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The Vinyle a'Nts Final

The Vinyle a'Nts Final

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Acknowledgements Foreword Robin D.G. Kelley Introduction Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle

ix xi 1

SIDE ONE: GrOOvING tO thE vINyl StatESIDE—rap aND hIp hOp IN thE U.S. 

1. ‘ForthePeople,’‘TRIBUTE,’and‘REDBONE’ Umar Bin Hassan  2. ‘ARapThing,’‘OnRappingRap,’ and‘HipHoporHomeland Security’ Mumia Abu-Jamal  3. HipHop:CulturalClout,CorporateControl,andthe ‘CarceralCast’  Dipannita Basu  4. ‘Nobody Knows My Name’andanInterviewwiththeDirector RachelRaimist  Dipannita Basu and Laura Harris





5. FromAzeemtoZion-I:TheEvolutionofGlobalConsciousness inBayAreaHipHop 71  Eric K. Arnold  6. HeadRush:HipHopandaHawaiianNation‘OntheRise’  Adria L. Imada  7. Warat331⁄3:HipHop,theLanguageoftheUnheard,and theAfro-AsianAtlantic  Sohail Daulatzai
SIDE tWO: rap aND hIp hOp GrOOvE GlObally



8. TheNationQuestion:Fun^da^mentalandtheDeathening Silence John Hutnyk



thE vINyl aIN’t fINal 

9. ‘KeepingitReal’inaDifferent’Hood: (African-)AmericanizationandHipHopinGermany  Timothy S. Brown 10. AfricaontheirMind:Rap,Blackness,andCitizenship inFrance  Veronique Helenon 11. CubanHipHop:MakingSpaceforNewVoicesofDissent  Annelise Wunderlich 12. DancingBetweenIslands:HipHopandtheSamoanDiaspora  April K. Henderson


151 167 180

13. NegotiatingEthnicityandAuthenticityinTokyo’sClubHarlem 200 Rhiannon L. Fink 14. GlobalizationandGangsterRap:HipHopinthe Post-ApartheidCity Zine Magubane 15. ‘NiWapiTunakwenda’:HipHopCultureandtheChildren ofArusha  Sidney J. Lemelle NotesontheContributors Index 208

230 255 259

Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle

The title of this book takes its inspiration from another time and place. In the mid 1980s the young British Jamaican deejay presiding over the dance floor of the PSV club in Hulme, Manchester (UK) was not spinning the vinyl. In the Jamaican sense of the word he was toasting over a musical mélange of reggae, dancehall, and soul.1 He introduced records, requested rewinds from the ‘selecta’ (the DJ who selects and plays songs) and generally hyped and ‘big upped’ (complimented) the ladies in the house, the massive (participants and fans of the sound system) as well as getting the audience members to respond to the music with screams, whistles, lit lighters held high, and unfettered dancing. Sporadically, his coupling of orality and rhythm over the music also spoke to the local issues that affected the dark-skinned presence in the heartlands of ‘There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack’ Britain.2 Ever since the mass immigration of Jamaicans to Britain during postWorld War II reconstruction, the diaspora transported the flavor of the dancehall, the dub, the sound system, the alcohol, the patties, the goat curry, the heightened bass and drums, to the much chillier climes of another island—the British Isles. Indeed, it was the cold weather (which meant the party was inside rather than out) and the ease with which the deejay’s patois effortlessly switched to a Mancunian accent that on a good night were two indicators this was not Jamaica. It was post-colonial, de-industrialized Manchester, in the mid 1980s, where the Jamaican sound system (Mobile Discotheques) was the dread and dulcet sounds of the ‘empire striking back.’3 At the end of the night the deejay finished his rhythmic enunciations by reminding us, the last song might be playing, but ‘The Vinyl Ain’t Final.’4 He simply meant that just because the club was closing, it did not mean the music, interested and intoxicated parties, or avid devotees had finished their fun for that night, or any other. The venue might change (an illegal blues club, an uptown night club), and the genre might change (dancehall, lovers rock, ska, rap, house, disco, funk), but the sound clash (politics of noise) and cultural battles (performance battles, turf clashes over public space, social controls) never ended. In the spirit of the deejay’s words and sentiments, our contributors reveal, that for hip hop culture too, the Vinyl Ain’t Final simply because it is never a fait accompli. Unlike most recent books on hip hop Vinyl differs in several significant ways. It bridges the gap between studies of hip hop culture and rap music  

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in the U.S. and its diasporan and global reach. Entering into the fray of one of the most exciting and expansive areas of popular culture, music, scholarship and commentary, the editors of Vinyl invite critical approaches from a variety of cultural ‘experts’ within and outside of academe. In Vinyl, new jack academics, old skool poets and proto-rappers, journalists as well a host of interdisciplinary scholars are bought together to comment on hip hop and rap music in recognition of the importance for ‘a new architecture for producing and sharing knowledge … [that] would increase new forms of dialogue between academics, public intellectuals, activists, and policy makers in different societies.’5 Thus we are in agreement with the notion spelt out by Jonathan Friedman when he argues:
the on-going history of the world cannot be interpreted as [solely] an intellectual conversation in which problems can be solved by convincing people that they have it all wrong. the absurdity of such a position is a token of the alienation of its spokesmen and women.6

Uniquely, Vinyl is not exclusively concerned with the provenance of rap music and hip hop culture in the United States (‘America’).7 The roots of rap and hip hop have become (and arguably always have been) international and therefore our book looks to Africa and the African diaspora in the Caribbean for case studies, as well as ‘border-crossers’ in Europe, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the United States. The contributors to Vinyl are not so much focused in a systematic account of hip hop or globalization, nor are they engaged in uncritical celebrations of its hybridity. They are interested in critical perspectives that recognize hip hop’s location within the political economy of culture and capitalism as well as its symbolic, economic and cultural purchase, as they analyze, observe, and comment upon its everyday realities and resistive strategies. In short, we seek to extend our understanding of the social thickness and economic density of rap music and hip hop culture’s positioninb27(pa(e)-3( )-53(s)-e)-53hre53(s)-enre211(x)7(u)7(s)7( )57(o)

o(r -3( )urnta)413(b14(lism),r -3( g(r)7af(tir -3( art,r -3( and -3( (r)7ab211pping -3( (o(r


Thirty years since its inception in the South Bronx, New York City hip hop’s expressive cultures, language, music, sartorial styles, dance and art has migrated across racial, ideological and national boundaries to become one of the foremost forces in youth culture globally, resulting in a plethora of mass mediated and grassroots expressions the world over. Hip hop culture and most significantly rap music has gone from its local practices of ‘party and bullshit’ to become what Chuck D famously describes as the ‘CNN of Black people.’ Over its 30 year duration the primary conduit for this cultural communicative system in the global digitalized public sphere are about 20–30 large companies consisting of webs of interlocking alliances between telecommunication companies, entertainment conglomerates, hard and software firms, and broadcasting companies.9 Macro critical perspectives upon globalization frequently focus on U.S. imperialism, its global hegemony and the injection of its values, lifestyles and commodities across borders into the jugular vein of national cultures. In the realm of culture the homogenization of these (particularly ‘American’) Western values was poised to subsume cultural differences and national identities globally, creating the ‘Coca-Cola-ization’ of world culture.10 In this schema, cultural imperialism results in the ‘economic and political domination of the United States … thrust[ing] its hegemonic culture into all parts of the world.’11 With the proliferation of media technologies, theorists such as Theodor Adorno charged that the cultural industries, such as the music industry, produced standardization in the production of music and cultural duping on the consumer end. Essentially music’s composition, production, and consumption—just like any other consumer product— labored under the aegis of an assemblyline production process.12 Certainly the spatial reach, density and power of transnational interconnectedness between communities, states, international institutions, multinational corporations and international bodies such as the United Nations (UN) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) is well documented. Yet, such macro analyses say little of how these forces work on the micro social level. The rethinking of the macro and micro into the notion of ‘glocalization’ was first noted by sociologist Roland Robertson who observed that the word and idea was used in Japan by marketing experts who used the Japanese term to reference how Japanese products should be reformulated for particularistic local tastes and interests.13 As J. Lull, a professor of communication studies, points out: ‘political-economic-cultural influences do not enter cultural contexts uniform.’14 Rather, globalization intensifies localization rather than leads to a flattening out of local cultures as a ‘response to [a] desire for fixity and for security of identity in the middle of all the movement and change.’15 Colombia provides a good example of this change; like many other parts of the world within hip hop’s global reach, there is recalcitrance and seduction to cultural imperialism. 

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Significant numbers of Colombian youth use hip hop’s musical identities, styles, and symbolic ethnicities as engines for cultural expression and expertise; conduits for dreams and aspirations to get rich quick (in a declining economy with a rate of inflation of 20 percent), and malleable templates for renegotiating social and political identities in the face of poverty, crime, and political corruption. Although the symbolic and consumer driven language of brand names and Bentleys as the lingua franca does not enclose hip hop’s possibilities in Colombia, it does not exclude the production of ‘trade groups’ such as Colombia Rap Cartel who consider a career in rap as a means of getting rich quick and riding around in Cadillacs, Californian style. At the same time the sheer love of hip hop culture and artistry compel others. Indeed:
one of the few dJs in the Guinness book of World Records isn’t from the bronx, or la. he’s not from the uSa at all. dJ Joyman vargas hails from the barrio of el trebol, in cali, colombia. Right before christmas back in 997, while most of the city was partying to the / beat that earned cali the tag, ‘the capital of Salsa,’ dJ Joyman, set the world’s record for the most consecutive hours mixing on the radio—, or five full days of spinning records!6

And for others, such as 23-year-old Colombian rapper and producer Carlos Andres Pacheco, ‘hip hop speaks the language of the world’s ghettos,’ but with cultural twists in the music (the 3-2 salsa clave) and specific Colombian concerns. Entwined within the political economy and shenanigans of America’s ‘Drugs Wars’ in Colombia, the young, poor, and dark skinned suffer the most in the drug ravaged and fuelled economy, and its incumbent ‘War Against the Poor.’ Through their lyricism, Colombian rappers often explicate and explain how this international cocaine and heroin trade is ruining their communities. Nonetheless the existence and success of local hip hop practitioners, who have ‘glocalized’ rap to their own particular situations, is underscored by ‘globalization’s basic economic clichés: the drive for more and more markets and market niches.’17 Nowadays the marketing strategy of ‘glocalization’ is more than a Japanese marketing term, it is global and companies commonly enact ‘local, international and global strategies approaches … and recognize the importance of adaptations and tailoring [products and services] in the marketplace of business activities.’18 Within the global cultural industries,
Music has always been the least capital-intensive of the electronic media and therefore the most open to experimentation and new ideas. uS recording artists generated 60 percent of their sales outside the united States in 99; by 998 that figure was down to 0 percent. Rather than fold their tents, however, the five media tncs [transnational corporations] that dominate the world’s recorded-music market are busy establishing local subsidiaries in places like brazil, where ‘people are totally


committed to local music,’ in the words of a writer for a trade publication. Sony has led the way in establishing distribution deals with independent music companies from around the world.9

Hence, rather than oppositional phenomena the local and global are relational. As Murray Forman notes:
… while transnational media enterprises and the global culture industries have a powerful influence over what gets circulated into world markets, there are no guarantees as to how cultural commodities will be incorporated into localized practices and the lived experiences of subjective pleasure and desire.0

While the localized aspects of hip hop and rap have been taken up by scholars within U.S. borders, this line of enquiry is frequently on border patrol. For many American scholars on the subject it appears that rap around the world is little more than an urban soundtrack to a ‘McWorld.’21 Often, rap music and hip hop culture’s transnational reach is relegated to the historical archives of its ‘roots’; ritually acknowledged then ignored; or clinically dismissed as little more than disembodied and commodified forms of global ‘niggahood’ the world over.22 One groundbreaking work on the global reach of rap music is Tony Mitchell’s edited book Global Noise.23 Vinyl picks up, but expands upon Mitchell’s work which
documents and analyzes for the first time some of the other roots hip hop has developed outside the uSa, filling a vacuum in academic writing on the subject, in which the expression of local identities globally through the vernaculars of rap and hip hop in foreign contexts has rarely been acknowledged.

Yet, we take issue with Mitchell’s claim that
for a sense of innovation, surprise, and musical substance in hip hop culture and rap music, it is becoming increasingly necessary to look outside the uSa to countries such as france, england, Germany, Italy and Japan, where strong local currents of hip hop indigenization have taken place.

This characterization and dismissal of the scene in the U.S. as a monolithic and stagnant culture appears to reflect a lack of appreciation for, and knowledge of, the immense body of cultural and academic work which also highlights the importance of space and place in hip hop and rap’s AfricanAmerican social history, racial configurations, and cultural practice.26 In Phat Beats, Dope Rhymes: Hip Hop Down Under Comin’ Upper, Australian scholar Ian Maxwell argues for the de-essentializing of rap and hip hop as an expression of ‘Black,’ or ‘ethnic,’ identification.27 Through his interesting meditations on rap music and the culture of White Australians in Sydney


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he explores ‘the possibility of its truth as Hip Hop without predicating that claim on a simple identification of skin color, of shared Blackness.’28 He goes on to note there is a more generalized notion of ‘otherness/ or marginalization … racial or ethnic otherness might then be considered a special case of a more general sense of otherness, the specificity of which might take any number of forms.’29 In Vinyl we find that in the United States and abroad, the contributors decouple hip hop’s authenticity from a rigid fixation on its African-American roots, yet do not collapse into uncritical celebrations of hybridity, which runs the risk of reducing any regard for the Black roots of hip hop as the outmoded racial politics of essentialism, that is out of fashion in a postmodern world. Rather, we are more concerned with the geopolitical realities of uneven development and resistance to it in the spaces of the ‘third world,’ as well as those of ‘third world’ places and peoples in the ‘first world.’ Thus, Vinyl has two sides (parts). The first concentrates upon hip hop culture and rap music in the U.S. The second part takes us around the globe to Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands.
Side One: GrOOvinG tO the vinyl StateSide— rap and hip hOp in the U.S.

In Tricia Rose’s seminal work on hip hop and rap, Black Noise, she outlines the important 1960s antecedents to rap music and hip hop culture. One of the groups she highlights is The Last Poets—often seen as proto-rappers of the civil rights era.30 In Chapter 1 we feature the poetry of Umar Bin Hassan, one of the legendary members of the group.31 The Last Poets was formed in May 1968 by David Nelson, Gylan Kain, and Abiodun Oyewole. It soon grew from three poets and a drummer to seven young Black and Latino artists; adding Felipe Luciano, Umar Bin Hassan, Jalal Nurridin, and Suliamn El Hadi. This New York City ‘hip’ group came along during the domestic change and upheaval of the 1960s. Drawing upon the radical politics of the 1960s Black Arts movement, in the early 70s their radical word play, style, delivery, and social commentary echoed the West African Djali or griot storyteller and foreshadowed much of hip hop’s spoken word and fiery politics. To dramatize their commentary they used heavy drum rhythms and defiant spoken verse to reproach Black folks for accepting the status quo of racism and disenfranchisement, while critiquing White supremacy. The Last Poets have variously been hailed as key precursors for hip hop’s revolutionary poetry and political impulses and causes by Russell Simmons, Quincy Jones, Tupac Shakur, Doug E. Fresh, and even David Bowie. With his usual acuity Mark Anthony Neal complains that it is shameful in a ‘world where Ja Rule could sell 10 million copies of dribble and forefathers of hip hop like Umar Bin Hassan, Grand Wizard Theodore and Grand Master Caz remain virtually unknown to those who plunk down $15–20 for rap recordings.’32 Bin Hassan’s insistent presence



in hip hop is not only as an artist but a wise and knowing elder whose activism and art continues to inform hip hop culture. He appears regularly at conferences and workshops on hip hop, poetry and politics nationwide. Most recently, he appeared with Common on his song ‘The Corner.’ Bin Hassan provides a much-needed voice to bridge the fractures of not only class but generation. He reminds us that history is not dead, and nor is the power of the word. He contributes three short poems—‘For the People,’ ‘TRIBUTE,’ and ‘REDBONE’—which address the issues of music and beauty and their relationship to the revolutionary struggle. The next contribution is by the internationally known political prisoner Mumia Abu-Jamal, the renowned journalist from Philadelphia who has been on death row since 1981 for allegedly shooting Philadelphia police officer Daniel Faulkner. For some he is a cop killer, but for others he is a political prisoner targeted by the state because of his political beliefs and associations with Black Panthers. He began his journalism career as the Panthers’ Minister of Information for the Philadelphia chapter at age 15, writing for their national newspaper. After leaving the Panthers, Mumia became a broadcaster in local radio, eventually winning a Peabody Award for his work. Yet while Mumia was president of the Philadelphia Association of Black Journalists, he was also still a radical, and for this reason was the target of police harassment. After his questionable trial for murder he has become a cause célèbre and regularly broadcasts pieces on contemporary U.S. society.33 Luminaries such as Nelson Mandela, human rights organizations like Amnesty International, and mainstream and ‘underground’ hip hop artists have all taken up his case. Mumia foreshadows the political ilk of rappers such as KRS-One, Public Enemy, Poor Righteous Teachers, and X-Clan. Indeed the single ‘Mumia 911’ is a collaborative cut recorded for the benefit album Unbound featuring conscious rappers, Pharoahe Monch, Black Thought, Aceyalone, and Chuck D. Furthermore, the Beastie Boys and The Coup have played at ‘Free Mumia’ benefit gigs, and Project Raptivism, a collaborative effort by the Dead Prez, Chubb Rock, and The Last Poets, supports political prisoners like Mumia by pledging sales from their first album No More Prisons to the non-profit Prison Moratorium Project, a national campaign aimed at raising awareness about America’s prisonindustrial complex. We have reproduced three of Mumia’s ruminations in Chapter 2: ‘A Rap Thing,’ ‘On Rapping Rap,’ and ‘Hip Hop or Homeland Security.’ His pieces, particularly the often sampled ‘Hip Hop or Homeland Security’ (Immortal Technique), chronicle the human condition and speak to the hip hop generation of the contradictions of capital and society within hip hop culture. His words speak for themselves. In Chapter 3, Dipannita Basu extends the critical tempo, by unmasking the social forces that shape a hip hop (Black American) generation whose


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aesthetic labors (music, style, language) capture disposable incomes, while their own bodies are disposed of at the helm of what Diane Gordon calls the ‘justice juggernaut.’ Essentially, the questions that guide her text are: Have the economic gains of hip hop gone primarily to White controlled capital? If so, what are the social costs to the hip hop generation and the broader African-American community? Although she focuses on Black men, it is important to note that Black women are also experiencing alarming and increasing rates of incarceration and criminalization. In the United States, Black women born in the 1990s are five times more likely to end up in prison or jail than if they were born in 1974, and are six times more likely to go to prison than White women.34 In Chapter 4, Dipannita Basu and Laura Harris’s analysis of hip hop filmmaker Rachel Raimist’s documentary Nobody Knows My Name, and the interview with the filmmaker that follows, compels us to adjust our gendered cultural lens about hip hop as a lived culture outside as well as at the periphery of the cultural industries in a different way from the previous chapter. Nobody, they argue, succeeds, though not without imperfections, in re-centering the communal aspects of hip hop as an organic culture and career for women of all hues. And yet the relative silence on race by the featured women of color in the documentary is palpable behind the camera. As Rachel recounts, Nobody Knows My Name is considered a hip hop documentary. As such, Raimist is often invited to speak during Black History Month. Upon learning she is a light-skinned Puerto Rican, conference organizers often retract their request or re-schedule her for Women’s Month Events. In Chapter 5, journalist Eric K. Arnold fashions a fast-paced, detail rich, insider account of hip hop entitled ‘From Azeem to Zion-I: The Evolution of Global Consciousness in Bay Area Hip Hop.’ His observations are a touchstone for this volume.
It is no accident that the places where hip hop has thrived internationally and in the united States tend to be large urban centers with diverse, multi-ethnic populations … one reason for this might be that the freedom of expression inherent in hip hop has been somewhat of a universal language. as such, its relevancy to the struggles of young people all over the world in their fight for their own identity and liberation from political, social, and economic oppression—by any means necessary—is undeniable.

Arnold points out that the regional phenomenon of Bay Area hip hop reflects the intersection of global forces with local concerns, historical legacies with contemporary concerns, and the influences of pimps, entrepreneurs, Black radicals, Asian turntablists, rap activists, and funk doctors. The result is a complicated mix of the indigenization of rap within the particular historical and spatial configurations of the Bay Area.



The final two chapters of Side One examine how young people bind to the political and oppositional category of African-American Blackness through rap music. In Chapter 6, ‘Head Rush: Hip Hop and a Hawaiian Nation “On the Rise”,’ Adria L. Imada analyzes the intersection of hip hop culture and indigenous nationalism in the 50th state of the USA—Hawai‘i. In contrast to the representations of Hawai‘i as an idyllic tropical paradise, Imada redirects our gaze to the contested nature of nationhood by focusing on the group ‘Sudden Rush,’ Hawai‘i’s most well-known hip hop group. In her chapter she explores how Hawai‘i has taken rap’s Blackness as a form of dissent and ‘indigenized’ it in relation to the neo-colonial domination of mainland USA. The role of hip hop’s imaginative geographies forged within, around, and through the cultural histories and resistances of Afro-Asian solidarities are explored in Chapter 7, Sohail Daulatzai’s ‘War at 331⁄3: Hip Hop, the Language of the Unheard, and the Afro-Asian Atlantic.’ Daulatzai expands the genealogical and geographical referents of the work of artists such as Rakim, Mos Def, and the Kaliphz. His exploration exposes the limits of current theoretical approaches to both Islam and to Afro-diasporic thought, namely Orientalism and Black Atlantic discourses, by turning our critical gaze to the history of diasporic radicalism and internationalism through textual analysis and its socio-historic context. This is a perfect segue to part two.
SIde tWo: Rap and hIp hop GRoove Globally

On this ‘side’ of Vinyl the contributors explore individuals and places that are influenced by the development of hip hop culture. Several of the figures, groups, and genres are internationally well known, while others are not usually associated with rap music and hip hop culture. The chapters in this section explore how rap music and hip hop culture have become mediums for protest among the youth. Their new global mixtures of local linguistic, musical, and political contexts are firmly located in the dynamics of power and political economies of globalization. John Hutnyk’s Chapter 8, ‘The Nation Question: Fun^da^mental and the Deathening Silence,’ acerbically examines the representations and regulation of the South Asian British rappers Fun^da^mental, from their forays into copyright legislation to their representation in British hip hop music commentary. He argues hip hop media reportage too frequently reduces the band’s punk Islam inflected hip hop with its emphasis on human rights activism, to mere sloganeering, and cultural exotica, or side-steps into debates about authenticity, with the U.S. as the base of comparison. As with Imada and Daulatzai in the U.S., Timothy S. Brown investigates how Germans ‘in to’ hip hop culture appropriate and reconfigure it in 


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multifaceted ways including reinterpreting Blackness for this locality/ context. Thus in Chapter 9, Brown illustrates the multiple connotations assigned to hip hop’s cultural flows and explores some of the meanings and uses of hip hop—and of ‘Blackness’ in hip hop—by Germans. In addition to rappers such as Die Fantastischen Vier (uncritical and ‘Whitebread’ versions of ‘pop rap’) and Advanced Chemistry, he also explores the ‘Oriental hip hop’ of Turkish-German migrant rap. According to Dietmar Elflein, this ‘Oriental hip hop’ modeled itself along the lines of the Nation of Islam in the U.S.; this ‘artificially constructed ethnic minority which was supposedly “Turkish” became something of an oppositional movement to German national hip hop.’36 In a similar vein, Veronique Helenon analyzes the theme of ‘Blackness’ and its multiple meanings in Chapter 10, ‘Africa on Their Mind: Rap, Blackness, and Citizenship in France.’ As Steve Cannon notes, there is in Afro-French rap ‘a closer physical and therefore less mythical relationship of (Black) rappers in France to the “pays d’origine” [African homeland] than in the USA,’ and despite the fact that only 6 percent of the population of France consists of non-European immigrants, rap and hip hop have become a vital form of anti-racist expression for ethnic minorities.37 Helenon takes up the ensuing contested terrain of nationhood for these Black minorities to show that French hip hop is distinct from African-American hip hop in that it speaks to the peculiar status of ‘minorities’ within the society, while being used as a bridge to overcome national differences that often separate people of color. Thus, rap music puts into public purview yet another meaning of Blackness, which transcends national boundaries and fixed origins to reference North Africa, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa. Aside from Europe, other areas where rap music has had a tremendous impact are the Caribbean, Asia/Pacific Islands, and Africa. Each chapter in its own way sees hip hop culture as an expression of both consciousness and resistance: It is an assertion of the self-expression and self-organization of African peoples, and an expression of their resistance to Eurocentricism and uneven development due to globalization. Yet our contributors point to the ambiguous conjuncture of the discourses of race and class, thereby underscoring the contradictory nature of rap and hip hop. These issues become the primary points of departure for understanding rap and hip hop as a multileveled, multifaceted, and constantly changing process of self-expression and resistance, within state practices, colonial legacies, and the political economy of the music industry. In Chapter 11, ‘Cuban Hip Hop: Making Space for New Voices of Dissent,’ Annelise Wunderlich investigates the politics of race and gender in a changing Cuban society. She examines how both Cuban teenagers and the Cuban government have become fascinated with hip hop. Wunderlich explains how the latter now sees ‘rap music—long considered the music of American imperialism—as a road map to the hearts and minds of the young


generation.’ She points out that in recent years, more and more youth, in particular Afrocuban youth, have started voicing their dissatisfaction through rhyming and yet there are divergences as well as similarities that exist between hip hop culture in a purely capitalist society and in a socialist country such as Cuba, which adds its own unique twists. She shows how one of Havana’s most successful hip hop producers, Pablo Herrera (formerly a Professor at Havana University) works with the Asociación de los Hermanos Saíz, the cultural arm of the Young Communist Party. Yet, he also works outside the party structure in making transnational links with U.S. alternative rap artists like Dead Prez, Common [Sense] and Mos Def as part of the Black August Collective—a group of African-American activists and musicians dedicated to promoting hip hop culture globally.38 From the Caribbean we hip hop back to the Pacific Rim as the next two chapters (12 and 13) focus on the cultural aspects of hip hop and rap music as it migrates to the Pacific Islands and Asia. April K. Henderson contributes the chapter ‘Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora.’ Her narrative teases out the complexities, connectedness and contradictions of diasporic identities and practices in the nexus of race and class. Tracing the genesis of street dance forms such as ‘popping’ and ‘locking’ in Los Angeles, and ‘strutting’ in the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento through the Samoan diaspora, she provides an upclose account of b-boy ‘border crossers’ who are an integral part of the Californian hip hop scene. Another report from the frontlines takes us across the Pacific to Japan where Rhiannon L. Fink’s chapter ‘Negotiating Ethnicity and Authenticity in Tokyo’s Club Harlem’ provocatively poses the question, ‘is Club Harlem authentic?’ In her musings she charts the negotiations of ethnicity and authenticity, as she unmasks the complicated intersections of Blackness as a popular signifier in a location fraught with ‘contentions of hollow imitation’ and authenticity. Issues of Blackness are turned in another direction, in another continent as the last two chapters move from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. In 2001, Tony Mitchell commented that there ‘appears to have been little critical analysis of hip hop in Africa, apart from a 1999 master’s thesis, “Tracking the Narrative: The Poetics of Identity in Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture in Cape Town,” by Lee William Watkins of the University of Natal, South Africa.’39 However, since that time, there have been a growing number of theses, dissertations, and articles on the topic. In addition, the internet has added a whole new dimension to the information on Africa and broadened 

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popular—among them Senegal, Algeria, South Africa, Angola, Tanzania, and Kenya.40 In Chapter 14 on hip hop culture in South Africa, Zine Magubane analyzes the various ways in which U.S. rap music has been ‘indigenized’ or integrated into the symbolic framework of South African culture and society. Her focus is on two important issues: The political and economic conditions that shape the global production of African-American culture and the forces that shape how this global culture is received and used by local populations. To highlight these points Magubane begins her analysis with ‘a brief discussion of the status of “Blackness,” its complex relationship to Western modernity, and the implications this has for thinking about what we mean when we talk about the globalization of “American” or “Western” culture.’ Magubane argues, and others in Side Two of the book agree, that rap music that has become a major part of what is exported and consumed globally as ‘American music culture’ is a complicated mix. As a result, when it is ‘indigenized’ both elements become available for interpretation and incorporation. As several authors argue, rap artists transform traditions, shaping the values that have become a critical part of U.S. popular aesthetics to reflect local political, economic, and gender struggles. In the final chapter of this volume, entitled ‘“Ni Wapi Tunakwenda”: Hip Hop Culture and the Children of Arusha,’ Sidney J. Lemelle focuses on how hip hop culture as a representation or signifier of ‘Blackness’ is played out in the East African nation of Tanzania. As he points out, Tanzania has a long history of adopting and adapting cultural elements and incorporating them into its identity. In this historical context these cultural aspects contributed to its rich and diverse cultures, but also reflect contradictions of class, ethnicity, language, and gender. Lemelle’s chapter analyzes hip hop culture as a force that helps shape contemporary public debate and discourse on the political and economic landscape of Tanzania. As Wunderlich, Imada, Henderson, Fink, and Magubane have already done, this chapter addresses the global effects of hip hop, thereby intervening into the debate on Blackness and cultural imperialism. Thus, in the spirit of hip hop, we have brought together a range of commentators that reflects the diversity of the music and culture of hip hop itself. As Murray Forman concludes in his introduction to the co-edited volume (with Mark Anthony Neal) on the hip hop ‘canon,’ That’s the Joint!, ‘[it] is not the final word on hip hop scholarship’; our work falls into the same category, or as the deejay in Manchester reminds us: ‘the vinyl ain’t final …’41
1. Based on Basu’s experience as an Asian British citizen in the UK, she uses the term ‘deejay’ in the Jamaican sense, which refers to the person on the ’mic (toaster). This is in contrast







7. 8.





to hip hop parlance, where the DJ spins records on the turntables and the person on the ’mic is the MC. This title is reappropriated from the mantra of racist skinheads in Britain by Paul Gilroy in the title of his seminal work on race in Britain: Paul Gilroy, There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack: The Cultural Politics of Race and Nation (London: Hutchinson, 1987; published with new foreword, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1991). Basu’s experience of the transported Jamaican dancehall culture was a result of the post-colonial immigration of South Asians and Afro-Caribbeans from ex-colonies to Britain. Both post-colonial diasporas were stigmatized and barely accepted (in differing, but ultimately, for common reasons—race) in a country whose own imperial machinations put us there. A politics simply stated as ‘we are here because you were there’. Culled from the University of Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies’ The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain (London: Hutchinson/The Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham, 1982). In 1930 RCA Victor marketed ‘Program Transcription’ discs, the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record. Vinyl was not routinely used in record production until the 1960s. It was referenced as vinyl rather than records predominantly in the wake of DJ/turntablism culture in the 1980s. As a device for the recording and playback of sound, this technology and its subsequent developments changed the landscape of making music and distributing it so others could hear. Arjun Appadurai, ‘Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination,’ Public Culture, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Winter 2000), p. 18. This comment is made within the importance of power, protocols of inquiry and their relationship to global capital and grassroots activism. Jonathan Friedman, ‘Global Crisis, The Struggle for Cultural Identity and Intellectual Porkballing: Cosmopolitans Versus Locals, Ethnics and Nationals in an Era of Dehegemonisation,’ in Pnina Werbner and Tariq Modood (eds), Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and the Politics of Anti Racism (London: Zed Books, 1997), p. 88. The authors consciously use the term U.S. instead of the generic ‘America’ because of the ethnocentric implications involved in such a reference. Bianca Toness, ‘B-girl, be you,’ Minnesota Public Radio, June 2, 2005. Available at <http:// news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2005/06/02_tonessb_bgirls/>; accessed June 4, 2005. Just as globalization is a historical process which has accelerated in speed and scope in the last 30 years or so, so has the relationship between the state and private interests. In 1876 U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes stated: ‘This is government of the people, by the people and for the people, no longer. It is government of corporations, by corporations and for corporations.’ Today, 52 of the world’s 100 largest economies are corporations. Workers world wide who are poor, casual, working and middle class are seeing their real wages cut for longer hours, less job security, cuts in pensions, health care and insurance while the benefits and salaries of executives steeply rise. ‘Globalisation—The Role of Corporations.’ Available at: <http://www.heureka.clara.net/gaia/global05.htm>; accessed May 14, 2005. Jonathan Freidman, ‘Globalization as Awareness,’ in John Benyon and David Dunkerley (eds), Globalization: The Reader (New York: Routledge, 2000), p. 44. See also Wayne Ellwood, The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization (London: Verso Press, 2001). Mike Featherstone, ‘Global and Local Cultures,’ in Jon Bird, Barry Curtis, Tim Putnam, and Lisa Tickner (eds), Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change (London: Routledge, 1993), p. 170. Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment (London: Verso, 1979). 

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13. Roland Robertson, ‘Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity,’ in Mike Featherstone, Scott Lash and Roland Robertson (eds), Global Modernities (London: Sage, 1995), pp. 25–44. 14. J. Lull, ‘Globalization,’ in Benyon and Dunkerley, Globalization, p. 41. 15. Doreen Massey, ‘A Global Sense of Place,’ in Ann Gray and Jim McGuigan (eds), Studying Culture (London: Edward Arnold, 1993), p. 236. 16. See Timothy Pratt, ‘The Rap Cartel, World Records and Other Tales From Colombia,’ WireTap, September 19, 2000. Available from <http://www.alternet.org/story/9819/>; accessed May 15, 2005. 17. Steven Feld, ‘A Sweet Lullaby for World Music,’ Public Culture, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Winter 2000), p. 167. 18. Göran Svensson, ‘“Glocalization” of Business Activities: A Glocal Strategy Approach,’ Management Decision, Vol. 39, No. 1 (2001), pp. 6-18. The term ‘glocalization’ is the melding together of global forces that are adapted towards the particularities of the local. 19. Robert McChesney, ‘The New Global Media: It’s a Small World of Big Conglomerates,’ The Nation (November 29, 1999). Available from <http://www.thenation.com/doc.mht ml?i=19991129&c=2&s=mcchesney>; accessed March 7, 2005. 20. Murray Forman, The ’Hood Comes First: Race, Space, and Place in Rap and Hip-Hop (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2002), p. 20. 21. Exceptions to this case are George Lipsitz, Ian Condry, and Paul Gilroy. 22. Tony Mitchell, Global Noise: Rap and Hip-hop Outside the USA (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001). See also Andy Bennett’s discussion on the origins and representations on hip hop in ‘Hip-hop Culture in Two Cities,’ in Andy Bennett (ed.), Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music Identity and Place (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, Inc., 2000). Bennett also provides an in-depth literature review on the significance of the local and global in hip hop outside of America. He draws upon a number of music genres including dance, bhangra, as well as hip hop to examine how youth use the cultural resources of music to reformulate and articulate identities which draw upon the local context and the global scene. 23. Mitchell, Global Noise, p. 2. 24. Ibid. 25. Ibid. 26. The tensions and contradictions of space in hip hop and the importance of local knowledge, networks, representations, and possies are well documented by American scholars such as Tricia Rose, David Toop, Murray Forman, Greg Dimitriadis, Mark Anthony Neal, Gwendolyn Pough, and Robin Kelley amongst others. 27. Ian Maxwell, Phat Beats, Dope Rhymes: Hip Hop Down Under Comin’ Upper (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2003), p. 96. 28. Ibid. 29. Ibid., p. 46. 30. Tricia Rose, Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1994), p. 55. 31. Although many believe this to be true, Gil Scott Heron was never a member of the group. The Last Poets took their name from a poem by the famous South African poet Willie Kgositsile, who posited the necessity of putting aside poetry in the face of looming revolution. ‘When the moment hatches in time’s womb there will be no art talk,’ he wrote. ‘The only poem you will hear will be the spear point pivoted in the punctured marrow of the villain … Therefore we are the last poets of the world.’ Available from <http://www. math.buffalo.edu/~sww/LAST-POETS/last_poets0.html#lastpoetsbiography>; accessed May 18, 2005.


32. Mark Anthony Neal, ‘Hip Hop and Beyond: Hip Hop Comes to Berkeley.’ Available from: <http://www.popmatters.com/music/features/020506-hiphop.shtml> (May 6, 2002); accessed May 18, 2004. 33. Terry Bisson, ‘The Case of Mumia Abu Jamal,’ New York Newsday, 1995. Available from <http://www.terrybisson.com/mumia.html>; retrieved May 21, 2005. Mumia Abu-Jamal ‘has been a resident of Pennsylvania’s death row for twenty-three years. Writing from his solitary confinement cell his essays have reached a worldwide audience. His books Live From Death Row, Death Blossoms, All Things Censored, Faith of Our Fathers, and the recently released We Want Freedom have sold over 150,000 copies and been translated into nine languages. His 1982 murder trial and subsequent conviction have been the subject of great debate.’ Available at <http://www.prisonradio.org/mumia.htm>; accessed May 21, 2005. 34. Marc Mauer and Ryan King, ‘Schools and Prisons: 50 years after Brown Versus Brown, The Sentencing Project.’ Available at <http://sentencingproject.org/pdfs/brownvboard. pdf>; accessed May 21, 2005. 35. p. 83, this volume. 36. Dietmar Elflein, ‘From Krauts with Attitudes to Turks with Attitudes: Some Aspects of Hip Hop History in Germany,’ Popular Music, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 255–65, quoted in Mitchell, Global Noise, p. 18. 37. Steve Cannon, ‘Panama City Rapping: B-boys in the Banlieues and Beyond,’ in Alec Hargreaves and Mark McKinney (eds), Post-Colonial Cultures in France (London: Routledge, 1997), p. 164. 38. Information on Pablo Herrera and Black August available at <http://www.afrocubaweb. com/rap/pabloherrera.htm>; accessed May 21, 2005. Also see <http://www.afrocubaweb. com/rap/Blackaugust00.html>; accessed May 21, 2005. 39. Mitchell, Global Noise, p. 8. 40. Undoubtedly the oldest of these websites was Africanhiphop.com, formerly named RubaKali when it was launched in February 1997. It is a project of the African Hip Hop Foundation, a non-profit registered in the Netherlands, run by a group of volunteers from different countries. 41. Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal (eds), That’s the Joint! (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004), p. 7. Many critical scholars such as Homi Bhaba, Lawrence Grossberg, Stuart Hall, and Greg Dimitriadis argue that notions of knowledge and/or identity are an ongoing process.

Compiled by Sue Carlton
Abdullah, Muhammad 105 Abiodun, Nehanda 171 Abiodun, Vera 172 Abu Ghraib prison 100 Abu-Jamal, Mumia 7, 23–6, 172 Aceyalone 7 Adorno, Theodor 3, 120, 129 Advanced Chemistry 10, 140–1, 142, 147 Africa 10, 11–12 see also Black South Africans; South Africa; Tanzania African American culture Cuba and 170–3 France and 159–60 Germany and 137–47 Samoan diaspora and 182, 183, 193 South Africa and 208, 214–16, 221–2, 226 and Tanzanian rap 236, 237, 239–40, 242 African Americans 31–2, 34, 37–8, 45, 78 Hawai‘ians’ identification with 94–5 and Islam 100–1, 105–7, 109, 114 in Japan 201, 202, 204, 205 women 57 see also Black Americans African National Congress (ANC) 212–13, 223 Afro Jazz 155, 234 Afro-Asian Atlantic 100–15 and hip hop 107–14 Afro-Asian Conference, Bandung (1955) 104, 106 Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Conference, Cairo (1957) 105, 106 Afro-diasporic thought/consciousness 9, 101, 109, 110, 112, 143 Ahearn, Charles 56 Aisha 162 Akbar 107 Akhenaton 162 Aktivist 155, 156–7 Akuno, Kali 169, 170 Alibo, Jacob 162 Alltag (Celik) (2003) 137 The Alternative Consultancy 215, 221, 222 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 37 Americanness/Americanization 3, 109, 137–8, 141, 159, 188 American culture 209–11 Amina 162 Amnesty International 7 Anonamiss 189 Anonimo Consejo 167, 168, 169, 172, 173, 174–5, 177, 178–9 anti-colonialism 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104–5, 106, 110–11 Aotearoa see New Zealand Aotearoa Hip Hop Summit 2000 180, 188–90, 191, 193, 195 apartheid 214 American 31 Appadurai, Arjun 209, 231 Arabesk (Turkish folk music) 143, 144, 145 Arista 211 Arnold, Eric 42 Arsenik 152 Arush Declaration 1967 230 Asia One 56, 57, 59, 61 Asian Dub Foundation 121 Asociación de los Hermanos Saiz 168, 173, 174 Aunt Su 241 Australia 83, 122, 188 Average White Band 76 Azeem 81 Aziz Mian 121 b-boying 2, 77, 182, 191, 195, 203, 235 see also breaking/breakdancing b-girls 56–9, 61, 64, 182, 189, 191, 195 Baccardi, Pit 162 Bad Boy 211 Bad G 241 Bad Gear 241 Bagdikian, Ben 40 Bakari, Kitwana 27 Baldwin, James 103 Ballantine, Christopher 208, 216 Bam 129, 155 BAMAUTA (national music council, Tanzania) 234 Bambaataa, Afrika 77, 141, 237, 238 Bami Cruz 152 Banks, Ant 75 Bantu Pound Gangster 242, 245 Barak, Amiri 102, 112



the vInyl aIn’t fInal and stereotyping 36, 40, 43, 114 and Western modernity 12, 209–11 Blair, Tony 130, 133 Blakey, Art 102 Blauner, Robert 29, 30, 36, 45 Blaxploitation 59, 61 Blow, Kurtis 34, 73 Blue City Strutters (Boo-Yaa T.R.I.B.E.) 182, 183, 188, 193, 196 Blunkett, David 125 BMG 35, 40, 211 Bone-Thugs-N-Harmony 34 Boo-Yaa T.R.I.B.E. see Blue City Strutters Boom Shaka 218–19 Boukaka, Franklin 155 Bourdieu, Pierre 239 Bowie, David 6 Brand Nubian 107 Brasse vannie Kaap 215 Brazil 4–5, 83 Breakin’ (1984) 191 Breaking and Entering (1984) 195 breaking/breakdancing 2, 46, 137, 139, 182, 186, 188, 191, 193, 235 La Brigade 154 Britain Asian youth gangs 125–6 British Asians 113–14 and hip hop 120–34 immigration policies 125 and visibility of Asian culture 124–5 British National Party (BNP) 114, 125 broadcasting, and deregulation 42–3 The Bronx 72 Brown, Foxy 62, 64 Brown, James 110 BUMIDON 156 Bush, George W. 130, 133 Busta Rhymes 200, 205 Bynoe, Yvonne 34, 40 California 181–3, 186–8 Calvin T 74 Cannon, Steve 10 Carew, Topper 195 Carluccio, John 56 Cartel 143, 145 Cashmore, Ellis 40, 41 Castro, Fidel 104, 168, 170–1, 173 Celik, Neco 137 CEMA/UNI 211 Césaire, Aimé 152 Chalfant, Henry 56

Barnes, Nicky 72 Battle Sounds (Carluccio) (1997) 56 Bay Area Art Collective 75 Bay Area hip hop 8, 71–84 musical roots of 75–7 and rise of global hip hop 82–4 Beastie Boys 7 Beat Street (Lathan) (1984) 56, 139, 184, 194 Behanzin 153 Bengalee, Mutuir Rahman 105 Bennett, Andy 142, 146 Benyelles, Djamel 155 BET (Black Entertainment Television) 42 Big Baby Jesus 76 Big Daddy Kane 236, 237 Bill de Sam 161 Bin Hassan, Umar 6–7, 19–22 Bisso Na Bisso 154, 155, 158, 162 Black Americans and Black identity 104–7, 109–10, 112 and colonial relationship 36, 37–8, 40 and criminal justice system 29, 36, 37–9, 44 and education 43–4, 80 and incarceration 8, 27, 28, 29, 30, 36, 43–6 occupational restriction 32–3, 34 and oppression/exploitation 29–30, 31–2, 34–5, 36–7, 225 Black Arts movement 6, 102 Black Atlantic 9, 101 Black August Collective 11, 172 Black C 74 Black Dynasty 71–2 Black Noise 214 Black Panther Fugitives 82 Black Panthers 7, 71, 74, 79, 82, 171 Black Power movement 110, 184, 194 Black Rock Coalition 33 Black South Africans 208, 212–18 and consumerism 221–3 and exploitation 225 and gangsta rap 212–14 and indigenous languages 214, 215, 223 and slang 222–3 see also South Africa Black Star 107 Black Thought 7 Blackalicious 81, 82 Blackness 11, 27, 101 and hip hop 5–6, 10, 31, 138–9, 142, 144, 145–6, 160–1, 196, 231–2 and Islam 101–2, 106–7, 109–10, 112

Index Daznundaz 244 De Genova, Nick 36 Dead Prez 7, 11 death penalty 132 Def Jam 28, 211 Dellios, Hugh 215, 222–3 Deltron-Z 80 Démocrates D 154, 157 Denton, Nancy 31 Deplowmatz 236 Desvarieux, Jacob 162 Devoux brothers 182–3, 195 Diallo, Amadou 38 Digable Planets 107 Digital Underground 74, 78 Diop, Cheikh Anta 161 Diop, Wasis 155 Divine Styler 107 Diziz La Peste 155 DJ Joyman Vargas 4 DJ Kool Herc 77, 129, 130 DJ Quest 75 DJ Quick 76 DJ Raw 180–1, 194 DJ Rockit V 184 DJ Symphony 56, 57, 61 DJing 2, 46, 56, 59, 61, 64, 235, 241 Djoloff 154, 155, 161 DMX 79 Doble Filo 173 Doc Gynéco 152 Doc Shebelezza 225 Dolasoul (‘Balozi’) 235–6 Dontcha 152 Down, Dru 73 Dr. Dre 39, 76 Dupri, Jermaine 39 Dyson, Michael Eric 210, 211 E-40 74 Eaton, Al 75 Eazy-B 236 Egypt 103, 105, 106, 153 Egyptian Lover 78 Electric Boogaloos 182, 183, 195 Elflein, Dietmar 10, 143, 145, 146 EMI 40, 226 Eminem 57, 175 Eric B & Rakim 76, 88 Eric-E 143 Ethiopia 153 Evans, Linda 43 Explosión Femenina 167, 168, 175–8


Channel Four, Asian cultural programming 125 Cheney, Dick 100 Chideya, Farai 213, 216 Chief Xcel 81 Christchurch, New Zealand 180–1 Christianity 102–4 Chubb Rock 7 Chuck D 3, 7, 38, 95, 126, 128, 129 civil rights movement 104, 105 CL Smooth 107 Clark, Kenneth 34 Clarke, John 138 Clear Channel Communications 42 Cleaver, Eldridge 79 The Click 74 Clinton, George 77–8 Club Harlem 200–6 Coetzer, Diane 213 Colombia 3–4 Colombia Rap Cartel 4 colonialism 100–1, 112, 113, 114–15, 233 internal 29–30, 36 neo-colonialism 88, 234, 242, 246 see also anti-colonialism Common [Sense] 11, 107, 172 Con Funk Shun 76, 77 Condry, Ian 201 consumerism 220–3 Cook, David-D 42 Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) 44 Cosmo D 78 The Coup 7 Crazy GK 241 criminal justice system 29, 36, 37–9, 44 Cross, Brian 183 Cruz, Guy 91 Cuba hip hop 10–11, 167–79 prostitution 176–7 protests 1994 168 and race/racism 169–72, 176 cultural imperialism 3, 12, 138, 209, 223, 231, 233, 239 Da Crime Posse 145 Dash, Damon 39, 211 Dataz 241 Davis, Angela 24, 43 Davis, Miles 76 Day, Wendy 35 Daye, Hamed 152, 155, 156


the vInyl aIn’t fInal ghetto life 30, 32, 36, 45–6, 71–2, 74, 139–40, 216, 237 ghetto fabulous 27, 47, 72 and homicide rates 83 Ghetto Ruff 225 Gilroy, Paul 209, 217, 219 globalization 10, 41, 101 and cultural homogenization 209, 220, 226, 231 and cultural resilience 209, 224–5, 231 of hip hop 2–6, 82–4, 120, 128–9, 208–27 glocalization 3, 4 Goldberg, Eve 43 Goldstuck, Arthur 226 Graebner, Werner 230–1 graffiti art 2, 64, 73, 126, 137, 139, 195, 235 Graham, Larry 76 Grand Master Caz 6 Grand Wizard Theodore 6 Grandmaster Flash 160 Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) 212–13 G’sann 244 Guevara, Che 172 Gunz, Peter 183 G.W.M. (Gangstaz With Matatizo) 242 El Hadi, Sulaimn 6 Hahn, Harlan 37–8 La Haine (Kassovitz) (1995) 157 Hampton, Fred 79 Hancock, Herbie 76 Hardblasters 242 Hardcore Unit 242 Harlan, John Marshall 47 Harvard Consultation Project 34 Hawai‘i 85–98 cultural and political activism 93–5 and financial crisis 93 Jawaiian musicians 94 sovereignty groups 88 U.S. annexation protest 85–8, 98 Hawai‘i State Admission Act 1959 88 Hawkins, Darnell 38 Hawkins, John 109 Hayden, Tom 37 Heavy D 90 Helemano, Butch 94 Helm, George 94 Herrera, L’il Julian 196 Herrera, Pablo 11, 167–8, 173–4, 175–6, 177–8 Hesmonhalgh, David 123

Fabe 152 Famous Original Blood Brothers (F.O.B.B.s) 187–8 Fanon, Franz 111, 155 Die Fantastischen Vier (Fantastic Four) 10, 140, 141, 146–7 Farida 241 Faulkner, David 7 Feagin, Joe 37–8 Fernandez, Arial 173 Fernandez, Nadine 170, 176–7 Ffyonna 241 Flashdance (1983) 191 Fonky Family 161, 162 ‘For the People’ (Bin Hassan) 7, 19 Forever Protest Annexation 85–6 Forman, Murray 5, 12, 34 Fortune Tellers 241 France 10, 151–64 and Black French history 152–4 and immigration from North Africa 156–7 Francisco, Mike ‘Dream’ 73 Franti, Michael 128, 131–2 Freddie B 73 Freeman 156 Fresh, Doug E. 6 Friedman, Jonathan 2 Fuente, Alejandro de la 171 Fun^da^mental 9, 119, 120–1, 122–33 G-Dry 241 Gang Starr 107, 237 gangs 36, 73, 79, 126, 137, 239, 241 Black List 37 in prisons 46 gangsta rap 36, 73, 79, 139, 146, 210, 211–12, 213, 239, 240, 242 gangster image 212 Gaunt, Kyra 57 Gaye, Marvin 91 gender notions of 58–60 and political economy 60–2 see also rap/rapping, female artists; women George, Nelson 34, 39, 41, 72 Germany 9–10, 82, 137–47 beginnings of hip hop culture 139–42 and Oriental hip hop 142–7 Gesthuizen, Thomas 246 Ghatak, Ritwik 125

HHC magazine 121–2 Hieroglyphics 80–1, 82 Hill, Lauryn 57, 64 Hilliard, David 82 Hilo 89, 98 hip hop and black entrepreneurship 27–8, 30–2, 39–41, 46, 47, 211, 225 and commentary on 131–3 consumption 30, 33–5, 200, 204, 210, 211–12, 220, 223–6 documentaries 56, 78, 93, 195 see also Nobody Knows My Name and education 80, 82 in Europe 119–20, 121, 132–3 see also Britain; France; Germany globalization of 2–6, 82–4, 120, 128–9, 208–27 and market power 126–31 and social forces 7–8, 27–47 and youth protest 9–12 hip hop generation 27–30, 40, 41, 45–7, 71, 79, 144, 203 ‘Hip Hop or Homeland Security’ (Mumia Abu-Jamal) 7, 25–6 hip hop nation 58, 237, 238 Hisatake, Jack and Charlie 183, 193, 195 Hisatake, Rodney 183 HIV/AIDS 235, 241, 242, 244, 245–6 HNIC 39 hooks, bell 35 Hula 93–4 Hutton, Lil’ Bobby 79 hybridity 107, 110, 125, 133, 239



Islam 9, 100–15, 119, 121, 125, 126, 127, 162, 240 African-American 100–1, 105–7, 109, 114 and Blackness 101–2, 106–7, 109–10, 112 Islamic Force 143 Ja Rule 6, 79, 81 Jackson, George 79 Jackson, Janet 195 Jackson, Michael 139, 195 Jacobs-Fantauzzi, Eli 172–3 Jam Master Jay 39 Jamal, Ahmad 102 James, Kery 162 Jameson, Frederic 223–4 Japan 11, 200–6 authenticity of hip hop scene 201–5 Black hip hop fans 202, 204–5 Jaramillo, Maigel Entenza 167, 168–9, 170, 171, 172, 175, 178–9 Jawaiian musicians 94 Jay, Kool Freddie 155 Jay-Z 39, 41 jazz 24, 34, 102, 107, 211, 216 Johnson, Robert 42 Jones, Quincy 6 Jones, Teren 80–1 Jonzun Crew 77 journalism 119, 123, 126, 129, 131–2 JT the Bigga Figga 74 Jungle Crewz Posse 239 Jupiter Drawing Room 222 Jurassic 5 107 Juvenile Crime Initiative, California 82 K Singo (aka K Single and KBC) 237 K-Lyinn 241 K-Rim 158 Ka Lahui Hawai‘i 88 Kaho‘olawe 93 Kain, Gylan 6 Kalawa Records 225 Kaliphz 9, 101, 107, 113–14 Kamakawiwo‘ole, Israel 88 Kanak Attak 144–5 Kanza, Lokua 155 Kawa‘auhau, Don Ke‘ala 89–90, 93, 95, 96, 98 Kaya, Ayhan 144, 147 KDD 152, 163 Keak the Sneak 73 Kelley, Norman 33–4, 211, 225 Kelly, R. 23

IAM 151, 153–4, 161–2 Ice Cube 107, 184, 213, 230 Ice-T 90, 214 Ideal J 162 I.M.P. 74 imperialism 112, 119, 121, 234 American 3, 10–11, 108, 110, 127, 133, 168, 231 struggle against 103, 105–6, 130 Impey, Angela 213–14, 218, 219 Indigenous Footsouljahs 180–1, 183–4, 189, 194–5 individualism 201, 210 Instinto 176 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 234–5 International Turntablist Federation 83 Intik 155, 161 Invisbl Skratch Picklz 82 Iolani Palace 85, 98


the vInyl aIn’t fInal Los Angeles 181–3, 194 LAPD gang Intel 37 L.T.D. 77 Luciano, Felipe 6 Lull, J. 3, 231 Lunatic 161 Luniz 73 Ma cité va crack-er (Richet) (1997) 157 Mabena, Bob 217 The Mac 74, 76 Mac Dre 7, 74 Mac Mall 74, 76 McAlister, Melani 102, 104 McCall, Nathan 38 McChesney, Robert 222, 225–6 McCloy, Maria 221 Madondo, B. 226 Madunia 246 Mafia K’1 Fry 155 Mafokate, Arthur 225 Magia 173, 177 Magic Mike 74 Malcolm X 103–4, 105, 111, 112, 172, 203, 204 Malcolm X Grassroots Movement 172 Malm, Krister 236–7 Mandela, Nelson 7, 172 Manu’a 184 Maoris 180, 185, 190–3, 194, 196 Marl, Marley 61 Marley, Bob 23, 91 Marti, Jose 172 Martinique 152 Masekela, Hugh 216, 217 Massey, Douglas 31 Massey, Tajai 79–80 Master Ace 60 Master J 236 Master P 39, 79 Mathosa, Lebo 218, 219 The Mau 184 Mau Mau Rhythm Collective 82 Mauer, Mike 28 Maunda, Abbas 239–40 Maxwell, Ian 5–6 Mayfield, Curtis 23, 110 MC Gift of Gab 81 MC Hammer 74, 78, 89–90 MC ‘Khas the Fieldstyle Orator’ 184 MC Pooh 74 MC Shing02 83 MC ‘Shiro’ 201

Kelly, Raegan 182 Key-Kool 205, 206 Keyes, Cheryl 62 Khan, Chaka 76 Khayree 74, 75, 76, 77 King Giddra 205 King, Martin Luther 104, 105 King, Rodney 46 King Size Terror 142 Kiswahili 232, 233, 236, 238, 241, 242 KMEL 42 Knight, Suge 39 Knowledge magazine 121, 124 Kofsky, Frank 34 Koïta, Moriba 155 K.O.S.-163 (Kosmo) 180–1, 182, 183–4, 186, 189, 191, 194–5 Kotze, Lee 221–2 Krazy 79 Kreators 83 Kreuzberg 137–8, 145–6, 147 KRS-One 7, 210 Ku Klux Klan 114 Kuti, Fela 110–11 kwaito 212, 213–14, 215, 217, 218, 220–1, 222, 225, 226 Kwanza Unit (KU) 237–8 Kwanzania 237–8 Kweli, Talib 39 Lady JD 241 Lady Laistee 155 Lady Lou 241 Lady Pink 62 Lakeside 77 The Last Poets 6, 7, 81, 111–12, 128 Lateef, Yusef 102 Lathan, Stan 56 Lee, Barbara 42 Leschea 56, 59, 60 Levine, Adam 213, 215, 217, 220–1 Lil’ Kim 39, 62, 66 Lil’ Ric 75 Lil’ Slim 27–9, 30–1, 37, 43, 44, 45, 47 Lil’uokalani, Queen 85, 91, 93 Lionel D 162 Lipsitz, George 88, 96, 196, 210, 238, 246 Liste Noire 155 LL Kool J 236 Lloyd Webber, Andrew 125 Loop Guru 121 Lopez, Luciana 202–3, 204 Lord Kossity 162 Lord Tariq 183



MC Solaar 152, 153 MC Zion 81–2 MCA 81, 211 mchiriku 245 MCing 2, 56, 59, 241 M’Du 225 Mead, Margaret 187 Medusa 56, 57, 58, 59, 62–3 Melville, Caspar 123 Ménélik 152, 155 Menendez, Nina 174 Mengi, Reginald Abraham 243 Metabass’n’Breath 83 Middle East 101, 102–3, 106, 109, 161 Mills, Charles 32 Mills, Ritchie 191, 193 Ministère AMER 155, 157 Minto, Bashir Ahmad 105 Missy Elliott 39, 63 Mitchell, Felix 72 Mitchell, Tony 5, 11 Mjema, John 244 Mkhasibe, Gill 221 Monch, Pharoahe 7 Monie Love 210 Mos Def 9, 11, 39, 101, 107, 110–12, 172, 210 Moseley, Mike 75 Motorcycle Mike 73 Mponjika, Ramadhani (‘Chief’ Rhymson) 235, 236, 237, 238 Muhammad, Elijah 105, 106 music industry 39–43, 225–6 deregulation 41–2 and entrepreneurship 27–8, 30–2, 39–41, 46, 47, 211, 225 and exploitation 40, 47, 169, 225 magazines 123–4, 126 and market power 126–31 media TNCs 4–5, 226 and restricted job opportunities 32–5 Mwsanafalsafa/Mwana FA 245–6 Mystik 162 Mystik Journeyman 82 Naeem, Abdul Basit 105 N.A.P. (New African Poets) 155, 161 Nas 107, 113 Nasser, Gamal Abdul 104, 105 Nation of Islam 103, 105–7 Nation Records label 119, 120–1 National Front 114 National Geographic 187–8, 189

Nawaz, Aki (Propa Ghandi) 119, 120–1, 123, 124, 128–9, 130–1 Nazizi 241 Neal, Mark Anthony 6, 12, 34 Necessary Noise 241 Neg de la Peg 155, 158 Les Neg’ Marrons (The Niggaz) 152, 162 Neg’Lyrical 161 Negus, Keith 33, 34 Nehru, Jawaharlal 104 Nelly 81 Nelson, David 6 New Jack City (1991) 72 New Music Express (NME) 123 New Zealand (Aotearoa) 180–1, 183–4, 188–97 Newcleus 78 Newton, Huey P. 79, 122 Nicole, Nikke 56, 63 Nigga One 236 Nixon, Rob 212 NiZA (Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa) 246 Nkrumah, Kwame 111, 112, 246 No Limit Records 211 Nobody Knows My Name (Raimist) (1999) 56–62 and feminism 65–6 and gendered political economy 60–2 and music industry 67–8 and notions of gender 58–60 and sexuality 58, 66–7 see also Raimist, Rachel NTM 157, 162 Nubia 153 Nubian Motown Crew 241 Nurridin, Jalal 6 N.W.A. (Niggaz With Attitude) 79, 214, 237 N.W.P. (Niggaz With Power) 242 Nyerere, Julius K. 230, 233, 235, 244, 246 Oakland 71–5, 77, 79–80, 82 homicides 71–2, 73 Oakland Raiders 73 Obsesión 173 O’Connell, Daniel 24 Ohio Players 77 Olomide, Koffi 155 Omai Faatasi 181 ‘On Rapping Rap’ (Mumia Abu-Jamal) 7, 24–5, 113 158–9, 161 Onekea, Rob 90, 91, 95, 98 Ongala, Remmy 232


the vInyl aIn’t fInal Raimist, Rachel 2, 8, 56–68 interview with 63–8 Puerto Rican identity 64–5 see also Nobody Knows My Name Rakim 9, 101, 107, 108–10, 124 Rap Coalition 35 Rap Revolution 122 Rap Summit, New York (2001) 24 ‘A Rap Thing’ (Mumia Abu-Jamal) 7, 23–4 rap/rapping 2, 23–5, 46, 64, 85, 183, 235 denigration of women 217–18, 240–1 female artists 177, 218–20, 241–2 and local languages African indigenous languages 214, 215, 232, 242, 245 in France 158, 162 German 140, 142–3 Hawai‘ian 88, 90, 91, 93 Samoan diaspora 184, 193 Turkish 142–3, 145 and Western modernity 210–11 Rappin’ 4-Tay 74 Ray C 241 Ray, Satyajit 125 RBL Posse 74 Recording Industry of South Africa (RISA) 224 ‘REDBONE’ (Bin Hassan) 7, 20–2 Reichel, Keal‘i 91 Rhoff 162 Rhyme & Reason (Spirer) (1997) 56 Rhymson (Mponjika, Ramadhani) 235, 236, 237, 238 Rich, Richie 73, 75 Richards, Caleb 89, 90, 93, 98 Riders Posse 237 Riley, Boots 42, 77 Ritzer, George 209 Robbins, Brian 56 Robert, Shaaban 238 Robertson, Roland 3 Roc-A-Fella Records 39, 40, 211 Rock Steady Crew 182, 191 Rodney P 121–2 The Roots 76, 107 Rose, Tricia 6, 46, 63, 212 Rough Niggaz 242, 245 Rough Opinion 184 La Rumeur 158 Run DMC 90, 236 Sadiq, Mufti Muhammad 105 Saldivar, Jose David 112 Saleh J 236, 237

ONI (Office nationale d’immigration) 156 Organization of African Unity (OAU) 112 Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) 112 Orientalism 9, 101 Orishas 168, 169, 174 Otis, Shuggie 76 Oyewole, Abiodun 6 P-Diddy 39 Pabon, Rico 75 Pacheco, Carlos Andres 4 Papa Wemba 155 Parenti, Christian 43 Paris 74, 107, 184 Parliament 77 Passi 155 Pennay, Mark 141 Pete Rock 107 Petelo, Petelo 190–1, 193 Philippines 83 Pilate, Felton 76 Plessy v. Ferguson 47 Poor Righteous Teachers 7, 107 Poppin’ Pete 195 popping 21, 89, 181–4, 186–9, 191, 193, 196 Positive Black Soul (PBS) 152, 158, 161, 240 PREACH/SEMA 245 Prideaux, Eric 203–4 Prieto, Abel 173 Prince 76 Priority Records 211 Prison Moratorium Project 7 prison-industrial complex 30, 43–5 Project Raptivism 7 Prophets of Da City 121, 215, 216, 218 Protect Kaho‘olawe Ohana 94 Public Enemy 7, 107, 184, 214, 236 Puerto Ricans 64–5 Q-Bert 75 Qawaali 120 Quannum Projects label 81 Queen Latifah 62, 210 Queen Pen 62 racism 30, 41, 47, 100, 102–4, 108 Britain 113–14, 119, 121, 129, 130 Cuba 169–72, 176 France 151, 153, 156–7, 159, 160 Germany 141, 142, 144 Hawai‘i 93 U.S. 46, 114, 238 Radio Tanzania Dar es Salaam (RTD) 234



salsa 168–9 Salt-N-Pepe 62 Samoan diaspora 180–97 Samoan Islands history of 184–5 and street dancing 186–8 sampling 75–6, 77, 111, 131, 147, 151, 246 San Francisco 74, 75, 77 Sarrias, Yosmel 167, 168–9, 170, 171–2, 175, 178 Scholosser, Eric 43 School for Social Justice 82 Scott, Mark 191–2 Seale, Bobby 79, 122 Seei, Christopher 186 Seete, Thembi 218 Selassie, Haile 153 Sen, Mrinal 125 Senghor, Leopold Sedar 246 Shakka 153 Shakur, Tupac 6, 24, 39, 72, 78–9, 230 Shanté, Roxanne 61, 62 Sharma, Sanjay 124 Sharpton, Reverend Al 38 Shaw, Todd see Too $hort Shock G 78 The Show (Robbins) (1995) 56 Siki 153 Silver, Tony 56 Simmons Lathan Media Group (SLMG) 28 Simmons, Russell 6, 24, 28, 40 Simon, Paul 127, 131 Singh, Bhagat 114 Sissokho, Yakhouba 155 Sist-fedap 241 Sister P 241 Sister Souljah 62 SJ 241 Skeem 215, 225 Skeeter Rabbit 195 Skeme 122 Skitz 121–2 Skratch Commandos 83 slavery 101, 102, 109–10, 112, 115, 151–2, 171, 209–10 Sly and the Family Stone 76 Smalls, Biggie 39 Smudo 140, 141 Snoop Dogg 183, 213, 222 So Solid Crew 121, 124 Socialist Workers Party 130 Soggy Doggy Anter 245 Soleside label 81

Songhai empire 153 Sony 5, 225 Sony BMG Music Entertainment 40 South Africa 12, 212–27 Coloured communities 214–15, 216 and consumerism 220–3 female rap musicians 218–20 influence of American culture 214–18, 222, 224 and local music cultures 223–4, 226 and music industry 224–6 see also Black South Africans South African Advertising Research Association 222 Spearhead 131–2 Spice One 74 Spirer, Peter 56 St-Val, Tanya 162 stereotyping and Blackness 36, 40, 43, 114 women 57, 58, 218, 221 Stigillydaa, Sam 239 Stomy Bugsy 152, 155 street dance 181–4, 186–97 see also breaking/breakdancing Strictly Business 76 Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) 235 Studio Ton 75 Style Wars (Silver) (1981) 56 Style Wars (Silver and Chalfant) (1983) 56 Sudden Rush 85–6, 88–9, 90–3, 94–8 Suga Pop 182, 193, 194–7 SugarHill Gang 28, 73 Sundjiata Keita 153 Swedenburg, Ted 121 Sykes, Dully 240–1 T-Bone 27–9, 32–4, 43, 45, 47 T-Love 56, 57 Tamati, Bonnie (‘Phem1’) 189–90 Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) 233, 235, 246 Tanzania 12, 230–46 American influence 232, 239–40 and control of airwaves 234, 243 cultural history of 233–4 and hip hop nationalism 237–8 and Kiswacenric concept 238 languages 232, 233, 245 rap and oppositional discourse 242–4 ‘reality’ rap (Bongo Flava rap) 242–6 and social issues 245–6 ‘Swah’ rap 23842


the vInyl aIn’t fInal Vallejo 74, 75, 76, 77 Veincent, Shane 89, 90, 93, 96, 97–8 Verdeyen, Robert 44 Viacom 42–3 Villain Gangsters 237 Wacquant, Loïc 45, 46 war on terror 100, 126, 127 Warner Music Group 40, 60, 211 Watkins, Lee William 11 Watts, Dave 123 White supremacy 23, 25, 27, 32, 43, 104, 125 resistance to 104–5, 109, 110, 111–12 Whiteness 30, 36, 103, 109, 112, 114, 159, 161, 176 Wild Style (Ahearn) (1982) 56, 139, 200 Williams, Bryan and Ronald 39 Willie K 91 women 56–68 breaking into hip hop 175–8 categorisation of female rap artists 62 denigration of 217–18, 240–1 female artists 177, 218–20, 241–2 and male patronage 60–1 as producers 63 see also Nobody Knows My Name; Raimist, Rachel Women’s Studies 64–5 Wonder, Stevie 110, 151 Woodie 75 World Bank 235 World Class Wreckin’ Cru 78 Wu-Tang Clan 107, 113 X Plastaz 244 X-Clan 7, 76, 184 Yo Rap Bonanza (YRB) 236 Yo-Yo 62 Young Black Brotha 76 Young Comrades 82 Young MC 90 Zaimoglu, Feridun 144–5 Zanzibar 243 Zapp 77 Zey B 241 Ziggy-Lah 244 Zion-I 81, 82 Zongo, Pauline 241 Zoo Sound 139 Zulu Nation 237

Teemour 153, 155, 160 telecommunications industry, deregulation 41–2 Thang, Solo 246 That’s Incredible (U.S. TV program) 191, 192, 193 Third Eye Movement 82 Thompson, John B. 231 ‘Three-Strike’ law 44 3 Power Crew 235 Thriller (Jackson)(1982) 195 Timide et Sans Complexe 157 TLC 62 Tokyo 200–6 Tomlinson, John 231 Too $hort (Todd Shaw) 73, 74, 76, 78 Torch 141 Tower of Power 77 Transglobal Underground 121 transnational corporations (TNCs) 220 A Tribe called Quest 107 Tribe-X 237 The Tribunal (1994) 93 ‘TRIBUTE’ (Bin Hassan) 7, 19–20 Triple Threat DJs 82 Trompies 215 Troutman, Roger 77 Tune Vaouli 186 El Tunisiano 156 Turkish-German migrant rap 10, 137, 138, 142–7 Turner, Richard Brent 106 turntablism 2, 61, 75 Tutuila 184 2 Bal 2 Neg 155 2 Proud (Sugu) 230, 231, 243–4 UFTO 61 ujaama 231, 233, 234, 235, 246 Uncle Jamm’s Army 78 Underground Railroad 82 Unga Adui 245 Unique Sisters 241 Universal Music Group 40, 211 Uptown Records 211 U.S. imperialism 3, 10–11, 108, 110, 127, 133, 168, 231 materialism 23–4, 25, 81, 90 and Middle East 102–3 prison system 28, 29, 30, 43–5

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