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Hl HL¢V pw¢rç pwúlZ lQe¡ L−lez Cpm¡j£ B−¾c¡m−e Bj¡l O¢eù pqLjÑ£ Se¡h j¤q¡Çjc e¤l¦kÚk¡j¡e “Prof.
Ghulam Azam: A Profile of Struggle in the Cause of Allah” ¢n−l¡e¡−j Cw−l¢S−a 176 fªù¡l
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L¡¢ju¡l fÐL¡n−el Bj¡l AaÉ¿¹ ®pÀqi¡Se j¤q¡Çjc ®qm¡m EŸ£e Bj¡l Ae¤j¢a R¡s¡C fÐbj −b−L H ®mM¡ fÐL¡−nl
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Bj¡l h¡mÉL¡m...................................................................................................................... 9
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Bj¡l °L−n¡l ....................................................................................................................... 9
NË¡j ®b−L nq−l k¡Ju¡l pȪ¢a................................................................................................... 10
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Bj¡l fСb¢jL ¢nr¡ ..............................................................................................................11
fСb¢jL ú¤−m ¢nr¡ ............................................................................................................... 12
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¢eE ú£j ¢p−mh¡p ................................................................................................................ 16
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Bj¡l fСCj¡l£ flhaÑ£ ¢nr¡ ................................................................................................... 16
S¤¢eul g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡........................................................................................................... 17
L¤¢jõ¡u ¢nr¡ S£he .............................................................................................................. 18
L¤¢jõ¡ q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡l ¢nrNZ................................................................................................... 18
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L¤¢jõ¡u j¡cÚl¡p¡u f¡WÉp§¢Ql h¡C−ll avfla¡ .............................................................................. 19
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Bj¡−cl NË¡j....................................................................................................................... 21
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NË¡j£Z L¡mQ¡l ..................................................................................................................... 21
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Bj¡l b¡e¡ J ®Sm¡............................................................................................................... 23
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Bj¡−cl hw−nl °c¢qL Nse.................................................................................................... 26
Bj¡l Ef−l c¡c¡l fÐi¡h ....................................................................................................... 26
c¡c¡l jªa¤É.......................................................................................................................... 27
Y¡L¡u Bj¡l f¡WÉS£he.......................................................................................................... 28
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Bj¡l q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡ ........................................................................................... 29
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Bj¡l Cpm¡j£ S£he NWe....................................................................................................... 30
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4

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5

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6

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7

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Bj¡l S£h−e ¢h−ul fТa¢œ²u¡.................................................................................................151
−pÀ−ql n¡p−el Ec¡qlZ ........................................................................................................151
B−l¡ HL¢V Ae¤i¤¢a............................................................................................................ 152
¢h−u S£h−el HL V¡¢eÑw f−u¾V ............................................................................................... 153
Cpm¡−j ¢h−ul …l¦aÅ ........................................................................................................... 153
dj£Ñu E−Ÿ−nÉ A¢hh¡¢qa b¡L¡................................................................................................ 154
A¢hh¡¢qa S£h−e p¤M B−R? .................................................................................................. 155
j¤p¢mj-Aj¤p¢mj ¢h−u ......................................................................................................... 156
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a HL¢V djÑ£u pwÙÛ¡ ......................................................................................... 156
Bj¡l ajŸ¤e jS¢m−p ®k¡Nc¡e.............................................................................................. 157
ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl c¡Ju¡a ..................................................................................................... 157
B¢j ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl ¢eLV ¢QlGZ£ ....................................................................................... 158
hÉ¢š²Nai¡−h c¡Ju¡a ®cJu¡l …l¦aÅ ........................................................................................ 159

8

1.
7 e−iðl 2001 p¡−m Bj¡l hup 79 f¤l¡ q−u 80 öl¦ qmz HV¡ c£OÑ S£heC hm¡ k¡uz L¡lZ eh£ Ll£j (p)
h−m−Re, “Bj¡l EÇj−al hup 60 ®b−L 70-Hl j−dÉ b¡L−hz AÒf¢LR¤ ®m¡L Hl ®Q−u ®h¢n hup f¡−hz” ¢q−p−h
9 hRl B−NC Bj¡l p¡d¡lZ hupp£j¡ ®no q−u− ®N−Rz HMe B¢j ®NËC−p B¢Rz
H c£OÑ S£h−e k¡ ¢LR¤ ®cMm¡j, ¢nMm¡j, S¡em¡j Hhw h¤Tm¡j a¡ B¢j ¢m−M ®k−a Q¡Cz qu−a¡ H −mM¡ k¡l¡ fs−h,
a¡−cl EfL¡−l Bp−a f¡−lz A−eL pju p¡d¡lZ ®m¡−Ll S£he −b−LJ ¢nrZ£u ¢hou f¡Ju¡ k¡uz

Bj¡l h¡mÉL¡m

S¾j Bj¡l Y¡L¡ nq−l q−mJ Bj¡l h¡mÉ L¡m NË¡−jC ®L−V−Rz 1922 p¡−m 7 e−iðl Y¡L¡ nq−l mrÈ£h¡S¡l
Hm¡L¡u ‘¢ju¡ p¡−q−Sl juc¡e’ e¡−j f¢l¢Qa HL I¢aqÉh¡q£ f£l h¡¢s−a Bj¡l S¾j quz HV¡ Bj¡l e¡e¡l h¡¢sz
B¢j Bj¡l ¢fa¡j¡a¡l fÐbj p¿¹¡ez fСQ£e l£¢a Ae¤k¡u£ fÐbj p¿¹¡e j¡−ul ¢fa¡l h¡¢s−a S¾j ®euz H L¡l−ZC
Bj¡l Bpm h¡¢s NË¡−j q−mJ nq−lC S¾j quz BÇj¡ fТa hRlC HL ®b−L ®cs j¡p ¢fa¡l h¡¢s−a ®hs¡−a
Bp−aez H p¤−k¡−N h¡mÉL¡−mC NË¡j J nq−ll p¡−b Bj¡l f¢lQu quz
LÓ¡p ¢p„ fkÑ¿¹ Bj¡l ®mM¡fs¡ NË¡−jC quz fÐbj LÓ¡p ¢bË fkÑ¿¹ NË¡−jl fСb¢jL ¢hcÉ¡m−u fs¡l fl Blh£ ¢nr¡l
fÐ−u¡S−e Bj¡−cl NË¡j ®b−L 5 ¢L−m¡¢jV¡l c§l hs¡Cm S¤¢eul j¡cÚ¡l¡p¡u Bh¡l LÓ¡p ¢bË−aC i¢aÑ qC Hhw ®pM¡−e
LÓ¡p ¢p„ fkÑ¿¹ f¢sz H pjuV¤L−¤ L B¢j h¡mÉL¡m ¢q−p−h NZÉ L¢lz Hi¡−h 14 hRl hup fkÑ¿¹ NË¡j£Z f¢l−h−nC
−h−s E¢Wz fÐbj L’hR−ll Lb¡ j−e b¡L−a¡ ü¡i¡¢hL euz a−h kMe ®b−L Bj¡l pȪ¢a−a ¢h¢iæ OVe¡ p¢’a B−R
a¡ ®b−L B¢j nql J NË¡−jl f¡bÑLÉV¡ a¤−m dl−a f¡¢lz

nql J NË¡−jl f¡bÑLÉ

NË¡−j ¢eLVhaÑ£ L−uL NË¡j fkÑ¿¹ Qm¡−gl¡ Ll−a f¡la¡jz öLe¡l ¢c−e c¤C NË¡−jl j¡TM¡−e ¢hl¡V Lª¢oi¤¢j ®Mm¡l
juc¡−eC f¢lZa q−a¡z Bj¡−cl NË¡j¢V CE¢eu−el ®L¾cÐ qJu¡u B−nf¡−nl NË¡j ®b−L ®R−ml¡ Bj¡−cl ú¤−m fs−a
Bp−a¡z aMe fТa NË¡−jC ú¤m ¢R−m¡ e¡z a¡C H−Lh¡−l 1j −nÐZ£ ®b−LC L−uL NË¡−jl ®R−mJ Bj¡l pqf¡W£ ¢R−m¡z
a¡−cl p¡−b LMeJ LMeJ a¡−cl NË¡−j ¢N−u¢Rz
¢L¿º kMeC nq−l ®hs¡−a Bpa¡j, aMe f¡n¡f¡¢n j¡j¡−cl L−uL¢V h¡¢sl j−dÉC BhÜ q−u ®ka¡jz h¡¢s[l
h¡C−lC l¡Ù¹¡z N¡¢s-®O¡s¡l i−u j¤l¦î£l¡ h¡C−l ®k−a ¢c−ae e¡z g−m B−nf¡−nl h¡¢sl ®R−m−f−mcl p−‰
¢jnh¡lJ p¤−k¡N ¢R−m¡ e¡z pjhup£ j¡j¡−a¡ i¡C−cl pwMÉ¡J M¤h Lj ¢R−m¡z NË¡−j −k dl−el ®Mm¡u AiÉÙ¹ ¢Rm¡j,
a¡ nq−l ®Mm¡l j−a¡ pwMÉ¡u p¡b£ f¡Ju¡ ®k−a¡ e¡z a¡C ¢LR¤¢ce f−lC NË¡−j Q−m k¡Ju¡l SeÉ je ®k−e¡ hÉ¡L¤m
q−u ®k−a¡z

Bj¡l °L−n¡l

NË¡−j pL−ml p¡−bC BaÈ£ua¡l pÇfÑL Ae¤ih Lla¡jz c¡c¡−L k¡l¡ i¡C hm−ae, a¡−cl−L c¡c¡ X¡La¡jz Bî¡−L
k¡l¡ i¡C hm−ae, a¡−cl−L Q¡Q¡ X¡La¡jz k¡−cl p¡−b i¡C−ul pÇfÑL a¡−cl j−dÉ k¡l¡ hu−p hs a¡−cl−L i¡C
p¡−qh X¡La¡jz Hj¢ei¡−hC j¢qm¡−cl−L Q¡Q£, c¡c£, i¡h£, h¤h¤ (Bf¡) X¡L¡ q−a¡ Hhw hs−cl L¡R ®b−L BclJ
®fa¡jz ¢L¿º Y¡L¡u j¡j¡−cl L−uL¢V h¡¢s R¡s¡ B−nf¡−n Bl ®L¡l h¡¢s−aC k¡Ju¡ q−a¡ e¡z ¢h−no L−l j¡j¡−cl
h¡¢sl Q¡lf¡−n ¢q¾c¤l¡C hph¡p Ll−a¡ Hhw a¡−cl p¡−b Bj¡−cl ®L¡−e¡ p¡j¡¢SL pÇfLÑ ¢R−m¡ e¡z
nq−l e¡e¡h¡¢s−a HLV¡ hs f¡L¡ L¤u¡ ¢R−m¡z h¡m¢a ¢c−u L¤u¡ ®b−L f¡¢e a¤−m ®N¡pm L−l ®L¡−e¡ aª¢ç ®fa¡j e¡z
L¤u¡l f¡−s ®N¡p−ml pju NË¡−j ®N¡p−ml jS¡l Lb¡ j−e L−l h¡¢s Q−m ®k−a je Q¡C−a¡z BÇj¡ −h¢n¢ce Y¡L¡u
b¡L¡ fR¾c Ll−aez ¢L¿º pç¡q-c¤’pç¡q fl Bj¡l jeV¡ NË¡jj¤M£ q−u fs−a¡z nql J NË¡−jl j−dÉ a¤me¡ L−l
Bj¡l L¡−R NË¡jC ®hn£ i¡−m¡ m¡N−a¡z

9

NË¡−j j−e q−a¡, Bj¡l A−eL Bfe j¡e¤o B−R, k¡l¡ Bcl L−l Bj¡−L X¡−L, N¡−u q¡a h¤m¡u, L¡−l¡ h¡¢s−a
®N−m c¡c£-Q¡Q£−cl ®LE ¢LR¤ ®M−a ®cu, ¢L¿º Y¡L¡u Bp−m j−e ®a¡ ®k, j¡j¡−cl ¢aeOl R¡s¡ Bl Bfe ®L¡−e¡
j¡e¤o ®eCz NË¡−jl ph h¡¢s−aC g−ml N¡Rz HL NË¡j ®b−L B−lL NË¡−j a¡L¡−m öd¤ N¡RC eS−l fs−a¡z Olh¡¢s
®cM¡ ®k−a¡ e¡z ®N¡V¡ NË¡jV¡C ®k−e¡ c£OÑ HLV¡ N¡−Rl h¡N¡ez Y¡L¡u Bp−m Q¡¢l¢c−L ®k¢c−LC a¡L¡a¡j öd¤ c¡m¡e
®L¡W¡C eS−l fs−a¡z N¡R-N¡Rs¡ M¤h p¡j¡eÉC ®Q¡−M fs−a¡z H ph L¡l−ZC Bj¡l L¡−R nql ®b−L NË¡j ®h¢n i¡m
m¡N−a¡z

NË¡j ®b−L nq−l k¡Ju¡l pȪ¢a

NË¡j Bj¡l ¢eLV ®h¢n i¡−m¡ m¡N−mJ hRl O−l Bp¡l p¡−b p¡−b BÇj¡ kMe Y¡L¡ k¡Ju¡l ¢på¡¿¹ ¢e−ae aMe
Bh¡l Y¡L¡ k¡h¡l SeÉ BL¡Pr¡ fÐhm q−u ®k−a¡z M¤h ®i¡−l Bj¡−cl NË¡j ®b−L ®e±L¡−k¡−N °ilh ®k−u ®lmN¡¢s−a
EW−a q−a¡z ®k pL¡−m lJu¡e¡ Ll−a q−a¡ a¡l B−Nl l¡a hlh¡l O¤j ®b−L E−W clS¡ M¤−m ®cMa¡j pL¡m q−m¡
¢Le¡z c¡c£l p¡−b HLC ¢hR¡e¡C O¤j¡a¡jz a¡C EW¡l p¡−b p¡−b ®Vl ®f−u d−l H−e Bh¡l ®n¡u¡−ae Bl hm−ae,
pL¡m q−m B¢jC ®k−L ®c−h¡, HMe O¤j¡Jz ®k nq−l pç¡q-c¤’pç¡q b¡L¡l f−lC NË¡−j Bp¡l SeÉ je RVgV
Ll−a¡, ®p nq−lC k¡h¡l SeÉ H−a¡ BNËq ®L−e¡ pª¢ø q−a¡ I hu−p ®p ¢ho−u ¢Q¿¹¡-i¡he¡ Lla¡j h−m j−e f−s
e¡z HMe h¤T−a f¡¢l ®k, j¡e¤o S£h−e °h¢Qœ Q¡uz HLM¡−e ¢LR¤¢ce b¡L¡l fl ®hs¡h¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ AeÉœ k¡Ju¡l SeÉ
BNËq qJu¡ ü¡i¡¢hLz
Y¡L¡ nq−l Bp¡l f−b fÐb−j ®e±L¡, Hlf−l ®lmN¡¢sz ®e±L¡u Qm−a k−bù AiÉÙ¹ ¢Rm¡jz hoÑ¡l L−uL j¡p ®e±L¡
R¡s¡ Qm¡lC Ef¡u ¢R−m¡ e¡z a¡C ®e±L¡ ïjZV¤L¤ Hje ®L¡−e¡ BLoÑZ£u j−e q−a¡ e¡z ¢L¿º ®lmN¡¢s−a Qs¡l fl
M¤hC i¡−m¡ m¡N−a¡z ®lmN¡¢s Qm¡l pj−u ®k BJu¡S q−a¡ a¡ ®k−e¡ R−¾cl a¡−ml j−a¡ Ae¤ih Lla¡j Hhw nl£−l
jªc¤ Ty¡L¤¢e−a aª¢ç ®fa¡jz ®lmN¡¢sl R¾cju ®p BJu¡SV¡ HmeJ ®k−e¡ Bj¡l L¡−e h¡−Sz jNh¡S¡lÙÛ Bj¡l h¡¢s
®b−L S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£l ®L¾cУu A¢g−p ®k−a ®lmm¡Ce œ²p L−l ®k−a quz A−eL pjuC ®lm−NV hå b¡L−m
N¡¢s−a h−pC ®lmN¡¢sl A−fr¡ Ll−a quz Bj¡l p¡j−e ¢c−u kMe ®lmN¡¢s k¡u aMe h¡mÉL¡−ml ®n¡e¡ ®p
R¾cju BJu¡SV¡ Bh¡l Bj¡l j−e a¡S¡ q−u E−Wz Qm¿¹ ®lmN¡¢s−a A−e−LC Lb¡h¡aÑ¡ hm−a b¡−L ¢L¿º Bj¡l
j−e f−s k¡−cl p¡−b B¢j Y¡L¡ ®ka¡j Qm¿¹ N¡¢s−a a¡−cl Lb¡ h−m pju eø Ll−a CµR¡ q−a¡ e¡z B¢j HLV¡e¡
h¡C−l ®Q−u b¡La¡jz LMeJ LMeJ j−e q−a¡ h¡C−lll N¡R J NË¡jNË−m¡ ®k−e¡ E−ÒV¡¢c−L ®c±s¡−µRz HC ®k
c¤nÉ…−m¡ hcm¡−µR a¡ ®cMa− ®k La i¡−m¡ m¡N−a¡, a¡ hm¡l I¡o¡ ®L¡b¡u f¡h? a¡C N¡¢s−a Bj¡l O¤jJ ®f−a¡
e¡z Y¡L¡ nq−ll aMe ®lm ®øn−el e¡j ¢R−m¡ g¤mh¡s£u¡z g¤mh¡s£u¡ HMe h¡p ®ønez ®Vêe ®b−L ®e−j ®O¡s¡l
N¡¢s−a Q−s e¡e¡h¡¢s−a ®ka¡jz I ®O¡s¡l N¡¢sl fÐQme BLS¡m Bl ®eCz ®O¡s¡l N¡¢s−a hp¡l S¡uN¡V¡ f¡¢ól
j−a¡ ¢R−m¡z c¤’Se L−l j¤−M¡j¤¢M L−l 4Se hp¡l ¢pV ¢Rmz Bl 2V¡ ®O¡s¡ ®V−e ¢e−u ®k−a¡z M¤h â¦a Qm−a¡ e¡
h−m ph c¤nÉ aª¢ç ¢e−u ®cM¡ ®k−a¡z Y¡L¡ ®b−L NË¡−jl h¡¢s−a ¢g−l k¡Ju¡l pju M¤h pL¡−m ®øn−e Bp−a q−a¡z
M¡¢m f¡L¡ l¡Ù¹¡u c¤’−O¡s¡l BV¢V f¡−ul HL¢V QjvL¡l R¾cju BJu¡S q−a¡z ®lmN¡¢sl R¾c ®b−LJ öe−a j−dÉ
®m¡q¡ m¡N¡−e¡ b¡L−a¡ k¡−a f¡ ®hn£ ru e¡ q−u k¡uz H−a l¡Ù¹¡l Efl Qm¡l pju f¡ ®gm¡l HLV¡ QjvL¡l në
q−a¡z aMe Y¡L¡u ¢lLn¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡, ú¤V¡lJ ¢R−m¡ e¡, L¡−ll ®a¡ fÐnÀC E−W e¡z fÐQ¤l pwMÉ¡u ®O¡s¡l N¡¢s ¢R−m¡ Hhw
nq−ll l¡Ù¹¡…−m¡ a¡−clC cM−m ¢R−m¡z

−pL¡−m Y¡L¡ nq−ll BLoÑZ

1940 p¡−m Y¡L¡u H−p LÓ¡p e¡C−e i¢aÑl qJu¡l f§hÑ fkÑ¿¹ nq−ll cnÑe£u ¢L ¢L ¢R−m¡, ®p pð−å Bj¡l d¡lZ¡J
qu¢ez BÇj¡l p¡−b ®hs¡−a Bp−m ®k j¡p-®cs j¡p b¡L¡ q−a¡ aMe Y¡L¡l c¤−V¡ S¡uN¡C Bj¡l ¢eLV BLoÑZ£u
¢R−m¡z HL¢V pclO¡V J Afl¢V QLh¡S¡lz

10

pclO¡V

pclO¡V h¤¢sN‰¡ ec£l ¢Le¡−lz pL¡m-¢hL¡−m iâ−m¡−Ll¡ HM¡−e ®qy−V ®hs¡−aez fÐh¡¢qa ec£ Bj¡l L¡−R M¤h
BLoÑZ£u ¢R−m¡z Bj¡−cl NË¡−j ®R¡– ec£l j−a¡C HL¢V hs M¡m B−Rz fСu p¡l¡hRl Bjl¡ ®pM¡−eC ®N¡pm
Lla¡jz n£−al ®n−ol ¢c−L hoÑ¡l f§hÑ fkÑ¿¹ M¡−m f¡¢e L−j ®k−a¡z aMe −N¡pm Ll−a q−a¡ ¢eLVhaÑ£ HL¢V hs
f¤L¤−lz H M¡m¢V ®L¡e−e¡ ec£l p¡−b k¤š² eu h−m a¡−a ®L¡e ®pË¡a ¢R−m¡ e¡z a¡C h¤¢sN‰¡ ec£l ®pË¡a Bj¡−L
BLoÑZ Ll−a¡z ¢L¿º pclO¡−V k¡Ju¡l ®p±i¡NÉ M¤h LjC OV−a¡z ®k¢ce ®R¡V j¡j¡ cu¡ L−l ¢e−u ®k−ae −p¢ce
Bj¡l pjhup£ j¡j¡−a¡ i¡Cpq ®ka¡jz Bj¡l M¤h CµR¡ q−a¡ ec£−a ®N¡pm Ll¡lz ¢L¿º Hl Ae¤¢ja ¢R−m¡ e¡z
h¤¢sN‰¡l a£−l hy¡d¡−e¡ l¡Ù¹¡¢V M¤hC f¢lú¡l-f¢lµRæ ¢R−m¡z l¡Ù¹¡¢V h¡LmÉ¡™ ®l¡X e¡−j ¢hMÉ¡a ¢R−m¡z f¢ÕQ−j
m¡mh¡N ®b−L f§−hÑ p§œ¡f¤l h¡S¡l fkÑ¿¹ H l¡Ù¹¡u ®R−m−cl ®c±s¡−a ®c−M¢Rz j¡−T j¡−T ¢is q−a¡ ¢L¿º ®h¢nli¡N
pjuC ïjZL¡l£−cl pwMÉ¡ M¤h ®hn£ q−a¡ e¡z huú ïjZL¡l£−cl j−dÉ ¢q¾c¤l pwMÉ¡C ®hn£ ¢R−m¡z l¡Ù¹¡l ¢Le¡−l
®c¡L¡ef¡V M¤hC Lj ¢R−m¡z
h¡LmÉ¡™ ®l¡−Xl e£−Q f¡¢e J ®l¡−Xl j¡TM¡−e BSL¡m −k iu¡eL AhSÑe¡ J hý dl−el ¢S¢ep ®hQ¡−Le¡ q−a
®cM¡ k¡u, ®pL¡−m H ph ¢LR¤C ¢R−m¡ e¡z ¢LR¤ ¢LR¤ ®e±L¡ hy¡d¡ b¡L−a¡z a¡−a ®m¡−Ll¡ Hf¡l-Jf¡l k¡a¡u¡a
Ll−a¡z
pclO¡V ph−Q−u QjvL¡l j−e q−a¡ hoÑ¡L¡−mz g¤Vg¤−V f¢l×L¡l f¡¢e ®l¡−Xl L¡R¡L¡¢R fkÑ¿¹ H−p ®k−a¡z aMe −pË¡a
®hn fÐhm b¡L−a¡z ec£V¡ aMe ®hn fÐnÙ¹ j−e q−a¡z hoÑ¡L¡−ml pclO¡−Vl H BLoÑ−Zl Lb¡ HM−e¡ Øfø j−e f−sz
Bjl¡ Y¡L¡u p¡d¡lZa hoÑ¡L¡−mC ®hs¡−a Bpa¡jz I pjuC BÇj¡l SeÉ ®e±L¡u °ilh Bp¡ pqS ¢R−m¡z
H−Lh¡−l −e±L¡ h¡¢sl EW¡−el L¡−R ®fy±R−a f¡l−a¡z Ol ®b−L ®h¢l−u EW¡e f¡l q−uC ®e±L¡u EW¡ ®k−a¡z
n£aL¡−m H p¤¢hd¡ b¡L−a¡ e¡z aMe f¡¢ó−a Q−s fСu 2 ¢L−m¡¢jV¡l c§−l ®jOe¡ ec£−a ¢N−u ®e±L¡u EW−a q−a¡z

QLh¡S¡l

Bj¡l ¢eLV Y¡L¡l ¢àa£u cnÑe£u ÙÛ¡e ¢R−m¡ QLh¡S¡lz S¡j¡-S¤a¡-V¤f£ CaÉ¡¢c Y¡L¡ Bp−m ®Le¡ q−a¡z mrÈ£h¡S¡l
®b−L ®qy−V f¡V¤u¡V¤¢m, Cpm¡jf¤l, ®j¡NmV¤m£ f¡l q−u QLh¡S¡l ¢N−u −Le¡L¡V¡ Ll−a q−a¡z L¡lZ ®j±mi£h¡S¡l J
QLh¡S¡−lC j¤pmj¡e−cl ®c¡L¡e ph−Q−u ®h¢n ¢R−m¡z Hhw j¤pmj¡el¡ HV¡−LC a¡−cl h¡S¡l h−m j−e Ll−a¡z
mrÈ£h¡S¡l ®b−L QLh¡S¡−ll j¡TM¡−e j¤pmj¡e−cl ®c¡L¡e M¤hC eNZÉ pwMÉ¡u ¢R−m¡z
NË¡−jl h¡S¡l J QLh¡S¡−ll a¤me¡ L−l B¢j NË¡−j b¡L¡L¡−m h¡S¡−l k¡Ju¡ fR¾cC Lla¡j e¡z QLh¡S¡−ll p¡S¡−e¡
®c¡L¡e…−m¡ Bj¡l L¡−R H−a¡ i¡−m¡ m¡N−a¡ ®k, ®Le¡l ®Q−u ®cM¡l SeÉ B¢j h¡S¡−ll H j¡b¡ ®b−L J j¡b¡ fkÑ¿¹
®O¡l¡−gl¡ Ll−a Q¡Ca¡jz ¢L¿º j¤l¦î£l ¢eu¿»−Z b¡L¡u a¡ pñh q−a¡ e¡z k¡l p−‰C h¡S¡−l ®ka¡j a¡ L¡R ®b−L
h¡S¡−l Bj¡l Af¢l¢Qa −k ¢S¢ep ®cM−a ®fa¡j ®p…−m¡l e¡j S¡e−a Q¡Ca¡jz NË¡−j ¢N−u pqf¡W£−cl ¢eLV Ha¡
ph ¢S¢e−pl e¡j h−m a¡−cl−L Ah¡L L−l ¢ca¡jz pclO¡V J QLh¡S¡−ll hZÑe¡ pjhup£−cl L¡−R a¤−m dl¡l pju
a¡l¡ M¤h j−e¡−k¡N ¢c−u öe−a¡, Bl B¢jJ Y¡L¡ nq−l Bj¡l e¡e£l h¡¢s- H Ae¤i§¢a−a ®N±lh ®h¡d Lla¡jz
a¡−cl BQlZ ®b−L h¤T−a f¡la¡j a¡l¡ H jkÑ¡c¡l ü£Lª¢a ®cuz
2.

Bj¡l fСb¢jL ¢nr¡

B¢j Bj¡l c¡c¡l fÐbj e¡¢az c¡c¡l Q¡l ®R−ml j−dÉ Bj¡l Bî¡C ph¡l hsz c¡c¡ Ahpl S£hek¡fe Ll¢R−mez
a¡C a¡lC L¡−R j¤−M j¤−M A−eL ¢LR¤ ¢n¢Mz p¡d¡lZa h¡¢sl fÐbj p¿¹¡−el ®mM¡fs¡ öl¦ Ll−a HLV¤ ®c¢l qu h−m
®cM¡ k¡uz h¡¢s−a Bl ®LE ®mM¡fs¡ Ll−R c−M−m ®R¡Vl¡J a¡ ®c−M ®mM¡fs¡ öl¦ L−l ®cuz Bj¡l ®R¡V i¡C
®N¡m¡j j¤u¡kÚk¡j hu−p Bj¡l 2 hR−ll ®R¡V q−mJ ®mM¡fs¡u j¡œ HL LÓ¡p e£−Q ¢R−m¡z ®p Bj¡l fs¡ ®c−M ®c−M
ú¤−m k¡Ju¡l B−NC Bj¡l p¡−b p¡−b fs¡ öl¦ L−l ®cuz
Ru hvpl hup q−m HL¢c−L L¤lBe fs¡l SeÉ gS−ll fl jp¢S−c ®ka¡jz NË¡−jl ®R−m−j−ul¡ ph¡C jp¢S−c
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11

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12

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13

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Ae¤j¢a Q¡Ju¡lJ p¡qp ®fm¡j e¡z
q−m ¢N−u fÐnÀfœ ®f−u M¤¢n m¡N−m¡z ph fÐ−nÀl SJu¡h ®cJu¡l j−a¡ fÐÙ¹¤¢a b¡L¡u Evp¡−ql p−‰ ®mM¡ öl¦ Llm¡jz
®mM¡la b¡L¡ AÙÛ¡u c¤’h¡l q¡a ®b−L Lme Lmj M−p fs−m¡ Hhw ®V¢h−m j¡b¡ ®l−M O¤¢j−u fsm¡j ®Vl ®fm¡j e¡z
Bj¡l CµR¡l ¢hl¦−ÜC H lLj q−m¡z Ce¢i¢S−mVl c¤’h¡lC O¤j i¡¢‰−u q¡−a Lmj a¤−m ¢c−mez H L¡l−Z ph fÐ−nÀl
SJu¡h ®cJu¡l pju ®fm¡j e¡z kMe M¡a¡ ¢e−u ®N−m¡ aMe jeV¡ M¤hC M¡l¡f q−u ®N−m¡z k¡l g−m c¤V¡l pju ®k
¢àa£u f−œl fl£r¡ a¡−aJ O¤−jl p−‰ k¤Ü Ll−a q−u−Rz j¡TM¡−e O¤jh¡l ®L¡e Ef¡u ¢R−m¡ e¡z Hi¡−h c¤−V¡ f−œl
ph fÐ−nÀl Sh¡h ®mM¡ pñh qu¢ez Q¡ M¡Ju¡l Hje fТa¢œ²u¡ q−h Hje LÒfe¡J L¢l¢ez flhaÑ£ ph ®ff¡−ll fl£r¡
i¡−m¡ ¢c−u¢Rz fÐbj ¢c−el fl£r¡l ®k ph fÐ−nÀl Ešl ¢c−a f¡¢l¢e a¡ ®qX j¡ØV¡l p¡−q−hl L¡−R ®N¡feC ®l−M¢Rz
m‹¡u J c¤x−M p¡b£−cl−LJ h¢m¢ez j−e H iu pª¢ø q−m¡ hª¢š ®a¡ f¡−h¡C e¡ g¡ØVÑ ¢X¢ine f¡Ju¡ k¡−h ¢Le¡ ®p
iuJ ¢R−m¡z ®no fkÑ¿¹ Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡ g¡ØVÑ ¢X¢in−e Eš£ZÑ qJu¡l p¤−k¡N ¢c−u EkÚka lr¡ Ll−mez

L¤¢jõ¡u ¢nr¡ S£he

L¤¢jõ¡l eJu¡h ýpÚp¡j q¡uc¡l ®Q±d¤l£ fТa¢ùa ýpÚp¡¢ju¡ q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡u LÓ¡p ®p−i−e i¢aÑ qm¡j 1938 p¡−ml
S¡e¤u¡¢l−az q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡l fÐd¡e Se¡h BMa¡l¦‹¡j¡e ¢eE ú£j ¢p−ØV−jC Blh£−a ¢X¢NË ®eez ¢a¢e M¤hC h¢mù
hÉ¢š²−aÅl A¢dL¡l£ ¢R−mez ¢nrL ¢q−p−h ¢a¢e M¤hC Se¢fÐu ¢R−mez
o¡−Vl cn−Ll fÐbj ¢c−L S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£l ®p−œ²V¡¢l ¢q−p−h L¤¢jõ¡ nq−l S¡j¡u¡a LjÑ£−cl ¢nr¡ ¢n¢h−l
Ef¢ÙÛa q−u j−’ h−p ¢nr¡bÑ£l ¢c−L a¡¢L−u Bj¡l nÐ−àu p¤f¡¢l−¾V−ä¾V BMa¡l¦‹¡j¡e p¡−qh−L ®c−M c¡y¢s−u
®Nm¡jz a¡−L hmm¡j “pÉ¡l, Bf¢e e£−Q hp¡ B−Re Bl B¢j Ef−l, HV¡ j¡e¡u e¡z” ¢a¢e Sh¡−h hm−me
“HLL¡−m B¢j ¢nrL ¢Rm¡j Hhw Bf¢e R¡œ, HMe Cpm¡j£ B−¾c¡m−e B¢j R¡œ Hhw Bf¢e ¢nrLz” H Lb¡l
fl B¢j hmm¡j, “pÉ¡l Bf¢e Bj¡−L a¤¢j L−lC hm−hez” ¢L¿º H Lb¡ ¢a¢e ®j−e ¢e−me e¡z B−l¡ HLh¡l
p¡wNW¢eL pg−l L¤¢jõ¡u ®N−m nq−ll c¢rZ QbÑ¡u a¡l ¢e−Sl h¡¢s−a Bj¡−L ®jqj¡e ¢q−p−h l¡M−mez ®jqj¡e
¢q−p−h ®k BQlZ Ll¡ pò¡¿¹ f¢lh¡l l£¢a a¡l ®L¡e hÉ¢aœ²j qu¢ez Cpm¡j£ B−¾c¡m−e a¡l ¢eù¡ Bj¡−L Ha j¤‡
Ll−m¡ ®k a¡l C¢¿¹L¡−ml fl B¢j M¤hC hÉb¡ ®fm¡jz B¢j a¡−L HmeJ öÜ¡l p¡−b pÈlZ L¢lz

L¤¢jõ¡ q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡l ¢nrNZ

I q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡l ¢nrLNZ M¤h i¡−m¡ fs¡−ae, HMeJ a¡ j−e f−sz LÓ¡p ®p−i−e Bjl¡ 58 Se i¢aÑ qm¡jz Hl
j−dÉ XSeM¡−eL g¡øÑ ¢X¢in−e f¡p R¡œ ¢R−m¡z L¤¢jõ¡u m¢Sw b¡La¡j HL h¡¢s−a, k¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡ ®b−L ®cs j¡Cm
c§−l ¢R−m¡z j¡cÚl¡p¡¢V L¤¢jõ¡ nq−ll c¢rZ fС−¿¹l L¡−R Bj¡l m¢Sw ¢R−m¡ Eš−ll fС−¿¹z L¤¢jõ¡l fÐd¡e l¡Ù¹¡ ¢c−u
®qy−VC Bp¡-k¡Ju¡ Ll−a q−a¡z

18

S¤¢eul g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡l pju ®k ®q¡−V−m ¢Rm¡j a¡l p¡j−e ¢c−u k¡h¡l pju I c¤OÑVe¡l Lb¡ j¡−T j¡−TC j−e
q−a¡z Bj¡l m¢Sw j¡ØV¡l ®g±Sc¡l£ Bc¡m−a Q¡L¢l Ll−aez a¡l ®k ®R−m¢V−L B¢j fs¡a¡j ®p a¡l HLj¡œ
®R−mz ®p LÓ¡p Ju¡−e fs−a¡z ®R−m¢Vl c¡c£ ü¡i¡¢hLi¡−hC a¡l e¡¢a−L M¤h Bcl Ll−aez ¢a¢e Bj¡−LJ e¡¢al
ja ®pÀq L−l a¡−c c¡c£ X¡L¡l SeÉ ¢e−cÑn ¢c−mez NË¡−j c¡c£−L ®R−s ¢N−u nq−l g¡J ¢q−p−h HL c¡c£ ®f−u M¤¢n
qm¡jz M¡Ju¡l pju a¡l e¡¢a J Bj¡−L HLp¡−b ®M−a ¢c−ae Hhw Bcl L−lC M¡Ju¡−aez −p SeÉ Bj¡l ¢e−Sl
h¡¢sl jaC j−e q−a¡z M¡h¡l hÉ¡f¡−l Bj¡l R¡œ¢Vl Aá¤a BQlZ ¢R−m¡z ®k ¢S¢epV¡ f¡L qu¢e ®pV¡ M¡h¡l c¡¢h
L−l hp−a¡z ®p SeÉ L£ f¡L q−u−R ®pV¡ k¡−a e¡ S¡−e ®p ®Qø¡ Ll−a q−a¡z ®M−a h−pC hm−a¡ ‘I ¢S¢ep¢V’
M¡hz e¡ b¡L−m pjpÉ¡ q−a¡z a¡−L p¡j¢m−u ®M−a l¡S£ Ll¡−a q−a¡z LÓ¡p ®p−i−e H m¢Sw h¡¢s−aC b¡Lm¡jz
5.

L¤¢jõ¡u m¢Sw f¢lhaÑe

h¡¢oÑL fl£r¡u LÓ¡−p g¡ØVÑ q−u HC−V fÐ−j¡ne ®fm¡jz B−l¡ k¡l¡ B−n-f¡−n L−uL¢V jqõ¡u m¢Sw b¡L−a¡ a¡−cl
j¡dÉ−j i¡m R¡œ ¢q−p−h ®S−e HL ¢lV¡u¡XÑ ®f¡ø j¡ØV¡l a¡l aªa£u ®nÐZ£−a fs¤u¡ ®R−m−L fs¡h¡l SeÉ Bj¡−L M¤h
NlS L−lC a¡l h¡¢s−a Bj¡l SeÉ HL¢V fªbL Ol E¢W−u ¢c−mez LÓ¡p HC−Vl ®N¡V¡ hR−lC H h¡¢s−a m¢Sw
b¡Lm¡jz h¡¢s¢V L¤¢jõ¡ ®p¾VÌ¡m ®S−ml Ešl p£j¡e¡l ®cu¡−ml f¡−nC Ah¢ÙÛa ¢R−m¡z Bj¡l Ol¢V l¡Ù¹¡l f¡−n
¢R−m¡z
H l¡Ù¹¡ ¢c−uC L¤¢jõ¡l Cw−lS ¢X¢ØṼ jÉ¡¢S−ØVÌV a¡l A¢g−p ®k−aez ¢X¢ØṼ jÉ¡¢S−ØVÌV-Hl h¡w−m¡ ®SmM¡e¡l 200
NS Eš−l Hhw a¡l A¢gp ®Sm¡M¡e¡l 150 NS c¢r−Zz Bp−a ®k−a B¢j a¡−L ®cMa¡jz j¡−T j¡−T pL¡−m −jj
p¡−qh−L ¢e−u ¢a¢e ®qy−V ¢eLVhaÑ£ MÊ£ØV¡e ®N¡lÙ¹¡−e ®k−aez H−a¡ L¡−R ®b−L ®cM¡ p−šÆJ ®L¡e¢ce ¢LR¤ hm¡l
p¡qp f¡C¢ez Bj¡l CµR¡ q−a¡ k¢c Bj¡−L ®X−L Lb¡ hm−a¡ a¡q−m B¢jJ a¡l p¡−b Lb¡ hma¡jz ®pL¡−ml
C¢äu¡e ¢p¢im p¡¢iÑp (BC. ¢p. Hp) A¢gp¡l−cl ®k fÐ−c−n Q¡L¢l Ll−a¡ ®p fÐ−c−nl SeN−Zl i¡o¡ H f¢lj¡Z
¢nM−a q−a¡ k¡−a ®LE Lb¡ hm−a Q¡C−m a¡ h¤T−a prj quz h¡Ù¹h A¢i‘a¡ ®b−L H ¢houV¡ B¢j S¡e−a
®f−l¢Rm¡jz Bl Bî¡ L¤¢jõ¡ ®b−L 12 j¡Cm f¢ÕQ−j Q¡¢¾ce¡ b¡e¡ ®L−¾cÐ jÉ¡−lS ®l¢SØVÌ¡l ¢R−mez HL¢ce HL
Cw−lS ®O¡s¡u Q−s A¢gp C¾p−fLne Ll−a ®N−mez ¢a¢e Bj¡l Bî¡l A¢g−p hp−mez B¢j h¡¢sl ¢ial ®b−L
Q¡-e¡Ù¹¡ ¢e−u −Nm¡jz B¢j mrÉ Llm¡j ¢a¢e Bî¡l p¡−b h¡wm¡u Lb¡u hm−me ¢L¿º a¡l EµQ¡lZ h¤T−a Bj¡l Lø
q¢µRmz ¢hh¡q ®l¢S¢ØVÌl M¡a¡…−m¡ E¢ÒV−u E¢ÒV−u S¡uN¡u S¡uN¡u h¡wm¡ ®mM¡ fs−mez Bî¡l L¡R ®b−L S¡em¡j
HlLj ¢LR¤ h¡wm¡ ¢X¢ØṼ jÉ¡¢S−ØVÌV S¡−eez ¢a¢e ¢X¢ØṼ ®l¢SØVÌ¡l ¢q−p−h ¢Sm¡ p¡h ®l¢SØVÌ£ A¢gp J jÉ¡−lS
®l¢SØVÌ£ A¢gp C¾p−fLne Ll¡l c¡¢u−aÅ ¢R−mez

L¤¢jõ¡u j¡cÚl¡p¡u f¡WÉp§¢Ql h¡C−ll avfla¡

j¡cÚl¡p¡u fТa hªqØf¢ah¡l HLSe ¢nr−Ll f¢lQ¡me¡u p¡ç¡¢qL fТa−k¡¢Na¡j§mL Ae¤ù¡e q−a¡z Hl j−dÉ ¢haLÑ
(Debate), ¢e¢cÑø ¢ho−u hš²ªa¡ (Set speech), Ef¢ÙÛa hš²ªa¡ (extempore speech) Ae¤¢ùa q−a¡z H ¢ho−u
Bj¡l M¤hC Evp¡q ¢R−m¡ ¢L¿º e¡Ce-®V−el R¡œ−cl Hje fСd¡eÉ ¢R−m¡ ®k Bjl¡ ®p−i−el ®R−ml¡ f¡š¡C ®fa¡j e¡z
hš²ªa¡ QQÑ¡ Ll¡l SeÉ B¢j Bj¡l LÓ¡−pl R¡œ−cl ¢eLV pç¡−q HL¢cl LÓ¡−pl ®n−o I S¡a£u ®fСNË¡j Ll¡l SeÉ
fÐÙ¹¡h Llm¡jz A−e−LC pjbÑe Ll−m¡z HV¡ A−NÑe¡CS Ll¡l c¡¢uaÅ Bj¡l EflC eÉÙ¹ Ll−m¡z Bjl¡ a¡−clC
Ae¤LlZ p¡ç¡¢qL °hWL…−m¡l ¢l−f¡VÑ l¡M¡, H−LL dl−el ®fСNË¡j Ll¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡jz Caxf§−hÑ hš²ªa¡ Ll¡l ®L¡e
A¢i‘a¡C ¢R−m¡ e¡z j¡cÚl¡p¡u L−uL¢V p¡ç¡¢qL ®fСNË¡j AwnNËqZ L−l p¡qp q−m¡ ®k hš²ªa¡ Ll¡ pñhz Bj¡−cl
LÓ¡−p Hl fÐÉ¡L¢Vp Ll¡ öl¦ q−u ®N−m¡z HL hRl fl LÓ¡p HC−V ¢N−u Bj¡−cl LÓ¡−pl ®R−ml¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡l ®fСNË¡−j
Awn ®eJu¡l p¤−k¡N ®fmz S¤¢eul j¡cÚl¡p¡u fs¡l pju h¡¢oÑL HL¢V Ae¤ù¡e q−a¡ ®kM¡−e L¢ha¡ Bhª¢š Hhw
®R¡VM¡V e¡V−L A¢ieu Ll¡l p¤−k¡NJ ®f−u¢Rz ¢L¿º hš²ªa¡ fÐÉ¡L¢V−pl p¤−k¡N ¢R−m¡ e¡z

19

L¤¢jõ¡u l¡Se£¢al q¡−aM¢s

1939 p¡−m kMe LÓ¡p HC−V f¢s aMe phÑfÐbj j¤p¢mj m£−Nl HL ¢j¢R−m nl£L qCz ®n−l h¡wm¡ gkm¤m qL aMe
fС−c¢nL fÐd¡ej¿»£z Lw−NËp J ¢q¾c¤ jq¡pi¡l ®eaª−aÅ gkm¤m qL j¿»£pi¡l ¢hl¦−Ü Ae¡ÙÛ¡ fÐÙ¹¡h ®fn Ll¡ quz
j¤p¢mj m£N aMeJ M¤h p¤pwN¢Wa ¢R−m¡ e¡, ¢L¿º p¡l¡−c−nC ¢h−r¡I fÐcnÑe Ll¡ quz ®pC pjÙ¹ ¢j¢R−m m¡¢g−u
m¡¢g−u ®nÔ¡N¡e ®cJu¡l jS¡ fÐbj Ae¤ih Llm¡jz ®nÔ¡N¡e ¢c−a Nm¡ ®i−‰ ®N−m¡z ah¤J H l¡S¯e¢aL ®fСNË¡jV¡ ®hn
i¡−m¡C m¡N−m¡z j¡−T j¡−T V¡Ee qm juc¡−e Sepi¡ q−a¡z B¢j fТa¢V Sepi¡u Ef¢ÙÛa q−u hš²ªa¡ öea¡jz Bl
j−e j−e i¡ha¡j B¢j k¢c H lLj hš²ªa¡ Ll−a f¡la¡j a−h i¡−m¡ m¡N−a¡z
I pju L¤¢jõ¡ j¤p¢mj m£−Nl ®fТp−X¾V ¢R−me HÉ¡X−i¡−LV S¢ql¦m qL m£m ¢ju¡z ¢k¢e 1954 p¡−m ®n−l h¡wm¡l
j¿»£pi¡u j¿»£ ¢R−mez Bj¡l m¢Sw −b−L j¡cÚl¡p¡u k¡Ju¡l f−b Bc¡ma f¡s¡u h¡p¡ ¢Rmz ¢a¢e Bj¡−cl eh£eNl
b¡e¡lC ®m¡Lz ¢a¢e Bî¡−L hs i¡C p¡−qh h−m X¡L−aez ®p p¤h¡−c B¢j a¡−L Q¡Q¡ X¡La¡j J j¡−T j¡−T a¡l
h¡p¡u ®ka¡jz ¢a¢eJ Bj¡−L M¤h ®pÀq Ll−aez

fÉ¡−mØV¡Ce Cp¤É

I pju j¤pmj¡e−cl HLV¡ Cp¤É ¢R−m¡ fÉ¡−mØV¡Ce Cp¤Éz I hRlC (1939) fum¡ ®p−ÃVðl ¢àa£u jq¡k¤Ü öl¦ q−u
®N−m¡ Hhw fÉ¡−mØV¡Ce Cýc£−cl SeÉ Bh¡pi§¢j L¡−u−jl c¡¢h B−j¢lL¡ ®b−LC öl¦ q−m¡z aMe j¤pmj¡e−cl
HLj¡œ °c¢eL f¢œL¡ ¢R−m¡ j¡Jm¡e¡ BLl¡j My¡l fТa¢ùa ‘BS¡c’z LmL¡a¡ ®b−L X¡−L ¢eu¢ja Bî¡l L¡−R a¡
Bp−a¡z aMe ®b−L f¢œL¡ fs¡l AiÉ¡p N−s E−Wz H f¢œL¡l j¡dÉ−j fÐbj fÉ¡−mØV¡Ce pÇf−LÑ S¡e−a f¡¢lz
L¤¢jõ¡ V¡Ee qm juc¡−e fÉ¡−mØV¡Ce pÇf−LÑ HL Sepi¡ quz I pi¡l L−uL¢V hš²ªa¡ ®b−L fÉ¡−mØV¡Ce pjpÉ¡V¡
®j¡V¡j¤¢V h¤Th¡l p¤−k¡N f¡Cz ®L¡e hš²¡l HL¢V Lb¡ Bj¡l j−e ®Ny−b k¡uz ¢a¢e h−m¢R−me ®k, B−j¢lL¡l k¢c
Cýc£ S¡¢al SeÉ HaC clc b¡−L a¡q−m ¢hl¡V ®c−nl HL Aw−n Cý£−cl SeÉ HL¢V Bh¡pi§¢jl hÉhÙÛ¡ Ll−a
f¡−lz L¡e¡X¡ J A−ØVÌ¢mu¡−aJ ¢hl¡V Ae¡h¡c£ Hm¡L¡ f−s B−Rz ®cs q¡S¡l hRl ®k Blhl¡ hph¡p Ll−R ®pM¡e
®b−L j¤pmj¡e−cl−L EvM¡a L−l Cýc£−cl−L Bh¡pi§¢j ¢c−a q−h ®Le? Lb¡V¡ M¤hC k¤¢š²f§ZÑ j−e q−m¡ Bj¡l
¢eLVz
¢àa£u jq¡k¤−Ül fl B−j¢lL¡ Hhw k¤−Ü a¡−cl ¢jœn¢š² ®S¡l L−lC 48 p¡−m fÉ¡−mØV¡C−e Cpl¡Dm l−øÌl
®N¡s¡fše L−lz H l¡øÌ L¡−u−jl S−eÉC 1939 p¡m ®b−L H c¡¢h S¡e¡−e¡ öl¦ quz a¡C aMe ®b−LC j¤pmj¡el¡
Hl ¢hl¦−Ü fТah¡c Ll−a b¡−Lz fª¢bh£−a Cýc£l¡C ph−Q−u de£ S¡¢az ¢àa£u jq¡k¤−Ü HC S¡¢a ¢jœn¢š²−L ¢hl¡V
B¢bÑL pq−k¡¢Na¡ L−l−Rz a¡−cl NZj¡dÉj ¢jœn¢š²l f−r ®k h¢mù i§¢jL¡ f¡me L−l−R Hl fТac¡e ¢q−p−hC
Cýc£ l¡øÌ Cpl¡Cm S¾jm¡i L−lz

Bj¡l S£h−e Sepi¡u fÐbj hš²ªa¡

39 p¡−ml ¢X−pðl j¡−p V¡Ee qm juc¡−e j¤p¢mj m£N fÉ¡−mØV¡Ce Cp¤É−a ®k Sepi¡ L−l a¡−a I m£m ¢ju¡
Q¡Q¡−L pi¡f¢aaÅ Ll−a ®c−M B¢j p¡qp L−l a¡l L¡−R ®Nm¡jz ¢g¢mÙ¹£e pÇf−LÑ f§hhÑ aÑ£ Sepi¡l Hh hš²¡l ®k
f−u¾V¢V Bj¡l j−e c¡N −L−V¢Rm ®k f−u¾V¢V H pi¡u ®L¡e hš²¡l hš²ªa¡u e¡ hm¡u B¢j a¡ hm¡l SeÉ p¡qp
Llm¡jz Q¡Q¡l L¡−e L¡−e hmm¡j ‘B¢jJ ¢LR¤ hm−a Q¡C’z Q¡Q¡ Sepi¡u ®O¡oZ¡ Ll−me “HMe Bfe¡−cl p¡j−e
®N¡m¡j Bkj e¡−j HL¢V h¡mL hš²ªa¡ Ll−hz” Sepi¡u HV¡C Bj¡l fÐbj hš²ªa¡z B¢j ¢hl¡V Evp¡q ¢e−u hš²ªa¡
Ll¡l S−eÉ j−’ cy¡s¡m¡jz j−’ cy¡s¡h¡l fl l£¢aja O¡h−s ®Nm¡jz f¡ c¤’−V¡ Ly¡f−R, j¤M ¢c−u Lb¡ ®hl¦−µR e¡,
pi¡f¢al ®V¢h−m M¤h ®S¡l ¢c−u q¡−a ®Q−f d−l p¡j¢m−u ¢em¡jz j¡œ ®cs ¢j¢e−V Q£vL¡l L−l Bj¡l Lb¡V¤L¤ h−m
df L−l h−p fsm¡jz ®nСa¡l¡ M¤h q¡aa¡¢m ¢c−m¡ Hhw pi¡ pj¡ç qJu¡l fl ®hn ¢LR¤ pwMÉL ®m¡L L¡−R H−p
Bj¡l f¢lQu S¡e−a Q¡C−m¡z HLSe j¿¹hÉ Ll−m¡ j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤p p¤hq¡−el e¡¢aC h−V!
Hlfl ®hn ¢LR¤ ¢ce fkÑ¿¹ ®L¡b¡J hš²ªa¡ Ll¡l SeÉ p¡qp f¡C¢ez NË¡−jl DcN¡q juc¡−e Bî¡ hš²ªa¡ Ll−aez
®pM¡−e ¢LR¤ hm¡l p¤−k¡N ¢R−m¡ e¡z ®m¡LS−el hš²ªa¡ öe−m j−e q−a¡ ®k L¡S¢V pqSz ¢L¿º hš²ªa¡ Ll−a cy¡s¡−m
®Le Hje q−a¡ a¡ lqpÉSeLz

20

Bj¡−cl NË¡j

NË¡−jl e¡j h£lNy¡Jz CE¢eueJ h£lNy¡Jz h£lNy¡J e¡j L−h Lme l¡M¡ q−u−R ®p C¢aq¡p S¡e¡ ®eCz h¡wm¡−c−n Na
f’¡n hR−l hÉ¡fL pg−ll p¤−k¡N hý S¡uN¡u ¢h¢Qœ J BSh e¡j ö−e¢Rz ¢eÕQuC ph e¡−jl C¢aq¡p B−Rz ®kje
N¡Ch¡å¡, q¡a£h¡å¡, ®is¡j¡l¡, ¢nu¡mL¡¢W, ¢Qmj¡l£, ®h¡u¡mj¡l£, ®l±j¡l£, ®O¡s¡O¡V, ®O¡s¡j¡l¡, h¡Oj¡l¡, faÁ£am¡,
jNh¡S¡l, q¡a£¢Tm CaÉ¡¢cz A−eL q¡pÉLl e¡−jl S¡uN¡J ¢N−u¢Rz AhnÉ I ph e¡j Bl j−e ®eCz A−eL p¤¾cl
p¤¾cl e¡jJ AhnÉ B−Rz ®kje eh£Nl, lp¤mf¤l, q¡S£N”, ®eLhMa, Jm¡j¡N”, nl£uaf¤l CaÉ¡¢cz

Bj¡−cl NË¡−j My¡ hwnV¡C hsz a¡−cl j−dÉ k¡−cl−L B¢j c¡c¡ X¡La¡j a¡−cl fСu ph¡C c£OÑ J h¢mù ®c−ql
A¢dL¡l£ ¢R−mez Bj¡l c¡c¡, Bî¡ J Q¡Q¡−cl °c¢qL NseJ H−c−nl SeN−Zl a¤me¡u ®hn c£OÑC hm¡ k¡uz H−a
Bj¡l d¡lZ¡ ®k a¡−cl f§hÑ f¤l¦o kMe HM¡−e hph¡p öl¦ L−le aMe a¡l¡ h£l f¤l¦oC ¢R−mez Y¡L¡ ®b−L Bj¡−cl
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22

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24

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Bj¡l Bî¡, c¡c¡ J hs Bî¡l ®k ph …Z¡h¢m Bj¡−L ®fÐlZ¡ ¢c−u−R ®p ph−L pÈlZ L¢l h−mC hw−nl …l¦aÅ
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25

Bj¡−cl hw−nl °c¢qL Nse
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M¡s¡ e¡L, hs, ®Q¡M, f¡am¡ ®Wy¡V Hhw fÐnÙ¹ Lf¡m H ph q−m¡ BkÑ−cl ®Qq¡l¡z Bl ®j¡V¡ −Wy¡V J e¡L, ®R¡V ®Q¡M,
H ph q−m¡ â¡¢hs−cl mrZz H ph fs¡−a ¢N−u fÐgpl ®pe Bj¡l pð−å j¿¹hÉ L−l¢R−me ®k, ®a¡j¡l j−dÉ 75%
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L−lez ®p j¡cÚl¡p¡¢VC ¢eEú£−j Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−mS f¢lZa quz c¡c¡l ¢fa¡l L¡−R j¡e¤o à£−el ®k
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B¢j hs e¡¢a ¢q−p−h c¡c¡ J c¡c£l p¡−b ph−Q−u O¢eø ¢Rm¡jz Bî¡ pç¡−q HL¢ce j¡œ h¡¢s−a b¡L−aez 6 ¢ceC
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c¡c¡l L¡−R Bl ®LE e¡ b¡L−m Bj¡−L ®X−L ¢e−ae Hhw j¤−M j¤−M A−eL ¢LR¤ ®nM¡−aez
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p£m−j¡qk¤š² g¡l¡−ukfœ EL£ml¡ pec ¢q−p−h ®L¡−VÑ ®fn Ll−a¡z

26

c¡c¡l p¡−b Ha O¢eùa¡l L¡l−Z HLh¡l ¢hf−c f−s¢Rm¡jz BÇj¡−L ¢e−u c¡c¡ ¢e−SC HLh¡l Y¡L¡u ®hs¡−a
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c¡c¡l jªa¤É

c¡c¡l C¢¿¹L¡−ml f§−hÑ Bl ®L¡e ®m¡L−L jªa¤ÉL¡m£e AhÙÛ¡u ®cM¡l p¤−k¡N Bj¡l qu¢ez Bj¡l HL Q¡Q¡l Lb¡
p¡j¡eÉ j−e f−s ¢k¢e krÁ¡ ®l¡−N j¡l¡ k¡ez l¦NÀ AhÙÛ¡u a¡−L B¢j nkÉ¡Na ®c−M¢R j−e f−sz a¡l j¤aÉL¡−m B¢j
®pM¡−e Ef¢ÙÛa ¢Rm¡j e¡z
fÐp‰œ²−j I Q¡Q¡ pð−å HLV¤ Lb¡ hm−a quz ¢a¢e Y¡L¡ L−m−S R¡œ b¡L¡L¡−m kr¡ ®l¡−N Bœ²¡¿¹ qez ¢a¢e
c£OÑ−cq£ h¢mù ü¡−ÙÛÉl A¢dL¡l£ ¢R−mez ®pL¡−m kr¡l ®L¡e ¢Q¢Lvp¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡z HLb¡C fÐQ¢ma ¢R−m¡ −k, ‘k¡l qu
kr¡ a¡l e¡C lr¡’z ®pL¡−m ®kV¤L¤ ¢Q¢Lvp¡ ¢R−m¡ a¡ Ll¡ q−u−Rz ¢L¿º ¢a¢e ¢e¢Õqa ¢R−me ®k, a¡l jªa¤É A¢eh¡kÑz
Bj¡l Bî¡ J hs Q¡Q¡l f−l HLj¡œ g¤g¤z I g¤g¤l L¡−RC H Q¡Q¡l Lb¡ ö−e¢Rz Bj¡l g¤g¤l f−lC H Q¡Q¡l S¾j
quz g¤g¤ a¡l H i¡C¢V−L Ha −pÀq Ll−ae ®k, Y¡L¡ L−m−Sl HLcm R¡−œl p−‰ I Q¡Q¡l g−V¡¢V−L hy¡d¡C L−l
¢p¾c¤−L ®l−M ¢R−mez j¡−T j¡−T ¢pc¤L ®b−L M¤−m Bj¡−cl−L ®cM¡−aez H g¤g¤l L¡−RC ö−e¢R I Q¡Q¡ hm−ae,
“Bj¡l ¢Q¢Lvp¡ L−l ®L¡e m¡i q−h e¡z H S−eÉ ®k Bj¡l c¡c¡ q−‹ k¡Ju¡l pju Bî¡−L h−m ®N−Re ®k ¢a¢e
Q¡l ®R−ml S−eÉ ®c¡u¡ Ll−hez a¡l ®c¡u¡ Bõ¡q Lh¤m L−l−Re h−m Bj¡−cl hwn ®h−s−Rz ¢a¢e ®a¡ ®c¡u¡ L−l−Re
4 ®R−ml SeÉz Bjl¡ ®a¡ HMe 5 i¡Cz Bj¡l hs c¤’i¡C J ®R¡V c¤’i¡Cz HLSe−L ®a¡ jl−aC q−h ®k−qa¤ 4
S−el SeÉ ®c¡u¡ L−l−Rez a¡C kr¡l j−a¡ ®l¡N Bj¡l q−u−Rz”
B¢j c¡c¡l C¢¿¹L¡−ml Lb¡C hm¢Rm¡jz 1936 p¡−ml ¢X−pðl h¡ S¡e¤u¡¢l j¡pz aMe ljk¡e Qm−Rz ¢nr¡ fТaù¡−e
R¤¢Vl L¡l−Z h¡¢s−aC ¢Rm¡jz fs¡öe¡ R¡s¡ ®h¢n pju c¡c¡l L¡−RC b¡La¡jz h¡dÑLÉ R¡s¡ hs ®L¡e Ap¤M ¢R−m¡ e¡z
®hn ¢LR¤¢ce ®b−L elj f¡uM¡e¡ q¢µRm Hhw ¢ce ¢ce c¤hÑm q−u fs¢R−mez ¢a¢e Ae¤ih Ll¢R−me ®k ¢a¢e Bl
®h¢n¢ce hy¡Q−he e¡z a¡C ®k-C ®cM−a Bp−a¡ al L¡−R HLb¡ h−m ®c¡u¡ Q¡C−ae, Bj¡l l©q ¢e−u k¡h¡l SeÉ
Bõ¡q ®k ®g−lna¡ f¡W¡−he ®p ®ke Bp¡¢el p−‰ Bj¡l S¡e ¢e−u k¡u H ®c¡u¡ Q¡Cz”
®k¢ce a¡l C¢¿¹L¡m qu ®p¢ce gk−ll e¡j¡−Sl fl B¢j Bj¡l HL Q¡Q¡ J c¡c£ c¡c¡l ¢hR¡e¡l f¡−nC hp¡ ¢Rm¡jz
ö−u ö−u a¡u¡Çj¤j Ll−me Hhw ö−u ö−uC gk−ll e¡j¡k fs−mez a¡l e¡j¡k ®no qJu¡l p¡−bC c¡c£ I O−l
e¡j¡−u cy¡s¡−mez c¡c¡ qW¡v E¯µQxü−l c¡c£l E−Ÿ−nÉ hm−me, “Bf¢e Bj¡−L ¢hc¡u ¢c−uC e¡j¡k fs−a k¡ez
HmeC ®g−lna¡ Bp−hz” Bjl¡ qah¡L q−u ®Q−u b¡Lm¡j, c¡c£ L¡−R H−p hm−me, “Bfe¡l HLj¡œ ®j−u e¡
®cM−a ®f−m ®Ly−c ®L−V S¡e ¢c−u ®gm−hz HMeC Bf¢e ¢hc¡u ¢e−m ®Lje q−h?” c¡c¡ hm−me, “®c¢l Ll−m ®a¡
Bj¡l Lø quz” aMe c¡c£ e¡j¡k Bj¡l g¤g¤ ¢WL cnV¡uC a¡m nql ®b−L f¡¢ó−a Q−s h¡¢s−a ®f±yR−mez Bjl¡
¢h¢pÈa q−u ®cMm¡j Bc−ll LeÉ¡−L ®cM−a ®f−u ¢a¢e A−eLV¡ p¤ÙÛ ®h¡d Ll−Rez c£OñrZ fkÑ¿¹ ¢fa¡ J LeÉ¡l
j−dÉ Bm¡f-B−m¡Qe¡ Qm−m¡z gk−ll pju ¢a¢e c¡c£ ®b−L ¢hc¡u Q¡C−mez AbQ p¡l¡V¡ ¢ce B−Nl a¤me¡u p¤ÙÛ
h−m j−e q−m¡z I ¢ce j¡N¢l−hl fl g¤g¤ HL L¡f c¤d q¡−a ¢e−u c¡c¡−L ®M−a hm−mez ¢a¢e hm−me, “Bj¡−L

27

d−l hp¡Jz” Na ¢LR¤ ¢ce ®b−L ¢a¢e hp−a Arj ¢R−me h−m hp¡l ¢Le¡ −p ¢ho−u Bjl¡ ¢àd¡u fsm¡jz ¢a¢e
B−l¡ HLV¤ E¯µQxü−l hp¡−a hm−m Bjl¡ a¡−L d−l h¢p−u ¢f−W ®Wp ¢c−u hpm¡jz g¤g¤l q¡−a ¢a¢e c¤dV¤L¤
®M−mez Bjl¡ H AhÙÛ¡ ®c−M BüÙ¹ qm¡j ®k, ¢a¢e B−l¡ ¢LR¤¢ce ®hy−Q b¡L−hez c¤d M¡Ju¡ ®n−o ¢a¢e hm−me,
“Bj¡−L öC−u c¡Jz”
a¡l ¢hR¡e¡ Hje ¢R−m¡ ®k, nkÉ¡Na qJu¡l fl ®b−L f¢ÕQj ¢nu−l ö−aez jªa¤Él L¤−uL¢ce f§−hÑ ¢a¢e Ešl ¢nu−l
®n¡u¡h¡l SeÉ ¢e−cÑn ¢c−mez c¤d f¡e Ll¡h¡l fl a¡−L Bjl¡ öC−u ¢cm¡jz a¡l HL f¡−n c¡c£ J g¤g¤ hp¡ B−lL
f¡−n B¢j J Bj¡l HL Q¡Q¡ hp¡z c¡c¡l p¤ÙÛ AhÙÛ¡ ®c−M M¤¢n q−u Bjl¡ Bm¡f-p¡m¡f Ll¢Rz L−uL ¢j¢eV fl
c¡c¡ hm−me, “Bj¡−L X¡e f¡−n L¡a L−l c¡Jz” Bjl¡ L¡a L−l ¢cm¡jz ¢a¢e X¡e q¡aV¡ N¡−ml L¡−R ¢e−u
l¡M−mez Bj¡−cl−L hm−me, “®a¡jl¡ Lb¡h¡aÑ¡ h−m¡ e¡, Bj¡−L O¤j−¤ a c¡Jz” HC h−m ¢a¢e ®Q¡M hy−¤ S lC−mez
Bjl¡ mrÉ Llm¡j d£−l d£−l ®Wy¡V es−R Hhw X¡e q¡−al h¤−s¡ B‰¤m ¢c−u ¢a¢e …Z−Rez ¢LR¤rZ fl flC HL
¢Nl¡ HL ¢Nl¡ L−l B‰¤m ANËpl q−µRz Ru eðl ¢Nl¡u ®k−u B‰¤mV¡ ®b−j ®N−m¡z Bjl¡ ph¡C h¤Tm¡j c¡c¡ O¤¢j−u
f−s−Rez 15/20 ¢j¢eV fl Bj¡l Q¡Q¡ e¡s£ d−l ¢V−f ®cM−me ®k, e¡s£l ®L¡e Øf¾ce h¤T¡ k¡u e¡z e¡−Ll L¡−R
q¡a ¢e−u ®cM−me ¢enÄ¡p ®hl¦−µR h−mJ j−e qu e¡z c¡c£ p¡j¡eÉ HLV¤ c§−l ¢R−mez Q¡Q¡ ¢QvL¡l L−l h−m EW−me,
“j¡, H−p ®cM¤e, h¡S¡e ¢L O¤j O¤j¡−µRez” h¡¢sl ph¡C Ef¢ÙÛa q−u ¢e¢ÕQa q−m¡ ®k, ¢a¢e C¢¿¹L¡m L−l−Rez
H lLj jªa¤Él Lb¡ B¢j Bl LMeJ ö¢e¢ez c¡c¡l HC jªa¤É ®c−M a¡l fТa Bj¡l i¡−m¡h¡p¡ B−l¡ ®h−s ®N−m¡z
Bj¡l cªt ¢hnÄ¡p q−m¡ ¢a¢e ¢eÕQuC Bõ¡ql ¢fÐu ¢R−mez Hl fl ®b−L c¡c¡l pȪ¢a Bj¡l S£h−e fÐi¡hn¡m£ h−m
Ae¤ih L−l¢Rz Hl g−m a¡l Ef−cn¡h¢m B−N Ah−qm¡ Ll−mJ a¡l jªaɤ l fl Bl Ah−qm¡ Ll−a p¡qp q−a¡ e¡z
H L¡l−Z B¢j Ae¤ih L¢l ®k, Bj¡l S£h−e a¡l fÐi¡h ph−Q−u ®h¢nz j¤l¦î£l Ef−cn ®j−e Qm¡l j−dÉ ®k aª¢ç a¡
B¢j Ae¤ih L¢lz a¡l Ef−cn Bj¡l S£h−e L−a¡ LmÉ¡Zju q−u−R ®p Lb¡ j−e q−m fСZi−l a¡l SeÉ ®c¡u¡
Ll−a b¡¢Lz

Y¡L¡u Bj¡l f¡WÉS£he

B¢j kMe LÓ¡p HC−V f¢s aMe Bj¡l ®R¡V Q¡Q¡ Se¡h n¢gL¤m Cpm¡j plL¡¢l Y¡L¡ C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−Tl R¡œ
¢R−mez L¤¢jõ¡u Bj¡l LÓ¡−pl ®p−Lä hu Bj¡l ®Q−u 100 eð−llJ Lj f¡Ju¡u Bî¡ j−e Ll−me ®k, fl£r¡u
i¡−m¡ gm Ll−a q−m Bj¡l ®Q−uJ i¡−m¡ R¡œ−cl p¡−b fТa−k¡¢Na¡l p¤−k¡N ®f−a q−hz a¡C ®R¡V Q¡Q¡l p¡−b
fl¡jnÑ L−l Y¡L¡u Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−S (haÑj¡e L¢h eSl¦m L−m−S) i¢aÑl ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−mez
Y¡L¡u i¢aÑ Ll¡l E−Ÿ−jÉ Bî¡ L¤¢jõ¡ q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡u ¢V¢pl SeÉ p¤f¡¢l−¾V−ä−¾Vl ¢eLV ®N−mez p¤f¡¢l−¾V−ä¾V
p¡−qh M¤hC ¢h¢pÈa q−u hm−me, “LÓ¡p HC−Vl ph−Q−u ¢fÐu R¡œ¢V−L Bf¢e ¢e−u ®N−m Bj¡l j−e M¤h Lø m¡N−hz
q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡l g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡u ®p hª¢š f¡−h h−m B¢j Bn¡ L¢lz” Bî¡ hm−me, “k¡−a B−l¡ i¡−m¡ gm Ll−a
f¡−l ®p L¡l−ZC B¢j Y¡L¡u ¢e−u ®k−a Q¡Cz ®pM¡−e A−eL ®jd¡h£ R¡œ l−u−Rz a¡−cl p¡−b fТa−k¡¢Na¡ Ll−a
h¡dÉ q−m B−l¡ i¡−m¡ gm Ll−a f¡−lz” p¤f¡¢l−¾V−ä¾V p¡−qh ®no fkÑ¿¹ p¡¢VÑ¢g−LV ¢c−u ¢c−mez
1940 p¡−ml S¡e¤u¡¢l j¡−p Y¡L¡l Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−S LÓ¡p e¡C−e i¢aÑ qm¡jz L−m−Sl ¢eLVhaÑ£
Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−m ÙÛ¡e ®fm¡jz L¤¢jõ¡l a¤me¡u Y¡L¡u ¢nrL−cl j¡e ®k lLj Eæa ¢R−m¡ R¡œ−cl j¡eJ ®p
lLj i¡−m¡ ¢R−m¡z fÐbj °œj¡¢pL fl£r¡u LÓ¡−p Bj¡l f¢Sne Ru eð−l Q−m ®N−m¡z LÓ¡p Ju¡e ®b−L HCV fkÑ¿¹
LÓ¡−pl g¡ØVÑ hu ¢q−p−h ®k NhÑ−h¡d ¢R−m¡ a¡ Q§ZÑ q−u ®N−m¡z H Mhl ®f−u Bî¡ Bj¡−L Evp¡q ¢c−u hm−me,
“L¤¢jõ¡u ®a¡ ®a¡j¡−L H lLj fТa−k¡¢Na¡l pÇj¤M£e q−a qu¢ez H L¡l−ZC B¢j ®pM¡e ®b−L ¢e−u H−p¢Rz
®a¡j¡−L B−l¡ ¢p¢lu¡p¢m ®mM¡fs¡ Ll−a q−hz” Bj¡−L p¡šÆe¡ ¢c−u hm−me, “®a¡j¡−L LÓ¡−p g¡ØVÑC q−a q−h
HlLj ®L¡e c¡¢h Bj¡l ®eC, ¢L¿º fl£r¡u naLl¡ 75-Hl Efl eðl b¡L−a q−hz LÓ¡p ®V−e 4bÑ q−u fÐ−j¡ne
®fm¡jz ¢L¿º g¡ØVÑ hu ®b−L Bj¡l eðl ®aje Lj ¢R−m¡ e¡z g¡ØVÑ f¢Sne ®fm¡j e¡, ®pSeÉ Bj¡l c¤xM−h¡d p−šÆJ
eðl i¡−m¡ f¡Ju¡l ¢el¡n qm¡j e¡z

28

ú¡EV B−¾c¡me

Y¡L¡u LÓ¡p e¡C−e b¡L¡L¡−mC ú¡EV B−¾c¡m−e ®k¡N ¢cm¡jz Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−ml p¤f¡¢l−¾V−ä¾V p¡−qh ú¡EV
j¡ØV¡l ¢R−mez a¡lC ®fÐlZ¡u B¢j ú¡EV-H ®k¡Nc¡e L¢lz ú¡EV-Hl j¡dÉ−j Hje ¢LR¤ ¢nr¡ ®fm¡j h¡Ù¹h S£h−e
k¡ ph pju L¡−S m¡−Nz a¡l HL¢V q−µR j¡eh−cq pÇf−LÑ fÐ−u¡Se£u ‘¡ez ®kje e¡iÑ¡p ¢p−ØVj, hÔ¡X p¡LѤ−mV¢l
¢p−ØVj, ®lp¢f−lV¢l ¢p−ØVj, H ph ®nM¡l S−eÉ Cw−l¢S−a HL¢V hC ¢R−m¡ k¡−a R¢hpq j¡eh−c−ql ¢h¿¹¡¢la hZÑe¡
¢R−m¡z H ¢hou¢V B¢j M¤h Evp¡−ql p−‰ ¢n−M¢Rm¡j k¡ HMeJ Bj¡l L¡−S m¡−Nz
ú¡EV B−¾c¡m−e L¤¢Lw ¢p−ØVjJ ¢nM−a q−a¡z B¢j L¤¢Lw L¢Çf¢Vn−e g¡ØVÑ q−u ‘L¤¢Lw hÉ¡S’ ®f−u¢Rm¡jz H
¢nr¡V¡J Bj¡l S£h−e L¡−S ®m−N−Rz lwf¤l L−m−S ¢nrLa¡ ¢e−u ¢h−ul f§−hÑ fkÑ¿¹ h¡p¡u L¡−Sl ®R−m−L f¡L
¢n¢M−uC Bj¡−L Qm−a q−a¡z f¡L e¡ S¡e−m ¢hl¡V pjpÉ¡ q−a¡z HV¡J mrÉ L−l¢R ®k, Bj¡l L¡R ®b−L ¢n−M
i¡−m¡ f¡L S¡−e H p¤h¡−c Bj¡l c¤−V¡ L¡−Sl ®R−m AeÉœ Q¡L¢l ®f−u k¡uz
ú¡EV-H B−l¡ ¢h¢iæ ¢nM¡l p¤−k¡N ®f−u¢Rm¡j k¡ h¡Ù¹h S£h−e AaÉ¿¹ Sl¦l£z B¢j kMe LÓ¡p ®V−e f¢s aMe B¢j
Bj¡l ¢nr¡ fТaù¡−e ú¡EV VÊf ¢mX¡−ll c¡¢uaÅ ®fm¡jz ú¡EV−cl−L ®l¡−Nl fСb¢jL ¢Q¢Lvp¡, c¤OÑVe¡u EÜ¡l
avfla¡ (rescue activity) Hhw B−l¡ ¢h¢iæ fÐ−u¡Se£u ¢ho−u ¢nM¡h¡l SeÉ Bj¡−L VÊf f¢lQ¡me¡ Ll−a q−a¡z
1941 p¡−ml ®n−ol ¢c−L Su−chf¤−l (N¡S£f¤l ¢Sm¡l) ¢hMÉ¡a l¡Sh¡¢s juc¡−e HL ¢hl¡V ú¡EV S¡ð¤l£ Ae¤¢ùa
quz ®pM¡−e h¡wm¡−cn plL¡−ll fÐbj fÐd¡ej¿»£ a¡ E¢Ÿ−el p¡−b Bj¡l O¢eù pÇfLÑ pª¢ø quz ¢a¢e plL¡¢l j¤p¢mj
q¡Cú¤−ml ú¡EV VÊf ¢mX¡l ¢q−p−h I S¡ð¤l£−a ®k¡Nc¡e L−lez
ú¡EV B−¾c¡me Bj¡l L¡−R M¤h BLoÑZ£u ¢R−m¡ h−m ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u CEJ¢V¢p−a ®k¡Nc¡e Ll¡l M¤hC BNËq ¢R−m¡z
H−a ú¡EV ®b−LJ Eæa fТnrZ hÉhÙÛ¡ ¢R−m¡z ¢L¿º c¡¢s b¡L¡u ®pM¡−e Bj¡−L i¢aÑ Ll¡ q−m¡ e¡z CEJ¢V¢p’l
LjÑLa¡ Se¡h j¢aEl lqj¡e Bj¡l ú¡EV p¡¢VÑ¢g−LV…−m¡ ®c−M Bg−p¡p L−l hm−me, “®VL¢eLÉ¡m L¡l−Z
®a¡j¡−L ¢e−a e¡ ®f−l B¢jJ AaÉ¿¹ c¤x¢Maz” ¢a¢e BlJ hm−me, ¢hТVn plL¡l c¡¢s-f¡Ns£−L CE¢eg−jÑl
A¿¹i¤Ñš² h−m NZÉ L−l ¢nM−cl−L Ae¤j¢a ®cuz Bj¡−cl HM¡−e ®k CE¢egjÑ B−R a¡−a ®p p¤−k¡N ®eCz

Bj¡l q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡

1942 p¡−ml j¡QÑ j¡−p H fl£r¡ Ae¤¢ùa quz ®p fl£r¡uJ B¢j Bn¡e¤l©f gm ®b−L h¢’a qCz ¢fТ¾pf¡−ml Bn¡
¢R−m¡ Bj¡−cl LÓ¡−pl Ljf−r 4 Se g¡ØVÑ ®NËX úm¡ln£f f¡−hz Bj¡l hÉ¡f¡−l ¢fТ¾pf¡−ml ®p Bn¡ f§lZ qu¢ez
Hl j§m L¡lZ q−m¡ Ap¤Ù¹a¡z I pju ®N¡V¡ c¢rZ H¢ju¡u jÉ¡−m¢lu¡ jq¡j¡l£ BL¡−l ®cM¡ ®cuz jÉ¡−m¢lu¡u hý
®m¡−Ll jªa¤É quz H A’m−L jÉ¡−m¢lu¡j¤š² Ll−a cn hRl −m−N k¡uz L¤¢jõ¡u LÓ¡p HC−Vl R¡œ b¡L¡L¡−m B¢j
fÐbj jÉ¡−m¢lu¡u Bœ²¡¿¹ qC Hhw hR−l L−uL j¡p HC SÅ−l i¤¢Nz 1942 p¡−m C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV g¡ØVÑ Cu¡l fkÑ¿¹ h¡l
h¡l jÉ¡−m¢lu¡u Bœ²¡¿¹ qCz Bj¡l HC SÅl−L H−a¡ iu q−a¡ ®k, B¢j hma¡j Bj¡l SÅl¡aˆ ®l¡N q−u ®N−Rz H
SÅ−l H−a¡ q¡C ®Vð¡−lQ¡l q−a¡ Hhw nl£−l H−a¡ ®h¢n Ly¡f¤¢e q−a¡ ®k c¤-¢aeV¡ ®mf ¢c−u Bj¡−L ®Q−f d−l l¡M−a
q−a¡z kMe SÅl R¡s−a¡ aMe H−a¡ O¡j q−a¡ ®k ¢hR¡e¡ ¢i−S −k−a¡z ¢hR¡e¡l Q¡cl e¡ hcm¡−m Qm−a¡ e¡z H SÅl
HLV¡e¡ O¾V¡-c¤-O¾V¡ f−l Lj¡ öl¦ q−a¡z ¢L¿º pÇf§ZÑ ®R−s k¡Ju¡l f−l 10-15 O¸V¡ fl Bh¡l SÅl Bp−a¡z SÅl
AhÙÛ¡u j¡b¡u k¿»Z¡ q−a¡z ®cs-c¤C pç¡q ¢Q¢Lvp¡l fl p¤ÙÛ q−mJ nl£l AaÉ¿¹ c¤hÑm q−u ®k−a¡z H ®l¡−Nl ®L¡−e¡
fТa−odL e¡ b¡L¡u L−uL j¡p fl Bh¡l SÅl q−a¡z Q¡l hRl Hi¡−h Lø ®f−u¢Rz
H ®l¡−Nl ¢Q¢Lvp¡ AaÉ¿¹ f£s¡c¡uL J ¢hl¢š²Ll ¢R−m¡z q¡a Hhw ¢ea−ðl ‘j¡wpm’-HC−”Lne ®cJu¡ q−a¡z
C−”Lne ®cJu¡l fl H−a¡ hÉb¡ q−a¡ ®k L¡fs ¢c−u mh−Zl f¤¢lu¡ h¡¢e−u q¡¢l−L−e Nlj L−l O¸V¡l fl O¸V¡
®pyL ¢c−a q−a¡z Afl¢c−L L¤Ce¡Ce ®M−a q−a¡, k¡ H−a¡ ¢aš² ¢R−m¡ ®k, ¢Sqh¡l ¢aš²a¡ c§l Ll¡l SeÉ A−eLrZ
fkÑ¿¹ ¢jW¡ ¢S¢ep ®M−a q−a¡z

29

fl£r¡l f§−hÑ fÐQä SÅl

1942 p¡−ml j¡QÑ j¡−p q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡ ®cCz g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡l ¢ae pç¡q B−N a£hÐ jÉ¡−m¢lu¡ SÅ−l
Bœ²¡¿¹ qCz ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh Bj¡−L ¢jV−g¡XÑ q¡pf¡a¡−m i¢aÑ L−l ®cez ®pL¡−m HV¡C HLj¡œ plL¡¢l q¡pf¡a¡m
¢Rm Hhw q¡pf¡a¡m pwmNÀ HLj¡œ ®j¢X−Lm ú¤m ¢R−m¡z q¡Cú¤m h¡ q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ f¡p Ll−m I ú¤−m i¢aÑ qJu¡
−k−a¡z ¢X¢NËl e¡j ¢R−m¡ HmHjHgz HV¡ 4 hR−ll ®L¡pÑ ¢R−m¡z ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh ®q¡−ØV−m p¤f¡¢l−¾V−ä¾V−L HC
j¡−jÑ ¢Q¢W ¢c−me ®k, H R¡œ¢V ¢ae pç¡q f−l hª¢š fl£r¡ ¢c−h Hhw Bj¡l M¤h Bn¡ ®p hª¢š f¡−hz a¡C Bn¡ L¢l
kaÁpqL¡−l ¢Q¢Lvp¡ Ll−he, k¡−a ®p fl£r¡u Awn ¢e−a f¡−lz
q¡pf¡a¡−m i¢aÑ qJu¡l p¡−b p¡−b ¢Q¢Lvp¡l ®Wm¡u B¢j A¢ÙÛl q−u fsm¡jz c¤’q¡−a J c¤’¢ea−ð C−”Lne ®cJu¡
q−m¡z C−”Ln−el hÉb¡u ¢eS q¡−a mhZ ®pyL −cJu¡J L¢We q−u fs−m¡z i£oZ ¢aš² L¤Ce¡Ce ®M−a ®M−a je
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30

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3. −h−qn−a i¤−ml L¡l−Z n¡¢Ù¹ ül©f k¢c Bcj (B) c¤¢eu¡u Bp−a h¡dÉ q−u b¡−Le a¡q−m ¢a¢e eh£l
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31

8.

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B¢j Bë¤m L¡Cu¤j p¡−q−hl Ae¤Na ¢n−oÉ f¢lZa q−u ®Nm¡jz flhaÑ£ j¡¢pL f¢œL¡l A−fr¡u b¡La¡jz f¢œL¡ e¡
Bp¡ fkÑ¿¹ j¡Jm¡e¡ b¡eh£l Ae§¢ca hC f−s ¢a¢e öe¡−aez Cpm¡j£ hC fs¡l fТa BNËq pª¢øl hÉ¡f¡−l Bx L¡Cu¤j
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L−l ¢g−l B¢p¢ez

32

L−mS J ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu S£h−e Cpm¡j£ S£he NW−el ®aje ®L¡e ANËN¢a qu¢ez ®mM¡fs¡ Hhw qm CE¢eue J
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®l¡k¡, Ma−j a¡l¡h£q, ¢am¡Ju¡a, pvi¡−h S£hek¡fe J p−Qaei¡−h Q¢lœh¡e q−u Qm¡l ®Qø¡ L−l¢Rz HjH
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S£he NW−e ®k Ahc¡e ®l−M−R a¡ œ²j¡eÄ−u E−õM Llh, Cen¡Bõ¡qz

djÑ£u hÉ¡f¡−l Bî¡l Ls¡L¢s

hÉ¢š²Na S£h−e dj£u ®k ph L¡S LlZ£u ®pph hÉ¡f¡−l Bî¡ B−f¡pq£e ¢R−mez

1. jp¢S−c S¡j¡−a e¡j¡kx Q¡¢¾ce¡u b¡L¡L¡−m jp¢S−c h¡p¡ ®b−L p¡j¡eÉ c¤−l ¢R−m¡z ¢a¢e fy¡Q Ju¡š²
jp¢S−c e¡j¡k Bc¡u Ll−ae Hhw Bj¡−cl−LJ a¡L£c ¢c−aez ®L¡e Ju¡š² jp¢S−c e¡ ®N−m ¢a¢e l£¢aja l¡N
Ll−aez 1953 p¡−m Bî¡ kMe hcm£ q−u Y¡L¡ Bp−me aMeJ ¢a¢e lje¡ b¡e¡l ¢eLVhaÑ£ jp¢S−c ®k−u ¢eu¢ja
e¡j¡k Bc¡u Ll−aez jNh¡S¡lÙÛ h¡¢s ®b−L lje¡ b¡e¡ jp¢Sc kaV¤L¤ c§−l Q¡¢¾ce¡l jp¢ScJ aaV¤L¤ c§−lC ¢R−m¡z
Bj¡l hs ®R−m kMe ¢p−„ f−s aMe ¢a¢e h¡¢s−a S¡j¡−al h−¾c¡hÙ¹ L−lez fÐbja H L¡l−Z ®k, a¡l q¡yV−¤ a
AbÑ¡l¡C¢Vp b¡L¡l L¡l−Z qy¡V−a Lø q−a¡z 5 Ju¡š² jp¢S−c k¡Ju¡ LøLl ¢R−m¡z ¢àa£u L¡lZ e¡¢a−LJ ¢a¢e
S¡j¡−a nl£L qJu¡l AiÉÙ¹ Ll¡ fÐ−u¡Se j−e L−lez I pju ¢a¢e jNh¡S¡lÙÛ a¡l S¢j−aC jp¢Sc °al£ Ll¡l
¢pÜ¡¿¹ NËqZ L−lez H ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ®O¡oZ¡ Ll¡l pju ¢a¢e h−m¢R−me, ®a¡jl¡ lje¡ b¡e¡ jp¢S−c ¢N−u e¡j¡k fs−mJ
e¡¢a−cl−L ¢e−u k¡Ju¡ L¢We q−h, a¡C h¡¢s−aC HL¢V jp¢Sc fÐ−u¡Sez haÑj¡−e jNh¡S¡−l L¡S£ A¢gp ®mCe
jp¢Sc e¡−j f¢l¢Qa ®k ®aam¡ jp¢Sc¢V l−u−R Hl fÐbj am¡ HLLi¡−h ¢e−SC °a¢l L−lez L¡−l¡ L¡R ®b−L
®L¡e B¢bÑL pq−k¡¢Na¡ ¢a¢e Q¡e¢ez 1971 p¡−ml 1 ljk¡e ®b−L H jp¢Sc Q¡m¤ quz
2. c¡¢s l¡M¡x Bj¡l ®R¡V Q¡Q¡ Se¡h n¢gL¤m Cpm¡j hu−p Bj¡l ¢ae hRl hs ¢R−me Hhw ¢ae LÓ¡p Ef−lC
fs−aez 1939 p¡−m B¢j kMe L¤¢jõ¡u LÓ¡p HC−V f¢s ¢a¢e aMe eh£eNl q¡Cú¤m ®b−L jÉ¡¢VÊL f¡p L−l Y¡L¡
plL¡¢l C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−S BCHp¢p-®a i¢aÑ qez ¢LR¤¢ce fl R¤¢V−a Q¡¢¾c¡u ®N−mez aMe Bî¡ ®cM−a
®f−me Q¡Q¡l c¡¢s E−W−R Hhw ¢a¢e c¡¢s L¡j¡ez B−N ®b−LC ®R¡V Q¡Q¡l ®mM¡fs¡l MlQ Bî¡C ¢c−aez Bî¡
Q¡Q¡−L hm−me, “®cM c¡¢s l¡M¡ p¤æ¡a Hhw Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡ c¡¢s f¤l¦−ol j¤−MC ¢c−u b¡−Lez c¡¢s e¡ l¡M−m h¤T¡
k¡u −k ®j−u−cl ja b¡L¡C fR¾cz B¢j Q¡C ®k a¤¢j c¡¢s l¡M−hz k¢c e¡ l¡M a¡q−m ®a¡j¡l fs¡l MlQ Bj¡l
®cJu¡ E¢Qa q−h h−m j−e L¢l e¡z” Hlfl NË£−oÈl R¤¢V−a Q¡Q¡ kMe Q¡¢¾c¡e¡u ®N−me aMe Bî¡ Q¡Q¡l c¡¢s ®c−M
H−a¡ M¤¢n q−me ®k, ®R¡V i¡C−L h¤−L ¢e−u ®Ly−c ®gm−me Hhw hm−me, “Bõ¡q J l¡p§−ml f−b k¢c Q−m¡ c¤¢eu¡ J
B¢Ml¡−a L¡¢ju¡h q−hz” B−lL pju Bj¡l BÇj¡ HLV¡ Bue¡ ¢e−u Q¡Q¡l j¤−Ml p¡j−e d−l hm−me, ®cM−a¡
HMe ®a¡j¡l ®Qq¡l¡V¡ La QjvL¡l ®cM¡−µRz
Q¡Q¡l HC c¡¢s l¡M¡l OVe¡ Bj¡−cl hw−n Hje fÐi¡h ®g−m−R ®k, Bjl¡ 4 i¡C Hhw Bj¡l hs Q¡Q¡l hs c¤C
®R−m k¡l¡ Bî¡l fÐi¡hd£e ¢R−m¡ a¡−cl ®LEC LM−e¡ c¡¢s L¡j¡u¢ez AbQ Hl¡ pL−mC Bd¤¢eL ¢nr¡u EµQ
¢n¢raz
1942 p¡−m B¢j kMe q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ f¡p L−l C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV i¢aÑ qC aMe Bj¡l c¡¢s EW¡ öl¦ quz f¡−Vl By−nl
j−a¡ ¢QLe ®R¡V ®R¡V Q¤m ®c−M pqf¡¢Vl¡ hm−m¡, a¤¢j HMeC c¡¢s ®l−M ¢c−m? hmm¡j ®k c¡¢s L¡j¡−m h¡¢s k¡Ju¡
k¡−h e¡z a¡l¡ hm−m¡, “c¡¢s l¡M−a Q¡C−mJ fÐbj ¢LR¤¢ce L¡j¡−a qu, a¡ e¡ c¡¢sl Q¤m p¤¾cl qu e¡z” kaV¤L¤ j−e
f−s Bj¡l HL l¦j ®jV ¢e−Sl c¡¢s L¡¢j−u Bj¡l AÒf AÒf c¡¢s L−uLh¡l L¡¢j−u ¢c−m¡z B¢j ¢h−h−Ll ¢eLV
Afl¡d£ ®h¡d Ll−a m¡Nm¡jz c¤’j¡p fl Q¡¢¾ce¡ ®k−a q−h HLb¡ ®Mu¡m L−l Bl c¡¢s L¡j¡−a ¢cm¡j e¡z NË£−oÈl
R¤¢V ®i¡N L−l Y¡L¡u kMe ®q¡−ØV−m ¢g−l Hm¡j aMe Bj¡l Øfø ®Q¡−M fl¡l j−a¡ f¢lj¡Z c¡¢s ¢R−m¡z pqf¡¢W−cl
L−uLSe HV¡ ®j¡−VC fR¾c Ll−m¡ e¡z a¡l¡ hm−m¡, “R¡œS£he ®no qJu¡l f−l a¤¢j c¡¢s l¡M−a f¡l−az” ¢L¿º
Bh¡l pqf¡¢W−cl ®hnLSe M¤h Evp¡q ¢e−u Bj¡−L hm−m¡, “®a¡j¡l c¡¢s ®c−M Bjl¡ c¡¢s l¡M¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡jz

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Bj¡−cl d¡lZ¡ ¢R−m¡ ®hn ¢LR¤¢ce c¡¢s e¡ L¡j¡−m c¡¢s p¤¾cl ®cM¡u e¡z ®a¡j¡l p¤¾cl c¡¢s ®c−M ®p d¡lZ¡ c§l
q−m¡z”
¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u kMe i¢aÑ qm¡j aMe R¡œ−cl j−dÉ c¡¢s ¢R−m¡ e¡ hm−mC Q−mz Blh£ J Cpm¡¢jL ØV¡¢X−Sl R¡œl¡J
pL−m c¡¢s l¡M−a¡ e¡z a¡l¡ ®k−qa¤ j¡cÚl¡p¡ f¡p L−l ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u i¢aÑ q−a¡ ®pSeÉ a¡−cl ®h¢nl i¡N R¡œC c¡¢s
l¡M−a¡z ¢L¿º Blh£ ¢hi¡−Nl fÐd¡epq A¢dL¡wn AdÉ¡f−LlC c¡¢s ¢R−m¡ e¡z B¢j kMe Hj H f¢s aMe X. j¤q¡Çjc
nq£c¤õ¡q Ahpl S£hek¡fe Ll−Rez Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ®b−L Ahpl ®eJu¡l fl h…s¡ Bk£k¤m qL L−m−Sl
¢fТ¾pf¡m ¢q−p−h ®hn L’hRl ¢R−mez Hlfl kMe Y¡L¡u Ahpl S£hek¡fe Ll¢R−me aMe gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj q−m
Prayer room-H pç¡−q HL¢ce L¤lBe LÓ¡p f¢lQ¡me¡ Ll−aez X. j¤q¡Çjc nq£c¤õ¡q H q−ml fÐbj fÐ−i¡ø
¢R−mez Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u k¡l¡ Bj¡−cl h¡wm¡l AdÉ¡fL ¢R−me a¡l¡ nq£c¤õ¡q p¡−q−hl R¡œ ¢R−mez ®p ¢q−p−h
¢a¢e Bj¡−cl c¡c¡ ¢nrLz flhaÑ£L¡−m Bj¡l c¤’i¡C−ul nÄöl h¡¢sl ¢cL ®b−L a¡l p¡−b e¡e¡-e¡¢al pÇfLÑ q−u
®N−m¡z
c¡¢s fÐp−‰C X. nq£c¤õ¡ql E−õM Ll¢Rz ay¡l L¤lBe LÓ¡−p k¡l¡ ¢eu¢ja Ef¢ÙÛa b¡L−a¡ a¡−cl j−dÉ B¢j HLSez
Bj¡l BNËq ®c−M ¢a¢e Bj¡−L M¤hC ®pÀq Ll−aez L¤lB−el c¡lp ®cJu¡ R¡s¡J ¢a¢e ¢h¢iæ ¢ho−u Ef−cn ¢c−ae
Hhw q¡ó¡ e¢pLa¡J Ll−aez °c¢qLi¡−h ¢a¢e M¡−V¡ ¢R−mez ®p a¤me¡u a¡l c¡¢s ®hn mð¡ ¢R−m¡z ¢a¢e a¡l c¡¢s
d−l ¢S‘¡p¡ Ll−me “B¢j k¢c Bj¡l H c£OÑ c¡¢s L¡¢j−u f¡õ¡u l¡¢M a¡q−m Jse La q−h?” Bjl¡ hmm¡j “Q¤m
¢L i¡¢l qu e¡¢L?” ¢a¢e hm−me “a¡q−m ®a¡jl¡ k¡l¡ c¡¢s l¡M e¡ a¡l¡ ¢L JS−el i−u l¡M e¡? Bõ¡q
®a¡j¡¢cN−L f¤l¦o ¢q−p−h pª¢ø L−l−Re Hhw ¢a¢e f¤l¦−ol j¤−MC c¡¢s ¢c−u b¡−Lez a¡q−m ®a¡jl¡ ¢L ®j−u q−m M¤¢n
q−a?” k¡−cl c¡¢s ¢R−m¡ e¡ a¡l¡ Ha m‹¡u ¢hhÐa−h¡d L−l¢e, a¡l¡ Lb¡V¡−L q¡ó¡ l¢pL¡a ¢q−p−hC NËqZ Ll−m¡z
¢a¢e B−l¡ HL¢V QjvL¡l Lb¡ hm−me, “®cM k¡l¡ c¡¢s l¡−M a¡−cl−L ®m¡−Ll¡ nÐÜ¡l p¡−b ®c−Mz” HLb¡V¡ Bj¡l
S£h−e pju Efm¢ì L−l¢Rz CE¢ei¡pÑ¢V R¡œ CE¢eu−e ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa 17 S−el j−dÉ HLSe j¢qm¡ q−ml R¡œ£ ¢R−m¡z
CE¢eu−el °hW−L ®k¡Nc¡−el SeÉ L¡jl¡l L¡−R ®fy±−R ¢ia−l ®hn q¡p¡q¡¢pl BJu¡S ®fa¡jz ¢L¿º Bj¡l Y¤L¡l
p¡−b p¡−bC f¢l−hn hc−m ®k−a¡z k¢cJ B¢j a¡−cl j−a¡C R¡œ ¢Rm¡j ah¤J a¡l¡ Bj¡l Ef¢ÙÛ¢a−L jkÑ¡c¡ ¢c−a¡
Hhw j¢qm¡ q−ml R¡œ£¢VJ HLV¤ e−sQ−s i¡−m¡i¡−h j¡b¡u L¡fs ¢c−u hp−a¡z
3. V¡Me¤l e£−Q f¡uS¡j¡ fl¡x Bî¡ ®k ®L¡e ®m¡L−L V¡Me¤l e£−Q L¡fs fl¡ AhÙÛ¡u ®cM−m ep£qa e¡ L−l
b¡L−ae e¡z H hÉ¡f¡−l q¡c£−p AhnÉC Ls¡ Lb¡ l−u−R k¡l S−eÉ nl£u−al cª¢ø−a a¡L£c ®cJu¡ kb¡bÑC h−Vz
Bj¡l pqf¡¢W−cl j−dÉ Hhw Bj¡−cl L−m−Sl AeÉ R¡œ−cl j−dÉ H hÉ¡f¡−l p−Qaea¡ M¤h LjC ¢R−m¡ z k¡l g−m
ph¡l j−a¡ f¡uS¡j¡ V¡Me¤l e£−QC fsa¡jz öd¤ e¡j¡−kl f¡uS¡j¡ e£−Ql ¢c−L …¢V−u V¡Me¤l Ef−l a¤−m ®l−M e¡j¡k
fsa¡jz e¡j¡−kl f−l Bh¡l f§hÑha M−m ¢ca¡jz HMeJ phÑœ HV¡C mrÉ Ll¡ k¡uz k¡l¡ fÉ¡¾V f¡uS¡j¡ fl¡
AhÙÛ¡u e¡j¡k f−se a¡−cl A−e−LC HV¡ p¡d¡lZ AiÉ¡pz ¢L¿º Bî¡l p¡j−e LMeJ V¡Me¤l e£−Q f¡uS¡j¡ fl−a
p¡qp L¢l¢ez f¡uS¡j¡ Ef−ll ¢c−L …¢V−u Bî¡l p¡j−e ®ka¡jz Bî¡ ®b−L Bs¡m q−mC f¡uS¡j¡ Bh¡l e¡¢j−u
¢ea¡jz H BQlZ ®j¡−VC ¢WL eu, HV¡ Ae¤ih Lla¡jz flha£L¡−m jJm¡e¡ jJc§c£ (l)-Hl ‘Cpm¡j£ B−¾c¡m−el
°e¢aL ¢i¢š’ hC¢V f−s Efm¢ì Llm¡j ®k, Dj¡e pÇf−LÑ p¢WL d¡lZ¡ pª¢ø qJu¡ Hhw Cpm¡−jl Ae¤plZ Ll¡l
p¢WL Skh¡ pª¢øl f§−hÑ HlLj BQlZ qJu¡C ü¡i¡¢hLz I hC¢V−a j¡Jm¡e¡ QjvL¡l L−l hÉ¡MÉ¡ L−l−Re ®k, V¡Me¤l
Ef−l L¡fs fl¡, h¡¢qÉL ®mh¡p ®f¡n¡L CaÉ¡¢c−a j¤šL£ aMeC pñh k¢c A¿¹l ®b−L Cpm¡−jl Ae¤p¡l£ qJu¡l
¢pÜ¡¿¹ NËqZ Ll¡ quz ay¡l j−a, fÐb−j Dj¡e jkh¤a q−a q−h Hhw nl£u−al ¢hd¡e−L ®j−e Qm¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−a q−hz
a¡q−m a¡LJu¡l c¡¢h f§l−Zl S−eÉ h¡C−l ®b−L Q¡f ®cJu¡l fÐ−u¡Se q−h e¡z Bj¡l h¡Ù¹h A¢i‘a¡ ®b−L HLb¡l
paÉa¡ fÐj¡¢Zaz Dj¡e J Cpm¡j pÇf−LÑ B¢j kMe p−Qae qm¡j aMe V¡Me¤l e£−Q L¡fs fl¡ Bfe¡-Bf¢e hå
q−u ®N−m¡z ü¡d£e h¡wm¡−cn L¡−uj qJu¡l fl kMe Bj¡−L mä−e h¡dÉa¡j§mL ¢ehÑ¡pe S£hek¡fe Ll−a qu aMe
Nlj fÉ¡¾V f¡Me¤l Ef−lC f−l¢R Hhw Nlj n¡VÑJ fÉ¡−¾Vl Ef−lC T¤¢m−u ®l−M¢Rz Bj¡l f¢l¢Qa ®LE h−m−R ®k,
®m¡−Ll¡ Bfe¡−L ®c−M q¡p−hz Bf¢e fÉ¡¾V B−l¡ e£−Q fl¦e Hhw n¡VÑJ fÉ¡−¾Vl e£−Q Y¤¢L−u l¡M¤ez B¢j a¡−cl
Lb¡u L¡e ®cC¢ez fÉ¡−¾Vl ¢ial S¡j¡ Y¤¢L−u Qm¡ Bj¡l ¢eLV a¡LJu¡l ®mM¡g j−e q−a¡z H AhÙÛ¡u −L¡b¡J
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hp−m pa−ll n¡m£ea¡ lr¡ qu h−m B¢j j−e L¢l e¡z H ¢ho−u Bj¡l p¡−b L¡lJ Hlja qJu¡ Sl¦l£ euz B¢j
®k Lb¡ hm−a Q¡C a¡ q−µR k¢c à£−el c¡¢h j−e L−l B¿¹¢lLi¡−h ®LE S£hek¡fe Ll−a Q¡u a−hC a¡LJu¡l c¡¢h
f§lZ Ll¡ pñhz
4. p¤ÉVV-fÉ¡¾V fl¡x Bj¡−cl f¢lh¡−l ®LE p¤ÉV-fÉ¡¾V fl¡u AiÉÙÛ ¢R−m¡ e¡z Bj¡l Q¡Q¡ Se¡h n¢gL¤m
Cpm¡j LÉ¡mL¡V¡ ®fТp−X¢¾p L−m−S fs−aez f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡m−e R¡œ ®ea¡J ¢R−mez ®L¡mL¡a¡l ¢hMÉ¡a ®hL¡l
®q¡−ØV−m b¡L−aez ¢a¢e n¡VÑ-f¡uS¡j¡ f−lC Qm−ae, LMeJ p¤ÉV-fÉ¡¾V fl−ae e¡z Bj¡l ®R¡V i¡C ®N¡m¡j
j¤u¡kÚk¡j ®L¡mL¡a¡ ®j¢X−Lm L−m−S aªa£u h−oÑ fÐ−j¡ne f¡Ju¡l fl kMe qp¢fV¡m ¢XE¢V öl¦ q−m¡ aMe ®p
Bî¡l ¢eLV fÉ¡¾V fl¡l Ae¤¢ja ®Q−u ¢Q¢W ¢mM−m¡ djÑ£u hÉ¡f¡−l Bî¡l Ls¡L¢sl L¡l−ZC Bî¡l Ae¤j¢a R¡s¡
fÉ¡¾V fl¡l p¡qp −f−m¡ e¡z fÉ¡¾V fl¡l f−r ®p k¤¢š² ®cM¡−m¡ ®k q¡pf¡a¡−m ®l¡N£ ®cM¡l pj−u n¡VÑ ®M¡m¡ AhÙÛ¡u
®l¡N£−cl N¡−u m¡−Nz a¡C pLm R¡œ J X¡š²¡lC fÉ¡¾V f−l Hhw n¡VÑ fÉ¡−¾Vl ¢ia−l Y¤¢L−u l¡−Mz f¡uS¡j¡l ¢ia−l
n¡VÑÑ Y¤¢L−u l¡M−m ®cM−a ¢hnУ ®cM¡uz a¡C q¡pf¡a¡−ml ¢XE¢Vl fÐ−u¡S−e fÉ¡¾V fl¡ clL¡lz H ¢Q¢Wl SJu¡−h
Bî¡ ¢mM−me “fÉ¡¾V fl¡ R¡s¡ k¢c X¡š²¡l£ fs¡ pñh e¡ qu a¡q−m X¡š²¡l£ fs¡l fÐ−u¡Se ®eCz” Bj¡l I i¡C¢V
Bõ¡ql lqj−a n¡VÑ f¡uS¡j¡ f−lC ®L¡mL¡a¡ ®j¢X−Lm L−mS ®b−L ®N¡ô−j−Xm ¢e−u f¡p L−l−Rz
5.
¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u R¡œ−cl A¢dL¡wnC p¤É-fÉ¡¾V flaz ¢L¿º B¢j n¡VÑ-f¡uS¡j¡ f−lC R¡œS£he L¡¢V−u¢R Hhw qm J
CE¢ei¡¢pÑV CE¢eu−e ®Se¡−lm ®p−œ²V¡¢ll c¡¢uaÅJ f¡me L−l¢Rz
1950 p¡−m ¢X−pðl j¡−pl öl¦−a lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−S l¡øÌ¢h‘¡−el AdÉ¡fL ¢q−p−h ®k¡Nc¡−el fl fÐQä
n£−a pjpÉ¡u fsm¡jz L−m−S n¡VÑ f¡uS¡j¡ f−l n£a ¢eh¡lZ Ll¡ ¢LR¤−aC pñh ¢R−m¡ e¡z h¡dÉ q−u Nlj
®n−l¡u¡e£ J fÉ¡¾V °a¢l Ll−a q−m¡z c¢SÑl ¢eLV fÉ¡¾V °a¢l Ll¡l S−eÉ j¡f ®ch¡l pju pjpÉ¡u fsm¡jz c¢SÑ−L
hmm¡j V¡Me¤l e£−Q ®ke fÉ¡¾V e¡ k¡uz c¢SÑ¢V Bj¡l ¢c−L a¡¢L−u hmm “HV¡ ®Lje ®cM¡−h?” B¢j hmm¡j “Bf¢e
e¡j¡k£ j¡e¤oz Bf¢e c¡¢sJ ®l−M−Rez V¡Me¤l e£−Q L¡fs fl¡ ¢e−od, HV¡ ¢L Bf¢e S¡−ee e¡!” c¢SÑl e¡j HMeJ
j−e B−Rz a¡l e¡j ¢R−m¡ j¢aEl lqj¡ez h¡¢s ¢R−m¡ ¢hœ²jf¤lz ¢a¢e hm−me “S¡¢e ®a¡ pÉ¡l ¢L¿º H fkÑ¿¹ V¡Me¤l
Ef−l fÉ¡¾V °a¢l q−a ®c¢M¢ez B¢j A−eL ®m¡−Ll fÉ¡¾V °al£ L−l¢R a¡l¡ ®LE Bj¡−L V¡Me¤l Ef−l fÉ¡¾V h¡e¡−a
h−m¢ez” ¢X−pð−ll ®no ¢c−L R¤¢V−a ®n−l¡u¡e£ J fÉ¡¾V f−lC Y¡L¡l h¡¢s−a Bpm¡jz O−ll h¡l¡¾c¡u Bî¡−L
Hhw ®R¡V i¡C X¡. ®N¡m¡j j¤u¡kÚk¡j−L hp¡ AhÙÛ¡u ®fm¡jz p¡m¡j ¢c−u B¢jJ h¡l¡¾c¡u HL ®Qu¡−l hpm¡jz Bj¡l
i¡C¢V HLh¡l Bj¡l fÉ¡−¾Vl ¢c−L, B−lLh¡l Bî¡l ¢c−L a¡L¡−a b¡L−m¡z H lLj a¡L¡h¡l AbÑ Bî¡l h¤T−a
h¡¢L b¡L−m¡ e¡z Bî¡ Bj¡l i¡C−L hm−me fÉ¡¾V fl¡ B¢j LM−e¡ q¡l¡j j−e L¢l e¡z ¢L¿º V¡Me¤l Ef−l fÉ¡¾V
fl¡ qu HV¡ B¢j LM−e¡ ®c¢M¢ez ®k−qa¤ fÉ¡¾V fl−a q−m V¡Me¤l e£−Q fl−aC qu ®p Ll−ZC ®a¡j¡−L fÉ¡¾V fl¡l
Ae¤j¢a ®cC¢ez V¡Me¤l Ef−l fÉ¡¾V fl−m Bj¡l ®L¡e Bf¢š ®eCz a−h p¤ÉV fl¡ e¡j¡−ul e¡ q−mJ B¢j p¤ÉV fl¡
fR¾c L¢l e¡z” Hlfl i¡CJ n£aL¡−m fl¡l SeÉ fÉ¡¾V h¡¢e−u ¢e−m¡z
X¡x ®N¡m¡j j¤u¡kÚk¡j kMe mä−e EµQ ¢X¢NË ®eJu¡l SeÉ ®N−m¡ aMe Nlj ®n−l¡u¡e£ J fÉ¡¾V f−lC ®N−m¡z p¤ÉV e¡
fl¡l L¡l−Z a¡l pqf¡¢W A−e−LC a¡−L hmm “−a¡j¡l HC ®f¡n¡L ®c−M ®a¡j¡−L ®LE ¢X¢NË ®c−h e¡z” ¢L¿º Bj¡l
i¡C−ul L¡−R ö−e¢R a¡l HC ü¡a¿»É−h¡−dl SeÉ a¡−L A¢dLal …l¦aÅ ¢c−a¡ Hhw i¡m R¡œ ¢q−p−h Be¤L§mÉJ
®f−a¡z
X¡x ®N¡m¡j j¤u¡kÚk¡j Pathology’ ¢nrL ¢q−p−h Y¡L¡ −j¢X−Lm L−m−S LjÑla b¡L¡L¡−m L−m−Sl ¢fТ¾pfÉ¡m
HLV¤ ¢hl¢š²l p¤−l hm−me You shoul come properly dressed. j¤u¡kÚk¡j ¢S‘¡p¡ Ll−m¡ “®L¡e ®XÊp−L
B¢fe proper dress h−m j−e L−le?” ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh HLV¤ T¡T¡m p¤−l pJu¡h ¢c−me “Bf¢e ®c−Me e¡ pLm
X¡š²¡l ¢L ®f¡n¡L f−l B−p?” ®j¡u¡kÚk¡j cªta¡l p¡−b hmm, “¢hm¡−a B¢j T¡s¤c¡l−cL−LJ H ®f¡n¡L fl−a
®c−M¢Rz HV¡ a¡−cl S¡a£u ®f¡n¡L HV¡ X¡š²¡l−cl CE¢egjÑ euz” Hlfl ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh Bl Lb¡ h¡s¡−a p¡qp
f¡e¢ez

35

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L¤lh¡e£ Ll−aJ ¢àd¡ L¢l e¡z a¡−cl f¡¢bÑh ®k¡NÉa¡ ASÑ−el S−eÉ Hhw S£h−e fТa¢ùa qJu¡l S−eÉ ph¢LR¤ Ll¡l
flJ a¡l¡ ®ke ph pjw p¤−M b¡−L ®p d¡¾c¡ Bj¡−cl ®m−NC b¡−Lz
B¢Ml¡−al S£h−e a¡−cl p¡gmÉ ph−Q−u …l¦aÅf§ZÑ ®p ¢houV¡ LuSe ¢fa¡-j¡a¡ ¢p¢lu¡p¢m ¢h−hQe¡ L−le? A−eL
à£ec¡l, fl−qkN¡l J e¡j¡k£ ®m¡L ®cM¡ k¡u k¡l¡ a¡−cl ®R−m−cl−L e¡j¡−kl SeÉ Q¡f ®cJu¡ c§−ll Lb¡ a¡L£cJ
®ce e¡z a¡−cl −j−ul¡ ®hfÑc¡ Q−m ®p¢c−L ®Mu¡mJ L−l e¡z a¡l¡ H−aC M¤¢n, ®R−m−j−ul¡ fl£r¡u i¡−m¡ Ll−R
Hhw c¤¢eu¡l ¢cL ¢c−u Eæ¢a Ll−Rz a¡l¡ H Lb¡ i¤−m k¡e ®k, B¢Ml¡−a a¡−cl p¿¹¡e−cl fbïøa¡l SeÉ a¡−cl−L
Bõ¡ql L¡−R SJu¡h¢c¢q Ll−a q−hz l¡p§m (p) h−m−Re, “®a¡j¡−cl fÐ−aÉ−LlC L¡−l¡ e¡ L¡−l¡ Ef−l ®cM¡ö−e¡
c¡¢uaÅ l−u−Rz k¡−cl−L N−s ®a¡m¡l c¡¢uaÅ ®a¡j¡l Efl l−u−R a¡−cl pÇf−LÑ ®a¡j¡−cl−L SJu¡h¢c¢q Ll−a
q−hz” l¡p§m (p) B−l¡ h−m−Re “p¡a hvpl hup ®b−LC p¿¹¡e−cl−L e¡j¡−k AiÉÙ¹ Llz cn hvpl q−u ®N−mJ
k¢c e¡j¡−u AiÉÙ¹ e¡ qu a¡q−m a¡−cl Ef−l n¡perja¡ fÐ−u¡N L−l¡z”
Bj¡l Bî¡ k¢c H ph ¢ho−u Ls¡L¢s e¡ Ll−ae a¡q−m a¡l p¿¹¡e−cl ®jdÉ à£−el fТa ®kV¤L¤ LaÑhÉ−h¡d pª¢ø
q−u−R Bd¤¢eL ¢nr¡l f¢l−h−n a¡ ¢LR¤−aC pñh q−a¡ e¡z Bj¡−cl p¡d¡lZ ¢nr¡hÉhÙÛ¡u R¡œ-R¡œ£−cl j¤p¢mj
¢q−p−h N−s EW¡l ®L¡e hÉhÙÛ¡C ®eCz H ¢nr¡u ¢n¢ra−cl j−dÉ k¡l¡ j¤p¢mj ®Qae¡ ¢e−u S£he k¡f−el ®Qø¡ Ll−R
a¡−cl pÇf−LÑ ®My¡S Mhl ¢e−m H Lb¡ fÐj¡¢Za qu ®k, a¡−cl ¢fa¡-j¡a¡l fÐi¡−hC a¡l¡ ¢nr¡m−ul Ad¡¢jÑL
f¢l−hn L¡¢V−u EW−a prj q−u−Rz
9.

Y¡L¡u Cpm¡j£ ‘¡e QQÑ¡

1940 p¡−m Y¡L¡u LÓ¡p e¡C−e i¢aÑ qJu¡l fl L¤¢jõ¡k b¡L¡L¡−m f¢l¢Qa j¡¢pL ®eu¡ja f¢œL¡l på¡−e hs
L¡V¡l¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡u ®eu¡ja f¢œL¡ A¢g−p k¡Cz f¢œL¡l pÇf¡cL Se¡h Bë¤p p¡m¡j p¡−q−hl p¡−b f¢lQu Ll−a
¢N−u S¡e−a f¡lm¡j ®k a¡l h¡¢sJ ¢h. h¡s£u¡z a¡l hup 40-Hl j−a¡ j−e q−m¡z Bj¡l j−a¡ HLSe ¢L−n¡l−L
¢a¢e AaÉ¿¹ Evp¡−ql p−‰ NËqZ Ll−me Hhw B¢j ®eu¡j−al ¢eu¢ja NË¡qL q−u ®Nm¡jz B−NC h−m¢R ®eu¡ja
f¢œL¡¢V−a fÐd¡ea j¡Jm¡e¡ Bnl¡g Bm£ b¡eh£ (l)-Hl EcѤ Ju¡−kl h¡wm¡ Ae¤h¡c d¡l¡h¡¢Li¡−h fÐL¡¢na q−a¡z
L¤lBe J q¡¢c−pl Lb¡−L QjvL¡l k¤¢š² J BLoÑZ£u Ec¡qlZ ¢c−u ¢a¢e Ju¡k Ll−aez Ae¤h¡c−L ¢q−p−h j¡Jm¡e¡
n¡jp¤m qL g¢lcf¤l£l e¡j E−õM b¡L−a¡z
−eu¡ja f¢œL¡l pÇfc¡L ®b−L j¡Jm¡e¡ n¡jp¤m qL g¢lcf¤l£l f¢lQu S¡e−a Q¡Cm¡jz ¢a¢e hm−me, ¢a¢e hs
L¡Vl¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡l j¤qa¡¢jjz ay¡l p¡−b p¡r¡−al hÉhÙÛ¡ NËq−Zl Ae¤−l¡d S¡e¡m¡jz Bj¡−L fl¡jnÑ ¢c−me, QLh¡S¡l
n¡q£ jp¢S−cl ýSl¡u ¢a¢e Bp−ll f−l h−pe Hhw p¡r¡v fСbÑ£−cl−L ®cM¡ Ll¡l p¤−k¡N ®cez ®p Lb¡ ®S−e
HL¢ce Bp−ll e¡j¡k fs¡l fl j¡Jm¡e¡l p−‰ Bj¡l fum¡ p¡r¡a quz B¢j mrÉ Llm¡j ®k, p¡r¡vfСbÑ£ ¢LR¤
®m¡L a¡yl ¢eLV ¢h¢iæ j¡pBm¡ ¢S−‘p Ll−mez ¢a¢e a¡−cl−L AÒf Lb¡u q¡¢p j¤−M SJu¡h ¢c−a b¡L−mez ®LE
−LE a¡−cl pjpÉ¡ a¡l L¡−R S¡¢e−u pj¡d¡−el SeÉ fl¡jnÑ Q¡C−mez La¡h¡aÑ¡ ®b−L B¢j Ae¤ih Llm¡j a¡l¡
ph¡C j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh−L f£−ll j−a¡ jqîa L−lez B¢j H AhÙÛ¡u fum¡ Q¤fQ¡f b¡Lm¡jz Bl ph¡C k¡l¡ ®pM¡−e
Ef¢ÙÛa ¢R−me a¡l¡ ¢h¢iæ hu−pl ®m¡Lz c¡¢s-V¤¢f J f¡uS¡j¡ ®c−M a¡−cl−L B−mj−cl j−a¡C j−e quz HLj¡œ
h¡mL hup£ B¢jC ¢Rm¡j Hhw Bj¡l fl−e f¡S¡j¡ J n¡VÑ ¢R−m¡z
B¢j HL cª¢ø−a ay¡l ¢c−L a¡L¡¢µRm¡j Hhw ¢Li¡−h ay¡l p¡−b f¢l¢Qa qJu¡ k¡u i¡h¢Rm¡jz Hje ®L¡e f¢l¢Qa
®m¡L ¢R−m¡ e¡ k¡l j¡dÉ−j ay¡l p−‰ f¢lQu Ll¡ pqS quz B¢j mrÉ Llm¡j ¢h¢iæ ®m¡−Ll fÐ−nÀl SJu¡h ®cJu¡l
gy¡−L gy¡−L h¡lh¡l Bj¡l ¢c−L a¡L¡¢µR−mez ph¡l fÐ−nÀl SJu¡h ®no q−u ®N−m ¢a¢e q¡−al Cn¡l¡u L¡−R
X¡L−mez B¢j L¡−R ¢N−u q¡a ¢jm¡m¡jz ¢a¢e ®pÀ−ql p¤−l S¡e−a Q¡C−me B¢j ®L Hhw L£ Q¡Cz Lb¡ hm¡l p¤−k¡N
®f−u B¢j HLV¡e¡ ®hn ¢LR¤rZ Lb¡ hmm¡jz ph¡C Bj¡l ¢c−L BÕQkÑ q−u a¡L¡¢µR−me Hhw flØfl j¤M Q¡Ju¡Q¡J¢u Ll¢R−mez ay¡l¡ BÕQkÑ q−u −cM¢R−me ýk¤l ¢Li¡−h Bj¡l j−a¡ h¡m−Ll Lb¡ öe−Rez Bj¡l hš²−hÉl

36

p¡lLb¡ ¢Rm, “B¢j L¤¢jõ¡u HL hRl BN ®b−L ‘®eu¡ja f¢œL¡ fs¢Rm¡j Hhw Y¡L¡u H−p NË¡qL q−u¢Rz H
f¢œL¡ Bj¡l L¡−R M¤h i¡−m¡ m¡−N Hhw H f¢œL¡u ®mM¡ fÐd¡ea qkla j¡Jm¡e¡ b¡ei£l (l) Ae¤h¡cC fÐL¡¢na
q−a¡z
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b¡hi£l (l) ®mM¡ J Bfe¡l Ae¤h¡−c BLªø q−u ‘®eu¡ja’ f¢œL¡u pÇf¡cL ®b−L Bfe¡l ¢WL¡e¡ ®k¡N¡s L−l
Bfe¡l ®Mcj−a q¡¢kl qm¡jz Bfe¡l Ae¤h¡c Ll¡ hC ®L¡b¡u f¡Ju¡ k¡u ®pM¡e ®b−L ¢L−e ¢e−u fs−a Q¡C Hhw
j¡−T j¡−T Bfe¡l ®Mcj−a q¡¢kl qJu¡l Ae¤j¢a Q¡Cz Bj¡l Lb¡ ö−e ¢a¢e AaÉ¿¹ M¤¢n q−me Hhw q¡¢pj¤−M Bj¡l
¢f−W q¡a h¤¢m−u −k ®L¡e ¢ce QLh¡S¡l jp¢S−cC Bp−ll pju q¡¢kl qh¡l Ae¤¢ja ¢c−mez jp¢S−cl e£−Q
Hjc¡¢cu¡ m¡C−hÐl£−a hC f¡Ju¡ k¡u h−m S¡e¡−mez

j¡Jm¡e¡l p¡−b Bj¡l pÇfLÑ ¢eu¢ja S¡¢l b¡Lm

j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh hs L¡V¡l¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡l ¢nrL ¢R−me, HV¡C S¡ea¡j Hhw j¡−T j¡−T QLh¡S¡l jp¢S−c H−p hpa¡jz
®L¡e pju ay¡−L HL¡ f¡C¢ez 10-15-20 Se ay¡l p¡j−e hp¡ ®fa¡jz ay¡l¡ j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh−L −k ph Lb¡ ¢S‘¡p¡
Ll−ae a¡ ®b−L j¡pBm¡-j¡p¡−um R¡s¡J ep£qaj§mL Lb¡h¡aÑ¡ ö−e à£e pÇfÑ−L ®hn ¢LR¤ ¢n−M ¢ea¡jz B¢j
®aje ¢LR¤ ¢S‘¡p¡ Lla¡j e¡z fÐ−nÀ¡šl ®no q−m AÒf Lb¡u ¢a¢e Bj¡l ®My¡S-Mhl ¢e−aez B¢j L£ hC fs¢R,
B−l¡ ®L¡e hC fs¡ Sl¦l£ ®p ¢ho−u fl¡jnÑ ¢c−aez
Bj¡l p¢WL j−e −eC ®pV¡ ®L¡e hRl ¢R−m¡z B¢j QLh¡S¡−l ay¡−L e¡ ®f−u ¢S−‘p¡ L−l S¡e−a f¡lm¡j, ¢a¢e
HMe h−pe e¡z ®hNj h¡S¡l jp¢S−c ®N−m f¡Ju¡ k¡uz B−l¡ S¡em¡j, ¢a¢e HMe hs L¡V¡l¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡u ®eC, ¢a¢e
m¡mh¡N n¡q£ jp¢S−c ea¤e j¡cÚl¡p¡ öl¦ L−l−Rez
hs L¡V¡l¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡lC HL¢V L¡jl¡u ‘®eu¡ja’ A¢gp b¡L¡l L¡l−Z ‘®eu¡ja’ A¢g−p Bj¡l k¡a¡u¡a b¡L¡u
f£lS£ ýk¤l e¡−j f¢l¢Qa j¡cÚl¡p¡l j¤qa¡¢jj p¡−q−hl p¡−b ®cM¡ Ll¡l p¤−k¡N quz ay¡l p−‰ f¢l¢Qa q−a ¢N−u
S¡e−a f¡lm¡j ®k, ay¡l hs i¡C Bj¡l Bî¡l M¡m¤z ®p p¤h¡−c j¡−T j¡−T ay¡l L¡−R ®ka¡jz j¡Jm¡e¡ n¡jR¤m qL
g¢lcf¤l£ (l) hs L¡V¡l¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡ ®b−L Q−m ®N−Re, H ¢ho−u p¢WL Mhl S¡e¡l SeÉ f£lS£ ýk¤−ll ¢eLV q¡¢kl
qm¡jz B¢j ®hNj h¡S¡l jp¢S−c j¡Jm¡e¡ n¡jR¤m qL g¢lcf¤l£l (l) p¡−b p¡r¡v Ll¡l SeÉ ®Nm¡jz hs L¡V¡l¡
j¡cÚl¡p¡ ®Le ®R−s ¢c−me S¡e−a Q¡Cm¡jz ¢a¢e f£lS£ ýk¤−ll ¢ho−u ¢LR¤C hm−me e¡z öd¤ HV¤L¤C S¡e¡−me, ¢a¢e
m¡mh¡−N Bm¡c¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡ öl¦ L−l−Rez ¢L¿º f£lS£ ýk¤l j¡Jm¡e¡ g¢lcf¤l£ pÇfÑ−L ¢LR¤ A¢i−k¡N Ll−mez

R¡œ S£h−el fl

¢h¢iæ L¡l−Z ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u AdÉueL¡−m j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−q−hl p−‰ ®k¡N¡−k¡N A−eL L−j k¡uz 1950 p¡−ml j¡QÑ j¡−p
HjH fl£r¡l fl flC a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al p¡−b ¢ae ¢Qõ¡u (Q¡l j¡p) −h¢l−u k¡Cz I pju a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al
j¡¢pL CS¢aj¡ m¡mh¡N n¡q£ jp¢S−c q−a¡z 1950 p¡−m B¢j lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−S AdÉ¡fL ¢q−p−h ®k¡Nc¡e
Ll¡l g−m ®k¡N¡−k¡N Bh¡l Lj q−u k¡uz hR−l A¿¹a L−uLh¡l a¡hm£−Nl j¡¢pL CS−aj¡u nl£L qJu¡l p¤−k¡−N
ay¡l p¡−b ®cM¡ q−a¡z
pñhax ’52 p¡m ®b−L n¡q£ jp¢S−c Ae¤¢øa j¡¢pL CS¢aj¡u Bj¡−L hš²ªa¡ Ll−a q−a¡z j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh Bj¡l
hš²ªa¡ j−e¡−k¡N ¢c−u öe−ae h−m flhaÑ£L¡−m B¢j S¡e−a ®f−l¢Rz 1954 p¡−m B¢j S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a
®k¡Nc¡−el fl j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−q−hl p¡−b −cM¡ Ll−a ®N−m ¢a¢e Eõ¢pa q−u Bj¡l p¡−b ®L¡m¡L¤¢m Ll−mez Ef¢ÙÛa
pL−ml j−dÉC HLV¤ ¢hpÈ−ul i¡h mrÉ Ll¡ ®N−m¡z ¢a¢e j¿¹hÉ Ll−me ®k, “a¡hm£−Nl CS¢aj¡u ay¡l hš²ªa¡l i¡o¡
−b−L B¢j Øfø h¤T−a ®f−l¢Rm¡j ®k, a¡hm£N£ S¡j¡u¡−al LjÑp§¢Q H−L BV¢L−u l¡M−a f¡l−h e¡z” ¢a¢e Ef¢ÙÛa
®m¡L−cl−L ¢S−‘p Ll−me, “¢L ¢ju¡l¡, B¢j H j¿¹hÉ L−l¢Rm¡j e¡?” ®hn L−uLSe Hl SJu¡−h h−m EW−me,
“qyÉ¡, Bf¢e L−uLh¡lC HLb¡ h−m¢R−mez”

37

S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£ J j¡Jm¡e¡ g¢lcf¤l£

1955 p¡−m AdÉ¡fL j¡Jm¡e¡ ®qm¡m EŸ£e S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a ®k¡Nc¡e Ll¡l fl Bj¡−L ¢e−u ¢a¢e j¡Jm¡e¡
p¡−q−hl ¢eLV ®N−mez AdÉ¡fL ®qm¡m EŸ£e p¡−qh j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh−L hm−me, “j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh, Bfe¡l p−‰
Bj¡l f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡m−el pju ®b−L c£OÑ B¿¹¢lL pÇfLÑz l¡S¯e¢aL ¢Q¿¹¡l ¢cL ¢c−u Bfe¡l p¡−b Bj¡l pÇf§ZÑ
¢jm ®f−u¢Rz Bl AdÉ¡fL ®N¡m¡j Bkj p¡−qh−L ay¡l ú¤m S£he ®b−LC ®Q−eez ¢a¢e S¡j¡u¡−al Cpm¡j£−a
®k¡Nc¡e Ll¡u Bf¢e M¤¢n q−u−Re h−m S¡e−a ®f−l¢Rz a¡C Bj¡l S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a ®k¡Nc¡−el Mhl Bfe¡l
¢eLV −cJu¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ q¡¢Sl q−u¢Rz
j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh AdÉ¡fL ®qm¡m EŸ£e p¡−qh−L j¤h¡lLh¡c S¡¢e−u hm−me, B¢j S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−L A−eL B−N
®b−LC S¡¢ez ¢hТVn Bj−mC S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£ kMe fТa¢ùa qu aMe B¢j j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£l p¡−b p¡r¡−al
fÐ−u¡Se−h¡d L¢lz ay¡l pÇf¡ce¡u fÐL¡¢na ‘j¡¢pL alSj¡e¤m ®L¡lBe’ ®N¡V¡ ¢q¾c¤Ù¹¡−el hs hs B¢mj−cl L¡−R
®k−a¡z
’41 p¡−m S¡j¡u¡a L¡−uj qh¡l f§−hÑ I f¢œL¡l ®hn ¢LR¤ pwMÉ¡ ®cM¡l p¤−k¡N Bj¡lJ q−u¢R−m¡z f¢œL¡l j¡dÉ−jC
ay¡−L B¢j S¡ea¡j Hhw a¡ à¡l¡ Cpm¡−jl ¢hl¡V ®Mcja q−h h−m d¡lZ¡ ®f¡oZ Lla¡jz a¡C ¢a¢e S¡j¡u¡−a
Cpm¡j£ e¡−j fªbL pwNWe öl¦ Ll¡u B¢j HLV¤ ¢hhÐa−h¡d Llm¡jz L¡lZ j¤pmj¡e−cl j−dÉ B−N ®hn L’¢V ¢h¢iæ
e¡−j S¡j¡u¡a L¡−uj ¢R−m¡z ¢a¢e Bh¡l Bl HL¢V S¡j¡u¡a new L−l ¢h¢µRæ j¤p¢mj S¡¢al ¢L ®Mcja Ll−a
f¡l−hej, H fÐnÀ Bj¡l j−e S¡−Nz aMe j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£ f§hÑ f¡”¡−hl f¡W¡e−L¡−V c¡l¦m Cpm¡j e¡−j HL¢V ®L¾cÐ
L¡−uj L−l L¡S Ll¢R−mez B¢j c£OÑ pgl L−l ay¡l L¡−R ®f±yRm¡jz ¢a¢e AaÉ¿¹ BNËq ¢e−u Bj¡l p¡−b c£OÑ pju
ja¢h¢eju Ll−mez phÑ−n−o ay¡l H Lb¡¢V Bj¡l ¢eLV AaÉ¿¹ j§mÉh¡e h−m j−e qux
“−k ph S¡j¡u¡a ®c−n B−R a¡−cl E−ŸnÉ J mrÉ Hhw Cpm¡j pð−å Iph pwNW−el ®eaªhª¾c ®k ph d¡lZ¡ l¡−Me
ay¡l¡ ®p Ae¤k¡u£ L¡S Ll−Rez Cpm¡j pð−å ®k d¡lZ¡ Bfe¡l ¢eLV fÐL¡n Llm¡j Hhw HC Cpm¡j−L ¢hSu£
Ll¡l E−ŸnÉ B¢j ®k ¢Q¿¹-i¡he¡ l¡¢M HC LjÑp§¢Q AeÉ ®L¡e c−ml Efl Q¡¢f−u ®cJu¡ pñh euz a¡C Bõ¡q
Bj¡−L kaV¤L¤ pjT (h¤T) ¢c−u−Re ®p Ae¤k¡u£ fªbL S¡j¡u¡a L¡−uj Ll¡ R¡s¡ Bj¡l Ef¡u ¢L? j¤pmj¡e−cl
j−dÉ −h¢n cm b¡L¡ ®L¡e c§oZ£u hÉ¡f¡l euz Cpm¡j J j¤p¢mj S¡¢al ü¡−bÑ k¢c k¡l k¡l cª¢øi¢‰ Ae¤k¡u£ L¡S
Ll−a b¡−L a¡q−m EÇj−al LmÉ¡ZC q−a f¡−lz k¢c HLcm Afl c−ml ¢hl¦−Ü AffÐQ¡l e¡ Q¡m¡u Hhw j¤p¢mj
S¡¢al j−dÉ HLcm B−lL c−m ¢hl¦−Ü ¢hï¡¿¹ e¡ Rs¡u a¡q−m ¢h¢iæ cm b¡L¡ p−šÆJ EÇj−al ®L¡e r¢a qJu¡l
Bn¡wL¡ ®eCz” j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh hm−me, “B¢j ay¡l H Lb¡u j¤vj¡De q−u ¢g−l B¢pz”
AdÉ¡fL j¡Jm¡e¡ ®qm¡m EŸ£e p¡−qh aMe hm−me, “Bjl¡ ®a¡ j¡Jm¡e¡l p−‰ p¡r¡−al p¤−k¡N f¡C¢ez Bf¢e
ay¡l pÇfÑ−L J ay¡l fТa¢ùa S¡j¡u¡a pÇfÑ−L AeÉ L¡−l¡ L¡R ®b−L e¡ ®S−e f¡W¡e−L¡V ®fy±−R j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£ L¡R
®b−L S¡e¡l ®p±i¡NÉ m¡i L−l−Rez H¢cL ¢c−u Bf¢e Bj¡−cl ®Q−u A−eL ANËN¡j£z Bf¢e ¢L S¡j¡u¡−a
Cpm¡j£−a ®k¡Nc¡e Ll¡l ¢Q¿¹¡ L−le e¡? j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh hm−me, “B¢j jJm¡e¡ jJc§c£−L jqîa L¢l Hhw ay¡l
fТa¢ùa HC B−¾c¡m−el L¡¢ju¡h£l SeÉ ®c¡u¡ L¢lz”
H pšÆJ B¢j pl¡p¢l S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a e¡ ®k¡Nc¡e Ll¡−LC j¤p−mq¡a j−e L¢lz L¡lZ, ®k Jm¡j¡−u ®cJh−¾cl
p−‰ Bj¡l pÇfLÑ ®p jq−m j¡Jm¡e¡l hÉ¡f¡−l ®k CM¢am¡g l−u−R a¡ k¡−a c§l Ll¡ k¡u, A¿¹a Lj¡−l¡ k¡k ®p SeÉ
Bj¡l ¢LR¤ LlZ£u B−Rz B¢j j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£l hC f¢s Hhw ay¡l ¢hl¦−Ü ®k ph Lb¡ B−R ®p…−m¡J f¢s Hhw H
ph ¢ho−u Jm¡j¡−u ®Ll¡−jl p¡−b ja¢h¢ejuJ L¢lz B¢j k¢c S¡ju¡−a Cpm¡j£−a pl¡p¢l ®N¡Nc¡e L¢l a¡q−m
Jm¡j¡−u ®Ll¡−jl p−‰ ja ¢h¢ej−ul H p¤−k¡N b¡L−h e¡z aMe a¡−cl p¡−b Bj¡l TNs¡u ¢mç qJu¡l f¢l¢ÙÛ¢a
pª¢ø q−h Hhw a¡ à¡l¡ à£−el ®L¡−e¡ L¡mÉ¡Z q−h e¡ h−m B¢j j−e L¢lz a¡C Bj¡−L Hi¡−hC b¡L−a ¢cez Bjl¡
c¤’S−eC a¡l H Lb¡u j¤vj¡De qm¡j Hhw a¡l L¡−R ®c¡u¡ ®Q−u ¢hc¡u ¢em¡jz

38

Bj¡l S£h−e j¡Jm¡e¡ n¡jR¤m qL g¢lcf¤l£l (l) fÐi¡h

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j¡Jm¡e¡ n¡jp¤m qL g¢lcf¤l£ (l)(l)-Hl p¡¢ædÉ

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SeÉ NiÑel p¡−qh−L c¡Ju¡a ®cuz pi¡f¢aaÅ Ll¡l SeÉ j¡Jm¡e¡ n¡jp¤m qL g¢lcf¤l£l ¢eLV d¡lZ¡ ®cuz ¢a¢e
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40

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l©f−lM¡’ e¡−j HL ¢hl¡V fÐhå ¢m−M a¡−a j¡cÚl¡p¡ ¢nr¡l …l¦aÅ hÉ¡MÉ¡ L¢lz fÐhå¢V ¢e−u °c¢eL BS¡−cl
fТaù¡a¡ j¡Jm¡e¡ BLl¡j My¡l p¡−b ®cM¡ L¢lz j¡Jm¡e¡ fR¾c L−le J °ceL BS¡c f¢œL¡u a¡ fÐL¡−nl hÉhÙÛ¡
L−lez BS¡c pÇf¡cL Se¡h Bh¤m Lm¡j n¡jp¤¢Ÿe EfpÇf¡cL£u−a fÐhå¢Vl f−r ®hn ¢LR¤ j¿¹hÉ L−lez
HC fÐhå¢VC j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£l p¡−b Bj¡l O¢eùa¡l fÐd¡e Efmrz m¡mh¡N S¡−ju¡ ®L¡lB¢eu¡u j¡Jm¡e¡
g¢lcf¤l£l L¡jl¡u Caxf§−hÑ j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£l p¡−b f¢lQu qu ¢L¿º aMeJ a¡l p¡−b O¢eù pÇfLÑ N−s E−W¢ez
j¡Jm¡e¡ BLl¡j My¡ a¡l h¡¢s−a HL¢V °hWL X¡−Le ®kM¡−e j¡Jm¡e¡ g¢lcf¤l£, j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£, j¡Jm¡e¡ Bhc¤l
41

lq£j Hhw B−l¡ L−uLSe−L c¡Ju¡a ®cez Bj¡−LJ ®pM¡−e ¢a¢e Ef¢ÙÛa b¡L¡l SeÉ Mhl ®cez ®pM¡−e B¢j
®f±R¡l p¡−b j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£ AaÉZa B−h−Nl p¡−b Bj¡l p¡−b ®L¡m¡L¢m L−l a¡l f¡−nC h¢p−u AaÉ¿¹ ®pÀqf§ZÑ
i¡o¡u BS¡−c fÐL¡¢na Bj¡l fÐhå¢Vl S−eÉ j¤h¡lLh¡c S¡e¡ez a¡l ®pÀ−ql fl−n B¢j AaÉ¿¹ A¢ii¤a qC Hhw
Hlfl a¡l p¡−b O¢eù pÇfLÑ B−l¡ Ni£l q−a b¡−Lz
j¡Jm¡e¡ BLl¡j My¡l Býa I °hW−L ‘Cpm¡j£ ¢nr¡ L¢jne’ e¡−j 10 pcpÉ ¢h¢nø HL¢V L¢j¢V N¢Wa quz H
L¢j¢Vl ®Qu¡ljÉ¡e Ll¡ qu j¡Jm¡e¡ BLl¡j My¡−L Hhw ®p−œ²V¡¢l Ll¡ qu Bj¡−Lz H L¢j¢V ¢nr¡hÉhÙÛ¡−L
Cpm¡j£LlZ Hhw j¡cÚl¡p¡l ¢nr¡l p¡−b p¡d¡lZ ¢nr¡−L pjeÄu Ll¡l SeÉ HL¢V p¤f¡¢lnj¡m¡ °al£ L−l plL¡−ll
¢eLV ®fn L−lz H p¤f¡¢lnj¡m¡ fÐZu−e j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£l Ahc¡e ph−Q−u ®hn£ ¢R−m¡z H L¡l−ZC a¡l p¡−b Bj¡l
c£OÑ °hWL q−u−R Hhw ®hn Lu¢V −hW−L j¡Jm¡e¡ g¢lcf¤l£J k−bø pju ¢c−u−Rez
Hi¡−hC j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£l p¡−b Bj¡l −k pÇfLÑ N−s EW−m¡ a¡l g−m ka¢ce c¤¢eu¡u ¢R−me aa¢ce a¡l Y¡L¡u
AhÙÛ¡e L¡−m h¡lh¡l a¡l p¡−b Cpm¡−jl ¢h¢iæ Cp¤É−a ja ¢h¢eju q−u−Rz S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−L ¢a¢e H−a¡
i¡−m¡h¡p−ae ®k kMeC ®L¡e Cpm¡j£ Cp¤É p¡j−e Bp−a¡ aMeC ¢a¢e S¡j¡u¡−al L£ LlZ£u ®p ¢ho−u fl¡jnÑ
¢c−ae k¡−a I ¢ho−u S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£ kb¡kb i§¢jL¡ f¡me L−lz
¢a¢e HL pju QLh¡S¡−l Hjc¡¢cu¡ m¡C−hÐl£l j¡¢mL j¡Jm¡e¡ Bhc¤m Ll£−jl h¡¢s−a b¡L−aez B¢j ®p h¡¢s−a
¢N−uC a¡l p¡−b ®cM¡ Lla¡jz flhaÑ£L¡−m ¢a¢e c£OÑ¢ce g¢lc¡h¡−cl S¡−ju¡ Hjc¡¢cu¡u AhÙÛ¡e Ll−aez HM¡−eJ
B¢j hýh¡l a¡l p¡−b p¡r¡v L−l¢Rz ¢a¢e hm−a ®N−m ¢Ql l¦NÀ ¢R−mez k¡l L¡l−Z a¡l ®L¡e f¢lh¡l ¢R−m¡ e¡z a¡C
a¡l ¢eSü ®L¡e h¡p¡ h¡¢sJ ¢R−m¡ e¡z ¢a¢e ®kM¡−eC b¡L−ae HL¡C b¡L−aez a¡l M¡Ju¡-c¡Ju¡ J ®cM¡−n¡el
c¡¢uaÅ a¡l¡C f¡me Ll−ae k¡l¡ a¡−L b¡L¡l S¡uN¡ ¢c−aez
j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£ Cpm¡j pÇf−LÑ Hje Ni£l ‘¡−el A¢dL¡l£ ¢R−me ®k, ¢h¢iæ Cp¤É−a ¢a¢e ®k p§¢Q¢¿¹a A¢ija
¢c−ae a¡−a B¢j AaÉ¿¹ j¤‡ qa¡jz h¡wm¡ i¡o¡u a¡l j−a¡ cr B−mj B¢j ®p pju M¤h LjC ®c−M¢Rz ¢a¢e
h¡wm¡u ®jnL¡a nl£−gl ®k Ae¤h¡c J hÉ¡MÉ¡ ¢m−M−Re a¡l p¡¢q¢aÉL j¡eJ ®hn Eæaz a¡l ü¡ÙÛÉNa AhÙÛ¡ ®c−M
c¤xM q−a¡z Bg−p¡p Lla¡j ®k, p¤ü¡−ÙÛÉl Ai¡−h j¤p¢mj S¡¢a Hahs fТai¡l Ahc¡e ®b−L h¢’a lCmz a¡l
ü¡ÙÛÉ pð−åÉ a¡l L¡−R B¢j AaÉ¿¹ B−h−Nl p¡−b c¡¢h S¡e¡m¡j ®k, Bfe¡l p¤¢Q¢Lvp¡ qJu¡ fÐ−u¡Se, k¡−a Bf¢e
ka¢ce q¡u¡−a B−Re aa¢ce à£−el S−eÉ hs ¢LR¤ ®Mcja L−l ®k−a f¡−lez Hl SJu¡−h ¢a¢e h−me, X¡š²¡l−cl
L¡R ®b−L H d¡lZ¡ ®f−u¢R ®k, Bj¡l B−l¡−NÉl ®L¡e Bn¡ Ll¡ k¡u e¡z öd¤ q¡u¡a B−R h−mC Bj¡l ®hy−Q ®b−L
®L¡e m¡i ®eC a¡C Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡l L¡−R HC ®c¡u¡ Ll¢R, ®ke Bj¡l h¡¢L q¡u¡aV¤L¤ j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£−L c¡e
L−le, ¢k¢e à£−el ¢hl¡V ®Mcja Ll−Rez ¢a¢e j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£−L ®k H−a¡ jqîa Ll−ae HLb¡ hm¡l B−N
h¤T−a f¡¢l¢ez ®p¢ce ®b−L a¡l fТa Bj¡l jqîa B−l¡ ®h−s k¡uz
H−c−n Bõ¡ql à£e−L ¢hSu£ Lll hÉ¡f¡−l ¢a¢e H−a¡ Evp¡q£ ¢R−me ®k, kMeC ¢a¢e fÐ−u¡Se j−e Ll−ae Bj¡−L
®X−L ¢e−ae Hhw S¡j¡u¡−al L¡kÑLm¡f pÇf−LÑ Mhl ¢e−ae J j§mÉh¡e fl¡jnÑ ¢c−aez H ®c−n ®k LuSe
Ec¡l−Qa¡, Cpm¡j clc£, ®cn−fТjL J Ni£l ‘¡−el A¢dL¡l£ B−m−jl p−‰ Bj¡l O¢eùi¡−h −jn¡l ®p±i¡NÉ
q−u−R a¡l j−dÉ HL eð−l HLC p¡−b c¤’Se−L B¢j AaÉ¿¹ nÐÜ¡, jqîa J B−h−Nl p−‰ pÈlZ L¢lz H c¤’Se
q−me j¡Jm¡e¡ g¢lcf¤l£ J j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£z Cpm¡−jl k¡l¡C ®kM¡−e kaV¤L¤ ®Mcja Ll−Re a¡−cl ®Mcja−L a¡l¡
c¤’S−eC ü£L¤¢a ¢c−aez ®L¡e jq−ml ¢hl¦−ÜC a¡−cl L¡−R ®b−L ®L¡e j¿¹hÉ ö¢e¢ez CL¡j¡−a à£−el B−¾c¡me
p¢WLi¡−h f¢lQ¡¢ma ®q¡L ay¡l¡ a¡ j−e fС−Z Q¡C−ae h−mC Bj¡−L fl¡jnÑ ¢c−aez OVe¡œ²−j c¤’S−eC ¢Ql l¦NÀ
¢R−mez c¤’Se−L HLp¡−b B¢j H−a¡h¡l ®c−M¢R ®k, j−e q−a¡ ay¡l¡ ®ke Cpm¡j£ ¢Q¿¹¡d¡l¡l ¢cL ¢c−u HL¡aÁ
¢R−mez

AeÉ¡eÉ Jm¡j¡−u ®Ll¡−jl p¡¢ædÉ

j¡Jm¡e¡ n¡j¤p¤m qL g¢lcf¤l£ (l) J j¡Jm¡e¡ Bkj£ (l)-Hl p¡−b ®k f¢lj¡Z O¢eù p¡¢ædÉ m¡−il p¤−k¡N ®f−u¢R
Hhw ay¡−cl kaV¡ ®pÀ−ql fln Ae¤ih L−l¢R a¡ Bj¡l Cpm¡j£ S£ie NW−e ¢hl¡V Ahc¡e ®l−M−Rz
42

a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−a p¡−s 4 hRl HL¡Nëa¡l p¡−b LjÑla b¡L¡L¡−m (1950-54) H ®c−nl I S¡j¡u¡−al BS£ie
Bj£l (fСu 50 hRl) j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤m Bk£k (M¤me¡i£) (l) Hhw j¡Jm¡e¡ ¢Su¡EŸ£e Bm£Ns£l (l) p¡−b O¢eù
pÇfLÑ N−s E−Wz
p¡wh¡¢cLa¡u j¤p¢mj h¡wm¡l fСZf¤l¦o j¡Jm¡e¡ BLl¡j M¡−el (l) ®pÀqdeÉ qh¡l ®p±i¡NÉJ q−u¢R−m¡z ®ek¡−j
Cpm¡j£ f¡¢VÑl fТaù¡a¡ j¡Jm¡e¡ Baq¡l Bm£l (l) p¡−bJ k−bù O¢eù qh¡l p¤−k¡N ®f−u¢Rm¡jz
k¡−cl c£OÑ J O¢eù p¡¢ædÉ e¡ ®f−mJ Cpm¡j£ B−¾c¡me p§−œC HL¡−¿¹ ¢h¢iæ pju ja-¢h¢ej−ul p¤−k¡N ®f−u¢R
a¡−cl j−dÉ ¢h−noi¡−h k¡−cl e¡j nÐÜ¡l p¡−b pÈlZ L¢l a¡l¡ q−mex
1. j¡Jm¡e¡ j¤g¡a£ c£e j¤qÇjc (l)
2. j¡Jm¡e¡ j¤g¡a£ Bj£j¤m Cqp¡e (l)
3. j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤õ¡¢qm h¡¢L L¤l¡Cn (l)
4. j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤õ¡¢qm L¡g£ Bm L¤l¡Cn (l)
5. j¡Jm¡e¡ ¢pŸ£L Bqjc (l) ®ek¡−j Cpm¡j f¡¢VÑ
6. j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡C−uc j¤p−mýŸ£e (l) ®ek¡−j Cpm¡j f¡¢VÑ
7. j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡C−uc j¤Ù¹¡g¡ Bm j¡c¡e£ nq£c (l)]
8. j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡C−uc Bë¤m Bq¡c Bm j¡c¡e£ (l)
9. j¡Jm¡e¡ a¡S¤m Cpm¡j (l) (gM−l h¡wNm)z

¢h‘¡−el fТa Bj¡l ®Ty¡L

jÉb¡jÉ¡¢VLp H M¤h i¡m b¡L¡u Bj¡l ¢nrLl¡J BCHp¢p fs¡l SeÉ Bj¡−L EÜ¤Ü Ll−mez BCHp¢p fs−a
q−m aMe Y¡L¡ C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−S i¢aÑ q−a q−a¡z Bj¡l ¢nr¡ fТaù¡e Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−S ¢h‘¡e
¢hi¡N ¢R−m¡ e¡z ¢L¿º Bî¡ ¢LR¤−aC BCHp¢p-®a i¢aÑ Ll−a l¡¢S q−me e¡z ¢a¢e hm−me, “BCHp¢p fs−m
Blh£ fs¡l p¤−k¡N b¡L−h e¡z a¤¢j ¢L i¤−m ®N−R¡ −k, ®a¡j¡l c¡c¡ h−m¢R−me ®a¡j¡−L Blh£, Cw−l¢S J h¡wm¡
¢ae¢V i¡o¡ i¡mi¡−h ¢nM−a q−hz” c¡c¡l ®c¡q¡C p−šÆJ B¢j ¢h‘¡e fs¡l SeÉ Bhc¡l S¡e¡−a b¡Lm¡jz Bî¡
l¡N L−l hm−me, “c¤¢eu¡l ü¡−bÑC ®a¡j¡−L j¡cÚl¡p¡u i¢aÑ Llm¡j e¡z j¡cÚl¡p¡u L¤lBe, q¡c£p, ¢gL¡q ¢nr¡
p−šÆJ Bu-®l¡kN¡−ll juc¡−e Eæ¢al Ef¡u ®eC h−m h¡dÉ q−u ¢eE ú£−j i¢aÑ Llm¡jz a¤¢j hw−nl hs ®R−mz
Blh£ i¡o¡ a¤¢j i¡−m¡ L−l e¡ ¢nM−m L¤lBe AdÉue Ll¡l ®k¡NÉa¡ q−h e¡z H ®k¡NÉa¡ e¡ q−m ®a¡j¡l f−l ®R¡Vi¡C-®h¡e−cl à£−el f−b f¢lQ¡me¡ Ll−h ®L?” H−a¡ Lb¡ p−aÅJ B¢j ®ke Bî¡l Lb¡ ®j−e ¢e−a f¡l¢Rm¡j e¡z
Bj¡l ®Qq¡l¡ ®c−M ¢a¢e Bj¡l j−e¡i¡h ByQ L−l l¡Naü−l hm−me, “a¡q−m ®a¡j¡−L ®no fkÑ¿¹ j¡cÚl¡p¡uC i¢aÑ
Ll−a q−hz Cw−l¢S h¡wm¡ ®k f¢lj¡Z ¢n−MR H−aC Qm−hz HMe L¤lBe-q¡c£p-¢gL¡qÚ Blh£ ®h¢n L−l ¢nMz”
Bî¡l H djÑ−L ®no fkÑ¿¹ BaÈpjfZÑ Ll¡u j¡cÚl¡p¡u fs¡ ®b−L ®h−Qy ®Nm¡jz ®p pju CµR¡l ¢hl¦−Ü BCHp¢p
fs−a e¡ f¡l¡u ®hn ¢LR¤¢ce Bî¡l fТa Ap¿ºøC ¢Rm¡jz ¢h‘¡e fs−a e¡ f¡l−mJ ®k ®L¡e ¢ho−u ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u
¢X¢NË ®eJu¡ pñh h−m p¡šÆe¡ ®h¡d Llm¡jz
1954 p¡−m S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a ®k¡Nc¡−el fl p¡wNW¢eL fТœ²u¡u hÉ¡fLi¡−h L¤lBe J q¡c£p AdÉu−e
BaÈ¢e−u¡N L¢lz ¢hH-®a ®k ®L¡pÑ ¢e−u¢Rm¡j a¡−a Blh£ HL¢V ¢hou ¢R−m¡z M¡l¡f R¡œ ¢Rm¡j e¡ h−m Blh£ ®k
f¢lj¡Z ¢nM¡ q−m¡ a¡ Cpm¡j£ B−¾c¡m−e ¢hl¡V ¢eu¡ja h−m Efm¢ì Llm¡jz aMe ®b−L Bî¡l SeÉ fСZi−l
®c¡u¡ L¢l ®k, ¢a¢e Bj¡−L Blh£ fs−a h¡dÉ L−l Bj¡l ࣢e ¢S−¾cN£−L Eæa Ll¡l −k hÉhÙÛ¡ ¢e−me Hl S−eÉ
Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡ a¡−L Ag¤lÙ¹ f¤lú¡l c¡e Ll¦ez Blh£ i¡o¡ AaV¤L¤ e¡ ¢nM−m j¤p¢mj ¢q−p−h Bj¡l S£he qu−a¡
hÉbÑ q−u ®k−a¡z

Bj¡l C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV ¢nr¡

Caxf§−hÑ I pj−u fÐQ¢ma Q¡l fÐL¡l ¢nr¡hÉhÙÛ¡l ¢hhlZ ®cJu¡ q−u−Rz a¡−a ®cM¡−e¡ q−u−R ®k, HLj¡œ ¢eE ¢új
¢p−ØVj Ah HX¤−Ln−eC Bd¤¢eL ¢nr¡ Hhw Blh£ J Cpm¡j£ ¢nr¡l pjeÄu p¡de Ll¡ quz H ¢ú−j ®p−Lä¡¢l ®ØVS
43

f¡p Ll¡l fl BVÑp, p¡C¾p, Lj¡pÑ ®k ®L¡−e¡ ¢c−LC flhaÑ£ ¢nr¡ NËqZ Ll¡ pñh q−a¡ z a¡l ¢eE ¢ú−j
C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV f¡p Ll−m BVÑ−pl ®k ®L¡−e¡ ¢ho−uC EµQ ¢nr¡ NËqZ Ll¡ ®k−a¡z H L¡l−ZC k¡l¡ a¡−cl
p¿¹¡e−cl−L Bd¤¢eL ¢nr¡l p¡−b p¡−b L¤lBe q¡¢cp AdÉue Ll¡l −k¡NÉ h¡e¡−a ®Q−u¢R−me a¡l¡C H ¢nr¡−L
…l¦aÅ ¢c−u−Rez g−m H ¢nr¡hÉhÙÛ¡l Se¢fÐua¡ hª¢Ü f¡¢µRmz
1956 p¡−m kMe f§hÑ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−e BJu¡j£ m£N plL¡l L¡−uj qu aMe H ¢nr¡−L EvM¡a Ll¡l q£e E−Ÿ−nÉC
S¤¢eul j¡cÚl¡p¡…−m¡−L¡ plL¡¢l p¡q¡kÉ ¢c−u S¤¢eul q¡Cú¤m l©f¡¿¹¢la Ll¡ quz plL¡¢l p¡q¡−kÉl ®m¡−i S¤¢eul
j¡cÚlp¡l ¢nrLNZ plL¡¢l p¡q¡−kÉl Mè−s f−sez S¤¢eul j¡cÚl¡p¡…−m¡ q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡l ¢gX¡l fТaù¡e ¢R−m¡z
S¤¢eul j¡cÚl¡p¡ hå qJu¡l g−m q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡l ®L¡−pÑ i¢aÑ j−a¡ f¡Ju¡ pñh ¢R−m¡ e¡z Hi¡−hC I QjvL¡l
¢nr¡hÉhÙÛ¡¢V Afjªaɤ O−Vz Bl Hl Lª¢aaÅ BJu¡j£ plL¡−ll EflC haÑ¡uz

Y¡L¡l Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−S i¢aÑ

f¤−l¡−e¡ Y¡L¡l h¡q¡c¤l n¡q f¡−LÑl L¡−RC plL¡¢l L¢h eSl¦l L−mS ®k Lj−fÔ„ Ah¢ÙÛa, 1971 p¡m fkÑ¿¹ JM¡−eC
Y¡L¡ Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−mS Ah¢ÙÛa ¢R−m¡z B¢j H L−mS ®b−LC q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ f¡p L¢lz ¢eE ¢új ¢nr¡
fÜ¢a−a LÓ¡p ®p−ie ®b−L BCH fkÑ¿¹ HLC fТaù¡e ¢q−p−h ¢fТ¾pf¡−ml f¢lQ¡me¡d£e ¢R−m¡, S¤¢eul ®pLne
L−mS ®pLne ®b−L fªbL ¢R−m¡, k¢cJ HLC LÉ¡Çf¡−p Ah¢ÙÛa ¢R−m¡z
1942 p¡−ml S¤m¡C j¡−p I L−m−S BCH LÓ¡−p i¢aÑ qCz p¡l¡−cn ®b−L q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ fl£r¡u úm¡ln£f ®q¡ô¡l
J g¡ØVÑ ¢X¢in−e f¡p ®hn ¢LR¤ R¡œ I L−m−S i¢aÑ quz g−m LÓ¡−p ®hn fТa−k¡¢Na¡ Qm−a¡z ¢nrLNZ LÓ¡−p ®k
V¡ú ¢c−ae a¡l g−m H fТa−k¡¢Na¡ S−j E−W¢R−m¡z Hl g−m ®hn ®M−VM¤−VC fs¡öe¡ Ll−a h¡dÉ qa¡jz
fТa−k¡¢Na¡ Bj¡l ¢eLV M¤h Ef¡−cu ¢R−m¡z
BCH LÓ¡−p HL q¡S¡l eð−ll SeÉ cn¢V ®ff¡l ¢R−m¡z Hl j−dÉ h¡wm¡ 200, Cw−l¢S 200, Blh£ 200, L¤lBe
100, q¡¢cp 100, Hhw ¢gL¡q 100 H 9 ¢V ®ff¡l pL−ml S−eÉ h¡dÉa¡j§mL ¢R−m¡z h¡¢L 100 eð−ll SeÉ c¤−V¡
¢ho−ul ®k ®L¡e HL¢V h¡R¡C Ll¡l CM¢au¡l ¢R−m¡z ®p c¤−V¡ ¢hou ¢R−m¡ Cw−l¢S J ‘m¢SL L¡m¡j’z A¢dL¡wn
R¡œC úm¡ln£f f¡Ju¡l Bn¡u m¢SL L¡m¡j ¢e−a¡ L¡lZ H−a k−bø e¡ð¡l f¡Ju¡l p¤−k¡N b¡−Lz m¢SL L¡m¡−jl
hc−m Cw−l¢S ¢e−u g¡ØVÑ ®NËX úm¡ln£f f¡u¢e Caxf§−hÑz Hp−šÆJ B¢j Cw−l¢S ¢e−a ¢àd¡−h¡d L¢l¢ez L¡lZ
Cw−l¢S, h¡wm¡, Bhl£ H ¢ae¢V i¡o¡ ¢nr¡l E−Ÿ−nÉC B¢j ¢eE ¢ú−j i¢aÑ qCz Bõ¡ql ®j−qlh¡Z£−a B¢jC
phÑfÐbj I¢µRL ¢hou ¢q−p−h Cw−l¢S ®eJu¡ p−šÆJ g¡ØVÑ ®NËX úm¡ln£f f¡Cz a−h 10 ÙÛ¡−el Ef−l EW¡ pñh
qu¢ez
11.

BCH LÓ¡−pl ¢nrLNZ

Cw−l¢S, h¡wm¡, L¤lBe, q¡c£p J ¢gL¡ql ¢nrLNZ−L ®hn EµQj¡−el j−e q−a¡ Hhw a¡−cl f¡Wc¡e ®b−L k¡
¢nM−ae a¡−a Evp¡q−h¡d Lla¡jz j−e¡ q−a¡ Hhw a¡−cl f¡Wc¡l ®b−L k¡ ¢nMa¡j a¡−a Evp¡q−h¡d Lla¡jz ¢L¿º
Blh£ i¡o¡u ¢nrLNZ ®L¡−pÑl Blh£ ¢p−mh¡pV¤L¤ öd¤ Cw−l¢S−a Ae¤h¡c L−l ¢c−aez Blh£ i¡o¡ ¢nr¡l Ef−k¡N£
fÜ¢a k¡ ¢R−m¡ a¡−a¡ −h¢n ¢nM−a f¡l¢R h−m j−e q−a¡ e¡z
Cw−l¢S J h¡wm¡ i¡o¡ i¡−m¡i¡−h ¢nM¢R h−m ®k Evp¡q−h¡d Lla¡j Blh£ i¡o¡u a¡ ®j¡−VC Ae¤ih Lla¡j e¡z
Cw−l¢S i¡o¡u ¢nrLNZ öd¤ ®mLQ¡l ®cJu¡ k−bø j−e Ll−ae e¡z a¡l¡ ®q¡j V¡úJ ¢c−aez j¡−T j¡−T ®mLQ¡−ll
hc−m LÓ¡−p ®mM¡l SeÉ V¡ú ¢c−aez LÓ¡−pC M¡a¡ ®c−M i§m öÜ L−l ¢c−ae, eðlJ ¢c−aez Hi¡−h a¡l¡ Bj¡−cl−L
Cw−l¢S i¡o¡ ¢nM−a h¡dÉ Ll−aez k¢c Blh£ ¢nrLNZJ Hi¡−h ®nMh¡l ®Qø¡ Ll−ae a¡q−m LaC e¡ i¡m q−a¡z
LÓ¡−p Cw−l¢S ¢nrLNZ Cw−l¢S R¡s¡ LM−e¡ h¡wm¡ hm−ae e¡z BbQ Blh£ ¢nrLNZ Cw−l¢S R¡s¡ LM−e¡ Blh£
hm−ae e¡z
1940 p¡−m j¡QÑ j¡−p C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡ quz S¤e j¡−p gm fÐL¡n f¡uz
44

Bj¡l ®q¡−ØVm S£he

¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u qm S£he öl¦ qh¡l f§−hÑ LÓ¡p e¡Ce ®b−L BCH fl£r¡ fkÑ¿¹ fСu p¡−s Q¡l hRl Y¡L¡u Bj¡l ®q¡−ØVm
S£he −L−V−Rz

1940 p¡−m LÓ¡p e¡C−e i¢aÑ q−u S¡e¤u¡¢l ®b−L ¢X−pðl fkÑ¿¹ Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−Sl Eœ f¡−nÄÑl
Lma¡h¡S¡l e¡−j f¢l¢Qa jqõ¡u 22 eðl ¢àam h¡¢s¢V−a Ah¢ÙÛa ®q¡−ØV−m ¢Rm¡jz ®q¡−ØVm¢Vl A¢a ¢eL−V jp¢Sc
b¡L¡u fy¡Q Ju¡š² jp¢S−c e¡j¡k fsa¡jz
1941 p¡−ml S¡e¤u¡¢l−a Cpm¡jf¤l ®l¡−X Ah¢ÙÛa Y¡L¡l h¡¢sl ®NC−Vl ¢àam h¡¢s¢V−a Bj¡−cl ®q¡−ØVm
ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la quz ’42 p¡−ml j¡QÑ-H¢fÐm j¡−p q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ fl£r¡ fkÑ¿¹ H ®q¡−ØV−mC ¢Rm¡jz BCH fs¡l pj−u ’42
p¡−ml S¤m¡C −b−L 44 p¡−ml H¢fÐm fkÑ¿¹ eJu¡h h¡¢sl ®cu¡−ml f§hÑ f¡−nÄ HL¢V fÐnÙ¹ HLam¡ h¡¢s−a Ah¢ÙÛa
fÉ¡l¡X¡Cp ®q¡−ØV−m ¢Rm¡jz

Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØVm

H ®q¡−ØV−m LÓ¡p HCV ®b−L ®Ve fkÑ¿¹ 20/25 Se R¡œ ¢R−m¡z B¢j fÐb−j 4 ¢pV¢h¢nø HL¢V L¡jl¡u ¢Rm¡jz
hR−ll ®no ¢c−L p¤f¡¢l−¾Ve−X¾V p¡−qh Bj¡−L c¤C ¢pV¢h¢nø HL¢V L¡jl¡u ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la L−lez ®q¡−ØVm
p¤f¡¢l−¾Ve−X¾V Bj¡−cl ú¡EV ¢VQ¡l ¢R−mez a¡lC Ae¤−fÐlZ¡u B¢j ú¡EV B−¾c¡m−e ®k¡Nc¡e L¢lz ¢a¢e Bj¡−L
AaÉ¿¹ ®pÀq Ll−ae Hhw Bj¡l ®mM¡fs¡l hÉ¡f¡−lJ ¢h−no mrÉ l¡M−aez ®q¡−ØV−m M¤h L−W¡l BCe-nª´Mm¡ ¢R−m¡z
H hÉ¡f¡−l p¤f¡l p¡−qh ®hn hs¡ ¢R−mez p¡C a¡−L AaÉ¿¹ iu Ll−a¡z a−h a¡l ®k¡NÉ f¢lQ¡me¡l L¡l−Z a¡−L
nÐÜ¡J Ll−a¡z j¡N¢lh ®b−L Hn¡l j¡TM¡−e ®c¡am¡u Ah¢ÙÛa a¡l L¡jl¡ ®b−L fkÑ−hr−Z ®hl q−aez R¡œ−cl j−dÉ
k¡l¡ Eflam¡l b¡L−a¡ a¡−cl L¡jl¡…−m¡ fkÑ−hrZ L−l ¢py¢s ¢c−u e¡jh¡l pju a¡l Q¢V S¤a¡l BJu¡S ö−e
e£−Ql L¡jl¡l ph¡C k¡l k¡l fs¡l ®V¢h−m AaÉ¿¹ j−e¡−k¡N ¢c−u fs¡u ¢e¢hø q−a¡z ¢a¢e L¡jl¡u Y¤L−ae e¡ Hhw
R¡œl¡ ®h¢l−u a¡−L p¡m¡j ¢cL a¡ fR¾c Ll−ae e¡z ¢a¢e HV¡C Q¡C−ae ®k a¡l¡ ¢WLj−a¡ −mM¡fs¡ Ll¦Lz ¢a¢e
d§jf¡−el ®O¡l ¢h−l¡d£ ¢R−mez ®L¡−e¡ L¡jl¡l p¡j−e ¢c−u ®k−a ¢h¢s-¢pN¡−l−Vl Nå ®f−m Ls¡ i¡o¡u EµQ¡lZ
Ll−ae ®k, d§jf¡e Ll−m S¢lj¡e¡ Ll¡ q−hz a¡C k¡l¡ d¤jf¡e Ll−a¡ a¡l¡ H−a¡ p¡hd¡ea¡ Ahmðe Ll−a¡ ®k, öd¤
L¡jl¡l ¢ia−l eu ®q¡−ØV−ml ®L¡−e¡ S¡uN¡uC ¢h¢s-¢pN¡−l−Vl ¢Qq²J fJu¡ ®k−a¡ e¡z
−q¡−ØVm¢V plL¡¢l ®q¡−ØVm ¢R−m¡z Bj¡−cl j¡¢pL M¡Ju¡ MlQ ¢R−m¡ p¡−s Q¡l V¡L¡z M¡Ju¡l j¡e ®j¡V¡j¤¢V i¡−m¡C
¢R−m¡z p¤f¡¢l−¾Ve−X−¾Vl Ls¡L¢s Ll¡l L¡l−Z f¢l×L¡l-f¢lµRæa¡J p−¿¹¡oSeL ¢R−m¡z Bj¡l BÇj¡ M¤h ¢Q¢¿¹a
¢R−me ®k, M¡Ju¡l j¡e ®Lje q−h Hhw Bj¡l ü¡ÙÛÉ ¢WL b¡L−h ¢L e¡z L−uLj¡p fl kMe h¡¢s ®Nm¡j aMe Bj¡l
BÇj¡ Bj¡−L ®c−M M¤h M¤¢n q−u hm−me, L¤¢jõ¡u ®a¡j¡l ü¡ÙÛÉ M¤h i¡−m¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡z Y¡L¡u ¢N−u a¤¢j i¡−m¡C
L−l−R¡z
S¤¢eul j¡cÚl¡p¡u g¡ØVÑ ¢X¢ine f¡p R¡œ k¡l¡ ¢R−m¡ a¡−cl−L ®q¡−ØVm MlQ h¡hc q¡S£ jq¢pe g¡ä ®b−L j¡¢pL
c¤C V¡L¡ L−l hª¢š ®cJu¡ q−a¡z ®p ¢q−p−h BjJ H hª¢š ®fa¡jz ®q¡−ØV−m M¡Ju¡ h¡hc Bj¡−L j¡¢pL j¡œ Bs¡C
V¡L¡ ¢c−a q−a¡z
L¤¢jõ¡u LÓ¡p ®p−ie h¡wm¡ f¡WÉ hC−a ‘c¡eh£l q¡S£ jq¢pe’ e¡−j ®mM¡ ay¡l S£he£ f−s¢Rz ¢a¢e BS£he
A¢hh¡¢qa ¢R−mez a¡l ¢hl¡V pÇf¢š ®jd¡h£ J Nl£h j¤p¢mj R¡œ-R¡œ£−cl p¡q¡−kÉl SeÉ Ju¡LÚg L−l ¢c−u¢R−mez
a¡l ®p pÇf¢š f¢ÕQjh−‰ Ah¢ÙÛa ¢R−m¡z ýNm£−a q¡S£ jqp£e L−mS e¡−j ¢eE ¢új fÜ¢al HL¢V L−mSJ ¢R−m¡z
1947 p¡−m h‰−cn ¢hiš² qJu¡l fl f§hÑ h−‰ (haÑj¡e h¡wm¡−cn) q¡S£ jq¢pe g¡−äl p¡q¡kÉ ®fy±R¡−a ¢L e¡ ®pV¡
Bj¡l S¡e¡l p¤−k¡N qu¢ez
−q¡−ØVm QaÅ−l ®N¡p−ml SeÉ ®L¡jl pj¡e EyQ¤ HL¢V f¡L¡ q¡Ep ¢R−m¡, k¡l Q¡l f¡−n jN ¢c−u f¡¢e a¤−m Bjl¡
®N¡pm Lla¡jz R¤¢Vl ¢c−e j¡−T j¡−T pclO¡V ¢N−u h¤¢sN‰¡uJ ®N¡pm Lla¡jz ¢h−no L−l hoÑ¡L¡−m f¡¢ei¢aÑ
45

h¤¢sN‰¡u ®N¡pm L−l Be¾c ®fa¡jz B−N h−m¢R ®k, ®R¡Vpju ®R¡V j¡j¡l p¡−b h¤¢sN‰¡l a£−l cy¡¢s−u h¤¢sN‰¡l
f¢lú¡l f¡¢el ®pË¡a ®c−M ®N¡pm Ll¡l C−µR q−a¡, ¢L¿º Ae¤j¢a ®fa¡j e¡z ®q¡−ØV−m b¡L¡L¡−m ®R¡VL¡−ml ®p CµR¡
f§lZ Ll¡l p¤−k¡N ®fm¡jz

Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−m Bj¡l ®q¡−ØVm ®jV−cl L−uLSe

fÐÐbj 4 ¢pV ¢h¢nø L¡jl¡u kMe ¢Rm¡j aMe Bj¡l p¡−b ®k ¢aeSe ¢R−me a¡l HLSe lwf¤−ll e¤l¦m qLz ®p
flhaÑ£L¡−m BCe hÉhp¡ L−l Hhw lwf¤l BJu¡j£ m£−Nl ®Sm¡ pi¡f¢al c¡¢uaÅ f¡me L−lz 73 Hl ¢eh¡QÑ−e ®p
Hj¢f quz Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−mS ®b−L Bjl¡ HLC p¡−b BCH f¡p L¢lz H g¡ØVÑ ®NËX úm¡ln£fJ f¡uz
Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u AbÑe£¢a−a HjH J m’ f¡p L−lz ¢eE ¢ú−j BCH f¡p L−lJ AbÑZ£¢a−a HjH f¡p Ll−a ®L¡e
®hN f¡u¢ez
Bl HLSe l¦j ®jV lqja Bm£z ®p q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ f¡p L−l ¢jV−g¡XÑ −j¢X−Lm ú¤m ®b−L Hm.Hj.Hg. X¡š²¡l
quz X¡š²¡l q−u ®Sm p¡¢iÑ−p ®k¡Nc¡e L−lz a¡l ¢lV¡u¡l Ll¡l f−lJ a¡l p−‰ Bj¡l ®cM¡ q−u−Rz Bj¡l aªa£u
l¦j−jV e§−l S¡m¡m hu−p Bj¡−cl ®Q−u ®hn hs ¢R−m¡ Hh ®cM−aJ ®hn p¤f¤l¦o ¢R−m¡z Bjl¡ kMe ¢L−n¡l ®p
aMe k¤hLz ®p q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ f¡p Ll−a f¡−l¢ez Y¡L¡ ®Sm¡lC HL f£−ll ®R−m ¢R−m¡z A−eL hRl f−l Y¡L¡l
Cpm¡jf¤l −l¡−X BmM¡õ¡ fl¡ ®hn Sy¡LSjLf§ZÑ ®f¡n¡−L BLoÑZ£u ®Qq¡l¡l HL hÉ¢š²−L H¢N−u Bp−a ®c−M
B¢j M¤h j−e¡−k¡N a¡L¡m¡jz a¡l ®fR−e L−uLSe iš²J ¢R−m¡z M¤h L¡−R ®fy±R¡l fl B¢j hs BJu¡−S h−m
EWm¡j ‘B−l e§−l S¡m¡l e¡¢L −l?’ ®pJ ®q−p Bj¡l p¡−b B¢m‰e Ll−m¡ Hhw Cn¡l¡u Bj¡−L h¤T¡m B¢j ®ke
j¤l£c−cl Ef¢ÙÛ¢al L¡l−Z pwka q−u Lb¡ h¢mz Hlfl a¡l p¡−b Bl ®cM¡ ®eCz a−h L−uL hRl B−N a¡l clh¡l
®b−L fÐL¡¢na °c¢eL f¢œL¡l BL¡−ll HL¢V p¡ç¡¢qL h¡ j¡¢pL pwMÉ¡ Bj¡l L¡−R f¡¢W−u¢R−m¡z ®p f¢œL¡u
hÉ¡e¡l ®q−X −mM¡ ¢R−m¡ “fl£−L ¢pSc¡ Ll¡ nl£B−a pÇf§ZÑ S¡−ukz” Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−m flhaÑ£L¡−m c¤C
¢pV¢h¢nø L¡jl¡u ¢k¢e Bj¡l p¡−b ¢R−me ¢a¢e Bj¡l HL LÓ¡p Ef−l ¢R−mez ¢a¢e ®hn fs¤u¡ ¢R−mez ®q¡−ØVm
p¤f¡l Bj¡−L fs¤u¡ qh¡l p¤−k¡N ®cJu¡l SeÉ 4 ¢p−Vl L¡jl¡ ®b−L H L¡jl¡u ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la L−lez H l¦j ®jV¢V
q−ml ¢hQ¡lf¢a e¤l¦m Cpm¡j ¢k¢e h¡wm¡−c−nl i¡Cp ®fТp−X¾VJ q−u¢R−mez
Lma¡h¡S¡l −q¡−ØV−ml B−lLSe ®q¡−ØVm ®jV L¡S£ c£e j¤qÇjcz Y¡L¡ C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−mS ®b−L q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡
f¡p L−l ýNm£ q¡S£ jq¢pe Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−mL ®b−L BCH f¡p Ll¡l fl Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u h¡wm¡u
HjH f¡p L−le Hhw c£OÑL¡m Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u H ¢hi¡−N fÐ−gpl ¢R−mez haÑj¡−e X. L¡S£ c£e j¤qÇjc H¢nu¡e
CE¢ei¡¢p¢VÑl −fС-i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pmlz
¢hQ¡lf¢a e§l¦m Cpm¡−jl Lb¡ E−õM Ll−a ¢N−u HL¢V ¢h−no OVe¡l Lb¡ j−e fs−m¡z 1971 p¡−ml Lb¡z
¢hQ¡lf¢a e§l¦m Cpm¡j aMe q¡C−L¡−VÑ LjÑlaz HL hÉ¢š² Bj¡l ¢eLV H−p M¤hC B−h−Nl p−‰ a¡l f¢lQu ¢c−u
hm−m¡ ®k, a¡l L−ø A¢SÑa HL¢V pÇf¢š ¢jaÉ¡ p¡r£ ¢c−u Hhw l¡S¯e¢aL fÐi¡h M¡¢V−u LaL ®m¡L cMm Ll¡l
®Qø¡ Ll−Rz e£−Ql Bc¡ma ®b−L Bjl f−r l¡u ®f−mJ q¡C−L¡−VÑ B¢j l¡u f¡h ¢Le¡ BnwL¡ Ll¢Rz L¡lZ A−eL
fÐi¡hn¡m£ hÉ¢š² I f−r l−u−Rz H j¡jm¡¢V haÑj¡−e ¢hQ¡lf¢a e§l¦m Cpm¡−jl Bc¡m−a B−Rz B¢j S¡e−a
®f−l¢R ®k, ¢a¢e Bfe¡l O¢eø hå¤z B¢j ®k p¢aÉ H pÇf¢šl j¡¢mL H ¢ho−u k¢c Bf¢e ¢hQ¡lf¢a e§l¦m Cpm¡j−L
HLV¤ h−m ®ce a¡q−m qu−a¡ fТafr r¢a Ll−a f¡l−h e¡z
B¢j BC−el ®m¡L eCz BC−el cª¢ø−a ¢hQlf¢a−L H ¢ho−u ¢LR¤ hm¡ E¢Qa ¢Le¡ ®p pÇf−LÑ Bj¡l ®L¡e d¡lZ¡
¢R−m¡ e¡z ¢L¿º ®m¡L¢Vl p¡j¢NËL f¢lQu, a¡l ®Qq¡l¡, a¡l h¡Qei¢‰ J B−h−Nl fÐL¡n ®c−M B¢j fÐi¡¢ha qCz
Bj¡l Lb¡u k¢c a¡l ®L¡e EfL¡l qu a¡q−m −pV¡ Bj¡l hm¡ E¢Qa h−m j−e L¢lz
B¢j I −m¡L¢Vl p¡j−eC ¢hQ¡lf¢a−L a¡l h¡p¡u ®g¡e Llm¡jz k¡ hm¡l fÐ−u¡Se a¡ hmm¡j, ¢a¢e SJu¡−h k¡
hm−me, a¡−a B¢j m‹¡ ®a¡ ®fm¡jC ¢hhÐaJ ®h¡d Llm¡jz ¢a¢e hm−me, “Bf¢e ®a¡ I ®m¡L¢V−L p¡q¡kÉ Ll−a
¢N−u r¢aC L−l ®gm−mez Bfe¡l L¡−R a¡l p¤f¡¢ln Ll¡l SeÉ Bp¡V¡ j¡l¡aÁL i§m q−u−Rz ®k−qa¤ Bfe¡−L B¢j
i¡−m¡i¡−h ¢Q¢e a¡C pÇf¢šl j¡¢mL ®k ®p-C H ¢ho−u Bfe¡l Lb¡u B¢j Convinced q−u ¢N−u¢Rz g−m H
46

j¡jm¡u HLf−r Biased q−u ®Nm¡jz BC−el ¢qp¡−h B¢j H j¡jm¡u ¢hQ¡l Ll¡l ®k¡NÉa¡ q¡¢l−u ®gmm¡jz a¡C
h¡dÉ q−u fÐd¡e ¢hQ¡lf¢al ¢eLV H j¡jm¡ Bj¡−L ®gla ¢c−a q−hz AeÉ ¢hQ¡lf¢al Bc¡m−a H j¡jm¡l ¢eÖf¢š
q−hz
B¢j I ®m¡L−L ¢hhÐa q−u hmm¡j, “B¢fe H ¢hQ¡lf¢al q¡−a Cep¡g ®f−aez p¤f¡¢ln Q¡C−a H−p Bf¢e HLSe
eÉ¡u¢hQ¡l−Ll Bc¡ma ®b−L h¢’a q−mez BC−el H j¡lfÉ¡Q S¡e−m B¢j LMeJ Bfe¡l Lb¡u ¢hQ¡lf¢a−L
®g¡e Lla¡j e¡z”

Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØVm ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹l

1940 p¡−m Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−m b¡L¡L¡−m L−uLh¡l ¢q¾c¤-j¤p¢mj c¡‰¡ quz Lma¡h¡S¡l J l¡up¡−qh h¡S¡l
(Sepe ®l¡X) Hm¡L¡¢V j¤pmj¡e−cl Hm¡L¡ ¢R−m¡z h¡q¡c¤l n¡q f¡−LÑl (®pL¡−m Hl e¡j ¢R−m¡ ¢i−ƒ¡¢lu¡ f¡LÑ)
c¢rZ f¡−nÄÑ Ešlj¤M£ ®nÄa f¡b−l °a¢l jq¡l¡Z£ ¢i−ƒ¡¢lu¡l HL ¢hl¡V j§¢aÑ ¢R−m¡ f¡−LÑl c¢rZ p£j¡e¡ fkÑ¿¹
j¤pmj¡e−cl Hm¡L¡ j−e Ll¡ q−a¡z Hlfl ®b−L pclO¡V, h¡wm¡h¡S¡l J f¡V¤u¡V¤m£ ¢q¾c¤ fÐi¡h¢ða Hm¡L¡ ¢R−m¡z
c¡‰¡ öl¦ q−m c¢rZ ¢c−L ¢i−ƒ¡¢lu¡ f¡LÑ J Ešl ¢c−L eJu¡hf¤l J l¡u p¡−qh h¡S¡−ll f¤m fkÑ¿¹ j¤pmj¡e−cl
cM−m b¡L−a¡z H f¤−ml e£Q ¢c−u ®d¡m¡CM¡m fÐh¡¢qa q−a¡z haÑj¡e ®d¡m¡CM¡m¢V ®eCz H M¡m¢V −pL¡−m Y¡L¡
nql−L c¤’i¡−N ¢hiš² L−l ®l−M¢Rmz nq−ll k¡ha£u hSÑÉ H M¡m ¢c−u h¤¢sN‰¡ ec£−a ¢N−u fs−a¡z
Bj¡−cl ®q¡−ØVm¢V H M¡−ml a£−l Ah¢ÙÛa ¢R−m¡z Ešl a£−l °jöä£ Hm¡L¡ ¢q¾c¤−cl cM−m ¢R−m¡z Jf¡l ®b−L
q¡jm¡l Bn¡wL¡u Bjl¡ ®q¡−ØV−ml ®R−ml¡ 24 O¾V¡ f¡q¡l¡ ¢ca¡jz l¡−a qÉ¡S¡L SÅ¡¢m−u 4 Se R¡œ−L c¤’O¸V¡ L−l
f¡q¡l¡ ¢c−a q−a¡z
il¡ hoÑ¡u ®q¡−ØV−ml ¢cL ®b−L M¡m¢V ®hn fÐnÙ¹ j−e q−a¡z ®e±L¡−k¡−N °jö™£ ®b−L ¢q¾c¤−cl q¡jm¡ q−a f¡−l h−m
hoÑ¡−aJ f¡q¡l¡l fÐ−u¡Se q−a¡z HL hRl L−uLh¡l c¡‰¡ qJu¡u R¡œ−cl−L Hi¡−h f¡q¡l¡ ¢c−a q−a¡ h−m L−mS
LaѪfr ®q¡−ØVm¢V ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹−ll ¢pÜ¡¿¹ NËqZ L−lz 1941 p¡−m S¡e¤u¡¢l ®b−L Cpm¡jf¤l ®l¡−Xl eJu¡h ®N−V Bj¡−cl
ea¤e ®q¡−ØVm L¡−uj quz

eJu¡h ®NV ®q¡−ØVm

Cpm¡jf¤l ®l¡−Xl c¢rZ f¡−n Y¡L¡l eJu¡h h¡¢sl ¢hl¡V ®NVz Y¤L−mC h¡jf¡−n ¢àam h¡¢s¢V−a Bj¡−cl ®q¡−ØVm
¢R−m¡z 1941 p¡−ml S¡e¤u¡¢l ®b−L ’42 p¡−ml H¢fÐm (q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡ g¡Cl¡m fl£r¡) fkÑ¿¹ H ®q¡−ØV−mC ¢Rm¡jz
Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q−ØVm ®b−L L−mS M¤h ¢eL−V ¢R−m¡z eJu¡h ®NV ®b−L L−m−Sl c¤laÅ ®p a¤me¡u ¢ae…Zz H
Hm¡L¡¢V j¤p¢mj fÐd¡e qJu¡u ¢q¾c¤-j¤p¢mj c¡‰¡l L¡l−Z Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−ml j−a¡ Bj¡−cl−L f¡q¡l¡ ¢c−a
q−a¡ e¡z H ®q¡−ØV−ml ®ia−l ®Mm¡d¤m¡l p¡j¡eÉ S¡uN¡J ¢R−m¡ e¡z a¡C ¢h−Lm−hm¡ ®Mm¡d¤m¡l SeÉ L−mS j¡−WC
®k−a q−a¡z eJu¡h ®NV ®b−L f¡V¤u¡V¤m£ q−u pclO¡−Vl f¡n ¢c−u l¡Ù¹¡ HLV¤ mð¡ quz Bl Cpm¡jf¤l ®b−L
n¡M¡l£f¢–l −ial ¢c−u ®N−m l¡Ù¹¡ pw−rf quz ¢q¾c¤-j¤p¢mj c¡‰¡ ®h−d ®N−m Bjl¡ LMeJ n¡M¡l£f¢– ¢c−u ®ka¡j
e¡z L¡lZ ®pM¡eL¡l pLm A¢dh¡p£ ¢q¾c¤ ¢R−m¡z
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M¡−mL Bl HLSe I Hm¡L¡lC Bhc¤m L¤Ÿ¤pz Hl¡ c¤’S−eC Bj¡l LÓ¡−pl R¡œ ¢R−m¡z Bhc¤m L¤Ÿ¤p−L B¢j L¤Ÿ¤p
i¡C X¡La¡jz hu−p ¢a¢e Bj¡l L−uL hR−ll hsz ¢a¢e Bj¡l Bfe M¡m¡−a¡ i¡C−ul Q¡Q¡−a¡ i¡C qJu¡u BaÈ£u
¢q−p−h i¡C pÇf¢LaÑC ¢R−m¡z l¦j−jV J pqf¡W£ qJu¡l L¡l−Z BQl−Zl ¢cL ¢c−u H−L Bf−ll p¡−b hå¤p§mi
BQlZC Lla¡jz Bj¡−cl ®q¡−ØV−ml ¢eLV eJu¡h h¡¢s jp¢S−cC e¡j¡k fsa¡jz ®q¡−ØVm ®b−L Bqp¡e j¢”m
e¡jL fСp¡−cl ¢c−L k¡Ju¡l f−bC jp¢Sc Ah¢ÙÛaz haÑj¡−e Bqp¡e j¢”m fСp¡c¢V k¡c¤Ol ¢q−p−h pwl¢raz ®p
pju eJu¡h f¢lh¡−ll ®m¡Lse ®pM¡−e hph¡p Ll−a¡z eJu¡h Bqp¡e Eõ¡ql e¡−j H ihe¢Vl e¡jLlZ Ll¡ quz
eJu¡h Bqp¡e Eõ¡ql ®R−m eJu¡h p¢mj¤õ¡q ¢hn na−Ll öl¦−a H−c−nl j¤pmj¡e−cl clc£ ®ea¡l c¡¢uaÅ f¡me
L−lez 1905 p¡−m h‰i−‰l fl f§hÑh¡wm¡ J Bp¡j ¢e−u ea¤e fÐ−cn L¡−uj quz Y¡L¡ Hl l¡Sd¡e£ ¢R−m¡z
47

LmL¡a¡¢i¢šL ¢q¾c¤ ®ea¡−cl B−¾c¡m−el g−m 1911 p¡−m ¢hТVn pjË¡V 5j SSÑ ¢cõ£−a H−p h‰i‰ lc L−l
®ch¡l g−m f§hÑh−‰l j¤pmj¡e−cl ®k ¢hl¡V r¢a qu a¡ f§l−Zl SeÉ pÉ¡l p¢mj¤õ¡q ¢h¢iæ fÐ−Qø¡ Q¡m¡ez a¡l
fÐ−Qø¡l g−mC f§hÑh−‰l j¤pm¡je¡−cl EµQ¢nr¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ 1921 p¡−m Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu fТa¢ùa quz H
¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul j¤p¢mj qm¢V pÉ¡l p¢mj¤õ¡ql e¡−j HMeJ f¢l¢Qaz f§hÑh‰ J Bp¡j fÐ−c−nl l¡Sd¡e£ ¢q−p−h Y¡L¡
®k jkÑ¡c¡ ®f−u¢R−m¡, a¡lC g−m pÉ¡l p¢mj¤õ¡ql E−cÉ¡−N 1906 p¡−m Y¡L¡u ®N¡V¡ i¡l−al j¤p¢mj ®eaªhª−¾cl
p−Çjme Ae¤¢ùa quz I p−Çjm−eC j¤p¢mj m£−Nl S¾j quz
B¢j kMe eJu¡h ®NV ®q¡−ØV−m ¢Rm¡j aMe pÉ¡l p¢mj¤õ¡ql ®R−m q¡¢hh¤õ¡q Y¡L¡l eJu¡h ¢R−mez ¢a¢e Y¡L¡u
LjC b¡L−ae, LmL¡a¡uC ®h¢n b¡L−aez 1937 p¡−m a¡l ®R¡V i¡C eJu¡hS¡c¡ M¡S¡ epl¦õ¡q h‰£u BCe pi¡u
eh£eNl ®b−L ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa qez eh£eNl J Bnf¡−nl L−uL¢Vl b¡e¡ ¢e−u ¢ehÑ¡Qe£ Bpe ¢R−m¡z H Hm¡L¡¢V Y¡L¡l
eJu¡h−clC S¢jc¡l£ Hm¡L¡z
1935 p¡−ml i¡la n¡pe BCe Ae¤k¡u£ phÑfÐbj fС−c¢nL BCepi¡l ¢ehÑ¡Q−el hÉiÙÛ¡ quz 1937 p¡−m I ¢ehÑ¡Qe
Ae¤¢ùa quz B¢j aMe LÓ¡p ¢p−„l R¡œz Bj¡−cl hs¡Cm S¤¢eul j¡cÚl¡p¡ j¡−W M¡S¡ epl¦õ¡ql ¢ehÑ¡Qe£ pi¡
Ae¤¢ùa quz I ¢ehÑ¡Q−e phÑp¡d¡lZ ®i¡V¡l ¢R−m¡ e¡z HL¢V ¢h−no f¢lj¡Z VÉ¡„c¡a¡l¡ ®i¡V¡l ¢R−m¡z Bj¡l HMeJ
Øfø j−e B−R, j¡cÚl¡p¡ ®b−L j¡CmM¡−eL c§−l ec£−a M¡S¡ epl¦õ¡q p¡−qh f¡ep£ ®e±L¡−a Bp−me Hhw ®pM¡e
®b−L f¡mL£−a Q−s Sepi¡u Bp−mez ¢hl¡V ®cq¢h¢nø qm¤chlZ ®p±jÉj§¢aÑ f¡mL£ ®b−L ®e−j j−’ hp−mez ¢a¢e
hšÆa
ª ¡ Ll−me e¡z k¡l¡ hšÆªa¡ Ll−me a¡−cl−L B¢j ¢Qea¡jJ e¡z a¡l¡ L£ hš²ªhÉ l¡M−me ®p¢c−L Bj¡l ®L¡e
j−e¡−k¡N ¢R−m¡ e¡z qu−a¡h¡ Iph l¡S¯e¢aL Lb¡ h¤Th¡l hup qu¢ez B¢j J Bj¡l j−a¡ hup£ A−e−L I Aá¤a
p¤¾cl j¡e¤o¢Vl ¢c−L HLcª¢ø a¡¢L−u b¡Lm¡jz k−a¡rZ ¢a¢e j−’ ¢R−me HLV¡l fl HLV¡ ¢pN¡−lV d¢l−u p¡j¡eÉ
L−uL V¡e ¢c−u ®g−m ¢c−ae Hhw ®m¡−Ll¡ L¡s¡L¡¢s L−l ¢e−u ®k−a¡z O¸V¡M¡−eL pi¡ Qm¡l fl ¢a¢e Bh¡l
f¡m¢L−a Q−s f¡en£ ®e±L¡u Q−m −N−mez hý−m¡L ®fR−e ®fR−e f¡mL£l Q¡lf¡n ¢O−l ®e±L¡ fkÑ¿¹ ®N−m¡z
e¡Ju¡h h¡¢sl ®q¡−ØV−ml Lb¡ hm−a ¢N−u eJu¡h−cl A−eL Lb¡ AfСp¢‰Li¡−h H−p ®N−m¡z eJu¡h h¡¢s jp¢S−c
¢eu¢ja e¡j¡k hs¡ p−šÆJ eJu¡h h¡¢sl L¡−l¡l p¡−b ®cM¡-p¡r¡a h¡ f¢lQ−ul ®L¡−e¡ p¤−k¡N qu¢ez S¤jBl e¡j¡−k
eJu¡h h¡¢sl k¡l¡ jp¢S−c Bp−a¡ a¡l¡ p¡j−el ¢c−LC hp−a¡z Bj¡−cl hup£ ®k L−uLSe−L ®c−M¢R a¡l¡
e¡j¡−kl f−lC Q¤fQ¡l Q−m ®k−a¡z a¡−cl L¡−l¡ p¡−b Lb¡ hm¡ h¡ f¢lQu Ll¡l AhL¡n ¢R−m¡ e¡z a¡−cl ®Qq¡l¡,
N¡−ul lw h¡ ®f¡n¡L ®c−MC ®Qe¡ ®k−a¡ Hl¡ eJu¡h h¡¢sl ®m¡Lz eJu¡h h¡¢sl j¢qm¡−cl−L ®hfcÑ¡ Qm−a Bjl¡
LMeJ ®c¢M¢ez ®O¡s¡l N¡¢s−a a¡l¡ k¡a¡u¡a Ll−aez aMe ®O¡s¡l N¡¢sl Q¡lf¡−n ®lnj£ L¡fs ¢c−u ®N¡V¡
N¡¢sV¡−LC ®Y−L l¡M−a¡z Hje¢L ®j¡Vl N¡¢sl S¡e¡m¡l ®ial ¢c−uJ fcÑ¡ V¡‰¡−e¡ b¡L−a¡z
e¡Ju¡h h¡¢sl ®ia−ll Buae ¢hl¡V ¢R−m¡z Hl c¢rZ fС−¿¹ Bqp¡e j¢”m ÙÛ¡¢faz Bqp¡e j¢”−ml c¢r−ZC
h¡LmÉ¡ä ®l¡X k¡ h¤¢sN‰¡u a£−lC Ah¢ÙÛaz h¤¢sN‰¡ Bj¡−cl ®q¡−ØV−ml A¢a ¢eL−V qJu¡u ®q¡−ØV−ml Bjl¡ ®hn
L−uLSe gS−ll e¡j¡−kl fl f¡uS¡j¡ J q¡gp¡VÑ f−lC h¡LmÉ¡ä ®l¡−X ¢N−u −c±s¡a¡jz H hÉ¡f¡−l Bj¡l
E−cÉ¡NC ®h¢n ¢R−m¡z

fÉ¡l¡X¡Cp ®q¡−ØVm

eJu¡h h¡¢sl f§hÑ ¢c−LC ®cu¡m ®Oy−o ®k l¡Ù¹¡¢V Cpm¡jf¤l ®b−L h¡LmÉ¡ä ®l¡−Xl ¢c−L Q−m ®N−R ®p l¡Ù¹¡l f¡−nC
HLam¡ fÐnÙ¹ HL¢V h¡¢s−a H ®q¡−ØVm¢V ÙÛ¡¢fa quz 1942 p¡−ml S¤m¡C ®b−L 1944 p¡−ml H¢fÐm (Cpm¡¢jL
C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV fl£r¡) fkÑ¿¹ H ®q¡−ØV−m ¢Rm¡jz H−a öd¤ plL¡¢l C¾V¡l¢j¢X−u−Vl R¡œl¡C b¡L−a¡z j¡œ 15¢V
Bpe¢h¢nø ®q¡−øm¢V−a Ls¡ fÐn¡pe hÉhÙÛ¡l ®L¡−e¡ fÐ−u¡Se ¢R−m¡ e¡z L−m−Sl m¡C−hÐl£u¡e ®j±mi£ p¡e¡Eõ¡q
p¡−qh ®q¡−ØVm c¡¢uaÅ e¡−jj¡œ f¡me Ll−aez ¢a¢e AaÉ¿¹ ¢el£q iâ−m¡L ¢R−mez ®q¡−ØVm f¢lQ¡me¡l hÉ¡f¡−l ¢a¢e
R¡œ−cl q¡−aC c¡¢uaÅ ¢c−u ¢e¢ÕQ¿¹ ¢R−mez g−m fÐn¡p¢eL ®L¡−e¡ pjpÉ¡ −cM¡ −cu¢ez Bjl¡ Ae¤ih Lla¡j ®ke
Bjl¡ HLV¡ ®j−p hph¡p Ll¢Rz LÓ¡p e¡Ce ®b−L BCH fkÑ¿¹ ¢ae¢V ®q¡−ØV−m fСu p¡−s Q¡l hRl b¡L¡L¡−m
plL¡¢l X¡š²¡l pç¡−q HLh¡l R¡œ−cl ®cM¡l SeÉ ®q¡−ØV−m Bp−aez Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−m b¡L¡L¡−m −k X¡š²¡l
Bp−ae ¢a¢e ®hn hu×L ¢R−mez R¡œ−cl p−‰ j¤l¦¢hhu¡e¡ i¡o¡u Lb¡ hm−aez X¡š²¡l p¡−qh ¢q¾c¤ ¢R−mez ¢a¢e

48

X¡š²¡l ¢q−p−h ü¡ÙÛÉ fl£r¡ Ll−aez ¢a¢e ü¡ÙÛÉ pÇf¢Lña A−eL Ef−cn ¢c−aez fÐ−u¡Se q−m −fÐp¢œ²fne ¢e−u
Bjl¡ plL¡¢l q¡pf¡a¡m ®b−L Kod ¢ea¡jz
¢h−L−m ®Mm¡d¤m¡l fl kMe fs−a hpa¡j aMe O¤j M¤h SÅ¡m¡ae Ll−a¡z O¤−jl SÅ¡m¡u fs−a e¡ ®f−l h¡l h¡l E−W
®Q¡−M f¡¢e ¢ca¡jz HL¢ce I X¡š²¡l−L Bhc¡−ll i¡o¡u hmm¡j, pÉ¡l Bf¢e Bj¡−cl−L H−a¡ Bcl L−le h−m
p¡qp L−l HLV¡ c¡¢h S¡e¡−a Q¡Cz ¢a¢e −q−p hm−me, L£ hm−a Q¡J hmz hmm¡j, pÉ¡l! fl£r¡ p¡j−e, fs−a
hp−m påÉ¡l fl O¤−jl SÅ¡m¡u fs−a f¡¢l e¡z cu¡ L−l Bj¡−L Hje HLV¡ Kod −ce k¡−a Bj¡l O¤j L−jz
X¡š²¡l p¡−qh ®Q¡−Ml Qnj¡¢V M¤−m q¡−a ¢e−mez Bj¡l ¢c−L HL ¢j¢eV Nñ£li¡−h a¡¢L−u b¡L−mez B¢j HLV¤ iu
®f−u ®Nm¡jz L¡−R ®X−L ¢e−u ¢f−W q¡a h¤¢m−u Bcl L−l hm−me, ®hV¡! O¤j Lj¡h¡l Kod Q¡J, X¡š²¡ll¡ −L¡e¢ce
O¤j Lj¡h¡l Kod ®cu e¡z X¡š²¡ll¡ Kod ¢c−m O¤jh¡l KodC ®cuz BS−L a¤¢j Bj¡l L¡−R O¤j Lj¡h¡l Kod Q¡µRz
HL¢ce Bp−h kMe X¡š²¡−ll L¡−R O¤jh¡l Kod Q¡C−hz Ef−cnl p¤−l hm−me, fs¡l pju O¤j ®f−m h¡C−l ¢N−u
HLV¤ f¡uQ¡l£ Ll−h, L¡−l¡ p−‰ ¢LR¤ Lb¡h¡aÑ¡ hm−h a¡−aC O¤j Q−m k¡−hz
12.

−pL¡−ml Y¡L¡ nql

1940 p¡−m Y¡L¡u LÓ¡p e¡C−e i¢aÑ qJu¡l pju Y¡L¡−L ®k AhÙÛ¡u ®f−u¢R a¡ i¡−m¡ L−l ®cMh¡l p¤−k¡N q−m¡ kMe
ú¡EV B−¾c¡m−e ®k¡Nc¡e Llm¡jz Bj¡−cl ú¡EV j¡ø¡l Y¡L¡ nq−ll HLV¡ jÉ¡f °a¢ll SeÉ c¡¢uaÅ ¢c−mez HLV¡
Hm¡L¡ p¡−iÑ Ll¡l SeÉ l¡Ù¹¡O¡−Vl jÉ¡f fÐ−u¡Sez H L¡S¢V Ll−a ¢N−u ®pL¡−ml ®N¡V¡ nq−ll ph Hm¡L¡u
¢N−u¢Rz nql¢V aMe ¢hl¡V ¢R−m¡ e¡z k¢cJ Y¡L¡l ‘h¡u¡æ h¡S¡l ¢aè¡æ N¢m’ Lb¡¢V fÐhQe ¢q−p−h Q¡m¤ ¢R−m¡z
B¢j kMe lwf¤l L−m−S ¢nrLa¡ L¢l aMe I Hm¡L¡l HL¢V ®R−m Bj¡l h¡p¡u L¡S Ll−a¡z hup a¡l fel-®o¡m
hRlz Bj¡l h¡¢s Y¡L¡u H Lb¡ ®S−e ®p M¤h BNË−ql p¡−b ¢S−‘p Ll−m¡, pÉ¡l! ö−e¢R ®m¡−Ll¡ h−m, Y¡L¡ nq−ll
e¡¢L am¡ e¡C! ®pM¡−e jgüm ®b−L ®LE ®N−m h¡S¡−ll fl h¡S¡l, N¢ml fl N¢m O¤−l e¡¢L ®L¡e L¤m-¢Lm¡e¡ f¡u
e¡? ®R−m¢Vl H fÐnÀ ®b−L B¢j Y¡L¡ pð−å I Hm¡L¡l HLV¡ p¡d¡lZ d¡lZ¡ ®fm¡jz
1956 p¡−m S¡e¤u¡¢l j¡−p j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£ (l) fÐbj Y¡L¡ Bp−mez 205 eJu¡hf¤l ®l¡−Xl ®c¡am¡u S¡j¡−al
fС−c¢nÑL A¢gp ¢R−m¡z ¢p¢ŸL h¡S¡−ll ‘L¡Jp¡l q¡Ep’ e¡−jl h¡¢s−a nql A¢gp ¢R−m¡z ®p A¢g−p k¡a¡u¡a
Efm−r hwn¡m, e¡¢Sl¡ h¡S¡l Hph S¡uN¡uJ a¡−L ®k−a q−u−Rz a¡−L B¢j ¢S−‘p Llm¡j, A¢gp ¢q−p−h
‘L¡Ep¡l q¡Ep’ ¢a¢e ®Lje fR¾c L−lez SJu¡−h hm−me, N¢ml fl N¢m f¡l q−u HM¡−e Bp−a q−m¡z H p¤¾cl
h¡¢sV¡ eJu¡hf¤l ®l¡−X ¢e−u k¡Ju¡ k¡u e¡? B−l¡ hm−me, p¡d¡lZa nq−l fÐd¡e l¡Ù¹¡ L−uL¢V b¡−L Hhw c¤C fÐd¡e
l¡Ù¹¡l j¡TM¡−l A−fr¡Lªa ®R¡V l¡Ù¹¡¢V−L N¢m hm¡ quz hs l¡Ù¹¡ ®b−L N¢m−a Y¤L−m N¢ml ®no j¡b¡u ¢N−u
B−lL¢V hs l¡Ù¹¡ f¡Ju¡ k¡uz c¤¢eu¡l ph−c−nC nq−l H lLjV¡ ®cM¡ k¡uz ¢L¿º Y¡L¡u ®cMm¡j HLN¢m ®b−L
B−lL N¢m ®pM¡e ®b−L B−lL N¢m, N¢ml fl N¢m Bp−aC b¡−L z a¡l H Lb¡l fl B¢j hmm¡j Y¡L¡u hs l¡Ù¹¡
öd¤ c¤−V¡C B−R-pclO¡V ®b−L eJu¡hf¤l, Bl HLV¡ pclO¡V ®b−L QLh¡S¡lz B¢c Y¡L¡u Bl phC N¢mz
B¢j 1940 p¡−ml Lb¡ hm¢Rz aMe Y¡L¡l B¢c nq−ll p£j¡e¡ ¢R¡−m¡ ¢ejÀl©fz nq−ll c¢r−Z h¤¢sN‰¡ ec£z Eš−l
®Nä¡¢lu¡ ®lmøne ®b−L g¤mh¡s£u¡ ®lm−øne f¡l q−u q¡a£lf¤m fkÑ¿¹z f§−hÑ ®Nä¢lu¡ J gl¡nN”, f¢ÕQj m¡mh¡N J
eJu¡hN”z j¡TM¡−e E−õM−k¡NÉ ÙÛ¡e…−m¡l e¡j hMn£h¡S¡l, QLh¡S¡l, Cpm¡jf¤l, f¡V¤u¡V¤m£, pclO¡V,
h¡wm¡h¡S¡l, Lma¡h¡S¡l, mr£h¡S¡l, nÉ¡jh¡S¡l, l¡u p¡−qh h¡S¡l, n¡M¡l£ h¡S¡l, ay¡a£ h¡S¡l, eJu¡hf¤l, W¡V¡l£
h¡S¡l, ¯jö™£, cu¡N”, hwn¡m, j¡¢m−V¡m¡, BjÑ¡e£ ®V¡m¡, e¡¢Sl¡ h¡S¡l, ®N¡f£h¡N, ¢VL¡V¤m£, e¡¢l¾c¡ CaÉ¡¢cz B−l¡
hý N¢m J h¡S¡l B−R k¡ H j¤ý−aÑ pÈl−Z Bp−R e¡z a−h ¢q−ph Ll−m ‘h¡u¡æ h¡S¡l ¢aè¡æ N¢m’ ¢q−ph ¢jm−h
¢Le¡ S¡e¡ e¡Cz

49

1905 p¡−ml fl Y¡L¡ nql

1905 p¡−m f§hÑhwN J Bp¡j fÐ−c−nl l¡Sd¡e£ ¢q−p−h Y¡L¡ nql Ešl ¢c−L h¢dÑa quz ea¤e Y¡L¡ J f¤l¡−e¡ Y¡L¡l
j¡TM¡−e ®Nä¡¢lu¡ ®lm−øne ®b−L g¤mh¡¢su¡ ®øne q−u q¡a£lf¤m fkÑ¿¹z ®pM¡e ®b−L ¢fmM¡e¡ ®l¡X B¢Sjf¤l
®N¡lÙÛ¡e fkÑ¿¹z
−lm m¡C−el Eš−l l¡Sd¡e£ Y¡L¡l SeÉ p¢Qh¡mu, BCe-pi¡ ihe, NiÑel N¡Cp, q¡C−L¡VÑ ihe, p¢Qh−cl Bh¡p
CaÉ¡¢c °a¢l quz haÑj¡e p¢Qh¡mu Hm¡L¡u HL¢V ¢àam mð¡ c¡m¡e p¢Qh¡m−ul SeÉ, L¡SÑe qm BCe-f¢lo−cl
SeÉ, f¤l¡−e¡ q¡C−L¡VÑ ihe q¡C−L¡−VÑl SeÉ, haÑj¡e h‰ihe r¤â¡L¡−l NiÑel q¡E−pl SeÉ, ¢j¾V¤ ®l¡X J ®qu¡l
®l¡−X p¢Qh−cl b¡L¡l SeÉ ®L¡u¡VÑ¡l °al£ qu Hhw hÉhq¡l Ll¡J öl¦ quz
1911 p¡−m h‰i‰ lc qJu¡l Y¡L¡ l¡Sd¡e£l jkÑ¡c¡ q¡l¡uz 1921 p¡−m Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu öl¦ qJu¡u l¡Sd¡e£l
E−Ÿ−nÉ ¢e¢jÑa ¢h¢ôw ¢iæ L¡−S hÉhq©a quz
q¡C−L¡VÑ ¢h¢ôw-H Y¡L¡ plL¡¢l C¾V¡¢j¢X−uV L−mS Hhw p¢Qh¡m−ul ¢h¢ôw-H C−Xe plL¡¢l j¢qm¡ L−mS L¡−uj
quz haÑj¡e gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm ¢h¢ôw Y¡L¡ L−mS −q¡−ØVm ¢R−m¡z
1921 p¡−m Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu öl¦ quz Hl SeÉ ®k ¢hl¡V ¢àam ¢h¢ôw °a¢l qu ®pM¡−e HMe Y¡L¡ ®j¢X−Lm L−mS
J q¡pf¡a¡mz 2u ¢hnÄk−¤ Ül pju HM¡−e p¡j¢lL q¡pf¡a¡m ¢R−m¡z Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul j¤p¢mj R¡œ−cl SeÉ °a¢l
qu p¢mj¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj qm Hhw ¢q¾c¤ R¡œ−cl SeÉ SNæ¡b qmz L¡SÑe qm¢V ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul fl£r¡l qm ¢q−p−h
hÉhq©a quz Bl p¢Qh−cl ®L¡u¡VÑ¡l…−m¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul L¡−S m¡−Nz
−n−lh¡wm¡ gSm¤m qL h¡wm¡l fÐd¡ej¿»£ b¡L¡L¡−m 1940 p¡−m Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul HL¡w−n gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj
qm öl¦ qu Hhw Hl fÐbj fÐ−i¡ø qe X. j¤q¡Çjc nq£c¤õ¡qz
¢àa£u jq¡k¤Ü ®p−ÃVðl 1939 p¡−m öl¦ q−mJ Hl BO¡a H ®c−n 1942 p¡−m Ae¤i¤a qu kMe CwN-j¡¢Lñe ¢jœ
h¡¢qe£ Y¡L¡ L−mS J p¢mj¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj q−m BÙ¹¡e¡ N¡−s Hhw Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ihe p¡j¢lL q¡pf¡a¡−m f¢lZa
quz
1947 p¡−m kMe f§hÑh‰ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el HL¢V fÐ−cn ¢q−p−h f¢ÕQj h‰ J i¡la ®b−L fªbL qu aMe Y¡L¡ Bh¡l
fС−c¢nL l¡Sd¡e£l j¡kÑ¡c¡ f¡uz Y¡L¡ L−mS ¢h¢ôw-H Bh¡l Y¡L¡ q¡C−L¡VÑ Hhw C−Xe j¢qm¡ L−mS ¢h¢ôw Bh¡l
p¢Qh¡m−u f¢lZa quz
1948 p¡−m Bj¡l Q¡Q¡ Se¡h n¢gL¤m Cpm¡−jl E−cÉ¡−N Bî¡ kMe lje¡ b¡e¡l ¢eLV jNh¡S¡−l S¡uN¡ ¢L−ee
aMe H Hm¡L¡¢V Ae¡h¡¢c ¢R−m¡z HM¡eL¡l B¢ch¡p£l¡ h¡S¡l-pc¡C Ll¡l SeÉ QLh¡S¡l, eJu¡hf¤l W¡V¡l£ h¡S¡l
®k−a¡z ®L¡b¡u k¡e ¢S−‘p Ll−m ph¡C hm−a¡ ‘Y¡L¡’z Bjl¡ HM¡−e hph¡p öl Ll¡l flJ ®hn Lu hRl Y¡L¡-C
®ka¡jz
1949 p¡−m HM¡−e hph¡p öl¦ qm ¢c−el ®hm¡uJ S−hq Ll¡ j¤lN£ ¢nu¡−m ¢e−u ®k−a¡z

1947 flhaÑ£ Y¡L¡ nql

1947 p¡−ml i¡la ¢hiš² qJu¡l g−m f¢LÙ¹¡e L¡−uj quz Bl h¡wm¡−cn ¢hiš² q−u f§hÑh‰ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el A¿¹i¤Ñš²
qu Hhw Y¡L¡ f§hÑh−‰l l¡Sd¡e£ ¢q−p−h NZÉ quz 1905 p¡−m h‰ i−‰l g−m ®k Lu¢V ¢h¢ôw °a¢l q−u¢Rm a¡ HL¢V
fÐ−c¢nL l¡Sd¡e£l SeÉ eNZÉC ¢Rmz h¡wm¡−c−nl l¡Sd¡e£ LmL¡a¡l p¢Qh¡m−u (l¡CV¡Ñp ¢h¢ôw) LjÑla j¤pmj¡e
plL¡¢l LjÑLaÑ¡ J LjÑQ¡l£NZ Hhw fСu pLm plL¡¢l A¢g−pl LjÑla j¤pmj¡eNZ, k¡−cl j−dÉ Ec¤Ñi¡o£ J
h¡wm¡i¡o£ pLm plL¡¢l LjÑLaÑ¡-LjÑQ¡l£C Y¡L¡u ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la quz f¤¢mn J ®lm ¢hi¡−N h¡wm¡i¡o£l ®Q−u EcѤi¡o£
®h¢n ¢R−m¡z
50

Haph j¡e¤−ol b¡L¡l S¡uN¡ Hhw A¢g−pl hÉhÙÛ¡ Ll¡ HL ¢hl¡V pjpÉ¡ ¢R−m¡z a¢sO¢s L−l e£m−ra J fm¡n£−a
j¤m£ hy¡n ¢c−u ¢hl¡V hÉ¡l¡L °a¢l Ll¡ quz B¢Sjf¤−l Q¡lam¡ A−eL…¢m ¢h¢ôw °a¢l Ll¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ quz
H¢c−L LmL¡a¡ J i¡l−al B−l¡ hý S¡uN¡ ®b−L j¤pmj¡e hÉhp¡u£l¡ Y¡L¡l ¢q¾c¤ hÉhp¡u£−cl p¡−b pÇfc ¢h¢lju
L−l Y¡L¡u hÉhp¡ öl¦ L−lz ¢hq¡−l hÉ¡fL c¡‰¡l g−m j¤pmj¡el¡ ¢hl¡V f§hhÑ ¡wm¡u BnÐu ¢e−a h¡dÉ quz Hi¡−h
qW¡v L−l plL¡¢l J ®hplL¡¢li¡−h Y¡L¡l SepwMÉ¡ hª¢Ü f¡Ju¡l g−m Y¡L¡ nql Ešl ¢c−L â¦a pÇfp¡¢la q−a
b¡−Lz Y¡L¡l ¢jlf¤l J ®j¡q¡Çjcf¤l ¢h−no L−l Ec¤Ñi¡o£−cl Bh¡pi¤¢j N−s E−Wz nq−ll hý ¢q¾c¤ LmL¡a¡u
j¤pmj¡e−cl p−‰ h¡¢s ¢h¢eju L−lz hÉhp¡-h¡¢Z−SÉ j¤pmj¡el¡ hÉ¡fLi¡−h S¢sa qJu¡l g−m nq−ll pÇfÐp¡lZJ
pj¡e a¡−mC OV−a b¡−Lz
−cn n¡p−el p¤−k¡N k¡l¡ ®f−u¢R−me a¡l¡ d¡ej¢ä-…mn¡e Hm¡L¡u hs hs fÔV…−m¡ a¡−cl e¡−j hl¡Ÿ ¢e−u
Bh¡¢pL Hm¡L¡ N−s ®a¡−mez p¡−b p¡−b Iph Hm¡L¡u hs hs j¡−LÑVJ N−s E−Wz Hi¡−hC eJu¡hf¤l ®lmœ²p
e¡−j MÉ¡a Hm¡L¡ ®b−L Ešl ¢c−L hý c§l fkÑ¿¹ Y¡L¡ nql pÇfÐp¡¢la quz ü¡d£e l¡øÌ ¢q−p−h 1971 p¡−m h¡wm¡−cn
L¡−uj qJu¡l f§hÑ fkÑ¿¹ f¤l¡ae Y¡L¡l a¤me¡u ea¤e Y¡L¡ fy¡Q-Ru …Z Hm¡L¡ cMm L−lz
haÑj¡e jNh¡S¡l Hm¡L¡¢V aMe f¤−l¡−e¡ Y¡L¡ Bl ea¤e Y¡L¡l j¡T¡j¡¢T h−m j−e Ll¡ q−a¡z hNh¡S¡l Hm¡L¡¢V
−hn hsC hm−a quz H jNh¡S¡−ll ¢LR¤ Hm¡L¡ hs jNh¡S¡l ¢q−p−h ®Le f¢l¢Qa a¡ Bj¡l h¤−T B−p e¡z hs
jNh¡S¡l bL−m ®R¡V jNh¡S¡lJ b¡L¡ E¢Qaz ¢L¿º ®R¡V jNh¡S¡l e¡−j Hm¡L¡ B−R h−m Bj¡l S¡e¡ ®eCz f¤l−e¡
Y¡L¡ nql hs L¡V¡l¡ ®kje B−R ®R¡V L¡V¡lJ ®aj¢e B−Rz ¢L¿º jNh¡S¡−l öd¤ hs jNh¡S¡lC B−Rz

19711971-Hl f−ll Y¡L¡ nql

1971-Hl ¢X−pð−l Y¡L¡ nql HL¢V ü¡d£e ®c−nl l¡Sd¡e£l jkÑ¡c¡u Eæ£a qJu¡l g−m ü¡i¡¢hLi¡−hC nq−ll
pÇfÐp¡lZ B−l¡ â¦aal quz haÑj¡−e Y¡L¡ nql V‰£ fkÑ¿¹ ¢hÙ¹ªa hm¡ k¡u Hhw œ²−jC Su−chf¤l fkÑ¿¹ ¢hÙ¹ªa q−µRz
¢h−cn£ c§a¡h¡−pl hs hs A¢gp Hhw l¡øÌc§a−cl h¡pihe ¢q−p−h …mn¡e-he¡e£-Ešl¡ hÉ¡fLi¡−h Bh¡c q−u−Rz
Na cn hR−l ea¤e nq−l hý BL¡Q¤ð£ ¢h¢ôw °a¢l q−u−Rz AN¢Za ¢ejÑ¡Z ®L¡Çf¡e£ Q¡lam¡ ®b−L cnam¡ fkÑ¿¹
fТa−k¡¢Na¡ L−l gÓ¡V-h¡¢s °a¢l Ll−Rz
Y¡L¡ nql Ešl ¢c−L ®k N¢a−a pÇfÐp¡¢la q−µR f§hÑ ¢c−L ®p f¢lj¡Z (f§hÑ ¢c−L ga¤õ¡q fkÑ¿¹) e¡ q−mJ ®p¢c−LJ
pÇfÐp¡¢la q−h h−m j−e quz Hi¡−h Y¡L¡ nql HMe fª¢bh£l hs hs nql…−m¡l j−a¡ HL¢V nql ¢q−p−h N−s
EW−Rz
13

Y¡L¡ nq−l Bj¡−cl h¡¢s

Y¡L¡ nq−l Bj¡l S¾j q−mJ Bj¡−cl ¢eSü −L¡−e¡ S¡uN¡-S¢j h¡ h¡¢s ¢R−m¡ e¡z 1940 p¡m ®b−L 46 p¡m fkÑ¿¹
¢h¢iæ −q¡−ØV−m ®b−L ®mM¡fs¡ L−l¢Rz 44 p¡−m ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u i¢aÑl fl 48 p¡m fkÑ¿¹ Q¡l hRl gkm¤m qL j¤p¢mj
q−m ¢Rm¡jz 1948 p¡−m Bj¡l ®R¡V Q¡Q¡ Se¡h n¢gL¤m Cpm¡j plL¡¢l Q¡L¢l−a ®k¡Nc¡e L−lez ¢a¢e ¢VL¡V¤m£−a
a¡l¡h¡N e¡−j h¡¢s−a c¤−V¡ L¡jl¡ ¢e−u h¡p¡ i¡s¡ −eez ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u Bj¡l LÓ¡p ®no q−u k¡Ju¡u B¢j qm ®R−s
Q¡Q¡l h¡p¡u E¢Wz HLC ¢h¢ôw-Hl Afl c¤−V¡ L¡jl¡ ¢e−u L¢h p¤¢gu¡ L¡j¡m b¡L−aez
a¡l¡h¡N e¡jL H h¡¢s¢V ®hn hs ¢R−m¡z Bj¡l HL j¡j¡l LmL¡a¡u f¡LÑ p¡ÑL¡Ñ−p HL¢V h¡¢s ¢R−m¡z a¡l¡h¡−N H
h¡¢s¢Vl j¡¢mL ¢R−me HL ¢q¾c¤z 47 p¡−m f¡¢LÙ¹¡e L¡−uj qJu¡l pju Bj¡l j¡j¡a i¡C−ul¡ a¡−cl LmL¡a¡l
h¡¢sl ¢h¢eju a¡l¡h¡−Nl H h¡¢l¢Vl j¡¢mL¡e¡ üaÅ NËqZ L−lez Bj¡l j¡j¡ Hl B−NC j¡l¡ k¡ez Bj¡l j¡j£ a¡l
®R−m-®j−u−cl−L ¢e−u a¡l¡h¡−Nl h¡¢s−a hph¡p öl¦ L−lez

51

1948 p¡−m Bj¡l Q¡Q¡ Se¡h n¢gL¤m Cpm¡j B−l¡ 8/9 S−el p−‰ nl£L q−u lje¡ b¡e¡l ¢eL−V jNh¡S¡−l HL
¢q¾c¤ S¢jc¡−ll 13 ¢hO¡ Bua−el HL¢V h¡N¡e M¢lc Ll¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ L−lez I h¡N¡−el j¡¢mL ¢R−m¡ c¤’i¡Cz a¡−cl
e¡j l¡−S¾cÐ L¤j¡l c¡p J je£¾cÐ L¤j¡l c¡pz a¡l¡ Y¡L¡ nq−ll gl¡nN−”l A¢dh¡p£ ¢R−mez jNh¡S¡−ll h¡N¡e
h¡¢s−a a¡l¡ b¡L−ae e¡z ¢L¿º h¡N¡−e a¡−cl HL¢V QjvL¡l h¡w−m¡ fÉ¡V¡−eÑl ¢hl¡V Ol ¢R−m¡z −Q±Q¡m¡ ¢hl¡V Ol¢Vl
Q¡m J ®hs¡l pLm L¡W h¡jÑ¡l ¢hMÉ¡a ¢VL EX-Hl ¢R−m¡z j−dÉl qmOl¢Vl ®p¢mw M¤h ¢j¢qe n£amf¡¢V ¢c−u ¢al£
Ll¡ ¢R−m¡ Hhw e¡e¡ lLj lP£e l¡wa¡ ¢c−u p¡S¡−e¡ ¢R−m¡z Bl Qa¤¢cÑ−L ®hs¡ J R¡−cl j¡TM¡−e Q¡l g¤V fÐÙÛ ¢h¢iæ
l−Pl L¡Q ¢c−u p¡S¡−e¡ ¢R−m¡z H Ol¢V S¢jc¡l f¢lh¡−ll fÐ−j¡c ihe e¡−j f¢l¢Qa ¢R−m¡z H h¡¢sl c¡−l¡u¡e
jNh¡S¡−llC h¡¢p¾c¡ ¢R−m¡z a¡l L¡R ö−e¢R l¡−a qmOl kMe B−m¡Lj¢äa Ll¡ q−a¡ aMe −hs¡l Efl lP£e L¡Q
Hhw Ef−ll ¢p¢mw ¢j¢m−u Hje HL Aá¤a f¢l−hn pª¢ø q−a¡ ®k Ef¢ÙÛa ph¡C B−e−¾c E−à¢ma q−u fs−a¡z
a¡lfl q−m kMe p¤¾cl£ al¦Z£−cl e¡Q-N¡e öl¦ q−a¡ aMe ®N¡V¡ h¡N¡−e Be−¾cl ®g¡u¡l¡ h−u ®k−a¡z

h¡N¡e h¡¢sl AeÉ¡eÉ nl£L
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HLj¡œ Bj¡−cl−LC ¢ae ¢hO¡ ¢e−a q−u−Rz S¡uN¡ ®Le¡l H−eÄk¡jJ Bj¡l Q¡Q¡C L−l−Rez S¡uN¡ ®Le¡l V¡L¡
Bî¡−LC ¢c−a q−u−Rz Bj¡l Bî¡ aMe Q¡¢¾ce¡ b¡L−aez S¡uN¡ ®Le¡l SeÉ Q¡Q¡ kMe Bî¡l L¡−R V¡L¡ Q¡C−me
aMe Bî¡ hm−me ®k, ®a¡j¡−cl−L Ol i¡s¡ L−l b¡L−a q−µR, ®pS−eÉ H OlV¡pq ¢Le−m B¢j V¡L¡ −c−h¡z
AeÉ¡eÉ nl£−Ll¡ hmm OlV¡pq ¢e−a q−m Bfe¡−cl−L ¢ae ¢hO¡ ¢e−a q−hz Hi¡−h h¡dÉ q−u Bj¡−cl−L ¢ae ¢hO¡
¢e−a q−u−Rz Bî¡ B−l¡ hm−me, “c¤’¢hO¡l j§mÉ ®ch¡l fl Bj¡l L¡−R ®k V¡L¡ B−R a¡ q−‹l S−eÉ B¢j
®l−M¢Rz k¢c Ol f¡Ju¡l SeÉ ¢ae ¢hO¡ ¢e−aC qu a¡q−m q−‹l V¡L¡V¡J ¢c−u ¢c−a q−hz B¢j H−aJ l¡S£ B¢Rz
L¡lZ Ol Ll¡l SeÉ B−l¡ ®h¢n V¡L¡ fÐ−u¡Se q−hz B¢j e¡ qu d¡l L−lC q−‹ k¡−h¡z ah¤J Olpq S¡uN¡ ¢Le−a
Q¡Cz” B−l¡ BV nl£L k¡l¡ Bj¡−cl p¡−b S¡uN¡ ¢L−e−Re a¡−cl j−dÉ L−uLSe flhaÑ£L¡−m S¡uN¡ ¢h¢œ² L−l
¢c−u−Rez k¡l¡ ¢h¢œ² L−l−Re a¡−cl j−dÉ HLSe ¢R−me ¢hMÉ¡a N¡uL Bî¡p E¢Ÿez ¢a¢e H S¡uN¡ ¢h¢œ² L−l
nq−l HL¢V h¡¢s M¢lc L−lez nl£L−cl j−dÉ k¡l¡ ÙÛ¡u£i¡−h hph¡p L−l−Re a¡−cl ®LE Bl HMe ®hy−Q ®eCz
®hy−Q e¡ b¡L−mJ a¡−cl p¿¹¡−el¡ HM−e¡ B−Rz a¡−cl j−dÉ E−õM−k¡NÉ g¢lcf¤−ll ¢hMÉ¡a S¢jc¡l J l¡Se£¢a¢hc
Se¡h ®j¡qe ¢ju¡l i¡C a¡l¡ ¢ju¡z a¡l¡ ®k 4 am¡ ¢h¢ôw L−l¢R−me a¡ ®i−‰ haÑj¡−e ¢ejÑ¡Z ®L¡Çf¡e£−L 9 am¡
¢h¢ôw Ll¡l SeÉ ¢c−u−Rez
Bl HLSe q−me ¢L−n¡lN−”l C¢”¢eu¡l S¡j¡e p¡−qh, k¡l iNÀ£f¢a ¢R−me ®SmM¡e¡u ¢eqa BJu¡j£ m£N ®ea¡
°puc eSl¦m Cpm¡jz ¢a¢e Y¡L¡u Bp−m ®L¡−e¡ ®q¡−V−m b¡L−ae e¡z a¡l pðå£l H h¡¢s−a H−p EW−aez a¡C
a¡l p−‰ Y¡L¡u Bp−mC ®cM¡ q−a¡z R¡œS£he ®b−LC ¢a¢e Bj¡l hå¤z 71-Hl ®éhЦu¡¢l−a Cu¡qCu¡-j¤¢Sh
pwm¡−fl pj−uJ a¡l p−‰ Bm¡f q−a¡z
nl£L−cl j−dÉ Bl HLSe ¢R−me q¡CØf£X ®e¢I−Nne e¡−j ¢hMÉ¡a ¢n¢fw ®L¡Çf¡e£l j¡¢mL Se¡h j¡qj¤c¤l
lqj¡−el ¢fa¡ Se¡h ®M¡¾cL¡l j¤q¡Çjc p¡−cL¤l lqj¡ez p¡−cL p¡−qh HLL¡−m Bj¡l ¢nrL ¢R−mez aMe ¢a¢e
BjÑ¡e£−V¡m¡ q¡Cú¤−m ¢nrLa¡ Ll−aez B¢j a¡l L¡−R AwL J Cw−l¢S fСC−iV fsa¡jz
flhaÑ£L¡−m k¡l¡ A−eÉl L¡R ®b−L S¢j M¢lc L−l−Re a¡−cl j−dÉ HLSe q−me C¢”¢eu¡l Bh¤m g−uS p¡−qh,
k¡l Ù»£ fСš²e j¿»£ ®hNj l¡¢Su¡ g−uSz a¡−cl ¢àam ihe¢VJ ®i−‰ ®gm¡ q−u−Rz ¢ej¡ÑZ ®L¡Çf¡e£ 2001 p¡−m
¢ejÑ¡Z L¡S öl¦ L−l−Rz

−pL¡−m S¢jl j§mÉ

fТa ¢hO¡ S¢jl j§mÉ ¢R−m¡ Bs¡C q¡S¡l V¡L¡z Bj¡−cl ¢ae ¢hO¡l j§mÉ ¢R−m¡ p¡−s p¡a q¡S¡l V¡L¡z Bl Ol¢Vl
j§mÉ dl¡ q−u¢Rm ®cs q¡S¡l V¡L¡z phÑ−j¡V eu q¡S¡l V¡L¡u Bjl¡ Olpq ¢ae ¢hO¡ S¡uN¡ Ml¢c L¢lz 49 p¡−m
S¡e¤u¡¢l j¡−p Bjl¡ kMe Ol cMm L¢l aMe j§mÉh¡e L¡−Wl clS¡ HLV¡J ¢R−m¡ e¡z qmO−ll Q¡lf¡−n ®k lP£e
L¡Q…−m¡ ¢R−m¡ ®p…−m¡J ¢R−m¡ e¡z f¡¢LÙ¹¡e qJu¡l fl S¢jl j¡¢m−Ll LmL¡a¡u Q−m k¡e Hhw HV¡ Ae¡h¡c£C
f−s b¡−Lz c¡−l¡u¡eJ −hae e¡ f¡Ju¡u f¡q¡l¡l c¡¢uaÅ ¢WLj−a¡ f¡me L−l¢ez k¡l g−m O−ll A−eL ¢LR¤ m¤V q−u
52

k¡uz clS¡-S¡e¡m¡ °al£ Ll−a Bj¡−cl j¡œ HL q¡S¡l V¡L¡ hÉu quz ¢ae ¢hO¡ S¢j, Ol Hhw Hl ®jl¡ja
phÑp¡L¤−mÉ cn q¡S¡l V¡L¡ hÉu quz
haÑj¡e H S¡uN¡u j§mÉ fТa L¡W¡ ¢hn m¡M V¡L¡z fТa ¢hO¡ Bs¡C q¡S¡l V¡L¡ j§−mÉl S¢j c¡j ®h−s HMe Q¡l
®L¡¢V−a ®fy±−R−Rz Bj¡l HL i¡C−ul S¡uN¡ ¢h¢œ² q−u−Rz H c¡−jC NË¡qL f¡Ju¡ ®N−m¡z

Bjl¡ kMe hph¡p öl¦ L¢l

Ol ®jl¡ja Ll¡l fl 1949 p¡−ml j¡QÑ ¢L H¢fÐm j¡−p Bjl¡ HM¡−e H−p E¢Wz H hs Ol¢Vl Q¡¢l¢c−LC fÐnÙ¹
h¡l¡¾c¡ ¢R−m¡ Hhw Q¡l ®L¡Z¡u Q¡l¢V L¡jl¡ ¢R−m¡z hs O−ll f¡−n S¢jc¡l−cl HL¢V fLOl ¢R−m¡z ®p¢VJ HLC
j¡−el L¡W J ¢V−el ¯al£z h¡¢s¢Vl E−à¡de Ll¡l SeÉ HL¢V ®c¡u¡l Ae¤ù¡e Ll¡ quz Bj¡−cl AeÉ¡eÉ nl£Ll¡
HM¡−e ®LE b¡L−ae e¡ h−m ®c¡u¡l Ae¤ù¡e L¡E−L nl£L Ll¡ pñh qu¢ez a−h ®p±i¡Néhna N¡uL Bî¡p EŸ£e
a¡l ®Le¡ S¢j¢V ®cM−a H−p¢R−me h−m ¢a¢e H ®c¡u¡l Ae¤ù¡e nl£L ¢R−mez a¡l p¡−b AÒf hu−pl a¡l HL¢V
®R−mJ ¢R−m¡z ¢a¢eC ¢hQ¡lf¢a j¤Ù¹g¡ L¡j¡mz
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N¡Rz Hje¢L gSm£ Bj Hhw Ly¡Q¡¢jW¡ B−jl N¡RJ ¢R−m¡z H R¡s¡ A−eL ®fu¡l¡ J p−gc¡ N¡R ¢R−m¡ Bl ¢R−m¡
¢mQ¤, L¡jl¡‰¡, Bjm¢L, Smf¡C, ®N¡m¡f-S¡j CaÉ¡¢cz
Bjl¡ kMe H h¡¢s−a hph¡p öl¦ L¢l aMe Ak−aÁ ®N¡V¡ h¡N¡e¢V HL¢V S‰−m f¢lZa AhÙÛ¡u ¢R−m¡z HL S¡a£u
Swm£ N¡R, k¡l e¡j Bj¡l j−e ®eC 8/10 q¡a EyQ¤ ¢R−m¡z m¡Ls£l SeÉ Ef−k¡N£ ¢R−m¡z Bjl¡ ®L−V ®l−M ¢ca¡jz
L¡V¡l L−uL¢ce f−lC H…−m¡ SÅ¡m¡¢e ¢q−p−h hÉhq¡l Ll¡ ®k−a¡z ®k−qa¤ nl£L−cl ®LE Ol a¤−m b¡L¡ öl¦ L−l¢e
®p−qa¤ ®N¡V¡ h¡N¡e¢VC hm−a ®N−m Bj¡−cl cM−m ¢R−m¡z
−N¡m¡Lª¢a h¡N¡e¢Vl j¡TM¡−e 22 g¤V fÐÙÛ J f§hÑ-f¢ÕQ−j c£OÑ HL¢V l¡Ù¹¡l SeÉ S¡uN¡ l¡M¡ quz H l¡Ù¹¡l Ešl J
c¢rZ f¡−n nl£L−cl SeÉ fÔV hl¡Ÿ Ll¡ quz

I ®al ¢hO¡ h¡N¡−el haÑj¡e AhÙÛ¡

I h¡N¡e h¡¢s¢V haÑj¡−e c¡m¡e ®L¡W¡u i¢aÑz Bjl¡ ®Le¡l pju Q¡l¡ N¡R ¢R−m¡ Hje c¤−V¡l HL¢V Bj N¡R Bj¡l
HL i¡C−ul fÔ−V HM−e¡ B−Rz Bl HL¢V Bj¡l fÔ−V ¢R−m¡ k¡ ¢h¢ôw Ll¡l fÐ−u¡S−e 1996 p¡−m ®L−V ®gm¡
q−u−Rz j§m h¡N¡−el HL¢V N¡RJ Ah¢nø ®eCz H ®al ¢hO¡ S¡uN¡¢V HL¢V fªbL jqõ¡ ¢q−p−h N−s E−W−Rz
Q¡l¢c−L ®cu¡m b¡L¡u ¢ia−ll l¡Ù¹¡¢VJ HL¢c−L håz jqõ¡l A¢dh¡p£−cl N¡¢s R¡s¡ AeÉ ®L¡−e¡ N¡¢s k¡a¡u¡−al
E−Ÿ−nÉ H jqõ¡l A¢dh¡p£−cl N¡¢s R¡s¡ AeÉ ®L¡−e¡ N¡¢s k¡a¡u¡−al E−Ÿ−nÉ H jqõ¡u Y¤−L e¡z g£mM¡e¡ ®b−L
q¡a£ psL (H¢mgÉ¡¾V ®l¡X) e¡−j fСQ£e −k l¡Ù¹¡¢V fl£h¡N J lje¡ b¡e¡l f¡n ¢c−u jd¤h¡N ¢N−u−R ®p l¡Ù¹¡ ®b−LC
H jqõ¡u fÐ−hn Ll−a quz jqõ¡l H l¡Ù¹¡¢V ®k−qa¤ ‘f¡h¢mL b−l¡−gu¡l’ eu ®p−qa¤ jqõ¡h¡p£l¡ ¢el¡fš¡l
fÐ−u¡S−e l¡Ù¹¡l fÐ−hn f−b HL¢V ¢hl¡V ®NV °a¢l L−l−Rz Q¢în O¸V¡ ®N−V fÐql£ b¡−Lz
−j¡Nm n¡pe¡j−m g£mM¡e¡u q¡¢al plL¡¢l BÙ¹¡e¡ ¢R−m¡z ®pM¡e ®b−L q¡¢a−L ®N¡pm Ll¡h¡l SeÉ ®k fb ¢c−u
haÑj¡e jd¤h¡N Be¡ q−a¡ H c£OÑ psL¢V q¡¢al psL e¡−jC MÉ¡a ¢R−m¡z ‘g£m Blh£ nëz Hl AbÑ ‘q¡¢a’z ®p
L¡l−ZC Hl e¡j ¢R−m¡ ‘g£mM¡e¡’z g£mM¡e¡ j¡−e q¡¢al BÙ¹¡e¡z H g£mM¡e¡−LC haÑj¡−e f£mM¡e hm¡ quz
jd¤h¡−Nl f−l ¢ejÀ Sm¡i§¢j−a q¡¢a−L ®N¡pm Ll¡−e q−a¡z ®p L¡l−Z H Sm¡i§¢jl e¡j ¢R−m¡ q¡¢a¢Tmz Bjl¡
jNh¡S¡−l Bp¡l fl q¡¢a¢Tm Lb¡¢V Hm¡L¡h¡p£−cl L¡−R ö−e¢Rz
Bj¡−cl H jqõ¡¢Vl ®L¡−e¡ e¡j ¢R−m¡ e¡z H Hm¡L¡l h¡¢s…−m¡−a ¢jE¢e¢pfÉ¡¢m¢Vl eðl aMeJ m¡−N¢ez ¢Q¢Wf−œl
¢WL¡e¡ ¢q−p−h ®f¡ø A¢g−pl p¤¢hd¡l SeÉ A−eL Lb¡ ¢mM−a q−a¡z L¡lZ hNh¡S¡l Hm¡L¡¢V ¢hl¡Vz 1953 p¡−m
Bî¡ Q¡¢¾ce¡ ®b−L Y¡L¡u jÉ¡−lS ®l¢SØVÌ¡l ¢q−p−h hcm£ q−u B−pez N¢ml j¡b¡u q¡¢al ps−L L¡S£ A¢g−pl
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53

ph¡C−LC L¡S£ A¢g−p k¡a¡u¡a Ll−a qu, ®p L¡l−ZC Y¡L¡l ®k ®L¡e ÙÛ¡e ®b−L ‘jNh¡S¡l L¡S£ A¢gp ®me’
hm−m ¢l„¡Ju¡m¡l¡ pq−SC ®fy±¢R−u −cuz
1968 p¡−m Bî¡ jÉ¡−lS ®l¢SØVÌ¡−ll c¡¢uaÅ ®b−L Ahpl NËqZ L−le Hhw Bj¡l ®R¡V iNÀ£f¢a j¡Jm¡e¡ f£lS¡c¡
L¡S£ °puc nl£ua¤õ¡q jÉ¡−lS −l¢SØVÌ¡l qez HM−e¡ I A¢gp¢V H f¡s¡−aC l−u−Rz a¡C ‘L¡S£ A¢gp ®me’ e¡j¢V
ÙÛ¡u£ q−uC B−Rz
haÑj¡−e H f¡s¡−a hýam¡ h¡¢s h¡e¡−e¡l ¢q¢sL f−s ®N−Rz ¢àam, ¢œam h¡¢s…−m¡ ®i−‰ −i−‰ hýam¡ Ll¡ q−µRz
g−m ®al ¢hO¡l ®R¡– jqõ¡¢Vl gÓÉ¡V h¡¢s−a k¡l¡ b¡−Le a¡−cl A−e−LC N¡¢sl j¡¢mLz L−uL¢V h¡¢s−a L¡lf¡LÑ
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14 i¡Ci¡C-®h¡e−cl j−dÉ S¢j h¸Ve

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SeÉ l¡M−mez h¡¢L S¡uN¡V¤L¤ Bjl¡ Q¡l i¡C J Bj¡l jªa ®h¡epq Q¡l ®h¡−el j−dÉ i¡N L−l ¢c−mez Bjl¡ Q¡l
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Bj¡l iæ£f¢a HX−i¡−LV j¢pýl lqj¡e I h¡¢s−a ®b−L BCe hÉhp¡ Q¡m¤ l¡−Mez

54

Bj¡l h¡pÙÛ¡e pwú¡l

Bj¡l B¢c Ol¢V−a Bj¡l f¢lh¡l R¡s¡J Q¡Q¡a i¡C J Q¡Q¡a ®h¡e L−uLSe hph¡p Ll−a¡z HL¡w−n Bî¡ J
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Bj¡l ¢LR¤ BaÅ£u-üSe hph¡p Ll−aez Bj¡l fÔ−Vl c¢rZ fС−¿¹ ®cu¡−ml Efl ¢Ve ¢c−u L¡S£ A¢gp Ll¡
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p¢l−u ®eez
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f−s¢R−m¡z a¡C O−ll I Awn¢V M¤−m −g−m B¢c Ol¢V ®R¡V Ll−a qu Hhw I Aw−nl Q¡m J ®hs¡ ¢c−u °hWLM¡e¡ J
j§m O−ll j¡−T BlJ HL¢V Ol °a¢l Ll¡ quz Hi¡−h Bj¡l b¡L¡l h−¾c¡hÙ¹ L−l ®eCz Bj¡l Ru ®R−ml j−dÉ aMe
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Bj¡l fÔ−V ¢h¢ôw °a¢ll fÔÉ¡e

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mä−el HL¢V i¡−m¡ Q¡L¢l ®R−s ¢c−u ®c−n Bp−a l¡k£ L¢lz ¢L¿º ®c−n a¡−L ®h¢n¢ce l¡M¡ pñh qu¢ez ®p L−uL
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fÔ¡e °a¢l Ll−m¡z Bj¡−L fÔ¡e ®cM¡−a kMe Q¡C−m¡ a¡ ®cM−a ®L¡e BNËqC fÐL¡n Llm¡j e¡z B¢j hmm¡j B¢j
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j¡j¤e ®SŸ¡ k¡Ju¡l fl ®p Bj¡l Efl Q¡f ¢c−m¡ ®k ®p Hhw a¡l Ù»£ mä−e Q¡L¢lla b¡L¡L¡−m ®k V¡L¡ p’u
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55

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56

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i¤−m b¡L−a pq¡uL ¢R−m¡z

Y¡L¡u BÇj¡l ®hs¡−e¡

BÇj¡ fÐbj¢c−L hR−l HL¡¢dLh¡lJ Y¡L¡u ®hs¡−c Bp−ae h−m ®S−e¢Rz ay¡l ®hs¡h¡l fÐd¡e S¡uN¡ ¢R−m¡ V¤−V¡z
¢ju¡ p¡−qh juc¡e J e¡¢l¾c¡ n¡q p¡−qh h¡¢sz BÇj¡l 5 i¡−ul j−dÉ 3 SeC ¢ju¡ p¡−qh juc¡−e b¡L−aez HLSe
LmL¡a¡u J HLSe L¡¢mu¡¯Ll, ®kM¡−e e¡e¡l f§hÑ f¤l¦o 200 hRl B−N H−p hph¡p öl¦ L−lez
e¡¢l¾c¡ n¡q p¡−qh h¡¢s ¢R−m¡ BÇj¡ ph−Q−u hs −h¡−el h¡¢sz B¢c n¡q p¡−qh p¤g£ Bqp¡e¤õ¡ql hs ®R−m
j¡Jm¡e¡ Bx Bk£k ¢R−me Bj¡l hs M¡m¤z BÇj¡ Y¡L¡u H−m e¡¢l¾c¡u 8/10 ¢ce AhnÉC ®hs¡−aez hs M¡m¡
Bj¡−cl−L Ha ®pÀq Ll−ae ®k, Bjl¡ H h¡¢s−a Bp¡l SeÉ ¢ce …Z−a b¡La¡jz
BÇj¡l L¡−R ö−e¢R ®k, Bj¡l hup 40 ¢ce f¡l qh¡l fl BÇj¡ Bj¡−L ¢e−u n¡q p¡−qh h¡¢s−a ®hs¡−a H−m
M¡m¡l hs ®R−m ®j−u Bj¡−L ®L¡−m ¢e−u a¡l c¡c¡ n¡q Bqp¡e¤õ¡q p¡−q−hl ®L¡−m a¤−m ¢c−u ®c¡u¡ Ll−a h−mez
n¡q p¡−qh ay¡l I e¡a£e−L ph−Q−u ®h¢n Bcl Ll−aez I e¡a£eC M¡m¡l fÐbj p¿¹¡ez hu−p Bj¡l BÇj¡l ®Q−uJ
¢LR¤ hs ¢R−mez
n¡q p¡−qh e¡¢L Bj¡−L ®L¡−m ¢e−u A−eLrZ HL cª¢ø−a a¡¢L−u ®b−L ®c¡u¡ Ll−a b¡−Lez pÇf−LÑ ¢a¢e Bj¡l
e¡e¡z ¢a¢e ay¡l e¡a£e−L hm−me, H h¡µQ¡V¡ ®a¡l e¡¢az H p¤h¡−c BÇj¡l ¢e−cÑ−n a¡−L Bf¡ e¡ ®X−L e¡e£

60

X¡La¡jz Bj¡l BÇj¡J a¡−L j¡ X¡L−aez BÇj¡ ®R¡V hu−p j¡ q¡¢l−u HL ®S¡u¡e j¡ ®f−me, Bjl¡J e¡e£ X¡L¡l
j¡e¤o ®fm¡jz
M¡m¤l H hs ®j−u¢V−L ay¡l HL ¢eLV¡aÅ£−ul ¢eLV ¢h−u ¢c−me k¡−L Bjl¡ e¡e¡ X¡La¡jz M¡m¤l h¡¢L 3 ®j−ul
ü¡j£ H−c−nl e¡jLl¡ 3 hÉ¢š² ¢R−mez a¡l¡ q−me HL pj−ul f¤¢mn fÐd¡e Bh¤m q¡p¡e¡a Cpj¡Cm, ®N−m¡ jS£h
Bj−ml fÐd¡e ¢hQ¡lf¢a °puc j¡qj¤c ýp¡Ce J ¢X¢fBC X. Bhc¤m qLz
16

Bj¡l S£h−e ®Mm¡d¤m (fСCj¡l£ J S¤¢eu¡l fkÑ¡−u)

NË¡−jl fСCj¡l£ ú¤−m fs¡l pju fÐQ¢ma L−uL¢V ®Mm¡l Lb¡C j−e f−s, q¡X¤X¤ ®N¡õ¡ R¤V, −c±s fТa−k¡¢Na¡, O¤¢s
Es¡−e¡ CaÉ¡¢cz ph−Q−u ®h¢n fÐQ¢ma ¢R−m¡ q¡X¤Xz¤ hs−cl−L g¤Vhm ®Mm−a ®c−M¢Rz h¡S¡l hm ®Le¡−hQ¡ q−a
LM−e¡ ®c¢M¢ez Bjl¡ Ly¡Q¡ S¡Çj¤l¡ ¢c−u hm ®Mma¡jz Bj¡l Q¡Q¡−cl j−dÉ k¡l¡ aMe ú¤−m fs−ae a¡−cl p¡−b
B¢j J Bj¡l ®R¡V i¡C h¡¢sl EW¡−e g¤Vhm ®M−m¢Rz Bj¡l c¡c¡ h¡Cn ®j±S¡l h¡S¡−ll j¤¢Q−L ¢c−u Q¡js¡l
g¤Vhm h¡¢e−u ¢c−u¢R−mez ®p g¤Vh−m h¡a¡p il¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡z ¢nj¤ma¤m¡ i¢aÑ L−l j¤¢Q hm h¡¢e−u ¢c−u¢R−m¡z
c¡c¡ H hÉhÙÛ¡ L−l¢R−me H SeÉ, ®ke f¡s¡l c¤ø ®R−m−cl p¡−b e¡ ®M−m Bm¡c¡ ®Mm¡l p¤−k¡N quz O−ll h¡l¡¾c¡u
h−p ¢a¢e ®lg¡¢ll c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll−aez
hs[Cm S¤¢eul j¡cÚl¡p¡u fs¡l pju pç¡−q 2 ¢ce ¢XÊm j¡ØV¡−ll f¢lQ¡me¡u hÉ¡u¡j S¡a£u L−uL¢V QjvL¡l ®Mm¡
Bj¡l L¡−R M¤hC i¡−m¡ m¡N−a¡z m¢Sw f¡s¡l Bj¡l ®Mm¡l p¡b£−cl−L ¢e−u I ph ®Mm¡ Lla¡j Hhw B¢j ¢e−S
¢XÊm j¡ØV¡−ll i¤¢jL¡ f¡me Lla¡jz ®pM¡−eJ q¡X¤X¤, g¤Vhm, ®c±s fТa−k¡¢Na¡ CaÉ¡¢c Q¡m¤ ¢R−m¡z a−h B¢j
Ae¤ih Lla¡j ®k, ®Mm¡d¤m¡u AeÉ−cl a¤me¡u B¢j Lj ANËpl ¢Rm¡jz

R¡œS£h−e L¤¢jõ¡u

L¤¢jõ¡u q¡C j¡cÚl¡p¡u fs¡l pju ¢XÊm j¡ØV¡−ll f¢lQ¡me¡u ®k ph hÉ¡u¡j ¢R−m¡ p−…−m¡−a B¢j ¢eu¢ja Ef¢ÙÛa
b¡La¡jz ®k¢ce ¢XÊ−ml L¡S b¡La e¡ ®p¢ce g¤Vhm ®Mm¡ q−a¡z B¢j g¤Vh−m i¡−m¡ ®M−m¡u¡s ¢q−p−h NZÉ qC¢e,
a−h hÉ¡u¡−jl fÐ−u¡Se f§l−Zl SeÉC ®Mma¡jz ¢e−S i¡−m¡ g¤Vhm ®M−m¡u¡s e¡ q−mJ Bj¡l ¢eLV g¤Vhm AaÉ¿¹
¢fÐuz
1938-39 p¡−ml Lb¡, kMe B¢j LÓ¡p ®p−ie h¡ HC−V f¢s aMe LmL¡a¡l ®j¡q¡−jX¡e ®ØV¡¢Vw J ®j¡qeh¡N¡e H
c¤’c−ml ®Mm¡l Mhl ®l¢XJ−a ®n¡e¡l SeÉ Bjl¡ cm ®hy−d HL Cw−lS S¢jc¡l h¡¢s−a ®ka¡jz ®p S¢jc¡l M¤hC
®n±¢Me ®m¡L ¢R−m¡z HL ¢hl¡V °hWLM¡e¡u ph¡C−L ®l¢XJ ®n¡e¡l SeÉ p−k¡N ¢c−a¡z −j¡q¡−jX¡e −ØV¡¢Vw ¢R−m¡
j¤pmj¡e−cl Hhw ®j¡qeh¡N¡e ¢R−m¡z ¢q¾c¤−cl cmz ®pL¡−m ®Mm¡l j−dÉ l¡S¯e¢aL −Qae¡l fÐL¡n p¤Øfø ¢R−m¡
®j¡q¡−jX¡−el Su j¡−e j¤pmj¡e−cl Suz H ®Mm¡J j¤p¢mj S¡a£ua¡−h¡−dl ¢hl¡V pq¡uL ¢R−m¡z °c¢eL BS¡c
f¢œL¡u LmL¡a¡l fÐd¡e c¤’c−ml Mhl Hjei¡−h f¢l−hne Ll¡ q−a¡ ®k, Bjl¡ cm−hy−d f¢œL¡l Mhl öea¡jz
hs−cl ®LE fs−ae Bl Bjl¡ ph¡C öea¡jz HMeJ ¢hMÉ¡a ®M−m¡u¡s−cl e¡j j−e f−sz ph−Q−u ®h¢n Sy¡c−lm
®M−m¡u¡s ¢R−m¡ S¤Çj¡ M¡e e¡−j HL c£OÑ−cq£ f¡”¡h£ ®M−m¡u¡sz ®j¡q¡−jX¡e Hl ®Mm¡l Mhl f¢l−hne Ll−a ¢N−u
°c¢eL BS¡c f¢œL¡u ®mM¡ q−u¢Rm, “®j¡q¡−jX¡−el ¢hSu −WL¡−h ®L? q¡−gk ln£c ®L¡lBe h¤−L ¢e−u ®Mm¡u
Aha£ZÑ q−u−Rz” j¤p¢mj p¡wh¡¢cLa¡l f¢bLªv e¡−j MÉ¡a j¡Jm¡e¡ −j¡q¡Çjc BLl¡j My¡l °c¢eL BS¡cC
j¤pmj¡e−cl HLj¡œ j¤Mfœ ¢R−m¡z j¤p¢mj m£−Nl j¤p¢mj S¡a£u¡a¡l B−¾c¡m−el fÐd¡e fa¡L¡h¡q£ ¢R−m¡ °c¢eL
BS¡cz
Bl ®j¡q¡−jX¡e ®Øf¢Vw Hl ®Mm¡J j¤p¢mj S¡a£ua¡l B−¾c¡m−el ANËN¢a−a ¢hl¡V i¤¢jL¡ f¡me L−lz
L¤¢jõ¡u I Cw−lS S¢jc¡−ll HL Aá¤a q¢h ¢R−m¡z L¤¢jõ¡l Bc¡maf¡s¡l hs l¡Ù¹¡l f¡−nC I S¢jc¡−ll ¢hl¡V
h¡¢s ¢R−m¡z Hhw a¡l h¡¢s hl¡hl l¡Ù¹¡l ¢hl¡V N¡R ¢R−m¡z ¢hL¡m ®hm¡u l¡Ù¹¡u J B−nf¡−n ¢hQlZla cn-f−el
hRl hu−pl ®R−m−cl−L ®X−L ¢LR¤ V¡L¡ ¢c−u N¡−R Qs−a hmaz N¡−R EW¡l fl a¡−cl−L a¡−cl ka lLj N¡¢m
61

S¡e¡ B−R ¢QvL¡l L−l ®pph N¡¢m EµQ¡lZ Ll¡l SeÉ Evp¡q ¢c−a¡z H−a¡…¢m ®R−m N¡¢m ¢c−a¡ Bl ¢e−Q ®p
q¡aa¡¢m ¢c−u a¡−cl−L ü¡Naj S¡e¡az ¢e−Q e¡j¡l fl a¡−cl−L Bh¡l V¡L¡ ¢c−a¡z ®p Aá¤a a¡j¡n¡ ®cM¡l SeÉ
hý ®m¡L S−s¡ q−u ®k−a¡z B¢j S¡¢e e¡ Hje Aá¤a nM c¤¢eu¡l Bl ®L¡e ®m¡−Ll B−R ¢Le¡z
B¢j L¤¢jõ¡u b¡L¡L¡−m L−uL¢V e¡jLl¡ ú¤−m h¡¢oÑL ®Øf¡VÑp J ¢XÊm ®cM−a ®ka¡jz B¢j ¢e−S ®Øf¡VÑp jÉ¡e
qJu¡l ®Qø¡ L¢l¢ez qua H ®k¡NÉa¡C Bj¡l ¢R−m¡ e¡z ¢L¿º ®Øf¡VÑp ®c−M Be¾cC ®fa¡jz L¤¢jõ¡l ¢hMÉ¡a ¢q¾c¤
ú¤−ml e¡j ¢R−m¡ DnÄl f¡Wn¡m¡z öd¤ ¢q¾c¤l¡C −pM¡−e fs−a¡z ®L¡e j¤pmj¡e−L i¢aÑ Ll¡ q−a¡ e¡z I ú¤−m h¡¢oÑL
®Øf¡VÑ−pl M¤h p¤e¡j ¢R−m¡ B¢j ®cM−a ®Nm¡jz ®l¡−c cy¡¢s−u ®Mm¡ ®cM¢Rm¡jz
HL pju Bj¡l j−l q−m¡ ®k, L−uLSe Bj¡−L ®L¡−m L−l d−l B−R Hhw j¡b¡u f¡¢e ¢c−µRz Bj¡l ýyn B−R,
AbQ ®Q¡M ®jm−a f¡l¢R e¡, Lb¡J hm−a f¡l¢R e¡z BlJ ¢LR¤rZ f¡¢e ®ch¡l fl ®Q¡M ®j−m ®c¢M k¡l¡ Bj¡−L
fy¡S¡ ®L¡m¡ L−l B−R a¡−cl−L B¢j ¢Q¢e e¡z Ha c¤hÑm j−e q¢µRm ®k, Lb¡ hm−aJ Lø q¡¢µRmz jªc¤ EµQ¡l−Z
S¡e−a Q¡Cm¡j, “B¢j ®L¡b¡u B¢R?” hm−m¡ B¢j e¡¢L DnÄl f¡Wn¡m¡l j¡−W −hýyn q−u f−s k¡Cz aMe a¡l¡
dl¡d¢l L−l H−e f¡¢e ¢c−µRz
F¢e ®cJu¡ hå Ll−a Cn¡l¡ L−l hmm¡jz HLV¡ ¢lLn¡ ®X−L Bj¡−L a¡−a hp¡−m¡z C−a¡j−dÉ A−eL ®m¡L Sj¡
q−u ®N−m¡z mrÉ Llm¡j ®k, L¡¢¾cl f¡s ®Q±l¡Ù¹¡l f¡−n ¢jE¢e¢pfÉ¡¢m¢Vl ®V−fl f¡¢eC Bj¡l j¡b¡u ®cJu¡
q−u¢R−m¡ z ¢lLn¡−a HLSe k¤hL Bj¡l f¡−n h−p Bj¡−L S¢s−u d−l b¡L−m¡z Bj¡l h¡¢s ®L¡b¡u ¢S−‘p
Ll−m¡z hmm¡j ¢ho·¤f¤l k¡−h¡z
JM¡e ®b−L Bdj¡Cm c§−lC Bj¡ m¢Sw h¡¢sz JM¡−e Bj¡−L ®f±yR¡−u k¤hL¢V Q−m ®N−m¡z a¡l f¢lQu ®eJu¡l j−a¡
j−el AhÙÛ¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡z ®N¡V¡ f−b ¢lLn¡u a¡l Ly¡−d j¡b¡ ®l−MC h−p¢Rm¡jz
h¡¢s−a ®fy±R¡l fl m¢Sw-Hl c¡c£ A¢ÙÛl q−u S¡e−a Q¡C−m¡ Bj¡l L£ q−u−Rz I k¤hL SJu¡h ®ch¡l fl Bj¡−L
A¢hm−ð ®n¡h¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ L−l ¢c−m¡ Hhw HL L¡f Nlj c¤d ®M−a ¢c−m¡z aMe fСu påÉ¡z c¤d ®M−u ö−u fsm¡jz kMe
O¤j ®b−L S¡Nm¡j aMe pL¡m q−u ®N−Rz
c¡c£ H−p Bcl L−l AhÙÛ¡ S¡e−a Q¡Cmz aMe pL Lb¡ hmm¡jz A−Qe¡ ®m¡−Ll¡ Bj¡l ®k −ph¡ Ll−m¡ a¡−cl Lb¡
j−e L−l Lªa‘a¡ ®h¡d Llm¡jz f−l S¡e−a f¡lm¡j ®k, Bj¡l p¡e-®øÌ¡L q−u¢R−m¡z Hl fl ®b−L ®l¡−cl hÉ¡f¡−l
p¡hd¡e J p−Qae qm¡jz

R¡œS£h−e Y¡L¡u

1940 p¡−ml Y¡L¡u Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−m b¡L¡L¡−m ¢eu¢ja L−mS j¡−W i¢mhm ®Mma¡jz f−ll hRl Cpm¡jf¤lÙÛ
eJu¡h ®NV b¡L¡L¡−mJ ¢h−L−m j¡−W ¢eu¢ja ®Mm−a ®ka¡jz j¡N¢l−hl Bk¡e q−m ®pM¡−eC S¡j¡−a e¡j¡k f−s
®q¡−ØV−m ¢gla¡jz Bj¡−cl h¡wm¡l ¢nrL AdÉ¡fL Bj£e EŸ£e fСuC h−p h−p Bj¡−cl ®Mm¡ ®cM−aez B¢j
g¤Vh−m ®j¡−VC i¡−m¡ ¢Rm¡j e¡ h−V; ¢L¿º i¢mhm i¡−m¡C ®Mma¡jz HC ®Mm¡ p¡VÑ-f¡uS¡j¡ f−lC −Mm¡ ®k−a¡z
Bj£e EŸ£e pÉ¡l Bj¡l fÐnwp¡ L−l Evp¡¢qa Ll−aez 1941 p¡m ®b−L c¤’hRl eJu¡h h¡¢sl f§h¢Ñ c−L fÉ¡l¡X¡Cp
®q¡−ØV−m b¡L¡L¡−m ®Mm¡l S−eÉ Bl L−m−S ®k−a qu¢ez ®q¡−ØV−mC i¢mhm ®Mm¡l ja S¡uN¡ ¢R−m¡z i¢mhm
®Mm¡l fÐ−u¡Se£u R¡œ pwMÉ¡ e¡ b¡L−m ®p j¡−WC hÉ¡X¢j¾Ve ®Mma¡jz
H −Mm¡V¡ B−m¡ i¡−m¡ m¡N−a¡z Bj¡l HL pqf¡W£ B¢je EŸ£e Bj¡l ®Q−uJ ¢L¢’v mð¡ ¢R−m¡z Bjl¡ c¤’Se
¢j−m HL¢V ¢Vj h¡e¡m¡jz L−m−S hÉ¡X¢j¾Ve fТa−k¡¢Na¡ q−m¡z Bj¡−cl 2 S−el H S¤¢V fТa−k¡¢Na¡u AwnNËqZ
L−l QÉ¡¢Çfu¡e q−u ®N−m¡z Bjl¡ H ¢V−jl e¡j −l−M¢Rm¡j Hopeless. f¤lú¡l ¢hal−Zl pju ¢fТ¾pfÉ¡m M¤h
l¢pLa¡ L−l hš²hÉ l¡M−mez hm−me ®k, ®N¡m¡j Bkj-B¢je EŸ£e k¤Nm ®M−m¡u¡s a¡−cl ¢hS−ul hÉ¡f¡−l AaÉ¿¹
¢e¢ÕQa ¢R−m¡ h−mC ph¡C−L QjL ®ch¡l SeÉ e¡j ®l−M−R Hopeless.

62

fÉ¡l¡X¡Cp ®q¡−ØV−m HL¢V ¢hl¡V BjN¡R ¢R−m¡z 3x3 HL¢V L¡−Wl aš²¡ h¡¢e−u Hl Q¡l ®L¡Z¡u ®j¡V¡ l¢n m¡¢N−u
I BjN¡−Rl ®j¡V¡ HL X¡−m T¤m¡−e¡ q−m¡z H T¤m¡ ®Mm¡u Bjl¡ L−uLSe j¡œ Awn ¢ea¡jz T¤m−a ¢N−u HLh¡l
HL¢c−L B−lLh¡l AeÉ¢c−L ®j¡V¡ X¡m¢Vl EµQa¡ fkÑ¿¹ fСu ®fy±−R ®ka¡jz ¢e−Q ®b−L cnÑLl¡ iu ®f−u ®k−a¡z H
L¡l−ZC M¤h Lj R¡œC H c¤xp¡q¢pL ®Mm¡u AwnNËqZ Ll−a¡z
1944 p¡−m ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u kMe i¢aÑ qm¡j aMe OVe¡œ²−j B¢j Hhw Bj¡l hÉ¡X¢j¾V−el p¡b£ B¢je EŸ£e HLC
q−m (gkm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm) Bh¡¢pL R¡œ ¢q−p−h b¡L¡u Bj¡−cl Hopeless ¢Vj Bh¡l Q¡m¤ q−u ®N−m¡z Bjl¡
flfl c¤’hRl q−ml fТa−k¡¢Na¡k hÉ¡X¢j¾V−e QÉ¡¢Çfu¡e qJu¡u Hopeless ¢V−jl p¤e¡j lr¡ Ll−a prj qCz
1946 p¡−m ¢hH f¡p L−l Bj¡l p¡b£ B¢je EŸ£e p¡h-®l¢SøÌ¡−ll Q¡L¢l ®euz g−m B¢j HjH fs¡l pju p¡b£l
Ai¡−h Hl flhaÑ£ fТa−k¡¢Na¡u Awn ¢e−a Arj qCz Hopeless ¢V−jl ü¡i¡¢hL jªaɤ O−Vz
HjH fs¡l pju q−ml LÇf¡E−ä öLe¡ jJp¤−j ¢eu¢ja i¢mhm ®Mm¡ q−a¡z a¡−a B¢j AwnNËqZ Lla¡jz
¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul R¤¢Vl pju Q¡¢¾ce¡l q¡Cú¤m j¡−W i¢mhm Hhw hÉ¡X¢j¾Ve c¤’−V¡C ®Mm¡l p¤−k¡N q−a¡z B¢j H c¤−V¡
−Mm¡uC i¡−m¡ ®M−m¡u¡s ¢q−p−h ü£Lª¢a f¡Cz

R¡œS£h−el fl

R¡œS¢h−el fl lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−S ¢nrLa¡L¡−m Cw−l¢Sl AdÉ¡fL Hj. Bl. ®qm¡m£ J B¢j hÉ¡X¢j¾Ve
¢Vj N−s ®pM¡−eJ n£aL¡−m ¢h−L−m ®Mma¡jz ¢L¿º ®L¡e fТa−k¡¢Na¡u AwnNËqZ L¢l¢ez 1964 p¡−ml S¡e¤u¡¢l
j¡−p BCu¤h M¡e plL¡l S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−L ®hBCe£ ®O¡oZ¡ L−lz ®L¾cУu jS¢mp n§l¡l pLm pcpÉ−L ®NËga¡l
L−lz OVe¡œ²−j I pju B¢j Hhw ®pL¡−ml f§hÑ f¡¢LÙ¹¡e S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£l Bj£l j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤l lq£j Ju¡¢LÑw
L¢j¢Vl ¢j¢Vw Efm−r m¡−q¡−lC ¢Rm¡j Hhw ®pM¡−eC ®NËga¡l q−u j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£l p¡−b HLC ¢h¢ôw-H m¡q¡−l¡
¢X¢ØṼ −S−m 2 j¡p BVL ¢Rm¡jz jS¢m−p n§l¡l pcpÉ−cl j−dÉ ®p¡u¡a l¡−SÉl fТa¢e¢d ¢q−p−h Se¡h ®nl Bm£
M¡eJ m¡−q¡l ®S−m ¢R−mez ¢a¢e hÉ¡X¢j¾Ve ®Mm¡l fÐÙ¹¡h L−lez B¢j Evp¡−ql p−‰ pjbÑe S¡e¡Cz Bj¡−cl
c¤’S−el j−dÉ hÉ¡X¢j¾V−el fТa−k¡¢Na¡ q−a¡z j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£ J j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤l lq£j Hhw B−l¡ ®k LuSe ¢R−me
a¡l¡J I ®Mm¡ ®cM−ae Hhw c¤’Se−LC i¡−m¡ ®M¡−m¡u¡s ¢q−p−h ü£Lª¢a ®cez Se¡h ®nl Bm£J i¡−m¡ ®Mm−aez
®L¡e ®L¡e pju ¢a¢eJ ¢Sa−aez a−h ®h¢n pju B¢jC ®Mm¡u ¢hSu£ qa¡jz a¡C fÐnÀ EW−m¡ R¡œS£h−e B¢j
®Mma¡j ¢Le¡z aMe HLb¡ fÐL¡n ®f−m¡ ®k, B¢j R¡œS£h−e −k±bi¡−h QÉ¡¢Çfu¡eJ qa¡jz
1964 p¡−m c¤’j¡p fl m¡−q¡l q¡C−L¡VÑ SS-Hl p¡j−e ¢el¡fš¡ h¢¾c ¢q−p−h Bj¡−L kMe q¡¢Sl Ll¡ q−m¡ aMe
B¢j A¢i−k¡N Llm¡j, ®k BC−e Bj¡−L BVL Ll¡ q−u−R ®p BCe Ae¤k¡u£ fТa 15 ¢c−e HLh¡l Bj¡l
f¢lh¡−ll p¡r¡−al hÉhÙÛ¡ Ll¡ E¢Qa ¢R−m¡z ¢L¿º a¡ Ll¡ qu¢ez ¢hQ¡lf¢a plL¡l f−rl hš²hÉ ®n¡e¡l fl ¢e−cÑn
¢c−me ®k, A¢hm−ð ®ke Bj¡−L Y¡L¡ f¡¢W−u ®cJu¡ quz j¡QÑ j¡−pl 7 a¡¢l−M Bj¡−L ®Sm ®b−L pl¡p¢l ¢hj¡−e
E¢W−u ®cJu¡ q−m¡z B¢j ¢e¢ÕQa ¢Rm¡j ®k, Y¡L¡ ¢hj¡eh¾c−l e¡j−m plL¡¢l ®jSh¡el¡ Bj¡−L A¢a¢b ¢q−p−h
p¡c−l NËqZ Ll−hz OVe¡œ²−j ¢hj¡−e Bj¡l HL O¢eø hå¤ j¤u¡kÚj ®q¡−pe ®Q±d¤l£ ¢pHp¢f-®L ®f−u ®Nm¡jz gSm¤m
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Y¡L¡ ®L¾cÐu£ L¡l¡N¡−l

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S¡uN¡ ¢R−m¡ ®pM¡−e ¢é-qÉ¡ä H„¡lp¡CS Lla¡j, ®L¡e ®L¡e pju ¢lw ®Mma¡jz ¢lw ®Mm¡l p¡b£ ¢q−p−h AdÉ¡fL
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j¤l¡c, h…s¡l j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤l lqj¡e gL£l J AdÉ¡fL j¡Jm¡e¡ ®qm¡m EŸ£e p¡−qh−L ®f−u¢Rm¡jz B−l¡ k¡l¡
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63

®f−mez Bjl¡ h¡¢L 4 Se ®cJu¡e£ ®pm e¡−j HL¢V O−l ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la qCz ®pM¡−e ¢lw ®Mm¡u Se¡h Bë¤m M¡−mL
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¢œ²−LV ®Mm¡ L−uL¢ce fkÑ¿¹ A¢hl¡j Qm−a b¡−L Hhw cnÑLl¡ ®ø¢Xu¡−jC ®Mm¡ ®cM¡l SeÉ HLV¡e¡ c£OÑ pju h−p
b¡−Lz k¡l¡ ®M−m¡u¡s a¡−cl Eæa ®Mm¡ ®c−M ¢nMh¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ O¸V¡l fl O¸V¡, ¢c−el fl ¢ce ®Mm¡ ®cM¡l k¤¢š²
b¡L−a f¡−l, ¢L¿º cnÑL ¢q−p−h Hi¡−h HLV¡e¡ k¡l¡ ®Mm¡ ®c−Me B¢j a¡−cl °d−kÑl fÐnwp¡ Ll−a h¡dÉ z L¡lZ
Bj¡l ¢e−Sl j−dÉ H Aá¤a °dkÑ ®eCz
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®c−n ¢V¢i−a −Mm¡l öl¦ ®b−L ®no fkÑ¿¹ k¡l¡ ®Mm¡ ®c−Me a¡−cl A−e−LC a¡−cl LjÑ-hÉÙ¹a¡−L ®Mm¡l SeÉ j¤ma¢h
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®Mm¡l gm¡gm S¡e¡l SeÉ B¢jJ cnÑL−cl ®b−L ®My¡S-Mhl ®eCz ¢L¿º B¢j a¡−cl j−a¡ cnÑL qJu¡l ®N±lh ASÑe
Ll−a Arjz
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a¡−cl Bl ®L¡e −fn¡l fÐ−u¡SeC qu e¡z HLb¡ B¢j ü£L¡l L¢l k¡l¡ ®Mm¡−L ®en¡ J ®fn¡ ¢q−p−h NËqZ L−l−Re
a¡l¡ ®Mm¡l j¡e−L A−eL Eæa L−l−Re Hhw ¢hpÈuLl −lLXÑJ ÙÛ¡fe L−l−Rez B¢Ml¡−a ¢hnÄ¡p£ ¢q−p−h Bj¡l j−e
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H−p−R¡z a¡l¡ Hl L£ SJu¡h ®c−h? c¤¢eu¡l S£heV¡ ¢L öd¤C ®Mm¡? öd¤ ®Mm¡V¡C S£h−el E−ŸnÉ qJu¡ ¢L ¢WL?
AhnÉ haÑj¡e c¤¢eu¡u ®Mm¡−L ®c−nl p¤e¡j ASÑ−el j¡dÉj ¢q−p−h ¢hl¡V …l¦aÅ ®cJu¡ qu, ®Mm¡l H fТa−k¡¢Na¡ k¤h
pj¡S−L hÉ¡fLi¡−h EÜ¤Ü L−lz Hje¢L huú cnÑLNZJ ®Mm¡−L ¢h−e¡ce ¢q−p−h Ef−i¡N L−lez H ph ¢cL
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17.

h¡wm¡−c−n ¢œ²−L−Vl ¢hpÈuLl Se¢fÐua¡

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e¡jLl¡ cm…−m¡l ®Mm¡ ®k ®c−nC ®q¡L a¡ ¢V¢i−a AhnÉC ®cM¡−e¡ quz ®pph ®Mm¡ flj aª¢ç ¢e−u k¡l¡ ®c−M
a¡−cl ¢h−e¡c−e L−a¡ h¡d¡ ®cJu¡ k¡u?
HLp¡−b ®Mm¡ ®cM¡l aª¢çC qu e¡ k¢c ®Mm¡l pju °q¯Q L−l j−e¡i¡h fÐL¡n Ll e¡ quz Hl¡ ®ø¢Xu¡−j Ef¢ÙÛa e¡
q−uJ JM¡eL¡l cnÑL−cl BdÉ¡¢aÈL p¡b£z a¡C a¡−cl °q¯Q-Hl p¡−b a¡m ¢c−u Hl¡J °q¯Q L−l jS¡ f¡uz HC
®p¢ce ¢Sð¡h¤−u−a h¡wm¡−c−nl ®Mm¡ ®cM¡ q¢µRmz h¡wm¡−c−nl fТafr c−ml ®LE BEV q−m ph¡C kMe Eõ¡−pl
p¡−b ¢QvL¡l L−l ‘BEV’ h−m E−W aMe Bj¡l Bc−ll ®p¡u¡ Q¡l hR−ll e¡ae£ eh¡J BEV h−m m¡g¡uz B¢j H
¢ho−u ¢e−Sl h¡¢s−aC HL¡ J Bf¡P−š²uz Bj¡l ®R¡V i¡C X. ®N¡m¡j j¤u¡kÚk¡jJ ¢œ²−LViš²z a¡l hs ®R−m
®p¡q¡−u−ml 5 ®b−L 11 hRl hup£ 3 ®R−m-Hl¡ ph¡C ¢œ²−LVf¡Nmz Hl¡ ¢ae f¤l¦o HLp¡−b ®Mm¡ ®c−Mz Hl¡ öd¤
64

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j−a¡ ®hl¢pL e¡ q−u¡u a¡l ®R−m J e¡¢al¡ ¢œ²−L−Vl hÉ¡f¡−l a¡l ®Q−uJ ®k¡NÉ Ešl¡¢dL¡l£z a¡−cl ¢eLV ¢œ²−LV
¢e−c¡Ño ¢h−e¡c−el j¡dÉjz a¡−cl H ¢h−e¡c−e Bj¡l ®L¡−e¡ Bf¢š ®eCz a−h H ®r−œ B¢j a¡−cl p¡b£ qh¡l
A−k¡NÉz AhnÉ I e¡¢a−cl p¡−b Bj¡l pÇfLÑ AaÉ¿¹ Ni£lz Jl¡ H f¡s¡u b¡L¡l pju Oe Oe ®cM¡ q−a¡z Bj¡l
i¡C ¢e−Sl h¡¢s i¡s¡ ¢c−u ®p¡h¡q¡eh¡−N Q−m k¡Ju¡u e¡¢a−cl Ai¡h ®h¡d L¢lz Bj¡l ¢e−Sl e¡¢al¡ ®a¡ ph¡C
¢h−c−nz Bj¡l i¡C−ul e¡¢a−cl j¡dÉ−jC c¡c¡-e¡¢al i¡−m¡h¡p¡l Bc¡e-fÐc¡e q−a¡z Jl¡ c§−l Q−m k¡Ju¡u ®p
p¤−k¡NJ ®eCz j¡−T j¡−T Jl¡ S¤jB J D−c h¡ ®L¡−e¡ Efm−r H−m hsC i¡−m¡ m¡−Nz Jl¡ Bp−mC S¢s−u d−lz
B¢jJ Bcl L−l aª¢ç ®h¡d L¢lz Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡ H jd¤l jqîa à¡l¡ j¡e¤−ol j−e n¡¢¿¹ c¡e L−lez
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Bnf¡−n h¡µQ¡−cl−L ph S¡uN¡C, Hje¢L O−ll h¡l¡¾c¡uJ ¢œ²−LV ®Mm−a ®c¢Mz ¢h−L−m R¡−c EW−m ®cM¡ k¡u
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q−mC hÉ¡V q−u k¡u, Bl L−uLV¡ CV ¢c−u EC−LV Hhw ®V¢ep hm q−mC ®Mm¡l pl”¡j q−u k¡uz g¤Vhm ®Mm¡l
j−a¡ hs juc¡−el clL¡l qu e¡z 15/20 q¡a mð¡ S¡uN¡ ®f−mC Q−mz NË¡j¡’−m fkÑ¿¹ ¢œ²−LV haÑj¡−e ph−Q−u
Se¢fÐu ®Mm¡z
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d−lC Bj¡l ®h¡e S¡q¡e-Bl¡ Bkq¡l£l h¡¢s ®k−a quz HL¤V¤ l¡Ù¹¡u f¡s¡l L−uL¢V ®R¡V ®R−m ¢œ²−LV ®M−mz
jqõ¡l fÐd¡e l¡Ù¹¡¢V k¤hL−cl cM−m b¡−Lz a¡C ®R¡V−cl−L jp¢S−cl p¡j−eC ®Mm−a quz
¢œ²−L−Vl hÉ¡V Ly¡−d ¢e−u HM¡−e ®R¡V−cl ®k V£j ®M−m, Hl ®L−Ãve q−m¡ Bj¡l A¢a Bc−ll e¡¢a j¤h£ez j¤h£−el
j¡ AdÉ¡¢fL¡ e¡Dj¡ Bj¡l Bfe i¡¢NÀz H i¡¢NÀ¢V−L 40 ¢c−el ¢nö AhÙÛ¡u ®l−M Jl j¡ j¡l¡ k¡uz Jl M¡m¡ S¡q¡lBl¡ J−L m¡me-f¡me L−lz Blh£ i¡o¡l fÐMÉ¡a f¢™a j¡Jm¡e¡ Bm¡EŸ£e Bm Bkq¡l£l p¡−b S¡q¡e-Bl¡
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p¡−b e¡Dj¡−L ¢h−u ®cez e¡¢a j¤h£e a¡−clC f¤œz BLoÑZ£u fТai¡à£ç ®Qq¡l¡, ¢j¢ø q¡¢p J hup¡e¤f¡−a LbÑ¡haÑ¡u
k−bø h¤¢Üjš¡l A¢dL¡l£ h−m ®p ph¡lhC ¢fÐuz Bj¡−L ®p Ha i¡−m¡h¡−p ®k, B¢j ®a¡ a¡−L A¢a Bc−ll h−m
E−õM Ll−a h¡dÉ qm¡jz
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A¢ij¡e L−l h−m−R, “B¢j ¢L hs e¡e¡l L¡−Sl ®R−m p¡’−cl pj¡e jkÑ¡c¡J ®f−a f¡¢l e¡? ¢œ²−LV ®Mm−a hs
e¡e¡ Bj¡−L ®l¡SC ®c−Mez ¢L¿º Bj¡l Lb¡ ¢mM−me e¡ AbQ p¡’−cl e¡j E−õM Ll−mez” Jl A¢ij¡−el Lb¡
S¡e−a ®f−l B¢jJ Ae¤aç qm¡jz Bj¡l I i¤−ml S¢lj¡e¡ Bc¡u Ll¡l SeÉC f¤¢Ù¹L¡L¡−l fÐL¡nL¡−m Jl Lb¡
E−õL Ll¡ fÐ−u¡Se j−e Llm¡jz
Bj¡l ®R¡V ®R−m p¡mj¡e R¡œS£h−e ¢œ²−LV ®Mm−a¡z HMe ®h¡d qu pju f¡u e¡z ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ¢nrLa¡ ¢e−u
jq¡hÉÙ¹z ¢L¿º ®p ¢œ²−LV−fТjLz 1993 p¡−m B¢j kMe ®L¾cУu L¡l¡N¡−l ¢Rm¡j aMe p¡mj¡−el ®mM¡ hC “¢h−nÄl
®pl¡ ¢œ²−LV J ¢œ²−LV¡l” Bj¡−L ®fy±R¡−e¡ q−m¡z ®SmM¡e¡l 26 ®pm e¡jL c¡m¡−e ¢X¢ine fСçl¡C b¡−Lz B¢j
®pM¡−eC ¢Rm¡jz JM¡−el L−uLSe Bj¡l fs¡l B−NC L¡s¡L¡¢s L−l hC¢V f−s M¤h fÐnwp¡ Ll−m¡z ®pM¡−eJ
A−eL ¢œ²−LV−fТjL −cMm¡jz B¢j ph¡l ®n−o fs¡l p¤−k¡N ®fm¡jz ¢œ²−LV Bj¡l ¢fÐu ®Mm¡ e¡ q−mJ hC¢V
p¤Mf¡WÉ h−m ®h¢n AwnC fsm¡jz hC¢V−a ®p c¡¢h L−l−R ®k, j¡eh S¡¢al j−dÉ ¢œ²−L−Vl j¡dÉ−jJ ¢hl¡V ILÉ
pª¢ø qJu¡ pñhz hC¢Vl i§¢jL¡u ®p ¢m−M−Rx
“¢hnÄ Su L−l−R ¢œ²−LVz pjÙ¹ ¢hnÄ−L HLp§−œ ®N−by−R ¢œ²−LVz A−Ù»l TwL¡−l eu, nª´Mm¡l h¡y¢n h¡¢S−u H ¢hnÄ−L
j¢qj¡¢ða L−l−R ¢œ²−LVz ------ L£ p¤¾cli¡−h ®i±−N¡¢mL p£j−lM¡−L Aü£L¡l L−l HL ¢e¢hs håe H−e ¢c−u−R

65

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Bjl¡ Ae¤d¡he Ll−a f¡¢l L−a¡ p¤¾cl ¢a¢ez ¢œ²−LVJ Bõ¡ql pª¢ø…−m¡l HL¢Vz Hje HL¢V ®Mm¡ Bj¡−cl
Efq¡l ®ch¡l SeÉ a¡l fТa j¡b¡ ea L¢lz”
¢œ²−L−Vl hÉ¡f¡−l p¡mj¡−el H cnÑe J fÐQä B−hN Bj¡−L fÐi¡¢ha e¡ Ll−mJ ¢œ²−LV ®Mm¡l ¢hnÄ−S¡s¡ Se¢fÐua¡
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¢œ²−LV¢œ²−LV-l¡Se£¢a

1999 p¡−m CwmÉ¡ä Ae¤¢ùa ¢hnÄL¡−f ¢h−nÄl AeÉaj ®pl¡ f¡¢LÙ¹¡e ¢œ²−LV cm−L h¡wm¡−cn ¢œ²−LV fl¡¢Sa Ll¡u
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qu¢e, fl¡SuJ I ®Qae¡l Ai¡−h qu¢ez ®Mm¡l j¡−el E›¡e-fa−eC Su-fl¡Su q−u b¡−Lz

i¡la he¡j f¡¢LÙ¹¡e ®Mm¡

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i¡l−al ¢hl¦−Ü ®M−m ¢Le¡z
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djÑ¢el−fra¡h¡c£l¡ R¡s¡ phÑ−nÐZ£l h¡wm¡−cn£C i¡la ¢h−l¡d£ j−e¡i¡h −f¡oZ Ll−a h¡dÉ quz ®ØV¢Xu¡−j I
j−e¡i¡−hlC fÐL¡n O−V j¡œz
H ®c−nl l¡S¯e¢aL cm…−m¡l j−dÉ BJu¡j£ m£N R¡s¡ ®L¡e cmC i¡la−L hå¤ j−e L−l e¡ p‰a L¡l−ZCz
Bc−nÑl ¢h¢iæa¡ p−šÆJ X¡e-h¡j J Cpm¡j£ pLm l¡S¯e¢aL cmC ®cn−fÐ−jl ü¡i¡¢hL a¡¢L−cC i¡la−L H
®c−nl hå¤ j−e L−l e¡z Bl ®LE a¡ j−e Ll−mJ SeN−Zl j−e¡i¡−hlL L¡l−Z fÐL¡−nÉ hm¡l p¡qp f¡u e¡z
2000 p¡−m Y¡L¡u ¢œ²−LV g¡Ce¡m ®Mm¡ qu i¡la J f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el j−dÉz plL¡l ¢h−l¡d£ −l¡Xj¡QÑ Efm−r Y¡L¡
®b−L Qy¡f¡Ceh¡hN−”l ¢nhf¤l fkÑ¿¹ c£OÑ psL f−b hý S¡uN¡u h¡wm¡−cn J f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el fa¡L¡ f¡n¡f¡¢n Es−R
66

®c−M ¢h¢pÈa qm¡jz ¢S−‘p L−l S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, Y¡L¡u ¢œ²−LV ®Mm¡l Evp¡q£−cl k¡l¡ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el pjbÑL a¡l¡C
fa¡L¡ a¤−m−Rz ®L¡e ®L¡e ÙÛ¡−e f¡¢LÙ¹¡e ¢hSu£ q−m Nl¦ k−hq L−l Evph Ll−h h−mJ S¡e¡ ®N−m¡z
g¡Ce¡m ®Mm¡l ¢ce B¢j Y¡L¡u ¢Rm¡jz Bj¡l ®n¡h¡l O−l f¢œL¡ fs¢Rz Bj¡l Ù»£, f¡L O−l L¡−Sl ®j−u, L¡−Sl
®R¡V −R−m p¡mj¡−el O−l ¢V¢i−a ®Mm¡ ®cM−Rz Bj¡l Ef¢ÙÛ¢al L¡l−Z Bj¡l O−l ®Mm¡ e¡ ®c−M f¡−nl O−l
®cM−Rz Bj¡l ®Mm¡ ®cM¡l AiÉ¡p h¡ nM e¡ b¡L−mJ −Mm¡l AhÙÛ¡ S¡e¡l SeÉ j¡−T j¡−T Mhl ¢e¢µRm¡jz ®k cm
¢Sa−m ®c−nl SeNZ J ®ØV¢Xu¡−jl cnÑLl¡ M¤¢n q−h Bj¡−LJ ®p c−ml pjbÑLC j−e q−m¡z B¢j −a¡ Bl SeNZ
®b−L ¢h¢µRæ eCz
¢hpÈ−ul p¡−b mrÉ Llm¡j ®k, f¡−nl O−ll cnÑLl¡ Eiu c−ml ®M−m¡u¡s−cl e¡j d−l j¿¹hÉ Ll−Rz i¡l−al Aj¤L
BEV q−u−R h−m Eõ¡p fÐcnÑe Ll−R Hhw f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el Aj¤L QjvL¡l ®h¡¢mw L−l−R h−m ®N±lh fÐL¡n Ll−Rz B¢j
e¡ S¡e−mJ ®M−m¡u¡s−cl e¡j Jl¡ ph¡C S¡−ez
f¡s¡l B−nf¡−nl ph h¡¢s ®b−LC ¢V¢i cnÑL−cl °q¯Q öe−a f¡¢µRm¡jz 8 am¡u S¡e¡m¡l f¡−n h−p a¡−cl
AhÙÛ¡eJ mrÉ Ll¢Rm¡jz
H ®Mm¡u kMe i¡la ¢S−a ®N−m¡ aMe f¡−nl O−l J f¡s¡u Lh−ll e£lha¡ mrÉ Llm¡jz ®Mm¡l gm¡g−m B¢jJ
M¤¢n q−a f¡lm¡j e¡z ¢L¿º h¡¢sl ph¡l ®Qq¡l¡u ®n¡−Ll Øfø R¡f ®c−M Bj¡−L p¡šÆe¡ ¢c−a q−m¡z h¡wm¡−c−n
¢œ²−LV ®Mm¡ p¢aÉC iu¡eL Se¢fÐuz Bj¡l j−a¡ ®hl¢pL−cl Lb¡ AhnÉ Bm¡c¡z
¢œ²−LV−fТjL p¡mj¡e ®b−L S¡e−a f¡lm¡j ®k, f¡¢LÙ¹¡e i¡l−a H−p L−uLh¡lC ®M−m−R; ¢L¿º L¡nÈ£−ll fТa
f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el SeN−Zl B−h−Nl i−u i¡la f¡¢LÙ¹¡−e ¢N−u ®Mm−a l¡¢S q−µR e¡z ¢œ²−LV ®Mm¡ i¡la J f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el
SeN−Zl j−dÉ I−LÉl i§¢jL¡ f¡m−el f¢lh−aÑ c§laÅC hª¢Ü L−l−Rz H ®r−œ A¿¹a p¡mj¡−el ¢œ²−LV-cnÑ−el pjbÑe
f¡Ju¡ ®N−m¡ e¡z HM¡−e ®Mm¡l fТaࢾcÄa¡ l¡Se£¢al fÐi¡hj¤š² q−a f¡−l¢ez fТa−hn£ ®cn ¢q−p−h l¡S¯e¢aL
°h¢la¡ Ha fÐhm Hhw ¢œ²−LV fТaࢾcÄa¡ Ha a£hÐ ®k ¢œ²−L−Vl j¡dÉ−j ®N¡V¡ ¢h−nÄl j¡e¤−ol j−dÉ kaV¤L¤ ILÉ−h¡d
pª¢ø q−u−R Hl p¡j¡eÉ fÐi¡hJ f¡L-h¡wm¡-i¡l−al SeN−Zl j−dÉ −gm−a prj qu¢ez
Bj¡l R¡œS£h−e LmL¡a¡l ®j¡q¡−jX¡e ®ØV¡¢VÑw J ®j¡qeh¡N¡−el j−dÉ g¤Vhm ®Mm¡l ®kje l¡S¯e¢aL a¡vfkÑ ¢Rm,
haÑj¡−e f¡¢LÙ¹¡e J i¡l−al j−dÉ ¢œ²−LV fТa−k¡¢Na¡J Ae¤l©f l¡S¯e¢aL a¡vfkÑ hqe Ll−Rz B¢j BlJ mrÉ
L−l¢R ®k, Y¡L¡ ®ØV¢Xu¡−j i¡la ®k c−ml p¡−bC −Mm¤L cnÑLl¡ ph¡C i¡l−al fТafr−L pjbÑe L−lz i¡l−al
fl¡Su ®ke ph¡l L¡jÉz H−c−nl SeNZ i¡l−al Hje Qlj ¢h−l¡d£ ®S−eJ BJu¡j£ m£N ®ea¡-®eœ£l¡ i¡la−L hå¤
j−e L−lz SeNZ ¢L a¡q−m ph¡C l¡S¡L¡l? a¡q−m ®cn−fТjL L¡l¡?
18.

Bj¡l ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ¢nr¡

aMe f§hÑh−‰ Y¡L¡uC HLj¡œ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ¢R−m¡z Bl fÐd¡e L−mS ¢R−m¡ L¤¢jõ¡ ¢i−ƒ¡¢lu¡ L−mS, h¢ln¡m ¢hHj
L−mS, lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−mS J ®j¡−jen¡q£l HjHj L−mSz A¢hiš² h‰−cn fy¡Q¢V L−mS−L ¢fТju¡l L−mS
¢q−p−h NZÉ Ll¡ q−a¡; k¡l j−dÉ Q¡l¢V f§hÑh−‰ Bl f’j¢V ®fТp−X¾p£ L−mS LmL¡a¡z
1944 p¡−m Y¡L¡ plL¡l£ C¾V¡¢j¢X−uV L−mS ®b−L BCH f¡p Llm¡jz pñha ®j j¡−p fl£r¡l gm fÐL¡n f¡uz
®pL¡−ml A¢hiš² h‰−c−n pLm L−mSC LmL¡a¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul Ad£−e ¢R−m¡z ¢L¿º Y¡L¡ nq−ll pLm ®Se¡−lm
L−mS Hhw p¡l¡ h‰−c−n Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−mS…−m¡ Y¡L¡ ®h¡−XÑl Ad£−e ¢R−m¡z 1944 p¡−m Y¡L¡ ®h¡XÑ
g¡øÑ ®NË−Xl cn S−el j−dÉ p¡a SeC Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−mS ®b−L hª¢š f¡u, k¡l j−dÉ B¢jJ HLSez H
L−mS ®b−L k¡l¡ f¡p L−l−R a¡l¡ ph¡C Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−uC i¢aÑ quz

67

−L¡e ¢ho−u Ae¡pÑ ®eJu¡ q−hz

BSL¡m A−e−LC p¿¹¡e−cl−L ®L¡eÚ ¢ho−u EµQ¢nr¡ ®cJu¡ q−h a¡ A−eL B−N ®b−LC f¢lLÒfe¡ L−lez Bj¡−cl
pj−u ®aje ®L¡e f¢lLÒfe¡ A¿¹a Bj¡l ®hm¡u qu¢ez Bj¡l Bî¡ HL¢V ¢ho−u …l¦aÅ ¢c−aez a¡ q−µR Blh£,
Cw−l¢S J h¡wm¡ ¢ae¢V i¡o¡C i¡−m¡i¡−h Buš Ll−a q−hz a¡q−m S£h−e ®L¡e ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢R−m¡ e¡z a¡C ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u
®L¡eÚ ¢ho−u Ae¡pÑ fsh ®p ph h¡R¡C Ll¡l fÐnÀ hs q−u ®cM¡ ®cuz úm¡l¢nf k¡l¡ f¡u a¡−cl Ae¡pÑ fs−aC q−a¡z
úm¡l¢nf ¢ae hR−ll SeÉ ¢R−m¡z Ae¡pÑ e¡ fs−m úm¡l¢nf f¡Ju¡l A¢dL¡l q−a¡ e¡z
Ae¡−pÑl ¢hou ¢eh¡ÑQ−el E−Ÿ−nÉ fl¡jnÑ ®eh¡l SeÉ Bjl¡ L−uLSe Bj¡−cl Cw−l¢Sl ¢fÐu AdÉ¡fL °puc jCe¤m
Bqp¡−el ¢eLV e¡¢Sj¤Ÿ£e ®l¡XÙÛ q¡¢pe¡ j¢”−m ®Nm¡jz ¢a¢e ¢nrL ¢q−p−h M¤hC Se¢fÐu ¢R−mez Bj¡l I¢µRL
¢hou Cw−l¢S b¡L¡u ay¡l p¡−b Bj¡l hÉ¢š²Na pÇfLÑ O¢eø ¢R−m¡z B¢j hÉ¢š²Nai¡−h Ae¡pÑ fs¡l SeÉ Cw−l¢S
Abh¡ l¡øÌ¢h‘¡−el Lb¡ i¡h¢Rm¡jz ¢L¿º Bj¡−cl Cw−l¢Sl AdÉ¡fL Bj¡−cl−L fСu cn ¢j¢eV hš²ªa¡ L−l
Blh£−a Ae¡pÑ ®eu¡l fl¡jnÑ ¢c−mez hš²ªa¡u ¢a¢e Blh£ ®eu¡l f−r k¤¢š² fÐcnÑe L−l hm−me ®k Q¡L¢ll juc¡−e
EµQ ¢nr¡l fl c¤−V¡ ®rœC fÐd¡ez HL¢V q−m¡ L−mS-¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ¢nrLa¡, Bl HL¢V q−m¡ plL¡¢l Q¡L¢lz
¢nr¡l ¢cL ¢c−u ¢q¾c¤l¡ Bj¡−cl ®Q−u A−eL ANËplz a¡C fТa−k¡¢Na¡u Eiu ®r−œC a¡−cl p¡−b L¤¢m−u JW¡
L¢Wez ¢nr¡‰−eC ®h¢n L¢Wez plL¡¢l Q¡L¢l−aC hlw pñhe¡ ®h¢nz 1935 p¡−ml i¡la n¡pe BCe Ae¤k¡u£
fС−c¢nL ü¡ušn¡p−el g−m j¤p¢mj pwMÉ¡N¢lù fÐ−cn ¢q−p−h Bj¡−cl plL¡l j¤p¢mj fÐd¡e ¢R−m¡z j¤p¢mj−cl−L
®h¢n pwMÉ¡u Q¡l¢L ®ch¡l SeÉ plL¡l BNËq£ ¢R−m¡z ¢L¿º fТa−k¡¢Na¡u k¢c ¢q¾c¤−cl p−‰ f¡õ¡ ¢c−a e¡ f¡l¡ k¡u
a¡q−m pjpÉ¡z ®a¡jl¡ ®k−qa¤ i¡−m¡ R¡œ ®a¡j¡−cl SeÉ ¢h¢pHp-®LC V¡−NÑV h¡e¡−e¡ E¢Qaz ¢h¢pHp-Hl
L¢Çf¢Vn−e ®h¢n eðl ®f−a q−m HL¢V ¢hou AhnÉC Blh£ b¡L¡ fÐ−u¡Sez Blh£−a naLl¡ B¢n-eîC eð−llJ
®h¢n f¡Ju¡ pñhz a¡C Blh£−a Ae¡pÑ ¢e−m fТa−k¡¢Na¡u ®hn£ eðl AseÑ Ll¡ pqS q−hz H L¡l−Z Blh£−a
Ae¡pÑ ®eu¡l SeÉ fl¡jnÑ ¢c¢µRz a−h p¡h¢p¢Xu¡¢l Cw¢mn, f¢m¢VLÉ¡m p¡C¾p, CL−e¡¢j„ CaÉ¡¢c b¡L−m AeÉ¡eÉ
¢cL ¢c−u ®L¡e Ap¤¢h−d q−h e¡z
f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡me aMe HaV¡ c¡e¡ hy¡−d¢ez ¢eLV i¢hoÉ−a f¡¢LÙ¹¡e L¡−uj q−u k¡−h aMe fkÑ¿¹ p¤Øfø HlLj
®L¡e mrZJ ®cM¡ k¡u¢ez ¢hТVn i¡l−a I f¢l−h−n ¢a¢e ®k fl¡jnÑ ¢c−me a¡ Bj¡−cl ¢eLV k¤¢š²f§ZÑ j−e q−m¡z
g−m Bjl¡ ®hn L−uLSe Blh£−a Ae¡pÑ ¢em¡jz B¢j Cw−l¢S J f¢m¢VLÉ¡m p¡C¾p−L p¡h¢p¢Xu¡¢l ¢hou ¢q−p−h
h¡R¡C Llm¡jz

−L¡eÚ q−m i¢aÑ qh

Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu öl¦ ®b−LC Bh¡¢pL ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡muz a¡C ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul R¡œ−cl ®h¢nli¡N q−mC b¡−Lz k¡l¡ q−m
b¡−L e¡ a¡l¡ ®j−p Abh¡ m¢Sw-H ®kM¡−eC b¡L¤L q−l j¡dÉ−jC ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u i¢aÑ q−a quz q−m k¡l¡ b¡−L a¡l¡
®l¢p−X¾V ØV¤−X¾V; h¡C−l k¡l¡ b¡−L a¡l¡ HV¡QÚX ØV¤−X¾Vz HV¡C Bh¡¢pL q−ml °h¢nøÉz HC Eiu dl−el R¡œl¡C
qm CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Q−e ®i¡V¡lz
Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul aMe 4 ¢V j¡œ qm ¢R−m¡z c¤−V¡ ¢q¾c¤ qm J c¤−V¡ j¤p¢mj qmz ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul p§Qe¡l pju
p¢mj¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj qm J SNæ¡b (¢q¾c¤) qm e¡−j c¤−V¡ qmC ¢R−m¡z flhaÑ£L¡−m gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm J Y¡L¡ ¢q¾c¤
qmz 1944 p¡−ml S¤e j¡−p B¢j kMe ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u i¢aÑ qC aMe ¢hnÄk¤Ü p¡l¡ ¢h−nÄ R¢s−u f−s−Rz C−a¡j−dÉ
YL¡uJ S¡f¡e ¢hj¡e h¡¢qe£ ®h¡j¡ ®g−m−Rz Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul fÐd¡e ih−el Q¡li¡−Nl ¢ae i¡N q¡pf¡a¡−m
f¢lZa qu Hhw HLi¡N j¡œ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul cM−m b¡−Lz ®N¡V¡ p¢mj¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj qm (HpHj qm) ®pe¡h¡¢qe£ cMm
L−l ¢emz haÑj¡−e gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm ®k S¡uN¡u Ah¢ÙÛa f§−hÑ ®pV¡ Y¡L¡ L−m−Sl ®q¡−ØVm ¢R−m¡z aMe f¤l¡ae
q¡C−L¡VÑ ihe ¢R−m¡ Y¡L¡ L−mSz gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul fÐd¡e ih−el HL¡w−n Ah¢ÙÛa ¢R−m¡z k¤−Ül
fÐ−u¡S−e Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu q¡pf¡a¡−ml SeÉ ®R−s ¢c−a q−m¡ aMe gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm Y¡L¡ L−mS ®q¡−ØVm
ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la quz p¢mj¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj qm aMe 3¢V fªbL fªbL S¡uN¡u ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la quz k¡l HL¡wn Y¡L¡ L−mS
®q¡−ØV−ml Cø¡eÑ ¢h¢ôwH ÙÛ¡e m¡i L−l, Afl c¤C Awn haÑj¡e fll¡øÌ j¿»Z¡mu ihe J ¢p¢ŸL h¡S¡−ll HL¢V
¢h¢ôw-H ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la quz
68

p¢mj¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj q−ml p¤e¡j J AaÉ¿¹ p¤ljÉ ¢h¢ôw-H Ah¢ÙÛa qJu¡ p−šÆJ I qm L−uL S¡uN¡u ¢h¢µRæi¡−h
ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la q¡Ju¡u H q−m i¢aÑ qJu¡ B¢j p¢WL j−e L¢l¢ez ®k ph ¢h¢ôw-H ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul LÓ¡p Ae¤¢ùa q−a¡
®p…−m¡ Y¡L¡ L−mS ®q¡−ØV−ml ¢eLVz Bl ®p ®q¡−ØV−mC gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la qJu¡u H q−mC i¢aÑ
qJu¡ B¢j pj£Q£e j−e Llm¡jz
aMe gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj q−ml fÐ−i¡ØV ¢R−me X. j¡qj¤c ®q¡p¡Cez ¢a¢e C¢aq¡p ¢hi¡−Nl l£X¡l ¢R−mez
flhaÑ£L¡−m ¢a¢e Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pmlJ q−u¢R−mez ®no S£h−e ¢a¢e Ll¡Q£ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ulJ ¢i¢p
¢R−mez 1957 p¡−m Ll¡Q£ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u Bj¡l p¡−b a¡l ®no ®cM¡z C¢e R¡œ−cl−L M¤hC i¡−m¡h¡p−aez ®M¡m¡−jm¡
Bm¡f Ll−aez f¡¢LÙ¹¡ez L¡−uj qJu¡l fl f§hÑ-f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el fТa¢e¢d ¢q−p−h f¡¢LÙ¹¡e NZf¢lo−cl pcpÉ ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa
qez ¢a¢e ¢cõ£l A¢dh¡p£ ¢R−mez a¡l hs i¡C fÐMÉ¡a ¢nr¡¢hc S¡¢Ll ®q¡−p¡Ce ¢cõ£−a S¡¢ju¡ ¢j¢õu¡ L¡−uj
L−lez f¢äa ®e−ql¦l pj−u ¢a¢e i¡l−al −fТp−X¾V ¢eh¡Ñ¢Qa qez
gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj q−ml 2 Se q¡Ep ¢VEVl ¢R−mez Hl HLSe q−me AbÑe£¢a ¢hi¡−Nl ®mLQ¡l¡l Se¡h
j¡Sq¡l¦m qL (flhaÑ£L¡−m fÐMÉ¡a AbÑZ£¢a¢hc X. j¡Sq¡l¦m qL); Bl HLSe X. H HCQ a¡m¤Lc¡lz HL¢ce
j¡Sq¡l¦m qL p¡−qh A¢g−p Bj¡−L −X−L hm−me, Bfe¡l ja HLSe ®jd¡h£ R¡œ Blh£−a Ae¡pÑ ¢e−u
S£heV¡−L ®Le eø Ll−me? A¡l h¡¢s ¢R−m¡ c¡EcL¡¢¾cz L¤¢jõ¡ ®Sm¡l ®m¡L ¢q−p−h cl−cl p−‰ H Lb¡ hm−mez
¢a¢e B−l¡ hm−me, ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u Blh£ ¢hi¡−N k¡l¡ i¢aÑ qu a¡l¡ j¡cÚl¡p¡ f¡p L−lC B−p Hhw i¡¢pÑ¢V ¢X¢NË
®eu¡l fÐ−u¡S−e ¢LR¤ pqS ¢hou p¡h¢p¢Xu¡¢l ¢q−p−h ®euz k¡l¡ Bd¤¢eL ¢ho−u Ae¡pÑ f−s a¡l¡J p¡h¢p¢Xu¡¢ll
SeÉ pqS ¢hou ®euz Bf¢e ¢WL E−ÒV¡ L¡S Ll−mez Cw¢mn J f¢m¢VLÉ¡m p¡C¾p p¡h¢p¢Xu¡¢l ¢q−p−h ¢e−me HV¡
Bj¡l ¢eLV ¢hpÈuLlz B¢j aMe a¡−L Blh£ Ae¡pÑ ®eu¡l fVi§¢j hÉ¡MÉ¡ Llm¡jz ¢a¢e j¿¹hÉ Ll−me- It was a
wrong advice from your English teasher.”

q¡¢pe¡ j¢”m

B¢j kMe LÓ¡p ®V−e f¢s aMeC fum¡ q¡¢pe¡ j¢”−m k¡Ju¡l p¤−k¡N quz ¢fТ¾pf¡−ml ¢eLV R¡œ−cl fr ®b−L ¢LR¤
c¡¢h-c¡Ju¡ ¢e−u Bjl¡ HLV¡ B−¾c¡me öl¦ L¢lz HV¡ ®Vl ®f−u ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh S¡e¡−me ®k, ®a¡jl¡ −a¡j¡−cl
hš²hÉ ¢m¢Mai¡−h ®fn Llz ®pL¡−m ph¢LR¤ Cw−l¢S i¡o¡l j¡dÉ−jC Ll−a q−a¡z HLV¡ XÊ¡gV °a¢l Ll¡ q−m¡z
Bj¡−cl j−dÉ ®b−LC HLSe fÐÙ¹¡h Ll−me °puc p¡‹¡c ®q¡p¡Ce e¡−j a¡l f¢l¢Qa HLSe Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u
Cw−l¢S ¢hi¡−Nl R¡œ, ¢a¢e Cw−l¢S i¡o¡u cr a¡C HV¡ a¡−LC ®cM¡−e¡ clL¡lz ®p Efm−r 5/6 Se R¡œ a¡l
p¡−b ®cM¡ Ll−a ®Nm¡jz ¢a¢e q¡¢pe¡ j¢”−mC b¡L−aez ¢a¢e Bj¡−cl XÊ¡gV ¢e−u A−eL L¡V¡L¡¢V L−l pw−n¡de
L−l ¢c−mz a¡l p¡−b hÉ¢š²Na pÇfLÑ N−s EW¡l p¤−k¡N qu¢ez flhaÑ£L¡−m’ 71 p¡−m l¡Sn¡q£ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ®b−L
Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul c¡¢uaÅ NËqZ L−lez aMe a¡l p¡−b O¢eùa¡l p¤−k¡N quz
f−ll hRl kMe BCH LÓ¡−p f¢s aMe Bj¡−cl Cw−l¢Sl AdÉ¡fL °puc jCe¤m Bqp¡−el p−‰ Bj¡l hÉ¢š²Na
O¢eùa¡ quz j¡−T q¡¢pe¡ j¢”−m ®ka¡jz ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u HjH LÓ¡−p fs¡l pju f§hÑ f¡¢LÙ¹¡e p¡¢qaÉ pwp−cl
j¡dÉ−jC °puc Bm£ Bqp¡e J °puc Bm£ Bnl¡g ï¡aªà−ul p¡−b f¢lQu O−Vz aMe HL pju S¡e−a f¡lm¡j
°puc jCe¤m ¯puc Bm£ Bqp¡−el Bfe g¤g¡a i¡C Hhw °puc p¡‹¡c ®q¡p¡Ce a¡l Bfe M¡m¡a i¡Cz
¯puc jCe¤m Bqp¡e p¡−q−hl ®R¡V i¡C ¢Su¡Em Bqp¡e gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj q−ml HV¡QÚX ØV¤−X¾V ¢R−mez ¢a¢e qm
CE¢eue H¢ƒ¢i¢Vp-H C¾V¡−lø ¢ea−ez k¡l g−m a¡l p¡−b O¢eùa¡ quz’ 46-47 ®pn−e B¢j kMe gSm¤m qL
j¤p¢mj qm CE¢eu−el ¢SHp ¢Rm¡j aMe ¢Su¡Em Bqp¡e HLC LÉ¡¢h−e−V ®Xf¤¢V Øf£L¡l ¢R−mez HV¡J
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CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V J qm CE¢eu−e H ¢eujC Q¡m¤ B−Rz qm CE¢eu−e ®fТp−X¾V ¢q−p−h fÐ−i¡ø pi¡f¢a−aÅl c¡¢uaÅ f¡me
L−lez ¢L¿º HgHCQ q−m f¡mÑ¡−j¾V¡¢l ¢p−ØVj Ah NieÑ−j¾V Hl h¡Ù¹h ®VÊ¢ew ®cJu¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ CE¢eu−el A¢dL¡wn
pi¡u Øf£L¡l pi¡f¢aaÅ Ll−aez Øf£L¡l J ®Xf¤V£ Øf£L¡l R¡œ−cl à¡l¡C ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa q−a¡z HMe Bl gSm¤m qL

69

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®ea¡ b¡L¡l L¡l−Z S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£ J ®eS¡−j Cpm¡j f¡¢VÑl ®k±b L¡kÑœ²j Efm−r q¡¢pe¡ j¢”−m ¢N−u¢Rz
Hi¡−hC R¡œS£he ®b−L f¡¢LÙ¹¡e Bj−ml l¡S¯e¢aL S£h−eJ q¡¢pe¡ j¢”−m Bj¡l k¡a¡u¡a ¢R−m¡z

¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u LÓ¡p öl¦

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Bj¡l j−e q−a¡z k¡l¡ fs¡−ae a¡l¡C fÐnÀ Ll−aez a¡C Bj¡l ®e¡V Ll¡l AiÉ¡p M¤hC L¡kÑLl h−m Ae¤ih
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B−m¡Qe¡ Ll−aez
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fcÉ J Blh£ NcÉ fs¡−ae a¡l¡ −mLQ¡l ¢c−ae e¡, a¡l¡ f¡WÉhC−ul Cw−l¢S Ae¤h¡c M¡a¡ ®b−L f−s öe¡−aez
nЦ¢a¢m¢f ®mM¡−aez Blh£ i¡o¡ ¢nr¡l SeÉ HV¤L¤ ®j¡−VC pq¡uL j−e qu¢ez Blh£ i¡o¡l ®L¡−e¡ ¢nrLJ Blh£−a
LM−e¡ ®mLQ¡l ®ce¢ez Bj¡l ®a¡ Bn¡ ¢R−m¡ ®k Cw−l¢S ¢nrLl¡ ®ki¡−h Cw−l¢S−a ®mLQ¡l ®ce Blh£ i¡o¡l
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70

Ll−a¡z H−a ¢a¢e ¢hhÐa−h¡d Ll−ae e¡z 6 j¡p fkÑ¿¹ Hi¡−hC Qm−m¡z AeÉph ¢ho−u LÓ¡p Ll¡, hC fs¡u M¤h
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Ll−mez B¢j Alf−V Bj¡l ®N¡V¡ pjpÉ¡l Lb¡ ¢hÙ¹¡¢la ®fn Llm¡jz
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Bn¡ˆ¡u Bjl¡ f¡m¡œ²−j f¡q¡l¡ ¢c−u¢Rz
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nq£c e¡¢kl Bqjc ¢chp f¡me Ll¡ q−a¡z
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QaÅ−lC ®cM¡ ®N−m¡ Bqa ®M¡¾cL¡l j¤naL¡−Lz a¡−L ®c−M gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj q−ml fÐ−i¡ØV X. j¤q¡Çjc nq£c¤õ¡q
E¯µQxü−l c¤xM fÐL¡n Ll¢R−me J N¡−u q¡a h¤¢m−u Bcl Ll¢R−mez

72

1946 p¡−m LmL¡a¡u ¢q¾c¤−cl q¡−a j¤pmj¡e−cl hÉ¡fL qaÉ¡L¡−äl fТa¢œ²u¡u Y¡L¡l QLh¡S¡l J AeÉ¡eÉ j¤p¢mj
fÐd¡e Hm¡L¡u ¢q¾c¤−cl ®c¡L¡e-f¡V SÅ¡¢m−u ®cJu¡ quz ¢q¾c¤ fÐd¡e Hm¡L¡u ¢q¾c¤l¡J j¤pmj¡e−cl ®c¡L¡e-f¡V
SÅ¡m¡uz
1947 p¡−ml BNø j¡−p f¡¢LÙ¹¡e L¡−uj qJu¡l fl hRl ®c−sL Y¡L¡u ®L¡e c¡‰¡ qu¢ez ¢L¿º ¢q¾c¤Ù¹¡−e hlh¡l
j¤p¢mj qaÉ¡l Mh−l Y¡L¡u ’49 p¡−m L−uLh¡l c¡‰¡ f¢l¢ÙÛ¢al pª¢ø qJu¡u Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u I hRl ®L¡e
g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡C q−a f¡−l¢ez
Bj¡l HjH g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡ 1948 p¡−ml ®no ¢c−LC ®ch¡l Lb¡ ¢R−m¡z CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eue J AeÉ¡eÉ LaL
hÉÙ¹a¡l cl¦e fl£r¡l fÐÙ¹¤¢a p−¿¹¡oSeL e¡ qJu¡k I hRl fl£r¡ ¢cm¡j e¡z ’49 p¡−m fl£r¡ ®ch¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡jz
¢L¿º c¤i¡ÑNÉhna ®p hRl c¡‰¡ f¢l¢ÙÛ¢al cl¦e fl£r¡ Ae¤¢ùa q−m¡ e¡z 1950 p¡−ml j¡QÑ j¡−p ’49 p¡−ml g¡Ce¡m
fl£r¡ qu Hhw ’50-Hl ¢X−pð−l ®p hR−ll HjH fl£r¡ Ae¤¢ùa quz B¢j 1950-Hl j¡−QÑ Ae¤¢ùa fl£r¡ ¢c−u
¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ®b−h ¢hc¡u −eCz ’48 p¡−m fl£r¡ e¡ ®ch¡l g−m Bj¡l R¡œ S£he c¤’hRl c£OÑ¡¢ua q−u ®N−m¡z k¡l
j−dÉ HL hR−ll SeÉ c¡‰¡ c¡u£z
i¡l−a BlJ hýh¡l j¤p¢mj ¢ede c¡‰¡ q−mJ Y¡L¡u Hlfl ®Lhm ’64 p¡m R¡s¡ ®L¡e hRlC c¡‰¡ f¢l¢ÙÛ¢al pª¢ø
qu¢ez ®L¡b¡J −L¡e jqm c¡‰¡l p§Qe¡ Ll−a Q¡C−mJ fÐhm Sej−al g−m a¡ hÉbÑ q−u−Rz
20

1940 ®b−L 46x Y¡L¡l l¡Se£¢a

1939 p¡−m B¢j kMe LÓ¡p HC−Vl R¡œ aMeC l¡S¯e¢aL LjÑL¡−ä nl£L qCz L¤¢jõ¡u j¤p¢mj m£−Nl avfla¡l
L¡l−ZC H p¤−k¡N quz ¢LR¤¢ce flflC ¢j¢Rm Sepi¡ Ae¤¢ùa q−a¡z ¢L¿º 40 p¡−m Y¡L¡u H−p j¤p¢mj m£−Nl ®L¡e
avfla¡ e¡ ®c−M ¢h¢pÈa qCz j¤p¢mj m£N ®ea¡ L¡l¡ a¡−cl e¡jJ öe−a f¡C¢ez LmL¡a¡u 1943 p¡−m h‰£u
j¤p¢mj m£−Nl L¡E¢¾pm A¢d−hn−e Se¡h Bh¤m q¡−nj−L fС−c¢nL j¤p¢mj m£−Nl ®p−œ²V¡¢l ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa Ll¡ quz ¢a¢e
Y¡L¡u H−p j¤p¢mj m£N−L NZpwNW−e f¢lZa Ll¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ f§hÑh−‰ k¤hL ®eaªaÅ N−s ®a¡m¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ L−le,
V¡‰¡C−ml Se¡h n¡jp¤m qL e¡−j HLSe LjÑavfl k¤hL−L ¢a¢e h¡R¡C L−lez
j¤p¢mj m£N−L f¤eNÑW−el fТœ²u¡ Qm¡L¡−mC S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, j¤p¢mj m£N ®eaªaÅ Y¡L¡l eJu¡h h¡¢sl ®ia−lC
p£j¡hÜz a¡−cl j§m ®ea¡l¡ l¡Se£¢a h−le LmL¡a¡uz Y¡L¡u a¡−cl ®L¡e LjÑavfla¡ ®eCz a¡C Y¡L¡k l¡S¯e¢aL
®L¡e L¡kÑLm¡f ®cM¡ k¡u¢ez Se¡h Bh¤m q¡−nj f§hÑh−‰l ®Sm¡…−m¡−a j¤p¢mj m£N−L pwN¢Wa Ll¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ
phÑfÐbj ®k …l¦aÅf§ZÑ L¡S¢V L−le a¡ q−m¡ eJu¡h h¡¢sl h¡C−l j¤p¢mj m£−Nl A¢gp ÙÛ¡fez Cpm¡jf¤l J
QLh¡S¡−ll j¡T¡j¡¢T 150 eðl ®j¡NmV¤m£−a ®c¡a¡m¡u H A¢gp ÙÛ¡¢fa quz ®pM¡−e j¤p¢mj m£−Nl LjÑ£ ¢n¢hl
L¡−uj Ll¡ quz Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ®b−L pcÉ HjH f¡p Ll¡ Se¡h n¡jp¤m qL HC ¢n¢h−ll fÐd¡e ®ea¡ j−e¡e£a
qez a¡l pqLjÑ£−cl j−dÉ L¤¢jõ¡l ®M¡¾cL¡l j¤na¡L Bqjc, j¤¾p£N−”l n¡jp¤Ÿ£e Bqjc, Y¡L¡ ®Sm¡l a¡S¤Ÿ£e
Bqjc Hhw V¡‰¡C−ml nJLa Bm£ Hhw B−l¡ L−uLSez
Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul R¡œ−cl j−dÉ Bj¡l q−ml HV¡QÚX (k¡l¡ q−m Bh¡¢pL eu) c¤’Se R¡œ a¡SEŸ£e J
e¡Cj¤Ÿ£e−LC −h¢n p¢œ²u ®c−M¢Rz j¤p¢mj m£−Nl fr ®b−L qÉ¡ä¢hm ¢h¢m Ll¡, p¡ç¡¢qL ¢jõ¡a f¢œL¡ ¢hœ²u Ll¡
CaÉ¡¢c avfla¡l j¡dÉ−j R¡œ−cl−L j¤p¢mj m£−Nl LjÑavfla¡u pÇfªš² Ll¡l ®Qø¡ Ll−aez B−NC h−m¢R
a¡SEŸ£−el p−‰ ú¤m S£h−eC Bj¡l f¢lQuz Bl e¡Cj¤Ÿ£e C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV Bj¡l LÓ¡p−éäz a¡C q−m Bp−mC
a¡l¡ Bj¡l ®My¡S Ll−a¡z B¢j ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u qm Hm¡L¡u HL¡−S nl£L ¢Rm¡jz ¢L¿º ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul h¡C−l a¡l¡
®ki¡−h p¢œ²u ¢R−me B¢j ®aje ¢Rm¡j e¡z B¢j qm CE¢eue H¢ƒ¢i¢V−a nl£L b¡L¡l p¡−b p¡−b ¢eu¢ja LÓ¡−p
q¡¢Sl b¡La¡jz a¡C l¡S¯e¢aL avfla¡u a¡−cl ja HaV¡ ANËpl qC¢ez

73

Se¡h n¡jp¤m qL

f§hÑh−‰l ANÑ¡e¡CS¡l ¢q−p−h n¡jp¤m qL p¡−qh M¤hC LjÑavfl ¢R−mez j¡−T j¡−T q−m H−p Bj¡−cl−L f¡¢LÙ¹¡e
B−¾c¡m−e A¢dLal p¢œ²u qJu¡l S−eÉ a¡¢Nc ¢c−aez k¢cJ B¢j a¡l X¡−L f¤−l¡f¤¢l p¡s¡ ¢c−a f¡¢l¢e, ah¤J
a¡l fТa Bj¡l Ni£l nÐÜ¡ J i¡−m¡h¡p¡ ¢R−m¡z ®cM−a ¢a¢e AaÉ¿¹ p¤f¤l¦o ¢R−mez c£OÑ−cq£, BLoÑZ£u ®Qq¡l¡, pc¡
q¡¢pj¤−M, gpÑ¡ lw Hl H ®m¡L¢Vl B¿¹¢lLa¡ J ¢eù¡l fÐnwp¡ e¡ L−l f¡l¡ k¡k e¡z ®cM¡ q−mC q¡¢pj¤−M c¤’q¡a
h¡¢s−u L¤m¡L¤¢m L−l hm−ae H B−¾c¡m−e nl£L e¡ q−m j¤pmj¡e−cl −L¡e i¢hoÉv ®eCz nq−l p¡C−L−m Bj¡l
Qm¡−gl¡ Ll¡l pj−uJ f−b ®cM¡ q−u ®N−m e¡ ®b−L Ef¡u ¢R−m¡ e¡z L¡lZ a¡−L A¿¹l ¢c−uC i¡−m¡h¡pa¡jz a¡l
q¡¢pj¤−M, ¢j¢ø Lb¡, H¢s−u Qm¡l p¡dÉ Bj¡l ¢R−m¡ e¡z B¢j ¢e−S−L a¡lC HLSe eNZÉ LjÑ£ j−e Lla¡jz a¡l
c¡¢h Ae¤k¡u£ L¡S Ll−a f¡la¡j e¡ h−m ®cM¡ q−m m¢‹a qa¡jz HLh¡l B¢j p¡C−L−m Qm¢Rz fÐQä ®l¡c ¢R−m¡z
a¡C HLq¡−a p¡C−Lm, B−lL q¡−a R¡a¡ ¢e−u Qm¢Rm¡jz g¤mh¡s£u¡ ®lm ®ØVn−el L¡−RC a¡−L ®c−M b¡jm¡jz
H¢s−u H−p hm−me, Bj¡l ®a¡ R¡a¡J ®eC p¡C−LmJ ®eC B¢j ®a¡ f¡−u ®qy−VC Qm¢Rz Bj¡−L qu R¡a¡V¡ ¢ce e¡
qu p¡C−LmV¡ ¢cez B¢j hmm¡j, Bf¢e fR¾c Ll−m c¤−V¡C ¢e−u k¡ez ¢a¢e ®S¡−l qÉ¡ä−pL L−l p¡m¡j ¢c−u Q−m
®N−mez
BCu¤h My¡l p¡j¢lL n¡pe¡j−m a¡−L A−eLhl Hje AhÙÛ¡u ®c−M¢R ®k c¤x−M ®R¡M ¢i−S EW−a¡z a¡−L
i¡−m¡h¡pa¡j h−mC H AhÙÛ¡u ®c−M ®hce¡u je i−l −k−a¡z a¡l q¡−a HLV¡ l¢pc hC ¢R−m¡z kaV¤L¤ j−e f−s
a¡−a ®mM¡ ¢R−m¡ Cpm¡j£ ®Mm¡ga fТaù¡l B−¾c¡mez ®cM¡ q−mC l¢pc hC¢V H¢N−u ¢c−ae Hhw ¢LR¤ ¢c−mC l¢pc
¢Ry−s V¡L¡V¡ ¢e−u ¢e−aez j¡e¢pL ¢cL ¢c−u ¢a¢e L−h ¢Li¡−h AfÐLª¢aÙÛ q−me ®p ¢ho−u k¡ ö−e¢R a¡ LaV¤L¤ paÉ
S¡¢e e¡ a−h Hje HL¢V ®k¡NÉ ¢eù¡h¡e j¡e¤−ol I AhÙÛ¡u Lb¡ j−e q−m HM−e¡ B¢j ®hce¡ ®h¡d L¢lz ¢a¢e ®L¡b¡u
¢Li¡−h ¢e−My¡S q−u ®N−me a¡ S¡e−a f¡¢l¢ez AfСp¢‰L q−mJ a¡l pð−å A−eL Lb¡ e¡ h−m f¡lm¡j e¡z L¡lZ
a¡−L B¢j AaÉ¿¹ nÐÜ¡ Lla¡j J A¿¹l ¢c−u i¡−m¡h¡pa¡jz
j¤p¢mj m£N−L f§hhÑ −‰l ®Sm¡…−m¡−a pwN¢Wa Ll¡l hÉ¡f¡−l a¡l ¢hl¡V Ahc¡e ph¡C ü£L¡l Ll−a h¡dÉz a¡lC
X¡−L HL¢ce 150 ®j¡NmV¤m£−a k¡Cz ®p¢ce phÑfÐbj B¢j M¡S¡ pÉ¡l e¡¢Sj¤Ÿ£e−L j¤p¢mj m£N A¢g−p hš²ªa¡
Ll−a ®cMm¡jz i¡‰¡ i¡‰¡ h¡wm¡u ¢a¢e Lb¡ hm¢R−mez ¢a¢e aMe j¿»£J ¢R−mez ®pM¡−e n¡jp¤m qL p¡−qh
f§hÑh−‰l L¡−Sl ®k ¢l−f¡ÑV ¢c−me a¡−a M¡S¡ p¡−qh M¤hC M¤¢n q−u a¡−L −j¡h¡lLh¡c ¢c−mez

−n−l h¡wm¡l ¢h−â¡q

1940 p¡−m ¢e¢Mm i¡la j¤p¢mj m£−Nl m¡−q¡l p−Çjm−e j¤p¢mj S¡a£ua¡l ¢i¢š−a (V¤ ®ene ¢bJ¢l) i¡la
¢hi¡−Nl fÐÙ¹¡h ¢k¢e ®fn L−le ¢a¢e ®n−l h¡wm¡ H−L gSm¤m qLz ®p pju ¢a¢e ®h‰m fТi¢¾pu¡m NieÑ−j−¾Vl ¢Qg
¢j¢eØV¡l, ®N¡V¡ Efjq¡−c−nl j¤pmj¡e−cl ¢eLV aMe ®b−LC ®n−l h¡wm¡ e¡−j MÉ¡az 1943 p¡−m kMe 2u
¢hnÄk−¤ Ül d¡‚¡ Efjq¡−cn−L BO¡a L−l aMe i¡l−al NieÑl ®Se¡−lm pLm fС−c¢nL j¤MÉj¿»£−L H L¡E¢¾p−ml
pcpÉ L−l −eez j¤p¢mj m£N ®fТp−X¾V L¡−u−c Bkj j¤q¡Çjc Bm£ ¢Sæ¡q H L¡E¢¾p−m ®k¡Nc¡e ®b−L ¢hla b¡L¡l
SeÉ j¤p¢mj j¤MÉj¿»£−cl−L ¢e−cÑn ®cez ®n−l h¡wm¡ H ¢e−cÑn j¡e−a Aü£L¡l L−lez
h‰£u j¤p¢mj m£−Nl j−dÉ H OVe¡¢V ¢hl¡V pjpÉ¡l pª¢ø L−lz ®n−l h¡wm¡ j¤p¢mj m£−Nl p¢Ü¡¿¹ Ae¤k¡u£ fС−c¢nL
plL¡−ll j¤MÉj¿»£ ¢R−mez j¤p¢mj m£N q¡C Lj¡−äl ¢e−cÑn Aj¡eÉ Ll¡u a¡−L j¤p¢mj m£N ®b−L h¢qú¡l Ll¡ quz
¢a¢e j¤p¢mj m£N j¿»£pi¡ ®i−‰ ¢c−u ¢q¾c¤ jq¡pi¡ ®ea¡ ENËf¢¿Û nÉ¡j¡ fÐp¡−cl p−‰ Bya¡a L−l nÉ¡j¡ qL j¿»£pi¡
L¡−uj L−lez ®n−l h¡wm¡l H ¢h−â¡q 45 J 46 p¡−ml ¢ehÑ¡Q−e ¢hl¡V r¢a Ll−a e¡ f¡l−mJ ®cn ¢hi¡−Nl pju
j¤p¢mj m£N A−eL r¢aNËÙ¹ quz A−e−LlC d¡lZ¡ l−u−R −k, ®n−l h¡wm¡ ¢h−â¡q e¡ Ll−m ¢q¾cÐl¡ h‰−cn−L ¢hiš²
Ll−a prj q−a¡ e¡ Hhw h‰−c−nl l¡Sd¡e£ LmL¡a¡−LJ q¡l¡−a q−a¡ e¡z h‰ ¢hi¡N ®l¡d Ll−a e¡ f¡l−mJ
A¿¹a j¤¢nÑc¡h¡c ®Sm¡ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el A¿¹i§Ñš² Ll¡ ®k−a¡z
1938-39 p¡−m nÉ¡jfÐp¡c j¤M¡SÑ£l ®eaª−aÅ ®n−l h¡wm¡ j¿»£pi¡l ¢hl¦−Ü h‰£u BCe f¢lo−c kah¡lC Ae¡ÙÛ¡ fÐÙ¹¡h
®fn q−u−R aah¡lC p¡l¡ h¡wm¡u j¤pmj¡eNZ j¤p¢mj m£−Nl ®eaª®aÅ ®n−l h¡wm¡ j¿»£pi¡l f−r ¢hf¤m pjbÑe ‘¡fe
L−l−Rz H S¡a£u ¢j¢R−mC B¢j L¤¢jõ¡u ®n−l h¡wm¡ ¢S¾c¡h¡c, f¡¢LÙ¹¡e ¢S¾c¡h¡c dî¢e−a j¤M¢la ¢j¢R−m
74

AwnNËqZ L−l HL¡¢dLh¡l Nm¡l üli−‰l ¢nL¡l q−u¢Rz ®pC ¢fÐu ®ea¡ ®n−l h¡wm¡l ¢hl¦−Ü Y¡L¡u kMe ¢j¢Rm qu
aMe nÉ¡j¡-qL j¿»£pi¡l ¢hl¦−Ü Hhw ®n−l h¡wm¡l ¢hl¦−Ü ®nÔ¡N¡e ¢c−a h¡dÉ qCz
Y¡L¡l eJu¡h q¡¢hh¤õ¡q nÉ¡j¡-qL j¿»£pi¡l pcpÉ ¢q−p−h LmL¡a¡ ®b−L kMe Y¡L¡u B−pe aMe Y¡L¡
¢hnÄ¢hcÉm−ul R¡œl¡ g¤mh¡s£u¡ ®lm ®øn−e L¡−m¡ fa¡L¡ ¢j¢Rm ¢e−u ¢h−r¡f fÐcnÑ−el ¢pÜ¡¿¹ NËqZ L−lz aM−e¡
j¤p¢mj m£N eJu¡h h¡¢s−aC h¢¾c b¡L¡u j¤p¢mj m£−Nl fr ®b−L H ¢ho−u ®L¡−e¡ lLj avfla¡ ®cM¡ k¡u¢ez hlw
eJu¡h f¢lh¡−ll E−cÉ¡−N Y¡L¡l B¢ch¡p£ pcÑ¡l−cl ®eaª−aÅ eJu¡h h¡q¡c¤l−L ¢hf¤m pðdÑe¡ S¡e¡h¡l B−u¡Se Ll¡
quz I f¢l¢ÙÛ¢a−a Y¡L¡u ®hn E−šSe¡Ll f¢l¢ÙÛ¢al pª¢ø quz B¢j aMe BCH f¢sz Bj¡−cl L−m−Sl HLcm
Ra¡Ê ¢e−u ®lm −øn−el L¡−R ®k−u ®cMm¡j eJu¡−hl pjbÑLl¡ m¡¢W−p¡V¡ ¢e−u R¡œ−cl−L ¢f¢V−u ®øne ®b−L a¡¢s−u
®cuz Bjl¡ k¢c Bl p¡j¡eÉ B−N ®f±yRa¡j a¡q−m Bj¡−clLJ a¡−cl Bœ²j−Zl ¢nL¡l q−a q−a¡z H ®b−L Øfø
h¤T¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, j¤p¢mj m£N eJu¡h−cl pÇf§ZÑ ¢eu¿»−Z ¢R−m¡z Hl f−lC j¤p¢mj m£N−L f§hhÑ ‰-pwN¢Wa Ll¡l SeÉ
eJu¡h h¡¢sl h¡C−l A¢gp ÙÛ¡fe Ll¡ quz

j¤p¢mj m£N ®ea¡ Bh¤m q¡−nj
1943 ®b−L 1945 fkÑ¿¹ 3 hR−l h‰£u j¤p¢mj m£−Nl ®p−œ²V¡¢l ¢q−p−h Se¡h Bh¤m q¡−nj Y¡L¡u ®k L’h¡lC
pg−l H−p−Re fÐ−aÉLh¡lC ¢a¢e p¤d£ pj¡−h−n hš²ªa¡ L−l ¢n¢ra pj¡S−L f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡m−e p¢œ²u i§¢jL¡
f¡m−el SeÉ EÜ¤Ü Ll−aez 43 p¡−m B¢j BCH f¢sz Bj¡−cl L−m−Sl L¡−RC Y¡L¡ ¢jE¢e¢pfÉ¡m q−m Ae¤¢ùa
p¤d£ pj¡−h−n phÑfÐbj a¡l hš²ªa¡ öeh¡l p¤−k¡N f¡Cz
Sepi¡l l¡S¯e¢aL hš²ªa¡ ®b−L pÇf§ZÑ ¢iæ dl−el hš²ªa¡ öem¡jz j¤p¢mj S¡¢al ¢hfÔh£ f¢lQu a¤−m d−l f¡¢LÙ¹¡e
B−¾c¡m−el Bc¢nÑL fVi§¢j hÉ¡MÉ¡ Ll−a ¢N−u ¢a¢e k¡ hm−me a¡−a B¢j l£¢aj−a¡ EÜ¤Ü ®h¡d Llm¡jz eJu¡h
h¡¢sl f§hÑf¡−n Bqp¡e¤õ¡q ®l¡−X fÉ¡l¡X¡Cp ®q¡−ØV−m aMe b¡La¡jz ®q¡−ØV−m ¢g−l ¢N−u pqf¡W£−cl ¢eLV I
hš²ªa¡l Lb¡ a¤−m dl−m ®hn L−uLSe Evp¡q fÐL¡n Ll−m¡z
I p¤d£ pj¡−h−nl ¢Qœ HM−e¡ Bj¡l ®Q¡−M i¡−pz q−m fÐd¡e hš²¡ Se¡h Bh¤m q¡−n−jl BNj−el f§−hÑ AeÉ hš²¡−cl
Lb¡ öe¢Rm¡jz qW¡v ‘Bh¤m q¡−nj ¢S¾c¡h¡c’ ®nÔ¡N¡e ®b−L h¤T¡ ®N−m¡ ®k ¢a¢e H−p−Rez c¤’Se ®m¡L c¤¢cL ®b−L
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a¡l iš² q−u ®Nm¡jz a¡C ®q¡−ØV−m ¢N−u pqf¡W£−cl−Ll hš²−hÉl p¡lLb¡ f¢l−hne Llm¡jz
¢LR¤¢ce fl Mhl ®fm¡j ®k, ¢a¢e e¡l¡uZN−” HL p¤d£ pj¡−h−n hš²hÉ l¡M−hez Bj¡l pqf¡W£ BV cnSe−L ¢e−u
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®Nä¡¢lu¡ ®ØVn−e I N¡¢s−aC Qsm¡jz HM−e¡ j−e q−m −fÐlZ¡ ®h¡d L¢l ®k, a¡l¦ZÉ J CµR¡n¢š² b¡L−m ®L¡−e¡
¢LR¤C Ap¡dÉ b¡−L e¡z
Se¡h Bh¤m q¡−nj−L ¢Q¿¹¡¢hc J c¡nÑ¢eL ¢q−p−hC nÐÜ¡ Lla¡jz a¡l ®mM¡ Creed of Islam hC¢VJ a¡l H
f¢lQuC hqe L−lz f§hhÑ ‰ j¤p¢mj m£N−L pwN¢Wa J Se¢fÐu Ll¡l SeÉ ¢a¢e Ec£uj¡e k¤h−ea¡ n¡jp¤m qL−L
h¡R¡C L−l¢R−mez H k¤h−ea¡J ‘Cpm¡j£ ¢hfÔh’ e¡−j HL¢V hC ¢m−M Se¡h Bh¤m q¡−n−jl i¡h-¢n−oÉl fÐj¡Z ®cez
a¡l ®hn Lu¢V hš²ªa¡ ö−eC f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡m−e p¢œ²u qJu¡ LaÑhÉ j−e L¢lz

75

f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡m−el fVi§¢j

Cw−lS n¡pe H Efjq¡−c−n phÑfÐbj h‰−cn ®b−LC öl¦ quz 1757 p¡−m ®pe¡f¢a j£lS¡g−ll ¢hnÄ¡pO¡aLa¡u
ü¡d£e h¡wm¡-¢hq¡−ll eJu¡h ¢pl¡S−Ÿ±m¡l fl¡S−ul g−m H ®c−n Cw−lS n¡p−el p§Qe¡ quz 190 hRl fl 1947
p¡−m ¢h−cn£ n¡p−el Ahp¡e O−Vz f¢ÕQj J Ešl i¡la j¡œ 100 hRl Cw−lS n¡p−el Ad£−e ¢R−m¡z
Efjq¡−c−n ®N¡m¡¢j k¤N h‰−c−nC c£OÑÙÛ¡u£ quz ¢hТVn n¡pLl¡ j¤pmj¡e−cl q¡a ®b−L n¡pe rja¡ ®L−s ®eu h−m
®N¡V¡ j¤p¢mj S¡¢a Cw−lS n¡p−el ¢hl¦−Ü pwNË¡j Ll−a b¡−Lz H−c−n Cw−lS n¡pe−L ÙÛ¡u£ J jSh¤a Ll¡l SeÉ
a¡l¡ ¢q¾c¤−cl pq−k¡¢Na¡ f¡uz g−m Q¡L¢l, hÉhp¡ ®fn¡, S¢jc¡¢l, ¢nr¡ CaÉ¡¢c pLm ®r−œ ¢q¾c¤ pÇfÐc¡u phÑfÐL¡l
p¤−k¡N-p¤¢hd¡ ®i¡N L−lz
¢hТVn n¡pe öl¦ qh¡l 50 hRl fl EC¢mu¡j q¡¾V¡l e¡jL Cw−lS fÐn¡pL ‘¢c C¢äu¡e j¤pmj¡ep’ e¡−j a¡l ¢m¢Ma
hC−a j¿¹hÉ L−le, “50 hRl f§−hÑ H−c−n ®L¡−e¡ j¤pmj¡e f¢lh¡l Nl£h J A¢n¢ra ¢R−m¡ e¡z haÑj¡−e pµRm J
¢n¢ra j¤p¢mj ®eC hm−mC Q−mz” H à¡l¡ fÐj¡¢Za qu ®k Cw−lS n¡pe¡j−m j¤p¢mj S¡¢a Xhm ®N¡m¡¢jl ¢S¢”−l
BhÜ ¢R−m¡z HL¢c−L Cw−lS−cl l¡S¯e¢aL ®N¡m¡¢j Afl¢c−L ¢q¾c¤−cl Abѯe¢aL J p¡j¡¢SL ®N¡m¡¢jz
EL£m-®j¡š²¡l, X¡š²¡l, C¢”¢eu¡l, hÉhp¡u£, ¢nÒff¢a, plL¡¢l LjÑQ¡l£ J S¢jc¡l ¢q−p−h ¢q¾c¤l¡ j¤pmj¡e−cl p¡−b
fÐS¡l j−a¡ BQlZ Ll−a¡z h¡mÉL¡−ml Lb¡ j−e f−sz Bj¡−cl h£lNy¡J CE¢eu−el f¡−n Lªo·eNl CE¢eu−e ¢q¾c¤
S¢jc¡l h¡¢sl ®cu¡−ml f¡n ¢c−u ®k l¡Ù¹¡ ¢N−u−R I l¡Ù¹¡u j¤pmj¡e−cl R¡a¡ j¡b¡u J S¤a¡ f¡−u k¡Ju¡ ¢e¢oÜ
¢R−m¡z L¤¢jõ¡ ®Sm¡l Q¡¢¾ce¡ b¡e¡ ®L−¾cÐl q¡C ú¤−m ®qX j¡ØV¡l ¢R−me HL hСþZz ú¤m L¢j¢V−a R¡œ−cl A¢ii¡hL
¢q−p−h ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa Bhc¤m B¢SS i§U¡ J lSh Bm£ plL¡l−L L¢j¢Vl °hW−L ®Qu¡−l hp−a ®cJu¡ q−a¡ e¡z
c¡−l¡u¡e J ¢fue−cl hÉhq©a c−V¡ ®N¡m V¤−m a¡−cl−L hp−a q−a¡z
f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡me öl¦ qh¡l fl Bj¡l Bî¡ I c¤’Se j¤p¢mj pcpÉ−L EÜ¤Ü Ll¡l g−m a¡−cl−L ®Qu¡−l hp¡l
hÉhÙÛ¡ Ll−a h¡dÉ quz Ha¢ce ®Le ®Qu¡−l hp−a e¡ ¢c−u a¡−cl−L Afj¡¢ea Ll¡ qu Hl fТaL¡−l c¡¢h−a
B−¾c¡me Ll¡l g−m ®qX j¡ØV¡l Bj¡l Bî¡l h¡p¡u H−p pj−T¡a¡l fÐÙ¹¡h ®cez B¢j aMe Y¡L¡u LÓ¡p ®V−e
f¢sz j−e f−s ®qX j¡ØV¡l Bî¡l q¡a d−l ®Ly−c ®Ly−c Ae¤−l¡d L−le ®ke pÇj¡eSeLi¡−h j£j¡wp¡ L−l ®cez
ú¤m juc¡−e Ae¤¢ùa Sepi¡u ®qX j¡ØV¡l rj¡ Q¡ez SeNZ p¿ºø q−u ®qX j¡ØV¡l−L deÉh¡c S¡e¡−m pj−T¡a¡ quz
f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡me pgm e¡ q−m AbÑ¡v 1947-H i¡la ¢hi¡N e¡ q−m BS k¡l¡ S¡a£u AdÉ¡fL J i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pml
a¡−cl ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ®mLQ¡l¡l ¢hQ¡lf¢a a¡l¡ ph¡C ®Sm¡ SSJ q−a f¡l−ae e¡z h¡wm¡−cn p¤fУj ®L¡−VÑ f¢ÕQjh−‰
S¾jNËqZL¡l£ ®hn L−uLSe BceS£h£ ¢hl¡V jk¡Ñc¡l Bp−e B−Rez a¡l¡ k¢c f¤hÑ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−e Q−m e¡ Bp−ae
a¡q−m ®L¡mL¡a¡ q¡C−L¡−VÑ a¡l¡ ¢L E−õM−k¡NÉ h−mJ NZÉ q−ae? k¡l¡ j¿»£ a¡l¡ pwpc pcpÉ q−uC p¿ºø b¡L−a
h¡dÉ q−aez AbQ H−clC ¢LR¤ Ah¡ÑQ£e j¤pmj¡e 47-Hl ®cn ¢hi¡N−L i§m hm−a m‹¡−h¡d L−l e¡z H Lb¡
¢q¾c¤−cl j¤−MC ®n¡i¡ f¡uz

4545-46 p¡−ml ¢ehÑ¡Qe A¢ik¡e

1945 J 46 p¡−m A¢hiš² i¡la h−oÑ ®k ¢eh¡ÑQe Ae¤¢ùa qu Hl gm¡g−ml ¢i¢š−aC ¢hТVn plL¡l J C¢äu¡e
eÉ¡ne¡m Lw−NËp i¡la ¢hi¡N J f¡¢LÙ¹¡e l¡øÌ L¡−u−j pÇja q−a h¡dÉ quz 1945 p¡−m ®L¾cУu BCepi¡ J 6
p¡−m fС−c¢nL BCepi¡l ¢ehÑ¡Qe Ae¤¢ùa quz
H ¢ehÑ¡Qe−L ®L¾cÐ L−lC j¤p¢mj m£−Nl avfla¡ hÉ¡fL quz 1945 p¡−ml j¡T¡j¡¢T ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul A−eL R¡œ
j¤p¢mj m£N ®ea¡−cl p¡−b ¢ehÑ¡Qe A¢ik¡e nl£L q−u ¢h¢iæ Hm¡L¡u k¡uz Bjl¡ L−uLSe ®pL¡−ml j¡¢eLN”
jqL¤j¡u k¡Cz j¡¢eLN” jqL¤j¡l j¤p¢mj m£N ®ea¡ HX−i¡−LV M¡e p¡−qh BJm¡c ®q¡−p−el ®eaª®aÅ Bjl¡ ph
Lu¢V b¡e¡u ¢N−u¢Rz S¤e j¡phÉ¡f£ I pg−l ®R¡V hs hý Sepi¡u Bjl¡ ®ea¡−cl j¤−M ®n¡e¡ hš²ªa¡ Lla¡jz
BJm¡c ®q¡−pe p¡−qh Bj¡l hš²ªa¡ M¤h fR¾c Ll−ae h−m ph pi¡uC Bj¡−L hm−a ¢c−aez hs HL¢V ®e±L¡u

76

j¡CL ¢e−u ¢h¢iæ b¡e¡u pgl Ll¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ ¢R−m¡z Sepi¡u l¡S¯e¢aL hš²ªa¡ ®ch¡l AiÉ¡p Ll¡l HV¡C Bj¡l
fÐbj p¤−k¡N ¢R−m¡z I −VÊ¢ew p¡l¡ S£h−el L¡−S ®m−N−Rz
f¡¢LÙ¹¡e L¡−uj qh¡l fl j¡¢eLN−”l ®ea¡ BJm¡c ®q¡−pe fС−c¢nL f¢lo−c ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa pcpÉ ¢q−p−h plL¡−ll
f¡mÑ¡−j¾V¡¢l ®p−œ²V¡¢l (haÑj¡e f¢li¡o¡u Efj¿»£) q−mez −aSNy¡−u BJm¡c ®q¡−pe j¡−LÑV¢V a¡l e¡−jC l¡M¡ Hhw
¢a¢eC Hl j¡¢mL ¢R−mez
46 p¡−m Bj¡−L ¢hH fl£r¡ ¢c−a q−m¡ h−m f¡¢LÙ¹¡e B−¾c¡m−el R¡œ LjÑ£ ¢q−p−h B−Nl hR−ll j−a¡ i§¢jL¡
f¡me Ll−a f¡¢l¢ez a−h fl£r¡l fl kMe ¢ehÑ¡Qe qu aMe hš²ªa¡l AiÉ¡pV¡ L¡−S ®m−N−Rz

45 J 4646-Hl ¢ehÑ¡Qe
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−ch¡l p¤−k¡N f¡Ju¡ ®N−m¡ aMe j¤p¢mj SeNZ HL−Q¢Vu¡ j¤p¢mj m£N fСb£Ñ−cl−L A¢a Evp¡−ql p¡−b ®i¡V ¢c−m¡z
h‰−c−n naLl¡ 97 Se ®i¡V¡l f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el f−r ®i¡V ¢c−u¢R−m¡z i¡l−al −k ph fÐ−cn f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el A¿ºiÑš² q−h e¡
S¡e¡ ¢R−m¡ ®pM¡eL¡l j¤pmj¡el¡J Lw−NË−pl ®L¡−e¡ j¤p¢mj fСbÑ£−L ¢hSu£ q−a ®cu¢ez
−n−l h¡wm¡ gSm¤m q−Ll ¢hpÈuLl Se¢fÐua¡ p−šÆJ ¢a¢e j¤p¢mj m£−Nl ¢hl¦−Ü ¢h−â¡q Ll¡u ¢ehÑ¡Q−e j¡œ 5¢V
Bp−e ®L¡−e¡ lL−j Su£ qez a¡l hÉ¢š²Na Se¢fÐua¡l L¡l−Z j¡e¤o a¡l pÇj¡e lr¡ L−l−Rz ¢L¿º a¡l f¡¢LÙ¹¡e
¢h−l¡¢da¡ ®j¡−VC pjbÑe L−l¢ez 1945 p¡−ml e−ið−l ®L¾cУu f¢lo−cl ¢ehÑ¡Qe quz ®N¡V¡ i¡l−a 30¢V Bpe
j¤pmj¡e−cl SeÉ ¢e¢cÑø ¢R−m¡z H ph Lu¢VC j¤p¢mj m£N cMm L−lz 1946 p¡−ml j¡QÑ j¡−p fС−c¢nL f¢lo−cl
¢ehÑ¡Qe quz h‰£u f¢lo−cl 119¢V j¤p¢mj Bp−el j−dÉ 113¢V−aC j¤p¢mj m£N fСb£Ñl¡ ¢hSu£ qez Hl j−dÉ HL¢V
Bp−eJ Lw−NËp fСb£Ñ ®L¡−e¡ j¤pmj¡e Su£ q−a f¡−l¢ez h¡¢L 6¢V Bp−el 2¢V−a ®n−l h¡wm¡ Hhw 3¢V−a a¡l
pj¢bÑa ¢aeSe Hhw 1¢V−a j¤p¢mj m£−Nl pjbÑL HLSe üa¿» fСbÑ£ ¢hSu£ q−u j¤p¢mj m£−N ®k¡Nc¡e L−lez
21.

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c¤’am¡ qm ¢h¢ôw (haÑj¡−e ¢ae am¡)-Hl ¢ae ¢c−L R¡œ¡h¡pz Bl c¢rZ ¢c−L j¡TMA−e ¢hl¡V ®NCVz Hl c¤’f¡−n
c¤’Se q¡ES ¢VEV¡−ll A¢gp J h¡p¡ ¢R−m¡z
q−ml f¢ÕQ−j ¢hl¡V f¤Ll¤ z f¤L¤−ll f¢ÕQ−j Y¡L¡ qm (¢q¾c¤ qm), haÑj¡−e Hl e¡j nq£c¤õ¡q qmz f¤L−¤ ll f§hÑ J
f¢ÕQj f¡−l ¢hl¡V c¤’−V¡ f¡L¡ O¡Vm¡u c¤’q−ml R¡œl¡ ®N¡pm Ll−a¡z q−ml ®ia−l ®N¡p−ml hÉhÙÛ¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡z
q−ml f¢l−hn Bj¡l M¤hC i¡m j−e q−m¡z R¡œ−cl j−dÉ ¢p¢eul−cl fТa S¤¢eu¡l−cl pÇj¡e fÐcnÑ−el l£¢a AaÉ¿¹
QjvL¡l ¢R−m¡z X¡C¢ew q−m M¡h¡l ®V¢h−m hp¡l pju Ef−ll-LÓ¡−pl R¡œ−L B−N hp¡l p¤−k¡N ®cJu¡, q−ml
®ia−l qy¡V¡Qm¡l pju ¢p¢eul R¡œ−L B−N k¡h¡l SeÉ l¡Ù¹¡l ¢Le¡−l Q−m k¡Ju¡, f¤L¤−l ®N¡p−ml pju O¡Vm¡u
HLV¤ ¢is q−m ¢p¢eul−cl−L ANË¡¢dL¡l ®cJu¡, f¡uM¡e¡l m¡C−e cy¡s¡−e¡ AhÙÛ¡u ¢p¢eul−L B−N p¤−k¡N −cJu¡
CaÉ¡¢c j¡dÉ−j Hje p¤¾cl f¢l−hn ¢hl¡S Ll−a¡ k¡ HMe LÒfe¡J Ll¡ k¡u e¡z
Hje p¤¾cl I¢aqÉ N−s E−W¢Rm ®k, ¢p¢eul R¡œl¡ ANË¡¢dL¡l ®f−uJ a¡ NËqZ e¡ L−l S¤¢eul−cl fТa ®pÀq fÐcnÑe
Ll−a¡z pj−ul ®L¡e a¡s¡ b¡L−m ®p °L¢gua ¢c−u S¤¢eul−L deÉh¡c S¡¢e−u ANË¡¢dL¡−ll p¤−k¡N NËqZ Ll−a¡z
HaÑj¡−e ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul ¢nrLNZJ R¡œ−cl ¢eLV I f¢lj¡Z pÇj¡e ®i¡N L−le ¢Le¡ a¡ ay¡l¡C i¡m S¡−eez 1979
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X. jqîa Bm£l p¡−b p−Çjme ®n−o HL¡−¿¹ ¢S−‘p Llm¡j ®k, ®pL¡−m fÐ−i¡ØV R¡œ−cl ¢eLV ®k pÇj¡e ®f−ae

77

a¡ Bfe¡l ¢eÕQuC pÈlZ B−Rz Bf¢e ¢L a¡ f¡e? ¢hoæ j¤−M SJu¡h ¢c−me, “®L¡e lL−j pÇj¡e hy¡¢Q−u Qm¡l ®Qø¡
L¢l”z
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h−m f−l ö−e¢Rz p−Çjm−el fl flC °c¢eL pwNË¡j ‘ÚBj¡l qm gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm’ ¢n−l¡e¡−j Bj¡l ®mM¡¢V
f−s qm CE¢eu−el ®p−œ²V¡¢l Bj¡−L ¢Q¢W ¢m−M p−Çjm−e Bj¡−L kb¡kb jk¡Ñc¡ e¡ ®ch¡l SeÉ c¤xM fÐL¡n L−lz
B¢j a¡−cl ¢eLV HV¤L¤ ®p±SeÉJ Bn¡ L¢l¢ez
qm J ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu Qm¡−gl¡l f−b, Lje l¦−j, qm ¢jme¡ua−e mrÉ Ll¡ ®k−a¡ ®k úm¡l R¡œ−cl−L AeÉ ph¡C
pÇje fÐcnÑe Ll−a¡z a¡−cl−L Hjei¡−h p¡m¡j ¢c−a¡ ®ke a¡l¡ pÇj¡−el f¡œz

¢nrL−cl fТa pÇj¡e fÐcnÑZ

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B¿¹¢lLa¡ fÐ−u¡Sez haÑj¡−e R¡œ-¢nrL pÇf−LÑl I Eæa j¡e hq¡m e¡ b¡L¡l SeÉ Eiu frC c¡u£ ¢Le¡ a¡
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pq¢nr¡ p−šÆJ

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l¡øÌ¢h‘¡e, Cw¢mn, J h¡wm¡ LÓ¡−pl R¡œ£l¡ f¡−nl L¡jl¡u hp−a¡z ¢nrL c¤’L¡jl¡l j¡T¡j¡¢T cy¡¢s−u ®mLQ¡l
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LM−e¡ ¢hhÐaLl AhÙÛ¡u f¢aa q−a¡ e¡z
Bjl¡ mrÉ Lla¡j ®k, R¡œ£−cl j−dÉ ¢q¾c¤−cl a¤me¡u j¤p¢mj−cl pwMÉ¡ eNZÉz R¡œ£−cl j−dÉ ph¡C n¡¢s fs−a¡z
p¡mJu¡l L¡¢j−pl fÐQme aMeJ öl¦ qu¢ez a¡−cl ®L ¢q¾c¤ J ®L j¤p¢mj a¡ ¢Q¢q©a Ll¡ pqS ¢R−m¡z k¡l¡ j¡b¡u
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p¡wúª¢aL A‰e

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78

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fТa−k¡¢Na¡ Cw−l¢S i¡o¡uCAe¤¢ùa q−a¡z
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−L¡e j¢qm¡−L q−ml ®L¡e Ae¤ù¡−e N¡e N¡C−a B¢j ®c¢M¢ez N¡−el Ae¤ù¡−e L¡Ju¡m£ ph−Q−u Se¢fÐu ¢R−m¡z
qm CE¢eu−el eh-¢ehÑ¡¢Qa ®L¢h−e−Vl A¢I−oL Ae¤ù¡−el ®no f−hÑ p¡wúª¢aL L¡k¡Ñh¢ml j−dÉ N¡eC fÐd¡e ¢hou
q−a¡z e¡QJ q−a¡, a−h cnhRl hu−pl ®h¢n ®L¡e ®j−u−L Ae¤j¢a ®cJu¡ q−a¡ e¡z
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fÐ−u¡S£ua¡C ®h¢nz B¢j Bn¡ L¢l Hl p¡q¡−kÉ Cpm¡j£ B−¾c¡m−el AÒf ¢n¢ra LjÑ£l¡ L¤lB−el B−m¡ pwNËq
Ll−a pq−SC prj q−hez
Bj¡l f−r ®N¡V¡ a¡gq£j¤m L¤lB−el p¡l-pw−rf lQe¡ Ll¡ pñh q−m¡ e¡z ¢L¿º ®k pqS i¡o¡u 70¢V p§l¡l
Ae¤h¡c Ll¡ q−u−R ®p i¡o¡u h¡¢L p¤l¡…−m¡l Ae¤h¡c Ll¡l h¡pe¡ aÉ¡N Ll−a f¡¢l¢ez
a¡gq£j¤m h¤lB−el ¢hl¡V a¡gp£l fs¡l p¡dÉ k¡−cl ®eC, a¡l¡ k¡−a L¤lBe−L ®j¡V¡j¤¢V h¤T−a f¡−l ®p hÉhÙÛ¡
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L¤lBe jS£−cl Ae¤h¡c Ll¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡jz 1992-93 p¡−m ®S−m b¡L¡l p¤−k¡−N fÐbj cn f¡l¡ Ae¤h¡c Llm¡jz
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f¢lQkÑ¡, f¢ln£me CaÉ¡¢c AbÑ H në¢V hqe L−lz
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Q¡−f a¡ Efnj q−u k¡uz H ®l¡N p¡j¢uL Hhw ph ®l¡−Nl j−a¡C ¢el¡ju−k¡NÉz
Bj¡l ®R¡V i¡C −N¡m¡j j¤u¡kÚk¡−jl e¡Ce-®V−e fs¡l pju H −l¡N q−u¢R−m¡z f¡WÉhC−a ka lLj L¢ha¡ B−R ph
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q−u ®N−m¡z

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e¡VL J A¢ieu

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L¢ha¡l BL¡−l ¢R−m¡z
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cy¡s¡−m ¢hQ¡lL Bj¡−L A¢i−k¡N ®fn Ll¡l ¢e−cÑn ¢c−mez R¾cju L¢ha¡u B¢j hmm¡j ®k, cl−hn−L B¢j 4¢V
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cl−h−nl SJu¡h ö−e p¿º¢ø q−u Bp¡j£−L ®hLp¤l M¡m¡p ¢c−me Hhw e¡¢Ù¹L p¢WL SJu¡hC ®f−u−R h−m l¡u
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I Q¡l¢V fÐnÀ ¢L ¢R−m¡ Hhw cl−hn ¢Li¡−h fÐj¡Z Ll−me −k HL ¢Ym −j−lC ph fÐ−nÀl p¢WL SJu¡h ®cJu¡ q−u−R
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pȪ¢a p¡Nl j¿Ûe L−l j¡œ c¤−V¡ fÐnÀ Hhw SJu¡h B¢hú¡l Ll¡ pñh q−mJ h¡¢L c¤−V¡ ¢LR¤−aC pÈlZ Ll−a f¡lm¡j
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87

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öd¤ a¡l Lb¡u ¢hnÄ¡p Llh ®Le?
Bl j¡e¤o j¡¢Vl °a¢lz B¢j j¡¢Vl ¢Ym¡ ®j−l¢Rz B…−e °a¢l ¢Se k¢c ®c¡k−Ml B…−e Lø e¡ f¡u a¡q−m j¡¢Vl
j¡e¤o ®Lje L−l j¡¢Vl ®Ym¡u Lø f¡−h?
fÐÐnÀ c¤−V¡ J Hl Ešl AÒf Lb¡u HM¡−e fÐL¡n Ll¡ q−m¡z pwm¡f AhnÉ ®hn mð¡C ¢R−m¡z
Y¡L¡ LÓ¡p e¡C−el R¡œ b¡L¡L¡−m Lma¡h¡S¡l ®q¡−ØV−m ‘B−mLS¡ä¡l’ J ‘l¡S¡ f¤−l¡’ e¡VL¢V j’ÙÛ quz ¢c¢NÄSu£
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B¢j N¡uL e¡ q−mJ N¡e fR¾c Lla¡jz BLoÑÑZ£u p¤−l N¡Ju¡ N¡e R¾ce L−l e¡ Hje j¡e¤o ¢hlmz a−h q−ml Lje
l¦−j ®l¢XJ−a N¡−el Bp−l k¡l¡ N¡−el ®en¡u Sj¡−ua q−a¡ B¢j a¡−cl j−dÉ NZÉ ¢Rm¡jz

B−NC E−õM L−l¢R ®k, ¢hH fl£r¡l fl N£a¡”¢ml N¡e Hhw eSl¦−ml l¢Qa q¡jc J e¡a ¢eSÑ−e ®N−u aª¢ç
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n¢gM¤m Cpm¡j ®fТp−X¢¾p L−m−S hs−ae Hhw Bj¡l ®R¡V i¡C −N¡m¡j j¤u¡kÚk¡j aMe ®L¡mL¡a¡ ®j¢X−Lm
L−m−Sl R¡œz c¤’S−eC ¢hMÉ¡a ®hL¡l ®q¡−ØV−m b¡L−aez
Bî¡ Bj¡−L −L¡mL¡a¡l I ®q¡−ØV−m Q¡Q¡ J i¡C−ul p¡−b ®b−L HjH fs¡l fl¡jnÑ ¢c−mez ¢hH fl£r¡l gm
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fªbL L¡jl¡u b¡L¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ Ll−mez HL¢ce clS¡ hå L−l j−el Be−¾c N¡e N¡C−a m¡Nm¡jz ®q¡−ØV−m Hje
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l¡−a M¡h¡l fl j¡j£ Bj¡−L ¢e−u R¡−c EW−mez ®c¡am¡l Efl R¡−c E−W Q¡lf¡−n A−eL R¡c ®cM¡ ®N−m¡z g¤Vg¤−V
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j¤‡ q−u¢Rz I N¡e…−m¡C HMe öe−a Q¡Cz”
Hi¡−h dl¡ f−s ¢N−u M¤hC m¢‹a qm¡jz j¡j£l Q¡−f f−s “j¤q¡Çjc e¡j S−f¢R¢m h¤mh¤m a¤C B−N” e¡a¢V N¡C−a
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g¤Vm−l g¤m”z Caxf§−hÑ Hje Nm¡ ®R−s N¡C¢e Hhw ®n¡e¡h¡l SeÉJ N¡C¢ez j¡j£l ¢ff¡p¡ BlJ ®h−s ®N−m¡z
Bj¡lJ ¢e−Sl L−˜l Efl BÙÛ¡ pª¢ø q−m¡z Hh¡l N¡Cm¡j “¢œi¤h−el ¢fÐu j¤q¡Çjc”z C−a¡j−dÉ Bnf¡−nl R¡−c
®hn ¢LR¤ j¢qm¡ Sj¡ q−u N−m¡z HarZ ®p¢c−L B¢j mrÉ L¢l¢ez Jl¡ H¢c−L a¡¢L−u Q¤f Q¡f h−p B−R ®c−M
h¤Tm¡j ®k Bj¡l N¡e öe−Rz B¢j AfÊÙ¹¤a q−u ®b−j ®Nm¡jz j¡j£l L¡−R j¡g ®Q−u â¦a Bj¡l L¡jl¡u ¢N−u ö−u
fsm¡jz fl¢ce HL lLj ®S¡l L−lC ®q¡−ØV−m Q−m ®Nm¡jz

88

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1946 p¡−ml −j j¡−pC ¢hH fl£r¡l gm ®hl q−m¡z B−NC h−m¢R, L£ L¡l−Z Ae¡pÑ ¢X¢NË ¢e−a f¡lm¡j e¡z f¡p
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1948 p¡−m ®L¡mL¡a¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ®k¡Nc¡−el fl ®pM¡−e f¢m¢VLÉ¡m p¡C¾p ¢Xf¡VÑ−j¾V fªbL ¢hi¡N ¢q−p−h öl¦
qu Hhw ¢X He h¡e¡SÑ£ fÐbj ®qX Ah ¢c ¢Xf¡VÑ−j¾V qez
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q−a¡z ®p Ae¤j¢af−œl e¡j ¢R−m¡ j¡C−NÊne p¡¢VÑ¢g−LVz j¡C−NÊne j¡−e −a¡ ®cn¡¿¹lz Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ®b−L
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a¡ ¢ejÀl©fx
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a¡−cl eÉ¡kÉ A¢dL¡l lr¡ Ll¡l, a¡−cl pÇj¡e lr¡ Ll¡l Hhw haÑj¡e ¢hТVn-c¡paÅ J i¢hoÉv hZÑ ¢q¾c¤ B¢dfaÉ
®T−s ®gm¡l pju j¤pmj¡e S¡¢al SeÉ H−p−Rz”
“HC L¡E¢¾p S¡¢a−L a¡−cl HLj¡œ fТa¢e¢dj§mL J LaªÑaÅhÉ”L pwNWe ¢e¢Mm i¡la j¤p¢mj m£−Nl ®fR−e
cy¡s¡h¡l J ®k ®L¡−e¡ aÉ¡N ü£L¡−l fÐÙ¹¤¢a ®eh¡l Bqh¡e S¡e¡−µRz”
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fªx17)
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S¡e¡−Rz” (S¡a£u l¡Se£¢a 45-75, fªx 18)
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dhwp h¡ m¤V q−u−Rz hý j¤p¢mj j¢qm¡ CkÚka q¡¢l−u−Rz

Bj¡l ®L¡mL¡a¡ fs¡ q−m¡ e¡
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l¡S¯e¢aL cm NZ¢eiÑl quz a¡−cl−L R¡œ ¢eiÑl q−a qu e¡z
Bj¡−cl c¤iÑ¡NÉ ®k, l¡S¯e¢aL cm…−m¡ rja¡l l¡Se£¢a−a R¡œ−cl−L hÉhq¡l L−l ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ¢nr¡l f¢l−hn
Maj L−l ¢c−u−Rz ®pneS−Vl L¡l−Zz R¡œS£he c£OÑ¢ua q−µRz g−m ¢hl¡V pwMÉL R¡œ-R¡œ£ i¡l−a ®k−u ®mM¡fs¡
Ll−a h¡dÉ q−µRz
Jq¡j¡eÉ ®fТp−X¾V n¡q¡h¤Ÿ£e Bqjc Na L−uM hRl k¡ha h¡lh¡l l¡S¯e¢aL ®eaªhª−¾cl ¢eLV Bqh¡e S¡¢e−u−Re
k¡−a R¡œ−cl−L cm£u l¡Se£¢a−a S¢sa e¡ L−lez HLj¡œ S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£ H hÉ¡f¡−l jq¡j¡eÉ ®fТp−X−¾Vl
hš²hÉ pjbÑe L−l ¢hhª¢a ¢c−u−Rez S¡j¡u¡a ®eaªhª¾c ®fТp−X¾V−L p¡r¡−a pjbÑe S¡e¡−m ¢a¢e j¿¹hÉ L−le,
“Bfe¡l¡ pjbÑe Ll−mJ hs c¤−V¡ cm ®a¡ pjbÑe L−l e¡z” R¡œ l¡Se£¢al haÑj¡e d¡l¡l f¢lhaÑe e¡ q−m −c−nl
i¢hoÉa B−l¡ AåL¡l qh¡l BnwL¡l fÐhmz
25.

¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Qe
haÑj¡e X¡Lp¤ (DUCSU-Dhaka University central Student’s Union) e¡−j f¢l¢Qa pwÙÛ¡¢V−L ®pL¡−m
Dhaka University Student’s Union hm¡ q−a¡z pñha pw¢rç e¡−j DUCSU EµQ¡l−Z p¤¢hd¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ
®ØVÌ¡m në¢V ®k¡N Ll¡ q−u−Rz
haÑj¡e ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u q−ml pwMÉ¡ A−eLz j¢qm¡−clJ L−uL¢V qm l−u−Rz Bj¡−cl pj−u j¤p¢mj R¡œ−cl c¤−V¡ qm
Hhw ¢q¾c¤ R¡œ−cl c¤−V¡ qm ¢R−m¡z R¡œ£−cl ®L¡e qm ¢R−m¡ e¡z R¡œ£l¡ I 4¢V q−ml p¡−bl HV¡QÚXÚ ¢q−p−h
¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u i¢aÑ q−a¡ Hhw h¡¢s h¡ h¡p¡ ®b−L ®O¡s¡u N¡¢s−a L−l ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u Bp−a¡z AÒf pwMÉL R¡œ£ HL¢V
®q¡−ØV−m b¡L−a¡z H ®q¡−ØV−ml e¡j ¢Rm ‘Q¡−jl£ q¡ES’z

92

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‘Q¡−jm£ q¡ES’z p¤p¡¢q¢aÉL ¢jæa Bm£ p¡−qh °c¢eL pwNË¡−j H e¡j p¢WL eu h−m A¢ija fÐL¡n L−l S¡e¡−me
®k, ®q¡−ØVm¢Vl e¡j ¢R−m¡ ‘Q¡−jl£ q¡ES’z
Bj¡l pqf¡W£ hå¤ AhplfСç p¢Qh J ’91 p¡−ml ašÆ¡hd¡uL plL¡−ll Ef−cø¡ Se¡h Lg£mEŸ£e j¡qj¤−cl p¡−b
Bm¡f L−l S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, ¢jæa Bm£ p¡−q−hl Lb¡C ¢WLz ¢L¿º R¡œ jq−m ‘Q¡−jm£’ e¡jV¡C Q¡m¤ ¢R−m¡z B¢j H
e¡jC S¡ea¡j Hhw Bj¡l p¡b£ R¡œl¡ H e¡jC hm−a¡z
Lg£mEŸ£e j¡qj¤c ®b−L H e¡−jl C¢aq¡pJ S¡em¡j, k¡ B−N Bj¡l S¡e¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡z p¢Qh¡m−ul LaL Cw−lS
LjÑL¡aÑ, k¡l¡ pf¢lh¡−l ¢R−me e¡, a¡l¡ H h¡¢s−a ®jp L−l b¡L−ae Hhw a¡l¡C H e¡j ®l−M¢R−mez e¡j¢V ®hn
AbÑf§ZÑC ¢R−m¡z nì¢V ¢R−m¡ CHUMMERY HOUSE. ‘Chum’ AbÑ HLC O−ll h¡¢p¾c¡ h¡ A¿¹l‰ hå¤z
Se¡h ¢jæa Bm£ °c¢eL pwNË¡−j ‘S£he£ k¡ ®cMm¡j’ ¢eu¢ja f−se, ®S−e M¤h M¤¢n qm¡jz ¢a¢e Bj¡−L H ®mM¡l
SeÉ ®j¡h¡lLh¡c S¡e¡−me Hhw ®mM¡ BhÉ¡qa l¡M¡l ®fÐlZ¡J ¢c−mez
Qm CE¢eu−el j−a¡ CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe fТa hRl ¢eu¢ja q−a¡ e¡z Bh¡¢pL ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ¢q−p−h
R¡œ−cl f¡WÉp§¢Q h¢qiѤa k¡ha£u LjÑL¡ä qm−L¢¾cÐL ¢R−m¡ h−m ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eue e¡ b¡L−mJ ¢hl¡V öeÉa¡ pª¢ø
q−a¡ e¡z ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eu−el LjÑp§¢Q qm CE¢eu−el j−a¡ hÉ¡fLJ ¢R−m¡ e¡z
1944 Hl 1 S¤m¡C −b−L Bj¡l ¢hH 1j hoÑ öl¦ q−m¡z I j¡−pC qm CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe Ae¤¢ùa quz ¢L¿º ’44-45
®pn−el SeÉ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe qu¢ez ®Le qu¢e a¡ LaѪfr ®O¡oZ¡ Ll¡J fÐ−u¡Se j−e L−le¢e h−m
S¡e−a f¡¢l¢ez

19451945-46 p¡−ml ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Qe

1945-46 ®pn−el SeÉ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe Ae¤¢ùa quz HL¢V j¡œ fÉ¡−em Hl ¢h‘¡fe fÐQ¡¢la quz
®L¡e f¡ÒV¡ fÉ¡−em e¡ b¡L¡u ¢ehÑ¡Qe£ fÐQ¡l¢ik¡−elJ fÐ−u¡Se qu¢ez c¤−V¡ fÉ¡−em b¡L−m p¡d¡lZ R¡œ ®i¡V¡l−cl
¢eLV fСb£Ñ−cl−L f¢l¢Qa Ll−a q−a¡z Bjl¡ fСbÑ£−cl e¡−jl a¡¢mL¡ ®cMm¡j h−V; ¢L¿º a¡−cl p¡−b f¢l¢Qa qh¡l
p¤−k¡N ®fm¡j e¡z g¢lc Bqjc e¡−jl Cw−l¢S ¢hi¡−Nl HLSe R¡œ üa¿» fСbÑ£ q−m q−m ®k−u R¡œ−cl ¢eLV ®i¡V
fСbÑe¡ Ll¡u a¡−L ®cMm¡j, Ljel¦−j pj−ha R¡œ−cl p¡j−e hš²ªa¡ ¢c−u ¢e−Sl f¢lQu a¤−m dl−mez hm¡ h¡ýmÉ,
®pL¡−m Cw−l¢S−aC phÑœ hš²hÉ ®fn Ll−a¡ q−a¡z Bl ®L¡e fСbÑ£ R¡œ−cl p¡j−e Hi¡−h e¡ Bp¡u g¢lc Bqjc
QjvL¡l hš²¡ ¢q−p−h A−e−Ll j−eC ÙÛ¡e L−l −eez B¢jJ a¡−L ®i¡V −ch¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡j Hhw O¢eù hå¤−cl−LJ
a¡−L ®i¡V ®ch¡l SeÉ Ae¤−l¡d Llm¡jz AbQ g¢lc Bqj−cl p¡−b aMeJ hÉ¢š²Na f¢lQu qu¢ez
¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Q−e qm ¢ehÑ¡Q−el j−a¡ Evp¡q EŸ£fe¡ ®cM¡ k¡u¢ez 16 pcpÉ ¢h¢nø fÉ¡−e−ml j−dÉ
Bj¡−cl q−mm 4 Se R¡s¡ Bl L¡E−L hÉ¢š²Nai¡−h ®Qe¡l p¤−k¡N f¡C¢ez 16 S−el j−dÉ f−el Se−L B¢j −i¡V
¢cm¡jz p¢mj¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj q−ml 4 S−el j−dÉ HLSe−L h¡c ¢c−u g¢lc Bqjc−L ¢cm¡jz Hi¡−h e£l−h ¢ehÑ¡Qe
q−u ®N−m¡z fÉ¡−e−ml 15 Se J g¢lc Bqjc üa¿» fСbÑ£ ¢q−p−hC f¡p Ll−mez C¢eC ®j±mi£ g¢lc Bqjc e¡−j
MÉ¡a ®ek¡−j Cpm¡j f¡¢VÑl ®ea¡ nq£c g¢lc Bqjcz
qm CE¢eu−e ®kje ¢i¢fl e¡−jC fÉ¡−em−L f¢l¢Qa Ll¡ qu, ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu fÉ¡−e−m ®L ¢i¢f Bl −L ¢SHp HlJ
®L¡e E−õM e¡ b¡L¡u fСbÑ£−cl e¡j ¢e−u ®aje QQÑ¡J qu¢ez
¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eu−el NWea¿» qm CE¢eue ®b−L ¢iæ lL−jl ¢R−m¡z qm CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Q−e fСbÑ£−cl ®k fÉ¡−em
q−a¡ a¡−a fÐ−aÉL fСbÑ£l f−cl Lb¡J E−õM Ll−a q−a¡z ®i¡V¡l I ¢e¢cùÑ f−cl SeÉ ®L¡e fСbÑ£−L ®i¡V ¢c−a¡z

93

¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe fÜ¢a

¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Qe fÜ¢a ¢ejÀl©f ¢Rmx

Q¡l¢V q−ml fÐ−aÉL qm ®b−L 4Se fСbÑ£−L pLm q−ml R¡œ-R¡œ£l¡ ®i¡V ¢c−a¡z Hi¡−h 4x4=16 Se R¡œ ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa
q−a¡z R¡œ£−cl Q¡−jl£ q¡Ep e¡jL ®q¡−ØV−ml HLSe fТa¢e¢dpq ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu CE¢eu−el L¡kÑLl£ f¢lo−cl 17 Se
pcpÉ ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa q−a¡z i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pml CE¢eu−el ®fТp−X¾V ¢q−p−h NWea¿» ®j¡a¡−hL 17 S−el °hW−L a¡−cl j−dÉ
fc h¾Ve Ll−aez c¤−V¡ f−cl …l¦aÅ ®h¢n qJu¡u NWea−¿» ¢i¢f J ¢SHp-Hl j−e¡eu−el ¢ejÀl©f ¢hd¡e ¢R−m¡x
1. ¢i¢f k¢c j¤p¢mj qu a¡q−m ¢SHp q−h ¢q¾c¤z
2. f¡m¡œ²−j 4 qm ®b−L ¢i¢f J ¢SHp q−hz
3. HL ®pn−e ¢i¢f j¤p¢mj q−m flhaÑ£ ®pn−e ¢i¢f q−h ¢q¾c¤z
4. AeÉ¡eÉ ¢hi¡N£u ®p−œ²V¡¢ll pj¡e pwMÉ¡u 4 q−ml j−dÉ h¾Ve Ll−a q−hz
H ¢hd¡e Ae¤k¡u£ ’45-46 ®pn−el ¢i¢f fc ®f−m¡ pm£j¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj q−ml Bqjc¤m Lh£l (haÑj¡−e °c¢eL
pwh¡−cl j¡¢mL J pÇf¡cL)z ¢SHp q−m¡ SNæ¡b q−ml HLSe, k¡l e¡j j−e ®eCz qm CE¢eu−el j−a¡
CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa f¢lo−cl Sy¡LSjLf§ZÑ A¢i−oL Ae¤ù¡e q−u−R h−mJ j−e fs−R e¡z ¢i¢f
Bqjc¤m Lh£−ll f¢lQ¡me¡u CE¢eu−el ®L¡e E−õM−k¡NÉ Ae¤ù¡e q−u¢Rm ¢Le¡ a¡J pÈl−Z Bp−R e¡z
45 p¡−ml ®no¢c−L S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ g¢lc Bqjc−L ¢i¢f f−c ¢e−u¡N −cJu¡ q−u−Rz L¡lZ Bqjc¤m Lh£l R¡œ S£he
®no L−l Q−m ®N−Rez

19471947-48 −pne

1946-47 ®pne CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe Ae¤¢ùa qu¢ez I ®pn−el qm CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Q−e B¢j q−ml ¢SHp
qCz H ¢ho−u f§−hÑ B−m¡Qe¡ q−u−Rz B¢j aMe HjH 1j h−oÑl R¡œz
1947-48 ®pn−e B¢j HjH g¡Ce¡m Cu¡−ll R¡œ b¡L¡L¡−m I ®pn−el SeÉ CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe
Ae¤¢ùa quz
CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eu−e ’47-48 ®pn−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe Y¡L¡ qm ®b−L ¢q¾c¤ ¢i¢f Hhw gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm ®b−L ¢SHp
qh¡l Lb¡z

’47 Hl S¤m¡Cl öl¦−aC qm CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe£ A¢ik¡e Qm−Rz Bj¡−cl q−m ®a¡u¡q¡−L ¢i¢f L−l ®k fÉ¡−em
q−u−R B¢j HlC pjbÑLz f§hÑhaÑ£ qm CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Q−e ®a¡u¡q¡ J B¢j HLC fÉ¡−e−ml f−r L¡S L−l¢Rz Bjl¡
c¤’SeC l¡øÌ¢h‘¡−e HjH 2u h−oÑl R¡œz ¢hH−a Blh£ LÓ¡−pJ Bjl¡ pqf¡W£ ¢Rm¡jz hªqšjz ®e¡u¡M¡m£l haÑj¡e
mr£f¤l ®Sm¡l l¡jN¢a b¡e¡l HL h¢dÑo·¤ ®S¡ac¡l f¢lh¡−l ay¡l S¾jz QjvL¡l ¢höÜ ®Ll¡Ba fs−a f¡l−a¡z
Bjl¡ q−m HL ¢pV ¢h¢nø f¡n¡f¡¢n L¡jl¡u b¡La¡jz pL¡−m HLp¡−b l¦−jC e¡Ù¹¡ Lla¡jz i¡o¡ B−¾c¡m−eJ
Bjl¡ pq−k¡Ü¡z q−m Bjl¡ O¢eù hå¤ ¢q−p−hC f¢l¢Qa ¢Rm¡jz
H ®a¡u¡q¡C flhaÑ£L¡−m Lj−lX Nm¡L¡V¡ ®a¡u¡q¡ e¡−j MÉ¡a quz qm CE¢eue ¢ehÑ¡Q−e ®a¡u¡q¡ ¢i¢f q−u ®N−m¡z
a¡lC ®eaª−aÅ q−ml A−e−LC Bj¡−L CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V ¢SHp qh¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ ¢ehÑ¡Q−e fСbÑ£ q−a h¡dÉ Ll−m¡z Y¡L¡ q−ml
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fÉ¡−em °a¢l Ll¡ q−m¡z
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fÉ¡−em−L ¢hSu£ Ll¡l SeÉ ¢ehÑ¡Qe£ A¢ik¡e Sl¦l£ q−u fs−m¡z gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm J Y¡L¡ qm H−Lh¡−lC
f¡n¡f¡¢n, j¡TM¡−e HL¢V f¤L¤l j¡œz

94

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H A¢ik¡e Qm−m¡z Q¡l¢V q−m ph R¡−œl p¡−b p¡r¡v Ll¡l ®Q−uJ −h¢n f¢lnÐj Ll−a q−m¡ Ae¡h¡¢pL R¡œR¡œ£−cl h¡p¡u ®k−u ®cM¡ Ll¡l SeÉz l¡a¢ce ®M−V Bjl¡ LÓ¡¿¹ q−u fsm¡jz c¤’Se−L c¤−V¡ p¡C−Lm HLp¡−b p¡l¡
nq−l ®i¡V¡l−cl ¢WL¡e¡l a¡¢mL¡ ¢e−u h¡¢s h¡¢s dle¡ ¢c−a q−u−R, k¡−a ®LE hm−a e¡ f¡−l ®k a¡−cl L¡−R
k¡Ju¡ qu¢ez
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Be¾c HL Aá¤a Ae¤i§¢az fСu ¢ae pç¡−ql L¢We °c¢qL f¢lnÐj J LÓ¡¢¿¹ ®Lje L−l c§l q−u ®N−m¡ h¤T¡C N−m¡ e¡z
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CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eu−el ®fТp−X¾V ¢R−me i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pml X. °puc j¤u¡kk¡j ®q¡−pez B¢j kMe ’44 p¡−m Blh£
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aMe Hl fÐQme ¢R−m¡ e¡z
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X. j¡qj¤c ®q¡p¡C−el pðdÑe¡

X. j¡qj¤c ®q¡p¡Ce 1948 p¡−ml (®L¡eÚ j¡p j−e ®eC) j¡T¡j¡¢T plL¡¢l pg−l Y¡L¡u Bp−mez aMe ¢a¢e
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q−ml fÐ−i¡ø ¢R−mez B¢j qm CE¢e−uel ¢SHp b¡L¡L¡−m ¢a¢eC fÐ−i¡ø ¢q−p−h CE¢eu−el ®fТp−X¾V ¢R−mez ®p
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flhaÑ£−a BCEh My¡l p¡j¢lL n¡pe¡j¡−m ¢a¢e Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pml ¢R−mez 1960 p¡−m (S¡j¡u¡−a
Cpm¡j£ aMe ®h-BC¢e) a¡j£−l ¢jõ¡a e¡−j ¢p−ÜnÄl£ q¡Cú¤m juc¡−e Ae¤¢ùa 7 ¢cehÉ¡f£ Cpm¡j£ ®p¢je¡−l ¢a¢e
E−à¡de£ i¡oZ ®cez
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b¡L¡L¡−m 1972 p¡−m ay¡l p¡−b ay¡l A¢g−p Bj¡l ®no p¡r¡v quz

fÐd¡ej¿»£−L pÈ¡lL¢m¢f fÐc¡e

1948 p¡−ml 27 e−iðl ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ¢Sj−e¢nu¡j juc¡−e CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eu−el f−r ®b−L HL ¢hl¡V
R¡œpj¡−h−nl B−u¡Se Ll¡ quz Y¡L¡l pLm ¢nr¡ fТaù¡−el R¡œ−cl H−a nl£L qh¡l Bqh¡l S¡e¡−e¡ quz
−k Efm−r H jq¡ R¡œpj¡−hn a¡ AaÉ¿¹ …l¦aÅf§ZÑz f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el fÐbj fÐd¡ej¿»£ eJu¡hS¡c¡ ¢mu¡La Bm£ M¡−el
Y¡L¡u fÐbj Bnje Efm−r R¡œpj¡−Sl fr ®b−L pÈ¡lL¢m¢f ®ch¡l E−Ÿ−nÉC H B−u¡Sez
’48 p¡−ml S¤e j¡−p Bj¡l HjH LÓ¡−p ®L¡pÑ ®no q−u k¡Ju¡u NË£−oÈl R¤¢Vl fl q−m Bl E¢W−ez Bj¡l e¡−j ®k
¢pV hl¡Ÿ ¢R−m¡ Hl ®ju¡c S¤e fkÑ¿¹C ¢R−m¡z B¢j aMe Bj¡l Q¡Q¡ plL¡¢l LjÑLaÑ¡ Se¡h ng£L¤m Cpm¡−jl
¢VL¡V¤¢mÙÛ i¡s¡ h¡p¡u b¡¢L Hhw jNh¡S¡−l ea¤e œ²u Ll¡ h¡¢s J S¢j ®cM¡öe¡u hÉÙ¹z
’49-49 p¡−m CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V CE¢eu−el ¢ehÑ¡Qe e¡ qJu¡u H ®pn−eJ ¢SHp-Hl c¡¢uaÅ Bj¡l EflC lCmz ¢L¿º q−m
e¡ b¡L¡u Bj¡l SeÉ H c¡¢uaÅ f¡me L¢We q−u fs−m¡z a¡C i¡lfÐ¡ç ¢SHp ¢q−p−h ¢ehÑ¡¢Qa pcpÉ−cl HLS−el
Efl c¡¢uaÅ AfÑZ Ll¡ quz
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p¢mj¤õ¡q j¤p¢mj q−ml ¢i¢f Bhc¤l lqj¡e ®Q±d¤l£l Efl (¢k¢e ¢hQ¡lf¢a ¢q−p−h p¤MÉ¡¢a ASÑe L−le)z HL¢V
L¢j¢V pÈ¡lL¢m¢f¢V Q¤s¡¿¹ L−lz
CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢V R¡œ CE¢eu−el −fТp−X¾V ¢q−p−h i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pml X. °puc j¤u¡kÚk¡j ®q¡−pe aMe ¢h−c−n b¡L¡u
i¡lfСç i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pml Se¡j p¤ma¡e¤Ÿ£e Bqjc−L pi¡f¢aaÅ Ll−a quz ®n−l h¡wm¡ H ®L gSm¤m q−Ll fl
¢a¢e NiÑel q−u¢R−mez
R¡œ jq¡pj¡−h−n fÐd¡ej¿»£l p¡j−e ®j−j¡−lä¡j¢V ®L f¡W L−l öe¡−h H ¢e−u pjpÉ¡ pª¢ø q−m¡z R¡œ CE¢eu−el
¢i¢f’l EflC H c¡¢uaÅ ®cJu¡ ü¡i¡¢hL ¢R−m¡z ¢L¿º pÈ¡lL¢m¢f−a f§hÑ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el A−eL c¡¢h-c¡Ju¡l a¡¢mL¡u
h¡wm¡−L l¡øÌi¡o¡ Ll¡l c¡¢h¢V ¢h−no …l¦−aÅl p¡−b E−õM b¡L¡u ph¡C Hlja q−m¡ ®k, I f¢l¢ÙÛ¢a−a HLSe
¢q¾c¤l q¡−a fÐd¡ej¿»£−L a¡ ®fn Ll¡ ®j¡−VC pj£Q£e euz L¡lZ j¤p¢mj m£N plL¡l l¡øÌi¡o¡ B−¾c¡m−el ®fR−e
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phÑpÇjai¡−h ¢pÜ¡¿¹ NËqZ Ll¡ qu ®k, R¡œ CE¢eu−el ¢SHp ®N¡m¡j Bkj−LC H c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll−a q−hz
pj¡−h−n pLm ú¤m-L−m−Sl R¡œ −k¡Nc¡e Ll¡u ¢hl¡V ¢Sj−e¢nu¡j NË¡E−äl h¡C−ll l¡Ù¹¡J i¢aÑ q−u k¡kz pi¡j−’
pi¡f¢al X¡ef¡−n fÐd¡ej¿»£ eJu¡hS¡c¡ ¢mu¡La Bm£ M¡e Bpe NËqZ L−lez a¡l Bp¢V p¡j−el −V¢h−ml ®no
j¡b¡u ¢R−m¡z Hl X¡ef¡−nC ®hNj l¡e¡ ¢mu¡La Bm£ Bpe NËqZ L−lez ®hN−jl p¡j−e −V¢hm ¢R−m¡ e¡z ®hNj
p¡−q−hl p¡j−eC j¡C−œ²¡−g¡−el ØVÉ¡ä ¢R−m¡z B¢j kMe j¡C−Ll ¢eLV cy¡s¡m¡j aMe mrÉ Llm¡j ®k, Bj¡l j¡œ
q¡a c¤’−Xl ®fR−eC ®hNj l¡e¡ hp¡ B−Rez B¢j f−s öe¡−a öl¦ Llm¡jz i¤¢jL¡u fÐd¡ej¿»£−L p¡cl AiÉbÑe¡
S¡¢e−u f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el p¡¢hÑL pjª¢Ü J Eæu−e Bj¡−cl phÑ¡aÈL i§¢jL¡ f¡m−el A‰£L¡l hÉš² L−l f§hÑ J f¢ÕQj
f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el I−LÉl …l¦aÅ fÐL¡n L−l Hhw fС−c¢nL J B’¢mLa¡l pwL£ZÑ j−e¡i¡−hl fТa L−W¡l ¢e¾c¡h¡c S¡¢e−u

96

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Hhw h¢mù L−ã EµQ¡lZ L−l f−s öe¡¢µRm¡jz
h¡wm¡−L l¡øÌi¡o¡ ¢q−p−h ®O¡oZ¡ Ll¡l c¡¢h S¡¢e−u ®mM¡ fÉ¡l¡¢V kMe f¡W Llm¡j aMe pj¡−h−nl ph¡C q¡aa¡¢m
¢c−u ®S¡l pjbÑe S¡e¡ez q¡aa¡¢m c£OÑ¡¢ua Ll¡l p¤−k¡N ®ch¡l SeÉ B¢j b¡jm¡jz ®fR−e ®hNj l¡e¡l BJu¡S
öe−a ®fm¡jz ¢a¢e fÐb¡ej¿»£−L E−š¢Sa L−˜ hm−me, “®mw…−uS ¢L h¡−l−j p¡g L¡q ®ce¡” (i¡o¡u ¢ho−u Øfø
L−l h−m ®c−h)z
Bh¡l fs¡ öl¦ Llm¡jz i¡o¡l c¡¢h pwœ²¡¿¹ fÉ¡l¡¢V BlJ h¢mùL−ã Bh¡l f−s öe¡m¡jz pj¡−h−n q¡aa¡¢m BlJ
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Awn f−s öe¡m¡jz
Bue¡u hy¡d¡C Ll¡ ®é−j pÈ¡lL¢m¢f¢V R¡œpj¡−Sl fr ®b−L fÐd¡ej¿»£l q¡−a a¤−m ¢cm¡jz ¢a¢e Bj¡l p¡−b q¡a
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EcÉ¡e) ¢hn¡m Sepi¡u “HLj¡œ EcѤC f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el l¡øÌi¡o¡ q−h, Bl ®L¡e i¡o¡ eu’ EµQ¡lZ ö−e B¢j BlJ
L−uLSe R¡œ−L ¢e−u l¡N L−l q−m Q−m ®Nm¡jz HL¢ce fl L¡SÑe q−m pj¡haÑe Ae¤ù¡−e L¡−u−c Bkj I HLC
Lb¡ EµQ¡lZ Ll¡l fТah¡c LaL R¡œ ®e¡ ®e¡ BJu¡S ¢c−m ¢a¢e ¢h¢pÈa q−u b¡j−mez
B¢j Bnˆ¡ Llm¡j ®k, fÐd¡ej¿»£ L¡−u−c Bk−jl ®c¡q¡C ¢c−u ¢eÕQuC I Lb¡C EµQ¡lZ Ll−hez hš²ªa¡l öl¦−aC
¢a¢e l¡Na ü−l hm−me, “Hph k¢c fС−c¢nLa¡ e¡ qu a¡q−m L¡−L fС−c¢nLa¡ hm¡ k¡u?” dj−Ll p¤−l hm−me,
“−c−nl ü¡−bÑ J S¡a£u I−LÉl fÐ−u¡S−e B’¢mLa¡−L hlc¡na Ll¡ q−h e¡z”
Bj¡l Bnˆ¡ BlJ −h−s ®N−m¡ ®k, k¢c i¡o¡l hÉ¡f¡−l L¡−u−c Bk−jl j−a¡ h−m ®g−me Hhw ®hN−jl fl¡jnÑ
Ae¤k¡u£ Øfø L−l ®aje ®L¡e ®O¡oZ¡ ¢c−u h−pe, a¡q−m e¡ S¡¢e L£ f¢l¢ÙÛ¢al pª¢ø quz B¢j aMe L£ Llh?
h¡wm¡−L l¡øÌi¡o¡ Ll¡l hÉ¡f¡−l pj¡−h−nl q¡S¡l q¡S¡l R¡−œl fÐQ™ pjbÑe p−šÆJ j−’ Bj¡l Q¤f qkj Ll¡ L£
L−l pñh q−h? fТah¡−c Bj¡−L cy¡¢s−u ‘−e¡ ®e¡’ hm−aC q−hz
B¢j H j¡e¢pL A¢ÙÛla¡u i¡o¡ hš²hÉ öeh¡l SeÉ A−fr¡ Ll¢Rz qW¡v mrÉ Llm¡j fÐd¡ej¿»£l p¤l hc−m ®N−Rz
¢a¢e AeÉ¡eÉ c¡¢h pÇf−LÑ C¢ah¡QL hš²hÉ l¡M−a m¡N−mez R¡œ−cl−L ®mM¡fs¡u j−e¡−k¡N ®ch¡l fl¡jnÑ ¢c−mez
S¡¢al i¢hoÉv ®eaªaÅ NËq−Zl ®k¡NÉ qh¡l Bqh¡l S¡e¡−mez ¢L¿º i¡o¡ pÇf−LÑ ®L¡e Lb¡C hm−me e¡z ¢a¢e hm−a
f¡l−ae ®k, HL¡ Bj¡l f−r H ¢ho−k ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ®O¡oZ¡ Ll¡ pñh euz NZf¢loc h¡ f¡mÑ¡−j¾VC ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ®e−hz ¢a¢e
pj¡−h−nl AhÙÛ¡ ¢h−hQe¡ L−lC qu−a¡ i¡o¡l hÉ¡f¡−l Øfø hš²hÉ ®cJu¡ pj£Q£e j−e L−le¢ez Bjl¡ ay¡l hš²ªa¡u
p¿ºø e¡ q−mJ fТah¡c Ll¡l j−a¡ p¤−k¡NJ ®fm¡j e¡z HLSe Q¡m¡L ®ea¡ ¢q−p−h ¢a¢e f¢l¢ÙÛ¢a p¡j−m ¢e−mez
26.

HjH g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡

1948 p¡−ml A−ƒ¡h−l Bj¡l HjH g¡Ce¡m fl£r¡ ®cJu¡ E¢Qa ¢R−m¡z HjH fÐbj h−oÑ gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj qm
CE¢eu−el ¢SHp ¢q−p−h c¡¢uaÅ f¡m−el p¡−b p¡−b BlJ ¢LR¤ hÉ¢š²Na Ap¤¢hd¡l cl¦e p−¿¹¡oSeL fÐÙ¹¤¢a qu¢e
¢h−hQe¡ L−l B¢j fl£r¡ HL hRl f−l ®ch¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡jz
flhaÑ£−a B¢j Efm¢ì Llm¡j ®k, fl£r¡ ÙÛ¢Na Ll¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ®j¡−VC p¢WL qu¢ez B¢j ¢eu¢ja LÓ¡−p q¡¢Sl
b¡La¡j J ¢nr−cl ®mL¡l ®e¡V Lla¡jz H AhÙÛ¡u i¡−m¡ gm Ll¡l h¡q¡e¡u fl£r¡ ÙÛ¢Na Ll¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ®eJu¡
jÙ¹hs i§m ¢Rmz ®L¡e i¡−m¡ R¡œC HLV¡ ¢nr¡hoÑ eø Ll−a Q¡u e¡z H i§m¢Vl cl¦e Bj¡l ®cs¢V hRl AfQu q−u
®N−m¡z B¢j Bn¡ L¢l, Bj¡l j−a¡ Hje ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ®ke ®LE e¡ −euz
97

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r¢a q−u ®N−m¡z L¡lZ 1949 p¡−m hR−ll ®no¡−dÑ c¤’h¡l ¢q¾c¤-j¤p¢mj c¡‰¡ qJu¡u I hRl HjH fl£r¡ q−aC
f¡−l¢ez 1949 p¡−ml g¡Ce¡m HjH fl£r¡ 1950-Hl j¡QÑ j¡−p Hhw 1950-Hl fl£r¡ I hRl e−ið−l q−m¡z
Bj¡l HjH ¢X¢NË f¡Ju¡l Lb¡ 1948 p¡−ml ¢X−pð−lz AbQ Bj¡l i§m ¢pÜ¡−¿¹l L¡l−Z ¢X¢NË ®fm¡j 1950-Hl
S¤m¡C j¡−pz

a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al BLoÑZ
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fb ®qy−V Qm¡u ph¡C AiÉÙ¹ ¢R−m¡z BSL¡m ®a¡ AhÙÛ¡ ®k, 5/7 ¢j¢e−Vl f¡−u Qm¡ f−bl SeÉJ ¢lLn¡ Q¡Cz
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Hje QjvL¡l ®c¡u¡ ö¢e¢ez ¢a¢e ¢e−S Ly¡c¢R−me Hhw a¡l p¡−b k¡l¡ q¡a a¤−m−Re a¡l¡ ph¡C gy¤¢f−u gy¤¢f−u
Ly¡c¢R−mez ®c¡u¡l Lb¡…−m¡ Bj¡l ØfnÑ Ll−m¡z Bj¡l ®Q¡−MJ A−T¡−l f¡¢e H−m¡z Bõ¡q−L ®X−L Ly¡c−a Hje
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a¡hm£−N ph−Q−u ®h¢n …l¦aÅ ®cJu¡ quz N¡n−a (l¡Ù¹¡u J h¡¢s−a ®k−u c¡Ju¡a ®cJu¡) k¡h¡l pjuJ ®c¡u¡ L−l
lJu¡e¡ q−a quz jp¢S−cl h¡C−l l¡Ù¹¡u e¡j¡l fl j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤m Bk£k Bj¡−cl p¡−b ¢j¢ma q−mez
H ¢hnS−el j−dÉ H−Lh¡−l A¢n¢ra HLSeJ ¢R−m¡ e¡z ph¡C jÉ¡¢VÊL, BCH j¡cÚl¡p¡u fs¡ ¢R−mez 2/3 Se ¢LR¤
f¤l¡−e¡ LjÑ£J ¢R−mez a¡l¡C S¡e−ae ®k, H S¡j¡u¡a ®L¡b¡u ®L¡b¡u k¡−hz ®L¾cÐ ®b−L c¡Ju¡ −fСNË¡j Ae¤k¡u£
Bjl¡ lJu¡e¡ q−u ®Nm¡jz k¡l k¡l ¢hR¡e¡fœ ¢e−Sl¡C j¡b¡u, Ly¡−d J hN−m L−l ¢e−m¡z B¢j HL hÉ¡−N
fÐ−u¡Se£u ph¢LR¤ ¢e−u Ly¡−d T¤¢m−u ¢em¡jz
k¡eh¡q−e Qm¡Q−ml ®Q−u ®qy−V Qm¡C a¡hm£−N ®h¢n fR¾ce£uz ¢Qõ¡l S¡j¡u¡a J Y¡L¡ ®b−L Ešlh‰ h¡ Q–NË¡j
f¡ucm (f¡−u ®qy−V) k¡uz qy¡V−a qy¡V−a p§l¡ j¤MÙÛ Ll¡ J ®c¡u¡ pqSz pjuV a¡m£−jl L¡−S MlQ quz

102

Bjl¡ 20 Se c¤'m¡C−e qy¡V¡ öl¦ Llm¡jz Bj¡−cl Bj£l j¡TM¡−e AhÙÛ¡e ¢e−u Bj¡−cl p¡−b −qy−V Qm−mez ¢a¢e
Bj¡−cl−L N¡¢s−a B−l¡qZ Ll¡l ®c¡u¡ ®nM¡−a ®nM¡−a g¤mh¡s£u¡ ®lm−øn−e ¢e−u ®N−mez ¢a¢e L−uL në
EµQ¡lZ L−le, Bjl¡ ph¡C HLp¡−b BJu¡S L−l EµQ¡lZ L¢lz ®øn−e ®fy±R−a ®fy±R−a ®c¡u¡¢V Bj¡l j¤MÙ¹ q−u
®N−m¡z A−eL−LC N¡¢s−a EW¡l fl ®c¡u¡¢V jnÚL Ll−a hm¡ q−m¡, k¡−a j¤MÙÛ q−u k¡uz

e¡l¡uZN” lJu¡e¡

e¡l¡u¡ZN−” l ¢V−LV L¡V¡ q−m¡z B−NC ®nM¡−e¡ q−m¡ J−k, N¡¢s−a EWh¡l pju fum¡ X¡e f¡ f¡-c¡¢e−a ®l−M
¢hp¢jõ¡q h−m N¡¢s−a Y¤L−a q−hz hp¡l S¡uN¡ ®f−m h−p, Ble¡ ®f−m ¢ÙÛl q−uC Bm q¡jc¤¢mõ¡q h−m öL¢lu¡
Bc¡u Ll−a q−hz Hlfl I ®nM¡−e¡ ®c¡u¡¢V fs−a q−hz ph¡C−L BJu¡S L−l fs−a q−h, k¡−a I¤m q−m öÜ
L−l ®cJu¡ k¡uz
S¡j¡u¡a f¡uc−mC p¡d¡lZa Q−mz Bj¡−cl S¡j¡u¡−a j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤m Bk£k b¡L¡u Hhw ¢a¢e Q–NË¡j fkÑ¿¹
Bj¡−cl−L ¢e−u k¡−he h−m k¡eh¡q−eC pgl öl¦ Ll¡ q−m¡z a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a ®kM¡−eC k¡u jp¢S−cC J−W Hhw
k¡ah£u LjÑp§¢Q jp¢Sc¢i¢šL q−u b¡−Lz
e¡l¡uZN−”l HL hs jp¢S−c ®k−u Bjl¡ ®f±yRm¡jz N¡¢s−a hp¡ AhÙÛ¡uC Bjl¡ N¡¢s ®b−L e¡j¡l ®c¡u¡ ¢nMm¡j
Hhw e¡j¡l puj ph¡C BJu¡S L−l fsm¡jz jp¢S−c Y¤Lh¡l pjuJ ph¡C−L ®c¡u¡ fs¡−e¡ q−m¡z
jp¢S−c ®f±yR¡l fl Jk§-®N¡p−ml ®n−o ph¡C−L a¡m£−j hp¡−e¡ q−m¡z 20 Se−L c¤’i¡−N c¤’S¡uN¡u hp¡−e¡ q−m¡z
j¡cÚl¡p¡u fs¡ HLSe−L HL N˦f f¢lQ¡me¡l c¡¢uaÅ ¢c−u j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤m Bk£k AeÉ N˦−f hp−me ®kV¡−a B¢j
¢Rm¡jz a¡hm£−Nl a¡m£j-fÜ¢a f§−hÑ B−m¡Qe¡ L−l¢Rz ®p ¢eu−jC ®k¡q−ll Bk¡−el f§−hÑ fkÑ¿¹ a¡m£j q−m¡z
®k¡q−ll e¡j¡−kl fl ®q¡−Vm ®b−L M¡h¡l H−e jp¢S−cC HLp¡−b ®Mm¡jz M¡h¡l öl¦−a ®c¡u¡ pj−hai¡−h fs¡−e¡
q−m¡z M¡Ju¡l ®n−ol ®c¡u¡J HLp¡−b fsm¡jz ®k¡q−ll B−N a¡m£−jl ¯hW−LC H c¤−V¡ −c¡u¡ ®nM¡−e¡ q−m¡z

a¡hm£−Nl LjÑp§¢Q

a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al ÙÛ¡u£ LjÑp§¢Q ¢q−p−h Bp−ll e¡j¡−kl fl Cj¡j p¡−qh ®c¡u¡ Ll¡l B−NC Bj¡−cl fr ®b−L
HLSe Hm¡e Ll−me ®k, Y¡L¡ ®b−L a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al ®m¡L H−p−Rz a¡l¡ e¡j¡−kl fl Hm¡L¡h¡p£−cl−L
j¡N¢l−hl e¡j¡−k jp¢S−c Bph¡l c¡Ju¡a ®ch¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ N¡nÚ−a ®hl q−hz Bfe¡−cl−L p¡−b k¡h¡l SeÉ Ae¤−l¡d
Ll¡ q−µRz
Bjl¡ 20 Se c¤’N˦−f c¤’¢c−L ®Nm¡jz ÙÛ¡e£u ®LE Bj¡−cl p¡−b ®N−m¡ e¡z ¢euj j−a¡ N˦−fl HLSe l¡Ù¹¡u,
®c¡L¡−e J h¡¢s−a k¡−cl−L f¡Ju¡ k¡u a¡−cl−L c¡Ju¡a ®cuz h¡¢L ph¡C ¢kLl Ll−a b¡−L Hhw −c¡u¡ Ll−a
b¡−L, k¡−a ®m¡−Ll¡ c¡Ju¡a Lh¤m L−lz
Bj¡−cl c¡Ju¡−a j¡N¢l−hl e¡j¡−k ®LE Bp−m¡ ¢Le¡ S¡¢e e¡z j¡N¢l−hl glk e¡j¡−kl fl Bj¡−cl fr ®b−L
®O¡oZ¡ q−m¡, “Dj¡e J Bjm pÇf−LÑ e¡j¡k h¡c hu¡e q−hz Bjl¡ ph¡C h¢pz hýa g¡u¡c q−hz”
j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤m Bk£k B−NC Cj¡j p¡−q−hl Ae¤j¢a ¢e−u¢R−mez ¢a¢e hu¡e Ll−me, 6 cg¡l hÉ¡MÉ¡ ®fn L−l ¢a¢e
a¡hm£N Sj¡u¡−al f¢lQu a¤−m dl−me Hhw S¡j¡u¡a e¡l¡uZN” ®b−L j¤¾p£N” k¡−h h−m S¡e¡−mez H S¡j¡u¡−al
p¡−b ¢LR¤¢ce b¡L−m à£e pÇf−LÑ A−eL Sl¦l£ Lb¡ S¡eh¡l p¤−k¡N q−h h−m c¡Ju¡a ¢c−mez
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a aMe ®j¡−VC f¢l¢Qa ¢R−m¡ e¡z j¡Jm¡e¡l hš²ªa¡ ®no q−m Bjl¡ AÒf ¢LR¤ ®m¡−Ll j−dÉ a¡nL£n
Ll¡l p¤−k¡N ®fm¡jz Bl ph ®m¡L Q−m ®N−m¡z k¡l¡ e¡j¡−k Ef¢ÙÛa ¢R−m¡ a¡−cl A−dÑ−Ll Lj j¡Jm¡e¡l hu¡e
öe−m¡z a¡nL£−m Bjl¡ pgm q−a f¡lm¡j e¡z HLSeJ Bj¡−cl p¡−b c¤‘H¢c−el SeÉ ®k−a l¡¢S q−m¡ e¡z

103

Hn¡l e¡j¡−kl fl a¡m£j öl¦ q−m¡z p¡l¡¢c−e ®k Lu¢V ®c¡u¡ ®nM¡−e¡ q−m¡ a¡ fÐ−aÉL−L öe¡−a hm−m Bjl¡
öe¡m¡jz k¡−cl ¢LR¤ i¤m l−u −N−m¡ a¡−cl−L jnÚL Ll¡−e¡ q−m¡z ph¡l −c¡u¡ öÜ qh¡l fl ®M−u ö−u fsm¡jz
−c¡u¡…−m¡l AbÑ ®nM¡l BNËq Lj ®m¡−Ll j−dÉC mrÉ Llm¡jz AbÑ ¢nMh¡l Efl ®L¡e …l¦aÅJ ®cJu¡ qu¢ez ¢L¿º
i¡mi¡−h e¡ h¤−T B¢j aª¢ç ®h¡d Ll−a e¡ ®f−l fªbLi¡−h Bj£l ®b−L h¤−T ¢ea¡jz ¢hH fkÑ¿¹ Blh£ fs¡ b¡L¡u
AbÑ h¤T¡ Bj¡l SeÉ pqS ¢R−m¡z
N¡¢s−a JW¡l ®c¡u¡¢V p§l¡ k¤Ml¦−gl 13 ew Bu¡az “p¤hq¡e¡õ¡k£ p¡MM¡l¡ m¡e¡ q¡k¡ Ju¡j¡ L¤æ¡ m¡ý j¤L¢le£e Ju¡
Cæ¡ l¡¢îe¡ m¡j¤eL¡¢mh§e”z AbÑ “pLm œ¦¢V ®b−L f¢hœ I pš¡ ¢k¢e H (h¡qe)-®L Bj¡−cl Buš¡d£e L−l−Rez
Bjl¡ H−L hn£I§a Ll−a f¡la¡j e¡z Bl AhnÉC Bjl¡ Bj¡−cl l−hl ¢c−L ¢g−l k¡hz”
AbÑ h¤−T ®c¡u¡ e¡ Ll−m ®c¡u¡ Lh¤m q−h ®Lje L−l a¡ Bj¡l h¤−T B−p e¡z q¡c£−p B−R ®k, ®c¡u¡l Lb¡l ¢c−L
j−e¡k¡N£ e¡ q−m ®c¡u¡ Lh¤m qu e¡z Hl j¡−e ®a¡ HV¡C ®k, B¢j Bõ¡ql L¡−R L£ Q¡Cm¡j ®p ¢ho−u k¢c B¢j e¡C
S¡¢e a¡q−m Q¡Ju¡ ®j¡−VC k−bø euz a¡C z Bõ¡ql L¡−R ¢e−Sl j¡aªi¡o¡u Q¡Ju¡C ®h¢n k¤¢š²p‰az a−h L¤lBe J
q¡c£−p ®nM¡−e¡ Blh£ ®c¡u¡ j¤−M EµQ¡lZ Ll¡l pju Hl i¡hV¡ h¤T−mC Q−mz n−ë n−ë AbÑ S¡e¡ Sl¦l£ euz ®kje
¢elrl ®m¡LJ 5 V¡L¡, 10 V¡L¡, 100 V¡L¡l ®e¡V ¢Q−e ®euz ®e¡−Vl N¡−ul ®mM¡ fs−a e¡ f¡l−mJ r¢a ®eCz ¢WL
®aj¢e Blh£ ®c¡u¡ fs¡ AhnÉC Ešjz a−h jjÑ¡bÑ S¡e¡ Sl¦l£ Lh¤m qh¡l ü¡−bÑCz

e¡l¡uZN” ®b−L j¤¾p£N” ®e±L¡ ïjZ

HL S¡uN¡u ®f±yR¡l fl¢ceC AeÉ S¡uN¡u lJu¡e¡ qJu¡C ¢eujz Bjl¡ ®e±L¡−k¡−N j¤¾p£N” lJu¡e¡ ¢cm¡jz
RCJu¡m¡ −hn hs ®e±L¡u ph¡C Bl¡−jC hpm¡jz ¢ae O¸V¡l pglz ®e±L¡u B−l¡q−Zl fl ®c¡u¡ ®nM¡−e¡ q−m¡
“¢hp¢jõ¡¢q j¡S−lq¡ Ju¡ j¤lp¡q¡ Cæ¡ l¡¢î m¡N¡g¤l¦l l¡q£jz” AbÑ Bõ¡ql e¡−j (lJu¡e¡ qm¡j) Hl N¢a J
AhÙÛ¡e ay¡lC q¡−az Bj¡l lLh AhnÉC rj¡n£m J cu¡h¡ez” HV¡ L¤lB−el p§l¡ ý−cl 41 Bu¡az
S¡j¡u¡−al Bj£l j¡Jm¡e¡ Bk£k ®e±L¡u a¡hm£−Nl HS−aj¡l j−a¡C Bj¡−cl p¡j−e “L¤eaj M¡Cl¡ EÇj¡¢ae
EM¢lS¡a ¢mæ¡−p a¡j¤l¦e¡ ¢hm j¡l©−g Ju¡ a¡eq¡Je¡ B¢em j¤eL¡−l, Ju¡ a¤¢je§e¡¢hõ¡q” Bu¡−al Eܤ¢š ¢c−u
Bd O¸V¡lJ ®h¢n pju QjvL¡l HL¢V hš²ªa¡ Ll−mez B¢j phV¤L¤ hš²hÉ p¡−b p¡−bC BaÈÙÛ L−l ®gmm¡jz H¢V
p§l¡ B−m Cjl¡−el 110 ew Bu¡az Hl AbÑ “®a¡jl¡C ®nÐù Eçjaz j¡ehS¡¢al SeÉC ®a¡j¡−cl Eáh OV−e¡
q−u−Rz ®a¡jl¡ Bõ¡ql fТa Dj¡−el ¢i¢š−a (SeNZ−L) pvL¡−Sl B−cn ®c−h Hhw j¾c ®b−L ¢g¢l−u l¡M−hz”
j¡Jm¡e¡l hš²ªa¡l fl Bj¡−cl−L a¡hm£−Nl 6 Ep§m pÇf−LÑ hš²ªa¡ Ll−a hm−mez fum¡C Bj¡l Efl c¡¢uaÅ
¢c−mez 15 ¢j¢e−V hš²hÉ l¡M−a hm−mez B¢j hš²hÉ l¡Mm¡jz j¡Jm¡e¡ Bj¡l hš²hÉ ö−e M¤¢n q−me Hhw hš²hÉ
B−l¡ Eæa Ll¡l SeÉ LaL j§mÉh¡e fl¡jnÑ ¢c−mez BlJ 3/4 Se hš²ªa¡ Ll−mez ¢ae O¸V¡l ®L±L¡ ïjZ j−e
q−m¡ AÒf pj−uC ®no q−u ®N−m¡z
j¤¾p£N” ®fy±R¡l B−N ®e±L¡−aC BlJ HLV¡ ea¤e ®c¡u¡ ®nM¡−e¡ q−m¡z ®L¡e Hm¡L¡u fÐ−hn Ll¡l pju H ®c¡u¡¢V
fs−a quz j¤¾p£N” nq−l Y¤Lh¡l pjuC H ®c¡u¡¢V fs−a q−h h−m B¢j i¡mi¡−h ¢n−M ¢em¡jz ®c¡u¡¢V q−m¡‘Bõ¡ýÇj¡ h¡¢lL m¡e¡ g£q¡’ Lb¡¢V ¢aeh¡l fs¡l fl “Bõ¡ýÇj¡lk¤Le¡ S¡e¡q¡, Ju¡ q¡¢îhe¡ Cm¡ Bq¢mq¡, Ju¡
q¡¢hhh p¡−mq£ Bq¢mq¡ Cm¡Ce¡z”
−c¡u¡ j¤MÙÛ Ll−a Bj¡l p¡b£−cl A−eL−LC −hn f¢lnÐj Ll−a qu Hhw k−bø pjuJ m¡−Nz a¡C a¡l¡ ®c¡u¡l AbÑ
S¡e¡l SeÉ HaV¡ BNËq£ eu, kaV¡ j¤MÙÛ Ll¡l SeÉ hÉÙ¹z e¡ h¤−T ®c¡u¡ Ll¡ ®a¡ Bj¡l ¢eLV AbÑq£ez
Ef−ll ®c¡u¡¢Vl AbÑ h¤T¡l fl ®L¡e Hm¡L¡u fÐ−hnL¡−m I ®c¡u¡ fs−a AaÉ¿¹ jS¡ ®fa¡jz ®c¡u¡¢Vl AbÑ “®q
Bõ¡q’ HM¡−e Bj¡−cl SeÉ hlLa c¡J (3 h¡l)z ®q Bõ¡q HM¡eL¡l gm Bj¡−cl ¢hkÚ−L c¡e Llz HM¡eL¡l

104

A¢dh¡p£l¡ ®ke Bj¡−cl−L jqîa L−l ®p hÉhÙÛ¡ Ll Hhw Bjl¡ ®ke H Hm¡L¡l ®eL ®m¡L−cl−L i¡mh¡p−a f¡¢l
®p p¤−k¡N c¡Jz”
j¤¾p£N−”l fl BlJ L−uL¢V S¡uN¡ q−u cnj ¢c−e Q–NË¡j ®f±yRm¡jz e¡l¡uZN−”l LjÑp§¢Ql ®k ¢hhlZ ¢c−u¢R ph
S¡uN¡uC HLC dl−Zl LjÑp§¢Q f¡me Ll¡ quz H LjÑp§¢Q c¤’−V¡ Awn l−u−Rz HLV¡ q−m¡ S¡j¡u¡−al pYlla
LjÑ£−cl a¡m£jz Afl¢V q−mA c¡Ju¡a, N¡nÚa J a¡nÚL£−ml j¡dÉ−j ea¤e ®m¡L−cl−L S¡j¡u¡−a nl£L L−l pg−l
®eh¡l ®Qø¡z Bj¡−cl I pg−l ¢àa£u L¡S¢V p−¿¹¡oSeL e¡ q−mJ fÐbj L¡S¢V AaÉ¿¹ pgm ¢R−m¡z a¡hm£N
S¡j¡u¡a−L ï¡jÉj¡Z j¡cÚl¡p¡ hm¡ p¢aÉC p¡bÑLz ®kV¤L¤ ¢nr¡ ®ch¡l LjÑp§¢Q a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a NËqZ L−l−R a¡
Hi¡−hC ®nM¡−e¡ quz

H cn ¢c−el ASÑe

j¡œ cn ¢c−e j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤m Bk£−kl j−a¡ EÙ¹¡−cl A¢hl¡j ®p¡qh−a (p¡¢æ−dÉ) ®b−L a¡hm£N£ hš²ªa¡l p¡−b
pw¢nÔø L¤lB−pl ph Lu¢V Bu¡a J q¡c£p Hhw °ce¢¾ce S£h−el fÐ−u¡Se£u ®c¡u¡ ¢nM¡l p¤−k¡N ®f−u M¤hC Evp¡q
−h¡d Llm¡jz i¡m ¢nrL BNËq£ R¡œ ®f−m ®kje ®h¢n L−l ¢nr¡ ¢c−u aª¢ç ®h¡d L−le, j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh Bj¡−L
®aj¢ei¡−hC ®nM¡−mez ¢a¢e Bj¡−L ph pju a¡l L¡−R b¡L¡l ¢e−cÑn ¢c−mez M¡Ju¡, ®n¡u¡, e¡j¡kpq ph AhÙÛ¡u
Bj¡−L ¢a¢e f¡−nC l¡M−ae, k¡−a Be¤ù¡¢eL a¡m£−jl h¡C−l A−eL ¢LR¤ ¢nM−a f¡¢lz B¢jJ fÐnÐu ®f−u A−eL
¢hou fÐnÀ L−l ®S−e ¢ea¡jz ¢a¢eJ f§ZÑ clc, jqhha J ®pÀ−ql fln ¢c−u Bj¡−L deÉ Ll−aez g−m cn ¢c−el
j−dÉC Bj¡l j−e q−m¡ ®k, B¢j Bõ¡ql gk−m ®hn ANËpl q−a prj q−u¢Rz j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−q−hl fТa nÐÜ¡-i¢š² J
i¡mh¡p¡ HaV¡ Ae¤ih Llm¡j k¡ Bl L¡−l¡ fТa Ae¤ih L¢l¢ez

HLV¡ ®R¡–
®R¡– OVe¡

Q–NË¡−j Caxf§−hÑ B¢j LM−e¡ k¡C¢ez JM¡eL¡l i¡o¡ B−N ö¢e¢ez Bj¡l pqf¡W£ ®e¡u¡M¡m£l i¡C−ul ¢e−S−cl j−dÉ
B’¢mL i¡o¡ R¡s¡ Bj¡−cl p¡j−eJ Lb¡ hm−a¡ e¡z a¡C I i¡o¡l p¡−b f¢lQu ¢R−m¡z ¢L¿º Q–NË¡−jl qm−jV h¡
pqf¡W£l¡ ¢e−Sl¡ HL¡−¿¹ B’¢mL i¡o¡ hm−mJ BeÉ−cl p¡j−e hm−a¡ e¡z a¡C I i¡o¡ pð−å ®L¡e d¡lZ¡ ¢R−m¡
e¡z
HLV¡ NÒf ö−e¢Rm¡jz HL ®j¡Nm h¡cn¡q Efjq¡−c−nl B’¢mL i¡o¡ −nM¡l SeÉ ¢h¢iæ ®m¡L−L L−uL j¡−pl
c¡¢uaÅ ®cez h¡cn¡q−L I i¡o¡l Lb¡ hm¡ Hhw a¡ Ae¤h¡c L−l d¡lZ¡ ®ch¡l c¡¢uaÅJ ¢R−m¡z AeÉ¡eÉ A’−ml
c¡¢uaÅn£ml¡ cra¡l p¡−bC H c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll−a prj quz ¢L¿º ¢k¢e Q–NË¡−jl c¡¢uaÅ f¡e ¢a¢e ¢V−el HLV¡ hs
®Q¡wN¡l j−dÉ f¡b−ll LZ¡ Y¤¢L−u h¡cn¡ql p¡j−e ®S¡−l Ty¡¢L ¢c−a b¡L−m¡z h¡cn¡q ¢h¢pÈa q−u ¢S‘¡p¤ cª¢ø−a
a¡L¡−mez I hÉ¢š² hm−m¡ “I i¡o¡ öe−a ®Lje m¡−N ýS¤l−L öe¡m¡jz I i¡o¡ h¡C−ll L¡−l¡ f−r ®nM¡ pñh
euz” Q–NË¡−j Bjl¡ ®k jp¢S−c ®k−u EWm¡j a¡ nq−ll ¢hMÉ¡a ‘®c¡i¡o’ f¢lh¡−ll ÙÛ¡¢faz j¡N¢l−hl fl
HS−aj¡ öl¦ q−m¡z Bj£−l S¡j¡u¡−a Bj¡−LJ ¢LR¤ pju hš²hÉ l¡M−a hm−mez hš²hÉ ®n−o B¢j ®nСa¡−cl ¢c−L
j¤M L−l hpm¡jz ®c¡i¡o f¢lh¡−ll HL j¤l¦î£l f¡−nC hp−a q−m¡z j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤m Bk£k c£OÑ hš²ªa¡ ¢c−mez
a¡hm£−N pju ®ch¡l SeÉJ Ec¡š Bqh¡e S¡e¡−mez
Hlfl ®c¡i¡o j¤l¦î£ hš²hÉ öl¦ Ll−mez ¢LR¤C h¤T−a f¡l¢Rm¡j e¡z öl¦ d¡lZ¡ Llm¡j ®k, j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−q−hl k¡−L
p¡s¡ ®ch¡l SeÉC ¢a¢e hm−Rez a¡l Lb¡l i¢‰ J p¤−l Bj¡l Hje q¡¢p ®fm ®k, j¤M ®S¡−l ®Q−f l¡M¡J pñh q−µR
e¡z ®nСa¡−cl ¢c−L j¤M L−l h−p b¡L¡u jq¡¢hf−c fsm¡jz ®no fkÑ¿¹ E−W h¡C−l ¢eSÑe S¡uN¡u ¢N−u HL¡ HL¡C
fСZi−l q¡pm¡jz m¡mc£¢Ol juc¡−e j¡Jm¡e¡ Bh¤ a¡−q−ll Cpm¡jh¡c£ i¡o¡l hš²ªa¡ ö−e I Lb¡ j−e Bp−mJ I
lLj q¡¢p-pjpÉ¡l pÇj¤M£e q−a qu¢ez a−h I i¡o¡ öe−a jS¡ m¡N¡l L¡l−Z j¤Q¢L q¡¢p AhnÉC B−pz ph në e¡
h¤T−mJ hš²hÉ ®j¡V¡j¤¢V HMe h¤T−a f¡¢lz

105

28.

a¡hm£−Nl Bj£l c¡¢uaÅ
c¡¢uaÅ

Bj¡l ¢ae ¢Qõ¡l fÐbj ¢Qõ¡ ®k 20 S−el S¡j¡u¡−a j¤l¦ qu a¡ cnj ¢c−e Q–NË¡j ®fy±−Rz H−c−−nl a¡hm£N£
S¡j¡u¡−al Bj£l j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤m Bk£−kl f¢lQ¡me¡u cn¢c−e k¡ ¢LR¤ S¡e¡, ®nM¡ J j¤MÙÛ Ll¡l p¤−k¡N ®fm¡j
a¡−a Bj¡l Evp¡q J ®fÐlZ¡ ®h−s ®N−m¡z j¡Jm¡e¡l −p¡qh−a ka ®h¢n¢ce b¡L−a f¡lh aaC ®h¢n ®nM¡l ®p±i¡NÉ
q−h ®i−h B¢j kMe AaÉ¿¹ aªç, aMe qW¡v L−l j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh hm−me, “BS −b−L H S¡j¡u¡−al Bj£−ll c¡¢uaÅ
Bfe¡−L f¡me Ll−a q−hz Bj¡−L Y¡L¡u S¡j¡u¡−al ®L¾cУu °hW−L j¡nJu¡l¡l (fl¡jnÑ) SeÉ ®k−a q−hz
Bj¡l p‰£−cl pj¡e−C ¢a¢e H Lb¡ hm−mez AeÉ−cl j−dÉ fТa¢œ²u¡ ®Lje q−m¡ a¡ mrÉ Ll¡l j¡e¢pL AhÙÛ¡
Bj¡l ¢R−m¡ e¡z B¢j ¢h¢pÈa, qaið J ®f−ln¡e q−u h¡Ll¦Ü AhÙÛ¡u ay¡l ¢c−L a¡¢L−u lCm¡jz Bj¡l ®Q¡M-j¤−Ml
AhÙÛ¡ ®c−M ¢a¢e L¡−R ®V−e ¢e−u S¢s−u d−l AaÉ¿¹ ®pÀ−ql p¤−l hm−me, “Bfe¡−L °a¢l Ll¡l E−Ÿ−nC B¢j H
S¡j¡u¡−a nl£L q−u pg−l ®hl q−u¢Rz Bf¢e H c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll−a f¡l−he h−m Bj¡l ¢hnÄ¡pz” B¢j hmm¡j,
“Bj¡l −j¡−VC p¡qp q−µR e¡z” ¢a¢e hm−me, “BS ®b−L H S¡j¡u¡−al Bj£l Bf¢ez B¢j B−l¡ 3¢ce Bfe¡l
f¢lQ¡me¡u H S¡j¡u¡−a b¡L−h¡, k¡−a ®L¡−e¡ i¤m q−m öd−l ®cJu¡ k¡uz” ¢a¢e Bj¡l AeÉ¡eÉ p¡b£−cl−L ¢S−‘p
Ll−me ®k, Bj¡l f¢lQ¡me¡u a¡l¡ kb¡l£¢a Be¤NaÉ Ll−he ¢Le¡z a¡l¡ ph¡C HLh¡LÉ pÇj¢a ®O¡oZ¡ Ll¡u Bj¡l
¢qÇja HLV¤ h¡s−m¡z
B¢j ah¤ Apq¡−ul j−a¡ BlS Llm¡j ®k, Bfe¡l L¡R ®b−L j¡œ cn¢c−e k¡ ¢nMm¡j öc¤ HV¤L¤ pðm ¢e−u
Ha…−m¡ ®m¡L−L B¢j LaV¤L¤ ®nM¡−a f¡l−h¡? ¢a¢e hm−me, “fÐ−u¡Se£u pLm ®c¡u¡ Bf¢e j¤MÙÛ L−l ®g−m−Re,
6 Ep§−ml Efl hš²hÉ p¤¾cli¡−h ®fn Ll−a f¡−le, a¡m£j£ °hW−L k¡ ¢LR¤ ®nM¡−a qu a¡J Bf¢e Buš L−l−Re;
a¡hm£−Nl LjÑp§¢Q k¡ a¡ Q¡m¤ Ll¡ Bfe¡l SeÉ ®j¡−VC L¢We q−h e¡z”
B¢j Ly¡−c¡ Ly¡−c¡ p¤−l hmm¡j, “Bfe¡l L¡R ®b−L fТa¢ceC B¢j ea¤e ea¤e Lb¡ ¢nM¢Rm¡jz Bf¢eJ Bcl L−l
®nM¡−aez Bf¢e Q−m −N−m Bj¡l ®nM¡J hå q−u k¡−hz j¡œ 10 ¢c−el pðm ¢e−u Bj¡−L Qm−a q−h, HV¡C Bj¡l
ph−Q−u hs ®f−ln¡e£z”
¢a¢e Bj¡−L p¡šÆe¡ ¢c−u hm−me, “Bõ¡ql f−b Qm−a b¡L−m Bõ¡q N¡Ch ®b−L Cmj c¡e Ll−a b¡−Lez Bf¢e
AeÉ−cl−L ®nM¡−a b¡L−m Bfe¡l ‘¡e ü¡i¡¢hL ¢eu−jC h¡s−a b¡L−hz”

Bj£−ll c¢uaÅ f¡me öl¦
Bj¡l Efl Bj£−ll c¡¢uaÅ ¢c−u ¢a¢e hm−me, “Bf¢e HMe Bj¡lJ Bj£lz B¢j Bfe¡l j¡j¤lz ¢expw−L¡−Q
Bf¢e c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll−hez pw−L¡Q Ll−m c¡¢uaÅ p¢WLi¡−h f¡me Ll¡ k¡u e¡z”
a¡yl H fl¡jnÑ Ae¤k¡u£ B¢j S¡j¡u¡a−L ¢expw−L¡Q f¢lQ¡me¡ Ll−a m¡Nm¡jz ¢e−Sl Efl f§ZÑ BaÈ¢hnÄ¡p ¢e−u
c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll¡ öl¦ q−m¡z ¢ae ¢ce ¢ae S¡uN¡u S¡j¡u¡a−L ¢e−u −Nm¡jz ¢eujj¡¢gL LjÑp§¢Q f¡me L−l Qmm¡jz
j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh c¤’¢ce c¤−V¡ ¢ho−u L¡−e L¡−e Bj¡−L fl¡jnÑ ¢c−mez
−k−qa¤ ¢ae¢ce fl j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh−L Bl f¡−h¡e¡ ®p−qa¤ B¢j BlJ LaL ®c¡u¡ ®nM¡ Hhw L−uL¢V fÐ−nÀl SJu¡h
S¡e¡l SeÉ ay¡−L Apj−uJ ¢hlš² Ll−a h¡dÉ qm¡jz ¢a¢e fÐnÐu ®cJu¡u B¢j p¤−k¡N ¢em¡jz
¢ae ¢ce fl ¢a¢e ¢hc¡u ®eh¡l pju Bj¡−cl S¡j¡u¡−al SeÉ ®c¡u¡ Ll¡l SeÉ clM¡Ù¹ Llm¡jz ¢a¢e fСZi−l ®c¡u¡
Ll−mez M¡p L−l Bj¡l SeÉJ ®c¡u¡ Ll−mez ¢e−SJ Ly¡c−me, Bj¡−cl−LJ Ly¡c¡−mez à£−el j¡dÉ−j f¡lØf¢lL
¢exü¡bÑ jqîa Hje HL Aá¤a pÇfc k¡l ®L¡e a¤me¡ ¢j−m e¡z

106

¢a¢e ¢hc¡u ®eh¡l pju S¡j¡u¡−al ®m¡LpwMÉ¡ 20 ®b−L 26 H f¢lZa q−m¡z a¡m£−j Ha ®m¡L−L HLp¡−b ®nM¡−e¡
Ap¤¢hd¡z a¡C a¡m£−jl °hWL c¤−V¡ Ll¡l fl¡jnÑ Q¡Cm¡jz j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh l¡¢S q−mez Afl °hWL¢V f¢lQ¡me¡l
SeÉ L¡l Efl c¡¢uaÅ ®cJu¡ k¡u ®p ¢ho−u fl¡jnÑ Q¡C−m ¢a¢e Bj¡l ja S¡e−a Q¡C−mez B¢j k¡−L ®k¡NÉ h−m
ja fÐL¡n Llm¡j ¢a¢eJ a¡−LC fR¾c Ll−mez

NË¡j’−m pgl

Y¡L¡l ¢e−cÑn Ae¤k¡u£ nq−ll hc−m NË¡j Hm¡L¡u Bj¡−cl pgl öl¦ q−m¡z 20 ¢c−el j−dÉ Y¡L¡u ®glv Bp¡l
LjÑp§¢Q ®fm¡jz e¡l¡uZN”, j¤¾p£N” J Q–NË¡j nq−l ¢ae-Q¡lS−el −h¢n ®m¡L S¡j¡u¡−a nl£L q−u pju ¢c−a l¡¢S
qu¢ez ¢L¿º NË¡j¡’−m ®hn pwMÉ¡u 3 ¢c−el SeÉ pju ®ch¡l ®m¡L f¡Ju¡ ®N−m¡z
Bjl¡ Y¡L¡ −b−L k¡ ¢hnSe lJu¡e¡ ¢c−u¢Rm¡j a¡−cl jdÉ ®b−L 7 Se−L S¡j¡u¡a f¢lQ¡me¡l c¡¢uaÅ ¢e−a fÐÙ¹¤a
Llm¡jz S¡j¡u¡−a ea¤e n¡¢jm qJu¡ ®m¡L ¢e−u aMe pwMÉ¡ cy¡s¡m 50 Sez H−cl−L 7¢V S¡j¡u¡−a i¡N L−l 7
NË¡−j f¡W¡m¡jz fl¢ce ph¡C ®L¡e hs jp¢S−c Sj¡−ua q−u LjÑp§¢Q f¡me Ll¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡jz ®pM¡e ®b−L fl¢ce
Bh¡l 7¢V S¡j¡u¡a−L 7 NË¡−j f¡W¡−e¡ q−m¡z k¡l¡ 3 ¢c−el SeÉ nl£L qu a¡−cl pwMÉ¡ h¡−s h−V, ¢L¿º 3 ¢ce f−l
f¤l¡−e¡ k¡l¡ a¡l¡ Q−m k¡uz
H fÜ¢a−a LjÑp§¢Q f¡me Ll−a Ll−a Y¡L¡u kMe ¢g−l Hm¡j aMe 1j ¢Qõ¡l 5 ¢ce h¡L£ ¢R−m¡z 35 ¢ce pgl
Ll¡ q−u ®N−m¡z kMe Bjl¡ Y¡L¡ ®fy±Rm¡j aMe Bj¡−cl pwMÉ¡ ¢R−m¡ 35 Sez ¢Qõ¡l 20 Se R¡s¡ h¡¢L 15 Se
®LE 3 ¢c−el Hhw ®LE 7 ¢c−el SeÉ pju ¢c−a H−p−Rz Bj¡−cl j−dÉ k¡l¡ 1 ¢Qõ¡l SeÉ ®hl q−u¢Rm a¡−cl HL
Se−L 3 ¢ce Ju¡m¡−cl Bj£l h¡¢e−u nq−ll h¡C−l f¡¢W−u ®cJu¡ q−m¡z H ph hÉhÙÛ¡ ®L¾cÐ ®b−LC Ll¡ quz B¢j
Y¡L¡ ¢g−l Bp¡l fl Bj£−ll c¡¢uaÅ ®b−L AhÉ¡q¢a ®fm¡jz

Bj¡l Cj¡l−al 25 ¢ce

10 ¢ce j¡Jm¡e¡ Bë¤l Bk£−kl Cj¡l−al fl Bj¡l Efl c¡¢uaÅ Bp¡l 25 ¢ce fl Y¡L¡ ¢g−l Hm¡jz H 25
¢c−el A¢i‘a¡l p¡j¡eÉ ¢hhlZ ¢c¢µRz

SeN−Zl j−dÉ Cpm¡j pÇf−LÑ S¡e¡l kbø BNËq l−u−Rz k¡l¡ 3, 5, 7 ¢c−el SeÉ S¡j¡u¡−a nl£L q−u−Re a¡l¡
öÜ L−l L¡−mj¡ fs¡ J Hl AbÑ h¤T¡, e¡j¡−k fs¡l SeÉ p§l¡ g¡−aq¡ Hhw ®R¡V ®R¡V 4¢V p§l¡ öÜ L−l fs¡, e¡j¡−k
BlJ k¡ ¢LR¤ fs¡ qu a¡ p¢WLi¡−h fs¡ Hhw M¡Ju¡, ®n¡u¡ J ®fn¡h-f¡uM¡e¡l p¡−b pÇf¢Lña ®c¡u¡ ®nM¡l
p¤−k¡N ®f−u M¤hC M¤¢n q−u−Rz BlJ ®h¢n pj−ul SeÉ a¡hm£−N ®hl qJu¡ Sl¦l£ h−m a¡l¡ Ae¤ih L−l−Rz
A¢n¢ra J p¡j¡eÉ ¢n¢ra−cl SeÉ H LjÑp§¢Q M¤hC Ef−k¡N£ h−m Bj¡l d¡lZ¡ q−m¡z
B¢j ¢e−S ph−Q−u ®h¢n EfLªa q−u¢Rz Cpm¡j pÇf−LÑ hš²ªa¡ ®ch¡l AiÉ¡p Ll¡l fÐbj p¤−k¡N a¡hm£−NC ®fm¡jz
Bj¡l Efl Bj£−ll c¡¢uaÅ Bp¡l L−uL¢ce fl Bj¡l p¡b£−cl ¢eLV Bg−p¡p L−l hmm¡j ®k, j¡Jm¡e¡
p¡−q−hl hš²ªa¡ ö−e ®k aª¢ç ®fa¡j a¡ ®b−L Bjl¡ ph¡C h¢’a q−u ®Nm¡jz p¡b£l¡ h−m EW−m¡, “Bj¡−cl j−e
q−µR ®k, Bfe¡l j¤−M j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−q−hl hš²ªa¡C öe¢Rz ¢a¢e ®k Lb¡ ®ki¡−h hm−ae, ®k ®k f−u¾V hm−ae Hhw ®k
i¡o¡u hm−ae phC Bfe¡l j¤−M öe−a ®f−u Bjl¡ M¤¢nz” B¢j ¢h¢pÈa qm¡jz ®LE ®LE BlJ hm−m¡ ®k, j¡Jm¡e¡
p¡−qh ®k i¢‰−a q¡a e¡s¡−ae ®p i¢‰−aC Bf¢e q¡a e¡−sez
Ae¤ih Llm¡j ®k, L¡E−L JÙ¹¡c ¢q−p−h jqîa Ll−m a¡l L¡R ®b−L ®nM¡l pju a¡−L AS¡−¿¹C eLm Ll¡ q−u
k¡uz Aaxfl q¡a e¡s¡l hÉ¡f¡−l p¡hd¡e q−u ®Nm¡jz

107

a¡hm£−Nl a¡m£j fÜ¢a
“S£h−e k¡ ®cMm¡j” Hl f¡WL-f¡¢WL¡NZ a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a pÇf−LÑ c£OÑ B−m¡Qe¡ f−s ¢hlš² q−µRe ¢Le¡ S¡¢e e¡z
B¢j a¡hm£−Nl LjÑp§¢Q−L A¢n¢ra ¢hf¤m pwMÉL SeN−Zl SeÉ M¤hC Ef−k¡N£ j−e L¢lz H L¡S¢V j¡cÚl¡p¡l
j¡dÉ−j Ll¡ pñh euz f£l-j¤l£c£l j¡dÉ−jJ H−a¡ hÉ¡fLi¡−h HV¡ Ll¡ Apñhz
S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£ I a¡m£j fÜ¢a−a SeNZ−L L¡−mj¡, e¡j¡k, ®c¡u¡ CaÉ¡¢c ®nM¡h¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ Ll−a f¡−lz HL HL
CE¢eu−eC q¡S¡l q¡S¡l f¡h¢mL l−u−Rz ®k ph CE¢eu−e S¡j¡u¡−al LjÑ£pwMÉ¡ n’M¡¢eL a¡l¡ CE¢eu−el pLm
jp¢S−cC H fÜ¢a fÐ−u¡N L−l p¡d¡lZ j¤põ£−cl ®Mcja Ll−a f¡−lez ®k Hm¡L¡u S¡j¡u¡−al L¡S hÉ¡fL
®pM¡−e fТa jp¢S−c H fÜ¢a−a a¡m£−jl j¡dÉ−j SeN−Zl p¡−b O¢eù qh¡l p¤−k¡N q−hz a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al
j¡dÉ−j SeNZ Cpm¡j−L öd¤ djÑ ¢q−p−hC S¡e−a f¡−lz L¡−mj¡l jjÑLb¡ J e¡j¡−kl q¡L£La h¤T¡l p¤−k¡N
S¡j¡u¡−al j¡dÉ−jC SeNZ −f−a f¡−lz
jp¢S−c pç¡−q HL¢ce j¡N¢lh h¡ Hn¡l fl O¸V¡M¡¢eL a¡m£−jl °hWL q−m ¢LR¤ ¢LR¤ L−l à£−el fÐ−u¡Se£u ¢nr¡
SeNZ ®f−a f¡−lz
e¡j¡−k k¡ fs−a qu a¡ öÜ L−l fs¡l p¡−b p¡−b e¡j¡−kl glk, Ju¡¢Sh…−m¡ ®nMh¡l p¤¾cl fÜ¢a¢VJ E−õM
Ll¢Rz p¡d¡lZ ®m¡L−cl 13¢V glk, 15¢V Ju¡¢Sh, AeÉ¡eÉ p¤æ¡a-j¤Ù¹¡q¡h j¤MÙÛ Ll¡ pñh euz Hl SeÉ pqS fÜ¢a
q−m¡, HLSe Ljhup£ i¡m e¡j¡k£−L e¡j¡−kl h¡Ù¹h ¢nr¡ ®ch¡l SeÉ cy¡s Ll¡−a q−hz ¢k¢e ¢nr¡ ®c−he ¢a¢e
a¡−L f¢lQ¡me¡ Ll−hez Bl ph¡C mrÉ Ll−h J ¢nM−hz

¢nrL ¢k¢e ¢a¢e Hi¡−h hm−he

HC ®k e¡j¡−k cy¡s¡−e¡ q−m¡, cy¡s¡h¡l B−N e¡j¡−kl L£ L£ glk a¡ ®nM¡ k¡Lz e¡j¡−kl S¡uN¡ f¡L, nl£l f¡L J
N¡−ul L¡fs f¡L ¢j−m 3 glk; pal Y¡L¡, p¢WL Ju¡−š² fs¡, ¢Lhm¡l ¢cL qJu¡ J ¢eua Ll¡-Bl Q¡l¢V glkz
®j¡V H 7¢V glS e¡j¡k öl¦l B−Nz Hi¡−h e¡j¡−kl h¡C−ll glk Lu¢V S¡e¡ ®N−m¡z Hlfl ¢nrL hm−me ®k,
e¡j¡−kl ®ia−l 6¢V glk B−Rz a¡Lh£−l a¡ql£j, ¢Ll¡Ba fs¡ l¦L¤, ¢pSc¡, e¡j¡−kl ®no °hWL J CµR¡Lªai¡−h
e¡j¡k pj¡ç Ll¡z H glk Lu¢V ph¡C−L j¤MÙÛ Ll¡−a q−hz
Aaxfl ¢nrL cy¡s¡−e¡ −m¡L¢V−L e¡j¡−k k¡ fs−a qu a¡ fs−a hm−hez ¢Ll¡Ba fs¡ q−u ®N−m ¢nrL hm−he,
“k¡ HMe fs¡ q−mA a¡−a p§l¡ g¡−aq¡ à¡l¡ glk ¢Ll¡Ba q−u ®N−m¡z g¡−aq¡l fl k¡ fs¡ q−m¡ a¡ Ju¡¢Shz Bl
g¡−aq¡l B−N k¡ fs¡ q−u−R a¡ p¤æ¡az”
¢nrL Hlfl l¦L¤ Ll−a hm−hez l¦L¤ AhÙÛ¡u b¡L¡L¡−mC ¢nrL hm−he “l¦L¤ Ll¡ glk, ¢LR¤rZ l¦L¤−a ®c¢l Ll¡
Ju¡¢Sh, Bl a¡ph£q fs¡ p¤æ¡az l¦L¤−a ®c¢l e¡ Ll−m e¡j¡k q−h e¡z
¢nrL Hlfl l¦L¤ ®b−L cy¡s−a hm−hez aMe ¢nrL hm−he ®k, l¦L¤l fl ¢LR¤rZ cy¡s¡−e¡ Ju¡¢Shz ¢ÙÛl q−u e¡
cy¡s¡−u ¢pSc¡u Q−m ®N−m e¡j¡k q−h e¡z
¢nrL Hlfl ¢pSc¡u ®k−a hm−hez ¢pSc¡k b¡L¡ AhÙÛ¡u ¢nrL hm−he ®k, ¢pSc¡ Ll¡ glk, ¢pSc¡ ¢LR¤rZ ®c¢l
Ll¡ Ju¡¢Sh, a¡ph£q fs¡ p¤æ¡a, fum¡ ¢pSc¡l fl ¢ÙÛl q−u hp¡ Ju¡¢Shz HLV¤ ®c¢l e¡ L−l hp¡l p¡−b p¡−bC
Bh¡l ¢pSc¡u Q−m ®N−m e¡j¡k h¡¢am q−u k¡−hz ¢àa£u ¢pSc¡l fl Bh¡l cy¡s¡−a hm−he Hhw fÐbj l¡L¡−al
j−a¡ gl J Ju¡¢Sh…−m¡ Bh¡l ¢Q¢q©a Ll−hez ¢àa£u l¡L¡u¡−al fl a¡ný−cl SeÉ hp¡ Ju¡¢Sh Hhw a¡n¡ýc
fs¡J Ju¡¢Shz
HV¡ k¢c ®no hp¡ qu, Ab¡Ñv c¤’l¡L¡u¡a fl hp¡ qu a¡q−m ®no hp¡V¡ glkz 3 J 4 l¡L¡u¡−a e¡j¡−k
c¤’l¡L¡u¡−al fl hp¡ Ju¡¢Shz p¡m¡j në à¡l¡ e¡j¡k pj¡d¡ Ll¡J Ju¡¢Shz

108

Hi¡−h e¡j¡k fs−a b¡L¡ AhÙÛ¡u glk J Ju¡¢Sh…−m¡ ¢Q¢e−u ¢c−m pq−SC j−e b¡−Lz glk J Ju¡¢S−hl A¢a¢lš²
k¡ e¡j¡−k fs¡ qu a¡ phC p¤æ¡a J j¤Ù¹¡q¡hz
H …l¦aÅf§ZÑ Lb¡¢V ®nM¡ S¤l¦l£ ®k, e¡j¡−k ®L¡e glk i§−m h¡c f−s ®N−m Bh¡l e¡j¡k fs−a q−hz ¢L¿º ®L¡e
Ju¡¢Sh R¤−V ®N−m p¡m¡j ¢gl¡h¡l B−N pý ¢pSc¡ ¢c−mC Qm−hz AeÉ ¢LR¤ h¡c fs−mJ e¡j¡k h¡¢am q−h e¡z a¡C
glk J Ju¡¢Sh S¡e¡ Sl¦l£z
e¡j¡−k cy¡s¡−e¡ AhÙÛ¡u, l¦L¤ J ¢pSc¡l AhÙÛ¡u Hhw a¡n¡ýc fs¡l pju, hp¡ AhÙÛ¡u q¡a ®L¡b¡u ¢Li¡−h l¡M−a
q−h Hhw cª¢ø ®L¡e S¡uN¡u l¡M−a q−h H phC ®nM¡l ¢houz
e¡j¡−kl fТa¢V A‰ d£−l-p¤−ÙÛ Bc¡u Ll−m ‘M¤k’¤ (i¢š² J ¢heu) fuc¡u pq¡uL quz a¡s¡ýs¡ L−l e¡j¡k Bc¡u
AbÑq£ez e¡j¡k Bc¡−ul pju ®kM¡−e k¡ fs¡ qu aMe j−e L£ i¡h−a q−h a¡ a¡hm£−Nl a¡m£−j ®nM¡−e¡ qu e¡z
HV¡ R¡s¡ e¡j¡k fСZq£e q−u f−sz Bjl¡ ®c−ql A‰-fÐaɉ à¡l¡ e¡j¡−k k¡ L¢l Hhw j¤−M k¡ f¢s a¡ ¢c−u e¡j¡−kl
®cq fuc¡ quz Bl j−e k¡ i¡h¡ E¢Qa a¡ i¡he¡u b¡L−m e¡j¡−kl l©q fuc¡ quz Hi¡−h e¡j¡k S£h¿¹ quz ®cq jªa
q−m ®kje ®L¡e L¡−Sl ®k¡NÉ b¡−L e¡, ®aj¢e jl¡ e¡j¡k à¡l¡J Bpm E−ŸnÉ q¡¢pm qu e¡z Bj¡l ®mM¡ ‘ØV¡X£
p¡−LÑm’ e¡jL hC¢V−a ‘S£h¿¹ e¡j¡k, ¢n−l¡e¡−j e¡j¡−kl ®N¡V¡ a¡m£j pÇf−LÑ k¡ E−õM L−l¢R, HM¡−e a¡ a¤−m
¢cm¡jz
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−a ®nM¡ e¡j¡−kl H fÜ¢al a¡m£j ®hn L−uL hRl B−N ®Sm¡ Bj£l p−Çjme Abh¡ ®L¾cУu
j¡S¢m−n öl¡ Efm−r pj−ha c¡¢uaÅn£mN−Zl p¡j−e fÐcnÑe Ll¡ q−u¢R−m¡z
29.

S£h¿¹ e¡j¡k
Qkla ¢Shl¡Cm (B) ¢e−S e¡j¡k Bc¡u L−l l¡p§m (p)-®L ®cM¡−mez l¡p§m (p) h−m−Re, “Bj¡−L −ki¡−h e¡j¡k
Bc¡u Ll−a ®cM ®pi¡−hC ®a¡jl¡ e¡j¡k Bc¡u Llz”
H ®b−L h¤T¡ ®Nm ®k, L¡−l¡ j¤−M ö−e h¡ ®L¡e ®mM¡ f−s e¡j¡−kl f§ZÑl©f h¡ BL¡l h¤T¡ pñh euz nl£−ll A‰fÐaɉ e¡j¡−k cy¡s¡−e¡ AhÙÛ¡u Hhw l¦L¤, ¢pSc¡ J hp¡ AhÙÛ¡u ¢Li¡−h ®L¡b¡u l¡M−a q−h a¡ HLSe A¢i‘ J
p¢WL ‘¡e£ hÉ¢š²−L e¡j¡kla AhÙÛ¡u ®cM−m h¡Ù¹−h ®k d¡lZ¡ S−¾j a¡ AeÉ ®L¡ei¡−h S¡e¡ pñh euz
−k ®L¡e jp¢S−c e¡j¡kla ®m¡L−cl l¦L¤, ¢pSc¡ CaÉ¡¢cl fТa mrÉ Ll−m ®cM¡ k¡u ®k, ¢é ØV¡C−m k¡l ®kje M¤¢n
¢h¢iæ J ¢h¢Qœ BL¡−l e¡j¡k fs−Rz l¡p§m (p) ¢eÕQuC Ha fÐL¡l l©−f e¡j¡k fs¡ ®nM¡e¢ez
e¡j¡−kl fÐ−u¡Se£u ph Lb¡ ¢e−jÀ ¢peÚf¢pp BL¡−l ®fn Ll¡ q−m¡x
1z e¡j¡k fum¡ h¤¢eu¡c£ Ch¡c¡a
L. q¡n−l Hl ¢qp¡hC fum¡ ®eJu¡ q−hz
M. L¡−mj¡ a¡C−uh¡l fum¡ h¡Ù¹h Bjm£ ü£Lª¢az
N. L¡−mj¡u ®O¡¢oa ¢pÜ¡¿¹ Ae¤k¡u£ S£hek¡fe Ll¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ hÉ¢š²Na J p¡j¡¢SL h¡Ù¹h Ae¤n£me J ®VÊ¢ewz
O. j¤¢j−el ¢j’l¡S (Bõ¡ql p¡−b pÇf−LÑl ph−Q−u L¡kÑLl ®p¡f¡e)z
P. Bõ¡ql p¡−b ®N¡fe Bm¡fz
Q. Bõ¡ql ¢eLV BaÁpjfÑ−Zl h¡¢qÉL l©f J ®cqje j¢e−hl QlZa−m ®Y−m −cJu¡l Qlj fÐL¡nz
R. h¡¾c¡q ¢q−p−h ®g−lna¡l ®Q−uJ nÐù jkÑ¡c¡l fÐj¡Zx ®g−lna¡−cl−L f§ZÑ e¡j¡k Bc¡−ul A¢dL¡l ®cJu¡ qu¢ez
a¡−cl ®LE ¢pSc¡, ®LE l¦L¤−a laz
2z e¡j¡−kl ®cq l©q
109

L. ®cq−L p¤¾cl AhÙÛ¡u l¡M¡l ®kje BNËq ®cM¡ k¡u, ®aj¢e j¤¢e−hl ¢eLV p¤¾cl e¡j¡k ®fn Ll¡l Skh¡ b¡L¡ Q¡Cz
M. nl£l ¢c−u e¡j¡−k k¡ fs¡ J Ll¡ qu a¡−a e¡j¡−kl ®cq N¢Wa quz k−a¡ öÜ L−l fs¡ qu Hhw l¦L¤ ¢pSc¡
CaÉ¡¢c ka p¤¾cli¡−h Bc¡u Ll¡ qu e¡j¡−kl ®cq aaC p¤¾cl quz
N. fСZq£e p¤¾cl −c−ql ®L¡e j§m ®eCz
O. e¡j¡k Bc¡−ul pju j−el AhÙÛ¡l Efl e¡j¡−kl l©q fuc¡ qJu¡ ¢eiÑl L−lz
- j¤−M kMe k¡ fs¡ q−µR Hl q¡L£L−al ¢c−L ®Mm¡um l¡M¡z
- −cq kMe ®k AhÙÛ¡u B−R aMe j−e ®k ®Qae¡ b¡L¡ E¢Qa a¡ dÉ¡−e l¡M¡z
- je−L p−Qaei¡−h L¡S ®cJu¡-¢LR¤−aC M¡¢m q−a e¡ ®cJu¡z
P. e¡j¡−k M¤ö J M¤k¤ ab¡ i¢š²pqL¡−l ¢heu¡hea qJu¡ J L¡ali¡h fÐL¡n Ll¡z M¤ö j¡−e i¢š²-nÐÜ¡, M¤k¤ j¡−e
¢heuz (Submit solemnly with Reverence)
Q. e¡j¡−kl ®cq ka p¤¾cl q−h Hhw l©q ka pS¡N J pQm b¡L−h ®p ¢q−p−hC 10-700 …Z pJu¡h f¡−hz
R. e¡j¡−kl ®cq J l©q HLC p¡−b fuc¡ q−a q−hz ®cq R¡s¡ l©q b¡L−h ®L¡b¡u? Bl l©q R¡s¡ ®cq hy¡−Q e¡z
−cq
L. Bqp¡e Ju¡k¤z
M. ¢WLi¡−h cy¡s¡ez
N. k¡ fs¡ qu öÜ fs¡z
O. ®cq Q¡l AhÙÛ¡u b¡−Lx

P. k¡ fs¡ qux a¡Lh£l a¡ql£j¡q,
a¡Ju¡‹¤q, q¡jc, p¡e¡, a¡Bek,
a¡p¢ju¡, p§l¡ g¡¢aq¡, ¢Ll¡Ba, l¦L¤
J ¢pSc¡u a¡ph£q, l¦L¤ ®b−L
cy¡¢s−u J c¤’¢pSc¡l j¡−T ®c¡u¡,
a¡n¡ýc, c¤l¦c, ®c¡u¡ j¡p§l¡ J
p¡m¡jz

l©q
Jk¤ Ll¡l pju ®Mu¡m ¢WL l¡M¡l SeÉ ¢h¢iæ ®c¡u¡z
c¤¢eu¡ ®b−L je−L Bm¡c¡ Ll¡z
Cqp¡−el p¡−b e¡j¡k fs¡
Cqp¡e AbÑ q−m¡ Hjei¡−h Bõ¡ql Ch¡ca Ll¡ ®ke a¤¢j ay¡−L ®cM−R¡
(Ljf−r HaV¤L¤ qJu¡ E¢Qa ®k, ¢a¢e −a¡j¡−L ®cM−Re)z (q¡c£p) j¢e−hl
p¡j−e i¢š²l p¡−b cy¡s¡e, j¢e−hl ¢eLV ¢he−ul p¡−b ea qJu¡, j¢e−hl
¢eLV ®N¡V¡ pš¡−L pjfZÑ, j¢e−hl p¡j−e Bc−hl p¡−b h−p i¢š² fÐL¡n,
eh£l fТa p¡m¡j J …e¡q j¡−gl ®c¡u¡z
L¡m−hl ¢c−L ®Mu¡m L−l fs¡ J p¡−b p¡−b AbÑ J jjÑ h¤−T A¿¹−l Skh¡
®h¡d Ll¡, p§l¡ g¡¢aq¡ fs¡l pju Bõ¡ql SJu¡−hl ®Mu¡m Ll¡z
“p¡m¡a−L i¡N L−l¢R B¢j Hhw Bj¡l h¡¾c¡l j−dÉ, A−dÑL Bj¡l Hhw
A−dÑL h¡¾c¡lz” (q¡c£p)

3z e¡j¡−kl fÐd¡e j¡pu¡m¡j¡pu¡m¡-j¡p¡−um
glk J Ju¡¢Sh
L. glk R¤−V ®N−m Bh¡l e¡j¡k ea¤e L−l fs−a q−h,
M. Ju¡¢Sh alL q−m pý ¢pSc¡ ¢c−a q−h,
N. glk-Ju¡¢Sh R¡s¡ h¡¢L phC p¤æ¡a-j¤Ù¡¹ q¡hz
4z e¡j¡−kl 13 glk; h¡C−l 7¢V J ®ia−l 6¢V
L. h¡C−ll 7 glkx nl£l f¡L, L¡fs f¡L, ÙÛ¡e f¡L, pal Y¡L¡, ¢Lhm¡j¤M£ qJu¡, ¢eua Ll¡ J Ju¡š² ¢Qe¡z
M. ®ia−ll 6 glkx a¡Lh£l a¡ql£j¡, cy¡s¡e, ¢Ll¡Ba, l¦L¤ ¢pSc¡, ®no hp¡, CµR¡ L−l e¡j¡k ®no Ll¡z
5z ph e¡j¡−k 11¢V Ju¡¢Shx
1. p§l¡ g¡¢aq¡, 2. p§l¡ g¡¢aq¡l fl AeÉ p§l¡ fs¡, 3. l¦L¤−a HL a¡ph£q f¢lj¡Z ¢hmð Ll¡, 4. l¦L¤ ®b−L
¢ÙÛl q−u cy¡s¡e, 5. ¢pSc¡u HL a¡ph£q f¢lj¡Z ®c¢l Ll¡, 6. c¤’¢pSc¡l j¡TM¡−e ¢ÙÛl q−u hp¡, 7.
fÐ−aÉL °hW−L a¡n¡ýc (Bš¡¢quÉ¡a¤) fs¡, 8. p¡m¡j në à¡l¡ e¡j¡k pj¡ç Ll¡, 9. glk-Ju¡¢Sh…−m¡
a¡la£h j−a¡ Bc¡u Ll¡, 10. Cj¡j ®S¡−ll ÙÛ−m ®S¡−l Hhw B−Ù¹l ÙÛ−m B−Ù¹ ¢Ll¡Ba fs¡ J 11.

110

a¡’c£−m BlL¡e AbÑ¡v e¡j¡−kl l¦Lepj§q (Ll¡Ba, l¦L¤ J ¢pSc¡) ¢e¢ÕQ¿¹ J fÐn¡¿¹ j−l d£−l d£−l
Bc¡u Ll¡z
6z A¢a¢lš² BlJ 3¢V Ju¡¢Shx
1. Q¡l h¡ ¢ae l¡LB−al e¡j¡−k c¤’l¡L¡B−al fl hp¡, 2. ®h−al e¡j¡−k, ®c¡u¡−u L¤e¤a fs¡, 3. c¤’D−cl
e¡j¡−k a¡Lh£l hm¡z
7z e¡j¡−kl Bc¡h k¡ M¤ö J M¤k¤l pq¡uLx
L. j¡e¢pL hÉÙ¹a¡ J flhaÑ£ L¡−Sl a¡L£c hSÑe,
M. e¡j¡−kl pju e¡ L¢j−u d£−l-p¤−ÙÛ Bc¡u,
N. glk e¡j¡k jp¢S−c Bc¡u h¡ A¿¹ax S¡j¡u¡−a Bc¡u, a¡ e¡ q−m e¡j¡k L¡k¡ q−aC b¡L−h,
O. e¡j¡−kl Eæu−el SeÉ a¡q¡‹¤c fs¡,
P. je−L jp¢S−c T¤y¢L−u l¡M¡, “a¡l je jp¢S−c T¤m¿¹ b¡−L” (q¡c£p)
Q. j¤−M EµQ¡lZL¡−m L¡m−hl ¢c−L ®Mu¡m l¡M¡ k¡−a ®L¡e në Aj−e¡−k¡−N EµQ¡¢la e¡ quz
8z e¡j¡k L¡−mj¡ a¡C−uh¡l Ju¡c¡ j−a¡ Qm¡l h¡Ù¹h ®VÊ¢ewx
L. Bõ¡ql ýL¤j J l¡p§−ml al£L¡ j−a¡ Qm¡l ¢eu¢ja AiÉ¡p Hhw ®c−ql fТa A−‰l ®VÊ¢ewz Bõ¡ql ýL¤j J
l¡p§−ml al£L¡ R¡s¡ e¡j¡−k AeÉ ¢LR¤ fs¡ h¡ Ll¡ k¡u e¡, Ll−m e¡j¡k eø q−u k¡uz
M. Q¢în O¸V¡l l¦¢Ve e¡j¡−kl ¢i¢š−a °a¢l Ll¡z
- gS−ll e¡j¡k ¢c−u öl Hhw Hn¡l e¡j¡k ¢c−u ®noz
- j¡TM¡−e 3 h¡l c¤¢eu¡l c¡¢uaÅ ®b−L ®X−L H−e pÈlZ L¢l−u ®cu ®k, a¤¢j Bõ¡ql ®N¡m¡jz
9z e¡j¡−k fеRæ Ju¡c¡x
L. e¡j¡−k ®kje ®L¡e L¡SC ¢e−Sl j¡lk£ j−a¡ L¢l e¡ ®aj¢e e¡j¡−kl h¡C−lJ Llh e¡z
M. ®k j¤−M Bõ¡ql L¡m¡j f¢s H j¤−M Hje hmh e¡, k¡ Bõ¡q AfR¾c L−lez
N. l¦L¤−a ®k j¡b¡ l¡î¤m Bm¡j£−el p¡j−e ea q−u jkÑ¡c¡l A¢dL¡l£ q−u−R H j¡b¡−L Bl L¡−l¡ L¡−R ea L−l
Afj¡e Ll−h¡ e¡z
O. ¢pSc¡u Bj¡l ®k l−hl ¢eLV ®cq-fСZ py−f ¢c−u¢R ®p jq¡e J ¢el¡fc BnÐu LMeJ aÉ¡N Ll−h¡ e¡z AeÉ ®L¡e
BnÐuJ a¡m¡n Llh e¡z
P. ®k Bõ¡q−L pÈlZ Ll¡l SeÉ e¡j¡k Bc¡u Llm¡j ay¡−L e¡j¡−kl h¡C−l BlJ ®h¢n L−l pÈlZ Ll−h¡z
“Bj¡−L pÈlZ Ll¡l S−eÉ e¡j¡k L¡−uj Llz” (p§l¡ aÅ¡q¡)
“kMe e¡j¡k ®no qu kj£−e ®hl q−u fsz Bõ¡ql gkm a¡m¡n Ll Hhw Bõ¡q−L B−l¡ −h¢n L−l pÈlZ Llz”
(p§l¡ S¤ju¡)
“¢eÕQuC e¡j¡k AnÔ£m J ¢e¢oÜ L¡S ®b−L ¢hla l¡−Mz” (p§l¡ BeL¡h¤a)
10z e¡j¡kC à£e£
à£e£ ¢S−¾cN£l ¢l−f¡ÑVx
- e¡j¡−kl fÐi¡h h¡C−l-h¡C−ll fÐi¡h e¡j¡−k,
- h¡C−ll S£h−eC e¡j¡−kl AhÙÛ¡ k¡Q¡C quz
11z e¡j¡−kl jS¡ ®f−a q−mx
- ‘e¡j¡k j¤¢j−el ®jl¡S’ ¢q−p−h B¿¹¢lL Ni£l Ae¤i¢§ a ¢e−u e¡j¡k Bc¡u Ll−a q−hz
- j−e¡−k¡N R¤−V ®N−m Bh¡l p−Qae q−a q−h Hhw L¡m−hl ¢c−L ®Mu¡m ®l−M k¡ fs¡ q−h a¡ j¤−M J L¡m−h
HLp¡−b fs−a q−hz
12z l¡p§m (p) Hl e¡j¡kx
L. A¿¹−ll fÐn¡¢¿¹, “e¡j¡k−L Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡ Bj¡l S−eÉ ®Q¡−Ml n¡¢¿¹ h¡¢e−u−Rez” (q¡c£p)
111

M. ¢a¢e ®f−ln¡e£−a e¡j¡−kl j¡dÉ−j ü¢Ù¹ ®h¡d Ll−ae, “e¡j¡k J ph−ll j¡dÉ−j p¡q¡kÉ Q¡Jz” (p§l¡ h¡L¡l¡)
N. l¡p§m (p) h−m−Re, fÐ−aÉL eh£l SeÉ Bõ¡q HLV¡ L−l M¡−qn fuc¡ L−l−Re, Bj¡l M¡−qn l¡−al e¡j¡kz
Bõ¡q fÐ−aÉL eh£l SeÉ HL¢V jk¡Ñc¡l m¤Lj¡ h¡¢e−u−Re, 5 Ju¡−š²l e¡j¡k Bj¡l m¤Lj¡z
O. c£OÑ pju cy¡s¡h¡l cl¦e f¡ h¡ qy¡V¤ Ahn q−u ®k−a¡z
13z p¡q¡h¡−u ®Ll¡jN−Zl e¡j¡kx
e¡j¡kx
L. Bh¤ hLl (l¡) My¤¢Vl j−a¡ ¢eÕQm q−u e¡j¡−k cy¡s¡−aez
M. Ejl (l¡) hõ−jl BO¡−a ®hýyn AhÙÛ¡u e¡j¡−kl Lb¡ hm¡u ýyn q−m¡z
N. Epj¡e (l¡) Hl qaÉ¡Ll£−cl−L mrÉ L−l ay¡l ¢h¢h hm−me, Hje ®m¡L−L qaÉ¡ Ll−m, ®k l¡−al e¡j¡−k
L¤lBe Maj Ll−aez
O. Bm£ (l¡) Hl f¡−u ¢hÜ a£l ¢pSc¡la AhÙÛ¡u pq−S ®M¡m¡ ®N−m¡z
P. Bhc¤õ¡q Ch−e Bî¡p (l¡) ®Q¡−Ml ¢Q¢Lvp¡ aÉ¡N Ll−me, L¡lZ ¢Q¢Lvp¡ ¢pSc¡ ¢c−a ¢e−od L−l¢R−me, p¤ÙÛ e¡
qJu¡ fkÑ¿¹z
Q. Bhc¤õ¡q Ch−e Ejl (l¡) Hl A‰ fÐaɉ B‰¤m fkÑ¿¹ ¢Lhm¡ l¦M L−l l¡M−aez
R. Bhc¤õ¡q Ch−e k¤h¡Cl (l¡) ¢eÕQm b¡−jl ja cy¡s¡−ae Hhw hm−ae HV¡C M¤öz
S. Bh¤ a¡mq¡ Bep¡l£ (l¡) h¡N¡−e e¡j¡−kl pju f¡¢Ml ¢c−L ®Mu¡m Ll¡u l¡L¡B−al pwMÉ¡ i§−m k¡Ju¡l
L¡gg¡l¡ ¢q−p−h I h¡N¡eV¡C l¡p§m (p) ®L ¢c−u ¢c−me Bõ¡ql f−b MlQ Ll¡l SeÉz
30.

a¡hm£−N Bj¡l ¢àa£u ¢Qõ¡ ¢cõ£−a

fÐbj ¢Qõ¡l 35 ¢ce pgl ®n−o Y¡L¡ ¢g−l Bp¡l fl C¢”¢eu¡l j¤L£a i¡C M¤h M¤¢n fÐL¡n L−l Bj¡−L S¡e¡−me
®k, Bj¡l ¢àa£u ¢Qõ¡l pjuV¡ ¢cõ£−a L¡V¡−a q−hz B¢j M¤h Evp¡q ®h¡d Llm¡jz S¡e−a f¡lm¡j ®k, Bj¡l p¡−b
B−l¡ HLSe Y¡L¡ ®b−L k¡−he ¢Qõ¡l E−Ÿ−nÉC Hhw ®L¡mL¡a¡ ®b−LJ HLSe Bj¡−cl p¢‰ q−hez
1950 p¡−ml H¢fÐml Lb¡z aM−e¡ i¡la-f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el j−dÉ Ah¡−dC k¡a¡u¡a q¢µRmz f¡p−f¡VÑ-¢ip¡l T¡−jm¡ aM−e¡
öl¦ qu¢ez fÐ−u¡Se£u k¡ha£u fl¡jnÑ J Ef−cn ¢c−u j¡Jm¡e¡ Bhc¤m Bk£k pg−ll p¡g−mÉl SeÉ ®c¡u¡ L−l
Bj¡−cl−L ¢hc¡u S¡e¡−mez ®lmf−bC ®L¡mL¡a¡ ®fy±−R a¡hm£−Nl ®L¾cУu jp¢S−c q¡¢kl qm¡jz Bj¡−cl pÇf−LÑ
a¡l¡ B−NC Ah¢qa ¢R−mez Ec¤Ñi¡o£ HLSe ®L¡mL¡a¡ ®b−L ¢Qõ¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ Bj¡−cl p¡b£ q−mez I EcѤi¡o£
i¡−ul Efl H ¢ae S−el Bj£−ll c¡¢uaÅ ®cJu¡ qmz
¢cõ£N¡j£ ®VÊ−e aªa£u ®nÐZ£l L¡jl¡u EWm¡jz ®L¡mL¡a¡ Bj£l ¢nu¡mcq ®lm ®ØVn−e ®c¡u¡ L−l Bj¡−cl−L ¢hc¡u
¢c−mez Bj¡−cl Bj£l N¡¢s−a EWh¡l pjuL¡l ®c¡u¡ BJu¡S L−l EµQ¡lZ L−l Bj¡−cl−L ®c¡u¡ fs¡l Lb¡ pÈlZ
Ll¡−mez ¢cõ£ ®f±yR−a 24 O¸V¡ ®m−N ®N−m¡z hs hs ®Øvne R¡s¡ ®L¡b¡J ®Vêe e¡ b¡j¡ p−šÆJ HLV¡ ¢ce f¤−l¡C
®m−N ®N−m¡z Bj¡−cl Bj£−ll f¢lQ¡me¡u H pjuV¡ Hjei¡−h ®L−V ®N−m¡ ®k, pg−ll ü¡i¡¢hL ¢hl¢š²i¡h pª¢øC
q−a f¡−l¢ez
EcѤ ®nM¡l p§Qe¡
−Q±j¤qe£l Se¡h e§l¦m qL Bj¡l pgl p¡b£ ¢R−mez Bj£−ll e¡j j−e Ll−a f¡l¢R e¡z Bj¡−cl Bj£l EcѤ i¡o£
qJu¡u Ec¤Ñ ®n¡e¡ J h¤T¡l p¤−k¡N ®f−u i¡−m¡C m¡N−m¡z Ec¤Ñ i¡o¡u HL fÐL¡l ¢jøa¡ B−R, k¡l L¡l−Z öe−a
nЦ¢ajd¤l j−e quz Bj¡l h¡mÉL¡−ml ¢hhlZ ¢c−a ¢N−u E−õM L−l¢R ®k,
Bj¡l j¤−M Lb¡ ®g¡V¡l hu−p BÇj¡ j¡p ®c−s−Ll SeÉ Y¡L¡u ®hs¡−a H−p¢R−m¡z pjhup£ j¡j¡a i¡−ul p¡−b
®Mm¡d¤m¡ Ll−a Ll−a EcѤ hm¡ ¢LR¤ ¢nMm¡jz h¡¢s−a ¢N−u e¡¢L c¡c£l p¡−b Ec¤Ñ−a Lb¡ hm¡ öl¦ L−l¢Rm¡jz H ph
c¡c£ J BÇj¡l j¤−M ®n¡e¡ Lb¡z fТahRl Y¡L¡ÙÛ e¡e¡l h¡¢s−a ®hs¡−a Bp−m EcѤ Lb¡ öe−a ®fa¡jz AhnÉ ®p EcѤ
Y¡L¡l LbÉ i¡o¡, EcѤ i¡o¡ eu h−m f−l h¤T−a ®f−l¢Rz

112

Bj¡−cl Bj£l EcѤ i¡o£ q−mJ ®L¡mL¡a¡l A¢dh¡p£ qJu¡l h¡wm¡ ®j¡V¡j¤¢V h¤−Te J ¢LR¤ ¢LR¤ hm−aJ f¡−le h−m
Bj¡−cl SeÉ ¢nM−a pqS q−m¡z h¡wm¡−L l¡øÌi¡o¡ Ll¡l B−¾c¡m−el pju EcѤ−L HLj¡œ l¡øÌi¡o¡ Ll¡l ¢hl¦−Ü
®r¡i b¡L¡u Ec¤Ñ ¢nMh e¡ h−m ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−u¢Rm¡jz ®p ®r¡i Bl lCm e¡z EcѤ ®nM¡ öl¦ q−u ®N−m¡z ®VÊ−e Bjl¡ ph
Ju¡š² S¡j¡u¡−a e¡j¡k f−s¢Rz ¢q¾c¤ J ¢nM k¡œ£l¡ Bj¡−cl−L S¡j¡u¡−a e¡j¡−kl SeÉ q¡¢pj¤−M S¡uN¡ ®R−s
¢c−u−Rz
Bj¡−cl a¡m£j£ °hW−L k¡ ¢LR¤ q−u−R a¡ ®c−M J ö−e k¡œ£l¡ Evp¤L q−u mrÉ Ll−a¡ h¤T¡ ®N−m¡z a¡l¡ Bj¡−cl−L
d¡¢jÑL ¢q−p−h pÇj¡−el ®Q¡−M ®c−M−R Hhw Bj¡−cl p¡−b p¤¾cl BQlZ L−l−Rz H ®lm pg−l B−l¡ ¢LR¤ ea¤e ®c¡u¡
®nM¡ q−u ®N−m¡z
Bj£l p¡−qh ®qL¡u¡−a p¡q¡h¡ e¡−j j¡Jm¡e¡ k¡L¡¢lu¡ p¡−q−hl ¢m¢Ma hC ®b−L p¡q¡h¡−u ®Ll¡−jl L¡¢qe£ f−s
®n¡e¡−aez ¢a¢e kMe fs−ae B¢j f¡−n h−p hC¢Vl f¡a¡u i¡−m¡ L−l ®cM−a b¡La¡jz a¡m£j£ °hWL ®no q−m H
hC¢V ¢e−u ®k Awn¢V ¢a¢e f−s ö¢e−u i¡P¡ i¡P¡ h¡wm¡u h¤¢T−u ¢c−u−Re ®p Awn¢V fs¡l ®Qø¡ Lla¡jz ¢hou¢V
S¡e¡ b¡L¡u Hhw a¡l fs¡l pju B¢j ®mM¡l ¢c−L j−e¡−k¡N ®cJu¡u fs−a prj q¢µR h−m p¡qp ®fm¡jz ®k
nëV¡ fs−a f¡¢l¢e a¡ Bj£l p¡−qh ®b−L ¢ea¡jz hC¢V M¤hC pqS i¡o¡u −mM¡z EcѤ−a fÐQ¤l Blh£ në b¡L¡u
B−l¡ p¤¢hd¡ q−m¡z ¢hH fkÑ¿¹ Blh£ f¡WÉp§¢Q−a b¡L¡u k¡ ¢n−M¢Rm¡j a¡ L¡−S m¡N−R ®c−M B−l¡ Evp¡q ®h¡d
Llm¡jz
R¡œ S£h−e Blh£ f¡WÉhC k¡ f−s¢R a¡−a ®Sl-Shl ®cu¡ ¢R−m¡z EcѤ−a Blh£ qlg AbQ ®Sl-Shl-®fn CaÉ¡¢c
R¡s¡ ®Lje L−l fs¡ k¡u, Hje HLV¡ i£¢a Bj¡l ¢R−m¡z ¢qL¡u¡−a p¡q¡h¡ hC¢V Bj£−ll p¡q¡−kÉ 24 O¸V¡l pg−m
2/3 h¡l fs¡l ®Qø¡ L−lC ®hn ü¡µR¾cÉ−h¡d Llm¡jz Bj¡l BNËq ®c−M Bj£l p¡−qh hC¢V Bj¡−L c¡e L−l
¢c−mez

¢hnÄ a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al ®L−¾cÐ ®fy±Rm¡j

f¤l¡−e¡ ¢cõ£l h¢Ù¹ ¢eS¡j¤Ÿ£e e¡jL jqõ¡u HL ®R¡V jp¢S−cC S¡j¡u¡−al ®L¾cÐz jp¢Sc¢V Y¡L¡ÙÛ L¡Ll¡C−ml
f¤l¡−e¡ jp¢Sc ®b−L HLV¤ hs q−mJ fСQ£e−aÅl ¢cL ¢c−u ¢jm l−u−Rz m¡mh¡−Nl M¡e j¤q¡Çjc jp¢Sc J L¡Ll¡Cm
f¤l¡−e¡ jp¢S−c ®kje ®c¡am¡u jp¢Sc J ¢eQam¡u b¡L¡l Ef−k¡N£ LaL L¡jl¡, H jp¢Sc¢VJ ¢WL ®aj¢ez
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al fТaù¡a¡ j¡Jm¡e¡ C¢mu¡p (l) H jp¢Sc−L ®L¾cÐ L−lC L¡−Sl p§Qe¡ L−lez a¡C a¡hm£N
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¢j¢eV L−l EcѤ−a hš²ªa¡ L−lez hš²ªa¡l j§m ¢hou 6 Ep§m q−mJ ¢iæ ¢iæ BLoÑZ£u i§¢jL¡ qJu¡u öe−a ®hn
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®ia−l h¡l¡¾c¡u J QaÅ−l °hWL quz
aªa£u dl−el L¡S q−m¡, ¢c−e HLh¡l J l¡−a HLh¡l qklaS£ j¡Jm¡e¡ CEp¤g ®qc¡u¡a£ hš²hÉ l¡−Mez H hš²hÉ
Bj¡l ¢eLV ph−Q−u BLoÑZ£u ¢R−m¡z k¢cJ ph n−ël AbÑ h¤−T Bp−a¡ e¡, ah¤J hš²−hÉl jjÑLb¡ h¤T−a f¡l¡u
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113

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h¤T−a −aje Lø m¡N−a¡ e¡z Y¡L¡ ®b−L Bjl¡ c¤’Se h¡wm¡i¡o£ −pM¡−e ¢Rm¡jz Bl ph¡C EcѤ i¡o£z h¡dÉ q−u EcѤ
hm¡ öl¦ Ll−a q−m¡z ®hn pw−L¡Q−h¡d Lla¡jz i¤m q−m −L ¢L j−e Ll−h ®p Bnˆ¡u Lb¡ LjC hma¡jz

qklaS£l hš²hÉ

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jp¢S−cC ay¡l hš²hÉ ö−e¢Rz H¢Ÿ−e Ec¤Ñ hš²ªa¡ h¤T−a AiÉÙ¹ qJu¡u ay¡l hš²ªa¡u BlJ BLªø q−u¢Rz ¢a¢e 3 ¢V
Lb¡l EflC ®h¢n …l¦aÅ ¢c−ae1. j¡e¤−ol j−dÉ nÐù q−me eh£-l¡p§mNZz Bõ¡q ay¡−cl−L f¡W¡−me j¡e¤o−L Bõ¡ql à£−el ¢c−L X¡L−az
L¤lB−el I Bu¡a Bhª¢š Ll−me k¡l AbÑ, “®k Bõ¡ql ¢c−L X¡−L, ®eL Bjm L−l Hhw h−m ®k, ¢eÕQuC B¢j
HLSe BaÈpjfÑeL¡l£, a¡l Lb¡l ®Q−u p¤¾cl Bl L¡l Lb¡ q−a f¡−l?” Bpj¡−el ¢e−Q Hhw S¢j−el Efl
Bõ¡ql ¢c−L X¡L¡l Q¡C−a jq¡e ®L¡e L¡S ®eCz Bõ¡q−L ®k ®Q−ee e¡ a¡−L Bõ¡l p¡−b pÇf¢Lña Ll¡−a
f¡l−m Bõ¡q ®k La M¤¢n qe a¡ jl¦i¤¢j−a q¡l¡−e¡ EV ¢g−l ®f−u HL hÉ¢š²l M¤¢nl p¡−b l¡p§m (p) a¤me¡ L−l
h¤¢T−u−Rez
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SeÉ c¡Ju¡a Cm¡õ¡qÚl ®Q−u A¢dL Ef−k¡N£ euz ka i¡mi¡−hC Bjm Ll¡ ®q¡L a¡−a œ¦¢V b¡L−hCz ¢L¿º Bj¡l
X¡−L k¢c Bõ¡qÚl −L¡e fbq¡l¡ h¡¾c¡q Bõ¡ql f−b B−p a¡q−m HV¡ ¢höÜ J œ¦¢Vq£e Bjm J Bõ¡ql p¿º¢øl
j¡dÉjz
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BLoÑZ£u J q©cuNË¡q£ i¡o¡u ¢a¢e H Bqh¡e S¡e¡−aez
2. c¡u£ Cm¡õ¡ql pwMÉ¡ hª¢Ül Efl …l¦aÅ ¢c−a ¢N−u ¢a¢e HLV¡ pqS Ec¡qlZ ¢c−mez Nl−jl ¢c−e ®lm
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f¡l−he? ®h¢n j¡e¤o−L f¡¢e M¡Ju¡h¡l pJu¡h k¢c ®f−a Q¡e a¡q−m Bfe¡−L ¢L Ll−a q−h? Bf¢e k¢c ¢LR¤
®m¡L−L Eà¤Ü L−l f¡¢e M¡Ju¡h¡l L¡−S m¡N¡−a f¡−le a¡q−m a¡l¡ ka ®m¡L−L f¡¢e M¡Ju¡−h Hl pJu¡h Bf¢eJ
f¡−hez BlJ ANËpl q−u hm−me, j¡e¤o−L f¡¢e f¡e Ll¡h¡l j−a¡ k¢c HLcm ®m¡L °a¢l Ll−a f¡−le a¡q−m
a¡−cl ®Qø¡u ka−m¡L f¡¢e M¡Ju¡h¡l SeÉ EÜ¤Ü q−h a¡−cl pJu¡hJ Bfe¡l Bjme¡j¡u Bp−hz Bf¢e HL¡
AÒf ¢LR¤ ®m¡L−LC f¡¢e M¡Ju¡−a f¡−lez f¡¢e M¡Ju¡h¡l SeÉ EܤÜL¡l£ ®m¡−Ll pwMÉ¡ k¢c h¡−s a¡q−m q¡S¡l
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L¡−S pju ¢c−a g¤lpa f¡e¢ez ¢a¢e pgm hÉhp¡u£ ¢q−p−h qkla M¡c£S¡l hÉhp¡ f¢lQ¡me¡ Ll−aez ¢h−ul fl
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Lj−a ®no q−u ®N−m¡z BS£he Ai¡h-AeV−eC L¡V¡−mez
S£heV¡ ¢a¢e Hje HL L¡−S EvpNÑ Ll−me k¡l ®Q−u jqv, k¡l ®Q−u jq¡e, k¡l ®Q−u LmÉ¡Zl, k¡l ®Q−u Eæaj¡−el
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I à£−el SeÉC S£he EvpNÑ Ll¡ LaÑhÉz qklaS£l i¡o¡u “à£e−L ¢m−u ¢S−¾cN£ M¡f¡ −c¡Jz C−u¢q ¢S−¾cN£
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114

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lJu¡e¡ qm¡jz k¤š² fÐ−c−nl ¢hS−e¡l ®Sm¡u a¡hm£N£ pgl öl¦ q−m¡z ®Sm¡l ¢h¢iæ Hm¡L¡u 15 ¢ce pgl ®n−o
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¢hÙ¹¡¢la E−õM L−l¢Rz
H pg−ll ph−Q−u E−õM−k¡NÉ ¢hou q−m¡ j¡Jm¡e¡ ¢ku¡E¢Ÿe Bm£Ns£l hÉ¢š²aÅz Bj¡l hs ®p±i¡NÉ ®k, a¡l j−a¡
hÉ¢š²l p¡¢ædÉ ®fm¡jz nÉjm¡ lw−ul M¡V BL¡−ll ®m¡L¢Vl j−dÉ H−a¡ …−Zl pj¡q¡l ®c−M B¢j j¤‡-¢hoÈu ®h¡d
L−l¢Rz ay¡l L¡R ®b−L ®nM¡l j−a¡ A−eL ¢LR¤ ®f−u¢Rz
1. ¢a¢e M¤hC pqS i¡o¡u hš²hÉ ®fn Ll−aez p¡d¡lZ ®nСa¡l¡J ay¡l haªš¡ h¤−T aª¢ç−h¡d Ll−a¡z
2. a¡hm£−Nl 6¢V Ep§m hZÑe¡l f§−hÑ HL HL pju HL HL dl−el Hje QjvL¡l i§¢jL¡ ®fn Ll−ae ®k,
®no fkÑ¿¹ e¡ ö−e L¡E−L E−W ®k−a −c¢M¢ez
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4. a¡hm£−N pju ®ch¡l SeÉ a¡l B−hc−e ®nСa¡−cl−L ®kje ps¡ ¢c−a ®c−M¢R HjeV¡ Caxf§−hÑ ®c¢M¢ez
5. ¢a¢e L¤lBe-q¡c£p ®b−L fÐQ¤l Eܪ¢a ¢c−ae, k¡ a¡hm£N£ hš²¡−cl j−dÉ LjC mrÉ Ll¡ k¡uz
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Hhw M¡Ju¡ J ®n¡u¡l pju ¢a¢e Bj¡−cl ®Mcj−aC hÉÙ¹ q−u ®k−aez Bj¡−cl ®L¡−e¡ Ap¤¢hd¡ q−µR ¢Le¡ Hl ®My¡SMhl ¢e−a b¡L−aez a¡m£−jl °hW−L Bj¡−cl j−dÉ k¡l¡ HLV¤ c¤hm
Ñ a¡−cl ¢c−L ¢a¢e ¢h−no j−e¡−k¡q ¢c−aez ¢a¢e
Hje HLSe Bj£l ¢R−me ®k ®L¡−e¡ ¢ho−u Bj¡−cl−L ýL¤j ®ch¡l fÐ−u¡Se q−a¡ e¡z kMe k¡ Ll¡ clL¡l ¢he¡
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Bj£−ll c¡¢uaÅ f¡me L−l¢R aMe ay¡−L Ae¤Ll−Zl ®Qø¡ L−l¢R h−V, ¢L¿º pjf¢lj¡Z pgm q−a ®f−l¢R h−m j−e
qu¢ez

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HL¢ce nq−ll ¢h¢iæ jp¢S−c Bp−ll e¡j¡−kl fl q¡k£l q−u j¡Nl£h fkÑ¿¹ N¡nÚa, j¡N¢l−hl fl ea¤e
®k¡Nc¡eL¡l£−cl−L ¢e−u ®L¾cУu jp¢S−c H−p M¡Ju¡ J l¡a k¡fe Ll−a q−a¡z
−L¾cУu jp¢Sc¢V ®hn hsz p¡−b 50 S−elJ ®h¢n ®m¡−Ll Jk§ Ll¡l j−a¡ ¢hl¡V ®Q±h¡µQ¡l fТa Bj¡l ph−Q−u
BLoÑZ ¢R−m¡z pjuV¡ ®j j¡−pl j¡T¡j¡¢T qJu¡ p−šÆJ fÐQä Nlj ¢Rmz ®Q±h¡µQ¡l f¡¢e QjvL¡l W¡™¡z Nl−j kM¢e
A¢ÙÛla¡ ®h¡d L−l¢R aM¢e ®Q±h¡µQ¡u H−p Jk§ L−l ®l¡j¡m ¢i¢S−u N¡ j¤−R W¡™¡ Ef−i¡N Ll¡l ®Qø¡ L−l¢Rz
B¢j ®R¡V−hm¡ ®b−LC Nlj-L¡alz n£aL¡mC Bj¡l ®h¢n ¢fÐuz C−a¡j−dÉ ljk¡e j¡p öl¦ q−u ®N−m¡z HLV¡ fÐhQe
B−R ®k, “H−L ®a¡ ®iS¡ ¢hs¡m, B−l¡ fs−m¡ ¢N−u ®g−el f¡¢a−mz” Bj¡l aMe HjeC cn¡z
Ec¤Ñ L−b¡fLbe aMe Q¡¢m−u k¡¢µRz ¢L¿º i¡o¡u ¢m‰ pjpÉ¡ ¢hl¡Vz hÙ¹¤l ®hm¡uJ ¢m‰ ®ic l−u−Rz Bj£l p¡−qh
HLV¡ ¢euj h−m ¢c−mez f¤w¢m−‰l ®hm¡u Ù»£¢m−‰l hÉhq¡l c§oZ£u, a¡C ®kM¡−e p−¾cq qu f¤w¢m‰ hÉhq¡l Ll−m
®LE ®c¡o cl−h e¡, j−e Ll−h ®m¡L¢V i¡−m¡ Ec¤Ñ S¡−e e¡z H Ef−cn ®f−u ¢eiÑ−u EcѤ hm¡ pqS q−m¡z
Cga¡−ll pju fÐQä Nl−jl L¡l−Z M¡h¡−ll ®Q−u W¡™¡ f¡¢el fТaC a£hÐ BLoÑZ ü¡i¡¢hLz 15/20 Se HL p¡−b
Cga¡−l h−p¢R W¡™¡ f¡¢e Bj¡l L¡−R aM−e¡ ®fy±−R¢e, B¢j A¢ÙÛl q−u hmm¡j, “M¡−eL¡ f¡¢e ¢c¢S−uz’ f¡−nl
HLSe E−W ¢N−u f¡¢e ¢e−u H−p hm−me, “i¡C ¢m¢S−u M¡−eL¡ f¡¢e, C−u qÉ¡u ¢f−e¢L l¦¢Vz” nlj ®fm¡j i¤−ml
SeÉz Jl¡ f¡¢e M¡u e¡, f¡e L−lz Bjl¡ ph¡C Q¡, nlha, c¤d M¡Ju¡u AiÉÙ¹z Bj¡−cl ®c−nl ¢q¾c¤l¡ Smf¡e L−lz
115

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A−e−L f¡¢e M¡uz
jS¡l hÉ¡f¡l q−m¡, Sm J f¡¢e c¤’−V¡C ¢q¢¾c nëz AbQ f¡¢e−L j¤pmj¡e£ në j−e Ll¡ quz h¡wm¡i¡o£ ¢q¾c¤l¡C öd¤
Sm h−mz ¢q¢¾ci¡o£l¡ f¡¢eC h−m, Sm h−m e¡z I HLh¡lC f¡¢e M¡h¡l Lb¡ h−m m‹¡®h¡d Llm¡jz Bj£l p¡−q−hl
L¡R ®b−L S¡em¡j ®k, g¡lp£ i¡o¡uJ f¡¢e M¡Ju¡ hm¡ quz aMe BaÈfÐaÉu ®h¡d Llm¡jz ¢cõ£−a ¢g−l Bp¡l fl
“M¡−eL¡ f¡¢e qÉ¡u” ¢S−‘p Ll−aC HL i¡C ®q−p hm−me, “Sl¦l qÉ¡u, ¢f−e−L¡ l¦¢V i£ qÉ¡uz”
Hh¡l m‹¡ e¡ ®f−u SJu¡h ¢cm¡j, “Bf f¡¢e f£−a l¡−q¡, q¡j f¡¢e M¡−aC l¡−qw−Nz” B−n f¡−nl pL−mC H
q¡mL¡ ®L±a¤L Ef−i¡N Ll−mez

¢hS−e¡−ll HLV¡
HLV¡ E−õM−k¡NÉ OVe¡

¢hS−e¡−l Bj¡l ¢Qõ¡l p¡b£ ®Q±j¤qe£l e§l¦m qL i¡C AaÉ¿¹ Ap¤ÙÛ q−u fs−mez ¢ae ¢ce ¢a¢e a¡hm£−Nl ®fСNË¡−j
®k−a f¡−le¢ez a¡−L HL¡ ®g−m ph¡lC Q−m k¡Ju¡ ¢WL eu, h−m a¡l ®Mcja−l SeÉ Bj£l p¡−qh Bj¡−LC ®l−M
k¡ez à£e£ i¡C−ul SSh¡ ¢e−u B¢j kb¡p¡dÉ ®l¡N£l ®ph¡-kaÁ Ll−a m¡Nm¡jz B¿¹¢lLa¡l pÇfc b¡L−m j¡e¤o
Ap¡dÉJ p¡de Ll−a f¡−lz ay¡l fÐpË¡h-f¡uM¡e¡ f¢l×L¡l Ll−aJ Bj¡l p¡j¡eÉ pw−L¡Q ®h¡d qu¢ez à£−el j¡dÉ−j
f¡lØf¢lL pÇf−LÑl p¡−b Bl ®L¡−e¡ pÇf−LÑlC a¤me¡ qu e¡z
HLV¡ L¢ha¡l Lb¡ j−e f−sz L¢hl e¡j j−e ®eCz L¢h a¡l pg−ll ¢hhlZ ¢c−a ¢N−u k¡ ¢m−M¢R−me Hl p¡l Lb¡
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“HL pg−l ¢N−u c¡l¦Z AbÑ pwL−V fsm¡jz HL pgl p¡b£ Bj¡−L d¡l ¢c−mez h¡¢s−a ¢g−l H−p a¡l d¡l ®n¡d
L−l ¢cm¡jz a¡l Ae¤NË−ql fТac¡e ül©f fkÑ¡ç Ef−V±Le ¢c−u i¡hm¡j ®k, B¢j a¡l ¢eLV h¡¢da lCm¡j e¡z”
“Afl HL pg−l B¢j i£oZ Ap¤ÙÛ q−u fsm¡jz HL pgl p¡b£ pk−aÁ Bj¡l ®ph¡ önЩo¡ L−l Hje HL jq¡G−Z
BhÜ Ll−m¡ ®k, B¢j p¡l¡ S£he a¡l Ae¤Nªq£a q−uC lCm¡jz Hl ®L¡−e¡ fТac¡e ®ch¡l fbC ®hl Ll−a f¡lm¡j
e¡z” B¢j H L¢hl Lb¡¢V j−e L−l M¤h aª¢ç ®h¡d Llm¡j ®k, ®aj¢e HL¢V ®Mcja Ll¡l p¤−k¡N Bõ¡qÚ f¡L Bj¡−L
¢c−mez

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h¢Ù¹ ¢ek¡j¤¢Ÿe jp¢S−c ¢Qõ¡l ®no ¢ae ¢ce L¡¢V−u Y¡L¡ lJu¡e¡ qm¡jz qklaS£ j¡Jm¡e¡ CEp¤−gl BLoÑZ£u J
Ae¤−fÐlZ¡c¡uL hš²hÉ ¢cõ£−a fÐbj H−p ®k f¢lj¡Z h¤T−a ®f−l¢R Y¡L¡ ¢g−l Bp¡l f§−hÑl ¢ae ¢c−e Hl ®h¢n
aª¢ç−h¡d ¢e−u Efm¢ì L−l¢Rz L¡lZ C−a¡j−dÉ Ec¤Ñ B−Nl ®Q−u pq−S h¤¢Tz
qklaS£l p¡−b hÉ¢š²Na O¢eùa¡l p¤−k¡N f¡Ju¡ pñh ¢R−m¡ e¡z a−h j¡Jm¡e¡ ¢ku¡EŸ£e Bm£Ns£ Bj¡l pÇf−LÑ
ay¡−L ¢LR¤ d¡lZ¡ ®ch¡l L¡l−Z ¢hc¡−ul pju AaÉ¿¹ ®pÀ−ql i¡o¡u ¢hc¡u S¡e¡−me Hhw ®c¡u¡ Ll−mez
Y¡L¡ ®b−L Bjl¡ ®k c¤’Se ¢N−u¢Rm¡j ®p c¤’S−el p¡−b JM¡eL¡l 1 Se−L Bj£−ll c¡¢uaÅ ¢c−u Y¡L¡u f¡W¡−e¡
q−m¡z ®L¡mL¡a¡ ®b−L h¡wm¡i¡o£ B−l¡ c¤’Se Bj¡−cl p¡−b n¡¢jm q−mez Hi¡−h Bjl¡ fy¡Qse L¡Ll¡Cm
jp¢S−c H−p ®fy±Rm¡jz Bj¡−cl Ec¤Ñ i¡o£ Bj£l c£OÑ ®lmfb ïjZL¡−m p¤¾cli¡−hC c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll−mez
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®fm ®k, L−uL ¢j¢eV fkÑ¿¹ ¢LR¤−aC L¡æ¡ b¡j¡−a f¡l¢Rm¡j e¡z ¢a¢eJ ®Q¡−Ml f¡¢e ®gm−a ®gm−a Bj¡−L p¡šÆe¡
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B−Rez

116

1954 p¡−m B¢j S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a ®k¡Nc¡−el Mhl ®f−u ¢a¢e c¤x¢Ma q−mJ j¾c ®L¡−e¡ j¿¹hÉ L−le¢e h−m
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117

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aMe j¡Jm¡e¡ i¡p¡e£ M¤me¡l Sepi¡u 6 cg¡ ‘¢Xp¢jp’ ®O¡oZ¡ Ll−mez
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119

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b¡L−hz ¢L¿º hÉ¢š²Na hÉhq¡l i¡m e¡ q−m nÐÜ¡ b¡−L e¡z”
¢ce¡Sf¤−ll ®Sm¡ fÐn¡p−Ll BQlZ ®c−M Bj¡−cl j−e a¡l pÇf−LÑ i¡m d¡lZ¡ qJu¡ ü¡i¡¢hL ¢R−m¡ e¡z k¡ ®q¡L
15/20 ¢j¢eV fl I k¤hL−L HLSe f¤¢mn H−p ®N−m ¢XHj p¡−qh Bj¡−cl p¡−b H−p hp−mez
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a Cpm¡j£ L£ ®Mcja Ll−R, ®p ¢ho−u ¢j¢eV fy¡−QL ö−eC ¢a¢e Cpm¡−jl c¡nÑ¢eL ¢cL ¢e−u hš²ªa¡
öl¦ Ll−mez f¡¢LÙ¹¡e Cpm¡−jl SeÉC L¡−uj q−u−R h−m j¤p¢mj m£N ®ea¡−cl j−a¡C hm−a b¡L−mez
Bjl¡ Cpm¡−jl ®Mcja L£i¡−h Ll¢R ®p ¢ho−u ¢LR¤ hm¡l Ae¤j¢a Q¡C−m ¢a¢e hm−me, “AaÉ¿¹ M¤¢nl ¢hou ®k
Bfe¡l¡ Cpm¡−jl SeÉ L¡S Ll−Rez L£ L£ L¡S Ll−Re J ¢Li¡−h Ll−Re ®p ¢ho−u Bj¡−L ¢LR¤ hm¡l fÐ−u¡Se
®eCz B¢j Bj¡l f−c −b−L p¡dÉja Cpm¡−jl SeÉ L¡S L−l k¡¢µRz Bfe¡l¡J L¡S L−l k¡ez”
p¤al¡w Bj¡−cl pjuV¡ öd¤ öd¤C MlQ q−u ®N−m¡z Bj¡l H A¢i‘a¡ q−m¡ ®k ®LE k¢c ¢eS−L ¢hl¡V ¢LR¤ j−e L−l
h−p a¡q−m Bl ¢LR¤ ®nM¡l fb hå q−u k¡uz H S¡a£u ®m¡−Ll¡ ¢e−Sl Lb¡C öe¡−a BNËq£; Bl L¡−l¡ L¡R ®b−L
öeh¡l j−a¡ °dkÑ a¡−cl b¡−L e¡z
Bjl¡ ¢hc¡u ¢e−a Q¡C−m ¢a¢e B−l¡ ¢LR¤ hm¡l SeÉ ®c¢l Ll¡−mez e¡j¡−kl a¡n¡ýc ¢e−u L¡N−S eLn¡ Hy−L L£ ®k
h¤T¡−a Q¡C−me a¡ ¢a¢eC S¡−eez ®hn ®Qø¡ L−lC ¢hc¡k q−u Bpm¡jz HL BSh j¡e¤o ®cMm¡jz
¢ce¡Sf¤−l a¡hm£−Nl L¡S Q¡m¤ Ll−a q−m HM¡e ®b−L ¢Qõ¡ ®ch¡l ®m¡L −k¡N¡s Ll−a q−hz HV¡C ü¡i¡¢hLz ¢Qõ¡u
e¡ ®N−m H L¡S ®nM¡ pñh euz L¡S e¡ ¢nM−m c¡¢uaÅ ®cJu¡ k¡u e¡z ¢ae¢ce ¢ce¡Sf¤−l L¡S L−l c¤’Se ®m¡L 3
¢c−el SeÉ Hhw HLSe ®m¡L 7¢c−el SeÉ Bj¡−cl p¡−b a¡hm£N£ pg−l k¡h¡l j−a¡ f¡Ju¡ ®N−m¡z ¢k¢e 7 ¢c−el
pju ¢c−me ¢a¢e f−l HL ¢Qõ¡ (40 ¢ce) ®ch¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−mez
Bjl¡ ea¤e 4 Sepq lwf¤l lJu¡e¡ qm¡jz ®pM¡−eJ ¢ae¢ce b¡L¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ q−m¡z ¢ce¡Sf¤l ®k jp¢S−c ¢ae¢ce
lCm¡j Hl Cj¡j p¡−qh BNËq£ q−me Hhw f−l HL pju ¢Qõ¡ ®ch¡l SeÉ jeÙÛ Ll−mez

120

Bjl¡ ®lmf−bC lwf¤l ®Nm¡jz ¢h¢iæ ®øn−e k¡œ£−cl−L pq−k¡¢Na¡ Ll−a Bjl¡ ph¡C Evp¡q ®h¡d Llm¡jz
N¡¢s−aC lwf¤−ll HL k¡œ£ Bj¡−cl p¡−b pq−k¡¢Na¡ Ll¡l SeÉ l¡¢S q−mez lwf¤−ll ph−Q−u hs J ¢hMÉ¡a
jp¢Sc ®L¡eÚ¢V S¡e−a Q¡Cm¡jz ¢a¢e hm−me ®k, ®øne ®b−L Bj¡−cl−L I jp¢S−c ¢a¢eC ®fy±¢R−u ®c−hez ¢a¢e
Bj¡−cl−L ®Ll¡j¢au¡ jp¢S−c ¢e−u ®N−mez
34.

lwf¤−l ¢ae ¢ce

lwf¤l ®Ll¡j¢au¡ jp¢Sc¢V ®hn f¤l¡−e¡z nq−ll ph−Q−u hs J ¢hMÉ¡a jp¢Scz haÑj¡−e ®p jp¢Sc BlJ A−eL
hs Ll¡ q−u−Rz ®L¡VÑ-L¡Q¡¢l jp¢Sc¢Vl A¢a ¢eL−Vz a¡C ®k¡ql J Bp−ll S¡j¡u¡−a k−bø ®m¡L quz A−eL
¢n¢ra ®m¡−Ll ¢eLV c¡Ju¡a ®f±yR¡h¡l p¤−k¡N q−h Bn¡u Evp¡q ®h¡d Llm¡jz

jp¢S−cl Cj¡j p¡−qh ®hn p¤f¤l¦o Hhw QjvL¡l ¢Ll¡Ba f−sez ®k jp¢S−c L¡S Ll¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ qu ®p jp¢S−cl
Cj¡−jl p¡−b p¡r¡v L−l Ae¤j¢a ®eu¡l ¢euj Bjl¡ f¡me L¢lz Cj¡j p¡−qh j¤a¡Ju¡õ£l p¡−b Bm¡f L−l Ae¤j¢a
¢c−mJ ¢a¢e ®L¡e pq−k¡¢Na¡ Ll−me e¡z
flhaÑ£L¡−m Bj¡l lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−S AdÉ¡fe¡L¡−m kMe S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£l c¡Ju¡a ¢e−u k¡C aM−e¡ HC
Cj¡j p¡−qhC ¢R−mez ay¡l e¡j j¡Jm¡e¡ Bm£ Bqjc ¢lki£z fÐbj p¡r¡−aC ¢a¢e S¡j¡u¡−al c¡Ju¡a Lh¤m Ll−me
Hhw S¡j¡u¡−al nql pwNW−el ¢a¢eC fÐbj c¡¢uaÅn£m q−mez
B¢j 50 p¡−ml ¢X−pð−l L−m−S ®k¡Nc¡e L¢lz Bl 1954 p¡−m S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a nl£L qCz H L’hRl
a¡hm£−Nl L¡−S ®Ll¡j¢au¡ jp¢S−c hýh¡l ¢N−u¢Rz ®L¡e pju ¢a¢e pq−k¡¢Na¡ L−le¢ez
S¡j¡u¡−a ®k¡Nc¡e Ll¡l fl ¢a¢e AaÉ¿¹ B−hN fÐhZ q−u j¿¹hÉ Ll−me, “Bfe¡l p¡−b 4 hRl ®b−L f¢lQuz
lwf¤l a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al Bj£l ¢q−p−h Bf¢e nÐ−Üu hÉ¢š²z ¢L¿º a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al c¡Ju¡−a B¢j p¡j¡eÉ
BLoÑZJ −h¡d L¢l¢ez HV¡ ¢eÕQuC Bf¢e mrÉ L−l−Rez S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£l c¡Ju¡a ®fn Ll¡l p¡−b p¡−b B¢j
®Le Lh¤m Llm¡j ®p Lb¡ e¡ h−m f¡l¢R e¡z B¢j qkla j¡Jm¡e¡ BeJu¡l n¡q L¡nÈ£¢ll R¡œz j¡Jm¡e¡ Bh¤m
L¡m¡j Bk¡−cl ¢hfÔh£ ®mM¡ J Bõ¡j¡ CLh¡−ml L¡hÉ Bj¡l A¿¹−l ®k i¡hd¡l¡ pª¢ø L−l−R ®p E−Ÿ−nÉ L¡−Sl
®L¡e fb Caxf§−hÑ f¡C¢ez Bfe¡l ¢eLV ®b−L S¡j¡u¡−al c¡Ju¡a ®f−u j−e q−m¡, B¢j ®ke Hje HL¢V
B−¾c¡m−elC A−fr¡u ¢Rm¡jz”
k¡ ®q¡L Cj¡j p¡−q−hl pq−k¡¢Na¡ e¡ ®f−mJ ¢a¢e ®L¡e h¡d¡l pª¢ø L−le¢ez Bjl¡ ¢ae ¢ce I jp¢Sc−L ®L¾cÐ
L−l L¡S L−l¢Rz ¢ce¡Sf¤−ll j−a¡C ¢h¢iæ jp¢S−c L¡S L−l ph¡C ®L¾cУu jp¢S−c ¢g−l Bp−a¡z

j¡Jm¡e¡ ®Ll¡ja Bm£l j¡k¡l

j¡Jm¡e¡ ®Ll¡ja Bm£ −S±ef¤l£l e¡j ®R¡V pju ®b−LC ö−e¢Rz ¢L¿º ay¡l pÇf−LÑ ®aje ¢LR¤ S¡ea¡j e¡z lwf¤l
®Ll¡j¢au¡ jp¢S−cl h¡l¡¾c¡u ay¡l j¡k¡l ®c−M ay¡l pÇf−LÑ S¡e¡l fÐhm BNËq S¢¾jmz j¡k¡l¢V jp¢S−cl ®ia−l
Ah¢ÙÛaz jp¢Sc BhJ hs qJu¡u haÑj¡−e Lhl¢V jp¢S−cl j¡TM¡−e j−e quz j¡k¡−ll Q¡l f¡−nC S¡j¡u¡−al
pju e¡j¡k£l¡ cy¡s¡uz jc£e¡ nl£−g l¡p§m (p) Hl j¡k¡lJ jp¢S−c ehh£l ®ia−lC Ah¢ÙÛaz j¤põ£l¡ S¡j¡u¡−a
e¡j¡k Bc¡u L−lz jp¢S−cl Cj¡j p¡−qh ®b−L öd¤ HV¤L¤ S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, ¢a¢e HLSe ¢hMÉ¡a j¤h¡¢õN ¢R−mez
®S±ef¤l (i¡la) ®b−L ¢a¢e H−c−n H−p Cpm¡j fÐQ¡l L−lez ®c−n Bl ¢g−l k¡e¢ez ®N¡V¡ S£he à£−el ®Mcj−aC
L¡¢V−u c−ez flhaÑ£L¡−m j¡Jm¡e¡ ®Ll¡ja Bm£ ®S±ef¤l£ (l) pÇf−LÑ S¡e¡l ®Qø¡ L¢lz nq£c p¡C−uc Bqja
®hlmi£ (l) J nq£c j¡Jm¡e¡ n¡q Cpj¡C−ml ®eaª−aÅ f¢lQ¡¢ma a¡ql£−L j¤S¡¢qc£−el (j¤S¡¢qc B−¾c¡me) p¡−b
¢a¢e pÇf¢Lña ¢R−mez 1831 p¡−m h¡m¡−L¡−Vl juc¡−e ¢nM−cl p¡−b k¤−Ü j¤pmj¡e e¡jd¡l£ j¤e¡¢gL−cl osk¿» J
¢nM−cl p¡−b Cw−lS−cl pq−k¡¢Na¡l g−m j¤S¡¢qc−cl fl¡Su O−V Hhw I c¤’jq¡e ®la¡ nq£c qez a¡C ay¡−cl
e¡−jl p¡−b nq£c¡C−e h¡m¡−L¡V (h¡m¡−L¡−Vl c¤’nq£c) Lb¡¢V E−õM b¡−Lz

121

pwNË¡j J B−¾c¡me ¢Ù¹¢ja q−u fs¡l fl c¡Ju¡−a à£−el c¡¢uaÅ−h¡d ¢e−u j¡Jm¡e¡ ®Ll¡ja Bm£ H−c−n fÐb−j
®e¡u¡M¡m£ A’−m L¡S öl¦ L−lez ®e¡u¡M¡m£−a ®Ll¡j¢au¡ L¡¢jm j¡cÚl¡p¡ ay¡lC pȪ¢a hqe Ll−Rz lwf¤l
®Ll¡j¢au¡ jp¢S−c ¢ae¢ce b¡L¡L¡−m ay¡l j¡k¡−ll f¡−nC a¡q¡kÚk¤−cl e¡j¡k Bc¡u Lla¡jz ¢a¢e à£−el Skh¡
¢e−u S¾ji§¢j ®R−s H−c−n L¡S L−l−Re ®aj¢e Skh¡ Bj¡l j−dÉJ Ae¤ih Llm¡jz aMe ¢cõ£−a qklaS£
j¡Jm¡e¡ CEp¤g (l) Hl hš²ªa¡l Lb¡J j−e S¡N−m¡z à£−el SeÉ S£he EvpNÑ Ll¡l ®k −fÐlZ¡ j¡Jm¡e¡ CEp¤g
p¡−qh ¢c−me a¡ BlJ n¡¢Za ®h¡d Llm¡jz Bõ¡ql à£−el SeÉ S£he EvpNÑ Ll¡l Skh¡ Bj¡l j−dÉ a¡hm£N
S¡j¡u¡−alC jq¡e Ahc¡ez a¡C a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a−L B¢j i¡mh¡¢p Hhw à£−el jq¡e ®Mcja ¢q−p−h NZÉ L¢lz
CL¡j¡−a à£−el ®L¡e LjÑp§¢Q AhnÉ a¡−cl ®eCz
Bj¡l HjH fl£r¡l gm ®hl qu¢ez f¡p L−l ¢L Llh ®p ¢ho−u Q¤s¡¿¹ ¢pÜ¡¿¹ aM−e¡ ¢eC¢ez Bj¡l pqf¡¢W−cl
p¡−b f¡¢LÙ¹¡e p¤¢f¢lul p¡¢iÑp fl£r¡ ¢c−u ¢pHp¢f J ¢fHp¢f CaÉ¡¢c−a k¡h¡l fСb¢jL ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢R−m¡z f¡¢LÙ¹¡e
L¡−uj qh¡l fl hs hs plL¡¢l Q¡L¢l aMe j¤pmj¡e−cl hs BLoÑ−Zl ¢hou ¢R−m¡z
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a Bj¡l S£h−el ®j¡s O¤¢l−u ¢cmz B¢j ®Ll¡j¢au¡ jp¢S−cC ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡j ®k, L−m−S ¢nrLa¡
Llh k¡−a hs hs h−å ¢Qõ¡ ®cJu¡ k¡u Hhw R¡œ−cl j−dÉ c¡Ju¡−a à£−el L¡S Ll¡l p¤−k¡N ®eJu¡ pqS quz
HjH fl£r¡l fÐL¡¢na qh¡l fl B¢j ®c−nl ®pl¡ 4¢V L−m−S ®mLQ¡l¡l f−cl SeÉ clM¡Ù¹ f¡W¡Cz ®L¡e L−m−S
®i−L¾p£ B−R ¢Le¡ a¡ S¡e¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡z C¾V¡l¢iE R¡s¡C lwf¤l L−m−S B¢j ¢e−u¡N ®f−u ®Nm¡jz HV¡ p¢aÉC
¢hpÈ−ul ¢hou ®k, ®k lwf¤−l BhÙÛ¡eL¡−m L−m−S ¢nrLa¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡j ®p lwf¤−lC ®Lje L−l p¤−k¡N ®f−u
®Nm¡jz H L¡l−ZC lwf¤l ®Llj¢au¡ jp¢Sc Bj¡l pȪ¢a−a ¢Ql AjÀ¡e q−u lC−m¡z Bj¡l LjÑS£he lwf¤−lC öl¦
q−m¡z 52 p¡−ml i¡o¡ B−¾c¡m−e lwf¤−lC ®S−m ®k−a q−u−Rz HMeJ lwf¤l ®N−m j−e qu ®k, ¢e−Sl Hm¡L¡u
Hm¡jz

¢ae ¢Qõ¡ pj¡ç

lwf¤l ¢ae ¢ce a¡hm£N£ LjÑp§¢Q f¡me L−l h…s¡, f¡he¡, l¡Sn¡q£−aJ ¢ae ¢ce L−l L¡S Ll¡l fl Y¡L¡l ¢c−L
lJu¡e¡ q−u f−b L−uL¢V S¡uN¡u 1 ¢ce, 2¢ce L−l ®b−L pñha S¤−el ®np ¢c−L Y¡L¡ ¢g−l Hm¡jz aMe Bj¡l
¢Qõ¡l 3 ¢ce h¡¢Lz H ¢ae ¢ce Bj¡−L Y¡L¡l 3¢V jp¢S−c 10 S−el HL S¡j¡u¡−al Bj£l ¢q−p−h c¡¢uaÅ f¡me
Ll−a quz L¡Ll¡Cm jp¢S−c j¡Jm¡e¡ Bhc¤m Bk£k J C¢”¢eu¡l Bë¤m j¤L£a Bj¡−L h¤−L S¢s−u ¢LR¤rZ ®c¡u¡
Ll−me Hhw Bj¡l ¢ae ¢Qõ¡ f¤l¡ qJu¡l SeÉ B¿¹¢lL j¤h¡lLh¡c S¡e¡−mez
Hn¡l e¡j¡−kl fl Ef¢ÙÛa pLm−L ¢e−u j¡Jm¡e¡ Bhc¤m Bk£k p¡−qh Bj¡l SeÉ ®c¡u¡ L−l ¢hc¡u Ll−me Hhw
Q¡l j¡p a¡hm£N£ pg−l L¡¢V−u j¤Nh¡S¡lÙÛ h¡¢s−a Bî¡-BÇj¡l p¡−b ¢j¢ma qm¡jz
35.

HjH f¡p Llm¡j

1950 p¡−ml j¡−QÑl j¡T¡j¡¢T HjH fl£r¡ ¢c−u a¡hm£N£ S¡j¡u¡−a ¢ae ¢Qõ¡l (Q¡l j¡p) SeÉ ®hl q−u S¤m¡C−ul
j¡T¡j¡¢T Y¡L¡u ¢g−l Hm¡jz

¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ®k−u S¡e−a f¡lm¡j ®k, Bj¡l i¡Ch¡l a¡¢lM ¢edÑ¡¢la q−u−Rz BSL¡m ¢m¢Ma fl£r¡l fl flC
e¡¢L i¡Ch¡ q−u k¡uz −pL¡−m ¢m¢Ma fl£r¡l gm¡gm p¡j−e ¢e−u i¡Ch¡ q−a¡z
i¡Ch¡−a S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, 4 ®ff¡−ll j−dÉ 3 ®ff¡−l i¡m eðlC ®f−u¢Rz 1 ®ff¡−l ®Le Lj ®fm¡j ®p ¢ho−k
°L¢gua amh Ll¡ q−m¡z AeÉ ¢ae ®ff¡−ll j−a¡ I ®ff¡l q−m gm g¡ØVÑ LÓ¡−pl pñ¡he¡ ¢R−m¡z i¡Ch¡−a
fl£rLNZ p¿ºøC q−mez
BN−øl fÐbj pç¡−q fl£r¡l gm fÐL¡n ®fmz S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, Hh¡l L−E g¡ØVÑ LÓ¡p f¡u¢ez 4 Se q¡C ®p−Lä LÓ¡p
®f−u−R Hhw Bj¡l AhÙÛ¡e ¢àa£uz
122

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CE¢ei¡¢pÑ¢Vl f¢m¢VLÉ¡m p¡C−¾pl ®q−Xl p¡−b ®cM¡ L−l S¡em¡j ®k Bj¡l AeÑ¡p ¢X¢NË e¡ b¡L¡u ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u
¢nrLa¡l p¤−k¡N f¡Ju¡ pñh euz g¡ØV LÓ¡p ®f−m AeÑ¡p R¡s¡J p¤−k¡N b¡−Lz HjH-®a Bj¡l ®Q−u Lj e¡ð¡l
f¡Ju¡ HLSe Ae¡−pÑ b¡XÑ LÓ¡p p−šÆJ p¤−k¡N ®f−u ®N−m¡z
Q¡l¢V e¡jLl¡ L−m−S clM¡Ù¹ f¡W¡m¡jz A¢hiš² h¡wm¡u 5¢V ¢X¢NË L−mS ¢fТju¡l L−mS ¢q−p−h ¢hMÉ¡a ¢R−m¡z
®L¡mL¡a¡ −fТp−X¢¾p L−mS, L¤¢jõ¡ ¢i−ƒ¡l¢lu¡ L−mS, lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−mS, h¢ln¡m ¢hHj L−mS J
®j¡−jen¡q£ HjHj L−mSz Hl j−dÉ ®L¡mL¡a¡ ®fТp−X¢¾p R¡s¡ h¡¢L Q¡l¢VC f§hÑh‰ h¡ f¤hÑ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el Hm¡L¡u
b¡L¡u B¢j H Q¡l L−m−SC fÐ−u¡Se£u p¡¢VÑ¢g−LVpq clM¡Ù¹ f¡¢W−u ¢cm¡jz
−L¡e L−m−S ®mLQ¡−ll fc M¡¢m B−R ¢Le¡ S¡eJ ¢R−m¡ ez f¢œL¡u ®L¡e ¢h‘¡feJ ®c¢M¢ez n§−eÉ a£l ®Ry¡s¡l
j−a¡ L¡SC Llm¡jz Hj f¡−pl f¡L¡ p¡¢VÑ¢g−LV ®f−a BlJ ®c¢l q−h h−m ¢Xf¡VÑ−j−¾Vl ®qX ®b−L ¢m¢Ma
p¡¢VÑ¢g−LV Hhw BlJ c¤’Se fÐ−gp¡−ll fÐnwp¡fœ ®k¡N¡s L−l clM¡Ù¹ f¡W¡m¡jz AdÉ¡fL X. j¤S¡ggl Bqjc
(®nL j¤¢S−hl n¡pe¡j−m ¢k¢e Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul i¡Cp QÉ¡−¾pml ¢R−me) Bj¡−L ®k p¡¢VÑ¢g−LV ¢c−me a¡ Bj¡l
®k¡NÉa¡l ®Q−uJ ®h¢n fÐnwp¡p§QL ¢R−m¡z

HL¡E−¾V¾V ®Se¡−l−ml p¡−b pÇfLÑ

a¡hm£N£ ¢Qõ¡l fl flC HL¡E−¾V¾V ®Se¡−lm °puc j¤q¡Çjc S¡j£m p¡¢LÑV q¡ESÙÛ ay¡l h¡p¡u ®k−a hm−mez ¢a¢e
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−a p¢œ²u ¢R−mez ¢a¢e Ec¤Ñi¡o£ ¢R−mez CE¢f h¡ ¢cõ£l A¢dh¡p£ ¢R−mez ¢hТVn Bj−m HL¡E−¾V¾V
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a¡hm£N£ jp¢S−c S¡j¡u¡−a nl£L q−aez p¡¢LÑV q¡ES ®b−L ®qy−VC jp¢S−c ®k−aez p¡ç¡¢qL R¤¢V−a ¢a¢e j¡−T
j¡−T a¡hm£−Nl pg−lJ ®hl q−aez HL¡¢dLh¡l ay¡l pglp¡b£ ¢q−p−h ay¡l p¡−b O¢eù qh¡l p¤−k¡NJ ®f−u¢Rz ay¡l
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Mh¤C BLªø Ll−a¡z ¢a¢e Y¡L¡ ®b−L c¤’hRl fl hcm£ q−u ®N−mez 1973 p¡−ll S¤m¡C j¡−p ¢m¢hu¡l l¡Sd¡e£
¢œfm£−a Ae¤¢ùa C¾V¡leÉ¡ne¡m Cpm¡¢jL Cu¤b Leg¡−l−¾p a¡l p¡−b Bj¡l ®no ®cMz
Q¡L¢l ®b−L Ahpl NËqZ L−l ¢a¢e Aj¤p¢mj−cl j−dÉ Cpm¡j fÐQ¡−ll E−Ÿ−nÉ ¢eSü E−cÉ¡−N HL¢V pwNWe L−l
b¡CmÉ¡ä, ¢g¢mf¡Ce, S¡f¡e CaÉ¡¢c ®c−n pgl L−l−Rez a¡l fÐ−Qø¡u ®hn ¢LR¤ k¤hL Cpm¡j NËqZ L−lez ®p
¢q−p−hC HL k¤h-pwNW−el ®ea¡ ¢q−p−h ¢a¢e I p−Çjm−e H−p¢R−mez Bj¡−L ®f−u AaÉ¿¹ B−h−Nl p¡−b h¤−L
S¢s−u dl−mez mä−e Bj¡l ¢ehÑ¡pe S£h−el AhÙÛ¡ ®S−e ¢a¢e fСZ i−l Bj¡l SeÉ ®c¡u¡ Ll−mez B¢j a¡l ®c¡u¡
J Ef−c−n Ae¤−fÐlZ¡ ®h¡d Llm¡jz Ae¤ih Lm¡j ®k, Bõ¡ql p¡−b k¡−cl i¡−m¡h¡p¡l pÇfLÑ O¢eù qu a¡−cl A¿¹l
j¡e¤−ol fТa AaÉ¿¹ Ec¡l q−u k¡uz

HL¡E−¾V¾V
HL¡E−¾V¾V ®Se¡−lm A¢gp CE¢X LÓ¡−LÑl Q¡L¢ll fÐÙ¹¡h

p¡¢LÑV q¡E−p HL¡E−¾V¾V ®Se¡−lm ¯puc j¤q¡Çjc S¡j£−ml h¡p¡u ®Nm¡jz ¢a¢e flj ®pÀ−ql p¡−b Bj¡−L S¢s−u
d−l f¡−n hp¡−mez hm−me, ‘Bfe¡l HjH fl£r¡l gm ®hl qJu¡ Hhw Q¡L¢l−a ®k¡Nc¡e Ll¡l f§hÑ Bf¢e Bj¡l
A¢g−p ®R¡– HLV¡ Q¡L¢l ¢eez Bj¡l ¢hl¡V A¢g−p L−uL n’−m¡L L¡S L−lz Bf¡l ¢X¢ine LÓ¡−LÑl ph¡C
NË¡S¤−uVz mu¡l ¢X¢ine LÓ¡−LÑl ®LE jÉ¡¢VÊ−Ll ¢e−Q euz B¢j ®k¡q−ll e¡j¡−Sl pju Bd¡ O¸V¡ ®b−L h¡¢s−u 45
¢j¢eV L−l ¢c−u¢Rz A¢gp¡l−cl j−dÉ k¡l¡ Dj¡e J Bj−ml ¢ho−u hm¡l ®k¡NÉa¡ l¡−Me a¡−cl−L I pju 20/25
¢j¢eV hš²hÉ l¡M¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ L−l¢Rz ¢L¿º a¡−cl hš²hÉ Bn¡e¤l©f euz B¢j Bfe¡l hš²hÉ hýh¡l ö−e¢Rz Bj¡l Bn¡
−k, Bf¢e Q¡L¢l ¢e−m Bfe¡l pqLjÑ£ LjÑQ¡l£−cl ¢eLV à£−el Lb¡ f¢l−hn−el p¤−k¡N ¢e−a f¡l−hez Bn¡ L¢l
Cpm¡−jl ®Mcj−al H p¤−k¡N Bf¢e NËqZ Ll−a Bf¢š Ll−he e¡z

123

H S¡a£u Q¡L¢l Ll¡l p¡j¡eÉaj ®L¡e BNËqJ Bj¡l ¢R−m¡ e¡z ¢L¿º S¡j£m p¡−q−hl ®pÀ−ql c¡¢h fÐaÉ¡MÉ¡e Ll¡
pñh qu¢ez i¡hm¡j, j¾c ¢L, A¢i‘a¡J q−h, à£−el L¡SJ Ll¡ k¡−h, f−LV Ml−Ql SeÉ Bî¡l L¡−R q¡aJ
f¡a−a q−h e¡z l¡k£ qm¡jz
¢a¢e Bj¡−L fl¡jnÑ ¢c−me ®k, B¢j ®ke BSC clM¡Ù¹ ¢cCz clM¡−Ù¹l glj ¢e−SC ¢c−mez hm−me, fТa pç¡−C
C¾V¡l¢iE quz C¾V¡l¢iE−a Bfe¡l j−a¡ −R−m pq−SC ¢V−L k¡−hz clM¡−Ù¹l 4 ¢ce flC C¾V¡l¢iEl ¢Q¢W ®fm¡jz
2 ¢ce flC C¾V¡l¢iE−a q¡¢Sl qm¡jz ¢ae ¢ce fl Q¡L¤¢l−a ®k¡Nc¡e Llm¡jz
−fбt hup£ HL p¤f¡¢l−¾Ve−X−¾Vl Ad£−e fСu 25/30 Se LÓ¡−LÑl j−dÉ B¢j HLSez ea¤e ¢q−p−h ¢a¢e Bj¡−L
L¡S ®nM¡h¡l SeÉ h¡lh¡l Bj¡l ®V¢h−m H−p ®cM−ae Hhw fl¡jnÑ ¢c−aez ¢a¢e ®hn pq¡e¤i§¢an£m ¢R−mez AwL
Lo¡l L¡SC fÐd¡ez L¡−Sl dlZ Bj¡l −j¡−VC fR¾c e¡ q−mJ Q¡L¢ll M¡¢a−l Ll−a m¡Nm¡jz
L−uL ¢ce fl A¢gp¡l hš²¡−cl HLSe Bj¡−L ®k¡q−ll e¡j¡−Sl fl f¢lQu L¢l−u ¢c−u Cpm¡j pÇf−LÑ hš²hÑ
l¡M¡l Bqh¡e S¡e¡−mez ®nСa¡l¡ fR¾c Ll−R h−mC j−e q−m¡z ¢L¿º HLSe LÓ¡LÑ A¢gp¡−ll j¡e-jkÑ¡c¡ ®f−u
k¡Ju¡u ¢p¢eul LaL LÓ¡−LÑl j−dÉ ¢LR¤ …”−el Bi¡p f¡Ju¡ ®N−m¡z Bõ¡ql lqj−a L−uL ¢c−el B−m¡Qe¡l fl
Bj¡l NËqZ−k¡NÉa¡ hª¢Ü ®fmz pç¡q M¡−eL fl k¡l¡ hš²hÉ ö−e Bj¡l p¡−b q¡a ¢j¢m−u f¢lQu Ll−a Bp−a¡
a¡−cl−L L¡Ll¡C−ml jp¢S−c k¡h¡l cJu¡a ¢cm¡jz Hi¡−h I A¢g−p j¡œ 40 ¢ce (HL¢Qõ¡) L¡S L−l 8/10
Se−L a¡hm£−N pju ¢c−a l¡k£ Ll−a prj qCz
36.

HL¡E−¾V¾V
HL¡E−¾V¾V ®Se¡−lm A¢g−p hs f−cl p¤−k¡N

CE¢X LÓ¡LÑ ¢q−p−h j¡p M¡−eL Q¡L¢l Ll¡l fl HL¡E−¾V¾V ®Se¡−lm °puc j¤q¡Çjc S¡j£m a¡l h¡p¡u Bj¡−L ®k−a
hm−mez C−a¡j−dÉ Bj¡l HjH f¡−pl Mhl ¢a¢e ®f−u−Rez Bj¡l pLm ¢nr¡Na p¡¢VÑ¢g−LV J fÐnwp¡fœ p¡−b
¢e−u ®k−a fl¡jnÑ ¢c−mez kb¡pju ®fy±Rm¡jz ¢a¢e Bj¡l L¡NS fœ ¢LR¤rZ ®c−M M¤¢n q−u hm−me, “B¢j
Bfe¡−L jqîa L¢l à£−el M¡¢a−lz Bj¡l A¢gp p¤f¡¢l−¾V−ä¾V Bfe¡l L¡−Sl ®k¡NÉa¡ QjvL¡l p¡¢VÑ¢g−LV
¢c−u−Rez ®k¡q−ll e¡j¡−kl pju Bfe¡l à£e£ B−m¡Qe¡l fТa¢œ²u¡ AaÉ¿¹ p−¿¹¡oSeLz B¢j Q¡C Bf¢e H A¢g−p
ÙÛ¡u£ ®q¡ez Bfe¡−L A¢gp¡l f−c B¢j fÐ−j¡ne ¢c−a ¡Cz Bf¢e k¢c pÇja qe a¡q−m H L¡NS cÙ¹Ma ¢cez”
HLb¡…−m¡ h−m Bj¡l ¢c−L 4/5 fªù¡l HL¢V L¡NS H¢N−u ¢c−mez B¢j −cMm¡j ®k, L¡NS…−m¡ A¢gp¡l f−c
clM¡−Ù¹l plL¡¢l gljz ¢h¢pÈa q−u ®cMm¡j ®k, gl−jl fСu ph Lm¡j f§lZ Ll¡ B−Rz h¤Tm¡j ®k LÓ¡LÑ f−c
clM¡Ù¹ ®b−L Bj¡l k¡ha£u f¡l¢VL¤m¡l H gl−j ®mM¡ B−Rz öd¤ L−uL¢V j¡œ Lm¡j f§lZ Ll¡ h¡¢Lz
Bj¡l fТa ay¡l H ALª¢œj ®pÀ−ql f¢lQu ®f−u A¢ii¤a q−u Q¤f q−u L¡NS…−m¡l ¢c−L a¡¢L−u lCm¡jz ¢a¢e
hm−me, “B¢j BlJ c¤’hRl Y¡L¡u B¢Rz HL hRl fl B¢j BlJ EµQ f−c fÐ−j¡ne ¢c−a f¡l−h¡z Hl f−ll hRl
B¢j Hje hÉhÙÛ¡ L−l ®k−a Q¡C ®k, Bf¢e Q¡L¢l−a â¦a Eæ¢a Ll−a prj q−hez a¡C Bf¢e ¢e¢ÕQ−¿¹ cÙ¹M¡a L−l
¢cez”
B¢j AaÉ¿¹ ¢he−ul p¡−b Hhw B−hNS¢sa L−˜ ay¡l fТa Lªa‘a¡ fÐL¡n L−l hmm¡j, “B¢j S¡¢e ®k, à£−el
L¡l−ZC Bf¢e Bj¡−L H−a¡ ®pÀq L−lez à£−el Skh¡ ¢e−uC B¢j ®fn¡ ¢q−p−h L−m−Sl ¢nrLa¡−L h¡R¡C L−l
¢e−u¢Rz” Bj¡l aªa£u ¢Qõ¡u b¡L¡L¡−m lwf¤l −Ll¡j¢au¡ jp¢S−c ®nol¡−a L£ j−e¡i¡h ¢e−u H ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−u¢Rm¡j
Hl ¢hhlZ ¢cm¡jz ¢a¢e Bj¡−L h¤−L S¢s−u Lf¡−m Q¤j¤ ¢c−u j¿¹hÉ Ll−me, “H−a¡ hs Ag¡l−L fÐaÉ¡MÉ¡e L¡ll
j−a¡ ¢qÇja Bfe¡l j−dÉ ®c−M Bfe¡l fТa Bj¡l jqîa BlJ Ni£l q−u ®N−m¡z Bõ¡q f¡L à£−el SeÉ
Bfe¡−L Lh¤m Ll¦ez Bfe¡l j−a¡ ®m¡−Ll plL¡¢l Q¡L¢l −j¡−VC kb¡bÑ ®fn¡ euz Bf¢e p¢WL ¢pÜ¡¿¹C ¢e−u−Rez
h¡¢s−a H−p Bî¡−L H ¢houV¡ S¡e¡−m ¢a¢e j¿¹hÉ Ll−me ®k, H hÉ¡f¡−l ®a¡j¡−LC ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−a q−hz a−h
Bõ¡ql Efl pÇf§ZÑ ¢eiÑln£ma¡l j−e¡i¡h ¢e−u Hhw Cpm¡j£ Skh¡l ¢i¢š−a g¡up¡m¡ Ll−hz

124

CE¢X LÓ¡−LÑl fc ®R−s ¢cm¡j

C¢”¢eu¡l Bhc¤m j¤L£a i¡C Bj¡−L S¡e¡−me ®k, ®hn L−uLSe pñhe¡ju ¢n¢ra k¤hL HL ¢Qõ¡u ®hl q−a ¯a¢l
q−u−Rz a¡−cl−L N−s ®a¡m¡l SeÉ ®a¡j¡l ja HLSe Bj£l fÐ−u¡Sez B¢j hmm¡j, B¢j L−uL¢V L−m−S
®mLQ¡l¡l f−cl SeÉ clM¡Ù¹ L−l¢Rz Lme Mhl B−p ®p A−fr¡u Bj¡l Y¡L¡u b¡L¡ fÐ−u¡Sez ¢a¢e hm−me,
®a¡j¡l Bî¡l p¡−b ®k¡N−k¡N l¡M−h¡z ®L¡e Mhl ®f−m ®a¡j¡−L S¡e¡hz B¢j hmm¡j, B¢j S¡j£m p¡−q−hl A¢g−p
Q¡L¢l Ll¢Rz ¢a¢e hm−me, R¤¢V ®eJu¡ k¡−hz ¢L¿º S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, j¡œ j¡p M¡¢eL q−m¡ Q¡L¢l q−u−R h−m H−a¡ mð¡
R¤¢V f¡Ju¡ pñh euz ®no fkÑ¿¹ Q¡L¢l ®b−L CÙ¹g¡ ¢c−u ¢Qõ¡u Q−m ®Nm¡jz Q¡L¢l−a j¡œ HL ¢Qõ¡ (40 ¢ce)
f¢lj¡Z pju ¢Rm¡jz
pñha A−ƒ¡h−ll ®no¢c−L ¢Qõ¡ pj¡ç L−l Y¡L¡u ¢g−l Hm¡jz Q¡L¢l e¡ b¡L¡u Y¡L¡ J Hl B−nf¡−n a¡hm£N
S¡j¡u¡−al L¡−SC ¢e−u¡¢Sa lCm¡jz e−ið−ll j¡T¡j¡¢T HL ®V¢mNË¡j ®fm¡jz j¡œ L−uL¢V n−ël ®V¢mNË¡j¢V
®b−L h¤T−a f¡lm¡j e¡ ®k, ®L¡e L−m−Sl fr ®b−L f¡W¡−e¡ q−u−Rz HV¡ p¡aÉ ¢hoÈuLlz ®V¢mNË¡−jl ®L¡bJ ®L¡e
L−m−Sl e¡j ®mM¡ ®eCz ®L¡e ®Sm¡ ®b−L ®fТla ®p Lb¡l E−õM ®eCz ®fÐlL ®V¢mNË¡j A¢g−pl e¡j ‘Bmj eNl’
−mM¡z

lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−Sl ¢e−u¡Nfœ ®fm¡j

f¡he¡ HXJu¡XÑ L−m−S l¡øÌ¢h‘¡e ¢hi¡−N HL¢V fc M¡¢m B−R ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh X¡L−m ®ke k¡C-HC j−jÑ HLV¡
Mhl ®L ¢c−u¢Rm a¡ j−e ®eCz a¡C f¡he¡u ®Nm¡jz S¡e−a f¡lm¡j ®k, I L−mL ®b−L ®L¡e ®V¢mNË¡j f¡W¡−e¡
qu¢ez ®V¢m−g¡e A¢g−p ¢N−u S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, Bmj eNl lwf¤lz lwf¤l lJu¡e¡ q−u ®Nm¡jz ¢L¿º C¾V¡l¢iEl a¡¢lM
®a¡ f¡he¡uC ®L−V ®N−m¡z fl¢ce lwf¤l ®fy±−R ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−q−hl h¡p¡u ®Nm¡jz ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh−L ®c−M A¢ii¤a
q−u hmm¡j, “pÉ¡l Bf¢e HM¡−e B−Re S¡e−m B¢j A−eL B−NC H−p ®cM¡ Lla¡jz” ¢a¢e Bj¡l p¡−b jkh¤a
q¡−a qÉ¡ä−nL L−l hp¡−u hm−me, “NaL¡m ®Le H−m e¡?” B¢j L¡lZ S¡e¡−m ¢a¢e ¢hlš² q−u j¿¹hÉ Ll−me,
“qX LÓ¡LÑV¡ HLV¡ C¢X−uVz ®p ®Lje L−l H dl−el ®V¢mNË¡j f¡W¡−m¡? k¡L a¤¢j ¢LR¤ j−e ¢eJ e¡z ®a¡j¡l ®L¡e
®c¡o ®eCz”
¢hoæ hc−e ¢Q¿¹¡¢ða j−e J Ll¦Z p¤−l ¢S−‘p Llm¡j, “pÉ¡l, Bj¡−L ¢L E¾V¡l¢iE ®ch¡ p¤−k¡N ®cJu¡ k¡−h?”
¢a¢e q¡a h¡¢s−u j¤h¡lLh¡c S¡¢e−u hm−me, “®L¡e C¾V¡l¢iE ®cJu¡l clL¡l q−h e¡z k¡l¡ C¾V¡l¢iE ¢c−a
H−p¢Rm a¡−cl ®Q−u ®a¡j¡l p¡¢VÑ¢g−LV, fÐnwp¡fœ J Bj¡l p¡−b ®a¡j¡l pÇf−LÑl f¢lQu ®S−e ®a¡j¡−L ¢e−u¡N
®ch¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ q−u ®N−Rz a¤¢j BN¡j£L¡mC ¢e−u¡Nfœ ¢e−u k¡J Hhw ¢e¢cÑø ¢c−e H−p S−ue L−l¡z” A¿¹l −b−L
jq¡e j¢e−hl fТa öL¢lu¡ ül©f j¤M ¢c−u ‘Bmq¡jc¤¢õq¡’ ®hl q−m¡ Hhw Bj¡l pjNË pš¡ aª¢ç ®h¡d Ll−m¡z h¤T¡
®Nm, Bõ¡q f¡−Ll ¢pÜ¡¿¹ q−m HjeV¡C quz ¢he¡ C¾V¡l¢iE−aC ¢e−u¡N f¡Ju¡ k¡uz a¡l CµR¡ e¡ b¡L−m ®Qø¡
L−lJ pgm qJu¡ k¡u e¡z
¢fТ¾pf¡m Bhc¤m q¡L£j L¤l¡Cn£ plL¡¢l Y¡L¡ Cpm¡¢jL C¾V¡l¢j¢X−uV L−m−Sl ¢fТ¾pf¡m b¡L¡L¡−m B¢j LÓ¡p
e¡Ce ®b−L BCH fkÑ¿¹ Q¡l hRl f−s¢Rz BCH LÓ¡−p ¢a¢e ®p„¢fu¡−ll XÊ¡j¡ ‘S¤¢mu¡p p£S¡l’ fs¡ez e¡fL£u
i¢‰−aC fs¡−aez f§−hÑl B−m¡Qe¡u a¡l e¡j E−õM e¡ Ll−mJ ¢fТ¾pf¡m ¢q−p−h E−õM L−l¢Rz

Bõ¡ql j¢qj¡

B−NC E−õM L−l¢R ®k, 1950 Hl ®j j¡−p lwf¤l ®Ll¡j¢au¡ jp¢S−c a¡hm£−Nl ¢Qõ¡u b¡L¡L¡−m B¢j HL ®no
l¡−a ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ®eC ®k, B¢j ®L¡e plL¡¢l Q¡L¢l Ll−h¡ e¡z L−m−S ¢nrLa¡ Ll−h¡ k¡−a à£−el L¡−S ®h¢n pju
¢c−a f¡¢l Hhw R¡œ−cl j−dÉ à£−el c¡Ju¡a ®ch¡l p¤−k¡N f¡Cz
Bõ¡ql Bf¡l j¢qj¡ ®k, I lwf¤−lC Bjl ¢nrLa¡ Ll¡l p¤−k¡N q−u ®N−m¡z B−l¡ ¢ae¢V hs L−m−S clM¡Ù¹
f¡¢W−u¢Rm¡jz ®L¡b¡J ®b−L ®L¡e MhlC B−p¢ez AbQ lwf¤−l C¾V¡l¢iE R¡s¡C ¢e−u¡NfÐa ®f−u ®Nm¡jz

125

L−m−S c¤’Se AdÉ¡f−Ll p¡−b f¢lQu ®q¡m

HLSe L¤¢jõ¡l AdÉ¡fL Sj£l¦Ÿ£e Bqjc J AflSe lwf¤l L−m−SlC fСš²e R¡œ AdÉ¡fL Lm£j¤Ÿ£e Bqjcz
S¡e−a f¡lm¡j ®k, a¡l¡ B−NC AdÉ¡fe¡l c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll¡ p−šÆJ ®L¡e A¢eu−jl L¡l−Z a¡−cl−L ea¤e L−l
¢e−u¡Nfœ ¢e−a q−µRz Hi¡−h Bjl¡ ¢aeSe HLC p¡−b ¢e−u¡Nfœ ®fm¡jz L−m−S S−ue Ll¡l a¡¢lMJ HLC, 3l¡
¢X−pðl 1950 p¡mz AdÉ¡fL Sj£l h¡wm¡ ¢hi¡−N Hhw AdÉ¡fL Lm£j ¢gmpg£az Bl B¢j l¡øÌ¢h‘¡−ez ¢e−u¡NfÐ
¢e−u Y¡L¡u ¢g−l ®Nm¡jz
37.

lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−S ®k¡Nc¡−el fÐÙ¹¤¢a

lwf¤−l e−ið−ll aªa£u pç¡−qC ®k j¡−el n£a ®c−M Hm¡j, a¡−a ¢X−pðl-S¡e¤u¡l£−a fÐQ™ n£−al ¢eÕQua¡
®fm¡jz Bj¡l n£−al S¡j¡-L¡fs ¢R−m¡ e¡z p¤¢a n¡VÑ-f¡uS¡j¡ f−lC R¡œS£he L¡V−m¡z ®h¢n n£−a MŸ−ll Q¡clC
k−bø j−e Lla¡jz ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u pqf¡¢W R¡sJ ®hn pwMÉ¡L R¡œ n£−a p¤−uV¡l fl−a¡z AÒf pwMÉL R¡œ Nlj
®L¡V-fÉ¡¾V f−l LÓ¡−p ®k−a¡z Q¡cl N¡−u ¢c−u LÓ¡−p ®k−a ®LE m‹¡ ®h¡d Ll−a¡ e¡z ¢q¾c¤ ¢nrLl¡ ®h¢nl i¡NC
Nlj Q¡cl N¡−u ¢c−u ®mLQ¡l ¢c−aez a¡−cl L−uLSe fÉ¡¾V fl−aez h¡¢L ph¡C d¤¢a f−l LÓ¡−p ®k−aez
lwf¤l L−m−S AdÉ¡fL−cl j−dÉ k¡−cl p¡−b f¢lQu q−u¢Rm, a¡l¡ ph¡C Nlj ®n−l¡u¡e£ h¡e¡hl fl¡jnÑ ¢c−mez
a¡C Y¡L¡u ¢g−l H−p gÓ¡−e−ml n¡VÑ J Nlj ®n−l¡u¡e£ h¡e¡m¡jz Nlj fÉ¡¾V h¡e¡h¡l fl¡jnÑ ®ce¢e ®Lez fÐ−u¡Se£u
¢hR¡e¡l Q¡cl CaÉ¡¢c ®k¡N¡s Ll¡ q−m¡z ®mf-®a¡oL lwf¤−lC ®Le¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢em¡jz
3l¡ ¢X−pðl L−m−S ®k¡Nc¡e Ll¡l Lb¡z 1 a¡¢l−M ¢hc¡Na l¡−al ®jCm ®VÊ−e lJu¡e¡ ¢c−u c¤’a¡¢lM c¤f−¤ ll fl
lwf¤l ®fy±Rm¡jz L−mS LÇf¡E−ä AdÉ¡fL−cl SeÉ ®k ph h¡p¡ B−R HlC HL¢V−a L−uLSe ®jp L−l b¡−Lez
B¢j ®pM¡−eC ¢N−u EWm¡jz ¢hL¡−m ¢fТ¾pf¡m pÉ¡−ll h¡p¡u ¢N−u ®cM¡ L−l Hm¡jz påÉ¡l fl AdÉ¡fL Sj£l¦Ÿ£e
L−mS LÇf¡E−X pf¢lh¡−l ®k LuSe j¤p¢mj AdÉ¡fL B−Re a¡−cl h¡p¡u ¢e−u f¢lQu L¢l−u ¢c−mez AdÉ¡fL
Sj£l¦Ÿ£e h¡wm¡l AdÉ¡fLz Bj¡l ®Q−u ¢a¢e L−uL hR−ll hsz Bõ¡ql gk−m ¢a¢e HM−e¡ ®hy−Q B−Rez L¤¢jõ¡
nq−ll fСZ−L¾cÐ L¡¢¾clf¡−sl ¢eL−VC ¢e−Sl h¡¢s−a b¡−Lez HL¢V ¢X¢NË L−m−Sl ¢fТ¾pf¡m ¢q−p−h ®hn L−uL
hRl B−N Ahpl ¢e−u−Rez Cpm¡¢jL HX¤−Lne ®p¡p¡C¢Vl Cpm¡j£ ¢nr¡ B−¾c¡m−e ¢a¢e p¢œ²u i§¢jL¡ f¡me
Ll−Rez

L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−S ®k¡Nc¡e

3 ¢X−pðl 1950 p¡−m pL¡m 10 V¡u ¢fТ¾pf¡−ml A¢g−p HLC p¡−b Bjl¡ ¢aeSe Be¤ù¡¢eLi¡−h ®mLQ¡l¡l
¢q−p−h ®k¡Nc¡e Llm¡jz
LÓ¡p l¦¢V−el c¡¢uaÅ ¢e−u¡¢Sa ¢p¢eul AdÉ¡fL ®N¡f¡m h¡h¤−L (f¤−l¡ e¡j j−e ®eC) ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh Bj¡l p¡−b
f¢lQu L¢l−u ¢c−mez ®hn huú Hhw c¿¹q£e q−mJ k−bø LjÑavflz Bj¡−L p¡c−l NËqZ L−l ay¡l A¢g−p ¢e−u
®N−mez LÓ¡p l¦¢V−el ¢hl¡V fÐnÙ¹ L¡NS ®V¢h−m M¤−m fСu 10 ¢j¢eV fkÑ¿¹ HL¢V L¡N−S ®e¡V Ll−mez V¡C¢fØV−L
®X−L Hr¤¢Z I ®e¡V Ll¡ L¡NS¢V V¡Cf L−l ¢c−a hm−mez iâ−m¡L ®hn Bm¡f£z Bj¡−L Lw−NËQ¤−mne S¡¢e−u
j¤lî£u¡e¡ p¤−l hm−me, ‘Bjl¡ Bl L’¢ce b¡Lhz Bfe¡l¡C L−m−Sl c¡¢u−aÅ Bp−hez Bl c¤’hRl fl B¢j
¢lV¡u¡l Llhz Na 10 hRl B¢j l¦¢Ve p¡S¡h¡l L¢We c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll¢Rz Bl ®LE H T¡−jm¡ ¢e−a Q¡u e¡ h−m
Bj¡−LC H ®h¡T¡ hC−a q−µRz”
C−a¡j−dÉ V¡C¢fø Bj¡l p¡ç¡¢qL l¦¢Ve ®l¢X L−l ¢e−u H−p ®N¡f¡m h¡h¤l q¡−a ¢cmz ¢a¢e HL ekl ®Q¡M h¤¢m−u
Bj¡l q¡−a a¤−m ¢c−u hm−me, “I wish you all success, wel come”. L¦¢V−el L¡NSV¡ ®c−M ¢Q¢¿¹a qm¡jz
L¡lZ BCH g¡ØVÑ Cu¡l J ®p−Lä Cu¡l Hhw ¢hH g¡ØVÑ Cu¡l J ®p−Lä Cu¡−ll ®j¡V 24 ¢V LÓ¡p 6¢c−e ¢e−a q−hz
ú¤m j¡ØV¡−ll j−a¡ ®l¡S 4/5V¡ L−l LÓ¡p ®eJu¡ L¢We hÉ¡f¡lz

126

−N¡f¡m h¡h¤ p¡šÆe¡ ¢c−u hm−me, H¢fÐ−ml fl BCH J ¢hH ®p−Lä Cu¡l LÓ¡p ®np q−u −N−m Bfe¡−L pç¡−q j¡œ
12/14V¡ LÓ¡p ¢e−mC Qm−hz S¤m¡C j¡−p Bh¡l LÓ¡−pl pwMÉ¡ Xhm q−u k¡−hz
¢S−‘p Llm¡j, “f¢m¢VLÉ¡m p¡C¾p J ¢p¢i„-Hl ph LÓ¡p Bj¡−LC ¢e−a q−h?”
−N¡f¡m h¡h¤ hm−me, “Bfe¡l ¢Xf¡VÑ−j−¾V Bf¢e HL¡z H¢Ÿe CL−e¡¢j−„l fÐ−gpl Bhc¤m j¡æ¡e A−dÑL LÓ¡p
¢e¢µR−mez”
¢fТ¾pf¡−ml p¡−b p¡−b −cM¡ L−l hmm¡j, “pÉ¡l ¢Xf¡VÑ−j−¾V B¢jC e¡¢L HLj¡œ ¢VQ¡lz H¢Ÿe ¢Li¡−h Qm−m¡?
B¢j ea¤e ¢q−p−h ®l¡S Ha…−m¡ LÓ¡p ¢Li¡−h ®eh? “¢a¢e ®N¡f¡m h¡h¤−L X¡L−me Hhw Bj¡l pjpÉ¡ pÇfÑ−L
fl¡jnÑ Q¡C−mez ®N¡f¡m h¡h¤ hm−me ®k, AdÉ¡fL Bhc¤m j¡æ¡e H¢Ÿe HL¡C H ¢hi¡N f¢lQ¡me¡ L−l−Rez ¢a¢e
k¢c pç¡−q j¡œ 6¢V LÓ¡p ®ee a¡q−mC ®h¡T¡ L−j k¡−hz ¢fТ¾pf¡m p¡−qh AdÉ¡fL Bhc¤m j¡æ¡e−L ®X−L ®N¡f¡m
h¡h¤l fÐÙ¹¡h ®fn Ll−m ¢a¢e pq−SC l¡¢S q−u ®N−mez pç¡−q BW¡l¢V LÓ¡p Bj¡l i¡−N lCmz

LÓ¡p ®eJu¡ öl¦ q−m¡

L¡lj¡C−Lm L−mS Ešlh−‰l e¡jLl¡ ®pl¡ L−mSz hªqšl lwf¤l, ¢ce¡Sf¤l, h…s¡ J f¡he¡l ph ®Sm¡l (haÑj¡−e
12¢V ®Sm¡) R¡œ−cl fÐd¡e BLoÑZ H L−mSz fÐQ¤l R¡œ H L−m−S i¢aÑ quz R¡œ£−cl pwMÉ¡ Ljz BCH LÓ¡−p fТa
Cu¡−l 10/12 Se L−l Hhw ¢hH LÓ¡−p 3/4 Se L−l j¡œz
5 ¢X−pðl Bj¡l fÐbj LÓ¡p öl¦ qu BCH g¡ØVÑ Cu¡−ll R¡œ-R¡œ£−cl−L ¢e−uz ¢euj Ae¤k¡u£ ¢VQ¡l−L ®j−u−cl
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R¡œ£ ¢e−u LÓ¡−p Y¤Lm¡jz R¡œl¡ ph cy¡¢s−u −N−m¡z
HL¢V ®Q±¢Ll Efl ¢VQ¡−ll SeÉ ®Qu¡l J ®V¢hm l−u−Rz ®Q±¢L−a E−WC R¡œ−cl−L Take your seat h−m B¢j
hpm¡jz R¡œl¡ Bj¡l p¡j−e p¡¢lhy¡d¡ ®h’…−m¡−a hp−m¡z R¡œ£−cl ®h’…−m¡ Bj¡l h¡jf¡−n p¡S¡−e¡z Bj¡l
¢c−L j¤M L−l a¡l¡ hp−m¡z R¡œl¡ HL f¡n ®b−L R¡œ£−cl−L ®cM−a f¡−µR, p¡je¡p¡j¢e euz
45 ¢j¢e−Vl j−dÉ 5 ¢j¢eV −l¡m L−mC MlQ q−u ®N−m¡z ®mLQ¡l öl¦ Ll¡l B−N cy¡¢s−u mrÉ Llm¡j ®k, ®fR−e
®hn ¢LR¤ R¡œ hp¡l S¡uN¡ e¡ ®f−u cy¡¢s−u B−Rz ¢hl¡V LÓ¡p l¦jz c¤’n-Hl L¡R¡L¡¢R R¡œ pwMÉ¡z ¢S−‘p L−l
S¡e−a f¡lm¡j, ¢p¢i„-Hl LÓ¡−p BCHp¢p LÓ¡−pl R¡œ−cl j−dÉ H¢Xne¡m ¢hou ¢q−p−h k¡l¡ ¢p¢i„ −eu a¡−cl
L¡l−ZC R¡œ pwMÉ¡ Ha −h¢n qu ®k, ®h−’ S¡uN¡ qu e¡z
−pL¡−m LÓ¡−p öd¤ Cw−l¢S hm¡lC ¢euj ¢R−m¡z LÓ¡−pl h¡C−lJ R¡œ−cl p¡−b Cw−l¢S−a Lb¡ hm¡lC ®lJu¡S f§hÑ
®b−L Q¡m¤ ¢R−m¡z ¢hou¢i¢šL ®mLQ¡l öl¦ e¡ L−l a¡−cl ¢eLV 15 ¢j¢eV fkÑ¿¹ Ef−cnj§mL hš²hÉ l¡Mm¡jz
hmm¡j, ®a¡jl¡C ®c−nl i¢hoÉvz phÑ−r−œ ®a¡jl¡C ®cn−L N−s a¤m−hz a¡C ph ¢cL ¢c−u Bj¡−cl−L Efk¤š² q−u
N−s EW−a q−hz Hl SeÉ HL¢c−L ®kje fl£r¡u ®lS¡−ÒVl SeÉ −Qø¡ Ll−h; Afl¢c−L Eæaj¡−el j¡e¤o qh¡l
SeÉ p−Qaei¡−h f¡WÉp§¢Ql h¡C−lJ ¢LR¤ L¡S Ll−a q−hz

fl£r¡u i¡m gm Ll−a q−mx
q−mx
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kb¡ pj−u ¢eu¢ja LÓ¡−p Ef¢ÙÛa q−a q−hz
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LÓ¡−p j−e¡−k¡N ¢c−u öe−h J M¡a¡u ®e¡V Ll−hz
p¡ç¡¢qL R¤¢Vl ¢c−e pqf¡W£−cl p¡−b ¢hNa LÓ¡p…−m¡l B−m¡QÉ ¢hou ¢e−u ja¢h¢eju Ll−hz
−L¡e ¢hou h¤T−a Ap¤¢hd¡ q−m L¡N−Sl V¤Ll¡u fÐnÀ ¢m−M Bj¡−L ¢c−u k¡−hz fl¢ce SJu¡h ®chz j−e
l¡M−h, i¡m R¡œl¡C fÐnÀ Ll¡l p¡qp f¡uz k¡l¡ i¡mi¡−h h¤T−a Q¡u a¡−cl j−eC fÐnÀ S¡−Nz B¢j
®a¡j¡−cl−L ®nM¡−a Q¡Cz k¡l¡ ¢nM−a BNËq£ a¡l¡ Bj¡−L L¡−R f¡−hz
127

Eæa j¡e¤o qh¡l SeÉ Bj¡l fl¡jnÑx

jqv ®m¡L−cl S£he£ fs−hz k¡−cl S£he£ ®mM¡ qu a¡l¡ hs h−mC a¡−cl S£he ®b−L ®nM¡l SeÉ a¡−cl S£he£ hC
BL¡−l f¡Ju¡ k¡uz
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®mLQ¡l ¢c−u f−ll ¢c−el ¢hou¢V f−s Bp−a h−m LÓ¡p ®no Llm¡jz −R−ml¡ ¢hc¡u qh¡l pju ®h¢n M¤¢n j−e
q−m¡z LÓ¡−pl h¡C−l h¡l¡¾c¡u 8/10 Se R¡œ ®Ol¡J L−l hmm, “Hje p¤¾cl Ef−cn Caxf§−hÑ ö¢e¢ez” J−cl ®fR−e
BlJ ¢LR¤ R¡œ q¡a a¤−m J−cl Lb¡l fТa pjbÑe S¡e¡−m¡z
fÐÐbj LÓ¡p¢V ¢e−u B¢jJ Evp¡q Hhw aª¢ç−h¡d Llm¡jz ¢nrL S£he ®a¡ B¢j öd¤ ®fn¡ ¢q−p−h NËqZ L¢l¢e, S£h−el
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Bj¡l pqf¡W£−cl A−e−LC p¡j¢uLi¡−h H ®fn¡u ®k¡Nc¡e L−l−Rz k¡−cl AeÉ ®fn¡ S¤−V¢e a¡l¡C c¡−u ®W−L H
®fn¡u l−u ®N−Rz
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c¤’hR−ll j¡b¡u ®p ®L¾cУu p¤¢f¢lul p¡¢iÑp fl£r¡ ¢c−u 1952 p¡−m ¢fHp¢f−a (f¡¢LÙ¹¡e f¤¢mp p¡¢iÑ−p) ®k¡N
®cuz B¢nl cn−L ¢XBC¢S ¢q−p−h ¢lV¡u¡XÑ quz
Bj¡l d¡lZ¡ ®k, j¡e¤o Ns¡l hÐa ¢e−uC ¢nrLa¡l ®fn¡ NËqZ Ll¡ haÑhÉz öd¤ S£¢hL¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ k¡l¡ H ®fn¡ NËqZ
L−l a¡−cl f−r ®aje ®L¡e Ahc¡e l¡M¡ pñh euz a¡l¡ öd¤ Na¡e¤N¢aL l¦¢Ve ¢q−p−hC S£he L¡V¡uz j¡e¤o Ns¡l
aª¢ç ®h¡d Ll¡l −p±i¡NÉ a¡−cl qu e¡z
38.

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BCH g¡ØVÑ LÓ¡−p Bj¡l fÐbj ®mLQ¡l ®no L−l ¢VQÑ¡p Lje l¦−j ®Nm¡jz HL ¢f¢luX fl ¢hH ¢àa£u h−oÑl LÓ¡−pl
A−fr¡ Ll¢Rz Bj¡l p¡−b 3 ¢X−pðl HLp¡−b S−ue Ll−mJ cnÑ−el AdÉ¡fL Lm£j¤Ÿ£e J h¡wm¡l AdÉ¡fL
Sj£l¦Ÿ£e Bl pLm AdÉ¡f−Ll p¡−b f§−hÑC f¢l¢Qa ¢R−mez a¡l¡ AdÉ¡fL ¢q−p−h ®hn L−uL j¡p LjÑla b¡L−mJ
a¡−cl ¢e−u¡−N ¢LR¤ A¢euj b¡L¡u NiÑ¢ew h¢X a¡−cl−L ea¤e L−l ¢e−u¡N c¡e L−lz AdÉ¡fL Lm£j¤Ÿ£e H L−m−Sl
R¡œz ¢p¢eul AdÉ¡fLNZ ph¡C ay¡l ¢nrLz a¡C ¢a¢e Bj¡−L AeÉ¡eÉ AdÉ¡f−Ll p¡−b f¢lQu L¢l−u ¢c−mez
¢p¢eul AdÉ¡fL−cl j−dÉ Blh£l AdÉ¡fL Bh¤m ®q¡p¡Ce Hhw g¡p£Ñ J Ec¤Ñl AdÉ¡fL p¡C−uc Cpq¡L Bqjc R¡s¡
h¡¢L ph¡C ¢q¾c¤z c¤’¢ae hR−ll j−dÉ a¡l¡ ph¡C ¢lV¡u¡XÑ q−u k¡h¡l fl a¡−cl ÙÛ¡−e j¤p¢mj AdÉ¡fLNZ ¢e−u¡N
f¡ez
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q−a¡ a¡q−m lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−Sl ¢q¾c¤ AdÉ¡fLN−Zl Ahpl NËq−Zl fl Bh¡l ¢q¾c¤l¡C ¢e−u¡N ®f−aez
1947-Hl f§−hÑ h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡e−cl j−dÉ eNZÉ pwMÉL plL¡¢l EµQf−c ¢R−m¡z ®aj¢e L−mS J ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul
¢nrL, BceS£h£, hs hÉhp¡u£, ¢nÒff¢a, X¡š²¡l, C¢”¢eu¡l CaÉ¡¢c ®fn¡ ¢q¾c¤−cl cM−mC ¢R−m¡z j¤pmj¡e−cl
pwMÉ¡ ®j¡−VC E−õM−k¡NÉ ¢R−m¡ e¡z p¡j¢lL h¡¢qe£−a j¤pmj¡e ph−Q−u Lj ¢R−m¡z ®lm J f¤¢mn ¢hi¡−NJ HLC
AhÙÛ¡ ¢hl¡S Ll¢R−m¡z

128

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1947 p¡−ml 14 BNø haÑj¡e h¡wm¡−cn f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el A¿¹iѤš² q−u ü¡d£e jkÑ¡c¡ m¡i Ll¡l fl pLm juc¡−e h¡P¡¢m
j¤pmj¡e−cl Eæ¢al p§Qe¡ quz fÐn¡p−el EµQf−c h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡e−cl A¢a eNZÉ pwMÉL b¡L¡u p¢Qh f−c Ah¡P¡¢m
j¤pmj¡e LjÑLaÑ¡l¡ i¡la ®b−L Afn¡e ¢c−u Y¡L¡u B−pez H S¡a£u f−c BC¢pHp (C¢äu¡e ¢p¢im p¡¢iÑ−pl
®m¡L) C ¢e−u¡N ®f−a¡z Se¡h e§l¦æh£ e¡−j HLSe j¡œ h¡P¡m£ j¤pmj¡e ¢R−me ¢k¢e pl¡p¢l ee, ¢h¢pHp ®b−L
f−c¡æ¢a ®f−u BC¢pHp fc¢h m¡i L−lez f¤¢mn ¢hi¡−N ¢e−u¡¢Sa ¢q¾c¤l¡ Afn¡e ¢c−u i¡l−a Q−m k¡Ju¡u
H−c−n hý b¡e¡u 3 ®b−L 5 S−el ®h¢n f¤¢mn LjÑQ¡l£ ¢R−m¡ e¡z SeN−Zl j−dÉ f¡¢LÙ¹¡e£ Skh¡ hÉ¡fL e¡ b¡L−m
X¡L¡al¡ I ph b¡e¡l AÙ»nÙ» m¤V L−l ¢e−u ®k−a¡z
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LjÑLaÑ¡ J LjÑQ¡l£ H−p I n§eÉ ÙÛ¡e f§lZ L−lez
1949 p¡m ®b−LC BC¢pHp fcjkÑc¡l ¢pHp¢f (¢p¢im p¡¢iÑp Ah f¡¢LÙ¹¡e) f−cl h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡−el ¢e−u¡N öl¦
quz f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el fÐbj ¢pHp¢f fl£r¡u Q–NË¡−jl ng£Em Bkj p¡l¡ f¡¢LÙ¹¡−e fÐbj ÙÛ¡e A¢dL¡l L−lez HjH
LÓ¡−p Bj¡l pqf¡W£ Lg£m¤Ÿ£e j¡qj¤c, gkm¤l l¡qj¡e, n¡jp¤l l¡qj¡e, gSm¤m qL j¤p¢mj q−m B¢j ¢SHp
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a¡−cl pwMÉ¡ h¡s−a b¡−Lz Y¡L¡u ¢jV−g¡XÑ ®j¢X−Lm ú¤m J Bqp¡e¤õ¡q C¢”¢eu¡¢lw ú¤m ¢R−m¡z ®j¢X−Lm J
C¢”¢eu¡¢lw ®L¡e L−mS ¢R−m¡ e¡z h¡P¡¢m j¤pm¡je X¡š²¡l J C¢”¢eu¡l HL-c¤’Bw…−m ®N¡e¡l ®h¢n pwMÉ¡u ¢R−m¡
e¡z L−mS ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu J q¡Cú¤−m j¤pmj¡e ¢nr−Ll pwMÉ¡ AaÉ¿¹ eNZÉ ¢R−m¡z ®pe¡h¡¢qe£−a c¤’S−el ®h¢n h¡P¡¢m
j¤pmj¡e LjÑLaÑ¡ ¢R−m¡ e¡z ®S¡u¡e−cl pwMÉ¡J eNZÉ ¢R−m¡z
f¡¢LÙ¹¡e L¡−uj qh¡l B−N Y¡L¡u ®L¡e q¡C−L¡VÑ ¢R−m¡ e¡z −L¡mL¡a¡ q¡C−L¡VÑ f§hhÑ −‰l j¤pmj¡e HX−i¡−LV
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p¤¢fÐj ®L¡−VÑ EµQ jkÑ¡c¡l Bp−el A¢dL¡l£ q−u−Rez q¡C−L¡VÑ J p¤¢fÐj ®L¡VÑ ®a¡ c§−ll Lb¡ ¢X¢ØṼ ®L¡VÑ J j¤e¢pg
−L¡−VÑJ h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡e p¡j¡eÉ L−uLSe j¡œ ¢R−mez

4747-H k¢c i¡la ¢hi¡N e¡ q−a¡
k¢c ’47 p¡−m f¡¢LÙ¹¡e L¡−uj e¡ q−a¡ a¡q−m haÑj¡e h¡wm¡−cn A¢hiš² i¡l−al HL¢V fÐ−c−nl jkÑc¡J ®f−a¡ e¡,
A¢hiš² h‰−c−nl Awn ¢q−p−h NZÉ q−a¡z A¢hiš² h¡wm¡u j¤p¢mj pwMÉ¡N¢lø qJu¡ p−šÆJ ¢q¾c¤ fÐd¡e i¡la l¡−øÌ
h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡e−cl Eæ¢al H jq¡ p¤−k¡N ¢L q−a¡, k¡ h¡wm¡−c−n q−u−R?
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p¡−b fС−c¢nL plL¡l ®k BQlZ L−l−R ®p ¢aš² A¢i‘a¡l g−mC i¡la ¢hi¡N (f¡¢LÙ¹¡e) B−¾c¡me â¦a
Se¢fÐua¡ m¡i L−lz i¡l−al ®k ph fÐ−cn−L f¡¢LÙ¹−el A¿¹i§Ñš² qh¡l c¡¢h Ll¡ qu¢e I ph j¤p¢mj pwMÉ¡N¢lù
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HV¡ ¢h−noi¡−h E−õM−k¡NÉ ®k, h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡el¡ f¡”¡h J ¢på¤l j¤pmj¡e−cl ®Q−uJ A−eL ®hn£ pwMÉ¡u
f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el f−r ®i¡V ¢c−u−Rz h¡wm¡−cn 1757 −b−L 1947 fkÑ¿¹ Cw−l−Sl l¡S¯e¢aL ®N¡m¡j b¡L¡L¡−m ¢q¾c¤−cl
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129

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phÑ−r−œ h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡e k−bø Eæ¢a Ll¡l p¤−k¡N ®f−u−Rz ®c−nl p¡¢hÑL Eæ¢a e¡ q−mJ ¢hl¡V pwMÉ¡u h¡P¡¢m
j¤pmj¡e °ho¢uL ¢cL ¢c−u m¡ih¡e q−u−Rz h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡e ¢h−c−nJ ¢hl¡V pwMÉ¡u k¡Ju¡l mr mr f¢lh¡l pµRm
q−u−Rz

4747-Hl i¡la ¢hi¡N ¢L i¤m ¢Rm?

HV¡ p¢aÉC ¢hpÈ−ul ¢hou ®k, HL ®nÐZ£l h¡P¡¢m S¡a£u¡h¡c£ i¡la ¢hi¡N i§m ¢R−m¡ h−m c¡¢h L−lz B¢j ®i−h f¡C
e¡ ®k, H p¡j¡eÉ Lb¡V¤L¤ a¡−cl jN−S ®Le Y¤−L e¡ ®k, ’47-H ¢hi¡N e¡ q−m ’71-H ü¡d£e qJu¡ L£ L−l pñh
q−a¡? HV¡ BlJ ¢hpÈuLl ®k, ®LE ’47-Hl Lb¡ hm−m ¢LR¤ BCeS£h£ Hhw h¤¢ÜS£h£l¡J ¢hl©f j¿¹hÉ L−le, k¡l¡
j¤pmj¡e qJu¡l L¡l−ZC f¢ÕQjh‰ −b−L ¢qSla L−l H−c−n Q−m Bp−a h¡dÉ qez H−c−n H−p a¡l¡ ®k Eæ¢a J
jkÑ¡c¡ m¡i L−l−R a¡ ¢L I −c−n pñh q−a¡?
lwf¤l L−m−Sl Lb¡ hm−a ¢N−u
lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−m−Sl ¢q¾c¤ ¢p¢eul AdÉ¡fLN−Zl ’51 ®b−L ’54 p¡−ml j−dÉ Ahpl NËq−Zl fl I ph f−c
h¡P¡¢m j¤pmj¡eNZ ¢e−u¡N f¡ez H Lb¡u fÐp‰ ®V−e mð¡ Lb¡ h−m ®gmm¡jz fÐp‰V¡ Hje ®k, pw−r−f hm¡ pñh
q−m¡ e¡z ea¤e fÐS−¾jl H ¢cLV¡ h¤T¡l Lb¡ eu, a¡l¡ ®a¡ ’47 f§hÑ AhÙÛ¡ S¡−e e¡z

¢hH LÓ¡−p

¢VQ¡pÑ Lje l¦−j HL ¢f¢luX pju Ef¢ÙÛa AdÉ¡fLN−Zl p¡−b f¢l¢Qa qh¡l p¤−k¡N ®fm¡jz f−ll ¢f¢lu−X
l¡øÌ¢hS‘¡−el ¢hH ¢àa£u h−oÑl LÓ¡−p ®Nm¡jz 35-40 Se R¡−œl j−dÉ 3 Se j¡œ R¡œ£z R¡œ−cl j−dÉ 2 S−el hup
Bj¡l ®Q−uJ ®h¢n j−e q−m¡z 3 hRl ®gm Ll¡l flJ ®l…m¡l R¡œ ¢q−p−h fl£r¡ ¢c−a Q¡uz aM−e¡ Cw−l¢S
i¡o¡lC LÓ¡−pl ph ®mLQ¡l −cJu¡ q−a¡z ®p p¤h¡−c R¡œ−cl p¡−b LÓ¡−pl h¡C−lJ h¡wm¡ e¡ h−m Cw−l¢S−aC Lb¡
hma¡jz Bj¡l hup£ R¡œ−cl p¡−b a¤¢j hm¡ ®b−L ®lq¡C f¡Ju¡l SeÉ Cw−l¢S−a hm¡C ¢el¡fc j−e Lla¡jz
Cw−l¢S J Blh£−a H pjpÉ¡ ®eCz h¡wm¡u ®a¡ Bf¢e, a¤¢j J a¤C-Hl ¢hl¡V pjpÉ¡z R¡œ−cl−L a¤¢j hm¡l AiÉ¡p
Ll−a 6 j¡−pl J ®h¢n pju ®m−N ®N−m¡z fСu 5 hRl AdÉ¡fe¡l fl B−¾c¡m−el fÐ−u¡S−e kMe Q¡L¢l ®b−L ®hl
q−u Hm¡j aMe Bj¡l R¡œ eu Hje ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul R¡œ−clJ a¤¢j hma¡jz R¡œ q−m Bl Bf¢e hm−a f¡la¡j e¡z
39.

lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−mSx f¢l−hn J jkÑ¡c¡

¢hТVn n¡pe¡j−m A¢hiš² h‰−c−n fy¡Q¢V L−mS ¢fТju¡l (fÐd¡e) L−mS ¢q−p−h ¢hMÉ¡a ¢R−m¡z −L¡mL¡a¡
®fТp−X¢¾p L−mS R¡s¡ h¡¢L 4¢V L−mSC h¡wm¡−c−n l−u−Rz Hl j−dÉ lwf¤l L¡lj¡C−Lm L−mS HL¢Vz 9 HLl
¢hÙ¹ªa S¢jl Efl L−mS¢V fТa¢ùaz L−m−Sl ¢hn¡m ¢h¢ôw-Hl Q¡¢lf¡−n ¢fТ¾pf¡−ml SeÉ ¢e¢cÑø h¡pihe Hhw
AdÉ¡fhN−Zl SeÉ hs J ®R¡V ®hn pwMÉL h¡pihe aMeJ ¢R−m¡z
L−mS¢V lwf¤l nql ®b−L ®cs-c¤’j¡Cm c§−l Ah¢ÙÛa Hm¡L¡¢Vl Ešl ¢c−L Y¡L¡-¢ce¡Sf¤l ®lm m¡Ce Hhw h¡¢L
¢ae ¢c−LC NË¡jz L−m−Sl j§m ¢h¢ôw-Hl Q¡¢lf¡−n ¢hn¡m juc¡ez L−m−Sl f§hÑ-c¢rZ −L¡−Z R¡œ−cl ®q¡−ØVmz
BcnÑ ¢nr¡‰−el SeÉ QjvL¡l n¡¿¹ f¢l−hn ®c−M Bj¡l M¤hC i¡m m¡Nmz Y¡L¡u LÓ¡p e¡Ce ®b−L HjH f¡p Ll¡
fkÑ¿¹ ®L¡b¡J Hje f¢l−hn f¡C¢ez Xƒl °puc Bm£ Bqp¡e h−m−Re, ®Se¡−lm ¢Su¡El lqj¡−el j¢¿»pi¡u ¢nr¡
¢hi¡−Nl c¡¢uaÅn£m b¡L¡L¡−m ¢a¢e lwf¤l L−mS¢V−L ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u Eæ£a Ll¡l fl¡jnÑ ¢c−u¢R−mez ¢Su¡El lqj¡e
e¡¢L pÇj¢a ¢c−u¢R−mez

130

l¡Sn¡q£, Q–NË¡j, M¤me¡ J ¢p−m−V ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul SeÉ S¢j pwNËq Ll−a q−u−Rz lwf¤−l ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul SeÉ S¢j
®k¡N¡s Ll¡lJ fÐ−u¡Se ®eCz L−m−Sl ¢hn¡m Hm¡L¡u ¢h¢ôw ¢ejÑ¡Z Ll¡l SeÉ S¡uN¡l Ai¡h ®eCz AbQ HM−e¡
fkÑ¿¹ lwf¤−l ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu L¡−uj e¡ qJu¡ ¢hpÈ−ul ¢houz

AdÉ¡fL−cl
AdÉ¡fL−cl p¡j¡eÉ ®hae

B¢j j¡œ 150 V¡L¡ ®hae J 30 V¡L¡ jq¡OÑÉi¡a¡ ¢j−m ®j¡V 180 V¡L¡u Q¡L¢l S£he öl¦ Llm¡jz I pju ea¤e
j¤p¢mj l¡øÌ ¢q−p−h EµQf−cl plL¡¢l Q¡L¢l−a ®k¡Nc¡−el ¢hl¡V p¤−k¡N ¢R−m¡z I ph Q¡L¢l−a ®k ®hae f¡Ju¡
®k−a¡ ®p a¤me¡u ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul ¢nrL−cl ®hae eNZÉC ¢R−m¡z Hl g−m Eæa J BcnÑ ¢nr¡¢hc qJu¡l ®k¡NÉ
hÉ¢š²l¡J plL¡¢l p¤¢f¢lul p¡¢iÑp−L fСd¡eÉ ¢c−u ¢hnÄ¢hdÉ¡m−u ¢nrLa¡l ®fn¡ aÉ¡N Ll−a h¡dÉ qez Bj¡l pjp¡j¢uL ¢p¢eul J S¤¢eul ®hn L−uLSe pÇf−LÑ S¡¢e ®k, a¡l¡ pÇj¡eSeL ®hae ®f−m ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ¢nrLa¡l
®fn¡ aÉ¡N L−l ¢pHp¢f f−cl BLoÑ−Z Q−m ®k−ae e¡z
¢nr¡l j¡e Eæa Ll−a q−m Eæa j¡−el ¢nrL fÐ−u¡Sez Bl Eæa j¡−el ¢nrL ®f−a q−m ¢nrL−cl ®hae Hje
f¢lj¡Z qJu¡ fÐ−u¡Se, k¡−a k¡l¡ H ®fn¡−L fR¾c L−l a¡l¡ ®ke i¡m ®ha−el SeÉ AeÉ ®fn¡u ®k−a h¡dÉ e¡ quz
ú¤m, L−mS J ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u ea¤e k¡l¡ ¢nrL ¢q−p−h ®k¡Nc¡e L−l a¡−cl j−dÉ ®jd¡h£ hÉ¢š²l¡ L−uL hRl fkÑ¿¹
plL¡¢l Q¡L¢ll SeÉ ®Qø¡ Ll−a b¡−Lez e¡ ®f−m h¡dÉ q−uC ¢nrLa¡l ®fn¡u −b−L k¡ez
Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ®b−L Cw−l¢S−a g¡ØVÑ LÓ¡p Hhw Cw−l¢S−a hš²ªa¡u Burk of the East Ef¡¢d ®f−uJ r¤â L¤¢Vl
¢n−Òfl hs LjÑLa¡Ñ b¡L¡L¡−m Se¡h Bk£k¤m q−Ll p¡−b 60 h¡ 61 p¡−m Bj¡l ®cM¡ q−m ay¡−L ¢S−‘p Llm¡j,
“¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u Bfe¡l p¤e¡j k−bø ö−e¢Rz Bfe¡l ÙÛ¡e ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u q−m¡ e¡ ®Le? HM¡−e Bfe¡−L j¡e¡u e¡z”
®pL¡−m ¢hТVn f¡m¡Ñ−j−¾V Edmund Burk ®nÐù hš²¡ ¢q−p−h MÉ¡a ¢R−mez ay¡l p¡−b a¤me¡ L−lC ay¡−L I Ef¡¢d
®cJu¡ quz
¢a¢e ®hce¡l p¡−b S¡e¡−me, “k¢c üf¢lh¡−l ü¡µR−¾cÉ Qm¡l j−a¡ ®hae ®fa¡j a¡q−m ¢hnÄ¢hdÉ¡m−uC ®b−L
−ka¡jz”
Bj¡l pqf¡W£ Lg£m¤cc£e j¡qj¤c 48 p¡−m HjH-®a g¡ØVÑ LÓ¡p ®f−u Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u l¡øÌ¢h‘¡−el ®mLQ¡l¡l
¢q−p−h ®k¡Nc¡e L−lz k¢c i¡m ®hae ®f−a¡ a¡q−m ¢pHp¢f q−u AeÉ ®fn¡u ®k−a¡ e¡z H lLj ®hn ¢LR¤ ®m¡−Ll
Lb¡ Bj¡l S¡e¡ B−Rz
Bj¡l Lb¡ Bm¡c¡z B¢j ®a¡ ¢jne¡l£ j−e¡i¡h ¢e−u ¢nrLa¡l ®fn¡ NËqZ L−l¢Rm¡jz ®ha−el AwL Bj¡l ¢eLV
¢hou j−e q−m B¢j a¡−cl j−a¡ ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−a h¡dÉ qa¡jz
¢hH g¡Ce¡m LÓ¡−pl R¡œ−cl B¢j ¢nrLa¡l ®fn¡ NËqZ Ll¡l SeÉ Eà¤Ü Lla¡jz a¡−cl−L hma¡j ®k, H ®fn¡¢V
Hje ®k ®fn¡u M¡¢a−lC °e¢aL j¡e hS¡u l¡M¡l fÐ−u¡Se quz O¤o J c¤e£Ñ¢a ®b−L ®hy−Q b¡L¡ k¡u, p¡l¡S£he
R¡œ−cl i¢š²-nÐÜ¡ f¡Ju¡ k¡u, ®c−nl i¢hoÉv e¡N¢lL−cl−L Q¢lœh¡e qJu¡l SeÉ EÜ¤Ü Ll¡ k¡uz
e£mg¡j¡l£ ®Sm¡l ¢Xjm¡ q¡Cú¤−ml AhplfÐ¡ç ®qXj¡ØV¡l Bj¡l ¢fÐu R¡œ Bë¤m jS£c (a¡l haÑj¡e hup 73 hRl)
¢LR¤¢ce f§−hÑ Bj¡l p¡−b −cM¡ L−l ®N−m¡z hmm, “pÉ¡l ö−e M¤¢n q−he ®k, B¢j hªqšl lwf¤−l 21 ¢V ú¤m L¡−uj
L−l¢Rz” h¤Tm¡j, a¡l c£OÑ ¢nrLa¡l S£he pÇf−LÑ ®p N¢hÑaz
lwf¤l L−m−S j¡œ L−uL hRl ¢nrL ¢Rm¡jz Cpm¡j£ B−¾c¡−el V¡−e I ®fn¡ aÉ¡N Ll−a h¡dÉ e¡ q−m I ®fn¡−aC
p¡l¡S£he L¡V¡a¡jz I ®fn¡¢V Bj¡l Ha ¢fÐu ¢R−m¡ ®k, hý hý hRl j¡−T j¡−T ü−fÀ ®cMa¡j ®k, L−m−S fs¡¢µR
h¡ L−m−S k¡¢µRz ¢nrLa¡ ®fn¡l BlJ HL¢V aª¢ç l−u−Rz j¡œ L−uL hRl L−m−S ¢nrLa¡ L−l¢Rz hªqšl lwf¤l
J h…s¡u p¡wNW¢eL h¡ l¡S¯e¢aL pg−l ®N−m Bj¡l R¡œ f¢lQu ¢c−u ®cM¡ Ll−a k¡l¡ Bp−a¡ a¡−cl j−dÉ
131

¢nr−Ll pwMÉ¡C ®h¢nz a¡−cl i¢š², nÐÜ¡ J i¡mh¡p¡l ¢L ®L¡e j§mÉ ®eC? B¢j H−a ®k aª¢ç ®h¡d L¢l a¡ hÙ¹¤Na
j§−mÉl ®Q−uJ A−eL hsz Y¡L¡u Hje ®hn pwMÉL R¡œ ®f−u¢R, k¡l¡ plL¡l£ LjÑLaÑ¡ h¡ LjÑQ¡l£z
Bj¡l Bfe Q¡Q¡a i¡C L¤cl−a ®M¡c¡ h¢ln¡m ¢hHj L−m−S c£OÑL¡m ¢gmpg£l ¢nrL ¢R−m¡z fÐ−gpl ¢q−p−h
c¡¢uaÅ f¡m−el fl T¡mL¡¢W plL¡¢l L−m−Sl ¢fТ¾pf¡m ¢q−p−h ¢lV¡u¡l Ll¡l fl Y¡L¡ nq−l HL¢V fСC−iV
L−m−Sl ¢fТ¾pf¡m ¢q−p−h LjÑlaz Bj¡l NË¡j h£lNy¡−ul q¡Cú¤m L¢j¢Vl pi¡f¢al c¡¢uaÅJ f¡me Ll−Rz H ú¤m¢V
Bj¡l Q¡Q¡ j¤p¢mj m£N ®ea¡ HX−i¡−LV ng£L¤m Cpm¡−jl E−cÉ¡−N J fÐ−Qø¡uC ÙÛ¡¢fa q−u−Rz a¡l L−mS J I
ú¤−ll ¢h¢iæ pjpÉ¡ ¢e−u a¡−L plL¡¢l LjÑLa¡Ñ−cl ¢eLV ®k−a quz
Bj¡l I i¡C¢V AaÉ¿¹ Be¾c J aª¢ç−h¡d ¢e−u Bj¡−L S¡e¡m ®k, ®p ®k A¢g−pC ¢N−u−R LjÑLaÑ¡−cl j−dÉ a¡l
R¡œ f¡Ju¡u â¦a L¡S pj¡d¡ Ll−a prj q−u−Rz k¡−cl−L AeÉ¡l¡ pÉ¡l p−ð¡de L−l a¡l¡C a¡−L ‘pÉ¡l’ h−m
®Qu¡l ®b−L cy¡¢s−u AiÉbÑe¡ S¡e¡uz
¢hNa BJu¡j£ n¡pe¡j−m Bj¡−cl NË¡−jl HL ®R−m ¢h¢pHp fl£r¡u i¡m eðl ®f−u f¡h¢mL p¡¢iÑp L¢jn−e
C¾V¡l¢iE ¢c−a ®N−m¡z a¡l c¤iÑ¡NÉ ®k, Jl ¢fa¡ Bj¡l e¡−j a¡l e¡j ®l−M−Rez Jl ¢fa¡ NË¡j£Z pÇf−LÑ Bj¡l
Q¡Q¡, k¢cJ hu−p Bj¡l ®R¡Vz ®p ¢q−p−h Bj¡−L ®p ‘i¡Cp¡h’ X¡−Lz C¾V¡l¢iE−a Jl e¡j ®c−MC EoÈ¡l p¡−b
L¢jn−el HL pcpÉ j¿¹hÉ L−le, “¢eÕQuC ®a¡j¡l h¡h¡ l¡S¡L¡lz a¡ e¡ q−m H e¡j l¡M−h ®Le? ®a¡j¡l C¾V¡l¢iE
®eJu¡ q−h e¡z” Na hRl ®p Bh¡l fl£r¡ ¢cmz C¾V¡l¢iJ ®fmz C¾V¡l¢iEl f§−hÑ Bj¡l I Q¡Q¡a i¡C¢V f¡h¢mL
p¡¢iÑp L¢jn−e I ®R−m¢V−L ¢e−u ®N−m¡z S¡e−a f¡lm ®k, L¢jn−el ®jð¡l−cl HLSe a¡l R¡œz Bj¡l e¡−jl
p¡−b ¢jm b¡L¡l L¡l−Z C¾V¡l¢iE ¢e−a Aü£L¡l Ll¡ ®k AeÉ¡u ®p Lb¡ hm¡l fl Hh¡l ¢e−a l¡¢S q−m¡z
Bj¡−cl NË¡−jl ú¤m pwmNÀ HL¢V CE¢eue ®qmb ®p¾V¡−ll SeÉ S¡uN¡ ®k¡N¡s L−l ®cJu¡ p−šÆJ 10 hRl ®b−L
Hj¢e f−s B−Rz Hm¡L¡l Hj¢f BJu¡j£ m£−Nl qJu¡u Hl SeÉ ®Qø¡ L−l¢ez Hh¡l Bj¡l i¡C¢V j¿»Z¡m−ul
pw¢nÔø LjÑLaÑ¡l p¡−b ®cM¡ Ll−a −N−m a¡−L ®c−MC Eš² LjÑLaÑ¡ cy¡¢s−u ®N−m¡z Bj¡l i¡C a¡−L ¢Qe−a f¡−l¢e
R¡œ ¢q−p−hz ¢a¢e hm−me, pÉ¡l, L£ j−e L−l H−p−Re? aMe ¢houV¡ a¡−L hm¡ q−m ¢a¢e hm−me, H hR−ll ®L¡V¡
®no q−u ®N−Rz j¿»£ c¤−V¡ ®Lp ¢lS¡iÑ ®l−M−Rez Bj¡l i¡C hmm, H ®b−L ¢c−u c¡Jz LjÑLaÑ¡ hm−me, j¿»£−L
¢S−‘p e¡ L−l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−a f¡lh e¡z k¡ ®q¡L ®no fkÑ¿¹ L¡SV¡ q−m¡z
R¡œ ka hsC q−u k¡L e¡ ®Le fСCj¡l£ ¢nrLJ a¡l pÉ¡lC b¡−Lz B¢j HjH LÓ¡−pl R¡œ b¡L¡L−m Bj¡l NË¡−jl
fСCj¡l£ ¢nrL−L f¡ Ry−¤ u p¡m¡j Llm¡jz HV¡C pj¡−Sl fÐb¡z AhnÉ H fÐb¡ Bl f¡me Ll¢R e¡ hý hRl ®b−Lz
¢a¢e Bj¡−L h¤−L S¢s−u ®c¡u¡ Ll−a b¡L−mez
Bj¡l Bî¡ hm−ae, ®LE Q¡u e¡ ®k, Afl ®LE a¡l ®b−L hs −q¡Lz ¢L¿º ¢fa¡ Bn¡ L−le ®k, a¡l p¿¹¡e a¡l
®b−L hs ®q¡L Hhw ¢nrLJ a¡l R¡œ hs q−u−R S¡e−m −N±lh ®h¡d L−lz k¡l¡ p¢aÉL¡l ¢nrL a¡l¡ R¡œ−cl L¡R
®b−L ¢fa¡l j−a¡C pÇj¡e J nÐÜ¡ ®f−u b¡−Lz ¢nrLa¡l ®fn¡ Bj¡l ¢eLV −pl¡ ®fn¡z H ®fn¡ j¡e¤o Ns¡l jq¡e
®fn¡z
l¡p§m (p) h−m−Re, “B¢j ¢nrL ¢q−p−h q−u¢Rz” AhnÉ HV¡ ay¡l ®fn¡ ¢q−p−h h−me¢ez ¢a¢e j¡eh S¡¢al ¢nrLz
S£h−el phÑ−r−œ ¢a¢e ph¡l BcnÑ ¢nrLz
40.

lwf¤l−L i¡m−h−p ®gmm¡j

lwf¤lC Bj¡l fÐbj J ®no LjÑÙÛmz Q¡L¢l S£he JM¡−eC öl¦ Hhw pj¡çz HjH fl£r¡l gm fÐL¡n qJu¡l B−N
j¡p ®c−sL ®k HL¡Ee−V¾V ®Se¡−lm A¢g−p ¢Rm¡j a¡ LjÑÙÛm ¢q−p−h NZÉ euz I A¢g−pl LjÑLaÑ¡ J LjÑQ¡l£−cl
p¡j−e ®k¡q−ll e¡j¡−kl pju a¡hm£−N à£−el c¡¢uaÅ f¡m−el E−Ÿ−nÉC HL¡Ee−V¾V p¡C−uc j¤q¡Çjc S¡¢jm Bj¡−L
¢e−u¡N ¢c−u¢R−mez CE¢X LÓ¡LÑ ¢q−p−h B¢j ¢hi¡N£u p¤f¡¢le−Ve−X−¾Vl p−¿¹¡oJ AhnÉ ASÑe L−l¢Rm¡jz lwf¤l
132

L−mS, nql, ®Sl¡ J j¡e¤o Bj¡l ¢fÐu j−e q−m¡z L−mS LÉ¡Çf¡p−a¡ l£¢aj−a¡ BLoÑZ£uC ¢R−m¡ Bh¡¢pL hÉhÙÛ¡
b¡L¡u h¡p¡ ®b−L ®qy−V 4/5 ¢j¢e−Vl j−dÉC L−m−S ®f±yR¡ ®k−a¡z ¢h−L−m J pL¡−m L−m−Sl fÐnÙ¹ juc¡−e qy¡V−a
®hn i¡−m¡ m¡N−a¡z R¡œl¡ M¤hC iâ J ejË ¢R−m¡z AdÉ¡fL−cl p¡−b jd¤l pÇfLÑ N−s EW−m¡z AdÉ¡fL−cl j−dÉ
k¡−cl f¢lh¡l p¡−b ¢Rm e¡ a¡l¡ −k h¡p¡u ®jp L−l b¡L−ae B¢j a¡−cl p¡−bC hph¡p öl¦ L¢lz B¢j aMeJ
hÉ¡−Qm¡lz AeÉ−cl−L B¢j hma¡j jÉ¡−lX hÉ¡−Qmlz a¡−cl HLSe h¡wm¡l AdÉ¡fL S¢jl¦Ÿ£e Bqjcz

Bj¡l ¢fÐu p¡C−Lm

L−mS ®b−L lwf¤l nql j¡Cm ®c−sL c§−lz k¡a¡u¡−al SeÉ ¢l„¡C HLj¡œ pðmz Y¡L¡ ®b−L Bj¡l ¢fÐu
q¡l¢LE¢mp p¡C−Lm¢V lwf¤l ¢e−u k¡h¡l f§hÑ fkÑ¿¹ ¢l„¡C nq−l ®ka¡jz p¡C−Lm¢V ¢fÐu h−m E−õM Llm¡jz I pju
h¡S¡−ll ®pl¡ p¡C−Lm ¢R−m¡ q¡l¢LE¢mpz ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul HL ¢q¾c¤ AdÉ¡fL (e¡jV¡ j−e Bp−R e¡) Ahpl NËqZ
L−l ®L¡mL¡a¡ Q−m¡ k¡h¡l f§−hÑ a¡l ¢fÐu J O¢eù R¡œ ¢q−p−h Bj¡−L S¡e¡−me ®k, ay¡l p¡C−LmV¡ ¢h¢œ² Ll−a
Q¡e, B¢j ®ke NË¡qL ®k¡N¡s L−l ®cCz B¢j ¢e−SC ®e−h¡ hm¡u ¢a¢e M¤¢n q−u hm−me ®k, B¢j M¤h kaÁ L−l
l¡Ma¡j h−m ea¤−el j−a¡C ®cM¡uz a¤¢jJ Bj¡l ¢fÐu p¡C−Lm¢V−L kaÁ Ll−hz p−‰ L¡−Wl ØVÉ¡ä l−u−Rz V¡u¡−ll
Efl k¡−a Q¡f e¡ f−s ®p SeÉ ØVÉ¡−ä l¡M−hz ®k ®L¡e ¢S¢e−pl kb¡kb kaÁ ¢e−m hý¢ce ®VLpq quz 1949 p¡−m
250 V¡L¡u p¡C−Lm¢V ¢L¢ez
1955 p¡−m L−mS ®b−L Q−m Bp¡l fl Y¡L¡uJ p¡C−Lm¢VC Qm¡Qm Lla¡jz kaÁJ B−NJ j−a¡C Lla¡jz Bj¡l
HL n¡m¡ p¡C−LmV¡ hÉhq¡l Ll−a¡z pÇfLÑV¡ Hje ®k, Q¡C−m e¡ ¢c−u k¡u e¡z ®p HLh¡l ¢e−u ®N−m¡ Hhw p¡C−Lm
R¡s¡C h¡¢s−a ¢g−l H−m¡z S¡e¡−m¡ ®k, Aj¤L S¡uN¡ ®b−L p¡C−Lm Q¤¢l q−u ®N−m¡z j−e M¤hC c¤xM ®fm¡j, ¢L¿º
fÐL¡n Ll¡l i¡o¡ ®fm¡j e¡z Bj¡l j¡-n¡ Bõ¡ 4 Se n¡m¡z a¡−cl−L L¡−l¡ p¡−b f¢lQu Ll¡−a q−m ‘n¡m¡ p¡−qh’
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135

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42.

l¡øi¡o¡ B−¾c¡me
B−¾c¡me

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pÇf−LÑ Sl¦¢l ¢hou a¤−m dl¡ B¢j fÐ−u¡Se j−e Ll¢Rz
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139

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dle¡l B−hNf§ZÑ fÐL¡nC q−m¡ H AnЦz
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e¡−j A¢i¢qa Ll¡ quz f¡œfr f¡e J ¢jø¡æ ¢e−u B−p h−m qua H f¢li¡o¡l S¾j q−u−Rz
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146

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E¢Qa, ®p−qa¤ Hje AwLC d¡kÑ Ll−m i¡m qu, k¡ Bc¡u Ll−a −h¢n ®c¢l Ll−a e¡ quz ®R−m ®k ®ha−e Q¡L¢l L−l
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147

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n¡m£e ¢h−u

Cpm¡−jl cª¢ø−a iâ J n¡m£e ¢h−u−a k¡ q¡Ju¡ E¢Qax

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fÐÙ¡¹ h Lh¤m Ll−mez
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Hje Lb¡ Bfe¡−L hm−hz”
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Bj¡l ¢h−ul Ae¤ù¡−el fl
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148

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l¦p§j¡−al Ae¤ù¡e

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p¡b£l ®Qq¡l¡ ®cM¡l p¤−k¡N ®fm¡jz ¢S−‘p Llm¡j, “pl¡p¢l ®cM¡ ¢e−od e¡¢L?” A¢i‘ e¡e£ n¡ö¢s SJu¡h
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151

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152

AbQ a¡l hs ®h¡e AdÉ¡¢fL¡ p¡C−uc¡ k¡¢Lu¡ M¡a¤e Bj¡l nÄöl p¡−q−hl ®Qø¡u H ®c−n fÐbj j¢qm¡ L¡−jm f¡−pl
®N±lh ASÑe L−l−Rez N¡mÑp ú¤−m Blh£ ¢n¢rL¡ ¢q−p−h ¢a¢e LjÑS£he öl¦ L−l Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡mu ®b−L Blh£ J
Cpm¡¢jL ØV¡¢X−S Xhm HjH f¡p L−le Hhw Y¡L¡l ®p¡ql¡Ju¡cÑ£ ¢X¢NË L−m−Sl i¡Cp ¢fТ¾pf¡m ¢q−p−h Ahpl
NËqZ L−lez B¢j a¡l ®h¡e−L H f−b H…−a e¡ ®ch¡l SeÉ Bg−p¡p Ll¢Rz
f¡¢LÙ¹¡e Bj−m BCu¤h M¡−el °üln¡p−el ¢hl¦−Ü ¢h−l¡d£ cm…−m¡l ILÉhå B−¾c¡m−el pju ®ek¡−j Cpm¡j
f¡¢VÑl fС−c¢nL ®Se¡−lm ®p−œ²V¡¢l j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡C−uc j¤p−mýŸ£−el p¡−b Bj¡l O¢eù qh¡l p¤k¡N quz ®cM¡ ®N−m¡
®k, Bj¡l c§l pÇf−LÑl BaÈ£u Hhw pÇfLÑV¡J jd¤lz ¢a¢e e¡e¡ Bl B¢j e¡¢az ¢a¢e M¤h l¢pL ¢R−mez e¡¢a ¢q−p−h
W¡–¡ Ll¡l p¤−k¡N −f−u f¡¢lh¡¢lL A−eL Lb¡ S¡e−a Q¡C−mez j¡Jm¡e¡ p¡−qh ¢L−n¡lN−”l qklaeNl L¡−jm
j¡cÚl¡p¡l ¢f¢¾pf¡m ¢R−mez Bj¡l Ù»£−L g¡¢km fl£r¡ ®Le −cJu¡m¡j e¡ ®p SeÉ Bj¡−L j¾cn¾c hm−mez
¢a¢e H fÐp−‰ Evp¡−ql p¡−b E−õM Ll−me ®k, H −c−n HL¢V ®j−u L¡−jm f¡p Ll¡l Mhl L¡−jm j¡cÚl¡p¡…−m¡
S¡e¡ B−Rz ¢hlm OVe¡l L¡l−Z ®j−u¢Vl e¡jJ Bjl¡ j−e ®l−M¢Rz S¡e−a Q¡C−m hm−me ‘k¡¢Lu¡’z B¢j a¡l p¡−b
p−S¡−l qÉ¡ä−nL L−l hm¡mjz ‘a¡lC ®R¡V ®h¡e B¢gg¡ Bj¡l Ù»£’z aMe ¢a¢e l£¢aja iÑvpe¡ Ll−me ®k, a¡l
®h¡e−L ®Le H…−a ¢cm¡j e¡z ¢a¢e Hlfl Bj¡l nÄös pÇf−LÑ B−l¡ S¡e−a Q¡C−me Hhw a¡l fТa Ni£l nÐÜ¡
S¡e¡−mez

¢h−u S£h−el HL V¡¢eÑw f−u¾V

1954 p¡−m B¢j kMe S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a ®k¡Nc¡e L¢l aMe Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u AbÑe£¢a ¢hi¡−Nl HL EcѤi¡o£
AdÉ¡fL j¤q¡Çjc Jk¡−ul Y¡L¡ nql S¡j¡u¡−al Bj£l ¢R−mez l¦Le h¡e¡h¡l hÉ¡f¡−l ¢a¢e H e£¢a NËqZ L−l¢R−me
®k, A¢hh¡¢qa ®L¡e ®m¡L−L l¦Le h¡e¡−e¡ E¢Qa euz Hl L¡lZ hÉ¡MÉ¡ Ll−a ¢N−u ¢a¢e hm−ae ®k, B−¾c¡m−e
ANËpl qh¡l f−lJ ¢hfl£a f¡¢lh¡¢lL f¢l−h−n ¢h−u Ll¡u B−¾c¡me ®b−L ¢f¢R−u fs¡l Ec¡qlZ l−u−Rz
Nl£h f¢lh¡−ll ®jd¡h£ R¡œ djÑ£u f¢l−h−n N−s EW¡ p−šÆJ hs Q¡L¢l ®f−u de£ f¢lh¡−l ¢h−u L−l Ù»£−L Cpm¡−jl
¢c−L fÐi¡¢ha Ll−a hÉbÑ q−u Ù»£ J nÄös f¢lh¡−ll L¡mQ¡lC NËqZ Ll−a h¡dÉ q−u−Rz Hje Ec¡qlZ Bj¡l ®hn
S¡e¡ B−Rz à£ec¡l f¢lh¡−ll ®R−m ab¡L¢ba M¡¾c¡e£ f¢lh¡−ll ®j−u ¢h−u L−l ¢e−Sl f¡¢lh¡¢lL I¢aqÊ hq¡m
l¡M−a hÉbÑ q−a ®c−M¢Rz
a¡C ¢h−ul hÉ¡f¡l¢V AaÉ¿¹ …l¦aÅf§ZÑz Bj¡l O¢eù f¢l¢Qa HLS−el LeÉ¡−L fcÑ¡l p¡−b N−s a¤mh¡l fl ®k ®R−ml
¢eLV ¢h−u ¢c−me a¡l f¢lh¡−l fcÑ¡l h¡m¡C ®eCz ®p ®R−m J¢mj¡u Bj¡−L c¡Ju¡a ¢c−m¡z p¡j¡¢SLa¡l c¡¢h−a
®k−a q−m¡ z LeÉ¡l ¢fa¡ Bj¡−L Ae¤−l¡d Ll−me ®ke B¢j ®R−m−L fcÑ¡l hÉ¡f¡−l Ef−cn ®cCz B¢j hmm¡j,
®R−ml j−dÉ Dj¡e J Cpm¡−jl j¡e¢pLa¡ pª¢ø e¡ L−l fcÑ¡l e¢pqa AbÑq£ez ¢h−u ®ch¡l ¢pÜ¡¿¹ −eh¡l f§−hÑC ®R−ml
à£e£ q¡m ®cM¡ fÐ−u¡Sez
47.

Cpm¡−j ¢h−ul …l¦aÅ

Bj¡l ¢h−u pÇf−LÑ B−m¡Qe¡ fÐp‰ ¢q−p−h Cpm¡−j ¢h−ul …l¦aÅ pð−å ¢LR¤ Lb¡ hm¡ fÐ−u¡Se j−e L¢lz

Bõ¡ql a¡Bm¡ j¡eh hwn ¢hÙ¹¡−ll E−Ÿ−nÉ e¡l£ J f¤l¦−ol j−dÉ ¢jme−L h¡dÉa¡j§mL Ll¡l fÐ−u¡S−eC Ei−ul
j−dÉ ®k±e BLoÑZ pª¢ø L−l−Rez j¡e¤o−L °e¢aL S£h ¢q¢p−h N−s a¤mh¡l E−Ÿ−nÉ f¡¢lh¡¢lL ¢hÙ¹¡¢la ¢hd¡e
¢c−u−Rez Abѯe¢aL J l¡S¯e¢aL ¢cLpq AeÉ¡eÉ ¢ho−u H−a¡ ¢hÙ¹¡¢la f¢lf§ZÑ ¢hd¡e ®ce¢ez ®j±¢mL LaL ¢hd¡e
¢c−u Hl ¢i¢š−a ¢hÙ¹¡¢la ¢hd¡e lQe¡l c¡¢uaÅ j¡e¤o−L ®cJu¡ q−u−R: ¢L¿º f¡¢lh¡¢lL hÉ¡f¡−l Hje f¢lf§ZÑ ¢hd¡e
c¡e L−l−Re, k¡−a j¡e¤o−L H ¢ho−u ®L¡e ¢h¢d fÐZue Ll¡l clL¡l e¡ quz
Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡ f¡¢lh¡¢lL hÉhÙÛ¡−L p‰a L¡l−ZC H−a¡ …l¦aÅ ¢c−u−Rez j¡eh pj¡−Sl r¤âaj J fСb¢jL CE¢eVC
q−m¡ f¡¢lh¡lz Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡ j¡eª¤o−L ®k j¡−e N−s ®a¡m¡ fR¾c L−le Hl SeÉ f¢lh¡lC q−m¡ fÐbj ¢nr¡muz
153

HL¢V p¢aÉL¡l piÉ j¡eh pj¡S Ns−a q−m f¢lh¡l−LC ¢i¢š ¢q−p−h Ns−a q−hz a¡C Bõ¡q a¡Bm¡ p¤¾claj
f¢lh¡l Ns¡l SeÉ ¢hÙ¹¡¢la ¢hd¡e ¢e−SC lQe¡ L−l ¢c−u−Rez
¢hh¡qC q−m¡ f¡¢lh¡¢lh ¢hd¡−el öl¦z e¡l£ J f¤l¦−ol j−dÉ ®k ®k±e BLoÑZ pª¢ø Ll¡ q−u−R a¡ Hje a£hÐ J fÐQä
®k, j¡e¤o BLªø q−a h¡dÉz ¢h−u R¡s¡ ®ke e¡l£-f¤l¦−ol ¢jme e¡ O−V H ¢ho−ul Efl Cpm¡j AaÉ¿¹ …l¦aÅ¡−l¡f
L−l−Rz f¢hœ ®k±e pÇf−LÑl HLj¡œ j¡dÉj ¢q−p−hC ¢h−ul …l¦aÅz

dj£Ñu E−Ÿ−nÉ A¢hh¡¢qa b¡L¡

Bj¡l HL g¤g¡a i¢NÀf¢al hs i¡C pj¡−S cl−hn ¢q−p−h f¢l¢Qa ¢R−mez ¢a¢e ¢h−u L−le¢ez B−mj¡e¡ ®f¡n¡L
f−l mð¡ m¡¢W q¡−a Qm¡−gl¡ Ll−aez p¡l¡hRl ®l¡k¡ l¡M−aez j¡e¤o−L ®eL qJu¡l ep£qa Ll−aez j¾c L¡S
−cM−m ®r−f ®k−ae Hhw m¡¢W −c¢M−u ¢ehªš Ll−aez j¡e¤o a¡−L pj£q Ll−a¡z HL¢ce ¢S−‘p Llm¡j, “¢h−u
L−le e¡ ®Le?” SJu¡h ¢c−me, “B¢j Bõ¡q−L ®f−a Q¡Cz pwp¡−l S¢s−u fs−a Q¡C e¡z” HL¢ce ®h¡−el p¡−b
®cM¡ Ll−a ®k−u ®c¢M Bj¡l i¡−NÀ (ay¡l i¡C−f¡) ay¡l ®L¡−m Hhw flj ®pÀ−ql p¡−b ¢a¢e a¡−L ¢e−u ®Mm¡ Ll−Rez
®h¡e−L ¢S−‘p Llm¡j, ¢a¢e Bfe¡l h¡µQ¡−cl−L M¤h Bcl L−le j−e quz ®h¡e hm−me, “Bcl j¡−e ¢L, B¢j
fkÑ¿¹ a¡l p¡j−e ¢e−Sl p¿¹¡e−L djL ¢c−a p¡qp f¡C e¡z”
a¡yl e¡j Jjl£ cl−hnz B¢j ay¡−L hmm¡j, Bf¢e ¢gal¡−al ¢hl¦−Ü Qm−a ¢N−u fl¡¢Sa q−u−Rez pwp¡−l
S¢s−uC B−Rez öd¤ öd¤ ¢h−u e¡ L−l S£heV¡ eø Ll−mez SJu¡−h hm−me, ®a¡jl¡ h¤T−h e¡z Bj¡−L Hi¡−hC
b¡L−a c¡Jz
q¡c£−p B−R, HL¢ce ¢ae hÉ¢š² jc£e¡l jp¢S−c q¡¢kl q−mez Hl¡ ¢MËØV¡e f¡â£ ¢R−mez Cpm¡j Lh¤−ml fl l¡p§m
(p)-Hl p¡−b p¡r¡v Ll−a H−mez I pju l¡p§m (p) jp¢S−c q¡¢kl ¢R−me e¡z k¡l¡ jp¢S−c ¢R−me a¡−cl L¡R
®b−L a¡l¡ ¢S−‘p L−l S¡e−a f¡l−me ®k, l¡p§m (p) p¡l¡ l¡a ®S−s b¡−Le e¡, p¡l¡hRl ®l¡k¡ b¡−Le e¡ Hhw
¢ae ¢h−u-n¡c£J L−l−Rez ¢MËø¡e fСc£ ¢q−p−h djÑ£u E−Ÿ−nÉ °hl¡NÉ S£h−eC a¡l¡ AiÉÙ¹ ¢R−mez a¡C a¡l¡ j−e
Ll−me ®k, ¢a¢e l¡p§m qJu¡l L¡l−Z Lj Ch¡ca Ll−mJ Q−mz Bj¡−cl H−a¡ Lj Ch¡c−a p¿ºø b¡L¡ Q−m e¡z
a¡l¡ ®k¡−nl p¡−b HL HLSe HL-HL¢V pwLÒf ®O¡oZ¡ Ll−mez
HLSe hm−me, “B¢j p¡l¡ l¡a e¡ O¤¢j−u Ch¡c−a jn…m b¡L−h¡z” Bl HLSe hm−m, “B¢j p¡l¡ hRl ®l¡k¡
b¡L−h¡z” aªa£uSe hm−me, “B¢j p¡l¡ S£heJ ¢h−u Ll−h¡ e¡z” a¡l¡ H Lb¡…−m¡ ®k¡−nl ®Q¡−V ®S¡−l ®S¡−l
hm¡u ýSl¡ ®b−L l¡p§m (p) öe−a ®f−mez jp¢S−c J ýSl¡l j¡TM¡−e ®MS¤l f¡a¡l ®hs¡ b¡L¡u öe¡ ®N−m¡z ¢a¢e
jp¢S−c H−p Af¢l¢Qa ®m¡L−cl ®c−M ¢S−‘p Ll−me, “H ph Lb¡ ®a¡jl¡ h−m−R¡?” a¡l¡ qyÉ¡-p§QL SJu¡h
¢c−mez
l¡p§m (p) hm−me, “−S−e l¡M−h, ®a¡j¡−cl j−dÉ B¢jC Bõ¡q−L ph−Q−u ®h¢n iu L¢lz B¢jC ®a¡j¡−cl j−dÉ
ph−Q−u ®h¢n j¤š¡L£z B¢j e¡j¡k f¢s, Bh¡l O¤j¡CJz B¢j ®l¡k¡ HL pju l¡¢M, Bl HL pju l¡¢M e¡z B¢j
¢h−uJ L−l¢Rz k¡l¡ Bj¡l p¤æ¡q−L AfR¾c L−l a¡l¡ Bj¡l EÇj−al j−dÉ NZÉ euz”
H ®b−L h¤T¡ ®N−m¡, Eæa à£e£ S£h−el BcnÑ üuw l¡p§m (p)z ¢a¢e j¡e¤o−L °hl¡N£ qJu¡l ¢nr¡ ¢c−a B−pe¢ez
c¤¢eu¡u ®hy−Q b¡L¡l SeÉ j¡e¤o−L h¡dÉ q−u k¡ k¡ Ll−a qu H phC Bõ¡ql fR¾c j−a¡ Ll¡l ¢nr¡ ¢c−u−Rez
j¤¢j−el S£h−el ph L¡SC à£ec¡l£, k¢c a¡ Bõ¡ql ýL¤j J l¡p¤−ml al£L¡ Ae¤k¡u£ Ll¡ quz j¤¢j−el S£h−e
c¤¢eu¡c¡l£ h−m Bm¡c¡ ®L¡e ¢hi¡N ®eCz l¡p§m (p) c¤¢eu¡c¡l£−L à£ec¡l£−a f¢lZa Ll¡l ¢nr¡C ¢c−u−Rez ®p
¢q−p−h ¢h−uJ Ch¡caz ®LE l¡p§−ml ®Q−uJ ®h¢n j¤š¡L£ qJu¡l ®Qø¡ L−l a¡q−m h¤T¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, ®p Ch¢m−pl
®dy¡L¡u f−s−Rz c¤¢eu¡l pLm L¡SC Ch¡ca h−m NZÉ, k¢c a¡ Bõ¡ql ýL¤j J l¡p§−ml al£L¡ j−a¡ Ll¡ quz

154

A¢hh¡¢qa S£h−e p¤M B−R?

f¡ÕQ¡−aÉl hÙ¹h¤ ¡c£ pj¡ShÉhÙÛ¡u ¢h−ul ®L¡e …l¦aÅ ®eCz ®k±e r¤d¡ ®jV¡−e¡l SeÉ hu−éä J N¡mÑ−éä fÜ¢a
hÉ¡fLi¡−h Q¡m¤ b¡L¡u f¡¢lh¡¢lL c¡¢u−aÅl ®h¡T¡ hqe Ll¡l T¡−jm¡ ®f¡q¡−a qu e¡z Hje ¢L ¢h−u R¡s¡ m£i
V¤−Nc¡l ¢p−ØVjJ Q¡m¤ q−u−R Hhw A¢hh¡¢qa cÇf¢a ¢q−p−h hph¡pla AhÙÛ¡u p¿¹¡eJ q−µRz ¢hh¡q Ll−a ®N−m
BCeNa håe J B¢bÑL c¡¢uaÅ hqe Ll−a quz k¡l¡ ¢h−u L−l a¡−cl A−e−LC c¡ÇfaÉ pÇfLÑ ¢h−µRc q−u k¡uz ®p
pj¡−S c¡c¡-c¡c£l¡ e¡a£-e¡ae£−L ®pÀq Ll¡l ®L¡e p¤−k¡NC f¡u e¡z ¢h−u q−mC h¡f-j¡ ®b−L fªbL h¡¢s−a b¡L¡C
®pM¡−e ¢eujz hªÜ hu−p ®p pj¡−S j¡e¤o Qlj ¢exp‰z f¡¢lh¡¢lL S£he ®pM¡−e Ae¤f¢ÙÛa hm−mJ Q−mz H dl−el
S£h−e p¤M ®L¡b¡u? p¤−Ml pw‘¡ a¡−cl Bm¡c¡z a¡−cl Lb¡ h¡c ¢cm¡jz
Bj¡−cl ®c−nJ Hje −m¡L B−R, k¡l¡ A¢hh¡¢qa S£hek¡fe L−lez ®Le a¡l¡ ¢h−u L−le¢e a¡l¡C i¡m S¡e−hez
A−eL Bj¡l f¢l¢Qa q−mJ B¢j L¡lZ S¡e−a ®Qø¡ L¢l¢ez Hje L¡lZJ q−a f¡−l, k¡ fÐL¡n L¡l k¡u e¡z
lwf¤l L−m−S Cw−l¢Sl AdÉ¡fL HCQ.Bl. m¡q£¢s (q©cu l”e m¡q£¢s) A¢hh¡¢qa ¢R−mez B¢j kMe L−m−S
®k¡Nc¡e L¢l aMe ay¡l AdÉ¡fe¡l ¢œn hRl f§ZÑ q−u ®N−Rz cnÑ−el AdÉ¡fL Lm£j¤Ÿ£e H L−m−SlC R¡œ ¢R−mez
¢jx m¡q£¢s a¡l ¢nrLz Bjl¡ ®k 3 Se HLC ¢c−e L−m−S ®k¡Nc¡e L¢l a¡−cl j−dÉ hu−p L−uL hR−ll ¢p¢eul
¢R−me h¡wm¡l AdÉ¡fL Sj£l¦Ÿ£e Bqjcz B¢j J AdÉ¡fL Lm£j¤Ÿ£e fСu pjhup£z Bj¡−cl j−dÉ O¢eùa¡ H−a¡
®h¢n ¢R−m¡ ®k, a¡ ph¡l ®Q¡−M dl¡ fs−a¡z AdÉ¡fL Sj£l¦Ÿ£e aMe c¤C p¿¹¡−el ¢fa¡z B¢j ph−j¡œ ¢h−u Llm¡jz
AdÉ¡fL Lm£j¤Ÿ£e−L ¢h−u Ll¡l SeÉ Bjl¡ c¤’Se Q¡f fÐ−u¡N Llm¡jz ¢a¢e ¢h−u Ll−he e¡ h−m ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−u
B−Rez H ¢pÜ¡−¿¹l L¡lZ S¡e¡ ®N−m¡z ¢a¢e HL¢V ®j−u−L ¢h−u Ll−a ®Q−u¢R−mez a¡−a pgm e¡ qJu¡u ¢a¢e
AaÉ¿¹ hÉ¢ba J ¢hr¤ì qez ¢a¢e cnÑ−el pgm AdÉ¡fL ¢R−mez pñha H ¢houV¡−L c¡nÑ¢eL cª¢ø−a Ni£l Ae¤i¢§ al
fkÑ¡−u ¢h−hQe¡ L−l−Rez h¡Ù¹h SN−a HjeV¡ O−VC b¡−L, ®p ¢q−p−h ®c−Me¢ez
Bj¡−cl c¤’S−el AhÉ¡qa Q¡−f ¢h−u Ll−a ¢ejl¡¢S Ll¡ ®N−m¡z aMe a¡l ®Mu¡m q−m¡ ®k, a¡l ¢QlL¤j¡l
AdÉ¡f−Ll fl¡jnÑ ®eJu¡ fÐ−u¡Sez Bjl¡ HLV¤ ¢Q¢¿¹a qm¡j, e¡ S¡¢e AdÉ¡fL L£ fl¡jnÑ ¢c−u h−pez a¡C ¢pÜ¡¿¹
q−m¡ ®k, Bjl¡ c¤‘S−e p¡−b b¡L−h¡, k¡−a AdÉ¡f−Ll ja¡ja ®eh¡l pju fÐi¡h ¢hÙ¹¡l Ll¡ k¡uz
¢VQÑ¡p Ljel¦−jC ¢ae hå¤ HL p¡−b ®Nm¡jz AdÉ¡fL m¡q£¢s−L hmm¡j, “Bfe¡−cl H Ae¤Na R¡œ¢V−L ¢h−u Ll¡l
SeÉ LaLV¡ l¡¢S Ll−a prj q−u¢R; ¢L¿º ¢a¢e Bfe¡l fl¡jnÑ R¡s¡ Q§s¡¿¹ ¢pÜ¡¿¹ ¢e−µRe e¡z Bfe¡l c£OÑ
A¢hh¡¢qa S£h−el A¢i‘a¡l B−m¡−L p¤fl¡jnÑ ¢cez Bjl¡ a¡−L ¢hh¡¢qa ®cM−a Q¡Cz Bn¡ L¢l Bf¢e
Bj¡−cl−L ¢el¡n Ll−he e¡z
A¢i‘ J −fСt AdÉ¡fL ay¡l ®pÀ−ql R¡œ¢V−L L¡−R h¢p−u Bcl L−l hm−me, Bj¡l A¢i‘a¡ ¢e−Sl i¡o¡u hm−h¡
e¡z Cw¢mn ¢XLne¡l£l B¢hú¡lL Xx Sen−el A¢i‘a¡ ¢a¢e ®k i¡o¡u fÐL¡n L−l−Re ®pV¡C Eܪa Ll¢Rz AaÉ¿¹
QjvL¡l i¢‰−a d£−l d£−l EµQ¡lZ Ll−me, “Married life has many pius, but celibacy has no
pleasure.” AbÑ¡v ¢hh¡¢qa S£h−e A−eL c¤xM-®hce¡ B−R h−V; ¢L¿º A¢hh¡¢qa S£h−e ®L¡e p¤M ®eCz
H jq¡-j§mÉh¡e h¡LÉ¢V EµQ¡lZ Ll¡l pju ®n−ol Lb¡V¤L¤l Efl AaÉ¿¹ ®S¡l ¢c−mez B¢j AaÉ¿¹ pq¡e¤i§¢al p¡−b
mrÉ Llm¡j ®k, A¢hh¡¢qa S£h−e ¢a¢e ®L¡e p¤MC ®k f¡e¢e a¡ a£hÐi¡−h Efm¢ì Ll−Rez B¢j j¿¹hÉ Llm¡j,
“Mr. Lahiri, the realigation is too loke.” ¢jx m¡q£¢s, H Efm¢ì q¡¢pm Ll−a hsC ¢hmð q−u ®N−m¡z
Ah−n−o Bj¡−cl fÐ−Qø¡ p¡bÑL q−m¡, AdÉ¡fL Lm£j¤Ÿ£e ¢h−u Ll−mez
lwf¤l ®lm ®øn−el L¡−RC m¡q£¢s h¡h¤l ¢eSü h¡¢s ¢R−m¡z OVe¡œ²−j HL ¢h−L−m h¡¢sl f¡−nl EyQ¤ l¡Ù¹¡ ®b−L mrÉ
Llm¡j ®k, ay¡l h¡¢sl p¡j−el fС‰−Z 8/10 hR−ll 10/12 Se −R−m q¡X¤X¤ ®Mm−R Hhw HLV¡ ®Qu¡−l h−p ¢a¢e
−lg¡¢ll c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll−Rez l£¢aj−a¡ ýC¢pm h¡¢S−u H …l¦c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll−Rez ®k ®R−m ®Mm¡u f¡lc¢nÑa¡
®cM¡−a f¡l−R, ®p ®c±−s ¢N−u ay¡−L S¢s−u dl−R Hhw ¢a¢eJ J−L Q¤j¤ ¢c−u Evp¡¢qa Ll−Rez ¢LR¤ pju H cªnÉ
®cMm¡jz ®Mm¡la ®R−m−cl p¡−b ay¡l J q¡¢p-M¤¢n Ll−a ®c−M ®hn ®L±a¤L Llm¡jz
155

f−ll ¢ce ¢VQÑ¡p Ljel¦−j AdÉ¡fL m¡q£¢sl p¡−b ®cM¡ q−m¡z a¡−L hm¡mj, “jx m¡q£¢s HMe Bfe¡l c¡c¡ qh¡l
hupz ¢h−u Ll−m e¡¢a-e¡ae£l c¡c¡ AhnÉC q−aez HV¡C fÐLª¢al c¡¢hz Bf¢e H c¡¢h−L BNË¡qÉ L−lJ fÐLª¢al
¢eLV BaÈpjfÑZ Ll−a h¡dÉ q−mez” ¢a¢e Bj¡l Lb¡l jjÑ h¤T−a e¡ ®f−l ¢S‘¡p¤ cª¢ø−a a¡L¡−mez B¢j NaL¡m
¢h−L−m ay¡l ®lg¡¢l¢N¢ll E−õM Llm¡jz ¢a¢e HLV¤ ¢hhÐa i¡h ®cM¡−mez B¢j hmm¡j, “Bf¢e ¢h−u e¡ Ll¡u
Bfe¡l p¿¹¡−el j¡dÉ−j c¡c¡ q−a f¡l−me e¡z ¢L¿º fÐL¢ª a Bfe¡−L e¡¢a B¢hú¡l Ll−a h¡dÉ L−l−Rz fТa−h¢n
®R−m-®f−m−cl p¡−b c¡c¡-e¡¢al A¢ieu Ll−a h¡dÉ q−mez HV¡C fÐLª¢al fТa−n¡dz pËø¡ ®k ¢euj h¡¢e−u−Re Hl
¢eLV ®no fkÑ¿¹ fl¡Su hlZ Ll−aC q−m¡z” ¢a¢e ALf−V ¢e−Sl fl¡Su ü£L¡l L−l ¢e−mez
ay¡l SeÉ B¢j M¤h Ll¦Z¡ ®h¡d Lla¡jz a¡C H Lb¡ ®S−e AaÉ¿¹ ®hce¡−h¡d Ll¡mj¡ ®k, ¢a¢e ay¡l I h¡¢sl L¤u¡l
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j¤p¢mjp¢mj-Aj¤p¢mj ¢h−u
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S¡a£ua¡−h¡d pÀ¡e q−u ®N−m¡ Hhw h¡P¡¢m S¡a£ua¡l ®Qae¡ fÐhm q−u ®cM¡ ¢c−m¡z djÑ, pwúª¢a J I¢a−qÉ ¢q¾c¤ J
j¤pmj¡−el j−dÉ ®k f¡bÑLÉ, a¡ HL−nÐZ£l ®m¡L i¤−mC ®N−m¡z
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j¢qm¡−L nl£ua j¤a¡−hL ¢h−u L−l−R, Abh¡ Aj¤L ¢q¾c¤ j¢qm¡ Cpm¡j NËqZ L−l−R Hhw Aj¤L j¤p¢mj k¤h−Ll p¡−b
a¡l ¢h−u q−u−Rz H−a h¤T¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, ®L¡e ¢q¾c¤ f¤l¦o h¡ j¢qm¡ ®L¡e j¤p¢mj−L ¢h−u Ll−a Q¡C−m a¡−L Cpm¡j
NËqZ Ll−a q−a¡ Hhw Cpm¡j£ ¢hd¡e Ae¤k¡u£ ¢h−u Ae¤¢ùa q−a¡z
ü¡d£e h¡wm¡−c−nC fÐbj S¡e¡ ®N−m¡ ®k, pò¡¿¹ j¤p¢mj f¢lh¡l ¢q−p−h f¢l¢Qa O−ll ®j−u−L ¢q¾c¤l ¢eLV ¢h−u
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f¡−l e¡z HjeV¡ a¡−cl j−dÉC pñh, k¡l¡ Cpm¡−jl ®L¡e d¡lC d¡−l e¡z j¤p¢mj e¡j d¡lZ Ll¡ p−šÆJ H−a ®L¡e
pw−L¡Q ®h¡d Ll−R e¡z
Cpm¡j AhnÉ d¡¢jÑL Cýc£ h¡ ¢MËø¡e j¢qm¡−L ¢h−u Ll¡l Ae¤j¢a ¢c−u−Rz ¢L¿º ®L¡e j¤p¢mj j¢qm¡−L ®L¡e Bq−m
¢La¡−hl ¢eLVJ ¢h−u ®ch¡l Ae¤j¢a ®cu¢ez Ù»£ ¢q−p−h ®L¡e Aq−m ¢La¡h j¤p¢mj f¢lh¡−l Bp−mJ p¿¹¡e−cl−L
j¤p¢mj Ù»£ q−u ®N−m a¡l ¢e−Sl Dj¡eV¤LJ
¤ ®qg¡ka Ll¡ Apñhz a¡C H hÉ¡f¡−l nl£ua p¤Øfø ¢e−cÑn ¢c−u−Rz
48.

a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a HL¢V djÑ£u pwÙÛ¡

a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al ÙÛ¡e£u Bj£l ¢q−p−h lwf¤−l hÉ¡fL avfl ¢Rm¡jz HV¡−L S£h−el ¢jne ¢q−p−h ¢e−u¢Rm¡jz
Cpm¡−jl SeÉ ®N¡V¡ S£he EvpNÑ Ll¡l ®fÐlZ¡ Bj¡l S£h−e H S¡j¡u¡−alC ¢hl¡V Ahc¡ez a¡C H S¡j¡u¡a−L
B¢j ASh£e i¡mh¡ph Hhw ®Mcj−a à£−el S¡j¡u¡a ¢q−p−h ü£L¡l Llhz a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al fТaù¡a¡ j¡Jm¡e¡
CmCu¡p (l)-Hl S£he£ J h¡Z£ AdÉuZ L−l ay¡−L à£−el jq¡e M¡−cj ¢q−p−h B¢j AhnÉC nÐÜ¡ L¢lz
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a HL¢V ¢höÜ djÑ£u pwÙÛ¡z B¢Ml¡−al Ae¿¹ S£h−el Lb¡ i¤−m c¤¢eu¡l rZÙÛ¡u£ S£h−e k¡l¡ jNÀ
a¡−cl−L ¢LR¤¢c−el SeÉ Olh¡¢s J c¤¢eu¡c¡l£ aÉ¡N L−l a¡hm£−N pju ®cJu¡l ®k fÜ¢a Q¡m¤ l−u−R a¡ M¤hC
QjvL¡lz k¡l¡ a¡hm£−N pju ®cu, a¡−cl S£h−e f¢lhaÑe B−p Hhw a¡−cl jeV¡ B¢Ml¡aj¤M£ quz B¢j ¢e−SC H
Lb¡l p¡r£z
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j¡e¤o−L d¡lZ¡ ®cJu¡ q−µR ®k, eh£-l¡p§mNZ HV¤L¤ L¡S Ll¡l SeÉC c¤¢eu¡u H−p¢R−mez djÑ-¢el−fra¡h¡c£
156

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jp¢S−c c¡l−p L¤lBe ¢c−a Bf¢š L−l Hhw a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al LjÑ£−cl−L a¡gp£l fs−a J c¡l−p L¤lBe
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a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al h¡¢oÑL CS¢aj¡u nl£L qu, a¡−cl−L k¢c Cpm¡j pÇf−LÑ H d¡lZ¡ ®cJu¡ qu ®k, Cpm¡−j
l¡Se£¢a ®eC h¡ à£ec¡l ®m¡−Ll l¡Se£¢a Ll¡ S¡−uk eu, a¡q−m Cpm¡−jl ¢hl¡V r¢a q−hz
j¡cÚl¡p¡ ®kje à£−el jq¡e ®Mcja L−l, a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a k¡ Ll−R a¡J à£−el ¢hl¡V ®Mcjaz ¢L¿º SeNZ−L k¢c
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Hhw j¡e¤o−L Cpm¡j£ l¡øÌ J plL¡l L¡−u−jl B−¾c¡m−el ¢h−l¡d£ h¡e¡−e¡ q−hz
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Bl ¢nr¡l fÐ−u¡Se ®eC, a¡q−m HV¡ p¤¢nr¡ eu; L¤¢nr¡ h−m ¢NZÉ q−hz
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®ch¡l c¡¢uaÅ p¤¾cli¡−hC f¡me Ll¡ q−µRz ¢L¿º HV¤L¤ L¡S Ll¡ à¡l¡C eh£l c¡¢uaÅ f¡me Ll¡ q−u ®N−m¡ h−m d¡lZ¡
k¡−a e¡ qu, a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al ®eaªhª¾c Bn¡ L¢l ®p¢c−L p−Qae q−hez
B¢j ®S¡l ¢c−uC hm−a Q¡C ®k, kMe B¢j a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−a jefСZ ¢c−u L¡S Lla¡j, aMe LM−e¡J H L¡S¢V−L
eh£Ju¡m¡ L¡S h−m hm−a ö¢e¢ez ¢cõ£−a qklaS£l j¤−MJ H S¡a£u ®L¡e c¡¢h Ll−a −c¢M¢ez

Bj¡l ajŸ¤e jS¢m−p ®k¡Nc¡e

1952 p¡−ml j¡T¡j¡¢T Se¡h p¤m¡uj¡e M¡e e¡−j ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl HL i¡C lwf¤l L−mS LÇf¡E−äl h¡p¡u Bj¡l
p¡−b p¡r¡v L−lez ay¡l h¡¢s Q–NË¡j h−m S¡em¡jz Hac§l ®b−L lwf¤l ®Le H−me S¡e−a Q¡C−m ¢a¢e hm−meBfe¡l p¡−bC ®cM¡ Ll−a H−p¢Rz ¢h¢pÈa q−u f¢lQu S¡e−a Q¡Cm¡jz ¢a¢e ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl fr ®b−L H−p−Re
h−m S¡e¡−mez
’48 p¡−m i¡o¡-B−¾c¡m−e B¢j Y¡L¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−u p¢œ²u b¡L¡u ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl e¡j i¡mi¡−hC S¡ea¡jz
“f¡¢LÙ¹¡−el l¡øÌi¡o¡ h¡wm¡ e¡ EcѤ?” f¤¢Ù¹L¡¢Vl fÐQ¡lLJ ¢Rm¡jz H f¤¢Ù¹L¡¢V ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pC fÐL¡n L−l−Rz a¡C
H e¡j Bj¡l AS¡e¡ b¡L¡l Lb¡ euz jS¢m−pl fТaù¡a¡ ¢hnÄ¢hcÉ¡m−ul al¦Z AdÉ¡fL Bh¤m L¡−pj−L B¢j
L−uLh¡l ®c−M¢R h−V, ¢L¿º pl¡p¢l f¢l¢Qa qJu¡l p¤−k¡N f¡C¢ez ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl fr ®b−L H−p−Re, ö−e B¢j
AaÉ¿¹ pj¡cl L−l a¡−L AiÉbÑe¡ S¡e¡m¡jz

ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl c¡Ju¡a
Se¡h p¤m¡Cj¡e M¡e Bj¡l p¡−b c¤’¢ce b¡L−mez Bj¡l Ù»£ aMe h¡p¡u e¡ b¡L¡u HL p¡−b b¡L¡, M¡Ju¡, ®n¡u¡ J
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q−u −N−mez i¡mh¡p¡l pÇfLÑ N−s EW−m¡z a¡l ¢jø q¡¢p, hm¡l i¢‰, hš²hÉ f¢l−hn−el ®k¡NÉa¡u j¤‡ qm¡jz
j¡e¤o¢Vl ®Qq¡l¡ HM−e¡ ®Q¡−M i¡−pz a¡−L à£e£ i¡C ¢q−p−h i¡mh¡p−a h¡dÉ qm¡jz
a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡−al a¡m£−j L¡−mj¡l AbÑ ®nM¡−e¡ qu, “Bõ¡q R¡s¡ ®L¡e j¡h¤c ®eCz” L¡−mj¡l Ju¡c¡ ®nM¡−e¡ qu
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157

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p¤m¡Cj¡e i¡C−ul hš²hÉ Bj¡l I ®Qae¡uC Tˆ¡l pª¢ø Ll−m¡z Bõ¡ql ýL¤j J l¡p§−ml al£L¡ Ae¤k¡u£ l¡S¯e¢aL
J Abѯe¢aL S£h−e Qm¡l …l¦aÅ p¤m¡Cj¡e M¡e kMe a¤−m dl−me Hhw l¡p§m (p) ay¡l S¾ji§¢j−a L¡−mj¡l ¢i¢š−a
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B−¾c¡me N−s a¤m¡l c¡¢uaÅ ¢em¡jz
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j¡Jm¡e¡ jJc§c£l ‘Political Theory of Islam’ hC¢VJ ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl j¡dÉ−jC B¢j ®fm¡jz H hC−a
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158

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1954 p¡−m N¡Ch¡å¡l Se¡h Bhc¤m M¡−m−Ll ¢eLV S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£l c¡Ju¡a f¡Ju¡l fl Hhw ay¡l ®cJu¡ c¤−V¡
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Ae¤ih Llm¡j, aMe a¡hm£N S¡j¡u¡a J ajŸ¤e jS¢m−pl hc−m S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£l j¡dÉ−jC Cpm¡−jl pLm
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S¡j¡u¡−a Cpm¡j£−a ®k¡Nc¡−el j¡e¢pLa¡ pª¢ø q−a¡ ¢Le¡ S¡¢e e¡z ¢ae hRl ajŸ¤e jS¢m−p k¡ ®f−u¢R Hl ¢hhlZ
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