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AUDIO VISUAL COMMUNICATION Module Notes Nature of Audio Visual Production
We all watch films that we treasure and identify with – for their laughs, their thrills, or their haunting images of terror. Movie stars become cult figures or active politicians. Movies inform many parts of our lives and therefore we should enjoy them in many ways including the challenging pleasure of trying to think about, explain and write about our experience. Audio visual communication is something where audiences feel involved. By using audio visual medium, a story can be viewed from different point of views. In this medium of communication, sound has been carefully woven on the fabric of the film. Although video, an audio of a film are created separately and presented together to create a greater meaning. The need and importance to study Audio Visual: Audio Visual has a wide connotation and is evident in every sector the society; there are various advantages of the same: It records and preserves historical events, provides public with information, instructs people with tools and machines, teaches children in the classroom and students in the lecture hall, educates and enlightens grown up with the current and social affairs, assists scientists and technicians, brings people together to understand each other and instructs, informs and educates people who cannot read and write. Film is an art form which requires sophisticated technology; it’s a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful method for citizens.
Images and Expression: Images express mental states, feelings, emotions etc. The image is a virtual object and not a real object. For example: The photograph of a tree is a virtual object and not the real object. Virtual objects only exist for a perception. Image Virtual
While making a film, the person would have felt, experienced, heard or understood an event. Each of these will have an inner structure of significance or a skeleton. The inner structure of the image should be representative of the inner thing in order to transfer feelings, emotions. One also needs to select and choose the video and audio segments. They need to be rearranged in a particular sequence according to the inner structure of the artist’s mind. Composition: Composition means exclusion of things that the film maker doesn’t want and inclusion of the things that he wants. Each artist makes a unique composition and eventually delivers a unique meaning. Composition is the artist way of saying the complexity of the subject. When you create a composition, you create a meaning. When the composition of the picture changes; its meaning also changes. What is said by a picture cannot be separated from the way it is said. All the rules of any art form is governed by our day to day life.
The three important elements of composition include: - Visual - Audio - Editing The three basic elements of film making include: - Camera - Microphone - Editing A camera gives the artist an eye to recreate the image in mind. There is an audio medium that involves the selection and recreation of sounds for the audio perception to understand the experience. Editing involves the rearranging of the elements in a particular order. Camera – The camera is so versatile that it makes you look at things in many different ways. The film maker can portray different compositions and meaning by placing the camera in different distance from the subject and in different angles or levels the film. The film maker also decides whether the camera should be static or moving depending upon the mood or message that he wants to convey. Depending on distance of camera from the subject, the shots can be divided into different types: - Extreme close up shots - Close up shots - Medium shot - Long shot - Extreme long shot The three important decisions while shooting include: - Distance – how far from the subject - Height – how much height from the ground
- Movement – whether it is still or moving Distance – The first step to analyse the film is the distance between the camera and the subject. What we see is a virtual subject. Changing the distance of the camera from the subject will change the size of the image. The moment the size of the image changes, the meaning or the composition also changes. Height – When you raise the camera or lower it, you are changing the height of the camera. When you tilt the camera upwards or downwards, it changes the perspective of the subject making it look different thus leaving a different meaning. Different angles of a camera are: - High angle - Eye level - Low angle The angles can be varying. It can be very low or high which is the extreme case of changing the viewpoint. The eye level shot is a very neutral and normal shot, there is no distortment of the subject. These shots describe powerful eye contact.
Movement – The different kinds of camera movement include: - Panning - Tilting - Tracking
and sequences form a hierarchy of units fundamental to many tasks in the creation of moving-image works. and close-ups. Often. a shot refers to the action between two adjacent edit points. . a shot is a continuous strip of motion picture film. While editing. Extreme Wide/ Long Shot (EWS) In the extreme wide shot. and the two shot. medium shots. the bird's eye shot. scenes. created of a series of frames. The EWS is also known as an extra long shot. shots. a shot is created when you turn the camera on (begin recording) and then turn it off. In film. While shooting. the point of view shot. a director will record multiple takes (attempts) of each shot in order to get one perfect take to be edited into the final film. Shots are generally filmed with a single camera and can be of any duration.SHOT. SHOTS IN RELATION TO DISTANCE: 1. that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. more specific examples include the extreme long shot. The three basic kinds of shots are long shots. SCENE AND SEQUENCE SHOT: A shot is the basic unit of a film and refers to one length of continuous (unedited) action. Frames. the view is so far from the subject isn't even visible. The point of this shot is to show the subject's surroundings designed to show the audience where the action is taking place. The distance from the camera to the subject greatly affects the narrative power of a shot. the over the shoulder shot. the aerial shot.
a shot of the person from the knees up or the waist up is a close-up shot. the TV show Seinfeld often uses a "Restaurant" establishing shot — an exterior shot of a restaurant that is followed by interior shots of the characters inside. the Colosseum or the Statue of Liberty – to identify a city. a scene's setting and/or its participants. a scene about a murder in a college lecture hall might begin with a shot that shows the entire room — including the lecturing professor and the students taking notes. an exterior shot of a building at night. Typically it is a shot at the beginning (or. or "establishes". Establishing shots may also use famous landmarks – such as the Eiffel Tower. Or an establishing shot might just be a long shot of a room that shows all the characters from a particular scene. followed by an interior shot of people talking. CLOSE-UP SHOT A close-up tightly frames a person or object. LONG SHOT A long shot (sometimes referred to as a full shot or a wide shot) typically shows the entire object or human figure and is usually intended to place it in some relation to its surroundings. 3. the remainder of the scene takes place. implies that the conversation is taking place at night inside that building. For example. MEDIUM SHOT A medium shot is a camera shot from a medium distance. end) of a scene indicating where. occasionally. it is not as far away as an extreme long shot would be. 4. The most common close-ups are ones of . however. 5. For example.2. and sometimes when. Establishing shot An establishing shot sets up. For example.
Usually cover's the subject's head and shoulders. such as someone's eyes. such as someone's head. Major characters are often given a close-up when they are introduced as a way of indicating their importance. Extreme Close Up : The shot is so tight that only a fraction of the focus of attention. Bird's eye shot: . Close cuts to characters' faces are used far more often in television than in movies. takes up the whole frame. Close Up: A certain feature. Close-ups are also used for distinguishing main characters. can be seen SHOTS IN RELATION TO CAMERA ANGLE 1. Medium Close Up: Half-way between a mid shot and a close-up.actors' faces. Leading characters will have multiple close-ups. Types of close-up: There are various degrees of close-up depending on how zoomed in the shot is. They are also used extensively in stills photography. they are especially common in soap operas. Close shots shows the character’s emotions.
This shot can be used to give an overall establishing shot of a scene. Aerial shots . 5. Point of view shot A point of view shot also known as POV shot is a short film scene that shows what a character is looking at. Two shot A Two shot is a type of shot in which the frame encompasses a view of two people (the subjects). The shots are also used to show the emotional reactions between the subjects. The back of the shoulder and head of this person is used to frame the image of whatever (or whomever) the camera is pointing toward. The subjects do not have to be next to each other. OS. and a shot showing the character's reaction. These shots are normaly used for battle scenes or establishing where the character is. The perspective is very foreshortened. It is usually established by being positioned between a shot of a character looking at something. 3. Over the shoulder shot An over the shoulder shot (also over shoulder. or third-person shot) is a shot of someone or something taken over the shoulder of another person. and there are many common two-shots which have one subject in the foreground and the other subject in the background. 2. This type of shot is very common when two characters are having a discussion and will usually follow an establishing shot which helps the audience place the characters in their setting. making the subject appear short and squat. or to emphasise the smallness or insignificance of the subjects. 4.A Bird's eye shot refers to a shot looking directly down on the subject. OTS.
they realize a beat in the story line. more powerful or threatening. theme. content. present exposition (to fill in the back story). Scenes will introduce characters. This technique is sometimes used in scenes of confrontation to illustrate which character holds the higher position of power. While it could conceivably be a single shot a scene is usually a cohesive series of related shots. If the aerial shot is of a character it can make them seem insignificant or vulnerable. it is typically much shorter than a stage play scene. or they may introduce a complication. The subject of a high angle shot looks vulnerable or insignificant. space. looking up. This sort of shot would be restricted to exterior locations. The purpose of the scene is to move the story forward. not the entire film. or express a theme. SCENE The scene is the single most important element in the screenplay. you remember scenes. High angle shot A high angle shot is usually when the camera is located high (often above head height) and the shot is angled downwards (in contrast to a low-angle shot). Good scenes make good movies. if the shot represents a character's point of view the shot can also be used to make the character tall. is a shot from a camera positioned low on the vertical axis. concept. . character. A good area to do this shot would be a scene that takes place on a building. often at knee height.Aerial shots are usually done with a crane or with a camera attached to a special helicopter to view large landscapes. 6. create a mood. This shot is used sometimes in scenes of confrontation and fights to show which person has the higher power. establish a setting. deliver some relevant information. reveal character relationships. Scenes advance the story. and is a common element in the aesthetic texture of certain genres such as film noir. 7. or motif. A scene is a unit containing a single and continuous dramatic action unified by time. A scene is a part of the action in a single location. Low-angle shot A low-angle shot. When you think of a good movie. They may introduce a problem or resolve one. Due to the ability to edit recorded visual works.
close up of Dr. E. Rao leaving the village is made from three distinct scenes: 1.g. a robbery sequence. • Introduction scenes . Dr. but is not allowed from doing so by her jealous husband. OTS (from the husband) of Dr Rao.Various scenes • Master scenes . 3. Dr. For example a film might include an extended recruitment sequence in which the leader of the gang collects together the conspirators. The scene where Dr. Rao goes to meet Bindu is composed of fourteen different shots for 96 seconds. 2.where the audience is taken into the past to reveal crucial story points. and so on. a sequence is a series of scenes which form a distinct narrative unit. The sequence is one of a hierarchy of structural units used to describe the structure of films in varying degrees. their events may occur at different times and places just as long as they are related to each other. and so on. Dr. Rao. Rao and his wife are on the railway station and Bhola is runs to stop them. • Static Scenes . a safe-cracking sequence. EXAMPLE: MANTHAN The sequence of Dr.where there is very little motion of the subject or camera. a film is composed of one or more acts. • Flash back scenes . close up of Bindu.where characters are introduced for the first time. Each of these sequences might further contain sub-sequences. an escape sequence. for example the robbery sequence might consist of an entry sequence. Rao coming. acts include one or more sequences. and scenes may be thought of as being built out of shots (if one is thinking visually) or beats (if one is thinking in narrative terms). usually connected either by unity of location or unity of time. Sequence A sequence is a longer segment made up of a series of closely related scenes that together form a unified whole. etc . sequences comprise one or more scenes. In film. Sequences need not be continuous. long shot of the three. Analyzed this way.which are the key scenes to the bulk of the plot. Rao goes to meet Bindu. Rao receives a telegram which informs him about his transfer and he gives this news to his wife. Bindu is sifting grains and looks up to see Dr.
a small child in a large space or an ocean liner being pulled by a tug. for eg. The size of an unknown object is understood through comparison with an object of known size or with the background or by it’s appearance in relation to the frame. for eg. This type of image appeals to most peoples general fascination with model lay outs where the spectator can take up a detached position and observe a scene without being part of it. Eg. People can be tricked by a close shot of a model replica until the camera pulls back and reveals it to be a fraction of the size of the original. An over used technique is the familiar zoom out from the presenter. .IMAGE SIZE We understand the physical nature of the world through a comparison of size.. A frame around an image seals of it’s context (frame of reference) and become unrecognizable unless it is a very familiar object. A composition can achieve an impact by introducing an indication of scale or size comparison. A 3-m-high shirt button would require a moment to categorize before we had established a new frame of reference. It reveals that s/he is standing on a large scale bridge or on top of a building. This shows scale but requires a lot of ‘dead’ visual between the start and the end shot which are the only two images being compared. a human face. More attractive compositions can be achieved by using a high angle position looking down. But it would be instantly recognizable at it’s normal size. into a valley to see a winding road with a vehicle moving along it or a train puffing through the hills. The human figure is most easily recognized and used most often in size comparisons. We recognize an object through an object by it’s proportions and it’s normal size relationship with other objects. Some objects need to be set in their context before they can visually communicate clearly without any confusion about their identity..
The same factors are at work over time with adjacent shots allowing a development of new information or continuity in story telling. A low angle wide angle lens shot of a tall building will make it appear taller. A figure or object can be made to appear taller by angling the camera upwards particularly if the image consists of vertical parallel lines tending to converge. 5. ornaments and people. 5. the television image is always in proximity with the objects surrounding the TV set Fig. Proximity in time allows continuity and the relationship between visual references which constructs an argument whereas in Fig. The moving image on the screen holds the attention against the surrounding competition of wall paper. distance.24a the cinema image is viewed in near darkness with no visible object surrounding the screen. Proximity of subject allows judgments of scale and connections. Eg. machines and instruments are filmed with an operator in position to reveal their proportionate size. Such a device can be used to film troops of soldiers and make them look like a large army going to battle. To create an effect of height the simplest means is to have the actor stand on a block. The combined two dimensional designed composition including scale indicators has now to contend. Regardless of their actual physical size. furniture . This actually tiny object appears huge because it’s edges touch the edges of the screen (crowding). images that ‘crowd’ the frame are considered large. A low angle . with a three dimensional environment.The proximity of a subject allows a frame of reference to be established and associations and comparisons to be made. We are easily deceived by apparent size. when viewed. To create an impression of a large group of people we can ‘crowd’ the smaller group we have so that they overlap the frame and we can create the impression that there are more outside the picture. Filming at a high angle makes the small group being filmed overflow the frame. or by positioning him forward of the other players and lowering the cameras making him appear taller. Tools .24b.high shirt button. Sometimes the art director designs ‘converging sets’with built in ‘forced perspective’ in which normal sizes players appear in the foreground and undersized or even midget players are positioned in the distance. However these are devices of theatrical films. Relative size. In non theatrical films the exact size of objects are made known. the 3-m. Seeing less than the whole relays the impression that the entire picture is to vast and complicated to capture in it’s entirety. perspective may all be distorted.
Psychological aspects of image size and angling . in relation to the frame (the space or lack of space surrounding the object in a picture). looking downward at a tiny group of pioneers inching their way up a vast rugged landscape instantly portrays the hardships and privations endured on a long. may be exploited to produce emotional responses from the viewers. lonely trek. Theatrical films make extensive use of such contrasting shots for visual variety and to provoke involver the audience more closely by provoking an emotional response from them. .subjective shot of a person from a child’s viewpoint so that he crods the screen will make him appear even taller. Non theatrical films may also use extreme long shots and extreme close ups for dramatic effects. An extreme long shot.
that is. EYE-LEVEL SHOT Eye-level shots are those taken with camera on or near the eye-level of the character . HIGH-ANGLE SHOT The high-angle shot is obviously the opposite of low-angle. showing a world out of balance. angled upward. The low angle shot can also give a distorted perspective. and its effects are the opposite as well. It has a tendency to make characters or environments look threatening. pointing down. This can produce a sense of both disorientation and foreboding. It tends to diminish a subject. The camera is placed above the subject. of the camera in relationship to the subject. making it look intimidated or threatened. This is the conventional way of making characters look insignificant. it also has a more limited meaning in terms of camera resources. powerful or intimidating. the height and orientation.CAMERA VIEWPOINT ANGLES Although the term angle is often used on the set to designate simple camera position. or level. LOW-ANGLE SHOT A low-angle shot is one in which the camera is below the subject.
Much like the medium shot. frantic or desperate . omniscient point of view. It is used for dramatic effects or for showing a different spatial perspective. is actually a variation of the highangle shot but is so extreme that it has an effect all its own. found in Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds (1963). This angle is used for dramatic effects & helps portray unease. also called the Dutch angle. This shot is from directly above and tends to have a God-like. are shot at eye-level. disorientation. This view is also used in sports & documentaries. BIRD’S-EYE VIEW The bird’s-eye view. Eye-level shots tend to be neutral. of course. A significant majority of shots in theatrical films.or subject being filmed. an eye-level shot puts the viewer on equal footing with the subject being filmed. It is generally used to give an overwhelming sense of the world being unbalanced or out of kilter. as well as a high percentage of shots in episodic television. the camera is tilted laterally on a tripod so it is no longer parallel with the horizon. It enable the audience to see things which the characters cannot. Many classic examples of the bird’s-eye shot are. It has none of the diminishing or exaggerating qualities of the high and low-angle shots. OBLIQUE SHOT In an oblique shot. people look ant-like and insignificant. The oblique shot takes the straight lines of the world and presents them as diagonals. also called an overhead shot.
. Sometimes the point-of-view shot is taken over the shoulder of the character (third person). who remains visible on the screen.e. There are two types of point-of-view shots: Subjective and objective. primarily because camera vision and human vision are decidedly not the same. close up of properties. It is not used as frequently as one might at first presume. madness etc. PICK UP SHOTS These are the special shots without actors. POINT-OF-VIEW SHOT A Point-of -view shot represents the perception or viewpoint of a specific character. Pick up shots will be taken after taking of the main shots of the scene. When the camera assumes the position of a third person watching the scene unfold. i.action. DEPTH OF FIELD . not recognizable shots of actors in different angles. it is a subjective shot. and we see the whole story from his/her perspective. intoxication. When the camera assumes the position of one of the characters in the story. These shots will be useful for compensating editing/continuity problems. it is an objective. A POV shot need not be the strict point-of-view of an actual single character in a film. BOTTOM ANGLE Views the object from the bottom side.
2. in case of the close. then finish with a still shot. Panning A pan is a horizontal camera movement in which the camera moves left and right about a central axis. Other forms are not spacio-temporal because they do not use space and time at the same time or simultaneously.e. Pan shots are used to show the viewer more of the scenery. CONNECTIVE SHOT Shot for connection of background and other ground by using trolley. Arc and Zoom. CAMERA MOVEMENT Film is a spacio-temporal art form. such as into the scene or from one spot to another. such as overlooks. for example. simply moving the camera horizontally from left to right. This is a swiveling movement. We can create enthusiasm in an otherwise static shot simply by moving the camera. You should practice panning at various speeds until you find the speed that works best for you. Dolly. Panning is moving the camera laterally. then pan. mounting the camera on a tripod. 1. Pan shots should begin with a still shot. the character is already in a scene. . Tilt. Some basic shots are: Panning. and the camera pans to meet him or her.it is the field which is in focus. This technique is also often used to show views from high places. The surveying pan looks for a character or an object. Two basic kinds of panning are the following pan and the surveying pan. the camera operator pans to follow a character. Track. i. object is the starting point of the depth of field. In the following pan. it is the distance in focus which is in front of the object and beyond the object.
The use of a dolly opens up many possibilities. a skateboard. then stop on a still shot. without lowering or raising the position of the camera. it is known as a tracking shot. dollying may seem similar to zooming. a scooter. the object looks larger or thicker. We can make our own dolly with a wheelchair. we should begin with a still shot. You dolly by moving the camera.moves past the objects. the object looks smaller or thinner. the tripod and camera . with the entire camera and tripod being moved right or left. It helps us to roll backwards as well as forward. The track shot differs from a pan. This is must like panning. in that. One should note that when we tilt from bottom to top. . Track When the camera is mounted on a cart which travels along tracks for a very smooth movement. This video camera technique is used to follow the subject that you are photographing. whereas you zoom in and out by adjusting the lens. a rolling cart.or from bottom to top. at first glance. Dolly Dollying refers to moving the camera forward or backward in a scene. or many other devices that have wheels. the two are different in terms of how and why you use them. or to show the viewer a large object from top of bottom . Although. tilt. A track is a lateral. We just move the camera up or down. This camera movement technique is used to follow your subject. only it is done vertically. travel shot. As with panning.Tilting A tilt done with a mounted camera is quite simple. When you tilt from top to bottom. sideways. especially when used in conjunction with other techniques. the depth of field in a track shot is maintained as the whole unit.
This movement is used in musical and dramatic presentations. Be careful not to zoom too quickly on your subjects and use sparingly. Light is . therefore the size of the image with varying speeds while the camera is stationary. while panning and. Zooming in and out changes the focal length and. simultaneously making a circular move. Zoom All camcorders are equipped with a zoom lens with a servo button marked T (for tight) and W (for wide). an arc. sometimes. Most likely the single most important aspect of cinematography is lighting. LIGHT Lighting plays a very important role in film making because a visual image is formed due to the play of light. The camera moves out from the subject. tilting to keep the subject in frame.Arc An Arc is a move that incorporates tracking and panning at the same time.
a fill light. a light bulb or some other source of light. It is sometimes referred to as the hallo effect. The control of light quality. This prevents the subject from looking two dimensional on the film. colour. into the essence of visual storytelling. Lighting contributes considerably to the emotional response an audience has watching a motion picture. etc). and a back light (or rim light). A fill light should be placed on the opposite side of the key light but needs to be about half as bright and not positioned quite as high. It is usually positioned 15 – 45 degrees from one side of the camera and angled down 15 – 45 degrees from above the subject. The fill light is meant to reduce the shadow but not eliminate it entirely (shadow gives a sense of depth). Do not place it at the exact same angle as the key light. Back Light (Rim Light) The back light needs to be placed behind the subject opposite the camera but high above both so that none of the light goes directly into the camera.necessary to create an image exposure on a frame of film or on a digital target (CCD. direction and intensity is a major factor in the art and science of cinematography. THE THREE POINT LIGHTING SYSTEM (BASED ON POSITIONING OF THE LIGHT SOURCE) : The three-point lighting system is the most common lighting scheme used in motion pictures. Key Light The key light is the primary light used to illuminate a subject. The art of lighting for cinematography goes far beyond basic exposure. This light represents the primary source of light in a scene simulating the sun. It is meant to simulate other light sources or light that is being reflected off other objects. This light will create a slight glow on the back of the subject and thus separate it from the background. Using three lights from three different directions creates a sense of depth on people and objects guaranteeing everything will look three dimensional. a window. It uses a key light. . however. Fill Light After the key light is positioned you will notice a harsh shadow on one side of the subject opposite the key light.
HOW LIGHTING CAN BE USED: Most likely the single most important aspect of cinematography is lighting. Light is necessary to create an image exposure on a frame of film or on a digital target (CCD." as it was known at the time. The development of lighting technique as a significant element of mise-en-scène became an important tool for manipulating audience responses to characters and narrative events. The first is clarity of image. PURPOSE OF LIGHTING: Film lighting has three main purposes. but around 1905 other factors came into play. paved the way for the third purpose: the creation of atmosphere or emotional effect. The use of "effects lighting. Films began to introduce visual schemes that suggested that the lighting came from logical sources within the world depicted. but for 95% of your movie making. Once you have mastered this technique and are able to create and sustain a general mood throughout a movie. don’t start playing around too much or you could ruin an otherwise good movie with poor lighting. until you do. In early cinema this was the sole purpose of lighting. These might range from facial expressions and physical gestures to the presence of significant props. Background Lighting: The background light is used to illuminate the background area of a set. . the background light is placed last and is usually placed directly behind the subject and pointed at the background. etc). However. however. In the standard 4-point lighting setup. The background light will also provide separation between the subject and the background.Beyond Three-Point Lighting Of course there are many variations to this scheme and additional lights are often added as needed. this simple schematic will do. Lighting's second purpose is a quest for greater realism. It is important for viewers to be able to discern all the important elements in the frame. The art of lighting for cinematography goes far beyond basic exposure. a repertoire of standardized lighting techniques came to be used for particular dramatic situations and particular lighting styles came to be strongly associated with film genres. feel free to experiment as much as you like. Increasingly.
where underlighting (placing a light under a face or an object) gives a dramatic. For instance. as used in the 'film noir' (dark films) of the 1940s and 1950s. Low-key lighting is often seen as expressive. This is known as low-key lighting. diffused lighting can provide comfort and reassurance or create the impression of an angelic countenance. This will appear much more normal and realistic to our eyes but can also be manipulated to give a more glamorous appearance to a star’s face. or add a 'twinkle' to their eyes. They can also be decoded to suggest a world where there is depression and decay. . Lighting has come to be an important component of cinema's visual design. it can create a substantial emotional impact. It is widely recognized that in film. if he uses only the key and back lights. he will produce a sharp contrast of dark and light areas on the screen as shadows are formed. as we find in many modern-day films depicting life in the future. colour. bright. Exaggerated use of low-key lighting can be found in horror films. On the other. The control of light quality. often distorting effect. A primordial response to darkness and light is a deep-seated element of human psychology that filmmakers have harnessed in order to influence the ways viewers respond to narrative development. The director manipulates this basic format to achieve the atmosphere he wishes to signify. It is much 'softer' than low-key lighting.into the essence of visual storytelling. deep shadows can make a character seem untrustworthy or conceal a host of horrors. Lighting contributes considerably to the emotional response an audience has watching a motion picture. direction and intensity is a major factor in the art and science of cinematography. These shadows can be decoded by the audience to suggest an air of mystery. High-key lighting means that filler lights are used. On the one hand.
the ear is profound and inventive. we should realize that adding audio to images does not just allow for a greater manipulation of the images. If we hear what Bresson is telling us. The audio component has to be carefully woven in accordance with the visual component.SOUND : AUDIO COMPONENT IN FILMS “The eye is superficial. It also means that the world opened up by sounds can be radically different from the one our eyes have accustomed us to. fine tuning them so to speak. A meaningful sound track is often as complicated as the image on the screen. Sound is an important element of the composition.” This is how Robert Bresson expressed his sympathy for sound. the visual aspect is more readily comprehensible. In films. .
In 1899. but individual. In the early years after the introduction of sound. similar to the Kinetophone. was developed by Clément-Maurice Gratioulet and Henri Lioret of France. a projected sound-film system known as Cinemacrophonograph or Phonorama. essentially a "peep-show" system.A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound. but within a year Edison commissioned the development of the Kinetoscope. and ballet excerpts to be presented at the Paris Exposition in 1900. opera. The two devices were brought together as the Kinetophone in 1895. A BRIEF HISTORY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF SOUND IN FILMS: The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as the concept of cinema itself. a couple of days after photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge gave a lecture not far from the laboratory of Thomas Edison. cabinet viewing of motion pictures was soon to be outmoded by successes in film projection. as opposed to a silent film. released in October 1927. allowing short films of theater." The first feature-length movie originally presented as a talkie was The Jazz Singer. was exhibited in Paris. the two inventors privately met. but decades would pass before reliable synchronization was made commercially practical. based primarily on the work of Swiss-born inventor François Dussaud. The first commercial screening of movies with fully synchronized sound took place in New York City in April 1923. An improved cylinder-based system. or sound technologically coupled to image. Muybridge later claimed that on this occasion. The entire sound track is comprised of three essential ingredients: • the human voice/ speech • sound effects ." or "talkies. as a visual complement to his cylinder phonograph. six years before the first commercial motion picture exhibition. On February 27. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900. films incorporating synchronized dialogue were known as "talking pictures. No agreement was reached. These appear to be the first publicly exhibited films with projection of both image and recorded sound. Phono-Cinéma-Théâtre. he proposed a scheme for sound cinema that would combine his image-casting zoopraxiscope with Edison's recorded-sound technology. the system required individual use of earphones.
An excellent example of silence creating an impact would be the scene from the movie Jurassic Park in which they wait anxiously for the first glimpse of the dinosaur. Each sound was cleverly alternated with complete silence to create the suspense and . but another human being struggling with life. The audience is bounced from gag to gag and conversation to conversation. In this way the filmmaker was able to portray the “inadequacy of human responses when compared with the magnificent technology created by man and the visual beauties of the universe. The audience is caught up in a whirlwind of activity in simply managing to follow the plot. presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at break-neck speed. These three elements are discussed below: THE HUMAN SPEECH/VOICE: Dialogue authenticates the speaker as an individual or a real person rather than the imaginary creation of a story teller. This film presents pure escapism . They could hear the “thuds” as the dinosaur advanced.largely due to its frenetic dialogue. Human speech can be combined with sound or music to provide emphasis to the situation as well as the character. Perhaps this is the case because the very texture of a performer's voice supplies an element of character. but also the absurd duality of the film itself and thus its humor. dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. film personality and life personality seem to merge. on the other hand. It is interesting to note that how dialogue is used and the very amount of dialogue used varies widely among films.” The comedy.• music These three elements must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphasis which in turn creates desired effects. The viewer sees not an actor working at his craft. Thus. and most of what was used was banal. Silence can also be used as a significant element in certain scenes of a film. Bringing Up Baby. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. For example: In the film 2001 little dialogue was evident. a whole and very realistic persona emerges. When voice texture fits the performer's physiognomy and gestures. This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character played by Katharine Hepburn. These can be used in any combination. An artist consciously includes certain elements in a frame to make a meaning. there is no time for audience reflection. for example: Humphrey Bogart is Sam Spade. Silence can by successfully created by compare and contrast. As is the case with stage drama.
forces us to question us the soundness of the project. and they may also add to the realism of the film. Sound effects are of two types synchronous and asynchronous sounds. The sound effect is used to keep the conversation alive from both sides. there is a scene in which the protagonist takes part in a archery contest. if the “click” of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary. in which the protagonist Samir talks to his heavenly father we hear the sounds of thunder as a response. this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense. For example: The “click” of a door being opened may simply serve to convince the audience that the image portrayed is real. Sound effects exist because we expect them to be there. For example: If the film portrays a character playing the piano. but without sound effects (as one does when building up a rough cut). the sound mixer may call attention to the “click” with an increase in volume. and the audience-may only subconsciously note the expected sound. Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. For example in the Japanese film Kwaidan directed by Masaki Kawayashi. Sound effects can also be used to convey what a character is thinking about at a point of time. However. at the same time the noise of the siren adds to the realism of the film by acknowledging the film's (avowed) city setting.fear. the characters on the screen are not quite real: it is as if their soul had left them. in the scene from the film Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. In one scene . He had left his wife back at home and he couldn’t concentrate on the work at hand as he was thinking about her. For example. The asynchronous ambulance siren underscores the psychic injury incurred in the argument. Asynchronous sound effects are not matched with a visible source of the sound on screen. In film. Such sounds are included so as to provide an appropriate emotional nuance. For example: A film maker might opt to include the background sound of an ambulance's siren while the foreground sound and image portrays an arguing couple. Without sound effects. the foremost raison d’etre for the sound effect track then is to make sure the world remains as we know it. SOUND EFFECTS: To look at a film with dialogue. Synchronous sounds are those sounds which are synchronized or matched with what is viewed. the sounds of the piano are projected.
we see the hero aiming for a shot but the sound of the galloping horse is overtaken by the sound of the spinning wheel. In the next scene, we see his wife working on the spinning wheel. But the sound of the wheel is overtaken by the sound of the galloping horse which indicates that she is thinking about him. Sound effects can be significantly used to create the mood of a scene. In Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali, there is a scene in which Durga’s father returns after 5 months of absence. He is not aware of his daughter’s death and starts distributing the presents that he got from the city. When he calls for Durga, Sarbojaya, Durga’s mother breaks down because finally she has someone she can share her grief with. The sound of her cries and her speech is drowned by music because the audience already know what she is talking about. Similarly in Ghatak’s Meghe Dhaka Tara, there is a scene in which the elder brother of the family goes to meet the meet the female protagonist in the sanatorium. He brings good news from and is happy to meet her. Everyone in the family is well settled in life and is progressing in his or her career. But the protagonist is not a part of that happy state. She is suffering in the sanatorium and is about to die. She supported the family in their days of trouble and sacrificed her own happiness for them. But now when she needs support and care nobody is there for her. She breaks down in front of her brother and says “Ami bachte chai (I want to live)”. Her speech resounds in the entire valley expressing her grief and suffering. She feels cut off from the society and she is suffering due to their indifference. Sound can also be categorized into diegetic and non-diegetic sound depending upon its source. Diegetic Sound: Diegetic means belonging to the world of films, so diegetic sound incorporates all those sounds that are motivated by the film world. It can be ‘on-screen’ or ‘offscreen’. ‘On-screen sound’ simply proceeds from the images we can see on the screen. ‘Off-screen’ sound is still diegetic but we are left to imagine rather than see the source of the sound, e.g. we may see the interiors of a flat and hear the doorbell ring. We don’t need to see the door or the doorbell but can their presence from the off-screen sound. Off-screen sound particularly effective in creating suspense and fear of something we can hear but can’t see, e.g. The Blair Witch Project(Sanchez and Myrick, USA, 1999), Jurassic Park(Spielberg, USA, 1993). Combined use of on-screen and off-screen sound creates the complete effect. For example, in Pather Panchali, when Sarbojaya reads the letter from her husband we hear his voice, though he is not present in the scene. In the same film, when Sarbojaya sits and tries to decide on her
future course of action, we hear the off-screen sound of a train and she decides to migrate. When she takes out her silver utensils to sell them we hear their sound indicating the importance of their going out of the family. Although all films use on-screen and immediately of-screen sound effects basically the same way, the selection process and their characteristic degree of presence must be carefully thought out. Sound effects are thus positioned throughout a film to “waken up the visual space”. As Michel Chion demonstrated in his analysis of Robert Bresson’s A Man Escaped(1956), the sounds we hear infer successive circles of presence around a French Resistance fighter imprisoned in a Nazi jail. First, there are the immediate noises within the cell itself: those the man makes as he walks back and forth, sits on the mattress, and writes something on the wall. Beyond the tiny cell, we hear what is happening in the rest of the block: the yelling of other prisoners, the guards coming and going, etc. Past that, there are the different sounds of the small town that surrounds the jail: children playing on a street, birds chirping, mostly the traffic. Then, at night, when everything quiets down, one is able to hear the whistling of a train at the outskirts of a city. As the camera stays for the most part with the man in his cell, all these sounds imply an ever-receding landscape of human activity beyond that which is visually available. Therefore, it is not just that synchronized sounds anchor the presence of the man in his cell, it is that other sounds, from people and things we do not see, complete the picture so to speak, testifying to the presence of an entire world out there. Diegetic sound would include: • Dialogue and all other sounds made by the actors, e.g. laughing, screaming(but not voice-over narration). The things people say is not only a way of drawing character but also of stimulating an audience’s response to that character. Dialogue is a very clear and direct way of introducing information which helps to explain actions and motivations. Characters can also easily fill in explanations of events and indeed describe events or parts of events not actually seen. • Sound effects suggested by the setting e.g. phones and doorbells ringing, television and radio in the background, traffic noises, footsteps, dogs barking, etc; • Music, if we can see that it is sourced in the world of the film; for example the characters attend an opera (Pretty Woman, Marshall, USA, 1990), (The Godfather part III) or put on a record or dance, e.g. Strictly Ballroom( Luhrmann, 1992) and Saturday Night Fever (Badham,1977). Non – diegetic sound:
Non-diegetic sound does not belong to the world of the film, so this would include: • The musical score or sound track. • Voice over narration- a technique whereby the voice of one of the characters accompanies the images telling us the story. Best examples are films of Martin Scorsese – Taxi Driver(1976), The Age of Innocence(1993). MUSIC: Background music Background music is used to add emotion and rhythm to a film. Usually not meant to be noticeable, it often provides a tone or an emotional attitude toward the story and/or the characters epicted. In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood. For example, dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster. Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes. For example, a particular musical theme associated with an individual character or situation may be repeated at various points in a film in order to remind the audience of salient motifs or ideas. Film sound is comprised of conventions and innovations. We have come to expect an acceleration of music during car chases and creaky doors in horror films. Yet, it is important to note as well that sound is often brilliantly conceived. The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds. Yet, it behooves us to foster an awareness of film sound as well as film space so as to truly appreciate a twentieth century art form, the modern film. SOUND EDITING: From the very earliest days of cinema, sound has been one of the key devices by which a film-maker can counteract the fragmentary nature of film to tell, propel, or enhance its storytelling properties. Edits may be frequent, constantly presenting us with changing visual images, but sound is likely to be more continuous, carrying over from one shot to the next and so helping to connect the images and provide continuity from one shot to the next. Sound also provides the viewer with sound motifs which contribute to their engagement with the narrative and aid a sense of completeness. Editing is the composition of a segment of action for the viewer’s perception. It is act of combining the visual and audio element in a sequential manner. Sound editing is a creative professional manner of selecting and assembling sound recordings in preparation for the final sound mixing or mastering of a television program, motion picture, video game, or any production involving recorded or synthetic sound. Sound editing developed out of the need to fix the incomplete, undramatic, or technically
inferior sound recordings of early talkies, and over the decades has become a respected filmmaking craft, with sound editors implementing the aesthetic goals of motion picture sound design. The essential piece of equipment used in modern sound editing is the digital audio workstation, or DAW. A DAW allows sounds, stored as computer files on a host computer, to be placed in timed synchronization with a motion picture, mixed, manipulated, and documented. The standard DAW system in use by the American film industry, as of 2005, is Digidesign's Pro Tools, with the majority running on Macs. Another system in use presently is Yamaha owned Steinberg's cross platform DAW Nuendo running on Macs using operating system Mac OS X but also on Windows XP. Other systems historically used for sound editing were: • WaveFrame, manufactured by WaveFrame of Emeryville, CA • Several DAWs have been manufactured by Fairlight • SonicSolutions • AMS-Neve Audiofile A cut is an editing device which joins two shots together. In sound editing we have instantaneous replacement of one sound with the other. Tools used for sound editing is same as the ones used in video editing. They are: • Fade: the first sound reaches zero level (silence) then the second sound comes up. • Dissolve: there is no moment of silence between two sounds. The sounds are more compressed and simultaneous. If first sound is at level 10 then the second would be at level 1. Every editing device or transition carries a particular meaning/significance. The images might frequently change but they can be connected by a musical score that has the effect of knitting the shots together into a scene or sequence. Another way of using sound to the same effect is through bridges. Diegetic sound continues from one shot into the next. In the opening scene of Raging Bull Jake La Motta ends his monologue with ‘That’s entertainment’. This line is repeated and becomes an ironic comment on the next image we see: the younger La Motta being beaten in the ring. In an early scene from Charles’ life in Citizen Kane the line ‘Merry Christmas’ is followed by ‘Happy New Year’, but said ten years later.
In film-making terms. In the scene from Manthan where Dr. we shall discuss the role of VERBAL LANGUAGE in audio-visual productions. for example.. he tells his wife“Tumhare liye khush khabri hai Shanta. The script plays an equally important role. dialogues in Manthan. Dialogues. For instance. it paints the true picture of Irony. Benegal’s intelligent filmmaking also captures irony through dialogue. Head Office se orders aaye hai. The dialogues written in lilting Urdu interspersed with Ghalib’s verses sung by Jagjit Singh capture the essence of that era and add another dimension to the series. Diegetic sound can occur either on screen or off screen. The music in this instance will be from a source in the film which we acknowledge could actually be producing music. language of films is generally associated with the camera movement.. Ankur. a CD player or jukebox.. The dialogues are written keeping in mind the mood that the director wants to create. Some examples of Mirza Ghalib’s shayarihar ek baat pe kehte ho tum ke 'too kya hai' ? tumheeN kaho ke yeh andaaz-e-guftgoo kya hai ? huaa hai shaah ka musaahib. Rao receives the telegram informing him of his transfer.. lighting. A good example of this would be Gulzar’s TV series Mirza Ghalib. Nondiegetic sound is sound which we do not recognise as part of the film world such as a voice-over or background music. etc. Nishant. The colloquialisms introduced add a distinct flavour to Benegal’s masterpieces. in other words we can either see the person or object that is making the sound (on screen) or we don’t (off screen). the sounds that we hear can be diegetic or nondiegetic. Entering a more specific section of the audio aspect of films. syntax and style of language along with the right intonation.cheerful sounding words defining an inner .. This can be dialogue.hum ghar ja rahe hai” The dialogue alone would appear to be a ‘happy’ one but combined with the video track. music or sound effects which come from a source within the film world.. The language helps create the mood of the eighteenth century Mughal dominated India. etc.VERBAL LANGUAGE When we watch a film. Diegetic sound is sound which is part of the film world we are watching. modulation and diction help create the ambience. fire hai itaraata wagarna shehar meiN 'GHalib' kee aabroo kya hai ? Another example of this is Shyam Benegal’s movies set in rustic locations.
etc. The language used in the voice-over helps to set the mood for the documentary.a mixture of love and affection with respect. Words. John Ford’s ‘How Green is my valley?’ is another example of dialogues creating ambience. dialogue plays a very important role here as well. Film criticism has been particularly harsh to verbal language in films by choosing to ignore its importance.” There are also references like “my good mother” and “my old beauty”. Similarly.” “For if my father was the head of the house.R. to say nothing of the verbal bases(treatments. if the right is mine to give. The book also treats ‘words’ as threats to filmic visuals and seeks to diminish their signifying power by subordinating them to nonverbal film elements. pathos and a variety of other emotions. my dear. words on sets and props. happiness. Director Rouben . intertitles. “interfere with and disturb the image”. voiceovers. Rao’s facial expressions. It depicts good upbringing despite a poor background. For instance.state of turmoil which is visible through Dr. Ralph Stephenson and J. screenplays) of almost all films.dialogues. song lyrics and credits. upright preachers. Historical and Period films put emphasis on verbal language as it brings out the mood of that era. A documentary on the mystery surrounding the assassination of Kennedy would have powerful narration which induces a sense of enigma and mystery. stiff necked teachers. It leaves the viewer curious and asking for more. “For singing is in my people as sight is in my eye. scenarios. Debrix’s The Cinema as Art devotes only 5 out of 270 pages to verbal language inspite of the fact that most films are full of words. Rhett Butler’s famous reply in response to Scarlett O’Hara’s“Where shall I go?What shall I do?” “Frankly. The above can be illustrated with the help of an example from Gone with the Wind. you may have it. war movies include a lot of jargon which lends an aura of authenticity. Coming to documentaries. documentaries have a narrator doing the voice over to substantiate the visuals. And it is perhaps one of the most famous dialogues in the history of cinema. The dialogues capture the relationship that the sons share with their parents. I don’t give a damn” It is reflective of a state of indifference as well as an acute sense of irony. Dialogues help reflect a character’s inner state of mind even when their expressions cannot. Dialogues help bring out bliss. my mother the heart. Gruffydd. foreign language subtitles. particularly images.” “Mr. It also captures typical society inWales with its depictions of tough coal miners. envy. according to them. Generally.
.. Nevertheless. verbal language is an important constituent of film making and holds a position of its own. Even if the director is the scriptwriter of a film. Hollywood producer Irving Thalberg had said that “The writer is the most important person in Hollywood...Mamoulian has a similar view.. ... Image debate has been raging for years.. “The less dialogue the better the film.. then you put it in words.. Not everybody supports the view that dialogues can be relegated to the background when it comes to film making.” But the word vs. the scenario is such that scriptwriting is considered secondary compared to the other aspects of film making.” Today...when you cannot express it visually. In 1939. it is his/her role as the director of the movie rather than as the scriptwriter that defines him/her as the film’s author.
The origins of the Western musical-dramatic style. avant-garde and experimental cinema." It has been said that film music originally appeared largely to cover up the sound of the clanky machines that projected the earliest of the silent films. As Hegel described an absolute necessity and as Zizek interprets. it is a necessity in the form of contingency. But the deeper meaning behind associating music with cinema was only found in the late 1800s.MUSIC The marriage of film and music can be traced back to ancient cinema. and the artistic and business relationships at play in music and film production-all . musicals. the role of music in the inappropriately-called "silent cinema". the breakthrough of synchronized sound-film systems from 1926 and 1927." Aaron Copland has said that a composer can do no more than "make potent through music the film's dramatic and emotional value. science fiction and horror films. David Raksin has written that music's avowed purpose in films is "to help realize the meaning of a film. the development of the Hollywood studio sound system and the age of the "classic Hollywood sound films" during the 1930s and 1940s.
Film music must thus enter directly into the 'plot' of the film. this distinction has a good deal of validity in terms of film music. as distinct from musical structure. One is to use musical material indigenous to the locale of a film. The characteristic of music in cinema is invisible. In The Good. Music can create a more convincing atmosphere of time and place: Atmosphere is a characteristic created by the colour of the music. For Example. musical color may be taken to represent the exotic or sensuous aspects of music. Lagaan’s music score is based on aristocratic feel. Simply put. "as though it would exist as sound rather than as 'constructed' music.have relied heavily upon music in cinema. this possibility is passed over and music is not allowed to speak. Music can be used to underline or create psychological refinements--the unspoken thoughts of a character or the unseen implications of a situation: Frequently. This use of film music is perhaps most effective when it is planned well in advance--when the film is in the scripting stage. It provides a backing to visuals on the screen. which might be considered the intellectual side. Yet film theoreticians appear not even to recognize music's possibilities in this area. enhancing/strengthening it’s impact. or line. adding a third dimension to the images and words. the function of is cinema is secondary to visuals. The Bad And The Ugly. "filler" type music is in fact a very conscious . Far too often." Even though it is filling a rather subordinate role to other elements in the picture. and perhaps its most valuable contribution. If we notice. Music can serve as a kind of neutral background filler: At times one of the functions of film music is to do nothing more than be there. In a broad sense. however. Film music is overwhelmingly coloristic in its intention and effect. music can imply a psychological element far better than dialogue can. It is an attempt to establish the supra-reality of a many-faceted portrayal of behaviour. The ability of music to make a psychological point in film is a subtle one. more aptly termed composition. Musical color can be achieved in a variety of ways. Eg. the valor of the character is established by the music primarily while Clint Eastwood is just staring in one direction.
or idea. place. When used properly. (lit. For examples. "sophisticated" defenses. particularly. A leitmotif/leitmotiv. music evokes a gut reaction unobtainable in any other way. Music can also develop this sense of continuity on the level of the film as a whole. There are times when music accompanying dialogue can take on a definite foreground character. Most recognized example is the Star Wars Imperial March associated with Darth Vader in the Star Wars series of films composed by John Williams. In a montage. music can serve an almost indispensable function: it can hold the montage together with some sort of unifying musical idea. A film editor is probably most conscious of this particular attribute of music in films. In fact. by its very nature. On the other hand. Music can provide the underpinning for the theatrical buildup of a scene and then round it off with a sense of finality: Music has a way of bypassing the human's normal. associated with a particular person. rational defense mechanisms. Various versions of the same . become merely chaotic. we resent its presence for making us begin to lose control of our rational. Friedhofer's from Broken Arrow is music accompanying a wedding ceremony. The music created by Ravi Shankar for Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali is the most recognized example of Leit Motif used in Indian films. in some instances. this can be one of the least effective uses of film music if not handled properly. It is of little significance whether the scene involves an intimate love relationship or a violent fight. Without music the montage can. "leading motif") is a recurring musical theme. music can help build the drama in a scene to a far greater degree of intensity than any of the other cinematic arts. Sometimes music will come to the foreground momentarily to comment on the dialogue and then drop back into the background when the next line is said. We tend to react to music whether we desire to or not and if we don't wish to be moved by it. continually in danger of falling apart.dramatic device. Another aspect of music in cinema is Leit Motif. Music can help build a sense of continuity in a film: Music can tie together a visual medium that is. many producers and directors seem to feel this is film music's only function in a film--especially if the film is inherently weak.
As black and white pictures lacked the truth of colour it remained true to the shape and form of its subject. There are also some early films with sepia sequences or green negatives or dyed or hand-colored scenes. Yet colour had to be included as technology developed as many expressions went unnoticed with the lack of colour. its artisans only had the capability to film in black and white. However. although only a few were successful. Music is an integral part of cinema. for different situations. including the visual effects pioneering A Trip to the Moon (1902). photography. likeness or resemblance of the truth. cinema as well as television began in black and white and only later was colour used. . The history of the mechanic reproduction of images seems to be marked by a "resistance" towards colour: lithographic printing. This was the the most truthful representation of subject. George Méliès was utilizing a similar hand-painting process for his films. Black and white photography worked on a concept called “verisimilitude”. Between 1900 and 1935. which had various parts of the film painted frame-by-frame by twenty-one women in Montreuil in a production-line method.piece of music is used throughout the film. Color was really only used in early films as a novelty. dozens of color systems were introduced. first broadcasted by the Lumiere brothers. Thus cinema began with only these two colors. it is evident that its significance is undermined. reality or a fact’s probability. Color movies started nearly as early as film itself in 1895 with Thomas Edison's hand-painted Anabelle's Dance made for his Kinetoscope viewers. Verisimilitude in its literary context is defined as the fact or quality of being verisimilar. An interesting study of this would be hearing a film without watching the visuals and then trying to understand the it! COLOUR IN CINEMA When the movie industry began. the appearance of being true or real. The realism impressed people so much that they forgot to question the trivia called colour.
etc. This creates a color effect in which the dark parts of the image are replaced with a color (e. A more common technique.g. Pathé Frères invented Pathé Color (renamed Pathéchrome in 1929). Additive color adds lights of the primary colors in various proportions to the projected image.Among the early dye-coloring processes. it was known that light comprises a spectrum of different wavelengths that are perceived as different colors as they are absorbed and reflected by natural objects. The first successful subtractive color process was Kelley's Prizma Color. green and blue . an early color process that was first introduced at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City on 8 February 1917 with the short film Our Navy. produce white light.red. Additive color The additive color systems were practical because they could be incorporated with black-and-white film stock. This system used a beam splitter in a specially modified camera to send red and green light waves to separate black-and-white film negatives. blue and white rather than black and white). replaces the silver halide particles in the film with metallic salts or mordant dyes. giving the image a uniform monochromatic color. This process was popular during the 1920s. called toning. Subtractive color Subtractive color largely started with the inventions of William Van Doren Kelley. The various additive systems entailed the use of color filters on both the movie camera and projector. one of the most accurate and reliable stencil coloring systems. and later because the lack of a camera that could record more than two strips of film at once. most early motion picture color systems consisted of two colors. which was toned accordingly: . with specific colors employed for certain narrative effects (red for scenes with fire or firelight. Because of the limited amount of space to record images on film.which. Maxwell discovered that all natural colors in this spectrum may be reproduced with additive combinations of three primary colors . Film tinting was a process in which either the emulsion or the film base is dyed. The principles on which color photography are based were first proposed by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855 and presented at the Royal Society in London in 1861. By that time. when equally mixed together. blue for night.. often red and green or red and blue.) A complementary process. Tinting and toning were sometimes applied together. From these negatives. two prints were made on film stock with half the base thickness than normal.
" was originally intended to be in color. repression and the spiritual world. In The Wizard of Oz. Then they were cemented together base-to-base into a single strip of film. mortality of human life. It represents feelings. What Dreams May Come. they actually become gray (as their blood ceases being pumped through their bodies. beauty. which was an expensive process. intensely saturated color and fantastic matte shots are used to create a heightened unreality. One example that was not to be is RKO's Astaire-Rogers film. Black-and-white (and gray) represent ethereality. Colour is seldom used with imagination. In films like Pleasantville and The Wizard of Oz. alternate realities.one red. using color was much more expensive. Carefree (1938). emotions. Today. stark differences. far away where there isn't any trouble is the Technicolor world of Oz.. The pre-eminent era of colour films was 1939-1949. In many films. color represents the pain. subjective reality and idealized plane of existence. beliefs and different concepts. "I used to be color blind. conflict. most films have the same look and texture. when the name Nathalie Kalmus as Technicolor consultant guaranteed the genuine three-tone article before Eastman Color greatly reduced the visual quality of films. evanescence." A more macabre way of putting this is that when people die. One of the black-and-white characters on the silver screen in Woody Allen's The Purple Rose of Cairo says "We're not human. color differentiates two universes. featuring the Irving Berlin song.) In another recent film about heaven. the other green. Kansas in the same decade of the dust bowl appears in black-and-white and that someplace over the rainbow. The juxtaposition of seeing in color and black-and-white also give the sense of . Originally.. but the studio changed its mind to keep costs down. Color and black-and-white can be used to differentiate fantasy or an alternate reality and black-and-white can be used to show a different historical period or for memory or flashbacks. they used a little bit. that someplace far. SIGNIFICANCE OF COLOUR Colour signifies more than the hue of an object. RKO was a little studio and didn't really use technicolor. so if a studio couldn't afford do the entire film in color. One song-and-dance number of the film. this signifies the difference of Dorothy’s perception of these two places. The segment still calls out for color. Here too black and white is related closely to reality as Kansas is black and white while oz is fantasy and coloured. sensuality. changes in states of reality.
Color can also convey subjective states of perception or time. City of Angels. is also a word for a color (a shade of red) and the implication is that his older brother can't see him. It is the color Antonioni's first color film. It is the color of the sun the angels can't see when they gather at sunrise and sunset to hear the music of the spheres in Wim Wenders' Wings of Desire and this year's remake. especially red.overlapping co-existent dimensions. It is blood that the angels see when they fall. In the final scene. and it is the red sand in the hourglass in and the poison red poppies in The Wizard of Oz. Another observation about this film is that like the films about angels and heaven. who made a film called Don't Look Now (1973). Rusty. in which it arises from the subjective representation of the colorblindness of the protagonist's older brother. in which the imperial China is shown in golden light. Whether in color films or color and black-and-white films. sensuality. the protagonist's name. pleasure. It is the color of the red rose after the first sex in Pleasantville and the red rose that the foppish angel sees in Stairway to Heaven and he comments rather self-referentially. Red Desert. red is used most frequently to grab the viewer's attention. This is the case in American History X (1998) in which the present is always in color. Some films also use color highly symbolically. all the more poignant because the rest of past has been in black and white. he sees himself in color in a reflection in the window of the police car and he goes into a rage. Color is also used to convey point of view or identity as in Rumble Fish. there are two worlds: the gritty world of New York streets and the fabled world of California. sin and is the color of blood and red roses. is used highly symbolically to foreshadow the moments of horror. a gripping and macabre film about a couple in Venice mourning the accidental death of their young daughter. Nicholas Roeg. communist china is awash with red and post-communist China is khaki." It's also the first colors that creep into the . It symbolizes sex. The film is not a black-and-white film that uses color sequences. after his brother is dead. but color. "One is starved for Technicolor up there. like The Last Emperor. Interestingly. giving the viewer a greater sense of immediacy and some nagging illusory sense that one could change it (if it were the here and now and not merely the now) There is also one final scene of childhood done in color.
any number of objects are blue . the walls of a room. blouses. In fact.black-and-white world of Pleasantville -. crystals. From first shot to last. a van. Red is the only color in Schindler's List an as such it is used to engage attention. The use of color . In addition to blue filters and blue lighting. jeans. Each use of the title color underlines the central message. Another example of effective use of colour is Sin city. as opposed to Damiel in Wings of Desire. Beatty and Madonna are at the top of the credits. and Rodriguez recognizes that . (Characters know what color is. Blood is either represented as a florescent white or. the movie is a succulent rainbow of primary reds and blues.a foil balloon. a folder. or how the impossibly tall big-city buildings seem to glow from within. a tinted window.and one color in particular is important. "black and white and red all over. a lollypop and its wrapper." Yet another innovative and good usec of colour in cinema is in “Dick Tracy”. or how the streetlights and fairy-tale moonbeams bounce lovingly .Sin City is the most visually inventive comic book adaptation to make its way to a movie screen. or the yellow of a lowlife's skin.in the form of pink bubble gum. who sees it for the first time when he chooses to fall. Sin City is full of color flashes . the blond of a hooker's hair.and there's a lot of that. skirts. what the director offers here is b&w with bells and whistles. but that just makes you notice all the more how Tracy's coat matches the yellow trashcan in an alleyway. coats. a pool.red is usually the color used to designate obsession. Black-and-white is the best format for film noir. Then there's the blood . shirts.the red of a dress or a woman's lipstick. it wouldn't be too much of a stretch to describe Sin City using the old cliché. awnings. The whole film looks good enough to eat. with the notable exception being Greed (1925).not that anyone would mistake this picture. However. for a relic of the '40s or '50s. more frequently. The color scheme is. Here the colour blue stands for liberty. binders. Much of the action is swathed in velvet shadow. the blue or green of someone's eyes. red tail lights and pink tongues. and a pen. Another example of colour signifying a core concept is Krzysztof Kieslowski’s “Three colours blue”. scarves. in its natural color. the Erich von Stroheim film which featured handcoloring of the gold coins with which McTeague becomes obsessed. trash bags. graffiti. but they aren't the stars of Dick Tracy. and (of course) raincoat yellows. with its kinetic energy and restless camera. lurid greens and pinks and oranges. the orange of fire.) An aside -.
Editing can manipulate both the aspects of space and time. Of the three components which make up film-making. from the above given examples of the use of colour in cinema. film editing is the art. we see that clour has more use than just signifying an object. the melodrama in a scene or even a state of being. nor is it merely to edit dialogue scenes. the pace. cohesive whole. the story. However. It is one of the tools which can truly be creatively used to make a film better. editing is the third component. Beatty and his team of collaborators have heightened the vibrantly tawdry urban night world of Chester Gould's classic comic strip. Film editing is the only art that is unique to cinema and which separates filmmaking from all other art forms that preceded it. the rhythm. The three main devices constituting a cut are: . and the subsequent connecting of sequences to form an entire movie. A film editor works with the layers of images. shapes the actors' performances. technique. and practice of assembling these shots into a coherent whole. Thus. coherent. the music. honing the infinite possibilities of the juxtaposition of small snippets of film into a creative. the job of an editor isn’t merely to mechanically put pieces of a film together. nor is it to just cut off the film slates.off rain-swept streets. On its most fundamental level. It denotes the subtle changes of moods. It's as if a '30s gangland melodrama had been colorized by Andy Warhol. Only seven colours are used in this film to mark the simplicity of the comic strip. EDITING Film editing is an art of storytelling practiced by connecting two or more shots together to form a sequence. "re-directing" and often re-writing the film during the editing process. Shots are edited keeping in mind the continuity of action. and serves as a tool to change the composition.
Wipe Other types include: 1. 6. Continuity Editing Editing that creates action that flows smoothly across shots and scenes without jarring visual inconsistencies. Jean will look to the left in shot B. Eye line match The matching of eye lines between two or more characters. Editing The work of selecting and joining together shots to create a finished film. Superimposition Audio components are also edited the same way except for the fact that there is no ‘wipe’ function. Fade (In and Out) 3. such as a failure to match action or the placement of props across shots. Definitions of some edit terms: 1. 8. Establishing shot A shot. indicating they are happening simultaneously. 2. This establishes a relationship of proximity and continuity." that establishes where the action is about to occur. if Sam looks to the right in shot A. 9. Establishes a sense of story for the viewer.1. The editor overlaps the end of one shot with the beginning of the next one. 3. Errors of continuity Disruptions in the flow of a scene. 5. Fade A visual transition between shots or scenes that appears on screen as a brief interval . normally taken from a great distance or from a "bird's eye view. Dissolve 2. 7. 4. Cut A visual transition created in editing in which one shot is instantaneously replaced on screen by another. Bleach (In and Out) 2. Cross Cutting Cutting back and forth quickly between two or more lines of action. For example. Dissolve A gradual scene transition.
12. 14. Montage Scenes whose emotional impact and visual design are achieved through the editing together of many brief shots. Sequence shot A long take that extends for an entire scene or sequence. Often used to indicate a change in time and place. Rough cut The editor's first pass at assembling the shots into a film. Matched cut A cut joining two shots whose compositional elements match. Seldom used in contemporary film. Final cut The finished edit of a film. 17. It is composed of only one shot with no editing. Iris Visible on screen as a circle closing down over or opening up on a shot.with no picture. cut long rather than short" • "Rule 3: Whenever possible cut 'in movement'" • "Rule 4: The 'fresh' is preferable to the 'stale' • "Rule 5: All scenes should begin and end with continuing action" . this technique alternates between over-theshoulder shots showing each character speaking. 15. 18. approved by the director and the producer. 11. Shot reverse shot cutting Usually used for conversation scenes. "Rule 2: When undecided about the exact frame to cut on. The shower scene from Psycho is an example of montage editing. Wipe Visible on screen as a bar travelling across the frame pushing one shot off and pulling the next shot into place. 16. Seven “rules of cutting” that a good editor should follow: • Rule 1: Never make a cut without a positive reason. 10. but common during the silent era of Hollywood films. This is what the audience sees. Jump cut A cut that creates a lack of continuity by leaving out parts of the action. before tightening and polishing occurs. but common in films from the 1930s and 1940s. 13. Rarely used in contemporary film. helping to establish strong continuity of action. The editor fades one shot to black and then fades in the next.
The translation of his Essais sur la signification au cinéma . The question that oriented Metz’s early work was whether the cinema was Langue (language system) or Language (language) and his well-known conclusion was that the cinema was not a language system but that it was a language Mertz’ argument is that "langue is a system of signs intended for two-way communication. and this composition is recorded and shown as his perception of the occurrence . verbal . that audience cannot address its concerns regarding the film in the same language the film used to convey its argument. therefore. by definition.• "Rule 6: Cut for proper values rather than proper 'matches'" • "Rule 7: Substance first—then form" PSYCHOLOGY IN AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATION A language. all at the discretion of the Film maker . he freezes the image in time . angles and speeds. When the filmmaker uses the camera as his own eye . A similar experience can be related to the auditory ( audio part of AV ) – we are made to listen to effects . but also different kinds of shots. In . that of the audience – on whom the film maker’s view is forced . while the audience can react to a film's semantic intent. These form a major chunk of the audience who are simply spectators to what is being put in front of them . music and even silence . forcing him to believe in and emote to what is being shown . sounds . They are virtually transported by the movie maker to where the happening actually is – they are only allowed to participate and not decide ‘what’ they want to watch . Christian Metz is the leading film theoretician in France. The combination of sounds and visual make a powerful impact on the viewer . 1967 has long been awaited by radical critics in this country looking to semiology as a tool for understanding the relationship between ideology and aesthetic expression. but a language system (or linguistic system) enables a response to that thought using the degrees and kinds of signs and signifiers produced by the language. Film uses not only words. Psychology in AV communication determines the involvement of a spectator in a film / television series . This above reasons also make this medium one of the most powerful psychological tools to the mind . is a semiotic process through which thought may be conveyed. while the cinema allows only for deferred communication. Taking a look at the opposite side of this argument .
Metz’ notion of a cinesemiotics and of what constitutes a cinematic code is not yet fully formulated in his book and is there even very misleading. some radical film critics find in semiology a way to think and talk about ideology without “extracting” it from its complex interaction with other codes in the film text. It concerns itself with the status of the text as a discourse. Thus. the relationship between signifier and signified differs from literature to film. it can still be helpful as a beginning for thinking about films in terms of a culturally and ideologically determined heterogeneity of codes rather than as original and unique expressions of certain “human” themes. A sender emits a message which is understood by the receiver because both the organization and reception of the message is governed by a system of socially conventionalized rules (even at the level of the unconscious)." replacing it instead with a ‘motivated’ sign. the theory of the production of meaning in texts. Semiotic study attempts an analysis in which there is no separation of the specialized codes of a particular medium and the cultural codes which are inscribed in and mediated by it. As such. So. do not gain meaning by paradigmatic contrast with other shots that might have occurred in the same place on the syntagmatic chain FILM LANGUAGE BY CHRISTIAN METZ Semiology is the science of signifying practice. That is. Metz argues against the idea that the camera/cinematic shot is like the word while the sequence is like the sentence. it is not just a formalistic description of the physica1 material of the text. unlike words. especially if the parts of dialogue and imagery are manipulated to produce a contrived result. however. linguistics have become one of the most rigorous and fruitful sciences of this century. Metz further argues that cinema is not a language system because "it lacks the equivalent of the arbitrary linguistic sign. this assertion will eventually have to be rethought because it does not allow for interactive cinema or Internet conference calling where role play is being done by either party—either of which can technically be considered filmmaking.today’s world. He states as evidence that: (1) shots are infinite in number (2) shots are the creations of the film-maker (3) the shot provides an inordinate amount of information (4) the shot is an actualized unit [meaning that it generates an exact representation of its intended meaning] (5) shots. . According to Metz .
are in no way directly related to each other . is prevalent in the intrinsic sense . is not a discrete unit that can be reduced into smaller basic units and analyzed. Eg . the alphabet of deaf mutes . food etc . fashion . a point that makes finding the meaning interesting and problematic a the same time . a pair of scales . a combination that cannot be separated. in probably all kinds of a/v communication : Be it films . military signals as well as Commercials . is a combination of a concept and a soundimage. although he still believes that cinesemiotics can learn much from linguistics. situation comedies etc/ A science that studies the life of signs within society is conceivable. TV programs . symbolic rites . polite formulae . There is no logical connection between a word and a concept. but there could be no other symbol ( Eg. it would be a part of social psychology and consequently of general psychology. SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS THE PROBLEM OF MEANING Meaning . The relationship between the signifier and signified . The . is arbitrary . with particular reference to what content is being viewed . A Chariot ) to signify Justice . according to Saussure (1966) . The symbol of justice . soap operas . unlike the word. and is therefore comparable to a system of writing . Language is a system of signs that expresses ideas . The basic concern is how meaning is generated and conveyed . Signs :A sign .Metz discards a theoretical model for film based on verbal language. How is meaning generated ? The essential breakthrough of semiotics is that it takes linguistics as a model and applies linguistic concept to other phenomena – texts. what laws govern them . unmotivated and unnatural . His primary reason for rejecting rigid analogies to language is based on his claim that the image. Semiology shows what constitutes signs . .and not just to language itself .
suggesting decline in fortune ( Good quality hat . and provide false images and . a distinguished Italian semiotician has suggested that if signs are used to tell the truth . Hence it can be said that the genre of science fiction adventure is ‘signified’ using a number of signifiers such as spaceships .characteristic of the symbol is vaguely related to it . This is known because at the beginning of each episode . with discoloured lining. extraterrestrials with magical powers . the television program Star Trek in terms of what symbols there signify . they have to be elicited . Example 1 . and in texts are not always evident . advanced computer technology . futuristic uniforms . they cal also be used to lie . Relation:The property of signs to be have a particular association with a thought process is called Relation . Example 2 : Sherlock Holmes and the story of ‘The Blue Carbuncle’. Truth :Umberto Eco ( 1976) . However Holmes makes the following derivations from it : a) Man in intellectual ( Large size of the hat – large brain ) b) Man has not got a new hat . suggestive decline in fortunes ) c) Man’s wife no longer loves him (Had not brushed in weeks ) d) Man seldom goes out ( Dust on hat is brown house dust) e) No gas in the house ( Wax stains from candles on hat ) The meanings in signs . ray guns . It of a well known space adventure – science fiction story . dusty and spotted in places . the Captain’s Voice over describes the mission of the starship – Enterprise – to explore new worlds and seek out new civilizations ‘ to boldly go where no man has gone before’. Watson find Holmes examining a hat which he describes old.
imposes certain limitations on whatever art forms or genres they carry . scope . angles.lobster etc SEMIOTICS OF THE TELEVISION & CINEMA MEDIUM:Various forms of media carry various genres of the popular arts . In applying semiotics to television . Television is more of a ‘close-up’ medium.mislead viewers . authority Pan up Camera looks up Smallness . Each medium . . it makes sense for us to concern ourselves with aspects of the medium that functions as signs . focus Fade in Image appears on blank screen Beginning Fade out Image screen goes blank Ending Cut Switch from one image to another Simultaneity . Blondes made redheads etc d) Impersonation e) Theater – pretend to have feelings . A few examples would be : a) Wigs – Bald person or person with different colour hair b) Elevated shoes – Short person made taller c) Dyed hair – Brunettes made blondes .Television is not the ideal medium for presenting huge battle scenes . public distance Full shot Full body of person Social relationship Pan down Camera looks down Power . Example:. better suited to revealing character than to capture action . camera work and editing techniques in Cinema and television function as signifiers . excitement Wipe Image wiped off screen Imposed conclusion The above material represents a kind of grammar of television as far as shots . What is interesting is how the kind of shots . because if its nature . beliefs etc f) Food – imitation crab.The list is as follows : Signifier Definition Signified ( meaning ) Close-up Face only Intimacy Medium shot Most of body Personal relationship Long shot Setting and characters Context . shrimp . weakness Dolly in Camera moves in Observation .
use of colour . Ernest Dichter is one of the founding fathers of the field known as motivation research . such as . Sigmund Freud did not discover the unconscious . lighting techniques . For example : Dichter explains why people use lighters. he developed it most thoroughly . The ease and speed with which the lighter works enhances a feeling of power . what manufacturers consider to get their consumers to but their products . The tip of the iceberg . Psychoanalytic criticism is a form of applied psychoanalysis . The basic psychological reason for using a lighter is the desire for mastery and power . also what shapes people’s behavior better . . Fire and the ability to command it are prized because they are associated not only to warmth . however . The capacity to summon fire inevitably gives every human being – child or grownup . the goal of which is to discover the unconscious i. anthropology and literary criticism and many other interesting fields . There are other matters to be considered . a science concerned with the interaction of conscious and unconscious processes and with the laws of mental functioning .e the REAL reason that people do things .sound effects and music . lies hidden beneath the water . His idea was that we are not aware of everything that is going on in our minds . the part seen above the water is what the person is conscious of . The remaining greater part . a sense of power . A cigarette lighter provides conspicuous evidence of this ability to summon fire .camera work and editing are concerned. It is frequently suggested that an individual’s mental life can be represented by an iceberg . but to life itself . PSYCHOANALYTIC CRITICISM Psychoanalysis is a form of inquiry that has been applied to many areas – politics . The failure of a lighter to work does not just create superficial social embarrassment .
The production is storyboarded and visualized with the help of illustrators and concept artists. The production company is created and a production office established. the movie is designed and planned. education and information. A production budget will also be drawn up to cost the film.PRODUCTION PROCESS Film medium has been hailed as one of the most influential Audio-Visual medium. Film production requires certain special skills like creativity. Pre-production In pre-production. They have played an important role in the fields of entertainment. Production of such a valuable product requires not only money but also the mind. management capacity and publicity. . novelty.
among other tasks. • The assistant director (AD) manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the production. which makes production sets. • The storyboard artist creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team. script supervisor. such as the property master. assistant directors. He or she cooperates with the director. director of audiography (DOA) and AD. This normally requires an audition by the actor. He or she cooperates with the director. and the budget. More crew will be recruited at this stage. • The art director manages the art department. working with the art director to create these elements. DOP. • The production designer creates the look and feel of the production sets and props.• The producer will hire a crew. costumes and provides makeup & hair styling services. • The director of photography (DP or DOP) or cinematographer creates the photography of the film.typically for musicals. Most pictures are shot in the predictable environment of a studio sound stage but occasionally outdoor sequences will call for filming on location. Lead actors are carefully chosen and are ften based on the actor’s reputation or “star power. • The sound designer creates new sounds and enhances the aural feel of the film with the help of foley artists. Typical crew positions include • The director is primarily responsible for the acting in the movie and managing the creative elements. stills . He or she also reports on behalf of the production office to the studio executives or financiers of the film. • The composer creates new music for the film. • The choreographer creates and coordinates the movement and dance . • The production manager manages the production budget and production schedule. The nature of the film. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of thousands while a low-budget. The production sound mixer manages the audio experience during the production stage of a film. independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine. Some films also credit a fight choreographer.” • The location manager finds and manages the film locations. and AD. • The casting director finds actors for the parts in the script. determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Production In production the movie is created and shot.
Sound is recorded on a separate apparatus from the film and they must be synched up in post-production. and is displayed for the camera. The picture and sound crews then rehearse with the actors. Call sheets are distributed to the cast and crew to tell them when and where to turn up the next shooting day. take. Every report sheet records important technical notes on each take. The clapperboard records the scene. The director approves the next day’s shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production office.” or dismantle. picture editor. These are just the most common roles in filmmaking. At the same time. the unprocessed negative of the day’s takes are sent to the film laboratory for processing overnight. the cast. and. the production office normally arranges a wrap party to thank all the cast and crew for their efforts. sound. which helps the editor keep track of the takes in post-production. For productions using digital technologies. The clapperboard also serves the necessary function of providing a marker to sync up the film and the sound take. When shooting is finished for the scene. The actors rehearse their scripts and blocking with the director. or in the completion of the production phase. and sound editors. shots are downloaded and organized on a computer for display as dailies. the production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit a particular film. the action is shot in as many takes as the director wishes. . and camera teams.” The crew will “strike.photographer. A typical day’s shooting begins with an assistant director following the shooting schedule for the day. Each take of a shot follows a slating procedure and is marked on a clapperboard. above the line crew. The film set is constructed and the props made ready. and name of the film written on the front. sometimes. The director will then decide if the take was acceptable or not. This includes the report sheets from continuity. For productions using traditional photographic film. Finally. date. The lighting is rigged and the camera and sound recording equipment are set up. the set for that scene. the director declares a “wrap. director of photography. they return from the laboratory as dailies or rushes (film positives) and are viewed in the evening by the director. the actors are wardrobed in their costumes and attend the hair and makeup departments. director. Once processed. When the entire film is in the can. The script supervisor and the sound and camera teams log the take on their respective report sheets.
the picture is “locked. the original camera film (negative) is developed and copied to a one-light workprint (positive) for editing with a mechanical editing machine. The next step is to create a one-light copy called the colour duplicate negative or internegative. the editor creates a negative cut list (using edge code) or an edit decision list (using timecode) either manually or automatically. seconds. The first job of the film editor is to build a rough cut taken from sequences (or scenes) based on individual “takes” (shots). The sound track and picture are combined together. For all subsequent steps this effectively becomes the master copy. Next. walla. the film passes out of the hands of the editor to the sound department to build up the sound track. The voice recordings are synchronised and the final sound mix is created. The next step is to create a fine cut by getting all the shots to flow smoothly in a seamless story. resulting in a low quality answer print of the movie. the cut list that describes the film-based answer print is used to cut the original colour negative (OCN) and create a colour timed copy called the colour master positive or interpositive print. is done during this phase. dialogue. ADR. In the video workflow. the original camera negative is developed and telecined to video for editing with computer editing software. Since the development of non-linear editing systems such as Avid. It is from this that many copies of the final theatrical release print are made. background sounds. Copying from the internegative is much simpler than copying from the . and music. These edit lists identify the source and the picture frame of each shot in the fine cut. Production sound is also synced up to the video picture frames during this process.Post-production Here the film is assembled by the film editor. In the film workflow.” meaning no further changes are made. Once the picture is locked. The modern use of video in the filmmaking process has resulted in two workflow variants: one using entirely film. The sound mix combines sound effects. The purpose of the rough cut is to select and order the best shots. or even frames. After the fine cut has been screened and approved by the director and producer. There are now two possible workflows to create the high quality release print depending on the recording medium: In the film workflow. A timecode is recorded onto video tape to locate the position of picture frames. Trimming. the process of shortening scenes by a few minutes. and the other using a mixture of film and video. Quantel or Final Cut Pro. An edge code is recorded onto film to locate the position of picture frames. the film workflow is used by very few productions.
interpositive directly because it is a one-light process. the artists are confirmed and the . normally by the target audience. developing idea into a simple outline of a story. chemical and digital processes. The unique nature of the finished film is that it can be viewed any number of times any number of copies can be printed and the negatives can be preserved for many years. Finally the film is previewed. VARIOUS ITEMS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF PRODUCTION Pre-Production Production Post-Production Script Staff and crews Film Editing Title Actors Electronic Editing Producer Film Sound Effects Writer Video Tape Optical Effects Director Actual Shooting Titles Casting Editing Mixing Production Design Developing/Printing Negative Cutting Set construction & Decoration Answer Print Looking selection Publicity Shooting Schedule Censor Preparation Release Budgeting Stages of Film Production Film production involves lot of mechanical. Scripting: involves idea stage. The next step uses a film recorder to read the colour master tape and copy each video frame directly to film to create the final theatrical release print. and any feedback may result in further shooting or edits to the film. In the video workflow. it also reduces wear-and-tear on the interpositive print. b. then developing the story into more detailed treatment and then dialogues are added to become master scene script. For all subsequent steps this effectively becomes the master copy. Shooting schedule: after the script is finalised. the edit decision list that describes the video-based answer print is used to edit the original colour tape (OCT) and create a high quality colour master tape. The stages are: a.
Production Manager: He carries out the detailed tasks of the producer. Producer: Is the boss. d. which adds to dramatic and aesthetic effect. Editing: it is the stage where the shape of the film takes place. special requirements are all given in detail. the details of the scenes to be shot. The details of the shooting programmed decided which is brought out as shooting schedule. hires the writer and directors and makes the big decisions.technicians get ready for their work. All the artists and technicians come together to shoot the scene. and the background music. Director views the rushes and the cameraman immediately to take the decisions on the quality of the images recorded. costumes. he is one who usually controls the money he buys the story. The set is already been erected. Rushes: this name is given to the print received from the lab immediately after the exposed negatives are developed after everyday shoot. c. which is known as dubbing. The sound recordist records the dialogue on location to be used as a pilot for the post synchronisation. Now the actual shooting takes place. His primary aim is making and this comes ahead of making what he thinks will be good picture. Then mixing is done where all the different tracks of sound are mixed together. the camera crew is ready with their equipments. e. Here the assistant director uses a clapper board to identify each shot. 2. The script is ready with dialogues rehearsed with the artist. The location of shooting. the details of artists. The artists are ready with their make up and costumes. the date and time of shooting. During dubbing the dialogues are recorded in acoustically treated theatre. Also the reels are ready for post synchronisation. Shooting Stage: this is the most important stage. Rushes shot at different times are assembled and placed in the proper order. Sound recording: now the sound effect. are scored and recorded in synchronisation. Technicians involved in production work: Producing Crew 1. It contains all the details for conducting the shooting smoothly. in a small . he needs a peculiar combination of business sense and aesthetic discrimination. which give authenticity to the scene. their make up.
plumbers etc CREDITS: Forget the film watch the titles! What are credits? In general. how it is to be placed and also advises the director about what needs to be done to get good sound.ropes. Mixer: he is in charge of the sound. tricks reflectors . Boom Operator: they are in charge of physically locating the microphone and holding it during the take. it refers to the list of names and functions of persons and corporations contributing and responsible for the artistic or intellectual content of a film.laborers. specifically. 8. Sound Assistant: their job consists of handling and taking care of the equipment. Camera Assistants: he stands by the camera operator and aids in every possible way. 5. sets. 6. Electrical Crew: on a feature production the electrical crew is often large during shooting in sound stage and in setups where many lights must be used. prop crew. he is master of all trades and has sufficient physical stamina. 9.painters.production he may actually be the producer he is responsible person for the entire production. Camera Operator: he works on the camera and is responsible for filming the scene in a professional manner. such as: . and crew of a film. Sound Crew: our basic tasks are necessary in recording sound on stage or on location. Director of Photography: is responsible for the content and quality of pictures photography and decisions about camera and lighting. 4. drivers. first aid. He is more than an ordinary labourer.rigging and crones. knowledge of film production and ingenuity to solve the many incredible that arise.draper. Camera Crew 1.scaffolds. wardrobe people. special effect. keeping the microphone in the proper location. cast. 7. Hair dressers. He determines what equipment is to be used.carpenters. 2. this term refers to the list of technical personnel. 3. Grip Crew: it is in charge of all physical operations on the actual shooting. make-up artists. tools. This includes materials.
They are usually shown on the screen in small characters. The closing credits. As in motion pictures. Credits are important to programme-makers."Story by. in a film or a television program. or crawl from bottom to top of the screen. which comes from pre digital days when the names were literally on a roll of paper and wound past in front of the camera. For example. Before this decade. which either flip very quickly from page to page. Sometimes. but are usually of limited interest to the audience. Credits which crawl either left to right or up and down are also known as rolling credits.) Sometimes the . Go home!" while.. come at the end of a movie or show and list all the cast and crew involved in the production. closing credits usually consisted only of a list of the major cast members.” "Screenplay by. Producers are reminded that credits are solely to recognise significant creative contributions to programmes and shouldn't be offered in return for reduced fees as is done in many cases.” etc... in ‘Ferris Bueller’s Day off’. sometimes distinguished from the cast (the performers in front of the camera). (A noted example is ‘Finding Nemo’ in which several characters interact with the credits like they are physical objects. the filmmakers will have a character come back and pop in during the credits. most television programs until relatively recently did not list the entire cast and crew.. the closing credits do tend to be quite long. Now. a parting scene is edited in after the credits to conclude as a final joke. Ferris appears and says "Are you still here? ... History The use of closing credits in films to list complete production crew and cast was not firmly established in American film until the 1970s. and to list literally every single person who had been in or who had worked on the production. The introduction of the new credit packages and durations makes it even more important that there is consistency in the editorial use of credits across output.” "Photography by. Practices Some closing credits include out-takes from the show for humour.. particularly silent movies were released with no closing credits at all. The Monty Python series has included credits for ridiculous and non-existent production staff. and in many cases. As research shows that up to 80% of viewers can leave a programme at the start of the end credits. On some occasions... The BBC's credit policy balances desire to reflect significant creative contributions with the reality that lengthy credits make viewers switch over or switch off.
including ‘Toy Story 2’ and ‘Monsters Inc.) and the same writers receive credit for both the story and screenplay. In general. a WGA arbitration committee reads all drafts of the script and various supporting materials and determines the actual/official credits. A shared "story by" credit is the minimum awarded to the author of an original screenplay. These credits would have ordinarily been shown at the start of the movie or within a specially created opening credits sequence.closing credits include bloopers. . with shots of the animated characters fumbling their lines or knocking over the scenery. the credits determination process works as follows: When the film is finished shooting. This tradition has carried over to other Pixar films. a producer or director sharing a writing credit). These productions are generally USA-controlled live-action film and TV projects.’ Many films employ the use of animation. There are legal ramifications of not including or carelessly missing out giving due credit to any person involved in the production of a film. then the "screen story" (or "television story") credit is used. This was spoofed in the closing credits of ‘A Bug’s Life’. If there was previously existing source material but the writer creates a substantially new and different story from the source. In such films the main credits are shown at the end in a page-by-page format followed with the bulk of cast and crew credits as a crawl. The Writers Guild of America (WGA) has a well-defined process for determining credits on projects produced under its jurisdiction. The elimination of the full opening credits sequence from many films has resulted in some films showing the major acting and production credits that would previously have been seen at the start of the film as part of the end-credits (sometimes preceded by the main title. the producer sends a notice to the guild and the writers proposing the writing credits. play. The "story by" credit is used when the basic narrative structure was originally written with intent to be used for a movie (as opposed to a short story) and the actual screenplay had different authors. article. Notable movies that omit opening credits include the ‘Harry Potter’ and ‘Star Wars’ series. produced either by studios or major independent producers. or if the proposed credits require mandatory arbitration (e. Many films show takes gone wrong. motion graphics and 3-D to make the credit sequence more interesting and involving for the audience. If any writer disagrees with those credits. such as those made famous by the James Bond film series. which no longer appears at the start of every movie). etc. the credit is "written by". If there is no source material (novel..g.
There are other specialized credits used for television programs such as documentaries and audience participation shows. Ideally the executive producer arranges for the film's financing and tries to keep the project on budget. or some other person who made the project possible. A producer usually hires the director. actors and technical personnel. . "adaptation by" can be awarded to a writer who shapes the script without qualifying for one of the above credits. Director The director is responsible for all creative aspects of a movie. ‘Division of Labour!’ There are various heads under which the authority and responsibility of tasks fall. Writer The term "Written By" in the credits is a designation meaning "Original Story and Screenplay By." The writer creates and shapes an original story. The director usually helps hire actors. Producer The producer finds a script and develops it into a film project. or adapts a book. In rare cases. A script may go through many writers.Finally. During filming the director oversees the actors and crew. play or other work for use on the big screen. Increasingly the executive producer credit is given as a perk to a powerful actor's agent or spouse. decides on locations and plans the shots before filming begins. so the Writer's Guild must often determine who gets screen credit as the Writer. Explained below are the general heads that are mentioned in credit lists of cinematic content: Executive Producer A title often abused in the film industry. the "screenplay by" (or "teleplay by") credit is used to denote the screenplay (teleplay) authorship if the story credit had to be separated as above. He or she oversees the hiring of the director. sets up shots and keeps the movie on schedule and on budget. The producer also oversees script development and tracks the movie's financial condition during filming. unless he or she is also producing the film.
This includes everything from obtaining the right . The stunt coordinator makes sure that all safety regulations are followed and that all safety equipment is on the set and ready for action! Production Manager The production manager (P. Increasingly. Associate Producer In most cases an associate producer is the producer's top assistant. Editor The editor works with the director in editing the film. The cinematographer usually does not operate the camera on set (this is the duty of the camera operator). He or she works with the cinematographer to achieve the right look for the production. Sometimes this credit goes to the project's financier. He or she is often a liaison between the production team (everyone helping to shoot the film) and the post-production team (those who work on the film after shooting). though this job varies from production to production. directs the lighting for each scene. helps create the look of a movie. by assembling preliminary cuts from the daily footage.). Art Director The art director. editors work on computerized editing consoles without touching the actual film. The editor often starts work while the film is still being shot. selects film stock and ensures that the visual look of the film conforms to the director's vision. designs and supervises the construction of sets for a movie.P. including architecture and interior design. helps frame shots. The director has the primary responsibility for editing decisions. Stunt Coordinator The stunt coordinator lines up professional stunt people to take the risks that make the movies so exciting. The D. chooses lenses.Cinematographer The cinematographer. but the editor often has significant input in the creative decisions involved in putting together a final cut of a movie. This person needs to be well-versed in a variety of art and design styles. or the person who brought the project to the producer.) makes business deals with the crew and arranges for the production's technical needs. or director of photography (D.P.M. or production designer.
manages the set. how long the shot lasted. The continuity person logs how many times a scene was shot. This includes unique expenses like a star's salary as well as daily costs like equipment rentals. Assistant Cameraman Often there is a first and second assistant cameraman.M.D.P. The A. marks the spots .) reports the daily financial operation of a production to the production manager. calls for quiet on the set and coordinates the extras.D.D. Continuity Person The continuity person tries to prevent embarrassing gaffes in the final film. Sometimes the U. The production manager reports his or her expenses and needs to the line producer.P. where they were standing and any other intricate details -. which actors were in the scene.. will scout for locations and help the production manager with overall planning.M. Line Producer The line producer supervises the movie's budget. in larger productions) works to make the director more efficient. Assistant Director The assistant director (A. and responding quickly to the action as it unfolds. Unit Production Manager The unit production manager (U. The first assistant cameraman is generally responsible for the maintenance of the camera.like that disappearing hat! Camera Operator The camera operator is a member of the camera crew and runs the camera as instructed by the director and the cinematographer. or First A. During filming the A.D. maintains focus during shots. plans a shooting schedule by breaking the script into sections that can be filmed in a single day and in the most efficient order. The first assistant cameraman also changes lenses. helps line up shots for the director.technical equipment to renting accommodations for actors and crew. The camera operator is responsible for keeping the action in frame. such as an actor wearing a hat that mysteriously disappears in one shot then reappears in another.
maintains quality control. computer graphics. But he or she could also be called upon to supervise separate teams of effects technicians working away from the set. and all other technical needs. . as well as the style and interpretation of the film's characters. A prop is a moveable item that is essential to a scene. (Also see film loader. The job of the FX coordinator differs from film to film.where actors will stand and measures the distance between the camera and the subject matter. Special effects range from complicated computer animation to helping Superman fly to simple on-set logistics like making a shower work. and coordinates audio mixing. Set Designer The set designer takes direction from the art director about the look of the set. which contain the film. and then plans its technical construction.) Visual Effects Director The visual effects director's job varies according to the needs of the production. FX Coordinator FX is film shorthand for special effects. Make-up Artist The make-up artist is usually a licensed professional who applies any make-up to an actor. Sometimes the visual effects director helps with effects on the set. Property Master The property master finds. This person contributes to the overall look of the film. Costume Designer The costume designer creates all the costumes worn by the cast on a production. maintains and places on the set all essential props for a scene. Post-Production Supervisor The post-production supervisor oversees the finishing of a film once shooting ends. The second assistant cameraman fills out camera reports and is often responsible for loading and unloading camera magazines. He or she attends editing sessions.
Second Unit Director The second unit director heads the second unit – a separate production crew that shoots sequences not involving the main actors. colour and style the hair of actors in a production. The analyst then writes "coverage" (a synopsis) of the material.) performs small but essential tasks for the cast and crew. Usually the hairdresser provides all the necessary equipment and rents it to the production on a weekly basis. Production Assistant Often called a gofer or a runner on the set. books and other literary efforts looking for potential movies.A. These can include background shots at remote locations. Unit Publicist The unit publicist makes sure the media are aware of a production by sending out press releases. shots used for special effects and scenes that are not essential to the plot. setting up on-set visits and organizing media kits. Story Editor The story editor supervises several story analysts who work for the studios. The story editor reviews the coverage and passes on promising prospects to the studio bosses for possible development into a motion picture. . arranging for interviews of cast and crew. The analysts read screenplays. video and audio clips and plot summaries.Hairdresser The hairdresser is licensed to cut. the production assistant (P. which include publicity pictures. He or she also styles and cuts wigs when necessary.
Comedies are stories that take . Or.SCRIPTWRITING Stories are often classified by type. such as mystery. you can gather them under the headings of dramas. romance or adventure. comedies or tragedies. Dramas are basic stories about some interesting or exciting events.
and usually the longest part. boy gets girl" may be the way it usually happens in real life. Tragedies are stories in which the hero valiantly battles forces too powerful to overcome. but audiences don’t watch videos to see the kind of life they are already living. The antagonist is the opposing force. However you think of them. The transition to the middle can usually be identified by a dramatic change in the hero’s situation. a woman. Examples Lets look at some familiar stories and see how they fit the basic pattern. Tragedies have an unhappy ending. The hero must overcome increasing difficulties. While there may be other characters. a child or even an animal. In this article. boy courts girl. Basic Building Blocks Every story has three parts: a beginning. "Plot" is the something that these people do. In live theater. every story has a protagonist and an antagonist. the hero pulls through. usually a villain but it could be a force of nature or even the hero’s internal conflicts. boy gets girl" is more interesting. The hero can be a man. As you watch stories. You often hear that a story requires conflict." Each of these parts has an important function: The beginning serves to introduce the characters and establish the problem the hero must solve. look for the three-act structure. The protagonist. a middle and an end. the people in the story. "Boy meets girl. Most stories have happy endings. See who is established in the beginning and what the protagonist’s goal is. like a better understanding of herself or the world. we will help you develop your road map. "Characters" are the someone. the hero (or at least the audience) should gain something. Just when it looks like the antagonist is going to win. is whom the story is about. they are a combination of character and plot. all are about someone doing something. or hero. The audience does not want to cheer for a hero through all her trials only to see her go down in flames at the end. This does not necessarily mean gunfights or fisticuffs. . If the story has an unhappy ending. They may be the people around you or people that you invent. these parts are called "acts. Storytellers learned long ago that "boy meets girl. The middle is the most involved. The end in which the hero puts out a supreme effort and reaches his or her goal usually. "Conflict" is another name for the difficulties that the hero has to overcome. If you think of a story as a journey.a humorous or lighthearted approach. boy loses girl. plot is the road map that keeps you from getting lost along the way.
the protagonist manages to best the opposition and reach the goal. Red’s screams bring in a brave woodsman. and slips into bed disguised as the old lady. • Someone commits a crime. In the Middle. Below are some elements that you can adapt to make a story: Beginning Here you have an infinity of choices. It is perfectly alright to take an existing story line and put your own spin on it as the . I know. you can easily put together one of your own. The story quickly winds down after that. she begins to get suspicious. On the way she meets the Big Bad Wolf. The transition to the end may be another radical change in the situation. who kills the Wolf with his axe and saves the girl (in the versions of the story where Red gets eaten.but done casually so as not to draw attention to itself. the woodsman saves Red by splitting open the Wolf’s stomach). We have met the characters and learned Red’s goal. Note: Russian Playwright Anton Chekhov said that if a gun is seen in the first act it must be fired in the last act. Some of them are: • "Once upon a time. the Wolf takes a shortcut to Grandma’s. disposes of her. • A ghost appears and demands revenge for his murder. But Shakespeare wasnÃ¯Â¿Â½t the first to use it. eats Red. this one has been used already. In the end. I know. • Dawn. • Boy meets girl. Case Study : Little Red Riding Hood. These difficulties often increase in severity until it seems that there is no way the hero can gain the goal. nor the last. In the beginning we meet Little Red Riding Hood who is tripping through the woods on her way to Grandmas’. If you intend to have the hero use some prop to help solve the problem (like Red shooting the Wolf) then that prop must be established early on in the show . In the end. The Plot Kit Having observed how stories are constructed. When Red comes in.In the middle. or the beginning of someones day." still a good way to start the telling of a fable or any story set in an indeterminate time. The reverse of that is especially true. and in older versions of the story. Tension rises and the situation degenerates until the Wolf chases Red around the house. observe the obstacles or problems that are placed in the way of the hero. tying up loose ends.
or bike. If it is totally unrelated (i. and end." As in the story of the Little Pig. perhaps after achieving the goal. Middle Here are some ways to keep your story exciting and moving forward: Use a "Rule of Three. • The hero dies. After solving the problem. • A natural disaster occurs. the hero rides off into the sunset (on his horse. Some examples of things that keep the plot moving are: • The protagonist goes to an unfamiliar place. The way to organize your story is to give it a proven beginning. End Here are a few choices for endings: • The hero triumphs and lives happily ever after. • The hero gives in to some temptation. They show someone. • The twist or surprise ending. Or. This is the most common and generally the most satisfying ending. If you use this ending.. The hero continues to fail until he hits bottom. more failures make the hero look like a real loser. then retires to lick his wounds and prepare for the final confrontation. fewer do not build up sufficient tension. perhaps after failing. • A mysterious stranger appears. then begins with small successes to work himself back up to where he can take on the villain once again. that we care about. the hero tries two things that don’t work before figuring out one that will. or skateboard). make sure that the surprise is based on the material that went before. • The hero fails to achieve the goal but gains some valuable understanding. the killer is someone we never heard of) your audience will boo. The middle shows the hero’s progress against whatever threatens to keep him from the goal.e. The end shows . the hero loses the big battle. All successful stories have common characteristics. middle. A tragic ending takes real skill to keep it from being depressing. The beginning introduces us to the main characters and what they are after. striving against difficulties to achieve a worthwhile goal.very best have done so. Three seems to be a magic number.
Over the course of a successful career. television or video games. By organizing your video’s storyline around these elements. you will understand the secret formula to good story writing and you will keep your audiences’ interest to the very end. Feature assignment writing Scripts written on assignment are screenplays created under contract with a studio. a screenwriter might be hired to write in a wide variety of roles. production company. production company. Screenwriting in the entertainment industry The act of screenwriting takes many forms across the entertainment industry.how the hero finally triumphs. The vast majority of scripts written each year are spec scripts. but sometimes can also be an adaptation of an existing source. but only a small percentage make it to the screen. . or individual. In television writing. Often. Because assignments are created for hire. Assignment scripts are generally adaptations of an existing idea or property owned by the hiring company but can also be original works based on a concept created by the writer or producer. the writer typically has less creative freedom than on a spec script. without the commission of a studio. or network. multiple writers work on the same script at different stages of development with different tasks. SCREENWRITING Screenwriting is the art and craft of writing scripts for film. A spec script is usually a wholly original work. Common forms of screenwriting: Spec script writing Spec scripts are feature film or television show scripts written on speculation. a spec script is a sample teleplay written to demonstrate the writer's knowledge of a show and ability to imitate its style and conventions.
a different writer or team of writers is contracted to do an entirely new draft. characters.often given other titles." When there are only small shortcomings. and plots. or producer . a writer is hired to do a "polishup" or "punch-up. style. Video game writing With the continued development and increased complexity of video games. After the episode is written. they are commonly referred to as script doctors. Television show creators. A staff writer for a television show generally works in-house writing and rewriting episodes for the show. many . also known as show runners.and must meet specific criteria dictated by the producer. such as story editor. Staff writers . They are responsible for creating and managing all aspects of a show's characters." Depending on the size of the new writer's contributions. often referred to as a "page one rewrite. Frequently. When a script's central premise or characters are good but the script is otherwise unusable. screen credit may or may not be given. style. Rewriting and script doctoring Most produced films are rewritten to some extent during the development process. Television writing A freelance television writer uses spec scripts or their previous credits and reputation to get contracted by an existing tv show to write one or more episodes. the teleplay is submitted to the network and rewriting or polishing may be required. When an established and successful writer is called in to rewrite portions of a script late in its development process. a creator or a creative director remains responsible for the show's day-to-day creative decisions throughout the series run. Writing for soap operas The process of writing for soap operas is different than that used by prime time shows.Subhash Ghai started his prolific career as a script doctor. and plots.work both as a group and individually on episode scripts to maintain the show's tone. fifty-two weeks a year. Very frequently. Subsequent drafts of the script may be done by the freelancer or by the show's staff. they are not rewritten by the original writer of the script this is known as re-writing the script. write the pilot episode and bible of a new television series. due in part to the need to produce new episodes five days a week. such as bad dialogues or poor humor.
This fundamental structure contains a number of stages. spare prose when describing stage directions. is an idea formulated by noted mythologist Joseph Campbell. an inciting incident complicates the story and moves the screenplay into the second act. goals and techniques of writing a script. visual aspects of the story. The Three Acts are Beginning. Campbell's insight was that important myths from around the world which have survived for thousands of years. and symbolism.opportunities are available to screenwriters in the field of video game design. a screenplay focuses on describing the literal. The second act. Video game writers work closely with the other game designers to create characters. it is intended to be interpreted on the basis of other artists' performance. The Hero's Journey The Hero's Journey. Middle and End (or. Unlike a novel or short story. confrontation [of the problem]. the screenplay is a unique literary for. the aim is to evoke thoughts and emotions through subtext. rather than serving as a "finished product" for the enjoyment of its audience. At the end of the first act. For this reason. also referred to as the Monomyth. Theories on writing a screenplay Fundamentally. a screenplay is written using technical jargon and tight. which includes 1. most basic theory of screenwriting is the Three Act Structure. and dialogue. In screenwriting. Three act structure The first. rather than on the internal thoughts of its characters." which often results in important self-knowledge . the third act features the resolution of the story and its subplots. A call to adventure. typically depicts the protagonist attempting to solve the problems caused by the inciting incident. regarding which the hero succeeds or fails 3. Finally. The first act is generally used to establish the dramatic situation and introduce the main characters. more specifically. scenarios. is the scene or sequence in which the main tension and dramatic questions of the story are brought to their most intense point. commonly described as "rising action". resolution [of the problem]). which the hero has to accept or decline 2. A road of trials. The Climax. The central concept of the Monomyth is that a universal pattern can be seen in stories and myths across history and cultures. Achieving the goal or "boon. action. all share a fundamental structure. There are several main screenwriting theories which help writers approach the screenplay by systematizing the structure. The most common kinds of theories are structural. which ends the second act. setup [of the location and characters].
resulting in Aristotle's Three Acts divided into four pieces. this is the point in the story when the Protagonist encounters the problem that will change their life. A return to the ordinary world. He has no home to go back to. again as to which the hero can succeed or fail 5. writers go back and redo this as the last thing before submitting the script. and posited a new theory. This is when the detective is assigned the case. especially its tone. So the Three Act Structure is notated 1. and where the Comic Hero gets fired from his cushy job. Midpoint: An important scene in the middle of the script. Turning Point One is a surprising development that radically changes the Protagonist's life. often a reversal of fortune or revelation that changes the direction of the story. which he called the Paradigm. Plot Point 1: The last scene in Act One. Plot Points are important structural functions that happen in approximately the same place in most successful movies. Pinch 1 is the Stormtroopers attacking the Millennium Falcon in Mos Eisley. He also noticed that an important dramatic event usually occurred at the middle of the picture. forcing him into comic circumstances. reminding us of the overall conflict. 3. 2b. and was also twice the length of Acts One and Three. in Star Wars. in which what the hero has gained can be used to improve the world Syd Field's Paradigm Screenwriting guru Syd Field wrote the seminal book Screenplay. Opening Image: The first image in the screenplay should summarize the entire film. Field noticed that in a 120-page screenplay. Often. like the verses and choruses in a popular song. Driving the story towards the Midpoint keeps the second act from sagging. reminding us the Empire is after the stolen plans to the Death Star R2-D2 is carrying and Luke and Ben Kenobi are trying to get to the Rebel Alliance (the main conflict). where Boy meets Girl. Pinch 1: A reminder scene at about 3/8 the way through the script (halfway through Act 2a) that brings up the central conflict of the drama. Field also introduced the idea of Plot Points into screenwriting theory. so he joins the Rebels in opposing Darth Vader. and forces him to confront the Opponent.4. this is when Luke's family is killed by the Empire. 2a. Pinch 2: Another reminder scene about 5/8 through the script (halfway through Act 2b) that is somehow linked to Pinch 1 in reminding the audience about the central . Act Two was notoriously boring. In Star Wars. Inciting Incident: Also called the catalyst. which implied to him that the middle act was actually two acts in one. For example. Application of the boon.
it's the low-point for the Hero. shots and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page. and he must bounce back to overcome the odds in Act 3. Sometimes. transitions. tying up the loose ends of the story. The next four create the film's second act. when rendered in studio format.. . character names. Tag: An epilogue. One reason for this is that. Both scenes remind us of the Empire's opposition. the Protagonist will confront the Main Problem of the story and either overcome it. dialog. films in recent decades have had longer denouements than films made in the 1970s or earlier. The final two sequences complete the resolution and dénouement of the story. are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known widely as studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings. as well as the font size and line spacing. In the sequence style the story is broken up into eight 10-15 minute sequences. beginning with proper formatting. or come to a tragic end. which is about confrontation and resolution. Each sequence's resolution creates the situation which sets up the next sequence. Showdown: About midway through Act 3. The sequences serve as "mini-movies". and using the Stormtrooper attack motif unifies both Pinches. is a system developed by Frank Daniel. These rules serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies. In general. giving the audience closure. The sequence approach The sequence approach to screenwriting. Feature film Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios. Sometimes Turning Point Two is the moment when the Hero has had enough and is finally going to face the Opponent. The first two sequences combine to form the film's first act.conflict. Resolution: The issues of the story are resolved. Plot Point 2: A dramatic reversal that ends Act 2 and begins Act 3. Screenwriting formats Screenplays and teleplays have set of standardizations in place. Pinch 2 is the Stormtroopers attacking them as they rescue the Princess in the Death Star. In Star Wars. and also a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. sometimes known as "eight-sequence structure". action. like in Toy Story. each with their own compressed three-act structure. This is also known as denouement. most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of approximately one page per minute.
Screenplays are usually bound with a light card stock cover and back page. like Scrubs. Comedies and children's films tend to weigh in at the lower end. specialized format that derives from radio and the stage play. but much more condensed and boiled down to specific plot points or actions related to the overall concept and story. That is.5 x 11 inch) paper. Physical format of Screenplays Screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched letter sized (8. The middle hole is left empty. reading copies of screenplays (that is. often showing the logo of the Production Company or agency submitting the script. action lines are capitalized. the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to dictate the content and direction of the program. and scene headings are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats that require the skills of a writer. Documentaries The script format for documentaries and audio-visual presentations which consist largely of voice-over matched to still or moving pictures is different again and uses a two-column format which can be particularly difficult to achieve in standard word processors. Multi-camera sitcoms.There is no single standard for studio format. dialogue is double-spaced. The main difference is that TV scripts have act breaks. like CSI. Screenplays are almost always written using a monospaced font. and single-camera sitcoms. at least when it comes to editing. those distributed by producers and agencies in the hope of attracting finance or talent) are distributed printed on . use a different. Increasingly. Creating reality show formats involves storytelling structure similar to screenwriting. In this format. like I Love Lucy and "Seinfeld". many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format. are essentially the same as for motion pictures. Many script-editing software programs include templates for documentary formats. Some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. Screenplays are traditionally 90-120 pages long. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs. often a variant of Courier. and held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. the format rules for hour-long dramas. Television For TV shows.
Occasionally they are reduced to half-size to make a small book which is convenient to read or put in a pocket. The first screenwriting software was SmartKey. and Zhura. WordPerfect . Sometimes in literature story and plot are used exactly the other way round. This is because it gives the writer final control over the layout of the script. Movie Magic Screenwriter. while sunny days promote a feeling of happiness and calm. such as WordStar. Plot While the story is what will be told (narrative). which may otherwise vary depending on what fonts and/or paper size the recipient uses to print the script out. because there are no written words to explain the characters or plot. DreamaScript. This vocabulary is not indisputable. this is generally for use by the director or other production crew during shooting. the plot is how the story will be told (narration). Although most production companies can handle scripts in most formats. Dialogue Dialogue is very important to the film industry. Celtx. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script. The formatting software programs listed at the bottom of this article produce industry formatted standard screenplays in PDF. it is better practice to supply scripts as a PDF file where possible.both sides of the paper (often professionally bound) to cut down on paper waste out of environmental concerns. Rain is commonly used to express a character feeling depressed. Montage. though. Screenwriting software Various screenwriting software packages are available to help screenwriters adhere to the strict formatting conventions described above. Dialogue & description Imagery Imagery can be used in many metaphoric ways. Final Draft. Imagery can be used to sway the emotions of the audience and to clue them in to what is happening. it all has to be explained through dialogue and imagery. it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. a macro program that sent strings of commands to existing word processing programs. Such packages include BPCScreenplay. Scripped.
after which word processing programs had their own macro features. then making a story board (often containing drawings to help visualize the key points) to shooting. DIRECTION Filmmaking is the process of making a film from an initial story idea through the scriptwriting to treatment of the script. editing and finally distribution .and Microsoft Word. SmartKey was popular with screen writers from 1982-1987.
Director also manages the technical aspects of filming. . by providing logistical. lighting. Directors work closely with Editors through the many technical processes of editing. the Direction department is a subset of a larger occupational group referred to as Production. who ensure that the Director's artistic ambitions are achieved during the filming process. in shot. crew and locations for the film. Within this department. the Director is also supported by a number of Assistant Directors. lighting. A film director visualizes the script. technical and creative teams.he or she must visualize and define the style and structure of the film. Director. Responsibilities The role of the director is vital right from the pre-production phase through the production phase up to the post-production. design and special effects departments. Film director is responsible for approving every camera angle. Typically it involves a large number of people and can take anywhere between a few months to several years to complete.to an audience. the person who directs making of a film. or they may be hired after an early draft of the script is complete. controls the film's artistic and dramatic aspects. Directors must then develop a vision for the finished film.e. is the storyteller. The Director acts as the crucial link between the production. During post-production. aiding in editing process. while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of his vision. Director can make a good project better or worst. During pre-production. i. who visualizes the script. sound. including the camera. Directors are responsible for creatively translating the film's written script into actual images and sounds on the screen . lens effect. Director is ultimately responsible for the creative vision and overall style of a feature film. and define a practical route for achieving it. They then direct rehearsals and the performances of the actors once the film is in production. shot composition. such as selecting the right cast. organizational and time-management support. Director coordinates the actors move and may be involved in financing the film. Directors may write the film's script or commission it to be written. Directors make crucial decisions. Occasionally he/ she might be required in aiding designing of sets and even taking part in the hiring of key crew members. then act as both a storyteller and team leader to bring this vision to reality. Within the film industry. Perhaps the most important role within the Direction department is that of Director. shot selection. to reach the final cut or version of the film.
Some styles include: • Outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue • Write their own scripts or collaborate on screenplay writing with some writers • Be the cinematographer and/or editor • Control every aspect. Directors must constantly make decisions. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills are vital to get the best from the filmmaking team. and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely Role of Director during the various phases of Film Production: . directing one's own short film or an amateur play. from both technical and creative points of view. A capacity for long hours of intensive work. and the ability to remain calm and think clearly under great pressure. Extensive industry experience is also crucial to this role. Studying the art and craft of directing is important.At all stages. Director must inspire and motivate the team to produce the film that he/she has envisioned. Methods of film directing Directors have different methods of filming. Many Directors work their way up over many years from entry level positions. along with the ability to act as a strong and confident leader. Directors are responsible for motivating the team to produce the best possible results. They get work experience as a runner on a film set or in a production office is an ideal starting point. can be a vital first steps on this fiercely competitive and highly challenging career path. but the role can only really be mastered through in-depth practical experience. Unerring commitment and a deep passion for filmmaking are essential. up-to-date knowledge of filmmaking techniques and equipment is vital. Directors must also appreciate the needs and expectations of the film's financiers. Observing successful Directors at work. are key skills for this role. but must also be able to delegate work and collaborate with others members of the unit. Writing a screenplay. Skills Directors must have exceptional artistic vision and creative skills to develop a film. attention to detail. are all good starting places. Directors also need great self-belief and the determination to succeed. He/She needs an extensive understanding of the entire filmmaking process. as is learning how to work with actors to create a performance.
He or she cooperates with the director. the action is shot. the movie is designed and planned. who is responsible for managing all the creative elements of the movie. Actors may arrive several hours earlier for make-up and costume. picture editor. More crew could be recruited at this stage. track and dolly. The production is storyboarded and visualized with the help of illustrators and concept artists. The actors rehearse their scripts with the director. and sound editors. stills photographer. production sound mixer. take. costume designer. Each shot is marked on a clapperboard. The production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit a particular film. choreographer. The clapperboard records the scene. The assistant director will follow the shooting schedule for the day. Finally.Pre-production In pre-production. make up and hair designer. microphones. production manager. The production company is created and a production office established. music composer. such as the property master. props). This normally requires an audition by the actor. assistant directors. director of . among other tasks. production designer. Production In production the shooting of a movie. script supervisor. The picture and sound crews then rehearse with the actors. It might be required to take as many as shot as the director requires/wishes. The producer will hire a director. These are just the most common roles in filmmaking. which makes production sets. And there are a lot of other artists working in the production crew. • The Art Director manages the art department. • The Casting Director finds actors for the parts in the script. director. A production budget is also drawn up to find the cost the film. sound designer. is done. storyboard artist. supervised by the director viz. on celluloid or digital medium. which helps the editor keep track of the takes in post-production. Crew will prepare for that day's filming and get the equipments (cameras. Various Directors working under him include: • The Assistant Director (AD): manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the production. The Director will then choose his crew for making of the film. location manager. A typical day's shooting begins with the crew arriving on the set/location before the call-time. • The Director of Photography (DP or DOP) or Cinematographer creates the photography of the film. director of audiography (DOA) and AD.
shots are downloaded and organized on a computer for display as dailies. interpersonal and organizational skills. so flexibility and motivation are important. the picture is "locked. Other important qualities for these roles include excellent communication. Sound is recorded on a separate apparatus from the film and they must be synced up in post-production." The crew will dismantle the set for that scene. seconds. For productions using digital technologies. While the practical aspects of filmmaking. and is displayed for the camera. the film passes out of the hands of the editor to the sound department to build up the sound track. After each take the director will then decide if it was acceptable or not. and to work effectively under pressure. Most recordists have now progressed onto digital hard-drive recorders but some will still record onto DAT (digital audio tape).photography. The director approves the next day's shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production office. All roles within the Direction department of the film industry require a high degree of commitment and dedication. The voice recordings are synchronized and the final sound mix is created. a close attention to detail. the assistant director declares a "wrap." meaning no further changes are made. The Director also participates in the sound mix and musical composition of the film. and name of the film written on the front. When shooting is finished for the scene. Once the picture is locked. the process of shortening scenes by a few minutes. For productions using traditional photographic film. The clapperboard also serves the necessary function of providing a marker to sync up the film and the sound take. such as finance and marketing. they return from the laboratory film positives and are viewed in the evening by the director. is done during this phase. and the ability to multi-task. the unprocessed negative of the day's takes are sent to the film laboratory for processing overnight. date. The next step is to create a fine cut by getting all the shots to flow smoothly in a seamless story. After the fine cut has been screened and approved by the director and producer. The sound mix combines sound effects. to be a team player. Post-production Here the film is assembled by the film editor. Trimming. background sounds. or even frames. The purpose of the rough cut is to select and order the best shots. The work usually involves long hours and varied work locations. are left to . The first job of the film editor is to build a rough cut taken from sequences (or scenes) based on individual "takes" (shots). Once processed. dialogue and music.
Directors assume multiple roles such as Director/Producer or Director/Writer. . dedication and commitment. Directors are ultimately responsible for a film's artistic and commercial success or failure. Being a Director requires great creative vision. Directors must also always be aware of the constraints of the film's budget and schedule.the Producer. In some cases.
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