R
+
+
+

Chapter 5, Solution 45.

This can be achieved as follows:

( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ − − =
2 1 o
v
2 / R
R
v
3 / R
R
v

( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ − − =
2
2
f
1
1
f
v
R
R
v
R
R

i.e. R
f
= R, R
1
= R/3, and R
2
= R/2

Thus we need an inverter to invert v
1
, and a summer, as shown below (R<100kΩ).

R/3
R/2
v
2
R

+
R
v
1
-v
1

R

+

v
o

Chapter 5, Solution 46.

3
3
f
2
2
x
1
1
f
3 2
1
o
v
R
R
) v (
R
R
v
R
R
v
2
1
) v (
3
1
3
v
v + − + = + − + = −
i.e. R
3
= 2R
f
, R
1
= R
2
= 3R
f
. To get -v
2
, we need an inverter with R
f
= R
i
. If R
f
= 10kΩ,
a solution is given below.

v
1
30 kΩ

20 kΩ
v
3
10 kΩ

+
10 kΩ

v
2
-v
2

10 kΩ

+
30 kΩ

v
o

Chapter 5, Solution 47.

If a is the inverting terminal at the op amp and b is the noninverting terminal,
then,

V 6 v v , V 6 ) 8 (
1 3
3
v
b a b
= = =
+
= and at node a,
4
v v
2
v 10
o a a

=

which leads to v
o
= –2 V and i
o
=
k 4
) v v (
k 5
v
o a o

− = –0.4 – 2 mA = –2.4 mA

Chapter 5, Solution 48.

Since the op amp draws no current from the bridge, the bridge may be treated separately
as follows:
v
1

v
2
i
2
i
1
+ −

For loop 1, (10 + 30) i
1
= 5 i
1
= 5/(40) = 0.125µA

For loop 2, (40 + 60) i
2
= -5 i
2
= -0.05µA

But, 10i + v
1
- 5 = 0 v
1
= 5 - 10i = 3.75mV
60i + v
2
+ 5 = 0 v
2
= -5 - 60i = -2mV

As a difference amplifier,
( ) | |mV ) 2 ( 75 . 3
20
80
v v
R
R
v
1 2
1
2
o
− − = − =

= 23mV
Chapter 5, Solution 49.

R
1
= R
3
= 10kΩ, R
2
/(R
1
) = 2

i.e. R
2
= 2R
1
= 20kΩ = R
4

Verify:
1
1
2
2
4 3
2 1
1
2
o
v
R
R
v
R / R 1
R / R 1
R
R
v −
+
+
=

( )
1 2 1 2
v v 2 v 2 v
5 . 0 1
) 5 . 0 1 (
2 − = −
+
+
=

Thus, R
1
= R
3
= 10kΩ, R
2
= R
4
= 20kΩ

Chapter 5, Solution 50.

(a) We use a difference amplifier, as shown below:

( ) ( , v v 2 v v
R
R
v
1 2 1 2
1
2
o
− = − = ) i.e. R
2
/R
1
= 2
R
1

v
2
R
2
v
1
R
2

+
R
1

v
o

If R
1
= 10 kΩ then R
2
= 20kΩ

(b) We may apply the idea in Prob. 5.35.

2 1 0
v 2 v 2 v − =
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ − − =
2 1
v
2 / R
R
v
2 / R
R

( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ − − =
2
2
f
1
1
f
v
R
R
v
R
R

i.e. R
f
= R, R
1
= R/2 = R
2

We need an inverter to invert v
1
and a summer, as shown below. We may let R = 10kΩ.

R/2
R/2
v
2
R

+
R
v
1
-v
1

R

+

v
o

Chapter 5, Solution 51.
We achieve this by cascading an inverting amplifier and two-input inverting summer as
shown below:

Verify: v
o
= -v
a
- v
1

But v
a
= -v
2
. Hence
R
R
v
1
R

+
R
v
2
v
a

R

+
v
o

v
o
= v
2
- v
1
.

Chapter 5, Solution 52

A summing amplifier shown below will achieve the objective. An inverter is inserted to
invert v
2
. Let R = 10 k . Ω
R/2 R
v
1

R/5

v
3
-
+ v
o

v
4
R
R
R
v
2
- R/4

+

Chapter 5, Solution 53.

(a)

v
b
v
a
R
1

v
2
R
2
v
1
R
2

+
R
1

v
o

At node a, v
+
= (1)
At node b,
2
2 1
2
b
v
R R
R
v
+
= (2)

But v
a
= v
b
. Setting (1) and (2) equal gives

2 1
o 1 1 2
2
2 1
2
R R
v R v R
v
R R
R
+
+
=
+

i o
2
1
1 2
v v
R
R
v v = = −
=
i
o
v
v
1
2
R
R

(b)

At node A,
2 / R
v v
R
v v
2 / R
v v
1
a A
g
A B
1
A 1

=

+

v
1
R
2
v
b
v
a
v
B
v
A
R
1
/2
v
2
R
1
/2
R
g
R
2

+
v
o

+
R
1
/2 R
1
/2

v
i

+

or ( )
a A A B
g
1
A 1
v v v v
R 2
R
v v − = − + − (1)

At node B,
g
b B
1
A B
1
B 2
R
v v
2 / R
v v
2 / R
v v −
+

=

or
b B A B
g
1
B 2
v v ) v v (
R 2
R
v v − = − − − (2)

Subtracting (1) from (2),

( )
a b A B A B
g
1
A B 1 2
v v v v v v
R 2
R 2
v v v + − − = − − + − − v
Since, v
a
= v
b
,
( )
2
v
v v
R 2
R
1
2
v v
i
A B
g
1 1 2
= −

+ =

or
g
1
i
A B
R 2
R
1
1
2
v
v v
+
⋅ = − (3)

But for the difference amplifier,

( )
A B
1
2
o
v v
2 / R
R
− = v
or
o
2
1
A B
v
R 2
R
v v = − (4)

Equating (3) and (4),
g
1
i
o
2
1
R 2
R
1
1
2
v
v
R 2
R
+
⋅ =

g
1
1
2
i
o
R 2
R
1
1
R
R
v
v
+
⋅ =

(c) At node a,
2 / R
v v
R
v v
2
A a
1
a 1

=

A
2
1
a
2
1
a 1
v
R
R 2
v
R
R 2
v − = − v (1)
At node b,
B
2
1
b
2
1
b 2
v
R
R 2
v
R
R 2
v v − = − (2)

Since v
a
= v
b
, we subtract (1) from (2),

2
v
) v v (
R
R 2
v
i
A B
2
1
1 2
= −

= − v
or
i
1
2
A B
v
R 2
R
v v

= − (3)

At node A,

2 / R
v v
R
v v
2 / R
v v
o A
g
A B
2
A a

=

+

( )
o A A B
g
2
A a
v v v v
R 2
R
v v − = − + − (4)

At node B,
2 / R
0 v
R
v v
2 / R
v v
B
g
A B B b

=

( )
B A B
g
2
B b
v v v
R 2
R
v = − − − v (5)
Subtracting (5) from (4),
( )
o B A A B
g
2
A B
v v v v v
R
R
v − − = − + − v
( )
o
g
2
A B
v
R 2
R
1 v v 2 − =

+ − (6)
Combining (3) and (6),
o
g
2
i
1
2
v
R 2
R
1 v
R
R
− =

+

+ =
g
2
1
2
i
o
R 2
R
1
R
R
v
v

Chapter 5, Solution 54.

(a) A
0
= A
1
A
2
A
3
= (-30)(-12.5)(0.8) = 300
(b) A = A
1
A
2
A
3
A
4
= A
0
A
4
= 300A
4

But dB 60 A Log 20
10
= 3 A Log
10
=

A = 10
3
= 1000
A
4
= A/(300) = 3.333

Chapter 5, Solution 55.

Let A
1
= k, A
2
= k, and A
3
= k/(4)
A = A
1
A
2
A
3
= k
3
/(4)
42 A Log 20
10
=
A = 10 1 . 2 A Log
10
=
2 ⋅1
= 125.89
k
3
= 4A = 503.57
k = 956 . 57 . 7 503
3
=
Thus A
1
= A
2
= 7.956, A
3
= 1.989

Chapter 5, Solution 56.

There is a cascading system of two inverting amplifiers.

s s o
v 6 v
6
12
4
12
v = 

 − −
=
mA v 3
k 2
v
i
s
s
o
= =

(a) When v
s
= 12V, i
o
= 36mA
(b) When v
s
= 10 cos 377t V, i
o
= 30 cos 377t mA

Chapter 5, Solution 57

The first stage is a difference amplifier. Since R
1
/R
2
= R
3
/R
4
,

mA 10 ) 4 1 (
50
100
) v v (
R
R
v
1 2
1
2
o
= + = − =

The second stage is a non-inverter.

) given ( mV 40 mA 10
40
R
1 v
40
R
1 v
o o
=

+ =

+ =

Which leads to,

R = 120 kΩ

Chapter 5, Solution 58.

By voltage division, the input to the voltage follower is:

V 45 . 0 ) 6 . 0 (
1 3
3
v
1
=
+
=

Thus
15 . 3 v 7 v
5
10
v
2
10
v
1 1 1 o
− = − = −

=

=

=
k 4
v 0
i
o
o
0.7875mA

Chapter 5, Solution 59.

Let a be the node between the two op amps.

v
a
= v
o

The first stage is a summer

o o s a
v v
20
10
v
5
10
v = −

=
1.5v
s
= -2v
s

or
=

=
2 v

5 . 1 v
s
o
-1.333

Chapter 5, Solution 60.

Transform the current source as shown below:
4 kΩ

Assume all currents are in mA. The first stage is a summer
v
1

3 Ω
5 kΩ

3 kΩ
+

10 kΩ

+

+

i
o

5i
s

2 kΩ

( )
o s o s 1
v 5 . 2 i 10 v
4
10
i 5
5
10
− − = −

= v (1)
By voltage division,

o o 1
v
2
1
v
3 3
3
=
+
= v (2)

Alternatively, we notice that the second stage is a non-inverter.

1 1 o
v 2 v
3 3
1
=

+
= v

From (1) and (2),

0 3v
o s o
v 5 . 2 i 10 v 5 . − − =
o
= 10i
s

3
i 10
i 2
s
o o
− = − = v = =
3
5
i
i
s
o
1.667

Chapter 5, Solution 61.

Let v
01
be the voltage at the left end of R
5
. The first stage is an inverter, while the
second stage is a summer.

1
1
2
01
v
R
R
v − =

01
5
4
0
v
R
R
v − =
2
3
4
v
R
R

v
1
=
1
5 1
R R
4 2
v
R R
2
3
4
v
R
R

Chapter 5, Solution 62.

Let v
1
= output of the first op amp
v
2
= output of the second op amp

The first stage is a summer

i
1
2
1
v
R
R
v − = –
o
f
2
v
R
R
(1)

The second stage is a follower. By voltage division

1
4 3
4
2 o
v
R R
R
v v
+
= =
o
4
4 3
1
v
R
R R
v
+
= (2)

From (1) and (2),

i
1
2
o
4
3
v
R
R
v
R
R
1 − =

+
o
f
2
v
R
R

i
1
2
o
f
2
4
3
v
R
R
v
R
R
R
R
1 − =

+ +

4
2
4
3
1
2
i
o
R
R
R
R
1
1
R
R
v
v
+ +
⋅ − =

( )
4 3 2 1
4 2
R R R R
R R
+ +

=

Chapter 5, Solution 63.

The two op amps are summer. Let v
1
be the output of the first op amp. For the first
stage,

o
3
2
i
1
2
1
v
R
R
v
R
R
v − − = (1)

For the second stage,

i
o
4
1
5
4
o
v
R
R
v
R
R
v − − = (2)

Combining (1) and (2),

i
6
4
o
3
2
5
4
i
1
2
5
4
o
v
R
R
v
R
R
R
R
v
R
R
R
R
v −

+

=

i
6
4
5 1
4 2
5 3
4 2
o
v
R
R
R R
R R
R R
R R
1 v

− =

5 3
4 2
6
4
3 1
4 2
i
o
R R
R R
1
R
R
R R
R R
v
v

=
Chapter 5, Solution 64

G
4

G G
3

G
1

1 G 2
- -
+ 0V + v 0V + +
v
s
G
2
v
o
-

-

At node 1, v
1
=0 so that KCL gives

Gv v G v G
o s
− = +
4 1
(1)

At node 2,

Gv v G v G
o s
− = +
3 2
(2)
From (1) and (2),
o s o s o s
v G G v G G v G v G v G v G ) ( ) (
4 3 2 1 3 2 4 1
− = −  →  + = +
or

4 3
2 1
G G
G G
v
v
s
o

=

Chapter 5, Solution 65

The output of the first op amp (to the left) is 6 mV. The second op amp is an
inverter so that its output is

mV -18 mV) 6 (
10
30
' = − =
o
v
The third op amp is a noninverter so that

mV 6 . 21 '
40
48
8 40
40
' − = = → 
+
=
o o o o
v v v v

Chapter 5, Solution 66.

) 2 (
10
100
) 4 (
20
40
20
100
) 6 (
25
110
v
o
− 

− −

=
= − + − = 20 40 24 -4V

Chapter 5, Solution 67.

v
o
= ) 2 . 0 (
20
80
) 5 . 0 (
20 40

 

80 80

= − = 8 . 0 2 . 3 2.4V

Chapter 5, Solution 68.

If R
q
= ∞, the first stage is an inverter.

mV 30 ) 10 (
5
15
V
a
− = − =

when V
a
is the output of the first op amp.

The second stage is a noninverting amplifier.

= − + = 

+ = ) 30 )( 3 1 ( v
2
6
1 v
a o
-120mV

Chapter 5, Solution 69.

In this case, the first stage is a summer

o o a
v 5 . 1 30 v
10
15
) 10 (
5
15
v − − = − − =

For the second stage,

( )
o a a o
v 5 . 1 30 4 v 4 v
2
6
1 v − − = =

+ =
120 v 7
o
− = = − =
7
120
o
v -17.143mV

Chapter 5, Solution 70.

The output of amplifier A is

9 ) 2 (
10
30
) 10 (
10
30
v
A
− = − − =

The output of amplifier B is

14 ) 4 (
10
20
) 3 (
10
20
v
B
− = − − =

40 kΩ

V 2 ) 14 (
10 60
60
v
b
− = −
+
=
v
A

v
B

a
b
60 kΩ
20 kΩ

+
10 kΩ
v
o

At node a,
40
v v
20
v v
o a a A

=

But v
a
= v
b
= -2V, 2(-9+2) = -2-v
o

Therefore, v
o
= 12V

Chapter 5, Solution 71

20kΩ
5k 100kΩ Ω

- 40kΩ
+
+ v
2

2V 80kΩ -
- 10kΩ + +

v
o
20kΩ
-

- 10kΩ
+ v
1
+
- v
3

+
3V 50kΩ
- 30kΩ

8 )
30
50
1 ( , 8 ) 2 (
5
20
, 3
1 3 2 1
= + = − = − = = v v v v
V 10 ) 10 20 (
80
100
40
100
3 2
= + − − =

+ − = v v v
o

Chapter 5, Solution 72.

Since no current flows into the input terminals of ideal op amp, there is no voltage
drop across the 20 kΩ resistor. As a voltage summer, the output of the first op
amp is
v
01
= 0.4

The second stage is an inverter

01 2
v
100
150
v − =
= = − ) 4 . 0 ( 5 . 2 -1V

Chapter 5, Solution 73.

The first stage is an inverter. The output is
V 9 ) 8 . 1 (
10
50
v
01
− = − − =
The second stage is
= =
01 2
v v -9V

Chapter 5, Solution 74.

Let v
1
= output of the first op amp
v
2
= input of the second op amp.

The two sub-circuits are inverting amplifiers

V 6 ) 6 . 0 (
10
100
1
− = − = v
V 8 ) 4 . 0 (
6 . 1
32
2
− = − = v
=
+ −
− =

=
k 20
8 6
k 20
v v
2 1
o
i 100 µA

Chapter 5, Solution 75.

The schematic is shown below. Pseudo-components VIEWPOINT and IPROBE are
involved as shown to measure v
o
and i respectively. Once the circuit is saved, we click
Analysis | Simulate. The values of v and i are displayed on the pseudo-components as:
i = 200 µA

(v
o
/v
s
) = -4/2 = -2

The results are slightly different than those obtained in Example 5.11.

Chapter 5, Solution 76.

The schematic is shown below. IPROBE is inserted to measure i
o
. Upon simulation, the
value of i
o
is displayed on IPROBE as

i
o
= -374.78 µA

Chapter 5, Solution 77.

The schematic is shown below. IPROBE is inserted to measure i
o
. Upon simulation, the
value of i
o
is displayed on IPROBE as

i
o
= -374.78 µA

Chapter 5, Solution 78.

The circuit is constructed as shown below. We insert a VIEWPOINT to display v
o
.
Upon simulating the circuit, we obtain,

v
o
= 667.75 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 79.

The schematic is shown below. A pseudo-component VIEWPOINT is inserted to display
v
o
. After saving and simulating the circuit, we obtain,

v
o
= -14.61 V

Chapter 5, Solution 80.

The schematic is shown below. VIEWPOINT is inserted to display v
o
. After simulation,
we obtain,

v
o
= 12 V

Chapter 5, Solution 81.

The schematic is shown below. We insert one VIEWPOINT and one IPROBE to
measure v
o
and i
o
respectively. Upon saving and simulating the circuit, we obtain,
v
o
= 343.37 mV

i
o
= 24.51 µA

Chapter 5, Solution 82.

The maximum voltage level corresponds to

11111 = 2
5
– 1 = 31

Hence, each bit is worth (7.75/31) = 250 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 83.

The result depends on your design. Hence, let R
G
= 10 k ohms, R
1
= 10 k ohms, R
2
=
20 k ohms, R
3
= 40 k ohms, R
4
= 80 k ohms, R
5
= 160 k ohms, R
6
= 320 k ohms,
then,

-v
o
= (R
f
/R
1
)v
1
+ --------- + (R
f
/R
6
)v
6

= v
1
+ 0.5v
2
+ 0.25v
3
+ 0.125v
4
+ 0.0625v
5
+ 0.03125v
6

(a) |v
o
| = 1.1875 = 1 + 0.125 + 0.0625 = 1 + (1/8) + (1/16) which implies,

[v
1
v
2
v
3
v
4
v
5
v
6
] = [100110]

(b) |v
o
| = 0 + (1/2) + (1/4) + 0 + (1/16) + (1/32) = (27/32) = 843.75 mV

(c) This corresponds to [1 1 1 1 1 1].

|v
o
| = 1 + (1/2) + (1/4) + (1/8) + (1/16) + (1/32) = 63/32 = 1.96875 V

Chapter 5, Solution 84.

For (a), the process of the proof is time consuming and the results are only approximate,
but close enough for the applications where this device is used.

(a) The easiest way to solve this problem is to use superposition and to solve
for each term letting all of the corresponding voltages be equal to zero.
Also, starting with each current contribution (i
k
) equal to one amp and
working backwards is easiest.

2R R R R

+
− i
k

2R
v
2
v
4

+

v
3

+

+

2R 2R

v
1

R

For the first case, let v
2
= v
3
= v
4
= 0, and i
1
= 1A.

Therefore, v
1
= 2R volts or i
1
= v
1
/(2R).

Second case, let v
1
= v
3
= v
4
= 0, and i
2
= 1A.

Therefore, v
2
= 85R/21 volts or i
2
= 21v
2
/(85R). Clearly this is not
(1/4
th
), so where is the difference? (21/85) = 0.247 which is a really
good approximation for 0.25. Since this is a practical electronic circuit,
the result is good enough for all practical purposes.

Now for the third case, let v
1
= v
2
= v
4
= 0, and i
3
= 1A.

Therefore, v
3
= 8.5R volts or i
3
= v
3
/(8.5R). Clearly this is not
(1/8
th
), so where is the difference? (1/8.5) = 0.11765 which is a really
good approximation for 0.125. Since this is a practical electronic circuit,
the result is good enough for all practical purposes.

Finally, for the fourth case, let v
1
= v
2
= v
4
= 0, and i
3
= 1A.

Therefore, v
4
= 16.25R volts or i
4
= v
4
/(16.25R). Clearly this is not
(1/16
th
), so where is the difference? (1/16.25) = 0.06154 which is a
really good approximation for 0.0625. Since this is a practical electronic
circuit, the result is good enough for all practical purposes.

Please note that a goal of a lot of electronic design is to come up with
practical circuits that are economical to design and build yet give the
desired results.

(b) If R
f
= 12 k ohms and R = 10 k ohms,

-v
o
= (12/20)[v
1
+ (v
2
/2) + (v
3
/4) + (v
4
/8)]

= 0.6[v
1
+ 0.5v
2
+ 0.25v
3
+ 0.125v
4
]

For [v
1
v
2
v
3
v
4
] = [1 0 11],

|v
o
| = 0.6[1 + 0.25 + 0.125] = 825 mV

For [v
1
v
2
v
3
v
4
] = [0 1 0 1],

|v
o
| = 0.6[0.5 + 0.125] = 375 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 85.

A
v
= 1 + (2R/R
g
) = 1 + 20,000/100 = 201

Chapter 5, Solution 86.

v
o
= A(v
2
– v
1
) = 200(v
2
– v
1
)

(a) v
o
= 200(0.386 – 0.402) = -3.2 V
(b) v
o
= 200(1.011 – 1.002) = 1.8 V

Chapter 5, Solution 87.

The output, v
a
, of the first op amp is,

v
a
= (1 + (R
2
/R
1
))v
1
(1)

Also, v
o
= (-R
4
/R
3
)v
a
+ (1 + (R
4
/R
3
))v
2
(2)

Substituting (1) into (2),

v
o
= (-R
4
/R
3
) (1 + (R
2
/R
1
))v
1
+ (1 + (R
4
/R
3
))v
2

Or, v
o
= (1 + (R
4
/R
3
))v
2
– (R
4
/R
3
+ (R
2
R
4
/R
1
R
3
))v
1

If R
4
= R
1
and R
3
= R
2
, then,

v
o
= (1 + (R
4
/R
3
))(v
2
– v
1
)

which is a subtractor with a gain of (1 + (R
4
/R
3
)).

Chapter 5, Solution 88.

We need to find V
Th
at terminals a – b, from this,

v
o
= (R
2
/R
1
)(1 + 2(R
3
/R
4
))V
Th
= (500/25)(1 + 2(10/2))V
Th

= 220V
Th

Now we use Fig. (b) to find V
Th
in terms of v
i
.

30 kΩ
80 kΩ
20 kΩ
40 kΩ
30 kΩ
b
a
v
i

+ −
b
a
v
i

20 kΩ
40 kΩ 80 kΩ

(a) (b)
v
a
= (3/5)v
i
, v
b
= (2/3)v
i

V
Th
= v
b
– v
a
(1/15)v
i

(v
o
/v
i
) = A
v
= -220/15 = -14.667

Chapter 5, Solution 89.

If we use an inverter, R = 2 k ohms,

(v
o
/v
i
) = -R
2
/R
1
= -6

R = 6R = 12 k ohms

Hence the op amp circuit is as shown below.

12 kΩ

2 kΩ

+
+

+
v
o

v
i

Chapter 5, Solution 90.

Transforming the current source to a voltage source produces the circuit below,
At node b, v
b
= (2/(2 + 4))v
o
= v
o
/3

20 kΩ

i
o
b

a

2 kΩ
5 kΩ

+
+
v
o

+

4 kΩ

5i
s

At node a, (5i
s
– v
a
)/5 = (v
a
– v
o
)/20
But v
a
= v
b
= v
o
/3. 20i
s
– (4/3)v
o
= (1/3)v
o
– v
o
, or i
s
= v
o
/30
i
o
= [(2/(2 + 4))/2]v
o
= v
o
/6

i
o
/i
s
= (v
o
/6)/(v
o
/30) = 5
Chapter 5, Solution 91.

i
o
i
2
i
1
i
s

+
v
o
R
1
R
2

i
o
= i
1
+ i
2
(1)

But i
1
= i
s
(2)

R
1
and R
2
have the same voltage, v
o
, across them.

R
1
i
1
= R
2
i
2
, which leads to i
2
= (R
1
/R
2
)i
1
(3)

Substituting (2) and (3) into (1) gives,

i
o
= i
s
(1 + R
1
/R
2
)

i
o
/i
s
= 1 + (R
1
/R
2
) = 1 + 8/1 = 9

Chapter 5, Solution 92

The top op amp circuit is a non-inverter, while the lower one is an inverter. The
output at the top op amp is

v
1
= (1 + 60/30)v
i
= 3v
i

while the output of the lower op amp is

v
2
= -(50/20)v
i
= -2.5v
i

Hence, v
o
= v
1
– v
2
= 3v
i
+ 2.5v
i
= 5.5v
i

v
o
/v
i
= 5.5

Chapter 5, Solution 93.

R
3

+
v
i

+
v
L

v
b
R
4
R
L
i
o
i
L

+
v
a
R
1
R
2
+
v
o

At node a, (v
i
– v
a
)/R
1
= (v
a
– v
o
)/R
3

v
i
– v
a
= (R
1
/R
2
)(v
a
– v
o
)

v
i
+ (R
1
/R
3
)v
o
= (1 + R
1
/R
3
)v
a
(1)

But v
a
= v
b
= v
L
. Hence, (1) becomes

v
i
= (1 + R
1
/R
3
)v
L
– (R
1
/R
3
)v
o
(2)

i
o
= v
o
/(R
4
+ R
2
||R
L
), i
L
= (R
L
/(R
2
+ R
L
))i
o
= (R
2
/(R
2
+ R
L
))(v
o
/( R
4
+ R
2
||R
L
))

Or, v
o
= i
L
[(R
2
+ R
L
)( R
4
+ R
2
||R
L
)/R
2
(3)

But, v
L
= i
L
R
L
(4)

Substituting (3) and (4) into (2),

v
i
= (1 + R
1
/R
3
) i
L
R
L
– R
1
[(R
2
+ R
L
)/(R
2
R
3
)]( R
4
+ R
2
||R
L
)i
L

= [((R
3
+ R
1
)/R
3
)R
L
– R
1
((R
2
+ R
L
)/(R
2
R
3
)(R
4
+ (R
2
R
L
/(R
2
+ R
L
))]i
L

= (1/A)i
L

Thus,

A =

+
+

 +

+
L 2
L 2
4
3 2
L 2
1 L
3
1
R R
R R
R
R R
R R
R R
R
R
1
1

Chapter 6, Solution 1.

( = + − = =
− − t 3 t 3
e 6 e 2 5
dt
dv
C i ) 10(1 - 3t)e
-3t
A

p = vi

= 10(1-3t)e
-3t
⋅ 2t e
-3t
= 20t(1 - 3t)e
-6t
W

Chapter 6, Solution 2.

2 2
1 1
) 120 )( 40 (
2
1
Cv
2
1
w = =
w
2
=
2 2
1
) 80 )( 40 (
2
1
2
= Cv
1

( ) = − = − = ∆
2 2
2 1
80 120 20 w w w 160 kW

Chapter 6, Solution 3.

i = C =

=

5
160 280
10 x 40
dt
dv
3
480 mA

Chapter 6, Solution 4.

) 0 ( v idt
C
1
v
t
o
+ =

+1 tdt 4 sin 6
2
1
=

= 1 - 0.75 cos 4t

Chapter 6, Solution 5.

v =

+
t
o
) 0 ( v idt
C
1

For 0 < t < 1, i = 4t,

∫ −
=
t
o
6
t 4
10 x 20
1
v dt + 0 = 100t
2
kV
v(1) = 100 kV

For 1 < t < 2, i = 8 - 4t,

+ − =

t
1
6
) 1 ( v dt ) t 4 8 (
10 x 20
1
v
= 100 (4t - t
2
- 3) + 100 kV

Thus v (t) =

< < − −
< <
2 t 1 , kV ) 2 t t 4 ( 100
1 t 0 , kV t 100
2
2

Chapter 6, Solution 6.

6
10 x 30
dt
dv
C i

= = x slope of the waveform.
For example, for 0 < t < 2,

3
10 x 2
10
dt
dv

=
i = mA 150
10 x 2
10
x 10 x 30
dt
dv
3
6
= =

C
Thus the current i is sketched below.

t (msec)
150
12
10
2
8
6
4
-150
i(t) (mA)

Chapter 6, Solution 7.

∫ ∫
+ = + =

t
o
3
3
o
10 dt 10 tx 4
10 x 50
1
) t ( v idt
C
1
v

= = +10
50
t 2
2
0.04k
2
+ 10 V

Chapter 6, Solution 8.

(a)
t t
BCe ACe
dt
dv
C
600 100
600 100
− −
− − = = i (1)

B A BC AC i 6 5 600 100 2 ) 0 ( − − = →  − − = = (2)
B A v v + = →  =
− +
50 ) 0 ( ) 0 ( (3)
Solving (2) and (3) leads to
A=61, B=-11

(b) J 5 2500 10 4
2
1
) 0 (
2
1
3 2
= = =

x x x Cv Energy

(c ) From (1),

A 4 . 26 4 . 24 10 4 11 600 10 4 61 100
600 100 600 3 100 3 t t t t
e e e x x x e x x x i
− − − − − −
− − = − − =

Chapter 6, Solution 9.

v(t) = ( ) ( )

− −
+ = + −
t
o
t t
V e t 12 0 dt e 1 6
2 1
1

v(2) = 12(2 + e
-2
) = 25.62 V

p = iv = 12 (t + e
-t
) 6 (1-e
-t
) = 72(t-e
-2t
)

p(2) = 72(2-e
-4
) = 142.68 W

Chapter 6, Solution 10

dt
dv
x
dt
dv
C i
3
10 2

= =

< <
< <
< <
=
s 4 t 3 16t, - 64
s 3 t 1 16,
s 1 0 , 16
µ
µ
µ t t
v

< <
< <
< <
=
s 4 t 3 , 16x10 -
s 3 t 1 0,
s 1 0 , 10 16
6
6
µ
µ
µ t x
dt
dv

< <
< <
< <
=
s 4 t 3 kA, 32 -
s 3 t 1 0,
s 1 0 , kA 32
) (
µ
µ
µ t
t i

Chapter 6, Solution 11.

v =

+
t
o
) 0 ( v idt
C
1

For 0 < t < 1,

= =

t
o
3
6
t 10 dt 10 x 40
10 x 4
1
v kV
v(1) = 10 kV
For 1 < t < 2,
kV 10 ) 1 ( v vdt
C
1
v
t
1
= + =

For 2 < t < 3,

+ − =

t
2
3
6
) 2 ( v dt ) 10 x 40 (
10 x 4
1
v
= -10t + 30kV
Thus
v(t) =

< < + −
< <
< < ⋅
3 t 2 , kV 30 t 10
2 t 1 , kV 10
1 t 0 , kV t 10

Chapter 6, Solution 12.

π − π = =

4 sin )( 4 ( 60 x 10 x 3
dt
dv
C i
3
t)
= - 0.7e π sin 4πt A

P = vi = 60(-0.72)π cos 4π t sin 4π t = -21.6π sin 8π t W
W =
∫ ∫
t dt π π − =
t
o
8
1
o
8 sin 6 . 21 pdt
= π
π
π
8
8
6 .
cos
21
8 / 1
o
= -5.4J

Chapter 6, Solution 13.

Under dc conditions, the circuit becomes that shown below:

i
2
50 Ω
20 Ω

+

60V
+
v
1

i
1
30 Ω
10 Ω

+
v
2

i
2
= 0, i
1
= 60/(30+10+20) = 1A

v
1
= 30i
2
= 30V, v
2
= 60-20i
1
= 40V

Thus, v
1
= 30V, v
2
= 40V

Chapter 6, Solution 14.

(a) C
eq
= 4C = 120 mF

(b)
30
4
C
4
C
1
eq
= = C
eq
= 7.5 mF

Chapter 6, Solution 15.

In parallel, as in Fig. (a),

v
1
= v
2
= 100

C
2
+
v
2

C
1
+

100V
+
v
2

C
2
+ −
v
1

C
1
+
v
1

+

100V

(b) (a)
w
20
= = =
− 2 6 2
100 x 10 x 20 x
2
1
Cv
2
1
0.1J
w
30
= =
− 2 6
100 x 10 x 30 x
2
1
0.15J

(b) When they are connected in series as in Fig. (b):

, 60 100 x
50
30
V
C C
C
v
2 1
2
1
= =
+
= v
2
= 40

w
20
= =
− 2 6
60 x 10 x 30 x
2
1
36 mJ

w
30
= =
− 2 6
40 10 x 30
2
x x
1
24 mJ

Chapter 6, Solution 16

F 20 30
80
80
14 µ = →  =
+
+ = C
C
Cx
C
eq

Chapter 6, Solution 17.

(a) 4F in series with 12F = 4 x 12/(16) = 3F
3F in parallel with 6F and 3F = 3+6+3 = 12F
4F in series with 12F = 3F
i.e. C
eq
= 3F
(b) C
eq
= 5 + [6 || (4 + 2)] = 5 + (6 || 6) = 5 + 3 = 8F
(c) 3F in series with 6F = (3 x 6)/9 = 6F
1
3
1
6
1
2
1
C
1
eq
= + + =
C
eq
= 1F

Chapter 6, Solution 18.

For the capacitors in parallel
= 15 + 5 + 40 = 60 µF
1
eq
C

Hence
10
1
60
1
30
1
20
1
C
1
eq
= + + =
C
eq
= 10 µF

Chapter 6, Solution 19.

We combine 10-, 20-, and 30- µ F capacitors in parallel to get 60 µ F. The 60 - µ F
capacitor in series with another 60- µ F capacitor gives 30 µ F.
30 + 50 = 80 µ F, 80 + 40 = 120 µ F
The circuit is reduced to that shown below.

12 120

12 80

120- µ F capacitor in series with 80 µ F gives (80x120)/200 = 48
48 + 12 = 60
60- µ F capacitor in series with 12 µ F gives (60x12)/72 = 10 µ F

Chapter 6, Solution 20.

3 in series with 6 = 6x
3
/(9) = 2
2 in parallel with 2 = 4
4 in series with 4 = (4x4)/8 = 2

The circuit is reduced to that shown below:

20

1

6

2

8

6 in parallel with 2 = 8
8 in series with 8 = 4
4 in parallel with 1 = 5
5 in series with 20 = (5x20)/25 = 4

Thus C
eq
= 4 mF

Chapter 6, Solution 21.

4µF in series with 12µF = (4x12)/16 = 3µF
3µF in parallel with 3µF = 6µF
6µF in series with 6µF = 3µF
3µF in parallel with 2µF = 5µF
5µF in series with 5µF = 2.5µF

Hence C
eq
= 2.5µF

Chapter 6, Solution 22.

Combining the capacitors in parallel, we obtain the equivalent circuit shown below:

a b

40 µF

60 µF 30 µF

20 µF

Combining the capacitors in series gives C , where
1
eq

10
1
30
1
20
1
60
1
C
1
1
eq
= + + = C = 10µF
1
eq

Thus
C
eq
= 10 + 40 = 50 µF

Chapter 6, Solution 23.

(a) 3µF is in series with 6µF 3x6/(9) = 2µF
v
4µF
= 1/2 x 120 = 60V
v
2µF
= 60V
v
6µF
= = (
3
+
) 60
3 6
20V
v
3µF
= 60 - 20 = 40V

(b) Hence w = 1/2 Cv
2

w
4µF
= 1/2 x 4 x 10
-6
x 3600 = 7.2mJ
w
2µF
= 1/2 x 2 x 10
-6
x 3600 = 3.6mJ
w
6µF
= 1/2 x 6 x 10
-6
x 400 = 1.2mJ
w
3µF
= 1/2 x 3 x 10
-6
x 1600 = 2.4mJ

Chapter 6, Solution 24.

20µF is series with 80µF = 20x80/(100) = 16µF
14µF is parallel with 16µF = 30µF
(a) v
30µF
= 90V
v
60µF
= 30V
v
14µF
= 60V
v
20µF
= =
+
60 x
80 20
80
48V
v
80µF
= 60 - 48 = 12V

(b) Since w =
2
Cv
2
1

w
30µF
= 1/2 x 30 x 10
-6
x 8100 = 121.5mJ
w
60µF
= 1/2 x 60 x 10
-6
x 900 = 27mJ
w
14µF
= 1/2 x 14 x 10
-6
x 3600 = 25.2mJ
w
20µF
= 1/2 x 20 x 10
-6
x (48)
2
= 23.04mJ
w
80µF
= 1/2 x 80 x 10
-6
x 144 = 5.76mJ

Chapter 6, Solution 25.

(a) For the capacitors in series,

Q
1
= Q
2
C
1
v
1
= C
2
v
2

1
2
2
1
C
C
v
v
=
v
s
= v
1
+ v
2
=
2
1
2 1
2 2
1
2
v
C
C C
v v
C
C +
= +
s
2 1
1
2
v
C C
C
+
= v

Similarly,
s
2 1
2
1
v
C C
C
v
+
=

(b) For capacitors in parallel

v
1
= v
2
=
2
2
1
1
C
Q
C
Q
=
Q
s
= Q
1
+ Q
2
=
2
2
2 1
2 2
2
1
Q
C
C C
Q Q
C
C +
= +
or
Q
2
=
2 1
2
C C
C
+

s
2 1
1
1
Q
C C
C
Q
+
=
i =
dt
dQ

s
2 1
1
1
i
C C
C
+
= i ,
s
2 1
2
2
i
C C
C
+
= i

Chapter 6, Solution 26.

(a) C
eq
= C
1
+ C
2
+ C
3
= 35µF

(b) Q
1
= C
1
v = 5 x 150µC = 0.75mC
Q
2
= C
2
v = 10 x 150µC = 1.5mC
Q
3
= C
3
v = 20 x 150 = 3mC

(c) w = J 150 x 35 x
2
1
2
2 2
eq
µ = v C
1
= 393.8mJ

Chapter 6, Solution 27.

(a)
20
7
20
1
10
1
5
1
C
1
C
1
C
1
C
1
3 2 1 eq
= + + = + + =
C
eq
= = µF
7
20
2.857µF

(b) Since the capacitors are in series,
Q
1
= Q
2
= Q
3
= Q = C
eq
v = = µV 200 x
7
20
0.5714mV
(c) w = = µ = J 200 x
7
20
x
2
1
2
2 2
eq
v C
1
57.143mJ

Chapter 6, Solution 28.

We may treat this like a resistive circuit and apply delta-wye transformation, except that
R is replaced by 1/C.

C
a
C
b
C
c

50 µF

20 µF

30
1
40
1
30
1
30
1
10
1
40
1
10
1
C
1
a
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
10
2
40
1
10
1
40
= + +
3

C
a
= 5µF

30
2
10
1
1200
1
300
1
400
1
C
1
6
=
+ +
=
C
b
= 15µF

15
4
40
1
1200
1
300
1
400
1
C
1
c
=
+ +
=
C
c
= 3.75µF

C
b
in parallel with 50µF = 50 + 15 = 65µF
C
c
in series with 20µF = 23.75µF
65µF in series with 23.75µF = F 39 . 17
75 . 88
75 . 23 x 65
µ =
17.39µF in parallel with C
a
= 17.39 + 5 = 22.39µF

Hence C
eq
= 22.39µF

Chapter 6, Solution 29.

(a) C in series with C = C/(2)

C/2 in parallel with C = 3C/2

2
C 3
in series with C =
5
C 3
2
C
5
2
C 3
Cx
=

5
C
3 in parallel with C = C + =
5
C
3 1.6 C

(b)

2C

C
eq

2C

C
1
C 2
1
C 2
1
C
1
eq
= + =

C
eq
= C

Chapter 6, Solution 30.

v
o =

+
t
o
) 0 ( i idt
C
1

For 0 < t < 1, i = 60t mA,
kV t 10 0 tdt 60
10 x 3
10
v
2
t
o
6
3
o
= + =
∫ −

v
o
(1) = 10kV

For 1< t < 2, i = 120 - 60t mA,
v
o
=

+ −

t
1
o
6
3
) 1 ( v dt ) t 60 120 (
10 x 3
10

t
+
= [40t – 10t
2 kV 10 ]
1

= 40t – 10t
2
- 20

¸

< < − −
< <
=
2 t 1 , kV 20 t 10 t 40
1 t 0 , kV t 10
) t ( v
2
2
o

Chapter 6, Solution 31.

¸

< < + −
< <
< <
=
5 t 3 , t 10 50
3 t 1 , mA 20
1 t 0 , tmA 20
) t ( i
s

C
eq
= 4 + 6 = 10µF
) 0 ( v idt
C
1
v
t
o
eq
+ =

For 0 < t < 1,

∫ −

=
t
o
6
3
t 20
10 x 10
10
v dt + 0 = t
2
kV

For 1 < t < 3,

+ − = + =
t
1
3
kV 1 ) 1 t ( 2 ) 1 ( v dt 20
10
10
v
kV 1 t 2 − =

For 3 < t < 5,

+ − =
t
3
3
) 3 ( v dt ) 5 t ( 10
10
10
v
kV 11 t 5 t kV 5 5 t
2 t
3
2
+ − = + + − =

¸

< < + −
< < −
< <
=
5 t 3 , kV 11 t 5 t
3 t 1 , kV 1 t 2
1 t 0 , kV t
) t ( v
2
2

dt
dv
10 x 6
dt
dv
C i
6
1 1

= =
=

¸

< < −
< <
< <
5 t 3 , mA 30 12
3 t 1 , mA 12
1 t 0 , tmA 12

dt
dv
10 x 4
dt
dv
C i
6
2 1

= =

¸

< < −
< <
< <
=
5 t 3 , mA 20 t 8
3 t 1 , mA 8
1 t 0 , tmA 8

Chapter 6, Solution 32.

(a) C
eq
= (12x60)/72 = 10 µ F

1300 1250 50 1250 ) 0 ( 30
10 12
10
2
0
0
2
1
2
6
3
1
+ − = + − = + =
− − −

t
t
t
t t
e e v dt e
x
v

230 250 20 250 ) 0 ( 30
10 60
10
2
0
0
2
2
2
6
3
2
− = + = + =
− − −

t
t
t
t t
e e v dt e
x
v

(b) At t=0.5s,

03 . 138 230 250 , 15 . 840 1300 1250
1
2
1
1
− = − = = + − =
− −
e v e v

J 235 . 4 ) 15 . 840 ( 10 12
2
1
2 6
12
= =

x x x w
F µ

J 1905 . 0 ) 03 . 138 ( 10 20
2
1
2 6
20
= − =

x x x w
F µ

J 381 . 0 ) 03 . 138 ( 10 40
2
1
2 6
40
= − =

x x x
F µ
w
Chapter 6, Solution 33

Because this is a totally capacitive circuit, we can combine all the capacitors using
the property that capacitors in parallel can be combined by just adding their
values and we combine capacitors in series by adding their reciprocals.

3F + 2F = 5F

1/5 +1/5 = 2/5 or 2.5F

The voltage will divide equally across the two 5F capacitors. Therefore, we get:

V
Th
= 7.5 V, C
Th
= 2.5 F

Chapter 6, Solution 34.

i = 6e
-t/2

2 / t 3
e
2
1
) 6 ( 10 x 10
dt
di
L
− −
|
.
|

\
|
= = v
= -30e
-t/2
mV

v(3) = -300e
-3/2
mV = -0.9487 mV

p = vi = -180e
-t
mW

p(3) = -180e
-3
mW = -0.8 mW

Chapter 6, Solution 35.

dt
di
L v = = =
∆ ∆
=

) 2 /( 6 . 0
10 x 60
t / i
V
L
3
200 mH

Chapter 6, Solution 36.

V ) t 2 sin )( 2 )( 12 ( 10 x
4
1
dt
di
L v
3
− = =

= - 6 sin 2t mV

p = vi = -72 sin 2t cos 2t mW

But 2 sin A cos A = sin 2A

p = -36 sin 4t mW

Chapter 6, Solution 37.

t 100 cos ) 100 ( 4 x 10 x 12
dt
di
L v
3 −
= =
= 4.8 cos 100t V

p = vi = 4.8 x 4 sin 100t cos 100t = 9.6 sin 200t

w = t 200 sin 6 . 9 pdt
t
o
200 / 11
o
∫ ∫
=
J t 200 cos
200
6 . 9
200 / 11
o
− =
= = − π − mJ ) 1 (cos 48 96 mJ

Chapter 6, Solution 38.

( )dt te 2 e 10 x 40
dt
di
L v
t 2 t 2 3 − − −
− = =
= 2 40 0 t , mV e ) t 1 (
t 2
> −

Chapter 6, Solution 39

) 0 ( i idt
L
1
i
dt
di
L v
t
0
+

= ÷→ ÷ =

1 dt ) 4 t 2 t 3 (
10 x 200
1
i
t
0
2
3
+

+ + =

1 ) t 4 t t ( 5
t
0
2 3
+ + + =

i(t) = 5t
3
+ 5t
2
+ 20t + 1 A

Chapter 6, Solution 40

dt
di
x
dt
di
L v
3
10 20

= =

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< < +
< <
< <
=
ms 4 t 3 10t, 40 -
ms 3 t 1 10t, - 20
ms 1 0 , 10 t t
i
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< <
< <
< <
=
ms 4 t 3 , 10x10
ms 3 t 1 , 10x10 -
ms 1 0 , 10 10
3
3
3
t x
dt
di

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< <
< <
< <
=
ms 4 t 3 V, 200
ms 3 t 1 V, 200 -
ms 1 0 , V 200 t
v
which is sketched below.

v(t) V

200

0 1 2 3 4 t(ms)

-200

Chapter 6, Solution 41.

( )
∫ ∫
+ − |
.
|

\
|
= + =

t
o
t 2
t
0
3 . 0 dt 2 1 20
2
1
) 0 ( i vdt
L
1
i

= A e t e t
t t
o
t
7 4 5 10 3 0
2
1
2 2
. . − + = +
|
.
|

\
|
+
− −
10

At t = ls, i = 10 - 4.7 + 5e
-2
= 5.977 A

L
2
1
w = i
2
= 35.72J

Chapter 6, Solution 42.

∫ ∫
− = + =
t
o
t
o
1 dt ) t ( v
5
1
) 0 ( i vdt
L
1
i
For 0 < t < 1,

− = − =
t
0
1 t 2 1 dt
5
10
i A

For 1 < t < 2, i = 0 + i(1) = 1A

For 2 < t < 3, i =

+ = + 1 t 2 ) 2 ( i dt 10
5
1
2
t

= 2t - 3 A

For 3 < t < 4, i = 0 + i(3) = 3 A

For 4 < t < 5, i =

+ = +
t
4
t
4
3 t 2 ) 4 ( i dt 10
5
1

= 2t - 5 A

Thus,
2 1 , 0 1
1 , 1 2
( ) 2 3 , 2 3
3 , 3 4
2 5, 4
t A t
A t
i t t A t
A t
t t
− <

5
<
< <

= − < <

< <

− <
¸
<

Chapter 6, Solution 43.

w = L ) ( Li
2
1
) t ( Li
2
1
idt
2
t
−∞ − =

∞ −

( ) 0 10 x 60 x 10 x 80 x
2
1
3 3
− =
− −

= 144 µJ

Chapter 6, Solution 44.

( )
∫ ∫
− + = + =
t
o
t
t
o
o
1 dt ) t 2 cos 10 4 (
5
1
t i vdt
L
1
i

= 0.8t + sin 2t -1

Chapter 6, Solution 45.

i(t) =

+
t
o
) 0 ( i ) t ( v
L
1

For 0 < t < 1, v = 5t

∫ −
=
t
o
3
t 5
10 x 10
1
i dt + 0

= 0.25t
2
kA

For 1 < t < 2, v = -10 + 5t

+ + − =

t
1
3
) 1 ( i dt ) t 5 10 (
10 x 10
1
i

= ( + −
t
1
kA 25 . 0 dt ) 1 t 5 . 0
= 1 - t + 0.25t
2
kA

¸

< < + −
< <
=
2 t 1 , kA t 25 . 0 t 1
1 t 0 , kA t 25 . 0
) t ( i
2
2

Chapter 6, Solution 46.

Under dc conditions, the circuit is as shown below:

2 Ω
+
v
C

3 A
i
L
4 Ω

By current division,

=
+
= ) 3 (
2 4
4
i
L
2A, v
c
= 0V

L
2
1
w
L
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 2
L
) 2 (
2
1
2
1
i 1J

C
2
1
w
c
= = = ) v )( 2 (
2
1
v
2
c
0J

Chapter 6, Solution 47.

Under dc conditions, the circuit is equivalent to that shown below:

R

+ v
C

5 A
i
L
2 Ω

,
2 R
10
) 5 (
2 R
2
i
L
+
=
+
=
2 R
R 10
Ri v
L c
+
= =

2
2
6 2
c c
) 2 R (
R 100
x 10 x 80 Cv
2
1
w
+
= =

2
3 2
1 L
) 2 R (
100
x 10 x 2 Li
2
1
w
+
= =

If w
c
= w
L
,

2
3
2
2
6
) 2 R (
100 x 10 x 2
) 2 Rx (
R 100
x 10 x 80
+
=

80 x 10
-3
R
2
= 2

R = 5Ω

Chapter 6, Solution 48.

Under dc conditions, the circuit is as shown below:

+
v
C2

+

+
v
C1

i
L1
6 Ω
4 Ω

i
L2

30V

=
+
= =
6 4
30
i i
2
L
1
L
3A

= =
1
L
1
C
i 6 v 18V

=
2
C
v
0V

Chapter 6, Solution 49.

(a) ( ) = + = + + = 3 6 5 4 4 1 6 5 L
eq
7H

(b) ( ) = = + = 4 12 6 6 1 12 L
eq
3H

(c) ( ) = = + = 4 4 6 3 2 4 L
eq
2H

Chapter 6, Solution 50.

( ) 6 3 12 4 5 10 L
eq
+ + =

= 10 + 5||(3 + 2) = 10 + 2.5 = 12.5 mH

Chapter 6, Solution 51.

10
1
30
1
20
1
60
1
L
1
= + + = L = 10 mH

( )
45
35 x 10
10 25 10 L
eq
= + =

= 7.778 mH

Chapter 6, Solution 52.

3//2//6 = 1H, 4//12 = 3H
After the parallel combinations, the circuit becomes that shown below.
3H
a

1H

1 H b

L
ab
= (3+1)//1 = (4x1)/5 = 0.8 H
Chapter 6, Solution 53.

[ ] ) 4 8 ( 6 ) 12 8 ( 5 8 10 6 L
eq
+ + + + + =

4 16 ) 4 4 ( 8 16 + = + + =

L
eq
= 20 mH

Chapter 6, Solution 54.

( ) 12 6 0 10 ) 3 9 ( 4 L
eq
+ + + =

3 4 ) 4 0 ( 12 4 + = + + =

L
eq
= 7H

Chapter 6, Solution 55.

(a) L//L = 0.5L, L + L = 2L

L
L L
L Lx
L L L L L
eq
4 . 1
5 . 0 2
5 . 0 2
5 . 0 // 2 =
+
+ = + =

(b) L//L = 0.5L, L//L + L//L = L

L
eq
= L//L = 0.5L

Chapter 6, Solution 56.

3
L
L
3
1
L L L = =
Hence the given circuit is equivalent to that shown below:

L

L/3
L
L/3

=
+
= 

+ =
L
3
5
L
L
3
5
Lx
L
3
2
L L L
eq
L
8
5

Chapter 6, Solution 57.

Let
dt
di
L
eq
v = (1)

2 2 1
v
dt
di
4 v v v + = + = (2)
i = i
1
+ i
2
i
2
= i – i
1
(3)

3
v
dt
di
or
dt
di
3 v
2 1 1
2
= = (4)
and
0
dt
di
5
dt
di
2 v
2
2
= + + −

dt
di
5
dt
di
2 v
2
2
+ = (5)
Incorporating (3) and (4) into (5),

3
v
5
dt
di
7
dt
di
5
dt
di
5
dt
di
2 v
2 1
2
− = − + =

dt
di
7
3
5
1 v
2
= 

+

dt
di
8
35
v
2
=

Substituting this into (2) gives

dt
di
8
35
dt
di
4 v + =

dt
di
8
67
=

Comparing this with (1),

= =
8
67
L
eq
8.375H
Chapter 6, Solution 58.

= = =
dt
di
3
dt
di
L v 3 x slope of i(t).

Thus v is sketched below:

6
t (s)
7 5
1
4
3 2
-6
v(t) (V)
6

Chapter 6, Solution 59.

(a) ( )
dt
di
L L v
2 1 s
+ =

2 1
s
L L
v
dt
di
+
=
,
dt
di
L
1 1
= v
dt
di
L
2 2
= v
, v
L L
L
v
s
2 1
1
1
+
=
s
2 1
2
L
v
L L
L
v
+
=

(b)
dt
di
L
dt
di
L v v
2
2
1
1 2 i
= = =

2 1 s
i i i + =

( )
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 s
L L
L L
v
L
v
L
v
dt
di
dt
di
dt
di +
= + = + =

∫ ∫
=
+
= = dt
dt
di
L L
L L
L
1
vdt
L
1
i
s
2 1
2 1
1 1
1 s
2 1
2
i
L L
L
+

=
+
= =
∫ ∫
dt
dt
di
L L
L L
L
1
vdt
L
1
i
s
2 1
2 1
2 2
2

s
2 1
1
i
L L
L
+

Chapter 6, Solution 60

8
15
5 // 3 = =
eq
L
( )
t t
eq o
e e
dt
d
dt
di
L v
2 2
15 4
8
15
− −
− = = =

∫ ∫
− − −
+ = + = − + = + =
t
t
t
t t
t
o o o
e e e i dt t v
L
I
i
0
2
0
2 2
0
A 5 . 1 5 . 0 5 . 1 2 ) 15 (
5
1
2 ) 0 ( ) (

Chapter 6, Solution 61.

(a) i
s
= i
1
+ i
2

i ) 0 ( i ) 0 ( i ) 0 (
2 1 s
+ =
6 i ) 0 ( i 4
2
+ =
2
(0) = 2mA
(b) Using current division:
( ) = =
+
=
− t 2
s 1
e 6 4 . 0 i
20 30
20
i 2.4e
-2t
mA
= − =
1 s 2
i i i 3.6e
-2t
mA
(c) mH 12
50
20 x 30
20 30 = =
( ) = = =
− − − 3 t 2 3
1
10 x e 6
dt
d
10 x 10
dt
di
L v -120e
-2t
µV
( ) = = =
− − − 3 t 2 3
2
10 x e 6
dt
d
10 x 12
dt
di
L v -144e
-2t
µV

(d) ( )
6 t 4 3
mH 10
10 x e 36 10 x 30 x
2
1
w
− − −
=
J e 8 . 0
2
1
t
t 4
µ
=

=
= 24.36nJ
( )
2 / 1 t
6 t 4 3
mH 30
10 x e 76 . 5 10 x 30 x
2
1
w
=
− − −
=
= 11.693nJ
( )
2 / 1 t
6 t 4 3
mH 20
10 x e 96 . 12 10 x 20 x
2
1
w
=
− − −
=
= 17.54 nJ
Chapter 6, Solution 62.

(a) mH 40
80
60 20
25 60 // 20 25 = + = + =
x
L
eq

∫ ∫
+ − − = + = + = →  =
− −

− t
t t
eq
eq
i e i dt e
x
i dt t v
L
i
dt
di
L v
0
3 3
3
3
) 0 ( ) 1 ( 1 . 0 ) 0 ( 12
10 40
10
) 0 ( ) (
1

Using current division,
i i i i i
4
1
,
4
3
80
60
2 1
= = =
01333 . 0 ) 0 ( 01 . 0 ) 0 ( 75 . 0 ) 0 (
4
3
) 0 (
1
− = →  − = →  = i i i i

mA 67 . 21 25e - A ) 08667 . 0 1 . 0 (
4
1
3t - 3
2
+ = + − =
− t
e i
mA 33 . 3 67 . 21 25 ) 0 (
2
− = + − = i

(b) mA 65 75e - A ) 08667 . 0 1 . 0 (
4
3
3t - 3
1
+ = + − =
− t
e i
mA 67 . 21 25e -
-3t
2
+ = i

Chapter 6, Solution 63.

We apply superposition principle and let

2 1
v v v
o
+ =

where v
1
and v
2
are due to i
1
and i
2
respectively.

< < −
< <
= = =
6 3 , 2
3 0 , 2
2
1 1
1
t
t
dt
di
dt
di
L v

< < −
< <
< <
= = =
6 4 , 4
4 2 , 0
2 0 , 4
2
2 2
2
t
t
t
dt
di
dt
di
L v

v
1

v
2

2 4

0
3 6 t 0 2 4 6 t

-2 -4

Adding v
1
and v
2
gives v
o
, which is shown below.

v
o
(t) V
6

2

0
2 3 4 6 t (s)
-2

-6

Chapter 6, Solution 64.

(a) When the switch is in position A,
i=-6 =i(0)
When the switch is in position B,
8 / 1 / , 3 4 / 12 ) ( = = = = ∞ R L i τ

A 9 3 )] ( ) 0 ( [ ) ( ) (
8 / t t
e e i i i t i
− −
− = ∞ − + ∞ =
ι

(b) -12 + 4i(0) + v=0, i.e. v=12 – 4i(0) = 36 V

(c) At steady state, the inductor becomes a short circuit so that
v= 0 V

Chapter 6, Solution 65.

(a) = = =
2 2
1 1 5
) 4 ( x 5 x
2
1
i L
2
1
w 40 W
= − =
2
20
) 2 )( 20 (
2
1
w 40 W
(b) w = w
5
+ w
20
= 80 W
(c) ( )( )
3 t 200
1 1
10 x e 50 200 5
dt
dv
L i
− −
− = =
= -50e
-200t
A

( )
3 t 200
2 2
10 x e 50 ) 200 ( 20
dt
dv
L i
− −
− = =
= -200e
-200t
A

( )
3 t 200
2 2
10 x e 50 ) 200 ( 20
dt
dv
L i
− −
− = =
= -200e
-200t
A

(d) i = i
1
+ i
2
= -250e
-200t
A

Chapter 6, Solution 66.

mH 60 24 36 40 60 16 20 L
eq
= + = + + =

dt
di
L v =

+ =
t
o
) 0 ( i vdt
L
1
i

= 12
1
dt + 0 mA

t
o
3
t 4 sin
10 x 60
= − =
t
o
t 4 cos 50 i 50(1 - cos 4t) mA
mH 24 40 60 =
mV ) t 4 cos 1 )( 50 (
dt
d
10 x 24
dt
di
L v
3
− = =

= 4.8 sin 4t mV

Chapter 6, Solution 67.

− = vi
RC
1
v
o
dt, RC = 50 x 10
3
x 0.04 x 10
-6
= 2 x 10
-3

= t 50 sin 10
2
10
v
3
o
dt
v
o
= 100 cos 50t mV

Chapter 6, Solution 68.

− = vi
RC
1
v
o
dt + v(0), RC = 50 x 10
3
x 100 x 10
-6
= 5
v
o
=

− = + −
t
o
t 2 0 dt 10
5
1

The op amp will saturate at v
o
= 12 ±

-12 = -2t t = 6s

Chapter 6, Solution 69.

RC = 4 x 10
6
x 1 x 10
-6
= 4

∫ ∫
− = − = dt v
4
1
dt v
RC
1
v
i i o

For 0 < t < 1, v
i
= 20,

= − =
t
o
o
dt 20
4
1
v -5t mV

For 1 < t < 2, v
i
= 10,

− − − = + − =
t
1
o
5 ) 1 t ( 5 . 2 ) 1 ( v dt 10
4
1
v
= -2.5t - 2.5mV

For 2 < t < 4, v
i
= - 20,

− − = + + =
t
2
o
5 . 7 ) 2 t ( 5 ) 2 ( v dt 20
4
1
v
= 5t - 17.5 mV

For 4 < t < 5m, v
i
= -10, 5 . 2 ) 4 t ( 5 . 2 ) 4 ( v dt 10
4
1
v
t
4
o
+ − = + =

= 2.5t - 7.5 mV

For 5 < t < 6, v
i
= 20,

+ − − = + − =
t
5
o
5 ) 5 t ( 5 ) 5 ( v dt 20
4
1
v
= - 5t + 30 mV

Thus v
o
(t) is as shown below:

2 5
6
5
7 5
1
4
3 2
5

0

Chapter 6, Solution 70.

One possibility is as follows:
50
RC
=
1

Let R = 100 kΩ, F 2 . 0
10 x 100 x 50
1
3
µ = = C

Chapter 6, Solution 71.

By combining a summer with an integrator, we have the circuit below:

∫ ∫ ∫
− − − = dt v
C R
1
dt v
C R
1
dt v
C R
1
v
2
2
2
2
1
1
o

+
For the given problem, C = 2µF,

R
1
C = 1 R
1
= 1/(C) = 100
6
/(2) = 500 kΩ
R
2
C = 1/(4) R
2
= 1/(4C) = 500kΩ/(4) = 125 kΩ
R
3
C = 1/(10) R
3
= 1/(10C) = 50 kΩ
Chapter 6, Solution 72.

The output of the first op amp is

− =
i 1
v
RC
1
v dt =

− =

t
o
6 3
2
t 100
idt
10 x 2 x 10 x 10
1

= - 50t

− =
i o
v
RC
1
v dt =

t
o
6 3
dt ) t 50 (
10 x 5 . 0 x 10 x 20
1

= 2500t
2

At t = 1.5ms,
= =
−6 2
o
10 x ) 5 . 1 ( 2500 v 5.625 mV

Chapter 6, Solution 73.

Consider the op amp as shown below:

Let v
a
= v
b
= v

At node a,
R
v v
R
v 0
o

=

2v - v
o
= 0 (1)
v
+
v
o

b
+

v
i

C
R
v
R
a
R

+

R

At node b,
dt
dv
C
R
v v
R
v v
o i
+

=

dt
dv
RC v v 2 v
o i
+ − = (2)

Combining (1) and (2),

dt
dv
2
RC
v v v
o
o o i
+ − =
or

=
i o
v
RC
2
v dt

showing that the circuit is a noninverting integrator.

Chapter 6, Solution 74.
RC = 0.01 x 20 x 10
-3
sec

sec m
dt
dv
2 . 0
dt
dv
RC v
i
o
− = − =

¸

< < −
< <
< < −
=
4 t 3 , V 2
3 t 1 , V 2
1 t 0 , V 2
v
o

Thus v
o
(t) is as sketched below:

3
t (ms)
2
1
-2
v
o
(t) (V)
2

Chapter 6, Solution 75.

,
dt
dv
RC v
i
0
− = 5 . 2 10 x 10 x 10 x 250 RC
6 3
= =

= − = ) t 12 (
dt
d
5 . 2 v
o
-30 mV

Chapter 6, Solution 76.

,
dt
dv
RC v
i
o
− = RC = 50 x 10
3
x 10 x 10
-6
= 0.5

¸

< <
< < −
= =
5 t 5 , 5
5 t 0 , 10
dt
dv
5 . 0 v
i
o

The input is sketched in Fig. (a), while the output is sketched in Fig. (b).

t (ms)
5
5
0 10
(b)
15
-10
t (ms)
v
i
(t) (V)
5
5
0 10
(a)
15
v
o
(t) (V)

Chapter 6, Solution 77.

i = i
R
+ i
C

( )
o
F
0 i
v 0
dt
d
C
R
v 0
R
0 v
− +

=

1 10 x 10 C R
6 6
F
= =

Hence |
.
|

\
|
+ − =
dt
dv
v v
o
o i

Thus v
i
is obtained from v
o
as shown below:

–dv
o
(t)/dt – v
o
(t) (V)

4
-4
t (ms)
1
4
0 2 3
v
i
(t) (V)
3
8
2 1
t (ms)
-8
4
-4
4
-4
t (ms)
1
4
0 2 3

Chapter 6, Solution 78.
o
o o
2
v
dt
dv 2
t 2 sin 10
dt
v d
− − =

Thus, by combining integrators with a summer, we obtain the appropriate analog
computer as shown below:

Chapter 6, Solution 79.
We can write the equation as
) ( 4 ) ( t y t f
dt
dy
− =
which is implemented by the circuit below.

1 V t=0

C R R

R
R/4 R
dy/dt - - -
+ -y + +
R dy/dt

f(t)
R
t = 0
-dv
o
/dt

dv
o
/dt
d
2
v
o
/dt
2
d
2
v
o
/dt
2
-sin2t
2v
o
C
C
R
R/10
R
R
R
R/2
R
R
− +

+

+

+

+

+

sin2t

+
v
o
R
Chapter 6, Solution 80.

From the given circuit,

dt
dv
k 200
k 1000
v
k 5000
k 1000
) t ( f
dt
v d
o
o
2
o
2

− =
or
) t ( f v 2
dt
dv
5
dt
v d
o
o
2
o
2
= + +

Chapter 6, Solution 81

We can write the equation as

) ( 2 5
2
2
t f v
dt
v d
− − =

which is implemented by the circuit below.

C C
R

R
- R R/5
d
2
v/dt
2
+ -
-dv/dt + v -
+ d
2
v/dt
2

R/2
f(t)

Chapter 6, Solution 82

The circuit consists of a summer, an inverter, and an integrator. Such circuit is shown
below.

10R R

R R
-
+ - v
o
+
R

C=1/(2R)

R
-
+ +
v
s

-

Chapter 6, Solution 83.
Since two 10µF capacitors in series gives 5µF, rated at 600V, it requires 8 groups in
parallel with each group consisting of two capacitors in series, as shown below:

+
600

Answer: 8 groups in parallel with each group made up of 2 capacitors in series.

Chapter 6, Solution 84.

t
q
I

= ∆ ∆I x ∆t = ∆q

∆q = 0.6 x 4 x 10
-6

= 2.4µC

6
2.4 10
150
(36 20)
q x
C n
v

= = =
∆ −
F

Chapter 6, Solution 85.

It is evident that differentiating i will give a waveform similar to v. Hence,

dt
di
L v =

< < −
< <
=
2 t 1 , t 4 8
1 t 0 , t 4
i

< < −
< <
= =
2 t 1 , L 4
1 t 0 , L 4
dt
di
L v

But,

< < −
< <
=
2 t 1 , mV 5
1 t 0 , mV 5
v

Thus, 4L = 5 x 10
-3

L = 1.25 mH in a 1.25 mH inductor

Chapter 6, Solution 86.

(a) For the series-connected capacitor

C
s
=
8
C
C
1
....
C C
=
+ + +
1 1
1

For the parallel-connected strings,

= µ = = = F
3
1000
x 10
8
C 10
C 10 C
s
s eq
1250µF

(b) v
T
= 8 x 100V = 800V

( )
2 6 2
T eq
) 800 ( 10 x 1250
2
1
v C
2
1
w

= =

= 400J

Chapter 7, Solution 1.

Applying KVL to Fig. 7.1.
0 Ri dt i
C
1 t
-
= + ∫

Taking the derivative of each term,
0
dt
di
R
C
i
= +
or
RC
dt
i
di
− =

Integrating,
RC
t -
I
) t ( i
ln
0
=

RC t -
0
e I ) t ( i =
RC t -
0
e RI ) t ( Ri ) t ( v = =
or
RC t -
0
e V ) t ( v =

Chapter 7, Solution 2.

C R
th
= τ
where is the Thevenin equivalent at the capacitor terminals.
th
R

Ω = + = 60 12 80 || 120 R
th

= × × = τ
-3
10 5 . 0 60 ms 30

Chapter 7, Solution 3.

(a) ms 10 10 2 10 5 , 5 10 // 10
6 3
= = = Ω = =

x x x C R k R
Th Th
τ

(b) 6s 3 . 0 20 , 20 8 ) 25 5 //( 20 = = = Ω = + + = x C R R
Th Th
τ

Chapter 7, Solution 4.

eq eq
C R = τ
where
2 1
2 1
eq
C C
C C
+
= C ,
2 1
2 1
eq
R R
R R
R
+
=
= τ
) C C )( R R (
C C R R
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
+ +

Chapter 7, Solution 5.

τ
=
4) - (t -
e ) 4 ( v ) t ( v
where 24 ) 4 ( v = , 2 ) 1 . 0 )( 20 ( RC = = = τ
2 4) - (t -
e 24 ) t ( v =
= =
2 6 -
e 24 ) 10 ( v V 195 . 1

Chapter 7, Solution 6.

V e 4 ) t ( v
25
2
10 x 2 x 10 x 40 RC , e v ) t ( v
V 4 ) 24 (
2 10
2
) 0 ( v v
t 5 . 12
3 6 / t
o
o

− τ −
=
= = = τ =
=
+
= =

Chapter 7, Solution 7.

τ
=
t -
e ) 0 ( v ) t ( v , C R
th
= τ
where is the Thevenin resistance across the capacitor. To determine , we insert a
1-V voltage source in place of the capacitor as shown below.
th
R
th
R
8 Ω
i
2
i
i
1
10 Ω 0.5 V
+
v = 1

+

+

1 V

1 . 0
10
1
i
1
= = ,
16
1
8
5 . 0 1
i
2
=

=
80
13
16
1
1 . 0 i i i
2 1
= + = + =
13
80
i
1
R
th
= =
13
8
1 . 0
13
80
C R
th
= × = = τ
= ) t ( v V 20
8 13t -
e

Chapter 7, Solution 8.

(a)
4
1
RC = = τ
dt
dv
C i - =
= →  = C e -4) )( 10 ( C e 0.2 -
-4t -4t
mF 5
= =
C 4
1
R Ω 50
(b) = = = τ
4
1
RC s 25 . 0
(c) = × = = ) 100 )( 10 5 (
2
1
CV
2
1
) 0 ( w
3 - 2
0 C
mJ 250
(d)
( )
τ
− = × =
0
2t - 2
0
2
0 R
e 1 CV
2
1
CV
2
1
2
1
w
2
1
e e 1 5 . 0
0 0
8t - 8t -
= →  − =
or 2 e
0
8t
=
= = ) 2 ( ln
8
1
t
0
ms 6 . 86

Chapter 7, Solution 9.

τ
=
t -
e ) 0 ( v ) t ( v , C R
eq
= τ

Ω = + + = + + = 8 2 4 2 3 || 6 8 || 8 2 R
eq

2 ) 8 )( 25 . 0 ( C R
eq
= = = τ

= ) t ( v V e 20
2 t -

Chapter 7, Solution 10.
10 Ω
10 mF
+
v

i

15 Ω
i
o
i
T
4 Ω

A 2
15
) 3 )( 10 (
i i 10 i 15
o o
= = →  =
i.e. if i , then A 3 ) 0 ( = A 2 ) 0 ( i
o
=
A 5 ) 0 ( i ) 0 ( i ) 0 ( i
o T
= + =
V 50 20 30 ) 0 ( i 4 ) 0 ( i 10 ) 0 ( v
T
= + = + =
across the capacitor terminals.

Ω = + = + = 10 6 4 15 || 10 4 R
th

1 . 0 ) 10 10 )( 10 ( C R
-3
th
= × = = τ
-10t t -
e 50 e ) 0 ( v ) t ( v = =
τ

) e 500 - )( 10 10 (
dt
dv
C i
10t - 3 -
C
× = =
=
C
i A e 5 -
-10t

By applying the current division principle,
= =
+
=
C C
i -0.6 ) i - (
15 10
15
) t ( i A e 3
-10t

Chapter 7, Solution 11.

Applying KCL to the RL circuit,
0
R
v
dt v
L
1
= + ∫

Differentiating both sides,
0 v
L
R
dt
dv
0
dt
dv
R
1
L
v
= + →  = +
L Rt -
e A v =

If the initial current is , then
0
I
A R I ) 0 ( v
0
= =
τ
=
t -
0
e R I v ,
R
L
= τ

=
t
-
dt ) t ( v
L
1
i
t
-
t -
0
e
L
R I -
i

τ
τ
=
τ
=
t -
0
e R I - i
τ
=
t -
0
e I ) t ( i

Chapter 7, Solution 12.

When t < 0, the switch is closed and the inductor acts like a short circuit to dc. The 4 Ω
resistor is short-circuited so that the resulting circuit is as shown in Fig. (a).
3 Ω
i(0
-
)
+

12 V 2 H 4 Ω
(a) (b)

A 4
3
12
) 0 ( i = =

Since the current through an inductor cannot change abruptly,
A 4 ) 0 ( i ) 0 ( i ) 0 ( i = = =
+ −

When t > 0, the voltage source is cut off and we have the RL circuit in Fig. (b).
5 . 0
4
2
R
L
= = = τ
Hence,
= =
τ t -
e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i A e 4
-2t

Chapter 7, Solution 13.

th
R
L
= τ
where is the Thevenin resistance at the terminals of the inductor.
th
R

Ω = + = + = 37 16 21 20 || 80 30 || 70 R
th

=
×
= τ
37
10 2
-3
s 08 . 81 µ

Chapter 7, Solution 14

Converting the wye-subnetwork to delta gives

16Ω

R
2

80mH R
1

R
3

30Ω

Ω = = Ω = = Ω = =
+ +
= 170
10
1700
, 34
50
1700
, 85 20 / 1700
20
10 50 50 20 20 10
3 2 1
R R
x x x
R

30//170 = (30x170)/200 = 25.5 Ω, 34//16=(34x16)/50 =10.88Ω

s
x
R
L x
R
Th
Th
m 14 . 3
476 . 25
10 80
, 476 . 25
38 . 121
38 . 36 85
) 88 . 10 5 . 25 //( 85
3
= = = Ω = = + =

τ

Chapter 7, Solution 15

(a) s
R
L
R
Th
Th
25 . 0 20 / 5 , 20 40 // 10 12 = = = Ω = + = τ
(b) ms 5 . 0 40 / ) 10 20 ( , 40 8 160 // 40
3
= = = Ω = + =

x
R
L
R
Th
Th
τ

Chapter 7, Solution 16.

eq
eq
R
L
= τ
(a) L L
eq
= and
3 1
3 1 3 1 2
3 1
3 1
2 eq
R R
R R ) R R ( R
R R
R R
R R
+
+ +
=
+
+ =
= τ
3 1 3 1 2
3 1
R R ) R R ( R
) R R ( L
+ +
+

(b) where
2 1
2 1
eq
L L
L L
+
= L and
2 1
2 1 2 1 3
2 1
2 1
3 eq
R R
R R ) R R ( R
R R
R R
R R
+
+ +
=
+
+ =
= τ
) R R ) R R ( R ( ) L L (
) R R ( L L
2 1 2 1 3 2 1
2 1 2 1
+ + +
+

Chapter 7, Solution 17.

τ
=
t -
e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i ,
16
1
4
4 1
R
L
eq
= = = τ

-16t
e 2 ) t ( i =

16t - 16t -
o
e 2 ) 16 - )( 4 1 ( e 6
dt
di
L i 3 ) t ( v + = + =

= ) t ( v
o
V e 2 -
-16t

Chapter 7, Solution 18.

If , the circuit can be redrawn as shown below. 0 ) t ( v =
+
v
o
(t)

i(t)
R
eq
0.4 H

5
6
3 || 2 R
eq
= = ,
3
1
6
5
5
2
R
L
= × = = τ
-3t t -
e e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i = =
τ

= = =
3t -
o
e -3) (
5
2 -
dt
di
-L ) t ( v V e 2 . 1
-3t

Chapter 7, Solution 19.
i
1
i
2
i
2
i
1
i/2 10 Ω 40 Ω
− +
1 V
i

To find we replace the inductor by a 1-V voltage source as shown above.
th
R
0 i 40 1 i 10
2 1
= + −
But 2 i i i
2
+ = and
1
i i =
i.e. i 2 i 2 i
2 1
= =
30
1
i 0 i 20 1 i 10 = →  = + −

Ω = = 30
i
1
R
th

s 2 . 0
30
6
R
L
th
= = = τ
= ) t ( i A e 2
-5t

Chapter 7, Solution 20.

(a). L 50 R
50
1
R
L
= →  = = τ
dt
di
L v - =
= →  = L e -50) )( 30 ( L e 150 -
-50t -50t
H 1 . 0
= = L 50 R Ω 5
(b). = = =
50
1
R
L
τ ms 20
(c). = = =
2 2
) 30 )( 1 . 0 (
2
1
) 0 ( i L
2
1
w J 45
(d). Let p be the fraction
( )
τ
− = ⋅
0
2t -
0 0
e 1 I L
2
1
p I L
2
1

3296 . 0 e 1 e 1 p
-0.4 50 (2)(10) -
= − = − =
i.e. = p % 33

Chapter 7, Solution 21.

The circuit can be replaced by its Thevenin equivalent shown below.
R
th

+

V
th
2 H
V 40 ) 60 (
40 80
80
V
th
=
+
=
R
3
80
R 80 || 40 R
th
+ = + =
R 3 80
40
R
V
) ( i ) 0 ( i I
th
th
+
= = ∞ = =
1
3 80 R
40
) 2 (
2
1
I L
2
1
w
2
2
=

+
= =
3
40
R 1
3 80 R
40
= →  =
+

= R Ω 33 . 13
Chapter 7, Solution 22.

τ
=
t -
e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i ,
eq
R
L
= τ
Ω = + = 5 1 20 || 5 R
eq
,
5
2
= τ
= ) t ( i A e 10
-2.5t

Using current division, the current through the 20 ohm resistor is
2.5t -
o
e -2
5
i -
-i) (
20 5
5
i = =
+
=

= =
o
i 20 ) t ( v V e 0 4 -
-2.5t

Chapter 7, Solution 23.

Since the 2 Ω resistor, 1/3 H inductor, and the (3+1) Ω resistor are in parallel,
they always have the same voltage.

-1.5 ) 0 ( i 5 . 1
1 3
2
2
2
i - = →  =
+
+ =
The Thevenin resistance at the inductor’s terminals is
th
R
3
4
) 1 3 ( || 2 R
th
= + = ,
4
1
3 4
3 1
R
L
th
= = = τ
0 t , e -1.5 e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i
-4t t -
> = =
τ

4t -
o L
e /3) -1.5(-4)(1
dt
di
L v v = = =
=
o
v 0 t , V e 2
-4t
>
=
+
=
L x
v
1 3
1
v 0 t , V e 5 . 0
-4t
>

Chapter 7, Solution 24.

(a) = ) t ( v u(t) 5 -

(b) [ ] [ ] ) 5 t ( u ) 3 t ( u 10 ) 3 t ( u ) t ( u -10 ) t ( i − − − + − − =

= ) 5 t ( u 10 ) 3 t ( u 20 ) t ( u 10 - − − − +

(c)
[ ] [ ]
) 3 t ( u ) 2 t ( u ) 2 t ( u ) 1 t ( u ) 1 t ( ) t ( x − − − + − − − − =
[ ] ) 4 t ( u ) 3 t ( u ) t 4 ( − − − − +
= ) 4 t ( u ) 4 t ( ) 3 t ( u ) 3 t ( ) 2 t ( u ) 2 t ( ) 1 t ( u ) 1 t ( − − + − − − − − − − −
= ) 4 t ( r ) 3 t ( r ) 2 t ( r ) 1 t ( r − + − − − − −

(d)
[ ]
) 1 t ( u ) t ( u 5 ) t - ( u 2 ) t ( y − − − =
= ) 1 t ( u 5 ) t ( u 5 ) t - ( u 2 − + −

Chapter 7, Solution 25.

v(t) = [u(t) + r(t – 1) – r(t – 2) – 2u(t – 2)] V

Chapter 7, Solution 26.

(a)
[ ]
) t ( u ) 1 t ( u ) t ( u ) 1 t ( u ) t ( v
1
− − + − + =
= ) t ( v
1
) 1 t ( u ) t ( u 2 ) 1 t ( u − + − +

(b)
[ ]
) 4 t ( u ) 2 t ( u ) t 4 ( ) t ( v
2
− − − − =
) 4 t ( u ) 4 t ( ) 2 t ( u ) 4 t ( - ) t ( v
2
− − + − − =
= ) t ( v
2
4) r(t 2) r(t 2) u(t 2 − + − − −

(c)
[ ] [ ]
6) u(t 4) u(t 4 4) u(t 2) u(t 2 ) t ( v
3
− − − + − − − =
= ) t ( v
3
6) u(t 4 4) u(t 2 2) u(t 2 − − − + −

(d)
[ ]
) 2 t ( u t 1) u(t -t ) 2 t ( u ) 1 t ( u -t ) t ( v
4
− + − = − − − =
) 2 t ( u ) 2 2 t ( ) 1 t ( u ) 1 1 t - ( ) t ( v
4
− + − + − − + =
= ) t ( v
4
2) u(t 2 2) r(t 1) u(t 1) r(t - − + − + − − −

Chapter 7, Solution 27.

v(t) is sketched below.
1
2
4 3 2 0 1
t
-1
v(t)
Chapter 7, Solution 28.

i(t) is sketched below.
1
4 3 2 0 1
t
-1
i(t)

Chapter 7, Solution 29

x(t)
(a)

3.679

0 1 t

(b) y(t)

27.18

0 t

(c) ) 1 ( 6536 . 0 ) 1 ( 4 cos ) 1 ( 4 cos ) ( − − = − = − = t t t t t z δ δ δ , which is sketched below.

z(t)

0 1 t

-0.653 ( ) t δ

Chapter 7, Solution 30.

(a) = = − δ
=

1 t
2
10
0
2
t 4 dt ) 1 t ( t 4 4
(b) = π = π = − δ π
=

cos ) t 2 cos( dt ) 5 . 0 t ( ) t 2 cos(
5 . 0 t
-
1 -

Chapter 7, Solution 31.

(a) [ ] = = = − δ
=

16 -
2 t
4t -
-
4t -
e e dt ) 2 t ( e
2 2
-9
10 112×
(b)
[ ] ( )
= + + = π + + = δ π + δ + δ
=

∫ 1 1 5 ) t 2 cos( e 5 dt ) t ( t 2 cos ) t ( e ) t ( 5
0 t
t -
-
t -
7

Chapter 7, Solution 32.

(a) 1 1 ) (
1
1 1
− = = =
∫ ∫
t d d u
t
t t
λ λ λ λ
(b) 5 . 4
2
) 1 ( 0 ) 1 (
4
1
4
1
2 1
0
4
0
= − = − + = −
∫ ∫
t
t
dt t dt dt t r

(c ) 16 ) 6 ( ) 2 ( ) 6 (
2
2
5
1
2
= − = − −
=

t
t dt t t δ

Chapter 7, Solution 33.

) 0 ( i dt ) t ( v
L
1
) t ( i
t
0
+ = ∫

0 dt ) 2 t ( 20
10 10
10
) t ( i
t
0
3 -
-3
+ − δ
×
= ∫

= ) t ( i A ) 2 t ( u 2 −

Chapter 7, Solution 34.

(a)
[ ]
) 1 t ( ) 1 t ( 0 1 ) 1 t ( ) 1 t ( ) 1 t ( u
) 1 t ( u ) 1 t ( ) 1 t ( u ) 1 t ( u
dt
d
− δ = + δ • + • − δ = + δ −
+ + − δ = + −

(b)
[ ]
) 6 t ( u ) 2 t ( 0 1 ) 6 t ( u ) 2 t ( ) 6 t ( r
) 2 t ( u ) 6 t ( u ) 2 t ( u ) 6 t ( r
dt
d
− = − δ • + • − = − δ −
+ − − = − −

(c)
[ ]
) 3 t ( 5366 . 0 ) 3 t ( u t 4 cos 4
) 3 t ( 3 x 4 sin ) 3 t ( u t 4 cos 4
) 3 t ( t 4 sin ) 3 t ( u t 4 cos 4 ) 3 t ( u t 4 sin
dt
d
− δ − − =
− δ + − =
− δ + − = −

Chapter 7, Solution 35.

(a)
3 5t -
e A ) t ( v = , -2 A ) 0 ( v = =
= ) t ( v V e 2 -
3 5t -

(b)
3 2t
e A ) t ( v = , 5 A ) 0 ( v = =
= ) t ( v V e 5
3 2t

Chapter 7, Solution 36.

(a) 0 t , e B A ) t ( v
-t
> + =
1 A = , B 1 0 ) 0 ( v + = = or B -1 =
= ) t ( v 0 t , V e 1
-t
> −

(b) 0 t , e B A ) t ( v
2 t
> + =
-3 A = , B -3 -6 ) 0 ( v + = = or -3 B =
= ) t ( v ( ) 0 t , V e 1 3 -
2 t
> +

Chapter 7, Solution 37.

Let v = v
h
+ v
p
, v
p
=10.

4 /
0
4
1
t
h h
Ae v v
h
v

= →  = +

t
Ae v
25 . 0
10

+ =

8 10 2 ) 0 ( − = →  + = = A A v

t
e v
25 . 0
8 10

− =

(a) s 4 = τ

(b) 10 ) ( = ∞ v V

(c )
t
e
25 . 0
8 10

− = v

Chapter 7, Solution 38

Let i = i
p
+i
h

) ( 0 3
3
t u Ae i i i
t
h h
h

= →  = +

Let
3
2
) ( 2 ) ( 3 , 0 ), ( = →  = = =

k t u t ku i t ku
p p
i
) (
3
2
t u i
p
=

) ( )
3
2
(
3
t u Ae i
t
+ =

If i(0) =0, then A + 2/3 = 0, i.e. A=-2/3. Thus

) ( ) 1 (
3
2
3
t u e i
t −
− =

Chapter 7, Solution 39.

(a) Before t = 0,
=
+
= ) 20 (
1 4
1
) t ( v V 4
After t = 0,
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
8 ) 2 )( 4 ( RC = = = τ , 4 ) 0 ( v = , 20 ) ( v = ∞
8 t -
e ) 20 8 ( 20 ) t ( v − + =
= ) t ( v V e 12 20
8 t -

(b) Before t = 0,
2 1
v v v + = , where is due to the 12-V source and is
due to the 2-A source.
1
v
2
v
V 12 v
1
=
To get v , transform the current source as shown in Fig. (a).
2
V -8 v
2
=
Thus,
= − = 8 12 v V 4
After t = 0, the circuit becomes that shown in Fig. (b).
2 F 2 F
4 Ω
12 V

+

+ −
v
2

8 V
+

3 Ω 3 Ω
(a) (b)

[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
12 ) ( v = ∞ , 4 ) 0 ( v = , 6 ) 3 )( 2 ( RC = = = τ
6 t -
e ) 12 4 ( 12 ) t ( v − + =
= ) t ( v V e 8 12
6 t -

Chapter 7, Solution 40.

(a) Before t = 0, = v V 12 .
After t = 0,
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
4 ) ( v = ∞ , 12 ) 0 ( v = , 6 ) 3 )( 2 ( RC = = = τ
6 t -
e ) 4 12 ( 4 ) t ( v − + =
= ) t ( v V e 8 4
6 t -
+
(b) Before t = 0, = v V 12 .
After t = 0,
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
After transforming the current source, the circuit is shown below.
t = 0
4 Ω
2 Ω

+

12 V 5 F

12 ) 0 ( v = , 12 ) ( v = ∞ , 10 ) 5 )( 2 ( RC = = = τ
= v V 12

Chapter 7, Solution 41.

0 ) 0 ( v = , 10 ) 12 (
16
30
) ( v = = ∞

5
36
) 30 )( 6 (
) 1 )( 30 || 6 ( C R
eq
= = =

[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v

5 t -
e ) 10 0 ( 10 ) t ( v − + =

= ) t ( v V ) e 1 ( 10
-0.2t

Chapter 7, Solution 42.

(a) | |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
o o o o
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
0 ) 0 ( v
o
= , 8 ) 12 (
2 4
4
) ( v
o
=
+
= ∞
eq eq
C R = τ ,
3
4
4 || 2 R
eq
= =
4 ) 3 (
3
4
= = τ
4 t -
o
e 8 8 ) t ( v − =
= ) t ( v
o
V ) e 1 ( 8
-0.25t

(b) For this case, 0 ) ( v
o
= ∞ so that
τ
=
t -
o o
e ) 0 ( v ) t ( v
8 ) 12 (
2 4
4
) 0 ( v
o
=
+
= , 12 ) 3 )( 4 ( RC = = = τ
= ) t ( v
o
V e 8
12 t -

Chapter 7, Solution 43.

Before t = 0, the circuit has reached steady state so that the capacitor acts like an open
circuit. The circuit is equivalent to that shown in Fig. (a) after transforming the voltage
source.
40
v
2 i 5 . 0
o
− = ,
80
v
i
o
=
Hence, 64
5
320
v
40
v
2
80
v
2
1
o
o o
= = ÷→ ÷ − =
= =
80
v
i
o
A 8 . 0

After t = 0, the circuit is as shown in Fig. (b).

τ
=
t -
C C
e ) 0 ( v ) t ( v , C R
th
= τ

To find , we replace the capacitor with a 1-V voltage source as shown in Fig. (c).
th
R
0.5i
v
C

+

0.5i
i
1 V
80 Ω
(c)
80
1
80
v
i
C
= = ,
80
5 . 0
i 5 . 0 i
o
= =
Ω = = = 160
5 . 0
80
i
1
R
o
th
, 480 C R
th
= = τ
V 64 ) 0 ( v
C
=
480 t -
C
e 64 ) t ( v =
480 t -
C
C
e 64
480
1
-3
dt
dv
-C i - i 5 . 0 |
.
|

\
|
= = =
= ) t ( i A e 8 . 0
480 t -

Chapter 7, Solution 44.

Ω = = 2 3 || 6 R
eq
, 4 RC = = τ
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v

Using voltage division,
V 10 ) 30 (
6 3
3
) 0 ( v =
+
= , V 4 ) 12 (
6 3
3
) ( v =
+
= ∞
Thus,
4 t - 4 t -
e 6 4 e ) 4 10 ( 4 ) t ( v + = − + =
= |
.
|

\
|
= =
4 t -
e
4
1 -
) 6 )( 2 (
dt
dv
C ) t ( i A e 3 -
-0.25t

Chapter 7, Solution 45.

For t < 0, 0 ) 0 ( v 0 ) t ( u 5 v
s
= ÷→ ÷ = =

For t > 0, , 5 v
s
=
4
5
) 5 (
12 4
4
) ( v =
+
= ∞

10 12 || 4 7 R
eq
= + = , 5 ) 2 1 )( 10 ( C R
eq
= = = τ

| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v

= ) t ( v V ) e 1 ( 25 . 1
5 t -

5 t -
e
5
1 -
4
5 -
2
1
dt
dv
C ) t ( i |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

= ) t ( i A e 125 . 0
5 t -

Chapter 7, Solution 46.

30 5 6 6 ) ( , 0 ) 0 ( , 2 25 . 0 ) 6 2 ( = = = ∞ = = + = = x i v v s x C R
s Th
τ

) 1 ( 30 )] ( ) 0 ( [ ) ( ) (
2 / / t t
e e v v v t v
− −
− = ∞ − + ∞ =
τ
V

Chapter 7, Solution 47.

For t < 0, , 0 ) t ( u = 0 ) 1 t ( u = − , 0 ) 0 ( v =

For 0 < t < 1, 1 ) 1 . 0 )( 8 2 ( RC = + = = τ
0 ) 0 ( v = , 24 ) 3 )( 8 ( ) ( v = = ∞
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
( )
t -
e 1 24 ) t ( v − =

For t > 1,
( )
17 . 15 e 1 24 ) 1 ( v
1 -
= − =
30 ) ( v 0 24 - ) v( 6 - = ∞ ÷→ ÷ = ∞ +
1) - -(t
e ) 30 17 . 15 ( 30 ) t ( v − + =
1) - -(t
e 83 . 14 30 ) t ( v − =

Thus,
= ) t ( v
( )
¹
´
¦
> −
< < −
1 t , V e 83 . 14 30
1 t 0 , V e 1 24
-1) (t -
t -

Chapter 7, Solution 48.

For t < 0, , 1 -t) ( u = V 10 ) 0 ( v =

For t > 0, , 0 -t) ( u = 0 ) ( v = ∞
30 10 20 R
th
= + = , 3 ) 1 . 0 )( 30 ( C R
th
= = = τ
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
= ) t ( v V e 10
3 t -

3 t -
e 10
3
1 -
) 1 . 0 (
dt
dv
C ) t ( i |
.
|

\
|
= =
= ) t ( i A e
3
1 -
3 t -

Chapter 7, Solution 49.

For 0 < t < 1, , 0 ) 0 ( v = 8 ) 4 )( 2 ( ) ( v = = ∞
10 6 4 R
eq
= + = , 5 ) 5 . 0 )( 10 ( C R
eq
= = = τ
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
( )
V e 1 8 ) t ( v
5 t -
− =

For t > 1,
( )
45 . 1 e 1 8 ) 1 ( v
-0.2
= − = , 0 ) ( v = ∞
| |
τ −
∞ − + ∞ =
) 1 t ( -
e ) ( v ) 1 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
V e 45 . 1 ) t ( v
5 ) 1 t ( - −
=

Thus,
= ) t ( v
( )
¹
´
¦
>
< < −

1 t , V e 45 . 1
1 t 0 , V e 1 8
5 ) 1 t ( -
5 t -

Chapter 7, Solution 50.

For the capacitor voltage,
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
0 ) 0 ( v =

For t < 0, we transform the current source to a voltage source as shown in Fig. (a).
1 kΩ 1 kΩ
+
v

+

30 V 2 kΩ
(a)
V 15 ) 30 (
1 1 2
2
) ( v =
+ +
= ∞
Ω = + = k 1 2 || ) 1 1 ( R
th

4
1
10
4
1
10 C R
3 - 3
th
= × × = = τ
( )
0 t , e 1 15 ) t ( v
-4t
> − =

We now obtain i from v(t). Consider Fig. (b).
x
i
x
1/4 mF
v
1 kΩ
1 kΩ
i
T
30 mA 2 kΩ
(b)
T x
i mA 30 i − =
But
dt
dv
C
R
v
i
3
T
+ =
( )
A e -15)(-4) ( 10
4
1
mA e 1 5 . 7 ) t ( i
4t - 3 - 4t -
T
× + − =
( )
mA e 1 5 . 7 ) t ( i
-4t
T
+ =

Thus,
mA e 5 . 7 5 . 7 30 ) t ( i
-4t
x
− − =
= ) t ( i
x
( ) 0 t , mA e 3 5 . 7
-4t
> −

Chapter 7, Solution 51.

Consider the circuit below.
fter the switch is closed, applying KVL gives
R - di
=
L
R
i
t = 0

+

+
v

V
S

A
dt
L Ri V
S
+ =
di
|
.
|

\
|
− =
R
V
i R -
dt
di
L
S
or
dt
L R V i
S

tegrating both sides, In
t
L
R -
R
i ln
I
0
= |
.

\

V
) t ( i S
| |
τ
=
|
.
|

\
|

− t -
R V I
R V i
ln
S 0
S

τ
=

t -
S 0
S
e
R V I
R V i
or
τ
|
.
|

\
|
− + =
t -
S
0
S
e
R
V
I
R
V
) t ( i
which is the same as Eq. (7.60).

hapter 7, Solution 52.

C

A 2
10
20
) 0 ( i = = , A 2 ) ( i = ∞
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i

= ) t A 2 ( i

hapter 7, Solution 53.

(a) Before t = 0,

C

=
+
=
2 3
25
i A 5
After t = 0,
τ
=
t -
e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i
L
2
2
4
R
= = = τ , 5 ) 0 ( i =
= ) t ( i A e 5
2 t -

(b) Before t = 0, the inductor acts as a short circuit so that the 2 Ω and 4 Ω
resistors are short-circuited.
= ) t ( i A 6
After t = 0, we have an RL circuit.
= e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i ,
2
3
R
= = τ
τ t -
L
= ) t ( i A e 6
3 t 2 -

Chapter 7, Solution 54.

(a) Before t = 0, i is obtained by current division or
=
+
= ) 2 (
4 4
4
) t ( i A 1
After t = 0,
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
eq
R
L
= τ , Ω = + = 7 12 || 4 4 R
eq

2
1
7
5 . 3
= = τ
1 ) 0 ( i = ,
7
6
) 2 (
3 4
3
) 2 (
12 || 4 4
12 || 4
) ( i =
+
=
+
= ∞
t 2 -
e
7
6
1
7
6
) t ( i |
.
|

\
|
− + =
= ) t ( i ( ) A e 6
7
1
2t -

(b) Before t = 0, =
+
=
3 2
10
) t ( i A 2
After t = 0, 5 . 4 2 || 6 3 R
eq
= + =
9
4
5 . 4
2
R
L
eq
= = = τ
2 ) 0 ( i =
To find , consider the circuit below, at t = when the inductor
becomes a short circuit,
) ( i ∞
v

2 Ω
24 V
6 Ω

+

+

i

2 H 10 V

3 Ω

9 v
3
v
6
v 24
2
v 10
= ÷→ ÷ =

+

A 3
3
v
) ( i = = ∞
4 t 9 -
e ) 3 2 ( 3 ) t ( i − + =
= ) t ( i A e 3
4 t 9 -

Chapter 7, Solution 55.

For t < 0, consider the circuit shown in Fig. (a).
+
v

4i
o

i
o

+

i
o
0.5 H

+

0.5 H
+
v

+

i
3 Ω 8 Ω
2 Ω 2 Ω
24 V 20 V
(a) (b)

24 i 0 i 4 24 i 3
o o o
= →  = − +
= =
o
i 4 ) t ( v V 96 A 48
2
v
i = =

For t > 0, consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
48 ) 0 ( i = , A 2
2 8
20
) ( i =
+
= ∞
Ω = + = 10 8 2 R
th
,
20
1
10
5 . 0
R
L
th
= = = τ
-20t -20t
e 46 2 e ) 2 48 ( 2 ) t ( i + = − + =
= = ) t ( i 2 ) t ( v V e 92 4
-20t
+

Chapter 7, Solution 56.

Ω = + = 10 5 || 20 6 R
eq
, 05 . 0
R
L
= = τ
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i

i(0) is found by applying nodal analysis to the following circuit.
0.5 H

+

12 Ω
5 Ω
20 Ω
6 Ω
+
v

v
x

i
20 V
2 A

12 v
6
v
20
v
12
v
5
v 20
2
x
x x x x
= →  + + =

+
A 2
6
v
) 0 ( i
x
= =
4 5 || 20 =
6 . 1 ) 4 (
6 4
4
) ( i =
+
= ∞
-20t 0.05 t -
e 4 . 0 6 . 1 e ) 6 . 1 2 ( 6 . 1 ) t ( i + = − + =

Since ,

20t -
e -20) ( ) 4 . 0 (
2
1
dt
di
L ) t ( v = =
= ) t ( v V e 4 -
-20t

Chapter 7, Solution 57.

At , the circuit has reached steady state so that the inductors act like short
circuits.

= 0 t

+

6 Ω
i
5 Ω
i
1
i
2
20 Ω 30 V

3
10
30
20 || 5 6
30
i = =
+
= , 4 . 2 ) 3 (
25
20
i
1
= = , 6 . 0 i
2
=
A 4 . 2 ) 0 ( i
1
= , A 6 . 0 ) 0 ( i
2
=

For t > 0, the switch is closed so that the energies in L and flow through the
closed switch and become dissipated in the 5 Ω and 20 Ω resistors.
1 2
L
1
t -
1 1
e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i
τ
= ,
2
1
5
5 . 2
R
L
1
1
1
= = = τ
= ) t ( i
1
A e 4 . 2
-2t

2
t -
2 2
e ) 0 ( i ) t ( i
τ
= ,
5
1
20
4
R
L
2
2
2
= = = τ
= ) t ( i
2
A e 6 . 0
-5t

Chapter 7, Solution 58.

For t < 0, 0 ) t ( v
o
=
For t > 0, , 10 ) 0 ( i = 5
3 1
20
) ( i =
+
= ∞
Ω = + = 4 3 1 R
th
,
16
1
4
4 1
R
L
th
= = = τ
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
= ) t ( i
( )
A e 1 5
-16t
+

( )
16t - 16t -
o
e -16)(5) (
4
1
e 1 15
dt
di
L i 3 ) t ( v + + = + =
= ) t ( v
o
V e 5 15
-16t

Chapter 7, Solution 59.

Let I be the current through the inductor.
For t < 0, , 0 v
s
= 0 ) 0 ( i =
For t > 0, 6 3 || 6 4 R
eq
= + = , 25 . 0
6
5 . 1
R
L
eq
= = = τ
1 ) 3 (
4 2
2
) ( i =
+
= ∞
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
-4t
e 1 ) t ( i − =

) -4)(-e )( 5 . 1 (
dt
di
L ) t ( v
4t -
o
= =
= ) t ( v
o
V e 6
-4t

Chapter 7, Solution 60.

Let I be the inductor current.
For t < 0, 0 ) 0 ( i 0 ) t ( u = ÷→ ÷ =
For t > 0, Ω = = 4 20 || 5 R
eq
, 2
4
8
R
L
eq
= = = τ
4 ) ( i = ∞
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
( )
2 t -
e 1 4 ) t ( i − =

2 t -
e
2
1 -
) 4 - )( 8 (
dt
di
L ) t ( v |
.
|

\
|
= =
= ) t ( v V e 16
-0.5t

Chapter 7, Solution 61.

The current source is transformed as shown below.

4 Ω
20u(-t) + 40u(t)

+

0.5 H
8
1
4
2 1
R
L
= = = τ , 5 ) 0 ( i = , 10 ) ( i = ∞
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
= ) t ( i A e 5 10
-8t

8t -
e ) 8 - )( 5 - (
2
1
dt
di
L ) t ( v |
.
|

\
|
= =
= ) t ( v V e 20
-8t

Chapter 7, Solution 62.

1
6 || 3
2
R
L
eq
= = = τ
For 0 < t < 1, so that 0 ) 1 t ( u = −
0 ) 0 ( i = ,
6
1
) ( i = ∞
( )
t -
e 1
6
1
) t ( i − =

For t > 1,
( )
1054 . 0 e 1
6
1
) 1 ( i
1 -
= − =
2
1
6
1
3
1
) ( i = + = ∞
1) - -(t
e ) 5 . 0 1054 . 0 ( 5 . 0 ) t ( i − + =
1) - -(t
e 3946 . 0 5 . 0 ) t ( i − =
Thus,
= ) t ( i
( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> −
< < −
1 t A e 3946 . 0 5 . 0
1 t 0 A e 1
6
1
-1) (t -
t -

Chapter 7, Solution 63.

For t < 0, , 1 ) t - ( u = 2
5
10
) 0 ( i = =

For t > 0, , 0 -t) ( u = 0 ) ( i = ∞
Ω = = 4 20 || 5 R
th
,
8
1
4
5 . 0
R
L
th
= = = τ
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
= ) t ( i A e 2
-8t

8t -
e ) 2 )( 8 - (
2
1
dt
di
L ) t ( v |
.
|

\
|
= =
= ) t ( v V e 8 -
-8t

Chapter 7, Solution 64.

Let i be the inductor current.
For t < 0, the inductor acts like a short circuit and the 3 Ω resistor is short-
circuited so that the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (a).
v
6 Ω
(b)
i
3 Ω
2 Ω

+

10 Ω
(a)
i
3 Ω
6 Ω

+

i
o
10 Ω

A 667 . 1
6
10
) 0 ( i i = = =
For t > 0, Ω = + = 4 6 || 3 2 R
th
, 1
4
4
R
L
th
= = = τ

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b). ) ( i ∞
6
10
v
2
v
3
v
6
v 10
= ÷→ ÷ + =

6
5
2
v
) ( i i = = ∞ =
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
( )
A e 1
6
5
e
6
5
6
10
6
5
) t ( i
t - t -
− = |
.
|

\
|
− + =

o
v is the voltage across the 4 H inductor and the 2 Ω resistor
t - t - t -
o
e
6
10
6
10
e -1) (
6
5
) 4 ( e
6
10
6
10
dt
di
L i 2 ) t ( v − = |
.
|

\
|
+ + = + =
= ) t ( v
o
( ) V e 1 667 . 1
-t

Chapter 7, Solution 65.

Since
| |
) 1 t ( u ) t ( u 10 v
s
− − = , this is the same as saying that a 10 V source is
turned on at t = 0 and a -10 V source is turned on later at t = 1. This is shown in
the figure below.

For 0 < t < 1, , 0 ) 0 ( i = 2
5
10
) ( i = = ∞
v
s
-10
10
1
t
4 20 || 5 R
th
= = ,
2
1
4
2
R
L
th
= = = τ
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
( )
A e 1 2 ) t ( i
-2t
− =
( )
729 . 1 e 1 2 ) 1 ( i
-2
= − =

For t > 1, since 0 v 0 ) ( i = ∞
s
=
τ −
=
) 1 t ( -
e ) 1 ( i ) t ( i
A e 729 . 1 ) t ( i
) 1 t ( -2 −
=

Thus,
= ) t ( i
( )
¹
´
¦
>
< < −

1 t A e 729 . 1
1 t 0 A e 1 2
) 1 t ( 2 -
2t -

Chapter 7, Solution 66.

Following Practice Problem 7.14,
τ
=
t -
T
e V ) t ( v
-4 ) 0 ( v V
T
= = ,
50
1
) 10 2 )( 10 10 ( C R
6 - 3
f
= × × = = τ
-50t
e -4 ) t ( v =
0 t , e 4 ) t ( v - ) t ( v
-50t
o
> = =

=
×
= =
50t -
3
o
o
o
e
10 10
4
R
) t ( v
) t ( i 0 t , mA e 4 . 0
-50t
>

Chapter 7, Solution 67.

The op amp is a voltage follower so that v v
o
= as shown below.
R
v
o
v
o

+
+
v
o

C
v
1

R
R

At node 1,
o 1
o 1 1 1 o
v
3
2
v
R
v v
R
0 v
R
v v
= ÷→ ÷

+

=

At the noninverting terminal,
0
R
v v
dt
dv
C
1 o o
=

+
o o o 1 o
o
v
3
1
v
3
2
v v v
dt
dv
RC = − = − = −
RC 3
v
dt
dv
o o
− =
3RC t -
T o
e V ) t ( v =
V 5 ) 0 ( v V
o T
= = ,
100
3
) 10 1 )( 10 10 )( 3 ( RC 3
6 - 3
= × × = = τ
= ) t ( v
o
V e 5
3 100t -

Chapter 7, Solution 68.

This is a very interesting problem and has both an important ideal solution as well as an
important practical solution. Let us look at the ideal solution first. Just before the switch
closes, the value of the voltage across the capacitor is zero which means that the voltage
at both terminals input of the op amp are each zero. As soon as the switch closes, the
output tries to go to a voltage such that the input to the op amp both go to 4 volts. The
ideal op amp puts out whatever current is necessary to reach this condition. An infinite
(impulse) current is necessary if the voltage across the capacitor is to go to 8 volts in zero
time (8 volts across the capacitor will result in 4 volts appearing at the negative terminal
of the op amp). So v
o
will be equal to 8 volts for all t > 0.

What happens in a real circuit? Essentially, the output of the amplifier portion of the op
amp goes to whatever its maximum value can be. Then this maximum voltage appears
across the output resistance of the op amp and the capacitor that is in series with it. This
results in an exponential rise in the capacitor voltage to the steady-state value of 8 volts.

vC(t) = V
op amp max
(1 – e
-t/(RoutC)
) volts, for all values of vC less than 8 V,

= 8 V when t is large enough so that the 8 V is reached.

Chapter 7, Solution 69.

Let v be the capacitor voltage.
x
For t < 0, 0 ) 0 ( v
x
=

For t > 0, the 20 kΩ and 100 kΩ resistors are in series since no current enters the
op amp terminals. As ∞ → t , the capacitor acts like an open circuit so that
13
48
) 4 (
10 100 20
100 20
) ( v
x
=
+ +
+
= ∞
Ω = + = k 120 100 20 R
th
, 3000 ) 10 25 )( 10 120 ( C R
3 - 3
th
= × × = = τ
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
x x x x
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
( )
3000 t -
x
e 1
13
48
) t ( v − =

= = ) t ( v
120
100
) t ( v
x o
( ) V e 1
13
40
3000 t -

Chapter 7, Solution 70.

Let v = capacitor voltage.

For t < 0, the switch is open and 0 ) 0 ( v = .

For t > 0, the switch is closed and the circuit becomes as shown below.
2
1
C
R
+ −
v
+

v
o
+

v
S

s 2 1
v v v = = (1)
dt
dv
C
R
v 0
s
=

(2)
where (3) v v v v v v
s o o s
− = ÷→ ÷ − =

From (1),
0
RC
v
dt
dv
s
= =
∫ = + =
RC
v t -
) 0 ( v dt v
RC
1 -
v
s
s

Since v is constant,
1 . 0 ) 10 5 )( 10 20 ( RC
-6 3
= × × =
mV t -200 mV
0.1
t 20 -
v = =

From (3),
t 200 20 v v v
s o
+ = − =
=
o
v mV ) t 10 1 ( 20 +

Chapter 7, Solution 71.

Let v = voltage across the capacitor.
Let v = voltage across the 8 kΩ resistor.
o

For t < 2, so that 0 v = 0 ) 2 ( v = .

For t > 2, we have the circuit shown below.
+
v
o

10 kΩ

+

20 kΩ
+
v

100 mF
10 kΩ

+
i
o
4 V
8 kΩ

Since no current enters the op amp, the input circuit forms an RC circuit.
1000 ) 10 100 )( 10 10 ( RC
3 - 3
= × × = = τ
| |
τ −
∞ − + ∞ =
) 2 t ( -
e ) ( v ) 2 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
( )
1000 ) 2 t ( -
e 1 4 ) t ( v

− =

As an inverter,
( )
1 e 2 v
k 20
k 10 -
v
1000 ) 2 t ( -
o
− = =

= =
8
v
i
o
o
( ) A 1 e 25 . 0
1000 ) 2 t ( -

Chapter 7, Solution 72.

The op amp acts as an emitter follower so that the Thevenin equivalent circuit is
shown below.
C
+ −
v
+

i
o
3u(t) R

Hence,
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
V 2 - ) 0 ( v = , V 3 ) ( v = ∞ , 1 . 0 ) 10 10 )( 10 10 ( RC
-6 3
= × × = = τ
-10t -10t
e 5 3 e 3) - -2 ( 3 ) t ( v − = + =

10t - 6 -
o
e ) 10 - )( 5 - )( 10 10 (
dt
dv
C i × = =
=
o
i 0 t , mA e 5 . 0
-10t
>

Chapter 7, Solution 73.

Consider the circuit below.
R
f

+
v
o

+ −
v
+

R
1

+
C
v
2
v
1
v
3
v
1

At node 2,
dt
dv
C
R
v v
1
2 1
=

(1)

At node 3,
f
o 3
R
v v
dt
dv
C

= (2)

But and 0 v
3
=
2 3 2
v v v v = − = . Hence, (1) becomes
dt
dv
C
R
v v
1
1
=

dt
dv
C R v v
1 1
= −
or
C R
v
C R
v
dt
dv
1
1
1
= +
which is similar to Eq. (7.42). Hence,
( )

> − +
<
=
τ
0 t e v v v
0 t v
) t ( v
t -
1 T 1
T

where and 1 ) 0 ( v v
T
= = 4 v
1
=
2 . 0 ) 10 20 )( 10 10 ( C R
6 - 3
1
= × × = = τ

> −
<
=
0 t e 3 4
0 t 1
) t ( v
5t -

From (2),
) e 15 )( 10 20 )( 10 20 (
dt
dv
C R - v
5t - 6 - 3
f o
× × = =
0 t , e -6 v
-5t
o
> =
=
o
v V ) t ( u e 6 -
-5t

Chapter 7, Solution 74.

Let v = capacitor voltage.
R
f

+
v
o

+ −
v
+

R
1

+
C
v
2
v
1
v
3
v
1

For t < 0, 0 ) 0 ( v =
For t > 0, . Consider the circuit below. A 10 i
s
µ =

R
v
dt
dv
C i
s
+ = (1)
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v (2)

It is evident from the circuit that
1 . 0 ) 10 50 )( 10 2 ( RC
3 6
= × × = = τ

i
s
+
v
o

C
R
f

+
R
i
s

At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit so that i passes through R.
Hence,
s
V 5 . 0 ) 10 50 )( 10 10 ( R i ) ( v
3 6
s
= × × = = ∞

Then,
( )
V e 1 5 . 0 ) t ( v
-10t
− = (3)

But
f s o
f
o
s
R i - v
R
v 0
i = → 

= (4)

Combining (1), (3), and (4), we obtain
dt
dv
C R v
R
R -
v
f
f
o
− =
dt
dv
) 10 2 )( 10 10 ( v
5
1 -
v
6 - 3
o
× × − =
( )
-10t -2 -10t
o
e 10 - ) 5 . 0 )( 10 2 ( e 0.1 -0.1 v × − + =
1 . 0 e 2 . 0 v
-10t
o
− =
=
o
v ( ) V 1 e 2 1 . 0
-10t

Chapter 7, Solution 75.

Let v = voltage at the noninverting terminal.
1
Let
2
v = voltage at the inverting terminal.

For t > 0, 4 v v v
s 2 1
= = =
o
1
s
i
R
v 0
=

, Ω = k 20 R
1

R i - v
o o
= (1)

Also,
dt
dv
C
R
v
i
2
o
+ = , Ω = k 10 R
2
, F 2 C µ =
i.e.
dt
dv
C
R
v
R
v -
2 1
s
+ = (2)

This is a step response.
[ ]
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v , 1 ) 0 ( v =
where
50
1
) 10 2 )( 10 10 ( C R
6 - 3
2
= × × = = τ

At steady state, the capacitor acts like an open circuit so that i passes through
. Hence, as
o
2
R ∞ → t
2
o
1
s
R
) ( v
i
R
v - ∞
= =
i.e. -2 ) 4 (
20
10 -
v
R
R -
) ( v
s
1
2
= = = ∞

-50t
e 2) (1 -2 ) t ( v + + =
-50t
e 3 -2 ) t ( v + =

But
o s
v v v − =
or
t 50 -
s o
e 3 2 4 v v v − + = − =
=
o
v V e 3 6
t 50 -

mA -0.2
20k
4 -
R
v -
i
1
s
o
= = =
or = + =
dt
dv
C
R
v
i
2
o
mA 0.2 -

Chapter 7, Solution 76.

The schematic is shown below. For the pulse, we use IPWL and enter the corresponding
values as attributes as shown. By selecting Analysis/Setup/Transient, we let Print Step =
25 ms and Final Step = 2 s since the width of the input pulse is 1 s. After saving and
simulating the circuit, we select Trace/Add and display –V(C1:2). The plot of V(t) is
shown below.

Chapter 7, Solution 77.

The schematic is shown below. We click Marker and insert Mark Voltage Differential at
the terminals of the capacitor to display V after simulation. The plot of V is shown
below. Note from the plot that V(0) = 12 V and V(∞) = -24 V which are correct.

Chapter 7, Solution 78.

(a) When the switch is in position (a), the schematic is shown below. We insert
IPROBE to display i. After simulation, we obtain,

i(0) = 7.714 A

from the display of IPROBE.

(b) When the switch is in position (b), the schematic is as shown below. For inductor
I1, we let IC = 7.714. By clicking Analysis/Setup/Transient, we let Print Step = 25 ms
and Final Step = 2 s. After Simulation, we click Trace/Add in the probe menu and
display I(L1) as shown below. Note that i(∞) = 12A, which is correct.

Chapter 7, Solution 79.

When the switch is in position 1, i
o
(0) = 12/3 = 4A. When the switch is in position 2,
3 / 80 , 3 / 8 4 // ) 5 3 ( A, 5 . 0
3 5
4
) ( = = = + = − =
+
− = ∞
L
R
R i
Th
Th o
τ

A 5 . 4 5 . 0 )] ( ) 0 ( [ ) ( ) (
80 / 3 / t t
o o o o
e e i i i t i
− −
+ − = ∞ − + ∞ =
τ

Chapter 7, Solution 80.

(a) When the switch is in position A, the 5-ohm and 6-ohm resistors are short-
circuited so that

0 ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
2 1
= = =
o
v i i

but the current through the 4-H inductor is i
L
(0) =30/10 = 3A.

(b) When the switch is in position B,

5 . 0 4 / 2 , 2 6 // 3 = = = Ω = =
L
R
R
Th
Th
τ

A 3 3 0 )] ( ) 0 ( [ ) ( ) (
2 5 . 0 / / t t t
L L L L
e e e i i i t i
− − −
= + = ∞ − + ∞ =
τ

(c) A 0 ) (
9
3
) ( , A 2
5 10
30
) (
2 1
= ∞ − = ∞ =
+
= ∞
L
i i i

V 0 ) ( ) ( = ∞ →  =
o
L
o
v
dt
di
L t v

Chapter 7, Solution 81.

The schematic is shown below. We use VPWL for the pulse and specify the attributes as
shown. In the Analysis/Setup/Transient menu, we select Print Step = 25 ms and final
Step = 3 S. By inserting a current marker at one termial of LI, we automatically obtain
the plot of i after simulation as shown below.

hapter 7, Solution 82.

C

=
×
×
=
τ
= →  = τ
6 -
-3
10 100
10 3
C
R RC Ω 30

Chapter 7, Solution 83.

s x x x RC v v 510 10 15 10 34 , 0 ) 0 ( , 120 ) (
6 6
= = = = = ∞

τ

) 1 ( 120 6 . 85 )] ( ) 0 ( [ ) ( ) (
510 / / t t
e e v v v t v
− −
− = ÷→ ÷ ∞ − + ∞ =
τ

Solving for t gives
s t 16 . 637 488 . 3 ln 510 = =

speed = 4000m/637.16s = 6.278m/s

Chapter 7, Solution 84.

Let I
o
be the final value of the current. Then

50 / 1 8 / 16 . 0 / ), 1 ( ) (
/
= = = − =

L R e I t i
t
o
τ
τ

. ms 33 . 18
4 . 0
1
ln
50
1
) 1 ( 6 . 0
50
= = ÷→ ÷ − =

t e I I
t
o o

Chapter 7, Solution 85.

(a) s 24 ) 10 6 )( 10 4 ( RC
-6 6
= × × = = τ

Since
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
| |
τ
∞ − = ∞ −
1
t -
1
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v (1)
| |
τ
∞ − = ∞ −
2
t -
2
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v (2)

Dividing (1) by (2),
τ −
=
∞ −
∞ −
) t t (
2
1
1 2
e
) ( v ) t ( v
) ( v ) t ( v

|
.
|

\
|
∞ −
∞ −
τ = − =
) ( v ) t ( v
) ( v ) t ( v
ln t t t
2
1
1 2 0

= = |
.
|

\
|

= ) 2 ( ln 24
120 30
120 75
ln 24 t
0
s 63 . 16
(b) Since , the light flashes repeatedly every t t
0
<
= = τ RC s 24

Chapter 7, Solution 86.

| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( v ) 0 ( v ) ( v ) t ( v
12 ) ( v = ∞ , 0 ) 0 ( v =
( )
τ
− =
t -
e 1 12 ) t ( v
( )
τ
− = =
0
t -
0
e 1 12 8 ) t ( v
3
1
e e 1
12
8
0 0
t - t -
= ÷→ ÷ − =
τ τ

) 3 ( ln t
0
τ =

For , Ω = k 100 R
s 2 . 0 ) 10 2 )( 10 100 ( RC
-6 3
= × × = = τ
s 2197 . 0 ) 3 ( ln 2 . 0 t
0
= =

For , Ω = M 1 R
s 2 ) 10 2 )( 10 1 ( RC
-6 6
= × × = = τ
s 197 . 2 ) 3 ( ln 2 t
0
= =

Thus,
s 197 . 2 t s 2197 . 0
0
< <

Chapter 7, Solution 87.

Let i be the inductor current.

For t < 0, A 2 . 1
100
120
) 0 ( i = =

For t > 0, we have an RL circuit
1 . 0
400 100
50
R
L
=
+
= = τ , 0 ) ( i = ∞
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
-10t
e 2 . 1 ) t ( i =

At t = 100 ms = 0.1 s,
= =
-1
e 2 . 1 ) 1 . 0 ( i A 441 . 0
which is the same as the current through the resistor.

Chapter 7, Solution 88.

(a) s 60 ) 10 200 )( 10 300 ( RC
-12 3
µ = × × = = τ
As a differentiator,
ms 6 . 0 s 600 10 T = µ = τ >
i.e. =
min
T ms 6 . 0
(b) s 60 RC µ = = τ
As an integrator,
s 6 1 . 0 T µ = τ <
i.e. =
max
T s 6 µ

Chapter 7, Solution 89.

Since s 1 T 1 . 0 µ = < τ
s 1
R
L
µ <

) 10 1 )( 10 200 ( 10 R L
-6 3 -6
× × = × <

mH 200 L <

Chapter 7, Solution 90.

We determine the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the capacitor C .
s
i
p s
s
th
v
R R
R
v
+
= ,
p s th
R || R R =
R
th

+

V
th
C
s

The Thevenin equivalent is an RC circuit. Since
p s
s
i th
R R
R
10
1
v
10
1
v
+
= ÷→ ÷ =
= = =
9
6
R
9
1
R
p s
Ω M
3
2

Also,
s 15 C R
s th
µ = = τ
where Ω =
+
= = M 6 . 0
3 2 6
) 3 2 ( 6
R || R R
s p th

=
×
×
=
τ
=
6
6 -
th
s
10 0.6
10 15
R
C pF 25

Chapter 7, Solution 91.

mA 240
50
12
) 0 ( i
o
= = , 0 ) ( i = ∞
| |
τ
∞ − + ∞ =
t -
e ) ( i ) 0 ( i ) ( i ) t ( i
τ
=
t -
e 240 ) t ( i
R
2
R
L
= = τ
τ
= =
0
t -
0
e 240 10 ) t ( i
) 24 ( ln t 24 e
0
t
0
τ = ÷→ ÷ =
τ

R
2
573 . 1
) 24 ( ln
5
) 24 ( ln
t
0
= = = = τ
= =
573 . 1
2
R Ω 271 . 1

Chapter 7, Solution 92.

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< <
×
< <
×
⋅ × = =
D R 6 -
R 3 -
9 -
t t t
10 5
10 -
t t 0
10 2
10
10 4
dt
dv
C i
¹
´
¦
µ + < <
< < µ
=
s 5 ms 2 t ms 2 mA 8 -
ms 2 t 0 A 20
) t ( i
which is sketched below.
20 µA
2 ms
5 µs
-8 mA
t
i(t)
(not to scale)
Chapter 8, Solution 1.

(a) At t = 0-, the circuit has reached steady state so that the equivalent circuit is
shown in Figure (a).

+
v
L

6 Ω
10 H
+
v

(a)
6 Ω
+

6 Ω

V
S

10 µF

(b)

i(0-) = 12/6 = 2A, v(0-) = 12V

At t = 0+, i(0+) = i(0-) = 2A, v(0+) = v(0-) = 12V

(b) For t > 0, we have the equivalent circuit shown in Figure (b).

v
L
= Ldi/dt or di/dt = v
L
/L

Applying KVL at t = 0+, we obtain,

v
L
(0+) – v(0+) + 10i(0+) = 0

v
L
(0+) – 12 + 20 = 0, or v
L
(0+) = -8

Hence, di(0+)/dt = -8/2 = -4 A/s

Similarly, i
C
= Cdv/dt, or dv/dt = i
C
/C

i
C
(0+) = -i(0+) = -2

dv(0+)/dt = -2/0.4 = -5 V/s

(c) As t approaches infinity, the circuit reaches steady state.

i(∞) = 0 A, v(∞) = 0 V

Chapter 8, Solution 2.

(a) At t = 0-, the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (a).

25 kΩ 20 kΩ

i
R

+

+
v

i
L
60 kΩ

80V

(a)

25 kΩ 20 kΩ

i
R

+

i
L

80V

(b)

60||20 = 15 kohms, i
R
(0-) = 80/(25 + 15) = 2mA.

By the current division principle,

i
L
(0-) = 60(2mA)/(60 + 20) = 1.5 mA

v
C
(0-) = 0
At t = 0+,

v
C
(0+) = v
C
(0-) = 0

i
L
(0+) = i
L
(0-) = 1.5 mA

80 = i
R
(0+)(25 + 20) + v
C
(0-)

i
R
(0+) = 80/45k = 1.778 mA

But, i
R
= i
C
+ i
L

1.778 = i
C
(0+) + 1.5 or i
C
(0+) = 0.278 mA

(b) v
L
(0+) = v
C
(0+) = 0

But, v
L
= Ldi
L
/dt and di
L
(0+)/dt = v
L
(0+)/L = 0

di
L
(0+)/dt = 0

Again, 80 = 45i
R
+ v
C

0 = 45di
R
/dt + dv
C
/dt

But, dv
C
(0+)/dt = i
C
(0+)/C = 0.278 mohms/1 µF = 278 V/s

Hence, di
R
(0+)/dt = (-1/45)dv
C
(0+)/dt = -278/45

di
R
(0+)/dt = -6.1778 A/s

Also, i
R
= i
C
+ i
L

di
R
(0+)/dt = di
C
(0+)/dt + di
L
(0+)/dt

-6.1788 = di
C
(0+)/dt + 0, or di
C
(0+)/dt = -6.1788 A/s

(c) As t approaches infinity, we have the equivalent circuit in Figure
(b).

i
R
(∞) = i
L
(∞) = 80/45k = 1.778 mA

i
C
(∞) = Cdv(∞)/dt = 0.

Chapter 8, Solution 3.

At t = 0
-
, u(t) = 0. Consider the circuit shown in Figure (a). i
L
(0
-
) = 0, and v
R
(0
-
) =
0. But, -v
R
(0
-
) + v
C
(0
-
) + 10 = 0, or v
C
(0
-
) = -10V.

(a) At t = 0
+
, since the inductor current and capacitor voltage cannot change abruptly,
the inductor current must still be equal to 0A, the capacitor has a voltage equal to
–10V. Since it is in series with the +10V source, together they represent a direct
short at t = 0
+
. This means that the entire 2A from the current source flows
through the capacitor and not the resistor. Therefore, v
R
(0
+
) = 0 V.

(b) At t = 0
+
, v
L
(0+) = 0, therefore Ldi
L
(0+)/dt = v
L
(0
+
) = 0, thus, di
L
/dt = 0A/s,
i
C
(0
+
) = 2 A, this means that dv
C
(0
+
)/dt = 2/C = 8 V/s. Now for the value of
dv
R
(0
+
)/dt. Since v
R
= v
C
+ 10, then dv
R
(0
+
)/dt = dv
C
(0
+
)/dt + 0 = 8 V/s.

40 Ω 40 Ω

+

10V
+
v
C

10 Ω
2A
i
L
+
v
R

+
v
R

+

10V
+
v
C

10 Ω

(b) (a)

(c) As t approaches infinity, we end up with the equivalent circuit shown in
Figure (b).

i
L
(∞) = 10(2)/(40 + 10) = 400 mA

v
C
(∞) = 2[10||40] –10 = 16 – 10 = 6V

v
R
(∞) = 2[10||40] = 16 V

Chapter 8, Solution 4.

(a) At t = 0
-
, u(-t) = 1 and u(t) = 0 so that the equivalent circuit is shown in
Figure (a).

i(0
-
) = 40/(3 + 5) = 5A, and v(0
-
) = 5i(0
-
) = 25V.

Hence, i(0
+
) = i(0
-
) = 5A

v(0
+
) = v(0
-
) = 25V

3 Ω
5 Ω
i
+
v

+

40V

(a)

0.25 H 3 Ω

i
R
i
C

+

+ v
L
− i
5 Ω
0.1F
4 A

40V

(b)

(b) i
C
= Cdv/dt or dv(0
+
)/dt = i
C
(0
+
)/C

For t = 0
+
, 4u(t) = 4 and 4u(-t) = 0. The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b).
Since i and v cannot change abruptly,

i
R
= v/5 = 25/5 = 5A, i(0
+
) + 4 =i
C
(0
+
) + i
R
(0
+
)

5 + 4 = i
C
(0
+
) + 5 which leads to i
C
(0
+
) = 4

dv(0
+
)/dt = 4/0.1 = 40 V/s

Chapter 8, Solution 5.

(a) For t < 0, 4u(t) = 0 so that the circuit is not active (all initial conditions = 0).

i
L
(0-) = 0 and v
C
(0-) = 0.

For t = 0+, 4u(t) = 4. Consider the circuit below.

i
L
i
C
+ v
L

1 H
+
v

4 Ω
0.25F
+
v
C

A
i
6 Ω

4A

Since the 4-ohm resistor is in parallel with the capacitor,

i(0+) = v
C
(0+)/4 = 0/4 = 0 A

Also, since the 6-ohm resistor is in series with the inductor,
v(0+) = 6i
L
(0+) = 0V.

(b) di(0+)/dt = d(v
R
(0+)/R)/dt = (1/R)dv
R
(0+)/dt = (1/R)dv
C
(0+)/dt

= (1/4)4/0.25 A/s = 4 A/s

v = 6i
L
or dv/dt = 6di
L
/dt and dv(0+)/dt = 6di
L
(0+)/dt = 6v
L
(0+)/L = 0

Therefore dv(0+)/dt = 0 V/s

(c) As t approaches infinity, the circuit is in steady-state.

i(∞) = 6(4)/10 = 2.4 A

v(∞) = 6(4 – 2.4) = 9.6 V

Chapter 8, Solution 6.

(a) Let i = the inductor current. For t < 0, u(t) = 0 so that
i(0) = 0 and v(0) = 0.

For t > 0, u(t) = 1. Since, v(0+) = v(0-) = 0, and i(0+) = i(0-) = 0.
v
R
(0+) = Ri(0+) = 0 V

Also, since v(0+) = v
R
(0+) + v
L
(0+) = 0 = 0 + v
L
(0+) or v
L
(0+) = 0 V.
(1)

(b) Since i(0+) = 0, i
C
(0+) = V
S
/R
S

But, i
C
= Cdv/dt which leads to dv(0+)/dt = V
S
/(CR
S
) (2)

From (1), dv(0+)/dt = dv
R
(0+)/dt + dv
L
(0+)/dt (3)
v
R
= iR or dv
R
/dt = Rdi/dt (4)

But, v
L
= Ldi/dt, v
L
(0+) = 0 = Ldi(0+)/dt and di(0+)/dt = 0 (5)

From (4) and (5), dv
R
(0+)/dt = 0 V/s

From (2) and (3), dv
L
(0+)/dt = dv(0+)/dt = V
s
/(CR
s
)

(c) As t approaches infinity, the capacitor acts like an open circuit, while the inductor
acts like a short circuit.

v
R
(∞) = [R/(R + R
s
)]V
s

v
L
(∞) = 0 V
Chapter 8, Solution 7.

s
2
+ 4s + 4 = 0, thus s
1,2
=
2
4 x 4 4 4
2
− ± −
= -2, repeated roots.

v(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-2t
], v(0) = 1 = A

dv/dt = [Be
-2t
] + [-2(A + Bt)e
-2t
]

dv(0)/dt = -1 = B – 2A = B – 2 or B = 1.

Therefore, v(t) = [(1 + t)e
-2t
] V

Chapter 8, Solution 8.

s
2
+ 6s + 9 = 0, thus s
1,2
=
2
36 6 6
2
− ± −
= -3, repeated roots.

i(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-3t
], i(0) = 0 = A

di/dt = [Be
-3t
] + [-3(Bt)e
-3t
]

di(0)/dt = 4 = B.

Therefore, i(t) = [4te
-3t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 9.

s
2
+ 10s + 25 = 0, thus s
1,2
=
2
10 10 10 − ± −
= -5, repeated roots.

i(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-5t
], i(0) = 10 = A

di/dt = [Be
-5t
] + [-5(A + Bt)e
-5t
]

di(0)/dt = 0 = B – 5A = B – 50 or B = 50.

Therefore, i(t) = [(10 + 50t)e
-5t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 10.

s
2
+ 5s + 4 = 0, thus s
1,2
=
2
16 25 5 − ± −
= -4, -1.

v(t) = (Ae
-4t
+ Be
-t
), v(0) = 0 = A + B, or B = -A

dv/dt = (-4Ae
-4t
- Be
-t
)

dv(0)/dt = 10 = – 4A – B = –3A or A = –10/3 and B = 10/3.

Therefore, v(t) = (–(10/3)e
-4t
+ (10/3)e
-t
) V

Chapter 8, Solution 11.

s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0, thus s
1,2
=
2
4 4 2 − ± −
= -1, repeated roots.

v(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-t
], v(0) = 10 = A

dv/dt = [Be
-t
] + [-(A + Bt)e
-t
]

dv(0)/dt = 0 = B – A = B – 10 or B = 10.

Therefore, v(t) = [(10 + 10t)e
-t
] V

Chapter 8, Solution 12.

(a) Overdamped when C > 4L/(R
2
) = 4x0.6/400 = 6x10
-3
, or C > 6 mF

(b) Critically damped when C = 6 mF

(c) Underdamped when C < 6mF

Chapter 8, Solution 13.

Let R||60 = R
o
. For a series RLC circuit,

ω
o
=
LC
1
=
4 x 01 . 0
1
= 5

For critical damping, ω
o
= α = R
o
/(2L) = 5

or R
o
= 10L = 40 = 60R/(60 + R)

which leads to R = 120 ohms

Chapter 8, Solution 14.

This is a series, source-free circuit. 60||30 = 20 ohms

α = R/(2L) = 20/(2x2) = 5 and ω
o
=
LC
1
=
04 . 0
1
= 5

ω
o
= α leads to critical damping

i(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-5t
], i(0) = 2 = A

v = Ldi/dt = 2{[Be
-5t
] + [-5(A + Bt)e
-5t
]}

v(0) = 6 = 2B – 10A = 2B – 20 or B = 13.

Therefore, i(t) = [(2 + 13t)e
-5t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 15.

This is a series, source-free circuit. 60||30 = 20 ohms

α = R/(2L) = 20/(2x2) = 5 and ω
o
=
LC
1
=
04 . 0
1
= 5
ω
o
= α leads to critical damping

i(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-5t
], i(0) = 2 = A

v = Ldi/dt = 2{[Be
-5t
] + [-5(A + Bt)e
-5t
]}

v(0) = 6 = 2B – 10A = 2B – 20 or B = 13.

Therefore, i(t) = [(2 + 13t)e
-5t
] A
Chapter 8, Solution 16.

At t = 0, i(0) = 0, v
C
(0) = 40x30/50 = 24V

For t > 0, we have a source-free RLC circuit.
α = R/(2L) = (40 + 60)/5 = 20 and ω
o
=
LC
1
=
5 . 2 x 10
1
3 −
= 20

ω
o
= α leads to critical damping

i(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-20t
], i(0) = 0 = A

di/dt = {[Be
-20t
] + [-20(Bt)e
-20t
]},

but di(0)/dt = -(1/L)[Ri(0) + v
C
(0)] = -(1/2.5)[0 + 24]

Hence, B = -9.6 or i(t) = [-9.6te
-20t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 17.

. is which , 20
4
1
2
10
L 2
R
10
25
1
4
1
1
LC
1
240 ) 60 0 ( 4 ) V RI (
L
1
dt
) 0 ( di
60 15 x 4 V ) 0 ( v , 0 I ) 0 ( i
o
o
0 0
0 0
ω > = = = α
= = = ω
− = + − = + − =
= = = = =

( )
t 268 t 32 . 37
2 1
2 1 2 1
t 32 . 37
2
t 68 . 2
1
2
o
2
e e 928 . 6 ) t ( i
A 928 . 6 A to leads This
240 A 32 . 37 A 68 . 2
dt
) 0 ( di
, A A 0 ) 0 ( i
e A e A ) t ( i
32 . 37 , 68 . 2 3 10 20 300 20 s
− −
− −
− =
− = − =
− = − − = + = =
+ =
− − = ± − = ± − = ω − α ± α − =

get we , 60 dt ) t ( i
C
1
) t ( v , Since
t
0
+

=

v(t) = (60 + 64.53e
-2.68t
– 4.6412e
-37.32t
) V
Chapter 8, Solution 18.

When the switch is off, we have a source-free parallel RLC circuit.

5 . 0
2
1
, 2
1 25 . 0
1 1
= = = = =
RC
x LC
o
α ω
936 . 1 25 . 0 4 case d underdampe
2 2
d
= − = − = →  < α ω ω ω α
o o

I
o
(0) = i(0) = initial inductor current = 20/5 = 4A

V
o
(0) = v(0) = initial capacitor voltage = 0 V

) 936 . 1 sin 936 . 1 cos ( ) sin cos ( ) (
2 1
5 . 0
2 1
t A t A e t A t A e t v
t
d d
t
+ = + =
− − α α
ω ω
v(0) =0 = A
1

) 936 . 1 cos 936 . 1 936 . 1 sin 936 . 1 ( ) 936 . 1 sin 936 . 1 cos )( 5 . 0 (
2 1
5 . 0
2 1
5 . 0
t A t A e t A t A e
dt
dv
t t
+ − + + − =
− − α α

066 . 2 936 . 1 5 . 0 4
1
) 4 0 ( ) ( ) 0 (
2 2 1
− = →  + − = − =
+
− =
+
− = A A A
RC
RI V
dt
dv
o o

Thus,

t e t v
t
936 . 1 sin 066 . 2 ) (
5 . 0 −
− =

Chapter 8, Solution 19.

For t < 0, the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (a).

10 Ω
i

+

+
v

i
L C
+
v

120V

(a) (b)

i(0) = 120/10 = 12, v(0) = 0

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit as shown in Figure (b) with R = 0 = α.

ω
o
=
LC
1
=
4
1
= 0.5 = ω
d

i(t) = [Acos0.5t + Bsin0.5t], i(0) = 12 = A

v = -Ldi/dt, and -v/L = di/dt = 0.5[-12sin0.5t + Bcos0.5t],

which leads to -v(0)/L = 0 = B

Hence, i(t) = 12cos0.5t A and v = 0.5

However, v = -Ldi/dt = -4(0.5)[-12sin0.5t] = 24sin0.5t V

Chapter 8, Solution 20.

For t < 0, the equivalent circuit is as shown below.

2 Ω
+ −
12
− +
v
C

i

v(0) = -12V and i(0) = 12/2 = 6A

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit.

α = R/(2L) = 2/(2x0.5) = 2

ω
o
= 1/ 2 2 4 1 x 5 . 0 / 1 LC = =

Since α is less than ω
o
, we have an under-damped response.

2 4 8
2 2
o d
= − = α − ω = ω

i(t) = (Acos2t + Bsin2t)e
-2t

i(0) = 6 = A

di/dt = -2(6cos2t + Bsin2t)e
-2t
+ (-2x6sin2t + 2Bcos2t)e
-αt

di(0)/dt = -12 + 2B = -(1/L)[Ri(0) + v
C
(0)] = -2[12 – 12] = 0

Thus, B = 6 and i(t) = (6cos2t + 6sin2t)e
-2t
A

Chapter 8, Solution 21.

By combining some resistors, the circuit is equivalent to that shown below.
60||(15 + 25) = 24 ohms.

12 Ω

+

+
v

t = 0
i
24 Ω
6 Ω

3 H

24V
(1/27)F

At t = 0-, i(0) = 0, v(0) = 24x24/36 = 16V

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit. R = 30 ohms, L = 3 H, C = (1/27) F

α = R/(2L) = 30/6 = 5

27 / 1 x 3 / 1 LC / 1
o
= = ω = 3, clearly α > ω
o
(overdamped response)

s
1,2
=
2 2 2
o
2
3 5 5 − ± − = ω − α ± α − = -9, -1

v(t) = [Ae
-t
+ Be
-9t
], v(0) = 16 = A + B (1)

i = Cdv/dt = C[-Ae
-t
- 9Be
-9t
]

i(0) = 0 = C[-A – 9B] or A = -9B (2)

From (1) and (2), B = -2 and A = 18.

Hence, v(t) = (18e
-t
– 2e
-9t
) V

Chapter 8, Solution 22.

α = 20 = 1/(2RC) or RC = 1/40 (1)

2 2
o d
50 α − ω = = ω which leads to 2500 + 400 = ω
o
2
= 1/(LC)

Thus, LC 1/2900 (2)

In a parallel circuit, v
C
= v
L
= v
R

But, i
C
= Cdv
C
/dt or i
C
/C = dv
C
/dt

= -80e
-20t
cos50t – 200e
-20t
sin50t + 200e
-20t
sin50t – 500e
-20t
cos50t
= -580e
-20t
cos50t

i
C
(0)/C = -580 which leads to C = -6.5x10
-3
/(-580) = 11.21 µF

R = 1/(40C) = 10
6
/(2900x11.21) = 2.23 kohms

L = 1/(2900x11.21) = 30.76 H

Chapter 8, Solution 23.

Let C
o
= C + 0.01. For a parallel RLC circuit,

α = 1/(2RC
o
), ω
o
= 1/
o
LC

α = 1 = 1/(2RC
o
), we then have C
o
= 1/(2R) = 1/20 = 50 mF

ω
o
= 1/ 5 . 0 x 5 . 0 = 6.32 > α (underdamped)

C
o
= C + 10 mF = 50 mF or 40 mF

Chapter 8, Solution 24.

For t < 0, u(-t) 1, namely, the switch is on.

v(0) = 0, i(0) = 25/5 = 5A

For t > 0, the voltage source is off and we have a source-free parallel RLC circuit.

α = 1/(2RC) = 1/(2x5x10
-3
) = 100

ω
o
= 1/
3
10 x 1 . 0 / 1 LC

= = 100

ω
o
= α (critically damped)

v(t) = [(A
1
+ A
2
t)e
-100t
]

v(0) = 0 = A
1

dv(0)/dt = -[v(0) + Ri(0)]/(RC) = -[0 + 5x5]/(5x10
-3
) = -5000

But, dv/dt = [(A
2
+ (-100)A
2
t)e
-100t
]

Therefore, dv(0)/dt = -5000 = A
2
– 0
v(t) = -5000te
-100t
V

Chapter 8, Solution 25.

In the circuit in Fig. 8.76, calculate i
o
(t) and v
o
(t) for t>0.

(1/4)F

+

8 Ω
2 Ω
t=0, note this is a
make before break
switch so the
inductor current is
not interrupted.
1 H
i
o
(t)

+
v
o
(t)

30V

Figure 8.78 For Problem 8.25.

At t = 0
-
, v
o
(0) = (8/(2 + 8)(30) = 24

For t > 0, we have a source-free parallel RLC circuit.

α = 1/(2RC) = ¼

ω
o
= 1/ 2 4 1 x 1 / 1 LC = =

Since α is less than ω
o
, we have an under-damped response.

9843 . 1 ) 16 / 1 ( 4
2 2
o d
= − = α − ω = ω

v
o
(t) = (A
1
cosω
d
t + A
2
sinω
d
t)e
-αt

v
o
(0) = 24 = A
1
and i
o
(t) = C(dv
o
/dt) = 0 when t = 0.

dv
o
/dt = -α(A
1
cosω
d
t + A
2
sinω
d
t)e
-αt
+ (-ω
d
A
1
sinω
d
t + ω
d
A
2
cosω
d
t)e
-αt

at t = 0, we get dv
o
(0)/dt = 0 = -αA
1
+ ω
d
A
2

Thus, A
2
= (α/ω
d
)A
1
= (1/4)(24)/1.9843 = 3.024

v
o
(t) = (24cosω
d
t + 3.024sinω
d
t)e
-t/4
volts

Chapter 8, Solution 26.

s
2
+ 2s + 5 = 0, which leads to s
1,2
=
2
20 4 2 − ± −
= -1±j4

i(t) = I
s
+ [(A
1
cos4t + A
2
sin4t)e
-t
], I
s
= 10/5 = 2

i(0) = 2 = = 2 + A
1
, or A
1
= 0

di/dt = [(A
2
cos4t)e
-t
] + [(-A
2
sin4t)e
-t
] = 4 = 4A
2
, or A
2
= 1

i(t) = 2 + sin4te
-t
A

Chapter 8, Solution 27.

s
2
+ 4s + 8 = 0 leads to s = 2 j 2
2
32 16 4
± − =
− ± −

v(t) = V
s
+ (A
1
cos2t + A
2
sin2t)e
-2t

8V
s
= 24 means that V
s
= 3

v(0) = 0 = 3 + A
1
leads to A
1
= -3

dv/dt = -2(A
1
cos2t + A
2
sin2t)e
-2t
+ (-2A
1
sin2t + 2A
2
cos2t)e
-2t

0 = dv(0)/dt = -2A
1
+2A
2
or A
2
= A
1
= -3

v(t) = [3 – 3(cos2t + sin2t)e
-2t
] volts

Chapter 8, Solution 28.

The characteristic equation is s
2
+ 6s + 8 with roots
2 , 4
2
32 36 6
2 , 1
− − =
− ± −
= s
Hence,

t t
s
Be Ae I t i
4 2
) (
− −
+ + =

5 . 1 12 8 = →  =
s s
I I

B A i + + = →  = 5 . 1 0 0 ) 0 ( (1)

t t
Be Ae
dt
di
4 2
4 2
− −
− − =
B A B A
dt
di
2 1 0 4 2 2
) 0 (
+ + = →  − − = = (2)
Solving (1) and (2) leads to A=-2 and B=0.5.

t t
e e t i
4 2
5 . 0 2 5 . 1 ) (
− −
+ − = A

Chapter 8, Solution 29.

(a) s
2
+ 4 = 0 which leads to s
1,2
= ±j2 (an undamped circuit)

v(t) = V
s
+ Acos2t + Bsin2t

4V
s
= 12 or V
s
= 3

v(0) = 0 = 3 + A or A = -3

dv/dt = -2Asin2t + 2Bcos2t

dv(0)/dt = 2 = 2B or B = 1, therefore v(t) = (3 – 3cos2t + sin2t) V

(b) s
2
+ 5s + 4 = 0 which leads to s
1,2
= -1, -4

i(t) = (I
s
+ Ae
-t
+ Be
-4t
)

4I
s
= 8 or I
s
= 2

i(0) = -1 = 2 + A + B, or A + B = -3 (1)

di/dt = -Ae
-t
- 4Be
-4t
di(0)/dt = 0 = -A – 4B, or B = -A/4 (2)
From (1) and (2) we get A = -4 and B = 1

i(t) = (2 – 4e
-t
+ e
-4t
) A

(c) s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0, s
1,2
= -1, -1

v(t) = [V
s
+ (A + Bt)e
-t
], V
s
= 3.

v(0) = 5 = 3 + A or A = 2

dv/dt = [-(A + Bt)e
-t
] + [Be
-t
]

dv(0)/dt = -A + B = 1 or B = 2 + 1 = 3

v(t) = [3 + (2 + 3t)e
-t
] V

Chapter 8, Solution 30.

2 2
2
2 2
1
800 , 500
o o
s s ω α α ω α α − − − = − = − + − = − =

L
R
s s
2
650 2 1300
2 1
= = →  − = − = + α α
Hence,

mH 8 . 153
650 2
200
2
= = =
x
R
L
α

LC
s s
o o
1
45 . 623 2 300
2 2
2 1
= = →  − = = − ω ω α

F 25 . 16
) 45 . 632 (
1
2
µ = =
L
C

Chapter 8, Solution 31.

For t = 0-, we have the equivalent circuit in Figure (a). For t = 0+, the equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure (b). By KVL,

v(0+) = v(0-) = 40, i(0+) = i(0-) = 1

By KCL, 2 = i(0+) + i
1
= 1 + i
1
which leads to i
1
= 1. By KVL, -v
L
+ 40i
1
+ v(0+)
= 0 which leads to v
L
(0+) = 40x1 + 40 = 80

v
L
(0+) = 80 V, v
C
(0+) = 40 V

40 Ω 10 Ω
i
1
0.5H
+
v

50V

+

+
v
L

40 Ω 10 Ω

i
+
v

50V

+

(a) (b)

Chapter 8, Solution 32.

For t = 0-, the equivalent circuit is shown below.

2 A

i
6 Ω
+ −
v

i(0-) = 0, v(0-) = -2x6 = -12V

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit with a step input.

α = R/(2L) = 6/2 = 3, ω
o
= 1/ 04 . 0 / 1 LC =

s = 4 j 3 25 9 3 ± − = − ± −

Thus, v(t) = V
f
+ [(Acos4t + Bsin4t)e
-3t
]

where V
f
= final capacitor voltage = 50 V

v(t) = 50 + [(Acos4t + Bsin4t)e
-3t
]

v(0) = -12 = 50 + A which gives A = -62

i(0) = 0 = Cdv(0)/dt

dv/dt = [-3(Acos4t + Bsin4t)e
-3t
] + [4(-Asin4t + Bcos4t)e
-3t
]

0 = dv(0)/dt = -3A + 4B or B = (3/4)A = -46.5

v(t) = {50 + [(-62cos4t – 46.5sin4t)e
-3t
]} V

Chapter 8, Solution 33.

We may transform the current sources to voltage sources. For t = 0
-
, the equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure (a).

1 H
i

+

30V
+
v

4F
i

+

5 Ω
10 Ω
+
v

10 Ω

30V

(a) (b)

i(0) = 30/15 = 2 A, v(0) = 5x30/15 = 10 V

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit.

α = R/(2L) = 5/2 = 2.5

4 / 1 LC / 1
o
= = ω = 0.25, clearly α > ω
o
(overdamped response)

s
1,2
= 25 . 0 25 . 6 5 . 2
2
o
2
− ± − = ω − α ± α − = -4.95, -0.05

v(t) = V
s
+ [A
1
e
-4.95t
+ A
2
e
-0.05t
], v = 20.

v(0) = 10 = 20 + A
1
+ A
2
(1)

i(0) = Cdv(0)/dt or dv(0)/dt = 2/4 = 1/2

Hence, ½ = -4.95A
1
– 0.05A
2
(2)

From (1) and (2), A
1
= 0, A
2
= -10.

v(t) = {20 – 10e
-0.05t
} V

Chapter 8, Solution 34.

Before t = 0, the capacitor acts like an open circuit while the inductor behaves like a short
circuit.

i(0) = 0, v(0) = 20 V

For t > 0, the LC circuit is disconnected from the voltage source as shown below.

+ −
V
x

(1/16)F
(¼) H

i

This is a lossless, source-free, series RLC circuit.

α = R/(2L) = 0, ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/
4
1
16
1
+ = 8, s = ±j8

Since α is less than ω
o
, we have an underdamped response. Therefore,

i(t) = A
1
cos8t + A
2
sin8t where i(0) = 0 = A
1

di(0)/dt = (1/L)v
L
(0) = -(1/L)v(0) = -4x20 = -80

However, di/dt = 8A
2
cos8t, thus, di(0)/dt = -80 = 8A
2
which leads to A
2
= -10

Now we have i(t) = -10sin8t A

Chapter 8, Solution 35.

At t = 0-, i
L
(0) = 0, v(0) = v
C
(0) = 8 V

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit with a step input.

α = R/(2L) = 2/2 = 1, ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 5 / 1 = 5

s
1,2
= 2 j 1
2
o
2
± − = ω − α ± α −

v(t) = V
s
+ [(Acos2t + Bsin2t)e
-t
], V
s
= 12.

v(0) = 8 = 12 + A or A = -4, i(0) = Cdv(0)/dt = 0.

But dv/dt = [-(Acos2t + Bsin2t)e
-t
] + [2(-Asin2t + Bcos2t)e
-t
]

0 = dv(0)/dt = -A + 2B or 2B = A = -4 and B = -2

v(t) = {12 – (4cos2t + 2sin2t)e
-t
V.

Chapter 8, Solution 36.

For t = 0-, 3u(t) = 0. Thus, i(0) = 0, and v(0) = 20 V.

For t > 0, we have the series RLC circuit shown below.

20 V
2 Ω
0.2 F
i
10 Ω
+ −

+

5 H 10 Ω

+
v

15V

α = R/(2L) = (2 + 5 + 1)/(2x5) = 0.8

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 2 . 0 x 5 = 1

s
1,2
= 6 . 0 j 8 . 0
2
o
2
± − = ω − α ± α −

v(t) = V
s
+ [(Acos0.6t + Bsin0.6t)e
-0.8t
]

V
s
= 15 + 20 = 35V and v(0) = 20 = 35 + A or A = -15

i(0) = Cdv(0)/dt = 0

But dv/dt = [-0.8(Acos0.6t + Bsin0.6t)e
-0.8t
] + [0.6(-Asin0.6t + Bcos0.6t)e
-0.8t
]

0 = dv(0)/dt = -0.8A + 0.6B which leads to B = 0.8x(-15)/0.6 = -20

v(t) = {35 – [(15cos0.6t + 20sin0.6t)e
-0.8t
]} V

i = Cdv/dt = 0.2{[0.8(15cos0.6t + 20sin0.6t)e
-0.8t
] + [0.6(15sin0.6t – 20cos0.6t)e
-0.8t
]}

i(t) = [(5sin0.6t)e
-0.8t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 37.

For t = 0-, the equivalent circuit is shown below.

6 Ω

+

10V

+

i
2
i
1
+

v(0)

6 Ω
6 Ω

30V

18i
2
– 6i
1
= 0 or i
1
= 3i
2
(1)

-30 + 6(i
1
– i
2
) + 10 = 0 or i
1
– i
2
= 10/3 (2)

From (1) and (2). i
1
= 5, i
2
= 5/3

i(0) = i
1
= 5A

-10 – 6i
2
+ v(0) = 0

v(0) = 10 + 6x5/3 = 20

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit.

R = 6||12 = 4

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ ) 8 / 1 )( 2 / 1 ( = 4

α = R/(2L) = (4)/(2x(1/2)) = 4

α = ω
o
, therefore the circuit is critically damped

v(t) = V
s
+[(A + Bt)e
-4t
], and V
s
= 10

v(0) = 20 = 10 + A, or A = 10

i = Cdv/dt = -4C[(A + Bt)e
-4t
] + C[(B)e
-4t
]

i(0) = 5 = C(-4A + B) which leads to 40 = -40 + B or B = 80

i(t) = [-(1/2)(10 + 80t)e
-4t
] + [(10)e
-4t
]

i(t) = [(5 – 40t)e
-4t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 38.

At t = 0
-
, the equivalent circuit is as shown.

2 A
10 Ω
i
i
1
5 Ω
+

v

− 10 Ω

i(0) = 2A, i
1
(0) = 10(2)/(10 + 15) = 0.8 A

v(0) = 5i
1
(0) = 4V

For t > 0, we have a source-free series RLC circuit.

R = 5||(10 + 10) = 4 ohms

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ ) 4 / 3 )( 3 / 1 ( = 2

α = R/(2L) = (4)/(2x(3/4)) = 8/3

s
1,2
= = ω − α ± α −
2
o
2
-4.431, -0.903

i(t) = [Ae
-4.431t
+ Be
-0.903t
]

i(0) = A + B = 2 (1)

di(0)/dt = (1/L)[-Ri(0) + v(0)] = (4/3)(-4x2 + 4) = -16/3 = -5.333
Hence, -5.333 = -4.431A – 0.903B (2)

From (1) and (2), A = 1 and B = 1.

i(t) = [e
-4.431t
+ e
-0.903t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 39.

For t = 0
-
, the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (a). Where 60u(-t) = 60 and
30u(t) = 0.

+

30V
20 Ω
+

+ v −
20 Ω
30 Ω 0.5F 0.25H 30 Ω

60V

(a) (b)

v(0) = (20/50)(60) = 24 and i(0) = 0

For t > 0, the circuit is shown in Figure (b).

R = 20||30 = 12 ohms

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ ) 4 / 1 )( 2 / 1 ( = 8

α = R/(2L) = (12)/(0.5) = 24

Since α > ω
o
, we have an overdamped response.

s
1,2
= = ω − α ± α −
2
o
2
-47.833, -0.167

Thus, v(t) = V
s
+ [Ae
-47.833t
+ Be
-0.167t
], V
s
= 30

v(0) = 24 = 30 + A + B or -6 = A + B (1)

i(0) = Cdv(0)/dt = 0

But, dv(0)/dt = -47.833A – 0.167B = 0

B = -286.43A (2)

From (1) and (2), A = 0.021 and B = -6.021

v(t) = 30 + [0.021e
-47.833t
– 6.021e
-0.167t
] V

Chapter 8, Solution 40.

At t = 0-, v
C
(0) = 0 and i
L
(0) = i(0) = (6/(6 + 2))4 = 3A

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit with a step input as shown below.

+ − v
6 Ω
+ −

+

12V
24V
i
14 Ω
0.02 F
2 H

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 02 . 0 x 2 = 5

α = R/(2L) = (6 + 14)/(2x2) = 5

Since α = ω
o
, we have a critically damped response.

v(t) = V
s
+ [(A + Bt)e
-5t
], V
s
= 24 – 12 = 12V

v(0) = 0 = 12 + A or A = -12

i = Cdv/dt = C{[Be
-5t
] + [-5(A + Bt)e
-5t
]}

i(0) = 3 = C[-5A + B] = 0.02[60 + B] or B = 90

Thus, i(t) = 0.02{[90e
-5t
] + [-5(-12 + 90t)e
-5t
]}

i(t) = {(3 – 9t)e
-5t
} A

Chapter 8, Solution 41.

At t = 0-, the switch is open. i(0) = 0, and

v(0) = 5x100/(20 + 5 + 5) = 50/3

For t > 0, we have a series RLC circuit shown in Figure (a). After source
transformation, it becomes that shown in Figure (b).

1 H

+

20V
+
v

i
4 Ω
20 Ω
10 µF
10 H
5A
(a)
5 Ω

0.04F

(b)

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 25 / 1 x 1 = 5

α = R/(2L) = (4)/(2x1) = 2

s
1,2
= = ω − α ± α −
2
o
2
-2 ± j4.583

Thus, v(t) = V
s
+ [(Acosω
d
t + Bsinω
d
t)e
-2t
],

where ω
d
= 4.583 and V
s
= 20

v(0) = 50/3 = 20 + A or A = -10/3

i(t) = Cdv/dt = C(-2) [(Acosω
d
t + Bsinω
d
t)e
-2t
] + Cω
d
[(-Asinω
d
t + Bcosω
d
t)e
-2t
]

i(0) = 0 = -2A + ω
d
B

B = 2A/ω
d
= -20/(3x4.583) = -1.455

i(t) = C{[(0cosω
d
t + (-2B - ω
d
A)sinω
d
t)]e
-2t
}

= (1/25){[(2.91 + 15.2767) sinω
d
t)]e
-2t
}

i(t) = {0.7275sin(4.583t)e
-2t
} A

Chapter 8, Solution 42.

For t = 0-, we have the equivalent circuit as shown in Figure (a).

i(0) = i(0) = 0, and v(0) = 4 – 12 = -8V

+
v

6 Ω

+
12V
1 H
i
4V
+ − − +
+
v(0)

12V
1 Ω
5 Ω

0.04F

(a) (b)
For t > 0, the circuit becomes that shown in Figure (b) after source transformation.

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 25 / 1 x 1 = 5

α = R/(2L) = (6)/(2) = 3

s
1,2
= = ω − α ± α −
2
o
2
-3 ± j4

Thus, v(t) = V
s
+ [(Acos4t + Bsin4t)e
-3t
], V
s
= -12

v(0) = -8 = -12 + A or A = 4

i = Cdv/dt, or i/C = dv/dt = [-3(Acos4t + Bsin4t)e
-3t
] + [4(-Asin4t + Bcos4t)e
-3t
]

i(0) = -3A + 4B or B = 3

v(t) = {-12 + [(4cos4t + 3sin4t)e
-3t
]} A
Chapter 8, Solution 43.

For t>0, we have a source-free series RLC circuit.

Ω = = = →  = 8 5 . 0 8 2 2
2
x x L R
L
R
α α
836 64 900 30
2 2
= − = →  = − =
o o d
ω α ω ω

mF 392 . 2
5 . 0 836
1 1 1
2
= = = →  =
x L
C
LC o
o
ω
ω

Chapter 8, Solution 44.

4
9
10
10 100
1 1
, 500
1 2
1000
2
= = = = = =

x
LC
x L
R
o
ω α

→  α > ω
o
underdamped.

Chapter 8, Solution 45.

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 5 . 0 x 1 = 2

α = R/(2L) = (1)/(2x2x0.5) = 0.5

Since α < ω
o
, we have an underdamped response.

s
1,2
= = ω − α ± α −
2
o
2
-0.5 ± j1.323

Thus, i(t) = I
s
+ [(Acos1.323t + Bsin1.323t)e
-0.5t
], I
s
= 4

i(0) = 1 = 4 + A or A = -3

v = v
C
= v
L
= Ldi(0)/dt = 0

di/dt = [1.323(-Asin1.323t + Bcos1.323t)e
-0.5t
] + [-0.5(Acos1.323t + Bsin1.323t)e
-0.5t
]

di(0)/dt = 0 = 1.323B – 0.5A or B = 0.5(-3)/1.323 = -1.134

Thus, i(t) = {4 – [(3cos1.323t + 1.134sin1.323t)e
-0.5t
]} A
Chapter 8, Solution 46.

For t = 0-, u(t) = 0, so that v(0) = 0 and i(0) = 0.

For t > 0, we have a parallel RLC circuit with a step input, as shown below.

5µF
8mH
+
v

i
2 kΩ

6mA

α = 1/(2RC) = (1)/(2x2x10
3
x5x10
-6
) = 50

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/
6 3
10 x 5 x 10 x 8

= 5,000

Since α < ω
o
, we have an underdamped response.

s
1,2
= ≅ ω − α ± α −
2
o
2
-50 ± j5,000

Thus, i(t) = I
s
+ [(Acos5,000t + Bsin5,000t)e
-50t
], I
s
= 6mA

i(0) = 0 = 6 + A or A = -6mA

v(0) = 0 = Ldi(0)/dt

di/dt = [5,000(-Asin5,000t + Bcos5,000t)e
-50t
] + [-50(Acos5,000t + Bsin5,000t)e
-50t
]

di(0)/dt = 0 = 5,000B – 50A or B = 0.01(-6) = -0.06mA

Thus, i(t) = {6 – [(6cos5,000t + 0.06sin5,000t)e
-50t
]} mA

Chapter 8, Solution 47.

At t = 0-, we obtain, i
L
(0) = 3x5/(10 + 5) = 1A

and v
o
(0) = 0.

For t > 0, the 20-ohm resistor is short-circuited and we have a parallel RLC circuit
with a step input.

α = 1/(2RC) = (1)/(2x5x0.01) = 10

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 01 . 0 x 1 = 10

Since α = ω
o
, we have a critically damped response.

s
1,2
= -10

Thus, i(t) = I
s
+ [(A + Bt)e
-10t
], I
s
= 3

i(0) = 1 = 3 + A or A = -2

v
o
= Ldi/dt = [Be
-10t
] + [-10(A + Bt)e
-10t
]

v
o
(0) = 0 = B – 10A or B = -20

Thus, v
o
(t) = (200te
-10t
) V

Chapter 8, Solution 48.

For t = 0-, we obtain i(0) = -6/(1 + 2) = -2 and v(0) = 2x1 = 2.

For t > 0, the voltage is short-circuited and we have a source-free parallel RLC
circuit.

α = 1/(2RC) = (1)/(2x1x0.25) = 2

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 25 . 0 x 1 = 2

Since α = ω
o
, we have a critically damped response.

s
1,2
= -2

Thus, i(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-2t
], i(0) = -2 = A

v = Ldi/dt = [Be
-2t
] + [-2(-2 + Bt)e
-2t
]

v
o
(0) = 2 = B + 4 or B = -2

Thus, i(t) = [(-2 - 2t)e
-2t
] A

and v(t) = [(2 + 4t)e
-2t
] V

Chapter 8, Solution 49.

For t = 0
-
, i(0) = 3 + 12/4 = 6 and v(0) = 0.

For t > 0, we have a parallel RLC circuit with a step input.

α = 1/(2RC) = (1)/(2x5x0.05) = 2

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 05 . 0 x 5 = 2

Since α = ω
o
, we have a critically damped response.

s
1,2
= -2

Thus, i(t) = I
s
+ [(A + Bt)e
-2t
], I
s
= 3

i(0) = 6 = 3 + A or A = 3

v = Ldi/dt or v/L = di/dt = [Be
-2t
] + [-2(A + Bt)e
-2t
]

v(0)/L = 0 = di(0)/dt = B – 2x3 or B = 6

Thus, i(t) = {3 + [(3 + 6t)e
-2t
]} A

Chapter 8, Solution 50.

For t = 0-, 4u(t) = 0, v(0) = 0, and i(0) = 30/10 = 3A.

For t > 0, we have a parallel RLC circuit.

i
40 Ω
6A 3A
10 mF
+
v

10 Ω

10 H

I
s
= 3 + 6 = 9A and R = 10||40 = 8 ohms

α = 1/(2RC) = (1)/(2x8x0.01) = 25/4 = 6.25

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 01 . 0 x 4 = 5

Since α > ω
o
, we have a overdamped response.

s
1,2
= = ω − α ± α −
2
o
2
-10, -2.5

Thus, i(t) = I
s
+ [Ae
-10t
] + [Be
-2.5t
], I
s
= 9

i(0) = 3 = 9 + A + B or A + B = -6

di/dt = [-10Ae
-10t
] + [-2.5Be
-2.5t
],

v(0) = 0 = Ldi(0)/dt or di(0)/dt = 0 = -10A – 2.5B or B = -4A

Thus, A = 2 and B = -8
Clearly, i(t) = { 9 + [2e
-10t
] + [-8e
-2.5t
]} A

Chapter 8, Solution 51.

Let i = inductor current and v = capacitor voltage.
At t = 0, v(0) = 0 and i(0) = i
o
.

For t > 0, we have a parallel, source-free LC circuit (R = ∞).

α = 1/(2RC) = 0 and ω
o
= 1/ LC which leads to s
1,2
= ± jω
o

v = Acosω
o
t + Bsinω
o
t, v(0) = 0 A

i
C
= Cdv/dt = -i

dv/dt = ω
o
Bsinω
o
t = -i/C

dv(0)/dt = ω
o
B = -i
o
/C therefore B = i
o
/(ω
o
C)

v(t) = -(i
o
/(ω
o
C))sinω
o
t V where ω
o
= LC

Chapter 8, Solution 52.

RC 2
1
300 = = α (1)
LC
o o d
1
575 . 264 300 400 400
2 2 2 2
= = − = →  = − = ω α ω ω (2)
From (2),
F 71 . 285
10 50 ) 575 . 264 (
1
3 2
µ = =

x x
C
From (1),

Ω = = = 833 . 5 ) 3500 (
300 2
1
2
1
x C
R
α

Chapter 8, Solution 53.

C
1
R
2

+ −
v
1

i
2
i
1

+

C
2
+
v
o

R
1

v
S

i
2
= C
2
dv
o
/dt (1)

i
1
= C
1
dv
1
/dt (2)

0 = R
2
i
2
+ R
1
(i
2
– i
1
) +v
o
(3)

Substituting (1) and (2) into (3) we get,

0 = R
2
C
2
dv
o
/dt + R
1
(C
2
dv
o
/dt – C
1
dv
1
/dt) (4)

Applying KVL to the outer loop produces,

v
s
= v
1
+ i
2
R
2
+ v
o
= v
1
+ R
2
C
2
dv
o
/dt + v
o
, which leads to

v
1
= v
s
– v
o
– R
2
C
2
dv
o
/dt (5)

Substituting (5) into (4) leads to,

0 = R
1
C
2
dv
o
/dt + R
1
C
2
dv
o
/dt – R
1
C
1
(dv
s
/dt – dv
o
/dt – R
2
C
2
d
2
v
o
/dt
2
)

Hence, (R
1
C
1
R
2
C
2
)(d
2
v
o
/dt
2
) + (R
1
C
1
+ R
2
C
2
+R
1
C
2
)(dv
o
/dt) = R
1
C
1
(dv
s
/dt)

Chapter 8, Solution 54.

Let i be the inductor current.

dt
dv v
i 5 . 0
4
+ = − (1)

dt
di
i + = 2 v (2)
Substituting (1) into (2) gives

0 3 5 . 2
2
1
4
1
2
2
2
2
2
= + + →  + + + = − v
dt
dv
dt
v d
dt
v d
dt
dv
dt
dv v
v

199 . 1 25 . 1 0 3 5 . 2
2
j s s s ± − = →  = + +

t Be t Ae v
t t
199 . 1 sin 199 . 1 cos
25 . 1 25 . 1 − −
+ =

v(0) = 2=A. Let w=1.199

) cos sin ( ) sin cos ( 25 . 1
25 . 1 25 . 1 25 . 1 25 . 1
wt Be wt Ae w wt Be wt Ae
dt
dv
t t t t − − − −
+ − + + − =

085 . 2
199 . 1
2 25 . 1
25 . 1 0
) 0 (
= = →  + − = =
X
B Bw A
dt
dv

V 199 . 1 sin 085 . 2 199 . 1 cos 2
25 . 1 25 . 1
t e t e v
t t − −
+ =

Chapter 8, Solution 55.

At the top node, writing a KCL equation produces,

i/4 +i = C
1
dv/dt, C
1
= 0.1

5i/4 = C
1
dv/dt = 0.1dv/dt

i = 0.08dv/dt (1)

But, v = ) idt ) C / 1 ( i 2 (
2

+ − , C
2
= 0.5

or -dv/dt = 2di/dt + 2i (2)

Substituting (1) into (2) gives,

-dv/dt = 0.16d
2
v/dt
2
+ 0.16dv/dt

0.16d
2
v/dt
2
+ 0.16dv/dt + dv/dt = 0, or d
2
v/dt
2
+ 7.25dv/dt = 0

Which leads to s
2
+ 7.25s = 0 = s(s + 7.25) or s
1,2
= 0, -7.25

v(t) = A + Be
-7.25t
(3)

v(0) = 4 = A + B (4)

From (1), i(0) = 2 = 0.08dv(0+)/dt or dv(0+)/dt = 25

But, dv/dt = -7.25Be
-7.25t
, which leads to,

dv(0)/dt = -7.25B = 25 or B = -3.448 and A = 4 – B = 4 + 3.448 = 7.448

Thus, v(t) = {7.45 – 3.45e
-7.25t
} V

Chapter 8, Solution 56.

For t < 0, i(0) = 0 and v(0) = 0.

For t > 0, the circuit is as shown below.

4 Ω

i
o
i
6 Ω

+

0.04F
i

20
0.25H

Applying KVL to the larger loop,

-20 +6i
o
+0.25di
o
/dt + 25

+ dt ) i i (
o
= 0

Taking the derivative,

6di
o
/dt + 0.25d
2
i
o
/dt
2
+ 25(i
o
+ i) = 0 (1)

For the smaller loop, 4 + 25

+ dt ) i i (
o
= 0

Taking the derivative, 25(i + i
o
) = 0 or i = -i
o
(2)

From (1) and (2) 6di
o
/dt + 0.25d
2
i
o
/dt
2
= 0

This leads to, 0.25s
2
+ 6s = 0 or s
1,2
= 0, -24

i
o
(t) = (A + Be
-24t
) and i
o
(0) = 0 = A + B or B = -A

As t approaches infinity, i
o
(∞) = 20/10 = 2 = A, therefore B = -2

Thus, i
o
(t) = (2 - 2e
-24t
) = -i(t) or i(t) = (-2 + 2e
-24t
) A

Chapter 8, Solution 57.

(a) Let v = capacitor voltage and i = inductor current. At t = 0-, the switch is
closed and the circuit has reached steady-state.

v(0-) = 16V and i(0-) = 16/8 = 2A

At t = 0+, the switch is open but, v(0+) = 16 and i(0+) = 2.

We now have a source-free RLC circuit.

R 8 + 12 = 20 ohms, L = 1H, C = 4mF.

α = R/(2L) = (20)/(2x1) = 10

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ ) 36 / 1 ( x 1 = 6

Since α > ω
o
, we have a overdamped response.

s
1,2
= = ω − α ± α −
2
o
2
-18, -2

Thus, the characteristic equation is (s + 2)(s + 18) = 0 or s
2
+ 20s +36 = 0.

(b) i(t) = [Ae
-2t
+ Be
-18t
] and i(0) = 2 = A + B (1)

To get di(0)/dt, consider the circuit below at t = 0+.

+
v
L

12 Ω
(1/36)F
+
v

i

8 Ω

1 H

-v(0) + 20i(0) + v
L
(0) = 0, which leads to,

-16 + 20x2 + v
L
(0) = 0 or v
L
(0) = -24

Ldi(0)/dt = v
L
(0) which gives di(0)/dt = v
L
(0)/L = -24/1 = -24 A/s

Hence -24 = -2A – 18B or 12 = A + 9B (2)

From (1) and (2), B = 1.25 and A = 0.75

i(t) = [0.75e
-2t
+ 1.25e
-18t
] = -i
x
(t) or i
x
(t) = [-0.75e
-2t
- 1.25e
-18t
] A

v(t) = 8i(t) = [6e
-2t
+ 10e
-18t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 58.

(a) Let i =inductor current, v = capacitor voltage i(0) =0, v(0) = 4

V/s 8
5 . 0
) 0 4 ( )] 0 ( ) 0 ( [ ) 0 (
− =
+
− =
+
− =
RC
Ri v
dt
dv

(b) For , the circuit is a source-free RLC parallel circuit. 0 ≥ t

2
1 25 . 0
1 1
, 1
1 5 . 0 2
1
2
1
= = = = = =
x LC
x x RC
o
ω α

732 . 1 1 4
2 2
= − = − = α ω ω o
d

Thus,

) 732 . 1 sin 732 . 1 cos ( ) (
2 1
t A t A e t v
t
+ =

v(0) = 4 = A
1

t A e t A e t A e t A e
dt
dv
t t t t
732 . 1 cos 732 . 1 732 . 1 sin 732 . 1 sin 732 . 1 732 . 1 cos
2 2 1 1
− − − −
+ − − − =
309 . 2 732 . 1 8
) 0 (
2 2 1
− = →  + − = − = A A A
dt
dv

) 732 . 1 sin 309 . 2 732 . 1 cos 4 ( ) ( t t e t v
t
− =

V

Chapter 8, Solution 59.

Let i = inductor current and v = capacitor voltage
v(0) = 0, i(0) = 40/(4+16) = 2A
For t>0, the circuit becomes a source-free series RLC with

2 , 2
16 / 1 4
1 1
, 2
4 2
16
2
= = →  = = = = = =
o o
x LC
x L
R
ω α ω α
t t
Bte Ae t i
2 2
) (
− −
+ =
i(0) = 2 = A
t t t
Bte Be Ae
dt
di
2 2 2
2 2
− − −
− + − =
4 ), 0 32 (
4
1
2 )] 0 ( ) 0 ( [
1
2
) 0 (
− = + − = + − →  + − = + − = B B A v Ri
L
B A
dt
di

t t
te e t i
2 2
4 2 ) (
− −
− =
t
t
t
t
t t
t
t
t
t e e dt te dt e v idt
C
v
0
2
0
0
2 2
0
2
0
) 1 2 (
4
64
16 64 32 ) 0 (
1
− − − − = − = + =
− − − −
∫ ∫ ∫

t
te v
2
32

= V

Chapter 8, Solution 60.

At t = 0-, 4u(t) = 0 so that i
1
(0) = 0 = i
2
(0) (1)

Applying nodal analysis,

4 = 0.5di
1
/dt + i
1
+ i
2
(2)

Also, i
2
= [1di
1
/dt – 1di
2
/dt]/3 or 3i
2
= di
1
/dt – di
2
/dt (3)

Taking the derivative of (2), 0 = d
2
i
1
/dt
2
+ 2di
1
/dt + 2di
2
/dt (4)

From (2) and (3), di
2
/dt = di
1
/dt – 3i
2
= di
1
/dt – 3(4 – i
1
– 0.5di
1
/dt)

= di
1
/dt – 12 + 3i
1
+ 1.5di
1
/dt

Substituting this into (4),

d
2
i
1
/dt
2
+ 7di
1
/dt + 6i
1
= 24 which gives s
2
+ 7s + 6 = 0 = (s + 1)(s + 6)

Thus, i
1
(t) = I
s
+ [Ae
-t
+ Be
-6t
], 6I
s
= 24 or I
s
= 4

i
1
(t) = 4 + [Ae
-t
+ Be
-6t
] and i
1
(0) = 4 + [A + B] (5)

i
2
= 4 – i
1
– 0.5di
1
/dt = i
1
(t) = 4 + -4 - [Ae
-t
+ Be
-6t
] – [-Ae
-t
- 6Be
-6t
]

= [-0.5Ae
-t
+ 2Be
-6t
] and i
2
(0) = 0 = -0.5A + 2B (6)

From (5) and (6), A = -3.2 and B = -0.8

i
1
(t) = {4 + [-3.2e
-t
– 0.8e
-6t
]} A

i
2
(t) = [1.6e
-t
– 1.6e
-6t
] A

Chapter 8, Solution 61.

For t > 0, we obtain the natural response by considering the circuit below.

0.25F
+
v
C

a i
L
4 Ω
1 H

6 Ω

At node a, v
C
/4 + 0.25dv
C
/dt + i
L
= 0 (1)

But, v
C
= 1di
L
/dt + 6i
L
(2)

Combining (1) and (2),

(1/4)di
L
/dt + (6/4)i
L
+ 0.25d
2
i
L
/dt
2
+ (6/4)di
L
/dt + i
L
= 0

d
2
i
L
/dt
2
+ 7di
L
/dt + 10i
L
= 0

s
2
+ 7s + 10 = 0 = (s + 2)(s + 5) or s
1,2
= -2, -5

Thus, i
L
(t) = i
L
(∞) + [Ae
-2t
+ Be
-5t
],

where i
L
(∞) represents the final inductor current = 4(4)/(4 + 6) = 1.6

i
L
(t) = 1.6 + [Ae
-2t
+ Be
-5t
] and i
L
(0) = 1.6 + [A+B] or -1.6 = A+B (3)

di
L
/dt = [-2Ae
-2t
- 5Be
-5t
]

and di
L
(0)/dt = 0 = -2A – 5B or A = -2.5B (4)

From (3) and (4), A = -8/3 and B = 16/15

i
L
(t) = 1.6 + [-(8/3)e
-2t
+ (16/15)e
-5t
]

v(t) = 6i
L
(t) = {9.6 + [-16e
-2t
+ 6.4e
-5t
]} V

v
C
= 1di
L
/dt + 6i
L
= [ (16/3)e
-2t
- (16/3)e
-5t
] + {9.6 + [-16e
-2t
+ 6.4e
-5t
]}

v
C
= {9.6 + [-(32/3)e
-2t
+ 1.0667e
-5t
]}

i(t) = v
C
/4 = {2.4 + [-2.667e
-2t
+ 0.2667e
-5t
]} A

Chapter 8, Solution 62.

This is a parallel RLC circuit as evident when the voltage source is turned off.

α = 1/(2RC) = (1)/(2x3x(1/18)) = 3

ω
o
= 1/ LC = 1/ 18 / 1 x 2 = 3

Since α = ω
o
, we have a critically damped response.

s
1,2
= -3

Let v(t) = capacitor voltage

Thus, v(t) = V
s
+ [(A + Bt)e
-3t
] where V
s
= 0

But -10 + v
R
+ v = 0 or v
R
= 10 – v

Therefore v
R
= 10 – [(A + Bt)e
-3t
] where A and B are determined from initial
conditions.

Chapter 8, Solution 63.

- R
R v
1
+ v
o

v
s
v
2

C C

At node 1,

dt
dv
C
R
v v
s 1 1
=

(1)

At node 2,

dt
dv
C
R
v v
o o
=

2
(2)
As a voltage follower, v v v = =
2 1
. Hence (2) becomes
dt
dv
RC v v
o
o
+ = (3)
and (1) becomes
dt
dv
RC v v
s
+ = (4)
Substituting (3) into (4) gives

2
2
2 2
dt
v d
C R
dt
dv
RC
dt
dv
RC v v
o o o
o s
+ + + =
or

s o
o o
v v
dt
dv
RC
dt
v d
C R = + + 2
2
2
2 2

Chapter 8, Solution 64.

C
2
v
s

R
1
2 1
v
1

R
2

+
C
1

v
o

At node 1, (v
s
– v
1
)/R
1
= C
1
d(v
1
– 0)/dt or v
s
= v
1
+ R
1
C
1
dv
1
/dt (1)

At node 2, C
1
dv
1
/dt = (0 – v
o
)/R
2
+ C
2
d(0 – v
o
)/dt

or –R
2
C
1
dv
1
/dt = v
o
+ C
2
dv
o
/dt (2)

From (1) and (2), (v
s
– v
1
)/R
1
= C
1
dv
1
/dt = -(1/R
2
)(v
o
+ C
2
dv
o
/dt)

or v
1
= v
s
+ (R
1
/R
2
)(v
o
+ C
2
dv
o
/dt) (3)

Substituting (3) into (1) produces,

v
s
= v
s
+ (R
1
/R
2
)(v
o
+ C
2
dv
o
/dt) + R
1
C
1
d{v
s
+ (R
1
/R
2
)(v
o
+ C
2
dv
o
/dt)}/dt

= v
s
+ (R
1
/R
2
)(v
o
)+ (R
1
C
2
/R
2
) dv
o
/dt) + R
1
C
1
dv
s
/dt + (R
1
R
1
C
1
/R
2
)dv
o
/dt
+ (R
1
2

C
1
C
2
/R
2
)[d2vo/dt
2
]

Simplifying we get,

d
2
v
o
/dt
2
+ [(1/ R
1
C
1
) + (1/ C
2
)]dv
o
/dt + [1/(R
1
C
1
C
2
)](v
o
) = - [R
2
/(R
1
C
2
)]dv
s
/dt

Chapter 8, Solution 65.

At the input of the first op amp,

(v
o
– 0)/R = Cd(v
1
– 0) (1)

At the input of the second op amp,

(-v
1
– 0)/R = Cdv
2
/dt (2)

Let us now examine our constraints. Since the input terminals are essentially at ground,
then we have the following,

v
o
= -v
2
or v
2
= -v
o
(3)

Combining (1), (2), and (3), eliminating v
1
and v
2
we get,

0 v 100
dt
v d
v
C R
1
dt
v d
o
2
o
2
o
2 2 2
o
2
= − =

Which leads to s
2
– 100 = 0

Clearly this produces roots of –10 and +10.

And, we obtain,

v
o
(t) = (Ae
+10t
+ Be
-10t
)V

At t = 0, v
o
(0+) = – v
2
(0+) = 0 = A + B, thus B = –A

This leads to v
o
(t) = (Ae
+10t
– Ae
-10t
)V. Now we can use v
1
(0+) = 2V.

From (2), v
1
= –RCdv
2
/dt = 0.1dv
o
/dt = 0.1(10Ae
+10t
+ 10Ae
-10t
)

v
1
(0+) = 2 = 0.1(20A) = 2A or A = 1

Thus, v
o
(t) = (e
+10t
– e
-10t
)V

It should be noted that this circuit is unstable (clearly one of the poles lies in the right-
half-plane).

Chapter 8, Solution 66.

C
2

R
4
R
2
+

C
1
v
S

1
2
R
3
R
1

v
o

Note that the voltage across C
1
is v
2
= [R
3
/(R3 + R
4
)]v
o

This is the only difference between this problem and Example 8.11, i.e. v = kv, where
k = [R
3
/(R3 + R
4
)].

At node 1,

(v
s
– v
1
)/R
1
= C
2
[d(v
1
– v
o
)/dt] + (v
1
– v
2
)/R
2

v
s
/R
1
= (v
1
/R
1
) + C
2
[d(v
1
)/dt] – C
2
[d(v
o
)/dt] + (v
1
– kv
o
)/R
2
(1)

At node 2,

(v
1
– kv
o
)/R
2
= C
1
[d(kv
o
)/dt]

or v
1
= kv
o
+ kR
2
C
1
[d(v
o
)/dt] (2)

Substituting (2) into (1),

v
s
/R
1
= (kv
o
/R
1
) + (kR
2
C
1
/R
1
)[d(v
o
)/dt] + kC
2
[d(v
o
)/dt] + kR
2
C
1
C
2
[d
2
(v
o
)/dt
2
] – (kv
o
/R
2
)
+ kC
1
[d(v
o
)/dt] – (kv
o
/R
2
) + C
2
[d(v
o
)/dt]

We now rearrange the terms.

[d
2
(v
o
)/dt
2
] + [(1/C
2
R
1
) + (1/ R
2
C
2
) + (1/R
2
C
1
) – (1/ kR
2
C
1
)][d(v
o
)/dt] + [v
o
/(R
1
R
2
C
1
C
2
)]
= v
s
/(kR
1
R
2
C
1
C
2
)

If R
1
= R
2
10 kohms, C
1
= C
2
= 100 µF, R
3
= 20 kohms, and R
4
= 60 kohms,

k = [R
3
/(R3 + R
4
)] = 1/3

R
1
R
2
C
1
C
2
= 10
4
x10
4
x10
-4
x10
-4
= 1

(1/C
2
R
1
) + (1/ R
2
C
2
) + (1/R
2
C
1
) – (1/ kR
2
C
1
) = 1 + 1 + 1 – 3 = 3 – 3 = 0

Hence, [d
2
(v
o
)/dt
2
] + v
o
= 3v
s
= 6, t > 0, and s
2
+ 1 = 0, or s
1,2
= ±j

v
o
(t) = V
s
+ [Acost + B sint], V
s
= 6

v
o
(0) = 0 = 6 + A or A = –6

dv
o
/dt = –Asint + Bcost, but dv
o
(0)/dt = 0 = B

Hence, v
o
(t) = 6(1 – cost)u(t) volts.

Chapter 8, Solution 67.

At node 1,

dt
) 0 v ( d
C
dt
) v v ( d
C
R
v v
1
2
o 1
1
1
1 in

+

=

(1)

At node 2,
2
o 1
2
R
v 0
dt
) 0 v ( d
C

=

, or
2 2
o 1
R C
v
dt
dv −
= (2)

From (1) and (2),

2
o
1
o
1 1
o
2 2
1 1
1 in
R
v
R
dt
dv
C R
dt
dv
R C
C R
v v − − − = −

2
o
1
o
1 1
o
2 2
1 1
in 1
R
v
R
dt
dv
C R
dt
dv
R C
C R
v v + + + = (3)

C
1

From (2) and (3),
0V
v
in

C
2
R
2

+
v
1
1
2
R
1
v
o

dt
dv
R
R
dt
v d
C R
dt
dv
R C
C R
dt
dv
dt
dv
R C
v
o
2
1
2
o
2
1 1
o
2 2
1 1 in 1
2 2
o
+ + + = = −

dt
dv
C R
1
R R C C
v
dt
dv
C
1
C
1
R
1
dt
v d
in
1 1 1 2 2 1
o o
2 1 2
2
o
2
− = +

+ +

But C
1
C
2
R
1
R
2
= 10
-4
x10
-4
x10
4
x10
4
= 1

2
10 x 10
2
C R
2
C
1
C
1
R
1
4 4
1 2 2 1 2
= = =

+

dt
dv
v
dt
dv
2
dt
v d
in
o
o
2
o
2
− = + +

Which leads to s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0 or (s + 1)
2
= 0 and s = –1, –1

Therefore, v
o
(t) = [(A + Bt)e
-t
] + V
f

As t approaches infinity, the capacitor acts like an open circuit so that

V
f
= v
o
(∞) = 0

v
in
= 10u(t) mV and the fact that the initial voltages across each capacitor is 0

means that v
o
(0) = 0 which leads to A = 0.

v
o
(t) = [Bte
-t
]

dt
dv
o
= [(B – Bt)e
-t
] (4)
From (2), 0
R C
) 0 ( v
dt
) 0 ( dv
2 2
o o
=
+
− =
+

From (1) at t = 0+,

dt
) 0 ( dv
C
R
0 1
o
1
1
+
− =

which leads to 1
R C
1
dt
) 0 ( dv
1 1
o
− = − =
+

Substituting this into (4) gives B = –1

Thus, v(t) = –te
-t
u(t) V

Chapter 8, Solution 68.

The schematic is as shown below. The unit step is modeled by VPWL as shown. We
insert a voltage marker to display V after simulation. We set Print Step = 25 ms and
final step = 6s in the transient box. The output plot is shown below.

Chapter 8, Solution 69.

The schematic is shown below. The initial values are set as attributes of L1 and C1. We
set Print Step to 25 ms and the Final Time to 20s in the transient box. A current marker
is inserted at the terminal of L1 to automatically display i(t) after simulation. The result
is shown below.

Chapter 8, Solution 70.

The schematic is shown below.

After the circuit is saved and simulated, we obtain the capacitor voltage v(t) as shown
below.

Chapter 8, Solution 71.

The schematic is shown below. We use VPWL and IPWL to model the 39 u(t) V and 13
u(t) A respectively. We set Print Step to 25 ms and Final Step to 4s in the Transient
box. A voltage marker is inserted at the terminal of R2 to automatically produce the plot
of v(t) after simulation. The result is shown below.

Chapter 8, Solution 72.

When the switch is in position 1, we obtain IC=10 for the capacitor and IC=0 for the
inductor. When the switch is in position 2, the schematic of the circuit is shown below.

When the circuit is simulated, we obtain i(t) as shown below.

Chapter 8, Solution 73.

(a) For t < 0, we have the schematic below. When this is saved and simulated, we
obtain the initial inductor current and capacitor voltage as

i
L
(0) = 3 A and v
c
(0) = 24 V.

(b) For t > 0, we have the schematic shown below. To display i(t) and v(t), we
insert current and voltage markers as shown. The initial inductor current and capacitor
voltage are also incorporated. In the Transient box, we set Print Step = 25 ms and the
Final Time to 4s. After simulation, we automatically have i
o
(t) and v
o
(t) displayed as
shown below.

Chapter 8, Solution 74.

10Ω 5Ω

+

20 V 2F 4H
-

Hence the dual circuit is shown below.

2H

4F 0.2Ω
20A 0.1 Ω

Chapter 8, Solution 75.

The dual circuit is connected as shown in Figure (a). It is redrawn in Figure (b).

0.5 H
2 F
12A
24A
0.25 Ω
0.1 Ω
10 µF
12A

+

24V
10 H
10 Ω
0.25 Ω
24A

+

12V
0.5 F
10 H
(a)
4 Ω
0.1 Ω

(b)

Chapter 8, Solution 76.

The dual is obtained from the original circuit as shown in Figure (a). It is redrawn in
Figure (b).

120 A
2 V
+ −
2 A
30 Ω
1/3 Ω
10 Ω
0.1 Ω
120 V
– +
60 V
+ −
60 A
4F
1 F
4 H 1 H
20 Ω
0.05 Ω

(a)

0.05 Ω
60 A
1 H
120 A
1/4 F
0.1 Ω

+

2V

1/30 Ω

(b)

Chapter 8, Solution 77.

The dual is constructed in Figure (a) and redrawn in Figure (b).

+

5 V
1/4 F
1 H
2 Ω
1 Ω
1/3 Ω
12 A
1 Ω
12 A
1/3 Ω
3 Ω
1/2 Ω
5 V
– +
5 A

+

12V
1/4 F
1 F
1/4 H
1 H
(a)
1 Ω
2 Ω

(b)

Chapter 8, Solution 78.

The voltage across the igniter is v
R
= v
C
since the circuit is a parallel RLC type.

v
C
(0) = 12, and i
L
(0) = 0.

α = 1/(2RC) = 1/(2x3x1/30) = 5

ω
o
30 / 1 x 10 x 60 / 1 LC / 1
3 −
= = = 22.36

α < ω
o
produces an underdamped response.

2
o
2
2 , 1
s ω − α ± α − = = –5 ± j21.794

v
C
(t) = e
-5t
(Acos21.794t + Bsin21.794t) (1)

v
C
(0) = 12 = A

dv
C
/dt = –5[(Acos21.794t + Bsin21.794t)e
-5t
]

+ 21.794[(–Asin21.794t + Bcos21.794t)e
-5t
] (2)

dv
C
(0)/dt = –5A + 21.794B
But, dv
C
(0)/dt = –[v
C
(0) + Ri
L
(0)]/(RC) = –(12 + 0)/(1/10) = –120
Hence, –120 = –5A + 21.794B, leads to B (5x12 – 120)/21.794 = –2.753
At the peak value, dv
C
(t
o
)/dt = 0, i.e.,

0 = A + Btan21.794t
o
+ (A21.794/5)tan21.794t
o
– 21.794B/5

(B + A21.794/5)tan21.794t
o
= (21.794B/5) – A

tan21.794t
o
= [(21.794B/5) – A]/(B + A21.794/5) = –24/49.55 = –0.484

Therefore, 21.7945t
o
= |–0.451|

t
o
= |–0.451|/21.794 = 20.68 ms

Chapter 8, Solution 79.

For critical damping of a parallel RLC circuit,

LC
RC
o
1
2
1
= →  = ω α
Hence,

F 434
144 4
25 . 0
4
2
µ = = =
x R
L
C

Chapter 8, Solution 80.

t
1
= 1/|s
1
| = 0.1x10
-3
leads to s
1
= –1000/0.1 = –10,000

t
2
= 1/|s
2
| = 0.5x10
-3
leads to s
1
= –2,000

2
o
2
1
s ω − α − α − =

2
o
2
2
s ω − α + α − =

s
1
+ s
2
= –2α = –12,000, therefore α = 6,000 = R/(2L)

L = R/12,000 = 60,000/12,000 = 5H

2
o
2
2
s ω − α + α − = = –2,000

2
o
2
ω − α − α = 2,000

2
o
2
000 , 6 ω − α − = 2,000

2
o
2
ω − α = 4,000

α
2
– = 16x10
2
o
ω
6

2
o
ω = α
2
– 16x10
6
= 36x10
6
– 16x10
6

ω
o
= 10
3 LC / 1 20 =

C = 1/(20x10
6
x5) = 10 nF
Chapter 8, Solution 81.

t = 1/α = 0.25 leads to α = 4

But, α 1/(2RC) or, C = 1/(2αR) = 1/(2x4x200) = 625 µF

2 2
o d
α − ω = ω

2 3 2 3 2 2
d
2
o
0 10 x 4 2 ( 16 ) 10 x 4 2 ( π ≅ + π = α + ω = ω = 1/(LC)

This results in L = 1/(64π
2
x10
6
x625x10
-6
) = 2.533 µH

Chapter 8, Solution 82.

For t = 0-, v(0) = 0.

For t > 0, the circuit is as shown below.

+
v
o

C
1
+
v

a
R
2
R
1

C
2

At node a,

(v
o
– v/R
1
= (v/R
2
) + C
2
dv/dt
v
o
= v(1 + R
1
/R
2
) + R
1
C
2
dv/dt
60 = (1 + 5/2.5) + (5x10
6
x5x10
-6
)dv/dt
60 = 3v + 25dv/dt
v(t) = V
s
+ [Ae
-3t/25
]
where 3V
s
= 60 yields V
s
= 20
v(0) = 0 = 20 + A or A = –20
v(t) = 20(1 – e
-3t/25
)V
Chapter 8, Solution 83.

i = i
D
+ Cdv/dt (1)

–v
s
+ iR + Ldi/dt + v = 0 (2)

Substituting (1) into (2),

v
s
= Ri
D
+ RCdv/dt + Ldi/dt + LCd
2
v/dt
2
+ v = 0

LCd
2
v/dt
2
+ RCdv/dt + Ri
D
+ Ldi/dt = v
s

d
2
v/dt
2
+ (R/L)dv/dt + (R/LC)i
D
+ (1/C)di/dt = v
s
/LC

Chapter 9, Solution 1.

(a) angular frequency ω = 10
3
rad/s

(b) frequency f =
π
ω
2
= 159.2 Hz

(c) period T =
f
=
1
6.283 ms

(d) Since sin(A) = cos(A – 90°),
v
s
= 12 sin(10
3
t + 24°) = 12 cos(10
3
t + 24° – 90°)
v
s
in cosine form is v
s
= 12 cos(10
3
t – 66°) V

(e) v
s
(2.5 ms) = 12 ) 24 ) 10 5 . 2 )( 10 sin((
3 - 3
° + ×
= 12 sin(2.5 + 24°) = 12 sin(143.24° + 24°)
= 2.65 V

Chapter 9, Solution 2.

(a) amplitude = 8 A

(b) ω = 500π = 1570.8 rad/s

(c) f =
π
ω
2
= 250 Hz

(d) I
s
= 8∠-25° A
I
s
(2 ms) = ) 25 ) 10 2 )( 500 cos(( 8
3 -
° − × π
= 8 cos(π − 25°) = 8 cos(155°)
= -7.25 A

Chapter 9, Solution 3.

(a) 4 sin(ωt – 30°) = 4 cos(ωt – 30° – 90°) = 4 cos(ωt – 120°)

(b) -2 sin(6t) = 2 cos(6t + 90°)

(c) -10 sin(ωt + 20°) = 10 cos(ωt + 20° + 90°) = 10 cos(ωt + 110°)
Chapter 9, Solution 4.

(a) v = 8 cos(7t + 15°) = 8 sin(7t + 15° + 90°) = 8 sin(7t + 105°)

(b) i = -10 sin(3t – 85°) = 10 cos(3t – 85° + 90°) = 10 cos(3t + 5°)

Chapter 9, Solution 5.

v
1
= 20 sin(ωt + 60°) = 20 cos(ωt + 60° − 90°) = 20 cos(ωt − 30°)
v
2
= 60 cos(ωt − 10°)

This indicates that the phase angle between the two signals is 20° and that v
1
lags
v
2
.

Chapter 9, Solution 6.

(a) v(t) = 10 cos(4t – 60°)
i(t) = 4 sin(4t + 50°) = 4 cos(4t + 50° – 90°) = 4 cos(4t – 40°)
Thus, i(t) leads v(t) by 20°.

(b) v
1
(t) = 4 cos(377t + 10°)
v
2
(t) = -20 cos(377t) = 20 cos(377t + 180°)
Thus, v
2
(t) leads v
1
(t) by 170°.

(c) x(t) = 13 cos(2t) + 5 sin(2t) = 13 cos(2t) + 5 cos(2t – 90°)
X = 13∠0° + 5∠-90° = 13 – j5 = 13.928∠-21.04°
x(t) = 13.928 cos(2t – 21.04°)
y(t) = 15 cos(2t – 11.8°)
phase difference = -11.8° + 21.04° = 9.24°
Thus, y(t) leads x(t) by 9.24°.

Chapter 9, Solution 7.

If f(φ) = cosφ + j sinφ,

) ( f j ) sin j (cos j cos j -sin
d
df
φ = φ + φ = φ + φ =
φ

φ = d j
f
df

Integrating both sides

ln f = jφ + ln A

f = Ae

= cosφ + j sinφ

f(0) = A = 1

i.e. f(φ) = e

= cosφ + j sinφ

Chapter 9, Solution 8.

(a)
4 j 3
45 15

° ∠
+ j2 =
° ∠
° ∠
53.13 - 5
45 15
+ j2
= 3∠98.13° + j2
= -0.4245 + j2.97 + j2
= -0.4243 + j4.97

(b) (2 + j)(3 – j4) = 6 – j8 + j3 + 4 = 10 – j5 = 11.18∠-26.57°
j4) - j)(3 (2
20 - 8
+
° ∠
+
j12 5 -
10
+
=
° ∠
° ∠
26.57 - 11.18
20 - 8
+
144 25
) 10 )( 12 j 5 - (
+

= 0.7156∠6.57° − 0.2958
− j0.71
= 0.7109 + j0.08188 −
0.2958 − j0.71
= 0.4151 − j0.6281

(c) 10 + (8∠50°)(13∠-68.38°) = 10+104∠-17.38°
= 109.25 – j31.07

Chapter 9, Solution 9.

(a) 2 +
8 j 5
4 j 3

+
= 2 +
64 25
) 8 j 5 )( 4 j 3 (
+
+ +

= 2 +
89
32 20 j 24 j 15 − + +

= 1.809 + j0.4944

(b) 4∠-10° +
° ∠

6 3
2 j 1
= 4∠-10° +
° ∠
° ∠
6 3
63.43 - 236 . 2

= 4∠-10° + 0.7453∠-69.43°
= 3.939 – j0.6946 + 0.2619 – j0.6978
= 4.201 – j1.392

(c)
° ∠ − ° ∠
° ∠ + ° ∠
50 4 80 9
20 - 6 10 8
=
064 . 3 j 571 . 2 863 . 8 j 5628 . 1
052 . 2 j 638 . 5 3892 . 1 j 879 . 7
− − +
− + +

=
799 . 5 j 0083 . 1
6629 . 0 j 517 . 13
+ −

=
° ∠
° ∠
86 . 99 886 . 5
81 . 2 - 533 . 13

= 2.299∠-102.67°
= -0.5043 – j2.243

Chapter 9, Solution 10.

(a) z 9282 . 6 4 z and , 5 66 . 8 z , 8 6
3 2 1
j j j − − = − = − =
93 . 19 66 . 10
3 2 1
j z z z − = + +

(b) 499 . 7 999 . 9
3
2 1
j
z
z z
+ =

Chapter 9, Solution 11.

(a) = (-3 + j4)(12 + j5)
2 1
z z
= -36 – j15 + j48 – 20
= -56 + j33

(b)

2
1
z
z
=
5 j 12
4 j 3 -

+
=
25 144
) 5 j 12 )( 4 j 3 (-
+
+ +
= -0.3314 + j0.1953

(c) = (-3 + j4) + (12 + j5) = 9 + j9
2 1
z z +
2 1
z z − = (-3 + j4) – (12 + j5) = -15 – j
2 1
2 1
z z
z z

+
=
) j 15 ( -
) j 1 ( 9
+
+
=
2 2
1 15
j) - 15 )( j 1 ( 9 -

+
=
226
) 14 j 16 ( 9 - +

= -0.6372 – j0.5575

Chapter 9, Solution 12.

(a) = (-3 + j4)(12 + j5)
2 1
z z
= -36 – j15 + j48 – 20
= -56 + j33

(b)

2
1
z
z
=
5 j 12
4 j 3 -

+
=
25 144
) 5 j 12 )( 4 j 3 (-
+
+ +
= -0.3314 + j0.1953

(c) = (-3 + j4) + (12 + j5) = 9 + j9
2 1
z z +
2 1
z z − = (-3 + j4) – (12 + j5) = -15 – j
2 1
2 1
z z
z z

+
=
) j 15 ( -
) j 1 ( 9
+
+
=
2 2
1 15
j) - 15 )( j 1 ( 9 -

+
=
226
) 14 j 16 ( 9 - +

= -0.6372 – j0.5575

Chapter 9, Solution 13.

(a) 1520 . 0 2749 . 1 ) 2534 . 0 8425 . 0 ( ) 4054 . 0 4324 . 0 j j j ( + − = − − + + −

(b) 0833 . 2
150 24
30 50
− =

− ∠
o
o

(c) (2+j3)(8-j5) –(-4) = 35 +j14

Chapter 9, Solution 14.

(a) 5116 . 0 5751 . 0
11 15
14 3
j
j
j
+ − =
+ −

(b) 55 . 11 922 . 1
7 . 2134 06 . 246
9 . 6944 24186
) 5983 . 10 96 . 16 )( 84 67 (
) 80 60 )( 80 56 . 138 82 . 231 116 . 62 (
j
j j j
j j j
− − =
+

=
+ +
− − + +

(c) ( ) 89 . 200 4 . 256 ) 120 260 ( 4 2
2
j j j − − = − + −

Chapter 9, Solution 15.

(a)
j 1 - 5 -
3 j 2 6 j 10
+
− +
= -10 – j6 + j10 – 6 + 10 – j15
= -6 – j11

(b)
° ∠ ° ∠
° ∠ ° − ∠
45 3 0 16
10 - 4 - 30 20
= 60∠15° + 64∠-10°
= 57.96 + j15.529 + 63.03 – j11.114
= 120.99 – j4.415

(c)
j 1 j
0 j j 1
j 1 j 1
j 1 j
0 j j 1

− −
+

− −
= 1 ) j 1 ( j ) j 1 ( j 0 1 0 1
2 2
+ + − + − − + +
= 1 ) j 1 j 1 ( 1 + + − −
= 1 – 2 = -1

Chapter 9, Solution 16.

(a) -10 cos(4t + 75°) = 10 cos(4t + 75° − 180°)
= 10 cos(4t − 105°)
The phasor form is 10∠-105°

(b) 5 sin(20t – 10°) = 5 cos(20t – 10° – 90°)
= 5 cos(20t – 100°)
The phasor form is 5∠-100°

(c) 4 cos(2t) + 3 sin(2t) = 4 cos(2t) + 3 cos(2t – 90°)
The phasor form is 4∠0° + 3∠-90° = 4 – j3 = 5∠-36.87°

Chapter 9, Solution 17.

(a) Let A = 8∠-30° + 6∠0°
= 12.928 – j4
= 13.533∠-17.19°
a(t) = 13.533 cos(5t + 342.81°)

(b) We know that -sinα = cos(α + 90°).
Let B = 20∠45° + 30∠(20° + 90°)
= 14.142 + j14.142 – 10.261 + j28.19
= 3.881 + j42.33
= 42.51∠84.76°
b(t) = 42.51 cos(120πt + 84.76°)

(c) Let C = 4∠-90° + 3∠(-10° – 90°)
= -j4 – 0.5209 – j2.954
= 6.974∠265.72°
c(t) = 6.974 cos(8t + 265.72°)

Chapter 9, Solution 18.

(a) = ) t ( v
1
60 cos(t + 15°)

(b) = 6 + j8 = 10∠53.13°
2
V
) t ( v
2
= 10 cos(40t + 53.13°)

(c) = ) t ( i
1
2.8 cos(377t – π/3)

(d) = -0.5 – j1.2 = 1.3∠247.4°
2
I
) t ( i
2
= 1.3 cos(10
3
t + 247.4°)

Chapter 9, Solution 19.

(a) 3∠10° − 5∠-30° = 2.954 + j0.5209 – 4.33 + j2.5
= -1.376 + j3.021
= 3.32∠114.49°
Therefore, 3 cos(20t + 10°) – 5 cos(20t – 30°) = 3.32 cos(20t +
114.49°)

(b) 4∠-90° + 3∠-45° = -j40 + 21.21 – j21.21
= 21.21 – j61.21
= 64.78∠-70.89°
Therefore, 40 sin(50t) + 30 cos(50t – 45°) = 64.78 cos(50t – 70.89°)

(c) Using sinα = cos(α − 90°),
20∠-90° + 10∠60° − 5∠-110° = -j20 + 5 + j8.66 + 1.7101 + j4.699
= 6.7101 – j6.641
= 9.44∠-44.7°
Therefore, 20 sin(400t) + 10 cos(400t + 60°) – 5 sin(400t – 20°)
= 9.44 cos(400t – 44.7°)
Chapter 9, Solution 20.

(a)
o o o o
j j 399 . 4 966 . 8 2139 . 3 83 . 3 2 464 . 3 40 5 90 60 4 − ∠ = − − − − = ∠ − − − ∠ = V

Hence,
) 399 . 4 377 cos( 966 . 8
o
t v − =

(b) 5 , 90 20 8 0 10 = − ∠ + ∠ = ω ω
o o o
j I , i.e.
o o
I 04 . 16 51 . 49 20 40 10 ∠ = ∠ + =

) 04 . 16 5 cos( 51 . 49
o
t i + =

Chapter 9, Solution 21.

(a)
o o o o
j F 86 . 34 3236 . 8 758 . 4 8296 . 6 90 30 4 15 5 ∠ = + = − − ∠ − ∠ =

) 86 . 34 30 cos( 324 . 8 ) (
o
t t f + =

(b) G
o o o
j 49 . 62 565 . 5 9358 . 4 571 . 2 50 4 90 8 − ∠ = − = ∠ + − ∠ =

) 49 . 62 cos( 565 . 5 ) (
o
t t g − =

(c) ( ) 40 , 90 5 0 10
1
= − ∠ + ∠ = ω
ω
o o
j
H
i.e.
o o o
j H 6 . 116 2795 . 0 125 . 0 25 . 0 180 125 . 0 90 25 . 0 − ∠ = − − = − ∠ + − ∠ =

) 6 . 116 40 cos( 2795 . 0 ) (
o
t t h − =

Chapter 9, Solution 22.

Let f(t) =

∞ −
− +
t
dt t v
dt
dv
t v ) ( 2 4 ) ( 10
o
V
j
V
V j V F 30 20 , 5 ,
2
4 10 − ∠ = = − + = ω
ω
ω

o
j j V j V j V F 97 . 92 1 . 440 ) 10 32 . 17 )( 6 . 19 10 ( 4 . 0 20 10 − ∠ = − − = − + =

) 97 . 92 5 cos( 1 . 440 ) (
o
t t f − =
Chapter 9, Solution 23.

(a) v(t) = 40 cos(ωt – 60°)

(b) V = -30∠10° + 50∠60°
= -4.54 + j38.09
= 38.36∠96.8°
v(t) = 38.36 cos(ωt + 96.8°)

(c) I = j6∠-10° = 6∠(90° − 10°) = 6∠80°
i(t) = 6 cos(ωt + 80°)

(d) I =
j
2
+ 10∠-45° = -j2 + 7.071 – j7.071
= 11.5∠-52.06°
i(t) = 11.5 cos(ωt – 52.06°)

Chapter 9, Solution 24.

(a)
1 , 0 10
j
= ω ° ∠ =
ω
+
V
V
10 ) j 1 ( = − V
° ∠ = + =

= 45 071 . 7 5 j 5
j 1
10
V
Therefore, v(t) = 7.071 cos(t + 45°)

(b)
4 ), 90 10 ( 20
j
4
5 j = ω ° − ° ∠ =
ω
+ + ω
V
V V
° ∠ =

+ + 80 - 20
4 j
4
5 4 j V
° ∠ =
+
° ∠
= 96 . 110 - 43 . 3
3 j 5
80 - 20
V
Therefore, v(t) = 3.43 cos(4t – 110.96°)

Chapter 9, Solution 25.

(a)
2 , 45 - 4 3 2j = ω ° ∠ = + ω I I
° ∠ = + 45 - 4 ) 4 j 3 ( I
° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=
+
° ∠
= 98.13 - 8 . 0
13 . 53 5
45 - 4
j4 3
45 - 4
I
Therefore, i(t) = 0.8 cos(2t – 98.13°)

(b)
5 , 22 5 6 j
j
10 = ω ° ∠ = + ω +
ω
I I
I

° ∠ = + + 22 5 ) 6 5 j 2 j - ( I
° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=
+
° ∠
= 56 . 4 - 745 . 0
56 . 26 708 . 6
22 5
3 j 6
22 5
I
Therefore, i(t) = 0.745 cos(5t – 4.56°)

Chapter 9, Solution 26.

2 , 0 1
j
2 j = ω ° ∠ =
ω
+ + ω
I
I I
1
2 j
1
2 2 j =

+ + I
° ∠ =
+
= 87 . 36 - 4 . 0
5 . 1 j 2
1
I
Therefore, i(t) = 0.4 cos(2t – 36.87°)

Chapter 9, Solution 27.

377 , 10 - 110
j
100 50 j = ω ° ∠ =
ω
+ + ω
V
V V
° ∠ = 

− + 10 - 110
377
100 j
50 377 j V
° ∠ = ° ∠ 10 - 110 ) 45 . 82 6 . 380 ( V
° ∠ = 45 . 92 - 289 . 0 V

Therefore, v(t) = 0.289 cos(377t – 92.45°).
Chapter 9, Solution 28.

= = =
8
) t 377 cos( 110
R
) t ( v
) t ( i
s
13.75 cos(377t) A.

Chapter 9, Solution 29.

5 . 0 j -
) 10 2 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
6 - 6
=
×
=
ω
= Z

° ∠ = ° ∠ ° ∠ = = 65 - 2 ) 90 - 5 . 0 )( 25 4 ( IZ V

Therefore v(t) = 2 sin(10
6
t – 65°) V.

Chapter 9, Solution 30.

Z 2 j ) 10 4 )( 500 ( j L j
3 -
= × = ω =
° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 155 - 30
90 2
65 - 60
Z
V
I
Therefore, i(t) = 30 cos(500t – 155°) A.

Chapter 9, Solution 31.

i(t) = 10 sin(ωt + 30°) = 10 cos(ωt + 30° − 90°) = 10 cos(ωt − 60°)
Thus, I = 10∠-60°

v(t) = -65 cos(ωt + 120°) = 65 cos(ωt + 120° − 180°) = 65 cos(ωt − 60°)
Thus, V = 65∠-60°

Ω =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 5 . 6
60 - 10
60 - 65
I
V
Z

Since V and I are in phase, the element is a resistor with R = 6.5 Ω.

Chapter 9, Solution 32.

V = 180∠10°, I = 12∠-30°, ω = 2

Ω + = ° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 642 . 9 j 49 . 11 0 4 15
30 - 12
0 1 180
I
V
Z

One element is a resistor with R = 11.49 Ω.
The other element is an inductor with ωL = 9.642 or L = 4.821 H.

Chapter 9, Solution 33.

2
L
2
R
v v 110 + =
2
R
2
L
v 110 v − =
= − =
2 2
L
85 110 v 69.82 V

Chapter 9, Solution 34.

if 0 v
o
=
LC
1
C
1
L = ω → 
ω
= ω

=
× ×
= ω
− −
) 10 2 )( 10 5 (
1
3 3
100 rad/s

Chapter 9, Solution 35.

° ∠ = 0 5
s
V
2 j ) 1 )( 2 ( j L j = = ω
2 j -
) 25 . 0 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
= =
ω

= ° ∠ ° ∠ = ° ∠ =
+ −
= ) 0 5 )( 90 1 ( 0 5
2
2 j
2 j 2 j 2
2 j
s o
V V 5∠90°
Thus, 5 cos(2t + 90°) = = ) t ( v
o
-5 sin(2t) V

Chapter 9, Solution 36.

Let Z be the input impedance at the source.

20 10 100 200 mH 100
3
j x x j L j = = → 

ω

500
200 10 10
1 1
F 10
6
j
x x j C j
− = = → 

ω
µ

1000//-j500 = 200 –j400
1000//(j20 + 200 –j400) = 242.62 –j239.84

o
j Z 104 . 6 2255 84 . 239 62 . 2242 − ∠ = − =

mA 896 . 3 61 . 26
104 . 6 2255
10 60
o
o
o
I − ∠ =
− ∠
− ∠
=

) 896 . 3 200 cos( 1 . 266
o
t i − =

Chapter 9, Solution 37.

5 j ) 1 )( 5 ( j L j = = ω

j -
) 2 . 0 )( 5 ( j
1
C j
1
= =
ω

Let Z , j -
1
=
5 j 2
10 j
5 j 2
) 5 j )( 2 (
5 j || 2
2
+
=
+
= = Z

Then,
s
2 1
2
x
I
Z Z
Z
I
+
= , where ° ∠ = 0
s
2 I

° ∠ =
+
=
+
+
+
= 32 12 . 2
8 j 5
20 j
) 2 (
5 j 2
10 j
j -
5 j 2
10 j
x
I

Therefore, = ) t ( i
x
2.12 sin(5t + 32°) A

Chapter 9, Solution 38.

(a) 2 j -
) 6 / 1 )( 3 ( j
1
C j
1
F
6
1
= =
ω
→ 

° ∠ = ° ∠

= 43 . 18 - 472 . 4 ) 45 10 (
2 j 4
2 j -
I
Hence, i(t) = 4.472 cos(3t – 18.43°) A

° ∠ = ° ∠ = = 43 . 18 - 89 . 17 ) 43 . 18 - 472 . 4 )( 4 ( 4I V
Hence, v(t) = 17.89 cos(3t – 18.43°) V

(b) 3 j -
) 12 / 1 )( 4 ( j
1
C j
1
F
12
1
= =
ω
→ 
12 j ) 3 )( 4 ( j L j H 3 = = ω → 

° ∠ =

° ∠
= = 87 . 36 10
j3 4
0 50
Z
V
I
Hence, i(t) = 10 cos(4t + 36.87°) A

° ∠ = ° ∠
+
= 69 . 33 6 . 41 ) 0 50 (
j12 8
12 j
V
Hence, v(t) = 41.6 cos(4t + 33.69°) V

Chapter 9, Solution 39.

10 j 8
10 j 5 j
) 10 j - )( 5 j (
8 ) 10 j - ( || 5 j 8 + =

+ = + = Z

° ∠ =
° ∠
=
+
° ∠
= = 34 . 51 - 124 . 3
34 . 51 403 . 6
20
j10 8
0 40
Z
V
I

° ∠ = =

= 34 . 51 - 248 . 6 2
10 j 5 j
10 j -
1
I I I

° ∠ = = = 66 . 128 3.124 -
5 j -
5 j
2
I I I

Therefore, = ) t ( i
1
6.248 cos(120πt – 51.34°) A

= ) t ( i
2
3.124 cos(120πt + 128.66°) A
Chapter 9, Solution 40.

(a) For ω , 1 =
j ) 1 )( 1 ( j L j H 1 = = ω → 
20 j -
) 05 . 0 )( 1 ( j
1
C j
1
F 05 . 0 = =
ω
→ 
802 . 0 j 98 . 1
20 j 2
40 j -
j ) 20 j - ( || 2 j + =

+ = + = Z

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=
+
° ∠
= = 05 . 22 - 872 . 1
05 . 22 136 . 2
0 4
j0.802 1.98
0 4
o
Z
V
I
Hence, i = ) t (
o
1.872 cos(t – 22.05°) A

(b) For ω , 5 =
5 j ) 1 )( 5 ( j L j H 1 = = ω → 
4 j -
) 05 . 0 )( 5 ( j
1
C j
1
F 05 . 0 = =
ω
→ 
2 . 4 j 6 . 1
2 j 1
4 j -
5 j ) 4 j - ( || 2 5 j + =

+ = + = Z

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=
+
° ∠
= = 14 . 69 - 89 . 0
14 . 69 494 . 4
0 4
j4 1.6
0 4
o
Z
V
I
Hence, i = ) t (
o
0.89 cos(5t – 69.14°) A

(c) For ω , 10 =
10 j ) 1 )( 10 ( j L j H 1 = = ω → 
2 j -
) 05 . 0 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
F 05 . 0 = =
ω
→ 
9 j 1
2 j 2
4 j -
10 j ) 2 j - ( || 2 10 j + =

+ = + = Z

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=
+
° ∠
= = 66 . 3 8 - 4417 . 0
66 . 83 9.055
0 4
9 j 1
0 4
o
Z
V
I
Hence, i = ) t (
o
0.4417 cos(10t – 83.66°) A

Chapter 9, Solution 41.

, 1 = ω
j ) 1 )( 1 ( j L j H 1 = = ω → 

j -
) 1 )( 1 ( j
1
C j
1
F 1 = =
ω
→ 

j 2
1
1 j -
1 ) j - ( || ) j 1 ( 1 − =
+
+ = + + = Z

j 2
10
s

= =
Z
V
I , I I ) j 1 (
c
+ =

° ∠ =

= − = + = 18.43 - 325 . 6
j 2
) 10 )( j 1 (
) j 1 ( ) j 1 )( j - ( I I V

Thus, v(t) = 6.325 cos(t – 18.43°) V

Chapter 9, Solution 42.

ω 200 =
100 j -
) 10 50 )( 200 ( j
1
C j
1
F 50
6 -
=
×
=
ω
→  µ

20 j ) 1 . 0 )( 200 ( j L j H 1 . 0 = = ω → 

20 j 40
j2 - 1
j100 -
j100 50
) (50)(-j100
-j100 || 50 − = =

=

° ∠ = ° ∠ = ° ∠
− + +
= 90 14 . 17 ) 0 60 (
70
20 j
) 0 60 (
20 j 40 30 20 j
20 j
o
V

Thus, = ) t ( v
o
17.14 sin(200t + 90°) V

or = ) t ( v
o
17.14 cos(200t) V

Chapter 9, Solution 43.

ω 2 =
2 j ) 1 )( 2 ( j L j H 1 = = ω → 

5 . 0 j -
) 1 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
F 1 = =
ω
→ 

° ∠ = ° ∠
+
=
+ −

= 69 . 33 328 . 3 0 4
5 . 1 j 1
5 . 1 j
1 5 . 0 j 2 j
5 . 0 j 2 j
o
I I

Thus, = ) t ( i
o
3.328 cos(2t + 33.69°) A

Chapter 9, Solution 44.

ω 200 =
2 j ) 10 10 )( 200 ( j L j mH 10
-3
= × = ω → 

j -
) 10 5 )( 200 ( j
1
C j
1
mF 5
3 -
=
×
=
ω
→ 

4 . 0 j 55 . 0
10
j 3
5 . 0 j 25 . 0
j 3
1
2 j
1
4
1
− =
+
+ − =

+ + = Y

865 . 0 j 1892 . 1
4 . 0 j 55 . 0
1 1
+ =

= =
Y
Z

° ∠ =
+
° ∠
=
+
° ∠
= 7.956 - 96 . 0
865 . 0 j 1892 . 6
0 6
5
0 6
Z
I

Thus, i(t) = 0.96 cos(200t – 7.956°) A

Chapter 9, Solution 45.

We obtain I by applying the principle of current division twice.
o
I

I
2
I
2
I
o
Z
1

-j2 Ω Z
2 2 Ω
(a) (b)

2 j -
1
= Z , 3 j 1
j2 - 2
j4 -
j4 2 || -j2) ( 4 j
2
+ = + = + = Z

j 1
j10 -
) 0 5 (
3 j 1 2 j -
2 j -
2 1
1
2
+
= ° ∠
+ +
=
+
= I
Z Z
Z
I

=
+
=

+

= =
1 1
10 -
j 1
j10 -
j - 1
j -
j2 - 2
j2 -
2 o
I I -5 A

Chapter 9, Solution 46.

° ∠ = →  ° + = 40 5 ) 40 t 10 cos( 5 i
s s
I

j -
) 1 . 0 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
F 1 . 0 = =
ω
→ 

2 j ) 2 . 0 )( 10 ( j L j H 2 . 0 = = ω → 

Let 6 . 1 j 8 . 0
2 j 4
8 j
2 j || 4
1
+ =
+
= = Z , j 3
2
− = Z

) 40 5 (
6 . 0 j 8 . 3
j1.6 0.8
s
2 1
1
o
° ∠
+
+
=
+
= I
Z Z
Z
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠ ° ∠
= 46 . 94 325 . 2
97 . 8 847 . 3
) 40 5 )( 43 . 63 789 . 1 (
o
I

Thus, = ) t ( i
o
2.325 cos(10t + 94.46°) A
Chapter 9, Solution 47.

First, we convert the circuit into the frequency domain.

-j10
I
x

+

2 Ω j4

5∠0˚ 20 Ω

° ∠ =
° − ∠
=
− +
=
+ + −
+ −
+
= 63 . 52 4607 . 0
63 . 52 854 . 10
5
626 . 8 j 588 . 4 2
5
4 j 20 10 j
) 4 j 20 ( 10 j
2
5
I
x

i
s
(t) = 0.4607cos(2000t +52.63˚) A

Chapter 9, Solution 48.

Converting the circuit to the frequency domain, we get:

10 Ω 30 Ω
V
1

+

j20
I
x

-j20
20∠-40˚

We can solve this using nodal analysis.

A ) 4 . 9 t 100 sin( 4338 . 0 i
4 . 9 4338 . 0
20 j 30
29 . 24 643 . 15
I
29 . 24 643 . 15
03462 . 0 j 12307 . 0
40 2
V
40 2 ) 01538 . 0 j 02307 . 0 05 . 0 j 1 . 0 ( V
0
20 j 30
0 V
20 j
0 V
10
40 20 V
x
x
1
1
1 1 1
° + =
° ∠ =

° − ∠
=
° − ∠ =

° ∠
=
° − ∠ = + + −
=

+

+
° − ∠ −

Chapter 9, Solution 49.

4
j 1
) j 1 )( 2 j (
2 ) j 1 ( || 2 j 2
T
=
+

+ = − + = Z
1 Ω
I

I
x
j2 Ω -j Ω

I I I
j 1
2 j
j 1 2 j
2 j
x
+
=
− +
= , where
2
1
0 5 .
x
= ° ∠ 0 = I
4 j
j 1
2 j
j 1
x
+
=
+
= I I

° ∠ = − =
+
=
+
= = 45 - 414 . 1 j 1
j
j 1
) 4 (
4 j
j 1
T s
Z I V
= ) t ( v
s
1.414 sin(200t – 45°) V

Chapter 9, Solution 50.

Since ω = 100, the inductor = j100x0.1 = j10 Ω and the capacitor = 1/(j100x10
-3
)
= -j10Ω.

j10
I
x

-j10
+
v
x

20 Ω

5∠40˚

Using the current dividing rule:

V ) 50 t 100 cos( 50 v
50 50 I 20 V
50 5 . 2 40 5 . 2 j 40 5
10 j 20 10 j
10 j
I
x
x x
x
° − =
° − ∠ = =
° − ∠ = ° ∠ − = ° ∠
+ + −

=

Chapter 9, Solution 51.

5 j -
) 1 . 0 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
F 1 . 0 = =
ω
→ 
j ) 5 . 0 )( 2 ( j L j H 5 . 0 = = ω → 

The current I through the 2-Ω resistor is
4 j 3 2 j 5 j 1
1
s
s

=
+ + −
=
I
I I , where ° ∠ = 0 10 I
° ∠ = − = 13 . 53 - 50 ) 4 j 3 )( 10 (
s
I

Therefore,
= ) t ( i
s
50 cos(2t – 53.13°) A

Chapter 9, Solution 52.

5 . 2 j 5 . 2
j 1
5 j
5 j 5
25 j
5 j || 5 + =
+
=
+
=

10
1
= Z , 5 . 2 j 5 . 2 5 . 2 j 5 . 2 5 j -
2
− = + + = Z
I
2
Z
1
Z
2
I
S

s s s
2 1
1
2
j 5
4
5 . 2 j 5 . 12
10
I I I
Z Z
Z
I

=

=
+
=

) 5 . 2 j 5 . 2 ( + =
2 o
I V

s s
j 5
) j 1 ( 10
) j 1 )( 5 . 2 (
j 5
4
30 8 I I

+
= +

= ° ∠

=
+
− ° ∠
=
) j 1 ( 10
) j 5 )( 30 8 (
s
I 2.884∠-26.31° A

Chapter 9, Solution 53.

Convert the delta to wye subnetwork as shown below.
Z
1
Z
2

I
o
2 Ω
Z
3

+
10Ω
60 V 8
o
30 − ∠ Ω

-

Z

, 3077 . 2 4615 . 0
2 10
4 6
, 7692 . 0 1532 . 0
2 10
4 2
2 1
j
j
x j
Z j
j
x j
Z + − =

= − =

=

2308 . 0 1538 . 1
2 10
12
3
j
j
Z + =

=

6062 . 0 726 . 4 ) 3077 . 2 5385 . 9 //( ) 2308 . 0 1538 . 9 ( ) 10 //( ) 8 (
2 3
j j j Z Z + = + + = + +

163 . 0 878 . 6 6062 . 0 726 . 4 2
1
j j Z Z − = + + + =

A 64 . 28 721 . 8
3575 . 1 88 . 6
30 60
Z
30 60
I
o
o
o o
o
− ∠ =
− ∠
− ∠
=
− ∠
=
Chapter 9, Solution 54.

Since the left portion of the circuit is twice as large as the right portion, the
equivalent circuit is shown below.

V
s

V
1
+
+
V
2

+ −

Z 2 Z

) j 1 ( 2 ) j 1 (
o 1
− = − = I V
) j 1 ( 4 2
1 2
− = = V V
) j 1 ( 6
2 1 s
− = + = V V V
=
s
V 8.485∠-45° V

Chapter 9, Solution 55.

-j4 Ω
I

I
1
+
V
o

I
2
+

Z 12 Ω
-j20 V j8 Ω

-j0.5
8 j
4
8 j
o
1
= = =
V
I

j
8 j4 -
) 8 j ( (-j0.5)
j4 -
) 8 j (
1
2
+ =
+
=
+
=
Z Z Z I
I

5 . 0 j
8
j
8
-j0.5
2 1
+ = + + = + =
Z Z
I I I

) 8 j ( 12 j20 -
1
+ + = Z I I

) 8 j (
2
j -
2
j
8
12 j20 - + + 

+ = Z
Z

− =
2
1
j
2
3
j26 - 4 - Z

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=

= 279.68 64 . 16
18.43 - 5811 . 1
25 . 261 31 . 26
2
1
j
2
3
j26 - 4 -
Z

Z = 2.798 – j16.403 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 56.

30 H 3 j L j = →  ω

30 /
1
3F j
C j
− = → 
ω

15 /
1
1.5F j
C j
− = → 
ω

06681 . 0
15
30
15
30
) 15 / //( 30 j
j
j
j
x j
j j − =

= −

Ω − =
− + −
− −
= −

= m 333 6
06681 . 0 2 033 . 0
) 06681 . 0 2 ( 033 . 0
) 06681 . 0 2 //(
30
j
j j
j j
j
j
Z

Chapter 9, Solution 57.

2 H 2 j L j = →  ω

j
C j
− = → 
ω
1
1F

2 . 1 j 6 . 2
j 2 2 j
) j 2 ( 2 j
1 ) j 2 //( 2 j 1 Z + =
− +

+ = − + =

S 1463 . 0 j 3171 . 0
Z
1
Y − = =
Chapter 9, Solution 58.

(a) 2 j -
) 10 10 )( 50 ( j
1
C j
1
mF 10
3 -
=
×
=
ω
→ 
5 . 0 j ) 10 10 )( 50 ( j L j mH 10
-3
= × = ω → 

) 2 j 1 ( || 1 5 . 0 j
in
− + = Z
2 j 2
2 j 1
5 . 0 j
in

+ = Z
) j 3 ( 25 . 0 5 . 0 j
in
− + = Z
=
in
Z 0.75 + j0.25 Ω

(b) 20 j ) 4 . 0 )( 50 ( j L j H 4 . 0 = = ω → 
10 j ) 2 . 0 )( 50 ( j L j H 2 . 0 = = ω → 
20 j -
) 10 1 )( 50 ( j
1
C j
1
mF 1
3 -
=
×
=
ω
→ 

For the parallel elements,
20 j -
1
10 j
1
20
1 1
p
+ + =
Z

10 j 10
p
+ = Z
Then,
=
in
Z 10 + j20 + =
p
Z 20 + j30 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 59.

) 4 j 2 ( || ) 2 j 1 ( 6
eq
+ − + = Z

) 4 j 2 ( ) 2 j 1 (
) 4 j 2 )( 2 j 1 (
6
eq
+ + −
+ −
+ = Z

5385 . 1 j 308 . 2 6
eq
− + = Z

=
eq
Z 8.308 – j1.5385 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 60.

Ω + = − + + = + − + + = 878 . 9 1 . 51 122 . 5 097 . 26 15 25 ) 10 30 //( ) 50 20 ( ) 15 25 ( j j j j j j Z
Chapter 9, Solution 61.

All of the impedances are in parallel.

3 j 1
1
5 j
1
2 j 1
1
j 1
1 1
eq
+
+ +
+
+

=
Z

4 . 0 j 8 . 0 ) 3 . 0 j 1 . 0 ( ) 2 . 0 j - ( ) 4 . 0 j 2 . 0 ( ) 5 . 0 j 5 . 0 (
1
eq
− = − + + − + + =
Z

=

=
4 . 0 j 8 . 0
1
eq
Z 1 + j0.5 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 62.

2 20 j ) 10 2 )( 10 10 ( j L j mH
-3 3
= × × = ω → 
100 j -
) 10 1 )( 10 10 ( j
1
C j
1
F 1
6 - 3
=
× ×
=
ω
→  µ
50 Ω j20 Ω
+
+ −
V +
V
in

1∠0° A 2V
-j100 Ω

50 ) 50 )( 0 1 ( = ° ∠ = V

) 50 )( 2 ( ) 100 j 20 j 50 )( 0 1 (
in
+ − + ° ∠ = V
80 j 150 100 80 j 50
in
− = + − = V

=
° ∠
=
0 1
in
in
V
Z 150 – j80 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 63.

First, replace the wye composed of the 20-ohm, 10-ohm, and j15-ohm impedances with
the corresponding delta.

5 . 22 j 10
20
450 j 200
z , 333 . 13 j 30
15 j
450 j 200
z
45 j 20
10
300 j 150 j 200
z
3 2
1
+ =
+
= − =
+
=
+ =
+ +
=

–j12 Ω –j16 Ω
8 Ω

z
2
z
3
–j16 Ω
z
1

10 Ω

Z
T

10 Ω

Now all we need to do is to combine impedances.

Ω − = − + − + − =
− = −
− =

− −
= −
93 . 6 j 69 . 34 ) 821 . 3 j 7 . 21 938 . 8 j 721 . 8 ( z 12 j 8 Z
821 . 3 j 70 . 21 ) 16 j 10 ( z
938 . 8 j 721 . 8
33 . 29 j 40
) 16 j 10 )( 333 . 13 j 30 (
) 16 j 10 ( z
1 T
3
2

Chapter 9, Solution 64.

A 7 . 104 527 . 1 4767 . 1 j 3866 . 0
Z
90 30
I
5 j 19
2 j 6
) 8 j 6 ( 10 j
4 Z
T
T
° ∠ = + − =
° ∠
=
Ω − =

+ −
+ =

Chapter 9, Solution 65.

) 4 j 3 ( || ) 6 j 4 ( 2
T
+ − + = Z

2 j 7
) 4 j 3 )( 6 j 4 (
2
T

+ −
+ = Z

=
T
Z 6.83 + j1.094 Ω = 6.917∠9.1° Ω

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
1 . 9 917 . 6
10 120
T
Z
V
I 17.35∠0.9° A

Chapter 9, Solution 66.

) j 12 (
145
170
5 j 60
) 10 j 40 )( 5 j 20 (
) 10 j 40 ( || ) 5 j 20 (
T
− =
+
+ −
= + − = Z

=
T
Z 14.069 – j1.172 Ω = 14.118∠-4.76°

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 76 . 94 25 . 4
76 . 4 - 118 . 14
90 60
T
Z
V
I
I
I
1
20 Ω
+ −
V
ab
I
2
j10 Ω

I I I
j 12
2 j 8
5 j 60
10 j 40
1
+
+
=
+
+
=

I I I
j 12
j 4
5 j 60
5 j 20
2
+

=
+

=

2 1 ab
10 j 20 - I I V + =

I I V
j 12
40 j 10
j 12
) 40 j (160 -
ab
+
+
+
+
+
=

I I V
145
j)(150) -12 (
j 12
150 -
ab
+
=
+
=

) 76 . 97 25 . 4 )( 24 . 175 457 . 12 (
ab
° ∠ ° ∠ = V

=
ab
V 52.94∠273° V

Chapter 9, Solution 67.

(a) 20 j ) 10 20 )( 10 ( j L j mH 20
-3 3
= × = ω → 
80 j -
) 10 5 . 12 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
F 5 . 12
6 - 3
=
×
=
ω
→  µ

) 80 j 60 ( || 20 j 60
in
− + = Z
60 j 60
) 80 j 60 )( 20 j (
60
in

+ = Z
° ∠ = + = 22 . 20 494 . 67 33 . 23 j 33 . 63
in
Z

= =
in
in
1
Z
Y 0.0148∠-20.22° S

(b) 10 j ) 10 10 )( 10 ( j L j mH 10
-3 3
= × = ω → 
50 j -
) 10 20 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
F 20
6 - 3
=
×
=
ω
→  µ
20 60 || 30 =

) 10 j 40 ( || 20 50 j -
in
+ + = Z
10 j 60
) 10 j 40 )( 20 (
50 j -
in
+
+
+ = Z
° ∠ = − = 56 . 74 - 75 . 50 92 . 48 j 5 . 13
in
Z

= =
in
in
1
Z
Y 0.0197∠74.56° S = 5.24 + j18.99 mS

Chapter 9, Solution 68.

4 j -
1
j 3
1
2 j 5
1
eq
+
+
+

= Y

) 25 . 0 j ( ) 1 . 0 j 3 . 0 ( ) 069 . 0 j 1724 . 0 (
eq
+ − + + = Y

=
eq
Y 0.4724 + j0.219 S

Chapter 9, Solution 69.

) 2 j 1 (
4
1
2 j -
1
4
1 1
o
+ = + =
Y

6 . 1 j 8 . 0
5
) 2 j 1 )( 4 (
2 j 1
4
o
− =

=
+
= Y

6 . 0 j 8 . 0 j
o
− = + Y

) 6 . 0 j 8 . 0 ( ) 333 . 0 j ( ) 1 (
6 . 0 j 8 . 0
1
3 j -
1
1
1 1
o
+ + + =

+ + =

Y

° ∠ = + =

41 . 27 028 . 2 933 . 0 j 8 . 1
1
o
Y

2271 . 0 j 4378 . 0 41 . 27 - 4932 . 0
o
− = ° ∠ =

Y

773 . 4 j 4378 . 0 5 j
o
+ = +

Y

97 . 22
773 . 4 j 4378 . 0
5 . 0
773 . 4 j 4378 . 0
1
2
1 1
eq

+ =
+
+ =
Y

2078 . 0 j 5191 . 0
1
eq
− =
Y

=

=
3126 . 0
2078 . 0 j 5191 . 0
eq
Y 1.661 + j0.6647 S
Chapter 9, Solution 70.

Make a delta-to-wye transformation as shown in the figure below.
c b
n
a
Z
an
Z
cn
Z
bn
2 Ω
Z
eq
8 Ω
-j5 Ω

9 j 7
5 j 15
) 10 j 15 )( 10 (
15 j 10 10 j 5
) 15 j 10 )( 10 j - (
an
− =
+

=
+ + −
+
= Z

5 . 3 j 5 . 4
5 j 15
) 15 j 10 )( 5 (
bn
+ =
+
+
= Z

3 j 1 -
5 j 15
) 10 j - )( 5 (
cn
− =
+
= Z

) 5 j 8 ( || ) 2 (
cn bn an eq
− + + + = Z Z Z Z

) 8 j 7 ( || ) 5 . 3 j 5 . 6 ( 9 j 7
eq
− + + − = Z

5 . 4 j 5 . 13
) 8 j 7 )( 5 . 3 j 5 . 6 (
9 j 7
eq

− +
+ − = Z

2 . 0 j 511 . 5 9 j 7
eq
− + − = Z

= − = 2 . 9 j 51 . 12
eq
Z 15.53∠-36.33° Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 71.

We apply a wye-to-delta transformation.
j4 Ω
Z
eq
-j2 Ω
Z
bc
Z
ab

Z
ac

a
b
c
1 Ω

j 1
2 j
2 j 2
2 j
4 j 2 j 2
ab
− =
+
=
+ −
= Z

j 1
2
2 j 2
ac
+ =
+
= Z

j2 -2
j -
2 j 2
bc
+ =
+
= Z

8 . 0 j 6 . 1
3 j 1
) j 1 )( 4 j (
) j 1 ( || 4 j || 4 j
ab
− =
+

= − = Z

2 . 0 j 6 . 0
j 2
) j 1 )( 1 (
) j 1 ( || 1 || 1
ac
+ =
+
+
= + = Z

6 . 0 j 2 . 2 || 1 || 4 j
ac ab
− = + Z Z

6 . 0 j 2 . 2
1
2 j 2 -
1
2 j -
1 1
eq

+
+
+ =
Z

1154 . 0 j 4231 . 0 25 . 0 j 25 . 0 5 . 0 j + + − − =

° ∠ = + = 66 . 64 4043 . 0 3654 . 0 j 173 . 0

=
eq
Z 2.473∠-64.66° Ω = 1.058 – j2.235 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 72.

Transform the delta connections to wye connections as shown below.
a
R
3
R
2
R
1
-j18 Ω
-j9 Ω
j2 Ω
j2 Ω j2 Ω
b

6 j - 18 j - || 9 j - = ,

Ω =
+ +
= 8
10 20 20
) 20 )( 20 (
R
1
, Ω = = 4
50
) 10 )( 20 (
R
2
, Ω = = 4
50
) 10 )( 20 (
3
R

4 4) j6 (j2 || ) 8 2 j ( j2
ab
+ + − + + = Z

j4) (4 || ) 2 j 8 ( j2 4
ab
− + + + = Z

j2 - 12
) 4 j j2)(4 (8
j2 4
ab
− +
+ + = Z

4054 . 1 j 567 . 3 j2 4
ab
− + + = Z

=
ab
Z 7.567 + j0.5946 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 73.

Transform the delta connection to a wye connection as in Fig. (a) and then
transform the wye connection to a delta connection as in Fig. (b).
a
R
3
R
2
R
1
-j18 Ω
-j9 Ω
j2 Ω
j2 Ω j2 Ω
b

8 . 4 j -
10 j
48
6 j 8 j 8 j
) 6 j - )( 8 j (
1
= =
− +
= Z
-j4.8
1 2
= = Z Z
4 . 6 j
j10
64 -
10 j
) 8 j )( 8 j (
3
= = = Z

= + + + + + + ) )( 2 ( ) )( 4 ( ) 4 )( 2 (
3 1 3 2 2 1
Z Z Z Z Z Z
6 . 9 j 4 . 46 ) 4 . 6 j )( 8 . 4 j 2 ( ) 4 . 6 j )( 8 . 4 j 4 ( ) 8 . 4 j 4 )( 8 . 4 j 2 ( + = − + − + − −

25 . 7 j 5 . 1
4 . 6 j
6 . 9 j 4 . 46
a
− =
+
= Z
688 . 6 j 574 . 3
8 . 4 j 4
6 . 9 j 4 . 46
b
+ =

+
= Z
945 . 8 j 727 . 1
8 . 4 j 2
6 . 9 j 4 . 46
c
+ =

+
= Z

3716 . 3 j 07407
688 . 12 j 574 . 3
) 88 . 61 583 . 7 )( 90 6 (
|| 6 j
b
+ =
+
° ∠ ° ∠
= Z
602 . 2 j 186 . 0
25 . 11 j 5 . 1
j7.25) -j4)(1.5 (
|| 4 j -
a
− =

= Z
1693 . 5 j 5634 . 0
945 . 20 j 727 . 1
) 07 . 79 11 . 9 )( 90 12 (
|| 12 j
c
+ =
+
° ∠ ° ∠
= Z

) || 12 j || 4 j - ( || ) || 6 j (
c a b eq
Z Z Z Z + =
) 5673 . 2 j 7494 . 0 ( || ) 3716 . 3 j 7407 . 0 (
eq
+ + = Z
=
eq
Z 1.508∠75.42° Ω = 0.3796 + j1.46 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 74.

One such RL circuit is shown below.
Z
+
V
i
= 1∠0°
j20 Ω
20 Ω 20 Ω
V
j20 Ω
+
V
o

We now want to show that this circuit will produce a 90° phase shift.

) 3 j 1 ( 4
2 j 1
20 j 20 -
40 j 20
) 20 j 20 )( 20 j (
) 20 j 20 ( || 20 j + =
+
+
=
+
+
= + = Z

) j 1 (
3
1
3 j 6
3 j 1
) 0 1 (
12 j 24
12 j 4
20
i
+ =
+
+
= ° ∠
+
+
=
+
= V
Z
Z
V

° ∠ = = 

+

+
=
+
= 90 3333 . 0
3
j
) j 1 (
3
1
j 1
j
20 j 20
20 j
o
V V

This shows that the output leads the input by 90°.

Chapter 9, Solution 75.

Since , we need a phase shift circuit that will cause the
output to lead the input by 90°.
) 90 t sin( ) t cos( ° + ω = ω
This is achieved by the RL circuit shown
below, as explained in the previous problem.
10 Ω 10 Ω
+
V
i

j10 Ω j10 Ω
+
V
o

This can also be obtained by an RC circuit.

Chapter 9, Solution 76.

Let Z = R – jX, where
fC 2
1
C
1
X
π
=
ω
=

394 . 95 66 116 R | Z | X X R | Z |
2 2 2 2 2 2
= = = − = →  + =

F 81 . 27
394 . 95 x 60 x 2
1
fX 2
1
C µ =
π
=
π
=

Chapter 9, Solution 77.

(a)
i
c
c
o
jX R
jX -
V V

=
where 979 . 3
) 10 20 )( 10 2 )( 2 (
1
C
1
X
9 - 6 c
=
× × π
=
ω
=

)) 5 3.979 ( tan -90 (
979 . 3 5
979 . 3
j3.979 - 5
j3.979 -
1 -
2 2
i
o
+ ° ∠
+
= =
V
V

) 51 . 38 -90 (
83 . 15 25
979 . 3
i
o
° − ° ∠
+
=
V
V

° ∠ = 51.49 - 6227 . 0
i
o
V
V

Therefore, the phase shift is 51.49° lagging

(b) ) R X ( tan -90 -45
c
-1
+ ° = ° = θ
C
1
X R ) R X ( tan 45
c c
1 -
ω
= = →  = °
RC
1
f 2 = π = ω
=
× π
=
π
=
) 10 20 )( 5 )( 2 (
1
RC 2
1
f
9 -
1.5915 MHz

Chapter 9, Solution 78.

8+j6
R
Z

-jX

[ ] 5
) 6 ( 8
)] 6 ( 8 [
) 6 ( 8 // =
− + +
− +
= − + =
X j R
X j R
X j R Z

i.e 8R + j6R – jXR = 5R + 40 + j30 –j5X

Equating real and imaginary parts:

8R = 5R + 40 which leads to R=13.33Ω
6R-XR =30-5 which leads to X=4.125Ω.

Chapter 9, Solution 79.

(a) Consider the circuit as shown.
40 Ω
Z
1
V
1
V
2
j30 Ω
+
V
i

j60 Ω
+
V
o

j10 Ω
30 Ω 20 Ω
Z
2

21 j 3
90 j 30
) 60 j 30 )( 30 j (
) 60 j 30 ( || 30 j
1
+ =
+
+
= + = Z
° ∠ = + =
+
+
= + = 21 . 80 028 . 9 896 . 8 j 535 . 1
31 j 43
) 21 j 43 )( 10 j (
) 40 ( || 10 j
1 2
Z Z

Let V . ° ∠ = 0 1
i

896 . 8 j 535 . 21
) 0 1 )( 21 . 80 028 . 9 (
20
i
2
2
2
+
° ∠ ° ∠
=
+
= V
Z
Z
V
° ∠ = 77 . 57 3875 . 0
2
V

° ∠
° ∠ ° ∠
=
+
+
=
+
=
03 . 26 85 . 47
) 77 . 57 3875 . 0 )( 87 . 81 213 . 21 (
21 j 43
21 j 3
40
2 2
1
1
1
V V
Z
Z
V
° ∠ = 61 . 113 1718 . 0
1
V

1 1 1 o
) j 2 (
5
2
2 j 1
2 j
60 j 30
60 j
V V V V + =
+
=
+
=
) 6 . 113 1718 . 0 )( 56 . 26 8944 . 0 (
o
° ∠ ° ∠ = V
° ∠ = 2 . 140 1536 . 0
o
V

Therefore, the phase shift is 140.2°

(b) The phase shift is leading.

(c) If , then V 120
i
= V
° ∠ = ° ∠ = 2 . 140 43 . 18 ) 2 . 140 1536 . 0 )( 120 (
o
V V
and the magnitude is 18.43 V.

Chapter 9, Solution 80.

Ω = × π = ω →  4 . 75 j ) 10 200 )( 60 )( 2 ( j L j mH 200
3 -

) 0 120 (
4 . 75 j 50 R
4 . 75 j
4 . 75 j 50 R
4 . 75 j
i o
° ∠
+ +
=
+ +
= V V

(a) When Ω =100 R ,
° ∠
° ∠ ° ∠
= ° ∠
+
=
69 . 26 88 . 167
) 0 120 )( 90 4 . 75 (
) 0 120 (
4 . 75 j 150
4 . 75 j
o
V
=
o
V 53.89∠63.31° V

(b) When Ω = 0 R ,
° ∠
° ∠ ° ∠
= ° ∠
+
=
45 . 56 47 . 90
) 0 120 )( 90 4 . 75 (
) 0 120 (
4 . 75 j 50
4 . 75 j
o
V
=
o
V 100∠33.55° V

(c) To produce a phase shift of 45°, the phase of = 90° + 0° − α = 45°.
o
V
Hence, α = phase of (R + 50 + j75.4) = 45°.
For α to be 45°, R + 50 = 75.4
Therefore, R = 25.4 Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 81.

Let Z ,
1 1
R =
2
2 2
C j
1
R
ω
+ = Z ,
3 3
R = Z , and
x
x x
C j
1
R
ω
+ = Z .
2
1
3
x
Z
Z
Z
Z =

ω
+ =
ω
+
2
2
1
3
x
x
C j
1
R
R
R
C j
1
R

= = = ) 600 (
400
1200
R
R
R
R
2
1
3
x
1.8 kΩ

= × 

= = → 

= ) 10 3 . 0 (
1200
400
C
R
R
C
C
1
R
R
C
1
6 -
2
3
1
x
2 1
3
x
0.1 µF

Chapter 9, Solution 82.

= × 

= = ) 10 40 (
2000
100
C
R
R
C
6 -
s
2
1
x
2 µF

Chapter 9, Solution 83.

= × 

= = ) 10 250 (
1200
500
L
R
R
L
3 -
s
1
2
x
104.17 mH
Chapter 9, Solution 84.

Let
s
1 1
C j
1
|| R
ω
= Z ,
2 2
R = Z ,
3 3
R = Z , and .
x x x
L j R ω + = Z
1 C R j
R
C j
1
R
C j
R
s 1
1
s
1
s
1
1
+ ω
=
ω
+
ω
= Z

Since
2
1
3
x
Z
Z
Z
Z = ,
) C R j 1 (
R
R R
R
1 C R j
R R L j R
s 1
1
3 2
1
s 1
3 2 x x
ω + =
+ ω
= ω +

Equating the real and imaginary components,
1
3 2
x
R
R R
R =

) C R (
R
R R
L
s 1
1
3 2
x
ω = ω implies that
s 3 2 x
C R R L =

Given that , Ω = k 40 R
1
Ω = k 6 . 1 R
2
, Ω = k 4 R
3
, and F 45 . 0 C
s
µ =

= Ω = Ω = = k 16 . 0 k
40
) 4 )( 6 . 1 (
R
R R
R
1
3 2
x
160 Ω
= = = ) 45 . 0 )( 4 )( 6 . 1 ( C R R L
s 3 2 x
2.88 H

Chapter 9, Solution 85.

Let ,
1 1
R = Z
2
2 2
C j
1
R
ω
+ = Z ,
3 3
R = Z , and
4
4 4
C j
1
|| R
ω
= Z .
j C R
R j -
1 C R j
R
4 4
4
4 4
4
4
− ω
=
+ ω
= Z

Since
3 2 4 1 2
1
3
4
Z Z Z Z Z
Z
Z
Z = →  = ,

ω
− =
− ω
2
2 3
4 4
1 4
C
j
R R
j C R
R R j -

2
3
2 3 2
4
2
4
2
4 4 1 4
C
jR
R R
1 C R
) j C R ( R R j -
ω
− =
+ ω
+ ω

Equating the real and imaginary components,
3 2 2
4
2
4
2
4 1
R R
1 C R
R R
=
+ ω

(1)
2
3
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4 1
C
R
1 C R
C R R
ω
=
+ ω
ω

(2)

Dividing (1) by (2),
2 2
4 4
C R
C R
1
ω =
ω

4 4 2 2
2
C R C R
1
= ω
4 4 2 2
C R C R
1
f 2 = π = ω
4 2 4 2
C C R R 2
1
f
π
=

Chapter 9, Solution 86.

84 j -
1
95 j
1
240
1
+ + = Y

0119 . 0 j 01053 . 0 j 10 1667 . 4
3 -
+ − × = Y

° ∠
=
+
= =
2 . 18 3861 . 4
1000
37 . 1 j 1667 . 4
1000 1
Y
Z

Z = 228∠-18.2° Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 87.

) 10 2 )( 10 2 )( 2 (
j -
50
C j
1
50
6 - 3 1
× × π
+ =
ω
+ = Z

79 . 39 j 50
1
− = Z

) 10 10 )( 10 2 )( 2 ( j 80 L j 80
-3 3
2
× × π + = ω + = Z

66 . 125 j 80
2
+ = Z

100
3
= Z

3 2 1
1 1 1 1
Z Z Z Z
+ + =

66 . 125 j 80
1
79 . 39 j 50
1
100
1 1
+
+

+ =
Z

) 663 . 5 j 605 . 3 745 . 9 j 24 . 12 10 ( 10
1
3 -
− + + + =
Z

3 -
10 ) 082 . 4 j 85 . 25 ( × + =

° ∠ × = 97 . 8 10 17 . 26
-3

Z = 38.21∠-8.97° Ω

Chapter 9, Solution 88.

(a) 20 j 120 30 j 20 j - − + + = Z
Z = 120 – j10 Ω

(b) If the frequency were halved,
C f 2
1
C
1
π
=
ω
L f 2 L
would cause the capacitive
impedance to double, while π = ω would cause the inductive
impedance to halve. Thus,
40 j 120 15 j 40 j - − + + = Z
Z = 120 – j65 Ω
Chapter 9, Solution 89.

ω
+ ω =
C j
1
R || L j
in
Z

ω
− ω +
ω +
=
ω
+ ω +

ω
+ ω
=
C
1
L j R
R L j
C
L
C j
1
L j R
C j
1
R L j
in
Z

2
2
in
C
1
L R
C
1
L j R R L j
C
L

ω
− ω +

ω
− ω − 

ω +
= Z

To have a resistive impedance, 0 ) Im(
in
= Z . Hence,

0
C
1
L
C
L
R L
2
= 

ω
− ω 

− ω

C
1
L C R
2
ω
− ω = ω

1 LC C R
2 2 2 2
− ω = ω

C
1 C R
L
2
2 2 2
ω
+ ω
=
(1)
Ignoring the +1 in the numerator in (1),

= × = = ) 10 50 ( ) 200 ( C R L
9 - 2 2
2 mH

Chapter 9, Solution 90.

Let , ° ∠ = 0 145
s
V L 377 j L ) 60 )( 2 ( j L j X = π = ω =

jX R 80
0 145
jX R 80
s
+ +
° ∠
=
+ +
=
V
I

jX R 80
) 145 )( 80 (
80
1
+ +
= = I V

jX R 80
) 145 )( 80 (
50
+ +
= (1)

jX R 80
) 0 145 )( jX R (
) jX R (
o
+ +
° ∠ +
= + = I V

jX R 80
) 145 )( jX R (
110
+ +
+
= (2)

From (1) and (2),
jX R
80
110
50
+
=

= +
5
11
) 80 ( jX R

30976 X R
2 2
= + (3)
From (1),
232
50
) 145 )( 80 (
jX R 80 = = + +

53824 X R R 160 6400
2 2
= + + +

47424 X R R 160
2 2
= + + (4)

Subtracting (3) from (4),
= →  = R 16448 R 160 102.8 Ω
From (3),
20408 10568 30976 X
2
= − =

= →  = = L L 377 86 . 142 X 0.3789 H

Chapter 9, Solution 91.

L j || R
C j
1
in
ω +
ω
= Z

L j R
LR j
C
j -
in
ω +
ω
+
ω
= Z

2 2 2
2 2 2
L R
LR j R L
C
j -
ω +
ω + ω
+
ω
=

To have a resistive impedance, 0 ) Im(
in
= Z .
Hence,
0
L R
LR
C
1 -
2 2 2
2
=
ω +
ω
+
ω

2 2 2
2
L R
LR
C
1
ω +
ω
=
ω

2 2
2 2 2
LR
L R
C
ω
ω +
=

where
7
10 2 f 2 × π = π = ω

) 10 9 )( 10 20 )( 10 4 (
) 10 400 )( 10 4 ( 10 9
C
4 6 14 2
12 14 2 4
× × × π
× × π + ×
=

nF
72
16 9
C
2
2
π
π +
=

C = 235 pF

Chapter 9, Solution 92.

(a) Ω ∠ =

= =

o
o
o
o
x Y
Z
Z 5 . 13 4 . 471
10 48 450
75 100
6

(b)
o o o
x x ZY 5 . 61 2121 . 0 10 48 450 75 100
6
∠ = ∠ ∠ = =

γ

Chapter 9, Solution 93.

L s
2 Z Z Z Z + + =
A

) 9 . 18 6 . 0 5 . 0 ( j ) 2 . 23 8 . 0 1 ( + + + + + = Z
20 j 25 + = Z

° ∠
° ∠
= =
66 . 38 02 . 32
0 115
S
L
Z
V
I

=
L
I 3.592∠-38.66° A

Chapter 10, Solution 1.

ω

1 =
° ∠ ÷→ ÷ ° − 45 - 10 ) 45 t cos( 10
° ∠ ÷→ ÷ ° + 60 - 5 ) 30 t sin( 5
j L j H 1 = ω ÷→ ÷
j -
C j
1
F 1 =
ω
÷→ ÷

The circuit becomes as shown below.
V
o
3 Ω
+

10∠-45° V
+

2 I
o

j Ω
5∠-60° V

Applying nodal analysis,
j - j
) 60 - 5 (
3
) 45 - 10 (
o o o
V V V
=
− ° ∠
+
− ° ∠

o
j 60 - 15 45 - 10 j V = ° ∠ + ° ∠
° ∠ = ° ∠ + ° ∠ = 9 . 247 15.73 150 - 15 45 - 10
o
V
Therefore, = ) t ( v
o
15.73 cos(t + 247.9°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 2.

ω 10 =
° ∠ ÷→ ÷ π − 45 - 4 ) 4 t 10 cos( 4
° ∠ ÷→ ÷ π + 150 - 20 ) 3 t 10 sin( 20
10 j L j H 1 = ω ÷→ ÷
5 j -
2 . 0 j
1
C j
1
F 02 . 0 = =
ω
÷→ ÷

The circuit becomes that shown below.
I
o
V
o
10 Ω
j10 Ω -j5 Ω 20∠-150° V
+

4∠-45° A

Applying nodal analysis,
5 j - 10 j
45 - 4
10
) 150 - 20 (
o o o
V V V
+ = ° ∠ +
− ° ∠

o
) j 1 ( 1 . 0 45 - 4 150 - 20 V + = ° ∠ + ° ∠

° ∠ =
+
° ∠ + ° ∠
= = 98 . 150 816 . 2
) j 1 ( j
45 - 4 150 - 2
10 j
o
o
V
I
Therefore, = ) t ( i
o
2.816 cos(10t + 150.98°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 3.

ω 4 =
° ∠ ÷→ ÷ 0 2 ) t 4 cos( 2
-j16 90 - 16 ) t 4 sin( 16 = ° ∠ ÷→ ÷
8 j L j H 2 = ω ÷→ ÷
3 j -
) 12 1 )( 4 ( j
1
C j
1
F 12 1 = =
ω
÷→ ÷

The circuit is shown below.
V
o
+

2∠0° A -j16 V
4 Ω -j3 Ω 6 Ω
1 Ω
j8 Ω

Applying nodal analysis,

8 j 6 1
2
3 j 4
16 j -
o o o
+
+ = +

− V V V

o
8 j 6
1
3 j 4
1
1 2
3 j 4
16 j -
V
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

+ = +

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=
+

= 02 . 35 - 835 . 3
88 . 1 2207 . 1
15 . 33 - 682 . 4
04 . 0 j 22 . 1
56 . 2 j 92 . 3
o
V

Therefore, = ) t ( v
o
3.835 cos(4t – 35.02°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 4.

16 4 , 10 - 16 ) 10 t 4 sin( = ω ° ∠ ÷→ ÷ ° −
4 j L j H 1 = ω ÷→ ÷

j -
) 4 1 )( 4 ( j
1
C j
1
F 25 . 0 = =
ω
÷→ ÷
j4 Ω
1 Ω
I
x

-j Ω
16∠-10° V
+

V
1
0.5 I
x
+
V
o

j 1 2
1
4 j
) 10 - 16 (
1
x
1

= +
− ° ∠ V
I
V

But
4 j
) 10 - 16 (
1
x
V
I
− ° ∠
=

So,
j 1 8 j
) ) 10 - 16 (( 3
1 1

=
− ° ∠ V V

4 j 1 -
10 - 48
1
+
° ∠
= V

Using voltage division,
° ∠ =
+
° ∠
=

= 04 . 69 - 232 . 8
) 4 j 1 j)(- - (1
10 - 48
j 1
1
1 o
V V

Therefore, = ) t ( v
o
8.232 sin(4t – 69.04°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 5.

Let the voltage across the capacitor and the inductor be V
x
and we get:
0
3 j
V
2 j
V
4
30 10 I 5 . 0 V
x x x x
= +

+
° ∠ − −

x
x
x x x
V 5 . 0 j
2 j
V
I but 30 30 I 5 . 1 V ) 4 j 6 j 3 ( =

= ° ∠ = − − +
Combining these equations we get:

A 38 . 97 615 . 4
25 . 1 j 3
30 30
5 . 0 j I
25 . 1 j 3
30 30
V or 30 30 V ) 75 . 0 j 2 j 3 (
x
x x
° ∠ =
+
° ∠
=
+
° ∠
= ° ∠ = − +

Chapter 10, Solution 6.

Let V
o
be the voltage across the current source. Using nodal analysis we get:

0
10 j 20
V
3
20
V 4 V
o x o
=
+
+ −

where
o x
V
10 j 20
20
V
+
=

Combining these we get:

30 j 60 V ) 3 5 . 0 j 1 ( 0
10 j 20
V
3
10 j 20
V 4
20
V
o
o o o
+ = − + → =
+
+ −
+

=
+ −
=
+ −
+
=
5 . 0 j 2
) 3 ( 20
V or
5 . 0 j 2
30 j 60
V
x o
29.11∠–166˚ V.

Chapter 10, Solution 7.

At the main node,

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
= − −
+

÷→ ÷ +

+ ∠ =
+
− − ∠
50
1
30
j
20 j 40
1
V
3 j 196 . 5
20 j 40
058 . 31 j 91 . 115
50
V
30 j
V
30 6
20 j 40
V 15 120
o
o

V 154 08 . 124
0233 . 0 j 04 . 0
7805 . 4 j 1885 . 3
V
o
− ∠ =
+
− −
=

Chapter 10, Solution 8.

, 200 = ω

20 j 1 . 0 x 200 j L j mH 100 = = ω ÷→ ÷

100 j
10 x 50 x 200 j
1
C j
1
F 50
6
− = =
ω
÷→ ÷ µ

The frequency-domain version of the circuit is shown below.

0.1 V
o

40Ω
V
1
I
o
V
2

+ -j100Ω
6
o
15 ∠

20Ω V
o
j20Ω
-

At node 1,
40
V V
100 j
V
20
V
V 1 . 0 15 6
2 1 1 1
1
o

+

+ = + ∠
or
2 1
025 . 0 ) 01 . 0 025 . 0 ( 5529 . 1 7955 . 5 V V j j − + − = + (1)

At node 2,
2 1
2
1
2 1
V ) 2 j 1 ( V 3 0
20 j
V
V 1 . 0
40
V V
− + = ÷→ ÷ + =

(2)
From (1) and (2),

B AV or
0
) 5529 . 1 j 7955 . 5 (
V
V
) 2 j 1 ( 3
025 . 0 ) 01 . 0 j 025 . 0 (
2
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

− + −

Using MATLAB,
V = inv(A)*B
leads to V 09 . 161 3 . 110 , 23 . 127 63 . 70
2 1
j V j + − = − − =

o 2 1
o
17 . 82 276 . 7
40
V V
I − ∠ =

=
Thus,
A ) 17 . 82 t 200 cos( 276 . 7 ) t ( i
o
o
− =

Chapter 10, Solution 9.

10
3 3
10 , 0 10 ) t 10 cos( = ω ° ∠ ÷→ ÷
10 j L j mH 10 = ω ÷→ ÷

20 j -
) 10 50 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
F 50
6 - 3
=
×
=
ω
÷→ ÷ µ

Consider the circuit shown below.

V
1
20 Ω
V
2
-j20 Ω
20 Ω
I
o
30 Ω
+
V
o

4 I
o
+

10∠0° V
j10 Ω

At node 1,
20 j - 20 20
10
2 1 1 1
V V V V −
+ =

2 1
j ) j 2 ( 10 V V − + = (1)
At node 2,
10 j 30 20
) 4 (
20 j -
2 1 2 1
+
+ =
− V V V V
, where
20
1
o
V
I = has been substituted.

2 1
) 8 . 0 j 6 . 0 ( ) j 4 - ( V V + = +

2 1
j 4 -
8 . 0 j 6 . 0
V V
+
+
= (2)

Substituting (2) into (1)
2 2
j
j 4 -
) 8 . 0 j 6 . 0 )( j 2 (
10 V V −
+
+ +
=

or
2 . 26 j 6 . 0
170
2

= V

° ∠ =

+
=
+
= 26 . 70 154 . 6
2 . 26 j 6 . 0
170
j 3
3
10 j 30
30
2 o
V V

Therefore, = ) t ( v
o
6.154 cos(10
3
t + 70.26°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 10.

2000 , 100 j 10 x 50 x 2000 j L j mH 50
3
= ω = = ω ÷→ ÷

250 j
10 x 2 x 2000 j
1
C j
1
F 2
6
− = =
ω
÷→ ÷ µ

Consider the frequency-domain equivalent circuit below.

V
1
-j250 V
2

36<0
o

2kΩ j100 0.1V
1
4kΩ

At node 1,

2 1
2 1 1 1
V 004 . 0 j V ) 006 . 0 j 0005 . 0 ( 36
250 j
V V
100 j
V
2000
V
36 − − = ÷→ ÷

+ + = (1)

At node 2,

2 1
2
1
2 1
V ) 004 . 0 j 00025 . 0 ( V ) 004 . 0 j 1 . 0 ( 0
4000
V
V 1 . 0
250 j
V V
+ + − = ÷→ ÷ + =

(2)

Solving (1) and (2) gives

o
2 o
43 . 93 1 . 8951 5 . 893 j 6 . 535 V V ∠ = + − = =

v
o
(t) = 8.951 sin(2000t +93.43
o
) kV

Chapter 10, Solution 11.

cos( 2 , 0 1 ) t 2 = ω ° ∠ ÷→ ÷
° ∠ ÷→ ÷ ° + 60 - 8 ) 30 t 2 sin( 8

2 j L j H 1 = ω ÷→ ÷ j -
) 2 1 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
F 2 = =
ω
÷→ ÷ 1

4 j L j H 2 = ω ÷→ ÷ 2 j -
) 4 1 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
F 4 = =
ω
÷→ ÷ 1

Consider the circuit below.
-j Ω
-j Ω
2 I
o

2 I
o

2 I
o
2 I
o

2
I
2
2
2 I
o

2

At node 1,
2 j j - 2
) 60 - 8 (
2 1 1 1
V V V V −
+ =
− ° ∠

2 1
j ) j 1 ( 60 - 8 V V + + = ° ∠ (1)
At node 2,
0
2 j 4 j
) 60 - 8 (
2 j
1
2 2 1
=

− ° ∠
+

+
V V V

1 2
5 . 0 j 60 - 4 V V + + ° ∠ = (2)
Substituting (2) into (1),
1
) 5 . 1 j 1 ( 30 4 60 - 8 1 V + = ° ∠ − ° ∠ +

5 . 1 j 1
30 4 60 - 8 1
1
+
° ∠ − ° ∠ +
= V

° ∠ =

° ∠ − ° ∠ +
= = 46.55 - 024 . 5
j 5 . 1
30 4 60 - 8 1
j -
1
o
V
I

Therefore, = ) t ( i
o
5.024 cos(2t – 46.55°)

Chapter 10, Solution 12.

20 1000 , 0 20 ) t 1000 sin( = ω ° ∠ ÷→ ÷
10 j L j mH 10 = ω ÷→ ÷

20 j -
) 10 50 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
F 50
6 - 3
=
×
=
ω
÷→ ÷ µ

The frequency-domain equivalent circuit is shown below.
2 I
o

-j20 Ω 20 Ω
V
2
V
1
20∠0° A
10 Ω
I
o
j10 Ω

At node 1,
10 20
2 20
2 1 1
o
V V V
I

+ + = ,
where
10 j
2
o
V
I =

10 20 10 j
2
20
2 1 1 2
V V V V −
+ + =

2 1
) 4 j 2 ( 3 400 V V + − = (1)
At node 2,
10 j 20 j - 10 10 j
2
2 2 2 1 2
V V V V V
+ =

+

2 1
) 2 j 3 - ( 2 j V V + =
or (2)
2 1
) 5 . 1 j 1 ( V V + =
Substituting (2) into (1),
2 2 2
) 5 . 0 j 1 ( ) 4 j 2 ( ) 5 . 4 j 3 ( 400 V V V + = + − + =

5 . 0 j 1
400
2
+
= V

° ∠ =
+
= = 6 . 116 - 74 . 35
) 5 . 0 j 1 ( j
40
10 j
2
o
V
I

Therefore, = ) t ( i
o
35.74 sin(1000t – 116.6°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 13.

Nodal analysis is the best approach to use on this problem. We can make our work easier
by doing a source transformation on the right hand side of the circuit.

–j2 Ω
18 Ω j6 Ω

+

50∠0º V
+

+
V
x

3 Ω

40∠30º V

0
6 j 18
50 V
3
V
2 j
30 40 V
x x x
=
+

+ +

° ∠ −

which leads to V
x
= 29.36∠62.88˚ A.

Chapter 10, Solution 14.

At node 1,
° ∠ =

+

+

30 20
4 j 10
0
2 j -
0
1 2 1 1
V V V V

100 j 2 . 173 5 . 2 j ) 5 . 2 j 1 ( -
2 1
+ = − + V V (1)
At node 2,
° ∠ =

+ + 30 20
4 j 5 j - 2 j
1 2 2 2
V V V V

100 j 2 . 173 5 . 2 j 5 . 5 j -
1 2
+ = + V V (2)

Equations (1) and (2) can be cast into matrix form as
(
¸
(

¸

° ∠
° ∠
=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸
+
30 200
30 200 -
5 . 5 j - 5 . 2 j
5 . 2 j 5 . 2 j 1
2
1
V
V

° ∠ = − =
+
= ∆ 38 . 15 - 74 . 20 5 . 5 j 20
5 . 5 j - 5 . 2 j
5 . 2 j 5 . 2 j 1

° ∠ = ° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= ∆ 120 600 ) 30 200 ( 3 j
5 . 5 j - 30 200
5 . 2 j 30 200 -
1

° ∠ = + ° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠ +
= ∆ 7 . 108 1020 ) 5 j 1 )( 30 200 (
30 200 5 . 2 j
30 200 - 5 . 2 j 1
2

° ∠ =

= 38 . 135 93 . 28
1
1
V

° ∠ =

= 08 . 124 18 . 49
2
2
V

Chapter 10, Solution 15.

We apply nodal analysis to the circuit shown below.
5 A
I
V
2
V
1
-j2 Ω
+

2 Ω
2 I
j Ω
-j20 V
4 Ω
At node 1,
j 2 j -
5
2
20 j -
2 1 1 1
V V V V −
+ + =

2 1
j ) 5 . 0 j 5 . 0 ( 10 j 5 - V V + − = − (1)
At node 2,
4 j
2 5
2 2 1
V V V
I =

+ + ,

where
2 j -
1
V
I =

j 25 . 0
5
2

= V V
1

(2)
Substituting (2) into (1),
1
) j 1 ( 5 . 0
j 25 . 0
5 j
10 j 5 - V − =

− −

4 j 1
40 j
20 j 10 - ) j 1 (
1

− − = − V

17
40 j
17
160
20 j 10 - ) 45 - 2 (
1
− + − = ° ∠ V

° ∠ = 5 . 313 81 . 15
1
V

) 5 . 313 81 . 15 )( 90 5 . 0 (
2 j -
1
° ∠ ° ∠ = =
V
I

= I 7.906∠43.49° A

Chapter 10, Solution 16.

At node 1,
5 j - 10 20
2 j
2 1 2 1 1
V V V V V −
+

+ =
2 1
) 4 j 2 ( ) 4 j 3 ( 40 j V V + − + =

At node 2,
10 j
j 1
5 j - 10
2 2 1 2 1
V V V V V
= + +

+

2 1
) j 1 ( ) 2 j 1 ( - ) j 1 ( 10 V V + + + = +

Thus,
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
2
1
j 1 j2) (1 -
j2) (1 2 - 4 j 3
) j 1 ( 10
40 j
V
V

° ∠ = − =
+ +
+ +
= ∆ 11.31 - 099 . 5 j 5
j 1 j2) (1 -
j2) (1 2 - 4 j 3

° ∠ = + − =
+ +
+
= ∆ 96 . 120 62 . 116 100 j 60
j 1 j) (1 10
j2) (1 2 - 40 j
1

° ∠ = + =
+ +
+
= ∆ 29 . 129 142.13 j110 -90
j) (1 10 j2) (1 -
40 j 4 j 3
2

=

=
1
1
V 22.87∠132.27° V
=

=
2
2
V 27.87∠140.6° V

Chapter 10, Solution 17.

Consider the circuit below.

At node 1,
I
o
V
2
V
1
j4 Ω
+

100∠20° V
2 Ω
-j2 Ω
1 Ω
3 Ω
2 3 4 j
20 100
2 1 1 1
V V V V −
+ =
− ° ∠

2
1
2 j ) 10 j 3 (
3
20 100 V
V
− + = ° ∠ (1)
At node 2,
2 j - 2 1
20 100
2 2 1 2
V V V V
=

+
− ° ∠

2 1
) 5 . 0 j 5 . 1 ( 5 . 0 - 20 100 V V + + = ° ∠ (2)
From (1) and (2),
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+
+
=
(
¸
(

¸

° ∠
° ∠
2
1
2 j - 3 10 j 1
) j 3 ( 5 . 0 5 . 0 -
20 100
20 100
V
V

5 . 4 j 1667 . 0
2 j - 3 10 j 1
5 . 0 j 5 . 1 5 . 0 -
− =
+
+
= ∆

2 . 286 j 45 . 55 -
2 j - 20 100
5 . 0 j 5 . 1 20 100
1
− =
° ∠
+ ° ∠
= ∆

5 . 364 j 95 . 26 -
20 100 3 10 j 1
20 100 5 . 0 -
2
− =
° ∠ +
° ∠
= ∆

° ∠ =

= 08 . 13 - 74 . 64
1
1
V

° ∠ =

= 35 . 6 - 17 . 81
2
2
V

9 j 3333 . 0
31 . 78 j 5 . 28 -
2 2
2 1 2 1
o

+
=

∆ − ∆
=

=
V V
I

=
o
I 9.25∠-162.12°

Chapter 10, Solution 18.

Consider the circuit shown below.
j6 Ω
2 Ω
+
V
o

-j2 Ω
4 Ω j5 Ω
4∠45° A -j Ω
+
V
x

2 V
x
8 Ω
V
1
V
2

At node 1,
6 j 8 2
45 4
2 1 1
+

+ = ° ∠
V V V

2 1
) 3 j 4 ( ) 3 j 29 ( 45 200 V V − − − = ° ∠ (1)
At node 2,
2 j 5 j 4 j -
2
6 j 8
2 2
x
2 1
− +
+ = +
+
− V V
V
V V
, where V V =

1 x
2 1
) 41 j 12 ( ) 3 j 104 ( V V + = −

2 1
3 j 104
41 j 12
V V

+
= (2)
Substituting (2) into (1),
2 2
) 3 j 4 (
3 j 104
) 41 j 12 (
) 3 j 29 ( 45 200 V V − −

+
− = ° ∠

2
) 17 . 89 21 . 14 ( 45 200 V ° ∠ = ° ∠

° ∠
° ∠
=
17 . 89 21 . 14
45 200
2
V

2 2 2 o
25
8 j 6 -
3 j 4
2 j -
2 j 5 j 4
2 j -
V V V V

=
+
=
− +
=

° ∠
° ∠

° ∠
=
17 . 89 21 . 14
45 200
25
13 . 233 10
o
V

=
o
V 5.63∠189° V

Chapter 10, Solution 19.

We have a supernode as shown in the circuit below.
j2 Ω
-j4 Ω
+
V
o

V
2
V
3
V
1

4 Ω
2 Ω 0.2 V
o

Notice that .
1 o
V V =
At the supernode,
2 j 2 4 j - 4
3 1 1 2 2 3
V V V V V V −
+ + =

3 2 1
) 2 j 1 - ( ) j 1 ( ) 2 j 2 ( 0 V V V + + + + − = (1)
At node 3,
4 2 j
2 . 0
2 3 3 1
1
V V V V
V

=

+

0 ) 2 j 1 - ( ) 2 j 8 . 0 (
3 2 1
= + + + − V V V (2)
Subtracting (2) from (1),
2 1
j 2 . 1 0 V V + = (3)
But at the supernode,
2 1
0 12 V V + ° ∠ =
or (4) 12
1 2
− = V V
Substituting (4) into (3),
) 12 ( j 2 . 1 0
1 1
− + = V V

o 1
j 2 . 1
12 j
V V =
+
=

° ∠
° ∠
=
81 . 39 562 . 1
90 12
o
V

=
o
V 7.682∠50.19° V

Chapter 10, Solution 20.

The circuit is converted to its frequency-domain equivalent circuit as shown below.
R
C j
1
ω
+
V
o

jωL
+

V
m
∠0°

Let
LC 1
L j
C j
1
L j
C
L
C j
1
|| L j
2
ω −
ω
=
ω
+ ω
=
ω
ω = Z

m 2 m
2
2
m o
V
L j ) LC 1 ( R
L j
V
LC 1
L j
R
LC 1
L j
V
R ω + ω −
ω
=
ω −
ω
+
ω −
ω
=
+
=
Z
Z
V

|
.
|

\
|
ω −
ω
− ° ∠
ω + ω −
ω
=
) LC 1 ( R
L
tan 90
L ) LC 1 ( R
V L
2
1 -
2 2 2 2 2
m
o
V

If , then

φ ∠ = A
o
V
= A
2 2 2 2 2
m
L ) LC 1 ( R
V L
ω + ω −
ω

and = φ
) LC 1 ( R
L
tan 90
2
1 -
ω −
ω
− °

Chapter 10, Solution 21.

(a)
RC j LC 1
1
C j
1
L j R
C j
1
2
i
o
ω + ω −
=
ω
+ ω +
ω
=
V
V

At , 0 = ω = =
1
1
i
o
V
V
1
As ω , ∞ → =
i
o
V
V
0
At
LC
1
= ω , =

=
LC
1
jRC
1
i
o
V
V
C
L
R
j -

(b)
RC j LC 1
LC
C j
1
L j R
L j
2
2
i
o
ω + ω −
ω −
=
ω
+ ω +
ω
=
V
V

At , 0 = ω =
i
o
V
V
0
As ω , ∞ → = =
1
1
i
o
V
V
1
At
LC
1
= ω , =

=
LC
1
jRC
1
i
o
V
V
C
L
R
j

Chapter 10, Solution 22.

Consider the circuit in the frequency domain as shown below.
R
1

C j
1
ω
R
2
+
V
o

jωL
+

V
s

Let
C j
1
|| ) L j R (
2
ω
ω + = Z
LC R j 1
L j R
C j
1
L j R
) L j R (
C j
1
2
2
2
2
2
ω − ω +
ω +
=
ω
+ ω +
ω +
ω
= Z

C R j LC 1
L j R
R
C R j LC 1
L j R
R
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 s
o
ω + ω −
ω +
+
ω + ω −
ω +
=
+
=
Z
Z
V
V

=
s
o
V
V
) C R R L ( j LCR R R
L j R
2 1 1
2
2 1
2
+ ω + ω − +
ω +

Chapter 10, Solution 23.

0 CV j
C j
1
L j
V
R
V V
s
= ω +
ω
+ ω
+

s
2
V RCV j
1 LC
RCV j
V = ω +
+ ω −
ω
+

s
2
2 3 2
V V
LC 1
RLC j RC j RC j LC 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
ω −
ω − ω + ω + ω −

) LC 2 ( RC j LC 1
V ) LC 1 (
V
2 2
s
2
ω − ω + ω −
ω −
=

Chapter 10, Solution 24.

For mesh 1,
2
2
1
2 1
s
C j
1
C j
1
C j
1
I I V
ω

|
.
|

\
|
ω
+
ω
= (1)
For mesh 2,
2
2
1
2
C j
1
L j R
C j
1
0 I I
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+ ω + +
ω

= (2)
Putting (1) and (2) into matrix form,
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

ω
+ ω +
ω

ω

ω
+
ω
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
2 2
2 2 1
s
C j
1
L j R
C j
1
C j
1
C j
1
C j
1
0 I
I V

2 1
2
2 2 1
C C
1
C j
1
L j R
C j
1
C j
1
ω
+
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+ ω +
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+
ω
= ∆
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+ ω + = ∆
2
s 1
C j
1
L j R V and
2
s
2
C jω
= ∆
V

=

=
1
1
I
2 1
2
2 2 1
2
s
C C
1
C j
1
L j R
C j
1
C j
1
C j
1
L j R V
ω
+
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+ ω +
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+
ω
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+ ω +

=

=
2
2
I
2 1
2
2 2 1
2
s
C C
1
C j
1
L j R
C j
1
C j
1
C j
V
ω
+
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+ ω +
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+
ω
ω

Chapter 10, Solution 25.

2 = ω
° ∠ ÷→ ÷ 0 10 ) t 2 cos( 10
-j6 90 - 6 ) t 2 sin( 6 = ° ∠ ÷→ ÷
4 j L j H 2 = ω ÷→ ÷
2 j -
) 4 1 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
F 25 . 0 = =
ω
÷→ ÷

The circuit is shown below.
4 Ω j4 Ω
For loop 1,
I
2
+

10∠0° V
+

-j2 Ω
I
1
I
o
6∠-90° V
0 2 j ) 2 j 4 ( 10 -
2 1
= + − + I I
2 1
j ) j 2 ( 5 I I + − = (1)
For loop 2,
0 ) 6 j - ( ) 2 j 4 j ( 2 j
2 1
= + − + I I
3
2 1
= + I I (2)
In matrix form (1) and (2) become
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

3
5
1 1
j j 2
2
1
I
I

) j 1 ( 2 − = ∆ , 3 j 5
1
− = ∆ , 3 j 1
2
− = ∆

° ∠ = + =

=

∆ − ∆
= − = 45 414 . 1 j 1
) j 1 ( 2
4
2 1
2 1 o
I I I
Therefore, = ) t ( i
o
1.414 cos(2t + 45°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 26.

We apply mesh analysis to the circuit shown below.

For mesh 1,
0 20 40 10 -
2 1
= − + I I
2 1
2 4 1 I I − = (1)
For the supermesh,
0 ) 10 j 30 ( 20 ) 20 j 20 (
3 1 2
= + + − − I I I
0 ) j 3 ( ) 2 j 2 ( 2 -
3 2 1
= + + − + I I I (2)
At node A,
2 1 o
I I I − = (3)
At node B,
o 3 2
4I I I + = (4)
Substituting (3) into (4)
2 1 3 2
4 4 I I I I − + =
1 2 3
4 5 I I I − = (5)
Substituting (5) into (2) gives
2 1
) 3 j 17 ( ) 4 j 14 ( - 0 I I + + + = (6)
From (1) and (6),
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
3 j 17 ) 4 j 14 ( -
2 - 4
0
1
I
I

4 j 40 + = ∆

3 j 17
j3 17 0
2 - 1
1
+ =
+
= ∆ , 4 j 14
0 j4) (14 -
1 4
2
+ =
+
= ∆

4 j 40
8 j 2 4 5
4 5
1 2
1 2 3
+
+
=

∆ − ∆
= − = I I I

° ∠ =
+
+
= = 25 . 70 154 . 6
j 10
) 4 j 1 ( 15
30
3 o
I V

Therefore, = ) t ( v
o
6.154 cos(10
3
t + 70.25°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 27.

For mesh 1,
0 20 j ) 20 j 10 j ( 30 40 -
2 1
= + − + ° ∠ I I
2 1
2 j j - 30 4 I I + = ° ∠ (1)
For mesh 2,
0 20 j ) 20 j 40 ( 0 50
1 2
= + − + ° ∠ I I
2 1
) 2 j 4 ( 2 j - 5 I I − − = (2)
From (1) and (2),
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸
° ∠
2
1
) 2 j 4 ( - 2 j -
2 j j -
5
30 4
I
I

° ∠ = + = ∆ 56 . 116 472 . 4 j 4 2 -

° ∠ = − − ° ∠ = ∆ 8 . 211 01 . 21 10 j ) 2 j 4 )( 30 4 ( -
1

° ∠ = ° ∠ + = ∆ 27 . 154 44 . 4 120 8 5 j -
2

=

=
1
1
I 4.698∠95.24° A

=

=
2
2
I 0.9928∠37.71° A

Chapter 10, Solution 28.

25 . 0 j
4 x 1 j
1
C j
1
F 1 , 4 j L j H 1 − = =
ω
÷→ ÷ = ω ÷→ ÷

The frequency-domain version of the circuit is shown below, where

o
2
o
1
30 20 V , 0 10 V − ∠ = ∠ = .

1 j4 j4 1

-j0.25
+ +

V
1
I
1
1 I
2
V
2

- -

o
2
o
1
30 20 V , 0 10 V − ∠ = ∠ =

Applying mesh analysis,

2 1
I ) 25 . 0 j 1 ( I ) 75 . 3 j 2 ( 10 − − + = (1)

(2)
2 1
o
I ) 75 . 3 j 2 ( I ) 025 . 0 j 1 ( 30 20 + + − − = − ∠ −

From (1) and (2), we obtain

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + −
+ − +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
2
1
I
I
75 . 3 j 2 25 . 0 j 1
25 . 0 j 1 75 . 3 j 2
10 j 32 . 17
10

Solving this leads to

o
2
o
1
153 6505 . 4 111 . 2 j 1438 . 4 I , 69 . 35 6747 . 1 9769 . 0 j 3602 . 1 I ∠ = + − = − ∠ = − =

Hence,
A ) 153 46 cos( 651 . 4 i A, ) 69 . 35 t 4 cos( 675 . 1 i
o
2
o
1
+ = − =

Chapter 10, Solution 29.

For mesh 1,
0 20 30 ) j 2 ( ) 5 j 5 (
2 1
= ° ∠ − + − + I I
2 1
) j 2 ( ) 5 j 5 ( 20 30 I I + − + = ° ∠ (1)
For mesh 2,
0 ) j 2 ( ) 6 j 3 j 5 (
1 2
= + − − + I I
2 1
) 3 j 5 ( ) j 2 ( - 0 I I − + + = (2)
From (1) and (2),
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+
+ +
=
(
¸
(

¸
° ∠
2
1
j3 - 5 j) (2 -
j) (2 - 5 j 5
0
20 30
I
I

° ∠ = + = ∆ 21 . 9 48 . 37 6 j 37
° ∠ = ° ∠ ° ∠ = ∆ 96 . 10 - 175 ) 96 . 30 - 831 . 5 )( 20 30 (
1

° ∠ = ° ∠ ° ∠ = ∆ 56 . 46 08 . 67 ) 56 . 26 356 . 2 )( 20 30 (
2

=

=
1
1
I 4.67∠-20.17° A

=

=
2
2
I 1.79∠37.35° A

Chapter 10, Solution 30.
Consider the circuit shown below.
For mesh 1,
I
3
I
1
I
2
I
o
j4 Ω
+

10∠0° V
2 Ω
3 Ω
1 Ω
-j2 Ω
3 2 1
3 4 j ) 4 j 3 ( 20 100 I I I − − + = ° ∠ (1)
For mesh 2,
3 2 1
2 j ) 4 j 3 ( 4 j - 0 I I I − + + = (2)
For mesh 3,
3 2 1
) 2 j 5 ( 2 3 - 0 I I I − + − = (3)
Put (1), (2), and (3) into matrix form.
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

° ∠
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
0
0
20 100
j2 - 5 2 - 3 -
j2 - j4 3 j4 -
3 - j4 - 4 j 3
3
2
1
I
I
I

30 j 106
j2 - 5 2 - 3 -
j2 - j4 3 j4 -
3 - j4 - 4 j 3
+ = +
+
= ∆

) 26 j 8 )( 20 100 (
j2 - 5 0 3 -
j2 - 0 j4 -
3 - 20 100 4 j 3
2
+ ° ∠ =
° ∠ +
= ∆

) 20 j 9 )( 20 100 (
0 2 - 3 -
0 j4 3 j4 -
20 100 j4 - 4 j 3
3
+ ° ∠ = +
° ∠ +
= ∆

30 j 106
) 6 j 1 )( 20 100 (
2 3
2 3 o
+
− ° ∠
=

∆ − ∆
= − = I I I

=
o
I 5.521∠-76.34° A
Chapter 10, Solution 31.

Consider the network shown below.
80 Ω j60 Ω 20 Ω
I
o
-j40 Ω
I
1
I
3 -j40 Ω
+

100∠120° V
+

I
2 60∠-30° V

For loop 1,
0 40 j ) 40 j 80 ( 20 100 -
2 1
= + − + ° ∠ I I
2 1
4 j ) j 2 ( 4 20 10 I I + − = ° ∠ (1)
For loop 2,
0 40 j ) 80 j 60 j ( 40 j
3 2 1
= + − + I I I
3 2 1
2 2 0 I I I + − = (2)

For loop 3,
0 40 j ) 40 j 20 ( 30 - 60
2 3
= + − + ° ∠ I I
3 2
) 2 j 1 ( 2 4 j 30 - 6 - I I − + = ° ∠ (3)
From (2),
1 2 3
2 2 I I I − =

Substituting this equation into (3),
2 1
) 2 j 1 ( ) 2 j 1 ( 2 - 30 - 6 - I I + + − = ° ∠ (4)

From (1) and (4),
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+ −

=
(
¸
(

¸

° ∠
° ∠
2
1
2 j 1 ) 2 j 1 ( 2 -
4 j ) j 2 ( 4
30 - 6 -
120 10
I
I

° ∠ = + =
+ +

= ∆ 32 74 . 37 20 j 32
2 j 1 4 j 2 -
4 j - 4 j 8

° ∠ = + =
° ∠ +
° ∠ −
= ∆ 44 . 93 25 . 82 11 . 82 j 928 . 4 -
30 - 6 - 4 j 2 -
120 10 4 j 8
2

=

= =
2
2 o
I I 2.179∠61.44° A

Chapter 10, Solution 32.

Consider the circuit below.
j4 Ω
3 V
o
-j2 Ω
I
o
I
1
I
2

+

+
V
o

2 Ω 4∠-30° V

For mesh 1,
0 3 ) 30 - 4 ( 2 ) 4 j 2 (
o 1
= + ° ∠ − + V I
where ) 30 - 4 ( 2
1 o
I V − ° ∠ =

Hence,
0 ) 30 - 4 ( 6 30 - 8 ) 4 j 2 (
1 1
= − ° ∠ + ° ∠ − + I I
1
) j 1 ( 30 - 4 I − = ° ∠
or ° ∠ = 15 2 2
1
I

) 30 - 4 )( 2 (
2 j -
3
2 j -
3
1
o
o
I
V
I − ° ∠ = =
) 15 2 2 30 - 4 ( 3 j
o
° ∠ − ° ∠ = I
=
o
I 8.485∠15° A

= =
3
2 j -
o
o
I
V 5.657∠-75° V

Chapter 10, Solution 33.

Consider the circuit shown below.
5 A
I
1

+

2 Ω
I
-j2 Ω 2 I
I
2
I
4
I
3

j Ω
-j20 V
4 Ω

For mesh 1,
0 2 j ) 2 j 2 ( 20 j
2 1
= + − + I I
10 j - j ) j 1 (
2 1
= + − I I (1)

For the supermesh,
0 j 4 2 j ) 2 j j (
4 3 1 2
= − + + − I I I I (2)

Also,
) ( 2 2
2 1 2 3
I I I I I − = = −
2 1 3
2 I I I − = (3)

For mesh 4,
5
4
= I (4)

Substituting (3) and (4) into (2),
5 j ) j 4 - ( ) 2 j 8 (
2 1
= + − + I I (5)

Putting (1) and (5) in matrix form,
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

− +

5 j
10 j -
j 4 2 j 8
j j 1
2
1
I
I

5 j 3 - − = ∆ , 40 j 5 -
1
+ = ∆ , 85 j 15 -
2
+ = ∆

=

=

∆ − ∆
= − =
5 j 3 -
45 j 10
2 1
2 1
I I I 7.906∠43.49° A

Chapter 10, Solution 34.

The circuit is shown below.

-j2 Ω
j4 Ω
8 Ω
10 Ω
3 A
I
2
I
3
I
1
+

40∠90° V
5 Ω
I
o
20 Ω
j15 Ω

For mesh 1,
0 ) 4 j 10 ( ) 2 j 8 ( ) 2 j 18 ( 40 j -
3 2 1
= + − − − + + I I I (1)

For the supermesh,
0 ) 2 j 18 ( ) 19 j 30 ( ) 2 j 13 (
1 3 2
= + − + + − I I I (2)

Also,
3
3 2
− = I I (3)

Adding (1) and (2) and incorporating (3),
0 ) 15 j 20 ( ) 3 ( 5 40 j -
3 3
= + + − + I I
° ∠ =
+
+
= 48 . 38 465 . 1
3 j 5
8 j 3
3
I
= =
3 o
I I 1.465∠38.48° A

Chapter 10, Solution 35.

Consider the circuit shown below.
4 Ω j2 Ω
1 Ω
I
1
I
3
I
2
+

-j3 Ω 8 Ω
-j4 A
10 Ω
20 V
-j5 Ω

For the supermesh,
0 ) 3 j 9 ( ) 8 j 11 ( 8 20 -
3 2 1
= − − − + + I I I (1)

Also,
4 j
2 1
+ = I I (2)

For mesh 3,
0 ) 3 j 1 ( 8 ) j 13 (
2 1 3
= − − − − I I I (3)

Substituting (2) into (1),
32 j 20 ) 3 j 9 ( ) 8 j 19 (
3 2
− = − − − I I (4)

Substituting (2) into (3),
32 j ) j 13 ( ) 3 j 9 ( -
3 2
= − + − I I (5)

From (4) and (5),
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

− −
− −
32 j
32 j 20
j 13 ) 3 j 9 ( -
) 3 j 9 ( - 8 j 19
3
2
I
I

69 j 167 − = ∆ , 148 j 324
2
− = ∆

° ∠
° ∠
=

=

=
45 . 22 - 69 . 180
55 . 24 - 2 . 356
69 j 167
148 j 324
2
2
I
=
2
I 1.971∠-2.1° A

Chapter 10, Solution 36.

Consider the circuit below.
j4 Ω -j3 Ω
I
1
I
2
I
3
+
V
o

2 Ω 2 Ω
+

4∠90° A
2 Ω
12∠0° V
2∠0° A
Clearly,
4 j 90 4
1
= ° ∠ = I and 2 -
3
= I
For mesh 2,
0 12 2 2 ) 3 j 4 (
3 1 2
= + − − − I I I
0 12 4 8 j ) 3 j 4 (
2
= + + − − I
64 . 0 j 52 . 3 -
3 j 4
8 j 16 -
2
− =

+
= I
Thus,
28 . 9 j 04 . 7 ) 64 . 4 j 52 . 3 )( 2 ( ) ( 2
2 1 o
+ = + = − = I I V
=
o
V 11.648∠52.82° V

Chapter 10, Solution 37.

I
1

+ I
x

120 V Z
o
90 − ∠
- I
2
Z=80-j35Ω

I
z

- I
y

o
30 120 − ∠ V Z
+ I
3

For mesh x,

120 j ZI ZI
z x
− = − (1)
For mesh y,

60 j 92 . 103 30 120 ZI ZI
o
z y
+ − = ∠ − = − (2)

For mesh z,

0 ZI 3 ZI ZI
z y x
= + − − (3)

Putting (1) to (3) together leads to the following matrix equation:

B AI
0
60 j 92 . 103
120 j
I
I
I
) 105 j 240 ( ) 35 j 80 ( ) 35 j 80 (
) 35 j 80 ( ) 35 j 80 ( 0
) 35 j 80 ( 0 ) 35 j 80 (
z
y
x
= ÷→ ÷
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + − + −
+ − −
+ − −

Using MATLAB, we obtain

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
= =
j0.1525 1.3657 -
j0.954 - 2.1806 -
j1.4115 1.9165 -
B * inv(A) I
A 6 . 143 3802 . 2 4115 . 1 j 9165 . 1 I I
o
x 1
∠ = + − = =
A 37 . 96 3802 . 2 3655 . 2 j 2641 . 0 I I I
o
x y 2
− ∠ = − − = − =
A 63 . 23 3802 . 2 954 . 0 j 1806 . 2 I I
o
y 3
∠ = + = − =

Chapter 10, Solution 38.

Consider the circuit below.
I
o
I
1
j2 Ω
1 Ω
2 Ω
-j4 Ω
10∠90° V
1 Ω
I
2
I
3
I
4
4∠0° A
+

2∠0° A
A

Clearly,
2
1
= I (1)
For mesh 2,
0 90 10 4 j 2 ) 4 j 2 (
4 1 2
= ° ∠ + + − − I I I (2)
Substitute (1) into (2) to get
5 j 2 2 j ) 2 j 1 (
4 2
− = + − I I
For the supermesh,
0 4 j ) 4 j 1 ( 2 j ) 2 j 1 (
2 4 1 3
= + − + − + I I I I
4 j ) 4 j 1 ( ) 2 j 1 ( 4 j
4 3 2
= − + + + I I I (3)
At node A,
4
4 3
− = I I (4)
Substituting (4) into (3) gives
) 3 j 1 ( 2 ) j 1 ( 2 j
4 2
+ = − + I I (5)
From (2) and (5),
(
¸
(

¸

+

=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

6 j 2
5 j 2
j 1 2 j
2 j 2 j 1
4
2
I
I

3 j 3− = ∆ , 11 j 9
1
− = ∆

) j 10 - (
3
1
3 j 3
) 11 j 9 ( - -
-
1
2 o
+ =

=

= = I I
=
o
I 3.35∠174.3° A

Chapter 10, Solution 39.

For mesh 1,
o
3 2 1
64 12 I 15 j I 8 I ) 15 j 28 ( ∠ = + − − (1)
For mesh 2,
0 I 16 j I ) 9 j 8 ( I 8
3 2 1
= − − + − (2)
For mesh 3,
0 I ) j 10 ( I 16 j I 15 j
3 2 1
= + + − (3)

In matrix form, (1) to (3) can be cast as

B AI or
0
0
64 12
I
I
I
) j 10 ( 16 j 15 j
16 j ) 9 j 8 ( 8
15 j 8 ) 15 j 28 (
o
3
2
1
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
− − −
− −

Using MATLAB,

I = inv(A)*B

A 6 . 109 3814 . 0 3593 . 0 j 128 . 0 I
o
1
∠ = + − =
A 4 . 124 3443 . 0 2841 . 0 j 1946 . 0 I
o
2
∠ = + − =
A 42 . 60 1455 . 0 1265 . 0 j 0718 . 0 I
o
3
− ∠ = − =
A 5 . 48 1005 . 0 0752 . 0 j 0666 . 0 I I I
o
2 1 x
∠ = + = − =

Chapter 10, Solution 40.

Let i , where i is due to the dc source and is due to the ac source. For
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
2 O 1 O O
i i + =
1 O 2 O
i
1 O
i
4 Ω 2 Ω
i
O1 +

8 V
(a)
Clearly,
A 4 2 8 i
1 O
= =

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
2 O
i
4 Ω 2 Ω
10∠0° V
j4 Ω
I
O2
+

(b)
If we transform the voltage source, we have the circuit in Fig. (c), where Ω = 3 4 2 || 4 .
2 Ω
2.5∠0° A
4 Ω
I
O2
j4 Ω
(c)
By the current division principle,
) 0 5 . 2 (
4 j 3 4
3 4
2 O
° ∠
+
= I
° ∠ = − = 56 . 71 - 79 . 0 75 . 0 j 25 . 0
2 O
I
Thus, A ) 56 . 71 t 4 cos( 79 . 0 i
2 O
° − =
Therefore,
= + =
2 O 1 O O
i i i 4 + 0.79 cos(4t – 71.56°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 41.

Let v
x
= v
1
+ v
2
.

For v
1
we let the DC source equal zero.

5 Ω 1 Ω

j 100 V ) j 5 5 j 1 ( to simplifies which 0
1
V
j
V
5
20 V
1
1 1 1
= + − = +

+

V
1
= 2.56∠–39.8˚ or v
1
= 2.56sin(500t – 39.8˚) V

Setting the AC signal to zero produces:
+

20∠0˚
–j
+
V
1

1 Ω

+

6 V
+
V
2

5 Ω

The 1-ohm resistor in series with the 5-ohm resistor creating a simple voltage divider
yielding:

v
2
= (5/6)6 = 5 V.

v
x
= {2.56sin(500t – 39.8˚) + 5} V.

Chapter 10, Solution 42.

Let i
x
= i
1
+ i
2
, where i
1
and i
2
which are generated by i
s
and v
s
respectively. For i
1
we let
i
s
= 6sin2t A becomes I
s
= 6∠0˚, where ω =2.

° − ∠ = − =

=
− + +

= 63 . 41 983 . 4 31 . 3 j 724 . 3
2 j 5
2 j 1
12 6
4 j 2 2 j 3
4 j 2
I
1

i
1
= 4.983sin(2t – 41.63˚) A

–j4
2 Ω
j2
3 Ω
i
1

i
s

For i
2
, we transform v
s
= 12cos(4t – 30˚) into the frequency domain and get
V
s
= 12∠–30˚.

Thus, ° ∠ =
+ + −
° − ∠
= 2 . 8 385 . 5
4 j 3 2 j 2
30 12
2
I or i
2
= 5.385cos(4t + 8.2˚) A

–j2
2 Ω

+

V
s
j4
3 Ω
i
2

i
x
= [5.385cos(4t + 8.2˚) + 4.983sin(2t – 41.63˚)] A.

Chapter 10, Solution 43.

Let i , where i is due to the dc source and is due to the ac source. For
, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
2 O 1 O O
i i + =
1 O 2 O
i
1 O
i
4 Ω 2 Ω
i
O1 +

8 V
(a)
Clearly,
A 4 2 8 i
1 O
= =

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
2 O
i
4 Ω 2 Ω
10∠0° V
j4 Ω
I
O2
+

(b)
If we transform the voltage source, we have the circuit in Fig. (c), where Ω = 3 4 2 || 4 .
2 Ω
2.5∠0° A
4 Ω
I
O2
j4 Ω
(c)
By the current division principle,
) 0 5 . 2 (
4 j 3 4
3 4
2 O
° ∠
+
= I
° ∠ = − = 56 . 71 - 79 . 0 75 . 0 j 25 . 0
2 O
I
Thus, A ) 56 . 71 t 4 cos( 79 . 0 i
2 O
° − =
Therefore,
= + =
2 O 1 O O
i i i 4 + 0.79 cos (89)(4t – 71.56°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 44.

Let v , where v
2 1 x
v v + =
1
and v
2
are due to the current source and voltage source
respectively.

For v
1
, , 6 = ω 30 j L j H 5 = ω → 

The frequency-domain circuit is shown below.

20Ω j30

+
16 Ω V
1

I
s
-

Let
o
5 . 16 31 . 12 497 . 3 j 8 . 11
30 j 36
) 30 j 20 ( 16
) 30 j 20 //( 16 ∠ = + =
+
Z
+
= + =
V ) 5 . 26 t 6 cos( 7 . 147 v 5 . 26 7 . 147 ) 5 . 16 31 . 12 )( 10 12 ( Z I V
o
1
o o o
s 1
+ = →  ∠ = ∠ ∠ = =

For v
2
, , 2 = ω 10 j L j H 5 = ω → 

The frequency-domain circuit is shown below.

20Ω j10

+
16 Ω V
2
+

V
s
- -
-

Using voltage division,
V ) 52 . 15 t 2 sin( 41 . 21 v 52 . 15 41 . 21
10 j 36
) 0 50 ( 16
V
10 j 20 16
16
V
o
2
o
o
s 2
− = →  − ∠ =
+

=
+ +
=

Thus,
V ) 52 . 15 t 2 sin( 41 . 21 ) 5 . 26 t 6 cos( 7 . 147 v
o o
x
− + + =

Chapter 10, Solution 45.

Let I , where I is due to the voltage source and is due to the current
source. For I , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
2 1 o
I I + =
1
1 2
I
10 Ω
I
T
+

20∠-150° V -j5 Ω j10 Ω
I
1
(a)

10 j - 5 j - || 10 j =
j 1
150 - 2
10 j 10
150 - 20
T

° ∠
=

° ∠
= I

Using current division,
° ∠ + =

° ∠
⋅ =

= 150 - ) j 1 ( -
j 1
150 - 2
5 j
5 j -
5 j 10 j
5 j -
T 1
I I

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
2
I
-j5 Ω
j10 Ω
I
2
4∠-45° A
10 Ω
(b)
j 2
10 j -
5 j - || 10

=

Using current division,
° ∠ + = ° ∠
+ −

= 45 - ) j 1 ( 2 - ) 45 - 4 (
10 j ) j 2 ( 10 j -
) j 2 ( 10 j -
2
I
° ∠ − ° ∠ = + = 0 2 2 105 - 2 -
2 1 o
I I I
° ∠ = + = 98 . 150 816 . 2 366 . 1 j 462 . 2 -
o
I
Therefore, =
o
i 2.816 cos(10t + 150.98°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 46.

Let v , where , , and are respectively due to the 10-V dc source,
the ac current source, and the ac voltage source. For consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
3 2 1 o
v v v + + =
1
v
2
v
3
v
1
v
2 H 6 Ω
1/12 F
+

+
v
1

10 V
(a)

The capacitor is open to dc, while the inductor is a short circuit. Hence,
V 10 v
1
=

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
2
v
2 = ω
4 j L j H 2 = ω → 
6 j -
) 12 / 1 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
F
12
1
= =
ω
→ 
4∠0° A
+
V
2

-j6 Ω 6 Ω j4 Ω
(b)
Applying nodal analysis,
2
2 2 2
4
j
6
j
6
1
4 j 6 j - 6
4 V
V V V

− + = + + =

° ∠ =

= 56 . 26 45 . 21
5 . 0 j 1
24
2
V

Hence, V ) 56 . 26 t 2 sin( 45 . 21 v
2
° + =

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (c).
3
v
3 = ω
6 j L j H 2 = ω → 
4 j -
) 12 / 1 )( 3 ( j
1
C j
1
F
12
1
= =
ω
→ 
6 Ω j6 Ω
+
V
3

-j4 Ω
+

12∠0° V
(c)
At the non-reference node,
6 j 4 j - 6
12
3 3 3
V V V
+ =

° ∠ =
+
= 56 . 26 - 73 . 10
5 . 0 j 1
12
3
V
Hence, V ) 56 . 26 t 3 cos( 73 . 10 v
3
° − =

Therefore, =
o
v 10 + 21.45 sin(2t + 26.56°) + 10.73 cos(3t – 26.56°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 47.

Let i , where i , i , and are respectively due to the 24-V dc source, the
ac voltage source, and the ac current source. For , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
3 2 1 o
i i i + + =
1 2 3
i
1
i

− +
2 Ω
1 Ω 1/6 F 2 H
24 V
i
1
4 Ω
(a)

Since the capacitor is an open circuit to dc,
A 4
2 4
24
i
1
=
+
=

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
2
i
1 = ω
2 j L j H 2 = ω → 
6 j -
C j
1
F
6
1
=
ω
→ 
1 Ω j2 Ω -j6 Ω
2 Ω
I
2
I
1
+

10∠-30° V
I
2
4 Ω
(b)
For mesh 1,
0 2 ) 6 j 3 ( 30 - 10 -
2 1
= − − + ° ∠ I I
2 1
2 ) j 2 1 ( 3 30 - 10 I I − − = ° ∠
(1)

For mesh 2,
2 1
) 2 j 6 ( 2 - 0 I I + + =
2 1
) j 3 ( I I + =
(2)

Substituting (2) into (1)
2
15 j 13 30 - 10 I − = ° ∠
° ∠ = 1 . 19 504 . 0
2
I
Hence, A ) 1 . 19 t sin( 504 . 0 i
2
° + =

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (c).
3
i
3 = ω
6 j L j H 2 = ω → 
2 j -
) 6 / 1 )( 3 ( j
1
C j
1
F
6
1
= =
ω
→ 
1 Ω j6 Ω -j2 Ω
2∠0° A 2 Ω
I
3
4 Ω
(c)

2 j 3
) 2 j 1 ( 2
) 2 j 1 ( || 2

= −

Using current division,
3 j 13
) 2 j 1 ( 2
2 j 3
) 2 j 1 ( 2
6 j 4
) 0 2 (
2 j 3
) 2 j 1 ( 2
3
+

=

+ +
° ∠ ⋅

= I
° ∠ = 43 . 76 - 3352 . 0
3
I
Hence A ) 43 . 76 t 3 cos( 3352 . 0 i
3
° − =

Therefore, =
o
i 4 + 0.504 sin(t + 19.1°) + 0.3352 cos(3t – 76.43°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 48.

Let i , where i is due to the ac voltage source, is due to the dc
voltage source, and is due to the ac current source. For , consider the circuit in
Fig. (a).
3 O 2 O 1 O O
i i i + + =
3 O
i
1 O 2 O
i
1 O
i
2000 = ω
° ∠ →  0 50 ) t 2000 cos( 50
80 j ) 10 40 )( 2000 ( j L j mH 40
3 -
= × = ω → 
25 j -
) 10 20 )( 2000 ( j
1
C j
1
F 20
6 -
=
×
=
ω
→  µ
I I
O1
50∠0° V
80 Ω
+

-j25 Ω
100 Ω
j80 Ω 60 Ω
(a)

3 160 ) 100 60 ( || 80 = +
33 j 32
30
25 j 80 j 3 160
50
+
=
− +
= I

Using current division,
° ∠
° ∠
= =
+
=
9 . 45 46
180 10
3
1 -
160 80
I 80 -
1 O
I I
° ∠ = 1 . 134 217 . 0
1 O
I
Hence, A ) 1 . 134 t 2000 cos( 217 . 0 i
1 O
° + =

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
2 O
i
+

100 Ω
24 V
i
O2
80 Ω
60 Ω
(b)
A 1 . 0
100 60 80
24
i
2 O
=
+ +
=

For , consider the circuit in Fig. (c).
3 O
i
4000 = ω
° ∠ →  0 2 ) t 4000 cos( 2
160 j ) 10 40 )( 4000 ( j L j mH 40
3 -
= × = ω → 
5 . 12 j -
) 10 20 )( 4000 ( j
1
C j
1
F 20
6 -
=
×
=
ω
→  µ
-j12.5 Ω
80 Ω
60 Ω
I
2
I
1
I
3
2∠0° A
j160 Ω
I
O3
100 Ω
(c)
For mesh 1,
2
1
= I (1)
For mesh 2,
0 80 160 j ) 5 . 12 j 160 j 80 (
3 1 2
= − − − + I I I
Simplifying and substituting (1) into this equation yields
32 j 8 ) 75 . 14 j 8 (
3 2
= − + I I (2)
For mesh 3,
0 80 60 240
2 1 3
= − − I I I
Simplifying and substituting (1) into this equation yields
5 . 1 3
3 2
− = I I (3)
Substituting (3) into (2) yields
125 . 54 j 12 ) 25 . 44 j 16 (
3
+ = + I
° ∠ =
+
+
= 38 . 7 1782 . 1
25 . 44 j 16
125 . 54 j 12
3
I

° ∠ = = 38 . 7 1782 . 1 - -
3 3 O
I I
Hence, A ) 38 . 7 t 4000 sin( 1782 . 1 - i
3 O
° + =

Therefore, =
O
i 0.1 + 0.217 cos(2000t + 134.1°) – 1.1782 sin(4000t + 7.38°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 49.

200 , 30 8 ) 30 t 200 sin( 8 = ω ° ∠ →  ° +
j ) 10 5 )( 200 ( j L j mH 5
3 -
= × = ω → 
5 j -
) 10 1 )( 200 ( j
1
C j
1
mF 1
3 -
=
×
=
ω
→ 

After transforming the current source, the circuit becomes that shown in the figure below.
5 Ω 3 Ω
I
+

40∠30° V
j Ω
-j5 Ω

° ∠ =

° ∠
=
− + +
° ∠
= 56 . 56 472 . 4
4 j 8
30 40
5 j j 3 5
30 40
I
= i 4.472 sin(200t + 56.56°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 50.

5 5
10 , 0 50 ) t 10 cos( 50 = ω ° ∠ → 
40 j ) 10 4 . 0 )( 10 ( j L j mH 4 . 0
3 - 5
= × = ω → 
50 j -
) 10 2 . 0 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
F 2 . 0
6 - 5
=
×
=
ω
→  µ

After transforming the voltage source, we get the circuit in Fig. (a).
j40 Ω
20 Ω
+
V
o

-j50 Ω 2.5∠0° A 80 Ω
(a)

Let
5 j 2
100 j -
50 j - || 20

= = Z
and
5 j 2
250 j -
) 0 5 . 2 (
s

= ° ∠ = Z V

With these, the current source is transformed to obtain the circuit in Fig.(b).
Z j40 Ω
+
V
o

+

80 Ω V
s

(b)
By voltage division,
5 j 2
250 j -
40 j 80
5 j 2
100 j -
80
40 j 80
80
s o

+ +

=
+ +
= V
Z
V
° ∠ =

= 6 . 40 - 15 . 36
42 j 36
) 250 j - ( 8
o
V
Therefore, =
o
v 36.15 cos(10
5
t – 40.6°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 51.

The original circuit with mesh currents and a node voltage labeled is shown below.
I
o
40 Ω
j10 Ω -j20 Ω 4∠-60° V 1.25∠0° A

The following circuit is obtained by transforming the voltage sources.
I
o
4∠-60° V -j20 Ω j10 Ω
40 Ω
1.25∠0° A

Use nodal analysis to find .
x
V
x
40
1
20 j -
1
10 j
1
0 25 . 1 60 - 4 V

+ + = ° ∠ + ° ∠
x
) 05 . 0 j 025 . 0 ( 464 . 3 j 25 . 3 V − = −
° ∠ = + =

= 61 . 16 97 . 84 29 . 24 j 42 . 81
05 . 0 j 025 . 0
464 . 3 j 25 . 3
x
V

Thus, from the original circuit,
10 j
) 29 . 24 j 42 . 81 ( ) 20 j 64 . 34 (
10 j
30 40
x
1
+ − +
=
− ° ∠
=
V
I
= + =

= 678 . 4 j 429 . 0 -
10 j
29 . 4 j 78 . 46 -
1
I 4.698∠95.24° A

40
29 . 24 j 42 . 31
40
0 50
x
2
+
=
° ∠ −
=
V
I
= ° ∠ = + = 7 . 37 9928 . 0 6072 . 0 j 7855 . 0
2
I 0.9928∠37.7° A

Chapter 10, Solution 52.

We transform the voltage source to a current source.
12 j 6
4 j 2
0 60
s
− =
+
° ∠
= I
The new circuit is shown in Fig. (a).
-j2 Ω
6 Ω
2 Ω
I
s
= 6 – j12 A
-j3 Ω j4 Ω
4 Ω
I
x
5∠90° A
(a)

Let 8 . 1 j 4 . 2
4 j 8
) 4 j 2 ( 6
) 4 j 2 ( || 6
s
+ =
+
+
= + = Z
) j 2 ( 18 18 j 36 ) 8 . 1 j 4 . 2 )( 12 j 6 (
s s s
− = − = + − = = Z I V

With these, we transform the current source on the left hand side of the circuit to a
voltage source. We obtain the circuit in Fig. (b).
Z
s
-j2 Ω
4 Ω
-j3 Ω
+

V
s

I
x
j5 A
(b)

Let ) j 12 ( 2 . 0 2 . 0 j 4 . 2 2 j
s o
− = − = − = Z Z
207 . 6 j 517 . 15
) j 12 ( 2 . 0
) j 2 ( 18
o
s
o
− =

= =
Z
V
I

With these, we transform the voltage source in Fig. (b) to a current source. We obtain the
circuit in Fig. (c).
Z
o

-j3 Ω
4 Ω
I
x
I
o
j5 A
(c)

Using current division,
) 207 . 1 j 517 . 15 (
2 . 3 j 4 . 6
2 . 0 j 4 . 2
) 5 j (
3 j 4
o
o
o
x

= +
− +
= I
Z
Z
I
= + = 5625 . 1 j 5
x
I 5.238∠17.35° A

Chapter 10, Solution 53.

We transform the voltage source to a current source to obtain the circuit in Fig. (a).
4 Ω j2 Ω
+
V
o

2 Ω
j4 Ω -j3 Ω
5∠0° A -j2 Ω
(a)
Let 6 . 1 j 8 . 0
2 j 4
8 j
2 j || 4
s
+ =
+
= = Z
j 4 ) 6 . 1 j 8 . 0 )( 5 ( ) 0 5 (
s s
+ = + = ° ∠ = Z V 8

With these, the current source is transformed so that the circuit becomes that shown in
Fig. (b).
Z
s
-j3 Ω j4 Ω
+
V
o

+

V
s
2 Ω -j2 Ω
(b)
Let 4 . 1 j 8 . 0 3 j
s x
− = − = Z Z
6154 . 4 j 0769 . 3
4 . 1 j 8 . 0
8 j 4
s
s
x
+ − =

+
= =
Z
V
I

With these, we transform the voltage source in Fig. (b) to obtain the circuit in Fig. (c).
j4 Ω
+
V
o

Z
x -j2 Ω 2 Ω I
x
(c)
Let 5714 . 0 j 8571 . 0
4 . 1 j 8 . 2
8 . 2 j 6 . 1
|| 2
x y
− =

= = Z Z
7143 . 5 j ) 5714 . 0 j 8571 . 0 ( ) 6154 . 4 j 0769 . 3 (
y x y
= − ⋅ + − = = Z I V

With these, we transform the current source to obtain the circuit in Fig. (d).
Z
y
j4 Ω
+

-j2 Ω
+
V
o

V
y

(d)
Using current division,
=
− + −
=
− +
=
2 j 4 j 5714 . 0 j 8571 . 0
) 7143 . 5 j ( 2 j -
2 j 4 j
2 j -
y
y
o
V
Z
V (3.529 – j5.883) V

Chapter 10, Solution 54.

059 . 22 24 . 13
30 50
) 30 ( 50
) 30 //( 50 j
j
j x
j − =

= −
We convert the current source to voltage source and obtain the circuit below.

13.24 – j22.059Ω
40Ω j20Ω

+ + -
115.91 –j31.06V I
V
- +

-

134.95-j74.912 V

Applying KVL gives

-115.91 + j31.058 + (53.24-j2.059)I -134.95 + j74.912 = 0

or 8055 . 1 7817 . 4
059 . 2 24 . 53
97 . 105 86 . 250
j
j
j
I + − =

+ −
=

But I ) 20 j 40 ( V V 0 V I ) 20 j 40 ( V
s
+ − = →  = + + + −

V 154 06 . 124 ) 8055 . 1 j 7817 . 4 )( 20 j 40 ( 05 . 31 j 91 . 115 V
o
− ∠ = + − + − − =

which agrees with the result in Prob. 10.7.

Chapter 10, Solution 55.

(a) To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
th
Z
j20 Ω 10 Ω
Z
th
-j10 Ω
(a)

10 j 20 j
) 10 j - )( 20 j (
10 ) 10 j - ( || 20 j 10
th N

+ = + = = Z Z
= − = 20 j 10 22.36∠-63.43° Ω

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
th
V
j20 Ω 10 Ω
+
V
th

+

50∠30° V -j10 Ω
(b)

= ° ∠

= ) 30 50 (
10 j 20 j
10 j -
th
V -50∠30° V

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
43 . 63 - 36 . 22
30 50 -
th
th
N
Z
V
I 2.236∠273.4° A

(b) To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (c).
th
Z
-j5 Ω
j10 Ω
Z
th
8 Ω
(c)

=
− +

= − = =
5 j 8 10 j
) 5 j 8 )( 10 j (
) 5 j 8 ( || 10 j
th N
Z Z 10∠26° Ω

To obtain , consider the circuit in Fig. (d).
th
V
-j5 Ω
I
o
4∠0° A
+
V
th

j10 Ω 8 Ω
(d)

By current division,
5 j 8
32
) 0 4 (
5 j 10 j 8
8
o
+
= ° ∠
− +
= I

=
+
= =
5 j 8
320 j
10 j
o th
I V 33.92∠58° V

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
26 10
58 92 . 33
th
th
N
Z
V
I 3.392∠32° A

Chapter 10, Solution 56.

(a) To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
th
Z
j4 Ω
-j2 Ω
Z
th
6 Ω
(a)

4 j 6
2 j 4 j
) 2 j - )( 4 j (
6 ) 2 j - ( || 4 j 6
th N
− =

+ = + = = Z Z
= 7.211∠-33.69° Ω

By placing short circuit at terminals a-b, we obtain,
=
N
I 2∠0° A

= ° ∠ ° ∠ = = ) 0 2 ( ) 69 . 33 - 211 . 7 (
th th th
I Z V 14.422∠-33.69° V

(b) To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
th
Z
j10 Ω
-j5 Ω 60 Ω
Z
th
30 Ω
(b)

20 60 || 30 =
5 j 20
) 10 j 20 )( 5 j - (
) 10 j 20 ( || 5 j -
th N
+
+
= + = = Z Z
= 5.423∠-77.47° Ω

To find and , we transform the voltage source and combine the 30 Ω
and 60 Ω resistors. The result is shown in Fig. (c).
th
V
N
I
a
4∠45° A -j5 Ω
j10 Ω
20 Ω
I
N
b (c)

) 45 4 )( j 2 (
5
2
) 45 4 (
10 j 20
20
N
° ∠ − = ° ∠
+
= I
= 3.578∠18.43° A

) 43 . 18 578 . 3 ( ) 47 . 77 - 423 . 5 (
N th th
° ∠ ° ∠ = = I Z V
= 19.4∠-59° V

Chapter 10, Solution 57.

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
th
Z
5 Ω -j10 Ω 2 Ω
j20 Ω
Z
th
(a)

10 j 5
) 10 j 5 )( 20 j (
2 ) 10 j 5 ( || 20 j 2
th N
+

+ = − + = = Z Z
= − 12 j 18 = 21.633∠-33.7° Ω

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
th
V
5 Ω -j10 Ω 2 Ω
+
V
th

+

j20 Ω 60∠120° V
(b)

) 120 60 (
2 j 1
4 j
) 120 60 (
20 j 10 j 5
20 j
th
° ∠
+
= ° ∠
+ −
= V
= 107.3∠146.56° V

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
7 . 33 - 633 . 21
56 . 146 3 . 107
th
th
N
Z
V
I 4.961∠-179.7° A

Chapter 10, Solution 58.

Consider the circuit in Fig. (a) to find .
th
Z
Z
th
-j6 Ω
j10 Ω
8 Ω
(a)

) j 2 ( 5
4 j 8
) 6 j 8 )( 10 j (
) 6 j 8 ( || 10 j
th
+ =
+

= − = Z
= 11.18∠26.56° Ω

Consider the circuit in Fig. (b) to find .
th
V
+

V
th

I
o
5∠45° A
-j6 Ω
j10 Ω
8 Ω
(b)

) 45 5 (
2 j 4
3 j 4
) 45 5 (
10 j 6 j 8
6 j 8
o
° ∠
+

= ° ∠
+ −

= I

=
+
° ∠ −
= =
) j 2 )( 2 (
) 45 5 )( 3 j 4 )( 10 j (
10 j
o th
I V 55.9∠71.56° V

Chapter 10, Solution 59.

The frequency-domain equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (a). Our goal is to find and
across the terminals of the capacitor as shown in Figs. (b) and (c).
th
V
th
Z
3 Ω j Ω 3 Ω j Ω
Z
th
b
a
+
V
o

-j Ω
+

5∠-60° A 10∠-45° V
+

(b) (a)

3 Ω j Ω
Z
th

+
V
th

10∠-45° V
+

+

+
V
o

b
a
(d)
+

V
th
5∠-60° A -j Ω
(c)
From Fig. (b),
) 3 j 1 (
10
3
j 3
3 j
j || 3
th
+ =
+
= = Z

From Fig.(c),
0
j
60 - 5
3
45 - 10
th th
=
− ° ∠
+
− ° ∠ V V

3 j 1
30 15 45 - 10
th

° ∠ − ° ∠
= V

From Fig. (d),
° ∠ − ° ∠ =

= 30 15 45 - 10
j
j -
th
th
o
V
Z
V
=
o
V 15.73∠247.9° V
Therefore, =
o
v 15.73 cos(t + 247.9°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 60.

(a) To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
th
Z
10 Ω -j4 Ω
b
a
j5 Ω 4 Ω
(a)
Z
th

) 4 j 2 4 j - ( || 4 ) 5 j || 10 4 j - ( || 4
th
+ + = + = Z
= = 2 || 4
th
Z 1.333 Ω

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
th
V
+
V
th

j5 Ω
4 Ω
V
2
V
1
+

4∠0° A 20∠0° V
10 Ω -j4 Ω
(b)

At node 1,
4 j - 5 j 10
20
2 1 1 1
V V V V −
+ =

20 5 . 2 j ) 5 . 0 j 1 (
2 1
= − + V V
(1)

At node 2,
4 4 j -
4
2 2 1
V V V
=

+
16 j ) j 1 (
2 1
+ − = V V
(2)

Substituting (2) into (1) leads to
2
) 3 j 5 . 1 ( 16 j 28 V − = −
333 . 5 j 8
3 j 5 . 1
16 j 28
2
+ =

= V

Therefore,
= =
2 th
V V 9.615∠33.69° V

(b) To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (c).
th
Z
c d
Z
th
j5 Ω
4 Ω
10 Ω -j4 Ω
(c)

+
+ = + =
j 2
10 j
4 || 4 j - ) 5 j || 10 4 ( || 4 j -
th
Z
= + = + = ) 4 j 6 (
6
4 j -
) 4 j 6 ( || 4 j -
th
Z 2.667 – j4 Ω

To find ,we will make use of the result in part (a).
th
V
) 2 j 3 ( ) 3 8 ( 333 . 5 j 8
2
+ = + = V
) j 5 ( ) 3 8 ( 16 j 16 j ) j 1 (
2 1
− + = + − = V V

= + = − = 8 j 3 16
2 1 th
V V V 9.614∠56.31° V

Chapter 10, Solution 61.

First, we need to find and across the 1 Ω resistor.
th
V
th
Z
4 Ω -j3 Ω j8 Ω 6 Ω
Z
th
(a)

From Fig. (a),
8 . 0 j 4 . 4
5 j 10
) 8 j 6 )( 3 j 4 (
) 8 j 6 ( || ) 3 j 4 (
th
− =
+
+ −
= + − = Z
=
th
Z 4.472∠-10.3° Ω

4 Ω -j3 Ω j8 Ω 6 Ω
+
V
th

+
− 2 A
-j16 V
(b)

From Fig. (b),
8 j 6
2
3 j 4
16 j -
th th
+
= +

− V V

° ∠ =
+

= 45 . 43 - 93 . 20
4 . 0 j 22 . 0
56 . 2 j 92 . 3
th
V

° ∠
° ∠
=
+
=
43 . 8 - 46 . 5
45 . 43 - 93 . 20
1
th
th
o
Z
V
V
° ∠ = 02 . 35 - 835 . 3
o
V

Therefore, =
o
v 3.835 cos(4t – 35.02°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 62.

First, we transform the circuit to the frequency domain.
1 , 0 12 ) t cos( 12 = ω ° ∠ → 
2 j L j H 2 = ω → 
4 j -
C j
1
F
4
1
=
ω
→ 
8 j -
C j
1
F
8
1
=
ω
→ 

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
th
Z
3 I
o

2 1
I
o
4 Ω
-j8 Ω
V
x
-j4 Ω
+

1 V
j2 Ω
I
x
(a)
At node 1,
2 j
1
3
4 j - 4
x
o
x x
V
I
V V −
= + + , where
4
-
x
o
V
I =

Thus,
2 j
1
4
2
4 j -
x x x
V V V −
= −
8 . 0 j 4 . 0
x
+ = V
At node 2,
2 j
1
8 j -
1
3
x
o x
V
I I

+ = +
8
3
j ) 5 . 0 j 75 . 0 (
x x
− + = V I
425 . 0 j 1 . 0 -
x
+ = I

Ω ° ∠ = − = = 24 . 103 - 29 . 2 229 . 2 j 5246 . 0 -
1
x
th
I
Z

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
th
V
3 I
o

V
2
12∠0° V
I
o
4 Ω
-j8 Ω
1 2
+
V
th

V
1
-j4 Ω
+

j2 Ω
(b)
At node 1,
2 j 4 j -
3
4
12
2 1 1
o
1
V V V
I
V −
+ + =

, where
4
12
1
o
V −
= I
2 1
2 j ) j 2 ( 24 V V − + =
(1)
At node 2,
8 j -
3
2 j
2
o
2 1
V
I
V V
= +

2 1
3 j ) 4 j 6 ( 72 V V − + =
(2)
From (1) and (2),

+
+
=

2
1
3 j - 4 j 6
2 j - j 2
72
24
V
V

6 j 5 - + = ∆ , 24 j -
2
= ∆
° ∠ =

= = 8 . 219 - 073 . 3
2
2 th
V V
Thus,
229 . 2 j 4754 . 1
) 8 . 219 - 073 . 3 )( 2 (
2
2
th
th
o

° ∠
=
+
= V
Z
V
° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= 3 . 163 - 3 . 2
5 . 56 - 673 . 2
8 . 219 - 146 . 6
o
V

Therefore, =
o
v 2.3 cos(t – 163.3°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 63.

Transform the circuit to the frequency domain.

200 , 30 4 ) 30 t 200 cos( 4 = ω ° ∠ →  ° +
Ω = = ω →  k 2 j ) 10 )( 200 ( j L j H 10
Ω =
×
=
ω
→  µ k j -
) 10 5 )( 200 ( j
1
C j
1
F 5
6 -

N
Z is found using the circuit in Fig. (a).
-j kΩ
2 kΩ
Z
N
j2 kΩ
(a)

Ω = + + = + = k 1 j 1 j - 2 j || 2 j -
N
Z

We find using the circuit in Fig. (b).
N
I
-j kΩ
j2 kΩ 2 kΩ 4∠30° A I
N
(b)

j 1 2 || 2 j + =

By the current division principle,
° ∠ = ° ∠
− +
+
= 75 657 . 5 ) 30 4 (
j j 1
j 1
N
I

Therefore,
=
N
i 5.657 cos(200t + 75°) A
=
N
Z 1 kΩ
Chapter 10, Solution 64.

is obtained from the circuit in Fig. (a).
N
Z

Z
N
60 Ω 40 Ω
-j30 Ω
j80 Ω
(a)
50 j 100
) 50 j )( 100 (
50 j || 100 ) 30 j 80 j ( || ) 40 60 (
N
+
= = − + = Z
= + = 40 j 20
N
Z 44.72∠63.43° Ω

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
N
I
I
N
I
2
I
1
I
s 3∠60° A
j80 Ω
60 Ω
40 Ω
-j30 Ω
(b)

° ∠ = 60 3
s
I

For mesh 1,
0 60 100
s 1
= − I I
° ∠ = 60 8 . 1
1
I

For mesh 2,
0 80 j ) 30 j 80 j (
s 2
= − − I I
° ∠ = 60 8 . 4
2
I

= − =
2 1 N
I I I 3∠60° A
Chapter 10, Solution 65.

2 , 0 5 ) t 2 cos( 5 = ω ° ∠ → 
8 j ) 4 )( 2 ( j L j H 4 = = ω → 
2 j -
) 4 / 1 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
F
4
1
= =
ω
→ 
j -
) 2 / 1 )( 2 ( j
1
C j
1
F
2
1
= =
ω
→ 

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
N
Z
2 Ω
Z
N
-j2 Ω -j Ω
(a)
) 10 j 2 (
13
1
3 j 2
) 2 j 2 ( j -
) 2 j 2 ( || j -
N
− =

= − = Z

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
N
I
2 Ω
+ −
I
N -j2 Ω
5∠0° V
-j Ω
(b)
5 j
j -
0 5
N
=
° ∠
= I

The Norton equivalent of the circuit is shown in Fig. (c).
I
o
Z
N
I
N
j8 Ω
(c)

Using current division,
94 j 2
10 j 50
8 j ) 10 j 2 )( 13 1 (
) 5 j )( 10 j 2 )( 13 1 (
8 j
N
N
N
o
+
+
=
+ −

=
+
= I
Z
Z
I
° ∠ = − = 47 . 77 - 0542 5294 . 0 j 1176 . 0
o
I

Therefore, =
o
i 0.542 cos(2t – 77.47°) A

Chapter 10, Solution 66.

ω 10 =
5 j ) 5 . 0 )( 10 ( j L j H 5 . 0 = = ω → 
10 j -
) 10 10 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
mF 10
3 -
=
×
=
ω
→ 

V
x
j5 Ω 2 V
o

+
V
o

-j10 Ω
1 A 10 Ω
(a)
To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (a).
th
Z

10 j 10 5 j
2 1
x x
o

+ = +
V V
V , where
10 j
10
x
o

V
10
= V
2 j 21
10 j 10 -
5 j 10 j 10
19
1
x
x x
+
+
= →  =

+ V
V V

=
° ∠
° ∠
= = =
44 . 5 095 . 21
135 142 . 14
1
x
th N
V
Z Z 0.67∠129.56° Ω

To find and , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
th
V
N
I
2 V
o

I
− +
+
V
th

+
V
o

-j10 Ω
j5 Ω 10 Ω
12∠0° V
-j2 A
(b)

0 12 ) 2 ( 5 j ) 2 j - )( 10 ( ) 5 j 10 j 10 (
o
= − + − + − V I
where ) 2 j - )( 10 (
o
I V − =

Thus,
20 j 188 - ) 105 j 10 ( − = − I
105 j 10 -
20 j 188
+
+
= I

200 105 j ) 40 j 21 ( 5 j ) 2 ( 5 j
o th
− = + = + = I I V I V
076 . 2 j 802 . 11 - 200
105 j 10 -
) 20 j 188 ( 105 j
th
+ = −
+
+
= V
=
th
V 11.97∠170° V

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
56 . 129 67 . 0
170 97 . 11
th
th
N
Z
V
I 17.86∠40.44° A

Chapter 10, Solution 67.

Ω + =
+
+
+

= + + − = = 079 . 1 j 243 . 11
6 j 20
) 6 j 8 ( 12
5 j 23
) 5 j 13 ( 10
) 6 j 8 //( 12 ) 5 j 13 //( 10 Z Z
Th N

Ω + = ∠
+
+
= + = ∠

= 37 . 454 j 93 . 25 ) 45 60 (
6 j 20
) 6 j 8 (
V , 44 . 21 j 78 . 13 ) 45 60 (
5 j 23
10
V
o
b
o
a

A 09 . 97 34 . 38
Z
V
I V, 599 . 1 1 . 433 V V V
o
Th
Th
N
o
b a Th
− ∠ = = − ∠ = − =

Chapter 10, Solution 68.

10 j 1 x 10 j L j H 1 = = ω → 
2 j
20
1
x 10 j
1
C j
1
F
20
1
− = =
ω
→ 

We obtain V
Th
using the circuit below.

I
o
4 Ω
a

+ +

+ -j2 j10 V
o

6<0
o
V
o
/3 - 4I
o
- -
b

5 . 2 j
2 j 10 j
) 2 j ( 10 j
) 2 j //( 10 j − =

= −
o o o
I 10 j ) 5 . 2 j ( x I 4 V − = − = (1)
0 V
3
1
I 4 6
o o
= + + − (2)

Combining (1) and (2) gives

o
o o Th o
19 . 50 52 . 11
3 / 10 j 4
60 j
I 10 j V V ,
3 / 10 j 4
6
I − ∠ =

= − = =

=

) 19 . 50 t 10 sin( 52 . 11 v
o
Th
− =

To find R
Th,
we insert a 1-A source at terminals a-b, as shown below.

I
o
4 Ω
a

+

+ -j2 j10 V
o

V
o
/3 - 4I
o

-
1<0
o

12
V
I 0 V
3
1
I 4
o
o o o
− = →  = +

10 j
V
2 j
V
I 4 1
o o
o
+

= +
Combining the two equations leads to

4766 . 1 j 2293 . 1
4 . 0 j 333 . 0
1
V
o
− =
+
=
Ω − = = 477 . 1 2293 . 1
1
V
Z
o
Th

Chapter 10, Solution 69.

This is an inverting op amp so that
=
ω
= =
C j 1
R - -
i
f
s
o
Z
Z
V
V
-jωRC

When and
m s
V = V RC 1 = ω ,
° ∠ = = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 90 - V V j - V RC
RC
1
j -
m m m o
V

Therefore,
= ° − ω = ) 90 t sin( V ) t ( v
m o
- V
m
cos(ωt)

Chapter 10, Solution 70.

This may also be regarded as an inverting amplifier.
4 4
10 4 , 0 2 ) t 10 4 cos( 2 × = ω ° ∠ →  ×
Ω =
× ×
=
ω
→  k 5 . 2 j -
) 10 10 )( 10 4 ( j
1
C j
1
nF 10
9 - 4

i
f
s
o
-
Z
Z
V
V
=
where and Ω = k 50
i
Z Ω

= = k
j 40
100 j -
) k 5 . 2 j - ( || k 100
f
Z .
Thus,
j 40
2 j -
s
o

=
V
V

If , ° ∠ = 0 2
s
V
° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=

= 57 . 88 - 1 . 0
43 . 1 - 01 . 40
90 - 4
j 40
4 j -
o
V

Therefore,
= ) t ( v
o
0.1 cos(4x10
4
t – 88.57°) V
Chapter 10, Solution 71.

o o
30 8 ) 30 t 2 cos( 8 ∠ →  +
0. Ω − = =
ω
→  µ

k 1 j
10 x 5 . 0 x 2 j
1
C j
1
F 5
6

At the inverting terminal,

) j 6 . 0 ( 30 8 ) j 1 . 0 ( V
k 2
30 8
k 10
30 8 V
k 1 j
30 8 V
o
o o
o
o
o
+ ∠ = + → 

=
∠ −
+

∠ −

o
o
747 . 4 283 . 9
j 1 . 0
) j 6 . 0 )( 4 j 9282 . 6 (
V ∠ =
+
+ +
=
v
o
(t) = 9.283cos(2t + 4.75
o
) V

Chapter 10, Solution 72.

4 4
10 , 0 4 ) t 10 cos( 4 = ω ° ∠ → 
Ω = =
ω
→  k 100 j -
) 10 )( 10 ( j
1
C j
1
nF 1
9 - 4

Consider the circuit as shown below.
4∠0° V
V
o
V
o
-j100 kΩ
50 kΩ
+

+
− I
o
100 kΩ

At the noninverting node,
5 . 0 j 1
4
100 j - 50
4
o
o o
+
= →  =

V
V V

A 56 . 26 - 78 . 35 mA
) 5 . 0 j 1 )( 100 (
4
k 100
o
o
µ ° ∠ =
+
= =
V
I

Therefore,
= ) t ( i
o
35.78 cos(10
4
t – 26.56°) µA

Chapter 10, Solution 73.

As a voltage follower,
o 2
V V =

Ω =
× ×
=
ω
→  = k -j20
) 10 10 )( 10 5 ( j
1
C j
1
nF 10 C
9 - 3
1
1

Ω =
× ×
=
ω
→  = k -j10
) 10 20 )( 10 5 ( j
1
C j
1
nF 20 C
9 - 3
2
2

Consider the circuit in the frequency domain as shown below.
-j20 kΩ
Z
in
I
o
V
1
V
2
I
s
-j10 kΩ
20 kΩ 10 kΩ
+

+

V
o

V
S

At node 1,
20 20 j - 10
o 1 o 1 1 s
V V V V V V −
+

=

o 1 s
) j 1 ( ) j 3 ( 2 V V V + − + = (1)
At node 2,
10 j -
0
20
o o 1

=
− V V V

o 1
) 2 j 1 ( V V + = (2)
Substituting (2) into (1) gives
o s
6 j 2 V V = or
s o
3
1
-j V V =

s o 1
3
1
j
3
2
) 2 j 1 ( V V V 

− = + =

s
1 s
s
k 10
) j 1 )( 3 1 (
k 10
V
V V
I

=

=
k 30
j 1
s
s

=
V
I

k ) j 1 ( 15
j 1
k 30
s
s
in
+ =

= =
I
V
Z
=
in
Z 21.21∠45° kΩ

Chapter 10, Solution 74.

1
1 i
C j
1
R
ω
+ = Z ,
2
2 f
C j
1
R
ω
+ = Z

=
ω
+
ω
+
= = =
1
1
2
2
i
f
s
o
v
C j
1
R
C j
1
R
-
Z
Z
V
V
A

ω +
ω +

1 1
2 2
2
1
C R j 1
C R j 1
C
C

At , 0 = ω =
v
A
2
1
C
C

As ω , ∞ → =
v
A
1
2
R
R

At
1 1
C R
1
= ω , =
v
A

+
+

j 1
C R C R j 1
C
C
1 1 2 2
2
1

At
2 2
C R
1
= ω , =
v
A

+
+

2 2 1 1 2
1
C R C R j 1
j 1
C
C

Chapter 10, Solution 75.

3
10 2× = ω
Ω =
× ×
=
ω
→  = = k -j500
) 10 1 )( 10 2 ( j
1
C j
1
nF 1 C C
9 - 3
1
2 1

Consider the circuit shown below.
100 kΩ
-j500 kΩ
+
V
o

-j500 kΩ
20 kΩ
V
1
V
2
100 kΩ
20 kΩ
+

+

V
S

At node 1,
500 j - 100 500 j -
2 1 1 o 1 s
V V V V V V −
+

=

2 o 1 s
5 j ) 5 j 2 ( V V V V − − + = (1)
At node 2,
100 500 j -
2 2 1
V V V
=

2 1
) 5 j 1 ( V V − = (2)
But
2 R R
R
o
o
4 3
3
2
V
V V =
+
= (3)

From (2) and (3),
o 1
) 5 j 1 (
2
1
V V − ⋅ = (4)

Substituting (3) and (4) into (1),
o o o s
2
1
5 j ) 5 j 1 )( 5 j 2 (
2
1
V V V V − − − + ⋅ =
o s
) 25 j 26 (
2
1
V V − ⋅ =

=

=
25 j 26
2
s
o
V
V
0.0554∠43.88°

Chapter 10, Solution 76.

Let the voltage between the -jkΩ capacitor and the 10kΩ resistor be V
1.

o 1
o
o 1 o 1 1
o
V 6 . 0 j V ) 6 . 0 j 1 ( 30 2
k 20
V V
k 10
V V
k 4 j
V 30 2
+ − = ∠
→ 

+

=

− ∠
(1)
Also,
o 1
o o 1
V ) 5 j 1 ( V
k 2 j
V
k 10
V V
+ = → 

=

(2)

Solving (2) into (1) yields
V 34 . 81 3123 . 0 3088 . 0 j 047 . 0 V
o
o
− ∠ = − =

Chapter 10, Solution 77.

Consider the circuit below.

1
2
+

V
S

+
V
o

C
1

C
2

R
2

R
1
V
1
V
1
R
3

+

At node 1,
1
1
1 s
C j
R
V
V V
ω =

1 1 1 s
) C R j 1 ( V V ω + = (1)
At node 2,
) ( C j
R R
0
o 1 2
2
o 1
3
1
V V
V V V
− ω +

=

ω + − =
3 2
2
3
1 o 1
R C j
R
R
) ( V V V
1
3 2 2 3
o
R C j ) R R (
1
1 V V

ω +
+ = (2)
From (1) and (2),

ω +
+
ω +
=
3 2 2 3
2
1 1
s
o
R R C j R
R
1
C R j 1
V
V

=
s
o
V
V
) R R C j R ( ) C R j 1 (
R R C j R R
3 2 2 3 1 1
3 2 2 3 2
ω + ω +
ω + +

Chapter 10, Solution 78.
400 , 0 2 ) t 400 sin( 2 = ω ° ∠ → 
Ω =
×
=
ω
→  µ k 5 j -
) 10 5 . 0 )( 400 ( j
1
C j
1
F 5 . 0
6 -

Ω =
×
=
ω
→  µ k 10 j -
) 10 25 . 0 )( 400 ( j
1
C j
1
F 25 . 0
6 -

Consider the circuit as shown below.
20 kΩ
At node 1,
10 kΩ 2∠0° V
10 kΩ -j5 kΩ
20 kΩ
V
1
V
2
-j10 kΩ
40 kΩ
+

+

V
o

20 5 j - 10 j - 10
2
o 1 2 1 1 1
V V V V V V −
+

+ =

o 2 1
4 j ) 6 j 3 ( 4 V V V − − + = (1)
At node 2,
10 5 j
2 2 1
V V V
=

2 1
) 5 . 0 j 1 ( V V − = (2)
But
o o 2
3
1
40 20
20
V V V =
+
= (3)
From (2) and (3),
o 1
) 5 . 0 j 1 (
3
1
V V − ⋅ = (4)
Substituting (3) and (4) into (1) gives

o o o o
6
1
j 1
3
4
j ) 5 . 0 j 1 (
3
1
) 6 j 3 ( 4 V V V V 

− = − − − ⋅ ⋅ + =

° ∠ =

= 46 . 9 945 . 3
j 6
24
o
V
Therefore,
= ) t ( v
o
3.945 sin(400t + 9.46°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 79.

1000 , 0 5 ) t 1000 cos( 5 = ω ° ∠ → 
Ω =
×
=
ω
→  µ k 10 j -
) 10 1 . 0 )( 1000 ( j
1
C j
1
F 1 . 0
6 -

Ω =
×
=
ω
→  µ k 5 j -
) 10 2 . 0 )( 1000 ( j
1
C j
1
F 2 . 0
6 -

Consider the circuit shown below.
20 kΩ

+

V
s
= 5∠0° V
V
1
-j5 kΩ
-j10 kΩ
40 kΩ
+
V
o

+
10 kΩ

+
Since each stage is an inverter, we apply
i
i
f
o
-
V
Z
Z
V = to each stage.
1 o
15 j -
40 -
V V =
(1)
and
s 1
10
) 10 j - ( || 20 -
V V =
(2)

From (1) and (2),
° ∠

= 0 5
10 j 20
) 10 -j )( 20 ( -
10
8 j -
o
V

° ∠ = + = 56 . 26 78 . 35 ) j 2 ( 16
o
V
Therefore, = ) t ( v
o
35.78 cos(1000t + 26.56°) V

Chapter 10, Solution 80.

4

1000 , 60 - 4 ) 60 t 1000 cos( = ω ° ∠ →  ° −
Ω =
×
=
ω
→  µ k 10 j -
) 10 1 . 0 )( 1000 ( j
1
C j
1
F 1 . 0
6 -

Ω =
×
=
ω
→  µ k 5 j -
) 10 2 . 0 )( 1000 ( j
1
C j
1
F 2 . 0
6 -

The two stages are inverters so that

+ ° ∠ ⋅ =
10
j5 -
50
20
) 60 - 4 (
10 j -
20
o o
V V

o
5
2
2
j -
) 60 - 4 ( ) 2 j (
2
j -
V ⋅ + ° ∠ ⋅ ⋅ =

° ∠ = + 60 - 4 ) 5 j 1 (
o
V

° ∠ =
+
° ∠
= 31 . 71 - 922 . 3
5 j 1
60 - 4
o
V

Therefore, = ) t ( v
o
3.922 cos(1000t – 71.31°) V
Chapter 10, Solution 81.

The schematic is shown below. The pseudocomponent IPRINT is inserted to print the
value of I
o
in the output. We click Analysis/Setup/AC Sweep and set Total Pts. = 1,
Start Freq = 0.1592, and End Freq = 0.1592. Since we assume that w = 1. The output
file includes:

FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)
1.592 E-01 1.465 E+00 7.959 E+01

Thus, I
o
= 1.465∠79.59
o
A

Chapter 10, Solution 82.

The schematic is shown below. We insert PRINT to print V
o
in the output file. For AC
Sweep, we set Total Pts = 1, Start Freq = 0.1592, and End Freq = 0.1592. After
simulation, we print out the output file which includes:

FREQ VM(\$N_0001) VP(\$N_0001)
1.592 E-01 7.684 E+00 5.019 E+01

which means that V
o
= 7.684∠50.19
o
V

hapter 10, Solution 83.
he schematic is shown below. The frequency is

C

T 15 . 159
2
1000
2 / f =
π
= π ω =

When the circuit is saved and simulated, we obtain from the output file

REQ VM(1) VP(1)
hus,
v
o
= 6.611cos(1000t – 159.2
o
) V
F
1.592E+02 6.611E+00 -1.592E+02

T

hapter 10, Solution 84.
he schematic is shown below. We set PRINT to print V
o
in the output file. In AC
FREQ VM(\$N_0003)
1.592 E-01 1.664 E+00 -1.646
amely, V
o
= 1.664∠-146.4
o
V

C

T
Sweep box, we set Total Pts = 1, Start Freq = 0.1592, and End Freq = 0.1592. After
simulation, we obtain the output file which includes:

VP(\$N_0003)

E+02

N
hapter 10, Solution 85.

C

The schematic is shown below. We let = ω rad/s so that L=1H and C=1F.

When the circuit is saved and simulated, we obtain from the output file
FREQ VM(1) VP(1)

From this, we conclude that
5 . 167 228 . 2 V
o
− ∠ = V

1

1.591E-01 2.228E+00 -1.675E+02

Chapter 10, Solution 86.
e insert three pseudocomponent PRINTs at nodes 1, 2, and 3 to print V
1
, V
2
, and V
3
,
FREQ VM(\$N_0002)
1.592 E-01 6.000 E+01 3.000
FREQ VM(\$N_0003)
1.592 E-01 2.367 E+02 -8.483

W
into the output file. Assume that w = 1, we set Total Pts = 1, Start Freq = 0.1592, and
End Freq = 0.1592. After saving and simulating the circuit, we obtain the output file
which includes:

VP(\$N_0002)

E+01

VP(\$N_0003)

E+01

FREQ VM(\$N_0001)
1.592 E-01 1.082 E+02 1.254
herefore,

V
1
= 60∠30
o
V
VP(\$N_0001)

E+02

T
V
2
= 236.7∠-84.83
o
V V
3
= 108.2∠125.4
o
V

hapter 10, Solution 87.
he schematic is shown below. We insert three PRINTs at nodes 1, 2, and 3. We set
otal Pts = 1, Start Freq = 0.1592, End Freq = 0.1592 in the AC Sweep box. After
VM(\$N_0004)
VP(\$N_0004)
1.696
FREQ VM(\$N_0001)
VP(\$N_0001)
-1.386

C

T
T
simulation, the output file includes:

FREQ

1.592 E-01 1.591 E+01
E+02

1.592 E-01 5.172 E+00
E+02

FREQ VM(\$N_0003)
VP(\$N_0003)
-1.524
ore,

o
V

1.592 E-01 2.270 E+00
E+02

Theref
V
1
= 15.91 169.6 V
2
= 5.172∠-138.6
o
V V
3
= 2.27∠-152.4
o
V

hapter 10, Solution 88.
ow. We insert IPRINT and PRINT to print I
o
and V
o
in the
utput file. Since w = 4, f = w/2π = 0.6366, we set Total Pts = 1, Start Freq = 0.6366,
nd End Freq = 0.6366 in the AC Sweep box. After simulation, the output file includes:
6.366 E-01 3.496 E+01 1.261
FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP
_PRINT2)
6.366 E-01 8.912 E-01

C

The schematic is shown bel
o
a

FREQ VM(\$N_0002)
VP(\$N_0002)

E+01

(V

-8.870 E+01

Therefore, V
o
= 34.96∠12.6
o
V, I
o
= 0.8912∠-88.7
o
A

v
o
= 34.96 cos(4t + 12.6
o
)V, i
o
= 0.8912cos(4t - 88.7
o
)A
onsider the circuit below.

Chapter 10, Solution 89.

C
At node 1,

in

2
2
1
in
R
V V V
=
− 0

in
R

in
1
2
2 in
R
R
- V V V = + (1)
At node 3,
C j 1 R
4 in
3
in 2
ω

=
− V V V V

V
C R
1
R
2

V
in

+
I
in
in
3
R
3
R
4

+

+
V
1
2 4
3
2 in
4 in
CR j
-
ω

= +
V V
V V (2)

rom (1) and (2),

F
in
1 3
2
4 in
R CR j
R -
- V V V
ω
= +
1
R
Thus,
in
4 3
2
4
4 in
in
R CR j
R
R
V
V V
I
ω
=

=

eq
2
4 3 1
in
in
in
L j
R
R R CR j
ω =
ω
= =
I
V
Z

where
2
4 3 1
eq
R
C R R R
L =

Chapter 10, Solution 90.

et

L
RC j 1
R
C
1
|| R
ω +
= = Z

C
j
4
ω

C j
RC j 1
C j
1
R
3
ω
ω +
=
ω
+ = Z
onsider the circuit shown below.

R
2
Z
4
+ V
o

V
i

+

Z
3
R
1

i
2 1
2
i
4 3
4
o
R R
R
V V
Z Z
Z
V
+

+
=

2 1
2
i
o
R R
R
C j
RC j 1
C j 1
R
C j 1
R
+

ω
ω +
+
ω +
ω +
=
V
V

2 1
2
2
R R
R
) RC j 1 ( RC j
RC j
+

ω + + ω
ω
=

2 1
2
2 2 2
i
o
R R
R
RC 3 j C R 1
RC j
+

ω + ω −
ω
=
V

V

For and to be in phase,
o
V
i
V
i
o
V
V
must be purely real. This happens when

0 C R 1
2 2 2
= ω −
f 2
RC
1
π = = ω

or
RC 2
1
f
π
=
At this freque cy, n

2 1
2
i
o
v
R R
R
3
1
+
− = =
V
V
A

Chapter 10, Solution 91.
(a) Let

=
2
V voltage at the noninverting terminal of the op amp
output =
o
V voltage of the op amp
R k 10 = Ω
o p
= Z
1
C j
L j R
s
ω
+ ω + = Z

s in Section 10.9, A
C
j
L j R R
R
o
o
p s
p
o
2
ω
− ω + +
=
+
=
Z Z
Z
V
V

) 1 LC ( j ) R R ( C
CR
2
o
o
o
2
− ω + + ω
ω
=
V
V

For this to be purely real,
LC
1
0 1 LC
o
2
o
= ω →  = − ω
) 10 2 )( 10 4 . 0 ( 2
1
LC 2
1
f
9 - 3 -
o
× × π
=
π
=
=
o
f 180 kHz

(b) At oscillation,
o
o
o o
o o
o
2
R R
R
) R R ( C
CR
+
=
+ ω
ω
=
V
V

This must be compensated for by
5
20
80
1
2
o
v
= + = =
V
V
A

= = →  =
+
o
o
o
R 4 R
5
1
R R
R
40 kΩ

Chapter 10, Solution 92.

Let voltage at the noninverting terminal of the op amp =
2
V
=
o
V output voltage of the op amp
o s
R = Z
) 1 LC ( jR L
RL
L j
1
C j
R
1
1
R ||
C j
1
|| L j
2 p
− ω + ω
ω
=
ω
+ ω +
=
ω
ω = Z

As in Section 10.9,
) 1 LC ( jR L
RL
R
) 1 LC ( jR L
RL
2 o
2
p s
p
o
2
− ω + ω
ω
+
− ω + ω
ω
=
+
=
Z Z
Z
V
V

) 1 LC ( R jR L R RL
RL
2
o o o
2
− ω + ω + ω
ω
=
V
V

For this to be purely real,
LC 2
1
f 1 LC
o
2
o
π
= →  = ω

(a) At ,
o
ω = ω
o o o o
o
o
2
R R
R
L R RL
RL
+
=
ω + ω
ω
=
V
V

This must be compensated for by
11
k 100
k 1000
1
R
R
1
o
f
2
o
v
= + = + = =
V
V
A

Hence,
= = →  =
+
R 10 R
11
1
R R
R
o
o
100 kΩ

(b)
) 10 2 )( 10 10 ( 2
1
f
9 - 6 -
o
× × π
=
=
o
f 1.125 MHz

Chapter 10, Solution 93.

As shown below, the impedance of the feedback is
jωL
1
C j
1
ω
2
C j
1
ω
Z
T

ω
+ ω
ω
=
2 1
T
C j
1
L j ||
C j
1
Z

) C LC C C ( j
LC
1
C
j -
L j
C
j -
C
j -
L j
C
j -
2 1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
T
ω − +
ω −
ω
=
ω
+ ω +
ω

ω
+ ω
ω
= Z

In order for to be real, the imaginary term must be zero; i.e.
T
Z
0 C LC C C
2 1
2
o 2 1
= ω − +
T 2 1
2 1
2
o
LC
1
C LC
C C
=
+
= ω
T
o
LC 2
1
f
π
=

Chapter 10, Solution 94.

If we select C

nF 20 C
2 1
= =
nF 10
2
C
C C
C C
C
1
2 1
2 1
T
= =
+
=

Since
T
o
LC 2
1
f
π
= ,

mH 13 . 10
) 10 10 )( 10 2500 )( 4 (
1
C ) f 2 (
1
L
9 - 6 2
T
2
=
× × π
=
π
=

=
× × π
=
ω
=
) 10 20 )( 10 50 )( 2 (
1
C
1
X
9 - 3
2
c
159 Ω

We may select and , say Ω = k 20 R
i i f
R R ≥ Ω = k 20 R
f
.
Thus,
= =
2 1
C C 20 nF, = L 10.13 mH = =
i f
R R 20 kΩ

Chapter 10, Solution 95.

First, we find the feedback impedance.
C
L
1
L
2
Z
T

ω
+ ω ω =
C j
1
L j || L j
2 1 T
Z

) 1 ) L L ( C ( j
) L 1 ( C L
C
j
L j L j
C
j
L j L j
2 1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
T
− + ω
ω − ω
=
ω
− ω + ω

ω
− ω ω
= Z

In order for to be real, the imaginary term must be zero; i.e.
T
Z
0 1 ) L L ( C
2 1
2
o
= − + ω

) L L ( C
1
f 2
2 1
o o
+
= π = ω

) L L ( C 2
1
f
2 1
o
+ π
=

Chapter 10, Solution 96.

(a) Consider the feedback portion of the circuit, as shown below.
V
2
V
1
+

R
R
jωL
V
o
jωL

2 1
L j
L j R
L j R
L j
V V V V
1 2
ω
ω +
= → 
ω +
ω
= (1)

Applying KCL at node 1,
L j R R L j
1 1 1 o
ω +
+ =
ω
− V V V V

ω +
+ ω = −
L j R
1
R
1
L j
1 1 o
V V V

ω +
ω − ω
+ =
) L j R ( R
L RL 2 j
1
2 2
1 o
V V
(2)

From (1) and (2),
2
2 2
o
) L j R ( R
L RL 2 j
1
L j
L j R
V V

ω +
ω − ω
+

ω
ω +
=

RL j
L RL 2 j RL j R
2 2 2
2
o
ω
ω − ω + ω +
=
V
V

RL j
L R
3
1
2 2 2
o
2
ω
ω −
+
=
V
V

=
o
2
V
V
) L R R L ( j 3
1
ω − ω +

(b) Since the ratio
o
2
V
V
must be real,
0
L
R
R
L
o
o
=
ω

ω

L
R
L
o
2
o
ω
= ω
L
R
f 2
o o
= π = ω
L 2
R
f
o
π
=

(c) When
o
ω = ω
3
1
o
2
=
V
V

This must be compensated for by 3
v
= A . But
3
R
R
1
1
2
v
= + = A
1 2
R 2 R =

Chapter 11, Solution 1.

) t 50 cos( 160 ) t ( v =
) 90 180 30 t 50 cos( 2 ) 30 t 50 sin( 20 - ) t ( i ° − ° + ° − = ° − =
) 60 t 50 cos( 20 ) t ( i ° + =

) 60 t 50 cos( ) t 50 cos( ) 20 )( 160 ( ) t ( i ) t ( v ) t ( p ° + = =
| |
W ) 60 cos( ) 60 t 100 cos( 1600 ) t ( p ° + ° + =
= ) t ( p W ) 60 t 100 cos( 1600 800 ° + +

) 60 cos( ) 20 )( 160 (
2
1
) cos( I V
2
1
P
i v m m
° = θ − θ =

= P W 800

Chapter 11, Solution 2.

First, transform the circuit to the frequency domain.
° ∠ ÷→ ÷ 0 30 ) t 500 cos( 30 , 500 = ω
150 j L j H 3 . 0 = ω ÷→ ÷
100 j -
) 10 )( 20 )( 500 (
j -
C j
1
F 20
6 -
= =
ω
÷→ ÷ µ

I
I
1
I
2
+

30∠0° V j150 Ω
-j100 Ω
200 Ω

2 . 0 j - 90 2 . 0
150 j
0 30
1
= ° − ∠ =
° ∠
= I

) t 500 sin( 2 . 0 ) 90 t 500 cos( 2 . 0 ) t ( i
1
= ° − =

06 . 0 j 12 . 0 56 . 26 1342 . 0
j 2
3 . 0
100 j 200
0 30
2
+ = ° ∠ =

=

° ∠
= I

) 56 . 25 t 500 cos( 1342 . 0 ) t ( i
2
° + =

° ∠ = − = + = 49.4 - 1844 . 0 14 . 0 j 12 . 0
2 1
I I I
) 35 t 500 cos( 1844 . 0 ) t ( i ° − =

For the voltage source,
] ) 35 t 500 cos( 1844 . 0 [ ] ) t 500 cos( 30 [ ) t ( i ) t ( v ) t ( p ° − × = =

At , s 2 t = ) 35 1000 cos( ) 1000 cos( 532 . 5 p ° − =
) 935 . 0 )( 5624 . 0 )( 532 . 5 ( p =
= p W 91 . 2

For the inductor,
] ) t 500 sin( 2 . 0 [ ] ) t 500 cos( 30 [ ) t ( i ) t ( v ) t ( p × = =

At , s 2 t = ) 1000 sin( ) 1000 cos( 6 p =
) 8269 . 0 )( 5624 . 0 )( 6 ( p =
= p W 79 . 2

For the capacitor,
° ∠ = = 63.44 - 42 . 13 ) 100 j - (
2 c
I V
) 56 . 25 t 500 cos( 1342 . 0 [ ] ) 44 . 63 500 cos( 42 . 13 [ ) t ( i ) t ( v ) t ( p ° + × ° − = =

At , s 2 t = ) 56 . 26 1000 cos( ) 44 . 63 1000 cos( 18 p ° + ° − =
) 1329 . 0 )( 991 . 0 )( 18 ( p =
= p W 37 . 2

For the resistor,
° ∠ = = 56 . 25 84 . 26 200
2 R
I V
] ) 56 . 26 t 500 cos( 1342 . 0 [ ] ) 56 . 26 t 500 cos( 84 . 26 [ ) t ( i ) t ( v ) t ( p ° + × ° + = =

At , s 2 t = ) 56 . 25 1000 ( cos 602 . 3 p
2
° + =
2
1329 . 0 )( 602 . 3 ( p =
= p W 0636 . 0

Chapter 11, Solution 3.

10 , ° ∠ ÷→ ÷ ° + 30 10 ) 30 t 2 cos( 2 = ω
2 j L j H 1 = ω ÷→ ÷

-j2
C j
1
F 25 . 0 =
ω
÷→ ÷
4 Ω 2 Ω
I I
1
I
2
+

10∠30° V j2 Ω -j2 Ω

2 j 2
2
) 2 j 2 )( 2 j (
) 2 j 2 ( || 2 j + =

= −

° ∠ =
+ +
° ∠
= 565 . 11 581 . 1
2 j 2 4
30 10
I

° ∠ = = = 565 . 101 581 . 1 j
2
2 j
1
I I I

° ∠ =

= 565 . 56 236 . 2
2
2 j 2
2
I I

For the source,
) 565 . 11 - 581 . 1 )( 30 10 (
2
1
*
° ∠ ° ∠ = = I V S

5 . 2 j 5 . 7 18.43 905 . 7 + = ° ∠ = S
The average power supplied by the source = W 5 . 7

For the 4-Ω resistor, the average power absorbed is
= = = ) 4 ( ) 581 . 1 (
2
1
R
2
1
P
2
2
I W 5
For the inductor,
5 j ) 2 j ( ) 236 . 2 (
2
1
2
1
2
L
2
2
= = = Z I S
The average power absorbed by the inductor = W 0

For the 2-Ω resistor, the average power absorbed is
= = = ) 2 ( ) 581 . 1 (
2
1
R
2
1
P
2
2
1
I W 5 . 2

For the capacitor,
5 . 2 j - ) 2 j - ( ) 581 . 1 (
2
1
2
1
2
c
2
1
= = = Z I S

The average power absorbed by the capacitor = W 0

Chapter 11, Solution 4.
20 Ω 10 Ω
I
2 I
1
+

-j10 Ω 50 V j5 Ω

For mesh 1,
2 1
10 j ) 10 j 20 ( 50 I I + − =
2 1
j ) j 2 ( 5 I I + − = (1)
For mesh 2,
1 2
10 j ) 10 j 5 j 10 ( 0 I I + − + =
1 2
2 j ) j 2 ( 0 I I + − = (2)
In matrix form,
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
j 2 2 j
j j 2
0
5
I
I

4 j 5 − = ∆ , ) j 2 ( 5
1
− = ∆ , -j10
2
= ∆

° ∠ =

=

= 1 . 12 746 . 1
4 j 5
) j 2 ( 5
1
1
I

° ∠ = =

= 66 . 128 562 . 1
j4 - 5
j10 -
2
2
I
For the source,
° ∠ = = 12.1 - 65 . 43
2
1
*
1
I V S

The average power supplied = ° = ) 1 . 12 cos( 65 . 43 W 68 . 42

For the 20-Ω resistor,
= = R
2
1
P
2
1
I W 48 . 30
For the inductor and capacitor,
= P W 0
For the 10-Ω resistor,
= = R
2
1
P
2
2
I W 2 . 12

Chapter 11, Solution 5.

Converting the circuit into the frequency domain, we get:

1 Ω 2 Ω

+
− j6

–j2
8∠–40˚

W 4159 . 1 1
2
6828 . 1
P
38 . 25 6828 . 1
2 j 2 6 j
) 2 j 2 ( 6 j
1
40 8
I
2
1
1
= =
° − ∠ =
− +

+
° − ∠
=

P
3H
= P
0.25F
= 0

W 097 . 5 2
2
258 . 2
P
258 . 2 38 . 25 6828 . 1
2 j 2 6 j
6 j
I
2
2
2
= =
= ° − ∠
− +
=

Chapter 11, Solution 6.
20 Ω 10 Ω
I
2 I
1
+

-j10 Ω 50 V j5 Ω

For mesh 1,
0 4 ) 60 4 ( 2 j ) 2 j 4 (
o 1
= + ° ∠ − + V I (1)
) 60 4 ( 2
2 o
I V − ° ∠ = (2)
For mesh 2,
0 4 ) 60 4 ( 2 ) j 2 (
o 2
= − ° ∠ − − V I (3)
Substituting (2) into (3),
0 ) 60 4 ( 8 60 8 ) j 2 (
2 2
= − ° ∠ − ° ∠ − − I I

j 10
60 40
2

° ∠
= I
Hence,
j 10
60 8 j -
j 10
60 40
60 4 2
o

° ∠
=
|
.
|

\
|

° ∠
− ° ∠ = V
Substituting this into (1),
|
.
|

\
|

° ∠ =

° ∠
+ ° ∠ = +
j 10
j 14
) 60 8 j (
j 10
60 32 j
60 8 j ) 2 j 4 (
1
I

° ∠ =
+
+ ° ∠
= 125.06 498 . 2
8 j 21
) 14 j 1 )( 60 4 (
1
I

= = = ) 4 ( ) 498 . 2 (
2
1
R
2
1
P
2
2
1 4
I W 48 . 12

Chapter 11, Solution 7.
20 Ω 10 Ω
I
2 I
1
+

-j10 Ω 50 V j5 Ω

Applying KVL to the left-hand side of the circuit,
o o
1 . 0 4 20 8 V I + = ° ∠ (1)
Applying KCL to the right side of the circuit,
0
5 j 10 5 j
8
1 1
o
=

+ +
V V
I

But,
o 1 1 o
10
5 j 10
5 j 10
10
V V V V

= ÷→ ÷

=

Hence, 0
10 50 j
5 j 10
8
o
o o
= +

+
V
V I

o o
025 . 0 j V I = (2)
Substituting (2) into (1),
) j 1 ( 1 . 0 20 8
o
+ = ° ∠ V

j 1
20 80
o
+
° ∠
= V

° ∠ = = 25 -
2
10
10
o
1
V
I

= |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = ) 10 (
2
100
2
1
R
2
1
P
2
1
I W 250

Chapter 11, Solution 8.

We apply nodal analysis to the following circuit.

At node 1,
I
o
V
2
V
1
6∠0° A 0.5 I
o
j10 Ω
-j20 Ω
I
2
40 Ω
20 j - 10 j
6
2 1 1
V V V −
+ =
2 1
120 j V V − = (1)
At node 2,
40
5 . 0
2
o o
V
I I = +

But,
j20 -
2 1
o
V V
I

=

Hence,
40 j20 -
) ( 5 . 1
2 2 1
V V V
=

2 1
) j 3 ( 3 V V − = (2)

Substituting (1) into (2),
0 j 3 3 360 j
2 2 2
= + − − V V V

j6) -1 (
37
360
j 6
360 j
2
+ =

= V

j6) -1 (
37
9
40
2
2
+ = =
V
I

=
|
.
|

\
|
= = ) 40 (
37
9
2
1
R
2
1
P
2
2
2
I W 78 . 43

Chapter 11, Solution 9.

rms V 8 ) 2 )( 4 ( V
2
6
1 V
s o
= = |
.
|

\
|
+ =

= = = mW
10
64
R
V
P
2
o
10
mW 4 . 6

The current through the 2 -kΩ resistor is
mA 1
k 2
V
s
=

= = R I P
2
2
mW 2

Similarly,
= = R I P
2
6
mW 6
Chapter 11, Solution 10.

No current flows through each of the resistors. Hence, for each resistor,
= P W 0 .

Chapter 11, Solution 11.

, , 377 = ω
4
10 R =
-9
10 200 C × =
754 . 0 ) 10 200 )( 10 )( 377 ( RC
-9 4
= × = ω
° = ω 02 . 37 ) RC ( tan
-1

Ω ° ∠ = ° ∠
+
= k 37.02 - 375 . 6 37.02 -
) 754 . 0 ( 1
k 10
Z
2
ab

mA ) 68 t 377 cos( 2 ) 22 t 377 sin( 2 ) t ( i ° − = ° + =
° ∠ = 68 - 2 I

3
2
-3
ab
2
rms
10 ) 37.02 - 375 . 6 (
2
10 2
Z I S × ° ∠

×
= =

mVA 37.02 - 751 . 12 S ° ∠ =

= = ) 02 . 37 cos( S P mW 181 . 10

Chapter 11, Solution 12.

(a) We find using the circuit in Fig. (a).
Th
Z
Z
th
8 Ω -j2 Ω
(a)
882 . 1 j 471 . 0 ) 4 j 1 (
17
8
j2 8
(8)(-j2)
-j2 || 8
Th
− = − =

= = Z

= =
*
Th L
Z Z Ω + 882 . 1 j 471 . 0

We find using the circuit in Fig. (b).
Th
V
I
o
+
V
th

-j2 Ω 4∠0° A 8 Ω
(b)

) 0 4 (
2 j 8
2 j -
o
° ∠

= I

j2 8
j64 -
I 8
o Th

= = V

=

= =
) 471 . 0 )( 8 (
68
64
R 8
P
2
L
2
Th
max
V
W 99 . 15

(b) We obtain from the circuit in Fig. (c).
Th
Z
5 Ω -j3 Ω
Z
th
j2 Ω
4 Ω
(c)

167 . 1 j 5 . 2
3 j 9
) 3 j 4 )( 5 (
2 j ) 3 j 4 ( || 5 2 j
Th
+ =

+ = − + = Z

= =
*
Th L
Z Z Ω − 167 . 1 j 5 . 2

Chapter 11, Solution 13.

(a) We find at the load terminals using the circuit in Fig. (a).
Th
Z
j100 Ω
-j40 Ω
Z
th
80 Ω
(a)

6 . 1 j 2 . 51
j60 80
j100) (-j40)(80
j100) (80 || -j40
Th
− =
+
+
= + = Z

= =
*
Th L
Z Z Ω + 6 . 1 j 2 . 51

(b) We find at the load terminals using Fig. (b).
Th
V
j100 Ω
I
o
+
V
th

3∠20° A -j40 Ω 80 Ω
(b)

6 j 8
) 20 3 )( 8 (
) 20 3 (
40 j 100 j 80
80
o
+
° ∠
= ° ∠
− +
= I

6 j 8
) 20 24 )( 40 j (-
40 j -
o Th
+
° ∠
= = I V

=

= =
) 2 . 51 )( 8 (
24
10
40
R 8
P
2
L
2
Th
max
V
W 5 . 22

From Fig.(d), we obtain V using the voltage division principle.
Th
5 Ω -j3 Ω
+
V
th

+

10∠30° V
j2 Ω
4 Ω
(d)

° ∠

= ° ∠

= 30
3
10
j 3
3 j 4
) 30 10 (
3 j 9
3 j 4
Th
V

=

= =
) 5 . 2 )( 8 (
3
10
10
5
R 8
P
2
L
2
Th
max
V
W 389 . 1

Chapter 11, Solution 14.

I
+

V
Th

_
16 Ω
–j10 Ω
j8 Ω
j24 Ω
10 Ω

Z
Th
40∠90º A

Ω + = =
Ω − = + + − =
+ + +
+ +
+ − =

3 . 2 j 245 . 8 Z Z
3 . 2 j 245 . 8 7 . 7 j 245 . 8 10 j
8 j 16 24 j 10
) 8 j 16 )( 24 j 10 (
10 j Z
Th
Th

W 6 . 456 245 . 8
) 245 . 8 x 2 (
2
V
245 . 8 I P
V 12 . 158 j 53 . 71 66 . 65 55 . 173
) 8 j 16 ( 40 j
8 j 16 24 j 10
10
) 8 j 16 ( I V
2
2
2
Th
2
rms max
Th
= = =
+ = ° ∠ =
+
+ + +
= + =

Chapter 11, Solution 15.

To find Z , insert a 1-A current source at the load terminals as shown in Fig. (a).
Th
+
V
o

2 1
1 Ω -j Ω
2 V
o

j Ω
1 A
(a)
At node 1,
2 o
o 2 o o
j
j - j 1
V V
V V V V
= → 

= + (1)
At node 2,
o 2
o 2
o
) j 2 ( j 1
j -
2 1 V V
V V
V + − = → 

= + (2)
Substituting (1) into (2),
2 2 2
) j 1 ( ) j )( j 2 ( j 1 V V V − = + − =

j 1
1
2

= V

5 . 0 j 5 . 0
2
j 1
1
2
Th
+ =
+
= =
V
V

= =
*
Th L
Z Z Ω − 5 . 0 j 5 . 0

We now obtain from Fig. (b).
Th
V
1 Ω -j Ω
+
V
th

+

12∠0° V
+
V
o

2 V
o
j Ω
(b)
j 1
12
2
o o
o
V V
V =

+
j 1
12 -
o
+
= V

0 ) 2 j - (
Th o o
= + × − V V V

j 1
) 2 j 1 )( 12 (
j2) -(1
o Th
+
+
= + = V V

=

= =
) 5 . 0 )( 8 (
2
5 12
R 8
P
2
L
2
Th
max
V
W 90

Chapter 11, Solution 16.

5
20 / 1 4
1 1
F 20 / 1 , 4 H 1 , 4 j
x j C j
j L j − = = →  = →  =
ω
ω ω

We find the Thevenin equivalent at the terminals of Z
L
. To find V
Th
, we use the circuit
shown below.
0.5V
o

2Ω V
1
4Ω V
2

+
+ +
10<0
o
V
o
-j5 j4 V
Th

- -
-

At node 1,
2 1
2 1
1
1 1
25 . 0 ) 2 . 0 1 ( 5
4
25 . 0
5 2
10
V j V
V V
V
j
V V
− + = → 

+ +

=

(1)

At node 2,
) 25 . 0 25 . 0 ( 5 . 0 0
4
25 . 0
4
2 1
2
1
2 1
j V V
j
V
V
V V
+ − + = →  = +

(2)

Solving (1) and (2) leads to
2
6.1947 7.0796 9.4072 48.81
o
Th
V V j = = + = ∠

Chapter 11, Solution 17.

We find
Th
R at terminals a-b following Fig. (a).

b a
j20 Ω
30 Ω
40 Ω
-j10 Ω

(a)
10 j 40
-j10) )( 40 (
20 j 30
) 20 j )( 30 (
) 10 j - ( || 40 20 j || 30
Th

+
+
= + = Z

41 . 9 j 353 . 2 85 . 13 j 23 . 9
Th
− + + = Z
Ω + = 44 . 4 j 583 . 11
Th
Z
= =
*
Th L
Z Z Ω − 44 . 4 j 583 . 11

We obtain from Fig. (b).
Th
V
I
1
I
2
+ V
Th

j20 Ω
30 Ω
40 Ω
-j10 Ω
j5 A
(b)
Using current division,
3 . 2 j 1 . 1 - ) 5 j (
10 j 70
20 j 30
1
+ =
+
+
= I

7 . 2 j 1 . 1 ) 5 j (
10 j 70
10 j 40
2
+ =
+

= I

70 j 10 10 j 30
1 2 Th
+ = + = I I V
= = =
) 583 . 11 )( 8 (
5000
R 8
P
L
2
Th
max
V
W 96 . 53

Chapter 11, Solution 18.

We find Z at terminals a-b as shown in the figure below.
Th

a
b
Z
th
40 Ω 80 Ω
-j10 Ω

40 Ω

j20 Ω

j10 80
(80)(-j10)
20 j20 -j10) ( || 80 40 || 40 20 j
Th

+ + = + + = Z

154 . 10 j 23 . 21
Th
+ = Z

= =
*
Th L
Z Z Ω − 15 . 10 j 23 . 21

Chapter 11, Solution 19.

At the load terminals,
j 9
j) (6)(3
-j2 ) j 3 ( || 6 2 j -
Th
+
+
+ = + + = Z

561 . 1 j 049 . 2
Th
− = Z

Ω = = 576 . 2 R
Th L
Z

To get V , let
Th
439 . 0 j 049 . 2 ) j 3 ( || 6 + = + = Z .

By transforming the current sources, we obtain
756 . 1 j 196 . 8 ) 0 4 (
Th
+ = ° ∠ = Z V

= = =
608 . 20
258 . 70
R 8
P
L
2
Th
max
V
W 409 . 3

Chapter 11, Solution 20.

Combine j20 Ω and -j10 Ω to get
-j20 -j10 || 20 j =

To find , insert a 1-A current source at the terminals of , as shown in Fig. (a).
Th
Z
L
R
I
o
-j20 Ω
4 I
o

+ −
V
2
V
1
-j10 Ω
40 Ω
1 A
(a)
At the supernode,
10 j - 20 j - 40
1
2 1 1
V V V
+ + =

2 1
4 j ) 2 j 1 ( 40 V V + + = (1)

Also, , where
o 2 1
4I V V + =
40
-
1
o
V
I =

1 . 1
1 . 1
2
1 2 1
V
V V V = →  = (2)

Substituting (2) into (1),
2
2
4 j
1 . 1
) 2 j 1 ( 40 V
V
+ 

+ =

4 . 6 j 1
44
2
+
= V

Ω − = = 71 . 6 j 05 . 1
1
2
Th
V
Z

= =
Th L
R Z Ω 792 . 6

To find , consider the circuit in Fig. (b).
Th
V
+

120∠0° V
+
V
th

I
o
-j20 Ω
4 I
o

+ −
V
2
V
1
-j10 Ω
40 Ω
(b)
At the supernode,
j10 - j20 - 40
120
2 1 1
V V V
+ =

2 1
4 j ) 2 j 1 ( 120 V V + + = (3)

Also, , where
o 2 1
4I V V + =
40
120
1
o
V
I

=

1 . 1
12
2
1
+
=
V
V (4)

Substituting (4) into (3),
2
) 818 . 5 j 9091 . 0 ( 82 . 21 j 09 . 109 V + = −

° ∠ =
+

= = 92.43 - 893 . 18
818 . 5 j 9091 . 0
82 . 21 j 09 . 109
2 Th
V V

= = =
) 792 . 6 )( 8 (
) 893 . 18 (
R 8
P
2
L
2
Th
max
V
W 569 . 6

Chapter 11, Solution 21.

We find Z at terminals a-b, as shown in the figure below.
Th

100 Ω -j10 Ω
40 Ω
b
a
Z
th
j30 Ω
50 Ω

] ) 30 j 40 ( || 100 10 j - [ || 50
Th
+ + = Z

where 634 . 14 j 707 . 31
30 j 140
) 30 j 40 )( 100 (
) 30 j 40 ( || 100 + =
+
+
= +

634 . 4 j 707 . 81
) 634 . 4 j 707 . 31 )( 50 (
) 634 . 4 j 707 . 31 ( || 50
Th
+
+
= + = Z

73 . 1 j 5 . 19
Th
+ = Z

= =
Th L
R Z Ω 58 . 19

Chapter 11, Solution 22.

π < < = t t t i 0 , sin 4 ) (

8 ) 0
2
(
16
4
2 sin
2
16
sin 16
1
0
0
2 2
= − = |
.
|

\
|
− = =

π
π π π
π
π
t t
tdt I rms

A 828 . 2 8 = =
rms
I

Chapter 11, Solution 23.

¹
´
¦
< <
< <
=
6 t 2 , 5
2 t 0 , 15
) t ( v

| |
6
550
dt 5 dt 15
6
1
V
6
2
2
2
0
2 2
rms
= + = ∫ ∫

=
rms
V V 574 . 9

Chapter 11, Solution 24.

, 2 T =
¹
´
¦
< <
< <
=
2 t 1 5, -
1 t 0 , 5
) t ( v

| | 25 ] 1 1 [
2
25
dt -5) ( dt 5
2
1
V
2
1
2
1
0
2 2
rms
= + = + = ∫ ∫

=
rms
V V 5

Chapter 11, Solution 25.

| |
266 . 3
3
32
f
3
32
] 16 0 16 [
3
1
dt 4 dt 0 dt ) 4 (
3
1
dt ) t ( f
T
1
f
rms
3
2
2 2
1
1
0
2 T
0
2 2
rms
= =
= + + =
+ + − = =
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

Chapter 11, Solution 26.

, 4 T =
¹
´
¦
< <
< <
=
4 t 2 10
2 t 0 5
) t ( v

| | 5 . 62 ] 200 50 [
4
1
dt ) 10 ( dt 5
4
1
V
4
2
2
2
0
2 2
rms
= + = + = ∫ ∫

=
rms
V V 906 . 7

Chapter 11, Solution 27.

, 5 T = 5 t 0 , t ) t ( i < < =

333 . 8
15
125
3
t
5
1
dt t
5
1
I
5
0
3
5
0
2 2
rms
= = ⋅ = = ∫

=
rms
I A 887 . 2

Chapter 11, Solution 28.

| |
∫ ∫ + =
5
2
2
2
0
2 2
rms
dt 0 dt ) t 4 (
5
1
V

533 . 8 ) 8 (
15
16
3
t 16
5
1
V
2
0
3
2
rms
= = ⋅ =

=
rms
V V 92 . 2

= = =
2
533 . 8
R
V
P
2
rms
W 267 . 4

Chapter 11, Solution 29.

, 20 T =
¹
´
¦
< < +
< < −
=
25 t 15 2t 40 -
15 t 5 t 2 20
) t ( i

| |
∫ ∫ + + − =
25
15
2
15
5
2 2
eff
dt 2t) -40 ( dt ) t 2 20 (
20
1
I

(
¸
(

¸

+ − + + − =
∫ ∫
25
15
2
15
5
2 2
eff
dt 400) t 40 t ( dt ) t t 20 100 (
5
1
I

(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ − +
|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
25
15
2
3
15
5
3
2 2
eff
t 400 t 20
3
t
3
t
t 10 t 100
5
1
I

332 . 33 ] 33 . 83 33 . 83 [
5
1
I
2
eff
= + =

=
eff
I A 773 . 5

= = R I P
2
eff
W 400

Chapter 11, Solution 30.

¹
´
¦
< <
< <
=
4 t 2 1 -
2 t 0 t
) t ( v

| | 1667 . 1 2
3
8
4
1
dt -1) ( dt t
4
1
V
4
2
2
2
0
2 2
rms
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ = + = ∫ ∫

=
rms
V V 08 . 1

Chapter 11, Solution 31.

6667 . 8 16
3
4
2
1
) 4 ( ) 2 (
2
1
) (
2
1
2
0
1
0
2
1
2 2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

− + = =
∫ ∫ ∫
dt dt t dt t v V rms

V 944 . 2 =
rms
V
Chapter 11, Solution 32.

(
¸
(

¸

+ =
∫ ∫
2
1
1
0
2 2 2
rms
dt 0 dt ) t 10 (
2
1
I

10
5
t
50 dt t 50 I
1
0
5
1
0
4 2
rms
= ⋅ = = ∫

=
rms
I A 162 . 3

Chapter 11, Solution 33.

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< <
< < −
< <
=
3 t 2 0
2 t 1 t 10 20
1 t 0 10
) t ( i

| | 0 dt ) t 10 20 ( dt 10
3
1
I
2
1
2
1
0
2 2
rms
+ − + = ∫ ∫

33 . 133 ) 3 1 )( 100 ( 100 dt ) t t 4 4 ( 100 100 I 3
2
1
2 2
rms
= + = + − + = ∫

= =
3
33 . 133
I
rms
A 667 . 6

Chapter 11, Solution 34.

| |
472 . 4 20 f
20 36
3
t 9
3
1
dt 6 dt ) t 3 (
3
1
dt ) t ( f
T
1
f
rms
2
0
3
3
2
2 2
0
2 T
0
2 2
rms
= =
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
+ = =
∫ ∫ ∫

Chapter 11, Solution 35.

| |
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ + + + + =
6
5
2
5
4
2
4
2
2
2
1
2
1
0
2 2
rms
dt 10 dt 20 dt 30 dt 20 dt 10
6
1
V

67 . 466 ] 100 400 1800 400 100 [
6
1
V
2
rms
= + + + + =

=
rms
V V 6 . 21

Chapter 11, Solution 36.

(a) I
rms
= 10 A
(b) V 528 . 4
2
9
16
2
3
4
2
2 2
= + = ÷→ ÷ |
.
|

\
|
+ =
rms
rms V V (checked)
(c) A 055 . 9
2
36
64 = + =
rms
I
(d) V 528 . 4
2
16
2
25
= + =
rms
V

Chapter 11, Solution 37.

) 30 2 cos( 6 ) 10 sin( 4 8
3 2 1
o o
t t i i i i + + + + = + + =

A 487 . 9 90
2
36
2
16
64 3
2
2
2
1
2
= = + + = + + = rms rms rms
rms
I I I I

Chapter 11, Solution 38.

08 . 157 j ) 5 . 0 )( 50 )( 2 ( j L j H 5 . 0 = π = ω ÷→ ÷

08 . 157 j 30 jX R
L
+ = + = Z

08 . 157 j 30
) 210 (
2
*
2

= =
Z
V
S

Apparent power = = =
160
) 210 (
2
S VA 6 . 275

) 19 . 79 cos(
36
08 . 157
tan cos cos pf
1 -
° =
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= θ =

= pf (lagging) 1876 . 0

Chapter 11, Solution 39.

4 j 12
) 8 j 12 )( 4 j (
) 8 j 12 ( || 4 j
T

= − = Z

° ∠ = + = 74 . 74 56 . 4 ) 11 j 3 ( 4 . 0
T
Z

= ° = ) 74 . 74 cos( pf 2631 . 0

Chapter 11, Solution 40.

At node 1,

) 1 ( V 4 . 0 ) 6667 . 0 j 4 . 1 ( V 60 j 92 . 103
50
V V
30 j
V
20
V 30 120
2 1
2 1 1 1
o
− − = +
÷→ ÷

+ =
− ∠

At node 2,

2 1
2 2 2 1
) 25 . 1 6 ( 0
40 10 50
V j V
j
V V V V
+ + − = ÷→ ÷

+ =

(2)

Solving (1) and (2) leads to

V
1
= 45.045 + j66.935, V
2
= 9.423 + j9.193

(a)
Ω − Ω
= =
40 30
0
j j
P P

W 665 . 8 20 / 3 . 173
| |
2
1
2
2
2
10
= = = =

R
V
R
V
P
rms

W 6.03 4 100 / 1 . 4603
| |
2
1
2
2 1
50
= =

=

R
V V
P

W 86 . 87 40 / 3514
| 30 120 |
2
1
2
1
20
= =
− ∠
=

R
V
P
o

(b) 60 92 . 103 30 120 , 3467 . 0 944 . 2
20
30 120
1
j V j
V
I
o
s
o
+ = ∠ = − =
− ∠
=

VA 8 . 177 | | , 3 . 106 5 . 142
2
1
= = − = =

S S j I V S
s

(c ) pf = 142.5/177.8 = 0.8015 (leading).

Chapter 11, Solution 41.

(a) -j6
j
(-j2)(-j3)
-j3 || -j2 ) 2 j 5 j ( || 2 j - = = = −

° ∠ = − = 56.31 - 211 . 7 6 j 4
T
Z

= ° = ) -56.31 cos( pf (leading) 5547 . 0

(b) 52 . 1 j 64 . 0
3 j 4
) j 4 )( 2 j (
) j 4 ( || 2 j + =
+
+
= +

° ∠ =
+
+
= − + = 5 . 21 4793 . 0
44 . 0 j 64 . 1
44 . 0 j 64 . 0
) j 52 . 1 j 64 . 0 ( || 1 Z

= ° = ) 5 . 21 cos( pf (lagging) 9304 . 0

Chapter 11, Solution 42.

° = θ →  θ = = 683 . 30 cos 86 . 0 pf

kVA 798 . 9
) 683 . 30 sin(
5
sin
Q
S sin S Q =
°
=
θ
= →  θ =

° ∠ =
° ∠ ×
= = →  = 683 . 30 536 . 44
220
683 . 30 10 798 . 9
3
* *
V
S
I I V S

Peak current = × 536 . 44 2 = A 98 . 62

Apparent power = S = kVA 798 . 9

Chapter 11, Solution 43.

(a) V 477 . 5 30
2
1
2
9
25 3
2
2
2
1
2
= = + + = + + = rms rms rms
rms
V V V V
(b) W 3 10 / 30
2
= = =
R
V
P
rms

Chapter 11, Solution 44.

o
pf 46 . 49 cos 65 . 0 = →  = = θ θ

kVA 38 5 . 32 ) 7599 . 0 65 . 0 ( 50 ) sin (cos j j j S S + = + = + = θ θ

Thus,
Average power = 32.5 kW, Reactive power = 38 kVAR

Chapter 11, Solution 45.

(a) V 9 . 46 2200
2
60
20
2
2 2
= →  = + =
rms
rms V V

A I
rms
061 . 1 125 . 1
2
5 . 0
1
2
2
= = + =

(b) W 74 . 49 = =
rms rms
I V P

Chapter 11, Solution 46.

(a) ° ∠ = ° ∠ ° ∠ = = 30 - 110 ) 60 - 5 . 0 )( 30 220 (
*
I V S
= S VA 55 j 26 . 95 −

Apparent power =110 VA
Real power = W 26 . 95
Reactive power = VAR 55
pf is leading because current leads voltage

(b) = =
*
I V S ° ∠ = ° ∠ ° ∠ 15 1550 ) 25 2 . 6 )( 10 - 250 (
= S VA 2 . 401 j 2 . 1497 +

Apparent power =1550 VA
Real power =1497 W 2 .
Reactive power = VAR 2 . 401
pf is lagging because current lags voltage

(c) ° ∠ = ° ∠ ° ∠ = = 15 288 ) 15 4 . 2 )( 0 120 (
*
I V S
= S VA 54 . 74 j 2 . 278 +

Apparent power = VA 288
Real power = W 2 . 278
Reactive power = VAR 54 . 74
pf is lagging because current lags voltage

(d) ° ∠ = ° ∠ ° ∠ = = 135 - 1360 ) 180 - 5 . 8 )( 45 160 (
*
I V S
= S VA 7 . 961 j 7 . 961 - −

Apparent power =1360 VA
Real power = W 7 . 961 -
Reactive power = VAR 7 . 961 -
pf is leading because current leads voltage

Chapter 11, Solution 47.

(a) , ° ∠ = 10 112 V ° ∠ = 50 - 4 I
= ° ∠ = = 60 224
2
1
*
I V S VA 194 j 112 +
Average power =112 W
Reactive power =194 VAR

(b) , ° ∠ = 0 160 V ° ∠ = 45 25 I
= ° ∠ = = 45 - 200
2
1
*
I V S VA 42 . 141 j 42 . 141 −

Average power =141 W 42 .
Reactive power = VAR 42 . 141 -

(c) = ° ∠ =
° ∠
= = 30 128
30 - 50
) 80 (
2
*
2
Z
V
S V 64 j 51 . 90 A +

Average power = W 51 . 90
Reactive power = VAR 64

(d) = ° ∠ = = ) 45 100 )( 100 (
2
Z I S kVA 071 . 7 j 071 . 7 +

Average power = kW 071 . 7
Reactive power = kVAR 071 . 7

Chapter 11, Solution 48.

(a) = − = jQ P S V 150 j 269 A −

(b) ° = θ →  = θ = 84 . 25 9 . 0 cos pf

31 . 4588
) 84 . 25 sin(
2000
sin
Q
S sin S Q =
°
=
θ
= →  θ =

48 . 4129 cos S P = θ =

= S VA 2000 j 4129 −

(c) 75 . 0
600
450
S
Q
sin sin S Q = = = θ →  θ =
59 . 48 = θ , 6614 . 0 pf =

86 . 396 ) 6614 . 0 )( 600 ( cos S P = = θ =

= S VA 450 j 9 . 396 +

(d) 1210
40
) 220 (
S
2
2
= = =
Z
V

8264 . 0
1210
1000
S
P
cos cos S P = = = θ →  θ =

° = θ 26 . 34

25 . 681 sin S Q = θ =

= S VA 2 . 681 j 1000 +

Chapter 11, Solution 49.

(a) kVA )) 86 . 0 ( sin(cos
86 . 0
4
j 4
1 -
+ = S
= S kVA 373 . 2 j 4 +

(b) 6 . 0 sin cos 8 . 0
2
6 . 1
S
P
pf = θ →  θ = = =

= θ − = sin 2 j 6 . 1 S kVA 2 . 1 j 6 . 1 −

(c) VA ) 50 5 . 6 )( 20 208 (
*
rms rms
° ∠ ° ∠ = = I V S
= ° ∠ = 70 352 . 1 S kVA 2705 . 1 j 4624 . 0 +

(d)
° ∠
=

= =
56.31 - 11 . 72
14400
60 j 40
) 120 (
2
*
2
Z
V
S
= ° ∠ = 56.31 7 . 199 S VA 16 . 166 j 77 . 110 +

Chapter 11, Solution 50.

(a) )) 8 . 0 ( sin(cos
8 . 0
1000
j 1000 jQ P
1 -
− = − = S

750 j 1000 − = S

But,
*
2
rms
Z
V
S =

23 . 23 j 98 . 30
750 j 1000
) 220 (
2
2
rms
*
+ =

= =
S
V
Z

= Z Ω − 23 . 23 j 98 . 30

(b) Z I S
2
rms
=

=
+
= =
2 2
rms
) 12 (
2000 j 1500
I
S
Z Ω + 89 . 13 j 42 . 10

(c) ° ∠ =
° ∠
= = = 60 - 6 . 1
) 60 4500 )( 2 (
) 120 (
2
2
2 2
rms
*
S
V
S
V
Z

= ° ∠ = 60 6 . 1 Z Ω + 386 . 1 j 8 . 0

Chapter 11, Solution 51.

(a) ) 6 j 8 ( || ) 5 j 10 ( 2
T
+ − + = Z

j 18
20 j 110
2
j 18
) 6 j 8 )( 5 j 10 (
2
T
+
+
+ =
+
+ −
+ = Z

° ∠ = + = 5.382 188 . 8 768 . 0 j 152 . 8
T
Z

= ° = ) 5.382 cos( pf (lagging) 9956 . 0

(b)
) 5.382 - 188 . 8 )( 2 (
) 16 (
2 2
1
2
*
2
*
° ∠
= = =
Z
V
I V S

° ∠ = 5.382 63 . 15 S

= θ = cos S P W 56 . 15

(c) = θ = sin S Q VAR 466 . 1

(d) = = S S VA 63 . 15

(e) = ° ∠ = 382 . 5 63 . 15 S VA 466 . 1 j 56 . 15 +

Chapter 11, Solution 52.

749 j 4200 S S S S
500 j 1000 S
2749 j 1200 9165 . 0 x 3000 j 4 . 0 x 3000 S
1500 j 2000 6 . 0
8 . 0
2000
j 2000 S
C B A
C
B
A
− = + + =
+ =
− = − =
+ = + =

(a) . leading 9845 . 0
749 4200
4200
pf
2 2
=
+
=

(b) ° − ∠ =
° ∠

= ÷→ ÷ =
∗ ∗
11 . 55 55 . 35
45 120
749 j 4200
I I V S
rms rms rms

I
rms
= 35.55∠–55.11˚ A.
Chapter 11, Solution 53.

S = S
A
+ S
B
+ S
C
= 4000(0.8–j0.6) + 2400(0.6+j0.8) + 1000 + j500

= 5640 + j20 = 5640∠0.2˚

(a)
A 8 . 29 97 . 93 88 . 29 46 . 66 x 2 I
8 . 29 46 . 66
2
30 120
2 . 0 5640
V
S
V
S S
V
S
I
rms rms
C A
rms
B
rms
° ∠ = ° ∠ =
° − ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= =
+
+ =

(b) pf = cos(0.2˚) ≈ 1.0 lagging.

Chapter 11, Solution 54.

(a) )) 8 . 0 ( sin(cos
8 . 0
1000
j 1000 jQ P
1 -
− = − = S

750 j 1000 − = S

But,
*
2
rms
Z
V
S =

23 . 23 j 98 . 30
750 j 1000
) 220 (
2
2
rms
*
+ =

= =
S
V
Z

= Z Ω − 23 . 23 j 98 . 30

(b) Z I S
2
rms
=

=
+
= =
2 2
rms
) 12 (
2000 j 1500
I
S
Z Ω + 89 . 13 j 42 . 10

(c) ° ∠ =
° ∠
= = = 60 - 6 . 1
) 60 4500 )( 2 (
) 120 (
2
2
2 2
rms
*
S
V
S
V
Z

= ° ∠ = 60 6 . 1 Z Ω + 386 . 1 j 8 . 0
Chapter 11, Solution 55.

We apply mesh analysis to the following circuit.
40∠0° V rms
I
2
+

j10 Ω
20 Ω
I
3
I
1
+

-j20 Ω
50∠90° V rms

For mesh 1,
2 1
I 20 I ) 20 j 20 ( 40 − − =
2 1
I I ) j 1 ( 2 − − = (1)
For mesh 2,
1 2
I 20 I ) 10 j 20 ( 50 j - − + =
2 1
I ) j 2 ( I -2 j5 - + + = (2)
Putting (1) and (2) in matrix form,
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+

=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
I
I
j 2 2 -
1 - j 1
j5 -
2

j 1− = ∆ , 3 j 4
1
− = ∆ , 5 j -1
2
− = ∆

° ∠ = − =

=

= 13 . 8 535 . 3 ) j 7 (
2
1
j 1
3 j 4
I
1
1

° ∠ = − =

=

= 56.31 - 605 . 3 3 j 2
j 1
5 j 1 -
I
2
2

° ∠ = + = − − + = − = 8 . 66 808 . 3 5 . 3 j 5 . 1 ) 3 j 2 ( ) 5 . 0 j 5 . 3 ( I I I
2 1 3

For the 40-V source,
= |
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ = = ) j 7 (
2
1
) 40 ( - -
*
1
I V S V j20 140 - A +
For the capacitor,
= =
c
2
1
Z I S V j250 - A
For the resistor,
= = R
2
3
I S V 290 A
For the inductor,
= =
L
2
2
Z I S VA 130 j
For the j50-V source,
= + = = ) 3 j 2 )( 50 j (
*
2
I V S V j100 150 - A +
Chapter 11, Solution 56.

8 . 1 j 6 . 0
2 j 6
) 2 j - )( 6 (
6 || 2 j - − =

=

j2.2 3.6 6 || -j2) ( 4 j 3 + = + +

The circuit is reduced to that shown below.
+
V
o

I
o
2∠30° A
5 Ω
3.6 + j2.2 Ω

° ∠ = ° ∠
+
+
= 47.08 95 . 0 ) 30 2 (
2 . 2 j 6 . 8
2 . 2 j 6 . 3
o
I

° ∠ = = 47.08 75 . 4 5
o o
I V

) 30 - )(2 47.08 75 . 4 (
2
1
2
1
*
s o
° ∠ ° ∠ ⋅ = = I V S

= ° ∠ = 17.08 75 . 4 S VA 396 . 1 j 543 . 4 +

Chapter 11, Solution 57.

Consider the circuit as shown below.
At node o,
+
V
2

V
1
V
o
j2 Ω
+

24∠0° V
4 Ω -j1 Ω 2 Ω
1 Ω 2 V
o

j - 1 4
24
1 o o o
V V V V −
+ =

1 o
4 j ) 4 j 5 ( 24 V V − + = (1)

At node 1,
2 j
2
j -
1
o
1 o
V
V
V V
= +

o 1
) 4 j 2 ( V V − = (2)

Substituting (2) into (1),
o
) 16 8 j 4 j 5 ( 24 V − − + =

j4 11
24 -
o
+
= V ,
j4 11
j4) - (-24)(2
1
+
= V

The voltage across the dependent source is
o 1 o 1 2
4 ) 2 )( 2 ( V V V V V + = + =

4 j 11
) 4 j 6 )( 24 - (
) 4 4 j 2 (
j4 11
24 -
2
+

= + − ⋅
+
= V

) 2 (
2
1
2
1
*
o 2
*
2
V V I V S = =

) 4 j 6 (
137
576
j4 - 11
24 -
4 j 11
) 4 j 6 )( 24 - (
− |
.
|

\
|
= ⋅
+

= S

= S VA 82 . 16 j 23 . 25 −

Chapter 11, Solution 58.
4 kΩ
I
x
8 mA
-j3 kΩ j1 kΩ
10 kΩ

From the left portion of the circuit,
mA 4 . 0
500
2 . 0
o
= = I

mA 8 20
o
= I

From the right portion of the circuit,
mA
j 7
16
) mA 8 (
3 j j 10 4
4
x

=
− + +
= I

) 10 10 (
50
) 10 16 (
R
3
2 -3
2
x
× ⋅
×
= = I S

= S mVA 2 . 51

Chapter 11, Solution 59.

Consider the circuit below.
4 kΩ
I
x
8 mA
-j3 kΩ j1 kΩ
10 kΩ

30 j 40 j20 - 50
240
4
o o o
+
+ =

+
V V V

o
) 38 . 0 j 36 . 0 ( 88 V + =

° ∠ =
+
= 46.55 - 13 . 168
38 . 0 j 36 . 0
88
o
V

° ∠ = = 43.45 41 . 8
j20 -
o
1
V
I

° ∠ =
+
= 83.42 - 363 . 3
30 j 40
o
2
V
I

Reactive power in the inductor is
= ⋅ = = ) 30 j ( ) 363 . 3 (
2
1
2
1
2
L
2
2
Z I S VAR 65 . 169 j

Reactive power in the capacitor is
= ⋅ = = ) 20 j - ( ) 41 . 8 (
2
1
2
1
2
c
2
1
Z I S VAR j707.3 -
Chapter 11, Solution 60.

15 j 20 )) 8 . 0 ( sin(cos
8 . 0
20
j 20 S
1 -
1
+ = + =

749 . 7 j 16 )) 9 . 0 ( sin(cos
9 . 0
16
j 16 S
1 -
2
+ = + =

° ∠ = + = + = 29 . 32 585 . 42 749 . 22 j 36 S S S
2 1

But
o
*
o
V 6 I V S = =

= =
6
S
V
o
° ∠ 29 . 32 098 . 7

= ° = ) 29 . 32 cos( pf (lagging) 8454 . 0

Chapter 11, Solution 61.

Consider the network shown below.
I
2
S
o

I
1
+
V
o

I
o
S
2
S
3
S
1

kVA 8 . 0 j 2 . 1
2
− = S

kVA 937 . 1 j 4 )) 9 . 0 ( sin(cos
9 . 0
4
j 4
1 -
3
+ = + = S

Let kVA 137 . 1 j 2 . 5
3 2 4
+ = + = S S S

But
*
2 o 4
2
1
I V S =

104 j 74 . 22
90 100
10 ) 137 . 1 j 2 . 5 )( 2 ( 2
3
o
4
*
2
− =
° ∠
× +
= =
V
S
I

104 j 74 . 22
2
+ = I

Similarly, kVA 2 j 2 )) 707 . 0 ( sin(cos
707 . 0
2
j 2
1 -
1
− = − = S

But
*
1 o 1
2
1
I V S =

40 j 40 -
100 j
10 ) 4 j 4 (
V
2
3
o
1
*
1
− =
× −
= =
S
I

j40 -40
1
+ = I

° ∠ = + = + = 83 . 96 145 j144 -17.26
2 1 o
I I I

*
o o o
I V
2
1
= S

VA ) 96.83 - 145 )( 90 100 (
2
1
o
° ∠ ° ∠ ⋅ = S

=
o
S kVA 862 . 0 j 2 . 7 −

Chapter 11, Solution 62.

Consider the circuit below
0.2 + j0.04 Ω
+
V
1

+
V
2

+

I
2
I
1
I
0.3 + j0.15 Ω
V
s

25 . 11 j 15 )) 8 . 0 ( sin(cos
8 . 0
15
j 15
1 -
2
− = − = S

But
*
2 2 2
I V S =

120
25 . 11 j 15
2
2
*
2

= =
V
S
I

09375 . 0 j 125 . 0
2
+ = I
) 15 . 0 j 3 . 0 (
2 2 1
+ + = I V V
) 15 . 0 j 3 . 0 )( 09375 . 0 j 125 . 0 ( 120
1
+ + + = V
0469 . 0 j 02 . 120
1
+ = V

843 . 4 j 10 )) 9 . 0 ( sin(cos
9 . 0
10
j 10
1 -
1
+ = + = S

But
*
1 1 1
I V S =

° ∠
° ∠
= =
02 . 0 02 . 120
84 . 25 111 . 11
1
1
*
1
V
S
I

0405 . 0 j 0837 . 0 25.82 - 093 . 0
1
− = ° ∠ = I
053 . 0 j 2087 . 0
2 1
+ = + = I I I
) 04 . 0 j 2 . 0 (
1 s
+ + = I V V
) 04 . 0 j 2 . 0 )( 053 . 0 j 2087 . 0 ( ) 0469 . 0 j 02 . 120 (
s
+ + + + = V
0658 . 0 j 06 . 120
s
+ = V
=
s
V V 03 . 0 06 . 120 ° ∠

Chapter 11, Solution 63.

Let S = .
3 2 1
S S S + +

929 . 6 j 12 )) 866 . 0 ( sin(cos
866 . 0
12
j 12
1 -
1
− = − = S

916 . 9 j 16 )) 85 . 0 ( sin(cos
85 . 0
16
j 16
1 -
2
+ = + = S

20 j 15 20 j
) 6 . 0 ( sin(cos
) 6 . 0 )( 20 (
1 - 3
+ = + = S

*
o
2
1
987 . 22 j 43 I V S = + =

110
98 . 22 j 44 2
*
o
+
= =
V
S
I

=
o
I A 27.58 - 4513 . 0 ° ∠

Chapter 11, Solution 64.

I
2

I
1

+

j12
I
s

8 Ω

120∠0º V

I
s
+ I
2
= I
1
or I
s
= I
1
– I
2

But,
333 . 3 j 83 . 20 I or
333 . 3 j 83 . 20
120
400 j 2500
V
S
I VI
923 . 6 j 615 . 4
12 j 8
120
I
2
2 2
1
+ =
− =

= = ÷→ ÷
− =
+
=
∗ ∗
S =

I
s
= I
1
– I
2
= –16.22 – j10.256 = 19.19∠–147.69˚ A.

Chapter 11, Solution 65.

Ω =
×
=
ω
÷→ ÷ = k -j100
10 10
j -
C j
1
nF 1 C
9 - 4

At the noninverting terminal,
j 1
4
j100 - 100
0 4
o
o o
+
= ÷→ ÷ =
− ° ∠
V
V V

° ∠ = 45 -
2
4
o
V

) 45 t 10 cos(
2
4
) t ( v
4
o
° − =

W
10 50
1
2
1
2
4
R
V
P
3
2
2
rms
|
.
|

\
|
×
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ = =

= P W 80 µ

Chapter 11, Solution 66.

As an inverter,
) 45 4 (
j3 4
j4) (2 - -
s
i
f
o
° ∠ ⋅
+
+
= = V
Z
Z
V

mA
j3) j2)(4 - (6
) 45 j4)(4 (2 -
mA
2 j 6
o
o
+
° ∠ +
=

=
V
I

The power absorbed by the 6-kΩ resistor is
3 6 -
2
2
o
10 6 10
5 40
4 20
2
1
R
2
1
P × × ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
⋅ = = I

= P mW 96 . 0

Chapter 11, Solution 67.

5
1 . 0 2
1 1
F 1 . 0 , 6 H 3 , 2 j
x j C j
j L j − = = ÷→ ÷ = ÷→ ÷ =
ω
ω ω

4 2
5 10
50
) 5 //( 10 j
j
j
j − =

= −

The frequency-domain version of the circuit is shown below.
Z
2
=2-j4 Ω

Z
1
=8+j6Ω I
1

-
+ I
o

+ +

V V
o
20 6 . 0 ∠
o

-
-

Ω =12
3
Z
(a)
o
o
j
j
j
I 87 . 16 06 . 0
6 8
2052 . 0 5638 . 0
6 8
0 20 6 . 0
1
− ∠ =
+
+
=
+
− ∠
=

mVA 86 . 36 18 mVA 8 . 10 4 . 14 ) 87 . 16 06 . 0 )( 20 3 . 0 (
2
1
1
* o o o
s
j I V S ∠ = + = + ∠ ∠ = =

(b)
o o o
o s o
j
j
Z
V
I V
Z
Z
7 . 99 0224 . 0 ) 20 6 . 0 (
) 6 8 ( 12
) 4 2 (
,
3 1
2
∠ = ∠
+

− = = − = V

mW 904 . 2 ) 12 ( ) 0224 . 0 ( 5 . 0 | |
2
1
2 2
= = = R I P
o

Chapter 11, Solution 68.

Let S
c L R
S S S + + =

where 0 j R I
2
1
jQ P
2
o R R R
+ = + = S

L I
2
1
j 0 jQ P
2
o L L L
ω + = + = S

C
1
I
2
1
j 0 jQ P
2
o c c c
ω
⋅ − = + = S

Hence, = S
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
ω
− ω +
C
1
L j R I
2
1
2
o

Chapter 11, Solution 69.

(a) Given that 12 j 10 + = Z

° = θ ÷→ ÷ = θ 19 . 50
10
12
tan

= θ = cos pf 6402 . 0

(b) 09 . 354 j 12 . 295
) 12 j 10 )( 2 (
) 120 (
2
2
*
2
+ =

= =
Z
V
S

The average power absorbed = = = ) Re( P S W 1 . 295

(c) For unity power factor, ° = θ 0
1
09 . 354
, which implies that the reactive power due
to the capacitor is Q
c
=

But
2
V C
2
1
X 2
V
Q
c
2
c
ω = =

=
π
=
ω
=
2 2
c
) 120 )( 60 )( 2 (
) 09 . 354 )( 2 (
V
Q 2
C F 4 . 130 µ
Chapter 11, Solution 70.

6 . 0 sin 8 . 0 cos pf = θ →  = θ =
528 ) 6 . 0 )( 880 ( sin S Q = = θ =

If the power factor is to be unity, the reactive power due to the capacitor is
VAR 528 Q Q
c
= =

But
2
c
2
c
2
rms
V
Q 2
C V C
2
1
X
V
Q
ω
= →  ω = =

=
π
=
2
) 220 )( 50 )( 2 (
) 528 )( 2 (
C F 45 . 69 µ

Chapter 11, Solution 71.

67 . 66
6 . 0
50
8 . 0 8 . 0 ,
6 . 0
, 50 , 065 . 106 7071 . 0 150
2
2
2 2 1 1
= = = = = = = = S P
Q
S Q x Q P

50 67 . 66 , 065 . 106 065 . 106 2 1 j S j S − = + =

9512 . 0 98 . 17 cos , 98 . 17 6 . 181 06 . 56 735 . 172 2 1 = = ∠ = + = + =
o o
pf j S S S

058 . 56 ) 0 98 . 17 (tan 735 . 172 ) tan (tan
2 1
= − = − =
o
c
P Q θ θ

F 33 . 10
120 60 2
058 . 56
2 2
µ
π ω
= = =
x x V
Q
C
rms
c

Chapter 11, Solution 72.

(a) ° = = θ 54 . 40 ) 76 . 0 ( cos
-1
1
° = = θ 84 . 25 ) 9 . 0 ( cos
-1
2

) tan (tan P Q
2 1 c
θ − θ =
kVAR ] ) 84 . 25 tan( ) 54 . 40 tan( )[ 40 ( Q
c
° − ° =
kVAR 84 . 14 Q
c
=

=
π
=
ω
=
2 2
rms
c
) 120 )( 60 )( 2 (
14840
V
Q
C mF 734 . 2

(b) , ° = θ 54 . 40
1
° = θ 0
2

kVAR 21 . 34 kVAR ] 0 ) 54 . 40 tan( )[ 40 ( Q
c
= − ° =

=
π ω
=
2 2
rms
c
) 120 )( 60 )( 2 (
34210
V
Q
C mF 3 . 6

Chapter 11, Solution 73.

(a) kVA 7 j 10 22 j 15 j 10 + = + − = S
= + = =
2 2
7 10 S S kVA 21 . 12

(b)
240
000 , 7 j 000 , 10
* *
+
= = →  =
V
S
I I V S

= − = 167 . 29 j 667 . 41 I A 35 - 86 . 50 ° ∠

(c) ° = 

= θ 35
10
7
tan
1 -
1
, ° = = θ 26 . 16 ) 96 . 0 ( cos
-1
2

] ) tan(16.26 - ) 35 tan( [ 10 ] tan tan [ P Q
2 1 1 c
° ° = θ − θ =
=
c
Q kVAR 083 . 4

=
π
=
ω
=
2 2
rms
c
) 240 )( 60 )( 2 (
4083
V
Q
C F 03 . 188 µ

(d) ,
2 2 2
jQ P + = S kW 10 P P
1 2
= =

kVAR 917 . 2 083 . 4 7 Q Q Q
c 1 2
= − = − =

kVA 917 . 2 j 10
2
+ = S
But
*
2 2
I V S =

240
2917 j 000 , 10
2
*
2
+
= =
V
S
I

= − = 154 . 12 j 667 . 41
2
I A 16.26 - 4 . 43 ° ∠
Chapter 11, Solution 74.

(a) ° = = θ 87 . 36 ) 8 . 0 ( cos
-1
1

kVA 30
8 . 0
24
cos
P
S
1
1
1
= =
θ
=

kVAR 18 ) 6 . 0 )( 30 ( sin S Q
1 1 1
= = θ =
kVA 18 j 24
1
+ = S

° = = θ 19 . 18 ) 95 . 0 ( cos
-1
2

kVA 105 . 42
95 . 0
40
cos
P
S
2
2
2
= =
θ
=

kVAR 144 . 13 sin S Q
2 2 2
= θ =
kVA 144 . 13 j 40
2
+ = S

kVA 144 . 31 j 64
2 1
+ = + = S S S

° = 

= θ 95 . 25
64
144 . 31
tan
1 -

= θ = cos pf 8992 . 0

(b) , ° = θ 95 . 25
2
° = θ 0
1

kVAR 144 . 31 ] 0 ) 95 . 25 tan( [ 64 ] tan tan [ P Q
1 2 c
= − ° = θ − θ =

=
π
=
ω
=
2 2
rms
c
) 120 )( 60 )( 2 (
144 , 31
V
Q
C mF 74 . 5

Chapter 11, Solution 75.

(a) VA 59 . 323 j 75 . 517
5 j 8
5760
50 j 80
) 240 (
2
*
1
2
1
− =
+
=
+
= =
Z
V
S

VA 91 . 208 j 13 . 358
7 j 12
5760
70 j 120
) 240 (
2
2
+ =

=

= S

VA 960
60
) 240 (
2
3
= = S

= + + =
3 2 1
S S S S VA 68 . 114 j 88 . 1835 −

(b) ° = 

= θ 574 . 3
88 . 1835
68 . 114
tan
1 -

= θ = cos pf 998 . 0

(c) ] 0 ) 574 . 3 tan( [ 88 . 35 . 18 ] tan tan [ P Q
1 2 c
− ° = θ − θ =
VAR 68 . 114 Q
c
=

=
π
=
ω
=
2 2
rms
c
) 240 )( 50 )( 2 (
68 . 114
V
Q
C F 336 . 6 µ

Chapter 11, Solution 76.

The wattmeter reads the real power supplied by the current source. Consider the
circuit below.
V
o
4 Ω
8 Ω
-j3 Ω
j2 Ω 12∠0° V
+

3∠30° A

8 j2 3 j 4
12
30 3
o o o
V V V
+ =

+ ° ∠

° ∠ = + =

+
= 19 . 86 347 . 11 322 . 11 j 7547 . 0
04 . 3 j 28 . 2
52 . 23 j 14 . 36
o
V

) 30 - 3 )( 19 . 86 347 . 11 (
2
1
2
1
*
o o
° ∠ ° ∠ ⋅ = = I V S

° ∠ = 19 . 56 021 . 17 S

= = ) Re( P S W 471 . 9

Chapter 11, Solution 77.

The wattmeter measures the power absorbed by the parallel combination of 0.1 F
and 150 Ω.
° ∠ →  0 120 ) t 2 cos( 120 , 2 = ω
8 j L j H 4 = ω → 
-j5
C j
1
F 1 . 0 =
ω
→ 

Consider the following circuit.
j8 Ω 6 Ω
I
+

120∠0° V Z

5 . 4 j 5 . 1
5 j 15
(15)(-j5)
-j5) ( || 15 − =

= = Z

° ∠ =
− + +
= 25.02 - 5 . 14
) 5 . 4 j 5 . 1 ( ) 8 j 6 (
120
I

) 5 . 4 j 5 . 1 ( ) 5 . 14 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
*
− ⋅ = = = Z I I V S

VA 06 . 473 j 69 . 157 − = S

The wattmeter reads
= = ) Re( P S W 69 . 157
Chapter 11, Solution 78.

4
The wattmeter reads the power absorbed by the element to its right side.
° ∠ →  0 2 ) t 4 cos( 2 , = ω
4 j L j H 1 = ω → 

-j3
C j
1
F
12
1
=
ω
→ 

Consider the following circuit.
10 Ω
I
+

20∠0° V Z

3 j 4
) 3 j - )( 4 (
4 j 5 3 j - || 4 4 j 5

+ + = + + = Z

08 . 2 j 44 . 6 + = Z

° ∠ =
+
= 7.21 - 207 . 1
08 . 2 j 44 . 16
20
I

) 08 . 2 j 44 . 6 ( ) 207 . 1 (
2
1
2
1
2
2
+ ⋅ = = Z I S

= = ) Re( P S W 691 . 4

Chapter 11, Solution 79.

The wattmeter reads the power supplied by the source and partly absorbed by the 40- Ω
resistor.

20 j
10 x 500 x 100 j
1
C j
1
F 500 , j 10 x 10 x 100 j mH 10
, 100
6
3
− = =
ω
→  µ = → 
= ω

The frequency-domain circuit is shown below.

20 I
o

I 40 j
V
1
V
2

+1
2 I
o

10<0
o
-j20
-

At node 1,

2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
o
1
V ) 40 j 6 ( V ) 40 j 7 ( 10
j
V V
20
) V V ( 3
20
V V
j
V V
I 2
40
V 10
+ − + − =
→ 

+

=

+

+ =

(1)

At node 2,

2 1
2 2 1 2 1
) 19 ( ) 20 ( 0
20 20
V j V j
j
V V V
j
V V
+ − + = → 

=

+

(2)

Solving (1) and (2) yields V
1
= 1.5568 –j4.1405

0703 . 2 2216 . 4
2
1
, 4141 . 0 8443 . 0
40
10
1
j VI S j
V
I − = = + =

=

P = Re(S) = 4.222 W.

Chapter 11, Solution 80.

(a) = = =
4 . 6
110
Z
V
I A 19 . 17

(b) 625 . 1890
4 . 6
) 110 (
2 2
= = =
Z
V
S

° = θ →  = = θ 41 . 34 825 . 0 pf cos

≅ = θ = 76 . 1559 cos S P kW 6 . 1

Chapter 11, Solution 81.

kWh consumed kWh 771 3246 4017 = − =

The electricity bill is calculated as follows :
(a) Fixed charge = \$12
(b) First 100 kWh at \$0.16 per kWh = \$16
(c) Next 200 kWh at \$0.10 per kWh = \$20
(d) The remaining energy (771 – 300) = 471 kWh
at \$0.06 per kWh = \$28.26.

Adding (a) to (d) gives \$ 26 . 76

Chapter 11, Solution 82.

(a) 0 , 000 , 5
1 1
= = Q P
171 , 17 ) 82 . 0 sin(cos 000 , 30 , 600 , 24 82 . 0 000 , 30
1
2 2
= = = =

Q x P
171 , 17 j 600 , 29 ) Q Q ( j ) P P ( S S S
2 1 2 1
2 1
+ = + + + = + =

A kV 22 . 34 | S | S = =

(b) Q = 17.171 kVAR

(c ) 865 . 0
220 , 34
600 , 29
= = =
S
P
pf

[ ] VAR 2833 ) 9 . 0 tan(cos ) 865 . 0 tan(cos 600 , 29
) tan (tan P Q
1 1
2 1 c
= − =
θ − θ =
− −

(d) F 46 . 130
240 60 2
2833
2 2
µ
π ω
= = =
x x V
Q
C
rms
c

Chapter 11, Solution 83.

(a)
o o o
VI S 35 840 ) 25 8 )( 60 210 (
2
1
2
1
∠ = − ∠ ∠ = =

W 1 . 688 35 cos 840 cos = = =
o
S P θ

(b) S = 840 VA

(c) VAR 8 . 481 35 sin 840 sin = = =
o
S θ Q

(d) (lagging) 8191 . 0 35 cos / = = =
o
S P pf

Chapter 11, Solution 84.

(a) Maximum demand charge 000 , 72 \$ 30 400 , 2 = × =
Energy cost = 000 , 48 \$ 10 200 , 1 04 . 0 \$
3
= × ×
Total charge =\$ 000 , 120

(b) To obtain \$120,000 from 1,200 MWh will require a flat rate of
=
×
kWh per
10 200 , 1
000 , 120 \$
3
kWh per 10 . 0 \$

Chapter 11, Solution 85.

(a) 15 655 . 5 10 15 60 2 mH
3
j x x x j =  → 

π
We apply mesh analysis as shown below.
I
1

+
I
x

120<0
o
V 10Ω
-
I
n

30Ω
I
z

+ 10Ω
120<0
o
V I
y

-

j5.655 Ω
I
2

For mesh x,
120 = 10 I
x
- 10 I
z
(1)
For mesh y,
120 = (10+j5.655) I
y
- (10+j5.655) I
z
(2)
For mesh z,
0 = -10 I
x
–(10+j5.655) I
y
+ (50+j5.655) I
z
(3)
Solving (1) to (3) gives
I
x
=20, I
y
=17.09-j5.142, I
z
=8
Thus,
I
1
=I
x
=20 A
I
2
=-I
y
=-17.09+j5.142 = A 26 . 163 85 .
o
∠ 17
I
n
=I
y
- I
x
=-2.091 –j5.142 =
A 5 . 119 907 . 5
o
− ∠

(b) 5 . 308 5 . 1025 ) 120 (
2
1
, 1200 20 60 ) 120 (
2
1
2 1
j I S x I S y x − = = = = =
• •

VA 5 . 308 5 . 2225
2 1
j S S − = + = S

(c ) pf = P/S = 2225.5/2246.8 = 0.9905

Chapter 11, Solution 86.

For maximum power transfer
*
L Th i
*
Th L
Z Z Z Z Z = = →  =
) 10 4 )( 10 12 . 4 )( 2 ( j 75 L j R
-6 6
L
× × π + = ω + = Z
Ω + = 55 . 103 j 75
L
Z

=
i
Z Ω − 55 . 103 j 75

Chapter 11, Solution 87.

jX R ± = Z
Ω =
×
= = →  = k 6 . 1
10 50
80
R R
3 -
R
R
I
V
I V

2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2
) 6 . 1 ( ) 3 ( R X X R − = − = →  + = Z Z
Ω = k 5377 . 2 X

° = 

= 

= θ 77 . 57
6 . 1
5377 . 2
tan
R
X
tan
1 - 1 -

= θ = cos pf 5333 . 0
Chapter 11, Solution 88.

(a) ° ∠ = ° ∠ = 55 220 ) 55 2 )( 110 ( S

= ° = θ = ) 55 cos( 220 cos S P W 2 . 126

(b) = = S S VA 220

Chapter 11, Solution 89.

(a) Apparent power = = S kVA 12

kW 36 . 9 ) 78 . 0 )( 12 ( cos S P = = θ =
kVAR 51 . 7 )) 78 . 0 ( sin(cos 12 sin S Q
-1
= = θ =

= + = jQ P S kVA 51 . 7 j 36 . 9 +

(b)
3
2
2
*
*
2
10 ) 51 . 7 j 36 . 9 (
) 210 (
× +
= = →  =
S
V
Z
Z
V
S

= Z Ω + 6 . 27 j 398 . 34

Chapter 11, Solution 90

Original load :
kW 2000 P
1
= , ° = θ →  = θ 79 . 31 85 . 0 cos
1 1

kVA 94 . 2352
cos
P
S
1
1
1
=
θ
=

kVAR 5 . 1239 sin S Q
1 1 1
= θ =

Additional load :
kW 300 P
2
= , ° = θ →  = θ 87 . 36 8 . 0 cos
2 2

kVA 375
cos
P
S
2
2
2
=
θ
=

kVAR 225 sin S Q
2 2 2
= θ =

Total load :
jQ P ) Q Q ( j ) P P (
2 1 2 1 2 1
+ = + + + = + = S S S
kW 2300 300 2000 P = + =
kVAR 5 . 1464 225 5 . 1239 Q = + =

The minimum operating pf for a 2300 kW load and not exceeding the kVA rating of the
generator is
9775 . 0
94 . 2352
2300
S
P
cos
1
= = = θ

or ° = θ 177 . 12

The maximum load kVAR for this condition is
) 177 . 12 sin( 94 . 2352 sin S Q
1 m
° = θ =
kVAR 313 . 496 Q
m
=

The capacitor must supply the difference between the total load kVAR ( i.e. Q ) and the
permissible generator kVAR ( i.e. ). Thus,
m
Q
= − =
m c
Q Q Q kVAR 2 . 968

Chapter 11, Solution 91

θ = cos S P

= = = θ =
) 15 )( 220 (
2700
S
P
cos pf 8182 . 0

3 . 1897 ) 09 . 35 sin( ) 15 ( 220 sin S Q = ° = θ =

When the power is raised to unity pf, ° = θ 0
1
and Q 3 . 1897 Q
c
= =

=
π
=
ω
=
2 2
rms
c
) 220 )( 60 )( 2 (
3 . 1897
V
Q
C F 104 µ

Chapter 11, Solution 92

(a) Apparent power drawn by the motor is
kVA 80
75 . 0
60
cos
P
S
m
= =
θ
=

kVAR 915 . 52 ) 60 ( ) 80 ( P S Q
2 2 2 2
m
= − = − =

Total real power
kW 80 20 0 60 P P P P
L c m
= + + = + + =

Total reactive power
= + − = + + = 0 20 915 . 52 Q Q Q Q
L c m
kVAR 91 . 32

Total apparent power
= + =
2 2
Q P S kVA 51 . 86

(b) = = =
51 . 86
80
S
P
pf 9248 . 0

(c) = = =
550
86510
V
S
I A 3 . 157

Chapter 11, Solution 93

(a) kW 7285 . 3 ) 7457 . 0 )( 5 ( P
1
= =

kVA 661 . 4
8 . 0
7285 . 3
pf
P
S
1
1
= = =

kVAR 796 . 2 )) 8 . 0 ( sin(cos S Q
-1
1 1
= =
kVA 796 . 2 j 7285 . 3
1
+ = S

kW 2 . 1 P
2
= , VAR 0 Q
2
=
kVA 0 j 2 . 1
2
+ = S

kW 2 . 1 ) 120 )( 10 ( P
3
= = , VAR 0 Q
3
=
kVA 0 j 2 . 1
3
+ = S

kVAR 6 . 1 Q
4
= , 8 . 0 sin 6 . 0 cos
4 4
= θ →  = θ

kVA 2
sin
Q
S
4
4
4
=
θ
=

kW 2 . 1 ) 6 . 0 )( 2 ( cos S P
4 4 4
= = θ =
kVA 6 . 1 j 2 . 1
4
− = S

4 3 2 1
S S S S S + + + =
kVA 196 . 1 j 3285 . 7 + = S

Total real power = 7 kW 3285 .
Total reactive power = 1 kVAR 196 .

(b) ° = 

= θ 27 . 9
3285 . 7
196 . 1
tan
1 -

= θ = cos pf 987 . 0

Chapter 11, Solution 94

° = θ →  = θ 57 . 45 7 . 0 cos
1 1

kVA 1000 MVA 1 S
1
= =
kW 700 cos S P
1 1 1
= θ =
kVAR 14 . 714 sin S Q
1 1 1
= θ =

For improved pf,
° = θ →  = θ 19 . 18 95 . 0 cos
2 2

kW 700 P P
1 2
= =

kVA 84 . 736
95 . 0
700
cos
P
S
2
2
2
= =
θ
=

kVAR 08 . 230 sin S Q
2 2 2
= θ =

P
1
= P
2
= 700 kW
Q
2

Q
1

S
1
S
2
θ
1

θ
2
Q
c

(a) Reactive power across the capacitor
kVAR 06 . 484 08 . 230 14 . 714 Q Q Q
2 1 c
= − = − =

Cost of installing capacitors = × = 06 . 484 30 \$ 80 . 521 , 14 \$

(b) Substation capacity released
2 1
S S − =
kVA 16 . 263 84 . 736 1000 = − =

Saving in cost of substation and distribution facilities
= × = 16 . 263 120 \$ 20 . 579 , 31 \$

(c) Yes, because (a) is greater than (b). Additional system capacity obtained
by using capacitors costs only 46% as much as new substation and
distribution facilities.

Chapter 11, Solution 95

(a) Source impedance
c s s
X j R − = Z
Load impedance
2 L L
X j R + = Z

For maximum load transfer
L c L s
*
s L
X X , R R = = →  = Z Z

L
C
1
X X
L c
ω =
ω
→  =

or f 2
LC
1
π = = ω

=
× × π
=
π
=
) 10 40 )( 10 80 ( 2
1
LC 2
1
f
9 - 3 -
kHz 814 . 2

(b) = = =
) 10 )( 4 (
) 6 . 4 (
R 4
V
P
2
L
2
s
mW 529 (since V is in rms)
s

Chapter 11, Solution 96

Z
Th

+

V
Th
Z
L

(a) Hz 300 , V 146 V
Th
=
Ω + = 8 j 40 Z
Th

= =
*
Th L
Z Z Ω − 8 j 40

(b) = = =
) 40 )( 8 (
) 146 (
R 8
V
P
2
Th
2
Th
W 61 . 66

Chapter 11, Solution 97

Ω + = + + + = 22 j 2 . 100 ) 20 j 100 ( ) j 1 . 0 )( 2 ( Z
T

22 j 2 . 100
240
Z
V
I
T
s
+
= =

=
+
= = =
2 2
2
2
L
2
) 22 ( ) 2 . 100 (
) 240 )( 100 (
I 100 R I P W 3 . 547
Chapter 12, Solution 1.

(a) If , then 400
ab
= V

= ° ∠ = 30 -
3
400
an
V V 30 - 231 ° ∠

=
bn
V V 150 - 231 ° ∠
=
cn
V V 270 - 231 ° ∠

(b) For the acb sequence,
° ∠ − ° ∠ = − = 120 V 0 V
p p bn an ab
V V V

° ∠ =

− + = 30 - 3 V
2
3
j
2
1
1 V
p p ab
V

i.e. in the acb sequence, lags by 30°.
ab
V
an
V

Hence, if , then 400
ab
= V

= ° ∠ = 30
3
400
an
V V 30 231 ° ∠

=
bn
V V 150 231 ° ∠
=
cn
V V 90 - 231 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 2.

Since phase c lags phase a by 120°, this is an acb sequence.

= ° + ° ∠ = ) 120 (30 160
bn
V V 150 160 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 3.

Since V leads by 120°, this is an
bn cn
V abc sequence.

= ° + ° ∠ = ) 120 (130 208
an
V V 250 208 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 4.

= ° ∠ = 120
ca bc
V V V 140 208 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
bc ab
V V V 260 208 ° ∠

=
° ∠
° ∠
=
° ∠
=
30 3
260 208
30 3
ab
an
V
V V 230 120 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
an bn
V V V 110 120 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 5.

This is an abc phase sequence.

° ∠ = 30 3
an ab
V V

or =
° ∠
° ∠
=
° ∠
=
30 3
0 420
30 3
ab
an
V
V V 30 - 5 . 242 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
an bn
V V V 150 - 5 . 242 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
an cn
V V V 90 5 . 242 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 6.

° ∠ = + = 26.56 18 . 11 5 j 10
Y
Z

The line currents are
=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
26.56 18 . 11
0 220
Y
an
a
Z
V
I A 26.56 - 68 . 19 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 146.56 - 68 . 19 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 93.44 68 . 19 ° ∠

The line voltages are
= ° ∠ = 30 3 200
ab
V V 30 381 ° ∠
=
bc
V V 90 - 381 ° ∠
=
ca
V V 210 - 381 ° ∠

The load voltages are
= = =
an Y a AN
V Z I V V 0 220 ° ∠
= =
bn BN
V V V 120 - 220 ° ∠
= =
cn CN
V V V 120 220 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 7.

This is a balanced Y-Y system.
+

440∠0° V Z
Y
= 6 − j8 Ω

Using the per-phase circuit shown above,
=

° ∠
=
8 j 6
0 440
a
I A 53.13 44 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 66.87 - 44 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 13 . 73 1 44 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 8.

, V 220 V
L
= Ω + = 9 j 16
Y
Z

° ∠ =
+
= = = 29.36 - 918 . 6
) 9 j 16 ( 3
220
3
V
V
Y
L
Y
p
an
Z
Z
I

=
L
I A 918 . 6

Chapter 12, Solution 9.

=
+
° ∠
=
+
=
15 j 20
0 120
Y L
an
a
Z Z
V
I A 36.87 - 8 . 4 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 156.87 - 8 . 4 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 83.13 8 . 4 ° ∠

As a balanced system, =
n
I A 0

Chapter 12, Solution 10.

Since the neutral line is present, we can solve this problem on a per-phase basis.

For phase a,
° ∠ =

° ∠
=
+
= 36.53 55 . 6
20 j 27
0 220
2
A
an
a
Z
V
I

For phase b,
° ∠ =
° ∠
=
+
= 120 - 10
22
120 - 220
2
B
bn
b
Z
V
I

For phase c,
° ∠ =
+
° ∠
=
+
= 97.38 92 . 16
5 j 12
120 220
2
C
cn
c
Z
V
I

The current in the neutral line is
) -(
c b a n
I I I I + + =
or
c b a n
- I I I I + + =

) 78 . 16 j 173 . 2 - ( ) 66 . 8 j 5 - ( ) 9 . 3 j 263 . 5 ( -
n
+ + − + + = I

= − = 02 . 12 j 91 . 1
n
I A 81 - 17 . 12 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 11.

° ∠
° ∠
=
° ∠
=
° ∠
=
90 - 3
10 220
90 - 3 90 - 3
BC bc
an
V V
V

=
an
V V 100 127 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
BC AB
V V V 130 220 ° ∠

V 110 - 220 120 -
BC AC
° ∠ = ° ∠ = V V

If , then ° ∠ = 60 30
bB
I
° ∠ = 180 30
aA
I , ° ∠ = 60 - 30
cC
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=
° ∠
= 210 32 . 17
30 - 3
180 30
30 - 3
aA
AB
I
I

° ∠ = 90 32 . 17
BC
I , ° ∠ = 30 - 32 . 17
CA
I

= =
CA AC
-I I A 150 32 . 17 ° ∠

BC BC
V Z I =

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
90 32 . 17
0 220
BC
BC
I
V
Z Ω ° ∠ 80 - 7 . 12

Chapter 12, Solution 12.

Convert the delta-load to a wye-load and apply per-phase analysis.
I
a
110∠0° V
+

Z
Y

Ω ° ∠ = =

45 20
3
Y
Z
Z

=
° ∠
° ∠
=
45 20
0 110
a
I A 45 - 5 . 5 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 165 - 5 . 5 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 75 5 . 5 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 13.

First we calculate the wye equivalent of the balanced load.

Z
Y
= (1/3)Z

= 6+j5

Now we only need to calculate the line currents using the wye-wye circuits.

A 07 . 58 471 . 6
15 j 8
120 110
I
A 07 . 178 471 . 6
15 j 8
120 110
I
A 93 . 61 471 . 6
5 j 6 10 j 2
110
I
c
b
a
° ∠ =
+
° ∠
=
° ∠ =
+
° − ∠
=
° − ∠ =
+ + +
=

Chapter 12, Solution 14.

We apply mesh analysis.

Ω + 2 j 1 A
a

+ Z
L

100 Z V 0
o

L

- I
3

n I
1
B C
- -
100
+ - +
c I
V 120 100
o
∠ V 120
o
∠ Ω + = 12 12 j Z
L
2
b Ω + 2 j 1

Ω + 2 j 1

For mesh 1,

0 ) 12 12 ( ) 2 1 ( ) 16 14 ( 120 100 100
3 2 1
= + − + − + + ∠ + − I j I j j I
o

or

6 . 86 150 6 . 86 50 100 ) 12 12 ( ) 2 1 ( ) 16 14 (
3 2 1
j j I j I j I j − = − + = + − + − + (1)
For mesh 2,
0 ) 16 14 ( ) 12 12 ( ) 2 1 ( 120 100 120 100
2 3 1
= + + + − + − − ∠ − ∠ I j I j j I
o o

or
2 . 173 6 . 86 50 6 . 86 50 ) 12 12 ( ) 16 14 ( ) 2 1 (
3 2 1
j j j I j I j I j − = − + − − = + − + + + − (2)
For mesh 3,
0 ) 36 36 ( ) 12 12 ( ) 12 12 (
3 2 1
= + + + − + − I j I j I j (3)
Solving (1) to (3) gives

016 . 12 4197 . 4 , 749 . 16 098 . 10 , 3 . 19 161 . 3
3 2 1
j I j I j I − − = − − = − − =
A 3 . 99 58 . 19
1
o
aA
I I − ∠ = =

A 8 . 159 392 . 7
1 2
o
bB
I I I ∠ = − =

A 91 . 58 56 . 19
2
o
cC
I I ∠ = − =

Chapter 12, Solution 15.

Convert the delta load, , to its equivalent wye load.

Z

10 j 8
3
Ye
− = =

Z
Z

° ∠ =

− +
= = 14.68 - 076 . 8
5 j 20
) 10 j 8 )( 5 j 12 (
||
Ye Y p
Z Z Z

047 . 2 j 812 . 7
p
− = Z

047 . 1 j 812 . 8
L p T
− = + = Z Z Z
° ∠ = 6.78 - 874 . 8
T
Z

We now use the per-phase equivalent circuit.
L p
p
a
V
Z Z
I
+
= , where
3
210
p
V =

° ∠ =
° ∠
= 78 . 6 66 . 13
) 6.78 - 874 . 8 ( 3
210
a
I

= =
a L
I I A 66 . 13

Chapter 12, Solution 16.

(a) ° ∠ = ° + ° ∠ = = 150 10 ) 180 -30 ( 10 -
AC CA
I I

This implies that
° ∠ = 30 10
AB
I
° ∠ = 90 - 10
BC
I

= ° ∠ = 30 - 3
AB a
I I A 0 32 . 17 ° ∠
=
b
I A 120 - 32 . 17 ° ∠
=
c
I A 120 32 . 17 ° ∠

(b) =
° ∠
° ∠
= =

30 10
0 110
AB
AB
I
V
Z Ω ° ∠ 30 - 11
Chapter 12, Solution 17.

Convert the ∆-connected load to a Y-connected load and use per-phase analysis.
I
a
+

Z
L

V
an
Z
Y

4 j 3
3
Y
+ = =

Z
Z

° ∠ =
+ + +
° ∠
=
+
= 48.37 - 931 . 19
) 5 . 0 j 1 ( ) 4 j 3 (
0 120
L Y
an
a
Z Z
V
I

But ° ∠ = 30 - 3
AB a
I I

=
° ∠
° ∠
=
30 - 3
48.37 - 931 . 19
AB
I A 18.37 - 51 . 11 ° ∠

=
BC
I A 138.4 - 51 . 11 ° ∠
=
CA
I A 101.6 51 . 11 ° ∠

) 53.13 15 )( 18.37 - 51 . 11 (
AB AB
° ∠ ° ∠ = =

Z I V
=
AB
V V 76 . 4 3 6 . 172 ° ∠

=
BC
V V 85.24 - 6 . 172 ° ∠
=
CA
V V 8 . 54 1 6 . 172 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 18.

° ∠ = ° ∠ ° ∠ = ° ∠ = 90 1 . 762 ) 30 3 )( 60 440 ( 30 3
an AB
V V

° ∠ = + =

36.87 15 9 j 12 Z

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =

36.87 15
90 1 . 762
AB
AB
Z
V
I A 53.13 81 . 50 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
AB BC
I I A 66.87 - 81 . 50 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
AB CA
I I A 173.13 81 . 50 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 19.

° ∠ = + =

18.43 62 . 31 10 j 30 Z

The phase currents are
=
° ∠
° ∠
= =

18.43 62 . 31
0 173
ab
AB
Z
V
I A 18.43 - 47 . 5 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120 -
AB BC
I I A 138.43 - 47 . 5 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
AB CA
I I A 101.57 47 . 5 ° ∠

The line currents are
° ∠ = − = 30 - 3
AB CA AB a
I I I I
= ° ∠ = 48.43 - 3 47 . 5
a
I A 48.43 - 474 . 9 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 168.43 - 474 . 9 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 71.57 474 . 9 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 20.

° ∠ = + =

36.87 15 9 j 12 Z

The phase currents are
=
° ∠
° ∠
=
36.87 15
0 210
AB
I A 36.87 - 14 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120 -
AB BC
I I A 156.87 - 14 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
AB CA
I I A 83.13 14 ° ∠

The line currents are
= ° ∠ = 30 - 3
AB a
I I A 66.87 - 25 . 24 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 186.87 - 25 . 24 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 53.13 25 . 24 ° ∠
Chapter 12, Solution 21.

(a) ) rms ( A 66 . 98 96 . 17
66 . 38 806 . 12
120 230
8 j 10
120 230
I
AC
° − ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠ −
=
+
° ∠ −
=

(b)
A 34 . 171 10 . 31
684 . 4 j 75 . 30 220 . 11 j 024 . 14 536 . 6 j 729 . 16
66 . 38 96 . 17 66 . 158 96 . 17
8 j 10
0 230
8 j 10
120 230
I I I I I
AB BC BA BC bB
° ∠ =
+ − = + − − − =
° − ∠ − ° − ∠ =
+
° ∠

+
− ∠
= − = + =

Chapter 12, Solution 22.

Convert the ∆-connected source to a Y-connected source.
° ∠ = ° ∠ = ° ∠ = 30 - 120 30 -
3
208
30 -
3
V
p
an
V

Convert the ∆-connected load to a Y-connected load.
j 8
) 5 j 4 )( 6 j 4 (
) 5 j 4 ( || ) 6 j 4 (
3
||
Y
+
− +
= − + = =

Z
Z Z

2153 . 0 j 723 . 5 − = Z
I
a
+

Z
L

V
an
Z

=

° ∠
=
+
=
2153 . 0 j 723 . 7
30 120
L
an
a
Z Z
V
I A 28.4 - 53 . 15 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 148.4 - 53 . 15 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 91.6 53 . 15 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 23.

(a)
o
AB
AB
Z
V
I
60 25
208

= =

o
o
o
o
AB a
I I 90 411 . 14
60 25
30 3 208
30 3 − ∠ =

− ∠
= − ∠ =

A 41 . 14 | | = =
a L
I I

(b) kW 596 . 2 60 cos
25
3 208
) 208 ( 3 cos 3
2 1
=

= = + =
o
L L
I V P P P θ

Chapter 12, Solution 24.

Convert both the source and the load to their wye equivalents.
10 j 32 . 17 30 20
3
Y
+ = ° ∠ = =

Z
Z

° ∠ = ° ∠ = 0 2 . 240 30 -
3
ab
an
V
V

We now use per-phase analysis.
I
a
+

1 + j Ω
V
an
20∠30° Ω

=
° ∠
=
+ + +
=
31 37 . 21
2 . 240
) 10 j 32 . 17 ( ) j 1 (
an
a
V
I A 31 - 24 . 11 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 151 - 24 . 11 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 89 24 . 11 ° ∠

But ° ∠ = 30 - 3
AB a
I I

=
° ∠
° ∠
=
30 - 3
31 - 24 . 11
AB
I A 1 - 489 . 6 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
AB BC
I I A 121 - 489 . 6 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
AB CA
I I A 119 489 . 6 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 25.

Convert the delta-connected source to an equivalent wye-connected source and
consider the single-phase equivalent.

Y
a
3
) 30 10 ( 440
Z
I
° − ° ∠
=

where ° ° ∠ = − = − + + = 78 . 24 - 32 . 14 6 j 13 8 j 10 2 j 3
Y
Z

=
° ∠
° ∠
=
) 24.78 - 32 . 14 ( 3
20 - 440
a
I A 4.78 74 . 17 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 115.22 - 74 . 17 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 124.78 74 . 17 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 26.

Transform the source to its wye equivalent.
° ∠ = ° ∠ = 30 - 17 . 72 30 -
3
V
p
an
V

Now, use the per-phase equivalent circuit.
Z
V
I
an
aA
= , ° ∠ = − = 32 - 3 . 28 15 j 24 Z

=
° ∠
° ∠
=
32 - 3 . 28
30 - 17 . 72
aA
I A 2 55 . 2 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
aA bB
I I A 118 - 55 . 2 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
aA cC
I I A 122 55 . 2 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 27.

) 15 j 20 ( 3
10 - 220
3
30 -
Y
ab
a
+
° ∠
=
° ∠
=
Z
V
I

=
a
I A 46.87 - 081 . 5 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 166.87 - 081 . 5 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 73.13 081 . 5 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 28.

Let ° ∠ = 0 400
ab
V

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=
° ∠
= 30 7 . 7
) 60 - 30 ( 3
30 - 400
3
30 -
Y
an
a
Z
V
I

= =
a L
I I A 7 . 7

° ∠ = ° ∠ = = 30 - 94 . 230 30 -
3
an
Y a AN
V
Z I V

= =
AN p
V V V 9 . 230

Chapter 12, Solution 29.

, θ = cos I V 3 P
p p
3
V
V
L
p
= ,
p L
I I =

θ = cos I V 3 P
L L

p
L
L
I 05 . 20
) 6 . 0 ( 3 240
5000
cos V 3
P
I = = =
θ
=

911 . 6
) 05 . 20 ( 3
240
I 3
V
I
V
L
L
p
p
Y
= = = = Z

° = θ →  = θ 13 . 53 6 . 0 cos

(leading) 53.13 - 911 . 6
Y
° ∠ = Z

=
Y
Z Ω − 53 . 5 j 15 . 4

8333
6 . 0
5000
pf
P
S = = =

6667 sin S Q = θ =

= S VA 6667 j 5000 −

Chapter 12, Solution 30.

Since this a balanced system, we can replace it by a per-phase equivalent, as
shown below.

+ Z
L

V
p

-

3
,
3
3
*
2
L
p
p
p
p
V
V
Z
V
S S = = =

kVA 45 4421 . 1
45 30
) 208 (
2
*
2
o
o
p
L
Z
V
S ∠ =
− ∠
= =

kW 02 . 1 cos = = θ S P

Chapter 12, Solution 31.

(a) kVA 5 . 7 8 . 0 / 6
cos
, 8 . 0 cos , 000 , 6 = = = = =
θ
θ
P
p p
P
S P

kVAR 5 . 4 sin = = θ
P p
S Q
kVA 5 . 13 18 ) 5 . 4 6 ( 3 3 j j S S p + = + = =
For delta-connected load, V
p
= V
L
= 240 (rms). But

Ω + =
+
= = →  = 608 . 4 144 . 6 ,
10 ) 5 . 13 18 (
) 240 ( 3 3 3
3
2 2
*
*
2
j Z
x j S
V
Z
Z
V
S
P
p
p
p
p

(b) A 04 . 18
8 . 0 240 3
6000
cos 3 = = →  =
x x
I I V P
L L L p
θ

(c ) We find C to bring the power factor to unity

F 2 . 207
240 60 2
4500
kVA 5 . 4
2 2
µ
π ω
= = = →  = =
x x V
Q
C Q Q
rms
c
p c

Chapter 12, Solution 32.

θ ∠ =
L L
I V 3 S

3
L L
10 50 I V 3 S × = = = S

= =
) 440 ( 3
5000
I
L
A 61 . 65

For a Y-connected load,
61 . 65 I I
L p
= = , 03 . 254
3
440
3
V
V
L
p
= = =

872 . 3
61 . 65
03 . 254
I
V
p
p
= = = Z

θ ∠ = Z Z , ° = = θ 13 . 53 ) 6 . 0 ( cos
-1

) sin j )(cos 872 . 3 ( θ + θ = Z

) 8 . 0 j 6 . 0 )( 872 . 3 ( + = Z

= Z Ω + 098 . 3 j 323 . 2

Chapter 12, Solution 33.

θ ∠ =
L L
I V 3 S

L L
I V 3 S = = S

For a Y-connected load,
p L
I I = ,
p L
V 3 V =

p p
I V 3 S =

= = = =
) 208 )( 3 (
4800
V 3
S
I I
p
p L
A 69 . 7

= × = = 208 3 V 3 V
p L
V 3 . 360

Chapter 12, Solution 34.

3
220
3
V
V
L
p
= =

° ∠ =

= = 58 73 . 6
) 16 j 10 ( 3
200
V
Y
p
a
Z
I

= =
p L
I I A 73 . 6

° ∠ × × = θ ∠ = 58 - 73 . 6 220 3 I V 3
L L
S

= S VA 8 . 2174 j 1359 −

Chapter 12, Solution 35.

(a) This is a balanced three-phase system and we can use per phase equivalent
circuit. The delta-connected load is converted to its wye-connected equivalent

10 20 3 / ) 30 60 (
3
1
' '
j j Z Z y + = + = =

I
L

+

230 V
Z’y Z’’y

-

5 . 5 5 . 13 ) 10 20 //( ) 10 40 ( // '
' '
j j j Z Z Z y
y y
+ = + + = =

A 953 . 5 61 . 14
5 . 5 5 . 13
230
j
j
I
L
− =
+
=

(b) kVA 368 . 1 361 . 3
*
j I V S L
s
+ = =

(c ) pf = P/S = 0.9261

Chapter 12, Solution 36.

(a) S = 1 [0.75 + sin(cos
-1
0.75) ] =0.75 + 0.6614 MVA

(b) 49 . 52 52 . 59
4200 3
10 ) 6614 . 0 75 . 0 (
3
3
6
* *
j
x
x j
V
S
I I V
p
p p
p
+ =
+
= = →  = S

kW 19 . 25 ) 4 ( ) 36 . 79 ( | |
2 2
= = =
l p L
R I P

(c) kV 2.709 - 4.443 kV 21 . 0 4381 . 4 ) 4 (
o
∠ = − = + + = j j I V
p L s
V

Chapter 12, Solution 37.

20
6 . 0
12
pf
P
S = = =

kVA 16 j 12 20 S − = θ ∠ = θ ∠ = S

But θ ∠ =
L L
I V 3 S

=
×
×
=
208 3
10 20
I
3
L
A 51 . 55

p
2
p
3 Z I S =

For a Y-connected load,
p L
I I = .

2
3
2
L
p
) 51 . 55 )( 3 (
10 ) 16 j 12 (
I 3
× −
= =
S
Z

=
p
Z Ω − 731 . 1 j 298 . 1

Chapter 12, Solution 38.

As a balanced three-phase system, we can use the per-phase equivalent shown
below.

14 j 10
0 110
) 12 j 9 ( ) 2 j 1 (
0 110
a
+
° ∠
=
+ + +
° ∠
= I

) 12 j 9 (
) 14 10 (
) 110 (
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
Y
2
a p
+ ⋅
+
⋅ = = Z I S

The complex power is
) 12 j 9 (
296
) 110 (
2
3
3
2
p
+ ⋅ ⋅ = = S S

= S VA 81 . 735 j 86 . 551 +

Chapter 12, Solution 39.

Consider the system shown below.
I
2
I
1
I
3

5 Ω
5 Ω
-j6 Ω
10 Ω
j3 Ω
B
C
A
8 Ω
4 Ω
b
a

+

+

100∠-120°
100∠120° 100∠0°

+

5 Ω
c

For mesh 1,
3 2 1
) 6 j 8 ( 5 ) 6 j 18 ( 100 I I I − − − − = (1)

For mesh 2,
3 1 2
10 5 20 120 - 100 I I I − − = ° ∠
3 2 1
2 4 - 120 - 20 I I I − + = ° ∠ (2)

For mesh 3,
3 2 1
) 3 j 22 ( 10 ) 6 j 8 ( - 0 I I I − + − − = (3)

To eliminate , start by multiplying (1) by 2,
2
I
3 2 1
) 12 j 16 ( 10 ) 12 j 36 ( 200 I I I − − − − = (4)

Subtracting (3) from (4),
3 1
) 15 j 38 ( ) 18 j 44 ( 200 I I − − − = (5)

Multiplying (2) by 4 5 ,
3 2 1
5 . 2 5 25 . 1 - 120 - 25 I I I − + = ° ∠ (6)

Adding (1) and (6),
3 1
) 6 j 5 . 10 ( ) 6 j 75 . 16 ( 65 . 21 j 5 . 87 I I − − − = − (7)

In matrix form, (5) and (7) become

+ −
+ −
=

3
1
6 j 5 . 10 - 6 j 75 . 16
15 j 38 - 18 j 44
65 . 12 j 5 . 87
200
I
I

25 . 26 j 5 . 192 − = ∆ , 2 . 935 j 25 . 900
1
− = ∆ , 6 . 1327 j 3 . 110
3
− = ∆

144 . 4 j 242 . 5 38.33 - 682 . 6
7.76 - 28 . 194
46.09 - 1 . 1298
1
1
− = ° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=

= I

694 . 6 j 485 . 1 77.49 - 857 . 6
7.76 - 28 . 194
85.25 - 2 . 1332
3
3
− = ° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=

= I

We obtain from (6),
2
I
3 1 2
2
1
4
1
120 - 5 I I I + + ° ∠ =

) 347 . 3 j 7425 . 0 ( ) 0359 . 1 j 3104 . 1 ( ) 33 . 4 j -2.5 (
2
− + − + − = I
713 . 8 j 4471 . 0 -
2
− = I

The average power absorbed by the 8-Ω resistor is
W 89 . 164 ) 8 ( 551 . 2 j 756 . 3 ) 8 ( P
2 2
3 1 1
= + = − = I I

The average power absorbed by the 4-Ω resistor is
W 1 . 188 ) 4 ( ) 8571 . 6 ( ) 4 ( P
2
2
3 2
= = = I

The average power absorbed by the 10-Ω resistor is
W 12 . 78 ) 10 ( 019 . 2 j 1.9321 - ) 10 ( P
2 2
3 2 3
= − = − = I I

Thus, the total real power absorbed by the load is
= + + =
3 2 1
P P P P W 1 . 431

Chapter 12, Solution 40.

Transform the delta-connected load to its wye equivalent.
8 j 7
3
Y
+ = =

Z
Z

Using the per-phase equivalent circuit above,
° ∠ =
+ + +
° ∠
= 46.75 - 567 . 8
) 8 j 7 ( ) 5 . 0 j 1 (
0 100
a
I

For a wye-connected load,
567 . 8 I I
a a p
= = = I

) 8 j 7 ( ) 567 . 8 )( 3 ( 3
2
p
2
p
+ = = Z I S

= = = ) 7 ( ) 567 . 8 )( 3 ( ) Re( P
2
S k 541 . 1 W

Chapter 12, Solution 41.

kVA 25 . 6
8 . 0
kW 5
pf
P
S = = =

But
L L
I V 3 S =

=
×
×
= =
400 3
10 25 . 6
V 3
S
I
3
L
L
A 021 . 9

Chapter 12, Solution 42.

The load determines the power factor.
° = θ ÷→ ÷ = = θ 13 . 53 333 . 1
30
40
tan

(leading) 6 . 0 cos pf = θ =

kVA 6 . 9 j 2 . 7 ) 8 . 0 (
6 . 0
2 . 7
j 2 . 7 − = |
.
|

\
|
− = S

But
p
2
p
3 Z I S =

80
) 40 j 30 )( 3 (
10 ) 6 . 9 j 2 . 7 (
3
3
p
2
p
=

× −
= =
Z
S
I

A 944 . 8 I
p
=

= =
p L
I I A 944 . 8

=
×
= =
) 944 . 8 ( 3
10 12
I 3
S
V
3
L
L
V 6 . 774

Chapter 12, Solution 43.

p
2
p
3 Z I S = ,
L p
I I = for Y-connected loads

) 047 . 2 j 812 . 7 ( ) 66 . 13 )( 3 (
2
− = S

= S kVA 145 . 1 j 373 . 4 −

Chapter 12, Solution 44.

For a ∆-connected load,
L p
V V = ,
p L
I 3 I =

L L
I V 3 S =

273 . 31
) 240 ( 3
10 ) 5 12 (
V 3
S
I
3 2 2
L
L
=
× +
= =

At the source,
L L L
'
L
Z I V V + =
) 3 j 1 )( 273 . 31 ( 0 240
'
L
+ + ° ∠ = V
819 . 93 j 273 . 271
'
L
+ = V
=
'
L
V V 04 . 287

Also, at the source,
*
L
'
L
'
3 I V S =
) 273 . 31 )( 819 . 93 j 273 . 271 ( 3
'
+ = S

078 . 19
273 . 271
819 . 93
tan
1 -
= |
.
|

\
|
= θ

= θ = cos pf 9451 . 0

Chapter 12, Solution 45.

θ ∠ =
L L
I V 3 S

L
L
V 3
-
I
θ ∠
=
S
, kVA 6 . 635
708 . 0
10 450
pf
P
3
=
×
= = S

A 45 - 834
440 3
- ) 6 . 635 (
L
° ∠ =
×
θ ∠
= I

At the source,
) 2 j 5 . 0 ( 0 440
L L
+ + ° ∠ = I V
) 76 062 . 2 )( 45 - 834 ( 440
L
° ∠ ° ∠ + = V
° ∠ + = 1 3 7 . 1719 440
L
V
7 . 885 j 1 . 1914
L
+ = V
=
L
V V .83 24 109 . 2 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 46.

For the wye-connected load,
p L
I I = ,
p L
V 3 V = Z
p p
V I =

*
2
L
*
2
p
*
p p
3 3
3
3
Z
V
Z
V
I V S = = =

W 121
100
) 110 (
2
*
2
L
= = =
Z
V
S

For the delta-connected load,
L p
V V = ,
p L
I 3 I = , Z
p p
V I =

*
2
L
*
2
p
*
p p
3
3
3
Z
V
Z
V
I V S = = =

W 363
100
) 110 )( 3 (
2
= = S

This shows that the delta-connected load will deliver three times more average
power than the wye-connected load. This is also evident from
3
Y

=
Z
Z .

Chapter 12, Solution 47.

° = = θ ÷→ ÷ = 87 . 36 ) 8 . 0 ( cos (lagging) 8 . 0 pf
-1

kVA 150 j 200 87 . 36 250
1
+ = ° ∠ = S

° = = θ ÷→ ÷ = 19 . 18 - ) 95 . 0 ( cos (leading) 95 . 0 pf
-1

kVA 65 . 93 j 285 19 . 8 1 - 300
2
− = ° ∠ = S

° = = θ ÷→ ÷ = 0 ) 1 ( cos 0 . 1 pf
-1

kVA 450
3
= S

kVA 45 . 3 7 . 936 35 . 56 j 935
3 2 1 T
° ∠ = + = + + = S S S S

L L T
I V 3 = S

=
×
×
=
) 10 8 . 13 ( 3
10 7 . 936
I
3
3
L
rms A 19 . 39

= ° = θ = ) 45 . 3 cos( cos pf (lagging) 9982 . 0

Chapter 12, Solution 48.

(a) We first convert the delta load to its equivalent wye load, as shown below.

A
A

Z
A

18-j12Ω 40+j15Ω

Z
C

C B C

60Ω
Z
B

B

923 . 1 577 . 7
3 118
) 12 18 )( 15 40 (
j
j
j j
Z
A
− =
+
− +
=

105 . 7 52 . 20
3 118
). 15 40 ( 60
j
j
j
Z
B
− =
+
+
=

3303 . 6 992 . 8
3 118
) 12 18 ( 60
j
j
j
Z
C
− =
+

=

The system becomes that shown below.
a 2+j3 A

+
240<0
o
Z
A
-
I
1

- - Z
B
Z
C

240<120
o
240<-120
o

+ + 2+j3
c I
2
b
B C

2+j3

We apply KVL to the loops. For mesh 1,
0 ) ( ) 2 ( 120 240 240
2 1
= + − + + + − ∠ + −
l B B A l
o
Z Z I Z Z Z I
or

85 . 207 360 ) 105 . 10 52 . 22 ( ) 13 . 11 097 . 32 (
2 1
j I j I j + = + − + (1)
For mesh 2,
0 ) 2 ( ) ( 120 240 120 240
2 1
= + + + + − − ∠ − ∠
C B l l B
o o
Z Z Z I Z Z I
or

69 . 415 ) 775 . 6 51 . 33 ( ) 105 . 10 52 . 22 (
2 1
j I j I j − = + + + − (2)
Solving (1) and (2) gives
89 . 11 165 . 15 , 328 . 5 75 . 23
2 1
j I j I − = − =

A 6 . 142 81 . 10 , A 64 . 12 34 . 24
1 2 1
o
bB
o
aA
I I I I I − ∠ = − = − ∠ = =

A 9 . 141 27 . 19
2
o
cC
I I ∠ = − =

(b)
o o o
a S 64 . 12 6 . 5841 ) 64 . 12 34 . 24 )( 0 240 ( ∠ = ∠ ∠ =
o o o
b S 6 . 22 4 . 2594 ) 6 . 142 81 . 10 )( 120 240 ( ∠ = ∠ − ∠ =
o o o
b S 9 . 21 8 . 4624 ) 9 . 141 27 . 19 )( 120 240 ( − ∠ = − ∠ ∠ =
kVA 54 . 2 4 . 12 kVA 55 . 0 386 . 12
o
c b a j S S S S ∠ = + = + + =

Chapter 12, Solution 49.

(a) For the delta-connected load, (rms) 220 , 10 20 = = Ω + =
L p p
V V j Z ,

kVA 56 . 26 943 . 6 2904 5808
) 10 20 (
220 3 3
2
*
2
o
p
p
j
j
x
Z
V
S ∠ = + =

= =

(b) For the wye-connected load, 3 / , 10 20
L p p
V V j Z = Ω + = ,

kVA 56 . 26 164 . 2
) 10 20 ( 3
220 3 3
2
*
2
o
p
p
j
x
Z
V
S ∠ =

= =

Chapter 12, Solution 50.

kVA 3 kVA, 4 . 6 8 . 4 ) 8 . 0 6 . 0 ( 8 1 2 1 = + = + = + = S j j S S S
Hence,

kVA 4 . 6 8 . 1 1 2 j S S S + = − =

But
p
L
L
p
p
p
Z
V
S
V
V
Z
V
S
*
2
2
*
2
2
.
3
,
3
= ÷→ ÷ = =

Ω + = ÷→ ÷
+
= = 34 . 8 346 . 2
10 ) 4 . 6 8 . 1 (
240
3
2
2
*
*
j Z
x j S
V
Z
p
L
p

Chapter 12, Solution 51.

Apply mesh analysis to the circuit as shown below.

Z
a

i
2
i
1
Z
c

Z
b

+

+

+
150∠-120°
150∠0°

n
150∠120°

For mesh 1,
0 ) ( 150 -
2 b 1 b a
= − + + I Z I Z Z
2 1
) 9 j 12 ( ) j 18 ( 150 I I + − + = (1)
For mesh 2,
0 ) ( 120 - 150 -
1 b 2 c b
= − + + ° ∠ I Z I Z Z
1 2
) 9 j 12 ( ) 9 j 27 ( 120 - 150 I I + − + = ° ∠ (2)
From (1) and (2),
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+ −
− +
=
(
¸
(

¸

° ∠
2
1
9 j 27 9 j 12 -
9 j 12 - j 18
120 - 150
150
I
I

27 j 414 − = ∆ , 8 . 3583 j 9 . 3780
1
+ = ∆ , 2 . 1063 j 9 . 579
2
− = ∆

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=

= 47.2 56 . 12
3.73 - 88 . 414
43.47 5 . 5209
1
1
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=

= 57.66 - 919 . 2
3.73 - 88 . 414
61.39 - 1 . 1211
2
2
I

= =
1 a
I I A 47.2 56 . 12 ° ∠

=

∆ − ∆
= − =
4647 j 3201 -
1 2
1 2 b
I I I

=
° ∠
° ∠
=
3.73 - 88 . 414
235.44 3 . 5642
b
I A 239.17 6 . 13 ° ∠

= =
2 c
- I I A 122.34 919 . 2 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 52.

Since the neutral line is present, we can solve this problem on a per-phase basis.
° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 60 6
60 20
120 120
AN
an
a
Z
V
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 0 4
0 30
0 120
BN
bn
b
Z
V
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 150 - 3
30 40
120 - 120
CN
cn
c
Z
V
I

Thus,
c b a n
- I I I I + + =
° ∠ + ° ∠ + ° ∠ = 150 - 3 0 4 60 6 -
n
I
) 5 . 1 j 598 . 2 - ( ) 4 ( ) 196 . 5 j 3 ( -
n
− + + + = I
° ∠ = + = 40 75 . 5 696 . 3 j 405 . 4 -
n
I

=
n
I A 220 75 . 5 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 53.

3
250
V
p
=

Since we have the neutral line, we can use per-phase equivalent circuit for each
phase.
=
° ∠

° ∠
=
60 40
1
3
0 250
a
I A 60 - 608 . 3 ° ∠

=
° ∠

° ∠
=
45 - 60
1
3
120 - 250
b
I A 75 - 406 . 2 ° ∠

=
° ∠

° ∠
=
0 20
1
3
120 250
c
I A 120 217 . 7 ° ∠

c b a n
- I I I I + + =
) 25 . 6 j 609 . 3 - ( ) 324 . 2 j 6227 . 0 ( ) 125 . 3 j 804 . 1 ( -
n
+ + − + − = I

= − = 801 . 0 j 1823 . 1
n
I A 34.12 - 428 . 1 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 54.

Consider the circuit shown below.
I
a
a
B C
A
j50 Ω
-j50 Ω
50 Ω
I
AB
c b
V
p
∠0°
+

V
p
∠120° V
p
∠-120°
+

+

° ∠ × = = 30 3 100
ab AB
V V

=
° ∠
= =
50
30 3 100
AB
AB
AB
Z
V
I A 30 464 . 3 ° ∠

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
90 - 50
90 - 3 100
BC
BC
BC
Z
V
I A 0 464 . 3 ° ∠

=
° ∠
° ∠
= =
90 50
150 3 100
CA
CA
CA
Z
V
I A 60 464 . 3 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 55.

Consider the circuit shown below.
I
a
a A
I
b
I
1
I
2
c b
220∠0°
+

220∠120° 220∠-120°
+

+

30 + j40 100 – j120
B C
60 + j80
I
c
For mesh 1,
0 ) 120 j 100 ( ) 40 j 160 ( 0 220 120 - 220
2 1
= − − − + ° ∠ − ° ∠ I I
2 1
) 6 j 5 ( ) 2 j 8 ( 120 - 11 11 I I − − − = ° ∠ − (1)

For mesh 2,
0 ) 120 j 100 ( ) 80 j 130 ( 120 - 220 120 220
1 2
= − − − + ° ∠ − ° ∠ I I
2 1
) 4 j 5 . 6 ( ) 6 j 5 ( - 120 11 120 - 11 I I − + − = ° ∠ − ° ∠ (2)

From (1) and (2),

+
+ −
=

 +
2
1
j4 - 6.5 j6 5 -
j6 5 - 2 j 8
j19.053 -
526 . 9 j 5 . 16
I
I

15 j 55 + = ∆ , 35 . 99 j 04 . 31
1
− = ∆ , 8 . 203 j 55 . 101
2
− = ∆

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=

= 87.91 - 8257 . 1
15.26 01 . 57
72.65 - 08 . 104
1
1
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
=

= 78.77 - 994 . 3
15.26 01 . 57
63.51 - 7 . 227
2
2
I

° ∠ = = 87.91 - 8257 . 1
1 a
I I

° ∠ =
+

=

∆ − ∆
= − = 71.23 - 211 . 2
15 j 55
45 . 104 j 51 . 70
1 2
1 2 b
I I I

° ∠ = = 23 . 01 1 994 . 3 -
2 c
I I

7 . 266 j 99 . 199 ) 80 j 60 ( ) 8257 . 1 (
2
AN
2
a A
+ = + = = Z I S
6 . 586 j 9 . 488 ) 120 j 100 ( ) 211 . 2 (
2
BN
2
b B
− = − = = Z I S
1 . 638 j 6 . 478 ) 40 j 30 ( ) 994 . 3 (
2
CN
2
c C
+ = + = = Z I S

= + + =
C B A
S S S S V 2 . 318 j 5 . 1167 A +

Chapter 12, Solution 56.

(a) Consider the circuit below.

For mesh 1,
0 ) ( 10 j 0 440 120 - 440
3 1
= − + ° ∠ − ° ∠ I I

° ∠ =
+
= − 60 - 21 . 76
10 j
) 866 . 0 j 5 . 1 )( 440 (
3 1
I I (1)

For mesh 2,
0 ) ( 20 120 - 440 120 440
3 2
= − + ° ∠ − ° ∠ I I

1 . 38 j
20
) 732 . 1 j )( 440 (
2 3
= = − I I (2)
For mesh 3,
0 5 j ) ( 20 ) ( 10 j
3 2 3 1 3
= − − + − I I I I I

I
2
I
1
b

+

+ −
440∠-120°
440∠120°
440∠0°

+

B
I
3

20 Ω
j10 Ω
a A
-j5 Ω
C c
Substituting (1) and (2) into the equation for mesh 3 gives,
° ∠ =
+
= 60 42 . 152
j5
j0.866) -1.5 )( 440 (
3
I (3)

From (1),
° ∠ = + = ° ∠ + = 30 132 66 j 315 . 114 60 - 21 . 76
3 1
I I

From (2),
° ∠ = + = − = 50.94 93 . 120 9 . 93 j 21 . 76 1 . 38 j
3 2
I I

= =
1 a
I I A 30 132 ° ∠

= + = − = j27.9 -38.105
1 2 b
I I I A 143.8 23 . 47 ° ∠

= =
2 c
- I I A 230.9 9 . 120 ° ∠

(b) kVA 08 . 58 j ) 10 j (
2
3 1 AB
= − = I I S
kVA 04 . 29 ) 20 (
2
3 2 BC
= − = I I S
kVA -j116.16 -j5) ( (152.42) -j5) (
2
2
3 CA
= = = I S

kVA 08 . 58 j 04 . 29
CA BC AB
− = + + = S S S S

Real power absorbed = 29 kW 04 .

(c) Total complex supplied by the source is
= S kVA 08 . 58 j 04 . 29 −

Chapter 12, Solution 57.

We apply mesh analysis to the circuit shown below.
I
a

+
V
a Ω + 50 j 80

- I
1

- - Ω + 30 20 j
V
c
V
b
+ + I
b

I
2

I
c
Ω − 40 60 j

263 . 95 165 ) 30 20 ( ) 80 100 (
2 1
j V V I j I j
b a
+ = − = + − + (1)
53 . 190 ) 10 80 ( ) 30 20 (
2 1
j V V I j I j
c b
− = − = − + + − (2)
Solving (1) and (2) gives 722 . 1 9088 . 0 , 6084 . 0 8616 . 1
2 1
j I j I − = − = .

A 55 . 130 4656 . 1 1136 . 1 528 . 0 , A 1 . 18 9585 . 1
1 2 1
o
b
o
a
j I I I I I − ∠ = − − = − = − ∠ = =

A 8 . 117 947 . 1
2
o
c
I I ∠ = − =

Chapter 12, Solution 58.

The schematic is shown below. IPRINT is inserted in the neutral line to measure the
current through the line. In the AC Sweep box, we select Total Ptss = 1, Start Freq. =
0.1592, and End Freq. = 0.1592. After simulation, the output file includes

FREQ IM(V_PRINT4) IP(V_PRINT4)

1.592 E–01 1.078 E+01 –8.997 E+01
i.e. I
n
= 10.78∠–89.97° A

Chapter 12, Solution 59.

The schematic is shown below. In the AC Sweep box, we set Total Pts = 1, Start Freq
= 60, and End Freq = 60. After simulation, we obtain an output file which includes

FREQ VM(1) VP(1)

6.000 E+01 2.206 E+02 –3.456 E+01

FREQ VM(2) VP(2)

6.000 E+01 2.141 E+02 –8.149 E+01

FREQ VM(3) VP(3)

6.000 E+01 4.991 E+01 –5.059 E+01

i.e. V
AN
= 220.6∠–34.56°, V
BN
= 214.1∠–81.49°, V
CN
= 49.91∠–50.59° V

hapter 12, Solution 60.
he schematic is shown below. IPRINT is inserted to give I
o
. We select Total Pts = 1,
FREQ IM(V_PRINT4) IP(V_PRINT4)
.592 E–01 1.421 E+00 –1.355 E+02

om which, I
o
= 1.421∠–135.5° A

C

T
Start Freq = 0.1592, and End Freq = 0.1592 in the AC Sweep box. Upon simulation,
the output file includes

1
fr

Chapter 12, Solution 61.

The schematic is shown below. Pseudocomponents IPRINT and PRINT are inserted to
measure I
aA
and V
BN
. In the AC Sweep box, we set Total Pts = 1, Start Freq = 0.1592,
and End Freq = 0.1592. Once the circuit is simulated, we get an output file which
includes
FREQ VM(2) VP(2)

1.592 E–01 2.308 E+02 –1.334 E+02

FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2)

1.592 E–01 1.115 E+01 3.699 E+01
from which
I
aA
= 11.15∠37° A, V
BN
= 230.8∠–133.4° V

Chapter 12, Solution 62.

Because of the delta-connected source involved, we follow Example 12.12. In the AC
Sweep box, we type Total Pts = 1, Start Freq = 60, and End Freq = 60. After
simulation, the output file includes

FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2)

6.000 E+01 5.960 E+00 –9.141 E+01

FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)

6.000 E+01 7.333 E+07 1.200 E+02
From which
I
ab
= 7.333x10
7
∠120° A, I
bB
= 5.96∠–91.41° A

Chapter 12, Solution 63.

Let F 0333 . 0
X
1
C and H, 20 X/ L that so 1 = = = = =
ω
ω ω

The schematic is shown below..
.

When the file is saved and run, we obtain an output file which includes the following:

FREQ IM(V_PRINT1)IP(V_PRINT1)

1.592E-01 1.867E+01 1.589E+02

FREQ IM(V_PRINT2)IP(V_PRINT2)

1.592E-01 1.238E+01 1.441E+02

From the output file, the required currents are:

A 1 . 144 38 . 12 A, 9 . 158 67 . 18
o
AC
o
aA
I I ∠ = ∠ =

Chapter 12, Solution 64.

We follow Example 12.12. In the AC Sweep box we type Total Pts = 1, Start Freq =
0.1592, and End Freq = 0.1592. After simulation the output file includes

FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)

1.592 E–01 4.710 E+00 7.138 E+01

FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2)

1.592 E–01 6.781 E+07 –1.426 E+02

FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)

1.592 E–01 3.898 E+00 –5.076 E+00

FREQ IM(V_PRINT4) IP(V_PRINT4)

1.592 E–01 3.547 E+00 6.157 E+01

FREQ IM(V_PRINT5) IP(V_PRINT5)

1.592 E–01 1.357 E+00 9.781 E+01

FREQ IM(V_PRINT6) IP(V_PRINT6)

1.592 E–01 3.831 E+00 –1.649 E+02

from this we obtain

I
aA
= 4.71∠71.38° A, I
bB
= 6.781∠–142.6° A, I
cC
= 3.898∠–5.08° A

I
AB
= 3.547∠61.57° A, I
AC
= 1.357∠97.81° A, I
BC
= 3.831∠–164.9° A

Chapter 12, Solution 65.

Due to the delta-connected source, we follow Example 12.12. We type Total Pts = 1,
Start Freq = 0.1592, and End Freq = 0.1592. The schematic is shown below. After it
is saved and simulated, we obtain an output file which includes

FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)

1.592 E–01 6.581 E+00 9.866 E+01

FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2)

1.592 E–01 1.140 E+01 –1.113 E+02

FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)

1.592 E–01 6.581 E+00 3.866 E+01

Thus, I
aA
= 6.581∠98.66° A, I
bB
= 11.4∠–111.3 A, I
cC
= 6.581∠38.66° A

Chapter 12, Solution 66. Chapter 12, Solution 66.

(a) = = =
3
208
3
V
V
L
p
V 120 (a)

= = =
3
208
3
V
V
L
p
V 120
(b) Because the load is unbalanced, we have an unbalanced three-phase
system. Assuming an abc sequence,
(b) Because the load is unbalanced, we have an unbalanced three-phase
system. Assuming an abc sequence,

A 0 5 . 2
48
0 120
1
° ∠ =
° ∠
= I

A 120 - 3
40
120 - 120
2
° ∠ =
° ∠
= I

A 120 2
60
120 120
3
° ∠ =
° ∠
= I
A 0 5 . 2
48
0 120
1
° ∠ =
° ∠
= I
A 120 - 3
40
120 - 120
2
° ∠ =
° ∠
= I
A 120 2
60
120 120
3
° ∠ =
° ∠
= I

+ +

− + = + + =
2
3
j 5 . 0 - ) 2 (
2
3
j 0.5 - ) 3 ( 5 . 2 -
3 2 1 N
I I I I

+ +

− + = + + =
2
3
j 5 . 0 - ) 2 (
2
3
j 0.5 - ) 3 ( 5 . 2 -
3 2 1 N
I I I I

A 90 866 . 0 866 . 0 j
2
3
j
N
° ∠ = = = I
Hence,
=
1
I A 5 . 2 , =
2
I A 3 , =
3
I A 2 , =
N
I A 866 . 0

(c) = = = ) 48 ( ) 5 . 2 ( R I P
2
1
2
1 1
W 300
= = = ) 40 ( ) 3 ( R I P
2
2
2
2 2
W 360
= = = ) 60 ( ) 2 ( R I P
2
3
2
3 3
W 240

(d) = + + =
3 2 1 T
P P P P W 900

Chapter 12, Solution 67.

(a) The power to the motor is
kW 221 ) 85 . 0 )( 260 ( cos S P
T
= = θ =

The motor power per phase is
kW 67 . 73 P
3
1
P
T p
= =

Hence, the wattmeter readings are as follows:
= + = 24 67 . 73 W
a
kW 67 . 97
= + = 15 67 . 73 W
b
kW 67 . 88
= + = 9 67 . 73 W
c
kW 67 . 83

(b) The motor load is balanced so that 0 I
N
= .
For the lighting loads,

A 200
120
000 , 24
I
a
= =

A 125
120
000 , 15
I
b
= =

A 75
120
000 , 9
I
c
= =

If we let
A 0 200 0 I
a a
° ∠ = ° ∠ = I
A 120 - 125
b
° ∠ = I
A 120 75
c
° ∠ = I
Then,
c b a N
- I I I I + + =

+ +

− + =
2
3
j 0.5 - ) 75 (
2
3
j 5 . 0 - ) 125 ( 200 -
N
I

A 602 . 86 100 -
N
− = I
=
N
I A 3 . 132

Chapter 12, Solution 68.

(a) = = = ) 4 . 8 )( 330 ( 3 I V 3 S
L L
VA 4801

(b)
S
P
cos pf cos S P = θ = →  θ =

= =
24 . 4801
4500
pf 9372 . 0

(c) For a wye-connected load,
= =
L p
I I A 4 . 8

(d) = = =
3
330
3
V
V
L
p
V 53 . 190

Chapter 12, Solution 69.

MVA 8 . 0 S MVA, 323 . 1 5 . 1 ) 661 . 0 75 . 0 ( 2 S MVA, 72 . 0 96 . 0 ) 6 . 0 8 . 0 ( 2 . 1 3 2 1 = − = − = + = + = j j j S

9833 . 0
3153 . 3
26 . 3
MVA, 603 . 0 26 . 3 3 2 1 = = = − = + + =
S
P
pf j S S S S

MVA 1379 . 0 ) 99 . 0 tan(cos ) 9833 . 0 [tan(cos 26 . 3 ) tan (tan
1 1
= − = − =
− −
new old c
P Q

mF 28
10 6 . 6 60 2
10 1379 . 0
3
1
6 2
6
= =
x x x
x x
C
π

Chapter 12, Solution 70.

800 400 1200 P P P
2 1 T
= − = + =

1600 - 1200 400 - P P Q
1 2 T
= − = − =

° = θ ÷→ ÷ = = = θ -63.43 -2
800
1600 -
P
Q
tan
T
T

= θ = cos pf (leading) 4472 . 0

40
6
240
I
V
Z
L
L
p
= = =

=
p
Z Ω ° ∠ 63.43 - 40

Chapter 12, Solution 71.

(a) If , ° ∠ = 0 208
ab
V ° ∠ = 120 - 208
bc
V , ° ∠ = 120 208
ca
V ,

° ∠ =
° ∠
= = 0 4 . 10
20
0 208
Ab
ab
AB
Z
V
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 75 - 708 . 14
45 - 2 10
120 - 208
BC
bc
BC
Z
V
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= = 97.38 16
22.62 13
120 208
CA
ca
CA
Z
V
I

° ∠ − ° ∠ = − = 97.38 16 0 4 . 10
CA AB aA
I I I
867 . 15 j 055 . 2 4 . 10
aA
− + = I
° ∠ = 51.87 - 171 . 20
aA
I

° ∠ − ° ∠ = − = 75 - 708 . 14 97.83 16
BC CA cC
I I I
° ∠ = 101.03 64 . 30
cC
I

) cos( P
aA ab
I V aA ab 1
θ − θ = I V
= ° + ° = ) 87 . 51 0 cos( ) 171 . 20 )( 208 ( P
1
W 2590

) cos( P
cC cb
I V cC cb 2
θ − θ = I V
But ° ∠ = = 60 208 -
bc cb
V V

= ° − ° = ) 03 . 101 60 cos( ) 64 . 30 )( 208 ( P
2
W 4808

(b) W 17 . 7398 P P P
2 1 T
= + =
VAR 25 . 3840 ) P P ( 3 Q
1 2 T
= − =
= + =
T T T
jQ P S VA 25 . 3840 j 17 . 7398 +
= =
T T
S S V 8335 A

Chapter 12, Solution 72.

From Problem 12.11,
V 130 220
AB
° ∠ = V and A 180 30
aA
° ∠ = I

= ° − ° = ) 180 130 cos( ) 30 )( 220 ( P
1
W 4242

° ∠ = = 190 220 -
BC CB
V V
° ∠ = 60 - 30
cC
I

= ° + ° = ) 60 190 cos( ) 30 )( 220 ( P
2
W 2257 -

Chapter 12, Solution 73.

Consider the circuit as shown below.
I
1
I
2
Z
Z
240∠-120° V

+
I
a
I
b
+

240∠-60° V
Z
I
c
° ∠ = + = 71.57 62 . 31 30 j 10 Z

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= 131.57 - 59 . 7
71.57 62 . 31
60 - 240
a
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠
= 191.57 - 59 . 7
71.57 62 . 31
120 - 240
b
I

0 120 - 240 60 - 240
c
= ° ∠ − ° ∠ + Z I

° ∠ =
° ∠
= 108.43 59 . 7
71.57 31.62
240 -
c
I

° ∠ = − = 101.57 - 146 . 13
c a 1
I I I
° ∠ = + = 138.43 146 . 13
c b 2
I I I

| | | |
= ° ∠ ° ∠ = = ) .57 101 146 . 13 )( 60 - 240 ( Re Re P
*
1 1 1
I V W 2360

| | | |
= ° ∠ ° ∠ = = ) 138.43 - 146 . 13 )( 120 - 240 ( Re Re P
*
2 2 2
I V W 8 . 632 -

Chapter 12, Solution 74.

Consider the circuit shown below.
Z = 60 − j30 Ω
For mesh 1,

+
208∠-60° V
I
2
I
1
+

208∠0° V
Z
Z
2 1
2 208 I Z I Z − =
For mesh 2,
2 1
2 - 60 - 208 - I Z I Z + = ° ∠
In matrix form,
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

° ∠
2
1
2 -
- 2
60 - 208 -
208
I
I
Z Z
Z Z

2
3Z = ∆ , Z ) 866 . 0 j 5 . 1 )( 208 (
1
+ = ∆ , Z ) 732 . 1 j )( 208 (
2
= ∆

° ∠ =

+
=

= 56.56 789 . 1
) 30 j 60 )( 3 (
) 866 . 0 j 5 . 1 )( 208 (
1
1
I

° ∠ =

=

= 116.56 79 . 1
) 30 j 60 )( 3 (
) 732 . 1 j )( 208 (
2
2
I

| | | |
= ° ∠ = = ) 56.56 - 789 . 1 )( 208 ( Re Re P
*
1 1 1
I V W 98 . 208

| | | |
= ° ∠ ° ∠ = = ) 63.44 79 . 1 ))( 60 - 208 ( Re ) - ( Re P
*
2 2 2
I V W 65 . 371

Chapter 12, Solution 75.

(a) = = =
600
12
R
V
I mA 20

(b) = = =
600
120
R
V
I mA 200

Chapter 12, Solution 76.

If both appliances have the same power rating, P,
s
V
P
I =
For the 120-V appliance,
120
P
I
1
= .
For the 240-V appliance,
240
P
I
2
= .

Power loss =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
appliance -V 240 for the
240
R P
appliance -V 120 for the
120
R P
R
2
2
2
2
2
I

Since
2 2
240
1
120
1
> , the losses in the 120-V appliance are higher.
Chapter 12, Solution 77.

,
line load T g
P P P P − − = 85 . 0 pf =

But 3060 pf 3600 cos 3600 P
T
= × = θ =

= − − = ) 80 )( 3 ( 2500 3060 P
g
W 320

Chapter 12, Solution 78.

° = θ ÷→ ÷ = = θ 79 . 31 85 . 0
60
51
cos
1 1

kVAR 61 . 31 ) 5268 . 0 )( 60 ( sin S Q
1 1 1
= = θ =

kW 51 P P
1 2
= =
° = θ ÷→ ÷ = θ 19 . 18 95 . 0 cos
2 2

kVA 68 . 53
cos
P
S
2
2
2
=
θ
=

kVAR 759 . 16 sin S Q
2 2 2
= θ =

kVAR 851 . 14 759 . 16 61 . 3 Q Q Q
2 1 c
= − = − =

For each load,
kVAR 95 . 4
3
Q
Q
c
1 c
= =

=
π
=
ω
=
2 2
1 c
) 440 )( 60 )( 2 (
4950
V
Q
C F 82 . 67 µ

Chapter 12, Solution 79.

Consider the per-phase equivalent circuit below.
I
a
n
a
V
an

+

2 Ω
A
Z
Y
= 12 + j5 Ω
N

=
+
° ∠
=
+
=
5 j 14
0 255
2
Y
an
a
Z
V
I A 19.65 - 15 . 17 ° ∠

Thus,
= ° ∠ = 120 -
a b
I I A 139.65 - 15 . 17 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
a c
I I A 100.35 15 . 17 ° ∠

= ° ∠ ° ∠ = = ) 22.62 13 )( 19.65 - 15 . 17 (
Y a AN
Z I V V 2.97 223 ° ∠

Thus,
= ° ∠ = 120 -
AN BN
V V V 117.63 - 223 ° ∠
= ° ∠ = 120
AN CN
V V V 122.97 223 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 80.

) 7071 . 0 7071 . 0 ( 8 )] 83 . 0 sin(cos 83 . 0 [ 6
2
1
3 2 1
j S j S S S S − + + + = + + =

kVA 31 . 2 6368 . 10
2
S j S + − = (1)

But
kVA j18.287 24.383 VA ) 6 . 0 8 . 0 )( 6 . 84 )( 208 ( 3 3 + = + = ∠ = j I V S
L L
θ (2)

From (1) and (2),
kVA 28 . 56 76 . 24 6 . 20 746 . 13
2
∠ = + = j S
Thus, the unknown load is 24.76 kVA at 0.5551 pf lagging.

Chapter 12, Solution 81.

° = θ →  = 87 . 36 - (leading) 8 . 0 pf
1

kVA 36.87 - 150
1
° ∠ = S

° = θ →  = 0 0 . 1 pf
2

kVA 0 100
2
° ∠ = S

° = θ →  = 13 . 53 (lagging) 6 . 0 pf
3

kVA 53.13 200
3
° ∠ = S

kVA 95 j 80
4
+ = S

4 3 2 1
S S S S S + + + =
kVA 21.45 2 . 451 165 j 420 ° ∠ = + = S

L L
I V 3 S =

j
02 . 0 ( ) 7 . 542 )( 3 ( I 3
2
L
2
L L
+ = = Z S
kVA 18 . 44 j 67 . 17
L
+ = S

At the source,
2 . 209 j 7 . 437
L T
+ = + = S S S
kVA 25.55 1 . 485
T
° ∠ = S

=
×
×
= =
7 . 542 3
10 1 . 485
I 3
S
V
3
L
T
T
V 516

Chapter 12, Solution 82.

p
p
Z
V
j j S
*
2
2 1 3 S kVA, 240 320 ) 6 . 0 8 . 0 ( 400 = + = + =

For the delta-connected load, V
p L
V =

kVA 93 . 842 7 . 1053
8 10
) 2400 (
3
2
2 j
j
x S + =

=

MVA 0829 . 1 3737 . 1 2 1 j S S S + = + =
Let I = I
1
+ I
2
be the total line current. For I
1
,

3
, 3 1
*
1
L
p p
V
V I V S = =

735 . 57 98 . 76 ,
) 2400 ( 3
10 ) 240 320 (
3
1
3
1
1
*
j I
x j
V
S
I
L
− =
+
= =

For I
2
, convert the load to wye.

76 . 289 1 . 273 30 3
8 10
2400
30 3
2
j
j
I I
o o
p
− = − ∠
+
= − ∠ =

5 . 347 350
2 1
j I I I − = + =

kV 372 . 5 | | kV 405 . 1 185 . 5 ) 6 3 ( 2400 = →  + = + + = + =
s line L s
V j j I V V V

Chapter 12, Solution 83.

kVA 80 S kVA, 135 . 60 135 . 60 ) 707 . 0 707 . 0 ( 95 . 0 746 120
2 1
= + = + = j j x x S

kVA 135 . 60 135 . 140
2 1
j S S S + = + =

A 42 . 183
480 3
10 49 . 152
3
| |
3 | | But
3
= = = →  =
x
x
V
S
I I V S
L
L L L

Chapter 12, Solution 84.

We first find the magnitude of the various currents.

For the motor,
A 248 . 5
3 440
4000
V 3
S
I
L
L
= = =

For the capacitor,
A 091 . 4
440
1800
V
Q
I
L
c
C
= = =

For the lighting,
V 254
3
440
V
p
= =

A 15 . 3
254
800
V
P
I
p
Li
Li
= = =

Consider the figure below.

I
a
I
1
a
-jX
C

R
I
n
I
Li
I
3
I
2
I
c
+
V
ab

I
b
I
C
b
c
n

If , ° ∠ = 0 V
p an
V ° ∠ = 30 V 3
p ab
V
° ∠ = 120 V
p cn
V

° ∠ = = 120 091 . 4
X -j
C
ab
C
V
I

) 30 ( 091 . 4
ab
1
° + θ ∠ = =

Z
V
I
where θ ° = = 95 . 43 ) 72 . 0 ( cos
-1

° ∠ = 73.95 249 . 5
1
I

° ∠ = 46.05 - 249 . 5
2
I

° ∠ = 193.95 249 . 5
3
I

° ∠ = = 120 15 . 3
R
cn
Li
V
I

Thus,
° ∠ + ° ∠ = + = 120 091 . 4 73.95 249 . 5
C 1 a
I I I
=
a
I A 93.96 608 . 8 ° ∠

° ∠ − ° ∠ = − = 120 091 . 4 46.05 - 249 . 5
C 2 b
I I I
=
b
I A 52.16 - 271 . 9 ° ∠

° ∠ + ° ∠ = + = 120 15 . 3 193.95 249 . 5
Li 3 c
I I I
=
c
I A 167.6 827 . 6 ° ∠

= =
Li n
- I I A 60 - 15 . 3 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 85.

Let Z R
Y
=

V 56 . 138
3
240
3
V
V
L
p
= = =

R
V
kW 9
2
27
I V P
2
p
p p
= = = =

Ω = = = 133 . 2
9000
) 56 . 138 (
P
V
R
2
2
p

Thus, =
Y
Z Ω 133 . 2

Chapter 12, Solution 86.

Consider the circuit shown below.
1 Ω
B
N
A
b
n
I
1
I
2
+

120∠0° V rms 15 + j4 Ω
24 – j2 Ω
1 Ω
a
+

120∠0° V rms
1 Ω

For the two meshes,
2 1
) 2 j 26 ( 120 I I − − = (1)
1 2
) 4 j 17 ( 120 I I − + = (2)

In matrix form,

+

=

2
1
4 j 17 1 -
1 - 2 j 26
120
120
I
I

70 j 449 + = ∆ , ) 4 j 18 )( 120 (
1
+ = ∆ , ) 2 j 27 )( 120 (
2
− = ∆

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠ ×
=

= 3.67 87 . 4
8.86 42 . 454
12.53 44 . 18 120
1
1
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠ ×
=

= 13.1 - 15 . 7
8.86 42 . 454
4.24 - 07 . 27 120
2
2
I

= =
1 aA
I I A 3.67 87 . 4 ° ∠
= =
2 bB
- I I A 166.9 15 . 7 ° ∠

∆ − ∆
= − =
1 2
1 2 nN
I I I

=
+

=
70 j 449
) 6 j 9 )( 120 (
nN
I A 42.55 - 856 . 2 ° ∠

Chapter 12, Solution 87.

85 . 18 j ) 5010 )( 60 )( 2 ( j L j mH 50 L
3 -
= π = ω →  =
Consider the circuit below.
1 Ω

30 Ω
20 Ω
I
1
I
2
+

2 Ω
+

1 Ω
115 V
15 + j18.85 Ω
115 V

Applying KVl to the three meshes, we obtain
115 20 2 23
3 2 1
= − − I I I (1)
115 30 33 2 -
3 2 1
= − + I I I (2)
0 ) 85 . 18 j 65 ( 30 20 -
3 2 1
= + + − I I I (3)
In matrix form,

=

+ 0
115
115
j18.85 65 30 - 20 -
30 - 33 2 -
20 - 2 - 23
3
2
1
I
I
I

232 , 14 j 775 , 12 + = ∆ , ) 8 . 659 j 1975 )( 115 (
1
+ = ∆
) 3 . 471 j 1825 )( 115 (
2
+ = ∆ , ) 1450 )( 115 (
3
= ∆

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠ ×
=

= 29.62 - 52 . 12
48.09 19214
47 . 18 2082 115
1
1
I

° ∠ =
° ∠
° ∠ ×
=

= 33.61 - 33 . 11
48.09 19124
14.48 9 . 1884 115
2
2
I

=
+

=

∆ − ∆
= − =
75 . 231 , 14 j 775 , 12
) 5 . 188 j -150 )( 115 (
1 2
1 2 n
I I I A 176.6 - 448 . 1 ° ∠

= ° ∠ = = ) 29.62 52 . 12 )( 115 ( I V S
*
1 1 1
VA 6 . 711 j 1252 +
= ° ∠ = = ) 33.61 33 . 1 )( 115 (
*
2 2 2
I V S V 2 . 721 j 1085 A +

Chapter 13, Solution 1.

For coil 1, L
1
– M
12
+ M
13
= 6 – 4 + 2 = 4

For coil 2, L
2
– M
21
– M
23
= 8 – 4 – 5 = – 1

For coil 3, L
3
+ M
31
– M
32
= 10 + 2 – 5 = 7

L
T
= 4 – 1 + 7 = 10H

or L
T
= L
1
+ L
2
+ L
3
– 2M
12
– 2M
23
+ 2M
12

L
T
= 6 + 8 + 10 = 10H

Chapter 13, Solution 2.

L = L
1
+ L
2
+ L
3
+ 2M
12
– 2M
23
2M
31

= 10 + 12 +8 + 2x6 – 2x6 –2x4

= 22H

Chapter 13, Solution 3.

L
1
+ L
2
+ 2M = 250 mH (1)

L
1
+ L
2
– 2M = 150 mH (2)

Adding (1) and (2),

2L
1
+ 2L
2
= 400 mH

But, L
1
= 3L
2,
, or 8L
2
+ 400, and L
2
= 50 mH

L
1
= 3L
2
= 150 mH

From (2), 150 + 50 – 2M = 150 leads to M = 25 mH

k = M/ 150 x 50 / 5 . 2 L L
2 1
= = 0.2887

Chapter 13, Solution 4.

(a) For the series connection shown in Figure (a), the current I enters each coil from
its dotted terminal. Therefore, the mutually induced voltages have the same sign as the
self-induced voltages. Thus,
L
eq
= L
1
+ L
2
+ 2M

L
2

L
1

L
2

L
1

I
1
I
2

I
s

V
s
+

L
eq

(a)

(b)

(b) For the parallel coil, consider Figure (b).

I
s
= I
1
+ I
2
and Z
eq
= V
s
/I
s

Applying KVL to each branch gives,

V
s
= jωL
1
I
1
+ jωMI
2
(1)

V
s
= jωMI
1
+ jω L
2
I
2
(2)

or

ω ω
ω ω
=

2
1
2
1
s
s
I
I
L j M j
M j L j
V
V

∆ = –ω
2
L
1
L
2
+ ω
2
M
2
, ∆
1
= jωV
s
(L
2
– M), ∆
2
= jωV
s
(L
1
– M)

I
1
= ∆
1
/∆, and I
2
= ∆
2
/∆

I
s
= I
1
+ I
2
= (∆
1
+ ∆
2
)/∆ = jω(L
1
+ L
2
– 2M)V
s
/( –ω
2
(L
1
L
2
– M))

Z
eq
= V
s
/I
s
= jω(L
1
L
2
– M)/[jω(L
1
+ L
2
– 2M)] = jωL
eq

i.e., L
eq
= (L
1
L
2
– M)/(L
1
+ L
2
– 2M)

Chapter 13, Solution 5.

(a) If the coils are connected in series,

= + + = + + = 60 x 25 ) 5 . 0 ( 2 60 25 M 2 L L L
2 1
123.7 mH

(b) If they are connected in parallel,

=
− +

=
− +

= mH
36 . 19 x 2 60 25
36 . 19 60 x 25
M 2 L L
M L L
L
2
2 1
2
2 1
24.31 mH

Chapter 13, Solution 6.

V
1
= (R
1
+ jωL
1
)I
1
– jωMI
2

V
2
= –jωMI
1
+ (R
2
+ jωL
2
)I
2

Chapter 13, Solution 7.

Applying KVL to the loop,

20∠30
°
= I(–j6 + j8 + j12 +

10 – j4x2) = I(10 + j6)

where I is the loop current.

I = 20∠30°/(10 + j6)

V
o
= I(j12 + 10 – j4) = I(10 + j8)

= 20∠30°(10 + j8)/(10 + j6) = 22∠37.66° V

Chapter 13, Solution 8.

Consider the current as shown below.

j 6
j 4

1 Ω

-j3

j2
10
+

I
2
I
1
4 Ω

+
V
o

For mesh 1,

10 = (1 + j6)I
1
+ j2I
2
(1)

For mesh 2, 0 = (4 + j4 – j3)I
2
+ j2I
1

0 = j2I
1
+(4 + j)I
2
(2)

In matrix form,

+
+
=

2
1
I
I
j 4 2 j
2 j 6 j 1
0
10

∆ = 2 + j25, and ∆
2
= –j20

I
2
= ∆
2
/∆ = –j20/(2 + j25)

V
o
= –j3I
2
= –60/(2 + j25) = 2.392∠94.57°

Chapter 13, Solution 9.

Consider the circuit below.

2 Ω

-j1
2 Ω

For loop 1,
-j2V
+

j 4
j 4

8∠30
o
+

I
2
I
1

8∠30° = (2 + j4)I
1
– jI
2
(1)

For loop 2, ((j4 + 2 – j)I
2
– jI
1
+ (–j2) = 0

or I
1
= (3 – j2)i
2
– 2 (2)

Substituting (2) into (1), 8∠30° + (2 + j4)2 = (14 + j7)I
2

I
2
= (10.928 + j12)/(14 + j7) = 1.037∠21.12°

V
x
= 2I
2
= 2.074∠21.12°
Chapter 13, Solution 10.

Consider the circuit below.

I
o
jωL jωL
1/jωC
I
2
I
1
jωM
I
in
∠0
o

2
2 1
L L L k M = = = L, I
1
= I
in
∠0°, I
2
= I
o

I
o
(jωL + R + 1/(jωC)) – jωLI
in
– (1/(jωC))I
in
= 0
I
o
= j I
in
(ωL – 1/(ωC)) /(R + jωL + 1/(jωC))

Chapter 13, Solution 11.

Consider the circuit below.

I
1
jωL
1
R
1
R
2
jωL
2
1/jωC
jωM
V
2
+ –
V
1

+

I
3
I
2

For mesh 1, V
1
= I
1
(R
1
+ 1/(jωC)) – I
2
(1/jωC)) –R
1
I
3

For mesh 2,
0 = –I
1
(1/(jωC)) + (jωL
1
+ jωL
2
+ (1/(jωC)) – j2ωM)I
2
– jωL
1
I
3
+ jωMI
3

For mesh 3, –V
2
= –R
1
I
1
– jω(L
1
– M)I
2
+ (R
1
+ R
2
+ jωL
1
)I
3

or V
2
= R
1
I
1
+ jω(L
1
– M)I
2
– (R
1
+ R
2
+ jωL
1
)I
3

Chapter 13, Solution 12.

Let . 1 = ω j4
j2

+ j6 j8 j10
1V
- I
1
I
2

Applying KVL to the loops,

2 1
4 8 1 I j I j + = (1)
2 1
18 4 0 I j I j + = (2)
Solving (1) and (2) gives I
1
= -j0.1406. Thus

H 111 . 7
1 1
1 1
= = →  = =
jI
L jL
I
Z
eq eq

We can also use the equivalent T-section for the transform to find the equivalent
inductance.

Chapter 13, Solution 13.

We replace the coupled inductance with an equivalent T-section and use series and
parallel combinations to calculate Z. Assuming that , 1 = ω

10 , 10 10 20 , 8 10 18
2 1
= = = − = − = = − = − = M L M L L M L L
c b a

The equivalent circuit is shown below:

12Ω j8Ω j10Ω 2 Ω

j10Ω

-j6Ω

Z

j4Ω

Z=12 +j8 + j14//(2 + j4) = 13.195 + j11.244Ω

Chapter 13, Solution 14.

To obtain V
Th
, convert the current source to a voltage source as shown below.
5 Ω

-j3 Ω
+

8 V
+
V
Th

2 Ω

j8 Ω
a
b
j10 V
+

j6 Ω
I
j2

Note that the two coils are connected series aiding.

ωL = ωL
1
+ ωL
2
– 2ωM

jωL = j6 + j8 – j4 = j10

Thus, –j10 + (5 + j10 – j3 + 2)I + 8 = 0

I = (– 8 + j10)/ (7 + j7)

But, –j10 + (5 + j6)I – j2I + V
Th
= 0

V
Th
= j10 – (5 + j4)I = j10 – (5 + j4)(–8 + j10)/(7 + j7)

V
Th
= 5.349∠34.11°

To obtain Z
Th
, we set all the sources to zero and insert a 1-A current source at the terminals
a–b as shown below.

I
2
I
1
1 A

5 Ω

j6 Ω j8 Ω -j3 Ω
a
j2
2 Ω
+
V
o

b

Clearly, we now have only a super mesh to analyze.

(5 + j6)I
1
– j2I
2
+ (2 + j8 – j3)I
2
– j2I
1
= 0

(5 + j4)I
1
+ (2 + j3)I
2
= 0 (1)

But, I
2
– I
1
= 1 or I
2
= I
1
– 1 (2)

Substituting (2) into (1), (5 + j4)I
1
+(2 + j3)(1 + I
1
) = 0

I
1
= –(2 + j3)/(7 + j7)

Now, ((5 + j6)I
1
– j2I
1
+ V
o
= 0

V
o
= –(5 + j4)I
1
= (5 + j4)(2 + j3)/(7 + j7) = (–2 + j23)/(7 + j7) = 2.332∠50°

Z
Th
= V
o
/1 = 2.332∠50° ohms

Chapter 13, Solution 15.

To obtain I
N
, short-circuit a–b as shown in Figure (a).

I
1
I
2
I
1
20 Ω
j10 Ω
j20 Ω

a

j5
1

+

20 Ω

j10 Ω

j20 Ω
a
j5
I
N
60∠30
o
+

I
2

b b

(a)

(b)
For mesh 1,
60∠30° = (20 + j10)I
1
+ j5I
2
– j10I
2

or 12∠30° = (4 + j2)I
1
– jI
2
(1)
For mesh 2,
0 = (j20 + j10)I
2
– j5I
1
– j10I
1

or I
1
= 2I
2
(2)

Substituting (2) into (1), 12∠30° = (8 + j3)I
2

I
N
= I
2
= 12∠30°/(8 + j3) = 1.404∠9.44° A

To find Z
N
, we set all the sources to zero and insert a 1-volt voltage source at terminals a–
b as shown in Figure (b).

For mesh 1, 1 = I
1
(j10 + j20 – j5x2) + j5I
2

1 = j20I
1
+ j5I
2
(3)

For mesh 2, 0 = (20 + j10)I
2
+ j5I
1
– j10I
1
= (4 + j2)I
2
– jI
1

or I
2
= jI
1
/(4 + j2) (4)

Substituting (4) into (3), 1 = j20I
1
+ j(j5)I
1
/(4 + j2) = (–1 + j20.5)I
1

I
1
= 1/(–1 + j20.5)

Z
N
= 1/I
1
= (–1 + j20.5) ohms
Chapter 13, Solution 16.

To find I
N
, we short-circuit a-b.
j Ω
8Ω -j2Ω

a
• •

+ j4Ω j6Ω I
2
I
N

80 V I
o
0 ∠
1

-
b

80 ) 2 8 ( 0 ) 4 2 8 ( 80
2 1 2 1
= − + →  = − + − + − jI I j jI I j j (1)
2 1 1 2
6 0 6 I I jI I j = →  = − (2)

Solving (1) and (2) leads to
A 91 . 12 6246 . 1 362 . 0 584 . 1
11 48
80
2
o
N
j
j
I I − ∠ = − =
+
= =

To find Z
N
, insert a 1-A current source at terminals a-b. Transforming the current source
to voltage source gives the circuit below.

j Ω
8Ω -j2Ω 2Ω
a

• • +

j4Ω j6Ω I
2
2V
I
1

-
b

2 8
) 2 8 ( 0
2
1 2 1
j
jI
I jI I j
+
= →  − + = (3)

0 ) 6 2 ( 2
1 2
= − + + jI I j (4)
Solving (3) and (4) leads to I
2
= -0.1055 +j0.2975, V
ab
=-j6I
2
= 1.7853 +0.6332

Ω ∠ = =
o ab
N
53 . 19 894 . 1
1
V
Z

Chapter 13, Solution 17.

Z = -j6 // Z
o

where
7 . 15 j 5213 . 0
4 5 j 2 j 30 j
144
20 j Z
o
+ =
+ + −
+ =

Ω − =
+ −

= 7 . 9 j 1989 . 0
Z 6 j
xZ 6 j
Z
o
o

Chapter 13, Solution 18.

Let 5 10 5 . 0 , 20 , 5 . 1
2 1 2 1
= = = = = = x L L k M L L ω

We replace the transformer by its equivalent T-section.

5 , 25 5 20 , 10 5 5 ) (
1 1
− = − = = + = + = = + = − − = M L M L L M L L
c b a

We find Z
Th
using the circuit below.

-j4 j10 j25 j2

-j5

Z
Th

4+j6

Ω + =
+
+
+ = + + = 12 . 29 215 . 2
7 4
) 4 ( 6
27 ) 6 //( ) 4 ( 27 j
j
j j
j j j j Z
Th

We find V
Th
by looking at the circuit below.

-j4 j10 j25 j2

+
-j5
+
V
Th

120<0
o
4+j6 -
-

V 22 . 46 37 . 61 ) 120 (
6 4
4
o
Th
j j
j
V − ∠ =
+ +
+
=

Chapter 13, Solution 19.

Let H 65 25 40 ) ( . 1
1
= + = − − = = M L L
a
ω

25 L H, 55 25 30
C 2
− = − = = + = + = M M L L
b

Thus, the T-section is as shown below.

j65Ω j55Ω

-j25Ω

Chapter 13, Solution 20.

Transform the current source to a voltage source as shown below.

4 Ω

20∠0
o
+

8 Ω
j12

+

I
3
j10 j10
-j5
I
2
I
1
k=0.5

k = M/
2 1
L L or M = k
2 1
L L

ωM = k
2 1
L L ω ω = 0.5(10) = 5

For mesh 1, j12 = (4 + j10 – j5)I
1
+ j5I
2
+ j5I
2
= (4 + j5)I
1
+ j10I
2
(1)

For mesh 2, 0 = 20 + (8 + j10 – j5)I
2
+ j5I
1
+ j5I
1

–20 = +j10I
1
+ (8 + j5)I
2
(2)

From (1) and (2),

+ +
+ +
=

2
1
I
I
5 j 8 10 j
10 j 5 j 4
20
12 j

∆ = 107 + j60, ∆
1
= –60 –j296, ∆
2
= 40 – j100

I
1
= ∆
1
/∆ = 2.462∠72.18° A

I
2
= ∆
2
/∆ = 0.878∠–97.48° A

I
3
= I
1
– I
2
= 3.329∠74.89° A

i
1
= 2.462 cos(1000t + 72.18°) A

i
2
= 0.878 cos(1000t – 97.48°) A

At t = 2 ms, 1000t = 2 rad = 114.6°

i
1
= 0.9736cos(114.6° + 143.09°) = –2.445

i
2
= 2.53cos(114.6° + 153.61°) = –0.8391

The total energy stored in the coupled coils is

w = 0.5L
1
i
1
2
+ 0.5L
2
i
2
2
– Mi
1
i
2

Since ωL
1
= 10 and ω = 1000, L
1
= L
2
= 10 mH, M = 0.5L
1
= 5mH

w = 0.5(10)(–2.445)
2
+ 0.5(10)(–0.8391)
2
– 5(–2.445)(–0.8391)

w = 43.67 mJ

Chapter 13, Solution 21.

For mesh 1, 36∠30° = (7 + j6)I
1
– (2 + j)I
2
(1)

For mesh 2, 0 = (6 + j3 – j4)I
2
– 2I
1
jI
1
= –(2 + j)I
1
+ (6 – j)I
2
(2)

Placing (1) and (2) into matrix form,

− − −
− − +
=

° ∠
2
1
I
I
j 6 j 2
j 2 6 j 7
0
30 36

∆ = 48 + j35 = 59.41∠36.1°, ∆
1
= (6 – j)36∠30° = 219∠20.54°

2
= (2 + j)36∠30° = 80.5∠56.56°, I
1
= ∆
1
/∆ = 3.69∠–15.56°, I
2
= ∆
2
/∆ = 1.355∠20.46°

Power absorbed fy the 4-ohm resistor, = 0.5(I
2
)
2
4 = 2(1.355)
2
= 3.672 watts

Chapter 13, Solution 22.

With more complex mutually coupled circuits, it may be easier to show the effects of the
coupling as sources in terms of currents that enter or leave the dot side of the coil. Figure
13.85 then becomes,
I
x
I
b
I
a
-j50
j30I
b

j60
j20I
a

j10I
a
j80
j30I
c

j40
j10I
b

+ − + − − +

+
I
3
50∠0° V
j20I
c

I
o
I
2
I
1
− +

+

+

100 Ω

Note the following,
I
a
= I
1
– I
3

I
b
= I
2
– I
1

I
c
= I
3
– I
2

and I
o
= I
3

Now all we need to do is to write the mesh equations and to solve for I
o
.

Loop # 1,

-50 + j20(I
3
– I
2
) j 40(I
1
– I
3
) + j10(I
2
– I
1
) – j30(I
3
– I
2
) + j80(I
1
– I
2
) – j10(I
1
– I
3
) = 0

j100I
1
– j60I
2
– j40I
3
= 50

Multiplying everything by (1/j10) yields 10I
1
– 6I
2
– 4I
3
= - j5 (1)

Loop # 2,

j10(I
1
– I
3
) + j80(I
2
–I
1
) + j30(I
3
–I
2
) – j30(I
2
– I
1
) + j60(I
2
– I
3
) – j20(I
1
– I
3
) + 100I
2
= 0

-j60I
1
+ (100 + j80)I
2
– j20I
3
= 0 (2)
Loop # 3,

-j50I
3
+j20(I
1
–I
3
) +j60(I
3
–I
2
) +j30(I
2
–I
1
) –j10(I
2
–I
1
) +j40(I
3
–I
1
) –j20(I
3
–I
2
) = 0

-j40I
1
– j20I
2
+ j10I
3
= 0

Multiplying by (1/j10) yields, -4I
1
– 2I
2
+ I
3
= 0 (3)

Multiplying (2) by (1/j20) yields -3I
1
+ (4 – j5)I
2
– I
3
= 0 (4)

Multiplying (3) by (1/4) yields -I
1
– 0.5I
2
– 0.25I
3
= 0 (5)

Multiplying (4) by (-1/3) yields I
1
– ((4/3) – j(5/3))I
2
+ (1/3)I
3
= -j0.5 (7)

Multiplying [(6)+(5)] by 12 yields (-22 + j20)I
2
+ 7I
3
= 0 (8)

Multiplying [(5)+(7)] by 20 yields -22I
2
– 3I
3
= -j10 (9)

(8) leads to I
2
= -7I
3
/(-22 + j20) = 0.2355∠42.3
o
= (0.17418+j0.15849)I
3
(10)

(9) leads to I
3
= (j10 – 22I
2
)/3, substituting (1) into this equation produces,

I
3
= j3.333 + (-1.2273 – j1.1623)I
3

or I
3
= I
o
= 1.3040∠63
o
amp.

Chapter 13, Solution 23.

ω = 10

0.5 H converts to jωL
1
= j5 ohms

1 H converts to jωL
2
= j10 ohms

0.2 H converts to jωM = j2 ohms

25 mF converts to 1/(jωC) = 1/(10x25x10
-3
) = –j4 ohms

The frequency-domain equivalent circuit is shown below.

j10
I
2
I
1

+

–j4
j5
j2

5 Ω
12∠0°

For mesh 1, 12 = (j5 – j4)I
1
+ j2I
2
– (–j4)I
2

–j2 = I
1
+ 6I
2
(1)

For mesh 2, 0 = (5 + j10)I
2
+ j2I
1
–(–j4)I
1

0 = (5 + j10)I
2
+ j6I
1
(2)

From (1), I
1
= –j12 – 6I
2

Substituting this into (2) produces,

I
2
= 72/(–5 + j26) = 2.7194∠–100.89°

I
1
= –j12 – 6 I
2
= –j12 – 163.17∠–100.89 = 5.068∠52.54°

Hence, i
1
= 5.068cos(10t + 52.54°) A, i
2
= 2.719cos(10t – 100.89°) A.

At t = 15 ms, 10t = 10x15x10
-3
0.15 rad = 8.59°

i
1
= 5.068cos(61.13°) = 2.446

i
2
= 2.719cos(–92.3°) = –0.1089

w = 0.5(5)(2.446)
2
+ 0.5(1)(–0.1089)
2
– (0.2)(2.446)(–0.1089) = 15.02 J

Chapter 13, Solution 24.

(a) k = M/
2 1
L L = 1/ 2 x 4 = 0.3535

(b) ω = 4

1/4 F leads to 1/(jωC) = –j/(4x0.25) = –j

1||(–j) = –j/(1 – j) = 0.5(1 – j)

1 H produces jωM = j4

4 H produces j16

2 H becomes j8

j4

j8
j16
2 Ω
I
2
I
1

+

0.5(1–j)
12∠0°

12 = (2 + j16)I
1
+ j4I
2

or 6 = (1 + j8)I
1
+ j2I
2
(1)

0 = (j8 + 0.5 – j0.5)I
2
+ j4I
1
or I
1
= (0.5 + j7.5)I
2
/(–j4) (2)

Substituting (2) into (1),

24 = (–11.5 – j51.5)I
2
or I
2
= –24/(11.5 + j51.5) = –0.455∠–77.41°

V
o
= I
2
(0.5)(1 – j) = 0.3217∠57.59°

v
o
= 321.7cos(4t + 57.6°) mV

(c) From (2), I
1
= (0.5 + j7.5)I
2
/(–j4) = 0.855∠–81.21°

i
1
= 0.885cos(4t – 81.21°) A, i
2
= –0.455cos(4t – 77.41°) A
At t = 2s,
4t = 8 rad = 98.37°

i
1
= 0.885cos(98.37° – 81.21°) = 0.8169

i
2
= –0.455cos(98.37° – 77.41°) = –0.4249

w = 0.5L
1
i
1
2
+ 0.5L
2
i
2
2
+ Mi
1
i
2

= 0.5(4)(0.8169)
2
+ 0.5(2)(–.4249)
2
+ (1)(0.1869)(–0.4249) = 1.168 J

Chapter 13, Solution 25.

m = k
2 1
L L = 0.5 H

We transform the circuit to frequency domain as shown below.

12sin2t converts to 12∠0°, ω = 2

0.5 F converts to 1/(jωC) = –j

2 H becomes jωL = j4

j1

–j1
b
a
10 Ω
2 Ω
I
o
4 Ω
j2 j2
1 Ω

+

j4 12∠0°

Applying the concept of reflected impedance,

Z
ab
= (2 – j)||(1 + j2 + (1)
2
/(j2 + 3 + j4))

= (2 – j)||(1 + j2 + (3/45) – j6/45)

= (2 – j)||(1 + j2 + (3/45) – j6/45)

= (2 – j)||(1.0667 + j1.8667)

=(2 – j)(1.0667 + j1.8667)/(3.0667 + j0.8667) = 1.5085∠17.9° ohms

I
o
= 12∠0°/(Z
ab
+ 4) = 12/(5.4355 + j0.4636) = 2.2∠–4.88°

i
o
= 2.2sin(2t – 4.88°) A

Chapter 13, Solution 26.

M = k
2 1
L L

ωM = k
2 1
L L ω ω = 0.6 40 x 20 = 17

The frequency-domain equivalent circuit is shown below.

j17

I
o
–j30
I
2
I
1
50 Ω
j40 j20
+

10 Ω
200∠60°

For mesh 1,
200∠60° = (50 – j30 + j20)I
1
+ j17I
2
= (50 – j10)I
1
+ j17I
2
(1)

For mesh 2,
0 = (10 + j40)I
2
+ j17I
1
(2)

In matrix form,

+

=

 ° ∠
2
1
I
I
40 j 10 17 j
17 j 10 j 50
0
60 200

∆ = 900 + j100, ∆
1
= 2000∠60°(1 + j4) = 8246.2∠136°, ∆
2
= 3400∠–30°

I
2
= ∆
2
/∆ = 3.755∠–36.34°

I
o
= I
2
= 3.755∠–36.34° A

Switching the dot on the winding on the right only reverses the direction of I
o
.
This can be seen by looking at the resulting value of ∆
2
which now becomes
3400∠150°. Thus,

I
o
= 3.755∠143.66° A

Chapter 13, Solution 27.

Z
in
= –j4 + j5 + 9/(12 + j6) = 0.6 + j.07 = 0.922∠49.4°

I
1
= 12∠0°/0.922∠49.4° = 13∠–49.4° A

Chapter 13, Solution 28.

We find Z
Th
by replacing the 20-ohm load with a unit source as shown below.

j10Ω
8 -jX Ω

• •
+
j12Ω j15Ω I
2
1V
-
I
1

For mesh 1, 0
2 1
10 ) 12 8 ( I j I j jX − + − = (1)

For mesh 2, (2) j I I I j I j 1 . 0 5 . 1 0 10 15 1
2 1 1 2
− = →  = − +

Substituting (2) into (1) leads to
X j j
X j
I
5 . 1 8 12
1 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 1
2
− +
+ + −
=

X j
X j j
I
Z
Th
1 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 1
5 . 1 8 12 1
2
− −
− +
=

=

624 72 75 . 1 0
8 . 0 ) 1 . 0 2 . 1 (
) 5 . 1 8 ( 12
20 | |
2
2 2
2 2
− + = → 
+ −
− +
= = X X
X
X
Z
Th

Solving the quadratic equation yields X = 6.425

Chapter 13, Solution 29.

30 mH becomes jωL = j30x10
-3
x10
3
= j30

50 mH becomes j50

Let X = ωM

Using the concept of reflected impedance,

Z
in
= 10 + j30 + X
2
/(20 + j50)

I
1
= V/Z
in
= 165/(10 + j30 + X
2
/(20 + j50))

p = 0.5|I
1
|
2
(10) = 320 leads to |I
1
|
2
= 64 or |I
1
| = 8

8 = |165(20 + j50)/(X
2
+ (10 + j30)(20 + j50))|

= |165(20 + j50)/(X
2
– 1300 + j1100)|

or 64 = 27225(400 + 2500)/((X
2
– 1300)
2
+ 1,210,000)

(X
2
– 1300)
2
+ 1,210,000 = 1,233,633

X = 33.86 or 38.13

If X = 38.127 = ωM

M = 38.127 mH

k = M/
2 1
L L = 38.127/ 50 x 30 = 0.984

j38.127

I
2
I
1
10 Ω
j50 j30
+

20 Ω
165∠0°

165 = (10 + j30)I
1
– j38.127I
2
(1)

0 = (20 + j50)I
2
– j38.127I
1
(2)
In matrix form,

+ −
− +
=

2
1
I
I
50 j 20 127 . 38 j
127 . 38 j 30 j 10
0
165

∆ = 154 + j1100 = 1110.73∠82.03°, ∆
1
= 888.5∠68.2°, ∆
2
= j6291

I
1
= ∆
1
/∆ = 8∠–13.81°, I
2
= ∆
2
/∆ = 5.664∠7.97°

i
1
= 8cos(1000t – 13.83°), i
2
= 5.664cos(1000t + 7.97°)

At t = 1.5 ms, 1000t = 1.5 rad = 85.94°

i
1
= 8cos(85.94° – 13.83°) = 2.457

i
2
= 5.664cos(85.94° + 7.97°) = –0.3862

w = 0.5L
1
i
1
2
+ 0.5L
2
i
2
2
+ Mi
1
i
2

= 0.5(30)(2.547)
2
+ 0.5(50)(–0.3862)
2
– 38.127(2.547)(–0.3862)

= 130.51 mJ

Chapter 13, Solution 30.

(a) Z
in
= j40 + 25 + j30 + (10)
2
/(8 + j20 – j6)
= 25 + j70 + 100/(8 + j14) = (28.08 + j64.62) ohms

(b) jωL
a
= j30 – j10 = j20, jωL
b
= j20 – j10 = j10, jωL
c
= j10

Thus the Thevenin Equivalent of the linear transformer is shown below.

j40 j20 j10 25 Ω 8 Ω
Z
in

j10

–j6

Z
in
= j40 + 25 + j20 + j10||(8 + j4) = 25 + j60 + j10(8 + j4)/(8 + j14)

= (28.08 + j64.62) ohms
Chapter 13, Solution 31.

(a) L
a
= L
1
– M = 10 H

L
b
= L
2
– M = 15 H

L
c
= M = 5 H

(b) L
1
L
2
– M
2
= 300 – 25 = 275

L
A
= (L
1
L
2
– M
2
)/(L
1
– M) = 275/15 = 18.33 H

L
B
= (L
1
L
2
– M
2
)/(L
1
– M) = 275/10 = 27.5 H

L
C
= (L
1
L
2
– M
2
)/M = 275/5 = 55 H

Chapter 13, Solution 32.

We first find Z
in
for the second stage using the concept of reflected impedance.

Z
in

L
B
L
b

R

Z
in
’ = jωL
b
+ ω
2
M
b
2
/(R + jωL
b
) = (jωL
b
R - ω
2
L
b
2
+ ω
2
M
b
2
)/(R + jωL
b
) (1)

For the first stage, we have the circuit below.

Z
in

L
A
L
a
Z
in

Z
in
= jωL
a
+ ω
2
M
a
2
/(jωL
a
+ Z
in
)

= (–ω
2
L
a
2
+ ω
2
M
a
2
+ jωL
a
Z
in
)/( jωL
a
+ Z
in
) (2)

Substituting (1) into (2) gives,

=
b
2
b
2 2
b
2
b
a
b
2
b
2 2
b
2
b
a
2
a
2 2
a
2
L j R
M L R L j
L j
L j R
) M L R L j (
L j M L
ω +
ω + ω − ω
+ ω
ω +
ω + ω − ω
ω + ω + ω −

–Rω
2
L
a
2
+ ω
2
M
a
2
R – jω
3
L
b
L
a
+ jω
3
L
b
M
a
2
+ jωL
a
(jωL
b
R – ω
2
L
b
2
+ ω
2
M
b
2
)
=
jωRLa –ω
2
L
a
L
b
+ jωL
b
R – ω
2
L
a
2
+ ω
2
M
b
2

ω
2
R(L
a
2
+ L
a
L
b
– M
a
2
) + jω
3
(L
a
2
L
b
+ L
a
L
b
2
– L
a
M
b
2
– L
b
M
a
2
)
Z
in
=
ω
2
(L
a
L
b
+L
b
2
– M
b
2
) – jωR(L
a
+L
b
)

Chapter 13, Solution 33.

Z
in
= 10 + j12 + (15)
2
/(20 + j 40 – j5) = 10 + j12 + 225/(20 + j35)

= 10 + j12 + 225(20 – j35)/(400 + 1225)

= (12.769 + j7.154) ohms

Chapter 13, Solution 34.

Insert a 1-V voltage source at the input as shown below.

j6Ω
1Ω 8Ω

• •
+
j12Ω j10Ω j4Ω
1<0
o
V I
1
I
2
-

-j2Ω

For loop 1,
2 1
4 ) 10 1 ( 1 I j I j − + = (1)
For loop 2,

2 1 1 1 2
) 3 2 ( 0 6 2 ) 2 10 4 8 ( 0 I j jI I j I j I j j j + + − = →  − + − + + = (2)

Solving (1) and (2) leads to I
1
=0.019 –j0.1068

Ω ∠ = + = =
o
j
I
Z 91 . 79 219 . 9 077 . 9 6154 . 1
1
1

Alternatively, an easier way to obtain Z is to replace the transformer with its equivalent
T circuit and use series/parallel impedance combinations. This leads to exactly the same
result.

Chapter 13, Solution 35.

For mesh 1,
2 1
2 ) 4 10 ( 16 I j I j + + = (1)

For mesh 2,
3 2 1
12 ) 26 30 ( 2 0 I j I j I j − + + = (2)

For mesh 3,
3 2
) 11 5 ( 12 0 I j I j + + − = (3)

We may use MATLAB to solve (1) to (3) and obtain

A 41 . 21 4754 . 1 5385 . 0 3736 . 1
1
o
j I − ∠ = − =
A 85 . 134 0775 . 0 0549 . 0 0547 . 0
2
o
j I − ∠ = − − =
A 41 . 110 077 . 0 0721 . 0 0268 . 0
3
o
j I − ∠ = − − =

Chapter 13, Solution 36.

Following the two rules in section 13.5, we obtain the following:

(a) V
2
/V
1
= –n, I
2
/I
1
= –1/n (n = V
2
/V
1
)

(b) V
2
/V
1
= –n, I
2
/I
1
= –1/n

(c) V
2
/V
1
= n, I
2
/I
1
= 1/n

(d) V
2
/V
1
= n, I
2
/I
1
= –1/n
Chapter 13, Solution 37.

(a) 5
480
2400
1
2
= = =
V
V
n

(b) A 17 . 104
480
000 , 50
000 , 50
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
= = →  = = = = I V I S V I S

(c ) A 83 . 20
2400
000 , 50
2
= = I

Chapter 13, Solution 38.

Z
in
= Z
p
+ Z
L
/n
2
, n = v
2
/v
1
= 230/2300 = 0.1

v
2
= 230 V, s
2
= v
2
I
2
*

I
2
*
= s
2
/v
2
= 17.391∠–53.13° or I
2
= 17.391∠53.13° A

Z
L
= v
2
/I
2
= 230∠0°/17.391∠53.13° = 13.235∠–53.13°

Z
in
= 2∠10° + 1323.5∠–53.13°

= 1.97 + j0.3473 + 794.1 – j1058.8

Z
in
= 1.324∠–53.05° kohms

Chapter 13, Solution 39.

Referred to the high-voltage side,

Z
L
= (1200/240)
2
(0.8∠10°) = 20∠10°

Z
in
= 60∠–30° + 20∠10° = 76.4122∠–20.31°

I
1
= 1200/Z
in
= 1200/76.4122∠–20.31° = 15.7∠20.31° A

Since S = I
1
v
1
= I
2
v
2
, I
2
= I
1
v
1
/v
2

= (1200/240)( 15.7∠20.31°) = 78.5∠20.31° A
Chapter 13, Solution 40.

V 60 ) 240 (
4
1
nV V
V
V
n ,
4
1
2000
500
N
N
n
1 2
1
2
1
2
= = = →  = = = =

W 300
12
60
R
V
P
2 2
= = =

Chapter 13, Solution 41.

We reflect the 2-ohm resistor to the primary side.

Z
in
= 10 + 2/n
2
, n = –1/3

Since both I
1
and I
2
enter the dotted terminals, Z
in
= 10 + 18 = 28 ohms

I
1
= 14∠0°/28 = 0.5 A and I
2
= I
1
/n = 0.5/(–1/3) = –1.5 A

Chapter 13, Solution 42.

10Ω 1:4 -j50Ω

+ • • + +
+ V
1
V
2

20 V Ω
o

120<0
o
V I
1
- -
- -
I
2

Applying mesh analysis,

1 1
V I 10 120 + = (1)

2 2
V I ) 50 j 20 ( 0 + − = (2)

At the terminals of the transformer,

1 2
1
2
V 4 V 4 n
V
V
= →  = = (3)

2 1
1
2
I 4 I
4
1
n
1
I
I
− = →  − = − = (4)

Substituting (3) and (4) into (1) gives 120
2 2
V 25 . 0 I 40 + − = (5)

Solving (2) and (5) yields 6877 . 0 j 4756 . 2 I
2
− − =

V 52 . 15 39 . 51 I 20 V
o
2 o
∠ = − =

Chapter 13, Solution 43.

Transform the two current sources to voltage sources, as shown below.

+
v
1

+
v
2

1 : 4
12V
+

10 Ω

20 V

+

I
2
I
1
12 Ω

Using mesh analysis, –20 + 10I
1
+ v
1
= 0

20 = v
1
+ 10I
1
(1)

12 + 12I
2
– v
2
= 0 or 12 = v
2
– 12I
2
(2)

At the transformer terminal, v
2
= nv
1
= 4v
1
(3)

I
1
= nI
2
= 4I
2
(4)

Substituting (3) and (4) into (1) and (2), we get,

20 = v
1
+ 40I
2
(5)

12 = 4v
1
– 12I
2
(6)

Solving (5) and (6) gives v
1
= 4.186 V and v
2
= 4v = 16.744 V
Chapter 13, Solution 44.

We can apply the superposition theorem. Let i
1
= i
1
’ + i
1
” and i
2
= i
2
’ + i
2

where the single prime is due to the DC source and the double prime is due to the
AC source. Since we are looking for the steady-state values of i
1
and i
2
,

i
1
’ = i
2
’ = 0.

For the AC source, consider the circuit below.

+
– i
2

+
v
1

1 : n
+
v
2

R

i
1

V
n
∠0°

v
2
/v
1
= –n, I
2
”/I
1
” = –1/n

But v
2
= v
m
, v
1
= –v
m
/n or I
1
” = v
m
/(Rn)

I
2
” = –I
1
”/n = –v
m
/(Rn
2
)

Hence, i
1
(t) = (v
m
/Rn)cosωt A, and i
2
(t) = (–v
m
/(n
2
R))cosωt A

Chapter 13, Solution 45.

48 Ω

+

Z
4∠–90˚

4 j 8
C
j
8 Z
L
− =
ω
− = , n = 1/3

° − ∠ =
° − ∠
° − ∠
=
− +
° − ∠
=
− = = =
3 . 73 03193 . 0
7 . 16 28 . 125
90 4
36 j 72 48
90 4
I
36 j 72 Z 9
n
Z
Z
L
2
L

We now have some choices, we can go ahead and calculate the current in the second loop
and calculate the power delivered to the 8-ohm resistor directly or we can merely say that
the power delivered to the equivalent resistor in the primary side must be the same as the
power delivered to the 8-ohm resistor. Therefore,

= = =

72 10 x 5098 . 0 72
2
I
P
3
2
8
36.71 mW

The student is encouraged to calculate the current in the secondary and calculate the
power delivered to the 8-ohm resistor to verify that the above is correct.

Chapter 13, Solution 46.

(a) Reflecting the secondary circuit to the primary, we have the circuit shown below.

Z
in

+

+

16∠60°
I
1

10∠30°/(–n) = –5∠30°

Z
in
= 10 + j16 + (1/4)(12 – j8) = 13 + j14

–16∠60° + Z
in
I
1
– 5∠30° = 0 or I
1
= (16∠60° + 5∠30°)/(13 + j14)

Hence, I
1
= 1.072∠5.88° A, and I
2
= –0.5I
1
= 0.536∠185.88° A

(b) Switching a dot will not effect Z
in
but will effect I
1
and I
2
.

I
1
= (16∠60° – 5∠30°)/(13 + j14) = 0.625 ∠25 A

and I
2
= 0.5I
1
= 0.3125∠25° A

Chapter 13, Solution 47.

0.02 F becomes 1/(jωC) = 1/(j5x0.02) = –j10

We apply mesh analysis to the circuit shown below.

–j10

+
v
o

I
3
+
v
1

+
v
2

3 : 1
10 Ω

10∠0°

+

I
2
I
1

2 Ω

For mesh 1, 10 = 10I
1
– 10I
3
+ v
1
(1)

For mesh 2, v
2
= 2I
2
= v
o
(2)

For mesh 3, 0 = (10 – j10)I
3
– 10I
1
+ v
2
– v
1
(3)

At the terminals, v
2
= nv
1
= v
1
/3 (4)

I
1
= nI
2
= I
2
/3 (5)

From (2) and (4), v
1
= 6I
2
(6)

Substituting this into (1), 10 = 10I
1
– 10I
3
(7)

Substituting (4) and (6) into (3) yields

0 = –10I
1
– 4I
2
+ 10(1 – j)I
3
(8)
From (5), (7), and (8)

=

− − −

0
10
0
I
I
I
10 j 10 4 10
10 6 10
0 333 . 0 1
3
2
1

I
2
=
33 . 93 j 20
100 j 100
2
− −

=

= 1.482∠32.9°

v
o
= 2I
2
= 2.963∠32.9° V

(a) Switching the dot on the secondary side effects only equations (4) and (5).

v
2
= –v
1
/3 (9)

I
1
= –I
2
/3 (10)

From (2) and (9), v
1
= –6I
2

Substituting this into (1),
10 = 10I
1
– 10I
3
– 6I
2
= (23 – j5)I
1
(11)

Substituting (9) and (10) into (3),

0 = –10I
1
+ 4I
2
+ 10(1